Citation
"Sermo de die iudicii"

Material Information

Title:
"Sermo de die iudicii" an Aelfrician homily
Creator:
Swan, Wallace John, 1938-
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1967
Language:
German
Physical Description:
iv, 138 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Bibs ( jstor )
Bones ( jstor )
Dams ( jstor )
Fear ( jstor )
Hell ( jstor )
Humanity ( jstor )
Miracles ( jstor )
Persecution ( jstor )
Poetry ( jstor )
Rice ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- UF
English thesis Ph. D
Judgment Day ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 136-138.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on World Wide Web
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Thesis - University of Florida.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
021445658 ( AlephBibNum )
13047924 ( OCLC )
ACW5063 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text














"SERMO DE DIE IUDICII":

AN AELFRICIAN HOMILY












By
WALLACE JOHN SWAN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
December, 1967


































For Anne and Johnny















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


My thanks must go first and foremost to Dr. John

Algeo, the chairman of my committee, whose knowledge and

judgment have enabled me to complete this dissertation.

To the other members of the committee, Dr. Paul Thurston,

Professor Robert Bowers, and Dr. Oscar Jones, I can

scarcely give less profuse thanks for their continuing

help and encouragement.

Of course it would be impossible to thank the many

people who have smoothed the path, and in their own ways

helped with this dissertation. Of these, I must mention

Dr. Robert A. Bryan, Mrs. Jimmy C. Perkins, and the

staff of the Graduate School, Carol MacDonald of the

English Department, Ray Jones and the library staff, and

last but by no means least, my wife, Anne.

A special note must go to Paul Thurston, a good friend,

teacher and counselor through many trials, and one whom

I will never be able to thank properly for all he has done.


iii
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

DEDICATION... .......... ........... ............. 11

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS................ ................. iii

INTRODUCTION........ ................... ....... 1

Ianuscripts................................. 2

Authorship........................ ......... 11

Judgment Day Theme ......................... 15

The "Sermo de die iudicii": Synopsis
and Evaluation......................... 28

Sources and Analogues....................... 33

TEXT.......... ....... ...... ................. .. 40

TRANSLATION ............................. ........ 58

NOTES................. ................ .... .... .. 76

GLOSSARY........................................ 101

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................. ...... 135


-iv-































INTRODUCTION












INTRODUCTION


Manuseripts


Complete versions of this previously unedited homily

occur in two manuscripts. Another manuscript contains a

three line fragment, now erased, of what was probably the

same text. The following descriptions of the manuscripts

are basedoon those of 1r. N. R. Ker.


Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 178 (Ker Number 41A,

article 9), pp. 101-114. This aanucscript contains

two books of homilies. The first, for general

occasions, includes titles such as "Do dominica oratione"

"Sermo ad populum" and! "1 auguriis," and covers

pp. 1-163. It includes the "Sermo de die iudicii."

The second book contains homilies for important festivals

and includes such titles as "In purification Sancta

marim," "Die dominica paschme" and "In ascensione domini."

The homilies are largely Alfrioian, and indeed nineteen of


N. R. Ker, Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-
Saxon (Oxford; 1957).


-2-








-3-


thirty-four (four in the first book and all in the second)

are drawn from the Sermones catholici. Of these nineteen,

thirteen are from the first series, six from the second.

In the "Sermo de die iudicii" the majority of glosses,

both marginal and interlinear, are in the "tremulous"

hand, which, Ker notes, is found throughout the manuscript.

There are, however, glosses by at least one other hand in

the homily, and Ker notes glosses by several hands in the

entire manuscript. The homily itself is all in one hand

(Ker notes two hands for the entire manuscript, the second

beginning on p. 170, well after this text). S in this homily

takes all three forms: low, round and long. Long s is

usual in initial and medial positions, never occurring

finally. Low s is usual in final position, occurring

sporadically in medial position, and is very seldom found

in initial position. Round s occurs sporadically in

all positions, although very seldom medially, and is of a

much lower frequency of occurrence than the other forms.

Mhen it occurs initially it is often found at the beginning

of a phrase, but this is not always so. It seems to alter-

nate freely with low s in final position. Also the spelling

good for modern English "good" is regular here, as, according

to Ker, it is in the rest of the manuscript. Details of

the orthography of the second scribe are given by Ker, but

are not relevant here.








-4-


The title of this homily is given in rustic capitals

which are of a different color than the ink in the main text.

The initials of both the Latin scriptural text preceding

the homily and of the first word of the homily are of the

same color, which Ker describes as metallic red. These

appear to be the only colored letters in the homily. Al-

though Ker states that first lines of homilies are usually

in red rustic capitals, this is not the case with the

"Sermo de die iudicii."

The manuscript is known to have been at Worcester, and

Ker describes it as early eleventh century.


Bodleian, Hatton 115 (Ker Number 332, article 4), ff.

23-30v. This manuscript contains thirty-seven articles,

of which twenty-five are general homilies, not meant for

use on special occasions. These include this text of the

"Sermo de die iudicii." Along with this homily, six other

articles also reoccur in C.C.C.C. 178 (see above) such as

"Exameron Anglice," "De Dominica oratione," and "De

auguriis." Also five articles are found repeated in

Bodleian, Hatton 116 (Ker Number 333), which does not

include this homily although thirteen of its twenty-seven

articles are from the Sermones catholici. All these

collections are largely Elfrician. Hatton 115 contains

twelve articles from the Sermones catholici, including

six of the eight homilies for the Rogation days in lfric's








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two series of Sermones catholici (articles 2, 3, 7-10).

Articles 21-25 are A1fric's homilies for the Common of

Saints (21--a single apostle; 22--more than one apostle;

23--holy martyrs; 24--a single confessor; 25--holy virgins),

and article 26 is for the dedication of a church.

In this homily, as in the rest of the manuscript as

Ker notes, the hand is very different from those found in

other Anglo-Saxon manuscripts from Worcester. It is an

upright round hand, and a is caroline in e, while o has

very obvious joins at both top and bottom. In this homily

also all three forms of s are found. However, round s is

much more restricted in distribution, occurring only as a
capital, i.e., the first letter of the text and the first

letter after semicolons. Long s never occurs finally,

low s being used exclusively in this position. Long and

low s alternate freely in medial position, and low s

occurs occasionally in initial position. The ends of

descenders curve to the left here as Ker points out for

the manuscript in general, and the mark of abbreviation is

cup-shaped.

In addition, Ker makes the observation that words

omitted in error from the text and added in the margin in

the main hand are marked by a triangle of dots which corres-

ponds to a triangle of dots in the text at the point where

the words are to be read. This however does not appear to







-6-


be the case in the "Sermo de die iudicil." The triangle of

dots does appear often in the text of this homily. It

refers, however, not to marginal additions, but to glosses

in the "tremulous" hand. In addition there are glosses

by at least one other hand in the margins.

The I of "Interrogatus," and the S of "Seo,

respectively the initials of the Latin introduction and

the homily itself, are oversized and colored, the I taking

two lines, the S three. They do not appear to be

the same color, and Ker indicates that initials are either

metallic red or green. The title, which is also in colored

capitals (red, according to Ker), is inserted after the

"autem" of the Latin introductory text, and takes up the

second half of the first line. The second line continues

the Latin text. The first line of the Anglo-Saxon text is

in uncials, a rarity in this manuscript according to Ker.

It does not appear to be colored. However, all capitals

within the homily itself are filled with colored ink, which

Ker states is red.

The manuscript which contains this homily dates from

the second half of the eleventh century, although bound

with it is a single quire from the middle of the twelfth

century.








-7-


Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 188 (Ker Number 43,

article 46--fragmentary). This text consists only of the

title and two lines of text which occupied the last three

lines of what is now the last page of the manuscript. They

have been erased. Two initials--I (of "Interrogatus"?) and

S (of Seo?) are faintly visible. The manuscript itself

consists of forty-six articles, forty of which are drawn

from the first series of Elfric's Sermones catholici. Ker

explains the lack of certain homilies in this series by

the fact that quires have been lost at both the beginning

and end (where the "Sermo de die iudicii" appears) and

after p. 210. Also some leaves are missing. Among the

six articles present which are not from the Sermones

catholici are "Sermo ad populum in octavis pentecosten,"

and "Sermo in natale unius confessoris" as well as the

"Sermo de die iudicil," all of which appear in C.C.C.C. 178.

