Citation
The ecology of the ants of the Welaka Reserve, Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ..

Material Information

Title:
The ecology of the ants of the Welaka Reserve, Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ..
Creator:
Van Pelt, Arnold Francis, 1924-
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1950
Language:
English
Physical Description:
158 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ales ( jstor )
Animal nesting ( jstor )
Ants ( jstor )
Ethers ( jstor )
Impact craters ( jstor )
Larvae ( jstor )
Nesting sites ( jstor )
Pupae ( jstor )
Shrubs ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )
Ants ( lcsh )
Biology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Biology -- UF
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph. D.) - University of Florida, 1950.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 154-157.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on World Wide Web
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
000554599 ( AlephBibNum )
820088019 ( OCLC )
ACX9444 ( NOTIS )
UF00098044_00001 ( sobekcm )

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Full Text








THE ECOLOGY OF THE ANTS OF THE

WELAKA RESERVE, FLORIDA

(Hymenoptera: Formicidae)








By
ARNOLD F. VAN PELT, JR.










A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
September, 1950





















9 ^'19'c


BIOLOQf
GEOLOO
L IRRARY














UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 08552 2794
3 1262 08552 2794








TABL Or CObMRB


ptag*

Xmtruo0dBmtofto o**********m *********. ****************** 1

DBeriptiem of the Ar ..................................... $

esatiou and Phyical Feature........* *. i..... S

ls. Seil ad Vegetati ....................... T

eitisis................oo................... o..o 9

methods ft Study.....e.s....es. oes.es.e.eeeose.s.e.eo..e... 10

Cell.etin Methods and the Reeordiag of Data At
h e ..LU &seeld ... .. .... 1

Relative Akaine ..e ....o.oo.....o.. ...o........ 14

The Olleeoting Statios of the /ersave.................... 3

Summiy of the Retosaiied 6tatior... ........... 16

Deseriptia eof the Statiou....................... 21

Zoeleieal Relatieuship u................................... 27

Dicsripti n, of the Strata and Istisg Site....... 27

Avatiability af seating Sites ft statias......... 30

Distribution l 8tatis.......................... 32

Distributia iU Strata sad Meting Sits.......... 38

Asitlity Belatioaships......... so....s e ...e...... 41

AaUotated Litst............................................ 42

Asikowledg s 1.....o............ .... o............ 143





uLtratum e Oited......o* o................. .... ............. 14







IZMDuTZMO


his dsoertatie presats the result of a studr deal ith

oele0ie~ a relative fips f the ao w en the tiven ity of tlrotA

Cra-nrati Rbserve Welate, Flrida. Z& in anttfgt to aped the

kmoite of the austin h it i and tbhaier the ats of a li ted

area Although Sl lar stele -n ant had been mnrtake pwreiely

in other parts f thLe tIed ItatS., l pecial"~ the mULte wwet, the

still r imelt the pportfmity to study samprehailey an area thI

outheastwe Sestl Plaine th its itlamse from both the metro

mad aware famous

ZI stoylag the aus of the RIoerrev it desired to 1) asm

eertaia that uat frs eo ae the Resve, a to dIrmie their

questiativ rel tuinLsh Is m-h at the oetuatif A in hus there

ftmund 2) classify these diiffwnt situa m from a knWluode f the

quitaUtiv ad quastittive ditritalbue of the auts in tbma 3) gathe

Sas mh ito t lem passiblu Uom ersl the life history and bhMbt

of the ets.

Swaim the stady bk Aerkwti s tafrmtim i-dal to the

mai probem- ebtaimed em various aspets of the ate'* bm@liw.

beerwatim oemearmi the speed of mrwmt, feetig kaits, gus -a-

parasite i the ma a a the AiAividals, Mi the bern diu *Ulah

ftraga is deam aue Aluded Sa the Amutated Ldt.

he literature borig a at of seleted regi m hm be

far the mut part, 1oat or hops, iladingy ely mete to tthe natiag

babies o the ants esamoeard Samia resat paper have dealt wit

the eseleglutel roelatimips betewe the aato adt the Ueasi mma of








limited areas urea (1944) in lora Cole (1940) in the Great Saok

Mountains of Temesseel Gregg (1944) in the Chicago regions and Talbot

(1934) alaO In the Chicage region. Those papers dealing with Florida
ants have been four state lists (Smith 1930, 1933, 1944, and Wheeler,

1932) and a key to the ants of the Gainesville region (Tan Pelt, 1948).
Qttil recently, the taxeneoy of ant has been baued en a

quadrinesial system. About 1875T Carl Bnery and Auguste Ferel first

recegnised infraspeeifie units. At that time the taxoney ot the

European ants, with which theee mea dealt, as in a period of stability

brought about by the thorough knowledge these men had of their auna.

They therefore felt n hesitation in parking formI as distinct which

showed a slight variation. Speeies were first divided into races by

Forel and were later ermed varieties by Iaery in 1885. In 1890,

Snery recognized the subspecies as a second infraspecifie category.

Acceptance of this quadrineial system as not Imediate, but through

the added influence of We Wheeler, it Uwa in general use by 1910.

Even though Forel to his Irri@ AE JA uMege recognized the

possibility that subspocte inatersrade and exit in separate ranges,

the concept am embryanic and he failed to earry through with it Meest

other author disregarded this geographical aspect of subspecies, and

named the infraspeeifie form on the basis of their concept ef the

manitude of the difference between them. Thus subspecies were separated

by smaller differences than species, but by larger ones than varieties.

Mest ef the material studied by mery and Forel consisted of cabinet

speeisans. Iack of sufficient field observation and data, such as this

dissertation presents, led them into king taxenomie errors.

Several authors have Iade proposals to do aay with the cumbersome








quadrinemial system VW ler, in 1910, in his book ata. suggested that

the variety in ant ane solaturo is very nearly equivalt to the speiees

in other group., such as birds and mmise and that for ordinary purposes

it would be sufftleit to treat the varietal mmo as i t er speai .*

In written gawelly at an ut, therteref ho ued a ubiomal system

but retained the full tewmileg for atalogue listing sad the like.

h efforts of toseler uan ether authors fo wre teeing amy

from q ria al nmolature might have predued ero general results

it it had aet been for the publieatiLo, from 1901f to 1925, at tr's

section the or iaidae i the lst with l te s oamitant

authority. In 1938 Creighto proposed a trlmmia system in which all

of the varieties were to be raised to subspeoifio rak and in 1944

Surea put this dea into praitie for the ants of zI .

inally, in 195N, reighton published a mnul on the ants of

INrth Amerisa in hish rvi h ri is earlier seonspt by diseardin the

atogery "variety and by designating as subspeies all interradia

fotms ich reoplae eah other googaphically. Actmly great mn

varieties were releapted to synoe3ep bemuse the hare ters, espoially

eolor, separating them from their mot closely related fte were

found to be mvlid. Nest of Creighteoms changes Involved either

aonisiag varieties or raising the to ubspefw fi rank. Has paper

eight to have a wtide taftIoM in plains aut nmemlaturo e a woed

basis. Several points in the preseat stody have ben smpl3fed, and

other *bvius mistakes in preiraus Wam Atur ratified by aeeepti

his trimial system

Literatre retwe ar are give at the Ad Of this diMsertat

oly fer those paper eited In the tat. No refwewm to erilal





4.



doseriptions or to papers dealing with symonem are listed. The reader

will b able to find theee references, along with keyo to all North

mericaa anata, i Croighton (1950).









BECRIPTION OF THE ARU
L imn saa wnmw isl eaense

The Itrvermity ot Flrida Caservatiea Revrre, where the present

study s mado, is a 2180 mere treet, 1oaste a the mst bank ot th

It. JohI River, about sevent- n a m m outh If Palatha nar the toam of

Welamsh i PutaNm Ct ty, loriid The Resenve isr sitr d L erthetem

pealular orida a a prtiom of the state kmm as the Cuastal Leslads

(COoke, 1945s8), md is ftr the uest part loatet O the hElos araeI

tarea, Whis is 41gatel d by its 25 foot eUeatim abne srea lrel.

It is apprkmately s the easter of the r eetugle fate by the lime

of latitude of t29 ud 30, aid these etf leb itudo of 81* an 82'.

TIh Reerre varies i its t p e r phy frem flat or very eaty

rellng lams covered with pins wods to hilly uplaads supportg ask

ead pins ad mua ar are peek-mrked bsrme of the mluatiao of th

umnerlyita 11mestamo. The tplamt, with their sand damw pp erae, are

vidame that the lan s ease part at a arri e shere lm The sab

mesrases mad emrgesMem of the Castal Iswlarnd te tF Plestofse

ariae terrsams, along with the absmtue of taktrophis m nme in the

Welaa aure, as el a iA all erid, will sadLeubtedy prove Alportaut

in semidaratia of the mogeugraphie distributim of the Fornieidae.

For a mplete disemaiosm of the geoloy a this area, as well as their

parts of Florida, as Cooke (1945).

Usumlly wre than half of the mmml presipitatis fal.fl ia

thunder showers during the bettet meats, Jun to Septmber, Wbh rlaftkll

avWse 5 to 10 lahes per manth Last preeipittatt essur in late

fl maud agala ian early spring, with a maikhly average of 1 to 4 iashe-









rTe annual raisnall averages under 50 laohke. th wether station at

Crescent oAY1 reord e the total preipitatiom per math during the

period of t*h present study as ahmO in Figue 1. For emqplete data

the *limte o Florida fro 1896 to 1926, see Mitehll and ,wign (1928).

The temperature of the are in whieh the Reserve i loeatod

savrag about 7O hkresheit. Froering temperatre may eeoutr fr

Normber to Nlareh although frost-fro irters have been reported.

S r5Uw temperatures average 80 to 90', and are at times recorded above

100' Tperature ~y vary greatly within a s al area9 for *n m ple,

frem a dse hannMek to a epem flatweods. Figw I Aheu the average

nthly tempmture during th period of the present study*. he average

length of th growing sessu Is 300 days. he first killing frot in

fall my oeer ia ervember or Domber; the 1~ kWi ing frost is spring

umally seeur ina tinry r troeh

the n arest weather arstati reerding relative h dity is

at JaSkeassil~, are the wean annual roaltive humidity tfr I AJ. is

83A tbile fr 7 P.M. it is 76T. Raords frm here alto iadiate only

the gsweral emaditione the Rleseve siwne Jasehmrill andl Welakd are

separated by seventy miles. w aever relative humidty vrio greatly

within a snal ar, depending upon the vegetatieonl oeaditio

mesuntered. The author has reorde d relative huidity beow 20% ea

amreso emsios In open arms on hot, sum days.


STh reosrds f tsepraturo and rainfall taken froe Creuoent City,
eleven mile to th ea st, ea be usd enly -a general indientian at
eoaditiols the Reerve
















SI
/ I






' 1



bt






as
1- III
3





I :/I- [

9 h' I1
-a = N








Se Bolt sat Vertstti-

During the umer of 1948, a soil survey of the Reerve s

aLe Is ardtr to bereo acquainted wit the s*l types present. his

work we based to a gret esteat a the detailed sure aof the area ade

by LasXel (1942). weo nses ry, the seil-typo lmaomelatwo m

brought up to date (Ise lMp 1) the felloUavi diseussie n of the derl-
watien and texture of perWt materials, a at drainage, is based a


So mineral sails fa the are are very probably derived fri

nrise dpeositU ftie sand Sd delays were found within six ftet of

the srfaee, with the soeeption of mall aurs als n the St. Johs River.

the argeal sell, peaty awk, h been laid down by the asoulatie *f
vegetable rtter in two atemunve are alulg the river

Chmial analysis fa the s ls has bon carried out only to

a in er eIteSt ln nearby area, and Wt at all an the Reserve.
hn the roll areas, ad a n ether area where the land s

net entirely flat the vey snrdly atur of the soll permits xeslleut

drainge. Much of the Reserves hbe er, is rliat emplately flat,

sad in these ares lateral nvems t of wtaer s slv w e neligbla Ua

the ter table is nee the fastee. 30 mar of the flat areas, U

aseeunalti tm of p e matter, alled a hardpan is ford at varyln

depths breath the srteae, ad in sush areas during heavy rain the

ground beaemoe uprsaturated. h lear peeitimn withi the flatwood,

orgep matter seelates a a blask or dark ray layer at the srthee
rather than as a hardpa. In setradistiastion to these soils, the soils

ot the higher arWa, with good lataeul draims do Met have an erganle

hardpan within 42 lashe of the stufee and sentain very little erlgani


















tIp 1 sI5ol tI p e the RI4 ve


am] at. tI* tli msl
CID ElAkaglS fie sant

IZZ baunt. time saat, humnok phase
S~Lem file eat d
X Iem time SS liht esolored ertese phase
E- P*Mll flma Sam
SFPlumale tine smau
E Rutlege fao sand
E Pwety musk, seq phem
I Pyeaty mank, mrh phase




5 i i i i I i I i TI T
3 A 5 7 -' "- G











































I a
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IVERSIT OF FLO- IDA
crVLZ


























ERVATION RESERVE F
-..X


































J NELAKA, FLORIDA A __i


C Moore fromAirplan Dhotqgraphs and Add;io.nalData
d B1 tIDeVo'l AMI.resslr andJ .T Fr;au T fid Sale in F",eiL
indle tlhe Drectman e HB ibnrmariInllU4l -__ .. ___ 1
!I ll T1 F rr 1r0
V:



..c







Llndr the Dre~mn 4D, B b~anA~n 194
-Fi









mttur a te wtariaw soil.

BM Ta tatiu the U e."rae (Nap 2) my be aivLtd late tOW

min eatuori"e, ant inaliung thn rists types rt ural areaw

They area 1) uplads or sandhilla 2) nfatm"Wos 3) hamnebsp a
4) a um .lly flooded arwes. f th eaetem *a e t o the Rbamr thee

is a large are of uplands sapprtiaf loaslam t pine ad twrky ead, amr

seattuewlt I the seuther patio are lta~ r aml er armwe enrwe wtht

loaglaf pine and bljasek ea. Varmio type t flatmeed tm a s trip,

iaterWpto* br Sayead and l hainher *mMds, thr the sewte of ha

ewrsive. La bhmmees tfen a arip adjasnt to rive s m adt mr

ubish borer the ISt Jeha Rive.





















































p 2a TV@utatim Map of the Rlwrve







NDFINITOIB
the tfoll ri dtfinitiam f trms are sr gv so a that their u
in the remlter ot the dssertatiau will be elear

arn Aat fteo s used to deisnate uq eategery below subfems.
JsMflmb n JC nim Jn a t Amemblag is used to desgl teo a
eharaetaristie and dAsitiotIe asretat atf nt oooies eufttaiad In a

given plant asseelatism, stratima or nesting site mah a assmbal

can be separate quitatively andw r quantitativelr f a ether
assmblagee. 3 this dissetatin all assemblage edntain more tuhn -

species, sad are seessquety species asseblages.
J-Sl- The eriremwt in ob a a semblage eeur is its habitat,

ana eomequmetly the habitat of all the at fers within the asseMla e

Bkatu A stratu i e ef the vertical levIel or layers uithia plant ame-
eiatirem. o usea d here it Is oet delimitd by the bedateries f aw -
plant uesselatl eor statione but e teads threN all of the n- the Rserm.

fJlj -itr Nest is used to desi te the place in whish Mo eoels
lives f heres aestig ite indicates all testing plaes of s1lar
strueture and empesitinm regardlse of plant asseeatien boundaries

All tests iA strmpr, for ample, are ina e meting sate

i- I k- The te relative abundamne is used a a measure to
i"diente the Lemity or aabundam of Om ften ina selleeting tatioe dring

a particular tie relative to the abunduse oft uy fu A saq statitm swer
a equal uath fa tims. Its based M eeaol es, net indivAdmT 1.

a i An area ekse e representative f a plant ae rolatik.

lai -- IApplied to eeh anet baerwved or eellts n eaeses ls omly
adelring rCiG va were seew m they ere reered as s ellsUee a e SM p

peitim that a mert ow nearb this applied la mt ataume to ram am
whose mistina sites wee net kMem





10.


HODS O STUYB

May authors have found close cerrelatien between the distri-

bution of the animals they studied and plant associatiosa. On this basis

they have been able to desigate plant asoeiations as the habitats of

distinctive pecies assmmblage. O the ether hand, there are found to

be other asmblaes associated with strata. These strata my be coined

to oel one plant assoelatione or they my extend through several. They

have also beean considered habitats. Thus an ecological hiearehy ms

st up with the plat asseeiatims as ajor habitats, and strata as

minor habitats.

In erder to determine it similar relationships could be pressed

for the aats ef the Reserve, it s first meossary to mak the work ie

at as comparable as possible with the work on solitary animls. It

met be decided whether the sat individual or its eoleoa will be used as

the biette unit in dealing with distribution and relative abundsae. In

this study the eeleq i itt nest, aad not its individuals or their

rage f fet rging, is considered the unit.

Amens the chief reasons for basing the study en the eelea

rather than ea the individual worker at As that reproduetien for the

whole eleony s snemlly aeeomplished by the queen. Za this respect the

workers ad soldiers are net emplete individuals, but generally must

depend e the reproductive easte to etimue the rare. Feed is brought

back to th nest by tender, not for their benefit alem, but for the

beafit ef the ele0w. There is operation among the arts of a colony,

whereas there tis empettileon ame solitary animals et the same and

different raeem, and likewise ares ant elonies of the same and ot

different raises. In so tr as the proesse oft lving and perpetuating





11.


the race are snrneTd, the seleny is more smplete t th he individual

Zt is, fer example, wre Sqplee than the queen, which Might be sugw td

as tL type of individual In the ant amet most oelealH r lmbll a

solitary aalm l. sing the colony as a basi, therefore, it ua proposed

t determine it distinctive ant assblags existed, and if so, by what

meMIs they could be defiMne

la order to delimit ant aemblages, it u- not only messo ry

to dissever in hat situations the ant torns "ourred, but it ws also

memasary to determine a nearly as pratiable the relative abundance

of oah form in each situation. o that this o*uld be aoseeplishod, it

us proposed to viait plaut asseelation (au modified in the following

sectiao) sinose 1) they eocur L repeated, rather uniftm stands

characteristic of the Welaka area, and eonsoquestly are mer readily

recognizable by other workera and 2) eehe Welaka area

and elsewhere have tound plant asseeiations to be habitats fer their

group. If a oorrelation of plant aseoirtion and ant asseblages

were foud to exist, then the plant associations could t ailed ant

habitats. If ant asuflages wre found to eist It strata and in

noting sitos, these t ee would be seosidered ant habitat.

It wouldd be pootulated that soil, as well as vegetation,

might be a oritieal factor i determining were an ant ferm mght mst.

In reality, sao plant asooeiations eeurred on two or ere different

soil types so that it ue to the point to eembine soil type with vege-

tation fer the purpose f selerting a collecting site. All such oemb-

nations on the Reserve were designated as possible ce*loetian localities.

Several eambinatias wre f found to oeoupy an iuinifieant area and were

fitted. Within each of the other o**l type-pleat association cmbinatiam

a representative area or staticm me soleted.





12.


aOolltin.. Methods and the Reoordiaa of Data in the FliAld
It w kneon fro previous ezxprisoce that ant a a a family

are able to live in a wide variety of nesting place, although certain

ant form ar quite specific in their requirements. Without a fairly

complete knowledge of the ants to be dealt with, the data, especially

as oonoerns relative abundaneoe could very well be invalidated. It

as imperative, therefore, to become acquainted as quickly as possible

with the nesting habits of the ants on the Reserve, and likewise to

becm familiar with the plant and terrain involved.

I order to facilitate process along this line, a prellainry

survey of the ants of the Reserve a begun in October, 1947, and -a

carried -n during weekend trips from the university is Gainesville On

June 18, 1948, residence w established ea the Reserve, and eoonentratod

eollectiag was began and moatiauod in the maara described belo for

sma ht ever one year. The data from further collecting, carried oa

until June, 1950, were used to substantiate the distribution and relative

abundance figures already obtained. During the period of conoentrateod

collecting, observations were ardo on 3576 noets

aeh station was visited 17 timae (with additional special

trips to oollect ono particular ant form or on particular nestiag site).

Visits to oaoh station were ado as early as possible aoe every month.

They were continued up to (and, It reality, past) the point at whikh it

wu felt an accurate sample ha boee obtalaed, i.e., the point ef

dsinishin returns. Equal lengths of tia, troa 2 1/2 to 3 horse, were

spent at each station. order to obtain a representative sample frm

ash stations each type of neetUng rite worked for a period of tiam

properties to its abusdaane in that particular stati s. for emmple,





13.


Ia lenagl pine flateods there s are opportunity ter ants to nat in

the bsoo of trees than ia the open mad, sad therefore the toermr -
eolcted proportiomttly lemger than the latter n that assoeeatim
Mot of the eolloetione were mdo y foroeop, sat sa m were ad

with a aspirater The daily *olletimn fm eaoh station was supplmmted

by putting the litter fen approximately two square feet f sel awftees
through Berlese fmel. The litter a left the ftuel with as

metoral heat tf two r three days until dry.
To sampl the eurtets atf the litter I the field, several

other Brlne-type ftau ls were built tram five-i lleU lard eam. The

tuael itself emisted of am tAveted likht reflester whish le to a

hole ia the betofm o the emart w the lght refloetw diffrtt t msh

seoreemin or hardre eloth eul be plsede To astivate the analmN

a few drops of houmkoAld ama- twr intretoed, na the top p3laed m,

the ea. uoh famnols were left s hew or less.
Another supplatmmary Brls-type tfuel -s made trm a

household tfnml by ftuteinag wire seren eer its top and rumin a

rubber taub fre- its bettm late a v tal. Sal piees at weed, piGes
of ose, and other siaiar eboets wee placed this tuawl, ad a

light bulb* sully sixty ftta, lawerd in a refleeter ever the

fuanel. Other speal ollUettaig s soee om ished by ue of mlass
traps, and a Ight trap. Tho ants ftm thee lit two fum ls ana

trem the traps were met fignred in the relative abadaw
Fer gah soley ollUeted, the blanks a field dta sht

(Fig. 2) were filled i, sept wn tw er Ore s Uelletis at the

sane tem were do in ieastical situatiomw. h these cases, oly me

field data sheet w filled i, but tho appropriate relative abuane










Mt. Sy ATI


tivnoity ot Florida Oemuerwvatio Reserve Wala
(ereept a- bate) 194-195O

Sell. oM. ___
So__.___ ___...__ 6.11,.....ll. by A?_P,_ .


Statisna 23a 2a 3a.

Areau nt ea Resere


24b 144


afs 2Xa W2b 113a Illa


reeps erlese Seem ap ......

wlesti sites
oA tader soil uarfts
1. Open sad
a. eio enter
b, Rudlaeatu y rate
o. oeelmplet emtr a _te_
e complete Mrater
2. Ia ua under litter
3. Water leg (sp. y idey)
4. aider and 1m leg (sp. oideMy,) _........ ...
Om s.oil ,rfteer
5. I t~les les (up.ldeamy)
6o. I palmstto leg au grpoua (ap. ___ _y),
Irn ving palmett reet/trimk (p.)
to & dead stup (ep.jdeM7y)
9. In base tf living tre (ep.) .T ___-E:
e. In litter
6. r sru
11. a basest grass m- (sP.) _
13. Is tall rM ate. (ap.)
3. Arbteral
14. WtEi (with emly senter wee absutr) (spe)
15. amln ramh (with may pas, gay) (sp.)
1'. all (p. *aou tree)
X Other (Tere foeutd)
ftrWing


Eight or nests SMe. pem ug _sps -_age a
arer parents les rm Is Call uses gC LarrM Paqpea
Qesom(s) tloe nale Worker
Sumetials (up.)
LNeal abundanees shaeA semom osiese mal rare
Ameat f ustivity very oaiderable om aideble maderast slow
as Movemat
Lyeal ftaketw Day Might. taiu Overeast Cle6 y Clear
STi _______ Ts_ ative tuy _
DispaSiti of eallestiea ATiP Met kept Plamnd Other
Remals (weer


ifg. 2. ield data sheet.


---





14.


-a cheeked.

ash selletioen w recorded -e the field data shoot s follows

he blanks in the upper left had erner of the field data shoet wer

filled In with the sae of the tfem take and the detea'Snaw. T the

other e~ner, the eoileetion awme, hi h seo bi the date with the

amber of a giea eeleetol ea do a that date, -u written. he s tatias

were given ode mmber (see p. 16) to oave space and facilitate reeerdi

on this sheet and als euher. The I* indicate high area oef saneill,

srbwa, or ascrbby flatw ds; the IZ's ar t the oher flatwoods# the Zs

are the hoeeks al the I' are the seaoelly flooded areas. an

eah sheet the aie lle d l O the ae t lime below

the list of statiem, the man of solleetiom a indicated. har the

testing site wu sheked, aad where applicable the species of plant in

which the nest e ftunad its state of decay, ad any other peculiarities

of the nst were listed the rest of the sheet is solf-oqplnatery.

Rmrhr of various mata pertaining t he ant in question were rittea

ea the bak of the sheet


It oa eM selleetiag trip to two and one-alf heurs to a give.

station an at rem n us solloetd six tes or are it wu os~e iderod

abundantly if elated four or five tia e, Osemea two or three times

eoasiemal; and if collected enly oe, it us treated as rare i that

losality. The relative abLadameo data efr oaoh w olleUtaK trip m

recorded in the field.

A for leelected only oneo ar twice in a given day my haTv

a sporadic sourreace i the area of the station e*lleted, and ye

have a relatively high abndans e er a period of time in that statim.





15.


eaRseof mt r possible diserpasie s, a rlative abuadsase 1fiur

based oa the If SoeUeting trips was compiled for aeh form Is meh

station o as to give a truer represeatations On this basis, a form is

oesaiderd abundant if it was collected in a station forty times or

mero eomen, ift sollted thirteo to thirty-aIna tiesl ooesional,

It selloted two to twelve timeo and rare if soll eted ae





16.


COLL cTIM STATIONS ON TE IBMR

=umav of Reconiued WStatioe
For Mnveaeniea in referring to the field data sheet, the
plant ausoeeationseall type embinations, or station, are expressed

by letters sad ambears presenting the drainage, vegetation, and moil
type of the station For emaple, na reprgesat a well drcined statim
suprrtiug the fiag altf r MMl aslseou atieo an Lakeland
fine *.id, The statiea chosen area
& Well dralme arms ether than hameek

1. rW aJl a -tr ng m klJSi auselatle
a. Lakelud ftime snd (Turaey oak mandlls or qupambs)
a2. Z* alinatr-s**. aim
s. tastes s. (nBlajask eatk eaih4is)

3. Z* SAauM-. 2 ZEla wry. Imasl-. vrtifelaf

a. aM1UL ass.
a. St. Isie tf. *. (St. Iles ser*b er sarnh)

4. go. mln maml var. amiMnLf .P mtitLHaulai. bmaIa as.n
b. Lee t. s., light rei d sorftm phase (LeaI
scrubby flatwoods)

4. Pello t. (Pemelle serubby flatwoeds)
zI Porly dained flatweod

1. alwktk-AdSiaM atiks ****ag
a. Les6 f. s. (Leanglf pine flatoods)
2. Z. AMM ass.
a. Pluwe r f.. (Plame slash pine flat ds)

b. Rutlege t. e (Rutlee slash pine flatwoods)


























tMp 3. Distribution of Statioma e the Reserv
I1., Turkey oak sandhill or uplaBn
22a. Iluejask as saudhill.
123a. t. Luaie saeb or srub
Z4b. Lea scrubby flatwoods
144d Poemllo scrubby flatwoods
MIio. Leouglef pins flateods
II2a Plumer slash pine flatoeds
I2b, RButleg slosh pins fairmoos
1123. Blaok pima-ftterbuhk flatwoods


ZX13a. Nydrie bAamek
T3a. iver mp
Ir. kayhma
733, mrarh





-^- <.jI .-(l ..'.. G i".- __,_[_"_"1 1 1





." '" I
\- In^ ....
0 0o

000 m| *
0 0 rxJ\ f Ii












Uttle\
rLake 1 .\ '


N p






Poni,











IV .- -- -X





tJNIVITxn or FLORIDAu






)NSERVATION RESERVE Ferr
T WELAKA, FLORIDA












ICMoo- c rom ATir-plancrratoqraphs and AdditionalData
.ed nb WBDeTill AM .LoMIeI and J.T Frianu( Jr id 5cale n Fert
Jndercihe Direction q'e HODbhernanApQ41 *.- a. a.











hp_ aNstarbtea f Stath m t3he 3suwvs








3.0 eeretn o m 'a-Demtam auo.
a. Plumenr f. s. (Black pine*ftterbush flatwoods)

XII. Hamsocks (Well drained to nearly saturated)
1. ji tAn a.so
a. Blanton f. 8 hamo haok ase (Xerie hameok)

2. leaoUa narsfl~rna-Asx assl
Blaten t. ., hamoek phase (Maese bameek)

3. W- aigm-il darbar-f bl malmatie ass.
as Ratlege f. e, (Hydrie hanoek)
I. Seasonally flooded area
1* flad diltisah-BM biflmr ass.
a. Peaty maek (River sump)
2o. oronla-_TmLa ubeemes-Mano&ha irL in-iaa ass
a. Rutlege to (Bayhoad)

3. ain.!i JAn1t9SI1 I**.
a Peaty mask (Imrah)

DSerantius eof the Statioa1
Turkey oak anadhiUl

U(. aaautrifr*. aMr *I kela; s fees)
The leatie of this station (see fIp 3) s in the northeast
pertiea of the Reerve, betan Trails 10, 11, Rd 12. Characteristi
trees ar the loaueml pine (,. matr a2) er turkP ak (nis IMl).


F1 r a. ftller tiseussie of the vgetatir o aMd oels ef the Re erv a
whole, and f the satie d he the tie reader should see Lassle (1942).
2 Th seletifis am" at pine are taken frtm Wet ad Arnold (1946).





18.


Bluejack oak (. a-inea) and live oak (j. virliniaM) are also present,

but are not ee plentiful. Below the widely spaced trees is a scanty

herbaceous vegetation consisting in the main of wiregrasese (Ariatit

etrieta and Suorolbalis gEain s). Between these rather dense patehes
of wiregrass there are areas of bare, pale pray sand.

Lakeland fine sand (Laesle's Norfelk fine sand, deep phase)

ay oeeurn level or gently sloping areas of uplands, but on the

Reserve it appears chiefly in the rolling turkey oak sandhills. The

soil bhs goed drainage, but it is net as ezoeseive as that of St. lueie

fine sand and lakewod fine sand. It has more organic water in the

surface layer than either of the latter soils.

Bluejaek oak sandrille

(. &ptestris-. eaierel ass.g Blanton f. s.)
This station is losted at the junetion of Trails 9 and 13

in the middle of the eastern side of the Reserve. The vegetation is

similar to that of the turkey oak sandhills, except that bluejask eak

(Q. igergs) is the eodominant instead of turkey eak. The pines of

this station are larger and more numerous in a given area than in the

turkey eak sandhille, and there is consequently more pine needle littered

This litter, along with the wireerase and the litter added by the eaks,

feor a eemplete and sometimes dense mat.

Blanton fine sand possesses good to fair drainage. Althengh

the soil has nme rgmnie hardpan there is a tendency toward one at a

depth of three feet where the soil herders Lee fine sand






19.


St. Iami Scrub

(i*. als sapp. as.; St. Lucie t a*.)
The area sheen for this station is located Just ever the Reserve

fence at the end of Trail 13o Part of this ara oef scrub extends onto

the ReIerve east of Trail 13 but the larger area ever the fene was

hes ea as ere typical.

Lasesle points out that the patch of scrub in question lacks

certain characteristic plants of the Florida scrub in general. Important

aiong these are rosemary (Caratola risa id) ada the samphere eaetus

(Qputia watr&a). A rather dense growth of sand pine (Z. lausa)
makes up the upper story of the station, while scrub oake, aleng with

several other shrubs, omprise a lower layer. Amona the eaks my be

listed twin live oak (I. Jtirnima var. S) a min oa nai'*s eak

(Q. haupanii) while staggerbush (QA aa ferruhi aes), saw pal2ltte

(Sagra JalM), silk bay (haj hjgaU), and species of lM ar
other shrubs found at the station. A fee vines and herbe, aleag with

mosses and lichens are also to be found, It is poiated eat by la-sle

(1942s29) that "in spite of the zeremorphie nature of the srub

veogeation, with its small heavily outimized, oste revelute, ma4

hairy leaves.... oamparatively moesie editions are fouwado... i

scrub beauae of the lose, low, and consequently dense growth.

St. Lucie fine sand is charaoteristie of higher areas where

drainage is excessive or nearly so. rganic matter has opportunity te

remain only in the first inch of the profile. Below this the rainnater

leaches it rapidly through the large particles of what perhaps were

ancient dune sands, to give a loose, white sand.





20.


Leon scrubby flatwoods

(. spp. ass.. Leon f. s., light colored enrtee phase)

This station is located between Trails 9 and 13 in the middle

portion of the eastern side of the Reserve. The vegetative is like that

ef the St. Luoie ocrub, except that the sand pine and the silk bay, a

well as certain other plants, are absent. A few trees of lengleS t pine

may be present an relies.
Leea fine sand, light colored surface phase (lacele's Leen

fine sand, serubby phase) holds a position between Peelle fine sand and

St. Leite fine sand on the one hand, end the typical Leen fine sand a

the ether. It is better drained than the latter and more poorly drained

than the terer. The hardpan is usually within thirty to ferty-two inches

ef the light gray or almost white surface.

Pemelle erubby flatwoods

(. sapp. ass.; Pomelle t. e )
The path of this scrubby flatwooda studied is located sm

hundred yards west ea the hignay, and abeut 1/4 mile northwest of the

fire tower. The vegetation is very mach like that ef the Lee serubby

flatweeods. leeale (1942*30) sun up the differences between the te

a follmesw "1 n able to detect no fudammstal vegetatisal differene

... except that there is a noticeable different in the ate height

attained by the shrubs [of the Perolle soil] and the lnleaf pine

always seems laseking there.

Peaollo tine sand (Laessle'o St. Lucie fae sand, flat phase)

is oero perly drained than St. Leit fine sand, and better drain than

Lee flae and. It differs from Leem tine and, ligt celered senee

phase la drainage as neted abshee ad in peeesinug hardas w thda
wrty-t e lashes ef the sarasee




21.


Leoglea pine flatweod

(* mlf e. gk ft ass. 0 Len f t .)
This station I leeated between Trail 4 and the highly, about

3/8 mile tri the fire tere. Th vegetation Is dSnated by meMiat
scattered, large lneglaf pianes sll leglrea pines are quite abundant.
Sa palmtto, gallberry (gn ba), and fetterbush (DP Mthaaus

lueidus), as well as their asrubs, are fead here. The ground

consists largely of wiregrass (. strl ta), but mah indian grass

(Serhartrfum Senw d ) Ie present. Sinae fire has been kept eut tor
several year anew, the shrubs, epeelally these mentioned abebve are

growing pretfsely, and wiregrass s being forced out.

These flatwood, whish are fire subellma for this regional

grw on Leea ftime sanl It is higher than Plumr ftio sand and Rutlege
fine sand. The sell has a gray or maltand-pepper surftae beeming lighter

dea te a brLenish black hardpan esuisting of fine sand particles eeated

together with rganie matter. Belew the hardpan, at twenty-eight to

thirty-tour inches from the surface, the mand Is snly partially esmted
with ergasie rtter, and b mes lihter brew with depth.

Plier slash pine flatweeds

(Z. Wltti as. Plume t. s.)
The lesatien of this station ts a little less than 1/4 il

south t tht he fire twer. It supports the demimat slsh pine (z.

uiMrLti) at a few longlaf and blaek pines. Saw palmetto and other
shrubs are present, aleog with rsevral grasses, meaig the m dr

Planer fins saad, fund in may eases between leanleta pine
flatwoods and the lewer hydrie hare-ks, is a gray to light gray sil.
It entains a brent stained fine sand, usually at abeut three fteet





2.


ftlr.e luash pime natweMo

(* rIimttI a*I amI- e.)
this etatm ifs a earth of Trail 3 md JSut est f the hifbmy.
ho TAetaisa, hmsmted by 2cash pa (e jMwAtg), uMA eMpsed of
mattered tren f esQuel piae (Q* uti.) uad blas pine (.
asMiAN). s dlmiln r to that sa Pilm r Bluh pine flatmedst. lt
ahraubs seoam t f fwetterblI ( lamdi 2ausd), sa pal etto

(la tMu in ) aad father, eaee f lt aL f ftire, these hbrbs
have beams daee aad are in ayW planes bardlag aut the gnal
ayer ot lshrt grades
he aurfth tea isherm f Ratlg ta saua (I wnalo'
Pertmoeth tim suDt) *oodta *ah erw ate attr and are dark gray
r blLak. The statieu s la au in tiMe m f bheay iran theo sil
my beom superatwated.
aUk ptae-t-fterbh flatneob

U(. g f- .-m.m ass. feer to. s.)
This station Is about 1/4 il*e sat of the Jumtim of btails
6 udt 8, the so eth aide of 'tAil 6 Ear the m A fdle th west side
of th*e ea rrve n tree te are are widely eattaren bMluk pain

(. naflMsa bt Mdth et o f ttterbkm h a firly dee btw the
pinw. an these thihke tare em area with little or litter i
Ateh to Met -Iretur plaN re the rom *as. (amaeME--s "
shorter greases. thieets these es r eRm are aised a te
iMhes abrne the lm e, pn sodl, praeati amilahl sfps tr must
ern the lwer areas base tpaemrlv supersar'atdr dnig the W
ra.ie




23.


Although the oil of this station (designated St. Johns fine

eand by Irseo l) my not be typical Plumer fine sand, it is placed under

that heading. The lack of a hardpan within the eighteen to twenty-four
inch level suggests Plumer rather than the best alternative, St. Johns

fine sand. Over the surface of the very flat area, the organic matter
is tightly packed,

erie hammock

(Q Virmlniana ass.;l Blanton t. *., hamook phase)
Located i* the only large area of live oak on the Reserve, this
station estends between Trail 6 and 7 fro near their junction for about

a quarter oa a mile. The dominant tree i. live oak (f. ~ slMa&ali)

There are also embers of bluejack oak (. sinora) and laurel oak (.-

JariZtSla), d *se cabbage palmetto (bal amntto). A tew tree of
longleaf pine (. nalujtri) and loblolly pine (. taeda e preeset.
Chapman's oak as well as other shrubs, wild grapes (Iti app.),

virginia oreeper (fPrthemneioas ail uaaatll), and grassea of the genus

Phaiem make u part of the ret of the flera. Because of the well-
spaced large trees, the area is quite open, except la these elmps where
serab oaks, with other loer vegetation have grown together to fern

more or lesm dense thickets.

Blanton fine sand, aamock phases has a profile such like that
ef the typical Blanton fine sand. The oil at this states n higher

than that of the surrounding Lee fine sand flatooeds.
Mesae hameek

unliu arsnimlera& gft ass.a BSlaten fo **s hanook phase)
This station is nat to thb river, just south of Orange Point.

the area supperts a dealer growth than the zerio hbsaoek. he top








auwp allows eoaratively little smligh to titer ~ throng d on*e-
quaily theo ltter s mlst ash fa the time. ile it Lto Se mtrt
emeIi to represent a typiomal *li asseiatot it does suIpport be

bay (Miea ssal a3) ant Amiriea blu y (a Ag) ale wi th
various large oea adr pigawt hitkery (jaflk mlIn). rw palmetto
and taggebushri (djg^ 5t A) are arun ar e Am" the vimes we
scupprames (fhfitum zfelmHtaa).lI flUU3 A1 Ma irgina
oreper. Pow herbs are pree e ai the arie h r, the sOil typo
hnre is alotem fit~e sam, hmeek passo.


(ag. r aa mm-b L a ll ma.; ego*, fans et )
the mite tf this statIes I/ ]Ale west it the junatim ft
amils 6 a 8s at t'aase PorAt, be we m th me e hmmek Jwt deseibed
and the lower river samp. A the mm *f th afsseIatI m Idiftian,
wate mk (W. m ) srwrtg (inLmt (MBfafltsa s), P t adbbag
palmetto (fal jglaW) are oamen. Aloe premlet are sMap red
ay. (mCiu snMIm n ..U rle e m (n3 0fSMam). Ears. rlatu
lash pine are lso to be femd tfprqutly. Poisn ivy (Sis I ( L r

iamsA) mad Ibaspme ri Ti (IMBr IlItila)I and the bruabs as
Myrtle (fierrlhalir ri ) at Sa palmetto are not SemMSn. a
mer layer, iN& *s.* we to be touead Th grerd, which at tiLa
beom very wt to saturated, supports patem at sphgnmpe Th RutlA
fiM Sal is Mt ithe ea ra u deribe ma r RtlUW elsh pae flaiweo.
It supports a souprtivoly deoe gmrat, the top mfpy f Uih
fres is soly a fw plae.





S5.


.a tisvw n .

(a .tts a hc na a.; i Paty matk)
Tis statlen t loetle4 Just mnrtl of Ml Sprap. aeimr
se the tre.. lkrisb ft a elrLy thisk oL W are b al jy

M(Nada S1iftnr matew tqpiee (a MG ), red 4ple (lgnam
afB), ea ad taess palmer e as enrws tatt- emb a ( gtafl
jsidatl). LU IIsf .sat asm Pte are prer oert aleqa with
sowerl vi m, at d nly fr kbrts. ft peat m* b s MS ins I ergste
material fro the deeipeseulim f datris, is semseqr ely daru
bean or blat. Theke is standing mte at this station aslet all year,
mexjept juet bee the amr tLiq se es. Mhe mter i elated I-sM*
t maM by the reot Irlms at tres 4es ram e a ftot or mer above t
lwst I+oel of tlhe mea




e tbyhlad use for hs statin- is ahet 3/4 mi leoth of

the te to Trail 3 thU eas t f the higlmy. IlAM AI this statiLm
are te braidlawed merpeu, ebUlUy bay (rmf JuiuMS). sa
re bTy r m ) .a ua Wite ay (aMM Adaltm). *A tw
shruts, bhihiely as grtU, are slpr4te well a Mamphol vim ant
polse ivy. um deom enns a 1sm little hers gwt but
sph a patches eOm MIs bayhot is tfrma I a 4 epdrssiem o the
mnoarf piLe flatsees Swhih m wremie it. 5e m me suggubt, babeat




better the smer sir semse. erbta partime, sp-ially t tar
edge re-min ei aativel dry, ta t # tl Rate fim ma sd Aslym mist.





26*


(tram JinmMAe a Ie. Posty mok)
The area f this stati Iu b etwem rils 2 t t 3m, nmr Mh

Spriw. Xt supports a growth at ..dmmut saw rass ( Jr minKM f),
mattered butteimbAh, m a d n lLtbarfi alms with vernal other mIlr

plts.o The maw gras Is Ia met parts e the statl.o asm thi th t mrt
nhk, if ay, plant Utfo mists bldes s the ur ss.
The pMity mik at thi s tatien Im swerved wti th r almrt

all year. A test or a ftt ad a halft f wter aenmlat tdrin the
summer ratriy rme, thliLk the river ump, the grmSt hwer i s mplely
sTeerd with mte, at there are m satwuat, emrent hemmetkI





27.


COLOflICAL fRLATZOMHIPS

y m anm of repeated eolletig trips to the staties, it au
fend that eaah sentained a characteristic and distiaetive asemblage of

ant ferm. The statiamo therefore represent ant habitat. It w- also

dissoverd that eartain strata and nesting site (as defied, p. 9)

eratained distimtive assemblages The.e could also the be monmidered

at habitats.

Deeristio ofa thi Strat ad at ietit Sites

The strata fiend to be significant in designating asremblages

ia th present study areas 1) sbsurfase or ubterramnoa 2) surtfas

or ground; 3) grass or herbaseoau and 4) shrub or arbormal. Inamlad

i the first stratum are all thoeo nests which oeur in satd, whether

they ar under lg, litter or awme other over, or are in the ep

with me sever. easts Is the surface stratm are those stieh oear la

any of the fellowiaK litter, fllma log, palumtto root o ground,

under mat f palmetto root or truk, dead stump, bas of living tree,

and grass selmp. heo nests which are built in and mader loeg are

inseltAd i the strataI in which their largest portions were fuead For

examplI, if a sele~a ban its largest part In a leg rather than in the

sand uader the leg, the nest is recorded in the surface stratu. The

herbase s stratum eoasists at two nesting sites, amely, Ia tall grass

stems (imislae Einau), and As and betwea sawgrass blades. The

shrub Wr arboreal stratus includes mall bramshes, twigs, or Sgals.

