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Effects of sound transmission in an aqueous and air environment on infant motor behavior

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Title:
Effects of sound transmission in an aqueous and air environment on infant motor behavior
Creator:
Barnett, Harvey, 1948-
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Copyright Date:
1978
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English
Physical Description:
ix, 76 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Auditory perception ( jstor )
Child psychology ( jstor )
Fetus ( jstor )
Infants ( jstor )
Mental stimulation ( jstor )
Movies ( jstor )
Neonates ( jstor )
Observational research ( jstor )
Sound ( jstor )
White noise ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Infant psychology ( lcsh )
Sound -- Psychological aspects ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 68-75.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Harvey Barnett.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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04536081 ( OCLC )
AAH6805 ( NOTIS )

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EFFECTS OF SOUND TRANSMISSION IN AN AQUEOUS AND AIR
ENVIRONMENT ON INFANT MOTOR BEHAVIOR







BY

HARVEY BARNETT


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THEE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1978


































To Judy and my parents














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The people that I have to thank occupy a special

place in my life. They, for that reason, are more and

mean more to me than I am able to describe.

First, Dr. John Newell, who as my chairman helped me

through school and the research and the writing. Above

that he helped me as a teacher and a person by serving as

a source of supreme stability.

Next, Dr. William Ware, who taught me about research

design and statistics. He, along with his wife Andrea

and children Emily, Matt and Erin, is among the people

that define true friendship for me.

Dr. William Wolking, who helped me realize the importance

of the experimental analysis of behavior and always was

there with the probing questions about my work.

To Arthur Newman, a friend and someone that helped

me put a different perspective in some of my thinking.

The six families of the infants that served as subjects

gave of their time and energy. In return, I became very

close to several of them by teaching their infants to swim.

To my parents, their constant support and belief in me

helped in a way I can't describe.

Finally, to my wife Judy, her help, support and love

were and will always be deeply appreciated.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . iii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . ... v

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . .. vi

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . .. . vii

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 1

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . . . . . 6

III. METHODS AND PROCEDURES . . . . .. 35

IV. RESULTS . . . . . . . ... 47

V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION . . . .. 51

APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . .. . 59

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . .. 68

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . .. 76














LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1. Schedule of Presentations of
Sourd Conditions . . . . . . .. 38

2. Condition Mean Coefficients for Five
Planned Non-Orthogonal Comparisons ... 45

3. Mea= Kick Rate per Second for Six
Conditions and Calculated Observed
Differences . . . . . . ... 49














LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. Underwater Speaker Unit . . . . .. 64

2. Surface Speaker Arrangement . . . .. 65










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirerents for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy


EFFECTS OF SOUND TRANSMISSION IN AN AQUEOUS AND AIR
ENVIRONMENT O I:;FANT MOTOR BEHAVIOR


By

Harvey Barnett

March 1978

Chairman: Jnhn M. Newell
Major Department: Foundations of Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences

in leg kicking rates for six infants ages ten and one half

months old as they heard five seconds of a heartbeat sound

while underwater as compared to hearing the heartbeat sound

in air for five seconds.

A comparison was also made between the heartbeat sound

presented underwater and three other sounds presented under-

water. Those three other underwater sound presentations

were rhythmic music, white noise, and human speech each

being presented for five seconds. A total of six sounds

were presented to each infant each day, five underwater

treatments and one treatment on land.

Each trial was filmed with an underwater and surface

movie camera for later coding of the ten continuous days of

data collection. The data were analyzed by a two way ANOVA

and a Dunn's planned comparison among the means. Significantly

less kicking was observed for the heartbeat heard in air

vii









condition than when the heartbeat sound was present-ed to

the infant underwater.

When the underwater heartbeat sound condition -_,ch

was a tape made from a human female heartbeat recorfd- in

utero was presented to the infant subjects, they kiz=sd

significantly less than when they heard the other uierwater

sound conditions. The first underwater sound cond:=.n,

the heartbeat condition was compared to a control c:dtition

for any rhythmical sound as represented for this sta-y by

Tchaikovsky's Sleeping Beauty.

The second underwater sound was designed to ser,- as

a control for any sound being heard underwater. Thas con-

dition was presented by playing "white noise" or fres-encies

between 20 and 20,000 c.p.s. simultaneously.

The final underwater condition was designed to -cntrol

for a familiar sound that the subjects heard previously.

That condition was created by having each subject's nether

record herself reading the introduction to Alice in

Wonderland.

A comparison of those three underwater sound c- ditions

mentioned above to the underwater heartbeat showed -te

infants kicked significantly less to the heartbeat z:und

than to the other underwater sounds.

The results suggest that bodily reactions of tte infant

may be influenced not only by what they hear, but the

mechanisms used to perceive the sound. Since undervater

viii









sounds transduce the entire body, this type of sound

transmission takes on tactual properties. It is noted

that the fetus hears sounds such as the mother's heartbeat

by this mechanism. Possibly our earliest learning involves

perception of sound by tactual means.

The results of this study raise questions about prior

research on infant conditioning and suggestions are offered

for future studies.














CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


What is the first thing human beings learn? Previous

research on conditioning of the fetus has reported that the

fetus can react to a number of stimuli and that conditioning

can sometimes be demonstrated. A number of studies have

attempted to demonstrate similar kinds of conditioning later

in infancy but the results were not consistent. In some

cases, later conditioning has been demonstrated but in the

majority of studies conditioning established in the fetus

has not been demonstrated later in infancy. One of the con-

clusions reached from such studies was that the fetal con-

ditioning was not actually established since it could not

be demonstrated later in infancy.

An alternative explanation, which provides the basis

for the present study, is that the "environment" in which

the conditioning took place was different for the fetus and

the infant. The fetus was conditioned in the womb sur-

rounded by amniotic fluid and could be viewed as conditioning

in water while the infant is being exposed to the stimulus

in an air environment. It may be that this difference in

the environments where conditioning took place could be a

significant factor in explaining the discrepant results

reported on fetal and neonatal conditioning.








In light of the confusion in the literature concerning

fetal conditioning, and the as yet not totally accepted idea

that a heartbeat sound as a calming effect on infants, it

appears reasonable to test two aspects of this problem. One

question needing further study is whether or not there is

a difference between air and water sound transmission for

infants where the sound is a heartbeat? In order to examine

this question, two additional fields of research need to be

mentioned. Does the heartbeat sound have a calming effect

in air, and what is the utility of using leg kicking as a

dependent measure for these parameters? The other aspect

concerning the original question is whether or not there is

a calming effect for infants when a heartbeat is presented

underwater when compared to other sounds presented under-

water.

The purpose of the present study is to examine the

differences in a leg kick response in infants to sounds

transmitted in air and through water. The air environ-

ment is the "normal" environment for infants and the water

environment of a swimming pool is an attempt to simulate

the fetal womb environment. If differences can be demon-

strated, they would suggest that the prior research in this

area must take into account the environment within which

the conditioning occurred. This study should also add to

an understanding of how early learning occurs and provide

additional information about the early growth and develop-

ment of sensory capacities of infants and young children.








Some of the conceptual assumptions for the present

study involve ideas put forward by Lee Salk (1966) and H.

MKurka (1974). They have contended that the heart beat

so-nd, because it is heard in utero and therefore associated

with that environment, has a soothing or calming effect on

the individual after birth. Research reporting results

which disagree with those of Salk and Murooka will be

reviewed in Chapter II along with a more complete review of

Salk's and Murooka's work.

Another assumption for the present study involves the

mediums of water and air and their differences as far as

sc-d transmission through them is concerned. There is

considerable evidence that the physical properties of sound

transmitted through water and air are different. The

transmission of sound is faster underwater than in air due

to the greater density of water and, for the same reason,

mere energy is required to transmit sound of equal amplitude

through water than in air. In situations where humans are

hearing underwater sounds, different factors involving audi-

tion become apparent. Humans are able to localize sounds

in air more easily than in water because the sound may be

"blocked" by the head. It is difficult to localize sound

runerwater because the sound is not blocked by other body

parts and in fact the entire body can be transduced by

scand in this medium. If the sounds transmitted underwater

are of sufficient amplitude, sound perception may become









more tactual in nature. The tactual nature of underwater

sound may be an important variable when one considers that

the fetus experiences various sounds while totally immersed

in amniotic fluid and that this experience may be as much

tactual as auditory.

The use of sound as a stimulus for conditioning has

much to recommend it when one considers the sensory equip-

ment of the fetus. The sense of vision even in the neonate

is not well developed. Visual acuity is somewhere between

20/350 and 20/450 (Gorman, et al., 1957). While little is

known about the sense of taste in the fetus, there is evi-

dence to suggest that the sense of taste in new born infants

is not well developed and that the neonate probably can

distinguish only the taste of salt and sweet. While the

sense of touch is apparently quite well developed, there

are difficulties in actually touching the fetus while it

is still in the womb. There is evidence that the fetus does

touch himself in the womb and several dramatic photographs

attest to this. The neonate emits reflexes to touch that

are stable enough to suggest that the nervous system of the

neonate is well established for the sense of touch.

Babies at birth can differentiate between certain low

frequencies and some reflexes can be elicited by sound of

different amplitudes. The evidence suggests that the senses

of hearing and touch are probably the best developed in

the fetus and should serve as the modalities to be stimulated

for conditioning purposes.









If, as suggested earlier, the sensing of sound in the

fetus is tactual as well as auditory, the combined senses

of sound and touch may be contributing to the conditioning

of the fetus. In the present study, the air and water con-

ditions will provide differential environments in which

only the sense of hearing will be operative in the air

environment while the combined senses of hearing and touch

could possibly be operative in the water environment. If

there are differences in responding to sounds heard by an

infant in the water environment, when compared to the air

environment, it may mean that our understanding of hearing

and how it relates to early perception of the environment

in the infant is incomplete unless we include the tactual

component of sound experienced by the fetus.

In order to investigate the differences between an air

transmitted heartbeat sound and an underwater heartbeat

sound, six infants were presented with these conditions.

An additional four underwater sound conditions were presented

as controls for various properties of a heartbeat sound.













CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE


This study examined the differences in leg kicking

activity of infants exposed to a heartbeat sound presented

in air when compared to hearing the same heartbeat sound

presented underwater. It also examined the differences

between leg kicking responses as the infants heard the

underwater heartbeat sound and four other underwater sound

conditions. These other underwater sound conditions in-

cluded: a rhythmical sound, a familiar sound, a hissing

sound and silence.

This study builds upon conclusions derived from several

different and seemingly unrelated areas of research. Given

this study's goal of investigating the differences mentioned

above, three major areas of literature were seen as being

relevant for review: developmental aspects of the fetus and

infants, methodological problems encountered in research

involving infants and the research on fetal and infant con-

ditioning.

The literature review which focuses upon the develop-

mental concept, will include research on fetal movement and

hearing capacities, as well as the relative effectiveness

of the other fetal and neonatal sensory capacities. Other








studies were reported from this area if they provided in-

formation about sensory acuity, habituation to certain

stimuli and other developmentally related systems of a

fetus, neonate or infant. Studies using infants and

particularly infants underwater as subjects have certain

methodological differences from studies not using infants.

Among the studies reviewed in this area were those concern_,

with reliable observation of infant rotor behaviors. The

advantage of filming these infant activities to provide a

permanent record that could be re-evaluated later was

documented in the review of literature. Within this methon:-

logical area the literature concerning different neonatal

and infants measurements of activity including heart rate

and motor activity was reviewed. Finally, the literature

concerned with learning in the fetus and infant and im-

printing of sound stimuli on the fetus is presented.


Developmental Studies


Watson in 1919b made statements based on his observa-

tions of infant behavior in water. McGraw cited Watson

(1919b) and herself (1935) as the only two who used actual

experimental evidence to describe swimming-like behaviors

in infants and newborns. Watson tested newborns immediatE-

after birth in water at 98.6 degrees Farenheit. He observrd

three babies placed on their backs and supported by the

hands of the experimenter, which allowed the subjects'

faces to remain above the surface of the water. Watson









reported (1919a), "Violent expression of fear--a cry,

checking of breathing, followed by deeper inspiration and

rapid, entirely uncoordinated, slashing of hands and feet

were all that could be observed" (p. 243). On the basis of

these observations, Watson rejected the evidence of swimming

in the behavioral repertoire of the newborn.

McGraw (1939a) used notes she made while directly

observing and cinemagraphically recording the aquatic be-

haviors of forty-two different infants ranging in age from

eleven days to thirty months. She made a total of 445 observa-

tions and out of all those observations, 164 were motion

picture records while the remaining 281 were written notes

taken during the observations. The number of repeated

observations on the same infant varied from two to 51 with

a median of ten. McGraw pointed out a limitation of her

study in the area of external validity. The data did not

justify a longitudinal analysis. On the other hand, the

limited number of different age brackets did not support a

purely cross-sectional analysis. In spite of the methodo-

locical limitations of her study, the notes and film she

took indicated a swimming behavior pattern characteristic

of newborns, babies, four months to twenty-four months, and

children older than twenty-four months. McGraw stated

that if Watson had used a prone and not a supine position

for his subjects, he would have noted as she did that,

"Definitive rhythmical associated flexor-extensor nove-

ments in upper and lower extremities together with a lateral









flexion of the trunk corresponding to the flexor phase of

the lower extremity are usually manifested" (p. 486). She

further noted that these behaviors were more pronounced

when the baby was free of support while underwater.

It appears that where Watson, with his subjects on

their back and able to breathe, observed a violent expres-

sion of fear, McGraw, by letting them float face down,

observed no such drastic behaviors. She also noted activity

so consistent that she cited these behaviors in water as

indicative of developmental changes or maturational stages

in the infant.

Several studies relating auditory stimulation where

the dependent variable was the change in the neonates or

infant's heart rate have been reported. Studies in this

area have been represented by Kearsley (1973) who recorded

head movements, and Steinschneider (1968) who found that

sound intensity had to be above 70 db. to get much reaction

from either cardiac or respiratory activities. The in-

fluence of acoustic sound on habituation for the newborn

and infant populations is well documented in the literature.

Representative studies in this area have been done by Pomerleau-

Malcuit and Clifton (1973); Berg (1972); Lewis (1971);

McCall and Nelson (1970); Roberts and Campbell (1967);

Smith (1967); Steinschneider, Lipton and Richmond (1966);

and by Keen, Chase and Graham (1965).

First to report the phenomenon of the effect of sound

on infants however, was probably Plato when he reported his









observations concerning this in Laws Book VII, Section 790

(380 B.C.); "You know, when mothers want to put fractious

babies to sleep, the remedy they exhibited is not still-

ness, but its very opposite, movement--they regularly rock

the infants in their arms--and not silence, but a tune of

some kind" (p. 41). From Biehler (1976) comes an observation

that Francis Warner (1887-1888) mentioned how sounds soothe

small children in his book The Children: How to Study Them.

Studies where body movements, among other things, were

measured in response to auditory stimulation are represented

by: Stubbs (1934); Ashton (1973); Moreau et al. (1970);

Ling (1972); Heriot (1970); Hoversten (1969); Ashton (1971);

Pratt (1934); and Eisenberg (1965).

Stubbs (1934) cited Silvo Canestrini as being the

first to use objective recordings of infant responses to

sounds in 1913. She further noted that in Pratt (1934),

a stabilimeter polygraph was used to record the infant's

changes in activity as a function of hearing certain sounds.

Stubb's (1934) research showed that bodily reactions were

effected better by duration and intensity than by intensity

alone. She used durations of three, five, and fifteen

seconds and found the last two to be acceptable. Using

intensities of 30, 50, 70, and 85 db. she found the last

two again to be conditions that would predict greater bodily

movement.

Weiss (1934) used pure tones of 50 and 75 db. with a

duration of five minutes and found the louder tones had









greater quieting effects on infants. Similar findings

were reported by Birns, Blank, Bridger, and Escalona

(1965).

Weiss (1934) also carried out experiments in which

the sounds were presented in both a dark and a light environ-

ment. She reported that, "It has been found that light alone

is quieting and that sound alone (in darkness) is quieting"

(p. 66). This question of sound and the effect it has on

the neonate was re-examined by Lee Salk (1960) when he

reported that infants hearing a heart beat sound at 85 db.

and at a rate of 72 beats per minute continuously for four

days gained more weight, cried less, and were more quiet

than the controls who were cared for in a quiet room. In

trying to replicate this study, Tulloch et al. (1964)

failed to get the same results reported by Salk, but they

exposed their experimental group to a simulated heart

beat sound at 45 db. That intensity was probably too low

for neonatal reaction as Brackbill et al. (1966) stated,

"Their failure to replicate Salk's results is probably

attributable to the choice of stimulus intensity level

that is not clearly audible to neonates" (p. 179).

Later, Salk (1961) played a heartbeat at 72 beats

per minute, a metronome ticking at 72 beats per minute,

and lullabies. Of note, he found the heartbeat sound to

be twice as efficient at putting the children to sleep

than silence, metronome and lullaby conditions.









Ling (1972) tested 160 neonates hearing a pulsing

narrow band noise stimulus and found that gross body move-

ments increased as the duration of the stimulus became

longer. Interestingly, he also reported that continuous

stimulation increased bodily reaction better than inter-

rupted stimulation of the same duration. Pratt (1934)

reported that the physiological state (i.e.: alert vs

sleepy) of the infant was more powerful than auditory

stimulation to predict activity in the newborn. Ashton

(1971) found that neonates were differentially responsive

to changes in frequency only during quiet sleep. Moreau,

Birch and Turkewitz (1970) compared the effects of habitua-

tion to an acoustic stimulus in newborns by their autonomic

and a musculoskeletal response. They found that the

musculoskeletal response habituated faster, was independent

of habituation in the autonomic response, and was also more

stable. Behavioral changes were recorded by observers in

a study by Hoversten and Moncur (1969) where they reported

that a pulsed voice stimulus had the largest response

percentages for both three month and eight month old infants.

In a study by Foreschels and Beebe (1946) involving bodily

movements and facial expressions, 33 infants were observed

making responses to auditory stimulation. Whistles had

the greatest effect with a tuning fork having little or

no effect.

A study looking at newborn hearing capacity was reported

also by Aldrich (1928) and, by its title, "A New Test for









Hearing in the Newborn: the Conditioned Reflex," gives

the impression of being the first of its kind which

examined hearing for this population. The reflexive be-

haviors resulting from a newborn hearing a two pound iron

weight falling three feet onto a hard wood surface were

filmed and reported in an article by Clark (1939). Ob-

viously, normal hearing newborns ey-xbited the Moro reflex

but, as they became older, the typography of the response

began to resemble a startle reaction.

A multitude of studies have been done on hearing acuity,

sound localization, adaption, habituation, discrimination

and other aspects of an infant hearing sounds. With

respect to recognizing sounds, Vanderplas and Blake (1949)

reported that a valued and familiar stimuli may actually

decrease the recognition threshold far that stimulus. While

that isn't too surprising, a study by Hutt et al. (1968)

reported that the most effective stimuli for eliciting

behavioral responses in neonates were fundamental fre-

quencies found in the range of the hb.man voice. Hutt sug-

gested that there may be survival vmlue in this because the

human cochlea is structurally mature at birth and that may

mean early hearing acuity plays a zart in the affectional

child-parent bond. Vanderplas and BLake's (1949) familiarity

and value selectivity for auditory stimulation may have

reported results that were more physiologically based when

applied to infant populations. Kasatkin and Levikova (1935)









reported three stages of conditioning auditory reflexes

in infants. They were indifference, inhibition of move-

ments where the first signs of conditioned reacti=zs began,

and the stage of clearly conditioned reaction. It might

be that a sound heard early or before birth may h5 e im-

printing properties as postulated by Salk (1960, ::il, 1962).

Bernard and Sontag (1947) reported that the human fatus in

utero is capable of perceiving a wide range of toits after

their experimental data were analyzed.

Grimwade, Walker and Wood (1970) worked with eaimals

and humans in examining several properties of fetal environ-

ment. By inserting a microphone into pregnant women they

found the fetus did not receive high frequency so=ds,

sound loss was appreciable, and sound stimulation :- the

fetus changed its heart rate and muscular activity- Kellogg

(1941) used auditory stimulation with the fetus wtile

recording movements of the fetus by mechanical te=-iiques.

Among other results Kellogg reported that after 2-1 days

the fetal movement provided evidence of response i: auditory

stimulation. Forbes and Forbes (1927) reported *itt the

fetus will react to a loud sudden noise 30 days before

delivery, but they only hypothesized that the fet. was

hearing or employing tactual modalities to perceive auditory

stimulation. The manner in which the fetus devel:rs and

how the sensory apparatus becomes mature may supp--t the

ideas put forth by McGraw (1939a).