The manuscript dates from the first half of the eleventh

century.


Comparison of the Ianuscripts


A close comparison of the two surviving copies of

the "Sermo de die iudicii" offers some interesting con-

clusions. From the close similarity of the two, it is

obvious that they are descendants of an ultimate common








-8-


archetype. There is, however, no evidence to indicate

that the Hatton MS (the later of the two) is in any way

dependent on the Corpus Christi MS. Yet even without such

evidence one might tend to assume that the older of two

such close versions would be the fuller and more accurate.

This is not altogether the case, as will be shown below.

Yet since the differences are relatively minor, and the

Corpus Christi MS is possibly contemporary with hlfric,

it has been chosen as the basic text. Both MSS offer good

samples of classical West Saxon, and the choice is barely

problematical. The following is a complete listing of

all relevant textual differences between the two manu-

scripts. Spelling differences have not been noted here,

and differing word order, where either order is equally

possible, has been ignored, as have equally possible

readings.


Mistakes in the Corpus Christi Version.--These generally

consist of misspellings and forgotten lettersv-line 11,

an[d]; line 43, [na]num; line 71, domess; line 75,

b[i]nges; line 106, se[o]; line 117, hundan should be

hundas, as the weak form is not elsewhere recorded (see

Notes); line 218, "abhominationem" should be "abominationem,"

although this spelling reflects a long medieval etymological








-9-


tradition; line 218, "desolutionis" should be "desolationis";

line 309, geearnia5 swylce mid forste which is most difficult

to fit with the context, is paralled by getacnia6 swylce mid

fostre, a much more lucid reading, in Hatton; line 345,

deof[lles.

Mistakes in the Hatton Version.--line 45, a[c]; line 50,

geglododon should be gegladodon; line 148, his seolan

should be hi sceolan; line 405 winmen should be wifmen;

line 378, and is probably misplaced.


Omissions in the Corpus Christi Version.--The following

(all occurring in Hatton) are almost certainly omissions

from Corpus Christi, and not additions to Hatton. Their

inclusion is dictated either by the sense of the passage

or the alliterative patterns: line 5, dryhten omitted;

line 27, o5be on his house omitted; line 51, mid erased

(see 'otes); line 145, eore omitted; line 184, sume

unnytwurie omitted; line 216, cristes omitted; line 241,

halgum omitted; line 255, bonne omitted; line 276, ended

omitted; line 297, house omitted; line 329, eft ne omitted

(see Notes); line 387, bonne omitted; line 397, is omitted;

line 406, hi omitted. In addition to these, there are

several cases which may be omissions, or may be additions

to Hatton: line 153, bysnian occurs where Hatton has








-10-


gebysnian; line 195, gaderia6 occurs where Hatton has

gegaderiab; line 259, secgan occurs where Hatton has

gesecgan; line 354, hradab occurs where Hatton has gehradaZ;

line 363, be omitted.


Omissions in the Hatton Version.--The following are seen to

be almost certainly omissions: line 15, ealle omitted;

line 116, heora omitted; line 136, her omitted; line 228,

bonne omitted; line 263, ba omitted; line 266, bet omitted;

line 273, hys omitted; line 324, biddan omitted; line 389,

and erased; line 397, bonne omitted. Further possible

omissions are: line 281, dwolan occurs where Corpus Christi

has gedwolan; line 356, ge omitted.


By a purely numerical count the Hatton MS is seen to

be more accurate. The Corpus Christi text has eight

scribal errors and fourteen certain omissions, while the

Hatton text has five errors and only ten certain omissions.

Yet, the mistakes and omissions in both cases are largely

minor, and since the Corpus Christi is the older of the

texts, this edition must be based upon it, although fully

collated with the Hatton MS.









-11-


Authorshio


There is little doubt that Elfric is the author

of the "Sermo de die iudicii." There are many facts

which point to his authorship, and none which tend to

disprove it.

External evidence as to the authorship of this

homily is limited. There are no references to the

homily in other works, nor is there any reference

in the homily which would indicate authorship. Thus

the only external evidence rests on two facts. First,

the dating of the MSS is appropriate, the earlier

being dated by Ker from the first half of the eleventh

century. This period is considered to include the later

years of fLlfric's life. The second and weightier fact

is that both of the ISS are predominately lfrician. Again,

since all the homilies contained in these HSS have not

been proven to be Afric's, this fact is not conclusive,

but it does point to al1fric more certainly than to any

other author.

The internal evidence is more conclusive. Alfric

shows a lively interest in the Last Judgment in the pre-

face to the Catholic Homilies. He uses some of the same

texts there which are included in the "Sermo de die








-12-


iudicii," and his phrasing is similar in places to that

of the homily. For example, on p. 4 of the preface to

the Catholic Homilies, we find "[lease cristas] . .

wyrca8 fela tacna and Twnndra, to berecenne mancynn,

and eac swyloe pa gecorenan men, gif hit gewurian mng:

and butan se Elmihtiga God 6a dagas gescyrte, eall

mennisc forwurde." This may be compared with lines

356-359, and 345-348.

A further indication is given by the vocabulary used

in the homily itself. Of 586 vocabulary items, more than

96 percent are either recorded as used by Alfric elsewhere,

or are closely related to forms used by him. These would

include such unrecorded forms as the adverb fuerlice, where

only the adjective fwrlic has been recorded, and gymeleas,

where only the noun gymeleast, "carelessness," is recorded.

How large a percentage of these terms is used ex-

clusively by lfric, or whether he uses some terms with

shades of meaning not found elsewhere is a question which

goes beyond the scope of this work. Yet it is evident

that all authors have a working vocabulary, and favored

words within that vocabulary. This is reflected in the

vocabulary selection of the "Sermo de die ludicii."



1Benjamin Thorpe, ed. The Iomilies of the Anglo-
Saxon Church (London: 1844).--








-13-


Finally, the identity of the author is indicated

clearly by his unique use of the "rhythmic prose" style,

which gives the effect of a loose rendering of the

characteristic Old English verse style. It is clearly

seen throughout this homily, and only one example is

necessary here to indicate the style:

menn mton and druncon and dwollice leofodan
cnihtas wifodan and wif ceorlodan
o0 brt noe eode into Dam arce.
pat flod Da become ferlice ofer hi ealle
and eall mancynn adrencte
buton eahta mannum be innan Dam arce waron
swa swa hym wissode god;
and swa swa on lodes dagum eft syban gelamp
menn mton. and druncon. bohton and sealdan
byttlodan and plantodan and beeodan heora tilunge.
pa sende god fmrlice
sona swa loB was of pare byrig alad.
fyr. and swefel swylce hit renscur were.
and mid ealle forbmrnde ba fif burhscira
(11. 12-23)


It will be readily seen that as verse there is a good deal

lacking, yet the style is much more than prose with its

prominent alliteration and obviously rhythmical groupings.

The homily has been presented in prose form because

strictly speaking it is not verse. It lacks the regularity

of alliteration and scansion as well as the inversions

and kennings of Old English poetry. However, the

rhythmical and alliterative features are prominent enough








-14-


to print it as somewhat ragged verse, as is seen above.

The question of .lfric's "rhythmical prose" has been

investigated in some detail by several scholars in the

past, so it will not be necessary to go into it here.

Thus, if we consider the scanty, external evidence

in conjunction with the extremely weighty internal

evidence, there can remain little doubt of lfric's

authorship of the "Sermo de die iudicii."






















1See, among others, G. H. Gerould, "Abbot Ilfric's
Rhythmic Prose," Modern Philology, XXII (1925), 353-366;
Dorothy Bethurum, "The Form of k1fric's Lives of Saints,"
Studies in Philology, XXIX (1932), 515-533; and J. T.
Algeo, /lfric's "The Forty Soldiers" An Edition,
unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gainesville, Florida,
1960, pp. 29-42. The most recent treatment is by
John C. Pope, ed. Homilies of Elfric, Vol. I (London,
Toronto, New York, 1967), 105-136.








-15-


Judgment Day Theme


Alfric's use of the Judgment Day theme in this

homily lays stress ,on the necessity for leading a truly

Christian life, because of God's omniscience and the

uncertainty of the time of judgment. He places little

stress on the actual coming of Christ, on the final

judgment itself, or on the enumeration of punishments

and rewards in the life eternal. Rather he concentrates

his efforts here upon the impossibility of hypocrisy

or deceit before the omniscient God. The "one is taken"

theme provides a perfect vehicle for this task. It

not only provides a valid metaphor for the futility

of hypocrisy, but also illustrates the necessity for

reform both among the laity and in the monastic and

clerical establishments as well. Thisis, as will be

pointed out below, a standard exegesis of the "one is

taken" theme.