The testing sites reognaised in these four strata are a


fellem





S.


A. i*Iin fl
1. .m tee sta mSak were term is uram wih -
wenr. Ime mh oe 1ivit l ate fer types 1) eoater aw am*
built Is the epe with m aont of aad pellets the snrfm arou
the mawt epmias; 2) nruimrtudsy eate theme ma et Ia mit a mou

or strla of sarnal or may epei ap built is semigly irganiued
flthimg 3) i lmpt*e crater those osts in habis th orater of
atd peUllets m n t built I a seompletoe s ile sa 4) emplot cnter -
a* ast with a smplAste sir of Deat pllets aresAt the met speala

hemplete waters ae probab ay flimihe emplAete ente.
2. l i- -a m t la tesm itateime isa whah a

met my be either Is sa mauer litter rly mat litrteor. Et of
the stb ia this esagry were setulln under litter. A ajerity ao
the maest ih eatwded from the mua late litter we pLroaby ely

is litter temp.rril.

3. "l"0 R- se ma i seat with the met sp ipNS
mater a leg.
4. ar mat iA ei- tBhe mart with pertilem t the

eella beot umer lop sa iAs Inp


A fLUmM a 1r -- isI all plep aseept these If
palmeto.


ffest a itist metiag alto, Shih w n thoh wrely ferS wea

lsy lahabitaet.
7.- IT am pal--te rnet er tit -- M iAvin palmette
re ts mat e the base ot peatte tralh, meats eeur As the dti





29.


beneath the mat and between the bases left by fallen reonds.

8 and 9. Nests is dead stumos and in the bark at the aa

of lJiv a trees usually oourred i the moist first four inches above

the soil surtae.

10. In lJttr those nests built in and on fallen leaves,

especially live oak. This type of nest occurred most often in nasio

bamaoek en oak leaves which had fallen so that the convene surface as

next to the ground. The ants lived on the inverted, concave surface

and the colony was covered by one or more leaves. This as a favorite

nesting site of ParaeOrchim ar a (Whyr), and although other ants,

such as Phedole dentata hyr, were found in it, they nested there only

seldom. Other nests in this category were taken in the lower areas of

the Reserve from piles of pine needles supported by low vegetation.

11. Nests in the bases of ram s claups are built mostly between

the appressed blades of grass and in the roots* Various ants occur in

this nesting site, usually in low areas such as Rutlege slash pine flatwoods,

but again Pa-ratreohina rrla (agyr) is most abundant Nests of this

kind are especially numerous during the wat season. Although this eatagery

was first placed in the herbaceous stratum, its oeles relation to other

nesting sites in the surface stre.tum makes it necessary to place it in

the latter stratum.

C. Herbaeosou Straet

12. Between eagrass blade this category is very meuh like

the lest in that the ants nest between appreesed blades. Where sagrasa

occurs, however, there is standing water mo of the year, and nests emmet

extend into the roots. Patrechina arvla ( )hyr) is a. major ababitant

of the saw rass toe.





30.


13. al a----s am at of the tell prass wiehb uat
live Is o the sa s bn r O tall rasee do ast allow enou

rem for the at to w- within the t-. Oa at thof i fr habitants tf
the Itall grase stU is flla amm SJ. Si th, but it is teod

their abuoasat. Ale iaeludd* withi this eat ge'y anr the flwerw
stalks o a angns, although the ourree a ant s withi thia is met


Dp earal Litk
a. a age

24. M those brmehes fr whieb the enter owe at
wee is atbet, providiag nly is mh rem itr the an to erul throml.

Is. blj f l- theM bramohae whiih Lave multiple
pasageways, or vhibk retain a ly the burk ad a ry little of the weood

6. i NMets n gall. See to be me do ly aftS the

gall iwaet mhas mrged. The auto al ey u the opening ado by the
mergif gall lm"t s a nest epeni t, but Saes all showed additiamal

eperig quite. rttalUy kte the nts.

A I llansm eategaryg, thet, is use tar masts is Pla
amae, n er rstes, r at sti, e t ua ether *ee place wehli are of
Little sensequene fer aesting M the Rasoe.

A.ailahbilit ataterM s tt s i tatiim
mSl I showm the relative a duwe atf places teo nat in the

various stateism this means is purely sujastive p based a th

fielUd eeriemew th author, an is det to iAimate the suhadae

a give plae to mest i a givem statiem relative to that of the som
pln i Sa a ther tatie. the aelam dI ter awras a double purpes

la delpml tL the availbilty of nmetig p bth In littAer aAt I

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31.


disate the availability at ples to nost la and under legs, ader

logs, m in tallen xags The table therefore imdleats the availabilty

at the estia sites in the stations.

In parts f hyrftie homeek ad a h oad, litter t emonly svr
the whole surfts arer but it is e als thi k, mrtime rmeking a

depth of alx lamheo or mor. Ats that l d lived uder littr were to

be at a miamm, bein roplUaed by amts living in litter and ai the ass

of roots and decaying leg buried in little. Litter is mema or abundant

in almost very station emept somp and mara Bero the availability

of meeting sites a litter is out den by tw sesenally standing water.

la stations ah as zerie homeak and turkey ankt here the troee shrub,

and herb greth is widely speed, mare pates ot bare send are present.

Lg are met abuadaat -a the Reerve, sept iA hydria hImoek

and river smqp boesuse o the loieang operateis being earrid ma. n

the swu, hovover, met oe the lop are ader water tfr the best part

of the year, and eesequmntly ofter an nesting places. The solum

*LifTi tres and shrubs indtietes the abundanne ot the possible westin

places in the bases of trees and shrubs. Nesting sites are found almost

always in the bass of pins tree, rather than Ls the bases of breadlved

trees.

Ora a solWp" sh em the abuad nme f slumps oa f rama, in ldin

the bases of the tall raises. "Tall pras plants dadete S a

The stm, in whish the ante live die in the witeM and although meM

remia suitable for nesting sites th nghs t the yeawr there is a t ndea y

for this nestin site to disappear seaesally





32.


Distrbution of Ant Fora in Stations

Table II shows the distribution of ant forms in stations on

the Resern.e In general, they preferred the higher and mare open areas

in which to net. Xerie hambeek and turkey oak contained the largest

number of ferms with 43 and 42 respectively. Th next 11 stations held

mailer and smaler numbers eof trms, th numbers diminishing by one to

three per statis. The black pine-fetterbush flatwoode supported only

17 form, and the number dropped to 11 in marsh. The number of fenr

per station is as follows

zerie hameok 43
turkey ak 42
bluejack oak 33
esrub 30
mesic hamneek 30
legleaf pine flatweeds 2
hydrie bamsock 27
Leon scrubby flatwoeda 22
Pamello asrubby flatwoods 25
bayhead 24
Plumer slash pine flatwoods 22
river swuB 21
Rutlege slash pine flatwoods 20
black pine-fetterbush flatweeod 17
armh 11

The man number of forms collected n ene station is 26.7, a figure

lying between hydrie hamook or Leen esrubby flatwoods and Pemlle scrubby

flatooeds, near the middle f the list.

The difference eof form between the first two stations and

the next highest probably indieatea an aspect of the naturalness of the

Reserve. Where there should be leg under what are natural condition

in other pertias of the state, the tiUb b has been raoed ea the Reserve

before it fell. Longleaf pine flatwoeds and miase ammoek should seotain

mer fallen lego than they do, with a correspeadingly greater nuber of

log-iababitng forms. b Gainesville, a ore typical maio hamoek,









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33.


with 39 ferm, contained the highest maber of ants collected la any

plant association worked.

Turkey oak and zerio ha- k offer the greatest opprtuanty

for meting in open sand. They are thoreforo able to attract these ant

ukish prtefr or have b eating sites in open areas. At the mam tinM

they offer dry r -a ist litter, a f leg, and arberOal mites.

te fetter should be mastiond in regard to las1eaf pine

fltwoods. rirs the legig oneratione renm mar legp Skio would

provide aetias sitel, ad perhaps attract a gr eter m boe of speei
to the ar Besamd, tire Is sema ntioesly kept oat of the Reoro.

As a oonsequeou there is a damso grEth of shrubs .A the flatwods and

letter is boee~ ng deper over theo hole are.

Oaly 1T fer were taken fk blaek pime-fttterbush flatweds.

Siae the station offer vory little diversity of onsting site, it

esludes met of the other ats feoud ea the Resev. during the I-mr

manthU it has standing mter after wery heavy rag thi toads to lidt

the ats to theoe uhich at a withstand perieodio I aurme e.

The low amber at ferm in marsh an aloe be traed to t h

mall smber of available testing site in that plant association For

all but a few matha of th year there is standing atero There are o

tree, but only mattered shrub to offer mall braheo and twigs. Tho

reat maerity of tho nesting site are between the appressed bades at


The amber eof *9o1 eism ado (theo ambr t neets sollooted)

in eaeh station ios ao felle




34.


turkey oak 425
xsris hmaok 373
black p s-ftetterbash flatweod 30
mist haoeek 295
Leaon srabby flatwoods 280
hydrie hanosm k 245
smerb 226
bleojlok oak 224
loegloaf pis flatwoods 219
Pemlle serublb flatweeo 218
mash m 184
Pluer slash pin flatweds 166
river seAp L66
bayhasd 128
Rutlge slash pins fatwoods 120

The mea amber of solleetions nd in one station is 238.4, a figure

lyiag between hdri hammo k and serub
It will be netted that turkey oak and seri himmeek are at the

top of the list with the greatest maber of eolleotim, as well a with

th grIwatest auber of term. This empha-si that thee two station

are beet suited to the an ter acting situation In this hart amio,

th higher and ae epem areas are at the top of the list. I this

onaoetien, tho opea bak pino-tftterbush flatwoods ua neot to lost

a thes member of form taken fro it, burt it is third whn the umber o

oolleotio is esoeiderod. This iLndiates that black pl e-fettorbush

flatwoods is particularly favorable for the tow at form oe arriu there

Th opposite tread ls shom by bluejaek oak, which is relatively la in

number of collootiou, but hiCh number of ant ferml esuh a trmed inti-

eate that suitable mating sites are diverse but searsoe

s gamral, these places in whih the moisture Ma litter are

intr odiate are in the middle of the Ulst last oe the list ae the

saeamslly fldted areas na the slah pina flatwods. marsh, which as

the fest nmber of ferm, Is nore temrd the middle f the list i

ambers of slle timm. Aylaad sa the clash pinM flatweods, e the


ether habt are ler "a the proent list.


















M
S.
M





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Number of Form per Station






















FigS 3. Suitability ot the station
for ants, based eo the member tof at toms
per station weighted against the number a
olleetions per stations. he stations ftl
iate there groups separated by the solid
blsk lines In general, the higher, more
open areas are highest In nmber of term
and amber of eolleetions per statioae the
leoer, wetter areas have the least of eeh;
and the mare meie situations oesur in the
middle gruop a the graph
The "a represents the iterseetion of
th average amber of storm ad the average
amber t oolleetions per station. These
stations to the right of the dashed lin are
more suitable than average tr ante, while
these o the left are less suitable.





35.


Sias soee of the stations differ in their positions on the

list nre or loo esosierably, the amber of form per station and the

amber of colleotions per station are weighted in FIure 3 to obtain tho

ver-ll suitability of acsh station as a meeting itaties. The mbers

and letters near eah point on the graph iadiste the station whioh that

point represents. It will be noted that three major groups are shown,

separated on the graph by the sliAd blak lines. The group lowest ia the

maber ot species and the amber of eolleetions per station contains all

of the sesomally fleeded areas plus the slash pine flatwoods. Plier

slash pine flatwoods is higher than Rutlege slash pine f2atweods in

number f speci and In number of *olleetions, b tearing ot its eleoor

resemblane in the field to leagleaf pine flatwooeds

The middle group ontails mss and hydrie hamemok bluejaok

mak, sorb, and all of the flatwoods, including scrubby flatwoeds. It

is possible that the thick stand of pine in the blueJasek ak area is

responsible for itb relation to the loneglaf pine flatwoods an the graph.

The lst group, zei hnmeok and turkey oak, is eatstarding for the large

maber of opooioo and oolleotiono nado n its two stations.

The "x" in Ficuro 3 repreooeat tho point at which the mean

amber of oollbotions per station lnterseets the meo amber of form

per station. These stations to the right of the dashed li o are nre

suitable than average for ants, while those on the loft are loes suitable

than average.

Plant suooession as depicted by Ladsslo for the Reservo (1942*95)

is shem in Figuro 4. Three peasmsoeres are roeognised. 1) active dunme

or straogly wave-washed andse, loading evetwual to serub; 2) residual

eands neither strongly vwin-orted nor wavo-eorted, with rolling








I'

mIii
ii


4i:
U





36.


tepesac py lea Mdg to the Qanditlm of turkqy oak atd bluwak ak; and
3) shted sa er"d s m rise .ad, with flat tApesrapq le dag to

leaqiefa p-s tfatmneds. he hy'dre ese la, t one had, through
-eesivle stages to bayhtad, and a thU ether, through ilatrar tags
t* uswh. th re latiemUp of the blaek pineswftterbuh flageoed a

eaure but it is psebtle that thy aeri a to in moa the swe my a
tMe Ini-f pim flatweeds anBd that bayhbad vegtatom replace the
ifatwsed fLor the lwor peartieU he tra Itnton tra hydrie hamnek

to mise hnoerk is also peesible, but Iaesale Lad not obsered r h a

replasemat I the Relwrve. It will be nmted that i n gaf pin flatwoeds
my be replace by either sernbby flatweeds r slush pila flateedm,

dptl i apen p ether useessism take place ia the high r the lwer
parti leaemsle resesgise tOhre re subelimx- 1) sroba 2) the
isallrnl and 3) leaslf ptaI flatmeds. the elim 1s m4e m bmaek.
Zn gmeNrl then station anar eah other oIn aoes m m are

fre sar each other a the g ph (FAr. 3). Iis aittatiem Is pretty
a rfleei f the mixture seaitia~ i the vriousw asseelatles.

Bhe grespe the rpe se p l be cal ma rie, nsrs, au hldrise with
little overlap. he gskp shon that the hydrit siturtti bare the lst
mabert speis o an selleeUtio per state tile the KerLe sitatla f

have the maSt.
Another aortest rlattei is platted ia 15 5. The soliA

black lasi shoks ke amber Af sat ftes Ieeu0wpi e- staU the

smber oeeuppal to sRtti e, ete. he dashed lume shes the mbr of

fa n per ITve mber ef seatiu tf teekr f em e1 estd me thMa
gg and the im f dashes am d dAr o thi e l 11t1edl mre them tWe.
Mte tat ealy in the irst ease Is there a lare amber fa





















u 10
o

1/
I I\






5 1 15

lbeor of Stations



Ig. 5. I- 4mber of mat tfrm seatflud to a irom m r of
station,. Th figure show that 14 ftem, or 19, wore eomfimed to one
station whn all tors solletoed are omaideorA (--- ) ( 71). Thi
ombr drops to $ fote or o, Ihn those toerm olleotd o s oae are
met ioludod (-- -) (N 62), e to 3 fater, or SA, wa aaly thee
formn olletod r thu twice are mmreiored (- .- -) (I 56). ~
graph tnds to boems lrl at 2 or 3 tor for the higher a er of
station.





37I


form (about 19$) take. in e station I the eme oft these auta dah

were sollsted awe thanm m ely 5, or % are s omafied to me ta tim.
O these orM eUllootd we than twie, ea3r 3 aut, or about f, are

HAtted tSo -s static. As this pressure Is setimed, the amber oa

ants s ouly emM statSte teond to baesm m aslr ad wll ftiaUy reaML
awe &a eot em ** tioe .

he dashed ii im raph as a peak tee the wobwer of stations

equals me. I grapr sematltg at fems oslloet two t ms or less,

three time or less, sl,, the peak ores over to three statis.s 'hs

ease of thi peak is ebour, but t my idieste that th Uats of the

Reserv will, in mt e ass be fond to eoeepy at Least three station

mh emen h oolletios are ade.
It ea be pointed ot that the graphs do nt dip strongly as

the member of statiism i ns a drnsem They tead toward a stralht liU
at two to three tear per given amber of states.

the 19 of the ant te take i only am station is sr c arable

to the 20% of the ant fnrm of the Chiage regaie that Talbot (1934) took
in me plant association. Likewise, Bragg (1944) showed about 24% of the

sat fter fa the sam region eoentif d to eo plant massoatie, but Col

(1940), in the Geat ateky ataiem, ftomd abou 48% of the antes a o
fined to oea plant asselatlsa. r hig peretae m in paPLt ave

boon eased by the differing altitdal loels of his plant asseeati .
Neither Talbot aor CoSI Meiles the mer oft Itase eash uo

for was selleeted. Evn though Gra give relative huadaa*o figures

for eash spoieso these apply to the Sole area worked, rther tha to

hs plant asseelaties. On the boais of the fares he process, however,
noe at the ants eolleeted in only eon plant ossmitia wMe sam or





38.


abuLnduat. e his ants wee feund to be omen or abundant they wee

always eoiletod ia nore than oe plant aseeloation. this also holds

true for the Rserve. Only thee sellested rarely or oessiona.lly were

seofint d to e station. This fct aRke it plausible to suggest that

a their distributiea, ants do not show as aoh depeadmse upa statieas

based on plant asseiatitos as ether aMamnr.

It im inteestil o to mte that oly three i the foir listed

by Talbet u s eonfino to e plant aosseiatieon ere found in but oe

plant asmeationa by Greg te year later. In vimr this het and

in eomiderattLo of the observation n mdd dAurin the present study, it

became quite lear that ervn after a thorough investigation of a given

ara h a been seOplted, osoinmed solleeting i that are wil imerease

the number of station in ahish eertain of the aut are fo nd. his can

also be med ln support fa the eeatetion that aato are eot as restricted by

teeters ia plant assocatiaoneol type eLmbiastie s a r ether aa.ri.,
sntrihatini iA4 the Strat a.d htM tiM lite

at n torm selloe~td ea or nar the Reserve were found to

have th following distributier ax t stratas

sebterranea stratum 38
satree strata 38
herbaseeu stratum 11
arboreal stratus 16

s subterra saurrhee strata lentainud a -aarity of the ant tefr

ea the Reserve with a total of 58 is the tw. Only 19 term aestd iA

the herbaeeos and arboreal strata.

Table xIII ae thi relatioahip. Of the total of TJ uats,

1 teo found ely ian tuidi, hlle tefr 10 others a definite

Meeting site dat were Ithe A fe tr olleeti a were mads Wih my







TAB L6 1 Z

DPIaruox rs AIUr m I IM BATA

Pound Oenl in ame trat *
Preferred stratn P
Aditismal strat a
S"64


8 p5B7 I 8uSatet- Barbes Er- Arbers-

12 E ute e S .e...H.o.************** o I *
. nepmetha.I g............. I -
3* Abablyqeae pllpem............ a *
4. PaFreeratla *ersn...******... *-

1 P Hft $RUIr2r* ************ *
6. pmwm uirm...........o...... a a

8 epmtiseps................... P a -
L kigo o*&sr...Po.m..e -

11t Po lMgme ImaMAw**.*.*...*.. z* a
12 p &*******************............... p


16 A. ftwln...oo..o.............. a P a -
IN Aaln-OMllK b.AMoeosses*sees*o* *1 o

15e A. fterid.................. *

iA AO teuaa......e.............. a a
fe, A. 4t11remtme..... e**....***** a
21. PbeUl*e etattl..o............. P x
32. Ph. 4miglae***....****.. .*** a P
23* Ph, sJor n lM-Adu***o **** X P A s
24 Ph. meta3luese-ee****..***... ..P

26* Pho pCi2fi**eeu*....eoo* e a e
26@* MMUt m W ooI8******.***.*oo* 5 a
l. w relighted btimealt....... P -
30. rrn-et1wstsr amtnlea
SdsmIemWiu..L...o.oo.oo** A P a

32. Cr. earetat, vami ulatae..... -
33* 2r. II a******* x x P
34 e Pr. lire*tm*****...** x P .......* P
350 *emmesria lriea....o..** a a

3?. eliemouiu fJtt&e*e*e**oee* P 5 a









TA LE rIII


(*,et.)


S P be Ir Swurhee Nw- Arbr-
anean baees u al


38.,
39.
40.
.41.
42.
43.
44*
45,
46.
41.
48.
49.
5".
51.
52.
53.

51.
55.






61.
62.
63.
646
T5.


6.o
69e
To.
72.
73.
64.
75.


S sb.alara l *tt Ge*al*ss.. o


5S pwratlr..............
be t~inl Io4..***************.



letruers gulasee...***..******.
XpLfteraasx pwouwini fleridfa

UXra 1*w i*alBlaO** *********

B~itSffB Iwltis** *********
as ltin bakl................
U p. t *llflt.eueeswfeeeoeeoeo*
Un.. ,-nrelgtml..n............e.


UP. pulehell.*****n.**ew.......
ta~nayrm isepitotrtio.ooo

an.lrahrSA ptulatW9*.*.......*

lr.Lt tUmlMB s.me...ese.*eooeee
iMurqmaS paraon f6lnayep4est*







g0 aWaaCall fn0o1ar1 B***.....
feratreria girnu**does*l*
n. l(uelee pusis t.o.........
] lsdam vueoemo *esagg0e0eeeo


aremsma.e.st s... so**r*e


V. iansaekUssl...........nn....
1* *hl*tauftaII*****L*t*...*.o*.


z
Q

t


P
a

It


*
I
I
E





41
*









a
xb
!
eo~ng





39.


r amy not have beena elelaee they are ladisated with a questie ark

The 10 ants tar uhih no data wre obtaied and the ruderal fte, alaon

with the questinable solleetimu, wr nort included .i arriving at the

dt tributioae data e page 38. The aber at ants ufeaerned ws theretere

64. A singe "" d i sdltes that the ter was eolstedt te tow times

ter a praereaMs to be reanegid ia Table III.

Distributin eereordAiC to nesting sites wa as ftll iu


open andt 21
a rates 12
rmdientary eraters T
sasuplete eraters 6
oimplet centers 13
mter lg. 10
in ae4/r maer litter 31

There we 34 te Sab~ih lived udter eeer o either lgs or

Utter. Newt of 9 fte wre tend wrder and in lgo


in litter 13
Ia ftle los 32
in palmetto lag On ground 9
in liviU paiett reo/trunk 16
i dead sntp 22
is bMe ot living tree- 19
in base at grass elap 7


between sagrass blades 4
in tall grass stemn 9

Arbmaral rama

mallm braah 14
all 3
MkUl taruh -1





40.


Only 1 ant forms were found in over of the possible 16

nesting sites, The highest number of nesting sites (14) wa oooupied

by a enetu l m i m Nexi highest was 12 nesting
sites occupied by Phidole dA ad es atreMnlthMi a u. It will

be noted that these three ants are the same that occupy all of the stations

With the exception of fthidole dM L etat which oooupies only 3 strata,
they oeupy all 4 strata also. Lraltthorax egSJadg fLoiedanu.i whieh

socupies U nesting sites, is the other ant found in all strata. The
distribution of these ants in stations, strata, and nesting sites points
to a direct correlation between the number at stations oeoupied and the

number of strata and nesting sites occupied.

Figure 6 shows the relation between the number of stations
occupied and the number of nesting sites occupied for each ant collected

more than three times. It is a scatter diagram ln vhich the number of

stations any given ant form occupies is plotted against the number of
nesting sites that form ooupies. An examination of this figure shows

that a large number of form are limited to from 2 to 5 stations and
from 1 to 3 nesting sites. The diagram shs that the number of stations
occupied by any form increases fster than the number of nesting sites

occupied, indicating that the ants are more likely to be confined by
nesting sites than by stations. However the diagrm goes to substantiate
the praise of the preceding paragraph, in that as ore stations are

occupied, mre nesting sites are also occupied.






































0 -

0
o e

a o0 e


D 00 0


C0 4


1-52


Number of Nesting Bits




Fig 6 matter diagram to shew the relationship between
the aUmber of station occupied and the anmbr of meeting sitae o*upied
for meh ant form seoleeted mere than three times. The Hmber of ferms
involved in 52.


~1III


l r


*l





41.


Activity Relationshins

The speed of movement of each ant form varies to some extent

with changes of temperature and relative humidity. During the course of

the present study, this "amount of activity" was estimated subjectively

for individuals. The speed was then correlated with temperature and

relative humidity readings taken it the ground surface.

The data on this subject collected during the field work proved

to be complex when all of the ant forms were studied together, and in

may cases when merely one form ws considered. Some ants chose one

extreme an physical factors in which to forage, whereas other forms hoese

the opposite extreme. In general, the diurnal foragers displayed a

moderate amount of activity in their above-ground activities when the

temperature was above 20C. If, on the previous night, relative humidity

was high and the temperature low (below 10C.), the ants were slower to

resume activity the subsequent day. At the other extreme, activity has

been observed from nests of Campaoetu abdaonalsa loridagus at 530.,

and ost of the ants have been seen foraging at temperatures above

3o0-35eC.

Seasonal variation in the foraging habits of several form has

also been observed. Many ant form remain in their nests during pelrids

of cold. On the other hand, during the winter months many form will

remain idle for a short period even though the temperature remains mild,

and no frost appears at night. A notable exception is o dog den ata,

which ean be seen foraging even on chilly days.





42.


AM jAAD LBT

h the fllowiag saI tateld list, the diseussies at wry ant

tern has beoa srraued that tpfl appear I the sam order. Aa

pelats of taamq aeih are felt to beiqrtmat re discussed first

lh distribution tEugh plat asseelkats, strat, usa amottias srit

are listed mat. Cmpariss are ado with the ant's d4stribatia

Iaiaesvillo or ether reglnsp, r with esther aat the Reseve whlk

y replace it Ia se of the p2ant asseelattem, It Ism a d slses

is felt meeesary for a better uderstedim g of the h ite of the mat.

Ites as to ita life history re olled by othes en its aeAvity.

Is*eellaaeoe remak are added in a tfil parraph.

As AiaUiatedl 1 the IntAreuetim,* tuhe tazm ey t tlhe ants

the prwset study is hasd ma CreiAghtms rooms wr (O9) in wAisd he

redu ed the qu miala e sstea, prewalet util 3190 ia the tmdl

reteAae, t t he trianmial isyts sed ia the jp t. imr of n-mnrl e.

Aq departure frem the nmems whis Greiton uses s arplalmd aI the

trt of the Antated List nuder the eat seaneraod. Sm team wer

feean darin the stdry whi **eou met be deaLiteLr dmtlte. S
ftea that were reegaie bly differat are listed, adl ememis are ae

esenemuag their teaMemae stats.

Ia prweeti the life history data atteemt -s de to

determi a avwrge umber oa workers preset in a floarlshing olr

at eh aut term. In Mm eases this hs been impessble, or has bee

deLried frrm the oeuntimg of my anest. In addition the seamal

appesranse of msturesn, Ma am tfumnes is lnadiated ttr eash tem.
rasuremets have all h- m mAe frm the ateral vie. tetal

lenth is the sm of the distmoes tfrem e bse a t the ma ibles to t h





43.


batk o the head, fom the most anterior part of the pronotlu to the
bass ef the prepodam through the abdinal pedicels, and from the
saterio to the posterior of the abdome.a AL measurements were the
sortest straight lines severia the give distances
Feorteen ant form were taken during the present study whish
had not beea reserded from Florid. They are a felloes


Phan ator cfat
Crp|A S mtr M yearetatyp Teraflat"A
alrnar s alrtulm I t see- uamtated list)


a agthrU iarM aniai

fmfthistr-m SeUtisjtem gnMilk"
ra rashar
tltSthietnt o Jk i

several aat ferm taLke I, th. Sa telr le Regen were net
teoud during the present sta the Reserve,. hese are ax tollem

taitMI -fliuau&
-50anklas nfmmaeAd
BHHrr goI a g amar luf antIe (Ult.)
S.UM ma5lemblu aml
Gr .-mt-j i-a-t,- -- mlintUa (drt. t)






0ther sate taken In Weoat4 but mot In Gaineesri e ares
Jiu* asitas aiLI

SBthael tealma
OU~r-ta ak- n e~k e taf nti 6leailea





44.


the toeledlag
be" silted In


mal dat Amaunk

Oal SAl lMWrfA *

abmirar Jtefl






anto, take within serraty mlwe of the Resrrve bave
the literature
ndsl a minala (St. Aqg,) (mas luted by areawitem 1950)
LthBeraim rJr (Jasmbwillet piame spoelam)
TIMnI r Um, I iSa-ea fr Jameksemile)





45.


warnn romtei-I

Subfamily Derylime


AlU^M flarMseem (Creams)
a July 5, 1948, the single sellection of asJ s ade on
the Reserre w- recorded for mese haamoek. The nest u under litter

whish had gathered in the center of te tbae of a stump rotted so that

only the rim was left standing. sh neat extended into the stump, but

the major portion as in and under the moist litter is the stmp sad I

the nearby chambered sand.

All of the workers rwre huddled in a tight ball. Do activity

was observed until the workers ere disturbed, but then the workers ran

hurriedly il all directions. No individuals of the reproductive eate

were sees, evea though the oest as dug inte, and returned to later

Cole (1940138) md so ea observations eonsering the nestiag

habits e this &at in the OBrt oaeky MIentalms. eo celeoies e found

there "ere beneath large, fiat stone, leseely applied to the soil, in

epen rassy areas.... Deep within the soil the ants osupied large reed-
filled homers seastrueted around labedded and partially delayed tree

roote....The soil, re at chamber level, as dry and tim."


Iresa alhrhar herr
emN aith wu feuad e eaasioally in loagleaf pine flatwoods.
All mets were under the bark and lose wood of stumps or leg, and extended

ite nearby litter. All legs ftr which this ant us taken were lueales

pine (nnla ~St ). ea stumps the ant esupied all available space
under the bark ad all suitable ereviese in loge the art nested in a








length of eaweal feet of woo.

One nest in a strqp m stated to sentain between 40,000

mad 50,000 wrkrs. The nmbers were obtaaed by plaelg a.U to the

sats ia vials, eountiag the aber in me vial, and masuriag thi vial

against all the ether.

Meureu limdiidmid of Jfl were taken at the epealag ef

a mat t of ljMagf i in the send me adt eae-half feet fre a

ruqmp in 0hish th eolm ef t aditham mr lesated. The alan aest

abutted a meot sf a rj aJ &uL uand pwrtally seup ed a met

t SPrmtesut kuriur nsl is the rfst rupve f &t DM were alse

taken from temite galerie in the stup. kLitha paras

ikflr and a m-mUfer mar were for d wandering mar the
tap. The fellewlig arnl- s were taken three the wleswe ftamel trm

the Utter at the ADg ame ts

beetle larwee
rundl Bwrm
heads an tlheraes t Snihmif eia mihmt Amltr

aiated temple of a spies oft S m ia lm
wasp tf the flxly Bethlidme T

Fram anther neet the follewn wre takes




A large pwtie atf a eoely with its aet Ultter wa played ia

a large lard -a eand bright iAe the laberatery. Te priet the eaHpe

ot the iadividuas, the lard eau ws played ea a platt e surre aed by

ate. Very few workers hemwe, were eeerved materinig e the platten,
although workers ewrtll played the dead or injted imatividmI ia a

pile eatside ot the lard em a the platterO





47.


Subfamily Pomnrime


Amnblonone p ie (Bald ea)

Previous to Bron's paper (1949). naU im considered a

speoaes of SbimntMa Brown, however has given reason to place

JSm Eaum as a suboens of rblrso. It is treated a sueh in thi
paper.

One olletione of wAmblvs u ad* during April in bayLhead

several ants ver gathered in s mlt litter near and n fern root.. A

eareutl amud4l tion of the roots sad litter nearby revealed a additienl

spOeaems.

Cals (1940136) has the ftlle ine to say eeneerins this spseie

in the Great Srky Iunmatais The nest eoarists of eo e or two opeain

beneath or beside a stone or uder the topmost forest litter. Alest

perpdieular galleries ooeanmt ith small subterranean chambers never

tr beneath the surftee...These ants are nowhere abundant in the Park

but sem *ee oupy rather eireserlbeo arms where n virmw tal

ooaditisem, particularly aiture osad deep shade, are faverable. Colonis

were most amerous in seeoea6 reuth pine woedsu.

The colletion n the Reserve, mae on April 22, 1949, yielded

eme ml. the worked are Tvry relusive, mad quickly find erevices in

ihish to hide. Their soler blends with that of the sell and duff.

Baskins (1928) has reported on the behavior and habits of this at.








f*rafau -am (arew)

Z* mm -s U**eeted eseiellm u i le Ileaf pie fatwteed,
ea rarely in abluejk mik A e it nesMt vrwe take il the swnmr

strat fren bis ionitl pine loge. Thee lg uwee 4ittw m t or
wtl ithi U.o wed pl, w or eft eam separabls betm en the aiuwA rip.
Ihe nmets etae teard the member ofr the leg.

tt olndiAle were ess d. Goe estal 2d 24 wrwrs, 32 a.tl,
amd 1 nme. the ether, sONaS7 oeqlt had l 3 w ertes. here
we a quesm n nsh s Ot these a~ e mmAe m at-roes weoe eS. ihe

mIU wa ta km i Ni mbe 23 14, 1 te m et t t to e kftmI
the met, mad slNa other mw takb, it is piselbl that a
flight had rewoema take pmaee. Uerkers oa we weo amaggaiA is
their rrmenmt, .io the m. a s elert and merd qulakly.
0ele (1940f36) taootl that hs sl i* *olletie of this
spei s In the r lnr Soy MNteto tas a ir* In wet, dese ara or
ize owve hardmedu. o e s da tt the a e g In Whisk the uteo weer futem
was uetly Lretm apart late fin% wab piues. e sMost as wnll tamed
thb eontw of the lot In the mmre ftri owe ned an had am11

pformes and aa bes shiBfly with sleaitudial pestratlsa h, ll
the mst severd a leMgt of [mly] abIet 4 inehs....So e e* v
rather mrUl baeig smpeed of abet 30 vwkers. ea thbe 09 CQi are
reqg (1944461o) ewor the presunse thfs splpas ei aIt dge


SJU m. ncm. a l Rose
We mery*s reseeeorltis et frlantim J m, the fem
dealt with khre Wm to be else o to lhis latte speoaesL. weOe
3. 16. f ,t to ep were eat, Wra mW6 *n, Pnise i1t fte




49.


beyond genua. In a attempt to revise the gemus he found (in lift.)

that The previously mentioned sharaters for separating the two species
did not appear dependable and I ceuld at discover any Ma oharaters

that were any good either." Ths the foram i siven an ueoortala tazo-

node states.
One solleetiom of thim ter was mu e ea Otoeber 11, 1948, from

the base o a slash pine. The colonr wa nesting la bark buried udr

the eoil surface. Sixs tdlT l s were taken. As in Ze* t ,

workers are sluijh is their mevmemmt.



AM u (lRser)
hM Ialsa was satMed in its distribution e to thmoist

or et amek areas. It uw taken use I male hommek, sa sea isally

is hydrl k himeek.
to nesting sites wee i ll lls egp. A typimll met esteaded

fer tw aid nem-kalf lashes a debrfla uer the bark f a Ug Speealme

have alo been take from liter, sad from the debrt deempe ng between

the roetlstt i aud urer the ltter.

A mrst from phydrie omeek sentan 26 weetkee ad me queen.
the Mp, aurvme (hish are wel equipped with body spike), sad pwge

were aberved Ia pparte plaoe is te ametsl, with the pVpe W ally

me tewrd the aretaM, r teend thU eotsidaes lneg ses. tae i s
tew ment rer seem ** touther lfe history data were obta-ed.

Althteo the as t are slo 1 their moments mast f the tin,

they re quiek to flit seamelmoat. air eiiAvemMs is Lareaserd by

their molor tueih Is aintar to that tf the weed4 ahr they live, art 1
their ability to bhde mottnilems Ia way mar ereelse.





5R*


Saith (1934562) records c n from KaiLssippi, Aabom.
and 9aMses I"is bservatim an the acting site esiselmid with the
abhw. I states that its asts "in some isntanese e taia s- Ma a
from o to several hundred wWker and ften a muy tna or rwe
dalated quaoes"e. He remrks tlrther that OCrightoa hua foud flly
d~elope als~ ad s .aaged f~ l o Jm ie 20 s On atherm laam.




esrtion needs to be med f a st of r mll spesain

o oEtrf A aelleted oa the R rsr These wrker are nl all
mrswreaots moere diminutive than speelme take in Mh CoUaIy, e LPsI
ad are likjrse smil than other o tandria tafke the B IRse
Ule the latter spee Osa fit the deseriptis eft aS fhhla
Smith give (1936s425), the amllr workers from the ReseWr differ It
tetal body length. mith lists the body length as 2.3-2.9 e the
mrlsr workers on the Reserve maure only 2*0-2.1 m. m ear e, the

wnrtal portion of the petielar teoth is smooth in the larger speelme
ual se@m te It the mller speela es. Sath (in litt.) says that he
has noted meah variation in the workers etf rmtnls a aud easidol
all oa the speoimn from the Reserve as of that speies. oe Maler
epeona have been foud e aly in meess d L7ari hmiment, eamas the
large spewiss ne O sprea simly owe dried areas. Beth virmiat
will e treated together in the tollwiag disemsiems
G. ratir ta solonees were taken seaMiMlMly In hLydre hameak
sad uasis basm l sem rarely in turkey ake blhdm oek, au M at pnM-
etterbush flatfeds. A typseal nest m takes frm nder the mas Bar th
base ef a liTin aak tree in hydrie bamoe. lAfW hiety daetaMw ald.





51.


aas aoeassesao tyr
A disesion concerning the variation in the shape of the

petiolar seale in n f saJ j&gg sjL o and in this fm eaan teufnd

under Ls ia k otgier. Many of the nests of efa ento especially
in areh, contained one to several individuals whieh are wevidetly

aberrant workers These insects bare large, eoupound eyes, emperable

to those of the queen, aad the petiole is aere slender than that f the

normal worker. It to perhaps ignitisat that quees were not found in

nests ih contained these aberreat forms.

Thisa peiese prefre the wt or flooded areas of the Reerve.

It has been taken abundantly n arshg enmonly t hydri hamoeek aad

river semp and rarely In Rutlege sl2mh pine flatw ood, bayhead and

aerie hamoek. If the sharaters now used to separate o ena eee

fran fg&M ga g prove to be mialeadiaS, a sae workers believe,
the s ipoeias taken in series banwek d assigned to jo. m iagr my

be estrFe variations of J. trgai fgg a T form whi e prefers high,

dry arems. .. rSAu&m oeeurse lost ezelusively i the wetter portion

of the Raesrve, Ba tends to replace e. ritSS nas there. In the

Sainaesille regional F a s us taken in longleaf pine flatwood

ooere there are nore falls legs tbanthe sane plant assoeiaties e the

Reserve. Beaue of its prf eease for ot areso, it ought to oser aoe

in at least the loer portioe of see i halu oek.
eet onte thi at neat in the bsee f sawnras plait

between the appressed leaves. any times the ant e be found in the

wet or satrated mos-eavered atump of the plants vher thwer is a
iznterma glln of roots in the deemwpsi g, appressd leave an wet
debrs, tih other nesting aite, in erd of preofereme, area





2t.


1. fliu leg
2. deta st~
3. ubasm of living tree (urler mm ua li ter at ate
4. Ia Utter (wt)
5. piamtsr reto sm ar -M
61. uSr mt of palmetto re"e
To uSer at of palmsot tomas

la germal th neets ar wetd to aatfate d l blit lA debre rt of
the neste espeslall these nl an assU areu at the nter sumrtee or

j t above or balm it. (h this latter ease the Uight greth of the

plant parts s em to keep te after ftem the rst.) Zh sitatiim I~at

are less w6e, t t iset ontimB to sismuate the above-omieed nestitg
sealitiw in itts lhode of t, paVpy wood of lgs or the debris found

wRder the bk or f lew sr tws.
Ot 5 nests ounreod the m er oa wlrers varied rtem 1 to**
with au amarage of 40 per nst. of th arr nemsts osmtaimno fr, -

to three of the s beurrant wfkorf desLth abes, and ae e sa lmed a

quest. mature form prehabn euse' In all. asnths, but Septilab
through rmblr veory fwer Were nated In the Imbst. F'emls lae predeed

rm September to Unrlber, ant ales hum Ostter to Nwolmbe
Mthi is a est m ain aud emsiv ant lbIh blent with the
oeelr of its suarrae. 1t is mo loes active iSn wintr nuts,

alsoug this is th perled wlged ferm are In L h nst.




Fron an eandtim of the spospe s of this form US otf

aMi In the usm o eamf eoarative Zoleg, thwee appears to be a
gr at deal of overappin variatiMn in t he t er s. It sem oel

that, in the nmemo eosoiea, the hraf ter orf th shape of th





53.


petiolar seale, which is used b Smith (1936) to separate the two fors,
is set distinctive. alu o the Spe s labelled as one farm are more

like the description of the other ferm. The speitmns of a n and

of trioaMa a ai solleeted trm the Resere, however, tall late two

distinct classes an the basis of the petiolar seal Perhaps the shape

of the petielar sale will be shown to be dependet on the environment

Sthe nest, and thereore o no use s a key sharater. On the other

hand, it i possible that the species In the N. C. Z. have be ais-

identified.

In all respects ueppt total legth, the Welaha spe imeno agree

with Smith' description (1936) ia which he eites the length of workers

of onmiA as 2-2.3 Workers ftrm the Reserve measure 2.4-2.7 m.

in total length.

Z. kiss2 ogaioa tends to prefer the hiher, drier plant
asseelatios. ItMa taken eoomoly in xriea hamoek occasionally to

somealy i turkey eaj oeeasiomally In bayhe and a Plrer *asuh pins
flatwroed, in all well-drained areas etoopt PeiUo scrubby latwooeds,

and in the shamaek and rarely in the other flatwoods station. No

oolleetions have been mad ftro Peello scrubby flatmeeds or the saseally

flooded areas of the river sa and marsh. Oole (1940s37) points ut

that in the Orea aory eanatai the at does ent nest I dse vwet weds,

but prefers rather open area where the soil is able to contain an
appreciable amount of moisture.

A majority ef the aet et this ant ecupited the surface stratum

The several nests recorded trm as na oreever, did net atead mre than a

tfw inches lite the sand, but mre mn tly under litter. She asts i the

surfae stratus were usually associated with debris, although sem nests




5".


were found with little or as debrls. Seoral fa the aots takes in bale

lp e were fundA uader the balr ajit f rly hard wood. sh order of

prefer eme f ests ia the surfe state= is as ftolo]
1, hUl lgo
2. dIad step
3. as of living tress
4 Utter
1 palswt rets -a grou
6 erw =a of Palm*me rests
T. wader at of paintte truth

Of ur mests taken from weode the imber t wor a varied

frmn to 21, with ua avasge of 23. ne of thee meets setaine quems.
atur tfems hav bMe found in all miths. Ile haTv boa abered

in flight i b-sembekr ada Febuary. No intormtion hu been obtained

Uemesraing rmils.

*. 9iaM mais is relatively ft mvims, and smharmtristie-
ally ive. dividual are diffmit kto w beeawe they are very

nearly the eelr of the wev or litter surrounding their Bests. t

la/meiately sek the first available er"Ies n whish to hide
MIsts are oeeosionilly foamA a the same l sadt tIs nests of



oii-fcly. In iste- la rms* plmr ita o



s. Ml S AMMiMr s a widespread at an the Resrve, and
is wll ropre ited in nearly all of the state iemr Opopt m k, whe it

ke met tbee fotun. nI esour aba n tly is bsk pino-ftterbm fAtwdMa

adt mre rotI-g emoldy to abamantly In tw y oak and hydrie beINIn

emmaly iA Lm srubby flatwods, loaimst pine fatweeds, Pimr sl

pine flatweeds, mrrls baimek river s p and bayh.apt at oemsadIOlly
in Ua eack ak, sermb Pelle scrubby flatmefe, adt rti *lash P

flatwoeds.





55.


A majority of its nests have been found in and, almost always

under litter or logsp The reminder of the nests were taken in the surface

stratum. Where there are suitable logs or st s present, this sat shew

a preference between wood ad a and. lwerer ea the Reserve, because

of the existese of relatively few suitable legs or stmpa, the mot favored

meeting site wa in sand uader litter. In the Gainaeville region meet

of the neets eft s o hal ateda .llr~i weroe taken in les.