If McGraw (1939a) was correct with her postulation

about infant aquatic behaviors reflecting the phylogenic

origin of man, Schevill (1953) added support with a study

showing that the bottlenosed porpoise has a frequency range

that approximates the bone-conducted thresholds of man's

hearing. The proximodistal, cephalocaudal ontogenetic

development of aquatic behavior exhibited by McGraw's (1939a)

subjects supports the differential activity of the opposing

ends of the fetus recorded by Kellogg (1941) where the

caudal end is never as active as the head end of the fetus.

If the proximodistal trend of development for the whole

body is valid for the cochlea in the human ear that Hutt

et al. (1968) described as being fully mature at birth,

then Dishoeck's (1948) observation that the outer hair

cells of the cochlea (last to develop) are sensitive for

air conduction and the inner hair cells (first to develop)

are stimulated by compressive tones found in mediums like

bone and fluids are valid. A fetus may have a greater

capacity to hear compressive tones while in the amniotic

fluid. This ability exhibited by the fetus to hear compres-

sive tones would have the same frequency limits as those

of the bottlenosed porpoise researched by Schevill (1953).

This may support McGraw's (1939a contention concerning

the phylogency of man cited earlier.

The auditory capacity of humans underwater changed

because as terrestrial animals we typically hear sounds

transmitted through air. Research has been performed on










humans while underwater. However, such underwater research

has been performed on adult divers and not infants.

The above studies probed the relationship of sounds

heard underwater by adult humans. Research into the in

utero sounds heard by the human fetus as it floats totally

immersed in amniotic fluid was completed by Salk (1966, 1962,

1961, 1960). Salk felt that these early sounds and particularly

the heartbeat sound heard by the fetus took on the characteris-

tics of an imprinted stimulus.

The research which has been cited concerning the develop-

ment of various capacities in the fetus, neonate and infant

suggest the following conclusions. There is evidence that

the fetus reacts to sound stimuli after the seventh month

of gestation when a vibro-tactile stimulus is used. The

sense of hearing is more fully developed in the fetus than

are the other senses. There are suggestions that a simulated

heartbeat sound has a soothing effect on infants when that

sound is presented at a level of 65 db. or higher. There

is conjecture about the effect of the duration of sound

presentation on the behavior of the fetus. Stubbs (1934)

argues for a duration of five to fifteen seconds.

It appears that the sense of hearing is an appropriate

sense to use in conditioning of a fetus or infant and that

a heartbeat sound will produce a relaxed or lowered fre-

quency of response in the infant. The present study uses

a heartbeat sound as one stimulus for conditioning a leg-

kick response.









Methodological Studies


Cinemagraphic data collection means the behaviors under

investigation were filmed while cinemanalysis usually refers

to filming the activity and using that film exclusively as

the observations to be coded or scored.

McGraw considered the aquatic behaviors she filmed and

directly observed to be of evolutionary importance. To

that end, she performed a comparative study to show that this

swimming reflex apparent in her infant subjects may be at-

tributable to some earlier amphibian existence of homo

sapiens.

The comparative study by McGraw (1939b) involved filming

young quadrupeds in water; notably an opossum, a rat, a

kitten, a guinea pig, monkeys, and a two-month-old chimpanzee.

The purpose of that study was to see if the newborn swimming

reflex, ". . bears striking testimony to the phylogenesis

of man (p. 485). She felt that the swimming reflex was

related to man's evolution because in interpreting her study

she stated, "It is interesting that developmental changes

in swimming behavior correspond in chronological order to

the major phases of other behavior patterns which also appear

to be of phylogenetic origin" (p. 490).

McGraw also noted that the four-month old to twenty-

four month old human subjects usually rotated to a dorsal

position when submerged in a prone position and the rhythmical

aquatic behavior observed earlier had become what she called









the disorganized phase. Her later research into this area

was also oriented toward physiological development of

neural brain centers in the infant in an attempt to explain

the phases of aquatic behavior she filmed and observed in

1939. Cinemagraphic techniques for infant behaviors started

with Watson's (1919b)480 foot silent movie. It was heralded

in the literature as being of importance both historically

and experimentally. As noted previously, Watson filmed an

absence of swimming movements but his film included grasping

and Babinski reflexes, defensive movements, reaching,

crawling and some basic emotional reactions of the infant.

Since Watson's early work, cinemagraphic data collection

grew in popularity in the late thirties and early forties.

From the mid sixties until present day, the introduction

of the transistor and light weight television cameras have

all but replaced film with video tape.

Gesell (1932) cited cinemagraphic techniques as being

ideally suited to record morphological development and

particularly complex movements. Gesell went so far as to

develop normative data on a variety of infant capacities

that were filmed. He concluded that this type of data col-

lection allowed systematic recording and experimental

analysis. Several researchers have used film to record a

bide variety of neonate and infant behaviors.

McGraw (1941) filmed and compared mass responses in

newborns and specific responses in older babies to a pin

prick stimulus probing various body parts. Ames (1944)









filmed the visual and motor patterns of two normal infants

from their eighth to fifty-sixth week of life.

Ames (1939), had previously used cinemanalysis to

describe ascent postures and the body orientations beginning

with prone progression and ending with stair climbing. In

addition, Ames found that although quantative analysis of

the filmed behaviors of his twelve subjects between one and

three years of age differed, there were patterns within a

single subject that were constant.

Gesell (1932) cited several benefits of cinemanalysis

and Ames (1939), having filmed body orientations for com-

parisons of babies, published a study (Gesell and A-es, 1940)

in which the data were taken exclusively from filmed trials.

In the same year, Birkmayer and Goll (1940) used a film

method to analyze the development of walking in young

children. Their study is of importance in that they were

able to describe dynamic functions such as gait, center of

gravity shifts, stepping phase and other actions difficult

to examine except by stopping the action of motion picture

photography. Probably the most detailed study of rotor

activity using film was produced by Ames, (1942). A descrip-

tion of leg, foot, and toe postures was written after the

film had been coded of infants in a supine posture.

Gilmer (1933) also used cinemanalysis to investigate

unique limb movement patterns in a series of infant behaviors.

Cinemanalysis included both the filming of the activity as








well as an analysis of the activity based upon observations

by the experimenter. Two major types of observational

systems are used; an "open" and a "closed" system. In a

discussion of "open" and closedd" observation systems,

Gordon and Jester (1973) stated that,

Specimen description r "s detailed sequential
recording of all that :s taking place in a
situation. This may be accomplished by audio-
or-video-tape recording :r by continuous note-
taking. Following the rrrording, a coding or
scoring scheme is impose- on the record as
contrasted to coding during the initial collec-
tion of data. Statist;r2l analysis was done
only after the original records had been coded.
Wright (1960) called th:s an open method because
the coding follows the rc:ent-to-moment recording.
A distinguishing characteristic of open and
closed systems is that a-r open system preserved
the raw data so that it was available for other
coding systems while the closed system imposed
a coding scheme at the :rre of initial data col-
lection. In the latter, the observer simply
notes specific behaviors as they occur. Examples
of closed methods are t:-e and event sampling
and trait rating. In t-e closed system, ef-
ficiency of basic data recording is gained at
the loss of raw data. right's classification of
Time Sampling can be further divided into sign
and category systems. Sign systems preserve
some elements of the raw data since behaviors
are listed in the observer's record and he
usually makes some sort of frequency count of
the occurrence of specific behaviors. (pp. 175-176)

In a study investigating research procedures involving

auditory perception and resulting behavior in the human neo-

nates, Eisenberg (1965) compared cinemanalysis and direct

observation. She concluded that,

Cinetechniques are val-able in that even fleeting
changes in behavior ca.n he captured, and with
the aid of sophisticate- accessories and data
reducing procedures, ana-.lzed quantitatively.
Moreover, no ancillary measures arc required
since observer judgments can be validated









statistically by including no stirus_ trials
in a silent film record. Motion pi,-:re
photography is prohibitively expens_-- for most
purposes, however, and it poses te-rc al
problems of sizable dimensions. It -: recom-
mended only for special purpose res-zzh that
is otherwise impossible. (p. 170)

She further stated that using obser-rs with certain

parameters of sound was risky. For instc-ces, when coding

intensity, she reported: "For 45 to 55 :. three independent

examiners reported less than one-third cf -teir observations

with confidence ." (p. 164) and fcr duration and fre-

quency parameters, "although optimal consr-ts for clinical

and research purposes remain to be define, durations in the

range between one to five seconds seem t: ie reasonably

satisfactory for present use with wide-b-zd stimuli" (p. 165).

While many investigators in the 193L's and 1940's

employed film as a recording device for mncor activities,

Escalona and Leitch (1950) edited a large amount of film

to produce a 42 minute film examining rei-cnses made of the

prolonged stimulation of eight infants. "-eir study sug-

gested that prolonged perceptual stimulat-:n may generate

psychological tension in infants.

Possibly one of the most interesting studies based upon

data taken from film was done by Hooker 1>39). Reflexive

movements of aborted human fetuses to ta=-1e stimulation

from seven to 25 weeks of menstrual age wre filmed. Hooker

found that at between 11 to 14 weeks of ne:strual age most

of the neonatal reflexes were represented azd after 14 weeks









all the movements observed gained in amplitude after closely

observing what he filmed.

Film provides a permanent record that can be coded by

others to enhance coder reliability in the data. It is

important to keep in mind, however, that other factors ncre

basic to research design and not just precise measurement

need to be considered. Ling, Ling and Doehring (1970)

found that an observer's judgments about infant behavior

may be significantly influenced by knowing the presentation

schedule for the stimuli. Their study involved observer;

whole-body movements as the infants were presented with

narrow band acoustic stimulation.

The use of visual methods of recording infant behavior,

beginning with movie cameras and more recently television

recordings, has provided a useful means of providing a

permanent record of the behavior in question. Gordon

and Jester (1973) review the assets and limitations of

two observational systems. The "open" system provides for

the recording of behavior as it occurs with an analysis or

coding of the behaviors being done at a later time. A

"closed" system imposes a coding scheme on the behavior

as it is recorded. For the present study, there was no

logical or theoretical grounds for employing a coding scheme

prior to recording the infant's behavior. As a result, an

"open" recording system was employed.









Learning and Imprinting Studies


In an attempt to differentiate between learning and

imprinting, Klopfer and Hailman (1967) stated that the,

"responses may be learned very rapidly in newborn animals

by the process of imprinting. Imorinting, unlike conditioning

and other common forms of learning, is rapid, long lasting

and apparently unrewarded" (p. 52). Lee Salk (1966) takes

that definition further by stating that the human fetus is

imprinted to the sound of the human heart beat heard in

utero and this has profound influences on our later adult

behaviors.

Smart and Smart in Children (1972) interpreted the

fetal imprinting to the heart beat sound reported by Salk

as follows:

Because the sound was found soothing to infants
and children, it seems worthwhile to consider
what meaning it may have prenatally. The heart-
beat sound has the criteria of an imprinting
stimulus being intermittent and repetitious and
occurring early in the life of the organism,
before it experiences fear. Later, when the
organism is exposed to fear, it is reassured
by the stimulus to which it has been imprinted.
Thus it seems quite possible that the unborn baby
interacts with his environment in such a way
that the rhythms of sounds and pressures prepare
him for coping with some of the difficulties he
will encounter after he is born. Seeking to
comfort his distress and express their love, his
parents and other people will hold him in their
arms and walk with him or rock and jiggle him.
The resulting sounds and pressures will reassure
him perhaps because he was imprinted prenatally
to such stimuli. (pp. 31, 32)

Grier, Counter and Shearer (1967) did work with pre-

natal auditory imprinting in chickens by exposing the









experimental group to a patterned sound continuously from

the twelfth to the eighteenth day of incubation while the

control group incubated in quiet. The experimental group

creeped toward a stationary sound source as did the con-

trols but the experimental group preferred the sound heard

before they hatched. The experimental group also followed

a moving object longer if it emitted the "imprinted" sound

versus any other sound condition.

Smart and Smart (1972) put forth other implications

of the fetus hearing the mother's heartbeat by reporting

some of the results of Salk's (1962) study where he increased

the rate of the heartbeat to which the infants were exposed.

Salk stated,

The newborn infants who had quieted to the sound
of a normal heartbeat showed an immediate
increase in crying and disturbance to these
unusual heartbeats and also to a hissing sound
which the machine accidentally developed. A
frightened or disturbed pregnant mother could
be expected to show variations from the normal
pattern of heartbeat and breathing. Her baby
then might be disturbed by the resulting tactile,
auditory, and kinesthetic stimuli. Either by
themselves, or added to the effects of the
endocrines in the blood, these stimuli could
be significant prenatal influence. (p. 33)

Dr. Akira Sugiyama (personal communication), claimed

that hearing these sounds has a "calming" influence on the

infant and reported that 100 percent of 403 crying newborns

were calmed (stopped crying) with a mean of 41 seconds

after onset of the heartbeat recording. This calming effect

may be due to a classical conditioning process completed









before birth, where the mother's heartbeat served as the

CS and the UCS was the stimuli associated with the womb

environment itself. The fetus may respond by becoming in-

active. This appears feasible since Murooka (1974) re-

ported the neonate was calmed by essentially the same

sound heard in utero, which included the heartbeat.

Contrasting Salk's postulations and Murooka's as yet

unpublished work, Brackbill, Adams, Crowell and Gray (1966)

contended that activity levels in infants decreased under

continuous auditory stimulation which was also reported in

an earlier study by Weiss (1934). Brackbill, et al. (1966)

compared no sound versus any sound including heartbeat

and found that the heartbeat condition did not quiet the

infants more than any other prolonged auditory stimulus.

Brackbill (1970) varied the quality of the acoustic

stimulus presented to infants and measured the level of

arousal by state, respiration, heart rate and motor activity.

The aforementioned qualities included no sound, intermittent

sound, or continuous sound. She reported that level of

arousal was decreased by continuous sound and increased by

intermittent sound when compared to the no sound condition.

Keen, Chase and Graham (1965) reported that a ten

second moderately intense auditory stimulus not only ac-

celerated the neonate's heartbeat, but was a condition to

which the neonate readily habituated. However, a brief

acceleration in heart rate showed no habituation effect in









30 trials over two days. While the ten second condition

hardly qualified as an intermittent auditory stimulus,

when Salk (1966) "played" a heartbeat sound for four con-

tinuous days, it was more effective than the two second

stimulation in accelerating heart rate. The ten second

condition was also habituated to much more readily. The

intensity of sound on infant cardiac and motor behavior

was investigated by Steinschneider, Lipton and Rich-ond

(1966). They presented five second white noise bursts of

55, 70, 85, and 100 db. and a silence condition. All nine

infants responded to a stimulus intensity of 70 db. Other

results reported were that motor responses increased and

their latency decreased with increasing intensity of stimula-

tion. The cardiac measure showed that as the sound intensity

increased, the heartbeat latency decreased and the dura-

tion of the faster heartbeat was longer.

Several researchers in early learning processes have

considered a developing entity that is completely immersed

in amniotic fluid, that is the human fetus. Fetal activity

was probably first reliably recorded by Ray (1932) by using

three tambors taped to the mother's abdomen and masked for

her respiratory responses. A majority of these types of

studies have some purpose other than just recording when

a fetus moves. Sontag and Wallace (1935) reported that a

reliable increase in fetal movement followed a 120 cps.

sound applied to the mother's abdomen. The latency for








this fetal movement was sometimes as long as one minute.

The authors reported that this phenomenon appeared at

the thirty-first week of intra-uterine life and increased

in magnitude as birth approached. Newberry (1941) studied

fetal mcvement by mechanical means and from mothers reports.

Slow sq-irming, quick jerks and a rhythmic series of quick

movements were distinguishable and appeared to follow a

pattern within five lunar months. Newberry (1941) reported

that squirming type motions increased while kicking

decreased rapidly in the last two prenatal months.

Fitzgerald and Kindle (1942) found that if the amniotic

sac was tapped lightly, reflexes of the trunk and appendages

were apparent. They observed this reaction in three of fifteen

fetuses seven to eight weeks of menstrual age when the

sac was intact and still contained fluid but was surgically

removed from the mother. In addition, the fetuses had to

have their circulation unimpaired and as the inevitable

anoxia progressed the reactions rapidly ceased. Similar

studies have been performed by Bridgman and Carmichael

(1935) and Rose (1941) with consistent results for various

menstrual ages of the fetuses' they tested. Probably the

most complete compilation of fetal activity studies and

their implications was published by Hooker (1952). Among

some very physiologically based observations, a chronological

account of the fetuses responding to tactile stimulation

was contained within his text titled, The Prenatal Oricin

of Behavior, (1952).









Other researchers have studies the relationship of

fetal behaviors to a host of other factors. For example,

Harris and Harris (1946) found mot-ers can reliably

report fetal movements and that there was a rapid increase

in strength and number during the period when first

noticed. Interestingly, their data showed the mother's

fatigue did not predict fetal acti-Tty but that the fetus

did tend to be more active at the =lose of the day.

Margoshes and Collins (1965) note the maternal heartbeat

and its function explained dominant= of right-handedness.

They hypothesized that an evolutionary advantage is gained

by right handed mothers who more naturally hold their infant

on the left side to free their dor.-ant right hand. But

78 percent of left handed mothers also hold their babies

on the left side. It is reasoned tat the biological

advantage evolved because mothers vto held neonates on

their left side had calmer babies. They were being held

on the same side as the mother's heart and "the sound of

the mother's heartbeat is nurturanz to the neonate, who

has been prenatally conditioned to her heartbeat" (p. 443).

Richards. Newberry and Fallga=rer (1938) studied

activity of the fetus and the mother's basal metabolic

rate and found very low correlatices. They did report

that, "there is a peak of activity during the eighth and

ninth lunar month, with a dropping; off at the tenth month"

(p. 78). In a study by Richards and Newberry (1938),

they investigated the power of fetal activity being reported









by the mother as a predictor of performance on test items

administered six months postnatally. The items were 46

Gesell Schedule items given at six months plus or minus

four days. After casually observing that their rcst

active subjects as fetuses were also precocious c- certain

motor tasks and that the converse was also fairly constant,

they took their more statistically treatable data and

analyzed it. They reported that the correlation between

fetal activity and Gesell performance, isn't hich. They

stated, "However although they are based on only a few cases,

they are consistently positive, and large enough to be

reliable" (p. 68). Based on a study by the authors and

Ruth Fallgatter (1938) including these results they continue,

". there would seem to be a factor or group of factors

common throughout fetal life, which are still present at

six months of age" (p. 76).

The relationship of fetal movement to a sou- stimulus

outside the mother has been studied by several investigators

and extensions of that relationship have been reported by

Ray (1932) and Spelt (1938), (1948). Ray and Spe-t were

involved with conditioning fetal movements to a ribrotactile

stimulus which served as the CS and a loud sudfan noise

served as the UCS. Ray (1932) applied the CS for five

seconds by tambors taped upside down to the mother's ab-

domen. This was followed by the onset of the UCS delivered

by triggering a modified rat trap in a wooden bcx near the

mother's abdomen.









Although Ray's attempts at conditioning were not very

successful and he used only one subject, he felt strongly

enough about his apparatus and data to conclude that ac-

curate records could be made of fetal movements made in

response to sounds emitted from outside the mother. Spelt

(1938) explored the possibility of classically conditioning

a fetus in utero but his most conclusive work was reported

in 1948.

Spelt (1948) reported in the summary of this study,

"Utilizing a vibrotactile CS and a loud noise as UCS, it

was possible to establish a CR in the human fetus in utero

during the last two months of gestation. Some 15-20 paired

stimulations were required to establish the response to

the point at which one could anticipate three or four suc-

cessive responses to CS alone, but additional practice made

possible as many as eleven successive CR's. Experimental

extinction, spontaneous recovery, and retention of the

response over a three week interval were demonstrated"

(pp. 345, 346).

Spelt (1948) reported that leg activity was much

greater than any other body part of the fetus that was

recorded. Leg movement in infants has been noted as a

response that is easily repeatable and occurs naturally

(Deitz, 1972). In operant conditioning paradigms where the

S is active, responses must meet certain requirements as

Sheppard (1969) noted. He stated, "The leg kick in infants

has a great deal to recommend it. The response is rot









subject to multiple sources of control; infants can perform

it rapidly with little effort, and no apparent fatigue;

the operant level is above zero and the maximum response

rate is quite high . ." (p. 48). Operant conditioning

of leg movements in infants where an auditory reinforcer

was used has been demonstrated by Rovee and Rovee (1969)

using ten week old infants.

