Citation
Waveform analysis of geographic patterns recorded on visible and infrared imagery

Material Information

Title:
Waveform analysis of geographic patterns recorded on visible and infrared imagery
Added title page title:
Geographic petterns recorded on visible and infrared imagery
Creator:
Witmer, Richard Everett, 1942- ( Dissertant )
Cross, Clark I. ( Thesis advisor )
Anderson, James R. ( Reviewer )
Edwards, Richard A. ( Reviewer )
Jones, E. ( Degree grantor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1967
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 225 leaves. illus. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aerial photography ( jstor )
Cameras ( jstor )
Engineering ( jstor )
Image analysis ( jstor )
Images ( jstor )
Infrared imagery ( jstor )
Photographs ( jstor )
Photography ( jstor )
Remote sensing ( jstor )
Waveforms ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Geography -- UF ( lcsh )
Geography -- Research ( lcsh )
Geography thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Infrared photography ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis -- University of Florida, 1967.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 199-223.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on World Wide Web
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
021782059 ( AlephBibNum )
13356888 ( OCLC )
ACX6016 ( NOTIS )

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WAVEFORM ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHIC

PATTERNS RECORDED ON VISIBLE

AND INFRARED IMAGERY










By
I'l:HAl;D EVERETT \WIT' EIl


A nD 13FR'I.TIOrI PPE'ENTCr. TO THEIR CR..LL ATi COUNCIL OF
THL i.JNr.L.-I'Ti or FLO,lPJl.
IN F/JAtAL FULLFILLMIJT IOF TIfF IRELi.'LiT E PIEi:T: FOR. THL
DFC.,'" OF i,,CTOPr Oir I HILO .O HY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Drcember. 1967













AkRM*L53w93B~l~r


Many persons have contributed their efforts to the

organization and completion of this research project. Fore-

nmet among these is Dr. Clark I. Cross, Chairman of the

author's supervisory COmmittee. Him pwefeasional example

aRd intelleetmal stimLation have been major influences

during this author's entire graduate career. Bincere appre-

ciation is extended to Dr. Cross for this guidance and as-

sqitaace. Dr. James R. Anderson, Chairman of the Department

of Geography, not only contributed to the initial formula-

tion of thii study, but hat assisted this author at all

stages of his graduate career. Dr. Edmund E. tugen has

provided this author with intellectual and academic in-

sights on innumerable occasions, and Dr. Richard A. 5dwards

has offered many helpful suqnestions concerning the proper

completion of this research. Gratitude is also extended to

the many other faculty members of the University of Florida

who have contributed to this author's academic and research

pur gits.

Ttiu author is in the debt of any persons at

Florida Atlantic Univtlrity Wfio hate conribatuO te thiL









*Vooeveh Imsowt. 1w. Jame# W. $h@ Poea AMa emir-

man ofd Seagr4p, in his oppactty:46 Primeipal Invootigater

or the Ofaloe of waval POOMenAc *0ntreet under whte thhe

Otudy %Vs cowpleted. prov2iWe finapmcal "*et**wenem and l-

fol seggesions owneatming tba. MeOW~ab aftbodology #"

irletrumentatio pvDemwft*#. to, *beinet pWhv.ne *"^PMie

airowtor Of "WearnS 2400EVOO.As, ad Ow. ""rI* phiauge

chief Vi"do 6Angin"' PEW*""e 4*6t Asetsk*"C ot intb#

welectimp sod oeiration of tho *IWeWie experimenatal sem

penAnts. vhapkw ore #Is* am*eadeal to *to. A"%*sthr

wertry e4 the ***"raphy Dmoart"eat. ftr her %ypag. a#-

S ikt&"e, Owd to ft ~*IAl $gafec, tho juther I s: *Wtdet

aged.Atant, for klk knip With $006opiaphid awd Ovrtdqr4Mbis



FUnally, tb* *WbWAeS' OiAMMWOtt grtt~tad It hW-

Sended to Um is id, BOdy' oe her pe*iftw* and 4*040ka"0













w~AL Ow SeWtWa


amE

A C M . . .. . . . . . .. 11

IJST OF T~ggmL .................... vi

LZIS OF SLLVIWTWW I6 . . . . . . .. vii

capnBR

I. zIE.r.SWI ................. 1

R t gbj etiue . . . . . . 3
11stxmomias Amalyis of 4mqr. Ahe pattens . 4
eamrf UWhaniqtes in Matlieirlegiy . .... 8

II. TIM WZlA JnMD IMAmUllB IMlmT . . . 10

Genewa ClhasrteriLties of Visible
#etIehtmatic xm2fcry . . . . .. 10
Gumnrl Charambe titeae .f an wmed ImAmgery . 16
fLe eanamtl la tsatd Spctbj ma Q . . 21
Iuft wpfltral AmSa te Suari a g ... 27
s61e0l en and aegiMrtir a l AMlysI of the
Visaibe an Infrted ag ry . . . . 31

MrU. ItPM ANALYrr SIS m m T . . . . 44

9Sml-Lie TfedMil.qsU . . . . . 44
Groy-Tame Level I edi.g . . . . . 55
G wh hal PrsaftMt B oof InWftri . .. . 75
Itatieticr l Prft e i Aet of irmy-ftem Luwflm 77

IV. IfIMfral Hli MlrLT5 . . . . . ... 96

tveforon ftalyie Ae..Jltsa: SWn-lnams
efltihb+ft Flame LarmoMry . . . .
Mawufous tAnalysts Sedaite. ?wehrnsde
aId Sita-el *le-fmred i : wl l . .i. . . 319
hAnAlysi sf SaulS Ie *ad esestti MtEfflidas 10




........ I


Il .ti. d ...... .. ... ...* 18





1 a. . .. . : . . . . U S
mn g*i aM W : . . . . .






aita*SO i da ali.y . . . . 1.3
S S t aMa.r ,,a ....9.... s a






aW Ilil r i AD" Ml H . . . . 164


ean mim n t
mSme y *. . . . . . 1 . . t1f
4'1. fltAI~k fl&ISWfl | -




Slm.a. in igu i .I. .'Sff n f it .
nt ix m m.i .^1^ 9qiiwi^^M^^ *a 99W 9E*r ....






a w . . . . . .. .. . ..















"44llljiilI













LIST OF TAhiS


Tabe

1. Nine-Leas Multiband Cams t . . . .

2. Nine-Lena Nultiband Olmra pectral Bands . .

3. Sensor Comparison Totals by Terrain Type:
NHne-Lenm l tiband Camera I zy . . .

4. Sensor Comparion Totals by Terain Types
Mine-Le& Multiband merX IXmagery
(Corrected for Rise Time) . . . . .

5. Sinner Cmprtsien tot le by terrain Type:
Paenehremtic and Thebmal Infiraed Images
(Paired occurrence) . . . . . .

6. sensor Comparison Totals by T6train Types
Panehroatic and Semmal Infrared Imng
(Mired Occurrene,* Correeted for
Rie T ) . . . . . . . . .


7. Primary Datr
1 and 2 .

8. Prlmary Data
1 and 2 .

9. PriFmr Data:
1 and 2 .

10. Primacy Datas

11. Prihkry Deat

12. Primz y Det M

13. Pr imry Data:
Line 1 .


Frame 42, Lena 2, Linee


Prme 42, Ltne 4, Lines


Fream 42, humM 9, Lines


Panchruatic Imige, Line 1 . .

Panchkroftic irage, Line 2 . .

Panchromatic Ile, Lne 3 . .

Stelval Inftiaed zmage,
. . . . . . . . .


29

30


104



106



125




128









Table gRaM

14. Primary Data: Thermal Infrared Image,
Line 2 . . . . . . . . . 155

15. Primary Data: Thermal Infrared Image,
Line 3 . . . . . . .. . . 157

16. Terrain-type sepilatieai Fram 42,
Lens 2, Lines 1 and 2 . . . . . .. 160

17. Terraln-Iype Compilationms Frame 42,
Lmas 4, Lnees 1 and 2 . . . . . .. 162

18. Tesrain-Type Complatlones Frame 42,
Lens 9, Lines 1 and 2 . . . . ... 164

19. Terr4An-Type Compilations: Panchromatic
Image, All Lines . . . . . ... 167

20. Terrain-Type Compilationi Thermal
Infrared Image, All Lines .. . . ... 173

21. Terrain-Type Compilations Corrected for
Rise Time Frame 42, Lene 2, Line
1 and 2 . . . . . . . . .. 180

22. Tnrrain-tye Campilatlioee ae asetedl
Rie Time: Frame 42, Lens 4, Lines
1 and 2 . . . . . . . . ... 182

23. Termain-Te Cempilatioan Corrected for
Rise Time: Frame 42, Leas 9, Line
1 a d 2 . . . . . . . . . 184

24. TiWtea-Type Cempilatiami Ceweeted for
RLee Time Paehrmatic Image,
All Lin. . . . . . . . .... .. 187

25. Tera&kaaygye oePoilat4ot G:arri ted for
Rise Tims TheRmal Infrared Image,
A L . . . . . . . . . 193













LIST OF ILL WSBIOW


1. The eletrmnetic spectrum . . . . 11

2. pectral rudiant wmittlmen curves for
MIaSimnhbe at oveml abmolute
tCempMrurea .............. . 13

3. Amempseric spectral trafmiien . . . 26

4. ifts-lem amltibmad iLeery, rfame 42,
Laq 1 . . . . . . . . . 33

5. Mine-lenm alMti.and im*ery, P~Fru 41,
mens4 ................... 34

6. llIe-lias mltibcl d agery. Mtik 42,
9 . . . . . . . . . 35

7. f me-lene multiband LmAery m . . . 37

8. Psefebratic imp., IJiethftold medli an
vicinity . . . . . . . . . 39

9. Thereml infrared imfIe, Stinbkfa*ld Ibeme
vicinity . . . . . . . .. 41

10. MRi of Utinrhfield Needs and vicinity ..... 43

11. NMitar display of thaeml inflated illam
nd avefEra- ...... a ........ 46

12. hSmrtic illastmatimr eol viO -tape-
ais-rding of mlitipectiral L SyM . . 6

13. Scmeftic illustrtick If reseeding a ft-
fbmas with aecilliemdpir e w . . . . 58

14. Armnumment of cslmmrmts uIm"d in in.l.lo-
alpe eao ding ... . .. . . 59I

OLAA










s15 alemu IpflSma bl? the fiMM
el vi e avmaipw . . . ... . 1

16. MnriAbr dtiqIe aot IE h. C Miwb4c
einla n and ma4 elm LIN amSu, byr
t =mi 102 vi.emt Maa~ . . . 4. .

17. as* a tI LJllMta Ir weIi mg
at ,al-tim m ,. d i. . . . i

iS. binmt iEftin 1a 1i-sag
of vnawMl-mp.r ineg a getee . . 64

19. buaptegstpha bower Wuvudsms6 ad S
lis h m inb . . . . .5

20. .pud ora%* nmw6 base vgd In
ea r.a etw . . . . . . . .

21. Mt.La i Wamf. iba de toe Gpi-
gw utme aa .............. U

2li-ltawahin N . . .f. I 5t. . .


23. aanete ill tamIen Ma4 f

24. o- U&wfl .iiW tflat



at. nseua ni etu ft" -

soft_ Wei" .... a. d a a a .



21. -|.e** il

llii *p p ... a ,, . a ..











28. Grapki l presentakeia of wevoTer repre-
smting nine-lens rmltibad eamrkS imagery,
Frame 42, Leas 4, LAlm 1 . . . ..

29. Graphical presentation of waveor repre-
snti g nine-lIn multiband camera imagery,
Frne. 42, laes 4, Line 2 . . . .. 81

30. Graphical presatation of aveform repre-
seating nine-lens nltibad eamera imagery,
PFrve 42, Lae 9, Leae 1 . . . ... 82

31. Grpftkial preintatise of wa-oorm repre-
*etifi nliM-lens multibead eamer imagery,
I1sM 42, Lem 9. Lie 2 . . . . . 83

32. eraphboal presew ttiae of wavun om repre-
seating peachrxaatic imagm Line 1 .... 84

33. Sl phlcal presentation of nwaefar repre-
ientian panehrmatic image, Lim 2 .... 85

34. Graphical preMsetatiao of wavefovm repre-
Seating panehronltic inags, Line 3 . . 86

35. Swephi-al presectatin of wgeveri vepre-
Setting thermal infrared ilge, Lie 1 . 87

36. sGaphical presentation of mwavoor- rwpre-
eating thermal iaftared ag"*, Line 2 . 88

37. Graphical presentation of wlvoSr rpewe-
senting tharal infrred ima *, Lie* 3 . 89





















their abiiLty to ut.lJ&ft i.t e lJn idMfe luaem U" plK-



pimminu. tfl*1w aMi afidei sla,:t twaieggiit $frd

teekage lhr bwhjewfive n tiR i nf O m!a



inatt "me" eyflfte MAet i. a .Mh. ..s AJpts at ASi

trelthi lielBmii ItI by SAiimIgq *Spama spa~i.t& Mateo"i aC















t ~ tof lil~llrrinriil ~ike Jag ~ipi iitk... iriti *m im. i *n M i .
theI sieetminfMLs qpfe. is ffe, ttflm Linfbii f0

myma toio -amelsdo .g"- Owrift s ash mIM l











1.t sif S bgIll iaamb fgl,, aa1111

asses toe sm emsomi the i.e., ge.
..... ..::.
::::::o::::::::::" as:.6 .::::::
Sma. .q ..mh ; a *. a.....
-41SL

a 3~'~^^^''SS^ if-'il 31 :S^I^TP"M H^"'BT;:i^ HW W I^^^S^^ viaM I^ Tl:::::::::::


:'I: l
ii li((








which indio~bee relative petition. The superiapaeitiea of

infaf-ation coded by gray tone on 4 partial frmmosrk is

in reality a geographic distribution. the phenomena con-

tained in the gray-tene infornmtion appering in the dis-

tribution are not always of aGnotant character, at might be

expected of the most fundamental and meet omamunly used re-

mmta sending Systkm, the camra. The phemmena vary, not

only with the spectral region being s umpled, but with the

design par mMter of the s*asing instrumet itself. The

shble of spectral region, fir emasple, might indicted the

9enral eatery or etegeriee of gngoraphic phemmems whose

distributiem nad deneity were being recorded, while the de-

sign chakratesirtioe ef the seuand might indicate the raee-

lation or f1 ility with which thO sEutim is recording the

geographic infouetion.

ThE steait dtclia"&ientha of a sme of tho sne

ra m s*eluai Sytems and their timawry ha puoml;ted large

umOolrs d weSrh satentists to spmnid their mrewkch into

*vewns previwely Mundael or denivd to them, and be use

wieh date a* is eriginaed by thate s*etae to pn*iit omr

meaisgiffl inv stilgatio into r aardh already in programs.

OCat quantties of rlam e-miner iniary are iatil-

abi& to the *A0Mtic amd oi#MfAtc cgaiii.M, eA MAAMbit-






3

-1hy thams ft-wlea *Ill guetly agend as the pmaiiefa-

tUs-= ag.r5 pfi-l- -ad .nl1a40 *tggaw"y ralmaines, *noF af o-

ctlesifastlp psesFe. igstppatly. the gr--t bilk *IS

this jtmauljy ies uipm n 1* t11 iMO ndiatkStdd bor fthe slbipae

reren that tes*e aret isLEdicieat mlrues eof 9SilflblA

able t* eCmiser afmelstaly tFhi gO-1 fluOe of ltMisiMaithM.

In light U thr ptasebbagt it is S*r1RO tetb tbhwl is Va

urgent mod zn e iMptC ..inAG.MMI kew0Mr1lw qOa d&q

of reltevfl the sonm imbe qlgfiwt *. 4W Ef tk: vs**

rinsule bals of L tat fakait i.sm 1. qilrata tl!n O s4in

typO of phVmfua regesmdian ed. -asha t 1 1 mMmltSwgalI

ana*ry. Mmeml mseOlfmliSm feilMaMONl ImwCe 6uJ 0A-

triblae to the slHniJEe am lkisit C*f uSfikt &pndbe vtc




AM-a



Isrn&e*. oanlq waIml, s:IiBM.:.bSf



* esu nis iiisnre aJlu, a smasw.eiiai, Ae iwa.. .. ..e



woimet Bii- valume lugiig illiigtin **milltae iA dilitirl'Blli


I .";;; ii111''
.rwt








and discriminate between certain chaorcteristioo of ge-

graphic distributLen.


!vWfoxo AnirtilMattep iether1ley

A seond objective of this reraarch is to develop

a methodology for discriminating between various baie goe-

graphic patterns sampled by parellel scan lines by analyzing

the character of the wavoefors gyerared as gray-toe graphs

of the aWeas traversed by thome sean lines. Such a mthed-

olegy will allow similar trainsmtted signals containing gee-

graphic information ceded in the form of gray-tene to be re-

lated to other geographic phenmenm.


POter amperk Gijectives

Sub idiary objectives of thAb reearch include:

(1) an evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative valid-

ity of suah a methodology; (2) inveitigatiaa of the utility

and adventar b of using such techniqueS in geographic re-

dearehr and (1) continuation of a leon-raoge progarn of

inrietigating the potentials, *eth4oleg.ies. And results of

applying certain electronic deviMce to geognrphie reseaerh.


,.esnteaac Alw p S S f.t GMeOMM a pINtr


Of particular interest to g igtphere intere~W o in

applying rigero e guantitative met hodolgies to sptsal dis-








tribetiens of phe mola, is the work dmoe by yarisev sefilm-

tistsWho hvq::directed tbwir research toward electremwic

aad Ombaemted hA*lysis ef **eh diftributions. These &nves-

tight%*WW beg"n by *pply*F4 *Okas Nakhampttca and vaoemotric

tools in arder to giaplify the cmeplax analysis of intera*-

tion hamd.led b# 41ettreae ""Oftbn

In tive ealy 1950'#, Xltml and LAtuue iOnitiad

resettCh dealing with **ridbe quantitative esrmt o

the sis*, di t sand OrAeAteWs "Poects Of cirepland

aroma in Peowaylvania. ftring th&A r&&&*rch, the *aet~bd

Paralloa Trovers MWpthe43 wbo ilso d**slAWe And subseteently

applibd te tho pwoblem of questifying areplaed distribiutafte.

In 0 1955 report, Lathewm r0it4*6"d Toomordh provtt

onely *emMOlIShNd which *M61:ablihe thw f"Iotag:h geovL40


Iae 1*V. & *aIW, "Wksmeat *eer4**t Uen asam*
esure mod. mettvr Of Obit *no**, (abetiod-) I fM
A6-^4 Stamptembe. 11496. P.



lowd AMMA in 94OmArlvania (Abstteet) # OM 9o& Me


ftpUMMr Me 4,









(1) that the sMpling, by a cathoed*-r&y tube flying-spet

saafner, of Apped or pahtographed diL.tributions, in erder

to differeati-ae phe rama by gray-tem, wse tbehateilly

f ea4ble; (2) that som ing ititbers aeuld m sase

interompt LangMt having fined gray-teMe Lrmitsl and (3)

that flying-spet soaIrers am ld identify and miure

specific ecurrences an a gpay-t-ne beekground and sen

large area rapidly. AditimbsA muition was also Made of

the possibility of applying electronic computer and data-

handlting myfe e to aueh problem.

In ewe 1962 articles, 6 Renfeld demestrated

tne appllebility of Latham s thee'rtical iavestigatiem by

vLdeo-setaking pre--0onted pIastiRe of typical terrain

typeM. ppearing am large-seal (1:5,500) aerial pwntegraghe.

This work s stablisied that certain bauic relati n hipi

Kist between tArrgin types and videae eigalm, and alto

diama treated that gray-tena control is of uteast importad*f

when ideatifiar tiesf are to be mred fun giAy-teU levels

algoe.


5Awiel Rmecfeld, "Atmaktic ioeagnlitian o. MaIc
Varrain Tlpe flWm A*serial whesmelA e JI
hMMA Amal Mgrch, 1912, pp. 11.-132.

Mriel Mts! IXd, "MAn atprrla toe aSltWMtie hito-
graphic Zmatrfpretatie, am.bamA.MMRA: Ii
bl iht, 1962, pp. 660-615.








zIn i a g .g m 19. i en Se-y w ,,t, zbinm

emduaet am pwrlaW~s e MSlah aS p OWmt ild New iWeAp*i

di. lg wtth the pgEatmfJ. IIiit'aphic Ilsr ef q *LAtLfea
.leisfmaU qmelfldS 0 Sp0"A ddstaAhutIes. Whse LamflAM

t"W It ler oft M.tgft 9.p 5 r ld I I t M gf madtJ .l e, the jlM m g

orf sa tck staftataeli emlm*tt~ b awlp osr sag4ami
fThe z*Stglh *A it th e a rtMrtim U a eit

am bm AL PMMsie walme .19mo u 1, 4hami b.rn peai a P








.maome,"aawssi, Ponls W" "a to.. <" a A1011111" .4 a esJ+,.
, .. i | m- i..l| mmj" ma m^ I mm mI mm m ..i..i 1
vqiei9 iuterm m.l





'g *. fa ll "5eas. .e Ri till 'S0 t i
Nto mat.a m pIOpeagte uud Ods so ttE
&MsusEasonse 26me Aslitaiiidii5 -ANELi


isMAtaleal 10t an sma.
I... .......


t>HWI J I^X"--flj a|fE^ 9.i MttS, *f l" uupll rr SI SfI,"
8 ... .... L .. ..
ea a l t S A"Sa M iJ

Aft.








Mesa rbh Techaemf s and Matheselsuv


Introduetory MleNwoh

Before attempting -y wavform soperimefiation and

analysis, it is irmpertivr that a review of previous in-

vestigatians into the general charag erltics of visible

(panehromatic) and infrared imagery b e meeonplished, in

order to asaertain the variablee that must be considered in

the eMperimnital design and in the analysis of the resultant

data and ebervations. A summary of this review is pre-

sented in Chapter II.




After the significant variables aseeiated with

multipectral sets of imgery have be*n isolated and evalu-

ated, the metal imagery to be used will be selected. This

imwgry will first be analyemd by the Nare ocnventi"eel

visual inateipetatdve and geegrphic methbed btefor wave-

feo analysis. The has e geographic patterae eid nt n the

imagery will be asrlyse and ma id in order to facilitate

the interpretation and amenys4t *f the subdiuano t recorded

wleEforms. ThiM actionn 1i ais. tflsonteda in she1pter II.


tollewing the selection of the imagery to be used,


Ml -na -..A-- ArMMlA,.... lad"A








seveal iffeentsupetmeant ee~as*ill low safted sAMM1

evalvted or uv'#f'ww fr**gamag VON#""* aud recording

fideity.thenewtappoprite aperees Al pocdwee Will

twon b& wlied to the mqultispectral go" of iumfery. sov-

0"1 parts of eaet ia"p Will bOM 6pAed by parallel WVWn

lIts**# nd tbib reoftanot wavelease #reftad *ill ho t*-

corded. TO* rowrde" waatmwa will then bw WnaOXV an

sPteriW44-.mg"sas e a Oampling %rJ4 In ewr1::t ooo uf *e~d an-

rately Vrqy-6m*: levwl sabd at.UW wae"SOM pe#ate0Wrm.

datrInI C& 4**ted to ths "aPipa.





oo& .6 the wak*tas~, *beak shtstti~ml teelmigam Will be0

O"Flayed in Otewr to %4***.M Owttkm *qpt)#* 01 04e jw*-4WOO

inteeatan e"W"O4 Wes I --+0-ill ingdeeOasp te



wther "WiAWk pow"O"01m. Afbew tb* 0004 t* W60 lmm

grapleq ba bow amdlye*44 Withet XOPed Nwk 01~004'#


aaertectd to ppWVJ44 4 Abithew *pa864"4 Owfloatet- Vo411>

iLM t%* ftt' AwitAU Ot Ab&h ha"g*p %3A* uAA I W#MIgo"

io%* "to* to ftowft"a k# athleg"O AIOwtim &No b*

qWUM4 "or 4000ecavs ******* "~tpk t*,&meac (s













CHAUFB II


TMa VISIBLE AND IWPRMSXD IMAGERY


Gamral cfhrPcterJt ticg ef Vlible
Fnabhrintic ..Imer


The Mnormity and complexity of the literature dealing

with the characteristies and interpretation of visible pan-

chroumtic immjwry preclude any extensive historical or inte-

grative treatise dealing with these fatcors being presented

in this report. Instead, the inclusion of a representative

bibliography will allow the reeder to sample a cross-section

of the mere significant works pertaining to those topics.

Only the factors closely related to the interpretation and

*anlysis of such imagery as is utilized need be presented.

Visible panehromatic imagery, perhaps better known

as oetventlmal aerial phteography, war the first actual

remote snsor which sampled a portion of the electromagnetic

spectrum (see Fig. 1). Throughout the span of time that

aerial photography has bon employed for various reamsns, a

greet number of aerial photographic devices, file mulsiaos,

film-filtor om inatioms, and aerial phat.graphic airesaft

10

















THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM


WAVELENGTH
cm p A



10 -

10 '- 10

10 10


10 10"


10 '- 10''-* 10 3-

10 1 10 -



10 2- 10


10' 10 -




10


GAMMA RAYS






X RAYS




ULTRAVIOLET

VISIBLE




INFRARED


MICROWAVES


(arllr Simon, 1966 )


Fig. 1. The electromagnetic spectrum.









platforms have been developed, tested, ad used. All of

thee techniques revolve bout searal significant charac-

teristics in need of reiteratlen in this presentation.


The VJiibla bgiectral MueIN

Te first of thaee significant chlrecteristics i1

that oavn though visible light occupies a very sall per-

euntage of the electromagetic spectrum, the wavelength bamd

which caisrises visible light (about 0.4-0.7 micrema) ac-

oeunts for a vry large percentage of the radiation received

at the earth's surface. This is illustrated in Figure 2,

which shows that the peak radiation received as visible

light correepeods to the radiation Wavflengthe character-

iatic of the incandescent temperature of the sun's surface

(see peak of 6,O00K curve). Since all natural and cultural

earth objects are empoed to Light amqaped of all of the

wavelengths which comprise viable Light, it is seen that

the actual color exhibited by sueh objects is tbe result of

selective a*meptiao, reflection, and Ieradiation of light.