In order of preference to the sat the meeting site in which

2. Msnteda iuanlaris as found Ai Welaks aree
1. under litter
2. under logs
3. in and under legs
4. I dead stumps
5. ifallem log
6. under at ef palmetto truck
T. Ia Utter
8. in bases of living trees
9. open sand or with very light litter

Rest nsts in log and stumps were in wood of an advanced stage fa doay,

although nets were found in weed in all stages There was preference

between pine and broadleaved wood, built all nests wre wet or moist.

Charred woo wa not rejected. Many of the nests in los and stumps and

under leg, ratified into chamber tn the nearby sand. n the black pine-

fetterbush assoeeatin, several nests were found among the reets of

fetterbush.

Sseverral oceaosions 2. haema da lsaril has been found in

the saiM stup or leg with Rmuastma absmsia ll D lSrimdanb. but the

association probably depondm a a eomn an suitable nmeting site. Both of

these ants safeties eted their eosts ato saand near the woed which

sentains the ajor partieo ef their eleomles. Beth, moreover, lie under

legs, but o. Au tslars sometimes lives in sand aleme. The




56.


hl-ber ofa thees lango aAt are aer very adep, ad uatally appe to
be reat amde ev aies iAtae whtle the ant nsve e Wa hev asoo peetiaills
1a eamcnata to th degree that the tr en Wter tfw hlwe. IaW of

the pauseages tee, smo to have boee eosmtrneted by sme ewh agenr
tha~ the wrkeneo, sa.w the arn in met eaes moh tee torge tI e s tse
of the amt. the pirtiem Of the astso in s4d, tewer, are eamllr

mupport by a aSld e t Uitter
Large mt eot o. M in JM heo met Wbee. see the
beeoveo. 0 smet, pepe allg t my Msli. tUm average satai 20

workwe an& 3 m llw workers. ntwe' bwe bme8 Oseee rr It s n s
ia all amths, but mt derig lmi periods. O nmesus sae Lons ia0s
hw boee take mi fl ht *at i the m ta flren y throut earla a4t,
but -e la-ntusam ks been gatherd oe te te fenmlms.
fhu the so l s matated drnag the e-ame slq 0 0sas
the wkers- otM brin the r imatewr to the aurtee ard pla- th

udwr lmes. igle workers a Na be sea rating smW the ewar
of a lst dring these period, as well as twi the sode math aof
tas Year
ths amt i eme of th eat eeMIease Ias a ajertv of the

past amseelatie as the Bo rve. It io quite aSti above wr i
eeelally dwing te mMr m le at Urge wwrken, tfragbg alae,
are eemmly eaom. th eld poAida, O hewer, aativity, be t ao
greodt sa in the met, tAo r t o e taa Sam, eat t shaneoo a
grma is quite uttnemabs

RJ ani wmm s m to tred o*m anlse.. mb&s
lange Isest a"e aughP, sweral workere soeperate I e arrtng h lw6at
beodi to athe a~t epea e Waer he bek tte te to the poeaa
butter eat ataolt lait me a ns imm1 trap.




ST7


s. ets which have been found living near 2. hbaeImtod inauari

In the sane log or stump areas

Casmonetus IabdMimli S;eoris mls
Paratrekrim narrula
Reti euiterm (flavi 1t) (Iseptara)

In several istaneese items hav been found lining to workers.

They have been found on all parts of tho body, but especially a the had,

gaster, and propedeum.

Foraging workers have been found in association with several

other species a ants. Neither the aOdntemahus nor the ether ante were

maeh disturbed. I one instance as OdMgjaagfhu a worker ms very inquisi-

tie eoneering the activities geing within the erater oe a nest a

STr~ahwmarraa ttriaalish The worker repeatedly ran to the

nast opeaig with uving antenaeB, but neither the visitor nor the

Traham gave m c attention to the ether.




Subtamily Pseudamprainae


Ne Am Wka ug F. Smith
bruea naets were taken occasionally in turkey eak, Leea
scrubby flatweeds, Poelle scrubby flatwoodsI, mesic hakmok, bydrie

hmeaek, river sumap and m rrst and rarely In sarub Rutlege slash

pine flatweods, eri e khmock, and bayhoad. The ant shem a preference

for river s up, hydrie haImeek and the dense Poello sorubby flatweods

Os the other hand, it has bee collected only one tI any type flatweeds

ether tan the scrubby flatweods. E. arua thus replace I. &Uita

I the vat or seasnally flooded areas, whereas e. BslkS replaces





5L.


b3aMA In the flatwoode area. Sh differase can be attributed to the
fatt that Ml is a ble to live in tall pgrae st wbhres bIre

is neot, ioresor, kcas prefer the mar demse wt weeds, and jJLjt

the ere spem areas.
A3lmot all ot the eelenies ot haa have bee ellested in

the arbreal stratumb Ieets ave been equally divided between true twig
and sml brnmhes. A single sllletims from the herbaseoeu strata nua
nde mis feet above the ground in a fiewr stalk ot a omrasa plant.

Wee large neUts t this species were taken, me with 79 workers

ad 1 queen the other with 79 erktee and 8 queam. Other nests stated
18 workers and 1 queen 9 workers and no queea and 7 workers and sm

queen. A nting flight occurred on June 17, 1950, and wiged for were

oberned in prevrim years from June through Septamber. Z tur -fef:
eer in the nest a2a et all year, and usually there are a large mber

of larvae, ie., 30 to 65 lare larams ad may are mal ems.

SIgtnMe is agile and s able to disappear easily e the
ther side tf a bra mnh It Seem to prefer foraging bn temparatre

and humidity are high.


fiman a 76 v faiteh
totll Oreoghtsa's paper (1950), Zs Msla aS e nlUhMa
wre roseog sed u separate spees ea the basis of the preease or
abieae of black peoto am the bas aft the abdaem im n l&rdjlf @rebt

Mhas Iaynamied la~M, sine he hae fend that a mot Serie et
suitiaimet length will eetaia indiTidalr with and with=t blaCk spit.
a their gastew. Nest i erme ftre the Reserve alse have hem thee

ehaurteristi e





59.


JE. Illi as found in eight statloas. The black pin-
fetterbush association affords a great may sAtreo b tes which are

suitable nesting places for MJUJiL Am a oomequenoe, the ant is
found abundantly in this station. It oeeours oeamaly n leagleaf pin

flatwoods and Leon scrubby flaatweedes oaseiselly the andbiU area

and the slash pine flatwoodsi and rarely i series bamsoek

Because of its preference for tall gasse tem as nests, .

wllid& as found amt often il the herbaceous stratui, but M also

taken arbereally. It was absent fro the other strata.

The nesting mitee of M Ji4 were almost alLys true twig or were

twig-like All but a few eselltioM were mad fri o tall grasa a tfw

*the ware ade freu the twig of pine and serub eaks and the ant ean
ft* n be found meeting in the stms ef planted beube. Several elleetion

were mde from twi-like s ll brashes.

Of 12 colueai take, the amber of worker varied from $ to

25, averaging 1. Of these coloaie T Iontained no queleml (These l,

queealess aggreptes my really be seetieae ef a larger group seatered

around a queen. See gmraltmStar JMM a MSS. em SI ut m miMsiamIi)

Eggs, arvae, and pupae are present i all morths, with a peak of abdawe
indicated in Aagnst. Winged form wer take frt the nests r August

through Novembr. Heo nst soatainet both ales and females
This aile at bhas kmaak of disappearing behind a grass stm

or a twig whei disturbed, Ihe a nmt is broksm ops, mra of the ants
will rm i pwfrtetly stil atil toohed. Normally they ushibit a

moderate to seaiiderable &re-grnud activity. Serve ral worker wee

ftend, evidaBtly foragig, with a eseem eO a dead bagewra (ThwrieUtf

subiaeMt ma Inerth) hanging frem a fttterbush








heo Ws l2arae, nt papae of this at are nualy more or
eIa segretetd A typeal meet eantalmnd eq ad sea larae in the

baoo f a mra stm, other larger larvae uar the middle, nda pupoe s

a few es near the top of the ste. Man timo the queen is ted mear
or at the top of the stalk.

As the Adrm a m I the f 1 nd the ate bem drier

andt les habitable, te ute an re tweret m n mear O ite the bseo tf
the stemo or *ate pertiems ot ste tat have been bokra fun the

plait t whih we still uppertet by veselati. Their at edamee

beeme smeahat less atUl the sprin growth Of r Ms rate e ar
aesting sites. I this rpepest thee anut, like mfhiuMm Ma

in mrsh, shew a smasel ariatim in seeor me lteih iL daepedt as

the snuoel varkltim la oeureTafe to the meeting site plant.
It miht well be peoited out that tie rst thh Pt o

I alBMMthgmb asmeelatiea, ahich this ant oeolpies in the mot
abmua t, gives advantage t hee gr as tm ants MI the smae,

Just u it erecto a dlaAvutage ftr the rat wh tehe Aear .a die

nl the twiter. h rln the height t the raiy see frem early July

Late Lagnot the uvter leeT my rasv witala lashes at the sel suawtee,
wr srm aset it. Deep bwrros fterns ioh sasu t witlhtand prel-eag

perid ot umarwme will be k aept at a mSiaml lim4 tOd A tfe
fers, aush as- liagrg afaj g st j abl san withstart
the atamrgwa e of their lw r allris, and undoubtedly flastate the

aptk of their ga riwes with the rise and Ell of the wte tabe The
grag ata et e -s the rter heat, ren relatively matfetets by the

water level bhasn, are free e efpetitie fer their aestting sit sM

at the ame in are adapt a to prure the ab*e- grrn tfee qply




61.


Subfalily lBtrnieiame

Pegonera s fldAu (Iatr.)

P. diu i one of the meet restricted ants of the Reserve
as far as oeurreane is plant associations is eoneerned. It requires

open areas i whish to build its dam-shaped found, and only a few

situations suitable iA this respect oeur in the station studied to

the present robl. Xe h prebl s ha k referred and nests are ound there

emoeanl. b J & nests were taken eeeasionally to cemanly ia turkey

ank, sad oeeasinally in blaeJaek ea. buy tests are found ea lwas,

around garden, and in firlanes. All o its nests were eemplete, dted

eraters. Chracteristiaally, the ares around the openaiag o the nests

aro always bare of vegetation v ell-established eelenies. May et

the areas are edged with ebrred pieces wooed, seeds, ptwig, and uther

debris Trhe haroeal ri at of y of these mounds is a seoapifous feature

of the meets. Wray (1938), giving an ao runt er the ant in iorth Caroiam

mentions that aests in that region hav the sase features. He also gives

a description eo the internal structure of the nests.

Observatios were me n a nest t this active aat beginning

in August, 1949. The nest, whih was situated ia a lawn, had been amoed

perhaps three feet Imediately prier to the first obervatio. Surfaee

temperature, temperature at three iaehes relative humidity, and the

number of workers emerging freo the nest within a period of te minutes

were recorded daily for 830 Ai.J, 11830 AL., 2:30 P.YM, and 5t30 P.M.

Activity et the eoleay abere groud mer began before 8130 A.L. ad -as

usually seepleted within a fw minute of 5330 PM4 la Febrary, 1950,








to neet opining uW agnia moed, this tie only a feet. In eeh o

these inataes of rftaging the sit of the nat opening, it is possible

that ae of the oldU hbabers d galleries wee continued in use.

Table N show the tnumbe oft PIr~mrra that mered

fin the aest during a um period in Auus o four sue sive days,

san during tour days f a eeld period in Noveber. On August 12, n

arte were seem above ground. Although the te perature this day w mi,

the relative humidity remiand at 10% and mowt of the day w rainy.

Other coloes have been noted to aenti e o action during very light

rain, but when the drop beeom eeonrtnt, activity stepped. The nmts

hnw a teadey to avoid hihu bu dity, although as ea be soeen

August 14, activity entimed during 100I buidity. Ooversly, lower

humdities are eerrlated with the greatest activity. twoere, haen

te hur dity beoms very low ad tmp rature very hih (50%. or mere)

AmJuns and July i Bidday, a sessation of abovsmground activity osmuw.

tho temperture at three inches belew the surface w first

rorderdd Augst 14. uring the rest ef Auust, while these tempeature

wee bea g take, the oats opened and lolsed their oest at a three inmh

tem p ture ot bout 2T% ., i isted at th table. I n wmbe,

hwver, meet of the tf mratur wee bmel 21 %., saM epmiIg bOegU

at a three sh t nature of about 10 %., rer closing started at

sabut 16%". Thrwshlds of surfoo tperaturs were more obscure.

Besides the fftt of the twmpe turo ao the opeang a ud losing

cf the ost, high h ity, as Indicated abroe, seems retro t the spring

ant speed the losing the ats are slow to start work on morning with

a gooe deal of mixture in the air. In tIh viewing, Wh the ri dity

riLses t are usually ll along in their closing operations Imen it







TABLS V


SR POSOU OWRB IYCT1 DMIWA A WMJ AND DRIMI A COLD RIA
date tUime mp. at rl han ao. in ramsr
3" air. 2 diaa


8/12/4 0830
1130
1430
1730
8/13/49 o830
1130
1430
1730


8/14/49


0830
1130
1430
1730
1800
1830
1900
1920


8/5/49 0830o
1130
1430
1730


1A/17/49


30
35
31
30
29
27
27

27
33
35
32


21%.
19
20
19
24.5
39
41
22

38
39
40
24
23
23
23
23

36

37
30


0830
1130
1430
1730
1735


11/1/ 0830
1130
1430
1715

1/19i/49 0830
1130





1430
1730
1745


loo
100
100
100

87
ST

57
42
94
46
50
51
100
l00
an
100
1oo0
1oo

35
25-
35
62

45
35
37


IS-
55
25-
25-
65

75
25-
25-
89

65
25-

97


Gari-st
rarny
rainy
rainy


0



0
018
IN
235
204
18o
68
4
0

aI
128
288
150
136

48

52

0
S1




0
0




0
51
o4


25




100

6


cloudy
Viadyr s-ar
eloar
widy, clear

alav
lda, r lr
opwed o045
slur
swim




otivity starts at 0830
slear
*lear
slrt
elissag starts at 1730

olear, nativity sluggish
moderately ative






sumla p *law


asetiity mderte
e*swing starts at 1725
sumsei

eleur, sum
quite native
slesiag start at 1730





63.


reaehe 10%. Ina addition, slowing S ams to be ainflueaed by the inereasag
darkness, anad the aset usually Closed by aAset. Controlled labratory

emperiatt would have to be carried out to deoterin the importance of
eah of these physioel factor am seoloay ativity
A typical closing operation as carried out as tolle s Cortai

of the workers started the procedure by picking up pellets of saad lying

ea the meoad, and eurrying the to the Bost spomaig. Sm arrivedd this

satu boteenm their edibles, atd other peahd the pellots between their

hind legs. Oeo at the opeoaia, the wor ke packed the sad into the

arifise a.ll. To whkol proset r r net eonemetrated, atd aR indi-
vitdal lost inttor% t in their werk. ttl bty little, hewer, the opening

s ad s ajlmer. Soe of the a ts brought pies of grus and sall

trlep instead of saat, at these aeted as supports. Daring this wholo
activity, ether ants were triaging pellet to the surfthee. Who the

opening e finally elesed, there remind a all are (two inhe in
damstor) cleared of sa pOllets which surrouea ed the pile of sand at

the opening. Al th h tho outside a eleoed, ment of the saa4 at

the p3lae of thae peming Intiated that the arte were still puaking at
ateo the pae s ga y from the inside. The pile of sad wer the epe*tai
sometimes beae veray large, reaching -a emo esimon a heigt of samchalt

Ioh, art a disaster of o~e-half lah. This turret contained a puo agey.
The net -aa Oloed in a similar fashion every mifht, atd in rraiy weather
ametimes reamidt closed all day.
aI early De ber, the ants broke through the m t, ever a

period of days, in ine plaes. Titin a feo day all of the hole wore
plunged an the uate wO merging tfr the oriOal opeBin. Sowero
am hs ben melted, in ebrusry the ats aleled their erigial opeaing,





64.


and nued a anw oe appreimately a toot fro the former. inme the latter

opening wa in lawa, the aats went about their sharaletristis habit of

cutting the gras around the opening and covering the sheet left standing

with saud.

A eating of the ales and female frm the smi neat took place

at about 1000 A. an June 20, 1950. while samo workers were carrying

on the normal net activities of bringing seed husks and sand pellets to

the surface and carrying seeds below, others wre attending the mting

individuals. These ales and files wer two fet to m side of the

neat opening, In an area about two feet in diameter. The mles ra very

speedily over the ground, or ele flow for short periods si inches to a

foot above the sting area. They were probably equal n abundance to

the combined nabers of eales and worker within the area.

Three or four ales approached a given ftmle at one tie Within

a atetr of seconds one of the ale had entered into copulation with the

teale The period of copulation lasted up to and oan-half minumte

eh ferle mted with three or tour different ale. Because the ales

ere so very quick la their evements, it was difficult to tell whether

a given aloe ated more than oae.

during the sting t th aut moving workers could be observed

pulling at the mles wherever they happened ontoe ev They pulled thr

amy from the foale, eren during ating, an when a ale wandered back

turd the nest epeniag, he was arrived or pulled away. Probably the

same tisulue as involved in all of these activities.

After iech mting, eaoh ftele stroked her antenae with her

foreleg, and remained the tip of her abdeman with her meuthpart* When

several mtingo had taken place, eash femle began a slw flight upwar.





65.


the mal, which had been flying swiftly around th mating area gradually
flew auy alse.
The following seeds have boon taken from noats of te ra m

dAM'Ias Ama lEkM hus 1 Ta-ras BlueV IMaa spo., lEru
Walaa (mandpur), SaL al lt (eabbra, palm), qMU lh ta

(bftteu ed), and seatiped grass.
The aats we able to arry all of these seeds, aept these
ft the abbags pal, One of the aItter seds premated smsruht at a
problO althouIgh the auta were able to carry it fer short distaaose

n their mandible. Mhen they had transported it to the mound, however,
several ants been mdigi uader it with their foreleg until a rater
m fonrmd with the seed in the senter. Whe the seed a rmeowed fen

idontifieatiems the rate m buesmiag deep and the aats were maki
me progress. It wa observed that ants man earry seds for at leIst
100 feet. Cole (1932s144), however, noted that PZsemrgrai sutfla

ia the western United State earries seeds for as meh as 0.T7 0.4, 1.35,

and 0.25 miles.


IAaomaster uahmaU nuewy

A. mimr prefers the areas of the Reserve which offer
zersea i eonditions in the subterranean stratu. t is found oseasiemlly

to emen ly in zerie hamUeek ama Leon scruWbb flatwoods oseeSaiOally i
bluejack eak, serub, and eie hnaomcka; and rarely Ia turkey akt ad
barhad.


aT ll


is confined to the subterranean stratu.o a all


1 DtelmimatiLm all seed were madr by A L Iasesle BIpartmst of
3f.t1, tuiverity ot neads.





66.


cases it nested in sand, and most of its nests were under litter. Ono

nest, situated where there wa no litter, had no resognisable eater

and two nost openings.

The sise of the nest is apporainately the sae as the eloeely

related A tr 1 One nest contained 326 workers, T sallow, 250

pupae, pls eggs, larvae and a queena Wiged ferwm hae been found in

the noest is June.

he abeve-greund activity t this ant is moderate to consider

able es elear, sunny days when the relative humidity is belov TO7 It

has aet been taken foraging whea the temperature m bleow 20C% Aloen

with ether ants, A ambadS shows a tendeney to become very native

above ground during the winter. The ferm is carnivereus, end is attracted

to raw liver it has ben seen carrying dead ants of other species,

especially odentallmebaul h ameod Itaulam .


Apamoemasgter ru am soa '. Smith

A, ridELa was taken oeeasionally in turkey ask a the Relerve.

In the Gainesville region, it ws alse taken in ruderal situations, such

as open, sandy readeides. Nests are either complete craters r rudimentary

craters around small elump of grass,

A. frid&a is a fairly fast moving insect. stt of its
foraging it dene at night, but it is sometimes native durian tr day5

especially during erereast weather. It is attracted to molasses trape.


Ahaeaemasater fI Reger

Within a given nest ef fulJ there is great variatisn in

ebaraeter properties of the workers free the incipient to the nature





67.


Colony. Of the specimens sent hia from the Reserve, Dr. Smith (in

litt.) oays, "t esmaller workers with more peateriorly rounded beads

sad longer antemnas probably beleag to young eeloie. As the solaies

ianrease in aise the later workers acquire shorter atenme and e1s8

rounded heads." Bess e ef this Lhange ln eharasteristios, it is

important to rcogngise worked of an incipient felony, so that they will

not be misidentified as a elesely related torm.

It an be amntioned here that individuals with shorter spines,

keying to gudi in Creighten'a paper (1950), have been found on the

Roeerve, but are not included because of their sall number and uncertain

tazonemio position

A. fg praefeo the lower armss of the Reserv. They have
been taken commonly in river swamp; eeasionally in serub, loaglef pine

flatwoods, hydrie ha bk, -at bayb adl and rarely in atlqege slash pie

flatwoods, zerie hmenek, and marsh It taeds to replace j. usiMMd

in the wetter areas.

rats oe this group have been founa in bWth the subtarrauae

and surftee strata. tests ver equally abundiat amder legs, i litter,

in 1ll m loge, under the mst oe palmetto rsts and tsnts, sad In dead

stumps. They aloeo hv ben found n and under lqgs and in the bases o

living tree. Logp which contain meota are uaally in the last stage

of deay. One neet w between the bases of palm frotd sand the truak

of the paln in the debri gathered there.

Of the 2 neats counted, tbho e frh scrnb sentsaimd 46 ~uwrks

10 worker upae and 1 queen, while the ether frm river smp natatind

65 worker, 3 allun., 15 worker pupas, and 1 quOes. turrs wOre ia

almost very most ollected. Ihles vwe found in the anut in Iby threug




6P.


JulyI so integration was obtained concerning the retales
The ante of this group are quite active. The workers are

attracted to a mixture of peanut butter and oatmeal. They have been

noted living net to nests of termites (Retieulitermes jiflz ai )p and

have been seen carrying live termites I their msadibles.


Ahasemoaster lamelldt Sayr

Only one collection of A. ll ml t ade on the la

Reserve. This nest, n zerie hamoek, occurred in the base of a broken

limb uhieh had decayed differentially. In the Gaineville area, the

author has eolleeted the species in meeie hamocek in fallen logs. In

the Oreat Soky Mountains, Cole (1940s 2) has found a few colonies

Ot wet rotting log in a deeply shaded fores~~t

Although eelleetions in other regions indicate that lJamllisa

eeeure usually i the surface stratum, its collection on the Reserve roe

the stamp of a limb 5 feet above the ground places it in the arboreal

stratam.


A*paemnater paeroeipn KL R. Smith

A& i as taken oeeasionally in bluejack eak, longlest
pine and Rutlege slash pine flatwoods. All of its nests wre in the

subterranena stratu under litter. Its distribution on the Reserve

shows a prefere ee fer pine rowths.

This is a moderately aetive ant. Ga a number of oeeosions, it

has been attrated to molasses. One nest counted contained 65 workers,

10 worker pupes and 1 queeae Attention us dra to the net by the

capture ef individual of this species in a melassee trap. Part or all





69.


ot the 44 aut smugcht t he mIeolau tp my have beleage to thi
eeluqr.


a~ans Amm 1mm,

A. m munts sersseisally l werub, and rarly s leasntgl
pin flatweeds, aSortba mokm and mus s hoomako. lsts have beemn tk
soly fre the asrta status is wet to msarated lUog I the last

tause of demay. oe hab&ts at this spoeas are ma the sme as thUmse

omt .e




I-sts f A. &tuLIN have beem fouid ea1ematly i L serubby
flatwemo, ad rarely in serab. Although it ha boen fell Sn Sly thee

te plant asweoitie~Ln there i- a apparent reason why it shoul mt

ear in ethr area with relatively liUgt lfst litter, as des 4


All of its amst have been foun in the smubteraam strata

wtar litter. Of s ast eontalmedt e ,Pg 20 larme, 81 ppa, 20 allm,
292 mrtkos, sat 1 queen. TUo diplpedo w rue remTed trm the dirt

urrnoudim the aMto

A. zmtCu> Is a mtdarately that airing, tiLS i ost. WNrkwe
have bn mted arylai larvae ot vri ki o into the i ests. A
Mes-hopper pgh w rAU ilmy ate wto Intredued rlAte a ast trmm-
planted iute the laboratory.
Thi labkratwy mot resisted of th quee ad three wr s.

he quest laid p witbi tree days f the tim that she as played AI
the eet. All of these a m m kpt near a dm sp ne in the MOt,





70.


and were armed for by the workers. The queen rested tho speo*e, and

pad little attention to the el a of oeg.

A ktrke has been taken froe the Chicago ar (Gregg, 1944)
and from lm (DureFa 1943), and Osl (1940&50) h the folleis to

ay eoneerning nests in the Great Baoky Mountalass "asariably, it -

found eelonizian opeo woods (usually piae) or less ftrquntly rassy

filde and slopes. All nests were beneath stolen of varying i s and

msh nest possessed a single entran*, either beneath er beside the stems,

leading by a gallery to a series larog interenMeted chambers deep

in tho soil., za all eases, however, the sil was rather moiet.,

It st probable that the "ope woods" and *rassy fields and slopes" of

the Great Smoky Mountais ofer oonditions similar to the ape ares fe

the aRservoe. ai there are few stones on the Rserve, the an here

mrt be satisfied to ue leat litter to ever its meet spea s.



hasls amtita Mrra
z. alr nests are vell represe ted in all of the statisa

a the Reserve aeept mash It a taken meet ftem in the better

drained areas, as ell a the h-bamoek river suqp, and b2aek pine

etterbush flatwoeeds. Coleies eeur abundantly in serub Len scrubby

flatwoods, Peolle scrubby f2 twoods, and river swmp s; e aly to

abundantly in biU jask ak, zerie hamok, es e hm meek, and blask

pin-fsttwerbush tlatwedi ememaly in turkey oak, lanlaf pine flatwoods,

Plumer and utleg slash pine flatoeds, aad hydrio bhaoektg s siemaly

in bahea4 eand rarnly mauk.

Over twtirds f toe mtata aests take were a the seil

srte, amd, wit. the septic at ems eoeletim frem a sm ll beaah,





T7.


all others were takes frem sand, ety ader litter. Wests umaer litter,

sad nest in loeg and ostup are preferred by .l o The ethe

meeting 8ite in WLGi it wa found, in eorer of jprtmane for the a t

ares

1,. a litter
2I ea er t of palmetto rest wat tump
3* in bases of living tree
4. nadlr lpr
for I and aoder lep
6, Am grase elmps
T open sauu (ratdmtary enrtes)
palmeott rest -a groutd
9. in slee brash

OBher selletium were m ade s d mar a a saw palette reeto ad

several resrtds were mad of eats in fers rests.

In Gainesvlle, I flat found to meet seqlly often in

leoe and in rudiamtary craters On the Rerve, probably due to the

pr9esee of litter and at least oas wooeed in aost aU mituatiesm, eater

of this ant were sldeM fuat. urea though other ants, suh as PZauamkrsa

diua were able to build erter nests only, j Afat sshoeet it

prefotwse for aets in wood or under sever of weed or litter, by aveoiua

the sop areas

eosts were resorded in wod in al ostag of deeay, and in weed

that varied frm wet to dry, Moet of the neass in leg or stumps were

in pine, although a number were fe a I brea dleaved weed Often thes

nasts were under the bark, but a fe nests In estfp estoaded den tate

the rest syst-m Burin the wet eseasore, msts h beeo feod several

oot high in dead treo trmis.

ests of this ant usully stanoot a slaro m ber of itadidumb .

OAe rather arll aoet saprised 62 worker, 9 sldir'o, and 1 qenom

ummture form are present all year sept Iari *old period. Rlaned





72.


form have bea taken in flAht in aky nad Juae, and a dealate feaml

was recorded wandering in february. Reeproduetive ter p upare mre s

in the anest in April

a y timsa especially during th ralay srasmon whe the ground

beeUom very wet, the iluatures are brought to the smurs and laid

on or between laves. On other esAionsl in leg aeets, the matures

were scattered throughout the log without ay me sig order. Similar

nestse however, proved to have all the og lamrve and pupae ia ae spot.

During several periods of sold weathers worker of AjfL were

the only ant s arryian a seoaUpicuous above-groa activity. A poiat

which further indiatee its adaptability to adverse eoaditioes i that

a trAs one of the few ants which regularly forages Ia s p during
the periods of high mater whon very little sell ic above mter, and

all of the soil is saturated.

The feeding habits of this emergetie fLglir are diverse It

is attrastod to a mixture of peanut butter ad oatmeal used Is nmaml

traps, to liver, aad to melasse. these ant have been sea carrying

aellabola anda teorite. Wh a most tf tiaSlltrma fliUAaR ue

capped inte, they were almet iediately s- the sea, carrying termites

any. MA time passed, more ante watered iate the aeivity. the termites

were either parlysed inte stillaess or illet, or were able to more ely

slightly while being arrived. mst semo. fatally injured after they bad

beoa carried by us an .

the ellowid a have bee take in the aests with a srs

iseptera, various epp.
Corrodenatia
I Pssibly 7 r rtmal9& (dt. A. Am halsa, U. s. 1. n.)
(nzS ert v (i) ()o).)
Bnni reberte Gahua




3.


e. AASmiA a Ws 1 a s oa me t an Wo leesm &e it
take in 8 I f the i statLem. Ito mat we tfeuas emmu ly to emamlaly
nl miae eaF hydride homsck emasimlly ia wersb, PmreU swubWy
alateods, Pnl slamh pgi nfateds, xarie hmmenk, m.d bayhese d
a qumstialo reoI ws ade M it basis of wrker arle ftrom hetu ge
82as piMs flatwmods
AIL imept eost, take unr litter, were ountd in
swftas strat mfe Jt. ids pretenrd maswt i lop aud i tL e bark

at th base orf iut tIreem tat it a also toOd a Istimt uae
hitter, Mau seM *olties a- l ma ftr. ftran r tw Ibesrts Is rwod
wee almost oq ly avoided betw. pli ad brledleaved la.op ~ utp
UbKi rnuged ferm molit to wtA MiEt of the ants were In seft wel
dmaye wood0 but way m sts wre baked by bard wood
heo aumbr of ldividmls in lthe asts varid wid ey, altheu

a were large Aa aver IM t esntaiod 85 warer. un IT soauirs
(AmlantiS elllem), ad 43 morwk papte aad 7 soldier ppme. ruet, bot
atg all of fth mats bat a queen Imatures were prnst all year.
fam n wwo tfemnd ea wtig in Ju3 ad5 in t. me-ts is Sept abr
Mad mal wer takes in the nests in August. am nost seatalld aefm
tewo wofers, but had eggs a larvae

b* Am IamMa es one of the spies with whoh j1alama tn
has bee found asoeolated. In odities to the blenasi. &Ar lm

MrnM wus takes with Tflg j*taia fri. taSer littew





74.


Pheidole, near florida n Emery

Saith has compared specimens of this ant from Welaka with

those of fl oldan in the o National JIusem He mays (in litt.)

that the Welaka specimens 'have been eoapared with speciaens from the

original series and although lose to fleridam they are not typical.

lorifdn has aush more of the posterior part and side of the head, and
thorax leos heavily sculptured than your spesimens. The potpetiole is

alse larger and less angulate on the aide"* The sculpturing and shape

of the postpetiole have been found to ary to only a negligible degree

on the Reserve. No specimens have been taken on the Reserve which apprateh

individuals of flj&dyM collected by the author in southern Florida*

This fhebSdo replaces ionsarium Dhnjenui prevalent in the

Gainesrille region, in and around the houses of the Reserve. In non-

ruderal areas, it shows a preference for turkey oak and bluejack oak,

where its nests secur smmenly. Meet are also coon in Poaello scrbby

flatwoods, this ant is occasional to coon in neeie bammoek, and has

been found rarely or occasionally in scrub, Leon scrubby flatwoods,

leagleaf pine flatwoods, Plawer and Rutlege slash pine flatwoods, blaek

pine-fetterbush flatwoods, zri and hydric hasmocks, and river swmanp

Rests of this form have been found most often in the surfaee

stratum, but almost a many have been taken i sand. It occupies a

variety of nesting sites. In order of preference they areas

1. in dead stumpn
2. uner litter
3. in faUes leg
4. under lep
5. in litter
6. epn saud (rudimentary eraters, empleti crater)
7. in and under legs
8. In bases et living trees





75.


Oao eoloUatn ma mado from under the mat of a palmetto rooted
IMte in sand have all showed a tandmaey to be under sever of

see sort. Although sae nests had well-fomeod rates all wre covered

with ne er several leaves. The rudimatary raters were all faond agast

the fueudatio i of building, and it is possible that the ant here lived

in erevites in cment or under pieces of emenut Those nests n wood

were ueally in vet logs or stumps ad although nf pt seurrad in owed

in all stage of domay, aore ore in tho later stages. Lay colleetieas

we edo under bark, and neither bromdlaved nar pina eed ua prfnred.
Nests of this form are not populous, and seem to be mll-r

thfan JIfalaa. A nest, perhaps lightly salle than average,

ontainsd 35 workers and 6 soldiers along with imatures. atur-e

probably oeour all year, and w ingd for are present during the samer
maths. In some nests in wood it i5 difficult to delimit the boundaries

f the colony. aIdividuals in these oases are found throughout the lg,

sad there is no single oaneot moet group.
This moderately active PMeidi is attirated to grease in

kitohom. Oa several ooeuioa it ua taken eating the peanut bette

and oatmeal bait of a al traps, and in other instance it r found

between the sept of large amhrtooie. l. J. Moore eound this at an

the Resere in several fteo squirrel nests. It continues its forging
activities into the aight,
In ona ant a beetle of the fmtai LthriidKae e found

sueee9*te with the ant in a step in turtay oek.





76.


Phaeel. metdallesens Biary

.E cltatleseaene prefers the higher, drier areas It occurs
abundantly t eomaonly in turkey oak, Leon scrubby flatwoods, and zorie

hamoekl eomonly in bluejask oak and scrub; occasionally in mosi

hamoock and has been found only rarely in longleaf pine flatooda, bat

my oeour more abundantly there. It is often found in firelanm.

Appraxmately equal numbers of nests have been found in the

ubterranean stratum and in the surface strata. Oftean especially is

turkey oake nests have e orater, and the nest opening is entirely or

partially covered by a single leaf. Some nests can be found in and
around the root systems of herbs. The eaMplete crater is characteristic

of open ground, and in this situation i eamplete oraters ean also be

feund. Meats ef this latter kind vary in outside diameter of the crater

froa 2 to 3 iashes, and in height from 1/8 to 1/2 inch; all of these

meets have one opening. Iany other nets oeur in sand under leaf litter,

amd ocm of then maintain elementary craters.

The loeatines of nests in fallen logs vary from near or on hard

wood to wood mrgig with the substratuia either the bark amy still be

intact or it my be absent. The weed may be dry, or moist, or vet

A nest taken from a lg in scrub contained 50 workers and 29

soldiers with I queen. mature occur the whole year. No inferatie

soncerning the time of appearance of winged form m obtained* 0ne et,

taken in the middle of January, 1950, frm a firelane, contained large

Chambers of workers within si inches of the surface.

This fairly fast moving ant has a varied diets It is attracted

to liver and te molasses, Foraging activities etndea into the night.





IT.


L. gM is m ether et the antes hish prefer the hidghe, rwe
open areas at the Remr ve, o seeurs seesimallly to i- y lAIs tuike
eak ad zerie hmesek, and emamismilly In bi mjak ak atd Pemlle and
Les serbby flan tweeds. ShmW atwis fll its nit appear alM the

dirt shoul os t reods, is firelanes, and in the areas areoua hose
All o the nsts at this spMlas were I the shakwrramma stratm.
Mist of the nrets war built ia epM se t, bt -WN wero eoatrstWd under

lt litter. al m of t estsm ha m n ramter, a the ether hal wer

built around a rass tuft a isr am, are a rdlanmredy entera
thrnam p beside the plats. SI amnm Uthese antwr were bilt beside
a tlleU leg umter whih tIh colony emdU b fe nAt. OateWs of ma
built in the ope wwre about 4 to S iakhs i diuamte, esa 1 /2 to 2
ahoe in height. A rarity a meets had only m Mpuag M S there
wre weral with tw, nat a ter with three, apen ig.
a umawally large nmet of migMi ontainel 3OD wrkew

ua 350 soldiers A average nest probably sostais 1000 i=AividU ls.
The IM nturo 't are Seammt fr the maets r-m late Besmber t
reruary. Waged fain have been taken in Jtl

G. Si is a active at, and eah e**~sI elFwis m, rOU
speedy wraerks f' feragira Frag t aetiti e are Stri m at
aiht. It serm, hLo ee shew rr semseal rolatiroldp in its abe-
grpoa activity. Za the wirntr muths tferagl mes almst alktethl ,
snd the ant remi in the net,, a et three tes bem te t greod auras.
Molas se attrtst Z' SiLoo i1 hua beem smm pinh o sP

at larvae ant oa worker of rSlms 1 bat i sPr
tation at this ativity is att l her.d




Full Text

THE ECOLOGY OF THE ANTS OF THE
WELAKA RESERVE, FLORIDA
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
By
ARNOLD F. VAN PELT, JR.
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
September, 1950

i> 9 ~r â–  n ^ k
Ni ZT '5 e.
BIOLOQV
GEOLOGy
LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
III1ÍBH1I1I
3 1262 08552 2794

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction**•••••••*•••••••••••••••••••••••••■•••••••••••• 1
Description of the Area*.5
Location and Physical Features,********.********** 5
The Soils and Vegetation»*»***.*....*...***.*.***» 7
Definitions**•*••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••»•••••••••••••• 9
Methods of Study******************************************** 10
Collecting Methods and the Recording of Data in
the Field 12
Relative Abundance******************************** 14
The Collecting Stations of the Reserve***********••••••••••• 16
Summary of the Recognized Stations**************** 16
Description of the Stations*************.•••••.*•• 17
Eoologieal Relationships.*******.••••••••*.•.•••*••••••••••• 27
Description of the Strata and Nesting Sites******* 27
Availability of Nesting Sites in Stations.•••••••• 30
Distribution in Stations.**************..•••*••••• 32
Distribution in Strata and Nesting Sites*,•••••••• 38
Activity Relationships***********.******.****.**** 41
Annotated List********************************************** 42
Addenda*•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 149
Summary..150
Acknowledgments.•••••••••••*•••••••••*•••••••••••• 153
Literature Cited******************************************** 154

INTRODUCTION
This dissertation presents the results of a study dealing with
ecological relationships of the ants on the University of Florida
Conservation Reserve, Velaka, Florida* It is an attempt to expand the
knowledge of the nesting habits and behavior of the ants of a limited
area* Although similar studies on ants had been undertaken previously
in other parts of the United States, especially the middle west, there
still remained the opportunity to study comprehensively an area in the
southeastern Coastal Plain, with its influences from both the neotropical
and nearctic faunae*
In studying the ants of the Reserve, it was desired to 1) as¬
certain what ant forms occur on the Reserve, and to determine their
quantitative relationships in each of the situations in which they are
found; 2) classify these different situations from a knowledge of the
qualitative and quantitative distribution of the ants in them; 3) gather
as much information as possible concerning the life history and habits*
of the ants*
During the study much interesting information incidental to the
main problem was obtained on various aspects of the ants' biology*
Observations concerning the speed of movement, feeding habits, guests and
parasites in the nests and on the individuals, and the hours during which
foraging is done are included in the Annotated List*
The literature bearing on ants of selected regions has been,
for the most part, lists or keys, including only notes as to the nesting
habits of the ants concerned* Several recent papers have dealt with
the ecological relationships between the ants and the environment of

2.
limited areas i Burén (1944) in Iowa; Cole (1940) in the Great Smoky
Mountains of Tennessee; Gregg (1944) in the Chicago region; and Talbot
(1934) also in the Chicago region* Those papers dealing with Florida
ants have been four state lists (Smith* 1930* 1933» 1944* and Wheeler*
1932) and a key to the ants of the Gainesville region (Van Pelt* 1948)*
Until recently* the taxonomy of ants has been based on a
quadrinomial system* About l875t Carlo Emery and Auguste Forel first
recognized infraspecific units. At that time the taxonomy of the
European ants* with which these men dealt* was in a period of stability
brought about by the thorough knowledge these men had of their fauna*
They therefore felt no hesitation in marking forms as distinct which
showed a slight variation* Species were first divided into races by
Forel* and were later termed varieties by Emery in 1885* In I89O,
Emery recognized the subspecies as a second infraspecific category.
Acceptance of this quadrinomial system was not immediate* but through
the added influence of W* M* Wheeler* it was in general use by 1910*
Even though Forel in his Fourmis de la Suisse recognized the
possibility that subspecies intergrade and exist in separate ranges*
the concept was embryonic and he failed to carry through with it* Most
other authors disregarded this geographical aspect of subspecies* and
named the infraspecific forms on the basis of their concept of the
magnitude of the difference between them* Thus subspecies were separated
by smaller differences than species, but by larger ones than varieties*
Most of the material studied by Emery and Forel consisted of cabinet
specimens* Lack of sufficient field observation and data* such as this
dissertation presents, led them into making taxonomic errors*
Several authors have made proposals to do away with the cumbersome

3
quadrinomial system. Wheeler, in 1910, in his book Ants, suggested that
o
the variety in ant nomenclature is very nearly equivalent to the species
in other groups, such as birds and mammals, and that for ordinary purposes
it would be sufficient to treat the varietal name as if it were specific.
In writing generally of an ant, therefore, he used a binomial system,
but retained the full terminology for catalogue listings and the like.
The efforts of Wheeler and other authors who were tending away
from quadrinomial nomenclature might have produced more general results
if it had not been for the publication, from 1901 to 1925# of Emery's
seotion on the Formicidae in the Genera Insectorum. with its concomitant
authority. In I938 Creighton proposed a trinomial system in which all
of the varieties were to be raised to subspecific rank, and in 1944
Burén put this idea into practice for the ants of Iowa.
Finally, in 1950, Creighton published a manual on the ants of
North America in which he revised his earlier concept by discarding the
category "variety", and by designating as subspecies all intergrading
forms which replace each other geographically. Actually a great many
varieties were relegated to synonymy because the characters, especially
color, separating them from their most closely related forms, were
found to be invalid. Most of Creighton's changes involved either syn¬
onym! zing varieties or raising them to subspecific rank. His paper
ought to have a wide influence in placing ant nomenclature on a sound
basis. Several points in the present study have been simplified, and
other obvious mistakes in previous nomenclature rectified by accepting
his trinomial system.
Literature references are given at the end of this dissertation
only for those papers cited in the text. No references to original

4
descriptions or to papers dealing with synonomy are listed* The reader
will be able to find these references, along with keys to all North
American ants, in Creighton (1950)*

5
DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA
Location and Physical Features
The University of Florida Conservation Reserve, where the present
study vas made, is a 2180 acre tract, located on the east bank of the
St. Johns River, about seventeen miles south of Palatka near the town of
Welaka in Putnam County, Florida. The Reserve is situated in northeastern
peninsular Florida on a portion of the state known as the Coastal Lowlands
(Cooke, 1945(8), and is for the most part located on the Pamlico marine
terrace, which is designated by its 25 foot elevation above sea level.
It is approximately in the center of the rectangle formed by the lines
of latitude of 29° and 30°, and thoBe of longitude of 81° and 82°.
The Reserve varies in its topography from flat or very gently
rolling lands covered with pine woods to hilly uplands supporting oak
and pine, and many areas are pock-marked because of the solution of the
underlying limestone. The uplands, with their sand dune appearance, are
evidence that the land was once part of a marine shore line. The sub¬
mergences and emergences of the Coastal Lowlands to form Pleistocene
marine terraces, along with the absence of catastrophic movements in the
Welaka area, as well as in all Florida, will undoubtedly prove important
in consideration of the zoogeographic distribution of the Formicidae.
For a complete discussion of the geology of this area, as well as other
parts of Florida, see Cooke (1945).
Usually more than half of the annual precipitation falls in
thunder showers during the hottest months, June to September, when rainfall
averages 5 to 10 inches per month. Least precipitation occurs in late
fall and again in early spring, with a monthly average of 1 to 4 inches.