For their CS, both Ray (1932) and Spelt (1938, 1948)

employed a vibrotactile stimulus for their studies in

classical conditioning. The use of vibrotactile stimula-

tion as a reinforcer for infants was reported by Schaefer

(1960). A seven month old was observed prolonging contact

with an electric hair cutter by turning his head and

making postural adjustments. The electric hair cutter was

eventually replaced by an electric tooth brush. When ap-

plied to any part of the child's body he would show a

preference for contact with his head. When this subject

was 17 months old, the vibratory stimulus was effective

as a secondary reinforcer in shaping medicine taking be-

havior for a temporary childhood illness. Schaefer in

reporting this phenomenonstated, "It would be interesting

to establish whether the application of vibration is more

effective when applied locally or generally (as when a

vibrator is attached to the crib) and whether its effective-

ness is limited to certain individuals. So far nobody has

pointed out harmful effects of vibration on children" (P. 160).










Vibration of an auditory sort also has been researched

from the standpoint of an imprinted stimulus. The stimulus

prenatally imprinted is the sound of the heartbeat and

according to Salk (1966), it has influenced our art, music,

dance, handedness and several other factors. He has ap-

proached the question experimentally, anthropologically,

and comparatively. He was not concerned with the associate

type learning in either fetuses or infants and he clearly

defined his use of the term.

Imprinting is distinguished from associative
learning in that the conditions under which
imprinting occurs do not provide any reward
in association with their stimulus. The ef-
fects of associative learning can be altered
but in the case of imprinting, the effects
are irreversible. Furthermore in association
learning the spacing of practice trials rather
than massing is most effective, in imprinting
the converse is true. (p. 295)

Salk (1966) further makes his point on human imprinting

and its manifestations in our music, dance and various

rhythms associated with the heartbeat as a fetus.

A question still remains in connection with
imprinting in the human. It was said earlier
that aspects of adult behaviour are influenced
by an imprinted stimulus even though the
pattern of responding to that stimulus may not
have been developed at the time of imprinting.
We must ask ourselves, "What elements are there
in adult behavior that might have been in-
fluenced by imprinting?" To answer this question
we merely have to look at some very obvious
facts. In most, if not all, cultures throughout
the world man engages in dance and musical ex-
pression. The universality of this behavior,
in spite of cultural differences, provides
fairly clear evidence that it is related to man's
biological nature. The fact that the rhythm of









the heartbeat, the rhythm of breathing and
the rhythm of walking, cannot be overlooked.
The sensory experiences provided by music
and dance are indeed similar to those sensory
experiences received during prenatal life.
Music and dance are the result of i-printing
and are created and experienced by ran in his
attempt to remain in proximity with imprinted
stimuli. (p. 302)

Salk has been cited earlier in studies involving handed-

ness (Margoshes& Collins, 1965) but Salk's 1966 data involved

some research into art and biological tendencies for survival.

In examining paintings and pieces of sculpture
created during the past few hundred years which
involve a child being held by an adult, it was
observed that among 466 such works of art, 373
or 80 percent were constructed so that the child
was on the side closest to the adult's heart.
The automatic tendency of the huLan mother
to hold her child close to the heart requires
additional explanation. It is not the character
of nature to provide living organisms with
biological tendencies unless such tendencies
have survival value. (p. 302)

Salk (1966) cited several other experimental type

studies lending support to his hypothesis and he concluded

his argument concerning imprinting with a simple explanation

of how it operates and what value it has for other types

of learning.

This discussion of experimental evidence together
with evidence based on naturalistic observations
concerning the problem of imprinting, will be
incomplete unless we deal with it in its most
basic sense. By this is meant, the role imprinting
plays in the development of living organisms.
To begin with, under natural conditions the im-
printed stimuli serve to bring the developing
organism into proximity with conditions that
enhance its survival. There is not only direct
protective value resulting from this at a time
when the developing organism is helpless, but it
serves as the base for all later learning.










Imprinting compels the organism to seek con-
tinued sensory stimulation by coming into
contact with its environment and by so doing
enhances the development of behavior patterns
that have adaptive value, through associative
learning. (p. 303)

The work of Salk (1962) demonstrated the relationship

between heartbeat and infant behaviors. while e there remains

some questions concerning the effect of heartbeat on

specific behaviors, the evidence from the studies just re-

viewed support the position that heartbeat serves as a

powerful stimulus for conditioning in the fetus.

The choice of leg kick as a response to be conditioned

is supported by the work of both Sheppard (1969) and Deitz

(1972). The leg kick is easily conditioned and is easy to

measure. The leg kick will be the dependent variable for

the present study.

Given what has been reviewed in the relevant literature

concerning development aspects, differences in methodology

and the confusion in the learning research, the author of

the present study saw a need to investigate the differences

in leg kicking activity of infants as they were exposed to

a heartbeat sound presented in air compared to hearing the

same sound underwater. Additionally, the differences between

the leg kicking activity for the underwater heartbeat condi-

tion and four other underwater control sound conditions were

investigated. The procedures for collecting the data and

treating it are described in the next chapter.














CErrTER III

METHOD ;-DO PROCEDURE


In order to investigate the differences in infant leg

kicking, infants were expos_- to a heartbeat sound in air

and the same sound underwatr-. Also, four other underwater

sound conditions were used is controls. The procedures

to achieve this are present in this chapter.

The procedures used it the present study were designed

to yield data to insure appropriate testing of the following

two hypotheses. Stated in :zll form, the two hypotheses

for the present study were:

There will be no difference in mean kicking
rates for an underwater audio taped human
heartbeat when compare: to the same tape
recording transmitted t-ough air.

There will be no difference in mean kicking
rates for an underwater audio taped human
heartbeat when compare- to underwater presenta-
tions of rhythmic musir, white noise and human
speech.

With those hypotheses in mind, the following procedures

were followed. Each infanr -as brought to the swimming pool

at the same time each aftercon in a bathing suit used

exclusively for this experiment. The infants were not sup-

posed to eat anything for r-c hours before they were brought

to the pool.









The assistant loaded all the audio c=a=ette tapes in

the proper sequence, tested all remaining apparatus and

prepared to begin the sequence of sound cr:ditions for

that day. The E was blind to when a souni condition was

going to be presented except for the surface heartbeat

condition. On the five days when the surface heartbeat

condition was first in the sequence, the =ild was placed

on its back on a towel between the two surface speakers.

Following that condition, they were brouch: into the water

and adapted to the water by the E before sie underwater

trials began.

Prior to the first underwater trial =- the first day of

the experiment each infant was operantly nditioned to

close the mouth while underwater. This was accomplished

by employing air as a primary reinforcer ;-d a squeeze to

the child's chest by the E as a secondary reinforcer. All

six subjects came under the stimulus contr-l of being

underwater within four shaping trials. rD-ing the five

days when the underwater trials were firs,. the infant

was adapted to the water before the trials began. For the

underwater conditions, the infant was released by the E

between the two underwater speaker units. The assistant

would choose if this event was to be a trial. If it was a

trial, the movie camera was operated which also activated

the tape player to present the sound condition. In this

manner, the E was blinded to the conditic: presentation.

When the trial was over the assistant wou:I signal the E

and the child would be picked up.








During the five days when the surface heartbeat

condition was last, the infant was placed between the

surface speakers, the event was filmed, and then the

infant was taken home. The mothers were instructed not

to put drops in the ears after the lesson ncr was any ot-er

special treatment to be given to the infants.

Conditions were as follows: (1) Silence; (2) Mother's

Voice; (3) "Sleeping Beauty;" (4) White Noise; (5) Surface

Heartbeat; and (6) Underwater Heartbeat.

Each condition had a duration of five seconds althc-zt

the tapes were made for seven seconds duration. The silence

condition was employed as a pure control while the white

noise condition served as a control for the presentation =f

all frequencies between 20 and 20,000 cps. The mother's

voice condition was recorded prior to the trials for day

one. Each mother read into a tape player after a sound

level had been taken for her voice level. They each

recorded the following passage:

Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting
by her sister on the bank and of having nothing
to do; once or twice she had peeped ints the book
her sister was reading, but it had not pictures
or conversations in it. "And what is the use of a
book;" thought Alice, "without pictures or
conversations?"

This condition was used as a control for familiar sound

that is their mother's own voice.

Tchaikovsky's "Sleeping Beauty" (Panora-a) was used as

a control for a rhythmic, soothing presentation. The





38


heartbeat condition was recorded once and the same tape

was used for both the surface and underwater sound condi-

tions. This condition comprised the experimental condition

for the hypotheses being tested in this study.


Table 1
Schedule of Presentations of Sound Conditions
Day
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

C 5 1 5 3 5 4 5 6 5 6
0 1 6 3 1 4 6 2 3 4 1
D 2 3 2 4 3 2 1 4 3 3
S3 4 1 6 2 1 6 1 2 4
I 4 2 6 2 1 3 4 2 6 2
S6 5 4 5 6 5 3 5 1 5

1) Silence 4) White Noise
2) Mother's Voice 5) Heartbeat,Surface
3) "Sleeping Beauty" 6) Heartbeat,Water



The order of presentation of the six conditions to each

subject over a ten day period is summarized in Table 1. The

six conditions were assigned at random except for condition

number five. Since the infant was out of the water for

this presentation, it was decided to give the condition

either first or last. Giving this condition first everyday

when the infant was "fresh" might confound the results. The

same would be true for giving this condition last everyday.

It was decided that on odd nu-bered days the heartbeat heard

at the surface would be first and on even days it would be

presented last. An explanation of how these conditions were

recorded is found in the apparatus section of this paper.








Apparatus


The experimental space for this study was the shallow

end of a rectangular swimming pool. The hardware included

a cassette tape player, a stereo amplifier, two surface

speakers, two underwater speaker units and a movie camera

in an underwater housing. A more complete description of

the apparatus including technical characteristics is in-

cluded in the Appendix.

The underwater speakers were two five inch circular

speakers rated at 70-15,000 hz. at ten watts. The speakers

were mounted in a fiberglass shell that was waterproofed

with a plastic film and plastic tape covering. The film

and tape combination allowed the face of the shell to act

as a diaphragm to transduce the acoustic vibration from

air to water. Three such speakers were constructed although

only two were used. All three speakers were balanced and

calibrated with the two most similar speakers being used.

Balancing and calibration was achieved by submerging a

dynamic microphone two feet away from the speaker unit as

it emitted white noise at a present decibel level. The shells

were bolted to four foot boards that had 20 pound weights

which served to anchor the speaker units in position. Each

unit was positioned four feet apart and facing each other

with the speaker four inches underwater (See Figures 1 and

2, Appendix).

The surface speakers were calibrated and balanced in

air by the same procedure as the underwater speakers. The









left channel speaker appeared somewhat stronger so ap-

propriate compensations were made with the amplifier to

equalize the surface speakers. In their dark oak cabinets,

these units physically resembled the underwater units.

Both the surface and underwater speaker units were connected

to the amplifier by braided audio cable.

The cassette tape player was a battery operated Sony

Cassette Corder connected to the amplifier with a standard

audio jack. The magnetic recording tape used to record

the sound conditions was "Memorex" TM 60.

The mother's voice condition was recorded before the

first session and retaped so the decibel level in air was

115 db for each mother's presentation. Three of the other

sound conditions were recorded directly from a stereo record

via recording jacks. Those three sound conditions were

Sleeping Beauty"and the two heartbeat conditions. The

silence condition was presented with all the audio equipment

turned off. The white noise condition was recorded from a

white noise generator. All underwater presentations were

recorded so that reasonable fidelity could be achieved when

these sound conditions were boosted 50 db to 115 db as

calibrated in air. This increase was necessary to make the

db level equal for air (65) and underwater conditions (115).

A single eight movie camera in an underwater housing

was used to film the underwater and surface trials. The

camera was operated by a direct pressure trigger very









similar to a mechanical cable release used in various photo-

graphic situations. Linked to the trigger was a toggle

switch leading to the cassette player. When the camera

was operated, sound conditions were automatically presented

except in the silence condition. The film used was ASA 25

and ASA 200 with appropriate filters and lenses used for

appropriate film documentation. The exposed film was sent

to a professional processing laboratory and returned in 50

foot reels. Immediate inspection revealed all the film

was properly focused and exposed suitably for coding.

All batteries used to power the camera and cassette

tape player were removed and recharged at the end of each

day.

The water temperature in the pool was constantly

monitored with a photographic thermometer and recorded for

each child as they entered the water. The water chemistry

was checked each day twenty minutes before the first subject

arrived. Only pH and chlorine levels were tested so ap-

propriate levels could be maintained.


Subjects


Two female and four male infants aged ten and one half

months plus or minus twelve days served as subjects for

this study. Each subject received all six conditions of

the experiment each day. Three of the subjects were obtained

from lists maintained by a local birth study group and the

other three were referred to the E by one of the original









three mothers. The parentss were informed about all facets

of the experiment an: told that, after the experiment was

over, the E would teitc all of the infants involved to

swim. All parents consented to have their infant participate

in the study and sir-d the standard consent form required

of researchers using human subjects at the University of

Florida.

Each infant's ha-ring was normal as tested by a

pediatrician as part of a regular checkup, and reported to

the E by the mother :f each child. They were not supposed

to be fed during the rto hours prior to the sessions each

day to prevent vomit ng of water they may have ingested.

This would unduly fatgue them and could have possibly in-

fluenced the data. 5cne of the infants vomited water or

food during the exper-aental trials. Each infant came in

a consistent bathing suit but one of the female subjects

started the experiment in a suit which was too small in the

arms and had to switr to a larger sized suit. It should

be pointed out that t-e suit did not constrict the move-

ments of her legs or lower body in any way.

Each mother reported that her infant tended to sleep

more in an afternoon r;ap and that the infant's appetites

seemed to improve. Five of the six mothers continued after

the experiment to bring their infants for swimming lessons.

At fourteen months of age they are finally proficient

swimmers. They can tick and stroke with their arms to

propel themselves ani roll over onto their backs for air








when needed. One of the female s'-ects swam fifty meters

unassisted at fourteen months of a:e. During that swim,

she rolled over on her back to brezane twenty-one times and

flipped over on her sto-ach to conte.ue swimming.


Procedure


Initially the films were played on a regular single

eight movie projector to assess thn:r quality which was

deemed by the E to be acceptable fir coding. Coding was

accomplished independently by the C and an assistant familiar

with counting infant aquatic behav:=rs. The subjects on

each roll of film were identified Ezd the sound condition

being filmed was also identified. "his listing of subjects

and conditions became the raw data sheet.

Following this inspection and identification the film

was cut into 90-frame segments. IZzety frames on single

eight film is equal to five seconds of real time. Each

ninety frame segment was projected and each time the subject

returned the foot that was initiall- closer to the surface

at the beginning of the film trial rt was counted as one

kick underwater. The quality of d;th of both feet at the

beginning of the trial was assessed by use of a projection

screen that had one inch grids draz on it.

The surface condition footage v-s coded by simply

counting any right leg extension t-e movement as a kick.

Since the segments were cut into urLts known to be five

seconds long, it was possible for t-z coders to use the stop









action and slow motion projectors to code each sez-ent

more carefully. The E had eleven years experience with

counting infant aquatic behaviors and the assistant had

five years experience in the same area. After each had

coded independently it was found that perfect agreement

existed among their records of the segments they coded.

Rates of kicks per second were cc-pleted by dividing

the number of kicks by five. These rates became t-e

dependent variable in a two way analysis of variance with

the ten days and six conditions serving as the independent

variables.

The design of the experiment involved each cf the six

subjects receiving all six sound conditions each day for

ten days. The subject's were not matched and the order of

administration of the sound conditions was not ra-don each

day for each subject. Each subject received the sound

conditions in the order presented in Table 1. The design

best suited to interpret the data as collected by these

procedures was a randomized block factorial desic= (Kirk,

1968, p. 237).

In addition to those two major hypotheses stated

earlier, three other comparisons of reans were performed.

The coefficients for all five planned nonorthogoral compari-

sons are shown in Table 2. These coefficients are arranged

for each comparison so that when each is multiplied by its

respective mean, the sum of the rows must equal zero if

the means are equal.










Table 2

Condition Mean Coefficients for Five
Planned Non-Orthogonal Comparisons

Heart-
Mother's Sleeping White beat Heartbeat
Silence Voice Beauty Noise in Air Underwater
C
O 1 3 -1 -1 -1 0 0
M
P 2 0 1 0 0 0 -1
A
R 3 0 0 1 0 0 -1
I
S 4 0 0 0 0 1 -1
0
N 5 0 1 1 1 0 -3
S




For example in comparison number 1, the silence condi-

tion is being compared to three other conditions. To equate

the comparison to zero, the mean for the silence condition

is multiplied by three and the mean for each of the other

three conditions is multiplied by minus one.

Comparison number one indicated the differences between

the means for the silence condition underwater and the

three other underwater control conditions: mother's voice,

"SleepingBeauty"and white noise. Comparison number two

examined differences between the mother's voice condition

and the underwater heartbeat presentation. Comparison

number three showed if any differences exist between the

underwater control condition for rhythmical properties

represented by the Sleeping Beauty"presentation and the

underwater heartbeat condition. Comparison number four






46


was designed to show any differences in the underwater

heartbeat condition and the heartbeat transmitted in air

condition. That comparison was the test for hypothesis

number one. Comparison number five tested the differences

between the means for the mother's voice, 'sleeping Beauty,"

and white noise which were all presented underwater, and

the heartbeat underwater condition. That comparison was

the test for hypothesis number two. Complete results for

all of the above comparisons are reported in Chapter IV.














CHAPTER IV

RESULTS


This study examined the differences between the means

for infant leg kicking behavior for infants exposed to an

underwater heartbeat sound when compared to a heartbeat

sound presented in air. This study also examined the dif-

ferences between the means for the underwater sound condi-

tions that served as controls and the underwater heartbeat

condition.

There were three other comparisons made as described

in Chapter III, but the two hypotheses that were tested

formed the research problem stated above. In order to

analyze the data collected using the procedures described

earlier in Chapter III, the data were submitted on cards

to a computer at the North East Regional Data Center in

Gainesville, Florida. The program used was under release

76.4 of the Statistical Analysis System to the University

of Florida. An analysis of variance was performed by the

computer. The program was adapted to relate any interaction

between days and conditions. In addition, the means for

subjects, days, conditions and conditions by days were

demanded of the program.

Prior to proceeding with the planned comparisons,

a test of the day by condition interaction was conducted









and the results indicated no interaction (F (45,295) = 1.01,

p < .01).

Since the condition effect was found to be consistent

across days, the condition data were pooled over days and

tests of the main effect were conducted as planned. The

results of these tests are summarized in Table 3. To

demonstrate whether a significant difference existed between

the means in a planned non-orthogonal comparison,

Dunn's procedure was used. Five planned comparisons were

made among the six conditions.

For comparisons number 2, 3, and 4 in Table 3 where the

alpha was set at .01, the critical difference was calculated

to be .1365. For comparisons number 1 and 5 in Table 3,

where the alpha was set at .01, the critical difference was

calculated to be .3345.

By comparing the observed differences in Table 3 with

the appropriate critical difference as reported above,

comparison number 2, 3, 4 and 5 in Table 3 were significant

at the p< .01 level.

The hypothesis stating that there would not be a

significant difference in mean kicking rates for an infant

underwater when presented with an audio taped human heart-

beat when compared to the same tape recording transmitted

through air was rejected. That comparison is related as

number 4 in Table 3. The hypothesis stating that there would

not be a significant difference in mean kicking rates for










Table 3

Mean Kick Rate per Second for Six Conditions and
Calculated Observed Differences

Conditions
1 2 3 4 5 6
M11 11tel ( 01-I.II.q Uill 1I IBasi 1IL)- f Ca 11. I ia-
Bilenoe Voioe Beauty Noise Air Water

.74 .68 .80 .75 .10 .34

Observed Differences (Dunn)


Comparisons

(1) 1 vs 2,3,4
(2) 2 vs 6
(3) 3 vs 6
(4) 5 vs 6
(5) 2,3,4 vs 6


-.01*


.34*


.46*


1.21*


#Example: (.74 x 3) + (.68 x -1) + (.80 x -1) + (.75 x -1) = -.01
*Sig. at .01 level.