The second prong of Alfric's attack, and the one

which imparts meaning to the necessity for reform, is

the knowledge that doomsday may be upon us at any moment.

This was especially important in the late Old English

period, as the year 1000 was the millennial year, and a

literal reading of scriptures (rev. 20) gives a date of







-16-


1000 years after Christ for the resurrection of the

dead and the day of judgment. This conception gave

rise to a great spate of doomsday literature during

this period, such as the following from Wulfstan's

homily, "Secundum marcum":

Post mille annos soluetur Satanas. pmt
is on english, after busend gearum bi5
Satanas unbunden. busend gears and eac ma
is nu agan, sy66an Crist wts mid mannum
on menniscan hiwe, and nu syndon Satanases
bendas swyoe toslepene, and Antecristes
tima is wel gehende, and 6y hit is on
worulde a, swa leng, swa acre. men
syndon swicole, and world is he wyrse,
and jpot us dereO eallum-

Yet throughout the scriptures, as in this illustration,

and in the "Sermo de die iudicii," the uncertainty is

maintained as to the exact time of judgment. This is what

gives the priest a good deal of his power in the struggle

to reform mankind, and it is skillfully used by 1fric here.

Mention is also made of the signs which are prophesied

to precede the judgment day. Here again we have a two-

fold reason for their inclusion. First, the fact that

some of the signs (wars, pestilence, false prophets,

etc.) have come to pass strengthens the concept of the

imminence of Judgment Day. Second, these evils on the

earth, seen as part of the signs, are specific temptations

to test the elect.


1A. S. Napier, Wulfstan (Berlin, 1883).







-17-


Perhaps equally significant with the stressed

aspects in the homily rre those aspects of the second

Coming which IElfric neglects. Some of the favorite topics

of Anglo-Saxon authors were, as I shall illustrate below,

the place of judgment, the judge, and those judged, as

well as the usual torments of the damned and bliss of

the elect. That is to say a complete trial is envisioned,

during which a man's deeds and words are balanced, good

against evil, in order to determine his fate. But the

instantaneous summons and judgment implied by "an para

bi6 genumen, and se ober bib forlzeten." is much more

effective here for lfric's purpose.

Concerning the rewards of the just Elfric has little

to say--"and pa englas gebringap pa gecorenan menn to criste

sylfum, pat hi mid him ricsian on heofonan rice on lichaman

and on sawle gesaliglice afre." There is no reference in

his chosen Biblical texts to the fate of the damned, but

lfric, for a fitting reinforcement of his message, takes

a short passage relating to this subject (Matt. 13: 49-50)

and then embellishes it. Finally, to end upon a joyous

note he makes a last rapid reference to the saints'

bliss in Heaven, and concludes his homily. The argument

of the homily is then seen to move from the necessity and

reasons for reform, i.e., the imminence of doomsday and the








-18-


swiftness of justice, to end ultimately with a strong

motivational appeal to the sinner.


Judgment Day Theme Elsewhere in lfric's Works


Although Elfric devotes no other homily specifically

to the Judgment lay, the concept occurs from time to time

throughout the Sermones catholici and the Lives of Saints.

Reference is made no less than five times to the imminence

of the Judgment Day, and its uncertainty (for example,

C.H., Vol. I, pp. 4, 298; C.H., Vol. II, pp. 370,

574; L.S. XVI, 1. 219ff.2). References to the signs
and suffering at the end of the world (C.H., Vol. I,

pp. 609ff.; C.H., Vol. II, pp. 536ff.; L.S. XIII, 11. 289-

299), to corporeal resurrection (C.H., Vol. I, pp. 236, 532)

and to God's elect (C.H., Vol. I, p. 536; C.H., Vol. II,

p. 82) all appear in more than one place, and there are

at least single references to false prophets (C.H., Vol. I,

pp. 405ff.) and to Antichrist (C.H., Vol. I, p. 4).

From frequency of occurrence it would seem that

Elfric, in all his writings, as in this homily, laid the

heaviest stress upon the fact that the great doom might be


Thorpe. All further references to the Catholic
Homilies (C.H.) will cite this work.
W. W. Skeat, ed. Elfric's Lives of Saints (London:
1900). All further references to Lives of Saints (L.S.)
will cite this work.







-19-


upon us at any moment. These references may be found in

the Sermones catholici, Vols. I and II, and in the Lives

of Saints. They are sometimes found in single sentences,

such as ". . menn behofiab godre lare swibost on bisum

timan be is geendung byssere worulde. ." (C.H., Vol. I,

introd.). They also occur in longer passages as in the

"Sermo de memorial sanctorum":


Nu on urum dagum on ende byssere worulde.
swica6 se deofol digollice embe us.
hu he burh leahtras forlere ba cristenan.
and to mislicum synnum heora mod awende.
ac ba beob gesslige be his swic-domas to-cnawao.
and his lot-wrencaes id geleafan ofer-swyZao.
He wet nu swibe and wyn6 on ba cristenan.
foroan be he wat geare bPt bysre worulde geendung
is svwye gehende. and he on-et forbi.
We sceolan eac onettan and urun sawlum gehelpan.
Durh gode biggengas gode to gecwemednysse.
foroan be we ne motan lange on bysum life beon.
And bEt is godes mildheortnyss. beah be hit digle sy.
(L.S., 11. 219-231)


These references to Judgment Day made by Elfric cre

consistent with what is emphasized and omitted in the

"Sermo de die iudicii." Likewise his treatment of the

suffering of the damned in his other homilies is consistent

with that in the "Sermo de die iudicii." It is largely

ignored in the "Sermo de die iudicii" and is seldom

referred to in his other works. When he does mention it,

it is given little space or emphasis. For example, in the

homily "In dedication ecclesia," he says only: "So6lice se

be ba heafod-leahtras wyrc6, and on bam geenda6, he mot







-20-


forbyrnan on 6am ecum fyre, and swa beah ba sw~ran synna

ne beo8 nmfre afeormode for nanes fyres mlincge" (C.H.,

Vol. I, p. 590).

The "courtroom scene" of the Judgment is another

aspect of the theme which lfric generally avoids. He

makes use of the scene in the Sermones catholici in one

homily ("Dominica I. in quadragesima," C.H., Vol. II,

pp. 106-108). His prime purpose here, however, is not to

portray the Judgment scene, but to illustrate through

scripture the joys and benefits of charity.

Finally there are numerous small details of agreement

between "Sermo de die iudicii" and Alfric's other works.

For example, in "Sermo de die iudicii," it is said, "mt

fyr ponne afeorma6 pas eor6an and hi geedniwao" (11. 77-78).

In "Dominica II. in adventum domini" (C.H., Vol. I, p. 608),

the same theme occurs: "Heofone and eorne gewitao, and peah

burhwunia6, for)an 6e hi beo6 fram bam hiwe be hi nu

habba pburh fyr geclmnsode, and swa-6eah symle on heora

gecynde standa6." Again, Elfric strongly emphasized

corporeal resurrection:

Gif hwan tvwynige be mriste, ponne meg he
understandan on Disum godspelle, Dpt per
bi6 so6 arist 1pr Pxr beo6 eagan and teb.
Eagan synd flmscene, and te6 benene; forban
be we sceolon, wylle we nelle we, arisan
on ende byssere worulde mid flmsce and mid
bane, and onfon edlean ealra ura dada.. .
("Dominica XXI, post pentecosten,"
C.H., Vol. I, p. 532)







-21-


We find further emphasis on this doctrine in "Sermo de

die iudicii": "1pat hi mid him ricsian on heofonan rice on

lichaman and on sawle gesmeliglice afre" (11. 392-394).

Thus we see that this homily presents no conflict

with and in some places even a stronger affirmation of

Tlfric's quite conservative views. That these views and

points of emphasis were not generally held by other

homilists of the period will be shown in the next section.


The Judgment Day Theme in Other Anglo-Saxon Literature


lfric's approach to the Judgment Day theme is not the

usual one found in surviving homilies and poetry. The

general approach seems to have been along a more sensational

avenue. Anglo-Saxon authors liked to stress the violent

aspects of the theme, i.e., the torments of the damned,

the chaos at the end of the world, or the violence in the

Heavens at Christ's Coming.