6.
The annual rainfall averages under $0 inches* The weather station at
Crescent City1 recorded the total precipitation per month during the
period of the present study as shown in Figure 1* For complete data on
the climate of Florida from 1896 to 1926, see Mitchell and Ensign (1928).
The temperature of the area in which the Reserve is located
averages about 70° Fahrenheit. Freezing temperatures may occur from
November to March, although frost-free winters have been reported.
Summer temperatures average 80° to 90°, end are at times recorded above
100°. Temperatures may vary greatly within a small area, for example,
from a dense hammock to an open flatwoods. Figure 1 shows the average
monthly temperature during the period of the present study. The average
length of the growing season is 300 days. The first killing frost in
fall may occur in November or December; the last killing frost in spring
usually occurs in February or March.
The nearest weather station recording relative humidity is
at Jacksonville, where the «ean annual relative humidity for 7 A.M. is
83/C, while for 7 P*M. it is 76/C. Records from here also indicate only
the general conditions on the Reserve, since Jacksonville and Welaka are
separated by seventy miles. Moreover, relative humidity varies greatly
within a small area, depending upon the vegetational conditions
encountered. The author has recorded relative humidity below 20j£ on
numerous occasions in open areas on hot, sunny days.
The records of temperature and rainfall taken from Crescent City,
eleven miles to the east, can be used only as general indications of
conditions on the Reserve.

Fig. 1. — Average monthly temperatura in degrees Fahrenheit ( ) and total monthly
precipitation in inches ( ) at Crescent City weather station from June, 1948, to June, 1950*

7.
The Soils and Vegetation
During the summer of 1948, a soil surrey of the Reserve «as
made in order to become acquainted with the soil types present* This
work was based to a great extent on the detailed surrey of the area made
by Laessle (1942)* Where necessary, the soil-type nomenclature was
brought up to date (See Map 1)* The following discussion of the deri¬
vation and texture of parent materials, and of drainage, is based on
Laessle*s paper*
The mineral soils of the area are very probably derived from
marine deposits of fine sand* No clays were found within six feet of
the surface, with the exception of small areas along the St* Johns River*
The organic soil, peaty muck, has been laid down by the aoeumulation of
vegetable matter in two extensive areas along the river*
Chemical analysis of the soils has been carried out only to
a minor extent in nearby areas, and not at all on the Reserve*
In the rolling areas, and in other areas where the land is
not entirely flat, the very sandy nature of the soil permits excellent
drainage* Much of the Reserve, however, is almost completely flat,
and in these areas lateral movement of water is slow or negligible and
the water table is near the surface* In many of the flat areas, an
accumulation of organic matter, called a hardpan, is formed at varying
depths beneath the surface, and in such areas during heavy rains the
ground becomes supersaturated. In lower positions within the flatwoods,
organic matter accumulates as a black or dark gray layer at the surface
rather than as a hardpan* In contradistinction to these soils, the soils
of the higher areas, with good internal drainage, do not have an organic
hardpan within 42 inches of the surface and contain very little organic

Map 1* Soil Map of the Reserre
H St* Lucie fine sand
CUD Lakeland fine sand
CHI Blanton fine sand
LZ3 Blanton fine sand, hammock phase
[ZD Leon fine sand
ES Leon fine sand, light colored surface phase
EZ Pomello fine sand
GUI Plummer fine sand
E3 Rutlege fine sand
E3 Peaty muck, swamp phase
[ED Peaty muck, marsh phase


8
matter in the surface soil*
The vegetation of the Reserve (Uap 2) may be divided into four
main categories, not including the various types of ruderal areas*
They ares 1) uplands or sandhills; 2) flatwooda; 3) hammocks; and
4) seasonally flooded areas* On the eastern side of the Reserve there
is a large area of uplands supporting longleaf pine and turkey oak, and
scattered in the southern portion are similar smaller areas covered with
longleaf pine and bluejack oak* Various types of flatwoods form a strip,
interrupted by bayheads and higher hammocks, through the center of the
Reserve* Lov hammocks form a strip adjacent to river swamp and marsh
which border the St* Johns River*

VEGETATION MAP of the
UNIV. of FLORIDA is
CONSERVATION RE¬
SERVE, WELAKA, FLA.
LEGEND
SoAnS ¿.anc/in
M
p
Shell pit and
Well drained areas
e4her 4 han hammocks
ES p pw-rw. - Q laev*S
P. peied+f¿£ -Q.c»«er*a
P. clavia - Q s pp.(d«*ar(J
(M3 q. 9pp. ( tcrwbb^)
Poorly drained ffalwoods
lili) P. faWrtra A.ftrU+a.
ivtj p.e.ium*r>
(*?a P. S frotma- Ot»mo)h*»w*.i
Graf
Seasonally flooded areas
L- —] Riw<>r so/ amp
HH B ay heads
[°Q°Q? Mara h
1 1 Rudera I areas , Old fields
Lawns ( oirporf elc.
-Sc <2 /c
I A s/0 nr e /er
Map 2* Vegetation Uap of the Reserve

9*
DEFINITIONS
The following definitions of terms are given so that their use
in the remainder of the dissertation will bo clears
Fora Ant form is used to designate any category below subgenus•
Assemblage species assemblage — Assemblage is used to designate a
characteristic and distinctive aggregate of ant colonies contained in a
given plant association, stratum, or nesting site* Such an assemblage
can be separated qualitatively and/or quantitatively from any other
assemblage* In this dissertation all assemblages contain more than one
6peciee, and are consequently species assemblages*
Habitat — The environment in which an assemblage occurs is its habitat,
and consequently the habitat of all the ant forms within the assemblage*
Stratum — A stratum is one of the vertical levels or layers within plant asso¬
ciations* As used here, it is not delimited by the boundaries of any one
plant association or station, but extends through all of them on the Reserve*
Nesting site — Nest is used to designate the place in which one colony
lives, whereas nesting site indicates all nesting places of similar
structure and composition, regardless of plant association boundaries*
All nests in stumps, for example, are in one nesting site*
Relative abundance — The term relative abundance is used as a measure to
indicate the density or abundance of one form in a collecting station during
a particular time relative to the abundance of any form in any station over
an equal length of time* It is based on colonies, not individuals*
Station — An area chosen as representative of a plant association*
Coll ec-fr 1,01^ — Applied to each nest observed or collected* In cases where only
wandering individuals were seen, they were recorded as a collection on the sup¬
position that a nest —*»* nearby} this applied in most instances to rare ants
whoss nesting sites were not known*

10
METHODS OF STUDY
Many authors hare found close correlation between the distri¬
bution of the animals they studied and plant associations* On this basis
they hare been able to designate plant associations as the habitats of
distinctive species assemblages* On the other handv there are found to
be other assemblages associated with strata* These strata may be confined
to only one plant association or they may extend through several* They
have also been considered habitats* Thus an ecological hierarchy was
set up with the plant associations as major habitats, and strate as
minor habitats*
In order to determine if similar relationships could be expressed
for the ants of the Reserve, it was first necessary to make the work on
ants as comparable as possible with the work on solitary animals* It
must be decided whether the ant individual or its colony will be used as
the biotic unit in dealing with distribution and relative abundance* In
this study the colony in its nest, and not its individuals or their
range of foraging, is considered the unit*
Among the chief reasons for basing the study on the colony
rather than on the individual worker ant is that reproduction for the
whole colony is generally accomplished by the queen* In this respect the
workers and soldiers are not conqplete individuals, but generally must
depend on the reproductive caste to continue the race* Food is brought
back to the nest by foragers, not for their benefit alone, but for the
benefit of the colony* There is cooperation among the ants of a colony,
whereas there is eosqietition among solitary animals of the same and
different races, and likewise among ant colonies of the same and of
different races. In so far as the processes of living and perpetuating

11
the race are concerned, the colony is more complete than the individual.
It is, for example, more complete than the queen, which might be suggested
as the type of individual in the ant nest most closely resembling a
solitary animal. Using the colony as a basis, therefore, it «as proposed
to determine if distinctive ant assemblages existed, and if so, by what
means they could be defined.
In order to delimit ant assemblages, it was not only necessary
to discover in «hat situations the ant forms occurred, but it was also
necessary to determine as nearly as practicable the relative abundance
of each form in each situation. So that this could be accomplished, it
was proposed to visit plant associations (as modified in the following
section) since, l) they occur in repeated, rather uniform stands
characteristic of the Welaka area, and consequently are more readily
recognizable by other workers) and 2) other workers in the Welaka area
and elsewhere have found plant associations to be habitats for their
groups. If a correlation of plant associations and ant assemblages
were found to exist, then the plant associations could be called ant
habitats. If ant assemblages were found to exist in strata and in
nesting sites, these too could be considered ant habitats.
It could be postulated that soils, as well as vegetation,
might be a critical factor in determining where an ant form might nest.
In reality, some plant associations occurred on two or more different
soil types so that it was to the point to combine soil type with vege¬
tation for the purpose of selecting a collecting site. All such combi¬
nations on the Reserve were designated as possible collecting localities.
Several combinations were found to occupy an insignificant area and were
omitted. Within each of the other soil type-plant association combinations
a representative area or station was selected.

12.
Collecting Methods and the Recording of Data in the Field
It was known from previous experience that ants as a family
are able to live in a wide variety of nesting places, although certain
ant forms are quite specific in their requirements. Without a fairly
complete knowledge of the ants to be dealt with, the data, especially
as concerns relative abundance, could very well be invalidated. It
was imperative, therefore, to become acquainted as quickly as possible
with the nesting habits of the ants on the Reserve, and likewise to
become familiar with the plants and terrain involved.
In order to facilitate progress along this line, a preliminary
survey of the ants of the Reserve was begun in October, 1947» and was
carried on during weekend trips frena the University in Gainesville. On
June 18, 19*8» residence was established on the Reserve, and concentrated
collecting was begun and continued in the manner described below for
somewhat over one year. The data from further collecting, carried on
until June, 1950» were used to substantiate the distribution and relative
abundance figures already obtained. During the period of concentrated
collecting, observations were made on 3576 nests.
Each station was visited 17 times (with additional special
trips to collect one particular ant form or one particular nesting site).
Visits to each station were made as nearly as possible once every month.
They were continued up to (and, in reality, past) the point at which it
was felt an accurate sample had been obtained, i.e., the point of
diminishing returns. Equal lengths of time, from 2 l/2 to 3 hours, were
spent at each station. In order to obtain a representative sample from
each station, each type of nesting rite was worked for a period of time
proportionate to its abundance in that particular station. For example,

13.
in longleaf pine flatwoods there is more opportunity for ants to nest in
the bases of trees than in the open sandt and therefore the former was
collected proportionately longer than the latter in that association*
Most of the collections were made by forceps, and some were made
with an aspirator* The daily collection from each station was supplemented
by putting the litter from approximately two square feet of soil surface
through a Berlese funnel* The litter was left on the funnel with no
external heat for two or three days until dry*
To sample the contenta of the litter in the field, several
other Berlese-type funnels were built from five-gallon lard cans* The
funnel itself consisted of an inverted light reflector which led to a
hole in the bottom of the can) over the light reflector different mesh
screening or hardware cloth could be placed* To activate the animals
a few drops of household ammonia were introduced, and the top placed on
the can* Suoh funnels were left an hour or less*
Another supplementary Berlese-type funnel was made from a
household funnel by fastening wire screen over its top and running a
rubber tube from its bottom into a vial* Small pieces of wood, pieces
of moss, and other similar objects were placed on this funnel, and a
light bulb, usually sixty watts, was lowered in a reflector over the
funnel* Other special collecting was accomplished by use of molasses
traps, and a light trap* The ants from these last two funnels, and
from the traps were not figured in the relative abundance*
For each colony collected, the blanks on a field data sheet
(Fig* 2) were filled in, except when two or more collections of the
same form were made in identical situations* In these cases, only one
field data sheet was filled in, but tlie appropriate relative abundance

University of Florida Conservation Reserve. Welaka
(except as noted) 1948-1950
Coll. No.
Det. by AVP Coll, by AVP
Stations Ila Eft I3a I4b I4d Illa II2a II2b II3a lilla
U32a II33a I71a I72a 3V3a
Areas not on Reserves
Forceps Berlese Seen Traps __________
Nesting sitess
A. Under soil surface
1. Open sand
a. No crater
b. Rudimentary crater _______________
c. Incomplete crater
d. Complete crater ________________
2. In and under litter __________________
3. Under log (sp.;decay)
4. Under and in log (sp.;decay) ___________
B. On soil surface
5. In fallen log (sp. {decay)
6. In palmetto log on ground (sp.sdecav)
7. In living palmetto root/trunk (sp.) _____
8. In dead stump (sp.{decay) ^
9. In base of living tree ?sp.)
10. In Utter
C. Crass
11. In base of grass clung) (sp.) _________
12. Between sawgrass blades ______________
13. In tall grass stem (sp.) _____________
0. Arboreal
14. Twig (with only center wood absent) (sp.)
15* Small branch (with many passageways) (sp.)
16. Call (sp.{sp. tree) _______________
S. Other (where found) ___________________
F. Wandering __________________________________
Characteristics of neBtt In shade In sun Diameter of nest*
Height of nesti ____________ No. openings! _____________
Forms presentí Males Females Callows Eggs Larvae Pupaei
Queen(s) Male Female Worker
Commensals (sp.) _____________________________________
Local abundance! abundant common occasional rare
Amount of activity! very considerable considerable moderate slow
no movement
Physical factors! Day Nighti Rainy Overcast Cloudy Clear
Time _______ Temp. ________ Relative humidity
Disposition of collection! AVP Not kept Pinned Other ________
Remarksi (over )
Fig. 2.
Field data sheet.

14.
vas chocked.
Each eollection was recorded on the field data sheet as followsi
The blanks in the upper left hand corner of the field data sheet were
filled in with the name of the form taken and the determiner. In the
other corner, the collection number, which combined the date with the
number of a given collection made on that date, was written. The stations
were given code numbers (see p. 16) to save space and facilitate recording
on this 3heet and elsewhere. The I*s indicate high areas of sandhills,
scrub, or scrubby flatwoods; the II's are the other flatwoodsi the Ill's
are the hammocks; and the IV's are the seasonally flooded areas. On
each sheet the station collected was encircled. On the next line below
the list of stations, the means of collection was indicated. Then the
nesting site was checked, and where applicable the species of plant in
which the nest was found, its state of decay, and any other peculiarities
of the nest were listed. The rest of the sheet is self-explanatory.
Remarks of various natures pertaining to the ant in question were written
on the back of the sheet.
Relative Abundance
If on one collecting trip of two and one-half hours to a given
station am ant form was collected six times or more, it was considered
abundant; if collected four or five tines, common; two or three times,
occasional; and if collected only once, it was treated as rare in that
locality. The relative abundance data for eaoh collecting trip was
recorded in the field.
A form collected only once or twice in a given day may have
a sporadic occurrence in the area of the station collected, and yet
have a relatively high abundance over a period of time in that station.

Because of such possible discrepancies, a relative abundance figure
based on the 17 collecting trips ivas compiled for each form in each
station so as to give a truer representation. On this basis, a form is
considered abundant if it was collected in a station forty times or
more) common, if collected thirteen to thirty-nine times; occasional,
if collected two to twelve times; and rare if collected once.

16.
COLLECTING STATIONS ON THE RESERVE
Summary of Recognized Stations
For convenience in referring to the field data sheet, the
plant association-soil type combinations, or stations, are expressed
by letters and numbers representing the drainage, vegetation, and soil
type of the station. For example, Ha represents a well drained station
supporting the Pinua palustris-Quercus laevis association on lakeland
fine sand. The stations chosen ares
I. Well drained areas other than hanmockc
1. Pinus palustris-Quercus laevis association
a. Lakeland fine sand (Turkey oak sandhills or uplands)
2. P. palustris-Q. cinerea ass.
a. Blanton f. a. (Bluejack oak sandhills)
3. P. cXaj¿sa-¿. Virginians var. geminata-Q. iwvrtlfolia-
&• chapsanii ass.
a. St. Luoie f. s. (St. Lucie scrub or scrub)
4. £. Virginians var. gaminata-Q. mvrtifolia-Q. chapmanii ass.
b. Leon f. 8., light colored surfaee phase (Leon
scrubby flatwoods)
d. Pomello f. s. (Pomello scrubby flatwoods)
II. Poorly drained flatwoods
1. P. palustris-Aristida stricta ass.
a. Leon f. s. (Longleaf pine flatwoods)
2. £. elliott^ ass.
a. Plummer f. s. (Plummer slash pine flatwoods)
b. Rutlege f. s. (Rutlege slash pine flatwoods)

Map 3* Distribution of Stations on the Reserve*
Ila*
Turkey oak sandhills or uplands
I2a*
Bluejack oak sandhills
13a*
St* Lucie scrub or scrub
I4b.
Leon scrubby flatwoods
I4d.
Powello scrubby flatwoods
Ilia.
Longleaf pine flatwoods
112a*
Plummer slash pine flatwoods
112b*
Rutlege slash pine flatwoods
I13a.
Black pine-fetterbush flatwoods
una*
Xerie hammock
IJI2a*
11©sic hamnock
III3a.
Hydric hammock
IV la.
River swamp
IV 2a.
Bayhead
IV3a.
Marsh

Map 3» Distribution of Stations on tha R—erra»

17.
3* £• aerotina-Desmothamnus ass.
a. Plummer f. s. (Black pine-fetterbush flatwoods)
III. Hammocks (Well drained to nearly saturated)
1. 2» vlrginiana ass.
a. Blanton f. s., haaxnock phase (Xerie hammock)
2. Magnolia grandiflora-Ilex opaca ass.
a. Blanton f. s., hammock phase (Uesic hammock)
3. nigra-Liquidambar-Sabal palmetto ass.
a. Rutlege f. s. (Hydric hammock)
If. Seasonally flooded areas
1. Taxodium distichum-Nvssa biflora ass.
a. Peaty muck (River swamp)
2. Gordonia-Tanala pubescena-Magnolia virginiana ass.
a. Rutlege f. s. (Bayhead)
3. Mariacue lamaicenais ass.
a. Peaty muck (Marsh)
Descriptions of the Stations1
Turkey oak sandhills
(JP. palustris-Q. laevis ass.; Lakeland f.s.)
The location of this station (see Map 3) is in the northeast
portion of the Reserve, between Trails 10, 11, and 12. Characteristic
trees are the longleaf pine (£• palustris¿) and turkey oak (Quercus laevis).
^ For a fuller discussion of the vegetation and soils of the Reserve as a
whole, and of the stations mentioned here, the reader should see Laeasle (1942).
2 The scientific names of pines are taken from West and Arnold (1946).

18.
Bluejaek oak (£. cinarea) and live oak (£. virginiana) are also present,
but are not so plentiful. Below the widely spaced trees is a scanty
herbaceous vegetation consisting in the main of wiregrasses (flristida
etricta and Sperobolis gracilis). Between these rather dense patches
of wiregrass there are areas of bare, pale gray sand.
lakeland fine sand (laessle's Norfolk fine sand, deep phase)
may occur on level or gently sloping areas of uplands, but on the
Reserve it appears chiefly in the rolling turkey oak sandhills. The
soil has good drainage, but it is not aB excessive as that of St. Lucie
fine sand and Lakewood fine sand. It has more organic matter in the
surface layer than either of the latter soils.
Bluejaek oak sandhills
(£• palustris-Q. cinerea ass.j Blanton f. s.)
This station is located at the junction of Trails 9 and 13
in the middle of the eastern side of the Reserve. The vegetation is
similar to that of the turkey oak sandhills, except that bluejack oak
(£, cinerea) is the codominant instead of turkey oak. The pines of
this station are larger and more numerous in a given area than in the
turkey oak sandhills, and there is consequently more pine needle litter.
This litter, along with the wiregrass and the litter added by the oaks,
force a complete and sometimes dense mat.
Blanton fine sand possesses good to fair drainage. Although
the soil has no organic hardpan, there is a tendency toward one at a
depth of three feet where the soil borders Leon fine sand.

19
at, Lucie Scrub
(£• dlausa-Q. spp, ass.; St* Lucie f. s.)
The area chosen for this station is located just over the Reserve
fance at the end of Trail 13* Part of this area of scrub extends onto
the Reserve east of Trail 13, but the larger area over the fence was
chosen as more typical.
La,os ale points out that the patch of scrub in question lacks
certain characteristic plants of the Florida scrub in general. Important
fiuoung these are rosemary iCaratiola ericoldos) and the semaphore cactus
(Opuntia austrina). A rather dense growth of sand pine (£• clausa)
makes up the upper story of the station, while scrub oaks, along with
several other shrubs, comprise a lower layer. Among the oaks may be
listed twin live oak (£• vir^iniana var. geminata) and Chapman's oak
(£. chaomanii) while staggerbush U-oIlsmu ferrualnea), saw palmetto
ropensj. silk bay (‘f’aflafa ÍUilküU.&)» and species of ¿lax are
other shrubs found at the station. A few vines and herbs, along with
mosses and lichens are also to be found. It is pointed out by Laessle
(1942i29) that "in spite of the xeromorphic nature of the scrub
vegetation, with its small, heavily cutinized, often revoluto, and
hairy leaves.... comparatively mesic conditions are found...." in
scrub because of the close, low, and consequently dense growth.
St. Lucie fine sand is characteristic of higher areas where
drainage in excessive or nearly so. Organic matter has opportunity to
remain only in the first inch of the profile. Below this the rainwater
leaches it rapidly through the large particles of what perhaps were
ancient dune sands, to give a loose, white sand.

20.
Leon scrubby flatwoods
(£• spp. ass.; Leon f. s., light colored surface phase)
This station is located between Trails 9 and 13 in the middle
portion of the eastern sido of the Reserve. The vegetation is like that
of the St. Lucie scrub, except that the sand pine and the silk bay, as
well as certain other plants, are absent. A few trees of longleaf pine
*
may be present as relics.
Leon fine sand, light colored surface phase (Laessle's Leon
fine sand, scrubby phase) holds a position between Pomello fine sand and
St. Lucie fine sand on the one hand, and the typical Leon fine sand on
the other. It is better drained than the latter and more poorly drained
than the former. The hardpan is usually within thirty to forty-two inches
of the light gray or almost white surface.
Pomello scrubby flatwoods
(&• spp* ass.; Pomello f. s. )
The patch of this scrubby flatwoode studied is located one
hundred yards west of the highway, and about 1/4 mile northwest of the
fire tower. The vegetation is very much like that of the Leon scrubby
flatwoods. Laessle (1942*30) sums up the differences between the two
as follows* "I am able to detect no fundamental vegetational difference
•••• except that there is a noticeable difference in the greater height
attained by the shrubs [of the Pomello soil] and the longleaf pine
always seems lacking there."
Pomello fine sand (laessle's St. Lucie fine sand, flat phase)
is more poorly drained than St. Luoie fine sand, and better drained than
Leon fine sand. It differs from Leon fine sand, light colored surface
phase, in drainage as noted above, and in posasesing no hardpan within
forty-two inches of the eurface.

21.
Longleaf pine flatwoods
(P. palustris-A. stricta ass.; Leon f. s.)
This station is located between Trail 4 and the highway, about
3/8 mile from the fire tower. The vegetation is dominated by somewhat
scattered, large longleaf pines; small longleaf pines are quite abundant.
Saw palmetto, gallberry (Hex glabra), and fetterbush (Desmothamnus
lucidus). as well as other shrubs, are found here. The ground cover
consists largely of wiregrass (A. stricta). but much indian grass
(Sorghastrum secundum) is present. Since fire has been kept out for
several years now, the shrubs, especially those mentioned above, are
growing profusely, and wiregrass is being forced out.
These flatwoods, which are fire subclimax for this region,
grow on Leon fine sand. It is higher than Plummer fine sand and Rutlege
fine sand. The soil has a gray or salt-and-pepper surface becoming lighter
down to a brownish black hardpan consisting of fine sand particles cemented
together with organic matter. Below the hardpan, at twenty-eight to
thirty-four inches from the surfaoe, the sand is only partially cemented
with organic matter, and becomes lighter brown with depth.
Plummer slash pine flatwoods
(£• elliotti ass.; Plummer f. s.)
The location of this station is a little less than l/4 mile
southwest of the fire tower. It supports the dominant slash pine (£.
elliotti) and a few longleaf and black pines. Saw palmetto and other
shrubs are present, along with several grasses, among them Andropogon.
Plummer fine sand, found in many cases between longleaf pine
flatwoods and the lower hydric hammocks, is a gray to light gray soil.
It contains a brown stained fine sand, usually at about three feet.

Rutlege slash pine flatwoods
(£• •Uiotti ass.I Rutlege f. s.)
22
This station is north of Trail 3 and just west of the highway.
The vegetation, dominated by slash pine (£. elliotti). and composed of
scattered trees of longleaf pine (£. caluatris) and hlaek pine (£.
serótina), is similar to that of Plummer slash pine flatwoods. Its
shrubs consist of fetterbush (Ps3apthaainu3 lucidas), saw palmetto
(Serenoa reasns). and oth3rs. Bsoauss of laok of firs, thsse shrubs
have become dense, and ore in many places shading out the ground
layer of short grasses.
The surface ten inches of Rutlege fine sand (Lasssls's
Portsmouth fine sand) contain much organic matter and are dark gray
or black. The station is low, and in times of heavy rain the soil
may become supersaturated.
Black pino-fetterbush flatwoods
(£. serotina-Desmothanmua ass.; Plumner f. s.)
This station is about 1/4 mils east of the junction of Trails
6 and 8, on the south side of Trail 6, near the middle of the west side
of the Reserve. The trees of the area are widely scattered black pine
(£• serótina), but thickets of fetterbush are fairly dense between the
pines. Among these thickets are open areas with little or no litter in
which the most important plants are the broma sedge (Andropogon) and
shorter grasses. The thickets themselves are on areas raised a few
inches above the lower, open soil, presenting available space for nests
when the lower areas become temporarily supersaturated during the summer
rains.

23»
Although the soil of this station (designated St. Johns fine
sand by Laessle) may not be typical Plummer fine sand, it is placed under
that heading. The lack of a hardpan v/ithin the eighteen to twenty-four
inch level suggests Pluraner rather than the best alternative, St. Johns
fine sand. Over the surface of the very flat area, the organic matter
is tightly packed.
Xeric hammock
(Q. Virginiana ass.; Blanton f. s., hammock phase)
Located in the only large area of live oak on the Pveserve, this
station extends between Trails 6 and 7 from near their junction for about
a quarter of a mile. The dominant tree is live oak (2* virginiana).
There sure also numbers of bluejack oak (£• cinerea) and laurel oak (£•
laurifolia). and sane cabbage palmetto (Sabal palmetto). A few trees of
longleaf pine (P. palustris) and loblolly pine (£. taeda) are present.
Chapman's oak, as well as other shrubs, wild grapes (Vitia spp.),
Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus gyipriiiefnl^), and grasses of the genus
Panlcun make up part of the rest of the flora. Because of the well¬
spaced larga trees, the area is quite open, except in those clumps where
scrub oaks, with other lower vegetation, have grown together to form
more or less dense thickets.
Blanton fine sand, hammock phase, has a profile much like that
of the typical Blanton fine sand. The soil at this station is higher
than that of the surrounding Leon fine sand flatwoods.
Mesic hammock
(Magnolia grandiflora-Ilex opaca ass.; Blanton f. s., hammock phase)
This station is next to the river, just south of Orange Point.
The area supports a denser growth than the xeric hammock. The top

24.
canopy allows comparatively little sunlight to filter through, and conse¬
quently the litter is moist much of the time. While it is not mature
enough to represent a typical climax association, it does support bull
bay (Magnolia grandiflora) and American holly (Ilex opaca), along with
various large oaks and pignut hickory (Hicoria glabra). Saw palmetto
and staggerbush (Xolisma ferruginea) are abundant. Among the vines are
eouppernong (Uuacadinn rotundifolia), Sail&x bonanox. and Virginia
creeper. Few herbs are present. As in the xeric hanmock, the soil type
»
here is Blanton fine sand, haianook phase.
Hydrie hammock
(&• nlgra-IAquidambar-Sabal palmetto ass.) Rutlege f. s.)
The site of this station is l/8 mile west of the junction of
Trails 6 and 8 at Orange Point, between the mesie hammock just described
and the lower river swamp. As the name of the association indicates,
water oak (£• nigra), sweetgum (Liouidambar stvraciflua), and cabbage
palmetto (Sabal palmetto) are comaon. Also prevalent are Bwamp red
bay (T&mala pubes cans) and Florida elm (Jlmte floridana). large relie
slash piles are also to be found infrequently. Poison ivy (Toxicodendron
radicans) and blaspheme vine (Smilax laurifolia). and the shrubs wax
myrtle (Cerothnmn^s ceriferus) and saw palmetto are not uncommon. In a
lower layer, Osiaunda spp. are to be found. The ground, which at times
becomes vary wet to saturated, supports patches of sphagnum. The Rutlege
fine sand is much the same as described under Rutlege slash pine flatwoods.
It supports a comparatively dense growth, the top canopy of which is
broken in only a few places.

25.
River swamp
(Xaxodium distichum-Ng-SBa biflora asa»; Peaty muck)
This station is located just north of Mud Springs* Dominant
among the trees which form a fairly thick canopy are bald cypress
(Taxodium dietician), water túpelo (Wvssa biflora), red maple (Rufacer
rubrum). and cabbage palmetto* The shrubs buttonbush (Ceohalanthus
occidentelis). Selix lontúses. and wax myrtle are present, along with
several vines, and only few herbs* The peaty muck is high in organic
material from the decomposition of debris, and is consequently dark
brown or black* There is standing water at this station almost all year,
except just before the summer rainy season* The water isolates hummocks,
formed by the root systems of trees and raised a foot or more above the
lowest level of the ground*
Sayhead
TtegfcBifflM a8B*l Rutlege f. s.)
The bayhead used for this station is about l/4 mils south of
the gate to Trail 3 on the east of tho highway* Dominant in this station
are the broadlaaved evergreens, loblolly bay (Oordonia laslanthus). swamp
red bay (Mk and white bay (jftgRglte Virginians). A few
shrubs, chiefly wax myrtle, are supported, as well as blaspheme vine and
poison ivy. The dense canopy allows little herbaceous growth, but
sphagnum patches occur* This bayhead is formed in a dsprsssien of ths
longleaf pine flatwoods which surrounds it* As its name suggests, bayhsads
head up incipient streams which find their way to the river, and conse¬
quently maintain standing water at almost all seasons, except perhaps just
before the summer rainy season* Certain portions, especially toward the
edge, remain comparatively dry, but the Rutlege fine sand is always moist*

26.
Marsh
(Mariscub Jamaicansis ass.; Paaty muck)
The area of this station is betvaan Trails 2 and 3, near Mud
Springs. It supports a growth of dominant saw grass (Mariscus iamaiccnais).
scattered buttonbush, and Saaittaria. along with several other smaller
plants. The saw grass is in most parts of the station so thick that not
much, if any, plant life exists besides the saw grass.
The peaty muck of this station is covered with water almost
all year. A foot or a foot and a half of water accumulates during the
Sumner rainy season. Unlike the river swamp, the ground here is eonqpletely
covered with water, and there are no saturated, emergent humnocks.

27
ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS
By means of repeated collecting tripe to the stations, it ms
found that each contained a characteristic and distinctive assemblage of
ant forms. The stations therefore represent ant habitats. It ms also
discovered that certain strata and nesting sites (as defined, p. 9)
contained distinctive assemblages. These could also then be considered
ant habitats.
,and Noting Siljes
The strata found to be significant in designating assemblages
in the present study arel 1) subsurface or subterranean; 2) surface
or ground; 3) grass or herbaceous; and 4) shrub or arboreal. Included
in the first stratum are all those nests vhich occur in sand, whether
they are under logs, litter, or some other cover, or are in the open
with no cover. Nests in the surface stratum sure those vhich occur in
any of the followings litter, fallen log, palmetto root on ground,
under mat of palmetto root or trunk, dead stump, base of living tree,
and grass clump. Those nests vhich are built in and under logs are
included in the stratum in which their largest portions were found. For
example, if a colony has its largest part in a log rather than in the
sand under the log, the nest is recorded in the surface stratum. The
herbaceous stratum consists of two nesting sites, namely, in tall grass
stems (includes Mariscos). and in and between sawgrass blades. The
shrub or arboreal stratum includes small branches, twigs, or galls.
The nesting sites recognized in these four strata are as
follows!

28.
A. Subterranean Stratum
1. Open sand — Those nests which were found in sand with no
eover. These were divided into four types< 1) no crater — any nest
built in the open with no crater of sand pellets on the surface around
the nest opening) 2) rudimentary crater — those nests in which a mound
or string of several or many openings was built in seemingly unorganized
fashion) 3) incomplete crater — those nests in which the crater of
sand pellets was not built in a complete circle) and 4) complete crater —
a nest with a complete circle of sand pellets around the nest opening.
Incomplete craters are probably only unfinished complete craters.
2. In and under litter ~ indicates situations in which a
nest may be either in and under litter or merely under litter. Host of
the nests in this category were actually under litter. A majority of
the nests which extended from the sand into litter were probably only
in litter temporarily.
3. Under log — those nests in sand with the nest openings
under a log.
4. under and in log —* those nests with portions of the
colony both under logs and in logs.
B. Surface Stratum
5. In fallen logs — includes all logs except thoBe of
palmetto.
6. Palmetto loes on ground — with their scaly structure,
offered a distinct nesting site, which oven though rarely found was
usually inhabited.
7. In living palmetto root or trunk — on living palmetto
roots and on the bases of palmetto trunks, nests occur in the debris

29
beneath the mat and between the bases left by fallen fronds*
8 and 9* Neats in dead stumps, and in the bark at the bases
of living trees — usually occurred in the moist first four inches above
the soil surface.
10* In fitter — those nests built in and on fallen leaves,
especially live oak* This type of nest occurred most often in raesic
hammock on oak leaves which had fallen so that the convex surface was
next to the ground. The ants lived on the inverted, concave surface,
and the colony was covered by one or more leaves. This was a favorite
nesting site of Paratrechina oarvula (llayr), and although other ants,
euch as Pheidole dentata Mayr, were found in it, they nested there only
seldom. Other nests in this category were taken in the lower areas of
the Reserve from piles of pine needles supported by low vegetation*
11* Nests in the bases of grass clumas are built mostly between
the appressed blades of grass and in the roots. Various ants occur in
this nesting site, usually in low areas such as Rutlege slaPh pine flatwoods,
but again Paratrechina parvula (Mayr) is most abundant* Nests of this
kind are especially numerous during the wet season. Although this category
was first placed in the herbaceous stratum, its close relation to other
nesting sites in the surface stratum makes it necessary to place it in
the latter stratum*
C. Herbaceous Stratum
12. Between sawrrass blades -- this category is very much like
the lest in that the ants nest between appressed blades* Where sawgrass
occurs, however, there is standing water most of the year, and nests cannot
extend into the roots. Paratrechina oarvula (Mayr) is a major inhabitant
of the sawgrass too*

30.
13* Tall grasa stacas — Host of the tall grase in which ants
live is of the genus Andropogon. Other tall grasses do not allow enough
room for the ant to more within the stem. One of the few inhabitants of
the tall grass steins is Pseudannrrma pallida F. Smith, but it is found
there abundantly. Also included within this category are the flower
stalks of sawgrass, although the occurrence of ants within them is not
great.
D. Arboreal Stratum
14. Twigs «— those branches from which the center core of
wood is absent, providing only enough room for the ant to crawl through.
15. Small brunches — those branches which have multiple
passageways, or which retain only the bark and a very little of the wood.
16. Palis — Nests in galls seem to be made only after the
gall insect has emerged. The ants always use the opening made by the
emerging gall insect as a nest opening, but some galls showed additional
openings quite evidently made by the ants.
A miscellaneous category, "other", is used for nests in pine
cones, fern roots, under stones, and other such places which are of
little consequence for nesting on the Reserve.
Station?.
Table I shows the relative abundance of places to neet in the
various stations. This abundance is purely subjective, based on the
field experience of the author, and is used to indicate the abundance of
a given place to nest in a given station relative to that of the same
place in another station. The column "Litter" serves a double purpose
in designating the availability of nesting places both in litter and in
and under litter. Likewise, the column "Broadleaved or pine logs"

TABLE Z
AVAILABILITY OF NESTING SITES
Rare — R| occasional — Oj
common — Cj abundant — A
Sand with no litter.
Litter
Broadleaved or pine loga..........
Palmetto logi.
Palmettos.•••••••••••••••••••«••••
Broadleaved or pine stumps
Living trees and shrubs...........
Grass clumps......................
Sawgrass plants...................
Tall grass plants.................
Twigs.. ••••••••• ••••••••••••
Small branches....................
Galls... ••••••
O-C R-0 R-0 0
C A A C
O C C R
- - R R
- - C C
O-C 0 R R
C C A A
- R R R
O R R
C-A A A
ROO
R R R
C C C
R O R
ACC
R R-0 C
- R C R
A C-A O-C A
R R O-C 0
R R - R
C C R A
R R 0 0
O 0 C A
ACOR
A R-0 A
C A C
R - -
O R R
COR
AAA
R — -
R R
C C
R 0
- - - C
O O-C R-0 R
O-C A A 0
0 C-A A
0
C

31.
indicates the availability of places to nest in and under logs, under
logs,end in fallen logs. The table therefore indicates the availability
of the nesting sites in the stations.
In parts of hydric haumock and bayhead, litter not only covers
the whole surface area, but it is also thick, sometimes reaching a
depth of six inches or more. Ants that lived under litter were found to
be at a minimum, being replaced by ants living in litter and in the maze
of roots and decaying logs buried in litter. Litter is common or abundant
in almost every station except swamp and marsh. Here the availability
of nesting sites in litter is cut down by the seasonally standing water.
In stations such as xeric hammock and turkey oak, where the tree, shrub,
and herb growth is widely spaced, large patches of bare sand are present.
Logs are not abundant on the Reserve, except in hydric hamnock
and river swamp, because of the logging operations being carried on. In
the swamp, however, most of the logs are under water for the best part
of the year, and consequently offer no nesting places. The column
"Living trees and shrubs'* indicates the abundance of the possible nesting
places in the besos of trees and shrubs. Nesting sites are found almost
always in the bases of pine treos, rather than in the bases of broadleaved
trees.
"Grass clumps" shows the abundance of clumps of grass, including
the bases of the tall grasses. "Tall grass plants" denotes Andropogon.
The stems, in which the ants live, die in the winter, and although some
remain suitable for nesting sites throughout the year, there is a tendency
for this nesting site to disappear seasonally.

32.
Distribution of Ant Forms in Stations
Table II shows the distribution of ant forms in stations on
the Reserve. In general, they preferred the higher and more open areas
in which to nest. Xeric hammock and turkey oak contained the largest
number of forms with 43 and 42 respectively. The next 11 stations held
smaller and smaller numbers of forms, the numbers diminishing by one to
three per station. The black pine-fetterbush flatwoods supported only
1? forms, and the number dropped to 11 in marsh. The number of forms
per station is as follows*
xeric haxanock — 43
turkey oak — 42
bluejack oak — 33
scrub — 30
mesic hanmock — 30
longleef pine flatwoods — 29
hydric hammock — 27
Leon scrubby flatwoods — 27
Pomello scrubby flatwoods — 25
bayhead — 24
Pluianer slash pine flatwoods — 22
river swamp — 21
Rutlege slash pine flatwoods — 20
black pine-fetterbush flatwoods — 17
marsh -- 11
The mean number of forms collected in one station is 26.7* a figure
lying between hydric hammock or Leon scrubby flatwoods and Pomello scrubby
flatwoods, near the middle of the list.
The difference of 9 forms between the first two stations and
the next highest probably indicates an aspect of the unnaturalness of the
Reserve. Where there should be logs under what are natural conditions
in other portions of the state, the timber has been removed on the Reserve
before it fell. Longleaf pine flatwoods and mesic hammock should contain
more fallen logs than they do, with a correspondingly greater number of
log-inhabiting forms. In Gainesville, a more typical mesic hammock,

TABLE II
RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF ANT FORMS IN STATIONS
Rare — Rj occasional — 0$
common — G; abundant — A
1
1
M
•
1
•
m
£
•
1
S*
•
1
•
1
1
•
1
M
8
1
M
I
1
M
§
!
?
'S
O
a
â– n
0
S
«
ft
1
0.
M
3
0
3
0
O
•H
a
k
£
tj
* Si
M
Jl
•
1
m
1
0
to
e
0
JS
•
§
A.
I
,3
«3
0,
H
I
OS
1
m
-H
1
X
•rt
1
i
á?
! i
1. Eciton nigrescena
2. E. opacithorax.....
3• Amblyopone pallipaa*............
4. Proceratium croceum.••••••••••••
5« P«| near silacaum...............
6• Euponera gilva*••••••••••••••••• *
7* Ponera orgatandria*.•••••••••••• R
8* P* opaciceps•••••••••••••••••••• *
9* P* trigona opaeior***** 0
10. Odontomaohus haematoda insularis C
11* Pseudomyrma brunnea**••••••••••• 0
12. Ps. pallida 0
13* Pogonomyrmex badiua..•••..•••••• 0
14. Aphaenogaster ashmsadi..•••••••• R
15. A. floridana. •••••••• 0
16. A. fulva. •••••••• -
17* A. lamollidana.................. m
18. A. macrospina................... -
19. A. texana.-
20. A. traataa......................
0
C
0
c
0
0
0
0
R
c
c
R
R
0
C
0
R
R
0
R
0
R
0
C
R
R
A
0

TABLE II (cont.)
§
1
o
s
a
o
£
a
21* Pheidole dentata................
22» Ph. dontigula...................
23. Ph.( near floridana.............
24. Ph. metallesoens..
25. Ph. morriBi......... ••••••
26. Ph. pilifera*******•••••••••••••
27. Cardiocondyla emeryi***.**...•••
28. C. nuda ninutior................
29* C. wroughtoni bioeeulata*•••••••
30. Crematogaster minutissima
mi88ouriensi6.............
31. Cr. ashmeadi....................
32. Cr* ooarotata vermiculata.......
33» Cr* laeviuecula.................
34. Cr* lineolata*********o**•••••••
3 5* Monomorium f lorie ola...
36* M* minimum*.**.*****************
37* Solenopsis geminata ••••••••
38* S* rufa* ••••• •••••••••
39* S. globularia littoralia*•••••••
40* S* minutiasima f****************
41* S. molesta*.*•••••*.•••••••*.•••
42* S* pergandei....................
43* S* pieta ••••••••••••••
44* Myrmecina americana.............
45* Leptothorax pergandei floridanua
0
R
m
R
0
0
R
0
0
0
0
m
c
c
m
m
0
0
0
R
0
C C R
ORO
-00
0 C
C
«a
m
C
0
m
0
0
m
0
C
R
0
c
0
R
c
C
0
R
0
0
0
C
0
0-00
R 0
0 A
0 R
R 0
0 R
C
0 R
0
0
m
c
COCR-CCOR

TABLE II Io ont•)
â– a
1
•
•
£
1
•
£
£
8
*
M
O
1
T}
1
0
a
s
M
|
a
»
M
e
09
1
ce
§
5
1
a-
I
3
a.
H
1
46# Leptothorax texanus davisi
47. Tetramorium guinoense......
48* Strumigenys louisiana«•••••••••••
49, Snithietrum*
*>0« Sru clypeata#•
?1* Sm. cr«ightoni.
52. Sou dietriehl
53» Shu omata*
54. Sru pulohella...••«••••••••••••••
55* Shu talpa..••••••••••••••••••••••
56. Trachy yrmex septentrionalis
aaninole..•••••••••••••••••
57* Dolichoderus puetulatua*.• *#**••#
58. Iridomyrmax humilla
59* I. pruinoeuB....
60. Dorymymax pyramlous flav opee tus,
61. Da pyramlous
62# Tapiaos» BWIlillaaiatiaaaaaaaaaaa
63a Brachymyrmax dapilii
64a Camponotus castaneus.....••••••••
65a C. SOOittSaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
66a Ca nSarctiOUSa•aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
67a Ca (Colobopria) a
68a C. abdomlaalla floridanus••••••••
69a Paratrechina longicornis.........
70a Pa areniTagaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
0 R
as
0
-
m
•
-
R
R
•
as
•
m
as
R
0
R
na
0
R R
R
R
as
R
as
R
a» a»
•
-
as
as
-
as
-
0
as
-
-
as
as as
m
•
•
as
•
«
-
0
-
as
as
R
0 R
«a as
R
R
as
-
as
as as
-
-
SB
as
as
m
m
R
as
«•
R
as
-
-
m
R
ski
-
-
as
-
R
R
-
R
C 0
0
0
0
as
•
.
.
C
R
.
•
.
-
Palatka
. ruderal
*
•
as
*
•
•
*
as
as
as
0
0 0
Welaka,
0 C
ruderal
0
c
as
as
C
0
as
“
”
“
as
0 R
0
as
•
as
-
•
• me
as
•
as
•
«•
as
as
as
«•
•
—
—
R
0 0
0
0
0
c
c
0
0
•
0
0
as
0
•
as as
0
0
0
R
R
0
as
0
0
R
0
0
as
c 0
as
0
m
as
as
as
-
c
•
•
as
as
as
0 0
R
m
0
0
as
-
•
m
0
as
0
R
as
as as
0
m
0
.
R
R
•
0
0
0
0
0
c
c c c
Crescent City,
c 0
ruderal
c
C
0
C
c
c
c
0
0
0
A R
•
0
R
R
R
-
-
A
•
-
as
as
as

1
71* Paratreohina panrula...... COO
72. Prenolepis imparie.........,,.,. R • 0
73* Formica arohboldi«#..##«>a 74* F. pallidefulva 0
75* F« schaufusai.. R
Bluejack oak
Pomello
II (cont.)
A

33.
with 39 forms, contained the highest number of ants collected in any
plant association worked*
Turkey oak and xerie hammock offer the greatest opportunity
for nesting in open sand. They are therefore able to attract those ants
which prefer or must have nesting sites in open areas. At the same time
they offer dry or moist litter, a few logs, and arboreal sites.
Two factors should be mentioned in regard to longleaf pine
flatwoods. First, the logging operations remove many logs which would
provide nesting sites,end perhaps attract a greater number of species
to the area. Second, fire is conscientiously kept out of the Reserve.
As a consequence, there is a dense growth of shrubs in the flatwoods and
litter is becoming deeper over the whole area.
Only 17 forms were taken from black pine-fetterbush flatwoods.
Since the station offers very little diversity of nesting sites, it
excludes most of the other ants found on the Reserve. During the summer
months it has standing water after every heavy rain) this tends to limit
the ants to those which can withstand periodic submergence.
The low number of forms in marsh can also be traced to the
small number of available nesting sites .in that plant association. For
all but a few months of the year there is standing water. There are no
trees, but only scattered shrubs to offer small branches and twigs. The
great majority of the nesting sites are between the appressed blades of
sawgrass.
The number of collections made (the number of nests collected)
in each station is as follows*

34.
turkey oak — 425
xerie hammock — 373
black pine-fetterbush flatwoods — 3°7
mesie hammock -- 295
Loon ecrubby flatwoods — 280
hydric hammock — 245
scrub — 226
bluejack oak — 224
longleaf pine flatwoods — 219
Pomello scrubby flatwoods — 218
marsh — 184
Plummer slash pine flatwoods — 166
river swamp — 166
bayhead — 128
Rutlege 8lash pine flatwoods — 120
The mean number of collections made in one station is 238.4, a figure
lying between hydric hammock and serub.
It will be noted that turkey oak and xeric hammock are at the
top of the list with the greatest number of collections, as well as with
the greatest number of forms. This «^phasizes that these two stations
are best suited to the ants for nesting situations. In this chart also,
the higher and more open areas are at the top of the list. In this
connection, the open black pine-fetterbush flatwoods was next to lowest
in the number of forms taken from it, but it is third when the number of
collections is considered. This indicates that black pine-fetterbush
flatwoods is particularly favorable for the few ant forms occurring there.
The opposite trend is shown by bluejaek oak, which is relatively low in
number of collections, but high in number of ant forms; such a trend indi-
cateE that suitable nesting sites are diverse, but scarce.
In general, those places in which the moisture and litter are
intermediate are in the middle of the list. Last on the list are the
seasonally flooded areas and the slash pine flatwoods. Harsh, which has
the fewest number of fonos, is more toward the middle of the list in
numbers of collections. Bayhead and the slash pine flatwoods, on the
other hand, are lower on the present list.