Mean





50


an infant underwater when presented with an audio taped

human heartbeat when compared to underwater transmission

conditions of rhythmic music, white noise and human speech

was rejected. That ccmparis:n is related as number 5 in

Table 3.

The implications for t-ese results as well as the

relationship of the other comparisons performed on the mean

kicking rates under various sound conditions will be dis-

cussed in the next chapter.














CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUS:':


Some of the results of previous research cited in

Chapter II are related to the results of this study as

reported in Chapter IV. For example, the research into

hearing in the neonates and infants showed that they require

an elevated sound intensity threshold. Generally, it must

be sixty-five decibels or higher in order t= be effective.

The effectiveness of sound stimulation as ia independent

variable with regard to a number of dependent measures such

as bodily activity, cardiac and respiratory activity, and

the effects of habituation are well represented in the

literature. Studies where the intensity le-.els were sixty-

five decibels or higher yielded some significant results or

at least did not incur criticism from later researchers con-

cerning the sound intensity parameter. In criticizing

Tulloch et al. (1964), Brackbill et al. (1i6) stated that

their failure to replicate Salk's (1962) findings was due

to the lower level of the sound stimulus (43 db.). This is

roughly 20 db. below the effective threshold for neonates

and infants. The decibel level for the transmission of

sound through air in the present study was 65 db. The

change in amplitude of the sounds transmitted through

51








water was available from Hamilton (1957) where the intensity

had to be raised 45 db. to 60 db. above the threshold

established in air for equal underwater perception. The

decibel level as calibrated in air for the underwater

presentations for the present study was 115.

The duration of the sound presentation for each trial

followed the parameters researched by Stubbs (1934). hat

research showed that bodily reactions were effected better

by durations of five and fifteen seconds for infants hearing

pounds at 70 and 95 db. In the present study, even a ten

second trial underwater would have been too long. Since

Stubbs found the five second duration acceptable and the

concern of this study's author for infant breath holding

capacity underwater, the five second duration was used.

It was also felt that a sound duration of five seconds

had less chance of being habituated to although research

by Moreau et al. (1970) may disagree. It should be noted

that previous research into the influences of habituatizc

on sound parameters with infants has involved acoustic

and not underwater hearing.

One of the underwater sound conditions involved hearing

the mother's voice. Research by Hutt et al. (1968) shci-d

neonates are behaviorally most responsive to fundamental

frequencies found in the range of the human voice. Again, Hutt

et al. conducted the research in the air while the present

study had both an air and water condition. This "familiar"









sound" was not as effective in calming the bodily activity

as recorded by leg kicking of the infant, as the heart-

beat sound heard underwater.

Other properties of the physical environment have

been studied concerning this calming effect on infants.

Weiss (1934) showed that light alone had a calming effect

and sound alone in darkness also had a calming effect.

This present study was conducted at the same time each

day in an outdoor pool. The light intensity of the sun was

consistent as there were very few clouds in the sky during

the ten day period of the data collection. If light

intensity was a factor in calming the infants, it was a

consistent factor for all ten days and all six subjects in

the study. The number of days of observation for this study

agree with the median of observations made by McGraw (1939a).

She observed forty-two different infants with a median of

ten observations per infant. A lack of control over the

infants and their parents seems to be a cause for a rather

large range but rather small total number of observations

cited in the research.

Research by Grimwade, Walker and wood (1970) examined

the sound properties of the womb and also reported how

sound stimulation of the fetus influenced activity. The

present study with the underwater sound conditions and

particularly the underwater heart beat condition to some

degree simulated a womb-type environment. If fetal condi-

tioning or at least fetal imprinting to sounds such as a









heartbeat heard in utero is possible, then at least the

hearing capacities of the fetus must be delineated. Kellogg

(1941) and Forbes and Forbes, (1927) showed that the fetus

can hear fairly well from about the seventh month of

gestation on. Hearing sounds as a fetus may be one thing

but conditioning a fetus to react to a sound produced out-

side the mother's abdomen was the work of Ray (1932),

Sontag and Wallace (1935) and Spelt (1938, 1948). The

present study did not investigate any relationship of fetal

movement or conditioning per se but rather, some of the

sounds that the infant could have heard as a fetus and how

those sounds differentially influenced kicking behavior in

infants. The present study showed there was a significant

difference between the simulated womb environment heart-

beat condition and any other sound heard while in this

environment. That finding agrees with Salk (1966) where

he stated that the heartbeat sound heard by the fetus was

imprinted and associated with the womb environment. Murooka

(1974) said this heartbeat sound had a calming influence in

newborns and that too agrees with the findings of this

study.

Since the heartbeat has been reported to be imprinted

on the fetus (Salk, 1966), any comparison involving that

sound would require appropriate control conditions. The

heartbeat as a sound condition would have to have controls

for its rhythmical sound properties, controls for its

frequencies and, because it is heard by the fetus in the








womb and the infant as it is fed, it must also have a

control that is also a familiar sound. Those controls

were represented in this study by Tchaikcvsky's"Sleerinf

Beauty," white noise and the motherly voice respectively.

Salk (1966) however, goes further than anyone else by

stating that this early imprinted heart sound serves as

the base for all later learning.

If the environment where the heartbeat is heard in

utero is simulated, that condition should have greater in-

fluence because of the site of the imprinting than if the

sound is heard in a dissimilar environment. As reported in

the present study, there was a significant difference in

the means of the heartbeat underwater condition and the con-

dition where the heartbeat was heard in air.

While it is true that sound has different characteristics

in water than in air, it may be that the way sound is heard

by a fetus in the womb and an infant underwater are

drastically different. The infant may be adapting air

hearing techniques rather than reverting back to fetal

hearing techniques. It is possible that those transforma-

tions rather than the sounds themselves may account for

some of the differences in the air versus underwater heart-

beat comparisons. Where the means for some sound conditions

presented underwater were compared with the underwater heart-

beat condition and a significant difference was found, it

could be the nature of any pulsing sound would have produced









these results. In that case, the imprinted stimulus Salk

(1966) cites as having greater calming value would break

down somewhat.

TWe author of the present study feels that the heart-

beat s:und may be imprinted but researchers must simulate

the e--ironment in which the imprinting took place if

their research is to properly show any relationship con-

cernin- that sound and any later behavior.

"Te scope of the present study was deliberately limited

and designed to test the two hypotheses. Due to the small

N in ~Be present study and the uniqueness of the procedures,

care should be taken in generalizing these results to

other areass of research. However, this study does generate

some interesting areas for further investigation. For

instance, if a fetuswereexposed to a 1,000 cps. tone

for a period of time each day after the sixth month of

gestation, what would the influence of that sound condition

have = that individual as an infant if it were one of

the uierwater sound conditions as described in the present

study? It would also be interesting to have several sub-

jects participate in this type study and to test them at

birth and at three ronth intervals until they are two-years-

old. Would the responses, if they were different initially,

dissipate over time? Would the differential responding to

the heartbeat as reported in this study change over time?

Good research doesn't prove, it probes relationships. For









the implications bolily put forty by Salk (1966) and

others this area of investigation needs more probing of

relationships and less proving of implications.

The present stur- examined the differences in leg

kicking rates for six infants ages ten and one half months

old as they heard fire seconds of a heartbeat sound while

underwater as compared to hearing the heartbeat sound in

air for five seconds.

A comparison was also made between the heartbeat sound

presented underwater and three other sounds presented

underwater. Those three other underwater sound presenta-

tions were rhythmic rusic, white noise and human speech

all being presented fzr five seconds.

Significantly less kicking was observed for the

heartbeat heard in air condition than when the heartbeat

sound was presented a the infant underwater.

When the underwa:er heartbeat sound condition, which

was a tape made from a human female heartbeat recorded in

utero, was presented to the infant subjects, they kicked

significantly less t-2n when they heard the other under-

water sound conditions. The first underwater sound

condition, the heart-eat condition, was compared to a

control condition for any rhythmical sound as represented

for this study by TcZhikovsky's "Sleeping Beauty."








Another underwater sound was.!esigned to serve as

a control for any sound being he-. underwater. This

condition was presented by playing "white noise" or fre-

quencies between 20 and 20,000 cps. simultaneously.

The final underwater conditi=: was designed to

control for a familiar sound that -te subjects heard

previously. That condition was created by having each

subject's mother record herself rieaing the introduction

to Alice in Wonderland.

A comparison of those three =derwater sound conditions

mentioned above to the underwater heartbeat showed the

infants kicked significantly less :o the heartbeat sound

than to the other underwater souni-.

The present study has demonstrated the crucial importance

of replicating the environmental meditions when comparing

early and later learning in the fe-is and neonate. The

results of the present study appear to be supportive of an

imprinting explanation of early learning. Present theories

of learning in children and adults do not emphasize the role

of imprinting. The development of educational models of

how learning occurs should examine the role imprinting plays

in early learning. A clearer explimation of the role of

imprinting in early learning may contribute to our better

understanding of learning in and Dz of the classroom through

associative learning procedures.














APPENDIX


Technical information concerning the apparatus

described in Chapter III is presented here. The construc-

tion of the underwater speaker units is descriLed followed

by relevant information concerning the surface s-eakers,

the tape player and tapes. The video components used in

the experiments are described and include the mo-ie camera,

the underwater case for it and the film that was used.

Finally, the technical information concerning the electrical

systems employed in the data collection are described.

The underwater speakers were two circular five inch

air suspension speakers (40-1909) manufactured hy Tandy

Corporation. They were rated at 70-15,000 Hertz with an

impedance of 8 ohms. Each of these speakers were suspended

via monofilament line inside a fiberglass shell. The face

of each shell was covered with polyurethane filn produced

by Dow Chemical Company. Further water proofing was ac-

complished by water-proof plastic tape produced ty the 3M

Company. The film and tape combination allowed the face

of the shell to act as a diaphragm to transduce the acoustic

vibration from air to water. Although only two speakers

were used underwater, three were constructed with the third

being a back-up unit. All three underwater specers were

balanced and calibrated by means of a VU meter. A dynamic

59










microphone (Realistic 33-1034) with sensitivity in the

150-10,000 Hertz range and rated at 200 ohms impedance.

This microphone was submerged two feet away from the

speaker as the speaker emitted white noise at a preset decibel

level. The microphone was plugged into a Sony Stereocorder

"Reel to Reel" and the sensitive VU meter in this unit

served as the calibration instrument. It was found that

two of the speakers were virtually identical with the third

requiring only slight modification to become equivalent

to the other two underwater speakers. Two bolts were im-

bedded in the back of the fiberglass shells so the units

could be bolted to the support frames. The frames were

made out of 1' x 12' cypress shelving boards with a twenty

pound weight attached to the bottom. The weights served

to securely anchor the speaker units in position. Both

units were positioned facing each other four feet apart

with the center of each speaker six inches underwater.

The two surface speakers were eight ohm, ten watt units

manufactured by Mitsubishi Electrical Corporation. They

were calibrated and balanced in air by the same procedures

as the underwater speakers. The left channel speaker

measured stronger, so appropriate compensations were made

to the speaker and the amplifier to equalize the two sur-

face units. In their dark oak cabinets, these units

physically resembled the underwater units. Both the sur-

face and the underwater speakers were connected to the MGA

model SA-10 twenty-two watt amplifier by braided audio cable.









The cassette tape player was a Sony Cassette-Corder

manufactured by Sony Inc. It operated on four GE 1.25

volt Rechargeable Nickel-Cadmium Batteries that were

recharged daily. The tape player was connected to the

amplifier by means of a standard audio jack linking the

female monitor plug on the cassette player and the "play"

receptor of the amplifier unit.

The magnetic recording tape used to record the sound

conditions was "Memorex" TM 60 audio cassette tape manu-

factured by Audio Magnetic Corporation. The mother's voice

condition was recorded before the first session and they

were retaped so the decibel level in air was 115 db. for

each mother's presentation. Three of the other sound condi-

tions were recorded directly from the Capitol St-11421 stereo

album Lullaby from the Womb via recording jacks. The white

noise condition was recorded from a white noise generator.

All underwater presentations were recorded so that reason-

able fidelity could be achieved when these sound conditions

were boosted 50 db. to 115 db. as calibrated in air. This

increase was necessary to make the decibel levels equal

for air and underwater conditions. The silence condition

was presented with all the audio equipment turned off.

The water temperature was constantly monitored by a

Kodak color temperature thermometer and recorded each day

just before the first subject arrived and immediately after

the final subject left the experimental space.










The water chemistry was checked each day about 20

minutes before the sessions began. Only pH and chlorine

levels were tested for with an HTHI standard chemistry kit

available at most pool supply stores.

A Fujica AX100 single eight movie camera in a Marine-8

AX 100 underwater housing was used to film the underwater

and surface trials. The camera was operated by a direct

pressure trigger very similar to a mechanical cable release

used in various photographic situations. The film used

was Fujichrome R25 and due to local unavailability of that

film during the experiment, Fujichrome R200 was used with

a neutral density 4S filter counted in front of the Fujinon

1.1 lens used with the camera referred to above.

The exposed film was sent to a professional processing

lab and returned by mail six days later. Immediate

inspection revealed all the film was properly focused and

exposed suitably for coding.

Since electrical equipment was employed in the

apparatus for this study appropriate safety precautions

were taken. All fuses were checked where 110 A.C. was

used but only battery powered D.C. equipment using low

voltages and amperes was used near and in the water. The

power sources for movie-camera and cassette tape player

were six 1.25 volt batteries.

The AA batteries used to power the camera were G.E.

Rechargeable Nickel-Cadmium Batteries rated at 1.25 volts.






63



They were removed each day and charged for twelve hours

in a General Electric battery recharger model BC-3 along

with the four batreries from the audio cassette tape

player.




































A plastic tape
B plastic film
C speaker
D securing lines
E fiberglass shell
F audio cable
G securing bolts
H wing nuts
I frame board
J brace screws
K anchor weight
L brace
M frame board


Figure 1
Underwater Speaker Unit


M












A tape player
B amplifier
C audio cable
D audio cable
E water level
F underwater speaker un:i
G underwater speaker un::
H anchor weight


cycle


anchor weight
underwater camera
left speaker
right speaker
audio cable
audio cable
towel


Figure 2
Surface Speaker Arrangement






66



Rates of Kicking per Second for Each Subject
by Condition and Days


Subject # 1 Jason
2 Brecky
3 Lennie
4 Kelly
S Bryan
6 Craig





Day Conditions
1 5
1
2
3
4
6

2 1
6
3
4
2
5


Condition 1 1 Silence
2 Mother's voice
3 Sleeping Beauty
4 White Noise
5 Surface Heartbeat
6 Underwater Heartbeat


Subject #
1 2 3 4 5 6
.4 .2 .2 .2 .4 .2
1.0 .8 .6 .2 1.2 .2
1.0 1.2 .8 .2 1.2 0
1.0 1.2 .8 .4 1.2 .6
.8 .8 .8 .2 1.4 .6
.6 .4 .4 .2 .6 0

1.2 .8 1.0 .2 1.2 .2
.4 .4 .4 0 .4 .2
1.4 1.0 1.0 .4 .8 .6
.8 1.0 .6 .4 1.0 .8
1.2 1.2 .8 .2 1.0 .4
.2 0 0 .4 0 0

.2 .2 0 .2 0 0
1.0 1.0 1.0 .2 .8 .8
.8 .6 .6 0 .8 .4
1.0 1.0 1.2 .2 1.0 .4
.6 .4 .4 0 .8 .2
1.0 1.0 .8 .4 .8 .8

1.2 1.0 1.2 .2 .8 1.0
1.0 1.0 .8 0 1.0 .6
1.0 .8 .8 .2 1.0 .6
.4 .2 .2 0 .6 0
.6 .6 .8 0 .6 .2
0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 .2 0 .2
.8 .6 .6 .2 1.0 .8
.8 .8 .6 .8 .8 .6
.6 .8 .6 .8 .6 .4
.8 .6 .8 .8 .8 .8
.4 .4 .4 .4 .2 .4









Rates of Kicking per Second for Each Subject
by Condition and Days (cont.)

Subject #
Day Conditions 1 2 3 4 5 6

6 4 .4 .6 .8 .8 .6 .6
6 .2 0 .2 .4 .6 0
2 .4 .4 .6 .6 .8 .2
1 .6 .6 .6 .7 .6 .2
3 .6 .6 .8 .6 .8 .2
5 0 0 0 .2 .2 0

7 5 0 .4 .2 0 .2 0
2 .8 .6 .6 1.0 .4 .2
1 1.0 .8 .8 .8 .6 .2
6 .4 .2 .6 .4 0 .6
4 .6 .6 .8 1.0 .4 .2
3 1.0 1.0 .8 .8 .6 .2

8 6 .4 0 .4 .4 .4 .2
3 .8 .4 .8 .8 .6 .4
4 .8 .8 .6 .6 .6 .4
1 .8 .6 .6 .6 .8 .6
2 .6 .4 .6 .8 .6 .6
5 0 .2 0 .2 .2 0

9 5 .2 .2 0 0 0 0
4 .8 1.0 1.2 1.2 .8 .4
3 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 .4
2 .6 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.2
6 .6 .6 .8 .6 .8 .6
1 .6 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 .8

10 6 .4 0 .2 0 .4 0
1 1.0 .6 .8 1.0 .6 .4
3 1.0 .6 1.2 1.2 .6 .4
4 1.4 .6 1.4 1.4 .8 .2
2 1.0 .6 1.0 1.4 .8 0
5 .2 0 0 0 .2 .2














BIBLIOGRAPHY


Abrahamson, D., Brackbill, Y.E., Fitzgerald, H.E.
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Harvey Barnett was born at March Air Force Base near

Riverside,California, on March 4, 1948. He was one of four

children in the family of a career military officer. As is

common with service children, he traveled around the world

several times and attended twenty-one different schools

before graduating from high school in Frankfurt, Germany, in

1966. He attended Brevard Junior College and received an

AA degree with honors from there in 1969. He attended the

University of Florida and graduated with honors from there

in 1971 receiving a BA in psychology.

He took a faculty position at East Tennessee State

University from 1972 to 1974. He finished a Master of

Science in Teaching (Psychology) from the University of

Florida in 1973. He has acted as Director of Research for

Infant Swimming Research since 1970. He received his

Ph.D. in March, 1978.

Mr. Barnett is married to the former Judith Carlene

Jones.









I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



John M. Newell, Chairman
Professor of Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



William B. Ware
Professor of Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Arthur J/ Newman
Professor of Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



William D. Wolking
Professor of Educat on









This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the Department of Foundations of Education in the
College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was
accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

March 1978



Chairman, Foundations of Education


Dean, G/ ute Sc

Dean. Graduate School


















EDucATIO#
LIBR FA






















UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 08552 9310




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PAGE 1

EFFECTS OF SOUND TRANSMISSION IN AN AQUEOUS AND AIR ENVIRONMENT ON INFANT MOTOR BEHAVIOR BY HARVEY BARNETT A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1978

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To Judy and my parents

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The people that I have to thank occupy a special place in my life. They, for that reason, are more and mean more to me than I am able to describe. First, Dr. John Newell, who as my chairman helped me through school and the research and the writing. Above that he helped me as a teacher and a person by serving as a source of supreme stability. Next, Dr. William Ware, who taught me about research design and statistics. He, along with his wife Andrea and children Emily, Matt and Erin, is among the people that define true friendship for me. Dr. William Wolking, who helped me realize the importance of the experimental analysis of behavior and always was there with the probing questions about my work. To Arthur Newman, a friend and someone that helped me put a different perspective in some of my thinking. The six families of the infants that served as subjects gave of their time and energy. In return, I became very close to several of them by teaching their infants to swim. To my parents, their constant support and belief in me helped in a way I can't describe. Finally, to my wife Judy, her help, support and love were and will always be deeply appreciated.