Some of this tendency reflects the Anglo-Saxon heroic

tradition, dwelling on prowess in battle, encounters with

fabled creatures, and emphasizing the sanctity of the

"comitatus." In fact many of these traditional heroic themes,

couched in language appropriate to the epic, are reflected

in the literature dealing with the doomsday theme. For

example, Christ is seen as a leader in the comitatus and

an earthly prince in such references to him as "herga fruma,"






-22-


"moelinga ord," and "sigora weard" (Christ, 11. 845, 846,

1517). The torments of Hell are likewise reminiscent of the

tone and imagery of the heroic tradition, and Hell itself

is populated with "blodige earnas and blace naddran"

(Solomon and Saturn, 1. 943) and "wyrmsela" (Judith, 1. 119).

This reliance on and continuation of the ancient

traditions naturally led the authors to dwell upon these

sensational aspects, which AFlfric largely ignores. Even

though the approach of the homilists is generally milder

than that of the poets, the same tendency is seen. Emphasis

is laid on much the same aspects as were noted above--the

chaos, the judgment scene, and the horror of Hell. In

the homily for Easter Sunday (Number 7) of the Blickling

Homilies, a good deal of space is given to the Judgment:


Uton nu gepencean hu mycel egsa gelimpeb
eallum gesceaftum on pas ondweardan tid,
bonne se dom nealmcep, and seo opening
pees dmges is swipe egesfull eallum
gesceaftum. .


The author continues, describing the days preceding the

judgment in this manner:


Py mrestan dage on midne dsg gelimpep
mycel gnornung ealra gesceafta, and
men gehyrab myccle stefne on heofenum
swylce Pmr man fyrde trymme and samnige;
ponne astige) blodig wolcen mycel from norPdzle,
and oforbecb ealne pysne heofon; and
after aem wolcne cymep legetu and bunor
ealne bone deg; and rineb blodig regn mt zefen.







-23-


After the seven days have passed, God will come to judge

the world and


S... God sylfa bonne ne gymep nsnges
mannes hreowe; ne Dwr nmnige pingunga
ne beop; ac biP bonne repra [&] bearlwisa
bonne anig wilde deor, obbe afre anig
mod gewurde. & swa myccle swa bes mannes
miht beo mare, & he bip weligra on pisse
worulde, swa him bonne se uplica Dema
mare tosecb, bonne he him sylfum rebne
don & heardne geearna) & gegyteb, swa
hit be Don gecweden is: 'Se mon se
be nu demep emm earmum buton mildheort-
nesse, bonne bib bam eft heord don geteod.


The doomed are sentenced to eternal torment, described at

length in a passage here translated from the Middle English

homiletic treatise "Sawles Warde" (ascribed to the author

of the "Ancren Riwle" c. 1237).1


Hell is wide without measure, and deep and
bottomless; full of incomparable fire, for no
earthly fire may be compared therewith; full
of stench intolerable, for no living thing
on earth might endure it; full of unutterable
sorrow, for no mouth may, on account of the
wretchedness and of the woe thereof, give an
account of nor tell about it. Yea, the
darkness therein is so thick that one may
grasp it, for the fire there gives out
no light, but blindeth the eyes of them that
are there with a smothering smoke, the worst
of smokes. And nevertheless in that same
black darkness they see black things as devils,
that ever maul them and afflict and harass them
with all kinds of tortures; and tailed drakes,
horrible as devils, that devour them whole and
spew them out afterwards before and behind;



1Richard Morris, Old English Homilies (Oxford, 1868).








-24-


at other times they rend them in pieces and
chew each gobbet of them, and they after-
wards become whole again, such as they pre-
viously were, to undergo again such bale
without recovery, and full well they see
themselves very horrible and dreadful; and to
increase their pains the loathsome hellworms,
toads, and frogs that eat out their eyes and
nostrils, and adders and water-frogs, not like
those here, but a hundred times more horrible,
creep in and out at the mouth, ears, eyes,
navel, and at the hollow of the breast, as
maggots in putrid flesh, thickest. There is
shrieking in the flame, and chattering of
teeth in the snowy waters. Suddenly they
flit from the heat into the cold, nor ever
do they know of these two which is worse for
them, for each is intolerable. And in this
marvellous mingling the latter through the
former tormenteth the more. The fire con-
sumes them all to dead coals: the pitch
boileth them until they are altogether melted,
and revives them anon to undergo again all
that same and much worse, ever without end. And
this same wanhope is their greatest torment,
that none have never any more hope of any
recovery, but are sure of every ill, to con-
tinue in woe, world without end, ever in
eternity. Each chokes the other, and each
is another's torment, and each hateth another
and himself as the black devil; and even as they
loved them the more in this world, so the more
shall they hate them there. And each curseth
another, and gnaws off the other's arms, ears,
and nose also. I have begun to tell of things
that I am not able to bring to any end, though
I had a thousand tongues of steel, and told
until they were all worn out. But think now
by this what the greatest pain is; for the
least pain is so hard, that had a man slain
both my father and mother, and all the
remnant of my kin, and done to me all the
shame and harm that a living man might endure,
yet if I saw this man in the least pain that I
see in Hell I would, if it might be, endure a







-25-


thousand deaths to release him out thereof,
so horrible and piteous is that sight to behold;
for though there were never any other pain, except
to see the wretched spirits and their horrible
forms; to look on their grim and dreadful faces,
and to hear their roaring, and how they in scorn
reproach and upbraid each other with their sins;
this infamy, and the horror of them, would be
immeasurable pain; and moreover to endure and to
bear their immense blows with steel mallets,
and with their awls gleed-red, and their
buffetings, as though it might be a pilch-clout,
each one toward the other in divers pains. O
hell, death's house, abode of woe, of dread, and
of groaning; horrid home, and hard dwelling of all
miseries; city of bale, and abode of every
bitterness, thou most loathsome land of all, thou
dark place, filled with all dreariness! I quake
with dread and fear, and each bone quivereth within
me, and each hair bristles up at the thought of thee;
for there is no voice between the damned but
woe me! woe is me! and woe is thee! and woe
is thee! And woe they cry, and woe they have;
nor shall they ever have any lack of whatever
is woeful. It were well for those that
merit this abode through any temporary bliss
here in this world that they were never born.
By this ye may somewhat understand what hell is
like, for, of a truth, I have seen therein a
thousand times worse (than I have told you).


These themes appear over and over again with frightful

scenes like the one above, and pictures of God (or Christ)

sitting in awful judgment. They bear very little

resemblance to the "Sermo de die iudicii."

Because of titular resemblance, some consideration is

necessary of the two Old English poems entitled "Be Domes

Deg," and of the section of Cynewulf's "Christ" entitled

"The Last Judgment." Only a brief look is necessary here

as all three differ in mood, emphasis and treatment from


the "Sermo de die iudicii."








-26-


The longer "Be Domes Dag' is a translation of a

shorter Latin poem, "De die iudicii," ascribed to Bede.

Its structure is somewhat similar to that of "The

Last Judgment." Both poems present the signs of the

Second Coming and the terrors accompanying the Coming

in their early sections. There is a great deal of emphasis

on the suffering and horror of that time. Both then

present what has been termed above as the "courtroom

scene," where each man's sins shall be known to all, and with

elaborate speeches and ceremony the damned are consigned to

eternal torment and the blessed receive their rewards

with appropriate and lurid description. "The Be Domes

DMg" is couched in the first persona monologue of Soul

to Body. "The Last Judgment" is in the third person and

is narrative.

The shorter "Be Domes Deg" likewise deals first

with the signs of the Coming, and the terrors of the

damned, as wells the bliss of the elect. It does not,

however, enter into as much detail as do the other two

poems, and does not seem to be as finely wrought.

None of these poems bear much resemblance to the

"Sermo de die iudicii." The three estates are not dealt

with; there is little reference in any of them to either

Lot or Noah, for example; and the judgment itself, as

pointed out, is made into a focal point of both the longer








-27-


"Be Domes Deg" and "The Last Judgment." Likewise the tone

of the poems differs from the "Sermo de die iudicii." One

has the feeling while reading any one of these poems

that the author feels he can either "scare" or "bribe"

his audience into Heaven. On the other hand, the "Sermo

de die iudicii" seems to reason, and is given to neither

the fits of despair or raptures of bliss in which the

poets indulge.

ilfric's treatment of the Judgment by the "one is

taken" theme then, is a definite departure from the Anglo-

Saxon tradition, as also, is his lack of emphasis on

Hell and the damned. Th..3e are, however, characteristic

of his other works, and would seem to be a few of the

many things which distinguish him from the other writers

of his time.