Number of Forms per Station
Fig. 3. — Suitability of the stations for ants, based on the number of ant forms
per station weighted against the number of collections per station. Ila, turkey oak; I2a,
bluejack oak; I3a, scrub; I4b, Leon flatwoods; I4d, Pomello flatwoods; Ilia, longleaf pine
flatwoods; I12a, Plummer flatwoods; II2b, Rutle&e flatwoods; II3a, black pine flatwoods; lilla,
xeric hammock; III2a, mesic hammock; III3a, hydric hammock; IVla, river swamp; IV2a, bayhead;
IV3a, marsh.

Fig. 3» ** Suitability of the stations
for ants, based on the number of ant forms
per station weighted against the number of
collections per station. The stations fall
into three groups separated by the solid
black lines. In general, the higher, more
open areas are highest in number of forms
and number of collections per station; the
lower, wetter areas have the least of eaoh;
and the more mesic situations occur in the
middle group on the graph.
The -x* represents the intersection of
the average number of forms and the average
number of collections per station. Those
stations to the right of the dashed line are
more suitable than average for ants, while
those on the left are less suitable.

35.
Sines some of the stations differ in their positions on the
lists more or less considerably, the number of forms per station and the
number of collections per station are veighted in Figure 3 to obtain the
over-all suitability of each station as a nesting situation. The numbers
and letters near each point on the graph indicate the station which that
point represents. It will be noted that three major groups are shown,
separated on the graph by the solid black lines. The group lowest in the
number of species and the number of collections per station contains all
of the seasonally flooded areas plus the slash pine flatwoods. Plummer
»
slash pine flatwoods is higher than Rutlege slash pine flatwoods in
number of species and in number of collections, bearing out its closer
resemblance in the field to longleaf pine flatwoods.
The middle group contains mesic and hydric hammock, bluejack
oak, scrub, and all of the flatwoods, including Bcrubby flatwoods. It
is possible that the thick stand of pine in the bluejack oak area is
responsible for its relation to the longleaf pine flatwoods on the graph.
The last group, xeric hammock and turkey oak, is outstanding for the large
number of species and collections made in its two stations.
The "x" in Figure 3 represents the point at which the mean
number of collections per station intersects the mean number of forms
per station. Those stations to the right of the dashed line are more
suitable than average for ants, while those on the left are less suitable
than average.
Plant succession as depicted by Laessle for the Reserve (1942*95)
is shown in Figure 4. Three psammoseres are recognized* 1) active dunes
or strongly wave-washed sands, leading eventually to scrub; 2) residual
sands neither strongly wind-sorted nor wave-sorted, with rolling

Xeric hammock
* Meeie hammock
Hydric hammock
Fig. 4*
Plant eueoeasion on the Reserve* (After Laessle*)

3ó
topography, leading to the sandhills of turkey oak and bluejack oak] and
3) washed and sorted marino sands, with flat topography, leading to
longleaf pine flatwo ode. The hydroseree lead, on the one hand, through
successive stages to bayhead, and on tha other, through similar stages
to marsh. The relationships of the blaok pine-f3tterbunh flatwoods are
obscure, but it is possible that they originate in much the same way as
the longlesf pine flatwoods, and that bayhead vegetation replaces the
flatwoods from the lower portion». The transition from hydric hammock
to mesie haoraock is also possible, but L&eeslc had not observed such a
replacement on the Reserve. It will be noted that longleaf pine flatwoods
may be replaced by either scrubby flatwoods or slash pine flatwoods,
depending upon whether succession takes place in the higher or the lower
portions. Laessle recognizes three fire subcliroaxest 1) scrub] 2) the
sandhills] and 3) longleaf pine flatwoods. The climax is mesie hanmock.
In general, those stations near eaoh other in succession are
found near eaeh other on the graph (Fig. 3)* Thie situation is probably
a reflection of the moisture conditions in the various associations.
The groups on the graph could be called xerie, mesie, and hydric, with
little overlap. The graph shows that the hydric situations have the least
number of species and collections per station, while the xeric situations
have the most.
Another important relation is plotted in Figure $» The solid
blaek line shows the number of ant forms occupying one station, the
number occupying two stations, etc. The dashed line shows the number of
forms per given number of stations for those forms collected more than
once] and the line of dashes and dots, for those ooilacted more than twioe.
Note that only in the first case is there a large number of

15
o'
o
â–º1
•*1
o
Fig. 5* —* Number of ant forme confined to a given number of
stations. The figure shoes that 14 forms, or 19JC, were confined to one
station when all forms collected are considered ( ) (N * 71)* This
number drops to 5 forms, or 8^, when those forms collected only once are
not included ( ) (N * 62), and to 3 forms, or when only those
forms collected more than twice are considered ( ) (M - 56). The
graph tends to become level at 2 or 3 forms for the higher number of
stations*

37.
forms (about 19jí) taken in one station. In the case of those ants which
were collected more than once, only 5* or 8%f are confined to one station.
Of those forms collected more than twice, only 3 ants, or about 5j£, are
limited to one station. As this procedure is continued, the number of
ants in only one station tends to become smaller and will finally reach
zero at oleren collections.
The dashed line graph has a peak where the number of stations
equals two. In graphs excluding ant forms collected two times or less,
three times or less, etc., the peak mores over to three stations. The
cause of this peak is obscure, but it may indicate that the ants of the
Reserve will, in most cases, be found to occupy at least three stations
when enough collections are made.
it can be pointed out that the graphs do not dip strongly as
the number of stations is increased. They tend toward a straight line
at two to throe forms per given number of stations.
The 19/£ of the ant forms taken in only one station is conquerable
to the 20% of the ant forms of the Chicago region that Talbot (1934) took
in one plant association. Likewise, Gregg (1944) showed about 24^ of the
ant forms of the same region confined to one plant association, but Cole
(1940), in the Great Smoky ¿fountains, found about 48^ of the ants con¬
fined to one plant association. His high percentage may in part have
been caused by the differing altitudinal levels of his plant associations.
Neither Talbot nor Cole mentions the number of times each ant
form was collected. Even though Gregg gives relative abundance figures
for each species, these apply to the whole area worked, rather than to
his plant associations. On the basis of the figures he presents, however,
none of the ante collected in only one plant association was common or

38.
abundant. When his ants were found to be common or abundant they vera
always collected in more than one plant association. This also holds
true for the Reserve. Only those collected rarely or occasionally were
confined to one station. This fact makes it plausible to suggest that
in their distribution, ants do not show as much dependence upon stations
based on plant associations as other animals.
It is interesting to note that only three of the forms listed
by Talbot as confined to one plant association were found in but one
plant association by Gregg ten years later. In view of this fact and
in consideration of the observations made during the present study, it
becomes quite clear that even after a thorough investigation of a given
area has been completed, continued collecting in that area will increase
the number of stations in which certain of the ants are found. This can
also bs used in support of the contention that ante are not as restricted by
factors in plant association-soil type combinations as are other animals.
foe,St¡ata.an¿ Hest^
The ant forms collected on or near the Reserve were found to
have the following distribution as to stratai
subterranean stratum — 33
8urfaee stratum — 38
herbaceous stratum — 11
arboreal stratum — 16
The subterranean and surface strata contained a majority of the ant forms
on the Reserve with a total of 58 in the two. Only 19 forms nested in
the herbaceous and arboreal strata.
Table III shows this relationship. Of the total of 75 ants,
1 form was found only in buildings, while for 10 others no definite
nesting site data were gathered. A few collections were made which may

TABLE III
DISTRIBUTION OF ANT FORMS IN STRATA
Found only in one stratum — *
Preferred stratum — P
Additional strata — x
K * 64
SPECIES
Subtar- Surface Her- Arbore-
ranean baceous al
1. Eciton nigrescens..............
X
t
-
-
2. E. opacithorax.................
1 X
t
-
-
3* Amblyopone pallipes............
«B
X
-
-
4. Proceratlum croceum....••••••••
-
•
-
-
5. P.t near silaceum.......••••••«
•
X
-
-
6. Euponera gilva.................
•
*
-
-
7. Ponera ergatandria.....••••••••
-
X
-
•
8* P. opaciceps...................
-
p
X
-
9» P. trígona opacior.............
10. Odontomaehus ha«oatoda
X
p
•
•
insularis......•••••••••.
p
X
-
-
11. Pbeudomynna brunnea............
me
-
X
P
12. Ps. pallida
-
•
p
X
13* Pogonomyrmex badius............
*
«
-
-
14. Aphaenogaster ashmeadi.........
*
-
•
-
15. A. floridana...................
*
-
-
-
16. A. fulya...••••••••••••••••••••
X
p
-
-
17. A. lamellidens...........
-
-
-
X
18. A. macroapina..................
*
-
-
-
19. A. texana......••••••••••••.•••
-
•
-
-
20. A. treatae.....................
•
-
-
-
21. Pheidole dentata...............
X
p
-
X
22. Ph. dentigula..................
X
p
-
-
23. Ph.» near floridana............
X
p
-
-
24. Ph. meta lies cans*. ••••••
p
X
-
-
25. Ph. morrisi....................
•
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
27. Cardiocondyla omeryi.
T
“
-
X
-
-
29. C. wr ought oni bioaculata•••••••
30. Crematogaster minutlsslma
•
p
X
m
missourlensis••••••••••••
X
p
-
X
31. Cr. ashmeadi...................
-
X
-
p
32. Cr. eoaretata vermioulata......
-
-
-
«
33» Cr. laeviuscula................
mm
X
X
p
34. Cr. lineolata..................
X
p
-
X
35. Monomorium florieola....•••••••
SB
-
m
?
36. M. minimum.....................
*
-
-
-
37. Solenopsis geminata............
P
X
SB
SB

TABLE III (cont.)
SPECIES
Subter- Surface Her- Arbore-
anean baeeoue al
38* Solenopsis rufa
39, S. globularia littoralis.•••••••
40* S. minutissima ?••••••••••••••••
41. S. molesta.•••••••••••••••••••••
42. S. pergandei..••••••••.•••••••••
43. S. picta...•••••••••••••••••••••
44. Uyrmeoina americana.............
45. Leptothorax pergandei floridanus
46. L. texanus davisi...............
47. Tetramorium guineense...........
48. Strumigenys louieianae.....•••••
49. Smithistruaa bunki......•••»••••
50. Sm. clypeata....................
51* Sm. creightoni.... ••••••••
52. Sm. dietriehi
53* Sm. oraata....••••••••••••••••..
54. Sm. pulohella...................
55» Sm. talpa.............
58* Trachymyrmex septentrionales
seminóle.
57* Dolichoderus pustul&tus•••.•••••
58. Iridomyrmeac humilis.............
59* I* pruinosus....................
60. Dorymyrmex pyramicus flaropectus
61. D. pyramicus....................
62. Tap in cana sessile................
63. Braehymynaex depilis......••••••
64. Camponotus castaneus............
65. C. socius.
66. C. nearcticus..
67* C. (Colobopsis) spp•••••••••••••
68. C. abdominalis floridanus.......
69. Paratrechina long!cornis........
70. P. arenivaga....................
71. P. parvula..
72. Prenolepis imparis..............
73* Formica archboldi...............
74. F. pallidefulva.................
75. F. ochaufussi...................
P
x
P
?
?
X
*
#
X
*
*
p
X
X
?
p
p
X
?
?
?
X
?
?
X
X
p
*
*
t
X
*
X
p
m
X
In buildings
« -
x P
* •
* m
* -
T
x
X
X
X
X
p
X
p
p
p
X

39.
or may not have been colonies; they are indicated with a question mark.
The 10 ants for which no data were obtained and the ruderal form, along
with the questionable collections, were not included in arriving at the
distributional data on page 38. The number of ants concerned was therefore
64. A single "x" indicates that the form was collected too few times
for a preference to be recognized in Table III.
Distribution according to nesting sites was as followst
Subterranean stratum
open sand ~ 21
no craters — 12
rudimentary craters — 7
incomplete craterB — 6
complete craters — 13
under logs — 10
in and/or under litter — 31
There were 3*- forms which lived under cover of either logs or
litter. Nests of 9 forms were found under and in logs.
Surface stratum
in litter — 13
in fallen log ~ 32
in palmetto log on ground — 9
in living palmetto root/trunk — 16
in dead stump — 22
in base of living tree — 19
in base of grass clump «— 7
Herbaceous stratum
between sawgrass blades — 4
in tall grass stems — 9
Arboreal stratum
twig — 11
small branch — 14
gall — 3

40.
Only 11 ant forms were found in over 6 of the possible 16
nesting sites. The highest number of nesting sites (14) was occupied
by Camponotus abdomlnalis floridanus« Next highest was 12 nesting
sites occupied by Pheidole dentata and Paratrechina párvula. It will
be noted that these three ants are the same that occupy all of the stations.
With the exception of Pheidole dentata. which occupies only 3 strata,
they occupy all 4 strata also. I«optothorax pergandel floridanus« which
occupies 11 nesting sites, is the other ant found in all strata. The
distribution of these ants in stations, strata, and nesting sites points
to a direct correlation between the number of stations occupied and the
number of strata and nesting sites occupied.
Figure 6 shows the relation between the number of stations
occupied and the number of nesting sites ocoupied for each ant collected
more than three times. It is a soatter diagram in which the number of
stations any given ant form oocupies is plotted against the number of
nesting sites that form oocupies. An examination of this figure shows
that a large number of forms are limited to from 2 to 5 stations and
from 1 to 3 nesting sites. The diagram showB that the number of stations
occupied by any form increases faster than the number of nesting sites
occupied, indicating that the ants are more likely to be confined by
nesting sites than by stations. However, the diagram goes to substantiate
the premise of the preceding paragraph, in that as more stations are
occupied, more nesting sites are also oocupied.

Number of Nesting Sites
Fig. 6. — Scatter diagram to show the relationship between
the number of stations occupied and the number of nesting sites occupied
for each ant form collected more than three times. The number of forms
involved is 52.

41*
Activity Relationships
The speed of movement of each ant form varies to some extent
with changes of temperature and relative humidity* During the course of
the present study, this "amount of activity" v?as estimated subjectively
for individuals. The speed was then correlated with temperature and
relative humidity readings taken vfc the ground surface.
The data on this subject collected during the field work proved
to be complex when all of the ant forms were studied together, and in
many cases when merely one form was considered. Some ants chose one
extreme in physical factors in which to forage, whereas other forms chose
the opposite extreme. In general, the diurnal foragers displayed a
moderate amount of activity in their above-ground activities when the
temperature was above 20°C. If, on the previous night, relative humidity
was high and the temperature low (below 10°C.), the ants were slower to
resume activity the subsequent day. At the other extreme, activity has
been observed from nests of Camponotus abdominalis floridanus at 53°C«,
and most of the ants have been seen foraging at temperatures above
30°-35°c.
Seasonal variation in the foraging habits of several forme has
also been observed. l«?any ant forms remain in their nests during periods
of cold. On the other hand, during the winter months many forms will
remain idle for a short period even though the temperature remains mild,
and no frost appears at night. A notable exception is Pheidole dentata.
which can be seen foraging even on chilly days.

42.
ANNOTATED LIST
In the following annotated list, the discussion of every ant
form has been arranged so that topics appear in the same order. Any
points of taxonomy which are felt to be important are discussed first.
The distribution through plant associations, strata, and nesting sites,
are listed next. Comparisons are made with the ant's distribution in
Gainesville or other regions, or with another ant on the Reserve which
may replace it in some of the plant associations, if such a discussion
is felt necessary for a better understanding of the habits of the ant.
Notes as to its life history are followed by others on its activity.
Miscellaneous remarks are added in a final paragraph.
As indicated in the introduction, the taxonomy of the ants in
the present study is based on Creighton's recent work (1950) in which he
reduced the quadrinomial system, prevalent until 1950 in the family
Formicidae, to the trinomial system used in the dynamic view of nomenclature.
Any departure from the names which Creighton uses is explained in the
text of the Annotated List under the ant concerned. Some forms were
found during the study which could not be definitely identified. Such
forms that were recognizably different are listed, and comments are made
concerning their taxonomic status.
In presenting the life history data, an attempt was made to
determine an average number of workers present in a flourishing colony
of each ant form. In some cases this has been impossible, or has been
derived from the counting of only one nest. In addition, the seasonal
appearance of immatures, males and females is indicated for each form.
Measurements have all been made from the lateral view. Total
length is the sum of the distances from the base of the mandibles to the

43
back of the head, from the most anterior part of the pronotum to the
base of the propodeum through the abdominal pedicels, and from the
anterior to the posterior of the abdomen* All measurements were the
shortest straight lines covering the given distances*
Fourteen ant forms were taken during the present study which
had not been recorded from Florida* They sure as followsi
Prooeratium* near
Aphaenogaster &eata.g
Pheidole pjHfera
Crematogaster coarctata vgrxaic^lata
Solan ops is mimitisglroR ? (see annotated list)
tesscina americana
Sqithfo-frWfl &£&
SmithistruBB cyeighto^
Sw4th^stnm ,amata
Smith istnina talpa
hfrft arenivaga
Several ant forms taken in the Gainesville Region were not
found during the present study on the Reserve* These are as followsi
Ü&itojn SftCPMraWffif
Svsohincta perrandei
goflffl3 fiflWCtafo Eennsylvanicijg (lit.)
Lamtogamra elo&sata manni
minn tía films, (dot. ?)
Monomorium pharaonis
SgjQMRBfflli fJt9ÜLÍ üiWÁfrmB.
^tothora^ vfteelyi
Tetramorium aim-mimum (lit. from Sanford, Jacksonville)
â– te4aa SBfl&Cftffltf.
Formica schaufussi dolosa (lit*)
Other ants taken in Velaka, but not in Gainesville ares
Aablvopone pa Hipea
Proceratium. near siiaceum
eroceua
£2SSEa ereatandria
Aphaenogaster raserosnina
Aghaenogaster trffflaf

44,
dentjgula
Pheidole pilifera
Cardjocondyla wroughtoni bimacnlnta
Solenopsis minutissima ?
Mvrmecina amerioana
Leptothorax texanua daviei
Smith is truroa bunki
Smithi8truma clypaata
Smithistr^ma dietriohi
Smithistruma omata
Smithiatruma pulchella
Smithistruiaa talpa
Fornica archboldi
The following ants, taken within seventy miles of the Reserve, have
been cited in the literatures
Pheidole mcgacephala (St. Aug.) (not listed by Creighton, 1950)
Pheidole anastasii (Sanford)
Leptothorax curvisninosus (Jacksonville; pinned specimen)
Tetramoriy^ siraillimum (Sanford; Jacksonville)

45.
FAMILY FORMIC IDAS
Subfamily Dorylinae
lentos ¡li^upcena (Cresson)
On July 5* 1948# the single collection of nigrescena made on
the Reserve was recorded for meeic hammock* The nest was under litter
which had gathered in the center of the tese of a stump rotted so that
only the rim was left standing* The nest extended into the stump, but
the major portion was in and under the moist litter in the stunqj and in
the nearby chambered sand*
All of the workers were huddled in a tight ball* No activity
was observed until the workers were disturbed, but then the workers ran
hurriedly in all directions* No individuals of the reproductive caste
were seen, even though the nest was dug into, and returned to later*
Cole (1940i38) made some observations concerning the nesting
habits of this ant in the Great Smoky Mountains* Two colonies he found
there "were beneath large, flat stones, loosely applied to the soil, in
open grassy areas**** Deep within the soil the ants occupied large brood-
filled chambers constructed around imbedded and partially decayed tree
roots****The soil, even at chamber level, was dry and firm*N
Seiten opacithorax Emery
E* was found occasionally in longleaf pine flatwoods*
All nests were under the bark and loose wood of stumps or logs, and extended
into nearby litter* All logs from which this ant was taken were longleaf
pine (Pinus oalustris)« In stumps the ant occupied all available space
under the bark and all suitable crevices; in logs the ant nested in a

4é.
length of several feet of wood*
One nest in a 3tump was estimated to contain between 40,000
and 50,000 workers. These numbers were obtained by placing all of the
ants in vials, counting the number in one vial, and measuring this vial
against all the others.
Numerous individuals of Eciton were taken at the openings of
a nest of Solenopsis seminata in the sand one and one-half feet from a
stump in which the colony of opaclthorax was located. The Eciton nest
abutted a nest of Brachytavrmex depilis. and partially occupied a nest
of Cyemafroggstfir laeyluscula in the stump. Groups of Eciton were also
taken from termite galleries in the stump. Leotothorax pergandei
floridanus and Aphaenoaaster macrospina were found wandering near the
stung). The following animals were taken through the Bórlese funnel from
the litter of the Eciton nesti
beetle larvae
round worms
heads and thoraces of Odontomachus haematoda insularis
Splimopsig B9j|, gropgratiUB? £E°c,q,W
dealated female of a species of Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum)
wasp of the family Bethylidae ?
From another nest the following were takens
Brachvmvrmex depilis
faratf^sEifla EfiEiak
diplopo4s
A large portion of a colony with its nest litter was placed in
a large lard can and brought into the laboratory. To prevent the escape
of the individuals, the lard can was placed on a platform surrounded by
water. Yery few workers, however, were observed wandering on the platform,
although workers carefully placed the dead or injured individuals in a
pile outside of the lard can on the platform.

47
Subfaaily Ponerinae
Aablvopone pallipee (Haldeman)
Previous to Brown’s paper (1949)# pallipes was considered a
species of Stigmatomma* Brown, however, has given reason to place
Stigmatomma as a subgenus of Amblvopone* It is treated as such in this
paper*
One collection of Atablvopone was made during April in bayhead*
Several ants were gathered in moist litter near and in fern roote. A
careful examination of the roots and litter nearby revealed no additional
specimens*
Cole (1940536) has the following to say concerning this species
in the Great Smoky Mountains! "The nest consists of one or two openings
beneath or beside a stone or under the topmost forest litter. Almost
perpendicular galleries connect with small subterranean chambers never
far beneath the surface*••«These ants are nowhere abundant in the Park
but seem to occupy rather circumscribed areas where environmental
conditions, particularly misture and deep shade, are favorable* Colonies
wore most numerous in second-growth pine woods."
The collection on the Reserve, made on April 22, 1949, yielded
one male* The workers are very reclusive, and quickly find crevices in
which to hide, Thsir color blends with that of the soil and duff*
Haskins (1928) has reported on the behavior and habits of this ant*

48.
Properatima prpceum (Roger)
£. croc etna was collected occasionally in longleaf pine f la two oda,
and rarely in blue jack oak* All or its nests were taken in t he surface
stratum from fallen longleaf pine logs* These logs were either moist or
wet, with the wood pulpy or soft and separable between the annual rings*
The nests extended toward the center of the leg*
Two colonies were counted. One contained 24 workers, 12 wallows,
and 1 male* The other, seemingly complete, had only 3 workers. There
was a queen in each of these nests and no inmaturos were noted* The
male wae taken on November 23, I949. It was found about two feet from
the nest, and sinee no other males ware taken, it is possible that a
flight had recently taken place* Tortera of croceum were sluggish in
their movements, while the male was alert and moved quickly*
Cole (1940*36) indicates that his single collection of this
speclee in tho Great Smoky Mountains was made in a wet, dense area of
mixed cove hardwoods* Re adds that the leg in which the ante were found
was easily broken apart into firm, wet pieces* The nest was "well toward
the center of the leg, in the more firm core wood" and had "small
galleries and chambers chiefly with longitudinal penetration* In all
the nest covered a length of [only] about 4 inches.,..The colony was
rather small, being composed of about 30 workers," In the Chicago area,
Gregg (1944i46o) records the presence of this species beneath dung*
Proceratium. near rile.cetas Roger
From Emery's redescription of Proceratium sjiaocum. the form
dealt with here seems to be close to this latter species. However,
M* R* Smith, to whom specimens were sent, would not place the form

49.
beyond genus. In an attempt to revise the genus he found (in litt.)
that "The previously mentioned characters for separating the tvo species
did not appear dependable and I could not discover any new characters
that were any good either." Thus the form is given an uncertain taxo¬
nomic status.
One collection of this form was made on October 17, 1948, from
the base of a slash pine. The colony was nesting in bark buried under
the soil surface. Six individuals were taken. As in £• croceum. the
workers are sluggish in their movements.
Euponera gilva (Roger)
Euponera gilva was confined in its distribution to the moist
or wet hammock areas. It was taken once in mesic hammock, and occasionally
in hydric hammock.
Its nesting sites were in fallen logs. A typical nest extended
for two and one-half inches in debris under the bark of a log. Specimens
have also been taken from litter, and ftpom the detaris decomposing between
the rootlets in and under the litter.
A nest from hydric hammock contained 26 workers and one queen.
The eggs, larvae (which ture well equipped with body spikes), and pupae
were observed in separate places in the nests, with the pupae usually
more toward the surface, or toward the outside in log nests. Since so
few nests were seen, no further life history data were obtained.
Although the ants are slow in their movements most of the time,
they are quick to find concealment. Their elusivenees is increased by
their color which is similar to that of the wood where they live, and by
their ability to hide motionless in every narrow crewloe.

50
Smith (1934»562) records |2. gilva from Mississippi, Alabama,
and Tennessee* His observations on the nesting sites coincide with the
above* He states that its nests "in sane instances contain as mny as
from one to several hundred workers and often as many as ten or more
dealated queens". He remarks further that Creighton has found fully
developed males and a winged female on June 20 in southern Alabama*
genera e&&tandg;fr Forel
Mention needs to be made of a number of small specimens of
£• ergatandria collected on the Reserve* These workers are in all
measurements more diminutive than specimens taken in Dade County, Florida,
and are likewise smaller than other ergatandria taken on the Reserve*
Ihile the latter specimens fit tho description of £• ergatandria which
Smith gives (1936*425)* the smaller workers from the Reserve differ in
total body length. Smith lists tho body length as 2*3-2*9 smut the
smaller workers on the Reserve measure only 2.0*2.1 mm. Moreover* the
ventral portion of the petiolar tooth is smooth in the larger specimens*
and serrate in the smaller specimens. Smith (in litt.) says that he
has noted much variation in the workers of ergatandria. and considers
all of the specimens from the Reserve as of that species. The smaller
specimens have been found only in mesio and hydric hammocks* whereas the
larger specimens were spread mainly over drier areas* Both variants
will be treated together in the following discussion*
£• ergatandria colonies were taken occasionally in hydric hammock
and mesic hammock; and rarely in turkey oak* bluejaok oak, and black pine-
fetterbush flatvoods. A typical nest was taken from under the moss near the
base of a living oak tree in hydric hammock* No life history data wre obtained*

51.
Pernera opac jeeps Efeyr
A discussion concerning the variation in the shape of the
pstiolar 8cale in Ponera tripona opacior and in this form can be found
under £. trígona opacior» Many of the nests of opactcena. especially
in marsh, contained one to several individuals which are evidently
aberrant workers* These insects have large, compound eyes, comparable
to those of the queen, and the petiole is more slender than that of the
normal worker* It is perhaps significant that queens were not found in
nests which contained these aberrant forms*
Thie species prefers the wet or flooded areas of the Reserve*
It has been taken abundantly in marsh; commonly in hydric hammock and
river swamp; and rarely in Rutlege slash pine flatwoods, bay head, and
serie hammock* If the characters now used to separate £• opac leeos
from £. tripona opacior prove to be misleading, as some workers believe,
the specimens taken in xeric hammock and assigned to £. cpaciccps may
be extreme variations of £• trígona opacior. a form which prefers high,
dry areas* £• ooaciceps occurs almost exclusively in the wetter portions
of the Reserve, and tand3 to replace £• trigona opacior there* In the
Gainesville region, £• ooaciceps was taken in longleaf pine flatwoods
>7)
where there are more fallen logs than/the same plant association on the
Reserve* Because of its preference for wet areas, it ought to occur also
in at least the lower portions of mesie harmoek*
Most often this ant nests in the bases of sawgrass plants
between the oppressed leaves* Many times the ant can be found in the
wet or saturated moss-covered stumps of the plants where there is an
intermingling of roots in the decomposing, oppressed leaves and wet
debris. The other nesting sites, in order of preference, arei

52
1* fallan logs
2* dead stwqps
3» bases of living trees (under moss and litter at water
surface)
4. in litter (wet)
5* palmetto roots on ground
6» under mat of palmetto roots
7* under mat of palmetto trunks
In general, the nests are wet to saturated and built in debris. Host of
the nests, especially those in sawgrass, are at the water surface, or
just above or below it, (In this latter ease, the tight growth of the
plant parts seems to keep the water from the nest.) In situations which
are less wet, the insect continues to simulate the above-mentioned nesting
conditions in its choice of wet, pulpy wood of logs, or the debris found
under the bark of logs or stumps.
Of 5 nests counted, the number of workers varied from 15 to 84,
with an average of 40 per neet. Each of these nests contained from one
to three of the aberrant workers described above, and none oontained a
queen. Immature forms probably occur in all months, but from September
through November very few were noticed in the nests. Females are produced
from September to November, and males from October to November.
This is a fast moving and evasive ant which blends with the
color of its surroundings. It is much lees active in winter months,
although this is the period winged forms are in the nest.
Ponera trikona opacior Forel
From an examination of the specimens of this form and of £•
opaoiceps in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, there appears to be a
great deal of overlapping variation in the two forms. It seems clear
that, in the museum collection, the character of the shape of the

53
petiolar scale, which is used by Smith (1936) to separate the two forms,
is not distinctive* Many of the specimens labelled as one form are more
like the description of the other form* The specimens of opaciceps and
of trígona opacior collected from the Reserve, however, fall into two
distinct classes on the basis of the petiolar scale* Perhaps the shape
of the petiolar scale will be shown to be dependent on the environment
of the nest, and therefore of no use as a key character* On the other
hand, it is possible that the specimens in the M* C* Z* have been mis-
identified*
In all respects except total length, the Welaka specimens agree
with Smith's description (1936) in which he citea the length of workers
of opacior as 2-2*3 hgj* Workers from the Reserve measure 2*4-2*7 ran*
in total length*
£. trígona opacior tends to prefer the higher, drier plant
associations* It was taken commonly in xeric hammock; occasionally to
comnonly in turkey oak; occasionally in bayhead and Plunmer slash pine
flatwoods, in all well-drained areas except Pomello scrubby flatwoods,
and in the hammocks; and rarely in the other flatwoods stations* No
collections have been made from Pomello scrubby flatwoods or the seasonally
flooded areas of the river swanqp and marsh* Cole (1940*37) points out
that in the Great Smoky Mountains the ant does not nest in dense wet woods,
but prefers rather open areas where the soil is able to contain an
appreciable amount of moisture*
A majority of the nests of this ant occupied the surface stratum*
The several nests recorded from sand, moreover, did not extend more than a
few inches into the sand, but were mostly under litter* The nests in the
surface stratum were usually associated with debris, although some nests

were found with little or no debris. Several of the nests taken in fallen
logs were found under the bark against fairly hard wood. The order of
preference of nests in the surface stratum is as follows*
1. fallen logs
2. dead stumps
3. bases of living trees
4. litter
5* palmetto roots on ground
6. under mat of palmetto roots
7. under mat of palmetto trunks
Of four nests taken from wood, the number of workers varied
from 7 to 21, with an average of 13. None of these nests contained queens.
Immature forms have been found in all months. Hales have been observed
in flight in December and February. No information has been obtained
concerning females.
P. trinona opacior is relatively fast moving, and characteristic¬
ally evasive. Indi, vidua Is are difficult to see because they ars very
nearly the color of the wood or litter surrounding their nests. They
immediately seek the first available crevice in which to hide.
Nests are occasionally found in the same logs and stumps as nests of
Odontomchus faagffitoAa
OdontomachtiB inaularia Guerin
0. haamatoda insularis is a widespread ant on the Reserve, and
is well represented in nearly all of the stations except marsh, where it
has not been found. It occurs abundantly in blaek pine-fetterbush flat woods
and mesic hammock; commonly to abundantly in turkey oak and hydric hammock;
ooumonly in Leon scrubby flatwoods, longleaf pine flatwoods, Plummer slash
pine flatwoods, xeric hammock, river swamp and bayhead} and occasionally
in blue jack oak, scrub, Pomello scrubby flatwoods, and Rutlege slash pine
flatwoods

55.
A majority of its nests have been found in sand, almost always
under litter or logs. The remainder of the nests were taken in the surface
stratum* Where there are suitable logs or stumps present, this ant shows
no preference between wood and sand* However, on the Reserve, because
of the existence of relatively few suitable logs or stumps, the most favored
nesting site was in sand under litter* In the Gainesville region most
of the nests of 0* haematoda insularis were taken in logs*
In order of preference to the ant the nesting sites in which
0* haematoda insularis was found in Welaka are*
1* under litter
2* under logs
3* in and under logs
4* in dead stumps
5* in fallen logs
6* under mat of palmetto trunk
7. in Utter
8* in bases of living trees
9* open sand or with very light litter
Host nests in logs and stumps were in wood of an advanced stage of decay,
although nests were found in wood in all stages* There was no preference
between pine and broadleaved wood, but all nests were wet or moist*
Charred wood was not rejected* Many of the nests in logs and stumps, and
under logs, ramified into chambers in the nearby sand* In the black pine-
fetterbush association, several nests were found among the roots of
fetterbush*
On several occasions 0* haematoda insularis has been found in
the same stump or log with Cnmponot^s abdomina lia floridanus* but the
association probably depends on a common suitable nesting site* Both of
these ants sometimes extend their nests into sand near the wood which
contains the major portion of their colonies* Both, moreover, live under
logs, but 0* haematoda insularis sometimes Uves in sand alone* The

56
chambers of thaae large ants are never very deep, and usually appear to
be ready-made cavities into which the ants moved* They have not specialised
in excavating to the degree that the true crater forms have* Many of
the passageways, too, seem to have been constructed by some other agent
than the workers, since they are in most cases much too large for the size
of the ant* The portions of the nests in 3and, moreover, are cocán only
supported by humus and leaf litter*
Large nects of 0* ha eme, toda insular!» have not been seen on the
Reserve* One nest, perhaps slightly smaller than average, contained 20
workers and 3 callow workers* Inmaturas have been observed in the neste
in all months, but not during oold periods* On numerous occasions malee
have been taken in flight and in the nests from May through early August,
but no information has been gathered concerning the famalee*
When the soil is saturated during the simmer rainy season,
the workers often bring their inmaturos to the surfaoe and place them
under leaves* Single workers also can be seen resting under the cover
of a leaf during these periods, as well as during the colder months of
the year*
This ant is one of the most conspicuous in a majority of the
plant associations on the Reserve* It is quite active above ground,
especially during the warmer months, and large workers, foraging alone,
are eomnonly seen* In the oold periods, however, activity, both above
ground and in the nest, is reduced to a minimum, and its absence above
ground is quite noticeable*
0. haematoda i« known to feed on insects. When
large insects are caught, several workers cooperate in carrying the intact
bodies to the nest opening* Workers have been attracted to the peanut
butter and oatmeal bait used in mammal traps.

57
Insects which have been found living near 0. haematoda insularis
in the same log or stump are*
Camoonotus abdominalis floridanus
Paratrechina parvula
ReticuliterriosTflavipea?) (Is op t era)
In several instances mites have been found clinging to workers.
They have been found on all parts of the body, but especially on the head,
gaster, and propodeum.
Foraging workers have been found in association with several
other species of ants. Neither the Odontomachus nor the other ants were
much disturbed. In one instance an Odontomachus worker was very inquisi¬
tive concerning the activities going on within the crater of a nest of
Trachvmvrmex septentrionalis seminóle. The worker repeatedly ran to the
nest opening with waving antennae, but neither the visitor nor the
Trachvmvrmex gave much attention to the other.
Subfamily Pseudomyrminae
Pseudomvrma brunnea F, Smith
£• brunnea nests were taken occasionally in turkey oak, Leon
scrubby flatwoods, Pomello scrubby flatwoods, mesic hammock, hydric
hammock, river swamp, and marsh; and rarely in scrub, Rutlege slash
pine flatwoods, xeric hammock, and bayhead. The ant shows a preference
for river swamp, hydric hammock, and the dense Pomello scrubby flatwoods.
On the other hand, it has been collected only once in any type flatwoods
other than the scrubby flatwoods. P. brunnea thus replaces P. pallida
in the wet or seasonally flooded areas, whereas P. pallida replaces

58
brunnea in -the flatwoods areas. The difference can be attributed to the
fact that pallida is able to live in tall grass stems, whereas brunnea
is not. Moreover, brunnea prefers the more dense, wet woods, and pallida
the more open areas.
Almost all of the colonies of brunnea have been collected in
the arboreal stratum. Nests have been equally divided between true twigs
and small branches. A single collection from the herbaceous stratum was
made six feet above the ground in a flower stalk of a sawgrass plant.
Two large nests of this species were taken, one with 79 workers
and 1 queen, the other with 79 workers and 8 queens. Other nests contained
18 workers and 1 queen} 9 workers and no queen} and 7 workers and no
queen. A mating flight occurred on June 17» 1950» and winged forms were
observed in previous years from June through September. Immature forms
occur in the nests almost all year, and usually there are a large number
of larvae, i.e., 30 to 65 large larvae and many more small ones.
JP. brunnea is agile and is able to disappear easily on the
other side of a branch. It seems to prefer foraging when temperatures
and humidity are high.
£g.eu3aMa g&Uíáa »• smith
Until Creighton*s paper (1950), P. pallida and £• flavidula
were recognized as separate species on the basis of the presence or
absence of black spots on the base of the abdomen in flavidula. Creighton
has synonymised flavidula. since he has found that a nest series of
sufficient length will contain individuals with and without black spots
on their gasters. Nest series from the Reserve also have shown these
characteristics•

59
P. pallida was found in sight stations. The black pine-
fettorbush association affords a great many Anáropogon ateos which are
suitable nesting places for tullida. As a consequence, the ant is
found abundantly in this station. It occurs coima only in iongleaf pine
flatwoods and Leon scrubby flatwoods; occasionally in the sandhill areas
and the slash pine flatwoods$ and rarely in xerio hammock.
Because of its preference for tall grass stems as nests, P.
pallida was found moat often in the herbaceous stratum, but was also
taken arborsally. It was absent from the other strata.
The nesting sites of pallida were almost always true twigs or were
twig-like. All but a few collections were made from tall grass; a few
others were made from the twigs of pine and scrub oaks; and the ant can
often be found nesting in the stems of planted bamboo, beveral collections
were made from twig-like small branches.
Of 12 colonies taken, the number of workers varied from 5 to
25» averaging H. Of these colonies 7 contained no queens. (These small,
queenless aggregates may really be sections of a larger group centered
around a queen. See Crnraatozastar aahmaadi and C. winirfciS8ÍIB» nd88ourien3is),
Eggs, larvae, and pupae are present in all months, with a peak of abundance
indicated in August. Winged forms were taken from the nests from August
through November. No nest contained both males and females.
This agile ant has a knack of disappearing behind a grass stem
or a twig when disturbed. 1/hen a nest is broken open, many of the ants
will ramal» perfectly still until touched. Normally they exhibit a
moderate to considerable above-ground activity. Several workers were
found, evidently foraging, within a cocoon of a dead bagworm (Thyridoptervx
ephameraeformis Haworth) hanging from a fetterbush.