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES vi ABSTRACT vii CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 III. METHODS AND PROCEDURES 35 IV. RESULTS 47 V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 51 APPENDIX 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY 68 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 76

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LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Schedule of Presentations of Sound Conditions 38 2. Condition Mean Coefficients for Five Planned Non-Orthogonal Comparisons 45 3. Mean Kick Rate per Second for Six Conditions and Calculated Observed Differences 49

PAGE 6

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Underwater Speaker Unit 64 2. Surface Speaker Arrangement 65

PAGE 7

Abstract of Dissertation "resented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirerer.ts for the Degree of Doctor cf Philosophy EFFECTS OF SOUND TRANSMISSION IN AN AQUEOUS AND AIR ENVIRONMENT ON INFANT MOTOR BEHAVIOR By Harvey Barnett March 1978 Chairman: Jnhn M. Newell Major Department: Foundations of Education The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in leg kicking rates for six infants ages ten and one half months old as they heard five seconds of a heartbeat sound while underwater as compared to hearing the heartbeat sound in air for five seconds. A comparison was also made between the heartbeat sound presented underwater and three other sounds presented underwater. Those three other underwater sound presentations were rhythmic music, white noise, and human speech each being presented for five seconds. A total of six sounds were presented to each infant each day, five underwater treatments and one treatment on land. Each trial was filmed with an underwater and surface movie camera for later coding of the ten continuous days of data collection. The data were analyzed by a two way ANOVA and a Dunn's planned comparison among the means. Significantly less kicking was observed for the heartbeat heard in air vii

PAGE 8

condition than when the heartbeat sound was presented to the infant underwater. When the underwater heartbeat sound condition viich was a tape made from a human female heartbeat recorded in utero was presented to the infant subjects, they kircad significantly less than when they heard the other '-zjierwater sound conditions. The first underwater sound condition, the heartbeat condition was compared to a control erudition for any rhythmical sound as represented for this staiy by Tchaikovsky's Sleeping Beauty . The second underwater sound was designed to serrs as a control for any sound being heard underwater. This condition was presented by playing "white noise" or frequencies between 20 and 20,000 c.p.s. simultaneously. The final underwater condition was designed to rcntrol for a familiar sound that the subjects heard previously. That condition was created by having each subject's nether record herself reading the introduction to Alice ir. Wonderland . A comparison of those three underwater sound c:-citions mentioned above to the underwater heartbeat showed lie infants kicked significantly less to the heartbeat ssund than to the other underwater sounds. The results suggest that bodily reactions of tie infant may be influenced not only by what they hear, but ti= mechanisms used to perceive the sound. Since underv^ter

PAGE 9

sounds transduce the entire body, this type of sound transmission takes on tactual properties. It is noted that the fetus hears sounds such as the mother's heartbeat by this mechanism. Possibly our earliest learning involves perception of sound by tactual means. The results of this study raise questions about prior research on infant conditioning and suggestions are offered for future studies.

PAGE 10

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION What is the first thing human beings learn? Previous research on conditioning of the fetus has reported that the fetus can react to a nunber of stimuli and that conditioning can sometimes be demonstrated. A number of studies have attempted to demonstrate similar kinds of conditioning later in infancy but the results were not consistent. In some cases, later conditioning has been demonstrated but in the majority of studies conditioning established in the fetus has not been demonstrated later in infancy. One of the conclusions reached from such studies was that the fetal conditioning was not actually established since it could not be demonstrated later in infancy. An alternative explanation, which provides the basis for the present study, is that the "environment" in which the conditioning took place was different for the fetus and the infant. The fetus was conditioned in the womb surrounded by amniotic fluid and could be viewed as conditioning in water while the infant is being exposed to the stimulus in an air environment. It may be that this difference in the environments where conditioning took place could be a significant factor in explaining the discrepant results reported on fetal and neonatal conditioning. 1

PAGE 11

In light of the confusion in the literature concerning fetal conditioning, and the as yet not totally accepted idea that a heartbeat sound as a calming effect on infants, it appears reasonable to test two aspects of this problem. One question needing further study is whether or not there is a difference between air and water sound transmission for infants where the sound is a heartbeat? In order to examine this question, two additional fields of research need to be mentioned. Does the heartbeat sound have a calming effect in air, and what is the utility of using leg kicking as a dependent measure for these parameters? The other aspect concerning the original question is whether or not there is a calming effect for infants when a heartbeat is presented underwater when compared to other sounds presented underwater. The purpose of the present study is to examine the differences in a leg kick response in infants to sounds transmitted in air and through water. The air environment is the "normal" environment for infants and the water environment of a swimming pool is an attempt to simulate the fetal womb environment. If differences can be demonstrated, they would suggest that the prior research in this area must take into account the environment within which the conditioning occurred. This study should also add to an understanding of how early learning occurs and provide additional information about the early growth and development of sensory capacities of infants and young children.

PAGE 12

Some of the conceptual assumptions for the present stady involve ideas put forward by Lee Salk (1966) and H. Kurocka (1974). They have contended that the heart beat scirj3, because it is heard in utero and therefore associated with that environment, has a soothing or calming effect on the individual after birth. Research reporting results which disagree with those of Salk and Hurooka will be reviewed in Chapter II along with a more complete review of Salk's and Murooka ' s work. Another assumption for the present study involves the mediums of water and air and their differences as far as sound transmission through them is concerned. There is considerable evidence that the physical properties of sound transmitted through water and air are different. The transmission of sound is faster underwater than in air due to the greater density of water and, for the same reason, more energy is required to transmit sound of equal amplitude through water than in air. In situations where humans are hearing underwater sounds, different factors involving audition become apparent. Humans are able to localize sounds ix air more easily than in water because the sound may be "blocked" by the head. It is difficult to localize sound nroerwater because the sound is not blocked by other body parts and in fact the entire body can be transduced by sound in this medium. If the sounds transmitted underwater are of sufficient amplitude, sound perception may become

PAGE 13

more tactual in nature. The tactual nature of underwater sound may be an important variable when one considers that the fetus experiences various sounds while totally immersed in amniotic fluid and that this experience may be as much tactual as auditory. The use of sound as a stimulus for conditioning has much to recommend it when one considers the sensory equipment of the fetus. The sense of vision even in the neonate is not well developed. Visual acuity is somewhere between 20/350 and 20/450 (Gorman, et al., 1957). While little is known about the sense of taste in the fetus, there is evidence to suggest that the sense of taste in new born infants is not well developed and that the neonate probably can distinguish only the taste of salt and sweet. While the sense of touch is apparently quite well developed, there are difficulties in actually touching the fetus while it is still in the womb. There is evidence that the fetus does touch himself in the womb and several dramatic photographs attest to this. The neonate emits reflexes to touch that are stable enough to suggest that the nervous system of the neonate is well established for the sense of touch. Babies at birth can differentiate between certain low frequencies and some reflexes can be elicited by sound of different amplitudes. The evidence suggests that the senses of hearing and touch are probably the best developed in the fetus and should serve as the modalities to be stimulated for conditioning purposes.

PAGE 14

If, as suggested earlier, the sensing of sound in the fetus is tactual as well as auditory, the combined senses of sound and touch may be contributing to the conditioning of the fetus. In the present study, the air and water conditions will provide differential environments in which only the sense of hearing will be operative in the air environment while the combined senses of hearing and touch could possibly be operative in the water environment. If there are differences in responding to sounds heard by an infant in the water environment, when compared to the air environment, it may mean that our understanding of hearing and how it relates to early perception of the environment in the infant is incomplete unless we include the tactual component of sound experienced by the fetus. In order to investigate the differences between an air transmitted heartbeat sound and an underwater heartbeat sound, six infants were presented with these conditions. An additional four underwater sound conditions were presented as controls for various properties of a heartbeat sound.

PAGE 15

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This study examined the differences in leg kicking activity of infants exposed to a heartbeat sound presented in air when compared to hearing the same heartbeat sound presented underwater. It also examined the differences between leg kicking responses as the infants heard the underwater heartbeat sound and four other ur.derwater sound conditions. These other underwater sound conditions included: a rhythmical sound, a familiar sou.-.i, a hissing sound .and silence. This study builds upon conclusions derived from several different and seemingly unrelated areas of research. Given this study's goal of investigating the differences mentioned above, three major areas of literature were seen as being relevant for review: developmental aspects of the fetus and infants, methodological problems encountered in research involving infants and the research on fetal and infant conditioning. The literature review which focuses upon the developmental concept, will include research on fetal movement and hearing capacities, as well as the relative effectiveness of the other fetal and neonatal sensory capacities. Other

PAGE 16

studies were reported from this area if they provided information about sensory acuity, habituation to certain stimuli and other developnentally related systers of a fetus, neonate or infant. Studies using infants and particularly infants underwater as subjects have certain methodological differences from studies not using infants. Among the studies reviewed in this area were those concernii with reliable observation of infant rotor behaviors. The advantage of filming these infant activities to provide a permanent record that could be re-evaluated later was documented in the review of literature. Within this methcoslogical area the literature concerning different neonatal and infants measurements of activity including heart rate and motor activity was reviewed. Finally, the literature concerned with learning in the fetus and infant and imprinting of sound stimuli on the fetus is presented. Developmental Studies Watson in 1919b made statements based on his observations of infant behavior in water. VcGraw cited Watson (1919b) and herself (1935) as the only two who used actual experimental evidence to describe swimming-like behaviors in infants and newborns. Watson tested newborns immediately after birth in water at 98.6 degrees Farenheit. He observed three babies placed on their backs and supported by the hands of the experimenter, which allowed the subjects' faces to remain above the surface of the water. Watson

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8 reported (1919ai, "Violent expression of fear — a cry, checking of breathing, followed by deeper inspiration and rapid, entirely uncoordinated, slashing of hands and feet were all that could be observed" (?. 243). On the basis of these observations, Watson rejected the evidence of swimming in the behavioral repertoire of the newborn. McGraw (1939a) used notes she made while directly observing and cinemagraphically recording the aquatic behaviors of forty-two different infants ranging in age from eleven days to thirty months. She made a total of 445 observations and out of all those observations, 164 were motion picture records while the remaining 281 were written notes taken during the observations. The number of repeated observations on the same infant varied from two to 51 with a median of ten. McGraw pointed out a limitation of her study in the area of external validity. The data did not justify a longitudinal analysis. On the other hand, the limited number of different age brackets did not support a purely cross-sectional analysis. In spite of the methodolocical limitations of her study, the notes and film she took indicated a swimming behavior pattern characteristic of newborns, babies, four months to twenty-four months, and children older than twenty-four months. McGraw stated that if Watson had used a prone and not a supine position for his subjects, he would have noted as she did that, "Definitive rhythmical associated flexor-extensor movements in upper and lower extremities together with a lateral

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flexion of the trunk corresponding to the flexor phase of the lower extremity are usually manifested" (p. 486). She further noted that these behaviors were more pronounced when the baby was free of support while underwater. It appears that where Watson, with his subjects on their back and able to breathe, observed a violent expression of fear, McGraw, by letting them float face down, observed no such drastic behaviors. She also noted activity so consistent that she cited these behaviors in water as indicative of developmental changes or maturational stages in the infant. Several studies relating auditory stimulation where the dependent variable was the change in the neonates or infant's heart rate have been reported. Studies in this area have been represented by Kearsley (1973) who recorded head movements, and Steinschneider (1968) who found that sound intensity had to be above 70 db. to get much reaction from either cardiac or respiratory activities. The influence of acoustic sound on habituation for the newborn and infant populations is well documented in the literature. Representative studies in this area have been done by PomerleauMalcuit and Clifton (1973); Berg (1972); Lewis (1971); McCall and Nelson (1970); Roberts and Campbell (1967); Smith (1967); Steinschneider, Lipton and Richmond (1966); and by Keen, Chase and Graham (1965) . First to report the phenomenon of the effect of sound on infants however, was probably Plato when he reported his

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10 observations concerning this in Laws Book VII, Section 790 (380 B.C.); "You know, when mothers want to put fractious babies to sleep, the remedy they exhibited is not stillness, but its very opposite, movement — they regularly rock the infants in their arms--and not silence, but a tune of some kind" (p. 41). From Biehler (1976) comes an observation that Francis Warner (1087-1888) mentioned how sounds soothe small children in his book The Children: How to Study Them . Studies where body movements, among other things, were measured in response to auditory stimulation are represented by: Stubbs (1934); Ashton (1973); Moreau et al. (1970); Ling (1972); Heriot (1970); Hovers ten (1969); Ashton (1971); Pratt (1934); and Eisenberg (1965). Stubbs (1934) cited Silvo Canestrini as being the first to use objective recordings of infant responses to sounds in 1913. She further noted that in Pratt (1934), a stabilimeter polygraph was used to record the infant's changes in activity as a function of hearing certain sounds. Stubb's (1934) research showed that bodily reactions were effected better by duration and intensity than by intensity alone. She used durations of three, five, and fifteen seconds and found the last two to be acceptable. Using intensities of 30, 50, 70, and 85 db. she found the last two again to be conditions that would predict greater bodily movement. Weiss (1934) used pure tones of 50 and 75 db. with a duration of five minutes and found the louder tones had

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11 greater quieting effects on infants. Similar findings were reported by Birns, Blank, Bridger, and Escalona (1965). Weiss (1934) also carried out experiments in which the sounds were presented in both a dark and a light environment. She reported that, "It has been found that light alone is quieting and that sound alone (in darkness) is quieting" (p. 66) . This question of sound and the effect it has on the neonate was re-examined by Lee Salk (1960) when he reported that infants hearing a heart beat sound at 85 db. and at a rate of 72 beats per minute continuously for four days gained more weight, cried less, and were more quiet than the controls who were cared for in a quiet room. In trying to replicate this study, Tulloch et al. (1964) failed to get the same results reported by Salk, but they exposed their experimental group to a simulated heart beat sound at 45 db. That intensity was probably too low for neonatal reaction as Brackbill et al. (1966) stated, "Their failure to replicate Salk's results is probably attributable to the choice of stimulus intensity level that is not clearly audible to neonates" (p. 179) . Later, Salk (1961) played a heartbeat at 72 beats per minute, a metronome ticking at 72 beats per minute, and lullabies. Of note, he found the heartbeat sound to be twice as efficient at putting the children to sleep than silence, metronome and lullaby conditions.

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12 Ling (1972) tested 160 neonates hearing a pulsing narrow band noise stimulus and found that gross body movements increased as the duration of the stimulus became longer. Interestingly, he also reported that continuous stimulation increased bodily reaction better £han interrupted stimulation of the same duration. Pratt (1934) reported that the physiological state (i.e.: alert vs sleepy) of the infant was more powerful than auditory stimulation to predict activity in the newborn. Ashton (1971) found that neonates were differentially responsive to changes in frequency only during quiet sleep. Moreau, Birch and Turkewitz (1970) compared the effects of habituation to an acoustic stimulus in newborns by their autonomic and a musculoskeletal response. They found that the musculoskeletal response habituated faster, was independent of habituation in the autonomic response, and was also more stable. Behavioral changes were recorded by observers in a study by Hoversten and Moncur (1969) where they reported that a pulsed voice stimulus had the largest response percentages for both three month and eight month old infants. In a study by Foreschels and Beebe (1946) involving bodily movements and facial expressions, 33 infants were observed making responses to auditory stimulation. Whistles had the greatest effect with a tuning fork having little or no effect. A study looking at newborn hearing capacity was reported also by Aldrich (1928) and, by its title, "A New Test for

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13 Hearing in the Newborn: the Conditioned Reflex," gives the impression of being the first cf its kind which examined hearing for this populatior.. The reflexive behaviors resulting from a newborn hearing a two pound iron weight falling three feet onto a hard wood surface were filmed and reported in an article by Clark (1939) . Obviously, normal hearing newborns exhibited the Moro reflex but, as they became older, the typography of the response began to resemble a startle reaction. A multitude of studies have been done on hearing acuity, sound localization, adaption, habituation, discrimination and other aspects of an infant hearing sounds. With respect to recognizing sounds, Vanderplas and Blake (1949) reported that a valued and familiar stimuli may actually decrease the recognition threshold for that stimulus. While that isn't too surprising, a study iy Hutt et al. (1968) reported that the most effective stimuli for eliciting behavioral responses in neonates were fundamental frequencies found in the range of the human voice. Hutt suggested that there may be survival value in this because the human cochlea is structurally mature at birth and that may mean early hearing acuity plays a part in the affectional child-parent bond. Vanderplas and Blake's (1949) familarity and value selectivity for auditory stimulation may have reported results that were more physiologically based when applied to infant populations. Kasatkin and Levikova (1935)

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14 reported three stages of conditioning auditory reflaxes in infants. They were indifference, inhibition of movements where the first signs of conditioned reacti::i began, and the stage of clearly conditioned reaction. It night be that a sound heard early or before birth may hE^e imprinting properties as postulated by Salk (1960, :. : 5L, 1962). Bernard and Sontag (1947) reported that the humar. fatus in utero is capable of perceiving a wide range of tor^s after their experimental data were analyzed. Grimwade, Walker and Wood (1970) worked with animals and humans in examining several properties of fetal environment. By inserting a microphone into pregnant woirsn they found the fetus did not receive high frequency so=ds, sound loss was appreciable, and sound stimulation. :f the fetus changed its heart rate and muscular activity. Kellogg (1941) used auditory stimulation with the fetus while recording movements of the fetus by mechanical techniques. Among other results Kellogg reported that after 23-t days the fetal movement provided evidence of response ts auditory stimulation. Forbes and Forbes (1927) reported tilt the fetus will react to a loud sudden noise 30 days before delivery, but they only hypothesized that the fetss was hearing or employing tactual modalities to perceive auditory stimulation. The manner in which the fetus develr^s and how the sensory apparatus becomes mature may sup?~:rt the ideas put forth by McGraw (1939a) .

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15 If HcGraw (1939a) was correct with her postulation about infant aquatic behaviors reflecting the phylogenic origin of man, Schevill (1953) added support with a study showing that the bottlenosed porpoise has a frequency range that approximates the bone-conducted thresholds of man's hearing. The proximodistal, cephalocaudal ontogenetic development of aquatic behavior exhibited by McGraw's (1939a) subjects supports the differential activity of the opposing ends of the fetus recorded by Kellogg (1941) where the caudal end is never as active as the head end of the fetus. If the proximodistal trend of development for the whole body is valid for the cochlea in the human ear that Hutt et al. (1968) described as being fully mature at birth, then Dishoeck's (1948) observation that the outer hair cells of the cochlea (last to develop) are sensitive for air conduction and the inner hair cells (first to develop) are stimulated by compressive tones found in mediums like bone and fluids are valid. A fetus may have a greater capacity to hear compressive tones while in the amniotic fluid. This ability exhibited by the fetus to hear compressive tones would have the same frequency limits as those of the bottlenosed porpoise researched by Schevill (1953). This may support McGraw's (1939a) contention concerning the phylogency of man cited earlier. The auditory capacity of humans underwater changed because as terrestrial animals we typically hear sounds transmitted through air. Research has been performed on

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16 humans while underwater. However, such underwater research has been performed on adult divers and not infants. The above studies probed the relationship of sounds heard underwater by adult humans. Research into the in utero sounds heard by the human fetus as it floats totally immersed in amniotic fluid was completed by Salk (1966, 1962, 1961, 1960). Salk felt that these early sounds and particularly the heartbeat sound heard by the fetus took on the characteristics of an imprinted stimulus. The research which has been cited concerning the development of various capacities in the fetus, neonate and infant suggest the following conclusions. There is evidence that the fetus reacts to sound stimuli after the seventh month of gestation when a vibro-tactile stimulus is used. The sense of hearing is more fully developed in the fetus than are the other senses. There are suggestions that a simulated heartbeat sound has a soothing effect on infants when that sound is presented at a level of 65 db. or higher. There is conjecture about the effect of the duration of sound presentation on the behavior of the fetus. Stubbs (1934) argues for a duration of five to fifteen seconds. It appears that the sense of hearing is an appropriate sense to use in conditioning of a fetus or infant and that a heartbeat sound will produce a relaxed or lowered frequency of response in the infant. The present study uses a heartbeat sound as one stimulus for conditioning a legkick response.