-28-


The "Sermo de die iudicii": Synopsis and Evaluation


The "Sermo de die iudicii" was designed as a "quando

voleris" sermon. This is attested by the fact that there

is no designation of the texts on which it is based in

the Church calendar of the time, and indeed the very

fact that two texts are involved. The fact that the

texts themselves have been edited (several verses are

omitted) and that they are dealt with in reverse order

(the explication of the passage in Luke precedes that of

VIatthew) strengthens this assumption further for the

homilist would not have felt as free to do this were the

sermon designated for a particular day.

The homily is composed mainly of the ~ adding and

explication of two scriptural passages. Each of the

texts is set forth in Old English, and their lissected

phrase by phrase to bring to light the "inran digolnysse"

or innermost meaning for the congregation. Other

quotations from scripture are liberally used for

illustration and clarification, but the main subject is

always at the fore.

The sermon begins with a reading from Luke, which

describes how the Pharisees questioned Christ about the

Second Coming. In point of fact, the Biblical dialogue

is shifted to the disciples after the initial question

by the Pharisee: but Elfric does not mention the shift.






-29-


Christ's answer to these questions is that the time

of the second d Cooing I is nalculable, and '11i be as swift

as lightnir., ans 'nnh's flood, or as the r ruction of

Sodom. "e goes on to say that two will be in a bed, two

in a mill ni trwo in a field at this ti e. Cf each of

these pairs, one will be tr.ken, and the other forsaken.

In oaru~er to the quen-;ion of here they will be taken, I!e

says, ''eresoever the bocd- is, there the eia-le will

gather,"

.': v ring r-iven the first text in full, /'fric

proceeds to c-licate it for his listeners. .Te explains

that Christ will come n-iln, although no one 'knos when.

1e enlarges upon the references to Lot, although since he

feels his listeners a.e accuainted with the atory of T:oah,

he declines co'ent here. -hen he goev on to explain that

the two people in one bed represent the monastic life, the

two in a mill represent the rforldly life, F::- the two in

a field r-. resent the cler;y. In each case e indicates

the r~jor feature of the metaphor, such r- the bed

representing the monastic life, the mill rec resenting the

secular life, the field representing rod's spiritual field,

eto., pointi.-v out at t1e ir, time that it is not simply

two people oeiiev re.;reRonte(, tut two types of people,

and that one of those types will merit uilvation, the

other r ::.-.tion. 'inrlly, in explication of the "oales,"







-30-


he shows that these are God's Holy Saints, who will flock

to Christ at His Coming.

Having finished with this passage, the homilist

turns to a second, but closely related passage concerning

Christ's answers to the disciples about the end of the

world. This passage is dealt with in the same manner as

the fi jst.

The passage begins with a warning concerning idolatry

in the temple, and moves to a warning against the pregnant

and those giving suck in the evil days. Then follows an

exhortation to pray that Christ's Coming be not in winter

or on the Sabbath. Then there is a reference to the

persecution of the faithful which will take place at that

time, and a warning against the false Christs who will

come. Finally, a description is given of the wonders which

will come to pass at the moment of the Second Coming.

Having given the reading, the homilist once again

dissects and explicates t ie passage. The idolatry in the

temple is described as h1-ppening when antichrist sets him-

self up as God: and, through devilish miracles, persuades

many to follow him to their damnation. The pregnant are

seen as those false Christians who are filled with lies,

and the nourishment afforded by those giving suck is

wickedness. The Sabbath is figured as the Day of Rest,

i.e., emptiness or idleness, while we hope to be found







-31-

amidst good works at Christ's coming. Likewise the

winter is seen, not as an ordinary winter, but as the

coldness of heart found in those who lack the love of

God.

The persecution of the faithful will be accomplished

by antichrist, who will be able to work wonders, and martyr

the chosen, while they in turn are powerless. However,

though many will be fooled, God's chosen will persevere

unto the end. At this point the actual events heralding

the Second Coming are enlarged upon, and the chosen are

seen in their happiness. By way of contrast, another

short scriptural passage is quoted, and translated,

showing the misery of the damned. At this point the

homily is brought to a close with a final reference to

the ineffable _liss of God's chosen ones in Heaven.

It is easily seen that the "Sermo de die iudicii" is

very simply, yet forcefully structured. The homily

breaks neatly into two halves--the explication of two texts,

yet its unity is maintained in that the texts are very

closely related, treating two aspects of the same theme.

The break is purposeful, and is even emphasized by the

homilist's statements that in the first instance the

Fharisees are questioning Christ, and in the second, the

disciples question Him. This difference could have been

minimized, and is, indeed, wrongly made, so it is evident







-32-


that it is purposeful. It functions both to secure

the continued attention of the audience, and to

alert the listeners to a slight shift in emphasis. The

first half of the homily was devoted to the question, "who

are the elect?" The second half assumes the first and

continues with, "what must they endure to merit salvation?"

Thus the central break is both integral and

functional. The subject, thus renewed, is followed as

closely in the second half as it was in the first, and,

characteristic of klfric, little or no extraneous material

is allowed to interfere. lfric has here created a

unified work which is designed to keep the interest of

his congregation, while proceeding by logical steps to

a fitting conclusion.







-33-


Sources and Analogues


The ultimate source of this homily is, of course,

the Bible. The homily falls naturally into two parts,

each being an exegesis of a scriptural text. The first

text, covering lines 1-38 of the homily, is from Luke 17:

20, 24, 26-31, and 34-37. There follow 178 lines of

exegetical material, and then the second text, taken from

two very similar passages--IHatthew 24: 15-25, and 29-31;

and Iark 13: 14-27. These passages appear in lines 216-

257 of the text.

Neither of these passages are exact translations of the

Bible, but are paraphrased. For example, the first

passage purports to be Christ's answer to the Pharisees,

while the second is His answer to the disciples. Yet this

is not the Biblical rendering. The first verse (verse 20)

is indeed addressed to the Pharisees, but verse 22,not

incorporated into this text, shifts the address to the

disciples: "et ait ad discipulos suos," and the rest

of the passage is addressed to them. Likewise, in

the second main scriptural passage of the text, details

from I:atthew are found which are not in Iark, and vice

versa. The homily reads thus:

Ponne ge geseo6 standan on p1re halgan
stowe onscuniendlic deofolgild. .(1. 223)






-34-


The reference to the "halgan stowe" is clearly found in

Iatthew (the quotations are from Jerome's translation of

the New Testament):

Cun ergo videritis abominationem desolationis
. stantem in loco sancto. .
(Matt. 25:15)

The reading in Hark, however, is:

Cum autem videritis abominationem desola-
tionis stantem .. ubi non debet . .
(Mark 13: 14)

On the other hand, later in the passage the Anglo-Saxon

text is as follows:

Warniab eow geornlice ic hit habbe eow
gesmd. (11. 247-248)

This agrees exactly with Iark:

Vos ergo videte: ecce pradixi vobis omnia
(Mark 13:23)

Yet in i.atthew we find only:

2cce predixi vobis (Matt. 24: 25)

In addition to these two main passages from the Bible,

the homily contains numerous shorter quotations, used as

illustration and authority.1

No immediate source for the homily as a whole is known,

and probably none exists. The Judgment Day theme was of

wide occurrence in this era, and the concepts surrounding


The other Biblical quotations found in the text are
from: I. Cor. 3:9 (1. 149); Isaiah 56:10 (1. 166); II Thes.
2: 4 (11. 288-289); Matt. 24: 12 (11. 314-315); Matt. 13:
49-50 (11. 395-397)A Matt. 24: 13 (11. 367-368).







-35-

the theme were largely common property. In addition

this homily contains no internal evidence that it is

a translation. C. L. White cites two relevant

peculiarities characteristic of /1ifric's treatment 3f

his sources: "First, he lays stress upon the authors

whom he uses, and puts himself in the background; and

secondly, while he gives the thoughts of his authors

with conscientious accuracy, he is independent and free

in his method of conveying thought." Looking at these

two points, we see first that i1lfric cites no source for

his homily. Neither author nor work is mentioned

throughout the homily. Second, the thoughts in the

homily are either widespread among his predecessors, or

entirely lacking in their works.