It is this prones which aleo podues the difference e in

selectivly reflected light -e Lupartant to the te al con-

traete exhibited on cova nwtinal aerial photography. Sueh

photographic semning wleai be meaningleea and iopeetiBle if

cultural Object ad aMltral terrain objbeta did not pretdte












SPECTRAL RADIANT EMITTANCE CURVES FOR
BLACKBODIES AT SEVERAL ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURES

105

60000K \
1" \ tWIMn DlDlOCrmelnr Low Line
0 /4000K Y'


2
2000K \




10000K \




S 10 0

U 300K
a-
I-



I- I0
hi-
Lu I"
500-
nz I"
., 10.0.


01 0.2 05 I 2 5 10 2
WAVELENGTH (MICRONS)
I[Lier US arm,, Ba.5C ond Ad.onic.d InifrI TeLhnology, April 1965 1
Fig. 2. Spectral radiant emittance curves for
at several absolute temperatures.


50 100


blackbodies







14

differences in gray-tone as recorded on films ued in asrial

photography.


attal aDrMrU ttin eaW JMseMJe~

Another important oharbeteridtic of visible pan-

chEmetic imagery is its ability to record distributioas of

9ewraphic phimemrna in such a monler that the actual epa-

tial pattern smisting Amng the pheaemen are maintained to

a predictable degree of accuracy. It is thus peesible to

use sueh imagery for the comrtruetimo of controlled maps or

for vario e spatial moasewment of dianelees exhibited by

the phemmana. This cdhracteristie t e been made possible

by the construction of corrected lae systems, gyro-

copemasated ceer moests, film emulsioem and phetognzphic

paper wheae dimensional mtkbillty characteristi e are knewn,

tad, finally, photegrammetrie techniqW devised to se~en-

sate far btroar induced at any Ste af the actual photog-

raphy or it& preolesing.

Continued rexearac inte fllm design and eptles has

gently increased the resolution of the menial photographic

asm Se system. solution ca be thought of as the a11--

eat linar width that can be raised" a aay spe lfic files.

The actual resolution of any system, eo course, depea e met

only uopn the inherent design clizes lustkiae of thfe .omal t







15
&p4: it# fliln *ystipj bat *als* thb lfatM SE tb.* Optical POOh

ffrm t~ep to domore. Ak st~andd Sapping *e*Nft for

*simple, asy b& AK& to discern. ak 00"*tui phomeww" Ot low

altit#Abo waieh would be b4Wtnd it* resolvw ag pobility at

higher altitoeo*e 1h0 ingportadt raeolvftin chwgabeerixtic

of aerial moppin many qpin tat *A*t the presmAt Le that re-

solving pOPWe am be alwaidea4 to 100 eMMstant theew"het

tte amimlar Vdqt(Pq fiela eft AA low8 liefBtfistu now"*-

Went of thattew objecka to we 009h at *11 leaMM4i44 :oW A

pintograph, withaet roecotims to .,mol i wems con&iwed to

the emeral Aee", as Is mWgeary Vk seeW Othe AIVM. *t







*r* te**ed"pgeath "Apfg 6107 agoy awefta*g

of reewmIW*e 4l1 *o*elerfthe ebmpM444 the is ti ofs

Owe 4pectMAW W1 SOmOWI Vowes, 1004040,r SkAA empti~tlity is

rantty to". igmte emmw*&ty 00 ""Wooal ailor io 02484" ia

asset *ad Oe i* ""me son w th" # Pag0400 *# "M atW

LIWS* is ratsked@ 40t begate ZVOWMAt *410 ftl. *rasa

e0s fII*ur, ft *0 ped&IbA* to #664*04 tttel p*

*MagemUM4 p0* te 00 ***WAAla* "Oeatt, O *& OR," *Oatwek








contrasts expected to be detrimintal to the quality of the

desired iaery. Mest black-a d-white mrial film iatnuded

far normal photogxa hic coverage are used with a 1Watten 12

(minuw-blue) filter to rnvewu y effects of ataept*eric

hse. Whkn considerable numbers of cultural features are

anticipated, a Wratten 25A (red) filter is substituted.1

Various other film-filter combinations are used in conjunc-

tion with other types of aerial photography.


Geniriai Cha ctwferistn ^a
Tntrar aed a y


DthO fahaE&i satwr= ir amm

The infrared spectral region, so named blearee its

included wwelm gthn extend "bayend the red" warelengths of

the visible portion of the spectrum, ebeade from 0.7

mierew, the upper wavwlenqtb limit of visible light, to

alIet 1,000 mLeromb, the lower wavelegth lijit of micro-

wav radiation (m[a Pig. 1).

Of pimariy interest to geegrapthre are the so--elled

L*nar" and A ,iddle infrerud regiar-. Tbs ft Fr-infrwt *d


lmemlrien Seciety of Photeqrreimetry. HMaLSt
_Lhgrjadhenl JaaturOaf OI&a ( Mean ., Wis. om rge Santa
Co., nlae., 1910), pp. 0-50.

Ivan tima., &1ieair s :AliahaM (Or immotor: D.
Van eetrand Co,, ee..., 1986), p. 10.








inlm.ilin 4ansta -i..0.7 WaUIMIM tao sopuigaeIMly 2

an MAn aLe-tmfh e. ettass am Ifrn

*adomaI to oeaH|oMilply 20 ai.ii.3




WrO1i40ft r 4 nuetieS - tfteAR4 tiaMRi-nmbmn Of 0*

MAtti-A bsky, *j temedrtece L#gAg has:A the -[MR wvte-

1mno afM"Si sigh tte ropos atinn.man, ad "o:

was omae .e om a ismymlM e sal n6 ai miIse,

wei aetm sam ma b mees L&a mNe a 4 a he rsma

lrgth, WA Im,, .m, a .ia o meili ai 40i
Inwhna'. &1tMouh *piwU 1wiHi *eattilliasis wai vS


qiiL toi te ~11 ilt nt aslli b: aun stl










Sijrai
Jtheri' e s a afe . ...... of IAiii,.,. o a as 6 t





..... ..... .. . .. .* ..
e l"tt .ca g" a.. a.. .b....:.:"g .:^. ..t. ...: .... . .. s .. i



":wglP::: ::E i i g .. .E l i:" ...... .... .
.. y I^ y* I^ ^ ...Min^B ^ ^^ I.^ .......... ..||






18

of special interest to gqngqimhpk bcaumwe of the imvertarm

of this radiatiam in the trr -sta4al and Aitmen here bat

balanwe.5 As with vLIibli Li4ht, a cerntidelar b part of the

Sun's redatitin rosse tihe afth as near-infare radia-

tiaU .6 As this radiatias 1S abSrnebt by aetural m ertals,

their tesaflaturse adjuet toe a state of upllibiriMa m* they

weridiate mwrgy. eea*e the t eIngmbtwreE the earth

objeets are clntadlwebly leMir the tbe inewadoeMt tue-

paretures whiah produced the *tidi%4l4 assLeniag radiation,

the wawvlnth of the terrestrlal rendiatiosn ehif~ to

16U*s6 wavelaMgthi Thus, the btp5entuMses At whidk mnot

earth abjejaute s*t predwee radiatiosn whes t wevflemg9h* are

ftIn aIout 5 tuweve to about 15 ateefIs.

Refloten ofE iomweaing m eftALeI, however, inelves

no befme of wavelength. Inaomng viosble light my be re-

flacted ea visible light and irneliag inLered radiation My

be refletldI at infredar tat"efion, hath fateiakiai their

erigiati repcowtLve waveleUfth. As vith infrared seve-

lee6wti shifts, h m a er, ine.ming visible light zmy also be

akMued Ln rulrlength, evn to the msiat ce prf Oedeing



SIian, QgJ.. p. 23.

Ast i r ar eahir Ahe, a fI boimII (Iiw "mIk Samlr-
pr aIM lAr, 1163), p. 194.









if 4* tS ijE"E.




: t w 4
A difm -un m -- e.
ln^C9SS ot;- ^m ri tn- sl^a ^ lih







llr m caiUS* ISi itslf Oi Mil tef I OlftirB -



wmlW A iwe ra e o.smed be. a8t b 0

zMSetasa. egi Mangeni seems aSr*U seen ne s SO



a- ise.. qt earnmme iuga. eefltntigag a -e- a ing

s* tn s mr m n *- a



...g 'it ...il *pen1 S wfals ml e .. af t i liilli *








":: ...... l .SE .. .... ...f^gf u mge ...... !l:" E Ilmir l l li
I i. ...... ...................... ....... i...




T.. ii.nii..i..a i g i ili



...........Ii.l.i... ... .. ........ .....ii. .
-a-I
IROW W fl Vf Ste J JO




W4.. ... MALlf


'igw=w ...^^ M p a ..:U -W.B .....BB=' Wl if l

.EEEEEEEEEEEEEEtSE" "EEEEEEEEE .....SEEEEEEE .... :SEEEEEEEE
W:::::::::::s s:::... .....pW: ...:H:w P:rt :::::::::SH::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::









impertease of o omir taing swt fitS in a Siscuslti of

rf lte sinLng teehnIib e is not Mere y that &A addAttemal

tpetkel region is aafti ed vitlLb&e, but m*rC imItat that

all Of SMthe Wthea oS" aOt mnvlatiemal penhlrmamti serial

phfLegrphy, lfamt* hig, oerpMet etaw, spatial reIse ding

CidelIty, light xee l atLn, etc., ar rotaeeJd La the *l-

tiaeol speatral regina being elapLd.. Hea their unelassiied

sqasoc own held claim tbe s gmwy operational attributes.

Simree a en films aipaMAe of iaftrard seasing also

reered vieAlieL bla light, it is n ceasery to urse ptical

filters to aeatrict epaoures to the iletaced. A amMer of

d-ifite tt fikb*rS hAiv bean deleped for this purpe e.10' 11

AYm mIMe whe eI film homllg and si uter slre s e m

ne intlwAu l light may be uset for iralined photography

simply by rtesediy mg te amomra iEr the slightly LwmE





lemgftl inr Saoif 6I tWhi -Maml "nuftAtayi" poettia, it faiet

fiEMeteMlHata the fEoaml plain of thk inftiaty petfithi of

the lIen.


10 ., p. 5.




Mg-,ri, 1W5), a" 27-M, ?O-5A,












an the athE G nMnas AN-e *M1m bg aIN:: nWlS

aeoasnm s$N "'mam v-sad h aen e sa mins ee Imt.vWm-

pomasM*hs *a* ilimeed I pW"flbaae Ie e MO te be wev Toem-

11 l a tALW*lrmt at 01 sN I me- 4a" J the Optel-.

UR Oef ertadtudbimlm *o. :Mgt atitbLhflae "M

hbm Atae A the If* -s damMd.dW fte"$ thef W

mates e fl tSa W*. r4smI hUMS


.. i .-...

S. a in... .f ...











e a usensa as..........
atrs ,wa til me n agilBAilp s air ag-ag




-~-n I -
i as. was arn







22


U3.
deaum-ted in the literature (ot- biblLkgrapy). he vwk.eur-

types of inotruaefts ud, hMnMSe~ deserve brief oamides-

them.

%G 00t oamMI themmal maOiag mysaN. Oad the m

wthee salLlt detectiwn features are qwoyed in waet a-her

the tal sanlmug and mpging ~ptefr, it th* radialeo r. 13

thM Raimener embers an infrae*d deteeter whea output

signal caf etpeemp to the wavel.enth and intaMeniy of the

ftditati-en r eSSdid and whi e is pefltrayd n an oesill1fl.ep

er other suitabb device. The reliaNMer messllly reseve

dadistie n fIr a poent or ares same e ald deem net include

a geemming uSMten.

The Ability to arrange sighLata Oinaleeu to tibmvi

valmua in a "aptial trSaguasnt Is prdkesrd w'e a aMLta

function is sdded to the rad ie.ter-14ke dStescto wiA a

etl.M of r oerding the ttagf eput.ti of the deteSl r is

pr dded. The mN ming Bflettsi Ma atiolly aO.&fpishlI b]y

pLairg a ralttiLtg 45 al.rr i finrat of the dl ater eilh

Ii pleatd at right "agie to the 4gtiLAl flt. AI t"l fai-

rev twims, it aseives redeatim fwea a rwteriaei4 e g"ar




. .ss, ine 3 o.. mne, S e....L

g. tk 1)', pp. 612-m417.








f 144 fe v*A, aln i rem ami 1o the se4ir.

ih veassUmQaeS 1FAg. of the e sitar I' maed Ad 14 k
Syflm tie, pnwvEldda vamyeg I1tSM lntitmm teubu l 'm

km rmWmen gS aM iOhmS f4' rSM Oh WtW 6f004aL Iar


aa 8mw-Sw sijgm jL .F uses mrp* LAS

at rig.j, aMli6 to Mi- dai~ i la JA wfLi Shir AiiSf1 iAL








a'senmeid May biy "a is th a i fli .14


e&N SL "MI is a* Ob^M"Wo ip ago sAW
.e..an a .. as.. a. a. enas tas. u
1a ual sas oi a". gsmn am* 0iftlimame

paneoue a4 .6s se9 agn .. jfl sivas a p
IMMM ARf Hili tim **Ilik abs. HM idilirit ll li **Ii t i *f 1 Iiti






Mialt ia i a i.e i. ti ..


. .rl..... l '.|R.. i r ... .... .. ... ... ......... ... '.. ... i... ..i.



iiiJ i : [ ""








field of vime elemwates, prOdAeSag deee--MiLS reI leBk6t

iLth Setter &IAtenme ir fnet the flight fpth. The run-

teal parts of the thoeml Amwry thbrereee om gW tert

dcFtil.

tiir g item of cee ud~ie tifm 4 the geometey peeul-

iar to imagery Ufb eh has nt bam zn rage-aw ate uaWpen td.

IdLe iem*iw umi try is geonrtald b the snlative feoM xd

mwtlae of the wstunr platform with reomet to lMeral 9reeld

*el ts ud pedSdiO the fleet of hav g Larl e am eme side of

the flJljht line nppeew to be Al of the tsemser, while

a*lut on the otler appIW to be blkLmd it.15 i iL Mlt

#aMe Aimereee with greater dista~se Owy frem the tflght

pIth. mem tOn osfbIer, dmceemingR reMlwtiem and tMasind-

Law. -aptill dJUtertLieo on latLvl adges of the lanwry, ia-

hm*ht Anin lAlteeipwetaton la ae* ienatM iAtadrmf t la &lMe

oths thua to ceatrl part es t2 ItI.

MMiMt JiwfltiS mNser a the asm S W ate wph

mon ta. it q p ete ta thesm M smmer as a ftilMal

ingoosd oute btea ne lambe tlhMMS nftiemaettn. er a



Lersd wan sd alemad to *sfl the wew of inintt. !Aer



Sa P. .. .am73m E* aamaa .hiii ,
ift, pp,. 773-718 :.








se .mw ngllv : ti ~eS a *alaid MaR*ia dWale

* u ..e tii tSmiti f.a ~lai S. bb *l ag at,-i
Ia*emo & meme O ff* be a4Jaet sBw the upatuwe nam"

to he ibultaed An the bl4.io-SefA.i: mamie of fle 1mdolyt



aL giy w ea. a Got u Sp as urI dfleflww

iV #I* ftI.t th t aA....t I I--.A a"- .ttiA. .I.6

w af ilw a aied rIJlaMSleW. mdw-ieat-: h fiham

wOM ttnn S mOU4 ihy h4 e M st W |fIa WMiP 1A nho

MUmnS i uVIOmM- (se20 w". 31. us us asW lWWmlm

oS tfms mspam em the. a--* akaM a2=4 St a* ss asm




...j ..........*. A .a t J a i a ..a .*....o w...a
















"PH
a.. a.... a g .ia d .f..l.. ..-.... .
sum n niiip f iiiiii iiBiir :ri- --." ", -n ifl





.N i. .lii. ....... i. | i_ ..m l.w s l^ .. ....... : a fijl&l^

t ...... ... a.
S Ij





































































0 0 0 0 0
0 0co C ca


--




o o
o-


o

m



(IN30d3d) NOISSIWSNV.IL









.aiary, iimiinnw. thf urpi, tCt t xnmlfw his thinuat

to ntrirhtan- ae tqcfa.e suer timan t6MtBfiak

of gavy-t C e ruitiqg Sa" 4'1Mi1i8a light. Mas Amt art

emly bd4 w-ire e tht* tmMyAlhmter wialmr* beall eLtaliA: but

he smt aidl be oatinumufly awrrE f *I th rMisalSbdr a har~gm

and *kana* timOMry dislaeot i sm s~l ea bt thlfst




nflw
rn;Us.





Serlval romp* *elin*g son- haa*te benRa didnWlOrg

*bhidh eamedl sMLmt&a IAn sSveM el 4S*tBCt prwtS atf othe

*leta-metlMtiGe Ipmateam sCr the ime M til ou thu oethfie

errant at tL so" ta wr. IZt t"i heLir *wall ad| illHtt l" all

the lit.1 at11i thii tiie purie.s uJ..ly CWui ": Iai

iiiimieconio" beiiAiii me &M:""W* thm Ix Om*i "J go too
Saumatiu tmAug d"ialq.l t is aaa. A.ulsy 1 W^e

in s* tfw m cyf tnia tieA MdaliWill). Sr biNoll



.A... a r, f .lml..a.n.i ..in. .AA e i ma.t.. I rI

it &ljS.8m



.ses rgliiiiii iiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiii- u l Ii : ii m

mu i* ir f4asaeul fl



..... .. ....
S .... II i ..
;....U H. .~^a ^ |^ ^ | ~ i~i"it ..... .......ii~ ^ .....A ^ ............. ^~ liill
.S^^~ i ......... l^IIF^i~l'^ ^^^^ ^ B^^^W^M^^ '






28

Ageutltuno. s1Lo. pystrm md twwo m i-aLr em arn*, Illlu l

a a ma plratfrm., simultamiWnly pihetseapigr a thek sMn

taerria ela $m kn pmdbhri w t ed Aft#khic lati m ad.

A dLttitaet attn at l;t mlt4alwtrral mWeaLsW

the use of the ketore OMatimhubri-flle Iamtra, using two

omm of laren tad filt er reibftaw lalatally susirate

IINeaM I Goh b alf of the 'miw JilUa Strip.17

In a 1I64 patprc, MNllna parent d apsfet Oh

flWlra h in paeimme at the Mr neree emeriwgo Reusewh

&LmLfMFew4*te 4ling wLth a ninr-lmme mltImid camU mr-

*feilr d bfr Mok Gwperaitie, eQpabte of rreeatml aiae

simltom awsy mWM rwsulting fzE photegraphic &"ling

at six viw4ble-U149At Jhadwlttlm *ad theb l- i.fiered bead-



VW imesrtaft pihydial Staftettriatice of Sth aMdS-

bmn. an1baaim samtorss. l S ad A tute psctstes b"a mawwui

hb ne]t LiM ase little in ftble 1 amt 2.

S iAir ek utilisaB g f mlutettmii *! i ifEiwnf tyrpes

17
1aiis" R. Yblvin, "flt-Ilfli l lalete et*lzn aM-
emAMe jp, AnEMreMsdae etML tiileum apamedium AfimMns
SON"tlg eli&eudASgau (Am hdwitil lostlw ad MOAsI.f ,


1muLtMe 4. ltmina"I'l "al'.nL SaclmaB"anina 1


UL(mU )**53 tMRis ew O "INe, 139641 #






29











Leuese Mie 6-imah /2.8 Odhookder ear
AwtiChed Lebows

File~If type a t e 7&-mN. PSUA-4 heregraphi%,
mne rvAL st 70-qnt Inuambee egapc
"ra"e fa t Simm faNAIm, 400h 2-1/4 UVs 1y -1/4


&Xp6WOr 2hree "pteeaes on. tW*thnqme fib*.


N7@o4" ot three 0)ubt eawk, t* *aped* all
*ambanv IsMmiaelta"Ws"ly-




> enat 6 M)"WK Wtse, "Afttl "**eMAbdo**
ofaw"00 UtW *iW* "h0 Mkt~AgeA qoht Oat 0& i*

lai" tws wvort Otsttn














TAMAL 2

flSS-Igs MLIXSiSM CUSMASA SSeWM L MMMi


f llers Uied
me. (,aesam) .er l

1 0.40-0.50 WrBnes 21 + 35 + 318

2 0.45-0.51 Welttke 3 + 47

3 0.52-0.55 Mfatten 15 + 65

4 0.55-0.60 flatlte 57 + 12 + btalMn
155/116

5 0.59-0.64 Wfblmn 90 + 24 + Opties Teah.
interfeuteM filter

6 0.87-0.72 Wraflen 36 + 12

7 0.70-0.81 WIHatten 9B + blmlria 455/141

a 0.81-0.90 IMatLte 87C

9 Pitl ismitivity
MHe 9E4 t tiUrm


5gg s carli I3. Mflift mU ( "Arial Mim anegwmes
of Sarltee fpIatee wIth tha Miatt tima ttmeml renm.-" in

iMajmAt (amI 8 Aor ter: ni ty of atcp irSm, 6 15), pp.
399-421.






IL

- *iwuesm a o %. bN mpstea. 9pqpfl the t gamg

s soit Sa thug "eMtal rn M s tmaubtemal bla a-.


mre. hm t, r a am I s as"nle, a" 8en w


SM'AbM Se Ue wMikb Leap 4Sevpejfd puwe4em q8 a




Sems ben p as aSi ii
.Me.. ti. snm a r oMa .a li w A. ..M Mpeon,
:st .. *i . B m .. *. I ..s. "flt .*I










I sa, au:d oA g gi .... 1,
a an' tW -mme hews NA Sia,*elI.21












PM.i.Iii


a. i mir
....... . :: i. ...l. or Ii r
Jil ^_g j j.^jj^j^ ^jj~lljj. ~ja^^^ eANL A jc O m^ ^a.A l G~~'^ijL'jLl i BL ^







32

t*th typos rat their correepoading caematiaool pkshseyapk

will be used in the analysis to follow. It will alS be

iafoeamtive to use iamgry generated by oea of the various

types of multlspectral ramate scars previously sMntiomad.





During the research being rEeporked Me, it was pa-

ribbl to aswire various types of maltispe&tral visible ad

iFnfxred ima"ry. Among theme ae iritioe were swvewel

rolls of MAiap-laf multiband eatr ic* tiwe is lgmy pro-

duod for the Air Force OMG ridge Resarah Laboratories.

Whis nine-leon pkhetagrehr ta floMt in the ann Framr see

$ay are urilg J~e;mry, 1963. After impromptu cometruc-

tion of a viewing stage rad liot tale eEpable of kha*ling

411 thFe" rEOlc of negatives *isaltslfesly, O-n eampte

tt, Fro"e 42, of nite negatives was ahel for waveftrm

easlyei. f'hi particular framu we ohesn beettwm of bhe

variety of mtral and cultural fmest fes ad the variety of

giemtrie *bapes ad eao rast grad am ts recorded O it.

Stace s*e of the spectral bsswaidthi ot the mine-lend Sye-

tSA owvrlap, thxe of the bamU wdrfl ohemR fS w uoS LeANes

2, 4, aed 9 (see Figs. 4, 5, aMd 6). Leria 2 fad 4 nwt

choeen beoee of the intbrmeditee b lwdWdt they rinisde~ .








NINE-LENS MULTIBAND IMAGERY
From 42, Lens 2


Sd


Fig. 4. Nine-lens multiband imagery, Frame 42, Lens 2.


Line I




Line 2


L-ns I



Lit 2


L r W



















NINE-LENS MULTIBAND IMAGERY

Frame 42, Lens 4























Line I Line i







L.ne 2 Lin 2


Fig. 5. Iline-lens multiband imagery, Frame 42, Lens 4.

















NINE-LENS MULTIBAND IMAGERY
Frame 42, Lens 9





















Line I Line I







Line 2 Llne 2


Fig. 6. Nine-lens multiband imagery, Frame 42, Lens 9.








and lam 9 was abom beeomus it included the full bhaaivdth

of the photograg4ic iafred (pee Table 2).22 From 42 de-

pLcts an urban fkia location in Weedside, California, a

suburb of rramnt on the southeastern side of the San Fran-

cisco-Oakland uetropolitan aria. The principal flEatrej

evident in lram 42 are the construction site in the left

ebuter of ewh ima, the read network under construction,

tkm pawed parkAmJ lot in the lower left, the expemee of

open field, with usd without gras cover, and the spuree

stand of deciaeems trome in the upper left (see Fig. 7).

The mqrwtive sale of Pram 42 iL 1:10,000 (six-inch lens

and 5,000-foet altitude abve terrain).


mae Y::hla-dibe..al am lal~ed


During tih smaer of 1966, this winter ws privi-

legd to attend th% fitat aramr Comfe~ea eon Rarmte ofte-

ai ef SnvirmtaemL f GColleMe Tome he ef Mateal ScieMnes,

SpLmewged by the national eIma Femundetian and eemaeated

by the Eastitute of etees aend TCkeeholoegy at the Univert.ity

of Uishiamm. p.t ei thi *fCort of this eemaerife was dam.

vehed to field wer bamd mltispetral imagery abllyi4 of



2%M1lijMgoMM, LSm.iU. p. 410.






37








C
4 p


ci z 1



aa








E
IX -

Z m . .. E. ". M .









.4 n











-4



.. ' ... ... . . . ., E
.... .. .. .:








a specific rea aerthweet of Ain Arbor, MLehiygn. Te

imwery available for analysis Mat (1) a pheI otieea of

po4ts of several 9" x 9" conteet prints, and (2) a thermal

infrawed image. Slnce oeaMtdereble field wek hb4 benh

meamplished by this writer in amruijction with this

imagery, and the results of the other c ntfreae rpettii-

pants were available, this ast et multispetral imagery

was cweemn for onaumften of visible and thermal infrared

i m ry. this imagery set alo represents a wemparison of

Use difEeemut tpes of sewfors.