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17 Methodological Studies Cinemagraphic data collection means the behaviors under investigation were filmed while cinemanalysis usually refers to filming the activity and using that film exclusively as the observations to be coded or scored. McGraw considered the aquatic behaviors she filmed and directly observed to be of evolutionary importance. To that end, she performed a comparative study to show that this swimming reflex apparent in her infant subjects may be attributable to some earlier amphibian existence of homo sapiens. The comparative study by McGraw (1939b) involved filming young quadrupeds in water; notably an opossum, a rat, a kitten, a guinea pig, monkeys, and a two-month-old chimpanzee. The purpose of that study was to see if the newborn swimming reflex, ". . . bears striking testimony to the phylogenesis of man " (p. 485) . She felt that the swimming reflex was related to man's evolution because in interpreting her study she stated, "It is interesting that developmental changes in swimming behavior correspond in chronological order to the major phases of other behavior patterns which also appear to be of phylogenetic origin" (p. 490) . McGraw also noted that the four-month old to twentyfour month old human subjects usually rotated to a dorsal position when submerged in a prone position ar.d the rhythmical aquatic behavior observed earlier had become what she called

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18 the disorganized phase. Her later research into this area was also oriented toward physiological development of neural brain centers in the infant in an attempt to explain the phases of aquatic behavior she filmed and observed in 1939. Cinemagraphic techniques for infant behaviors started with Watson's (1919b) 480 foot silent movie. It was heralded in the literature as being of importance both historically and experimentally. As noted previously, Watson filmed an absence of swimming movements but his film included grasping and Babinski reflexes, defensive movements, reaching, crawling and some basic emotional reactions of the infant. Since Watson's early work, cinemagraphic data collection grew in popularity in the late thirties and early forties. From the mid sixties until present day, the introduction of the transistor and light weight television ca.-.eras have all but replaced film with video tape. Gesell (1932) cited cinemagraphic techniques as being ideally suited to record morphological development and particularly complex movements. Gesell went so far as to develop normative data on a variety of infant capacities that were filmed. He concluded that this type of data collection allowed systematic recording and experimental analysis. Several researchers have used film to record a vide variety of neonate and infant behaviors. McGraw (1941) filmed and compared mass responses in newborns and specific responses in older babies to a pin prick stimulus probing various body parts. Am.es (1944)

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19 filred the visual and motor patterns of two normal infants froa their eighth to fifty-sixth week of life. Ames (1939) , had previously used cinemanalysis to describe ascent postures and the body orientations beginning with prone progression and ending with stair climbing. In addition, Ames found that although quantative analysis of the filmed behaviors of his twelve subjects between one and three years of age differed, there were patterns within a single subject that were constant. Gesell (1932) cited several benefits of cinemanalysis and Ames (1939), having filmed body orientations for comparisons of babies, published a study (Gesell and Antes, 1940) in which the data were taken exclusively from filmed trials. In the same year, Birkmayer and Goll (1940) used a film method to analyze the development of walking in young children. Their study is of importance in that they were able to describe dynamic functions such as gait, center of gravity shifts, stepping phase and other actions difficult to examine except by stopping the action of motion picture photography. Probably the most detailed study of rotor activity using film was produced by Ames, (1942). A description of leg, foot, and toe postures was written after the filn had been coded of infants in a supine posture. Gilmer (1933) also used cinemanalysis to investigate unique limb movement patterns in a series of infant behaviors. Cinemanalysis included both the filming of the activity as

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20 well as an analysis of the activity based upon observations by the experimenter. Two majcr types of observational systems are used; an "open" and a "closed" system. In a discussion of "open" and "clcsed" observation systems, Gordon and Jester (1973) stated that, Specimen description r.ear.s detailed sequential recording of all that is caking place in a situation. This may be accomplished by audioor-video-tape recording 3r by continuous notetaking. Following the recording, a coding or scoring scheme is imposed on the record as contrasted to coding curing the initial collection of data. Statistical analysis was done only after the original records had been coded. Wright (1960) called this an open method because the coding follows the rcaent-to-ntoment recording. A distinguishing characteristic of open and closed systems is that an. open system preserved the raw data so that it .as available for other coding systems while the closed system imposed a coding scheme at the rinse of initial data collection. In the latter, the observer simply notes specific behaviors as they occur. Examples of closed methods are tire and event sampling and trait rating. In the closed system, efficiency of basic data recording is gained at the loss of raw data. Wright's classification of Time Sampling can be further divided into sign and category systems. Sign systems preserve some elements of the rav data since behaviors are listed in the observer's record and he usually makes some sort of frequency count of the occurrence of specific behaviors, (pp. 175-176) In a study investigatir. ; research procedures involving auditory perception and resulting behavior in the human neonates, Eisenberg (1965) cor.pared cinemanalysis and direct observation. She concluded tr.at, Cinetechniques are valuable in that even fleeting changes in behavior can re captured, and with the aid of sophisticated accessories and data reducing procedures, analyzed quantitatively. Moreover, no ancillary -easures are required since observer judgments can be validated

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21 statistically by including no stimulus trials in a silent film record. .Motion pi— .ire photography is prohibitively expens_-= for most purposes, however, and it poses ter~ical problems of sizable dimensions. It .3 recommended only for special purpose research that is otherwise impossible, (p. 170) She further stated that using obser". ers with certain parameters of sound was risky. For insts^ces, when coding intensity, she reported: "For 45 to 55 ~three independent examiners reported less than or.e-third of their observations with confidence. . . ." (p. 164) and fcr duration and frequency parameters, "although optimal conftar.ts for clinical and research purposes remain to be defined, durations in the range between one to five seconds seem t~ ;e reasonably satisfactory for present use with wide-b^c stimuli" (p. 165). While many investigators in the 1931's and 1940's employed film as a recording device for irctor activities, Escalona and Leitch (1950) edited a large amount of film to produce a 42 minute film examining re?:c.-ses made of the prolonged stimulation of eight infants, their study suggested that prolonged perceptual stimul£-i:n may generate psychological tension in infants. Possibly one of the most interesting studies based upon data taken from film was done by Hooker ~?39) . Reflexive movements of aborted human fetuses to tam.le stimulation from seven to 25 weeks of menstrual age vere filmed. Hooker found that at between 11 to 14 weeks of ner.strual age most of the neonatal reflexes were represented and after 14 weeks

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22 all the movements observed gained in amplitude after closely observing what he filmed. Film provides a permanent record that can be codec by others to enhance coder reliability in the data. It is important to keep in mind, however, that other factors rore basic to research design and not just precise measureser.t need to be considered. Ling, Ling and Doehring (1970) found that an observer's judgments about infant behavior may be significantly influenced by knowing the presentation schedule for the stimuli. Their study involved observi-3 whole-body movements as the infants were presented with narrow band acoustic stimulation. The use of visual methods of recording infant behavior, beginning with movie cameras and more recently television recordings, has provided a useful means of providing a permanent record of the behavior in question. Gordon and Jester (1973) review the assets and limitations of two observational systems. The "open" system provides for the recording of behavior as it occurs with an analysis or coding of the behaviors being done at a later time. A "closed" system imposes a coding scheme on the behavior as it is recorded. For the present study, there was no logical or theoretical grounds for employing a coding scheme prior to recording the infant's behavior. As a result, an "open" recording system was employed.

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23 Learning and Imprinting Studies In an attempt to differentiate between learning and imprinting, Klopfer and Hailman (1967) stated that the, "responses nay be learned very rapidly in newborn animals by the process of imprinting. Imprinting, unlike conditioning and other common forms of learning, is rapid, long lasting and apparently unrewarded" (p. 52). Lee Salk (1966) takes that definition further by stating that the human fetus is imprinted to the sound of the human heart beat heard in utero and this has profound influences on our later adult behaviors. Smart and Smart in Children (1972) interpreted the fetal imprinting to the heart beat sound reported by Salk as follows: Because the sound was found soothing to infants and children, it seems worthwhile to consider what meaning it may have prenatally. The heartbeat sound has the criteria of an imprinting stimulus being intermittent and repetitious and occurring early in the life of the organism, before it experiences fear. Later, when the organism is exposed to fear, it is reassured by the stimulus to which it has been imprinted. Thus it seems quite possible that the unborn baby interacts with his environment in such a way that the rhythms of sounds and pressures prepare him for coping with some of the difficulties he will encounter after he is born. Seeking to comfort his distress and express their love, his parents and other people will hold him in their arms and walk with him or rock and jiggle him. The resulting sounds and pressures will reassure him perhaps because he was imprinted prenatally to such stimuli, (pp. 31, 32) Grier, Counter and Shearer (1967) did work with prenatal auditory imprinting in chickens by exposing the

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24 experimental group to a patterned sound continuously from the twelfth to the eighteenth day of incubation while the control group incubated in quiet. The experimental group creeped toward a stationary sound source as did the controls but the experimental group preferred the sound heard before they hatched. The experimental group also followed a moving object longer if it emitted the "imprinted" sound versus any other sound condition. Smart and Smart (1972) put forth other implications of the fetus hearing the mother's heartbeat by reporting some of the results of Salk's (1962) study where he increased the rate of the heartbeat to which the infants were exposed. Salk stated, The newborn infants who had quieted to the sound of a normal heartbeat showed an immediate increase in crying and disturbance to these unusual heartbeats and also to a hissing sound which the machine accidentally developed. A frightened or disturbed pregnant mother could be expected to show variations from the normal pattern of heartbeat and breathing. Her baby then might be disturbed by the resulting tactile, auditory, and kinesthetic stimuli. Either by themselves, or added to the effects of the endocrines in the blood, these stimuli could be significant prenatal influence, (p. 33) Dr. Akira Sugiyama (personal communication) , claimed that hearing these sounds has a "calming" influence on the infant and reported that 100 percent of 403 crying newborns were calmed (stopped crying) with a mean of 41 seconds after onset of the heartbeat recording. This calming effect may be due to a classical conditioning process completed

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25 before birth, where the mother's heartbeat served as the CS and the UCS was the stimuli associated with the womb environment itself. The fetus may respond by becoming inactive. This appears feasible since Murooka (1974) reported the neonate was calmed by essentially the same sound heard in utero, which included the heartbeat. Contrasting Salk's postulations and Murooka ' s as yet unpublished work, Brackbill, Adams, Crowell and Gray (1966) contended that activity levels in infants decreased under continuous auditory stimulation which was also reported in an earlier study by Weiss (1934). Brackbill, et al. (1966) compared no sound versus any sound including heartbeat and found that the heartbeat condition did not quiet the infants more than any other prolonged auditory stimulus. Brackbill (1970) varied the quality of the acoustic stimulus presented to infants and measured the level of arousal by state, respiration, heart rate and motor activity. The aforementioned qualities included no sound, intermittent sound, or continuous sound. She reported that level of arousal was decreased by continuous sound and increased by intermittent sound when compared to the no sound condition. Keen, Chase and Graham (1965) reported that a ten second moderately intense auditory stimulus not only accelerated the neonate's heartbeat, but was a condition to which the neonate readily habituated. However, a brief acceleration in heart rate showed no habituation effect in

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26 30 trials over two days. While the ten second condition hardly qualified as an intermittent auditory stimulus, when Salk (1966) "played" a heartbeat sound for four continuous days, it was more effective than the two second stimulation in accelerating heart rate. The ten second condition was also habituated to much more readily. The intensity of sound on infant cardiac and motor behavior was investigated by Steinschneider , Lioton and Richrond (1966) . They presented five second white noise bursts of 55, 70, 85, and 100 db. and a silence condition. All nine infants responded to a stimulus intensity of 70 db. Other results reported were that motor responses increased and their latency decreased with increasing intensity of stimulation. The cardiac measure showed that as the sound intensity increased, the heartbeat latency decreased and the duration of the faster heartbeat was longer. Several researchers in early learning processes have considered a developing entity that is completely immersed in amniotic fluid, that is the human fetus. Fetal activity was probably first reliably recorded by Ray (1932) by using three tambors taped to the mother's abdomen and masked for her respiratory responses. A majority of these types of studies have some purpose other than just recording when a fetus moves. Sontag and Wallace (1935) reported that a reliable increase in fetal movement followed a 120 cps. sound applied to the mother's abdomen. The latency for

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27 this fetal movement was sometimes as long as one minute. The authors reported that this phenomenon appeared at the thirty-first wee's of intra-uterine life and increased in magnitude as birth approached. Newberry (1941) studied fetal movement by r.echanical means and from mothers reports. Slow squirming, quick jerks and a rhythmic series of quick movements were distinguishable and appeared to follow a pattern within five lunar months. Newberry (1941) reported that squirming type r.otions increased while kicking decreased rapidly in the last two prenatal months. Fitzgerald and Xindle (1942) found that if the amniotic sac was tapped lightly, reflexes of the trunk and appendages were apparent. They observed this reaction in three of fifteen fetuses seven to eight weeks of menstrual age when the sac was intact and still contained fluid but was surgically removed from the mother. In addition, the fetuses had to have their circulation unimpaired and as the inevitable anoxia progressed the reactions rapidly ceased. Similar studies have been performed by Bridgman and Carmichael (1935) and Rose (1941) with consistent results for various menstrual ages of the fetuses' they tested. Probably the most ccrplete compilation of fetal activity studies and their implications was published by Hooker (1952) . Among some very physiologically based observations, a chronological account of the fetuses responding to tactile stimulation was contained within his text titled. The Prenatal Origin of Behavior, (1952) .

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28 Other researchers have studied the relationship of fetal behaviors to a host of other factors. For example, Harris and Karris (1946) found motrers can reliably report fetal movements and that there was a rapid increase in strength and number during the period when first noticed. Interestingly, their data showed the mother's fatigue did not predict fetal activity but that the fetus did tend to be more active at the rrlose of the day. Margoshes and Collins (1965) noted the maternal heartbeat and its function explained dominar.re of right-handedness. They hypothesized that an evolutionary advantage is gained by right handed mothers who more r.iturally hold their infant on the left side to free their dominant right hand. But 78 percent of left handed mothers also hold their babies on the left side. It is reasoned that the biological advantage evolved because mothers vho held neonates on their left side had calmer babies. They were being held on the same side as the mother's haaxt and "the sound of the mother's heartbeat is nurtura-t to the neonate, who has been prenatally conditioned to her heartbeat" (p. 443). Richards, Newberry and Fallgatter (1938) studied activity of the fetus and the mother's basal metabolic rate and found very low correlaticr.s. They did report that, "there is a peak of activity during the eighth and ninth lunar month, with a droppir.r off at the tenth month" (p. 78). In a study by Richards and Newberry (1938), they investigated the power of fetal activity being reported

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29 by the mother as a predictor of performance on test items administered six months postnatally. The items wsre 46 Gesell Schedule items given at six months plus or siinus four days. After casually observing that their nest active subjects as fetuses were also precocious ccertain motor tasks and that the converse was also fairly constant, they took their more statistically treatable data and analyzed it. They reported that the correlation retween fetal activity and Gesell performance, isn't high. They stated, "However although they are based on only e few cases, they are consistently positive, and large enough to be reliable" (p. 68). Based on a study by the authcrs and Ruth Fallgatter (1938) including these results they continue, ". . . there would seem to be a factor or group of factors common throughout fetal life, which are still present at six months of age" (p. 76) . The relationship of fetal movement to a sourji stimulus outside the mother has been studied by several investigators and extensions of that relationship have been reported by Ray (1932) and Spelt (1938), (1948). Ray and Spelt were involved with conditioning fetal movements to a vibrotactile stimulus which served as the CS and a loud sucisn noise served as the UCS. Ray (1932) applied the CS fox five seconds by tambors taped upside down to the mother's abdomen. This was followed by the onset of the UCS delivered by triggering a modified rat trap in a wooden box near the mother's abdomen.

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30 Although Ray's attempts at conditioning were not very successful and he used only one subject, he felt strongly enough about his apparatus and data to conclude that accurate records could be made of fetal movements made in response to sounds emitted from outside the mother. Spelt (1938) explored the possibility of classically conditioning a fetus in utero but his most conclusive work was reported in 1948. Spelt (1948) reported in the summary of this study, "Utilizing a vibrotactile CS and a loud noise as UCS, it was possible to establish a CR in the human fetus in utero during the last two months of gestation. Some 15-20 paired stimulations were required to establish the response to the point at which one could anticipate three or four successive responses to CS alone, but additional practice made possible as many as eleven successive CR's. Experimental extinction, spontaneous recovery, and retention of the response over a three week interval were demonstrated" (pp. 345, 346). Spelt (1948) reported that leg activity was much greater than any other body part of the fetus that was recorded. Leg movement in infants has been noted as a response that is easily repeatable and occurs naturally (Deitz, 1972). In operant conditioning paradigms where the S is active, responses must meet certain requirements as Sheppard (1969) noted. He stated, "The leg kick in infants has a great deal to recommend it. The response is not

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31 subject to multiple sources of control; infants can perform it rapidly with little effort, and no apparent fatigue; the operant level is above zero and the maximum response rate is quite high . . ." (p. 48). Operant conditioning of leg movements in infants where an auditory reinforcer was used has been demonstrated by Rovee and Rovee (1969) using ten week old infants. For their CS, both Ray (1932) and Spelt (1938, 1948) employed a vibrotactile stimulus for their studies in classical conditioning. The use of vibrotactile stimulation as a reinforcer for infants was reported by Schaefer (1960). A seven month old was observed prolonging contact with an electric hair cutter by turning his head and making postural adjustments. The electric hair cutter was eventually replaced by an electric tooth brush. When applied to any part of the child's body he would show a preference for contact with his head. When this subject was 17 months old, the vibratory stimulus was effective as a secondary reinforcer in shaping medicine taking behavior for a temporary childhood illness. Schaefer in reporting this phenomenon stated, "It would be interesting to establish whether the application of vibration is more effective when applied locally or generally (as when a vibrator is attached to the crib) and whether its effectiveness is limited to certain individuals. So far nobody has pointed out harmful effects of vibration on children" (P. 160)

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32 Vibration of an auditory sort also has been researched from the standpoint of an imprinted stimulus. The stimulus prenatally imprinted is the sound of the heartbeat and according to Salk (1966), it has influenced our art, music, dance, handedness and several other factors. He has approached the question experimentally, anthropologically, and comparatively. He was not concerned with the associate type learning in either fetuses or infants and he clearly defined his use of the term. Imprinting is distinguished from associative learning in that the conditions under which imprinting occurs do not provide any reward in association with their stimulus. The effects of associative learning can be altered but in the case of imprinting, the effects are irreversible. Furthermore in association learning the spacing of practice trials rather than massing is most effective, in imprinting the converse is true. (p. 295) Salk (1966) further makes his point on human imprinting and its manifestations in our music, dance and various rhythms associated with the heartbeat as a fetus. A question still remains in connection with imprinting in the human. It was said earlier that aspects of adult behaviour are influenced by an imprinted stimulus even though the pattern of responding to that stimulus may not have been developed at the time of imprinting. We must ask ourselves, "What elements are there in adult behavior that might have been influenced by imprinting?" To answer this question we merely have to look at some very obvious facts. In most, if not all, cultures throughout the world man engages in dance ar.d musical expression. The universality of this behavior, in spite of cultural differences, provides fairly clear evidence that it is related to man's biological nature. The fact that the rhythm of

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33 the heartbeat, the rhythm of breathing and the rhythm of walking, cannot be overlooked. The sensory experiences provided by nusic and dance are indeed similar to those sensory experiences received during prenatal life. Music and dance are the result of lrprinting and are created and experienced by ran in his attempt to remain in proximity with imprinted stimuli. (p. 302) Salk has been cited earlier in studies involving handedness (Margoshes & Collins, 1965) but Salk's 1966 data involved some research into art and biological tendencies for survival. In examining paintings and pieces of sculpture created during the past few hundred years which involve a child being held by an adult, it was observed that among 466 such works of art, 373 or 80 percent were constructed so that the child was on the side closest to the adult's heart. The automatic tendency of the hur.an mother to hold her child close to the heart requires additional explanation. It is not the character of nature to provide living organises with biological tendencies unless such tendencies have survival value. (p. 302) Salk (1966) cited several other experimental type studies lending support to his hypothesis and he concluded his argument concerning imprinting with a simple explanation of how it operates and what value it has for other types of learning. This discussion of experimental evidence together with evidence based on naturalistic observations concerning the problem of imprinting, will be incomplete unless we deal with it in its most basic sense. By this is meant, the role imprinting plays in the development of living organisms. To begin with, under natural conditions the imprinted stimuli serve to bring the developing organism into proximity with conditions that enhance its survival. There is not only direct protective value resulting from this at a time when the developing organism is helpless, but it serves as the base for all later learning.

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34 Imprinting compels the organism to seek continued ser.sory stimulation by coming into contact with its environment and by so doing enhances the development of behavior patterns that have adaptive value, through associative learning. (p. 303) The work of Salk (1962) demonstrated the relationship between heartbeat and infant behaviors. While there remains so=e questions concerning the effect of heartbeat on specific behaviors, the evidence from the studies just reviewed support the position that heartbeat serves as a powerful stimulus for conditioning in the fetus. The choice of leg kick as a response to be conditioned is supported by the work of both Sheppard (1969) and Deitz (1972). The leg kick is easily conditioned and is easy to measure. The leg kick will be the dependent variable for the present study. Given what has been reviewed in the relevant literature concerning development aspects, differences in methodology and the confusion in the learning research, the author of the present study saw a need to investigate the differences in leg kicking activity of infants as they were exposed to a heartbeat sound presented in air compared to hearing the sa*e sound underwater. Additionally, the differences between the leg kicking activity for the underwater heartbeat condition and four other underwater control sound conditions were investigated. The procedures for collecting the data and treating it are described in the next chapter.