If there is no single source of the homily as a

whole, the analogues to be founc in the exe rsis of the

individual passages are so numerous that no single one can

be positively identified as a r urce.

The Church Fathers' exegeses of passages in the

Gospels agree with one another to a great extent, and

lfric agrees quite closely with them in the bulk of the

homily, being characteristically quite conservative.

His agreement with the Fathers is clearly shown, for


1C. L. White, rSlfric, A New Study of his Life and
Writings (Boston, New York, London: 1898), p. 189.







-36-


example, in his treatment of the "two in one bed"

theme. fElfric's exegesis is as follows:


ba beo bonne on bedde: be beob on stillnysse.
and fram eallum woruldcarum Emtige bonne beoo.
and godes beowdom bega6 mid goodum inngehyde ac
hi no beo8 na twegen: ac on twa todslede;
Obre beo6 gecorene and gode geoweme. oore
beo8 mid hiwunge on his Deowdome afundene. .
Swa bi5 se an genumen, and se ober forlmten:
be on bam bedde beob honne gemette. bet is on
Vere stillnysse heora stabolfestan modes, na
twegen menn ana. ac on twa wisan gemodode.
(11. 89-93, 100-103)

Augustine comments in a telescoped exegesis:

Qui sunt in illa nocte duo in lecto, et
dum molentes in unum, et duo in agro,
de quibus omnibus binis singuli assumentur,
et singuli relinquentur? Tria genera hominum
hic videntur, significari: unum eorum
qui otium et quietem eligunt, nesque negotiis
sacularibus neque negotiis ecclesiasticis
occupati; qua illorum quies lecti nominee
significata est. . non quasi de duobus
hominibus dictum est sed de duobus generibus
affectionum, in singulis generibus trium
professionumn

Bede follows Augustine, but then goes further:

duo erunt in lecto, illi videlicet,
qui otium et quietem eligunt, neque
negotiis sacularibus, neque negotiis
ecclesiasticis occupati, qu illorum
quies lecti nominee significata est . .
Non quasi de duobus hominibus dictum
est sed de duobus generibus affectionum.
qui enim proper Deum continentim
studuerit, ut sine sollicitudine
vivens cogitet qua Dei sunt (I Cor.:vii),



J. P. Migne, ed., Patrologia cursus completus (Paris:
1862), Vol. XXXV, Col. 1357 (Questionum Evangeliorum).






-37-


assumetur a Deo; qui vero vel humane
laudis more, vel alia qualibet vitiorum
corruption status monastic vita. .
lsserit, hic ubi reliquendus sit .
2
Raban-Ilaur quotes the above passage word for word. This

type of agreement continues throughout the entire "one is

chosen, the other left" passage.

Similarly, in the exegesis of the "Vaz pregnantibus"

theme, a close correspondence of interpretation is noted.

Alfric interprets the passage thus:

Wa pam eacniendum on bam yfelum dagum_.
and pam fedendum on Ipre freccdnysse;
hwIt agylta6 ba wif be be godes hese
tyma6. and heora child feda6 on prre
frecednysse. ac pis is gecweden be bam
leasum cristenium be beo6 mid leahtrum
afyllede swaT swa gefearhsugu.
(11. 303-308)

Jerome on the other hand sees the passage as both historical

and allegorical:

'Vm autem priegnantibus et nutrientibus
in illis diebus.' Ve illis animabus,
qum non in perfectum virum sua genimina
perduxerunt, sed initial habent fidei,
ut enutritione indigeant magistrorum.
Hoc quoque dici potest, quod in per-
secutione Antichristi, seu Romansz cap-
tivitatis prsegnantes et nutriantes,
uteri et filiorum sarcina pregravati,3
expeditam fugam habere non quiverint.



Iligne, Vol. XCII, Cols. 548-549 (In Luce Evangelium
Expositio liber V).

2igne, Vol. CX, Cols. 246-247 (Homiles in 7vangelia et
Epistolas).

31ligne, Vol. XXVI, Col. 185 (Commentarius in Evangelium
secundum i'attheum).








-38-


Bede also follows this argument closely:

Hoc quoque secundum historian dici
potest, quod in persecution Antichristi
seu Romans captivitatis prmgnantes et
nutrients uteri. filiorum sarcina
pragraviti, expeditam fugarn habere
non quiverint. Spiritaliter apima
qua desideriis carnalibus in illa
ultima persecutione occupata invenitur
aternum vw subire oppressa cogitur.1

Thus we see that the sources Mlfric is knotm to have

made wide use of in other works--Gregory, Bede, and

Augustine--all comment upon these passages, and largely

agree with one another. In addition, minor sources such

as Jerome, and authors evidently unknown to ilfric like

Hilaire also comment on them and likewise agree. Jhich

of the works containing these exegeses were known to

Elfric is still open to dispute. Oftentimes, as here,

it is almost impossible to tell whether Elfric is

following one or another author, and locating the source

of individual passages is impossible where so much agree-

ment is to be found.

This agreement is not attributable to any aridity of

the author's mind. It is a type of agreement which was

held in high repute in ilfric's age, and is typical of his



liigne, Vol. XCII, Col. 103 (In Matthei ,vangelium
Expositic liber IV).







-39-


treatment of such matters. It in no way vitiates the

force of his method, or his perceptive powers in

organization and emphasis. Our belief in these could

only be weakened by the unlikely discovery of a specific

and closely followed source for the entire homily, and

until we discover such a specific source, we must make the

equally valid assumption that he is relying on a

community of ideas--a body of generally held knowledge

and opinion--on which any author felt free to draw.2


He L:lfric] often derives from his sources the
substance of thought, but clothes it entirely in his own
language." Jhite, p. 189.

2n J. C. Pope's, Homilies of lfric, released when this
dissertation was in its final stages, the author cites seven
sources (analogues) for the homily. They were:

Adso, De ortu et tempore Antichristi
Augustine, Qumstiones Evangeliorum, "In Lucam 17:34-35."
Bede, In Luce Evangelium Expositio, "In cap. 17: 20-37"
SIn Marci 1Evangelium Expositio, "In cap. 13:
14, 18, 19, 20"
Cmsarius of Arles, Sermones, "Sermo 154.3"
Gregory, 'oralia in lob, "Liber 32, cap. 24"
Jerome, In Matthmum, "In cap. 24: 15, 20"

Of these seven, two had not previously been examined
in connection with this dissertation: Adso and Casarius
of Arles. Adso has been unavailable and the passage by
Cmsarius is not followed by Alfric closely enough to be
considered more than an analogue to one short passage of
the homily.




































TEXT












SERMO DE DIE IUDICII


Interrogatus autem Ihesus a phariseis quando p. 101

venit regnum dei. et reliqua.

Seo halige cristes boo be ymbe cristes wundra

spryc6. seg6 ]_t ba sunderhalgan on sumne sel

ahsodan urne halend crist ymbe hys tocyme. 5

and ymbe godes rice on pam mycclan d&ge. be we do-

mes dag hataa. and he hym andwyrde puss; Ne cym?

na godes rice. be nanre cepinge. ne menn ne cwe-

pa3 na efne he cymf nu forbam be he cymb far-

lice swa swa frrlic liget be scyt fram eastdele 10

scinende ob westdall An[d] swa swa gefyrn gelamp

on noeys flode. menn ston and druncon and dwollice

loefodan. cnihtas wifodan and wif ceorlodan. o6

Ptt noe eode into pam arce. 1Pt flod pa become fmr-

lice ofer hi ealle. and eall mancynn adrencte. 15

buton eahta mannum the innan Paam arce weron

swa swa hym wissode god; And swa swa on looes

dagum eft syban gelamp. menn eton. and drun-

con. bohtan and sealdan. byttlodan. and plantodan.

and beeodan heora tilunga. pa sende god ferlice 20

sona swa lob wvs of pere byrig almd. ofer bam

fif burhscirum. fyr. and swefel swylce hit renscur

were. and mid ealle forbmrnde pa fif burhscira;