The paenhremtic phMt moaic (oeem ig. 8) as pre-

duoed from parts of several lt,20,000 phegw*waphs erAgAnally

fl an for the Sil comservatimn service, united fStem be-

par tnm t of AIrieulture. It is a daylight summewrrti phebe-

graph, with a scale of 1:24,4,M as ee in the fiel emer-

oat "bg ore6 beund= d by thi asmieo inelw"e parts of

ftotieae 34, 35, and 36 ef TwoahIp 1 IAethl. WhLg 4 Dust,

6wving&Uei amty, Miehigan, &nd pltt of Seetion 31 of

IftIaeip 1 Mrth, RMage S5 aOt, Livringtem County. AJAe

inetided ore reetA We 1, 2, 3, BO, 11, 13, 13, 14, &ad 15

of BMMAfhip 1 Beath, Rage 4 Bnat, MSektenmw GO-*y, MaHi-

9am ada parts of gruebPs 6, 7, 7, i It1, ITmwhip 1 kweth,





















-z 2 Z


Sjz z
_- j








Rtnge 5 Bat, also ef washtenew or-ty, Michigan.23

The theamal infrared imge was originally produced

for the Forest services, Uiited ftat* Department of Agricul-

ture, and has since boon incorpetadte into the Uaiversity

of Illineois Comattee on Aerial Phetegrephy series Image

So. 902, entitled "Chain of Lakes." It was used in this

form during the field exercieos. She image itself reialt

frem a night flight during the oewamr of 1965 and his &

Scale of 1:46,000, aS offered in the UbiverLity of Illinois

series. Sines the "Chain of Lakes" iage oseepies slightly

more artI thna the phateasM ic, only that part of the image

which is o parible to the eaic will be used in the wahe-

ferm analysis (oee rig. 9).

As tM l UMiveMity of Illinois ceMuittee title im-

plies, both image are dentmiaed by the series of lame

aseering in the upper portion of emsh i"aye. The heavily

*s4*de art in thd ematral pert of the pMatrohktie photo-

rphi is itincthfitel Woods, an expeflamtl forest opweated

by the seM .l of Matural Reereme of the Univerbity of

lCdhigan. Mteh of the rilaing area inelurai in chrase-



U23Mivw iFy a Ido M t'ian, Dheral of latural ts-
*Couroe, ftiI lfl ~ .tl (imp) (Abum Anerilf UilVklaity of
Istehigas, iell .



















z z
_j


bI(l


e,






42

terised by open fields, although area of woodland and arp-

load are to be felud at vaiwe loaatiems thkaghrkt. The

M orn River am be seen am kth eastern side of each imawe,

aad a well dewqleped read SMaish i also evidet.

Ihis particular rate 1i situated in a regia enrasc-

teried by a Meries of reespienal moaerme24 and thoir

Maoselated hydrologic features, and thus uehibits a variety

of earftaS fiiturw vegetation aneciations, land use dif-

furentn, aS the diverse gray-tenam afCeelated with emeh

pattelr, befLh L the pandhreatic phateogra~ and the te-kil

infrasd IagJ (See fig. 10).

The SiLlalrit-i amd differe ho between eom-

tifnal pradhseatcic aerial pkofkgraphy Nad Infxared imary

have been promented in this cbptts. Ttr lns~gxy *sets whih

haie bee *Clected to rfeprn t tlhe spectral reatiso will

nw be subjetted to wrefr t Analyfim, with he hi Sith*llgy

d lnaiNni ag mh a1.lj is. b~lag coeimtbd in the fellsMtn~

dpkwtme.





2.4 _tet ...N4. moi l .

fm sMm-l N M frk II ( itlt~at ineprt, a Mfar am-
Merl e on um ete Mir MIag bf anl tM4im nt, UIm pretty v
Simi40ge, mune, 1Wf).






43









U)

o












3l 0







I ... .... .
S4-*







InI
--4




















-.I








r-i

....I













CMWR III


WvaVUreO JmAMYS I0al QfOioT


sIns-i14a. SIlamnu


For eone time electronic eagin lr have analysed

the character ad quality of their signals and teCted cer-

tain instruments with waveform monitors. Thewe monitors

graphically display on a oathede-ray tube the Actwal ear-

tesian-ceerdinat waves represonting the voltage fluctu-

atione oeurring in electronic *LgalS. Ameng their usee

in electronics is the monitsriag of signals ee etituting

canventioel television transmiessie. When allied in this

an or one of their primary fU ition is the calibration of

gray-teea level and black-to-white ceatreat ratio of tele-

vision pictures, using a refereMee-veltge level. One of

the advantage of Applying such an ifMtriumMt to the am-ly-

sie of telvwis.on Signals is that say *en line antained

in the collection of paallel seen Lieft (termed the WV

ratherr") may be selected ar wavefoer atedy.

In sade to apply: euch ifmtrutmtatim to the peek-

Le of quantifying geo glr.phic diat.r.lwti.*s, it is me ue

44






45
to rqvtjewt (1) UNO iastrvwwntation" rmtr weit

with Amegew vwettea mnaly*sfs (k) tse sAqigiflanwm of

greY-tames~ renoedod in tlse vAsible sa"& issread pftlemo ati
too &*Letxwmegvst~ic WpOW&trut (3) **Amwey wri"*&tj~nieswd

di*PL*y before* tb* tme*l*viate Cag0MM; (4) &eas-lifte #a"ke-

tia"e1 Mnd (5) amnatetstw *wemain cm, Ommanibl* *tehe an

the **tSseat gae sts .





before a t*Levis&Mk ahm a h 19ep mg 6paa

on 4L somveawmw*el agtter, A mw%%alt masitor mar %W d",

nectto to bso~f OWW*aIe agt ne00, LWS JAW 00ft 1-00


ieaw e inteewwp eg olagsp~61 ipee

IA" *&Loed*" atr h wemsaie anae e





QOWWWO AaWo" *l**4 awt to r AgW. %*t ik ^*WNW

of tlaw la, regret t trovow** *I"s tAme *LMewt44wjjly

*1Ost Agh *""a lIAA% '00u wsA *epadf to lates 40ft 1,1*

is 6 tom*toem *0 0Ad 0004Ath 4Ag 44 umg Aystv m* set **

Xtowekvev a aliy so A *Mwwmlse OmgwtO, tub *%ppea

4~4 agso ta 5 mtdr 9**aehme toik*





















































Fig. 11. Monitor presentation of thermal infrared image
and waveform monitor display of waveform
produced by scan line crossing center of image.






47
... ....
Op"i :::




anoii ,
I- . .. j i T. I ...
....... ... ........... A ~ISwM l *al fSfii" N

is.....h n. ... a a











mmm mm Ey^ ^ lg l mm:: mm J Hi^....l ..... |fti l :::IIIIIHHHIIIE .......
is iiaii n ...i -" ie *: iaiiiiaii....t


*lb- aslhiw wPi M Mm e&'















.. ... ..
e lt a'+i+ w+' w i






s i l... ..g ..l.
"a : .re- .. ... ..fhl.. -' AfES .




...... .. . iiiiiiiiiliH |iiiiii iiiii i .iiiiu.iiii i.l...ii.... .... ... .iij





ma ne. We"





:~~~~ ini*-" '^"illiJii








In the interval rezired efr the scanning of each

teloviieon line, voltage flutuathoeeM freeing ig gray-tom

level changes psoeived by the eemae a re presented on the

efthode-ray tube of the waveTofm u m &te with Iame fixed

dagroe of aso 3rcy. TWh degges O s gearaswy of thin rawel -

eemtation t a uanct ieR of twn indeinMfdMt vlriablaO Ied

-ne depeadet triatble. The two ine pendrnt vrlablea are

inhMreat dFtafltel tteM Of f the waW9erm almeter and are

efmattae Smr M y particular instriment.

the first ifepeAlmiut vLaiable involved is the fre-

qwmaey ropease eraleturi tLe of the mmniter itSe This

savelves the i blity oE the lintwirmat fa dismarmn all

vwtLage lfmetuM lsm thrraghout the range of frequemcies

aeatmAi d in the iput signal. ae seemed indoepedeat vasi-

able is the miality of the isetruieat to rearEd or "write"

theIt nmil voltags fluetuati g .a t ay setually cuw.

fhis laftir ability i# usually e4ramila in thim o* the

bMi ity of "ri*m t& m" or, in its ~Sppi Msa*, "ftll

tiM." y definitJen and owvenatimte., rice tUM is the

Linite loeg h of tis required for the writingg er efeased-

ing of 80 piaraSt 1f the Im tEn c |l madet &ag Mitt.l eof


LUS, A "* "".rD t at of
Jtih Akm r T l al figiMi 1l-:m.0 1bgwu 1Ars U.$. oJi .
flvber, Tl1), 0i. i*.





:............ ... ... . .. . .

.i i*. ....... .... : . ..

SiA"a.. ...fi. I ..
wa b fl fl 0., .e.S
..' ..l -i1R Ae No".i. i m .. ..


















S.. W ......... .
.a.n. l l : a ta .. t ....... in t ": t i .t


















...... 1 < : ":j E ... .. 1" t{ 1J: l H m 11 i HE. ... .M OEE
a. s ae 3 ,liSm lrugani a aiie canna so, as a, go







.a ...... n n.mll.. Ill Agg+Ea ... A elhl. t.h ......







*Ia:f l.. ... ...mU i.W :,: s aM: U ..:I W ....
innem .a e a. agionme me ap .me.... n ..t g


. la a.. . W .. e..S ..
-ns amm *bm...a a1' ma n age






a m s f S-t+++-+ ++ 6+ Wm h W R m)(m(((((((((((((((((((((((((
O.. ) i( ( (*()()(( "u b rZ )((tM(i u 4 9( ()J(( )(( ) ((m ((( + ((((((((((((((((((((((((((







so

weaouroiee, e iae the aecbul lamgk of rwse time it directly

proportiomnl to the pAramnt9ge voltage difteweec. In pame-

ties, thea, the actual wavelerm apiduung on the maelter As

a function not only of the chabteter Qf the objectt matter

being televiald, but i alo inflintieed to sem extent by

the freqoaogy remonme nd rise-tim dh ftwqFtristie of the

Wre*Srm akCiter.




Iemn Iltirpetmal myaeitier ai eIloyed for imaegry

p~WreSMilti, ald this infk ry subjcted to any Sort of inter-

pretive *MlysiL the gray-tones MA tkfir spatial diatri-

ulteon pattb er produced on the Ulyery dAend not only on

the pertleei r phemmima being amiaed, but alse on the Bme-

Lag eytaIg b*ing apmlayed.

Most g o9 pere are r* iltar to ome dyegee with

the pattyams Id mouemig of gray-tmi Man an aeruentei al

panehrflMtfe aetial photography. A tems are familiar

with these itiL m AS e in phetqagrphi infrared i&lCerw.

Still ftiwe are the *mbLern *of itwtigatera fSutlier with

the basie dignifiebmie of gray- iwNl resuirde on other types

of reamte-mSser iumi y.

Sesame none of the rAare-ilh eLtibmdd-eeamt

LmeaW reenrds all tin vwIgI rl0lnt :,n -edft.l- of tihe








lkMH:N:fmfig diles eek H .3MwL *Se-e sw the ohb-

Jun. bainL: hbga-- p Of ta want 2 ls u g, few ample

(pIm 0:4. 44, Ui. team re ag r c.tst.ec.wtic of cultiuwl

fwtwa d*l n bmsdiamsf. rqafi, paeftas lea, e41NgI

LiaSS, ete. EIS*-*i4mflty ,flr-tmen isatiie. atfladi

erftltiloS, -mI M 4hurLuht ltse sib psedsae mI *W1 .*m

p601e.d open f1 UdW. em the urs 4 Ioge (oar gi9. 5o, n:

tlke Oahe hMd, the )&flt M tfl rOwat f rm the ipSrd.

rnewo aud Naft amd buJLiLungs fmlBe emistwnedctt. %a43q th:

iatgefr.at* yon-e. ar* iaeateAf 6f paved rmiO it

0emtai iMttiS -= thfis tiEIp 4d tiMh hLaLL&a Ii raie



the tUcat" e *bIy UE5A1AgIt.Au 1 Wt *e 0 pft4WSS B AINAUir

apsiim IAble. th g b*e9 i idMe in 4ite toon 10-ffih H Imp.

for aqg fierLd fee 06. 4), SMa &pir bir W da pe



diaWwm (a&iws om 11A1 ln al .Itg14y offAt (.I f

bagas, US 41ff IimetAat ti m dSI. man

ditened S rlf l. ... estAt.) iA... .eai a ..5 .is.

q a WaR : **r a 0 ages sI aste imas faA se



tanumm Se aii iiiiiinr i.m n . .i.l.lt.

i iMl *U 1 l .r4e i ....


'I


.. 91 1







52

surface. The aeeaiulation of these gray-tons in n orderly

manner permits identifiestion of geographic patterns amsoci-

afed with theral differences, with the warmr area being

rezaded as lighter gray-tenos. VASil J1A'M5" is d~LeLted by

the warmer lales in the uppn pl t a&nd the MuesB River OK-

teIding through the rilht center. The liner re d paterse

are mlie promeat, and paved majf reads are distinguish-

able irea unpaved secondary read. Fernsted ar as are

dbarettwibed by intermedir gatdr tt es, with eoniferou

sqeltation being slightly wnetF in the .tampLu than decidu-

ous vYetAtcie. Open fields are lightly cooler than

fteeted aMse, and msweplads ehiAbit the colest tempera-

ture reederdl on this iage.


msair oriartJ.an a Ba aaAsy

ina rdor to eliminate lighting glare and provide

oeenistent aritleation of im ery diSplayed before the tile-

vision oat"er, sth Jlge we* ptaid oen an siael hatmg a

tiltable hImd. This allowed eh JAmge to be or mbed per-

pediidiAla e the Camnra on all R ,m AIfte th dmara se.

feusead, the bekeground ligh-thi vwa peflitiamd us that me

glare was observd on the ca~se or the moniter. MI the

C aier*, eael, and lighting peoitinim were found to bi mItt-

blil, they waft lift caunstet tuEathf the videos tap6ii -8igtSM







51
mmd/or amoly#*# O mof *go&"~ie mattistpetral 60t.




Two 0een limo e fra &*a% 6 am fttp*-less multbs**d

caWK& iAWWes *or* "&WOWs for wve*era reomrding mod

analysts (~e View, 4, -5, a"d 6) She fiht dAft 11" re

eorftd trfiwrfA" of emeh "moo tkweeg the smeweet~ta Oitt*

in tbt anobr#a sAmt&eC% "oe sow"p eso" ),.A" me*nm the



eaormvd "A GAeWA*d. it woc.seait: OWa 0l4#0aee

would provide a "*xtomo ampluft of different terr*40 tyges

awd dIffenet beandwy aentreeto.

thre sen it"4 vexo Momd) fvw se emeto t*e Pon-

e""ma's a"d thwammt Waro"e $woo" (v" rae. 8 :4" 9):.

Lim I rapomoak" A UAVe6e4 Aftes" theo Iak Nod f

woo*"a in MWe 106.64 pOetUo" aU:**.*. low"! Liam 2 b&*ve"O*

the *sreV*he Pat Of WAW #thet*Wtiad Wh$" b"Oru"m403

raoest. T4*4 A~pWsr* tviovoo" atf skim~soalel ad *000s

Odbaed be*apsom a4 %% veries topa W Wowijaros egtae

isclead. 3 Lioa I e mim %)Woo* the a wauqn io#646e0 e



obuw~i*tt ftom (ItU* t Allfw iaUmt IP teth #Ai~ b

*0hmIMWand to" ~ ON)(m Awt IM M% I4*ityhawa of









coniferous vegetation is present, and in varying ae and

deities.


a-Lite S amb.line of Cawirableo &las

The rime-l sn multibLmd ornr images ued in this

analysis were originally reeorded at the same scale. The

bfegative we r enlarged and printed to the ,sme sale, per-

sltting the sampling of the sam seen line on ech ijrg

amerly by subdtituting images en the easel plead before

the televslan nmmera. This subStitution was accomplished

by o strmsret g a slotted tlmplate cmgble of holding saoh

of the imges in the sme relative paitimn.

Suc a procedure was not possible in the pea hxe-

matic-therml Jinrared multipeoctral nt boE we: of the

somaning geometry distertine a the thermal infrared image.

In Addition, the two image were originally at different

*oalel. Aft*r they had been oeaLod egparably, only the

central Saetiet of the infrrond imb" wma theght to be

suffielently distortion-frae for *iea-lie saletlcten. Two

frim we" emnstructed to preoem the Mcetral parts of each

immge bo the mam semi line. It mSt be nafte, hIeter,

that baeMase of bth diatortiot prreset, only 4ppertabtLy

co~sraoble areas are traversed by duWsequent sefa 1Lue.

his beas aeceanted for some of tel dtflerneste in geJatI







55
pattermS aote gon #bO stratoM $*to# but the** difiAnameWe

are nes1 dre tob boe NminS.

Thm Nowt ftvratl attention W"e lives to the coattruc-

tion of the previewly meatlemed temmplat*0 "an umpting of

tha imbmee 00 that the esot Gwmperal4A *euLat*a sght he iob-









Th* fist 6%periaental arrangmentmi of olectmeate

awoampatts ewd i* W60twoer mentottng was in the vL&Ram-

t4pe-**Cording4 Of test 00404s 6f AdlttApMctra JAIagery (

rig. 12) in tb** 4rrangeomet, tb* tthe"isLiaf Gaspe

Sonpmad tbe is*"e &Ad "MWAr~d it G* *""d to"*. it was.

fndtbat r~eorifgthe 40 ppoe 20 OAWMMW: amid tVAK

he eedbeatethe a in of ast*Akoftaxy km*40& ftr 0



et te eteras prestel o eg tub, ad awy kAmws

of vbseooa~ v$eeing of & pyef#4etly *kit* awrfa40 VW*n Won

Meedewry to *mooe tb* tempo. VW*e *jib* A16o *IUAMhe

t*A pooettility of VNOAteIng *4*&MI** iAWpty *OeM O~tW-



aw9fte *%*ttoas $AK Itawg %04n ummae V060040 vlmlse












w







I-

a.






O
C-









Z

(D
0







W
CL




F-
0



W
t--








g eame g a ur eter l a teo sOWe vAd v ftlae-aoder

*as the Agy t4ee was vwplayed (iefe Pig. 13). %Au wleosxmo

mealterx lw adjistmd aprwplately ad a wtnimkc amif e-

nscpe rws *tteSd to its 4depai tie (see rAg. 14). wlk

oeellleeeoe av S is equipped with a Polareid fiela ik

O pable of hMndling the e11 rl fli Jad to rmernd ilalMnti

tr&a~ md. at fmW eSrfm.

Polaoiid Typo 3000 fil. (ratSe 3000 WJ) wdL gli

in thIs iarsdcifle iy .Mpmermit, bet poved to be mw M .e1; -

tory bmStiM the tm required iw the empqhui ws us yrpI

than e emeulete wYste ft thV fiMLd rFte (30 msoh pI

"eOwed), rpianhi4l a blatted teat.0

Am ea. ,t*Sm" #fclJ m : t.aw leineth oe tiu a se u pM

for t*he rmWlin-6 *a a01I eW*SemW htaMSr aet n t-Mm m ien-

Iman asgattheat .aeaE et the eiikeea "ia il

tenteS. 3n thel WU eudarn EaiomeMer peamnttim the


fit the Ala-eis eaplefl' tah1 *Ad. 14). b w e.g-

theM, thf Oitie wailbili. -*l** At Ai pAI W40




Iesem .. toonss 4*biaS 1 a : go"Il
tbe Am''li, aa WP* mq. ama i
*I


















0 0 0
cu E r

i 0)






o 0
C-)


C) 4J


o .



Cf)
0 I.,
W
0




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L >
0






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m
o u

Z U)


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LL -
(9 U



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a:LL













































Fig. 14. Arrangement of components used in oscilloscope
recording of waveforms displayed on Tektronix
Model 529 Waveform Monitor. Camera is mounted
on hinges and is swung out for inspection of
waveform monitor display tube. Waveform can
be viewed through upper part of camera while
film is being exposed.






60

of one entire expanded wuvefrm em for or f iv photographer.

tBfortueately, this require cma aelamibiL period of thu,

at lest 20 minutm, for thJ recording of mea single wve-

form.

Because of the file sped and rewarding cycel tim

probleer it was decided to test the aNspality of another

type of mtvefo muoitor, called the lolerade Vida Model

302 Video Analysr (sm rig. 15). This was a mwr product

capable of sailtanemusly diplaying m a oeanventLal

monitor the la the sea line selected, ad the reialstut

wavefoem umrimapeed on a kheanygblo and poite imeble grid

(see Fig. 16). In short, this Vide A alyser promised to

be the amwmr to quipmMot selection problems, sinte the

brightness of the waveform track and its smpliag grid matd

it poesible to raserd the watlfoxm with aonventional fil m

(ae Pliga. 17 mnd 18). V~fiosm filM were tested to deter-

aine the beet alternative for recording waftfarms produced

an the Mnoe 302 (*ee PgL.u 19 and 20). ll of thdoe films

proved to hlav sufficient re@lution to record the imige

ean line, grid, and wavefom. In feet, their resolution

wee eo great that it was diseanmed that th* wvefoerm pro-

duoGd by the MIbdl 302 wem not really a line but a series of

deta sitmliting a 1e. It wts t&1e disetered th&t the













































Fig. 15. Various components used to present and record
waveforms produced by the Colorado Video Model
302 Video Analyzer. Note the arrangement of
image, waveform, and grid on the Conrac Monitor.
















A 4


k .i i .

k&rq
'hi---~-"-J


FLg. 16. A 35-millimeter photograph of monitor face. Note
scan line vertically presented on left side of
image, and waveform indicating gray-tone levels
intersected by scan line. Horizontal line at
top of image is electronic "straight edge" used
for correlating specific locations on scan line
and waveform. These elements have been generated
by the Model 302 Video Analyzer.






63



















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Fig. 19. A 35-millimeter camera being used to photograph
simultaneously presented waveform, image, and
sampling scan line on monitor, while sampling
location and other pertinent data are noted.
Instrument in right lower foreground is
Colorado Video Model 302 Video Analyzer. Con-
trols on front of Model 302 are for choosing
location and width of scan line.










































Fig. 20. A 4" x 5" Speed Graphic with Polaroid Sheet Film
Pack being used in exposure test of Polaroid 55
P/N film. Note grid superimposed on monitor test
pattern by Colorado Video Model 302 Video
Analyzer.






67
so nCS 10090 00 So aJVpt, 04114W is fLO elt-
MiNU ,e 0 pAft rM "etio. "SM taw-

whow t.il -&te .t it e filt the ian oe thu 0*4
*il usiMiS it "s vry ofllllMl t+ Mwi the gei4, dak
taiM Mp aW UaM aatamatha p .a a eay Porte-

sa eume. te aes "N wear .snmetnul nio"i to iANu toG

see" gV66 flfliata fl us afta t -


Wigin aho :ns Ratems, aaget kri ndstS le a- *


wapstis itS-n Skp 1igLa.4g gie eaime




& io0ooo am as i.t. go a Mg
tfam at 1ees tlii hf ttillj tg JtatIut4in g
bhet Sn 1 mfLk%~wt&I Ud
ft41 d i ilAge iglig i e@ gigiir III il l1 *1 4lit *-* jru*'* r: igt gim i


lteIr EM a ta r HMMildWS" I 43li 4Il0 H l l Mo)P- 41).




ea la Oiisitwr s ia mw aa to tX Ala
wof east ftywc Im c1 w Ah twns uw I 1hn e





eat ainu-i. *iauiN "sNW IM. at .Ii! n40 4rr

inS4Im- Slf Sl fl1 111- ^MIB SWM~aMp semi-
at a-: fl A*: ai am~m al-~r MW*

we m iff be^ at ^ IM esmcr


;i''' 1;11 1










































Fig. 21. Oscilloscope camera being used to record section
of waveform using Polaroid Type 410 film. Photo-
graph has just been removed from camera back.







..il ji..d jj^^iini ii, j *iriIi Ea r*it ii *Ai rif aS" lial

I ...% ....%L .. ........
.a ... ..... ............











i. .:tis |I
..u.. .o. u .y d b...... ... a
o ib eiglm, *a. :wiw egimr ref Ia ......i. ..






.a.s.mhf m m ao o n : ....t.tt ::

E* h e sl sateea Siia..s1.. ....



a -TW. "e :-wS
ffll1iA I ai ass idi -mA S-iiij


*m gjis an et ilgfgi-e as ag RiII f1 l *H




...* an .a.. .a. *iii













































Fig. 22. A 35-millimeter photograph used for locating
traverse of scan line. Image is nine-lens
multiband photograph, Frame 42, Lens 2, Line 2.








wna ipa Warlin to tipn epan-tlacl wpkwar
44 li0 :er aqw yifn5bswt Of that MatLrc. Mam-
Eifliv. i g M .* to 'otMt k* I*Om us a-
Aila e| i ti h jMlea ften e* li ait idee I|iMI-
oiS S iuMAii'i t tlte ILalla fUr mISk 1109 IS bl-

IS).


i., a "S wA .i ni. t iijiiav iioiin bo iew"lmet smlrl


el4 talis s ii l~ ,inpe lwil ilD c 4aiklllml .in Ita
Sti la tIie. .. .a ..a..li i n r I. .r.* l .li
at earsa 1.*l theS faL' atiine e itt r ast a *Ono-
sI &ab.m- a.w aiss patro a. -0


avAlMem MaldamFl>whital "lirs****4giw" -lli pZrWMMils h~ie


0i61g ~l hm rlelamig pNia tle fl4 peafw lt b -li lltMe

ray ta.Ug
A tf qq-*acoaek AW.sibs at f fli
of sees eesaemat e bSfllfl' 3* a
"ft" else' HH.e aine peaStem. alligamagght magma Hcta m\
COabGe s MMWoP bPfWiwsB. S|MfibuW guf1 s a. ligt i- illl to
inbH- l andis WIe m- pm-.H i W l of slir.l.i.H. *. . ...i.l.
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p... ...... ..e. .... .I
fLa"m a.*60 n~~o"MUM Oro""






72

mad a minimis amount of signal neie. Other controls of the

wavforem miter include the mnpnification feature ntInmed

previously, a traws-illuination caeatrsl, a d a ontol for

changing the lateral position of the wrefiorm in order to

view Ameselwve portions of it when either of the mqaeifies-

ties poaitiome is need.