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CHS2TER III METHOD iSD PROCEDURE In order to investigate the differences in infant leg kicking, infants were expcsec to a heartbeat sound in air and the same sound underwater. Also, four other underwater sound conditions were used zs controls. The procedures to achieve this are presented in this chapter. The procedures used ia the present study were designed to yield data to insure appropriate testing of the following two hypotheses. Stated in t-11 form, the two hypotheses for the present study were: There will be no difference in mean kicking rates for an underwater audio taped human heartbeat when compare-:: to the same tape recording transmitted through air. There will be no difference in mean kicking rates for an underwater audio taped human heartbeat when compared to underwater presentations of rhythmic musir, white noise and human speech. Kith those hypotheses tmind, the following procedures were followed. Each infant was brought to the swimming pool at the same time each afterroon in a bathing suit used exclusively for this experiment. The infants were not supposed to eat anything for two hours before they were brought to the pool. 35

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36 The assistant loaded all the audio cassette tapes in the proper sequence, tested all remaining apparatus and prepared to begin the sequence of sound cirditions for that day. The E was blind to when a sourji condition was going to be presented except for the surfare heartbeat condition. On the five days when the surf ice heartbeat condition was first in the sequence, the riild was placed on its back on a towel between the two surface speakers. Following that condition, they were brought into the water and adapted to the water by the E before tie underwater trials began. Prior to the first underwater trial cc the first day of the experiment each infant was operantly ccr.ditioned to close the mouth while underwater. This va_s accomplished by employing air as a primary reinforcer ati a squeeze to the child's chest by the E as a secondary reinforcer. All six subjects came under the stimulus contrrl of being underwater within four shaping trials. r>_ring the five days when the underwater trials vere first, the infant was adapted to the water before the trials cegan. For the underwater conditions, the infant was released by the E between the two underwater speaker units. The assistant would choose if this event was to be a trial. If it was a trial, the movie camera was operated which also activated the tape player to present the sound condition. In this manner, the E was blinded to the condition presentation. When the trial was over the assistant wouli signal the E and the child would be picked up.

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37 During the five days when the surface heartbeat condition was last, the infant was placed betveen the surface speakers, the event was filmed, and then the infant was taken hone. The mothers were instructed not to put drops in the ears after the lesson nor was any other special treatment to be given to the infants. Conditions were as follows: (1) Silence: (2) Mother's Voice; (3) "Sleeping Beauty;" (4) White Noise; (5) Surfar-e Heartbeat; and (6) Underwater Heartbeat. Each condition had a duration of five seconds although the tapes were made for seven seconds duraticr.. The siler.ce condition was employed as a pure control while the white noise condition served as a control for the presentation :f all frequencies between 20 and 20,000 cps. The mother's voice condition was recorded prior to the trials for day one. Each mother read into a tape player after a sound level had been taken for her voice level. They each recorded the following passage: Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank and of havinr nothing to do; once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had not pictures or conversations in it. "And what is the use of a book;" thought Alice, "without pictures or conversations?" This condition was used as a control for far.iliar sound that is their mother's own voice. Tchaikovsky's "Sleeping Beauty" (Panorama) was usei as a control for a rhythmic, soothing presentation. The

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38 heartbeat condition was recorded once and the same tape was used for both the surface and underwater sound conditions. This condition comprised the experimental condition for the hypotheses being tested in this study. Table 1 Schedule of Presentations of Sound Conditions 1

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39 Apparatus The experimental space for this study was the shallow end of a rectangular swimming pool. The hardware included a cassette tape player, a stereo amplifier, two surface speakers, two underwater speaker units and a movie camera in an underwater housing. A more complete description of the apparatus including technical characteristics is included in the Appendix. The underwater speakers were two five inch circular speakers rated at 70-15,000 hz. at ten watts. The speakers were mounted in a fiberglass shell that was waterproofed with a plastic film and plastic tape covering. The film and tape combination allowed the face of the shell to act as a diaphragm to transduce the acoustic vibration from air to water. Three such speakers were constructed although only two were used. All three speakers were balanced and calibrated with the two most similar speakers being used. Balancing and calibration was achieved by submerging a dynamic microphone two feet away from the speaker unit as it emitted white noise at a present decibel level. The shells were bolted to four foot boards that had 20 pound weights which served to anchor the speaker units in position. Each unit was positioned four feet apart and facing each other with the speaker four inches underwater (See Figures 1 and 2 , Appendix) . The surface speakers were calibrated and balanced in air by the same procedure as the underwater speakers. The

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40 left channel speaker appeared somewhat stronger so appropriate compensations were made with the amplifier to equalize the surface speakers. In their dark oak cabinets, these units physically resembled the underwater units. Both the surface and underwater speaker units were connected to the amplifier by braided audio cable. The cassette tape player was a battery operated Sony Cassette Corder connected to the amplifier with a standard audio jack. The magnetic recording tape used to record the sound conditions was "Memorex" TM 60. The mother's voice condition was recorded before the first session and retaped so the decibel level in air was 115 db for each mother's presentation. Three of the other sound conditions v/ere recorded directly from a stereo record via recording jacks. Those three sound conditions were Sleeping Beauty and the two heartbeat conditions. The silence condition was presented with all the audio equipment turned off. The white noise condition was recorded from a white noise generator. All underwater presentations were recorded so that reasonable fidelity could be achieved when these sound conditions were boosted 50 db to 115 db as calibrated in air. This increase was necessary to make the db level equal for air (65) and underwater conditions (115) . A single eight movie camera in an underwater housing was used to film the underwater and surface trials. The camera was operated by a direct pressure trigger very

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41 similar to a mechanical cable release used in various photographic situations. Linked to the trigger was a toggle switch leading to the cassette player. When the camera was operated, sound conditions were automatically presented except in the silence condition. The film used was ASA 25 and ASA 200 with appropriate filters and lenses used for appropriate film documentation. The exposed filn was sent to a professional processing laboratory and returned in 50 foot reels. Immediate inspection revealed all the film was properly focused and exposed suitably for coding. All batteries used to power the camera and cassette tape player were removed and recharged at the end of each day. The water temperature in the pool was constantly monitored with a photographic thermometer and recorded for each child as they entered the water. The water chemistry was checked each day twenty minutes before the first subject arrived. Only pH and chlorine levels were tested so appropriate levels could be maintained. Subjects Two female and four male infants aged ten and one half months plus or minus twelve days served as subjects for this study. Each subject received all six conditions of the experiment each day. Three of the subjects were obtained from lists maintained by a local birth study group and the other three were referred to the E by one of the original

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42 three mothers. The rarents were informed about all facets of the experiment an: told that, after the experiment was over, the E would teach all of the infants involved to swim. All parents c-z-.sented to have their infant participate in the study and siri~d the standard consent form required of researchers usinr iuman subjects at the University of Florida. Each infant's hearing was normal as tested by a pediatrician as part af a regular checkup, and reported to the E by the mother z: each child. They were not supposed to be fed during the z:jo hours prior to the sessions each day to prevent vomiting of water they may have ingested. This would unduly fst-Lgue them and could have possibly influenced the data. tene of the infants vomited water or food during the experimental trials. Each infant came in a consistent bathing suit but one of the female subjects started the experiment: in a suit which was too small in the arms and had to swit— to a larger sized suit. It should be pointed out that tie suit did not constrict the movements of her legs or lower body in any way. Each mother reprrted that her infant tended to sleep more in an afternoor. ~ap and that the infant's appetites seemed to improve. Five of the six mothers continued after the experiment to briag their infants for swimming lessons. At fourteen months cf age they are finally proficient swimmers. They can tick and stroke with their arms to propel themselves ani roll over onto their backs for air

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when needed. One of the female sheets swam fifty meters unassisted at fourteen r.onths of a: = . During that swim, she rolled over on her back to breathe twenty-one times and flipped over on her sto-ach to continue swimming. Initially the films were playes on a regular single eight movie projector to assess their quality which was deemed by the E to be acceptable f;r coding. Coding was accomplished independently by the I and an assistant fa.-iliar with counting infant aquatic behaviars. The subjects on each roll of film were identified =_=d the sound condition being filmed was also identified. This listing of subjects and conditions became the raw data sheet. Following this inspection and identification, the film was cut into 90frame segments. Ki=ety frames on single eight film is equal to five seconds of real time. Each ninety frame segment was projected sr.d each time the subject returned the foot that was initially closer to the surface at the beginning of the film trial it was counted as one kick underwater. The quality of fiejth of both feet at the beginning of the trial was assesse: by use of a projection screen that had one inch grids dravon it. The surface condition footage vas coded by simply counting any right leg extension t:~e movement as a kick. Since the segments were cut into uz_Lts known to be five seconds long, it was possible for tia coders to use the stop

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44 action and slow motion projectors to code each se— ent more carefully. The K had eleven years experience with counting infant aquatic behaviors and the assistar.; had five years experience in the same area. After each had coded independently it was found that perfect agree-ent existed among their records of the segr.ents they ceded. Rates of kicks per second were ccr-.pleted by dividing the number of kicks by five. These rates became the dependent variable in a two way analysis of variar.ee with the ten days and six conditions serving as the independent variables. The design of the experiment involved each cf the six subjects receiving all six sound conditions each day for ten days. The subject's were not matched and the order of administration of the sound conditions was not random each day for each subject. Each subject received the sound conditions in the order presented in Table 1. The design best suited to interpret the data as collected by these procedures was a randomized block factorial design. (Kirk, 1963, p. 237) . In addition to those two major hypotheses stated earlier, three other comparisons of neans were performed. The coefficients for all five planned n.onorthogeral comparisons are shown in Table 2. These coefficients are arranged for each comparison so that when each is multiplied by its respective mean, the sum of the rows must equal zero if the means are equal.

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45 Table 2 Condition Mean Coefficients for Five Planned Non-Orthogonal Comparisons HeartKother's Sleeping White beat Heartbeat Silence Voice Beauty Koise in Air L'nderwate: C 13 -1 -1-1 M P20 1 -1 A R30 1 -1 I S40 1 -1 N50 1 1 1 -3 S For example in comparison number 1, the silence condition is being compared to three other conditions. To equate the comparison to zero, the mean for the silence condition is multiplied by three and the mean for each of the other three conditions is multiplied by minus one. Comparison number one indicated the differences between the means for the silence condition underwater and the three other underwater control conditions: mother's voice, "Sleeping Beauty" and white noise. Comparison number two examined differences between the mother's voice condition and the underwater heartbeat presentation. Comparison number three showed if any differences exist between the underwater control condition for rhythmical properties represented by the 'sleeping Beauty" presentation and the underwater heartbeat condition. Comparison number four

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46 was designed to show any differences in the underwater heartbeat condition and the heartbeat transmitted in air condition. That comparison was the test for hypothesis number one. Comparison number five tested the differences between the means for the mother's voice, Sleeping Beauty," and white noise which were all presented underwater, and the heartbeat underwater condition. That comparison was the test for hypothesis number two. Complete results for all of the above comparisons are reported in Chapter IV.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS This study examined the differences between the means for infant leg kicking behavior for infants exposed to an underwater heartbeat sound when compared to a heartbeat sound presented in air. This study also examined the differences between the means for the underwater sound conditions that served as controls and the underwater heartbeat condition. There were three other comparisons made as described in Chapter III, but the two hypotheses that were tested formed the research problem stated above. In order to analyze the data collected using the procedures described earlier in Chapter III, the data were submitted on cards to a computer at the North East Regional Data Center in Gainesville, Florida. The program used was under release 76.4 of the Statistical Analysis System to the University of Florida. An analysis of variance was performed by the computer. The program was adapted to relate any interaction between days and conditions. In addition, the means for subjects, days, conditions and conditions by days were demanded of the program. Prior to proceeding with the planned comparisons, a test of the day by condition interaction was conducted 47

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48 and the results indicated no interaction (F (45,295) = 1.01, p < .01). Since the condition effect was found to be consistent across days, the condition data were pooled over days and tests of the main effect were conducted as planned. The results of these tests are summarized in Table 3. To demonstrate whether a significant difference existed between the means in a planned non-orthogonal comparison, Dunn's procedure was used. Five planned comparisons were made among the six conditions. For comparisons number 2, 3, and 4 in Table 3 where the alpha was set at .01, the critical difference was calculated to be .1365. For comparisons number 1 and 5 in Table 3, where the alpha was set at .01, the critical difference was calculated to be .3345. By comparing the observed differences in Table 3 with the appropriate critical difference as reported above, comparison number 2, 3, 4 and 5 in Table 3 were significant at the p < .01 level. The hypothesis stating that there would not be a significant difference in mean kicking rates for an infant underwater when presented with an audio taped human heartbeat when compared to the same tape recording transmitted through air was rejected. That comparison is related as number 4 in Table 3. The hypothesis stating that there would not be a significant difference in mean kicking rates for

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49 3 to — « « 2 _ m 1 -< a

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50 an infant underwater when presented with an audio taped human heartbeat when compared to underwater transmission conditions of rhythmic music, white noise and human speech was rejected. That comparison is related as number 5 in Table 3. The implications for these results as well as the relationship of the other ccirparisons performed on the mean kicking rates under various sound conditions will be discussed in the next chapter.

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CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSZCN Some of the results of previous research cited in Chapter II are related to the results of this study as reported in Chapter IV. For example, the research into hearing in the neonates and infants showed that they require an elevated sound intensity threshold. Generally, it must be sixty-five decibels or higher in order to be effective. The effectiveness of sound stimulation as aa independent variable with regard to a number of dependent measures such as bodily activity, cardiac and respirator;.activity, and the effects of habituation are well represented in the literature. Studies where the intensity levels were sixtyfive decibels or higher yielded some significant results or at least did not incur criticism from later researchers concerning the sound intensity parameter. In criticizing Tulloch et al. (1964), Brackbill et al. (1=66) stated that their failure to replicate Salk's (1962) findings was due to the lower level of the sound stimulus (43 db. ) . This is roughly 20 db. below the effective threshold for neonates and infants. The decibel level for the transmission of sound through air in the present study was 55 db. The change in amplitude of the sounds transmitted through 51

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52 water was available from Hamilton (1957) where the intensity had to be raised 45 db. to 60 db. above the threshold established in air for equal underwater perception. The decibel level as calibrated in air for the underwater presentations for the present study was 115. The duration of the sound presentation for each trial followed the parameters researched by Stubbs (1934). That research showed that bodily reactions were effected better by durations of five and fifteen seconds for infants hearing aounds at 70 and 35 db. In the present study, even a ten second trial underwater would have been too long. Since Stubbs found the five second duration acceptable and the concern of this study's author for infant breath holdir.r capacity underwater, the five second duration was used. It was also felt that a sound duration of five seconds had less chance of being habituated to although research by Moreau et al. (1970) may disagree. It should be noted that previous research into the influences of habituaticr. on sound parameters with infants has involved acoustic and not underwater hearing. One of the underwater sound conditions involved hearing the mother's voice. Research by Hutt et al. (1968) shc«ed neonates are behaviorally most responsive to fundamental frequencies found in the range of the human voice. Again, Hutt et al. conducted the research in the air while the present study had both an air and water condition. This "familiar"

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53 sound" was not as effective in calming the bodily activity as recorded by leg kicking of the infant, as the heartbeat sound heard underwater. Other properties of the physical environment have been studied concerning this calming effect on infants. Weiss (1934) showed that light alone had a calming effect and sound alone in darkness also had a calming effect. This present study was conducted at the same time each day in an outdoor pool. The light intensity of the sun was consistent as there were very few clouds in the sky during the ten day period of the data collection. If light intensity was a factor in calming the infants, it was a consistent factor for all ten days and all six subjects in the study. The number of days of observation for this study agree with the median of observations made by McGraw (1939a). She observed forty-two different infants with a median of ten observations per infant. A lack of control over the infants and their parents seems to be a cause for a rather large range but rather small total number of observations cited in the research. Research by Grimwade, Walker and Wood (1970) examined the sound properties of the womb and also reported how sound stimulation of the fetus influenced activity. The present study with the underwater sound conditions and particularly the underwater heart beat condition to some degree simulated a wonb-type environment. If fetal conditioning or at least fetal imprinting to sounds such as a

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54 heartbeat heard in utero is possible, then at least the hearing capacities of the fetus must be delineated. Kellogg (1941) and Forbes and Forbes, (1927) showed that the fetus can hear fairly well from about the seventh month of gestation on. Hearing sounds as a fetus may be one thing but conditioning a fetus to react to a sound produced outside the mother's abdomen was the work of Ray (1932), Sontag and Wallace (1935) and Spelt (1938, 1948). The present study did not investigate any relationship of fetal movement or conditioning per se but rather, some of the sounds that the infant could have heard as a fetus and how those sounds differentially influenced kicking behavior in infants. The present study showed there was a significant difference between the simulated womb environment heartbeat condition and any other sound heard while in this environment. That finding agrees with Salk (1966) where he stated that the heartbeat sound heard by the fetus was imprinted and associated with the womb environment. Murooka (1974) said this heartbeat sound had a calming influence in newborns and that too agrees with the findings of this study. Since the heartbeat has been reported to be imprinted on the fetus (Salk, 1966), any comparison involving that sound would require appropriate control conditions. The heartbeat as a sound condition would have to have controls for its rhythmical sound properties, controls for its frequencies and, because it is heard by the fetus in the

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55 womb and the infant as it is fed, it must also have a control that is also a familiar sound. Those controls were represented in this study by Tchaikovsky ' s "Sleppino Beauty," white noise and the motherly voice respectively. Salk (1966) however, goes further than anyone else by stating that this early imprinted heart sound serves as the base for all later learning. If the environment where the heartbeat is heard in utero is simulated, that condition should have greater influence because of the site of the imprinting than if the sound is heard in a dissimilar environment. As reported in the present study, there was a significant difference in the means of the heartbeat underwater condition and the condition where the heartbeat was heard in air. While it is true that sound has different characteristics in water than in air, it may be that the way sound is heard by a fetus in the womb and an infant underwater are drastically different. The infant may be adapting air hearing techniques rather than reverting back to fetal hearing techniques. It is possible that those transformations rather than the sounds themselves may account for some of the differences in the air versus underwater heartbeat comparisons. 'Where the means for some sound conditions presented underwater were compared with the underwater heartbeat condition and a significant difference was found, it could be the nature of any pulsing sound would have produced

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56 these results. In that case, the imprinted stimulus Salk (1966) cites as having greater calming value would break down srmewhat . Tra author of the present study feels that the heartbeat sound may be imprinted but researchers must simulate the err.ronment in which the imprinting took place if their research is to properly show any relationship concerninr that sound and any later behavior. Tie scope of the present study was deliberately limited and designed to test the two hypotheses. Due to the small N in tie present study and the uniqueness of the procedures, care siauld be taken in generalizing these results to Other ireas of research. However, this study does generate some interesting areas for further investigation. For instance, if a fetus were exposed to a 1,000 cps. tone for a -eriod of time each day after the sixth month of gestation, what would the influence of that sound condition have cc that individual as an infant if it were one of the unierwater sound conditions as described in the present study? It would also be interesting to have several subjects participate in this type study and to test them at birth snd at three month intervals until they are two-yearsold. Vould the responses, if they were different initially, dissipate over time? Would the differential responding to the heartbeat as reported in this study change over time? Good research doesn't prove, it probes relationships. For

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57 the implications bolzl'/ put forty by Salk (1966) and others this area of investigation needs more probing of relationships and less proving of implications. The present stuiy examined the differences in leg kicking rates for six infants ages ten and one half months old as they heard fire seconds of a heartbeat sound while underwater as compared to hearing the heartbeat sound in air for five seconds. A comparison was also made between the heartbeat sound presented underwater and three other sounds presented underwater. Those three other underwater sound presentations were rhythmic misic, white noise and human speech all being presented far five seconds. Significantly less kicking was observed for the heartbeat heard in air condition than when the heartbeat sound was presented ta the infant underwater. When the underwater heartbeat sound condition, which was a tape made from a human female heartbeat recorded in utero, was presented to the infant subjects, they kicked significantly less tiart when they heard the other underwater sound conditic— s. The first underwater sound condition, the heartbeat condition, was compared to a control condition fcr any rhythmical sound as represented for this study by Tciaikovsky ' s "Sleeping Beauty." t if\w HI ) W^-HH W I JWI I

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58 Another underwater sound was .designed to serve as a control for any sound being he=ri underwater. This condition was presented by playirir 'white noise" or frequencies between 20 and 20,000 cps. simultaneously. The final underwater conditi;-was designed to control for a familiar sound that zs.e subjects heard previously. That condition was created by having each subject's mother record herself reading the introduction to Alice in Wonderland . A comparison of those three -^derwater sound conditions mentioned above to the underwater heartbeat showed the infants kicked significantly less -a the heartbeat sound than to the other underwater sounds. The present study has demonstrated the crucial importance of replicating the environmental seditions when comparing early and later learning in the ferns and neonate. The results of the present study appear to be supportive of an imprinting explanation of early learning. Present theories of learning in children and adults do not emphasize the role of imprinting. The development of educational models of how learning occurs should examir.e zhe role imprinting plays in early learning. A clearer explanation of the role of imprinting in early learning may crntribute to our better understanding of learning in and cct of the classroom through associative learning procedures. MM

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APPENDIX Technical information concerning the apparatus described in Chapter III is presented here. The construction of the underwater speaker units is described followed by relevant information concerning the surface speakers, the tape player and tapes. The video components used in the experiments are described and include the movie camera, the underwater case for it and the film that was used. Finally, the technical information concerning the electrical systems employed in the data collection are described. The underwater speakers were two circular five inch air suspension speakers (40-1909) manufactured by Tandy Corporation. They were rated at 70-15,000 Hertz with an impedance of 8 ohms. Each of these speakers were suspended via monofilament line inside a fiberglass shell. The face of each shell was covered with polyurathane filproduced by Dow Chemical Company. Further water proofing -«as accomplished by water-proof plastic tape produced by the 3M Company. The film and tape combination allowed the face Of the shell to act as a diaphragm to transduce the acoustic vibration from air to water. Although only two speakers were used underwater, three were constructed with the third being a back-up unit. All three underwater speakers were balanced and calibrated by means of a VU meter. A dynamic 59

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60 microphone (Realistic 33-1034) with sensitivity in the 150-10,000 Hertz range and rated at 200 ohms impedance. This microphone was submerged two feet away from the speaker as the speaker emitted white noise at a preset decibej level. The microphone was plugged into a Sony Stereocorder "Reel to Reel" and the sensitive VU meter in this unit served as the calibration instrument. It was found that two of the speakers were virtually identical with the third requiring only slight modification to become equivalent to the other two underwater speakers. Two bolts were imbedded in the back of the fiberglass shells so the units could be bolted to the support frames. The frames were made out of 1' x 12" cypress shelving boards with a twenty pound weight attached to the bottom. The weights served to securely anchor the speaker units in position. Both units were positioned facing each other four feet apart with the center of each speaker six inches underwater. The two surface speakers were eight ohm, ten watt units manufactured by Mitsubishi Electrical Corporation. They were calibrated and balanced in air by the same procedures as the underwater speakers. The left channel speaker measured stronger, so appropriate compensations were made to the speaker and the amplifier to equalize the two surface units. In their dark oak cabinets, these units physically resembled the underwater units. Both the surface and the underwater speakers were connected to the MGA model SA-10 twenty-two watt amplifier by braided audio cable.