-41-










Eallswa bid on pam dage be ure drihten bia Eet-

eowed. and he cymb to demenne on bam micclan dome 25
p. 102
eallum manncynne aalcum_ be hys weorcum; Gif

hwa bid on 3re tide ymbe hys tilunge oabe on

hys ecere. ne meg he geefstan bt he aht ahredde

odde aweg gebringe gewzda o?5e fata; On bere

nihte beo8 twegen on anum bedde. an para bid 30

genumen and ooer bid forleten. and twa grindad

bonne on anre cwyrne etg~dere. seo an bid genumen

and seo ober bib forlmten; Twegen beob on mcere

erigende stg~dere. se an bib genumen and se ober

bid forleten; Hi andwyrdan ba. and hyne ahsodan 35

puss; Hwider beob hy genumene; And he hym

cwm- to; Swa hwmr swa Dbt hold bid. Pider gadriad

pa earnas; We willa5 eow nu secgan sceortlice.

gif we magon pa diglostan word on Pisum drihten-

lican godspelle. forbon be ge eaoe ne magon 40

hyt eall understandan; We habba6 nu gehyred

on bisum halgan godspelle pt we ne magon na

cepan. ne [na]num menn nis cub: hvwenne ure drihten

cym6 to demenne mancynne on pam ende-

nyhstan daege bysse worulde. ac we gelyfa6 swa 45

peah b3t us alogen ne bi6. b~t he cymr sodlice mid

hys scinendum englum on bissere worulde geendun-

ge us to demanne alcum be hys geearnungum






-43-


and he bonne forgifb barn be hym gehrysumedan

and bam he hine gegladodan mid goodum weorcum 50

mfre ba ecan myrhbe and Pa ecan wununge

mid eallum his halgum on heofonan rice; Pa

earman synfullan be hyne forsawan on life.

and mid yfelum da dum hyne mfre gremodan. ba

beob besencte on p;re sweartan helle mid Dam 55

awyrgedum deoflum mfre to worulde. and se Be Dyses

ne gelyfe?: nys hys geleafa naht; Se hLlend us p. 103

sede soilice gelicnysse be noeys flode and loBes

alysednysse. nu wite ge sume hu hit was be noe:

and be hys flode, ac eower fela nat hu hyt wes be 60

loBe. ac we wyllao eow secgan; Loo w~s lu gehaten

sum halig godes begn abrahames broBorsunu. ar

moyses' a. se eardode Pa on Dam yfelan leod-

scipe sodomitiscre burhware. pa waron synfulle

menn. and bysmorlice forscyldgode on sceamlicum 65

dedum. Pa forbernde hi god mid heora fif burh-

scirum mid heofonlicum fyre and hellicum swefle.

ac he send on er twegen scinende englas to bam

geleaffullan lobe. and almdde hyne ut of Dam. fu-

lan manoynne. Dt he mid him ne forwurde; Ealls-:a 70
biB on domes} dege on ures drihtnes tocyme.

bt fyr cym? swa fwrlice at mrann foresceawian

ne magon. and mid egeslicum bryne ealne middan-









eard ofer gaeo. and menn bonne ne gymab for Dam

micclan ogan; eniges oares PCilnges: butan pes 75

anes brogan. ne nan mann ne mmg mtberstan

pam bradan fyre: ahwider. and bst fyr bonne. afeor-

mao bas eoroan and hi geedniwaZ. to enlicum hiwe.

and heo ne bib na forburnen: ac bi5 geclnsod

from eallum bam fylpum be hyre fram frymie 80

becomon. and heo swa on ecnysse eall scinende

purhwuna3; On pare nihte beoB twegen on anum

bedde. an para bib genumen. and ober bib forlm-

ten; Niht is her gecweden for 6mre .yten-

nysse. and for Dmre mycelan ehtnysse on ante- 85

cristes timan. Donne beob twegen menn on anum

bedde wtgadere. an para bib genumen: and ober

bib forleten; ba beob ponne on bedde: be beob on p. 104

stillnysse. and fram eallum woruldcarum amtige. Done

beo6 and godes peowdom bega6 mid goodum inngehyde 90

ac hi ne beob na twegen: ac on twa todmlede; Obre

beo6 gecorene and gode gecweme. oore beob mid hi-

wunge on his peowdome afundene; Ponne genimo

se helend to hys heofonlican rice pa be entige

wmron fram eallum woruldcarum afre on his 95

beowdome o6 bone endenyhstan drag. and sume eac

of bam be ungeslige wsron and mid leasre hiwun-

ge. and lyffetunge ferdon: he forlat beftan hym.










and hi beo3 bonne belocene .;i-utan bare ecan

myrhbe; Swa bi3 se an genumen. and se o0er for- 100

laten: be on Dam bedde beob bonne gemette. jEt is

on Pere stilnysse heora stab )lfastan modes.

na twegen menn ana*ac on twa wisan gemodode.

obre mid soWfestnysse. oare nid hivwunge;

Nwa crinda pbonne on anre cwyrne atgadere. 105

se an biV genumen and seo oter bi6 forlaten;

r he cwew twegen. Nu he cwne twa on anre cwyr-

ne emlice grindende; Pet synd Da woruldmenn

be woruldbing bega6. and seo woruldcaru is Pere

cwyrne wi7meten. be afre gm? abutan ymbe 110

fela gebohtas and mislicum dFdum be menn be-

hofia6. and hefegun geswincur swa swa ge sylfe witon

Be bysum he ctwi t.w. and nolde cweian twegen.

foraam r e hi solice ne beo5 on swylcere full-

fremednysse bt hi sylfe magon hy sylfum 115

wissian. ac hy sceolan lybban be heora lareowa

wissunge. bisceopa. and msssepreosta. and heora

misdEda betan be heora scrifta tscincge.

and of heora tilunge don syrnle mlriyssan. ac hi p. 105

ne magon swa beah bamr beon geefenlhte be 120

ealle bing forleton. for as halendes lufon.

and hym afre beowodon; For.i synd twa gecwede-






-46-


ne. and na twe-en veras. for 1aI woruldcarur: be hi

onwuniaa; Of ban voruldnannur witodlice

beob on tua visan e'odode and nislice gelogode. 125

sume beon gecorene. sume wi'ercorene.

sume hi libbal heora lif rihtlice. sume policee .

and on synnu= geendiaB. bonne inin se hrlenl

to hys heofonlican rice on barn icclan dage

of bam woruldnannum 'a *e mid goodum 130

willan and woorcum cfre hyn mr gecwendan o?

heora lifes ende. and ba rwidercorenan beo6

vwiutan belocene. bonne bi seo an genu-

men. and seo oSer forlhten; Twegen beo5

on recere erisende mtgmdere. se an bi8 135

genumen and se o3er bi6 forlten; Her he .

twegen. and nolde cueban twa. for bire full-

fremednysse and fmgerum. gebingbun be

pa habban sceolan be on godes zcere

swincaO; Godes ecer is godes gelabung. bt is 140

eall cristen folc be on crist gelyfb sra swa

paulus cwMa? on sumum his pistole to pam

geleaffullum mannum be he to geleafan

gebigde; Dei agriculture estis. dei edificatio

estis; *t is on english; Ge synd godes tilung 145

and godes getimbrung; 'ita3 nu bis. Biscopas

and ,assepreostas syndon manna lareoTas.

hi sceolan hogian ynbe bc3s hmlendes ti-






-47-
lunge bt hi manega sawla of nanncynne

gestrynan bam welwillendan helende be wile 150
p. 106
us habban; Hi sceolon bone cristendom don

cristes folce, and mid heora lare symle to geleafan

wenian, and aefre mid weorcurn hym wel bysnian.

and on heora beowdome be hi gode beowia6: hym

forehingian. bonne beob hi rihtlice godes tilian 155

on pen gastlican ecere. and hi swa miclum beo)

on maran gebingbe: swa hi ma sawla of mann-

cynne begyta6 to heofonan rice, and hi habba9

ealdordom on bam ecan life ofer eallum bam

sawlum be hy gode gestryndon mid bIre gast- 8 160

lican teolunge; Is swa beah to lyt PEra lareowa

nu be bus don will. and is ranncynn forbi miclum

geyrmed. forbaor be m-rs is feava folces

lareowa e geornlice hocie hu man yfel alegce.

and unrihtrisnysse. and riht arare s.-a swa we re- 165

da6 on bocun; Canes muti non possunt latrare;

Hi synd ba dunban huncaC[s}. and hy ne magon beor-

can; Pis cwum se witeca be godes lareowum.