Variations in empsure timing of the oMcillosoope

menra do net influence the gray-tawe levels presented on

the wavefera miter. Onee a usable empeure time and lens

UtlaW are feond, they are mai*nalaml throughout the re-

mordiag.


Future IfltamWAntion Ad44dt1i

asin ean of the smjer deombsl t in the waveform

eaMlysis per diaure is the resedl g of the actual waveforum

u'ing an e eille ampe acMya, it is plenIed to include an

X-Y axis strlp-dr rt recorder (efe Fiye. 23 and 24) imong

the eperiaMatalA emoponente. This will pesmit dirmt

goaphifel racewding of the caeje displayed ea the waveform

mwnitoe eathode-tay tube. without hoping to reeert to the

laborious proawes of putting the wauvferm reserded oa

lPeFtAd fle into asmly tble graphifal fat.

A&Uitlana instrumntl ation pl *lse inetdr e the

ume of televisim o -G-ji, manitews, ad ftwefoerm methte





































































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a empn it pesuvmi of keqhk: uwarmfi flWAw pihrobl m iKM

mfLt.ldtsd belste the pbitegA'g wse #pAd, 1a P oftilb4|p -

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variables are rmlitwae sad frhatoer. bmlitvue of a wav

acn be simply stated as the difpate *way E.m the ieu

line or reerenee line of any point On the wave as m ured

Along the T-miLS. In this case, the amplitude of any point

on the wavefor is in reality the my-toae le el of that

point, epraeweed as a peeentage of white (100 percent on

Figure 25, for mnmle, gray-tene level, as sampled eey

0.10 inch, would be for Terrain Type "A" (reading left to

right): 44 perient, 38 perIent, 32 perct. etc.

Frequency, on the other hand, is smiply the number

of fluctuwttion occurring per unit length of the msrv. A

cesriptLon of the derivation and signifiouse of the ata-

tittioal parz ters pertaining to wavefem which ohve evolved

durLa this research will oce"fy several of the following

pagme.


LbS OM M 1h SI tale I(n

A eotain mnoter of gany-tne level eIpXlee are

taken frem eadh of the berrain-type occurraeno. In Piure

25, for NMemle, in I rrainTe Type "An a wald e4al 20

SMmles. Bask 0.1-ineh Lt.mer gritd tivisie is us"d be a

se lmiagm point, and all ceah divtioeei eameusa or isteflfLebt

(See left-head e4ge of ferria wype "I") rE4 meisnrM gs:




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PAGE 1

WAVEFORM ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS RECORDED ON VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGERY By RICHARD EVERETT WITMER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA December, 1967

PAGE 2

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many persons have contributed their efforts to the organization and completion of this research project. Foremost cUQong these is Dr. Clark I. Cross* Chairman of the author's Supervisory Committee. His professional exeut^jle and intellectual stimulation have been major influences during this author's entire graduate career. Sincere appreciation is extended to Dr. Cross for this guidance and assistance. Dr. James R. Anderson, Chairman of the Department of Geography, not only contributed to the initial formulation of this study, but has assisted this author at all stages of his graduate career. Dr. Edmund E. Hegen has provided this author with intellectual and academic insights on innumerable occasions, and Dr. Richard A. Edwards has offered many helpful suggestions concerning the proper completion of this research. Gratitude is also extended to the many other faculty menibers of the university of Florida who have contributed to this author's academic and research pursuits. This author is in the debt of many persons at Florida Atlantic University who have contributed to this ii

PAGE 3

research effort. Dr. James P. Latham, Professor and Chairman of Geography, in his capacity as Principal Investigator of the Office of Ifaval Research contract under which this study was completed, provided financial assistance and helpful suggestions concerning the research methodology and instrumentation procedures. Mr. Herbert Evans, Technical Director of Learning Resources, and Mr. Curtis Norling, Chief Video Engineer, provided great assistance in the selection and operation of the various experimental components. Thanks are also extended to Mrs. Anita Becker, secretary of the Geography Department, for her typing assistance, and to Mr. Gerald Tapper, the author's student assistant, for his help with photographic and cartographic work. Finally, the author's sincerest gratitude is extended to his wife, Judy, for her patience and assistance throughout the entire coxurse of the research project. iii

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 11 LIST OF TABLES vl LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS vlll CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Research objectives 3 Electronic Analysis of Geographic Patterns • . 4 Research Techniques and Methodology 8 II. THE VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGERY 10 General Characteristics o£ Visible Panchromatic Imagery 10 General Characteristics of Infrared Imagery • • 16 The Thermal Infrared Spectral Region 21 Multlspectral Remote Sensing Imagery 27 Selection and Conventional Analysis of the Visible and Infrared Imagery 31 III, WAVEFORM ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY 44 Scan-Llne Techniques 44 Gray-Tone Level Recording 35 Graphical Presentation of Waveforms 75 Statistical Presentation of Gray-Tone Levels . 77 IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 96 Waveform Analysis Results: Nine-Lens Multiband Camera Imagery 96 waveform Analysis Results; Panchromatic and Thermal Infrared Images 109 Analysis of scale and Resolution Differences . 130 iv

PAGE 5

CHAPTER Page V. CONCLUSION 132 SuoDHiry 132 Potential Utilization of Waveform Analysis in Geographic Research 136 APPENDICES 138 I. Primary Datai Nine-Lens Hultlband Camera Imagery 139 II. Primary Data: Panchromatic and Thermal Infrared Images 146 III« Terrain-Type Compilations: Nine-Lena Hultlband Camera Imagery 159 IV. Terrain-Type Ccxi^llationss Panchromatic and Thermal Infrared Images 166 V. Terraln-Tyi>e Compilations Corrected for Rise Times Nine-Lens Multlband Camera XBagery 179 VI. Terrain-Type Coapilaticns Corrected for Rise Time; Panchromatic and Thermal Infrared Images 186 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 199 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . 224

PAGE 6

LIST OF TABLES Table Page !• Nine-Lens Multiband Camera Data 29 2. Nine-Lens Multiband Camera Spectral Bands • • • 30 3. Sensor Comparison Totalo by Terrain Type: Nine-Lens Multiband Camera Imagery 104 4* Sensor Con^arison Totals by Terrain Typet Nine-Lens Multiband Camera Imagery (Corrected £or Rise Time) 106 5. Sensor Con^>arison Totals by Terrain Typet Panchromatic and Therroa). Infrared Images (Paired occurrences) 125 6. Sensor Con^arison Totals by Terrain Typei Panchromatic and Thermal Infrared Images (Paired Occurrences; Corrected for Rise Time) 128 7. Primary Datat Frame 42, Lens 2, Lines 1 and 2 140 8. Primary Data: Frame 42, Lens 4, Lines 1 and 2 142 9« Primary Data: Frame 42, Lens 9, Lines 1 and 2 144 10. Primary Data: Panchromatic Image, Line 1 . . . 147 11. Primary Data: Panchromatic Image, Line 2 . . • 149 12. Primary Data: Panchromatic Image, Line 3 . . . 151 13. Primary Data: Thermal Infrared Image, Line 1 153 vl

PAGE 7

Table SS3S. 14. Primary Datat Thezmal Infrared Image* Line 2 135 15. Primary Datat Thermal Infrared Image* Line 3 157 16. Terrain-Type Compilations! Frame 42, Lena 2, Lines 1 and 2 160 17. Terrain-Type Compilations t Frame 42, Lens 4, Lines 1 and 2 162 18. Terrain-Type Cooqpilationst Frame 42, Lens 9, Lines 1 and 2 164 19. Terrain-Type Compilations: Panchromatic Image, All Lines 167 20. Terrain-Type Compilations! Themal Infrared Image, All Lines 173 21. Terrain-Type Compilations Corrected for Rise Timet Frame 42, Lens 2, Lines 1 and 2 180 22. Terrain-Type Conpilations Corrected for Rise Time: Frame 42, Lens 4, Lines 1 and 2 182 23. Terrain-Type Conpilations Corrected for Rise Timet Prams 42, Lens 9, Lines 1 and 2 184 24. Terrain-Type Compilations Corrected for Rise Times Panchromatic Image, All Lines 187 25. Terrain-Type Compilations Corrected for Rise Time: Thermal Infrared Image, All Lines 193 vii

PAGE 8

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure P«qe 1. The electromagnetic spectrum 11 2. Spectral radiant omittance curves for blackbodies at several absolute tenperatures 13 3. Atmospheric spectral transmission 26 4. Nine-lens multiband imagery. Frame 42 « Lens 2 33 3. Nine-lens multiband imagery. Frame 42, Lens 4 34 6. Nine-lens multiband imagery. Frame 42, Lens 9 33 7. Nine-lens multiband imagery map 37 8. Panchromatic image, Stinchfield Woods and vicinity 39 9. Thermal infrared image, stinchfield woods and vicinity 41 10. Map of Stinchfield woods and vicinity 43 11. Monitor display of thermal infrared image and waveform 46 12. Schematic illustration of video-taperecording of multispectral imagery 56 13. Schematic illustraticm of recording waveforms with oscilloscope camera 38 14. Arrangement of components used in oscilloscope recording • 39 viii

PAGE 9

Figure Page 15. Recording waveforms produced by the Model 302 video Analyzer 61 16. Monitor display of image and electronic sampling grid and scan line generated by the Model 302 video Analyzer 62 17. Schematic illustration of photo-recording of real -time imagery and waveforms 63 18. Schematic illustration of photo-recording of video-taped imagery and waveforms .... 64 19. Photographing image, waveform, and scan line on monitor 65 20. Speed Graphic camera being used in exposure test 66 21. oscilloscope camera being used to photograph waveform 68 22. Scan-line traverse of Lens 2, Line 2 70 23. Schematic illustration of strip-chart recording of real-time imagery and waveforms 73 24. schematic illustration of strip-chart recording of video-taped imagery and waveforms 74 25. Graphical exan^le of nomenclature of waveform parameters 76 26. Graphical presentation of waveform representing nine-lens multiband camera imagery. Frame 42, Lens 2, Line 1 78 27. Graphical presentation of waveform representing nine-lens multibemd camera imagery. Frame 42, Lens 2, Line 2 79 ix

PAGE 10

Figure 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. Graphical presentation of waveform representing nine-lens multlband ceunera Imagery, Frame 42, Lens 4, Line 1 Graphical presentation of waveform representing nine-lens multlband camera Imagery, Frame 42, Lens 4, Line 2 Graphical presentation of waveform representing nine-lens multlband ceunera Imagery, Frame 42, Lens 9, Line 1 Graphical presentation of waveform representing nine-lens multlband camera Imagery, Frame 42, Lens 9, Line 2 Graphical presentation of waveform representing panchromatic Image, Line 1 . . Graphical presentatl«i of waveform representing panchromatic Image, Line 2 • . Graphical presentation of waveform representing panchromatic Image, Line 3 • . Graphical presentation of waveform representing thermal Infrared Image, Line 1 Graphical presentation of waveform representing thermal Infrared Image, Line 2 Graphical presentation of waveform representing thermal Infrared Image, Line 3 Page 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The earth sciences are experiencing a renaissance in their ability to utilize new methods which have been developed for perceiving various distributions of geographic phenomena. These methods include the development of new techniques for objective qviantified analysis of geographic distributions, and also include the development of certain instrumented systems which record various aspects of distributed phenomena by sampling certain spectral regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In general « these instrumented systems are called "remote sensors" and include such devices as thermal infrared scanners, radars, microwave scanners* and television systems, as well as the more conventional types of photographic equipment, such as those used for conventional aerial photography. All of these ronote sensing systems (with the exception of color photography) produce imagery which has form similar to conventional aerial photography, i.e., some assemblage of gray tones which is superimposed on a format

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2 which Indicates relative position. The super imposition of information coded by gray tone on a spatial framework is in reality a geographic distribution. The phenomena contained in the gray-tone information appearing in the distribution are not always of constant character, as might be expected of the most fundamental and most commonly used renote sensing system, the camera. The phenomena vary, not only with the spectral region being sampled, but with the design parameters of the sensing instrument itself. The choice of spectral region, for exaunple, might indicate the general category or categories of geographic phenomena whose distribution and density were being recorded, while the design characteristics of the sensor might indicate the resolution or fidelity with which the system is recording the geographic information. The recent declassification of some of the new remote sensing systems zmd their imagery has permitted large numbers of earth scientists to expand their research into avenues previously unknown or denied to them, and to use such data as is originated by these systems to permit more meaningful investigations into research already in progress. Great quantities of remote-sensor imagery are available to the academic and scientific communities, and undoubt-

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3 edly this storehouse will greatly expand as the proliferation of systems and available imagery continues, and as declassification proceeds. Unfortunately, the great bulk of this imagery lies unseen and uninterpreted for the simple reason that there are insufficient numbers of scientists able to consider adequately this great mass of information. In light of this problem, it is obvious that there is an urgent need to develop methodological frameworks capable of relieving the image interpreter of some of the more routine tasks of identification and integration of certain types of phenomena recorded on matched sets of multispectral imagery. Such methodological frameworks would also contribute to the objective analysis of certain aspects of geographic distributions. Research objectives Electronic scanning Technique The first research objective is to apply a specific electronic scanning technique, namely television scan line waveform analysis, to matched sets of multispectral imagery recorded in the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This technique will provide an unbiased, objective method of sampling such imagery in order to measure

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4 and discriminate between certain characteristics of geographic distributions. waveform Discrimination Methodology A second objective of this research is to develop a methodology for discriminating between various basic geographic patterns san^led by parallel scan lines by analyzing the character of the waveforms generated as gray-tone graphs of the areas traversed by these scan lines. Such a methodology will allow similar transmitted signals containing geographic information coded in the form of gray-tone to be related to other geographic phenomena. Other Research objectives Subsidiary objectives of this research includes (1) an evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative validity of such a methodology; (2) investigation of the utility and advantages of using such techniques in geographic research; and (3) continuation of a long-range program of investigating the potentials* methodologies* and results of applying certain electronic devices to geographic research. Electronic Analysis of Geographic Patterns Of particular interest to geographers interested in applying rigorous quantitative methodologies to spatial dis-

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5 tributions of phenomena is the >*ork done by various scientists who have directed their research toward electronic and autOTiated analysis of such distributions. These Investigations began by applying basic mathematical and geometric tools In order to sin?)llfy the complex analysis of Information handled by electronic systems. In the early 1930*8, Kllmm^ and Latham^ Initiated research dealing with various quantitative measurements of the size, distance, and orientation aspects of cropland areas In Pennsylvania. During this research, the Rotated 3 Parallel Traverse Method was also developed and subsequently applied to the problem of quantifying cropland distributions. 4 In a 1959 report, Latham reiterated research previously accomplished which established the following results* Lester E. Kllmm, "Regional Description Based on Texture and Pattern of unit Areas" (Abstract), Annals of the Associa tion of American Geographers . September, 1956, p. 256. 2 James P. Latham, "The Distance Relations of Cropland Areas In Pennsylvania" (Abstract), Annals of the Asso ciation of Ameri can Geographers . September, 1958, p. 277. 3 James P. Latham, The Distance Relations and Some Other C haracteristics of Cropland Areas In Pennsylvania; An Experime nt In Methodology « Technical Report No. 4, NR 389-055 (Washington: Office of Naval Research, 1958). 4 James P. Latham, A study of the Application of Electronic Scan ning and Computer Devices to the Analysis of Geographic Phenomena. Pinal Report, NR 387-023 (Washington! Office of Naval Research, 1959) .

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6 (1) that the sampling* by a cathode-ray tube flying-spot scanner* of napped or photographed distributions, in order to differentiate phenOTiena by gray-tone, was technically feasible; (2) that scanning densitometers could measure intercept lengths having fixed gray-tone limits; and (3) that flying-spot scanners could identify and measure specific occurrences on a graytone background and scan large areas rapidly. Additional mention was also made of the possibility of applying electronic computers and datahandling systems to such problems. In two 1962 articles, ' Rosenfeld demonstrated the applicability of Latham's theoretical investigation by video-scanning pre-selected portions of typical terrain types appearing on large-scale (It 5, 500) aerial photographs. This work established that certain basic relationships exist bet%)reen terrain types and video signals, and also demonstrated that gray-tone control is of utmost in^x>rtance when identifications are to be made from gray-tone levels alone . Azriel Rosenfeld, "Automatic Recognition of Basic Terrain Types from Aerial Photographs," Photogrammetric Engineering , March, 1962, pp. 115-132. Azriel Rosenfeld, "An Approach to Automatic Photographic Interpretation," Photogrammetric Eaigineering . September, 1962, pp. 660-665.

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7 8 In a 1962 paper and a 1964 summary report* Latham expanded on previous research and presented new concepts dealing with the potential geographic uses of quantified electronic analysis of spatial distributions. These included the development of new graphic methods and the processing of several statistical variables by computer methods. The research of %rttich this ddLssertation is a part has been in progress since 1965 and has been reported on at 9 various intervals. 7 James P. Latham« "Role of Instrumentation in Geographic Research," paper presented to the Annual Meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science* Philadelphia* Pennsylvania* Decoaber 29* 1962. 8 James P. Latham* Electronic t^easureroent and Analy sis of Geographic Phenomena^ * Final Report* NR 387-023 (Washingtoni Office of Naval Research, 1964)* pp. 2-3. 9 James P. Latham* "Remote Sensing of Environment*" Geographical Review * April* 1966* pp. 288-291; James P. Latham* "Resume of the Special Session on Remote Sensing Held at the 1965 AAAS Meeting*" in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Ann Arbori University of Michigan* 1966), pp. 539-546; James P. Latham* "Machine Evaluation of Images for Regionalization Problems*" paper presented to the Commission on the Interpretation of Aerial Photographs* International Geographical Union, Ottawa* Canada, March 16, 1967; James P. Latham and Richard E. witmer. Comparative Waveform Analysis of Multisensor Imagery , Technical Report No. 3, NR 387-034 (Washington: Office of Naval Research* 196 7).

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Research Techniques and Methodology Introductory Research Before attempting any waveform experimentaticxi and analysis, it is imperative that a review of previous investigations into the general characteristics of visible (panchromatic) and infrared imagery be accon^lished, in order to ascertain the variables that must be considered in the experimental design and in the analysis of the resultant data and observations. A summary of this review is presented in Chapter ZZ. Zmaqery Selection After the significant variables associated with multispectral sets of imagery have been isolated and evaluated* the actual imagery to be used will be selected. This imagery will first be analyzed by the more conventional visual interpretative and geographic methods before waveform analysis. The basic geographic patterns evident on the imagery will be analyzed and mapped in order to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of the subsequent recorded waveforms. This section is also presented in Chapter IZ. Vfaveform Monitoring and Recording Following the selection of the imagery to be used.

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9 several different experimental desigis will be tested and evaluated for waveform frequence response and recording fidelity. The most appropriate experimental procedure will then be applied to the multispectral sets of imagery, several parts of each image will be san^led by parallel scan lines, and the resultant waveforms produced will be recorded. The recorded waveforms will then be enlarged and superimposed on a sampling grid in order to measure accurately gray-tone level and other %«aveform parameters. Oiapter III is devoted to this topic. waveform Analysis After completing the various measurements appropriate to the waveforms, basic statistical techniques will be employed in order to reveal certain aspects of the gray-tone information recorded. These will include measurements of electronic excursions, gray-tone amplitude fluctuation, and other similar parameters. After the complete waveform graphs have been analyzed without regard for electronic factors affecting fidelity of measurement, the data will be corrected to provide a further analytic refinement. Following the data analysis of each image, they will be grouped into sets to determine if additional information can be gained by comparative waveform analysis. These topics are discussed in Chapter IV.

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CHAPTER II THE VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGERY General Characteristics of Visible Panchromatic Imagery The enormity and complexity of the literature dealing with the characteristics and interpretation of visible panchromatic imagery preclude any extensive historical or integrative treatise dealing with these factors being presented in this report. Instead, the inclusion of a representative bibliography will allow the reader to 8asq>le a cross-section of the more significant works pertaining to these topics. C^ly the factors closely related to the interpretation and analysis of such imagery as is utilized need be presented. Visible panchronatic imagery, perhaps better Icnown as conventional aerial photography, was the first actual remote sensor which san^led a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (see Fig. 1) . Throughout the span of time that aerial photography has been en^loyed for various reasons, a great number of aerial photographic devices, film emulsions, film-filter combinations, and aerial photographic aircraft 10

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11 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM WAVELENGTH cm

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12 platforms have been developed, tested, and used. All of these techniques revolve about several significant characteristics in need of reiteration in this presentation. The Visible Spectral Region The first of these significant characteristics is that even though visible light occupies a very small percentage of the electromagnetic spectrum, the wavelength band which ccxnprises visible light (about 0.4-0.7 microns) accounts for a vexry large percentage of the radiation received at the earth's surface. This is illustrated in Figure 2, v^ich shows that the peak radiation received as visible light corresponds to the radiation wavelengths characteristic of the incandescent temperature of the sun's surface (see peak of 6^000 k cturve) . Since all natural and cultural earth objects are exposed to light composed of all of the wavelengths which con^rise visible light, it is seen that the actual color exhibited by such objects is the result of selective absorption, reflection, and reradiation of light. It is this process which also produces the differences in selectively reflected light so in^xjrtant to the tonal contrasts exhibited on conventional aerial photography. Such photographic sensing would be meaningless and in^>ossible if cultural objects and natural terrain objects did not produce

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13 SPECTRAL RADIANT EMITTANCE CURVES FOR BLACKBODIES AT SEVERAL ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURES 10' 6000 *»K \ \ X ^,,-^WItn Olsplacament Low Line '^OOO^K V^ 0.5 I 2 WAVELENGTH (MICRONS) (After US. Army. 9o?i; ond Advnnced lnf,nr«H t..>.„.,>.^^^ April 1965.) Fig. 2. Spectral radiant emittance curves for blackbod at several absolute temperatures. 100 xes

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14 differences in gray-tone as recorded on films used in aerial photography. Spatial Differentiation and Resolution Another iniportant characteristic of visible panchromatic imagery is its ability to record distributions of geographic phenomena in such a manner that the actual spatial patterns existing among the phencHoena are maintained to a predictable degree of accuracy. It is thus possible to use such imagery for the construction of controlled maps or for various spatial measurements of dimensions exhibited by the phenomena. This characteristic has been made possible by the construction of corrected lens systems « gyrocompensated ceunera mounts* film emulsions and photographic paper whose dimensional stability cl^aracteristics are known* and, finally* photograrametric techniques devised to compensate for errors induced at any stage of the actual photography or its processing. Continued research into film design and optics has greatly increased the resolution of the aerial photographic camera system. Resolution can be thought of as the smallest linear width that can be recorded on any specific film. The actual resolution of any syst^n* of course, depends not only upon the inherent design characteristics of the camera

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15 and lt8 film system, but also the length of the optical path from teurget to camera. A standard mapping camera, for example, may be able to discern a certain phenomenon at low altitudes %#hich would be beyond its resolving capability at higher altitudes. The important resolution characteristic of aerial mapping cameras in use at the present is that resolving power can be considered to be constant throughout the angular viewing field of the lens, permitting measurement of similar objects to be made at all locations on a photograph, without resorting to measurements confined to the central area, as is necessary on some other types of remote sensing imagery. Film-Filter Combinations Most aarial films used for recording visible light are termed "panchromatic," implying that they are capable of recording all wavelengths comprising the visible part of the spectrum. In normal usage, however, this capability is rarely used. More commonly, an optical filter is placed in front of the camera lens so that a portion of the visible light is filtered out before reaching the film. By using such filters, it is possible to record selectively predetermined parts of the visible spectrum, or to employ such filters in the elimination of atmospheric or gray-tone

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16 contrasts expected to be detrimental to the quality of the desired imagery. Most black-and-white aerial films intended for normal pl^otographic coverage are used with a Wtatten 12 (minus-blue) filter to remove any effects of atmospheric haze. When considerable numbers of cultural features are anticipated, a wratten 25A (red) filter is substituted.^ Various other film-filter combinations are used in conjunction with other types of aerial photography. General Characteristics of Infrared Imagery T^e Infrared Spectrql Region The infrared spectral region, so named because its included wavelengths extend "beyond the red" wavelengths of the visible portion of the spectrxxm, extends from 0.7 microns, the upper wavelength limit of visible light, to 2 almost 1,000 microns, the lower wavelength limit of microwave radiation (see Fig. 1) . Of primary interest to geographers are the so-called "near" and "middle" infrared regions. The near-infrared 1 American Society of Phot ograrame try. Manual of Photograrfeic Interpretation (Menasha, Wis.s George Banta Co., Inc., 1960), pp. 45-50. 2 Ivan Simon, Infrared Radiation (Princetont D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1966), p. 10,

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17 wavelengths extend from 0.7 microns to approximately 2 mlcrcms, with the middle-infrared region extending from 2 3 microns to approximately 20 microns. All bodies having temperatures above absolute zero (O^K) emit infrared radiation. The peak wavelength of such radiation is a function of the absolute temperature of the emitting body. As temperature increases* the peak wavelength associated with that ten^>erature decreases* and vice versa. Because of the complexity of all natural bodies, radiation from such bodies is not of one discrete wavelength* but instead includes a spectral distribution of wavelengths. Although Figure 2 deals specifically with blackbodies, those theoretical objects whose radiations are equal to their absorptions* it can still be observed that there is a spectral distribution of wavelengths for an emitter having amy specific temperature. The shift in the peak radiant emittance for changing temperature is shown by the Wien Displacement Law line* which connects the peaks of the 4 various blackbody curves. The nearand middle-infrared spectral regions are ^ Ibid . . p. 11. 4 U.S. Army* Basic and Advanced Infrared Technology (Redstone Arsenal* Ala.: U.S. Army* i^ril* 1965)* p. 7.