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61 The cassette tape player was a Sony Cassette-Corder manufactured by Sony Inc. It operated on four GE 1.25 volt Rechargeable Nickel-Cadmium Batteries that were recharged daily. The tape player was connected to the amplifier by means of a standard audio jack linking the female monitor plug on the cassette player and the "play" receptor of the amplifier unit. The magnetic recording tape used to record the sound conditions was "Memorex" TM 60 audio cassette tape manufactured by Audio Magnetic Corporation. The mother's voice condition was recorded before the first session and they were retaped so the decibel level in air was 115 db. for each mother's presentation. Three of the other sound conditions were recorded directly from the Capitol St-11421 stereo album Lullaby from the Womb via recording jacks. The white noise condition was recorded from a white noise generator. All underwater presentations were recorded so that reasonable fidelity could be achieved when these sound conditions were boosted 50 db. to 115 db. as calibrated in air. This increase was necessary to make the decibel levels equal for air and underwater conditions. The silence condition was presented with all the audio equipment turned off. The water temperature was constantly monitored by a Kodak color temperature thermometer and recorded each day just before the first subject arrived and immediately after the final subject left the experimental space.

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62 The water chemistry was checked each day about 20 minutes before the sessions began. Only pH and chlorine levels were tested for with an KTII standard chemistry kit available at most pool supply stores. A Fujica AX100 single eight movie camera in a Marine-8 AX 100 underwater housing was used to film the underwater and surface trials. The car.era was operated by a direct pressure trigger very similar to a mechanical cable release used in various photographic situations. The film used was Fujichrome R25 and due to local unavailability of that film during the experiment, Fujichrome R200 was used with a neutral density 4S filter counted in front of the Fujinon 1.1 lens used with the camera referred to above. The exposed film was sent to a professional processing lab and returned by mail six days later. Immediate inspection revealed all the film was properly focused and exposed suitably for coding. Since electrical equipment was employed in the apparatus for this study appropriate safety precautions were taken. All fuses were checked where 110 A.C. was used but only battery powered D.C. equipment using low voltages and amperes was used near and in the water. The power sources for movie-camera and cassette tape player were six 1.25 volt batteries. The AA batteries used to power the camera were G.E. Rechargeable Nickel-Cadmium Batteries rated at 1.25 volts.

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63 They were removed each day and charged for twelve hours in a General Electric battery recharger model BC-3 along with the four batreries from the audio cassette tape player.

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64 A plastic tape B plastic film C speaker D securing lines E fiberglass shell F audio cable G securing bolts K wing nuts I frame board J brace screws K anchor weight L brace M frame board Figure 1 Underwater Speaker Unit

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65 A tape player B amplifier

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66 Rates of Kicking per Second for Each Subject by Condition and Days Subject I Jason Brecky Lennie Kelly Bryan Craig Condition # 1 Silence 2 Mother's voice 3 Sleeping Beauty 4 White Noise 5 Surface Heartbeat 6 Underwater Heartbeat

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67 Rates of Kicking per Second for Each Subject by Condition and Days (cont.) Subject Day

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrahamson, D. , Brackbill, Y.E., Fitzgerald, [I.E. Interaction of stimulus and response in infant conditioning. Psychosomatic Medicine , 1970, 32 (3), 319-325. Aldrich, C.A. A new test for hearing in the newborn: The conditioned reflex. American Journal of Diseases of Children , 1923, 35_, 36-37. Ames, L.B. Some relationships between stair climbing and prone progression. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1939, 54, 313-325. Ames, L.B. Motor correlates of infant crying. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1941, 5_9, 239-247. Ames, L.B. Supine foot and leg postures in the human infant in the first year of life. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1942, 6^, 87-107. Ames, L.B. Early individual differences in visual and motor behavior patterns. A comparative study of two normal infants by the method of cinemanalysis . Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1944, 6J5, 219-226. Ashton, R. State and the auditory reactivity of the human neonate. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , 1971, 12 (3) , 339-346. Ashton, R. The influence of state and prandial condition upon the reactivity of the newborn to auditory stimulation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , 1973, 15 (2) , 315-337. Berg, K. Habituation and dishabituation of cardiac responses in 4-month-old, alert infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , 1972, L4 (1), 92-107. Bernard, J., & Sontag, L.W. Fetal reactivity to tonal stimulation: a preliminary report. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1947, 70, 205-210. 68

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69 Biehler, R.F. Child development: An introduction , Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1976. Birkmayer, W. , & Goll, H. (The development of walking. First communication.) Dtsch. Z. Nervenheil>. , 1940, 151 , 237-253. (Psychological Abstracts, 1941, 15, No. 4826.) Birns, B. , Blank, K. , Bridger, W. H. 8. Escalor.a, S.K. Behavioral inhibition in neonates producsd by auditory stimuli. Child Development , 1965, 36 (3), 639-645. Brackbill, Y. Acoustic variation and arousal level in infants, Psychophysiology , 1970, 6_ (5), 517-526. Brackbill, Y., Adams, G., Crowell, D., & Gray, M. Arousal level in neonates and preschool children u.-.der continuous auditory stimulation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1966, 4 (2), 178-188. Brandt, J., & Hollien, H. Underwater hearing thresholds in man as a function of water depth. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 1969, 4_6 ( 4 ) , 393-894. Bridgman, C.S., & Carmichael, L. The reflex character of first fetal movements. Psychological Bulletin , 1935, 32, 564. (Abstract). Brogden, W. Sensory conditioning measured by the facilition of auditory acuity. Journal of Experime-tal Psychology , 1950, 40, 512-519. Carol, L. Alice in wonderland and through the looking glass. Hew York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1946. Clark, F.M. A developmental study of the bodily reactions of infants to an auditory startle stimulus. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1939, 5_5, 415-427. Deitz, S.M. Operant behavior in the human infant: Differentiation and discrimination. Dissertation Abstracts International , 1972, 3_2 (11-A) , 5137-6188. Dishoeck, H.A.E.v. The detailed audiogram in air-and-boneconduction. Acta Oto-Laryng . , Stockh., 194S, 36.' 441-446. ( Psychological Abstracts 1949, 23_, No. 6002.) Eisenberg, R.B. Auditory behavior in the human neonate: 1. Methodologic problems and the logical design of research procedures. Journal of Auditory Research , 1965, 5 (2), 159-177.

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70 Eisenberg, R., Hunter, M.A., Griffin, E.J. & Coursin, D.B. Auditory behavior in the human neonate: A preliminary report. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research , 1964, 7 (3) , 245-269. Escalona, S., & Leitch, M. Eight infants: Tension nanifestations in response to prolonged stimulation . Topeka, Kansas: ".eninger Foundation, 1950. (Film) Fitzgerald, J.E., & Windle, W.F. Some observations on early human fetal movements. Journal of Corr.parative Neurology , 1942, 76, 159-167. Forbes, H.S., & Forbes, H.B. Fetal sense reaction: Hearing. Journal of Comparative Psychology , 1927, 7, 353-355. Froeschels, E., & 3eebe, H. Testing the hearing of newborn infants. Arch. Otolaryng . , Chicago, 1946, 44, 710714. ( Psychological Abstracts , 1947, 2_1, No. 1775). Gesell, A. The developmental morphology of infant behavior pattern. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , Washington, 1932, 18, 139-143. Gesell, A. Life begins . New York: Erpi Classroom Films 1942. (Film) Gesell, A., S. Ames, L.B. The ontogenetic organization of prone behavior in human infancy. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1940, 56, 247-263. Gilmer, B.V.H. An analysis of the spontaneous responses of the newborn infant. Journal of Genetic Psychology . 1933, 42, 392-405. Gordon, I.J., Jester, E. (R.M. Travers, (Eds.) Second handbook of research on teaching: A project of the American Educational Research Association . Chicago: Rand McNally, 1973. Gorman, J.J., Cogen, D.G., and Gellis. Apparatus for grading the visual acuity of infants on the basis of opticokinetic nystagmus. Pediatrics , 1957, 1£, 1088-1092. Grier, J.B., Counter, S.A., & Shearer, W.M. Prenatal auditory imorinting in chickens. Science , 1967, 155 , (3770), 1692-1693. Grimwade, J.C., Walker, D.W., 6, Wood, C. Sensory stimulation of the human fetus. Australian Journal of Mental Retardation, 1971, 1 (2), 63-64. ( Psychological Abstracts , 1971, 46, No. 6466).

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71 Hajtrlton, P.M. Underwater hearing thresholds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 1957, 29 , 792-794. Harris, D.B., & Harris, E.S. A study of human fetal movements in relation to mother's activity. Human Biology , 1946, 18, 221-237. Her.ot, J.T. Two measures of general motor activity and their relationship in acoustically stimulated versus unstimulated human neonates. Journal of Auditory Research , 1970, 10 (4), 288-291. Hooier, D. Fetal behavior, Res. Publ. Ass, nerv. ment. Pis. , 1939, 1_9, 237-243. ( Psychological Abstracts , 1940, 14, No. 824) . Hooter, D. The prenatal origin of behavior . Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press, 1952. Hor-ersten, G.H., & Moncur, J. P. Stimuli and intensity factors in testing infants. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research , 1969, 12 (4), 687-702. Hurlock, E.B. Experimental studies of the newborn. Child Development , 1933, 4, 148-163. Hutt, S.J., et al. Auditory responsivity in the human neonate. Nature , 1963, 2_1£ (5144), 888890. Jorss, H.E. Tests of motor functions . Berkeley: Dniversity of California, 1936. (Film) Kasatkin, N.I., & Levikova, A.M. On the development of early conditioned reflexes and differentiations of auditory stimuli in infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1935, 18, 1-19. Kearsley, R.B. The newborn's response to auditory stimulation: A demonstration of orienting and defensive behavior. Child Development , 1973, 44 (3), 582-591. Keea, R.E., Chase, H.H., & Graham, F.K. Twenty-four hour retention by neonates of an habituated heart rate response. Psychonomic Science , 1965, 2 (9), 265-266. Kellogg, W.N. A method for recording the activity of the human fetus in utero, with specimen results. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1941, 58, 307-326. Kiri, R.E. Experimental Design: Procedures for the behavioral sciences . Belmont, California: Brooks/ Cole, 1968.

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Klopfer, P.K. & Eailman, J. P. An introduction to animal behavior: Ifology's first century . Englewood Cliffs, New ."ersey: Prentice-Kail Inc., 1967. Lewis, M.A. A developmental study of the cardiac responses to stimulus :-set and offset during the first year of life. Ps: rhophysiology , 1971, 8 (6), 689-698. Ling, D. Acoustir stimulus duration in relation to behavioral rcsconses of newborn infants. Journal of Speech I ."taring Research , 1972, 15 (3), 567-571. Ling, D. , Ling, A.H. , & Doehring, D.C. Stimulus, response, and observer variables in the auditory screening of newborn infazis. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research , 157.;, 13. ' 1) ' 9-18. Margoshes, A., & Cellins, G. Right-handedness as a function of -.eternal heartbeat. Perceptual & Motor Skills , 196E. 20, (2), 442-444. McCall, R.B., & Kelson, W.H. Amount of short term familiariza^e:n and the response to auditory discrepancies. Child Development , 1970,
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73 Murooka. Lullaby fror, the WorJs. Hollywood, California: 1974, no. ST-11421 Toshiba-EMI limited (Stereo record and albun jacket). Newberry, H. Studies in fetal behavior: IV. The measurement of three types of fetal activity. Journal of Comparative Psychology , 1941, 3_2, 521-530. Plato. The Laws , translation with an introduction by A. E. Taylor. London: Dent, 1960. Pomerleau-Malcuit , A., & Clifton, R.K. Neonatal heartrate response to tactile, auditory, and vestibular stimulation in different states. Child Development , 1973, £4 (3) , 485-496. Pratt, K.C. The effects of repeated auditory stimulation upon the general activity of newborn infants. Journal of Genetic Psycholcgy , 1934, 4_4, 96-116. Ray, W.S. A preliminary report on a stud/ of fetal conditioning. Child Development , 1932, 3_< 175-177. Richards, T.W. , & Newberry, H. Studies in fetal behavior: III. Can performance on test items at six months postnatally be predicted cr. the basis of fetal activity? Child Development , 1938, 9, 79-86. Richards, T.W. , Newberry, H. , & Fallgatter, R. Studies in fetal behavior: II. Activity of the human fetus in utero and its relation to the other prenatal conditions, particularly the mother's basal rate. Child Development , 1938, 9, 69-68. Roberts, B., & Campbell, D. Activity in newborns and the sound of a human heart. Psychonomic Science , 1967, 9 (6), 339-340. Rose, D. Experimentally induced changes in fetal behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 1541, 38, 733. (Abstract) Rovee, C.K, & Rovee, D.T. Conjugate reinforcement of infant exploratory behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , 1969, 8, 33-39. Salk, L. The effects of the normal heartbeat sound on the behavior of the newborn infant: Implications for mental health. Aorld Mental Health, 1960, 12. 168-175.

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74 Salk, L. The importance of the heartbeat to hzoan nature: Theoretical, clinical, and experimental cis^rvations . Proc. Third World Conor. Psychiatr . Montreal: McGill University Press, 1961, 1, 740-74c. Salk, L. Mother's heartbeat as an imprinting s-i-iulus. Trans. New York Acad. Sci. , 1962, 2_4, 73:-"63. (Brackbill, Y. , Adams, G. , Crowell, D. , "riy, M. Arousal level in neonates and preschool c.-.-liren under continuous auditory stimulation. .r.rnal of Experimental Child Psychology , 1966, 4 (2 , 178-188). Salk, L. Thoughts on the concept of imprintir.r and its place in early human development. Canaiia-. Psychiatric Association Journal , 1966, 11, 295-305. Schaefer, H.H. Vibration as reinforcer for i-z^r.t children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of ^-::.r:ior , 1960, 3, 160. Schevill, W.E., & Lawrence, B. High frequency auditory response of a bottlenosed porpoise Turs:::= Truncatus (Montagu) Journal of the Acousi^ral Society of America , 1953, 25, 1016-1017. Sheppard, W.C. Operant control of infant voc=l and motor behavior. Journal of Experimental Chili Tsychology , 1969, 7 (1) , 36-51. Simons, G. Comparisons of incipient music resprr.ses among very young twins and singletons. Journal :f Research in Music 'Education , 1964, 12 (3), 212-226. Sivian, L. J. On hearing in water vs. hearinr in air. Journal of the Acoustical Society of Amenra , 1947, 19, 461-463. Smart, M.S., & Smart, R.C. Children (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan, 1972. Smith, K.J. Habituation of the orienting respr-se to auditory-stimulus sequences in the humar. = «born. Conditional Reflex , 1967, 2 (2), 160-161. Sontag, L.W. , & Wallace, R.F. The movement rrstcnse of the human fetus to sound stimuli. Chili r-evelopment , 1935, 6, 253-258. Spelt, D.K. Conditioned responses in the hirr^^ fetus in utero. Psychological Bulletin , 1938, 35 , ~12-713.

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Spelt, D.K. The conditioning of the human fetus in utero. Journal of Experimental Psychology , 1948, 38, 338-346. Steinschneider, A., Lipton, E.L., & Richmond, J.B. Auditory sensitivity in the infant: Effect of intensity on cardiac and motor responsivity . Child Development , 1966, 37 (2), 233-252'. Steinschneider, A. Sound intensity and respiratory responses in the neonate. Psychosomatic Medicine , 1968, 30 (5) , 534-541. Stubbs, E.M. The effect of the factors of duration, intensity, andpitch of sound stimuli on the responses of newborn infants. University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare , 1934, 9, N'o. 4, 75-135. Sugiyama, A. Personal communication, July 21, 1976. Tulloch, J.D., Brown, B.S., Jacobs, H.L., Prugh, D.G. , & Greene, W.A. Normal heartbeat sound and the behavior of newborn infants: A replication study. Psychosomatic Medicine , 1964, 2_6 (6), 661-670. Vanderplas, J.M., & Blake, R.R. Selective sensitization in auditory perception. Journal of Personality . 1949, 18, 252-266. Watson, J. Psychology from the standpoint of the behaviorist . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1919a. Watson, J. Experimental investigation of babies . Chicago: Stoeling, 1919b. (Film) Weiss, L.A. Differential variations in the amount of activity of newborn infants under continuous light and sound stimulation. University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare , 1934, 9, No. 4. Wright, H.F. Observational child study. In P.H. Mussen (Ed.) Handbook of research methods in child study . New York: Wiley, 1960.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Harvey Barnett was born at March Air Force Base near Riverside, California, on March 4, 1948. He was one of four children in the family of a career military officer. As is common with service children, he traveled around the world several times and attended twenty-one different schools before graduating from high school in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1966. He attended Brevard Junior College and received an AA degree with honors from there in 1969. He attended the University of Florida and graduated with honors from there in 1971 receiving a BA in psychology. He took a faculty position at East Tennessee State University from 1972 to 1974. He finished a Master of Science in Teaching (Psychology) from the University of Florida in 1973. He has acted as Director of Research for Infant Swimming Research since 1970. He received his Ph.D. in March, 1978. Mr. Barnett is married to the former Judith Carlene Jones.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. John M. Newell, Chairman Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. u){&'*~i,h ?£-W. William B. Ware Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. rthur J/ Newman Arthur Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Wolking j of Educatlc William D Professor

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This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Foundations of Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. March 1978 Chairman, Foundations of Education &w Dean, Graduate School

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PC eOUCATIOM UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 08552 9310