6o
The eggs, larvae, and pupae of this ant are usually more or
leas segregated* A typical nest contained eggs and some larvae in the
base of a grass stem, other larger larvae near the middle, and pupae and
a few eggs near the top of the stem* Many times the queen is found near
or at the top of the stalk*
As the Andropogon dies in the fall and the stems become drier
and less habitable, the ants are forced down near or into the base of
the stems, or into portions of stems that have been broken from the
plant but which are still supported by vegetation* Their abundance
becomes somewhat less until the spring growth of grass creates new
nesting sites* In this reepeot these ants, like Paratrechina párvula.
in marsh, show a seasonal variation in occurrence which is dependent on
the seasonal variation in occurrence of the nesting site plant*
It might well be pointed out that the mature of the Pinus
serotina-Desmothamnus association, which this ant occupies in the most
abundance, gives an advantage to these grass stem ants in the sunner,
just as it creates a disadvantage for the ant when the Andropogon dies
in the winter* During the height of the rainy season from early July
into August, the water level may reaeh within inches of the soil surface,
or even exceed it* Deep burrowing forms which cannot withstand prolonged
periods of submergence will be kept at a minimum or eliminated* A few
forms, such as Iridoavnnex pruinosus and Formica archboldj, can withstand
the submergence of their lower galleries, and undoubtedly fluctuate the
depth of their galleries with the rise and fall of the water table* The
grass stem ants, on the other hand, ron»in relatively unaffected by the
water level change, are free of competition for their nesting site, and
at the same time are adapted to procure the above-ground food supply*

61
Subfamily Myraicinae
Pogonotnyrmex badius (Latr.)
£• badius is one of the most restricted ants of the Reserve
as far as occurrence in plant associations is concerned. It requires
open areas in which to build its dome-shaped mound, and only a few
situations suitable in this respect occur in the stations studied in
the present problem. Xeric hammock is preferred and nests are found there
eoanonly. £• badius nests were taken occasionally to coma only in turkey
oak, and occasionally in bluejack oak. Many nests are found on lawns,
around gardens, and in firelanee. All of its nests were complete, domed
craters. Characteristically, the areas around the openings of the nests
are always bare of vegetation in well-established colonies. Many of
these areas are edged with charred pieces of wood, seeds, twigs, and other
debris. The charcoal rim of many of these mounds is & conspicuous feature
of the nests. Wray (193&)» giving an account of the ant in North Carolina,
mentions that nests in that region have the same features. He also gives
a description of the internal structure of the nests.
Observations were made on a nest of this active ant beginning
in August, 1949. The nest, which was situated in a lawn, had been moved
perhaps three feet iomediately prior to the first observation. Surface
temperature, temperature at three inches, relative humidity, and the
number of workers emerging from the nest within a period of two minutes
were recorded daily for 8*30 A.M., 11*30 A.M., 2*30 P.M., and 5*30 P*M.
Activity of the colony above ground never began before 8*30 A.M. and was
usually completed within a few minutes of 5*30 P.M. In February, 1950,

62.
the nest opening was again moved, this time only a foot. In each of
these instances of changing the site of the nest opening, it is possible
that some of the old chambers and galleries were continued in use.
Table I? shows the number of Pogonomyrmax badius that emerged
from the nest during a warm period in August on four successive days,
and during four days of a cold period in November. On August 12, no
ants were seen above ground. Although the temperature this day was mild,
the relative humidity remained at 100j£ and most of the day was rainy.
Other eolonies have been noted to continue excavation during very light
rain, but when the drops became constant, activity stopped. The ants
show a tendeney to avoid high humidity, although as can be seen on
August 14, activity continued during 100/C humidity. Conversely, lower
humidities are correlated with the greatest activity. However, when
the humidity becomes very low and temperature very high (50°C. or more)
in June and July in midday, a cessation of above-ground activity occurs.
The temperature at three inches below the surface was first
recorded on August 14. During the rest of August, while these temperatures
were being taken, the ants opened and closed their nest at a three inch
temperature of about 27°C«, as indicated in the table. In November,
however, most of the temperatures were below 27°C., and opening began
at a three inch temperature of about 10°C«, whereas closing started at
about 16°C. Thresholds of surface temperatures were more obscure.
Besides the effect of the temperature on the opening and closing
of the nest, high humidity, as indicated above, seems to retard the opening
and speed the closing. The ants are slow to start work on mornings with
a good deal of moisture in the air. In the evenings, when the humidity
rises, they are usually well along in their closing operations when it

TABLE IV
NUMBER OF POGONOMYRMEX ACTIVE DURING A WARM AMD DURING A COLD PERIOD
date
time
tamp.
3"
at
sur.
rel. hum.
no. in
2 min.
remarks
8/12/49
0830
21°C.
100JÉ
0
overcast
1130
19
100
0
rainy
1430
20
100
0
rainy
1730
19
100
0
rainy
8/13/49
0830
24.5
87
0
cloudy
1130
39
57
118
windy, olear
1430
41
42
152
clear
1730
22
94
0
windy, clear
8/14/49
0830
25°C.
38
46
0
clear
1130
30
39
50
180
opened 0945
1430
35
40
51
235
clear
1730
31
24
100
204
rainy
1800
30
23
100
180
clear
1830
29
23
100
68
1900
27
23
100
4
1920
27
23
100
0
sunset
8/15/49
0830
27
36
35
128
activity starts at O83O
1130
33
49
25-
288
clear
1430
35
37
35
150
clear
1730
32
30
62
136
closing starts at 1730
13/17/49
0830
10
18
45
48
clear, activity sluggish
1130
16
25
35
50
moderately active
1430
20
27
37
52
moderately active
1730
18
10
75
1
sluggish
1735
18
9
83
0
11/18/49
0830
8
10
55
0
1130
13
18
25-
44
clear, sunny
1430
19
24
25-
51
1715
16
8
65
0
sundown, clear
13/19/49
0830
7
10
75
0
clear
1130
11
17
25-
25
sunny
1430
18
21
25-
57
activity moderate
1730
16
6
89
3
eloBing starts at 1715
1750
15
5
100
0
sunset
11/20/49
0830
8
12
65
0
clear, sunny
1130
13
27
25-
100
quite active
1430
19
30
25-
49
1730
17
11
97
28
closing starts at 1730
1745
15
9
100
0

63.
roaches 10C$. In addition» closing seams to be influenced by the increasing
darkness» and the nest vas usually closed by sunset* Controlled laboratory
experiments would have to be carried out to determine the importance of
each of these physical factors on colony activity*
A typical closing operation was carried out as follows! Certain
of the workers started the procedure by picking up pellets of sand lying
on the mound» and carrying them to the nest opening* Some carried this
sand between their mandibles» and others pushed the pellets between their
hind legs* Once at the opening» the workers packed the sand into the
orifiee wall* The whole procedure was not concentrated» and many indi¬
viduals lost interest in their work* Little by little» however» the opening
was made smaller* Some of the ants brought pieces of grass and small
twigs instead of sand» and these acted as supports* During this whole
activity» other ants were bringing pellets to the surface* When the
opening was finally closed» there remained a small area (two inches in
diameter) cleared of sand pellets which surrounded the pile of sand at
the opening* Although the outside was closed» movement of the sand at
the place of the opening indicated that the ants were still packing sand
into the passageway from the inside* The pile of sand over the opening
sometimes became very large» reaching on one occasion a height of one-half
inch, and a diameter of one-half inch* This turret contained no passageway*
The nest was closed in a similar fashion every night, and in rainy weather
sometimes remained closed all day*
In early December, the ants broke through the mound, over a
period of days, in nine places* Within a few days all of the holes were
plugged and the ants were emerging from the original opening* However,
as has been noted, in February the ants closed their original opening,

64.
and used a new one approximately a foot from the former. Since the latter
opening was in lawn, the ants went about their characteristic habit of
cutting the grass around the opening and cowering the shoots left standing
with sand.
A mating of the males and females from the same nest took place
at about lOtOO A.U. on June 20, 1950* While some workers were carrying
on the normal nest activities of bringing seed husks and sand pellets to
the surfaoe and carrying seeds below, others were attending the mating
individuals. These males and females were two feet to one side of the
nest opening, in an area about two feet in diameter. The males ran very
speedily over the ground, or else flew for short periods six inches to a
foot above the mating area. They were probably equal in abundance to
the combined numbers of females and workers within the area.
Three or four males approached a given female at one time. Within
a matter of seconds one of the males had entered into copulation with the
female. The period of copulation lasted up to one and one-half minutes.
Each female mated with three or four different males. Because the malee
were so very quick in their movements, it was difficult to tell whether
a given male mated more than once.
During the matings, the fast moving workers could be observed
pulling at the males wherever they happened onto one. They pulled than
away from the females, even during mating, and when a male wandered back
toward the nest opening, he was carried or pulled away. Probably the
same stimulus was involved in all of these activities.
After each mating, each female stroked her antennae with her
forelegs, and examined the tip of her abdomen with her mouthparts. When
several matings had taken place, each female began a slow flight upward.

65.
The males, which had been flying swiftly around the mating area, gradually
flew away also*
The following seeds have been taken from nests of Pottoncmyrmex
tedias 1 Amflgrqip Phytolacca rjgjda. Pinus sp., Cenchrus
gracillimiuB (sandspur), Sabal palmetto (cabbage palm), Diodella teres
(buttonweed), and centipede grass*
The ant3 were able to carry all of these seeds, except those
of the cabbage palm* One of the latter seeds presented somewhat of a
problem, although the ants were able to carry it for 3hort distances
in their mandibles* When they had transported it to the mound, however,
several ants began digging under it with their forelegs until a crater
was formed with the seed in the center* When the seed was removed for
identification, the crater was becoming deeper and the ants were making
no progress. It vías observed that ants can carry seeds for at least
100 feet* Cole (1932*144), however, noted that Poftonomyrmex
in the western United States carries seeds for as much as 0*7» 0*4, 1*35*
and 0*25 miles*
AahaenoBastgg ^s^aadÁ &-«ry
£* ashmoadi prefers the areas of the Roserve which offer
xeromesic conditions in the subterranean stratum* It is found occasionally
to commonly in xeric hammock and Leon scrubby flatwoods; occasionally in
bluejaek oak, scrub, and mesie hammock; and rarely in turkey oak and
bayhead*
ashmeadi is confined to the subterranean stratum* In all
^ Determinations of all seeds were made by A* II* Laeasle, Department of
Biology, University of Florida*

66.
cases it nested in sand, and most of its nests were under litter. One
nest, situated where there was no litter, had no recognizable crater
and two nest openings•
The size of the nest is approximately the same as the closely
related treatae. One nest contained 326 workers, 7 callows, 250
pupae, plus eggs, larvae, and a queen. Winged forms have been found in
the nests in June.
The above-ground activity of this ant is moderate to consider¬
able on clear, sunny days when the relative humidity is below 70/C. It
has not been taken foraging when the temperature was below 20°C. Along
with other ants, ashmeadi shows a tendency to become very inactive
above ground during the winter. The form is carnivorous, and is attracted
to raw liver; it has been seen carrying dead ants of other species,
especially Odontomachus haematoda insularis.
Aphaenogaster floridana U. R. Smith
A. floridana was taken occasionally in turkey oak on the Reserve.
In the Gainesville region, it was also taken in ruderal situations, such
as open, sandy roadsides. Nests are either complete craters or rudimentary
craters around small clumps of grass.
A. floridana is a fairly fast moving insect. Most of its
foraging id done at night, but it is sometimes active during the day,
especially during overcast weather. It is attracted to molasses traps.
Aphaenogaster fulva Roger
Within a given nest of fulva there is great variation in
character proportions of the workers from the incipient to the mature

67.
colony. Of the specimens sent him from the Reserve, Dr. Smith (in
litt.) says, "The smaller workers with more posteriorly rounded heads
and longer antennae probably belong to young colonies. As the colonies
increase in size the later workers acquire shorter antennae and less
rounded heads." Because of this ohange in characteristics, it is
important to recognize workers of an incipient colony, 30 that they will
not be misidentifisd as a closely related form.
It can be mentioned here that individuals with shorter spines,
keying to rudis in Creighton's paper (1950), hare been found on the
Reserve, but are not included because of their small number and uncertain
taxonomic position.
A. fulva prefers the lower areas of the Reserve. They have
been taken commonly in river swamp; occasionally in scrub, longleaf pine
flatwoods, hydrio hammock, and bayhead; and rarely in Rutlege slash pine
flatwoods, xeric hammock, and marsh. It tends to replace ashmeadi
in the wetter areas.
Ants of this group have been found in both the subterranean
and surface strata. Nests were equally abundant under logs, in litter,
in fallen logs, under the mat of palmetto roots and trunks, and in dead
stumps. They also have been found in and under logs and in the bases of
living trees. Logs which contain nests are usually in the last stages
of decay. One nest was between the bases of palm fronds and the trunk
of the palm in the debris gathered there.
Of the 2 nests counted, the one from scrub contained 46 workers,
10 worker pupae, and 1 queen, while the other from river swamp contained
65 workers, 3 «allows, 15 worker pupae, and 1 queen. inmaturos were in
almost every nest collected. Hales were found in the nests in Hay through

6?.
July; no information iras obtained concerni-ng the females
The ants of this group are quite active. The workers are
attracted to a mixture of peanut butter and oatmeal* They have been
noted living next to nests of termites (Reticulltarmes flavines), and
have been seen carrying lire termites in their mandibles*
Aohaenogaster lamellidens Mayr
Only one collection of lamellidens was made on the Welaka
Reserve* This nest, in xsric hammock, occurred in the base of a broken
limb which had decayed differentially. In the Rainesville area, the
author has collected the species in mesic hammock in fallen logs* In
the Great Smoky Mountains, Cole (1940*52) has found a few colonies
"in wet rotting logs in a deeply shaded forest".
Although collections in other regions indicate that laaellideas
occurs usually in the surface stratum, its collection on the Reserve from
the stump of a limb 5 feet above the ground places it in the arboreal
stratum*
Aohaenogaster mserospiaa M* R. Smith
A* aacrospina was taken occasionally in bluejack oak, longleaf
pine and Rutlege slash pine flatwoods. All of its nests were in the
subterranean stratum under litter. Its distribution on the Reserve
shows a preference for pine growths*
This is a moderately active ant. On a number of occasions, it
luis been attracted to molasses* One nest counted contained 65 workers,
10 worker pupae, and 1 queen* Attention was drawn to the nest by the
capture of individuals of this species in a molasses trap* Part or all

of the 44 ants caught in tho molasses trap may have belonged to this
oolony.
69.
Aphaenogastar texana Emory
&• texana nests oeeasionally in scrub, and rarely in longleaf
pine flatwooda, xeric hammock, and meeio hammock. Nests have been taken
only from the surface stratum in vet to saturated logs in the last
stages of decay. The habits of this species are much the same as those
of fulva.
&phaonoaaBtcflr trcatae Forel
Nests of A, treatae have been found occasionally in Leon scrubby
flatwooda, and rarely in scrub. Although it has been found in only these
two plant associations, there is no apparent reason why it should not
occur in other areas with relatively light leaf litter, as does
All of its nests have been found in the subterranean stratum
under litter. One nest contained eggs, 20 larvae, 81 pupae, 20 callows,
292 workers, and 1 queen. Two diplopods were removed from the dirt
surrounding the nest,
A. treatae is a moderately fast moving, timid insect. Workers
have been noted carrying larvae of various kinds into the nests, A
grasshopper nymph was readily eaten when introduced into a nest trans¬
planted into the laboratory,
TM» laboratory nest consisted of the queen and three workers.
The queen laid eggs within three days of the time that she was placed in
the nest. All of these eggs were kept near a damp sponge in the nest,

70
and vero cared for by the workers. The queen rested 03 the sponge, and
paid little attention to the clomp of eggs.
treatae has been taken from the Chicago area (Gregg, 1944)
and from Iowa (Burén, 1943), and Cole (1940«50) has the following to
say concerning nests in the Great Smoky üountains 1 "Invariably, it was
found colonizing open woods (usually pine) or less frequently grassy
fields and slopes. All nests were beneath stones of varying size, and
each nest possessed a single entrance, either beneath or beside the stone,
leading by a gallery to a series of large interconnected chambers deep
in the soil.... In all cases, however, the soil was rather moist."
It is probable that the "open woods" and "grassy fields and slopes" of
the Great Smoky ¿fountains offer conditions similar to the open areas of
the Reserve. Since there are few stones on the Reserve, the an« here
mu3t be satisfied to use leaf litter to cover its nest opening.
¿atóate uayr
£• dentata nests are well represented in all of the stations
on the Reserve exoept marsh. It was taken most often in the better
drained areas, as well as the hammocks, river swamp, and black pine-
fetterbush flatwoods. Colonies occur abundantly in scrub, Leon scrubby
flatwoods, Pomello scrubby flatwoods, and river swamp; commonly to
abundantly in bluejack oak, xeric hammock, mesic hammock, and black
pine-fetterbush flatwoods; commonly in turkey oak, longleaf pine flatwoods,
Plummer and Rutlege slash pine flatwoods, and hydric hammock; occasionally
in bayhead; and rarely in marsh.
Over two-thirds of the dentata nests taken were on the soil
surface, and, with the exception of one collection from a small branch,

71*
all other» were taken from send, mostly undor litter* Nests under litter,
and nests in logs and stumps are preferred by £• dentata» The other
nesting sites in which it was found, in order of importance for the ant,
are*
1* in litter
2* under mat of palmetto root and stump
3* in bases of living trees
4* under logs
5* in and under logs
6* in grass dumps
7* open sand (rudimentary craters)
8* palmetto root on ground
9* in small branch
Other collections were made under moss on a saw palmetto root, and
several records were made of nests in fern roots*
In Gainesville, £. dentata was found to nest equally often in
logs and in rudimentary craters* On the Reserve, probably due to the
presence of litter and at least some wood in almost all situations, craters
of this ant were seldom found* Even though other ants, suoh as Posonomyraga
badius wore able to build crater nests only, £• dentata showed its
preference for nests in wood or under cover of wood or litter, by avoiding
the open areas*
Nests were recorded in wood in all stages of decay, and in wood
that varied from wet to dry* Most of the naske in logs or stumps were
in pine, although a number were found in broadleaved wood* Often these
nests were under the bark, but a few nests in stumps extended down into
the root systems* During the wet seasons, nests have been found several
feet high in dead tree trunks*
Nests of this ant usually contain a large number of individuals*
One rather small nest comprised 162 workers, 9 soldiers, and 1 queen*
Immature forms are present all year except during cold periods* Winged

7*.
forms have bean taken in flight in May and June, and a dealate female
was recorded wandering in February* Reproductive form pupae were seen
in the nests in April*
Many times, especially during the rainy season when the ground
becomes very wet, the im atures are brought to the surface and laid
on or between leaves* On other occasions, in log nests, the immature*
were scattered throughout the log without any seeming order* Similar
nests, however, proved to have all the eggs, larvae, and pupae in one spot*
During several periods of cold weather, workers of aentata ware
the only ants carrying on conspicuous above-ground activity* A point
whioh further indicates its adaptability to adverse conditions is that
%
dentata is one of the few ants whioh regularly forages in swamp during
the periods of high water, when very little soil is above water, and
all of the 8oil is saturated*
The feeding habits of this energetic Pheidole are diverse* It
is attracted to a mixture of peanut butter and oatmeal used in mammal
traps, to liver, and to molasses* These ants have been seen carrying
cdLleabola and termites* When a nest of Retienlitarmas flavjpes ms
chopped into, they were almost immediately on the scene, carrying termites
away* As time passed, more ants entered into the activity* The termites
were either paralysed into stillness or killed, or were able to move only
slightly while being carried* ¡lost seemed fatally injured after they had
been carried by an ant*
The following have been taken in the nests with £• dentatai
Isoptera, various spp*
Cerrodentia
Orasen», possibly robertaoni (det* A* B* Gahan, U* S* N* U*)
(Gainesville) (Hym*)
Orasen», robertsoni Gahan (det* A* B* Gahan, U* S* N* M*) (Hym*)

73
Oras «na pupae were in the noets in September and October*
dentiaula M. R. Smith
£• dcntiaula is not a common ant on the Reserve although it was
taken in 8 of the 15 stations* Its nests were found commonly to occasionally
in meeic and hydric hammock; occasionally in scrub, Pomello scrubby
flatwoods, Plummer slash pine flatwoods, xeric hammock, and bayhead;
a questionable record vas made on the basis of workers alone from Rutlege
slash pine flatwooda.
All except one neet, taken under litter, were found in the
surface stratum* £• dentir.ule. preferred nests in logs and in the bark
at the bases of living trees, but it was also found in stumps, under
litter, and one collection was made from fern roots* Nests in wood
were almost equally divided between pine and broadleaved logs or stumps
which ranged from moist to wet* iiost of the nests were in soft or well-
decayed wood, but many nests were backed by hard wood*
The number of individuals in the nests varied widely, although
none were large* An average nest contained 85 workers and 17 soldiera
(including callows), and 43 worker pupae and 7 soldier pupae* Host, but
not all of the nests had a quean. Imam turen were present all year*
Vernales were found on the wing in July and in the nests in September,
and males ware taken in the nests in August* One nest contained only
two workers, but had eggs and larvae*
P. dentigula is one of the species with which golenopsjs molesta
has teen found associated* In addition to the Solenopsis* Paratrechina
parvula was taken with Pheidole dentigula from under litter.

74.
Phoidola, near ¿“loridana Emery
Smith has compared specimens of this ant from Welaka with
those of floridana in the U. S. National Museum. He says (in litt.)
that the Vela]» specimens "have been compared with specimens from the
original series and although close to floridana they are not typical.
Floridana has mush more of the posterior part and side of th8 head, and
thorax less heavily sculptured than your specimens. The postpetiole is
also larger and less angulate on the side". The sculpturing and shape
of the postpetiole have been found to vary to only a negligible degree
on the Reserve. No specimens have been taken on the Reserve which approach
individuals of floridana collected by the author in southern Florida.
This Pheidole replaces Moi^o^o^ii^ uharaonis. prevalent in the
Gainesville region, in and around the houses of the Reserve. In non-
ruderal areas, it shows a preference for turkey oak and bluejack oak,
where its nests occur commonly. Nests are also common in Pomello scrubby
flatwoods. This ant is occasional to common in mesic hammock, and has
been found rarely or occasionally in scrub, Leon sorubby flatwoods,
longleaf pine flatwoods, Plummer and Rutlege slash pine flatwoods, black
pine-fetterbush flatwoods, xeric and hydric hammocks, and river swamp.
Nests of this form have been found most often in the surface
stratum, but almost as many have been taken in 3and. It occupies a
variety of nesting sites. In order of preference they are*
1. in dead stumps
2. under litter
3. in fallen logs
4. under logs
5. in litter
6. open sand (rudimentary craters, complete craters)
7. in and under logs
8. in bases of living trees

75.
One collection was aado from under the mat of a palmetto root.
Nests in sand have all showed a tendency to be under cover of
some sort. Although some nests had well-formed craters, all were covered
with one or several leaves. The rudimentary craters were all found against
the foundations of buildings, and it is possible that the ants here lived
in crevices in cement or under pieces of cement. Those nests in wood
were usually in wet logs or stumps, and although neets occurred in wood
in all stages of decay, more were in the later stages. Many collections
were made under bark, and neither broadleaved nor pine wood was preferred.
Nests of this form are not populous, and Beam to be smaller
than £• denti^ula. A nest, perhaps slightly smaller than average,
contained 35 workors and 6 soldiers along with imraaturee. Inmaturas
probably occur all year, and winged forms are present during the summer
months. In son© nests in wood it is difficult to delimit the boundaries
of the colony. Individuals in these cases are found throughout the log,
and there is no single, compact nest group.
This moderately active Pheldole is attracted to grease in
kitchens. On several occasions it was taken eating the peanut butter
and oatmeal bait of mammal traps, and in other instances it was found
between the septa of large mushrooms. Mr. J* C» Moore found this ant on
the Reserve in several fox squirrel nests. It continues its foraging
activities into the night.
In one nest a beetle of the family Lothriidae was found
associated with the ant in a stump in turkey oak.

76«
Pheidole meta11escena Emery
P, metallescens prefers the higher, drier areas. It occurs
abundantly to commonly in turkey oak, Leon scrubby flatwoods, and xeric
hammock; commonly in bluejack oak and scrub; occasionally in mesic
hammock; and has been found only rarely in longleaf pine flatwoods, but
may occur more abundantly there. It is often found in firelanes,
Approximately equal numbers of nests have been found in the
subterranean stratum and in the surface stratum. Often, especially in
turkey oak, nests have no crater, and the nest opening is entirely or
partially covered by a single leaf. Some nests ean be found in and
around the root systems of herbs. The complete crater is characteristic
of open ground, and in this situation incomplete craters can also be
found, Nests of this latter kind vary in outside diameter of the crater
from 2 to 3 inches, and in height from 1/8 to l/2 inch; all of these
nests have one opening, Many other nests occur in sand under leaf litter,
and some of them maintain elementary craters.
The locations of nests in fallen logs vary from near or on hard
wood to wood merging with the substratum; either the bark may still be
intact or it may be absent. The wood may bo dry, or moist, or wet,
A nest taken from a log in scrub contained 505 workers and 29
soldiers with 1 queen, Imrsatures occur the whole year. No information
concerning the time of appearance of winged forms was obtained. One nest,
taken in the middle of January, 1950, from a firelane, contained large
chambers of workers within six inches of the surface.
This fairly fast moving ant has a varied diet. It is attracted
to liver and to molasses. Foraging activities extend into the night.

77
Pheidole morrisl Forel
£• Morris1 is another of the ants which prefers the higher, more
open areas of the Reserre* It occurs occasionally to commonly in turkey
oak and xerie hammock, and occasionally in bluejack oak and Pomello and
Leon sorubby flatwoods, Characteristically its nests appear along the
dirt shoulders of roads, in firelanes, and in the areas around houses»
All of the nests of this species were in the subterranean stratimu
Host of the nests were built in open sand, but same were constructed under
leaf litter* Half of the nests had no crater, and the other half were
built around a grass tuft or in lawn, where a rudimentary crater was
thrown up beside the plants* Sometimes these craters ware built beside
a fallen log under which the colony could be found* Craters of morrisi
built in the open were about 4 to 5 inches in diameter, and 1 1/2 to 2
inches in height* A majority of nests had only one opening, but there
were several with two, and a few with three, openings*
An unusually large nest of morrisi contained 3500 workers
and 350 soldiers* An average nest probably contains 1000 individuals*
The immature forms are absent from the nests from late December to
February* Winged forms have been taken in July*
P. morrisi is an active ant, and each colony employs numerous
speedy workers for foraging* Foraging activities are carried on at
night. It seems, however, to show a seasonal relationship in its above¬
ground activity* In the winter months foraging ceases almost altogether,
and the ants remain in the nest, about three feet below the ground surface*
Mo lassee attracts P, morrisi. It has been seen to pick up eggs
and larvae, and even workers of Crematogaster ashmeadj* but no interpre¬
tation of this activity is attempted here*

78
Solenoasis porgando! and Puratrechina arenl/araa. as well as a
species of Díptera, have been found in nests of P. morrisi«
Pheldole rilifera (Roger)
Smith (in litt.) feels that this is not the typical form of
Za oillfora» The name is therefore used here only in the broad sense*
Rests of pillfera have been found only in ruderal areas, namely
in lawns and in orange groves, where its occurrence was frequent* All
nsst3 were complete craters which varied in diameter from 3 to 4 inches,
and in height from l/4 to 3/8 inches. All of the craters had only one
n3st opening.
F. pllifera, with its extremely large-headed workers, was
recorded nesting with Paratrechina arenivaga and Solenopsis pergandel.
Cardiocondyla t ¡ervi Forel
Foraging workers of C. emerri were taken occasionally in xerie
haiwiiock and rarely in bluejack oak. Its nests in these situations have
probably all been under litter, or perhaps in open sand. Smith (1944*36)
states that the ants in Puerto P.ico nest most commonly in sandy soil,
but also in clay soil. Besides the above-mentioned stations, C. emery!
has been taken in the sand roads of the Reserve.
This small, slowenoving ant is attracted in great numbers to
molasses traps. It continues its foraging activities into the night.
Females were taken in flight in early December of 1949» Wests nay be
approximately the same size as those of C, nuda rninutior.

79.
Sardiocondvla nuda minutior Forel
On the basis of the few collections made of £, nuda ¿ningtiog,
firelanes and dirt roads, especially in high areas such as xeric hammock,
seem to be its preferred nesting situations. On several occasions the
grillwork of an automobile which had just passed through the high grass
that grows in the xeric hammock roads was covered with workers of this
fora* It has been collected rarely in longle&f pine flatwo oda, and it
was found foraging along the edge of a bayhead where it abutted a sand
road*
Like Soltnopsis globularia littoralis. C. nuda SftmflAqr has
been found only in uprooted palmetto roots* These nests are on the
under side of the root, rather deep in the fine sealings of the wood*
The ant nests in small colonies of about 20 individuals*
Females were taken on the wing in August, and female pupae were observed
in the nest in the same month*
Cardiocondvla oughton¿ Wheeler
£. wroughtonl himacula t* has been collected conn only in turkey
oak, and only rarely in Leon scrubby flatwoods and longleaf pine flatwoods*
Since it is common in turkey oak, there is no apparent reason why it should
not be found in other of the high areas such as xeric hammock* Numerous
nests can be found abundantly in clumps of bamboo planted near the buildings
of the Reserve*
In turkey oak, nests of this ant are found most often in stumps
of longleaf pine fPimía palustris) or turkey oak (Quercus laevis). All
of these nests have been in or next to hard wood, with a little debris
or softer wood near the nest* The species has also been taken from legs

8o
of longleaf pine, either dry or moist; from the moist base of an Andropogon
stem; and from an oleander twig in which the nest was partly in the center
of the stem, partly in the wood at the nodes, and partly under the thin
bark in debris. It nests in a very similar way in and around the nodes
of bamboo. Nests can thus be found in both the surface and herbaceous
strata.
Of 3 nests taken in turkey oak and 1 in bamboo, that in the
bamboo was the largest. These counted nests varied in number of workers
from 21 to 43, and averaged about 32 workers. The number of queens
increased with the sise of the nest. The smallest nest contained 1
queen, while the others had 2, 4, and 5 queens respectively. All of the
workers and queens were in one or two central chambers, and wow not
difficult to collect. Immature forms occur in all months. Females
have been found in the nests in October, and a flight is recorded on
October 7» 1949. What seemed to be an incipient nest without workers
was observed in May, indicating that perhaps the females fly again in
April or May, or that the workers are not hatched out during the winter.
This ant is moderately fast moving, and somewhat deliberate
in its motions. Most of its foraging is done on days when the temper¬
ature is high (above 28°C.) and the relative humidity is relatively
low (below 40^).
ainutissima missouriensis Emery
Creighton (1950) lists the range of this ant from Texas to
Missouri. C± minutissiaa minutisaima is presented as replacing it frena
South Carolina to Florida and westward through the Gulf States to Texas.
However, specimens from the Gainesville region and from Welaka have been

31.
consistently identified liy Dr. M. R, Smith of the U. S. N. M. as
missourionsis. These locality records make it doubtful that mimitísima
and missourionsis are subspecies of minutiae ira. Until it can be proved,
however, that they are variations of the 3ame form, i¿¿gsojj£¿£ns¿s will
be recognised as a subspecies of minutiaeima.
During the course of the present investigation, it was found
that misgouriansia prefers the more hydric situations, although it has
also been taken in the higher areas. It nested code only in Plummer
slash pine flatwoods, mesic hammock, hydric haunock, and bayhead,
preferring hydric hammock; occasionally in bluejack oak, scrub, Rutlege
slash pine flatwoods, and xerio hammock; and rarely in Pomello scrubby
flatwoods and river swamp. In the Gainesville region, the ant was
found in very similar situations.
£. ^mitísima B&3-s.°Ur.ignsÁS preferred nests on the soil
surface, but many nests were found arboreally. Several nests were also
taken in the subterranean stratum. The ant nested most often in fallen
logs, bases of living trees, in small branches, in dead stunts, and under
the mat of palmetto roots and trunks. It was also taken in the following
places*
under logs
in and under moss on a palmetto root
in a debris-filled and well decayed Pirns clausa cone
under litter
under the outer sheath of a dead flower stalk of
Serenoa repens
under moss at the base of an oak tree
Nesting conditions varied from dry, in small branches, to wet in logs
buried under litter. Other authors (Burén, 1943*289, and Cole, 1940*
46) have found the majority of nests in sand under stones.
A eolony from a small branch in hydric hammock contained 208

02 o
workers (including callows), 102 worker pupae, and 8 queens# This colony
was a unit, hut many colonies appear to occupy several different levels
in a nesting place such as a log or the base of a living tree# A typical
nest, arranged among debris-filled regions along 10 inches of a log,
occupied cavities on the hard wood near the outside*
In a situation of this sort it is difficult, and perhaps really
unnecessary for the present purposes, to be sure that one is dealing with
only one colony* One may ask what is the criterion which will distinguish
a section of a colony from a whole colony* The presence of supernumerary
queens in some colonies of ^TS^nuriensis makes it impossible to be sure
one is dealing with a whole colony when one queen is observed* Likewise,
here and in the subgenus Acrocoelia. if a quean is observed, there nay
be other, queenless parts of the colony in other places* Groups of
workers have been observed in Crematogaster. especially in Acrocoellfi.
(and in other genera to some extent) with an abundance of inmaturas and
no queen* Unless intercourse between a queenless group and a group with
a queen is observed, it would not be clear whether the queenless group
carries its eggs from a mother queen in another nesting place, or whether
the workers are independent and lay their own eggs* In treating this
situation throughout this study, each physically distinct aggregation
is called a nest*
Cole (1940*46), in his report on the ants of the Great Smoky
Mountains, mentions a neet of missouriensis with only 47 workers, hut
56 supernumerary queens* On the Reserve, inmaturas in the nest are
usually absent during periods of cold weather, but a few are present in
most nests all year* Winged form pupae have been found in the nests in
May, and winged fora© have been taken through August* One instance of

83.
female pupae in October was observed, ard in January males vere taken on
one occasion wandering about during the day.
This is a slow to moderately fast moving ant. It is attracted
to molasses traps.
Crematogaster ashmeadi Mayr
C. ashmeadi nests occur very commonly in all of the well drained
areas of the Reserve, and occasionally in the hammock areas and river
swamp. Except for their occasional to common occurrence in longleaf pine
flatwoods, they are found only rarely in poorly drained flatwoods. C.
laeviuscula Mayr tends strongly to replace ashmeadi in the flatwoods
areas and in bayhead and marsh.
C. ashmeadi has been taken abundantly in Pamello scrubby
flatwoods; commonly in scrub, Leon scrubby flatwoods, and longleaf pine
flatwoods; occasionally to commonly in turkey oak, bluej&ok oak, and
xeric hammock; occasionally in mesie hammock, and river swamp; and
rarely in Plummer slash pine flatwoods, black pine-fetterbush flatwoods,
and hydric hammock.
By far the majority of collections were made arboreally, but
other nests were taken in the surface stratum. Most often, the ant was
found in small branches. The other nesting sites in order of importance
to the ant are as followst twigs, galls, fallen logs, dead stumps, and
one collection was made in the base of a living tree. Most of the nests
in small branches were found in either scrub oaks or in Pinas clausa.
Nests were also taken from the logs of fallen sand pine, usually from
under bark on the top side. Although the ant seemed to prefer nesting
sites in scrubby oaks, its presence in pine logs and branches indicates

84.
that its exclusion from poorly drained flatwoods is not due to an inability
to live in pine.
The nests in trigs were on scrubby oaks, or else in grape vines.
Those in scrubby oak galls were usually in pendant, spherical galls. Some
were in other, variously shaped galls, especially the type around stems5
in these the ant occupied the several different compartments from which
the gall wasps had emerged. Nests were in either broadleaved or pine
logs or stumps, but were in all cases dry or moist. This preference for
dry or moist conditions in nesting sites supports the contention that
this ant prefers the drier situations.
In the Gainesville region, drier situations, among them ruderal
areas, were also preferred. In the same manner Cole (1940*46) has found
ashmeadi nesting in dry situations.
In the discussion of the life history of £• mlnutlasima
missouriensis. it was brought out that on many occasions what may seem
to be a colony of Acrocoelia may be merely a section of a larger aggregate,
the true colony. It was pointed out that each of these sections is here
recognized as a nest.
The number of workers contained in 18 nests ranged from 4 to
425, averaging 137* In none of these nests was a queen found. These
nests had an average of 23 callow workers. The nest with the largest
number of workers, taken in a small branch in Pomello scrubby flatwoods,
contained 51 fecales and 11 males, while another nest of 185 workers
contained no females and 38 males. Of those that contained winged forms,
12 were sex specific, while the others contained at least three times as
many individuals of one sex as of another. The largest nest contained
220 worker pupae, whereas the other nests averaged about 25 worker pupae*

85.
Winged forme were found in the nests in July through December. Single
melee have been taken in January.
In times of excitement, £. ashmeadi extends its heart-shaped
gaster above its head, and runs quickly over the ground or the vegetation.
Under normal circumstances, this is a slow to moderately fast moving curt.
Many times when a nest is opened during a cold period when the nest is
inactive, the workers do not move, but lie with their bodies pressed
flat against the surface to which they are clinging. Such is also true
of the other members of the subgenus.
In September, 1948, collections in Pomello scrubby flatwoods
showed a remarkable abundance of £• ashmeadi. especially in galls, but
also in small branches. This large population was within a circumscribed
area of the station, and may have been coincidental with the galls and
the small branches becoming suitable for the ants. A seasonal high was
also noticed in Leon scrubby flatwoods in December. During 1949 no such
high was observed in either station.
Although this subgenus is noted for its attendance of honeydew-
excrating insects, they have been observed carrying various kinds of
dead insects into their nests. On one occasion an aggregate of C. ashmeadi
was noted in a crotch of a saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) frond; workers
were carrying away parts of a dead grasshopper nymph. The workers have
repeatedly ventured into the oyanide jar of a light trap in order to
carry away insects. They have also been found, probably as casuals, in
fox squirrel nests by Mr. J. C. Moore.
Meets have been observed adjacent to those of the termites
Kalotermes (iouteli?). In one nest containing winged forme, a Diptera,
resembling quite closely the males of ashmeadi. was found.

86.
Some of the workers found on the Reserve have a somewhat opaque
and slightly punctate thorax, differing from the usual shiny, smooth
thorax. One colony, the only one taken from under the bark of a living
tree (Pinus palustris). contained workers with a lighter appearance than
usual. The head and thorax are light brown, while the gaster is dark.
The queen is all light brown, and measures 1.8 mm. along the dorsum of
the alinotumj other queens of £• ashmeadi measure 2.0 sin. along the
dorsum, and are all dark brown or black.
Crematogaster coarctata vermiculata Emery
The specimens listed here were assigned to Crematogaster
vermiculata by Dr. M. R. Smith. The collections of this ant, which tes
its type locality in Los Angeles, are the first Florida records.
Nests of this subspecies have been confined to two stations.
C. coarctata vermiculata was collected occasionally in hydric hammock and
river swamp. In all cases it was nesting arboreally, in most cases in
twigs of sweetgum (Liquidambar stvraciflua) or some one of the bay trees.
Such twigs may have a half dozen openings to accomodate a colony. On one
occasion it was found nesting in the crotch along the midrib of a Sabal
palmetto frond under the debris gathered there. Other ants, especially
Crematogaster ashmeadi and Paratrechina parvula. are also found nesting
on palmetto fronds.
The distribution of vermiculata in stations and nesting sites
on the Reserve indicates rather strongly that it will always be found in
moist or hydric situations, and probably always above ground. In
Gainesville, this form was taken in scrubby flatwoods, in an area where
the plant association offered mesic conditions.