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18 of special interest to geographers because of the ln^>ortance of this radiation in the terrestrial and atmospheric heat 5 balance. As with visible light « a considerable part of the sun's radiation reaches the earth as near-infrared radia6 ti
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19 infrared radiation from the original visible light. Several different methods have been developed for sensing and recording infrared radiation. These methods may be generalized into those which record reflected and/or reradiated shortwave infrared radiation and those which 7 record reradiated long -wave thermal infrared radiation. Photographic devices are used to record the former types of radiation « and electro-optical devices are used to record the latter. The spectral sensitivities of these two types of recording devices roughly correspond to the near and liddle infrared* respectively, and consequently these regions have come to be generally known as the photographic infrared and the thermal infrared. The Photographic Infrared Spectral Region Certain photographic emulsions are capable of sens8 ing and r€KX>rding wavelengths up to about 1.35 microns. In practical use, however, the comnon films used in infrared 9 photography are sensitive only to about 0.86 microns. The 7 U.S. Army, op. cit ., p. 140. Q Simon, op. cit ., pp. 111-113. 9 Bastnan Kodak Conpany, Infrared and ultraviolet Photography , Advanced Data Book M-3 (Rochester, N. Y, t Eastman Kodak Company, 1963) , pp. 3-5.

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20 importance o£ considering such films in a discussion of ranote sensing techniques is not merely that an additional spectral region is rendered visible, but more important that all of the advantages of conventional panchromatic aerial photography # namely high contrast ratios « spatial recording fidelity, light resolution* etc., are retained in the additional spectral region being san^led. No other unclassified sensor can hold claim to as many operational attributes. Since most films capable of infrared sensing also record visible blue light, it is necessary to use optical filters to restrict exposures to the infrared. A nimiber of different filters have been developed for this purpose. ' Any camera whose film housing and shutter are opaque to infrared light may be used for infrared photography singly by refocusing the camera for the slightly longer wavelengths. This is accomplished by refocusing approximately one-quarter of one percent of the camera lens focal length forward of the normal "infinity" position, in effect foreshortening the focal plane of the infinity position of the lens. ^^Ibid., p. 5. Eastman Kodak Conpany, Kodak Wratten Filters for Scientific and Technical Use , Scientific and Technical Data Book B-3, 22nd edition (Rochester, N. Y. s Eastman Kodak Company, 1965), pp. 27-31, 70-75.

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21 In the united states « Infrared aerial photography has been procured for a variety of different reasons. Perhaps the most conmon utilization has been by the united States Forest Service and private cc»tanerclal forestry corporations* since Infrared photography proves to be very useful In the discrimination of tree types and In the detection of certain diseases. Another comnon utilization has been Its use In the napping of shoreline features by the united states Coast and Geodetic Survey. Infrared radiation Is normally completely absorbed by water, producing a black tone very helpful In distinguishing shoreline features, especially In shallow waters having low bottom-profile gradients . The Thermal Infrared Spectral Region As previously mentioned, the thermal Infrared spectral reglcm primarily Includes radiation %^ose wavelengths are the result of absorption and reradlatlon of natural and cultural terrestrial objects. The various potentialities and utilizations of devices capable of recording the thermal patterns resulting from the foregoing process are well 12 L. H. Lattman and R. G. Ray, Aerial Photographs In Field Geology (New Yorkj Holt, Rlnehart, and Winston, 1965), p. 21.

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22 documented In the literature (see bibliography) • The various types of instruments used* hovever« deserve brief consideration. The most common thermal sensing system* and the one whose salient detecting features are «Rployed in most other 13 thermal sensing and mapping systens, is the radiometer. The radiometer employs an infrared detector whose output signal corresponds to the wavelength and intensity of the radiation received and which is portrayed on an oscilloscope or other suitable device. The radiometer normally receives radiation from a point or area source and does not include a scanning function. The ability to arrange signals analogous to thermal values in a spatial arrangement is produced when a scanning function is added to the radiometerlike detector emd a means of recording the voltage outputs of the detector is provided. The scanning function is usually acconplished by placing a rotating 45 mirror in front of the detector which is placed at right angles to the optical path. As the mirror turns* it receives radiation fr<»i a restricted angular 13 John A. Jamieson* Raymond H. McFee* Gilbert N. Plass, Robert H. Grube* and Robert G. Richards* Infrared Physics and Engineering (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.* 1963)* pp. 612-617.

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23 field of view, which is then focused onto the detector. The voltage-output signal of the detector is used to light a glow tube« providing varying light intensities which can be recorded on a continuously moving strip of normal pernchromatic film. The detector "looks at" a ground strip which lies at right angles to the direction in which the scanner is Boving and thus accumulates strip after strip, producing a thermal map on the photographic film. The length of the ground strip being sampled depends on the angular field of view of the scanner, and the length of the entire image is 14 controlled only by the length of the flight path. The resolution of this system is controlled by the instantaneous field of view, which is the smallest ground area whose temperature can be sensed. The width of this area is expressed in milliradians (one milliradian resolution equals a one-foot width discernible at a distance of 1,000 feet) . It is thus seen that as the height above terrain over which the sensor is operated increases, the resoluticm of the resulting imagery decreases. As the slant path to the detector increases, the ground area being sensed in the instantemeous 14 David E. Harris and Caspar L. Woodbridge, "Terrain Mapping by use of Infrared Radiation," Photogrammetric Engineering , January, 1964, p. 134.

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24 field of view elongates, producing decreasing resolution with greater distance away from the flight path. The central parts of the thermal imagery therefore show greater detail. Another It&n of consideration is the geometry peculiar to imagery which has not been range-rate ccMi^ensated. This sceuining geometry is generated by the relative forward motion of the sensor platform with respect to lateral ground areas and produces the effect of having areas on one side of the flight line appear to be ahead of the sensor, while 15 areas on the other appear to be behind it. This effect also increases with greater distance away from the flight path. These two factors, decreasing resolution and increasing spatial distortion on lateral edges of the imagery, inhibit image interpretation and accurate measurement in areas other than the central part of the image. Another interesting sensor is the Barnes Thermograph Camera. It operates in much the same manner as an aerial infrared scanner but accumulates thermal information over a pre-selected field of view. It is positioned in a certain location and allowed to scan the area of interest. After ^Eugene E. Derenyi and Gottfried Konecny, "Infrared Scan Geometry," Photograinnetric Engineering > September, 1966, pp. 773-778.

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25 the scanning cycle Is conflated, a Polaroid camera produces 16 a print of the resulting thermal image. Both types o£ infrared scanners may be adjusted for the temperature range to be included in the black-to-white ratio of the output signal. Of primary concern in the design of infrared detectors is the fact that the atmosphere is opaque to certain bandwidths of infrared radiations. Those wavelength regions where infrared radiation may be transmitted are called the atmospheric '^windows" (see Pig. 3) . The two most prominent of these regions are the 2-5 micron band and the 8-13 micron band. (Also included in Figxire 3 are the atmospheric constituents responsible for each of the major tibsorption bands . ) When interpreting the geographic patterns recorded on photographic infrared imagery^ normal photo interpretation and mensuration techniques are applicable. The only additional requirement is that a new set of spectral signatures and their associated phenomena must be added to the interpreter's mental store of information. When analyzing patterns recorded on thermal infrared William S. Seller* "IR Photos Yield Data on Natural Resources," Technology week , August 15, 1966, pp. 24-30.

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26 CO CO CO z < or < Io UJ 0. CO o q: UJ X CL CO O (lN33d3d) N0ISSII^SNV81

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27 imagery, however, the interpreter must transfer his thinking to distributions of ten^seratures, rather than distributions of gray-tone resulting from reflected light. He must not only be aware of the atmospheric "window" being utilized but he must also be continuously aware of the resolution changes and scanning gecnoetry distortions found on the thermal image. Multispectral Remote Sensing Imagery Several remote sensing systems have been developed which record radiation in several different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum over the same area of the earth's surface at the sane time. It has been well established in the literature that this process usually results in more information being derivable than is available merely as the sum of two imagery records (see bibliography) . Very often the combination of the interpretations of each set of imagery yields information not at all discernible from one set alone* These so-called multispectral systems utilize two or more sensors, or similar sensors operating in different spectral regions. One of the first multispectral systems was the twocamera system en^>loyed by the United States Department of

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28 Agriculture. This system used two similar cameras, mounted on a common platform* simultaneously photographing the sane terrain area in the panchromatic and photographic infrared. A different attempt at multispectral sensing was the use of the Sonne Continuous -Strip Camera, using two sets of lenses and filters recording spectrally separate 17 images on each half of the moving film strip. 18 In a 1964 paper, Holineux presented a report on research in progress at the Air Force Cambridge Research Z
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29 TABLE 1 NINE-LENS MULTIBAND CAMERA DATA Lenses Film type Praiae format Exposure technique Shutter system Image motion coiq>ensation Nine 6-inch f/2.8 Schneider Xenotar matched lenses. Two rolls of 70-mm. Plus-X Aerographic, one roll of 70 -mm. Infrared Aerographic, Nine frames, each 2-1/4 inch by 2-1/4 inch. Three exposures on each roll of film. Three parallel focal plane shutters of three slits each, to expose all nine frames simultaneously. Modified A9-B magazine with film drive image motion compensation. Source t Carlton E. Molineux, "Aerial Reconnaissance of Surface Features with the Multiband Spectral System," in Proceedings of th e Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of E nvironment (Ann Arbor I University of Michigan, 1965), pp;""

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30 TABI£ 2 NINE-LENS MULTIBAND CAMERA SPECTRAL BANDS Lens No.

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31 Of sensors has also been reported. Perhaps the most common of these is the aerial mapping camera-thermal Infrared mapper combination. This combination* of course* produces Imagery which Is not photogramoetrlcally conparable, but Is capable of allowing certain types of valid analysis* nevertheless. The panchromatic Image developed produces a napping base on which nay be entered thermal Information gathered by the Infrared scanner* or vice versa. Other combinations of sensors have been proposed and reported at 19 20 various tines. ' A sunnary of the various problems* limitations* and a ccHopendlun of multlspectral potential 21 and present uses have been offered by Colwell. Selection and Conventional Analysis of the Visible and Infrared Imagery Imagery Selection Two types of Infrared Imagery have been discussed t photographic Infrared Imagery and thermal Infrared Imagery. 19 Earl S. Leonardo* "Capabilities and Limitations of Remote Sensors*" Photogrammetrlc Engineering * November* 1964* pp. 1005-1010. 20 Charles W. Lancaster and Allen M. Feder, "The Nultlsensor Mission*" photogrammetrlc Engineering * May, 1966* pp. 484-494. 21 Robert N. Colwell, "Uses and Limitations of Multlspectral Remote Sensing," In Proceedings of the Fourth Sym posium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Ann Arbors university of Michigan* 1966)* pp. 71-100.

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32 Both types and their corresponding conventional photographs will be used in the analysis to follow. It will also be informative to use imagery generated by some of the various types of raultispectral remote sensors previously mentioned. The Visible-Photographic Infrared Imagery Set During the research being reported here, it was possible to acquire various types of multispectral visible and infrared imagery. Among these acquisitions were several rolls of nine-lens multiband camera negative imagery produced for the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. This nine-lens photography was flown in the San Francisco Bay area during January* 1963. After impromptu construction of a viewing stage and light table capable of handling all three rolls of negatives simultaneously, one con^lete set. Frame 42, of nine negatives was chosen for waveform analysis. This particular frame was chosen because of the variety of natural and cultural features and the variety of geometric shapes and contrast gradients recorded on it. Since some of the spectral bandwidths of the nine-lens system overlap, three of the beuids were chosen for use: Lenses 2, 4, and 9 (see Figs. 4, 5, and 6). Lenses 2 and 4 were chosen because of the intermediate bandwidths they recorded.

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33 NINE-LENS MULTIBAND IMAGERY Frame 42, Lens 2 Lin* I Line 2 Line 2 Fig. 4. Nine-lens multiband imagery. Frame 42, Lens 2.

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NINE-LENS MULTIBAND IMAGERY Frame 42, Lens 4 34 Line I Line 2 Line I Line 2 Fig. 5. Nine-lens multiband imagery. Frame 42, Lens 4,

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NINE-LENS MULTIBAND IMAGERY Frame 42, Lens 9 35 Line I Line 2 Line I Line2 Fig. 6. Nine-lens multiband imagery. Frame 42, Lens 9.

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36 and Lens 9 was choeen because it included the full bandwidth of the photographic in&ared (see Table 2) ,^ Frame 42 depicts an urban fringe location in Woodside, California, a suburb of Fremont on the southeastern side of the San Francisco-Oakland metropolitan area. The principal features evident in Frame 42 are the construction site in the left center of each image, the road network under construction, the paved parking lot in the lower left, the expanses of open field, with and without grass cover, and the sparse stand of deciduous trees in the upper left (see Fig, 7), The negative scale of Frame 42 is Is 10,000 (six-inch lens and 5, 000foot altitude above terrain) . The Visible-Thermal Infrared Imagery Fet During the summer of 1966, this writer was privileged to attend the first Sunatoer Conference on Remote Sensing of Environment fbr College Teachers of Natural Sciences, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and conducted by the Institute of Science and Technology at the University of Michigan. Part of the effort of this conference was devoted to field work and multispectral imagery analysis of ^^Molineux, op. cit .. p. 410.

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37

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38 a specific area northwest of Ann Arbor« Michigan. The imagery available for analysis was« (1) a photoroosaic of parts of several 9" x 9" contact prints, and (2) a thermal infrared image. Since considerable field work had been accomplished by this writer in conjunction with this imagery, and the results of the other conference participants were available, this set of multispectral imagery vras chosen for comparison of visible and thermal infrared imagery. This imagery set also represents a comparison of two different types of sensors. The panchromatic photomosaic (see Fig. 8) was produced from parts of several Is 20, 000 photographs originally flown for the Soil Conservation Service, United states Department of Agriculture. It is a daylight summertime photograph, with a scale of 1:24,400 as used in the field exercises. The area bounded by this mosaic includes parts of Sections 34, 35, and 36 of Township 1 North, Range 4 East, Livingston County, Michigeui, and part of Section 31 of Township 1 North, Range 5 Bast, Livingston County. Also included are Sections 1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and IS of Township 1 South, Range 4 Bast, Mtshtenaw Coiuity, Michigan, and parts of Sections 6, 7, and 18, Township 1 South,

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39 bJ 5 X o I

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40 23 Range 5 East* also o£ Washtenaw County* Michigan. The theznal infrared image was originally produced for the Forest Service, united states Department of Agriculture, and has since been incorporated into the university of Illinois Committee on Aerial Photography series as Image No. 902, entitled "Chain of Lakes." It was used in this form during the field exercises. The image itself results from a night flight during the sunmer of 1965 and has a scale of 1:46,000, as offered in the university of Illinois series. Since the "Chain of Lakes" image occxapies slightly more area than the photomosaic, only that part of the image which is con^arable to the mosaic will be used in the waveform analysis (see Fig. 9) . As the university of Illinois Committee title implies, both images are dominated by the series of lakes appearing in the upper portion of each image. The heavily wooded area in the central part of the panchromatic photograph is stinchfield Woods, an etxperimental forest operated by the School of Natural Resources of the university of Michigan. Much of the remaining area included is charac23 university of Michigan, school of Natural Resources, Stinchfield woods (Map) (Ann Arbor: university of Michigan, 1961).

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CM lO UJ UJ 41 UJ 3 O bJ K < iij

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42 terlzed by open fields, although areas of woodland and swainpland are to be found at various locations throughout. The Huron River can be seen on the eastern side of each Image* and a well developed road network Is also evident. This particular area Is situated In a region charac24 terlzed by a series of recessional moraines and their associated hydrologlc features, and thus exhibits a variety of surface features, vegetation associations, land use differences, and the diverse gray-tones associated with such patterns, both In the panchromatic photograph and the thermal Infrared Image (see Fig. 10) • The similarities and differences between ccxnventlonal panchromatic aerial photography and Infrared Imagery have been presented In this chapter. The Imagery sets which have been selected to represent these spectral regions will now be subjected to waveform analysis, with the methodology concerning such analysis being considered In the following chapter. 24 Dieter Brunnschweller, Physiographic Elements of the Dexter Test Area Relevemt to the Interpretation of Remote Sensing Records (unpublished report, NSP Summer Conference on Remote Sensing of Environment, University of Michigan, June, 1966).

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43

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CHAPTER IZZ WAVEFORM ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY Scan-Llne Techniques For Bome time electronic engineers have analyzed the character and quality of their signals and tested certain instruments with waveform monitors. These monitors graphically display on a cathode-ray tube the actual cartesian-coordinate waves representing the voltage fluctuations occurring in electronic signals. Among their uses in electronics is the monitoring of signals constituting conventional television transmission. When applied in this manner one of their primary functions is the calibration of gray-tone level and black-to-whlte contrast ratio of television pictures, using a reference-voltage level. One of the advantages of applying such an instrument to the analysis of television signals is that any scan line contained in the collection of parallel scan lines (termed the TV "raster") may be selected for waveform study. In order to apply such instrumentation to the problem of quantifying geographic distributions « it is necessary 44

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45 to review t (1) the Instrumentation parameters associated with imagery waveform analysis; (2) the significance of gray-tones recorded in the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; (3) imagery orientation and display before the television camera; (4) scan-line selection; and (5) consistent san5>ling of comparable areas on the multispectral imagery sets. Instrumentation Parameters When a stationary remote-sensor image is placed before a television camera and the televised image displayed on a conventional monitor, a waveform monitor may be connected to both camera and monitor, allowing any scan line included in the original image to be graphically displayed on the waveform monitor. The waveform derived from any scan line selected reveals certain aspects of the distribution of gray-tone levels occurring along the scan line (see Pig. 11) . Any such image being viewed by a conventional television camera is scanned from left to right, but a certain amount of time is required to traverse the image electronically along each scan line. The time required to scan each line is a function of the scanning rate of the system and its resolving capability. As a practical exaa«>le, the abovestated parameters will be considered for a conventional television system.

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46 Fig. 11, Monitor presentation of thermal infrared image and waveform monitor display of waveform produced by scan line crossing center of image.

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47 The most common television scanning rate enployed in the united states is the sixty-cycle, two-field scan. In effect, this means that any image being viewed by a television camera is scanned thirty times each second by each of two scanning systems operating approximately 160 degrees out of phase. The scan rate of each of the scanning systans, in this case thirty scans per second, is comnonly called "field rate" and sometimes called the "frame rate." The other parameter in questicm, the resolving capability of the television system, is controlled by the number of scan lines being generated during one con9>lete viewing of an image by the television camera, in this case every sixtieth of a second. The roost coimnon scan-line generation captUDility of the television cameras in use in the united states is 525 lines. This is coononly called the "line rate." From these tvro parameters, the scan rate and the number of scan lines or line rate, the time required for traversing one single scan line can be confuted. (In this -5 case, it is approximately 63 microseconds, or 6.3 X 10 seconds.) To realize its import, what can be accomplished by the waveform monitor during this time period must be thoroughly analysed.

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48 In the Interval required for the scanning of each television line, voltage fluctuations representing gray-tone level chemges perceived by the camera are presented on the cathode-ray tube of the waveform monitor with some fixed degree of accuracy. The degree of accuracy of this representation Is a function of two Independent variables and one dependent variable. The two Independent varl«ibles are Inherent characteristics of the waveform monitor and are constants for any particular Instrvunent. The first Independent variable Involved Is the frequency re8p<»iise characteristic of the monitor Itself. This Involves the ability of the Instrument to discern small voltage fluctuations throughout the range of frequencies contained In the Input signal. The second Independent variable Is the aUalllty of the Instrument to record or "write" these small voltage fluctuations as they actually occur. This latter ability Is usually expressed In terms of the brevity of "rise time" or. In Its opposite sense, "fall 1 time." By definition and convention, rise tlo* Is the finite length of time required for the "writing" or recording of 80 percent of the Instantaneous maximum an^lltude of U.S. Anoy, Transients and waveforms . Department of the Army Technical Manual 11-669 (Washington! U.S. Army, November, 1951) , p. 5.

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49 2 the waveform* representing the voltage fluctuations produced by a 100 percent graytone level difference. I.e.* from blacX to white. In conoaon parlance* the tenn "rise tlBM" Is not restricted to 100 percent fluctuations t but Is used In conjunction with wny gray-tone an^lltude change. High-frequence response characteristics result In very short rise times, producing more accurate representations of graytone level and graytone level changes. During this small eunount of time required for a signal to ch2mge from one amplitude to another, however, certain Inaccuracies are produced In the resultant waveform. These Inaccuracies are predictable, even though they do obscure the Interpretation of a waveform to soma degree. The dependent variable in this analysis of the accuracy of waveform representation Is the amount of voltage fluctuation, la^lch may also be stated as the waveform amplitude change, commonly called an "excursion," or fundamentally as the gray-tone level difference Itself. Even though the electronic necessity of a certain length of rise time constitutes a misrepresentation of a theoretical waveform, minor excursions are more accurately represented than major 2 John C. Hubbs, "The New Pulse," Journal of the Precision Measurements Association (Instruments and Control Systems) , November, 1966, p. 114.

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50 excursions, since the actual length of rise time is directly proportional to the percentage voltage difference. In practice, then, the actual waveform appearing on the monitor is a function not only of the character of the subject matter being televised, but is also influenced to some extent by the frequency response and rise-time characteristics of the waveform monitor. Gray-Tone Significance When multispectral systons are employed for imagery production, and this imagery subjected to any sort of interpretive analysis, the gray-tones and their spatial distribution patterns produced on the imagery depend not only on the particular phenometia being sensed, but also on the sensing systems being en^loyed. Most geographers are familiar to some degree with the patterns and meaning of gray-tones seen on conventional panchromatic aerial photography. Some others are familiar with these items as seen on photographic infrared imagery. Still fewer are the numbers of investigators familiar with the basic significance of gray-tones recorded on other types of remote-sensor imagery. Because none of the nine-lens multiband-camera lenses records all the visible wavelengths, each of the

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51 lenses produces different spectral signatures for the objects being photographed. On the Lens 2 image « for example (••• Fig. 4) , light tones are characteristic of cultural features such as buildings* roads, parking lots« cleared fields, etc. Middle-density gray-tones indicate deciduous vegetation, and the darkest tones are produced by the expanses of open field. On the Lens 4 image (see Fig. 5) « on the other hand, the lightest tones result from the unpaved roads and roads and buildings under construction, v^ile the intermediate gray-tones are indicative of paved roads. Of special interest on this image are the similar gray-tones produced by open fields and deciduous vegetation, rendering the isolation and identification of the vegetation nearly iii7>ossible. The Lens 9 image exhibits the lightest tone for open field (see Fig. 6) , with the darker tones representing the cultural features. The road and buildings under construction (center of image) show a slightly lighter tone, however, and also discernible are the two small drainage ditches on the right. Of additional interest is that there is no differentiation of open field and cleared field on this image. The gray-tones rendered on the thermal infrared image (see Fig. 9) represent reradiation from the earth's

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52 surface. The acctnaulation of these gray-tones In an orderly manner permits identification of geographic patterns associated with thermal differences* with the warmer areas being recorded as lighter gray-tones. This image is dominated by the warmer lakes in the upper part and the Huron River extending through the right center. The linear road patterns are also prcmiinent, and paved major roads are distinguishable from unpaved secondary roads. Forested areas are characterized by intermediate gray-tones, with coniferous vegetation being slightly %^rmer in the exeunple than deciduous vegetation. Open fields are slightly cooler than forested areas^ and swamplands exhibit the coolest temperatures recorded on this image. Imagery orientation and Display In order to eliminate lighting glare and provide consistent orientation of imagery displayed before the television camera* each image was placed on an easel having a tiltable head. This allowed each image to be oriented perpendicular to the camera on all axes. After the camera was focused, the background lighting was positioned so that no glare was observed on the camera or the monitor. When the camera* easel, and lighting positions were found to be suitable, they were left constant during the video-tape-recording

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53 and/or analysis of each individual multi spectral set. Scan-Line Selection Two scan lines from each of the nine-lens multiband camera images were selected for waveform recording and analysis (see Pigs. 4, 5, and 6). The first scan line recorded traverses of each image through the construction site in the central section. The second scan line crosses the parking lot. several roads, and open fields, both grasscovered and cleared, it was felt that these selections would provide a maximum sampling of different terrain types and different boundary contrasts. Three scan lines were chosen fro« each of the panchromatic and thermal infrared images (see Figs. 8 and 9) . Line 1 represents a traverse across the lake and swamp region in the upper portion of each image. Line 2 traverses the northern part of the stinchfiold Wbods Experimental Forest. This northern traverse of Stinchfield MOods was chosen because of the various types of coniferous vegetation 3 included. Line 3 extends through the southern section of Stinchfield woods, which differs in that both deciduous and 3 university of Michigan, School of Natural Resources, stinchfield woQda (Map) (Ann Arbor » university of Michigan, 1961).

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54 coniferous vegetation la present, and In varying ages and densities. Scam-Llne Sampling of Comparable Areas The nine-lens multlband camera Images used In this analysis were originally recorded at the same scale. The negatives \rBxe enlarged and printed to the same scale, permitting the sampling of the same scan line on each Image merely by substituting Images on the easel placed before the television camera. This substitution was accon^llshed by constructing a slotted template capable of holding each of the Images In the same relative position. Such a procedure was not possible In the panchromatic-thermal infrared multlspectral set because of the scanning geometry distortions on the thermal Infrared Image. In addition, the two Images were originally at different scales. After they had been scaled con^arably, only the central section of the Infrared Image was thought to be sufficiently distortion-free for scan-line selecticm. Two freunes were constructed to present the central parts of each image to the seuae scan line. It must be noted, however, that because of the distortion present, only approximately comparable areas are traversed by subsequent scan lines. This has accoimted for some of the differences in spatial

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55 patterns noted on the waveform sets, but these differences are considered to be minor. The most careful attention was given to the construction of the previously mentioned templates and mounting of the images so that the most comparable results might be obtained. Grav-Ton e Level Recording gvolution of Rec ording Instrumentation The first experimental arrangement of electronic components used in waveform monitoring was in the videotape-recording of test pieces of raultispectral imagery (see Fig. 12). In this arrangement, the television camera scanned the image and recorded it on video tape, it was found that recording time in excess of 20 minutes could not be used because the viewing of a stationary image for a longer time "burned" the image into the phosphor coating of the camera's principal cathode-ray tube, and many hours of subsequent viewing of a perfectly white surface were then necessary to erase the image. This effect also eliminated the possibility of recording additional imagery soon afterwards. After suitable test items had been recorded on video tape, a Tektronix Model 529 waveform Monitor and a standard

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56 a: UJ o < < en O UJ Q. O O z Q tr o o UJ I Q_ < O UJ Q 0) o E 0) en m »^ P u I (0 P H i o •H •O U o o 0) t^ I •P I o •o •l-l > o §


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57 Conrac monitor were connected to the video tape-recorder as the imagery tape was replayed (see Fig. 13) . The waveform monitor vras adjusted appropriately and a Textronix oscilloscope was attached to its display tube (see Fig. 14). This oscilloscope camera is equipped with a Polaroid film back capable of handling the roll film used to record electronic traces such as waveforms. Polaroid Type 3000 film (rated 3000 ASA) was used in this introductory experiment, but proved to be unsatisfactory because the tine required for the exposure was greater than one con^lete cycle of the field rate (30 scans per second) « producing a blurred trace. An additional problem was the length of tine required for the recording of one waveform. This arose when the waveform magnification feature of the waveform monitor was tested. In the IX waveform magnification position, the entire waveform is conqpressed in horizontal-zucis length to fit the five-inch display tube (see Fig. 14) . In that position, the entire waveform could be seen at one time, but it was sufficiently coiiQ>ressed to render it uninterpretable. The instrument also includes capability for 5X and 25X magnifications of waveforms. The 23X increase in size proved to be too large, but the 5X magnification allowed recording

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58 < UJ < o UJ a. o o (/) o o o CO O U. U > < CD O q: o o LJ •H O CO O § :5 (0 g > •H ^ O O (U U M-4 O c o •H +J fO >H +J m 3 rH H •H U H +J ro g CO

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59 Fig. 14, Arrangement of components used in oscilloscope recording of waveforms displayed on Tektronix Model 529 Waveform Monitor. Camera is mounted on hinges and is swung out for inspection of waveform monitor display tube. Waveform can be viewed through upper part of camera while film is being exposed.

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60 of one entire expanded waveform on four or five photographs, unfortunately, this requires a considerable period of tiaa« at least 20 minutes, for the recording of one single waveform. Because of the film speed and recording cycle time problems, it was decided to test the capability of another type of waveform monitor, called the Colorado Video Model 302 Video Analyzer (see Fig. 13) . This was a new product capable of simultaneously displaying on a conventional monitor the image, the scan line selected, and the resultant waveform superimposed on a changeable and positionable grid (see Fig. 16). in short, this video Analyzer promised to be the answer to equipment selecticm problems, since the brightness of the waveform trace and its san^ling grid made it possible to record the waveform with conventional films (see Figs. 17 and 18) . Various films were tested to determine the best alternative for recording waveforms produced on the Model 302 (see Figs. 19 and 20) . All of these films proved to have sufficient resolution to record the image, scan line, grid, and waveform. In fact, their resolution was so great that it was discerned that the waveform produced by the Model 302 was not really a line but a series of dots simulating a line. It was also discovered that the

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61 Fig, 15. Various components used to present and record waveforms produced by the Colorado Video Model 302 Video Analyzer, Note the arrangement of image, waveform, and grid on the Conrac Monitor.

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62 Fig, 16. A 35-millimeter photograph of monitor face. Note scan line vertically presented on left side of image, and waveform indicating gray-tone levels intersected by scan line. Horizontal line at top of image is electronic "straight edge" used for correlating specific locations on scan line and waveform. These elements have been generated by the Model 302 Video Analyzer.

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63 ill I -J < UJ z o (T O O UJ a: I o Io CO o u. UJ > < 5 UJ < c m VI +» I rH (0 0) M-l O u o o V o o c 1^ u p a 3 p M ^k^ a; o E 0»

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64 Q LU CL < II O LU Q O a: o LiJ > < a: < o o >LU a: u: uj o < o X 0. G a 9 10

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65 I #1 f H Fig. 19, A 35-millimeter camera being used to photograph simultaneously presented waveform, image, and sampling scan line on monitor, while sampling location and other pertinent data are noted. Instrument in right lower foreground is Colorado Video Model 302 Video Analyzer. Controls on front of Model 302 are for choosing location and width of scan line.

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66 Fig, 20. A 4" x 5" Speed Graphic with Polaroid Sheet Film Pack being used in exposure test of Polaroid 55 P/N film. Note grid superimposed on monitor test pattern by Colorado Video Model 302 Video Analyzer.

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67 Instrtuoent was very hard to adjust* especially in the calibration of a 100 percent black-to-'whlte ratio. These factors together would not have negated the use of the Model 302 « since It was very ccMivenient to have the Image, scan line* and waveform slmultemeously presented and easily photographable. The one factor vrhlch finally made this Instrument unusable was the very excessive rise time needed to record gray-tone fluctuations. The time required was so great that only the peaks of excursions v^re considered valid samples of gray-tone level. During the period In which the Blodel 302 Video Analyzer was being evaluated, attention was drawn to a new faster speed oscilloscope-trace recording film, called Polaroid Polascope Type 410 (see Pig* 21) . This film has a 10,000 ASA speed and has proven capable of recording waveforms at faster exposure times than the normal television field rate. Because of this film's capability and the much shorter rise times characteristic of the Tektronix Model 329 Waveform Monitor, It was decided to return to the use of that instrument for the monitoring and recording of the waveforms produced by the scan lines previously selected. At the same tine, a 35-milllmeter camera was used to photograph the position of the scan lines as they actually tra-

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68 Fig, 21. Oscilloscope camera being used to record section of waveform using Polaroid Type 410 film. Photograph has just been removed from camera back.

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69 versed the Images, providing a permanent record of their location (see Fig. 22) . Gray-Tone Level Control Since the gray-tone level finally displayed in a waveform can be altered at many different previous points in the instrumentation* it was necessary to evolve a procedure for maintaining consistent gray-tone levels through the electronic system. Zn any rescaling and/or reproduction of the imagery prior to %raiveform monitoring « an automatic exposure timer was used in conjunction with the photographic enlarger* and a film chip densitoaeter provided the final control on graytone. This alleviated any problem that might arise from inconsistent gray-tones appearing on the imagery. Before each real-time or video-tape-recording session began « the television camera and/or video-tape-recorder was calibrated for normal contrast brightness and focus using a conraercial broadcast test pattern. The camera and recorder controls were then left constant during the session. Each cc»nplete set of imagery was scanned and its waveforms recorded during one session* eliminating any Inconsistencies engendered by having to recalibrate the camera or taperecorder.

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70 Fig. 22, A 35-milliineter photograph used for locating traverse of scan line. Image is nine-lens multiband photograph. Frame 42, Lens 2, Line 2,

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71 Gray-tones presented to the conventional monitor are not altered by any adjustment of that monitor. Consequently, It Is possible to adjust the brightness and ccxitrast of the monitor to provide the best picture for selecting and recording the location of the scan line (see Pig. 22). Because of Its primary testing function* the Tektronix Model 529 has several controls capable of changing the character and gray-tone level of a v^veform. Primary of these Is the calibrator switch, which provides a onevolt peak-to-peaX reference voltage for calibrating a 100 percent black-to-whlte contrast signal generated by a tendlvlslon black-to-whlte "stair-step" test pattern. This signal Is then posltlonable on the 100 percent grid scale Illuminated graticule placed In frcmt of the display cathoderay tube. A frequency-response switch allows the selection of several conventional response characteristics. In the "flat" response position, considerable signal noise Is Included In the waveform. Ninety percent of this noise, however. Is removed In the "IEEE" (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) response position, producing a waveform which Includes a meuclmum amount of gray-tone Information

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72 and a minirauro amount of signal noise. Other controls of the wavefonn monitor include the magnification feature mentioned previously, a trace-illumination control, and a control for changing the lateral position of the waveform in order to view successive portions of it when either of the magnification positions is used. Variations in exposure timing of the 08cillo8C(^>e camera do not influence the gray-tone levels presented on the waveform monitor. Once a usaible exposure time and lens setting are found, they are maintained throughout the recording. Future Instrumentation Additions Since one of the major dra%tfbacks in the waveform analysis procedure is the recording of the actual waveforms using an oscilloscope camera, it is planned to include an X-Y axis strip-chart recorder (see Figs. 23 and 24) among the experimental components. This will permit direct graphical recording of the traces displayed on the waveform monitor cathode-ray tube, without having to resort to the laborious process of putting the waveform recorded on Polaroid film into analyzable graphical form. Additional ins t rumen taticm plans also include the use of television cameras, monitors, and waveform monitors

PAGE 83

73 ill < CO tr

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74 Q LU < 9 1 > o u. o UJ > < o UJ > q: cr LU ctr < X o I q: CD < pj™

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75 having several different scem-llne rates, such as 729, 875, emd 945 lines, and higher frequency response, such Instrumentation sets will permit the comparison of images using systans having Increasingly higher resolution capability. Graphical Presentation of Waveforms Since each of the original polaroid photographs (Fig. 21) included only part of the waveform magnified to 5X, it vras necessazy to mosaic these photographs in order to have a oonposite record of each waveform. This problon had been anticipated before the photography was begun, and hence sufficient overlay between successive Polaroid photographs was retained so that accurate linear mosalclng might be accomplished. After each mosaic was completed, it was projected onto a sampling grid using a Saltzman Auto-Focus Projector. During this process, the waveform was enlarged approximately 3X so that a 100 percent gray-tone fluctuation occupied a five-inch vertical interval on the sampling grid (see Fig. 25) • After each waveform had been enlarged, the scan lines traversing each image were segmented according to the specific terrain types crossed. The distances representing these individual terrain-type occurrences were then scaled to the enlarged waveform size, and the specific parts of the wave-

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76 0> t&J UJ < £ lAl > < IaJ Id 4J !3 g > o t) U P O in t'

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77 form corresponding to the terrain-type occurrences were identified and isolated by vertical lines (see Figs. 26 through 37) . The sanpling grid used for the enlarged waveforms is standard graph paper* with ten divisions per inch along both X and Y axes. This type of graph paper permits the accurate sampling of 1 percent gray-tone level chemges along the y-axis and 0.05-inch distance along the x-aucis. Statistical Presentation of Gray-Tone Levels In any analysis of waves which are not regular mathematical functions such as simple periodic sinusoidal waves, the conventional wave equations are not applicable. Even Fourier Analysis has been applied to certain waveforms composed of higher order harmonics. This tool, however, does not appear to be applicable to waveforms representative of remote-sensor imagery, which are apparently too 4 con$>lex to be resolved into hazmonic con^}onents. Any number of measurements of waveform parameters and subsequent calculations could be made from waveforms, but all such measurements would depend to some degree on the roost 4 Hubbs, op. cit ., p. 109.

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78

PAGE 89

79 9-(SSVU9) ai3U N3dO 1-0*0)1 QBAWNn 5-(SS»«OI0">3IJ N3<)0 -(U3A03 ONI an3ld N3dO »-|SSTII9l 013li N3dO CM Ui < IT Z-OVOH OBAW 101 ONIXUTd a3AW z-issvMs) ansid N3dO i-avoH osAw -(SSVM3) anaj N3dO c

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80 C ro ••2 iH E CO c 0) rH I 0) c •H C CP C •H 4-» c 0) CO ^ (1) CO > C ro Qj ? hJ m » i 0) u (0 re I CD (%) n3A3T 3N0i-AVMS

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81 9-(SSV(l9) ai3IJ N3dO i-avou asAWNn S-ISSVdS) 013li N3o: UJ 1 o z < m »-(SSVII9) 013li N3d0 Z-OYOM a3/»i ~t~
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82 13

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83 § 8 (%) n3A3n 3N0i-AVd9 G m rH i (0 C <0 iH I Q) C •H c +* C
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PAGE 96

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PAGE 98

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90 conventicmal of all variables dealing with waves. These variables are amplitude and frequency. Amplitude of a vmve can be simply stated as the distance away from the base line or reference line of any point on the wave as measured alcmg the Y-axis. In this case, the amplitude of any point on the waveform is in reality the gray-tone level of that point, expressed as a percentage of white (100 percent) . On Figure 25, for example, gray-tone level, as san^lcKl every 0.10 inch, would be for Terrain Type "A" (reading left to right) t 44 percent, 38 percent, 32 percent, etc. Frequency, on the other hand, is simply the number of fluctuations occurring per unit length of the curve. A description of the derivation and significance of the statistical parauneters pertaining to waveforms which have evolved during this research will occupy several of the following pages. The Number of Samples (n) A certain number of gray-tone level sauries are taken from each of the terrain-type occurremces. In Figure 25, for exan^le, in Terrain Type "A" n would equal 20 samples. Bach 0.1-inch minor grid division is used as a sampling point, and all such divisions crossed or intersected (see left-hand edge of Terrain Type "A") are counted as

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91 sampling points. (N.B, Note that each individual terraintype occurrence is coded by a nixmber appearing after lt« both on the large graphs « i.e.. Figures 26 through 37 « and on all tables appearing in the Appendices.) The Summation of Gray-Tone Levels (^x) The letter x is used to denote any specific graytone level* and the parameter Xx is simply the total of all gray-tone levels in any individual terrain-type occurrence. The Average Gray-Tone Level (x) This parameter is simply the total of the gray-tone levels sampled in any terrain-type occurrence (^^x) divided by the niaaber of seui^les (n) • It denotes the average* or Man* gray-tone level occurring in any particular terraintype occurrence which has been traversed by a scan line. The unit used with x is percent. The Number of Excursions (E) As previously noted* a waveform "excursion" is a positive or negative peaking (see Pig. 25) of the curve and represents a local maximum gray-tone level. The symbol B represents the total nuznber of excursions appearing in any waveform segment representing a discrete terrain type. Inflection points* or those positions on the curve where the

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92 rotation of a tangent to the cnurve chemges direction, are counted as one-half of a peaked excursion, since they do represent significant gray-tone fluctuation* although not sufficient to produce a positive or negative peak. In Figure 25, for example. Terrain Type "B" exhibits 27*5 excursions . The Waveform Segment (L ) The symbol L represents the length of the waveform segment. In Inches, corresponding to an Individual terraintype occurrence, as measured along the X-axls. These X-axls waveform-segment distances can be converted to represent actual ground-scale distances, as determined from the Image. When necessary, these segment distances could also be converted to lengths of time, since a constant amount of tine Is required to traverse the entire length of scan line. This length Is measured to the nearest 0.05 Inch. The Scale Waveform Segment (L ) In order to reduce L to actual Imageiry scale. It must be multiplied by a constant factor. This constant represents the number of feet of Imagery scale corresponding to one Inch on the enlarged waveform. For the nine-lens nultlband can^ra Imagery, this has been determined to be

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93 94.3 ft./ln. For the panchromatic and thermal infrared images used, it is 694 ft. /in. The Excursion Frectuency (f) The excursion frequency is calculated by dividing the number of excursions (E) occurring in any particular terrain-type occurrence by the length of the corresponding waveform segment. Since there is normally a variation of distance between the individual excursicms* this parameter is in reality an average frequency calculation, and thus represents the average X-axis distance occupied by each excursion. The calculation of excursion frequency provides a means for determining the spacing between gray-tone level fluctuations appearing on the imageiry. The unit for this measure is reciprocal distance, or inches The Scale Excursion Frequency (f ) The excursion frequency f is converted to scale excursion frequency f by multiplying f by some constant appropriate to the scale of the imagery being amalyzed. This scale constant represents the ratio of the number of excursions per mile on the original imagery to the nunft>er of excursions per inch on the ifiraveform as it is presented on the sampling grid. For the nine-lens multiband camera imagery.

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94 this constant has been calculated to be 17. 95. For the panchromatic and thermal Infrared image* it was found to be 3.70. The multiplication of the excursion frequencies by these factors reduces f to a scale parameter, f , which can be compared between multispectral sets. The unit of the nsasure thus beccxnes excursions per mile. The Excursion wavelength ( X ) This parameter is calculated by determining the reciprocal of the excursion frequency (f ) . It represents the actual average distance in inches between individual excursions. The Scale Excursion Wavelength ( X„ ) As was the case with the conversion of L to L « X X s is converted to A by using the scale constant of each s imagery set, 94.3 ft. /in. for the nine-lens imagery and 694 ft. /in. for the panchromatic and thermal infrared set. This measure, then, represents the actual average distance in feet between individual excursions. |||ean Deviation of Gray-Tone Level (x-x) This statistical measure is simply the summation of the absolute (algebraic sign disregarded) departure of each gray-tone level percentage sample from the average gray-tone

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95 level Xt divided by the niimber of siunples n. Fully exIx-xl pressed* it v^ould be • This calculation determines the average dispersion of the santpled data about the mean. In this waveform analysis, it provides an estimation of the relative size of the exctirsions, i.e., the degree of graytone fluctuation within any terrain-type occurrence. Standard Deviation of Gray-Tone Level (s) /, _-j2\ 1/2 This variable, fully denoted by I -*2iz2£2— J ^ ^g a conventional statistical variable which also gives an indication of the dispersion of the data. It expresses, however, percentages of the data %^ich exist within certain ranges from the mean of the data. For example, a standard deviation of 5.00 would indicate, when applied to the gray-tone level data, that, for one standard deviation, approximately 68.3 percent of the data would lie between ± S.OO percentage points of the mean; for two standard deviations, 95.4 percent %#ould lie between ± 10.00 percentage points of the mean; and for three standard deviations, 99.7 percent of the data would be included within ± 15.00 percentage points of the mean. This provides a more precise measure of the dispersion and relative size of the excursions.

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CHAPTER IV EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS This chapter presents the results amd conclusions derived fron the waveform analysis of the nine-lens multiband camera imagery and the panchromatic and thermal infrared images. The calculations for each of the scan lines are reviewed and the significant findings presented. The terrain-type occurrences are then paired* where possible, and waveform-analysis results compared for each individual type of sensor. Wjivef orm Analysis Results t Nine-Lena Multiband Camera Imacfery Primary Data The primary seuqpling data and calculations for the nine-lens multiband camera imagery are summarized in Appendix I. In that section, each specific terrain-type occurrence is listed and denoted by the code number appearing inreediately after the occurrence, e.g., open field-1, open field-2, etc. These notations will also be found concurrently on the waveform graphs (Figs. 26 through 37) . These 96

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97 calculations are sunmarized by Individual scan lines so that •ach data group reprssenting one scan line nay be oonpared directly with its corresponding waveform graph. Also for the sake of clarity, calculations for both scan lines from each of the nine-lens images are included on each data page. Compiled Dat^ The primary data has b«en reorganized in i^pendix III by grouping all occurrences from both lines together l^ terrain type and either totaling or averaging the data where appropriate; e.g., n has been totaled for each terrain type %^ile X has been averaged. The mean deviation and standard deviation, because of their mathematical character, must be weighted before being averaged. This is acconqplished by multiplying the mean deviation and standard deviation for each occurrence by n« the number of gray-tone level samples, and then calculating the average of the accximulated products . The light over-all visual impression of the Lens 2 image (see Fig. 4) is manifested in the average gray-tone level calculations. A close grouping of the lightest graytones, 68.6 percent for paved road, 70.3 percent for open field (no cover), and 70.6 percent for paved parking lot, substantiates this visual grouping of lighter tones. Inter-

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98 mediate gray-tones are characteristic of unpaved road (62.6 percent) and the construction site (6S.4 percent) , while the darkest tones on the image are characteristic of open field (grass) « which returns 51.6 percent. Excursion frequencies, and similarly excursion wavelengths, show little differentiation betvreen terrain types on the Lens 2 image, providing little opportunity for legitimate discrimination using these two measures related to spacing of textural differences. Even though the two foregoing parameters indicate similar excursion spacing, the standard deviations for each terraintype group do correspond to texture differences. The roost diverse of the gray-tone assemblages are associated with the construction site, whose gray-tone level san^led data shows a standard deviation of 7.03. This is much higher than any other Lens 2 standard deviation, and is demonstrated on Figure 26 by the diverse types of excursion patterns and gradients. Paved road and unpaved road are well separated with standard deviations of 3.07 and 2.58, respectively, but open field (grass) , open field (no cover) , and the paved parking lot are grouped together with 3.63, 3.06, and 3.08, respectively, again providing little differentiation. Identification of these terrain types would have to be accomplished in conjunction with a graphical inspection of the

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99 waveform gradients which represent the rapidity with which contrasts between terrain types change. Figures 26 and 27 illustrate this well. The construction-site waveform segment is a gradual change from its neighbors, while open field (grass) and paved parking lot are sharp departures from their adjacent terrain types « as is illustrated by the nearly vertical excursions. As was mentioned in Chapter III« the ZiCns 2 image is excellent for shape measureoMnt and boundary determination, but inferior for general identification purposes. This conclusion has been amplified by the foregoing discussion of calculated gray-tone characteristics. The Lens 4 calculations exhibit greater diversity among the different terrain types (see Figs. 5, 28, and 29). Again, c^en field (grass) is the darkest of the terrain types, with an average gray-tone level of 22.0 percent. By contrast, open field (no cover) has the lightest tone (36.3 percent) . Paved road and paved parking lot have similar gray-tone levels, 50.3 imd 48.3 percent, respectively, indicating the use of similar construction materials, and are well differentiated from unpaved road (39.2 percent). Excursion frequency is also highest for the construction site (3.42/in.). unpaved road and paved road are %#ell discriminated by frequencies of 3.24/in. and 1.90/in.,

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100 but again open field (grass) (2.86/ln.), open field (no cover) (3.01/ln.), and paved parking lot (3.08/ln.) are not differentiated. Standard deviations provide a better measure of graytone assemblage. The high score of 22.65 for the construction site Illustrates the great diversity of gray-tcmes associated with such a complex cultural feature. The rough surface of open field (no cover) also produces a standard deviation (8.60) characteristic of a complex cultural feature. The relatively smooth open field (grass) , unpaved road, paved road« and paved parking lot can be grouped together with characteristically low scores of 5.35, 3.92, 5.56, and 4.87. The low gray-tone level of the background function performed by open field (grass) In this Image plus the relatively higher average gray-tone levels of the other terrain types give Lens 4 the distinction of having the gray-tone diversity necessary for both measurement and Identification. This conclusion Is also borne out by the calculations. The Lens 9 Image exhibits the light (40.7 percent) open field (grass) gray-tone characteristic of Infrared film (see Figs. 6, 30, and 31). With the exception of open field (no cover) (41.6 percent), this large background area

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101 has the lightest return on the image. All other terrain types are darker « with the cultural construction site (16.4 percent) « paved parking lot (21.0 percent)* and paved road (28.6 percent) being characteristically the darkest features, unpaved road (37.2 percent) is expectedly similar to open field (no cover) (41.6 percent). Paved road again exhibits the lowest excursion freguency« 1.88/in.« but the construction site does not exhibit the diversity of gray-tone so characteristic of it in Zionses 2 and 4, and thus produces a low f also* 2.03/ln. Am might have been anticipated, because of the general dark tones and lack of terrain-type contrasts, the standard deviations associated with the Lens 9 image allow little discrimination betvreen terrain types; all values for s lie between 7.73 for the construction site and 3.68 for the open field (no cover) , with no significant cultural or natural groupings. Corrected Data After all calculations had been made using all sampling points on the grids, 2Ui attenpt was made to reduce the discrepancies among the data by correcting the calculations for each waveform segment for the inaccuracies produced on the graphs by rise time or fall time. Those

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102 sampling points repres^itlng transitional gray-tones produced by rise time were eliminated from the san^llng data and the entire range of calculations performed again. This corrected data for the nine-lens multlband camera Imagery is compiled in Appendix V* As can be seen from an inspection of the Lens 2 image corrected data* the elimination of rise-time inaccuracies produces the same basic analytic patterns* but amplifies these patterns by increasing the range of the data for each statistical variable. The difference between highest and lowest, or range of average gray-tone levels has increased from 19.0 to 19.9 percent, excursion frequencies from 0.61/in. to 0.72/in., and standard deviation from 4.43 to 3.02, providing greater differences between calculations for individual terrain types. Substantiating the hypothesis that the elimination of gray-tone samples generated by risetime discrepancies is the observation that the range of calculations for each waveform segment Included with a terraintype group, such as the eleven waveform segments representing open field (grass) , is lower for the corrected data. In effect, this means that the grouping of the data around the various averages is smaller, and is demonstrated by the lower standard deviations in all cases where rise-time corrected waveform segments occur.

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103 The Lens 4 and Lens 9 calculations also exhibit the effects of: (1) separating the data by Increasing the range between terrain types, and (2) decreasing the range of data included within each group of terrain-type occurrences. This serves to enhance the use of the Lens 4 image as the roost useful for interpretation and measurement, but does not improve the Lens 9 image's position as the least useful in these general matters. Sensor Comparison Totals » Nine-Lens Multiband Camera Images In order to coo^are the statistical trends for each terrain type as exhibited by the various film-filter combinations sampled, the totals and averages for each terraintype occurrence group have been conpiled for all lenses in Tables 3 and 4. Table 3 includes the data %«hich has not been corrected for rise time. Since no sampling points have been renoved, an inspection of the various totals for n« L , and L will reveal the ability of the waveform monitor to display consistently a vraveform which can be dimensionally con^ared with another waveform from a c<»i^arable image. The slight discrepancies existing between these dimension variables for each terrain type are composite errors from several sources.