87
It Í3 possible that the nests of this ant extend into two or
more twigs* If this is the case, each twig of such a colony contains only
a section of the whole colony* A3 explained before, each section is
treated as a nest here* One very long twig seemed to contain a whole
colony* A count of this colony yielded 1085 workers, 162 worker callows,
7 reproductive and 710 worker pupae, 25 reproductive and 221 worker
larvae, and numerous eggs* The presence of reproductive pupae and larvae
in the nest, taken in July, indicates that winged forms would soon be
present* Winged forms were taken in another nest in early October*
The habits of varmiciilatg are much like those of ashmeadi.
Creraatoftartor laeviuscula Iiayr
C. laeviuacula prefers to nest in the poorly drained flatwoods
areas of the Reserve, and in the wetter areas of hammock and of seasonally
flooded plant associations. In this way it tends to replace C* ashmeadi.
although there are areas of overlap in the distribution of the two species,
especially in longleaf pine flatwoods, and in mesic hammock*
£, was found abundantly in Rutlege slash pine flatwoods
and in marsh; commonly in longleaf pine flatwoods, Plummer slash pine
flatwoods, hydric hammock, and bayhead; occasionally in bluejack oak, and
mesic hammock; and rarely in turkey oak and xoric hanmock* Its absence
fresa black pine-fetterbush flatwoods may be due to the scarcity of logs
in that station, but it may also depend on the relative openness and
consequent high rate of evaporation and prolonged dryness of the area*
Nests of ^yrinsciila were found in all strata except the subter¬
ranean, most often arboreally, and least often in the herbaceous stratum*
Small branches and fallen logs are the most preferred nesting sites*

88
£• laeviuscula. however, uses small branches less than half as many times
as ashmeadi. whereas it nests in fallen logs much more often than asfatieadi.
In order of preference other nesting sites in which laeviuscula han been
found are* twigs, dead stumps, carton, sawgrass flower stems. Single
collections have been made from an Andropogon stem, a dried leaf of
Sagjttaria between septa, a flower stalk of Sabal palmetto on ground,
and from under pine needle litter on saw palmetto frond two feet above
ground.
In a majority of the cases, the nests in logs were in or against
hard wood, but some nests were in softer wood. Nests were in logs of all
stages of decay, from those merging with the soil to those in which the
wood was in the first stage of decay. Some nests were under the bark of
fallen logs. Nests of carton were observed on occasion in the sawgrass
(Mariscus jagaicensis) marsh, but always on a flower stalk of sawgrass;
in these cases the nests occupied both the carton and the flower stalk.
Never was the carton portion of such a nest far above the water surface.
In the marsh grass (Spartina bakeri) marsh on Buzzard’s Roost,
carton nests were abundant. Except for a few laeviuscula in twigs, no
other nesting site was observed to be occupied by ants in this marsh.
Nests are usually one or two feet above the base of the Spartina clump,
shaded by the tops of the grass blades. Each nest in marsh grass binds
together a number of grass blades, usually the middle dozen or so of
each grass clump, and is held up by them. Nests are quite large,
measuring, on an average, 12 inches vertically and 4 inches horizontally.
One nest measured 20 inches vertically and 6 inches horizontally. They
are constructed of plant material, usually bits of leaves, together with
large sections or whole leaves of maple or wax myrtle curled around tho

89.
supporting grass. The nests are quite moist on the inside, but are always
dry on the outside* Several nests, built in the crotches of shrubs,
extended from the carton into the adjoining hollow stems*
Nests of C, laeviuscula are numerically about the same size as
those of C. ashmeadi* The range in numbers of workers in the 7 nest3
counted was from 16 to 300, averaging 128. None of these nests contained
queens* Nests and sections of nests are considered synonymous here in
the manner discussed under C, ashmeadi. The cold spells on the Reserve
seem to be coincidental with the absence of immature forms in the nests.
Reproductive pupae appear in the nests in April, and winged forms have
been taken in June through July, and again in October through December*
Only 2 out of the 10 nests from which winged forms were taken, contained
both males and females*
On June 27, 1948, a nest was observed in Putlege slash pine
flatwoods from which excited workers were emerging and hastily running
along the low shrubs surrounding the twig nesting site* Along with the
excited workers were males, evidently ready to make a flight, although
no male was seen to fly* A nest brought into the laboratory on November
26, 1949 contained males which immediately attempted to wander from tho
nest, although no flight was observed* The sales and attendant workers
aggregated under the bucket in whioh the carton nest had been placed*
Perhaps this restlessness was preflight activity, or was merely due to
overexposure of the nest to sun with a consequent change in temperature
and relative humidity in the nest* (It is possible that in natural
conditions a sharp enough change in the physical conditions of the nest
may evoke flight,) The next day the nest was placed over water in an
attempt to keep the ants in their nest* On November 29* the males were

90»
noted investigating the ends of the cut marBh grass, but no flight took
plaoe. Because of their restlessness, a large number of males had fallen
into the water and drowned by the next day, and observations were dis¬
continued.
The habits of movement and feeding are much like those discussed
under £• ashmeadi. Dead insects have been found in nests of C. laeviuscula.
and the ant is attracted to molasses traps. On one occasion workers were
seemingly attending scale insects on a palm frond. Nests have been noted
near nests of termites, the workers of each freely intermingling. They
were seen to stroke the termites with their antennae and palpi on all
parts of the termite's body, but mainly in the head and thorax regions.
Small mites have been found on the antennae of several workers. The
size of many individuals in marsh is strikingly larger than that of
those in other plant associations. Total body length ranged in one nest
from 3.0 on. to 4.8 mm., whereas workers from other stations range from
2.5 mm. to 3.3 mm. in total body length.
SEegatogftgtqr (s&?)
Creighton (1950(213) notes that C. lineólata is found the
farthest south in the Appalachian Highlands of northern Georgia, and that
an altitudinal difference separates lineólata from the subspecies aubopaca.
£. linePlata is reported to have its range at low to moderate elevations
in the South Atlantic States, as well as to the west and north.
Specimens which are labelled £. lineolata, sent to the author
by Dr. Smith, key out to £. lineolata suboaaea in Creighton's key. On
the other hand, those specimens which were taken on the Reserve can be
assigned to lineólata on the basis of his key. According to the

91.
distribution Creighton cites, subopaca, and not lineolata. should occur
here* Since it will not be clear what form of the species linao^fo
occurs on the Reserve until specimens of lineolata and subopaca have
been examined, the name lineolata will be used here in the broad sense*
C* lineolata was taken in only three stations* It occurs
commonly in Pomello scrubby flatwoods, and occasionally in Leon scrubby
flatwoode and xeric hauxaock* Nests have been found in almost equal
abundance in the surface stratum and in the subterranean stratum under
litter*
Its nesting sites have been approximately evenly divided between
nests under litter, in litter, in fallen logs, in dead stunts, and in
small branches* The nests in logs and stumps were in oak for the most
part, but some were found in pine* The relatively few nests in pine
sets lineolata apart from the other members of the subgenus on the Reserve,
but the difference may be due to the distribution of the species in
stations where the main trees forming logs and stumps are oak rather than
pine* In this respect it can be noted that lineolata follows the
distribution trend of ashmeadi rather than that of laeviuscula* occurring
in the better drained areas of the Reserve* Cole (1940*47) indicates,
as do the above observations, that this species lives as often in the soil
as in wood* He mentions that nests under stones loosely resting on the
soil were a favorable nesting site*
One nest from Pomello scrubby flatwoods contained 184 workers,
3 callow workers, and 35 worker pupae* No queen was taken* Cold weather,
as it does with the other species of the subgenus on the Reserve, seems
to inhibit the production of eggs. Pupae of males and females were seen
in nests at the end of March, and males were taken in the nest in May*

92.
No information concerning winged females was obtained.
C. lineolata has much the same habits as the others of the
subgenus on the Reserve. It is a moderately fast moving ant. Because
of its distribution on the Reserve, it was taken in most cases when the
temperatures were high and the relative humidity low. It was observed
attending aphids, and probably also uses insects as food.
Monoaorimn floricola (Jerdon)
One specimen of this species was collected wandering on a
sawdust pile in turkey oak. This introduced species is well distributed
over Central America and the Vest Indies. Wheeler (1908:128), writing
of the ants of Puerto Rioo and the Virgin Islands, states that these
ants are "Common in Tillandsias, under bark-scales of trees and in
hollow twigs. All the females were apterous...."
Monomorium mínimum (Buckley)
g. minimum was taken occasionally in only one station, namely
turkey oak. It was, however, found also in firelanes, and was one of
ths more common occupants of the latter areas. In most cases this ant
nested in craters, either incomplete or complete, but some nests were
found under very light litter. The craters, all with one nest opening,
varied in diameter from 2 l/2 to 4 inches, and in height from l/2 to
13/4 inches.
In the Gainesville region, minimum was found nesting for the
most part in logs, or under logs or other cover. It serais to be well
distributed throughout the United States.
During the work of bringing pellets of sand to the surface,

93.
this moderately fast moving, diligent ant employs many workers, and
thereby gives the nest the appearance of bustling activity* By comparing
a vial filled with a known number of ante and another filled with an
unknown number, a total of about 3000 workers was estimated for one nest.
Several termites were taken with this colony.
Solenopsjs garni nata (Fabricius)
The close morphological resemblance of this ant and S. rufa
is discussed under the latter ant. Since the lack of the mesosternal
spine in this form seems to be an untrustworthy character to differentiate
it from rufa, the darker color of geninata has been used here to distinguish
the two forms.
S. geminate, was found in nine stations, but it was taken
commonly only in Leon scrubby flatwoods. Occasional collections were
made from turkey oak, bluejack oak, Pomello scrubby flatwoods, longleaf
pine flatwoods, xeric hammock, hydric hammock, and river swamp; and one
nest was found in scrub. Firelanes also afford a favorable nesting site.
In the Gainesville region it was found more commonly, and was also taken
in mesic hammock.
On the Reserve, fiemf nata has for the most part occupied the
subterranean stratum, but has also been found in the surface stratum.
Most of its nests are asymmetrical, rudimentary craters, or are in sand
under litter. Other nests were found in incomplete craters, complete
craters, in a palmetto root on the ground, and under a longleaf pine log.
This last colony had produced a crater at the side of the log.
The nests with incomplete and complete craters were very likely
incipient nests, or nests with small numbers of individuals. As these

94.
nests grow in size, the several grouped craters fuse to form a large»
rudimentary crater. Many of the rudimentary craters, on the other hand,
are begun around a clump of grass which soon becomes buried under the
sand of the crater. Some rudimentary craters are built in the form of
a string of craters, sometimes up to eight feet in length. One rudimentary
crater was begun around the base of a scrub oak, and was composed of
sand, leaves, and small pieces of rootlets. Rudimentary craters have been
observed ranging from 4 inches to over 1 l/2 feet in diameter; from 1
inch to almost 1/2 foot in height; and in number of nest openings from
1 to 20 or more.
This "fire ant" is moderately agile, much like rufa. It has
been attracted to mammal traps baited with peanut butter and oatmeal.
Small seeds, such as alyceclover and earpetgrass, make up part of its
food, but the ant's small size makes larger seeds too difficult to carry.
The workers also derive honeydew from aphids on the roots of plants
near their nest.
Winged forms hare been observed in June and July. Immatures
appear most numerous in the summer.
Solenopsis rufa (Jerdon)
This form has been listed by Creighton (1950) and previous
authors as S. geminata rufa. Creighton, however, points out that the
characters used to separate geminata from rufa may have been given more
prominence than they deserve, and that the character of the mesosternal
spine in rufa is more valid for the Asiatic specimens than for those
from the United States. In America rufa and geminata are found in
practically the same areas, making it izqpossible to treat rufa as a

95
geographical subspecies» On the other handy rufa and gominata are found
to intergrade, making it difficult to treat them as separate species»
Creighton (1950*232) says» "In this country rufa behaves as a color
variety and shows no geographical distinctions. I have retained it as
a subspecies because this behavior may be a result of introduction.**
Evidently there is material which has come to Creighton's attention
that makes him believe that rufa and are not synonymous. With
doubt still existing as to the taxonomic status of rufa, it is here
believed wiser to treat it as a separate species and not involve the
geographic connotation of a subspecies.
Specimens of rufa were found rarely in turkey oak and longleaf
pine flatwoods, and occasionally in Plummer slash pine flatwoods.
Colonies have been taken from both the surfaoe and subterranean strata.
Neats are found most often with rudimentary craters or under litter in
sand. One nest was found in the under side of a turkey oak (Quercus
laevis) log. Part of this last colony was in the log and a lesser part
in the sand under the log. The rudimentary craters or mounds may reach
a diameter of 2 feet and a height of 1 foot, with numerous nest openings.
To build these nests S. rufa seeks the more open areas. For example,
the nest in longleaf pine flatwoods was partly in the flatwoods proper
and partly in a firelane which was cut through the flatwoods. rufa
has also been taken nesting in ruderal bamboo.
In the Gainesville region the hammocks provided nesting sites
for this ant. Its abundance around Gainesville was higher than on the
Reserve, probably because of the more open nature of the ground. There
is also the possibility that, because it is a Mtrans>" form, it has spread
more widely in the residential districts and their surrounding areas,

96
than in the less commercial area of the Reserve* In the Gainesville
region, small craters were often seen built around grass clomps. As
the nest grew and more sand was brought to the surface, the grass was
buried.
£. rufa is a moderately fast moving ant. Sweeping with an
insect net across low vegetation has, on several occasions, yielded
specimens of this form. Flights of winged forms have been observed in
May and October.
Soleaopsis globularia littoralis Creighton
S. globularia littoralis is one of the few ants collected mors
than ones which occur in only one plant association of the Reserve. It
was found occasionally in black pine-fetterbush fletwoods. In Gainesville,
the ant was confined to the open, almost shrubless flatwoods which are
coumonly used as pastureland in that area.
The nests on the Reserve were found to be only in the surface
stratum. Typical ne3ts were in palmetto roots thrown up on the soil
surface. In the palmetto root the nest was built between ths overlapping
flakes of the bases of fronds, and waw on the under side near the soil.
One nest was found in a grass clump, part of the nest being in the roots
of the plant, where the queen was located, and the rest being in the lower
stems. In Gainesville, the ants were taken from under the bark of newly
cut pine logs, and from nests built in sand and covered by small shavings
of wood and pine needles.
One nest, taken in the black pine-fetterbush association of the
Reserve, contained 46 workers and 1 queen, along with immature forms.
No information as to when the sexual forms appear in ths nests was obtained.

97
¿Lobulada, littoralis is a moderately fast moving ant. It
extends its above-ground activities into the night.
SolenopBjs minutiaeiâ„¢^ Emery ?
The taxonomy of this small, insignificant ant has been one of
the most confused of the ants of the Reserve. Smith (in litt.) said
specimens "agree very well with specimens collected in Haiti and recorded
by Wheeler and uann....as pollux Forel....Please do not consider the
determination final as your specimens have not been checked with types
or with the original description." Other specimens were sent to
Creighton, who was cognizant of Smith's determination. He wrote that in
his opinion the specimens, which were the same that had been determined
pollux by Smith, were minnti-r.-in» Emery. He saye (in litt.) i "Although
I have not been able to compare your specimens with type material of
i^mrfclssima. they agree so perfectly with Emery's figure and description
of that species that there is little room for doubt on this point. The
head of minutissizKa is more elongate than that of pollux and is narrowed
behind. There are several other differences which distinguish the two
species. Your speciiaane agree on every count with minutissima rather
than with was originally described from material
taken in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The species would, therefore, be much
more likely to establish itself in northern Florida than would a strictly
tropical form." In another letter Creighton indicates that there is same
doubt in hie mind as to whether minutissima should have been synonymised
with laevieeoB. He says specimens from the Reserve may possibly be
laaviceos. but he thinks it very likely that they are minutissima. From
still another aspect, Brown, from a comparison of worker types, believes

98«,
that minntissima and Smith's lonj/.icepa are synonymous.
This ant seams to prefer the inesic and hydric areas of the
Reserve, although it has been taken in the better drained stations. Nests
were occasional in turkey oak, bluejack oak, scrub, Pomello scrubby
flatwoods, Plunmer slash pine flatwoods, mesic hammock, hydric hammock,
and bayhead; and rare in xeric hammock and river swamp.
All nests occurred in the surface stratum, mostly in the bases
of living trees. The trees most preferred were slash pine (Pinus elliotti).
probably because of the high relative humidity and low rate of evaporation
usually around them. The ant was found also in longleaf pine (Pinus
oalustris) in xeric hammock and bluejack oak, and once in water oak
(Quercus niara). All of these nests were at the baBe of the tree in the
bark below the soil or litter surface; all were wet, and usually contained
some debris. These nests were in "sections" as discussed under Crematogaster
minutig sina mis souriensisâ–  Other nests were found in fallen logs and
under the mat of a palmetto root.
A count of 3 nests yielded a range in the number of workers
from 22 to 39, averaging 29. These numbers are, in all likelihood,
smaller than is characteristic of an average nest or section. Inmaturas
viere present in the nest in all parts of the year. What are believed
to be reproductive form larvae were found in the nest in April. No
further information concerning the winged forms was obtained.
The movements of this ant are even slower than those of S.
molesta. Whenever a nest was broken into, the workers always remained
motionless for a few seconds, perhaps long enough for the student to
overlook them. As in the case of the Ponerine ants, which blend with
their nesting sites, these ants are many times given away by the presence

99.
of their white inmaturos.
v
Solenopsis molesta (Say)
Certain of the specimens included under this heading differ
somewhat from the measurements given by Smith (1942) and Hayes (1920).
These specimens are proportionately smaller than those described by
these authors; they are also smaller than other specimens determined as
molesta taken from the Reserve. Smith lists the worker length of molesta
as 1.8 mm.} Hayes gives the length of the worker as 1.5 mm. to 1.8 mm.
This last measurement is much closer to that of the range found on the
Reserve, where workers varied from 1.45 mm. to 1.8 mm. If these specimens
all represent the same species, it is possible that the difference in
length can be attributed to differences in the technique of measurement,
but it would be evident that molesta workers have a wide r nge in total
length.
5. molesta finds its most preferred nesting sites in mesic or
somewhat hydrie stations. It was taken abundantly in mesic hammock;
commonly in scrub, Plummer slash pine flatwoods, and hydrie hammook;
occasionally to commonly in Pamello scrubby flatwoods, longleaf pine
flatwoods, and bayhead; occasionally in turkey oak, bluejack oak, Leon
scrubby flatwoods, Rutlege slash pine flatwoods, black pine-fetterbush
flatwoods, and xerie hammock. It is possible that it will also occur
in marsh and swamp.
Nesting sites of molesta are preponderantly in the surface
stratum of the Reserve. Only one nest was found in sand. In the
Gainesville region, however, approximately half the nests were constructed
in sand, either in the open around grass clunks, or under some sort of

103.
cover. Cole (1940*41) mentions only nests in sand for molesta in the
Croat Smoky Mountains* "The independent nests consisted of a very few
tiny chambers and galleries lying very near the soil surface just
beneath the cover of stone or wood." to seeming contradiction to the
observations on the Reserve, Cole found molesta nests only in dry grassy
areas. It is likely, however, that the ant makes use of the nesting
places available in those areas in which it finds itself. Hithere there
are no logs in the right stags of decomposition, it lives under stones
or other material, and where there are favorable nesting sites in wood,
it makes use of them.
In order of importance to the ant, the nesting sites in which
molesta has been found on the Reserve are as follows* bases of living
trees, under mat of palmetto root, in dead stump, in fallen log, in
palmetto root on ground, in and under litter. It has also been found
in the base of a grass clump, under sphagnum at base of live oak, and
under sphagnum on saw palmetto root. Cases of lestobiosis have also
been observed.
The majority of £. molesta nests in wood on the Reserve were
in soft, wet wood which was decayed to fine debris. Those nests in
saw palmetto roots were usually between the root and the bases of
slough©d-off fronds where there was quite a bit of debris; as a rule,
moss covered the roots. Nests in the bases of living trees were aU in
the bark below the soil surface, in a position where there was a great
deal of moisture. Nests in fallen logs and stuaqjs were found equally
in pine and broadleaved (especially oak) wood.
Of the three nests counted, the number of workers ranged from
60 to 100, averaging 78. None of these had a queen. Nests which seemed

101
to have at least 200 Individuals have been seen. S. molesta seems to
nest in "sections" as discussed under Crematogaster minutlssima missourienais.
It offers somewhat the same problem as raissouriensis. since it ie small
in size, and on many occasions can be found in the bases of living trees,
especially pine. Sections of a nest in the bark at the base of a tree
may range almost the whole distance around the circumference, Hayes (1920s
28), writing on the queen of S. molesta sayas "It is an unusual thing
to find a queen in out-door nests, and the number of queens in a oolony,
when found, vary from one to many. In a single instance 26 fertile, or
at least wingless queens were taken in a colony containing a large number
of workers and immature forms," In an attempt to explain the absence
of queens from nests in the field, Hayes states further that "The life
of a queen under artificial conditions is very short. None were able
to live for an entire summer, or even be carried over the Tintar.,,,
[but] Queens were found early in May in outdoor nests, indicating that
they will live over an entire winter at least," Hayes makes no mention
of the point that his nests may be only sections of complete colonies,
and consequently have no queen. It is certain, however, that queens of
molesta are not as easily obtainable as queens of certain other speoies.
The workers of this ant are small and move slowly, and, with
their pale color, are difficult to see against light backgrounds, Winged
forms have been observed in the nests in July and August, and inmaturos
are present in every month.
Following is a list of the ant3 with which S. molesta has been
found nesting:

102.
Paratrechina arenivaga. with Sjg.lgBfips.4g P9.raftPd<á
flshmaadj.
Aff^^nogastgE fulva
Pfteidole dgnt^sula
On February 22, 1947, in the Gainesville region, a nest taken
from around a grass clump in turkey oak, in which the ants were perhaps
attending aphids, contained a nymph of the family Mirldae (det. R. I*
Sailor, U. S. N. M*) (Hemiptera),
Solenopsis Bgrtgwfci Forel
S. pergandei is the least common of the ants of the subgenus
Diolorhoptrum on the Reserve* It was taken occasionally in turkey oak
and serie hammock, and rarely in Leon scrubby f la two ode and mesic hammock*
This distribution indicates a preference for the better drained areas
of the Reserve*
Host of the nests of ¡S¡* pergandei were taken in the subterranean
stratum, but the ant was also found in the surface stratum* It was found
most often in nests of other ants* Other nests were taken under litter,
under reindeer moss, and under the bark and in the wood of wet, fairly
soft laurel oak logs* Nests of this ant in the Gainesville region were
more numerous than in Welaka, and were built around small plants, clumps
of grass, and one was found around the base of a mushroom* These
rudimentary nests all contained four or five openings*
S* pergandei* as mentioned above, has been noted to exhibit
lestobiosis in nests of Paratrechina arenivaga and Pheidole morrisi*
Groups of the Solenopsis were found about a foot below the soil surface
in the dirt of these nests* In several instances, S. molesta was taken
along with pergandei in Paratrechina nests.

io:
S. pergandei is slow moving, and pale in color. These attributes
make it difficult to deteet, since it lives on pale colored sand in most
cases. What are thought to be females of this species have been taken
in August,
Solenooais pieta Emery
The distribution of picta in the Welaka Reserve is peculiar
in that it occurs in 14 of tho 15 stations worked, but in none does it
occur with a high degree of relative abundance. It wao found occasionally
to commonly in bayhoad; occasionally in all other stations except black
pine-fetterbush flatwooda, xoric hammock, river swamp, and marsh, It was
absent in marsh, and occurred rarely in the other three stations. Its
distribution is more closely allied with the arboreal stratum than with
any station or group of stations,
Tho greatest number of collections were made in the arboreal
stratum, but several wore also made in the surface stratum. The most
common nesting sites, in order of preference, are as follows* small
branches, twigs, gall3, and fallen logs. The ants were also found under
the mat of a palmetto root and in the base of a living tree, and \7hat
may have been a nest was recorded from under litter. Although more
collections were made of nests in wood of broadlaaved trees, many col¬
lections were also nade in pine, and the margin is not enough to indicate
a preference.
Nests of S, aicta are at times constructed in such a way
that they might be interpreted as being "sections" as discussed under
Creaatogast er tnlw^tisslmq missouriensis, One such ne3t in a small branch
contained 13 workers and no queen, while another in a gall contained 10

104.
workers and no queen* In the ease of the latter nest, it is possible
that the rest of the colony was in a nearby gall which contained a queen
with 48 workers* All other nests counted contained one queen each. In
two small nests, there were 7 and 8 workers, respectively from a grass
stem and from a shrub twig. One nest from a twig in mesic hammock con¬
tained 215 workers, while another from a twig in serub contained 555
workers* Winged forms have been taken in July*
S* picta is rather slow in its movements* It has been taken
nesting very close to Paratrechlna parvula in a saw palmetto root,
perhaps giving an example of lestobiosis* The Solenopsis has also been
taken with termites* ltr* J* C* Moore, working on the fox squirrels of
the Reserve, has found it in the mammal nests* He records that one such
fox squirrel nest in which ants were found was 90^ Spanish moss and
well-soaked by frequent rains at the time of the collection* He states
(in litt*) that "Certain beetles, lepidopteras, and strationyid fly larvae
were much mere abundant than the ants in the rotting interior*"
Myrmecina americana Qnery
Only one specimen of this ant, from leaf litter in serub, was
taken during the study* Further search failed to discover the nesting
site*
Gregg (1944*462) has found americana rare in the Chicago region,
and Burén (1943*290) lists it from Iowa* Cole (1940*40) sums up its
habits in the Great Smoky Mountains in the following sentencest "It
has been found only in very moist habitats, where it lives in small
colonies and constructs little nests in wet rotted hollow twigs, under
dense masses of moss on logs on stones and beneath small stones* It was

105.
found to be a rather common representative of the meager ant fauna of
the buckeye-basswood forest. Many of the colonies consisted of only
12 to 20 workers. The nests are of a very superficial nature and the
chambers are generally those natural crevices which may be accessible.
The workers are extremely slow of movement."
Leptothorax pergandei floridanus Emery
Jj. pergandei floridanus occupied eleven stations. Although it
prefers the higher, drier plant associations, it was taken several times
in low flatwoods and low hammocks. Meets were, however, found to be
excluded from the seasonally flooded areas. It is interesting to note
that the subspecies has been collected most commonly in the low black
pine-fetterbush flatwoods. Portions of this area occasionally contain
standing water for a day or so at a time during the period of the hard
summer rains. The ground, however, soon becomes dry, and the open
terrain affords a habitat similar to a higher area. The other stations
in which floridanus occurs commonly are turkey oak, bluejack oak, and
Leon scrubby flatwoods. Nests were found occasionally to commonly in
scrub, longleef pine flatwoods, and xeric hammock; occasionally in
Pomello scrubby flatwoods and mesic hammock; and rarely in Plummer slash
pine flatwoods and hydric hammock.
Colonies were found, for the most part, in the surface stratum.
Perhaps half as many nosts were found in sand, but a majority of these
were associated with wood such as the root system of living and dead
fetterbush in the £• serotina-Pesmotkamnus association. One nest was
taken from an Androuogon stem in the herbaceous stratum, and two
colonies were collected from the arboreal stratum.

IOÓ.
L. peraandei floridanus xias collected moot often from logs.
In order of preference, other places from which nests have been collected
are*
1. under leaf litter
2. in dead stumps
3. under mat on palmetto roots and trunks
4. under and in logs
5* in small branches
6. in palmetto root
7. in base of living tree
8. in grass clump
9. in Andropogon stem
10. in rotting pine oone
11. inside stem of rotting palmetto frond
Nests in debris were common, although some contained a minimum of debris.
Of five colonies collected from the surface stratum and counted,
the number of workers varied from 21 to 58, and averaged 3ó. Another
nest was taken from a small branch and contained 2 callows and 111
workers. Each of these nests contained one queen. Still another nest
was taken from a fallen log whioh contained only 18 workers and no
queen; but perhaps this was only & section of the whole colony. Eggs,
larvae, and pupae were found in all months, although not in all nests.
Winged forms begin to appear in the nests in May and are absent again by
August.
Usually this ant can be seen in moderate above-ground activity
in all months of the year. Its mannerisms and appearance in the field
are much like those of Pheidole dantata. and it is sometimes necessary
to examine closely a wandering individual before a determination can be
nada

107*
ofoorM tcxanus davisi Wheeler
The collection of this ant in Florida extends the known range
considerably, since the subspecies was known previously only from New
Jersey and New York. Dr. U. R. Smith writes that the Florida specimens
do not differ from the specimens collected in these northern localities.
JU. texanus dayisi was found occasionally in turkey oak and
Leon scrubby flatwoods, and rarely in bluejack oak, black pine-fetterbush
flatwoods, and xerie hammock. It thus shows a preference for the higher,
drier areas.
Its nesting sites hare all been in the subterranean stratum,
either under litter or with litter or no crater in the open sand. One
neet was discovered which had no apparent opening to the surface; the
entire nest was within l/4 inch of the surface.
A nest collected in turkey oak contained 18 workers and a queen,
but no immature forms. No further information was obtained concerning
the life history of this ant.
It is shy, and moves only moderately fast over the sand while
foraging. Like Jfe. pergandei floridanus. it moves about in somewhat the
same manner as the much more common ant Pheidole dentata. It has been
taken foraging with Solenopsis geminata. and a lone queen of Camponotus
sooius was taken with a davisi colony.
Tetramoriua gtóngSBga (*•)
This introduced species was found in four plant associations.
However, only the single collection in turkey oak was taken from a station.
Since the other collections were not made in stations, the relative
abundance must be based solely on the few collecting trips made to the

108
areas in question. These three remaining plant associations in which
the ant was observed are similar to the descriptions of the respective
stations given in a previous portion of this paper. They all had in
common their distribution along the St. Johns River, a fact which seems
to support the idea that the form is introduced. Map 3 shows Buzzard's
Roost in the southwest corner of the Reserve where the ant was taken
rarely in river swamp and occasionally in hydric hammock. At Mud
Springs, noer the swamp station, the ant was taken occasionally in marsh.
There is a possibility that it had only recently been introduced into
turkey oak.
T. gulnoenao was represented in the surface and the herbaceous
strata. Here the herbaceous strata is extended to include the flower
stalks of sawgrass. These vertical stalks, which become hollow inside
with a usual bore of l/4 to 3/8 inch, cannot be considered true twigs
because of the large diameter of the bore, and because ants representative
of twig-inhabiting form3, such as species of Pseudomvrma. are not found
here. One nest, taken from a flower stalk, was between two nodes of the
eawgrass stem. Part of the segment was broken through, and this had been
replaced with black debris, probably from rotting sawgrass blades.
In hydric hammock its nesting sites wore under the mat of a
Sabal palmetto trunk, in the top of the atrophied root system, and in
a stump. In swamp, the ant was found in a fallen log. The nest
ramified into many passageways, and occupied three feet of the log which
had a diameter of two to two and one-half inches. A dealated queen
was taken while it was wandering in one of the buildings of the Reserve.
One colony taken in marsh was found to contain 290 workers,
3 queens, eggs, 218 larvae, and 22 pupae. The arrangement of the castes

109
in this colony, taken in a sawgrass flower stem, is of interest. All of
the neet was contained between two nodes of the vertical stem. An estimated
one-half of the colony was in the upper half of the segment, larvae,
attached by their anterior ends, were jutting out into the hollow of the
stem. At the top of the section, clinging upside down to the nodal
membrane, were many workers and a queen, along with many eggs.
Immature forms have been found in the nests from July through
November, but probably occur in all months of the year. Alate and
dealated fonales have been taken in Auguet and September, No infermatien
has been obtained for the males.
Strumiaenvs louisianae Roger
S. louisianae has been found rarely in turkey oak, bluejack
oak, xeric hammock, mesic hammock, and river S7/amp. It is moro common
on the Reserve than most species of the closely related Smith is tru?m- As
with ';.mitfhi3trilffl»T the most successful means of collecting it has proven
to be by use of a Berlese funnel. It has, however, been taken from
nests in fallen eweetgum (Liquidambar stvraciflua) logs in which the
wood was fairly dry, and in a differential state of decay. It '«as taken
also from the moist wood debris inside a Magnolia grandiflora logo
Berlese collections were made between temperatures of 24° - 30°c» and
relative humidities of 50% to As in the ce -e of Smithiatrum on
the Reserve, the relative humidity was always above 50^ *4 the time of
collection.
In the Gainesville region all cf the collections of this
species were made in logs of Magnolia grandiflora well along in the
process of decay. The frequent collections in magnolia may indicate a

lie.
preference for the moist debris fou¡ d in these logs.
The ants of this species, like those of the species of
Smith!struma. are difficult to locate in the field. Their color, which
is like that of the wood in which they nest, and their habit of remaining
very still in their nest after it is opened greatly enhance the chances
of overlooking a nest. Like Smithtatmma also, they move with a slow,
deliberate gait.
Sraithistruiaa Brown
In 1948, Brown erected the genus Smithistrum to receive most
of the forms which had previously formed the subgenus Ceuhaloxvs of
Stryg&genys. Cenhaloxvs. however, has been shown to be preoccupied,
and Trichoscaoa is the next available name for the group. Brown, however,
recognizes that the type species of Trichoscaoa. siatabranifera. is distinct
from the rest of the group. He has therefore raised Trichoscaoa to the
rank of genus, and has introduced Sraithlstruma as a new genus. Creighton
(1950), although he was undoubtedly aware of the revicionary measures
undertaken for Strumigenys. mkes no note of them. This dissertation
will follow Brown's treatment of the group.
Ants of the genus Smithictruma build nests only one or two inches
in diameter, sometimes deep in the wood* Careful searching is usually
necessary in order to find their nests. The color of the ants, which is
very much like that of the material in which they live, and their habit
of remaining very still when their na6ts are broken open, make it
necessary to look at a nest for several seconds before the ants are seen.
It will be noted that, although the temperatures varied widely
at the time of collection, the relative humidity was in all cases above

5<$. In most cases too few collections were made to draw any conclusions
concerning preference of stations.
M¡U Brown
The single collection of bunki was made from turkey oak. The
collection was made by use of a Beriose funnel from litter gathered on
an overcast day when the ten^erature was 37°C* and the humidity 66yU
clypeata (Roger)
S. clvpeata was taken occasionally in xeric hammock from
Berlese samples. Two dealated females ware taken with workers in one
sample. It is possible, therefore, that the nest was in the loaf litter,
or on the soil under the litter. This ooilaction was made at 18°C. and
$4% relative humidity.
Smithistruma (M* *• Smith)
S. creiahtoni has been found occasionally in xeric hammock and
rarely in bayhead. All collections were made by means of a Berlese
funnel from litter taken at temperaturos ranging from 21° to 30°C. and
relative humidity ranging from 50^ to 80/(. The litter sample from
bayhead yielded the following ants along with the sffl1iV)ji|str,iniat Solenopsie
moleste. Brachvmrmex depjlis. and Pheidole dentigula.
Smithistruma djetrichi (Id. R. Smith)
S. dietrichl was taken occasionally in turkey oak and rarely
in bluejack oak. In turkey oak, one eollection was made of several indi¬
viduals in a log of Quorcus laavis which was in an advanced stage of wet

112.
rot decay. Other collections were nade by means of a Berlese funnel at
temperatures between 30° and 40°C. and relative humidity between 50f. and
70%,
Smithistruma ornata (Hayr)
Two collections of this ant were made, one from scrub and one
from mesic hammock. The collections were made at temperatures of 28°
and 33°C., with humidity of 80$ and Although two collections
probably do not indicate the habitat preference of this ant, it can be
noted that they were both made under more or less mesic conditions.
Smithistruma pulcheUa (Emery)
This species was found rarely in both xeric hanmock and river
swamp. One collection was made from a Berlese sample with a temperature
of 14°C. and 75% relative humidity on an overcast day. Specimens were
also taken from a mammal trap baited with oatmeal and peanut butter when
the temperature was 25°C. and the relative humidity was 87$.
SffitófoÁSteHflia *alpa (Weber)
S. talpa was taken rarely in Pomello scrubby flatwoods, mesic
hanmock, hydric hammock, and bayhead. In bayhead a nest was found in
slash pine (Pinus elliotti) bark at the base of the living tree under
litter and just below the soil surface. There was some debris in the
nest, and the bark was moist. Other collections were made from Berlese
samples between temperatures of 19° and 27°C. and between 60$ and 65$
relative humidity.

Trachjffimy^ »»atcatrioaalib seminóle (Wheeler)
This fungus-growing ant was found to prefer the higher, drier
areas* It was taken commonly in turkey oak and xeiic hamnock; occasionally
to commonly in bluejack oak; occasionally in scrub, Leon scrubby flatwroods,
and Pomello scrubby flatvoodsj and rarely in mesic hammock*
Areas with little or no litter are preferred by s jminolo*
although it has been taken in sand beneath litter, and Cole, in the Croat
Smoky Uountains, found it beneath stones* Characteristically the colonies
build an incomplete crater around the nest openings* Some nests, however,
were found with complete craters, and others with no craters* Even in
light litter the ants built craters, piling the sand pellets on the
surrounding leaves; in heavy litter the craters became obscure*
Incomplete craters faced no common direction* An average
crater is 6 to 8 inches in outside diameter, and about 2 inches at the
highest point* Wests always have only one opening* No records of the
ant were made other than in the subterranean stratum*
A nest of this form, collected in December, 1949, contained ¿Q2
workers and 1 queen* All of the workers, except a very few, were clustered
about the queen in a deep chamber 4 feet below tne surface* The passageways
want down to about 6 feet, but no iisneture forms were seen* The deeper,
vertical passageways (3 to 6 feet) ware widened at places for several
inches so that it would have been possible to place a 2-dram vial within
the gallery* Other nests were opened during the same week, and in all
of the nests the majority of the individuals remained well below the
surface; only a few were seen excavating* The top galleries and chambers
of most colonies were empty* In the nests which were active, worker's
were bringing to the surface organic substances which might have been used

fungus substratum. Some nsst openings, and other nest passageways were
closed, and in three nests small rod-shaped particles which resembled in
size the nettles of Qmintia were seen clogging the nest openings. These
particles were fragments of sedge or grass (probably Aristida stricta).
Mixed with these, wore many more unidentified plant fragments. Only
very poor evidence of fungus was /islble.
Immature forms occur during all except the winter months.
Winged forms have been collected in April through July. At 5 P.l¿. on
July 8, 1948, an overcast day, fcanales were seen coning from a nest in
turkey oak. Both the attendant workers and the females were very exeitedo
At about 5 minute intervals the females flew off from slightly raised
objects near the nest; they showed a special preference for a raised twig
near the nest opening. Each femalo rose almost straight up into the air
in a zigzag fashion, until she was out of sight above the treetops.
T. seotentrlonalis seminóle moves only moderately fast while
foraging, but it is deliberate in its movements. It usually does not
attempt to hide when disturbed, but becomes immobile, and depends on its
rough integument and tubercles to protect it. Foraging is almost completely
stopped during late December and January.
The ants characteristically carry leaves slung over their
heads. Workers have also been observed taking seeds back to their nests.
On several occasions they were observed carrying away seeds vrhich had
been discarded from Pogonomvrmex badius mounds; this activity always took
place at night when the PoKonomvTraex nest opening was closed. Hymenomycetea
fungi growing in a lawn also attracted them, and they carried pieces of
them back to their nests.
On one occasion this form was found associated with a nest of

115.
Solenopsls gegjnata which was under a log. Species of Corrodentia have
also been picked up with collections of seminóle.
Subfamily Dolichoderinae
Poliohoderus pgstulatus Mayr
D» pu8tulatu3 is one of the few ants taken more than three
times that occur in only one station* It was found occasionally to commonly
in marsh. Perhaps more collections around the margins of low, vet places,
such as flatwoods ponds, will reveal its existence there also. The species
has been recorded northward to Hew Jersey.
Collections were made most often in various aspects of the
herbaceous stratum, while others were made from shrubss
nest between septa of rotting Saeittaria stem
eawgrass flower stem
twigs of buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalism
Winged forms are present in the nest from September to February.
Immature forms were found in the nests in all months.
The speed of movement of the workers is moderate to considerable
and their sise ami behavior is somewhat like that of the subgenus
Colobopais of Caunponotua. living in similar nesting sites in marsh.
Iridomvrmex htf^U8 “ay**
This, the Argentine ant, has not been oollected from the Reserve,
but was collected from Palatka, 17 miles to the north of the Reserve.
Dr. Smith informs me that the ant was found at Palatka about 1932 when
the Bureau of Entomology was seouting for the ant there. It has been

116,
reported from there at other times since then, and vas taken there by
the author in July, 1948, and on February 17, 1950* It appears conmonly
along the sidewalks of the tovn, and nests can be taken from under many
stones. Probably it makes nests also under the sidewalks.
The ease with which the dispersal of humilla takes place is
indicated by the numerous individuáis in the following set of circumstances,
A station wagon with a wooden body had been left in Palatka for several
days in the same spot. When the automobile was driven back to the Reserve,
it was noticed that many ants had piled sand between the door and the
door casing, and had established themselves there, as well as in other
places in the station wagon. In all likelihood, the adaptiveness of this
ant allows it to move in this way into ships, trains, and other means of
transportation, and thus extend its distribution,
(Roger)
Eight stations were ocoupied by this ant, Jj. pruinoeus occurred
commonly in turkey oak, Leon scrubby flatwoods, longleaf pine flatwoods,
and black pine-fetterbush flatwoods; commonly to occasionally in xeric
hammock; and occasionally in blue jack oak, scrub, and Parnello scrubby
flatwoods. It seems to prefer areas where its nests are almost never in
shadow, whether in the high turkey oak or low black pine-fetter bush
flatwoods. The highest numbers of nests occur in stations where there
are open areas almost or entirely devoid of litter.
This ant can be found most often in the subterranean stratum,
but also in the surface stratum, Host of its nests in sand are either
rudimentary or incomplete orators, but there are instances when the nests
are found with no crater or with confíete craters. Some of these nests

117.
occur under litter» while others are built around the bases and root
systems of shrubs* It occurs about equally often under the bark of
fallen logs and dead stumps, and is also found in litter* The nests
under bark are most often built in the debris which occurs between the
bark and the rest of the wood) the immature forms, as well as workers,
are found in this debris* Several nests were constructed both in logs
and in sand*
Immature forms can be found in the nests in all months* Winged
forms have been taken in May through July*
When the ants become active in the summer and fall months, or
in the other seasons of the year, they form characteristic trails across
the sand, extending them sometimes into the vegetation* Eaoh individual
is energetically keeping up with the ant ahead, making a more or less
straight and lengthy column* Such trails are exemplified by an instance
in bluejack oak* Two columns, at an angle of 180° to each other,
originated from the same nest* Both columns seamed to have worn a path
through the litter* One column was followed for six yards, where it
split, sending one branch at least twenty feet up into a blue jack oak,
and the other up into another bluejaek oak* The other column was followed
into litter where it dispersed* When the ants are moving very fast under
the influence of the sun, they follow a zigzag pattern, especially on
vertical surfaces*
Some of the nests in wood have been associated with termites*
The significance of the association is unknown*

118.
PoQgMBS PYr<¥4ffH? “• R- Smith
The confusion which has resulted from recognizing color variants
in Dorvmvrmex has been discussed under the section dealing with the
subspecies pvramicus. Since two subspecies of the same species have
been found in the same area and in identical nesting situations, it is
probable that this region is an area of intergradation. In fact, specimens
have been found which appear on morphological grounds to be intergrades
between nvramicua and flavopectus. More exact identification of intergrades
cannot be made until types of both pvramicus and flavopectus are seen.
Although no specimens of this form have been found on the Reserve,
nests have been collected in Salt Springs, Uarion County, across the St.
Johns River from the Reserve, and in the town of Welaka. A typical nest 4
was taken in an orange grove from a crater 4 inches in diameter; 2/4 to
2/2 inch in height; and with one opening 2/8 to 1/4 inch in diameter.
Dorvmvrmex pvramicus (Roger)
The material listed under this heading was determined D.
pvramicus var. flavus by Dr. U. R. Smith. Creighton (1950*346), however,
in dealing with the species pvramicus. has discarded color as a separatory
character, and has found certain structural characteristics, such as the
shape of the meeonotum, to be clear-cut and constant. Because color was
proved to be inconstant, he has synonymized all color varieties.
However, all of the specimens that have the color which is
supposedly characteristic of flavus cannot be grouped together on morpho¬
logical grounds. Some of them are the lighter color phase of pyTnnfieHar
while others are Smith's flavopectus. In determinations for the author,
Smith, stressing color, evidently recognized a different aggregate of

119.
specimens as his subspecies flavopectus than Creighton recognizee as
flavopectus in his 1950 paper. This dissertation will follow Creighton
by using structural differences as separatory characters*
These ants prefer open sand, and nests hare been taken
occasionally to commonly in turkey oak and xeric hammock, and rarely in
bluejack oak. The great Majority of nests were complete craters in open
areas* Colonies were also found in a few rudimentary craters, one nest
under a log, and another eraterless nest with a leaf over the opening*
Complete craters of these ants vary from 2 1/2 to 4 inches in diameter;
from l/4 to 3/4 inch in height; and always hare one opening to each nest*
Winged forms of this group hare been seen May through August.
A flight was 0beerred on July 28, 1949.
Ants of this group are very agile and are able to climb
vegetation. Their foraging sometimes extends into the night. One colony
sms found in association with a queen of CwnfnowotuB socius. taken with
the nest only 4 inches below the ground surface.
Taplnog» sessile (Say)
The distribution of J. sessile indicates that it is influenced
by nan. Although in other parts of the country it is widespread, on the
Reserve it was taken in only one plant association* This one collection
was made in marsh along the St* Johns River, where it is possible that it
became established after being transported by man* In this connection,
sessile was recorded from floating islands in the Gainesville region.
Several males and females were attracted to light in the buildings on the
Reserve* Famales were taken in March and July, and males in April*
Cole (1940i64) gives a good account of the nesting habits of

120,
¿«, sessile iti the Great Smoky liountainsi "It v/as confined for the most
part to rather open situations, although nests have been observed in
dense moist woods* The ants noot in the soil beneath stones, logs, stumps
and stripe of bark* The nests are shallow affairs extending no more
than an inch or two beneath the soil surface* Most of those in the Park
were under rather large flat stones loosely appressed to the soil.
Beneath such a cover the orange colored brood was confined to pockets in
the soil, or to superficial chambers made by the workers, or very frequently
scattered along one inner margin of the stone and mingled with detritus.
The colonies were generally populous*1*
Subfamily Formicinae
Brachyxayrroex depjljg Emery
In its distribution in plant associations, £• deuilis shows a
preference for all types of flatwoods, although its occurrence was high
in other associations* It occurs most often in longleaf pine flatwoods,
Plummer slash pine flatwoods, and black pine-fetterbush flatwoods, whers
nests were recorded commonly. £• deoilis was found occasionally in
turkey oak, bluejack oak, scrub, Leon scrubby flatwoods, Pomello scrubby
flatwoods, Rutlege slash pine flatwoods, mesic hammock, hydric hammock,
and bayhsad. There seems to be no reason why it should not also be found
in xeric hammock and river swamp*
Most of the nesting sites of B. depilis were in the surface
stratum* Those nests in sand were associated with wood* Many nests,
recorded from logs were taken partly from sand although their major portions

121.
were in buried wood* Other nests associated with sand were in the roots
of shrubs or other plants* It is probable that these ants were attending
aphids*
The most important nesting sites for B. depilis on the Reserve
are in the bases of living trees and in fallen logs* Other nesting sites
in order of preference are*
1* in stumps
2* in palmetto roots on the surface
3• in living palmetto roots
4* under logs
5« under litter
They have also been found in sand among the roots of living shrubs, and
in sand among fern roots* Nests oan be found in wood in a variety of
stages of decay, but they occur mostly in or near hard wood* £• depilis
was taken conmonly from burned or charred wood. In most cases the wood
was wet or moist*
Uany of the nests of £. depilis* especially those in the
bases of living trees, are in sections as explained under Crematogaster
m'j nut j sainm mlsBouriensis» They contain about the same number of
individuals as do nests of the latter ant, Issnatures of jJ. depilis can
be found in all months. Winged forms have been recorded from May to
July*
Molasses traps attract this usually slow moving ant. As
mentioned above, it attends aphids. It has been found nesting in close
proximity to Ponera trígona opacior*

122*
Canroonotus castaneus (Latreille)
This species has been taken in eleven stations, but never with
more than occasional relative abundance* It may yet be found in one or
two more plant associations, but it is unlikely that it will occur in
marsh* £. castaneus shows a preference for meaic and hydric conditions*
It has been taken occasionally in scrub, Leon scrubby flatwoods, Fomello
scrubby flatwoods, Rutlege slash pine flatwoods, xeric hammock, mesic
hammock, river swamp, and bayheadj and rarely in longleaf pine and Plummer
slash pine flatwoods, and in hydric hammock* In xeric associations, its
nests are only in the more moist situations. There is reason to suppose
that further collecting will show a higher relative abundance in hydric
hammock*
Nests of C, castaneus have in all cases been in the surface
stratum, in logs or dead stumps* It prefers the last, moist stages of
decay, and has been found only in logs of broadleaved trees* Nests will
probably also be found partly in the soil, associated with a log or other
cover.
The largest colony counted contained only 22 workers and a
queen, along with eggs and larvae. This nest was in all likelihood young}
other nests have been seen which were estimated to contain between 100
and 200 individuals. Females have been observed in the nest in February
and March, and males in February through May, A mating flight '.ms observed
on March 22* Females have been caught on the wing in February also, and
males have been caught at light traps in March through May* Immature
forms occur in all months*
£. castaneus is an energetic forager. When the temperature drops
and the relative humidity rises, it increases its speed of movement,

123.
indicating its nocturnal tendenciosa It often forages in open areas,
such as firelanes, near the mosic or hydric site of its nest. It is
one of the ants which temporarily ceases activity during «inter months.
Observations on five vorkers and a number of cocoons of both
worker and reproductive castes, brought into the laboratory from a well-
decayed log in bayhead, have yielded miscellaneous data concerning the
habits of the ants* The ants were kept in a glass and plaster of Paris
nest, and for the first month no food was given them. When the cocoons
were plaoed in the nest they were mixed with debris from the original
nest in the field. Within a few hours, however, the cocoons had been
moved from the debris into the open at one side of the nest, indicating
no desire to avoid light. On the second day the cocoons were more
disseminated) some were placed by the workers near the sponge) some were
under debris) but most were still in the original pile.
On the third day callows began to emerge. In the cases of the
several watched, an attendant worker broke open eaoh cocoon, pulling
little by little at the cocoon, at the same time dragging the pupa over
debris and around the nest. In several cases there were more than one
worker attending a cocoon at one time. In the process of removing the
insect from the cocoon, the cuticle fitting tightly to the pupa was
eaten away by the nurse. The procedure took an hour or more. When
the callows first emerged, they were very uncoordinated, and remained
bunched together in one portion of the nest.
What were evidently acts of regurgitation were carried on between
the newly arrived callows and the workers. In this operation the heads
were set at an angle so that one mandible of each ant could be placed
on the clypeus of the other, while the other mandible was placed under