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104 TABLE 3 SENSOR COMPARISON TOTALS BY TERRAIN TYPEt MULTIBAND CAMERA IMAGERY NINE-LENS Terrain Type Lens No. Zx Construction site Open field (grass) Paved road Unpaved road Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot 74

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lOS TABLE 3. — Extension

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106 TABLE 4 SENSOR COMPARISON TOTALS BY TERRAIN TYPEx NINE-LENS MULTIBAND CAMERA IMAGERY (CORRECTED FOR RISE TIME) Terrain Type Lens No. Zx Construction site Open field (grass) Paved road Ukipaved road Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot 74

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107 TABLE 4. — gxtansion Statistical Parameters

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108 They are undoubtedly minor dimensional differences between the images displayed before the television camera. There are also minor differences between the waveforms of each image resulting from the determination of the edge of the imagery on the waveform. Minor discrepauicies also result from small errors in display placement positions between subsequently scemned images « and, finally, there are small errors engendered in the linear nosaicing of the Polaroid prints to produce the composite waveform. All of these errors totaled average 0.9 of one percent of the total dimensions recorded throughout the iraagery-television camerawaveform monitor-oscilloscope camera-roosaic-enlarged waveform progression. The totals c^i^iled in Table 3 reveal some patterns not previously noticed. There is a general decrease in average gray-tone level from Lens 2 through Lens 9, with the exception of the open field (grass) category. In scmie cases, this amounts to a con^lete reversal of gray-tone, as in paved parking lot, and in others it is only a slight shift (unpaved road, for example) . Some terrain-type categories exhibit remar)cably consistent excursion frequencies between images, such as open field (grass), unpaved road, open field (no cover) , and paved parking lot. others

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109 •xhlbit widely divergent values for f , such as the construction site. Categories showing consistent excursion frequencies also show consistent excursion wavelengths, because of the reciprocal mathematical relationship between these two variables. With the exception of the construction site and open field (no cover) categories « there is a general increase in standard deviations frcxn Lens 2 through Lens 9. Most likely this is the result of the wider range of %iravelengths sampled by the Lens 9 film-filter conbinaticm* which* in •ffect« produces greater variation within terrain types than between them. These same trends are exhibited in Table 4, which presents the compiled data after correction for rise-time discrepancies. The significant difference between the tvro sets of data lies in the standard deviations. The removal of a few oaiqpling points has resulted in a substantial decrease in most average standard deviations, again illustrating the value of this method of data refinwnent. Waveform Analysis Results i Panchrgnatic and Thermal Infrared Images Primary Datai Panchromatic Image The primary sampling data and calculations for the panchromatic image are presented in Appendix II. As was the

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no case with the nine-lens multiband camera imagery presented in Appendix 1, the data ia listed by specific terrain-type occurrences* and each occurrence is denoted by the code number appearing immediately after the occurrence. In Appendix II, the data has been grouped for each individual scan line. Where possible* the abbreviations PAN for panchromatic and IR for infrared will be used for the sake of simplicity throughout this discussion. Compiled Data I Panchromatic Image The primary sampling data and calculations have been reorganized in Appendix IV by grouping all occurrences of each specific terrain type together frcxn each of the three scan lines across the image. This data has been totaled and/or averaged in the same manner described in the treatment of the nine-lens multiband camera data. The panchromatic image (see Fig. 8) and its associated waveforms (see Figs. 32, 33, and 34) illustrate the complexity of gray-tone patterns and land uses which influenced the choice of this image as representative of panchrcxnatic aerial photography. Because it is a photographic record of all wavelengths of visible light, it is more difficult to separate out individual terrain types by such stringent gray-tone ranges as was accomplished in the narrow

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Ill bandwidth photography generated by the nine-lens raultiband camera* Using all of the grid saunpling points « the following ranking of gray-tone levels by terrain type was produced: Cleared right-of-way 59.0% open field 57.9% Road 57.2% Shoal yntex 54.0% Swan^) 50.5% Op«n woods (deciduous) 46.0% Tree row 41.9% Dense %«oods (coniferous) 39.3% Dense woods (deciduous) 37.3% Lake 36.2% Open woods (coniferous) 34.8% As might be expected, the three lightest tones « if grouped together « represent much the same type of terrain as seen by an interpreter. Only the linearity of most roads serves to distinguish them from other similar terrain types. On the PAN image (see Fig. 8) itself, it will be noticed that where roads do cross open fields and/or the cleared right-of-way extending vertically through the left center of the photograph* they occasionally become almost in^erceptible except for linearity. It is also interesting to notice the graytone similarity between swamp and shoal water (where bottom is visible) in the large lakes. With the exception of graytones belonging to the deeper parts of the large lakes, the previous ranking shcM^s all of the lowest gray-tone values to

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112 be associated with forested areas. Of significance here are the similarities between open woods (deciduous) and tree rows, those forested areas generally lining roads or acting as property lines. The slight difference between these two values suggests that they might possibly have been group>ed together In the original san^llng categorization. While there appears to be slgnlflcauit differentiation between all terrain types on the basis of gray-tone level, the following ranking of excursion frequencies may add additional Inf ormatl<»i t Open woods (coniferous) 4.12/ln. Cleared right-of-way 4.00/ln. Tree row 3.66/ln. Open field 3.52/ln. Dense woods (deciduous) 3.45/ln. Open woods (deciduous) 3.25/ln. Lake 3.24/ln. Dense woods (coniferous) 3.23/ln. Swanp 2.61/ln. Road 2.35/ln. Shoal water 1.79/ln. This ranking again points out the similarities between open field, tree row, and cleared right-of-way. While It might appear that open woods (coniferous) should also be Included In such a grouping, the recollection of discrete trees with small crowns characteristic of a young pine forest will serve to explain the high excursion frequence noted. The mature deciduous forests exhibit similar frequencies while

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113 the even-crovmed nature of the planted coniferous stands produces a slightly lower frequency. The diverse character of each of the various terrain types is demonstrated even further in the ranking of standard deviations! Cleared right-of-way 12.18% Shoal water 8.21% Open woods (deciduous) 7.13% Open vfoods (coniferous) 6.15% Open field 5.76% Road 5.70% Dense woods (coniferous) ...... 5.12% Dense woods (deciduous) 4.99% Swan^ 4.85% Lake 3.13% The extreme range of data included in the calculation for the cleared right-of-way is produced by many different types of terrain which lie adjacent to and which are crossed by the cleared strip, undoubtedly many of these diverse graytone levels will be removed during correction for rise time. The high standard deviation associated with shoal water results frcMn the gray-tone gradient associated with it. As the water deepens cmd gray-tone decreases* a wide range of values is recorded for each occurrence. Both vegetative types of open woods exhibit similar ranges of gray-tone values « although they are widely separated by average graytone. This is indicative of small clearings associated with such forest patterns. Open fields and roads show similar

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114 gray-tone ranges, and both types of dense woods have similar ranges of gray-tone, just as they have nearly identical average gray-tone levels. It is not extraordinary that the gray-tone ratnge of swai^p approximates that of dense woods (deciduous) , since a considerable portion of the poorly drained lands have Just that vegetative cover. The lakes, finally, exhibit their characteristically even-toned return, amplified by the lowest standard-deviation calculation. Corrected Data» Panchromatic Image The primary data was corrected for rise time using the same technique as discussed during the correction of the nine-lens multiband camera data. Approximately the sane general ordering of average gray-tone values is exhibited when the corrected data is ranked as follows: Cleared right-of-way 67. S% Road 39.6% Open field 38.0% Shoal water 34.4% swamp 30.3% Open woods (deciduous) 43.4% Dense woods (coniferous) 38.3% Tree row 36.3% Lake 36.0% Open woods (coniferous) 34.8% Deaae woods (deciduous) ..33.6% In this ranking, the trio of cleared right-of-'way, road, and open field still dcnninates the lighter gray-tones, although

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115 their relative position Is somewhat reversed. The remaining ranking remains generally the same, although relative positions have also changed somewhat among the forest-type occurrences. The general ordering of the terrain types with respect to corrected excursion frequ^icles also seens to have followed the same pattern as average gray-tone value. The basic ranking remains the same, but relative changes have taken place In conjunction with an Increase In the remge of values. The ranking of corrected excursion frequencies follows! Cleared right-of-way 6.67/ln. Tree row •••. 4.41/ln. Open woods (coniferous) 4.12/ln. Open field 3.64/ln. Dense %«ooda (deciduous) 3.61/ln. Open iiTOOds (deciduous) 3.38/ln. Dense woods (coniferous) 3.38/ln. Lake 3.33/ln. Road 2.86/ln. Swamp 2.80/ln. Shoal water 1.96/ln. Even though several different terrain types now are listed as having the highest frequencies. It must be pointed out that these types have very few samples Included In their calculations. This Is especially critical In calculation of excursion frequencies, since one or two additional samples could produce much la%#er or higher frequencies. It Is seen, nevertheless, that the basic ordering observed In the rank-

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116 Ing of uncorrected data Is basically the same, although minor relative changes have occurred. In the general ordering of the stzmdard deviations of the corrected data, there has been an extreme contraction of the range of this variable, and a considerable reorganization. The ranking of the corrected standard deviations is as follows t Open woods (deciduous) 6.47% Shoal water 6.24% Open woods (coniferous) 6.13% Open field 5.34% Dense woods (deciduous) 4.36% 9wanp 4.33% Dense woods (coniferous) 4.11% Road 3.93% Tree row 2.81% Cleared right-of-way 2.51% Lake 2.26% The roost significemt change in this ordering is, of course, the relative inovement of the cleared right-of-way calculation from highest in uncorrected data to next to lowest in the corrected data. This again illustrates the mathematical instability of a calculation coR^>rising only several samples. This ranking, as does the ranking of the corrected data, illustrates the wide range of gray-tone values contained in waveform segments of both vegetative types of open woods, the intermediate ranges of both types of dense woods, and the very low range of gray-tone values associated with segments of lake traverses.

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117 Primary Datat Thermal Infrared Image The primary sampling data and calculations for the thenaal infrared image are also included in Appendix II. The same listing method and coding of waveform segments applies to this image as applied to the nine-lens multiband camera imagery and the panchromatic image. Coiqoiled Data; Thermal Infrared Image As with the previous imagery « the data and calculations reorganized by terrain type are included in Appendix IV. The same totaling and averaging methods have been used in the analysis of this image. The infrared image (see Pig. 9) and its waveforms (see Figs. 35« 36, and 37) exhibit the great diversity of gray-tone patterns illustrated by the comparable PAN image. Those graytones presented here« however* do not in^ly differences in reflected light as do the PAN gray-tones « but instead represent relative heat differences, with white and black representing relatively %/armer and colder areas, respectively. It is interesting to note that three patterns discernible on the PAN image, shoal water, tree row, and cleared right -of -^way, are not discernible on the IR image. The shoal water is not seen on the IR image because of the more complete mixing of warm waters within the lakes set up

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118 during atimroer convectional movements. The tree rows are not seen because they are undoubtedly smaller than the instantaneous £leld-o£-vlew (resolution) of this unclassified sensor, and the cleared right-of-way, while vaguely visible on the image itself, was not noticeable on any of the waveforms because of the boundary positions and contrasts in those areas where scan lines traversed it. By contrast, however, the river is one of the prominent features of the infrared image, while it goes unnoticed on the PAN waveforms because of its similar gray-tone level and position within forested areas in the vicinity of its scan-line traverses. Another terrain-type category is also recognized on the ZR image. On Line 1, a small stand o£ deciduous vegetation is found Just to the left of Little Portage Lake. Since it lies on poorly drained soils, and is therefore different from the other deciduous occurrences, it has been called "s%^aii^ hardwoods," and its totals separated from both deciduous and swoop occurrences in the Appendices. Consequently, after omitting three terrain types and adding another, ten types are recognized on the IR image. Re-emphasizing the nighttime origin of this infrared image, and keeping in mind the thermal significance of

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119 the gray-tone level « the following ranking of average graytone levels as calculated from the primary sampling data provides a significant distributions River 68.7% Lake 67.4% Dense woods (coniferous) 61.6% Road 57.8% Dense %«oodB (deciduous) 52.1% 8w«np hardwood 51.7% Open woods (deciduous) 51.5% Open field •••••...•••.. 37.3% Open woods (coniferous) 35.2% Swamp 31.8% This distribution illustrates emphatically the meteorological phenixienon usually referred to as the "differential heating and cooling of land and water." It is seen that the vrater surfaces returned much higher temperatures at this late evening time than did the land surfaces. Interesting to note are the slightly higher temperatures in the Huron River. This is to be expected because of the lack of convectional circulation c(»iaon to the lakes, allowing the river water to heat to a higher temperature during the long summer days. One terrain type, dense woods (coniferous) , appears to retain its higher temperature even thoiigh surrounding terrain types have cooled off considereibly. A good example of this is seen on Line 2 of the IR image, occur rence-3. The high temperatures at this and similar locations occur

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120 because the air apace beneath the dense crowns of such vegetation acts as a heat sink during the day and as an Insulator at night, creating the very even distribution of high temperatures recorded by the infrared scanner. The closely grouped average gray-tone levels of dense woods (deciduous) , swamp hardwoods , and open woods (deciduous) Illustrate the similar physical character of each of these subtypes. They act as heat sinks also, but to a lesser degree because of the vertical stratification common to such stands, whic^ permits faster loss of heat at night. Also physically grouped together are the coolest terrain types, open field, open woods (coniferous) , and swamp. The similar heating and cooling characteristics of these types result from their lack of insulating vertical stratification, plus easy access by advection currents* which import regional temperatures. Excursion frequency, when calculated for a thermal Infrared image, represents the local distribution of tenperature fluctuations within a specific waveform segment. By this means, it gives an indication of the homogeneity of temperatures within a specific terrain type. It does not, however. Indicate the magnitude of the fluctuation. The

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121 following array of ranked excursion frequencies illustrates this significance! iS^ ' ' \ 3.76/in. Open woods (coniferous) 3.64/in, Dense woods (deciduous) 3.45/in! ^^ 3.27/in! Open field 3.20/in. ^^^«' 3.16/in. Opmn ifoods (deciduous) 3.03/in. Oonae woods (coniferous) 2!86/in! 8wup hardwoods 2.83/in! "^ 2.69/in. This close grouping of excursion frequencies points out the frequent convectional teniperature differences in the lakes, open woods (coniferous) , and dense woods (deciduous) terrain types. It also illustrates the homogeneous teaperatures characteristic of dense woods (coniferous), swanp hardwoods, and swamp, the latter two low frequencies being produced by the ameliorating effects of considerable soil moisture. The magnitude of these temperature fluctuations is illustrated by the following order of standard deviations of gray-tone level f luctuations i Swamp hardwoods 14.60% Dense woods (deciduous) ' lo!98% Qp«n woods (deciduous) [ 8!543C 8vmap 7.57X Open field 724X ^^ • • .'.'." 6.6356 Dense woods (coniferous) 5.99% Open woods (coniferous) 5 92% f^y®'^ s'.iax ***• 3.50%

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122 This ranking lllxistrates the larger temperature fluctuations associated with the three deciduous subtypes. In the case of swaiTip hardwoods* It becomes appar^it that while a low excursion frequency exists, when fluctuations do occur they are very significant, pointing out the wet or dry characteristic exp€»cted of such a forest stand. Both coniferous terrain types show low magnitude of tenf>erature fluctuation, emphasizing the even crown and homogeneous heights of planted coniferous forest plots. As would be theorized, both water types have the least range of ten^erature. Corrected Data: yhermal Infrared Image The ccHnplled data was corrected for rise time using the same techniques concerning such corrections as previously dlsctissed. An Inspection of the following ranking of corrected average gray-tone levels Illustrates characteristics of such corrected data as were previously noted: River 68.79; Lake 68.1% Dense woods (coniferous) 63.09^ Road 60.3% Dense vroods (deciduous) 52.1% Swanq? hardwoods 51.7% Open woods (deciduous) 51.3% Open field 37.2% Open woods (coniferous) 33.9% Swai!^ 30.2% A slight decrease In the range of the average gray-tone values Is noted, but the order remains the same. This

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123 latter characteristic indicates the stability of the relative therxnal levels associated with each individual terrain type. The ranking of excursion frequencies « as follows* however* shows minor changes t Open woods (coniferous) 4.00/in. Road 3.90/in. Lake 3.85/in. Dense woods (deciduous) 3.53/in. Open field 3.30/in. River 3.16/in. Dense woods (coniferous) 3.12/in. Open woods (deciduous) ... 3.03/in. twaanp 3.01/in. Swan^ hardwoods 2.83/in. The minor changes here involve a slight increase in the range of the data and a reordering of open woods (coniferous) and road terrain types. As was mentioned with reference to the PAN image* however* these two types involve few saaqpling points, and thus significant frequency changes are expected in conjunction with the elimination of only one or two samples. The remaining part of the array* however* is constant. The elimination of a few sampling points from those terrain types having few primary ssunples also produces a reorganization of the array of standard deviations of graytone levels s Swamp hardwoods 14.60% Dense i^oods (deciduous) 10.73%

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124 Open woods (deciduous) 8»54% Open field 6.03% River 5.78% swamp • 5.40% Open woods (coniferous) 4.08% Dense woods (coniferous) 3.38% Road 3.21% Lake 1.81% The road and river terrain types have exchanged approximate locations « as have open emd dense woods (coniferous). The roost notable change in the stamdard deviations, however « is the near-nullifying effect of lake-tenperature fluctuation with the removal of several boundary rise-time-induced values . sensor Comparison Totals t Panchrcanatic and Theinnal Infrared Images In order to compare the utility of each image in discerning certain gray-tone patterns* the compiled data and corrected data have been groi:^ed together for each type of sensor. Only the terrain types which appear simultaneously on both images are presented. Table 5 presents the compiled data v^ich has not been corrected for rise-time inaccuracies. The comparative interpretation of the average gray-tone levels depends on an overwhelming number of factors « such as time of day* season* cliroatological factors, etc. A large backlog of data would be needed to isolate any particular combinaticxi of variables

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125 TABLE 5 SENSOR COMPARISON TOTALS BY TERRAIN TYPEi PANCHROMATIC AND THERMAL INFRARED IMAGES (PAIRED OCCURRENCES)

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126 TABLE 5. — Extension

PAGE 137

127 dealing with gray-tones. As an exaziqc>le« v^lle there is a complete gray-tone reversal for the lakes between the PAN and ZR InageSf their gray-tones would be approximately similar if the infrared scanner had been used during the daytime. For this reason* it appears that the usefulness of gray-tone level comparisons is more restricted to simultaneously procured imagery. Of great importance, however, are the similarities noted between the scale excursion frequencies. In all cases except for roads, the only cultural terrain-type category in this multispectral set, there appears to be some suggestion of natural terrain frequencies being demonstrated by the similar excursion frequencies. with respect to the standard deviation of gray-tone levels, however, there is a general increase in the range of the gray-tone seniles from PAN to ZR. This suggests an increase in the amount of information available from the uncorrected gray-tone data on the infrared image. Table 6 presents the corrected coR^>arisons of the PAN and ZR images. The gray -tone data still illustrates its dependence on a variety of factors, but the differences between the scale excursion frequencies have decreased with the elimination of rise-tine inaccuracies, increasing their

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128 TABLE 6 SENSOR COMPARISON TOTALS BY TERRAIN TYPE: PANCHROMATIC AND THERMAL INFRARED IMAGES (PAIRED OCCURRENCES f CORRECTED FOR RISE TIME) Terrain Type Sensor n

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129 TABLE 6. — Extension

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130 usefulness. A reduction in the ranges of data as presented by the standard deviations of the IR gray-tone samples, with the exception of dense woods (deciduous) , has produced similar values for that variable for both sensors. Analysis of Scale and Resolution Differences The nine-lens multiband canara image was originally recorded at a scale of 1x10,000. An inspection of one of these images reveals that resolutions on the order of one foot are recorded. For example, notice that single tire tracks are reproduced on the Lens 4 image (see Pig. 5) . This appears to be quite smaller than the resolving power of the television camera-waveform monitor system. The smallest measurement made was nine feet. Of course, as the size of the pattern being traversed increased, the percentage of error introduced through waveform measurement became smaller. As an example, measurement of the width of various roads crossed varied widely up to 100 percent, but the measurement of the paved parking lot varied only between 613 and 623 feet. It must be pointed out, however, that roads were traversed at all angles, and not always at right angles across minimum widths. Originally photographed at contact scale of 1:20,000,

PAGE 141

131 the photomosaic scaled to lt24,400 reveals resolutions on the order of five or six feet. This can be verified by the identification of single isolated crowns of young conifers on the photograph (see Pig. 8) . This resolution could not be matched by the video system, however, with approximately 20 feet being the minimum distance recorded. Because of rise-time inaccuracies and the IEEE frequency response selected, however, approximately 100 feet is the minimum distance reproducible on the waveform graph. Although rescaled to the same size as the PAN image, the original IR image had a scale of 1«46,000. Because of security restrictions on the resolving capability of this instrument, only ground-scale resolutions on the order of 40 feet vrere possible. This dimension is approximately the width of a paved road, and, as can be seen from the IR image (see Pig. 9) , these roads can be identified only when they are oriented to the general direction of the scanning function. i.e., from top to bottom, in other cases, roads are distinguished by their function of field separations, etc. in no case did the minimum distance reproducible on the waveform monitor decrease to the resolution capability of the imagery. This may eventually necessitate the use of the "flat" frequency response previously described.

PAGE 142

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Suninary This study is the most recent in a series o£ continuing investigations into the feasibility and methodology associated with the objective measurement of geographic patterns and distributions using electronic instrumentation. The research objectives described at the onset of this report included t (1) the application and refinement of an electronic scanning technique; (2) the development of a wavefoinn discrimination methodology; (3) the evaluation of this methodology; (4) an investigation of the utility of such techniques; and (3) the continuation of a long-range research program. A summary of the results of each of these investigations is included in the following pages. The Scan-Line Technique After the imagery to be included in the study was chosen* which included multlspectral sets of nine-lens multiband caunera imagery and panchromatic and thermal infrared 132

PAGE 143

133 images, the problems of display* orientation, and consistent scan-line sampling were defined emd solved. A consistent display methodology was developed by constructing templates capeible of positioning the image at the same location and with the same orientation before the television camera. A variety of different electronic components were tested, with the advemtages and disadvantages of each being presented. The best method of recording the scan-line waveform was also investigated, with various cameras, films, and exposures being tested. An experimental arrangement utilizing a conventional oscilloscope-type waveform monitor and conpatible oscilloscope camera was finally chosen as the best combination. The particular waveform monitor was chosen because of its high-frequency response and brief rise-time characteristics, and the camera chosen because of its use of extremely fast film, permitting the recording of the smallest trace fluctuation. Waveform Discrimination Methodology A technique for identifying the particular waveform segments associated with specific occurrences of various types of geographic phen<»aena was developed. The results of this technique were transferred to a san^ling framework and the average gray-tone level associated with each terrain-type

PAGE 144

134 occiirrence was calculated, other calculations Included the frequencies of waveform excursions and the mean and standard deviations of the sanf>led gray-tone data. These calculations were reviewed for each individual scan-line recorded* and the significant results presented. It was pointed out that* with respect to the three nine-lens images san9>led« the Lens 4 image provided the best results for identification and measurement of patterns recorded. Average gray-tone levels were indicative of different terrain types on each of the images, with excursion frequencies amd gray-tone standard deviations providing backup information for terrain-type discrimination purposes. The advantages of correcting the priroairy and compiled data for discrepancies introduced by rise-time differences were also reviewed and a comparison of the results and trends between different film-filter combinations was discussed. Pattern discrimination on each of the separate panchromatic emd theirmal infrared images was also accomplished by calculating average gray-tone level. The advantages of ccnnbining this data with the results of excursion-frequency and standard-deviation calculaticxis was also discussed. The problems concerning comparative waveform analysis of multisensor imagery procured at different times and under different conditions were also presented.

PAGE 145

135 Methodology Evaluation The accuracy of each individual technique and measurement was discussed in the respective section in which it was described and presented. In all techniques, however, an effort was made to retain diaiensional and gray-tone stability and record these characteristics in an unbiased manner so that the most objective results could be achieved. This author feels that these characteristics were maintained to the degree possible with the instrumentation and techniques which were used. The basic agreement of the graytone calculations with visual inspection and the coaparable excursion frequencies encountered between sensors indicate that this objectivity has been achieved. The significamt gap b«twe«n methodology and usable suialytic tool became apparent, however, %i^en it was mentioned that a Isurge mass of data must be accumulated before non-simultaneous multispectral scmsor imagery can be validly oonpared. The following paragraph contains sobm of the ideas relevant to this problem* Continuation of the Research The analysis of the data and calculations presented in the various chapters of this report indicate the need for continuing research along several significant lines. First,

PAGE 146

136 an effort must be made to procure significant amounts of representative simultaneous multispectral imagery which can be subjected to the same sort of waveform analysis. Second « different Instruments capable of higher resolving and recording of phenomena displayed on such imagery must be tested and utilized. Third « additional techniques must be developed for recording spatial characteristics of distributions. These might include development of different sampling patterns, rotation of the imagery, or utilization of mathematical techniques such as line integrals. Additional research must also include the use of strip-chart recorders to alleviate the degradation of the waveforms by enlargement and recopying. Potential Utilization of Waveform Analysis in Geographic Research The most significant and ionediate utilization of the techniques and methodology presented above might possibly be in the identification and inventory of outstanding geographic distributions such as forested areas, water bodies, urban areas, etc. After sufficient data has been accumulated, seasonal changes and annual trends of such distributions and their physical characteristics will be available for analysis.

PAGE 147

137 Such techniques as have been developed will be used In the near future in an analysis of the instrumentation to be used in the resource-observing and measuring satellites. This analysis will include an exaaination of the resolution characteristics and gray-tone asseoiblages produced by the sensors to be used. This analysis will aid in the evolution of resolution and gray-tone pattern keys which can be used in conjunction with the video-type information which will be returned from these satellites. Any number of potential utilisations of geographic pattern analysis can be imagined using such multispectral imagery interpretation techniques. This author hopes that such techniques as have been discussed and evaluated will prove helpful in extensive sampling and comparison of different earth cunvironments.

PAGE 148

APPENDICES

PAGE 149

APPENDIX I PRIMARY DATAt NINE-LENS MULTIBAND CAMERA IMAGERY

PAGE 150

140 TABLE 7 PRIMARY DATA: FRAME 42 « LENS 2, LINES 1 AND 2 Terrain Type Waveform Segment Line 1 Construction site Open field (grass) Paved road Unpaved road Line 2 Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot Open field (grass) Unpaved road Paved road -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -1 -2 -1 -2 -3 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 74 4,842 65.4 9

PAGE 151

141 TABLE 7. — Extension Statistical Parameters '•X 'S ^ ^8 ^ ^ » 1''-='' 22.0

PAGE 152

142 TABLE 8 PRIMARY DATA: FRAME 42, LENS 4, LINES 1 AND 2 Terrain Type Line 1 Construction site Open field (grass) Unpaved road Paved road Line 2 Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot unpaved road Paved road Open field Waveform Segment -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 73 3,258 44,6 10

PAGE 153

143 TABLE 8. — Extension Statistical Parameters ^c ^ f fg X Xa ^^"^' 25.0 7.30 688 3.42 61.39 0.29 27 18.93 22.65 1.5

PAGE 154

144 TABLE 9 PRIMARY DATA: FRAME 42 « LENS 9, LINES 1 AND 2 Terrain Type f«Eiveform Segment Zx Line 1 Construction site Open field (grass) Ohpaved road Paved road Line 2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 75

PAGE 155

TABLE 9. — Extension 145 Statistical Parameters > X x-x 15.0 7.40 698 2.03 36.44 0.49 46 6.26 7.73 1.0

PAGE 156

APPENDIX ZI PRIMARY DATA: PANCHROMATIC AND THERMAL INFRARED IMAGES

PAGE 157

147 TABLE 10 PRIMARY DATA* PANCHROMATIC IMAGE, LINE 1 Terrain Type Waveform segment Dense woods (deciduous) Open woods (deciduous) Open field Swan^ Shoal %^ter Lake -1 -2 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -1 -2 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -1 -2 -3 -4 8

PAGE 158

148 TABZiE 10 » "— Bxteislon

PAGE 159

149 TABLE 11 PRIMARY DATA: PANCHROMATIC XJMGE, LINE 2 Terrain Type Dense woods (deciduous) Dense woods (coniferous) Open woods (deciduous) SWBxnp Tree row Open field Road Cleared right-of-way Waveform Segment -1 1

PAGE 160

150 TABLE 11. — Extension

PAGE 161

151 TABLE 12 PRIMARY DATAt PANCHROMATIC IMAGE* LINE 3 Terrain Type Dense woods (deciduous) Dense woods (coniferous) Open woods (deciduous) Open vroods (coniferous) Swamp Tree row Open field Wavaform Segment ^x -1

PAGE 162

152 TABLE 12. — Bxtenaion

PAGE 163

153 TABLE 13 PRIMOtY DATA: THERMAL INFRARED IMAGE « LINE 1 Terrain Type

PAGE 164

154 TABZ
PAGE 165

155 TABLE 14 PRIMARY DATA: THERMAL INFRARED IMAGE, LINE 2

PAGE 166

156 TABLE 14, — Extension

PAGE 167

157 TABLE 13 PRIMARY CATAt THERMAL INFRARED IMAGE « LINE 3 Terrain Type

PAGE 168

158

PAGE 169

APPEiraiX III TERPAIN-TYPE COMPILATIONS « NINE-LEHS MULTIfiAND CAMERA IMAGERY

PAGE 170

160 TABLE 16 TERRAIN-TYPE COMPILATIONS: FRAME 42 « LENS 2, LINES 1 AND 2 Terrain Type Waveform Segment Construction site Open field (grass) Totals Paved road Totals UDpaved road Totals Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot Ll-1 74 4«842 65.4 Ll-1

PAGE 171

161 TABLE 16. — Extenaion Statistical Parameters 22.0 7.35 693 3.00 53.85 0.33 31 5.71 7.03 3.0

PAGE 172

162 TABLE 17 TERRAIN-TYPE COMPILATIONS t PRAME 42, LENS 4, LINES 1 AND 2 Terrain Type Wiavefom Segnent rx Construction site Open field (grass) Ll-1 73 3,258 44.6 Totals ttapaved road Totals Paved road Totals Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot Ll-1

PAGE 173

X63 TABLB 17. — Extension Statistical Parancters EL L f f X X \x-x\ a X s s a ' 25.0 7.30 688 3.42 61.39 0.29 27 18.93 22.65 1.5

PAGE 174

164 TABLE 18 TERRAIN-TYPE COMPILATZONS s PRAMS 42, LESS 9, LZHBS 1 AND 2 Terrain Type Waveform Segnent rx Construction site Open field (grass) Ll-1 75 1,234 16.4 Totals Uhpaved road Totals Paved road Totals Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot Ll-1

PAGE 175

165 TABLE 18. — Extension Statistical Parameters •x 's ' ^s >^ ^a I''-'" 15.0

PAGE 176

APPENDIX IV TERRAIN-TYPE COMPILATIONS: PANCHROMATIC AND THERMAL INFRARED IMAGES

PAGE 177

167 TABLE 19 TERRAIN-TYPE COMPILATIONS t PANCHROMATIC IMAGE, ALL LINES Terrain Type Open field Totals Shoal water Totals Lake wiavefom

PAGE 178

168 TABLE 19. — Extension Statistical Parameters EL L f f A X |x-x| s X s s s 2.0 0.30 208 6.67 24.70 0.15 104 1.38 1.64 1.0 0.60 416 1.67 6.18 0.60 416 2.78 3.20 11.5 3.15 2,186 3.65 13.50 0.27 187 7.13 9.17 1.0 0.40 278 2.50 9.25 0.40 278 5.76 6.76 3.5 1.40 972 2.50 9.25 0.40 278 5.68 7.08 14.0 3.20 2,221 4.38 16.20 0.23 160 2.43 2.92 3.0 0.90 625 3.33 12.30 0.30 208 1.14 1.32 5.5 1.85 1,284 2.97 11.00 0.34 236 3.24 5.29 1.0 0.25 174 4.00 14.80 0.25 174 5.50 5.50 1.0 0.35 243 2.86 10.58 0.35 243 4.50 5.17 3.0 0.85 590 3.53 13.07 0.28 194 10.67 13.28 5.5 1.75 1,214 3.14 11.60 0.32 222 3.80 4.23 3.0 1.25 868 2.40 8.83 0.42 291 7.05 8.62 5.0 0.95 659 5.26 19.45 0.19 132 1.48 1.81 11.0 2.55 1,770 4.31 15.95 0.23 160 2.56 3.43 3.0 0.75 520 4.00 14.80 0.23 174 1.92 2.77 5.0 1.25 868 4.00 14.80 0.25 174 1.44 2.06 1.5 0.55 382 2.73 10.10 0.37 257 5.17 6.13 2.0 0.50 347 4.00 14.80 0.25 174 4.48 5.99 4.5 1.70 1,180 2.65 9.81 0.38 264 6.32 7.46 1.0 0.40 273 2.50 9.25 0.40 278 6.00 7.13 8.0 2.35 1,631 3.40 12.58 Q.29 201 7.96 9.62 96.0 27.25 18,914 3.52 13.02 0.28 194 4.61 5.76 1.0 0.55 382 1.82 6.74 0.55 382 5.11 6.09 1.0 0.35 243 2.86 12.95 0.35 243 2.50 2.50 0.5 0.35 243 1.43 5.29 0.70 486 3.38 4.15 1.5 0.75 520 2.00 7.40 0.50 347 6.00 7.80 1.0 0.80 555 1.25 4.63 0.80 555 10.15 13.03 5.0 2.80 1,943 1.79 6.62 0.56 339 6.52 8.21 8.5 2.05 1,423 4.15 15.35 0.24 167 2.46 2.74 6.0 1.80 1,249 3.33 12.30 0.30 208 2.24 3.23 13.5 4.50 3,123 3.00 11.10 0.33 229 1.82 3.33 1.5 0.75 520 2.00 7.40 0.50 347 2.41 2.76 29.5 9.10 6,315 3.24 11.99 0.31 215 2.10 3.13

PAGE 179

169 TABLE 19. —Continued Terrain Type Waveform Segment Dense woods (coniferous) PAN 2-1 -2 -3 PAN 3-1 Totals Open vroods (coniferous) pan 3-1 -2 Totals Tree row

PAGE 180

170 TABLE 19.— Extension (Continued )

PAGE 181

171 TABLE 19. — Continued Terrain Type Wiivefozn Segment Open woods (deciduous) Totals Swaiqp Totals PAN

PAGE 182

172 TABLE 19. — Extension (Continued ) Statistical Parameters E

PAGE 183

173 TABLE 20 TERRAIN-TYPE COMPILATIONS s THERMAL INFRARED IMAGE, ALL LINES Terrain Type

PAGE 184

174 TABLE 20. — Extension

PAGE 185

175 TABLE 20. — Continued Terrain Type Waveform Segment Open field Totals Dense woods (deciduous) IR

PAGE 186

176 TABLE 20. — Extension (Continued ) Statistical Parameters 2.5 0.70 486 3.57 13.20 0.28 194 7.47 8.68 6.0 1.65 1,145 3.64 13.45 0.27 187 7.78 9.38 1.5 0.85 590 1.76 6.51 0.57 396 1.70 2.11 8.0 1.95 1,353 4.10 15.15 0.24 167 7.07 8.07 1.5 0.80 555 1.88 6.95 0.53 368 8.69 10.39 3.5 1.00 694 3.50 12.95 0.28 194 2.60 2.90 3.0 0.95 625 3.15 11.65 0.32 222 1.94 2.62 1.0 0.45 312 2.22 8.22 0,45 312 4.48 5.04 6.0 1.80 1,249 3.33 12.30 0.30 208 5.21 7.62 1.0 0.20 139 5.00 18.50 0.20 139 2.00 2.00 3.0 0.80 555 3.75 13.87 0.27 187 4.97 6.87 3.0 0.80 555 3.75 13.87 0.27 187 8.69 9.43 3.5 1.45 1,006 2.41 8.93 0.41 285 9.74 11.45 I.O 0.35 243 2.86 10.58 0.35 243 1.11 1.25 1.0 0.35 243 2.86 10.58 0.35 243 6.75 8.20 5.5 1.45 1,006 3.79 13.65 0.26 181 1.89 2.73 2.5 1.30 902 1.92 7.11 0.52 361 8.77 10.09 5.5 1.55 1,076 3.55 13.15 0.28 194 7.56 9.84 5.0 1.55 1,076 3.23 11.92 0.31 215 5.00 7.00 3.5 1.40 971 2.50 9.25 0.40 278 4.76 7.78 7.0 2.20 1,527 3.18 11.77 0.31 215 9.12 10.65 8.5 2.40 1,666 3.54 13.10 0.28 194 2.74 3.69 83.0 25.95 17,974 3.20 11.84 0.31 215 5.81 7.24 3.0 0.80 555 3.75 13.88 0.27 187 2.62 3.59 1.5 0.70 486 2.14 7.92 0.47 326 4.45 5.46 1.0 0.50 347 2.00 7.40 0.50 347 2.17 2.36 3.0 0.90 625 3.33 12.30 0.30 208 4.30 5.97 5.5 1.90 1,319 2.90 10.70 0.34 236 7.67 8.99 4.5 1.35 937 3.33 12.30 0.30 208 8.86 11.65 21.0 4.55 3,158 4.62 17.10 0.22 153 12.11 14.09 6.5 2.45 1,700 2.65 9.80 0.38 264 11.42 13.77 5.0 1.65 1,145 3.03 11.20 0.33 229 10.57 12.20 51.0 14.80 10,272 3.45 12.76 0.29 201 9.19 10.98

PAGE 187

177 TABLE 20. — Continued

PAGE 188

178 TABLE 20. — Extension (Continued ) Statistical Pareuneters \ \ ^ ^B >-^ S "'-''I 1.0

PAGE 189

APPENDIX V TERBAIN-TYPE COMPILATIONS CORRECTED FOR RISE TIMEt NINE-LENS MUIAIBAND CAMERA IMAGERY

PAGE 190

180 TABLB 21 TERRAIN-TYPE COMPZIATIONS CORRECTED FOR RISE TIMEt FRAME 42, LENS 2, LINES 1 AND 2 Terrain Type Haveform Segment Zy: Construction site Open field (grass) Ll-1 74 4,842 65.4 Totals Paved road Totals unpaved road Totals Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot Ll-1

PAGE 191

181 TABLE 21, — Extension Statistical Parameters E L L f f ^ A „ x-3c| 8 X S 8 S 22.0 7.35 693 3.00 53.85 0.33 31 5.71 7.03 3.0

PAGE 192

182 TABLE 22 TERRAIN-TYPE COMPILATIONS CORRECTED FOR RISE TIMEt FRAME 42, LENS 4, LIMES 1 AMD 2 Terrain Type Waveform Segment Construction site Open field (grass) Totals Uhpaved road Totals Paved road Totals Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot U-1 73 3,258 44.6 Ll-1

PAGE 193

183 TABLE 22, — Extension Statistical Parauneters EL L f f X X |x-xl s X s s 25.0 7.30 688 3.42 61.39 0.29 27 18.93 22.65 1.5

PAGE 194

184 TABI£ 23 TERBAIN-TYPE COMPXIATIONS CORRECTED FOR RISE TZMEt FRMffi 42« LENS 9« LINES 1 AND 2 Terrain Type iteveform Segnent n Zx Construction site Open field (grass) Ll-1 75 1,234 16.4 Totals unpaved road Totals Paved road Totals Open field (no cover) Paved parking lot Ll-1

PAGE 195

185 TABIiB 23, ' -Bxtension Statistical Parameters E

PAGE 196

APPENDIX VI TERRAIN-TYPE COMPILATIONS CORRECTED FOR RISE TIME: PANCHROMATIC AND THERMAL INFRARED IMAGES

PAGE 197

187 TABLE 24 TERRAIN-TVPE COMPILATIONS CORRBCTED FOR RISE TIME: PANCHROMATIC IMAGE, ALL LINES Terrain Tyi>e HHvefonn Segment Tx Open field Totals Shoal water PAN

PAGE 198

188 TABLE 24. — Extension

PAGE 199

189 TABLE 24.— Continued

PAGE 200

190 TABLE 24. — Extenaion (Continued )

PAGE 201

191 TABLE 24. — Continued

PAGE 202

192 TABLE 24. — Extension (Continued)

PAGE 203

193 TABI£ 25 TERRAIN-TYPE COMPZIATIONS CORRECTED FOR RISE TIME: THERMAL INFRARED IMAGE « ALL LINES Terrain Typ« Waveform Segment Lake Totals River Totals Open woods (deciduous) Totals Omnip Totals IR 1-1 -2 -3 IR 3-1 IR

PAGE 204

TABLE 25. — Extension 194 Statistical Parameters

PAGE 205

195 TABLE 25. — Continued Terrain Type Wavefona Segment Open field Totals Danae woods (deciduous) IR 1-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 ZR 2-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -7 -8 -9 -10 IR 3-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 IR 1-1 -2 -3 -4 IR 2-1 -2 IR 3-1 -2 -3 Zk 7

PAGE 206

196 TABLE 25. — Extension (Continued) Statistical Parameters '•x '•« ^ ^. A X, IK-Kl 2.5

PAGE 207

197 TABLE 25.— Continued

PAGE 208

198 TABLE 25, — Bxtenaion (Continued )

PAGE 209

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books American Society of Photogranmetry. Manual of Photographic Interpretation . Menasha* Wis.t George Banta Co., Inc., 1960. Conn, G. K. T. , and D. Q. Avery. Infrared Methods . New Yorlct Academic Press, 1960. Eastman Kodak Ccopany. Infrared and Ultraviolet Photography . Advanced Data Book M-3. Rochester, N. Y. j Eastman Kodak Company, 1963. . Kodak wratten Filters for Scientific and Technical Use . Scientific and Technical Data Book B-3, 22nd ed. Rochester, N. Y. t Eastman Kodak Company, 1965. Hackforth, H. L. Infrared Radiation . New Yorkt McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., 1960. Holter, M. R., et al . Fundamentals of Infrared Technology . New Yorkt The Macmillan Co., 1962. Jamieson, John A., Raymond H. McFee, Gilbert N. Plass, Robert H. Grube, and Robert G. Richards. Infrared Physics and Engineering . New Yorkt McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1963. Kruse, P. w. , L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan. Elements of Infrared Technology . New Yorkt John Wiley and Sons, 1962. Lattman, L. H. , and R. G. Ray. Aerial Photographs in Field Geology . New Yorkt Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1965. 199

PAGE 210

200 Simon, Ivan. Infrared Radiation . Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1966. Strahler, A. N. The Earth Sciences . New York: Harper and Row, 1963. Reports Alexeenko, E. J. Dirt Roads as an Indicator in the Aerial Photo Interpretation of Soils and Terrain . Translated from the Russian. Washington: U.S. Array Engineers Research and Development Laboratories, 1966. Altschaeffl, A. G. Effect of Soil Moisture and Other Natural Variables on Aerial Photo Gray Tones , unpublished Master's thesis, Purdue university, 1955. Avery, Gene. Forester's Guide to Aerial Photp Interpreta tion . Occasional Paper No. 156, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1960. . Identifying Southern Forest Types on Aerial Photographs . Station Paper No. 112, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture, I960. Baer, Ferdinand, and William Kaxma. Numerical Analysis of Tiros Radiation Observations . Technical Paper No. 67, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State university, 1965. Bandeen, W. R. , H. I&lev, and I. Strange. Radiation Clima tology in the Visible and Infrared from Tiros Meteorological Satellites . Technical Note D-2534, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1965. Bell, E. E., et al . Infrared Technigues and Measurements . Final Engineering Report, Contract AF 33 (96160) -3312, Ohio State university Research Foundation, 1957. Brown, P. E. , and A. M. O'Neal. The Color of Soils in

PAGE 211

201 Relation to Organic Matter Content . Research Bulletin No. 75, Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, 1923. Cook, John C. Research on the Electr
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202 Greaves, J. R., R. Wexler, and c. J. Bowley. The Feaaibillty of Sea Surface Tempera tiare Determination Using Satel lite Infrared Data * Final Report, Contract NASW1157. Aracon Geophysics Co., 1965. Holter, Marion R., and Fabian C. Polcyn. Comparative Multi spectral Sensing . Report No. 2900-484-R. Ann Arbor t Institute of Science and Technology, university of Michigan, 1965. Kern, Clifford D. Evaluation of Infrared Emission of Clouds and Ground as Measured by Weather Satellites . Environmental Research Paper No. 155, U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1965. Latham, James P. The Distance Relations and Some other Characteristics of Cropland Areas in Pennsylvania ? An Experiment in Methodology . Technical Report No. 4, NR 339-055. Washington i Office of Naval Research, 1958. . Electronic Measurement and Analysis of Geo graphic Phenomena . Final Report, NR 387-023. waishington: Office of Naval Research, 1964. . Methodology for Instrumented Geographic Analysis . Technical Report No. 2, NR 387-023. Washington: Office of Naval Research, 1962. . Possible Applications of Electronic Scanning and Cong>uter Devices to the Analysis of Geographic Phenomena . Technical Report No. 1, BIB 387-023. Washington I office of Naval Research, 1959. . A Study of the Application of Electronic Scan ning and Con^uter Devices to the Analysis of Geo graphic Phenomena . Final Report, NR 387-023. Washington: Office of Naval Research, 1959. Latham, James P., and Richard E. Witmer. Comparative Wave form Analysis of Multisensor Imagery . Technical Report No. 3, NR 387-034. Washington: Office of Naval Research, 1967. (To be published in Photograraroetric Engineering , July, 1967.)

PAGE 213

203 LlRiperl8« T.« and D. G«orge. ElactrcMnagnetic Field signatures in the Optical Spectrum . Ann Arbor t Willow Run Laboratories, Institute of Science and Technology, university o£ Michigan (no date) . Ludlum, R. Ground-Truth Research for an Airborne Multisensor Survey Program . Texas Instrtunents , Inc., 1966, Ludlum, R. , and J. R. Van LopiX. A Remote Sensing Survey of Areas in Central Coastal Louisiana (Part I — Discussion) . Texas Instruments, Inc., 1966. Marschner, P. J. Land Use emd Its Patterns in the united States . Agricultural Handbook No. 133. Washington* U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1959. Marshall, Ernest W. Air Photo Interpretation of Great Lakes Ice Features . Special Report No. 23. Ann Arbors Great Lakes Research Division, Institute of Science and Technology, university of Michigan, 1966. Mathers, Boyd L. Relative Effectiveness of Different View ing Devices for Photo Interpretation . Technical Research Note 179. Washington: U.S. Army Personnel Research Office, 1966. Merifield, P. M. , and J. RansMlkanp. Terrain in Tiros pictures . Lockheed-California Co., 1964. Moxham, R. M. , D. R. Crandell, and w. Marlett. Thermal Features at Mount Rainier, Washington as Revealed by Infrared Surveys . Professional Paper 52 5d. Washington: U.S. Geological Survey, 1965. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Geographic Data from Space . Proceedings of the Conference on the Use of Orbiting Spacecraft in Geographic Research, Houston: Manned Spacecraft Center, January 28-30, 1965. Olson, Charles E,, Jr., et al . An Analysis of Measurements of Light Reflectance from Tree Foliage Made during 1960 and 1961 . Agricultural Experiment Station, university of Illinois, 1964.

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221 Theurer* Charles. "Color aad Infrared Eaqjerimental Photography for Coastal Mapping," Photogranimetric Engineering , September, 1959, p. 368, Thoren, Ragner. "Photointerpretation in Military Intelligence," Photogrananetric Engineering . April, 1952, pp. 428-451. Udall, s. L. "Resource Understanding — A Challenge to Aerial Methods," Photogramaetric Engineering . January, 1965, pp. 63-75. Van Lopik, J. R. , and L. A. Ylarborough. "Connnents on Remote Sensing Needs in Geoscience Engineering and Explorations , " in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment . Ann Arbor: university of Michigan, 1966, pp. 49-54. Wark, D. Q. , G. Ykmamoto, and J. H. Lienesch. "Methods of Estimating Infrared Flux and Surface Temperature from Meteorological Satellites," Journal of Atmo spheric Science , September, 1962, pp. 369-384. Wickens, G. C. "The Practical Application of Aerial Photography for Ecological Surveys in the Savannah Regions of Africa," Photogrammetria , August, 1966, pp. 33-41. Wilson, R. C. "Forestry Applications of Remote sensing," in Proceedings of the Fourth symposiviro on Remote Sens ing of Environment . Ann Arbor: university of Michigan, 1966, pp. 63-70. Winkler, E. M. "Relationship of Airphoto Tone Control and Moisture Content in Glacial Soils," in Proceedings of the second Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environ ment . Ann Arbor t university of Michigan, 1962, pp. 107-118. Wolvin, John H. "Multi -Channel Photo Spectrum Recording," in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1963, pp. 81-88.

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222 Pap>era Atkinson* John H. "Optimizing Photography through the Atmosphere," paper presented at 1966 A.S.P. Semi -Annual Conventlc»i, Los Angeles, California, September 2730, 1966. Heller, R. C. , G. E. Doversplke, and R. C. Aldrlch. "Identification of Tree Species on Large-scale Panchromatic and Color Photographs , " paper presented at 1963 Annual Meeting of American Society of Photograametry, Vteshington, D. C. , March 25-28, 1963. Hdlter, N. R. "Infrared and Multlspectral Sensors," paper presented at the 61st Annual Meeting of the A.A.6.« Colximbus, Ohio, April 18-22, 1965. "Sensing Instruments," paper presented at the Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, Mew York, N. Y. , November, 1965. Latham, James P. "Machine Evaluation of Images for Regionalization Problems," paper presented to the Commission on the Interpretation of Aerial Photographs, International Geographical Union, Ottawa, Canada, March 16, 1967. . "Role of Instrumentation in Geographic Research," paper presented to the Annual Meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 29, 1962. Numbower, Leonard E. "Extraction of Socio-Economic Information from Aerial Photographs," paper presented at 1966 A.S.P. Semi -Annual Convention, Los Angeles, California, September 27-30, 1966. weber, Philip A. " Photogrammetric Research Wdrk on the Gulf Stream," paper presented at 1966 A.S.P. SemiAnnual Convention in Los Angeles, California, September 27-30, 1966.

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223 Miscellaneous Brunnschweiler, Dieter. Physiographic Elements of the Dexter Test Area Relevant to the Interpretation of Remote Sensing Records * unpublished report, NSF Summer Conference on Remote Sensing of Environment « university of Michigan « June, 1966. university of Michigan* School of Natural Resources. stinchfield Woods (Map). Ann Arbor i university of Michigan, 1961. (Scalex 1*11,520.)

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Richard Everett wltmer was born in swarthmore* Pennsylvania « on July 3, 1942. He moved to Miami, Florida, in 1944, where he received his elementary and secondary education. He entered the University of Florida in September, 1958, where he received the degree Bachelor of Science with a major in physics in 1962. Shortly thereafter, he entered the Graduate School of the University of Florida in the Department of Geography and pursued graduate study toward the degree Master of Science, which was awarded in December, 1964. During 1964 and 1965, he continued graduate studies in the Departments of Geography and Geology at the University of Colorado, and returned to the University of Florida in 1965 to continue studying for the degree Doctor of Philosophy. In June, 1965, he became Instructor of Geography at Florida Atlantic University and Research Assistant for an Office of Naval Research contract. In July, 1967, he became Research Assistant Professor of Geography and Research Associate for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Geological Suirvey research contract. The author is a member of the Association of American 224

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225 Geographers and Its Southeastern Division, the Florida Society of Geographers, the American Society of Photograroetry, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. »

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This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and has been approved by all members of that conmlttee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December 19$ 1967 Dean, Co Sciences SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: Chairman 2^ £^ r>^^' (J^-'^^^^-^di.U^frrf^ Dean, Graduate School