124,
the head of the other ant. One antenna of each ant Intermittently stroked
the clypeus of her partner, and the other stroked the under side of the
head. Pairs of ante remained in this pose for extended times. Four days
after their emergence, the callows assumed the coloration of the other
workers.
One week after the ants had been brought into the nest, several
callows, partially emerged, had been eaten. All of the discarded cocoons,
as well as the partially eaten callows were piled near the sponge.
When food was introduced a month after the workers and iranatures
were first put into the nest, the workers undertook to feed a winged female
callow. This female was much less violent in receiving her food than was
a queen of Camponotus »bdomina11a floridanus. The female used her antennae
only slowly and inconsistently, and while she did make use of her forelegs,
they were more for support on the worker. In distinction, the female of
£. ahdominalie floridanus stroked the worker partner hurriedly, especially
with her forelegs. The heads of the castaneus female and worker were in
much the same position as that described above for worker and callow.
The female would, however, at times invert her head under the head of ths
worker.
Camoonotus socius Roger
In 1932 Wheeler described Camoonotus socius var. osceola from
Florida. He separated it from socios by reason of three yellow stripes
on the gastar as comparad with two in socius. During the present work,
it has been found that individuals from the same nest appear with the
third yellow band either almost or quite indistinguishable or else strongly
evident. Creighton (1950) is therefore followed in synonymizing

125*
£• 3QC3.US var. osceola with C. socios.
This ant prefers the high, dry areas to the exclusion of the
wetter environments* It was taken commonly in turkey oak and xeric hammock;
and occasionally in Leon scrubby flatwoods and bluejaok oak* Like
Aphaeno^aster aahmeadi. aocius can be found almost always in situations
where the litter is relatively light*
All nests of sooius were taken in the subterranean stratum*
A majority of them were in the open where there was no litter* Hone of
the colonies maintained a recognizable crater, although around some nest
openings there were rings of sand pellets in what were the beginnings of
craters* Nest openings are often found at the bases of turkey oak
(Quercus laavis)i these nests go down into the root systems of the oaks
where the rootlets may offer support to the nest chambers and honeydew
from associated aphids*
In turkey oak end xeric hasmock, sooius is, on hot Sumner days,
the most conspicuous ant on account of its constant and excited above¬
ground activity* Its large size and quick movement, along with its habit
of moving on top of the litter, make it much more conspicuous than a
relatively reclusive ant such as Odontomachus haearn toda insularis. During
the winter months, even though both day and night remained warm, and often
became very hot, the above-ground activity of the ant ceased almost entirely*
The feeding activities of the ant are varied. Specimens «ere
taken in November, 1946, by Ur. J. C. Moore from a fox squirrel nest, 26
feet above the ground in a turkey oak tree, where the ants were probably
feeding on other arthropods* The species is always attracted to molasses
traps in favorable plant associations*
A queen of £• socius was taken into the laboratory and placed

126
in an artificial nest on October 19, 1949* She was given nothing but water.
During the time she spent in the nest she repeatedly laid eggs, but none
of them developed beyond small larvae* On February 2, 1950, two Canroonotus
abdomina11s floridanus larvae were placed in the nest, and were accepted
by the queen* On the next day, a pupa and larva of Anhaenogaster macrospina
were put in the nest, and although the queen did not accept these, she
did not appear to reject them* However, on the following day, the
introduced pupa was destroyed or eaten. The larvae were cared for until
March 15, when they also disappeared* On June 30, after 8 l/2 months
without food other than the sustenance the larvae and pupa may have
provided, the queen died*
Leotothorax taxanua daviei was found associated with this species
on October 19, 1949, in turkey oak* A nest of the Leptothorax* including
a queen, was taken along with a lone queen of Camponoti^s- No crater or
nest opening to the sand nest was visible* C, socius has also been reported
as a casual in the burrows of the Florida pocket gopher (Geomvs floridanus)
(Hubbell and Goff, 1939).
Gantponotus nearcticus Emery
It is not entirely clear from the work of the present study
whether or not Wheeler's C. carvae rasills pavidus ought to be synonymised
with nearcticus. The two variants have been quite distinguishable on the
basis of their color, and have occurred in entirely different stations,
the black variant nesting in open situations, the lighter variant, pavidus*
nesting in the shaded mesio or hydric situations*
The problem as to what the relation of the two variants is,
would then present itself* It would perhaps be possible for pavidus and

nearcticua to be ecological subspecies, or along the same line, it would
be possible for the two variants to hare undergone ecological isolation
and already be species. However, ecological subspecies and speciation
are not well founded in formicid systematice.
In addition, Creighton (1950*388) brings out the point that
there exist several named varieties of carroe ffallal which are based
on slight color differences. "Each is admittedly transitional in this
respect. In each the definitive color characteristic was known to vary
in the type series." If this be true, there seems little reason for
recognizing pavidus and nearcticua as separate forms on the basis of color
distinctions. In this dissertation pavidus is synonymized with nearcticua.
£• nearcticua was taken occasionally in turkey oak, bluejack
oak, Pomello scrubby flatwoods, longleaf pine flat wo ode, mesie hammock,
and river swamp; and rarely in scrub and bayhead. It may also be found
in other stations where the trees provide branches as arboreal nesting
sites.
Nests in the arboreal stratum are characteristic, but on one
occasion a nest was taken in an oak log which had been caught in an oak
branch and was supported by the ground at an 80° angle. The black variants
of nearcticua prefer small branches of pine in open areas, although some
were taken in twigs; the wood was usually in the first stages of decay.
The lighter variant, on the other hand, was found nesting in small branches
of hardwood trees, generally in shaded mesic and hydric areas. It is
possible that in the more intense light of open areas the ants take on
a darker appearance than in the more shaded hammock areas.
The number of workers in 4 nests of nearcticua varied from 28
to 91, averaging about 69 workers per nest. Another, probably incipient

128
nest, contained 12 workers. In only this last was the queen taken.
Immature forms have been observed in the nests in both summer and winter.
Winged forms hare been found in the nests and on the wing from March
through July.
C. nearcticus is not a conspicuo!» forager, but it can at times
be seen climbing hurriedly on the trunks of pines or oaks. Workers were
discovered by Ifr. J. C. Moore in a fox squirrel nest 45 feet above the
ground in a turkey oak stand. Mr. Moore states (in litt.)i "Certain
beetles, lepidopters, and stratiomyid fly larvae were much more abundant
than the ants in the wet, rotting interior, 90% of which was Spanish moss."
The workers in this case were probably foraging for food in the squirrel
nest.
The ant has a tendency to become active on cloudy days. Foraging
continues into the night, and workers have been attracted to light traps.
The spider, Suropsis funebris Hentz (det. W. J. Gertsch), of
the family Theridiidae, was taken in a nest of nearcticus.
Cag££3<&g, subgenus Cqj.p^oBs.^s Uayr
Most of the ColobopsiB on the Reserve seem to be more closely
allied to either nvlartas Wheeler or to iaroressus Roger than to any others
of the known species from the Uhited States. As Wheeler (1904sl49) admits,
ñafiarte» is very close morphologically to iamressus Roger. Wheeler
distinguishes the two forms of Colobopsis on the basis of the shape of
the thorax in the soldier and worker, and in the coloration of the gaster
which is banded basally with yellow in ovlartes. Comparisons of soldiers
and workers from the same nest with the descriptions of fofnrassies and
nvlartaa given by Wheeler (1904s144 and 147) show that individuals from

129
the same nest seem to vary between the two speoies in regard to the
conformations of the thorax and the coloration of the gastar. The intra¬
nest variation is such that the Colobopsis found on the Reserve oould not
be unmistakingly identified) they are treated under one heading.
A third form which shows variation in a different manner was
found on the Reserve, but because only a few specimens were taken, it is
not included here. Although this third form has a resemblance to the
other Colobopsis. the major worker or soldier measures only 3.1 mm. in
total body length, in comparison to 4.3 ~ 4.6 mm. for impreseus and 4.5 -
5.0 mm. for pvlartes (Wheeler, loc. cit.).
Ants of the subgenus Colobopsis on the Reserve prefer meeie
and hydric situations in which there are vines or other suitable broadleaved
twig vegetation. Ants olosely resembling pvlartes occur commonly to
abundantly in marsh) occasionally to commonly in mesie hammock) occasionally
in scrub, Pomello scrubby flatwoods, xeric hammock, hydric hammock, river
swamp, and bayhead) and rarely in Plummer slash pine flatwoods and Rutlege
slash pine flatwoods. Nests were arboreal in a great majority of cases,
but two nests were found in sawgrass flower stalks, and several were in
planted bamboo stalks. Nests were found in greatest abundance in twigs,
much less often in galls, and only once in a small branch. Nesting sites
of all Colobopsis on the Reserve are similar.
These ants, as well as some Crematoeaster and Solenopsis.
subgenus Diplorhoptrum. nest in "sections", defined under £• minutissima
miflBouriansia. A good example of this type of nesting was observed in
a planted patch of bamboo. Although the several nodes in the middle of
the stalk had been permeated by the ants, many of the other nodes which the
nest included were intact, and the nest was thus split into seotions.

130
A count of 10 nests reveals a range in number of workers from
15 to 269; in soldiers from 1 to 72; in totals of workers plus soldiers
from l6 to 341. Tlie average of the total numbers of workers and soldiers
was about 103* Queens were absent from all but one of the nests counted.
Female pupae viere observed in the nests in April through June, and adult
females were taken over the same period* Males were found in the nests
in April and May* and again in November* lema tures occur in all months,
except during cold spells* All forms of Colobopsis on the Reserve seem
to follow this general outline of life history*
When this agile ant makes a nest of a bamboo stalk, as explained
above, it cuts a circular nest opening through the internodes of the stalk
somewhere near the center* The planted bamboo thickets are a favorite
haunt of the downy woodpecker (Dendrocopus pubescena). In seeking ants
these birds made a characteristic hole in the bamboo stalk* Each hole
was about l/4 inch in vertical length and 1/8 inch in width* Most of
the woodpecker holes were near the nodes, in contradistinction to the
position of the ant-made holes* Two theories for the position of these
holes were advanced by Mr* V* U* McLano who observed the actions of a
bird eating the ants from a stalk1 1) the bird may find more support
in gripping the node; and 2) the stalk nearer the node will bo more
resistant to bending and will be more easily broken through* If the last
is the sole reason for the position of the holes, it would show a great
deal of keenness on the part of the bird in selecting a spot to peck*
An interesting record was made of an ant which more closely
resembled inmresanB than pvlartee. All pupae observed in pylartes nests
were naked* But pupae taken from the former nests were in cocoons* One cocoon
contained five individuals

131
SaSBgnfttW abdominales florldanus (Buckley)
£• florldanus prefers the better drained areas of
the Reserre, especially turkey oak and xeric hammock, as veil as black
pine-fetterbush flatvoods, but it is one of the three ants which have
been found in all plant associations studied. Nests occur commonly in
all stations except Pamello scrubby flatvoods, Rutlege slash pine flatvoods,
river swamp, bayhead, and marsh in which they appear occasionally* This
even distribution in stations is matched by its occurrence in all strata
and in a large number of nesting sites*
Within the strata the ant shows a definite preference for the
surface stratum, although it has been found over a third as many times
in sand, in a majority of oases under some sort of cover* Relatively
fev records were made of nests in grass, trees, and shrubs*
The most strongly preferred nesting sites are in logs and
stumps* Well preferred also are situations under logs, and under litter*
Nests are found ofteni
in and under logs
in litter
in palmetto roots on the soil surface
under the mat of palmetto roots and trunks
in the bases of living trees
around roots of grass clumps
in small branches
Other nests have been recorded;
from open sand with rudimentary or no crater
from between sawgrass blades
from sawgrass flower stalk
in the wall of a building behind cement
under a dead frond resting against a cabbage palm three
feet above the ground surface
in the stub of a live oak limb ten feet above the ground
The types of wood in which £. abdominalis floridanus nests vary
considerably* Records have been made from logs and stumps of pine and

132
bro&dleaved trees, with or without hark» and either charred or unburned.
The wood ranges» moreover» from the first stage of decay to the later
stages» although the latter seem to be preferred. In many cases the wood
is moist, but nests occur in dry as well as wet wood. Most colonies
permeate a whole section of log or stump and occupy both the area under
the bark as well as most of the wood itself, but nests have been found
solely in one position or the other. Records show that the ant is
characteristically taken from chambers in the wood, especially in stumps,
where a part of the nest will occupy the root system, and another part,
chambers in the sand; many colonies extend to higher levels in the wood.
Likewise, nests recorded from sand are usually taken from chambers in the
T
sand, a majority of which, howsver, are associated with roots or wood
sunken into the soil, and most do not seem to have been built by the ant.
Mr. J. C. Moore took specimens of this ant on several occasions
from fox squirrel (Sciurus niger niger) nests in turkey oak. He indicates
that in at least one nest, 21 feet high in a turkey oak, the ants were
evidently permanently occupying the chamber of a squirrel nest made of
twigs and leaves. As he broke open the nest, the ants were seen to pick
up their inmaturos and carry them to safety.
A typical nest of this ant, counted in February, contained 726
workers, as well as inmaturos. Inmaturos seem to be present in all months,
although an absence of some forms seems to reflect cold weather. Flights
of males have been observed in June through August, and in Marsh.
Flights of females were recorded for June through August, and in May.
Reproductive caste pupae were observed in the nests in October. Meets
with a lone queen have been found as early as February.
A group of females were observed in the process of making

133.
a flight at 7*40 P.K., during dusk» on July 13» 1948* No malas wars
observad. The sky was overcast, the temperature «as 27°C. and the
relative humidity «as 88^. When observed there were perhaps fifty females
to be seen, but the flight had probably been going on for some time.
They ehose the highest possible places to start their independent flights,
crawling onto a tin can on the steps of the building in which the nest
was located. Eaoh female made a very short preliminary spreading of
wings before the flight. A few attempted flight, but fell over backwards,
only to make a second successful attempt. Within a space of ten minutes
or so, most of the females had left the steps in flight. They took to
the air at a rate of from three a minute to ten or twelve a minute. Each
ant ascended at approximately a forty-five degree angle to the ground.
Moat flights proceeded in the direction in which the ant was headed at
the taking-off point, but some swerved in one direction or another,
perhaps being caught in a wind current; they always, however, maintained
somewhat the same angle to the ground. When the last of the queens had
left it was dark. During the whole ceremony, many excited workers were
in attendance.
On June 29, 1948, an aggregation of males above ground was
first noticed because of the excitement of workers traveling in file
some distance from the nest. These workers were followed to the nest in
a stump in turkey oak where the males were wandering about the nest site
with workers in constant, excited attendance. The males seemed to wander
farther from the nest than the workers would permit, for the latter were
constantly carrying winged forms back toward the nest opening. Most
workers carried the males by grasping them by the head, with their body
straight out in front of the worker. Although the nest was watched until

134.
it became impossible to see the ants, no flight was observed* The
temperature at the time of observation was 25°C., and the relative
tumidity was 4C%,
On July 3 a dealated female of C. floridanus mis
brought into the laboratory in the twig in which she was found* When
placed in a container, the twig was open at both ends, but the queen
soon shut off the ends with fragments of wood* During her confinement
only water was given her*
On the 12th the twig was removed from the container, and the
queen was separated from a clutch of eggs first noted that day* During
several frantic searohinge of the container, she explored under the
remaining slivers of wood with her antennae* Several times she paused
a few seconds in her search, and bent her abdomen under her legs so that
it was facing forward, and examined it with her antennae and mouthparts*
Between her sorties, she remained at the top of the jar in the shadow of
the lid.
The morning of the 13th found the queen characteristically
posed over the ten or twelve eggs which appeared in an unavnmetrical
sphere* The queen stood with her head slightly in front of the clutch
which rested on the nest floor, seemingly with her palpi on them* From
time to time she would rub her antennae over the eggs and then along her
forelegs* She was very excitable when disturbed*
On the 14th the remaining fragments of wood had been placed on
the sponge* The eggs had increased in number* When disturbed, the queen
picked them up in her mandibles and poeed with them, or carried them
to some other portion of the jar. The eggs were always kept in a cleared
portion of the jar* After moving the eggs, the queen repeated her actions

135.
of moving her antennae over the eggs and then under her forelegs. She
consistently avoided the sponge.
It was difficult to tell exactly the length of time immaturee
required to develop from one stage to the next. There vas evidence that
at least some larvae and pupae had died or been killed, and new eggs were
being laid constantly. Approximate times, under the conditions imposed
for the development, were as followst egg to larva, 21 days; larva to
pupa, 20 days; and pupa to worker adult, 8 days. It became apparent
after observing another &nt queen under conditions of low temperature
that the length of the developmental period for any of the immature forms
is lengthened by adverse conditions. It can be noted here that pupae
of another queen, placed under identical environmental circumstances
except for the absence of adult forms, did not hatch.
The first offspring of the former queen were all very small
workers. These measured only 5*5 ora, in total body length. No insects
this small were observed in large, thriving colonies in the field.
The feeding habits of the queen of C, abdominalis floridanus
a,
are compared with those of C. castaneus winged female under the latter
ant. The small workers mentioned above took water from the sponge and
went to the queen. When she encouraged a worker with her antennae, the
two ants would assume positions in which the axes of their heads were
at right angles, one mandible of each above, and one below the partner's
head. The queen stroked violently with her antennae during the regurgi¬
tation, and made frequent use of her forelegs. The worker returned the
antennal strokes much more slowly, and made no use of the forelegs.
On several occasions, best exemplified in roots of saw palmetto,
the immature forms of C. abdominalie floridanus have been found at different

136
levels in the nests* In all eases the pupae were at the top, with the
eggs and larvae together below, or the larvae placed between the pupae
and the eggs*
Most of the year this is a fast moving, excitable ant which
finds no difficulty in negotiating the trunks of trees and the stems
of herbs* However, in November, especially in 19*8» there was a notice*
able cessation in its above-ground activity* During most of the year,
it is active both in the day and at night, except during rain, when it
and most of the other ants seek cover*
The feeding habits of C. abdominalis floridanus are rather
diversified* It is attracted to liver as well as molasses* On several
occasions it has been recorded taking insects to its nest* Workers have
been observed actively dissecting insects before carrying them to their
nest. Termites, colonizing in many instances the same type of wood as
C, abdominalis floridanus. perhaps supply food for the ant. When a log
which contains both termites and this carpenter ant is broken open, the
excited worker ants pick up termites between their mandibles and carry
them as if they were their own immatures* This habit has been noted in
other ant forms*
£* abdominalis floridanus has been found associated with the
following animalst
OdfifttPfaaStos haematoda
Paratrechina saryuk
Mynaecophila ? (Orthoptera)
termites (Isoptera)
several beetles and beetle larvae (Coleóptera)
chilopod8
Hvpoaapis ? (Acariña)
In this connection it might also be mentioned that on several occasions,
dead workers of this ant were found tightly clinging to vertical grass

137.
stems, or to strand* of hanging Spanish doss* The head of each worker
was upward, and frena the head or the anterior portion of the thorax a
fungus, tentatively determined as Cord veeps sp., was protruding. The
worker, being attacked by the fungus, and climbing to die above the ground
suggests an excellent medium for the dispersal of the spores of the fungus.
When logs which contained this pugnaoious Caaponotus and
Odontoiaachus haeraatoda insular is were broken open, the workers of both
species usually became excited and attacked each other. In the field,
the Caaoonotus were rnuoh superior in battle, killing the Odontoiaachus
each time an observed combat took place. In the laboratory, ants of
this Camponotus introduced into a common container with Odontomaohus
lost as many battles as they won. The sting of the Odontomachua seemed
to be fatal, but they were less pugnacious than the carpenter ant, using
their mandibles to spring away from their adversaries. The Camponotus.
quicker in the attack, were adept at severing lags and gasters from the
bodies of their opponents.
E^ra&echiaa lonsicoEais (I*tr.)
The nesting places of £• longicornis are very closely associated
with the structures made by man, especially in places where trade through
seaports is conducted. Its distribution shows that it is a cosmopolitan
species.
It was taken in Gainesville, and in Crescent City, 11 adlee to
the southeast of the Welaka Reserve. In both of these places nests were
found in crevices in the eament of walls of buildings, or beneath the
cement in the soil at the base of the buildings. Unlike the imported
Iridomvnaex humilis. nests were always found in buildings, rather than,

138
as in the case of humilla. outside the buildings in the ruderal
sections* Although it was not found in Welaka, it probably occurs there
in some sections*
The long, spidery legs of this ant, and the fast, seemingly
aimless movements, are the basis for its being termed the Merazy ant" in
9ome regions* It has been observed to carry spiders to its nest, and to
be attracted to candy, and sweets of other kinds*
Paratrechina arenivaga (Wheeler)
Creighton (1950*408) lists aronivaga as a subspecies of melanderi*
All the male specimens in his collection taken in the type locality of
arenivaga have had genitalia more like i/heeler’s figure of melanderi than
like his figure of arenivaga (1905)* Moreover, he states that "I believe
that I have fairly conclusive evidenee, from specimens taken in southern
Alabama, to show that melanderi and arenivaga intergrade in that area."
On this basis he has made arenivaga a subspecies of melanderi.
Specimens collected during the present study, however, have had
genitalia which agree with cotype material of arenivaga from the Museum
of Cong>arative Zoology* The genitalia of these males are very similar
to the genitalia of arenivaga as pictured by Wheeler* Therefore, until
it can be certain that Creighton collected arenivaga. and not another
form, in the type locality of arenivaga. and until the intergradation
between melanderi and arenivaga can be established without doubt, it
seems best to use arenivaga as a distinct species.
Although Paratreohina parvula becomes very light in color in
the higher and more open areas of the Reserve, it can almost always be
distinguished from the deep yellow £. arenivaga. £• arenivaga is slightly

139.
larger than párvula in most measurements of the workers, and is definitely
larger in the winged forme* Two of the best characters for the separation
of these two species are the venation of the wings in both the male and
female, and the shape of the male genitalia* In the females the venational
difference is most striking* Here the crossvein m-cu in narvula is less
than half the length of the same vein in arenivaga* The crossvein m-cu
in oarvula is one-half the length of Rsfl, while in arenivaga both the
erossvein and the longitudinal vein are approximately the same length*
In arenivaga the processes of the median genital valve are both long and
elender, whereas in parvula only the inner process of this valve is
lengthened, and the outer prosees is curved*
Even though arenivaga ie abundant hore, it was not listed by
those who ha vo made state lists* Wheeler (1905) renarks that it oocurs
in New Jersey and near Austin, Texas* Suren (1943) notee that the ant
has been taken from the Missouri River bluff, but from no other part of
Iowa* This spotty distribution and its occurrence near ports and rivers
may indicate that the distribution of the species is affected by oomnerce.
In all instances it builds craters similar to those on the Reserve*
On the Reserve £• arenivaga was found in ^ plant associations*
It nested abundantly in the high and open areas of turkey oak and xerie
hammock, where it was able to find suitable areas for its crater nests*
Nests were found occasionally in Leon scrubby flatwoods, and rarely in
bluejaek oak, Pomello scrubby flatwoods, longleaf pine flatwoods, and
Plummer slash pine flatwoods* Colonies were also found often in firelanes
and on lawns*
Without exception it was found in the subterranean stratum where
it built eooplete orators* Those craters ranged from 1 to 3 inches in
diameter and from l/S to l/2 inch in height of the crater. All nests had

140
one central opening* Moot of the neets were built in light colored sand
which matched the light eolor of the ant*
The immature forms probably occur in the noets all year* Winged
forma appear in January and remain until February or March when the mating
flights take place* Activity that seemed to be preparatory to one suoh
flight was observed on February 12, 1950, at 4 P*M*, Just after a rain
when the temperature was 21°C. and the relative humidity ms 100/£*
Although there were many males in the upper chambers of the nests, none
were noted taking off from eight nests observed* There was an indication
that the nests are sex specific, or nearly so, since all or a large
majority of the winged forms in a nest were of one sex* Many of the
workers were in a replete state*
This is a moderately fast moving ant, but on warm, overcast
days it tends to increase its speed of movement* It is active during
both the day and night* During the winter months its above-ground
activity becomes limited.
Many animals have been found in association with this ant* In
the nests mentioned above from which the winged forms were emerging, a
black cricket with red markings on its head was observed, but not taken*
P* arenivaga has been found on quite a few occasions with the followings
Solenopsis molesta
so¿5¿no£sis saaaaáal
Reticulitermes spp, (Isoptera)
The termites were always in small pieces of wood buried in the sand, and
the arenivaga nests passed through or close by the wood* The Solenopsi»
occupied chambers of the Paratrechina nest about one-half to one foot
below the surface* On occasion both Solenopsis were found in the same
nest* One worker of Pheidole morriai was found in a nest of this Paratreohinai

141,
and «aireral workers of arenivaga were found in a nest of Pheidole morrisi*
Since these ants usually live independently, it is likely that the workers
had merely wandered into the foreign nests.
Pur at rechina gam^a (Mayr)
£• parvula and Pheidole dantata are perhaps the most common ants
on the Reserve* However, the ants listed under £• parvula in this paper
show variation in the worker caste* Some are of very pale coloration and
smaller size, while others are darker and of larger size* A majority of
workers are small in size and of lighter coloration) but some small, dark
workers, and large, light workers were found* Moreover, the color of
workers within the same colony may be either pale straw with light brown
bands on each segment of the gaster and with a dark head, or the gastar
and head may be dark brown with the thorax and legs only slightly lighter*
Some of the variation in color is due to the change from the
callow condition to the full color condition* Some of the dark workers,
as well as 30ms callows, have a distended gaeter* Under both of these
circumstances the workers have a lighter appearance than they would in
their mature, undistended condition*
The male genitalia of the lighter colored form ars insignificantly
different from the darker form (the former are slightly smaller, but have
the same configuration)* Wesson and Wesson (1940*100) have found similar
variation in parvula in southcentral Ohio* "Our material shows consider¬
able variation which we have been unable to refer to any but this speeise
on comparison with material in the Wheeler collection at the Museum of
Comparative Zoology, Harvard University* Specimens from wooded places
are usually dark brown or black and have few or no hairs on the antennal

142.
scapes. They agree with the typical párvula. Specimens from dry or
exposed situations, on the other hand, are usually paler and have a
variable number of hairs on the antennal scapes....ve have occasionally
found colonies in which some of the workers bore a variable number of
hairs on the antennal scapes while others bore none, suggesting that
this character may not be entirely reliable." Specimens from the
Reserve agree with those from Ohio in that the number of hairs on the
antennal scape is variable. If all of the forms represent one species,
it is possible, as the above quotation suggests, that the drier nesting
sites will contain lighter forms. But both light and dark forms have
been taken from almost every station on the Reserve, although the lighter
forms are more prevalent in the higher, drier areas. Conversely, the
larger sized workers are found in the wet areas.
In general £• narvula seams to prefer the wetter areas, although
nests have been found in all of the stations. It was taken abundantly
in black pine-fetterbush flatwoods, meeic hammock, and marsh; commonly
to abundantly in Plummer slash pine flatwoods; commonly in turkey oak,
Leon scrubby flatwoods, longleaf pine flatwoods, Rutlege slash pine
flatwoods, xerie hamnook, hydric hammock, and bayhead; occasionally to
commonly in scrub, Pomello scrubby flatwoods, and river swamp; and
occasionally in bluejack oak.
Three-fourths of the records of parvula were made from the
surface stratum. Approximately equal numbers of collections were made
from under cover in sand and from nests in the grass stratum. A few
nests were taken arboreally.
Nesting sites of parvula. in order of preference, are*

143.
1. in litter
2. in fallen log
3* in grass clump
4. under litter
5* in bases of living trees
6. between sawgrass blades
7* in dead stumps
8. in palmetto roots
9* in small branches
10. in twigs
11. in and under logs
12. under logs
Nests have been in wood varying from wet to dry, and from the
first stages to the last stages of decay. They have been found under
bark, in both broadleaved and pine wood.
Most of the nests in sawgrass are between the growing, appreesed
blades, although seme are in the dark stumps of sawgrass which are wet
or saturated. In the living sawgrass, the ants are able to live at or
near the water surface. Several nests were found slightly below the
water surface, within the plant parts which excluded the water. No nests
were found very far from the water level, since the blades diverge leaving
no place to nest at a height of a few inches; these higher portions of
the plants are also exposed to much greater evaporation than the partially
shaded areas near the water. In January, the sawgrass is for the most
part dead, except for the inside blades, and the outer blades fall slightly
apart. During this period, even though the temperature is clement, the
ants are relatively scarce in marsh.
A similar shifting is noted for nests in grass clumps. Beginning
in October the grass clumps in which the ants have lived during the summer
become dry and completely dead above the soil surface. With the drying
cut of the grass above the surface, the density of the population in this
nesting site decreases. Those ants that remain inhabit the root systems

144,
of the grass} the others find litter or logs vith suitable moisture* It
is possible that during the rainy summer the ants more their nests into
the above-ground, higher portions of the grass to avoid supersaturation,
ami that with the onset of winter and dry weather, with the consequent
drying of the grass, the ants move down into the moist lower stems and
roots*
The number of individuals in the nests of parvula ranged, in
the 4 nests counted, from 25 to f2, averaging 45* Females have been
taken in nests as early as late July, and as late as the latter part of
January* Malee were found in September through the last part of February.
Winged forms are most abundant in the nests in October, November, and
December* The presence of winged forms during most months is noteworthy*
This moderately fast moving ant is attracted to liver and
molasses* Workers of parvula forage actively at night* It has been
found associated with the following insects*
Atelura (?) (Coleóptera)
Corrodentia* Psocidae
Diptera* fam.?
Pheidole dentjguia
saisagasis £iota
miaaouriensis
CqffponofrqB abdo^ina^is .tloridfinijS
Odoptom^fra8 hftggfrtoda &j8jrigr.ig
PE9n°;9pje imaftTifl (Say)
JP* imparis has been taken in only two plant associations* These
are turkey oak, in which it was found rarely, and scrub, in which it was
found occasionally* Occasional nests can be found on lawns in rudera1
areas, and suggest that this may be an important nesting situation for
the ant* In the Gainesville region, £• imnaria was found occasionally

145.
in aesio hammock and ruderal areas, and was also taken in turkey oak and
flatwo ode*
All of the nests on the Reserve were under litter, even those
in the ruderal areas. Those in Gainesville, however, nearly all formed
complete craters in open areas. Both Gregg (1944*470) and Cole (1940*67)
note that the ant builds craters and that it lives in clay. Cole states
that "The ants nest in shaded, moist, compact soil, particularly clay,
occasionally beneath wood or stonesf but more often construct obscure
crater mounds consisting of pellets of soil scattered around the single
nest entrance." This last type of nest is found under light litter on
A
the Reserve. A neet was observed in which all of the ants were dumping
sand pellets at least a foot from the nest opening, in the process of
excavation,
£• i”naria mores with only a moderate degree of speed. It becomes
most active during cloudy or overoast days, Uolassee and corn bait for
mammal traps will attract it, Talbot (1943a and 1943b) and Wheeler
(1930) have made extensive studies on £• imparls, in regard to population
and response to environment.
Formica archboldi M. R. Smith
£, archboldi was found in six plant associations. It was taken
occasionally to commonly in turkey oak and black pine fetterbush flatwoodej
occasionally in longleaf and Plummer slash pine flatwoods, and rarely in
Rutlege slash pine flatwoods and xerie hammock. This distribution indicates
that £• archboldi is attracted to areas of pine growth, mors, it would
seam, because of the lack of heavy leaf litter than because of the pinee.
It he*» been found to be the most coomon Formica on the Reserve,

146.
It has always been found in the subterranean stratum, and
either in the sand under a log or under litter. Of the 2 nests counted,
one under a log in black pine-fetterbush flatwoods contained 63 workers,
and 4 callows, in addition to eggs, 21 larvae, 16 pupae, and 20 pupal
cocoons. The other nest in turkey oak, taken indar litter, contained
222 workers, with eggs, 25 larvae, 6 worker pupae, and 21 pupal cocoons.
This last nest also had 7 female pupae, 3 female callows, and 20 femalee.
Each nest had a queen.
The first nest was within one foot of the surface, just above
the water table. It contained many heads of Odontomaohus ha etna toda
insular in. indicating that the Formica may take over Odontomaohus neets,
c that the Odontomaahua is used as food. The second nest was 8 to 12
inches below the surface of the soil with a 2/4 inch passageway leading
to the chambers. The castes and immature forms seemed to be arranged in
order from top to bottom of the nest in the following order* winged
females) larvae and eggs) pupae; cocoons of workers; and cocoons of
winged forms. It should be noted that pupae are both nude and covered
with cocoons.
£• archboldi usually moves with considerable spe i in most of
the months of the year, but collections indicate that there is a period
of inactivity in the winter months. Specimens have been taken with a
species of small mite (Hypoaspis ?) on the gaster directly behind the
petiole. In one nest the cricket livrmeconhila pargandei Bruner (det.
Gantrail) was found.

147.
Fórmica rallidefulra Latreille
F. palUdefulm was found on the Reserve in only three plant
associations. It was taken occasionally in turkey oak and xerie hammook,
and rarely in Pomello scrubby flatvoods. These situations have in common
their openness, and absence of thick litter.
All nests of this species were found in the subterranean stratum,
all under cover of litter. It has also been collected in Gainesville in
this same sort of nesting site.
One nest of F. pallidefulva in turkey oak had two openings,
one of which led for only a short distance. The main opening led laterally,
at a depth of about 1/2 inch, for about 3 inches where there was a chamber,
then straight down to where the passageway stopped at 3 foot. Blind
passageways, and chambers were spaced along the downward passage. At
3 feet workers of Caipjnonotuc gocius were encountered, and were seen carry¬
ing cocoons. No eggs, larvae, or pupae, other than those carried by the
Camoonotus were observed.
Like the other Formica of the Reserve, this ant could usually
be seen moving with considerable speed in its foraging activities.
Formica sohaufussj Mayr
On the Reserve F. sehaufussi was found rarely in turkey oak and
longleaf pine flatwoods. In Gainesville it was found in xerie hammook
and an open ruderal aroa.
Nests on the Reserve were all in the subterranean stratum and
under litter. About this ant, Cole (1940*79) writes* "The ants live in
the ground, as a rule beneath stones in open, warm, rather dry grassy
A few obscure crater mounds were found, and a number of colonies
areas.

148.
which nested beneath stones had adjoining earthen craters. The stones
were loosely banked along their margins with soil particles. Underneath
was a number of large, irregular superficial chambers, but the main part
of the nest was at a depth of 1 l/2 to 2 feet underground. The colonies
are as a rule, populous, and the workers are agile and timid when disturbed."
These remarks agree with, and add to, the observations made on the Welaka
Reserve.

149
Leotogenys olongata manni Wheeler
On July 26, 1950, a specimen of this Ponerine ant vas collected
in river swamp. The swamp at the time of collection was extremely dry,
and the ant was crawling oyer litter that contained very little moisture*
In the Gainesville region it was taken in mesie hammock from rotting
stumps*
The occurrence of this Leetogenva on the Reserve will affect
Figures 3 and 5* but these figures will be altered to only a slight
extent*

150.
SUMMARY
The present study deals with eeologic&l relationships of the
ants of the University of Florida Conservation Reserve, a 2180 acre tract
in northeastern peninsular Florida. Field work was carried on from
October, 1947» until June, 1950. Seventeen collecting trips were made
to each of fifteen areas or stations (plant association-soil type combi¬
nations) chosen to represent the major vegetational and soil variations
of the Reserve.
Seventy-one species and subspecies of ants were taken on the
Reserve, and four others were collected in nearby towns. Fourteen ant
forms were recorded for the first time from the state.
Quantitative relationships were determined for the ant forms
within the stations, by using the colony, and not the individual ant, as
the biological unit. Assemblages of ants which were characteristic and
distinctive qualitatively and/or quantitatively were found to exist in
the stations, and in four strata and sixteen nesting sites within the
stations. The environments of each of these assemblages were therefore
designated ant habitats.
For the Reserve, Pheidole dentata showed the greatest abundance;
the next four forms in order are:
Paratrechina parvula
Camponotna abdominalis floridanuB
Odontom^chiia hqpmntodn insular is
Solenopsi8 molesta
In both variety of ant forms and number of nests, the turkey
oak and xerie hammock stations rank well above all others, whereas the
slash pine flatwoods, river swamp, and marsh stations rank at the bottom.
This indicates that the higher, drier stations are more suitable for

151.
ants than the lower, wetter areas.
There were 14 forms none of which were collected from more
than one station, while each of 3 forms were found in all 15 stations.
Figure 5 shows the relationship between the number of ant forms and the
numbers of stations. When the ants which were collected only once are
omitted, then there were only 5 forms none of which were collected from
more than one station. From this and other evidence it seems probable
that ant8 do not show as much dependence on plant association-soil type
combinations as do other animals.
Distribution in strata and nesting sites showed that ants
preferred the subterranean and surface strata, and within these strata,
nests in sand, fallen logs, or stunqps, Only nineteen forms nested in
the herbaceous and arboreal strata,
A correlation is shown between the number of nesting sites a
form occupies and the number of stations it occupies. In general,
however, the number of stations occupied increases faster than the
number of nesting sites occupied. From this it would seem that many
ants are more restricted by nesting sites than by plant association-
soil type combinations.
Data concerning the life histories, activity, food, and habits
in general have been brought together under the appropriate ant form in
the Annotated List, Indications of variations in seasonal occurrence
have been apparent for only a few forms, and in all cases have been due
to the seasonal variability in abundance of the suitable nesting sites.
The ant forms on the Reserve vary greatly in the time and physical con¬
ditions under which they forage. Several forms have a wide range in
this respect.

152
It vas also observed that the individuals of certain ant forma
appear darker in color vhen they nest in the open areas of the Reserve,
whereas other ants are darker in the shaded areas) and that the individuals
of certain forms are larger in the wetter areas than in the higher,
drier areas*

153.
A&taa-ledfflW*t8
Thanks axe due Dr* M. R* Smith of the U* S. National Museum
for his interest and determinations throughout the study* Mr* V* L*
Brown, Jr* of the Harvard Biological Laboratories, for his aid with the
identification of specimens of Smithistruma. and Dr* 1* S* Creighton
of the City College of New York, for his help with certain problems
arising in connection with the subgenus Piplorhoptrum of the genus
Solenopsis. deserve many thanks* Acknowledgment is due Dr* Lewis Berner
and Dr* H* K* Vallaos, both of the Biology Department of the University
of Florida, for their criticism and help with the manuscript* Many
thanks are also due Rusty Van Pelt for typing the final manuscript*

154.
LITERATURE CITED
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1948. A Preliminary Generic Revision of the Higher Dacetini.
Trans. Anter. Ent. Soc. 74* 101-129.
1949. A New American Amblvopone. with Notes on the Genus.
Psyche $6 (2)t 81-88.
Burén, Him. F.
1944. A List of Iowa Ants. Iowa State College Jour. Sei.
18» 277-312.
Cantrall, 1. J.
1943. The Ecology of the Orthoptera and Dermaptera of the
George Reserve, Michigan. Mise. Pub. Mus. Zool. Univ.
Lichigan, no. 54.
Cole, A. C., Jr.
1932. The Relation of the Ant, Pogonomvrmcx occidentelis Cr.,
to its Habitat. Ohio Jour. Sci. 32 (2)* 133-146.
1940. A Guide to the Ants of the Great Smoky Mountain National
Park, Tennessee. Amer. Mid. Nat. 24» 1-88.
Cooke, C. Wythe
1945. Geology of Florida. State of Florida Dept, of Cons.,
Geol. Bull. 29.
Creighton, Wm. S.
1936. On Formicid Nomenclature. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 46» 1-9*
1950. The Ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Sool. 104»
1-585.

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Dennis, C. A.
1938. The Distribution of Ant Species in Tennessee, with Referenee
to Ecologioal Factors, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amor* 31t 267-308.
Emery, C.
Id95« Beitrage zur Kenntnis dor nordamerikaniechon Ameisenfauna.
Zool. Jahrb. Syet. 8t 257-360.
Gregg, R. E.
1944. The Ants of the Chicago Region. Ann. Snt. Soc. Amer.
37» 447-480.
Ha8kins, C. P.
1928. Notes on the Beharior and Habits of Stigmatogma callinee
Ha Id. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 36« 179-184.
Hayes, la. P.
1920. Solenopsis molesta Says A Biological Study. Kansas Tech.
Bull. 7* 7-55.
Hubbell, T. H. and C. C. Goff
1939. Florida Pocket-Gopher Burrows and their Arthropod
Inhabitants. Proo. Fla. Acad. Sei. 4* 127-166.
Laessle, A. M.
1942. The Plant Coomunities of the Velaka Area. Unir, of Fla.
Pub., Biol. Sci. Ser. 4 (l)s 1-143.
Uitehell, A. J. and M. R. Ensign
1928. The Climate of Florida. Itoir. of Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.,
Bull. 2001 1-300.
Smith, If. R.
1930a. Another Imported Ant. Fla. Ent. 14s 23-24.
1930b. A List of Florida Ants. Fla. Ent. 14s 1-6.

156.
1933* Additional Species of Florida Ants, with Remarks. Fla.
Ent. 17t 21-27.
1934» Ponerine Ants of the Genus Euponera in the ü. S. Ann.
Ent. Soc. Amer. 27* 557*564.
1936. Ants of the Gmus Ponera in America North of Mexico.
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 29* 420-430.
1942. A New North American Solenopsis (Djplorhoptrum). Proe.
Ent. Soc. Wash. 44s 209-212.
1944a. Additional Ants Recorded from Florida, with Descriptions
of Two New Subspecies. Fla. Ent. 27s 14-17.
1944b. Ants of the Genus Cardiocondvla Emery in the U. S. Proc.
Ent. Soc. Wash. 46s 30-41.
Talbot, Mary
1934. Distribution of Ant Species in the Chicago Area, with
Reference to Eeological Factors and Physiological Tolerance.
Ecology 15s 416-439.
1943a. Response of the Ant Preñolepis imoaris Say to Temperature
and Humidity Changes. Ecology 24s 345*352.
1943b. Population Studies of the Ant Prenolepis imparls Say.
Ecology 24s 31*45.
Treat, Mary
1878. The Harvesting Ant of Florida. Harper's New Monthly
Magazine. New York.
Van Pelt, A. F.
1948. A Preliminary Key to the Worker Ants of Alachua Ccunty,
Florida. Fla. Ent. 30s 57*67.

157.
4
Wesson, L. G„, Jr* and R. G. Wesson
1940. A Collection of Ants from Southcentral Ohio. Amer. Mid*
Nat. 24* 89-103.
West, Erdman and Lillian Arnold
1946. The Nátive Trees of Florida. Uhiv. of Fla. Press,
Gainesville, 212 pp.
Wheeler, Win. M.
1904. The American Ants of the Subgenus Colobonsis. Bull. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist. 20* 339-158.
1905. An Annotated List of the Ants of New Jersey. Bull. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist. 21* 371-403.
1910. Ants, their Structure, Development and Behavior. Columbia
University Press, 663 pp.
1930. The Ant Prenolepis imparia Say. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 23*
1-26.
1932. A List of the Ants of Florida with Descriptions of New
Forms. N. T. Ent. Soc. Jour. 40» 1-17.
Wray, D. L.
1938. Notes on the Southern Harvester Ant (Pogonogyrma& badiug
Latr.) in North Carolina. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 31* 196-200,

BIOGRAPHICAL ITEMS
Arnold Francis Van Pelt, Jr* was born Sept amber 24,
1924, in Orange, New Jersey* He carried cut hie under¬
graduate studies at Swarthmore College, where he obtained
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in October, 1945* In
1947, he received a degree of Master of Science from
the University of Florida, where he held a graduate
as8istant8hip from the fell of 1946 to the spring of
1948. From the fall of 1948 until the fall of 1950, he
received a graduate fellowship from the University* He
is a member of Phi Sigma honorary biological society*

This dissertation vas prepared under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate's Supervisory Committee and has been approved
by all members of the Committee. It was submitted to the Graduate
Council and was approved as partial fulfilment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
September 2y 1950
Dean
SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE*







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