be noldan bodian and gebiran manncynn to

godes willan ba on bam tinn be hi we~ron. 170

nu is hit gyt w:yrse on urun tiran. _eMt we ealle

suwiab and unriht ga, ford openlice and digollice

anO we embe ne hogia(; libodlice ba lareowas









be us lar of con. hi bododan bam hcmenum

and bam hetelun ehterun. and heora lif sealdon 175

for godes Seleafan. ac we ne durran nu to barn

gedyrstlr3ccan. 17t we cristenum cyninge onge

cristenu_ folce codes beboda and godes willan

secgan; ;u synd twegen gec-e-e' e code

tilian sceolan on b~re gastlican tilunye 180
p. 107
on godes ;ela)unce. forl0am e hi ne beor

ealle on ane wisan ceworhte; L...,r- hi beo5

Geornfulle. surne gynelease. sume anrade

sume asolcene. sume nyttiryrSe. sume s- ie

fremfulle. sune swie deri. rnde; o. bi? 185

se an Cenunen. and se obor forlten. ji se

hemlend genira to his -.--. eng lurn a o'dan

lareoiras in to codes rice. and ba yfelan beol viS-

utan belocene; On bisum bring endebyrdnyssun

bi6 eall rnancynn belocen. twegen on ban bedde 190

and tta -:t )bre cwyrne. twegen on ban mcere sva

svia ge cehyrdon nu; 'i andwyrdan ba and hyne

ahsodon buss; ier beo? hi gehumene;

And he hym c to; Swa hTr swa beet hold bib:

bider gaderia -_ earnas; sundor'ir1-n 195

ahsodan bone helend ba bus. hiider ba Coodan

sceoldan cecri e beon. o')e huider ba yfelan

beon forl-2tene; -a andwyrde he be bamr









goodum: and nolde be bam yfelum; Pa earnas

getacniab pa gebungenan halgan, and swa swa earnas 200

hi gegaderia? bzr br bat hold bi5. swa beo5 pa

halgan weras to bam hmlende gegadorade mer

bar he on menniscnysse mihtiglice rihsa?.

soo mann and so) god: an godes sunu Ibs elmih-

tigan feder. mid bam he afre ricsa6 and mid bam 205

halgan gaste on anre godcundnysse amen;

Pa be beo5 forletene and belocene wibutan

of bar brim werodum. ba gewenda3 to helle

mid eallum deoflum fordemede on ecnysse

and hi nmfre sy6dan nane miltsunge ne begitan. 210

forbam ne hi efre zer on synnum nwunedon;

We habba6 nu gescd hu 8a sundorhalgan ahsodon p. 108

bone helend be ende bissere worulde. nu wille

we eow secgan sceortlice gif we magon: hu hys

agene leorningcnihtas hyne ahsodon be bam. 215

swa swa seo boc us cy6 be bam ylcan; Interroga-

tus Ihesus a discipulis de consumnntione Seculi. dixit els;

Cum autem videritis abhominationem. desoluti-

onis. et reliqua; Ta halgan apostolas be mid pan

hmlende ferdon. -,. ba he her on worulde 'unode 220

mid mannum: ahsodan hyne endenys be bissere

worulde geendunge. he hym ba andwyrde and hyn

bus to crwen; Ponne ge ceseo7 standan on bare






-50-


halcan stowe onscuniendlic deofolgild swa

sTI. clanihel a:rat. se ?e brt rzde onbe r=adan 225

gehyre. undergyte he bonne bas witegan word;

Ta be on iudea lande bonne lybbende beo?:

ba fleo' ~honne to muntum and to nicclum dunun. and se 3e

on his huse bin on v-1 healicun hrofe. ne a-

stire he bonne of ram sticolan hrofe. t he hys 230

yddisce ahredde he on ban house bin; And se

on Pcere beo ymbe hys tilunge. ne cyrre under-

b'c to senimenne hys reaf; :'a lbam eacniendum

on ':. y1felum dagun and ra fedendum on >ere

frecednysse; "idda eornostlice bat 7.' ne beo 235

on wiintra one on rested e ;t t

beo5; ionne beoa wit.. lice swylce -' 'efed-

nyrssa svylce nmCfre ar n.ran: ne eft ne e-

turlba5; ~it Id .escyrte ba sorhfullan

dacas: eall manncynn forturde. uitodlice 240

"it --lere; Ac for hys gecorenun he --scyrte

ba gas; Gif hIvra bonne eot s -l) b3t crist sylf

beo ki on worulde uni ; : rnnum p. 109

ne =7yfe ge _. for2ban be on ban timan lease cristas

arisa,. and fela tcn, ,rcal: nenn to beswicenne 245

mid heora scinc .; .. and eac ba corenan

nenn cif hit cer-.;" warnilar eoa georn-

lice ic eow .., ona f*-r ]pre








gedrefednysse adeorca3 seo sunne and mid ealle

abeostrai. and eac se mona. and steorran fealla6 famr- 250

lice of heofonum: and heofonan mihta beo5 bonne

astyrode; ienn geseob bonne mannes sunu

cumende on ban healicurm wolcnum mid nicclum

wuldre. he asent bonne soilice hys englas. and hy

gegaderia6 godes gecorenan menn fram barn 255

feowor windum bissere worulde. and of 1bre eor5an

up o6 Ia heofonan; We habba,5 nu gesmd. bis

halige Codspell anfealdum andgyte. and we eac

will? bDt gastlice andgyt purh god eow secgan;

?a halgan apostolas pe mid ban helende ferdon 260

pa ba he her on worulde uunode mid mannum:

ahsodan hyne endemes be bissere worulde ge-

endunge. he hym pa andwyrde and hym bus to cwmi;

Donne ge geseo? standan on b1re halgan stowe

onscunigendlic doofolgyld sra swa danihel 265

awrat: se 3e bat rede: o?)e bat rcdan gehyre:

undergyte he bonne bas witegan word; Iu on

ealdum dagun -Er )an be cristendom wmre: menn

worhton deofolgyld wide geond bas world. and hi

Ibrto [ eb-don. ac ure rrihten adwsscte pone 270

h:3enscype mid hys halgan tocyme. and pone cristen-

don arc-rde burh hyne sylfne rest. and burh

hys leorningcnihtas. and burh hys lareowas







-52-


sy?)an; IHu ne TyrcF nan mann nu on bysurw timan p. 110

Gif he releafan hlof h'bencyld openlice. ac se ar- 775

leasa antecrist on Pissere worulde iyrcl fela

wundra burh hys feondlican mihte. and burh godes

gebafu:. :. and seg) bayt he o si. and burh hys mycclan

wnmdra nern buga5 to hym and on hine gelyfai hym

syl : to fornyrde. ac ba gecorenan 'an 280

hym wi6cueBan fre beah ba gedwolan .

r'ullduri gelyfan; ':-t bi rnare deofol Id

brnne se deofollica antecrist h n godes '. -

mynt ge-' .i e; And hyne god tali,--. en

to zebiddan purh hys 1 tacna. and "' 1l. 5

forseon: De is eall soC ;t.. -; On -i

stowe stent '-'ru-e lot deofcl-ld swT/a ST se ostol

aurrat on sunum hys pistole; Ita ut in templo dei sedeat

ostendens se tanquau sit deus; .. mt he sitt on -odes

t-* le. and ... *5 gt he god sy; Aim farai mid mfre 2'

-:. :e:enlice -,oflu. burh 5a: he Tyr,- wmndra

wide b-. as eorian. and ofer callum mnnm- nEa

* ec .3 seo eht-- -s; ea Be on iu 1 e ...e

libt. e beoa; fleo5 to muntum and to nicclum

duunn,. se 9e on Ils use l on -am healicum 295

hrofe. ne as'L he bonne of sticolan hrofe

1c2t h' e1 hr e e on bl; And

se oe on ecere beo 1. tilunee. ne cyrre







-53-


he underbcc to genimene hys reaf; TJe no-

ton eow secoan sur swa ge magon understandan. 300

hwilcum anfealdlice be eowrum andgite. hwilum

eow geopenian ba inran 1. -13' rsse. forbam be

e eaee ne -.- j hyt eall understandan; 'a ban

eacriendur on yfelun dagum. and ban fedendum

on bmre frecednysse; -:'t agylta pba wif De be 301

-odes hose ty:. and Ieora child fedal on Mere

ro.~i rsse. ac bis is -ecTreden be 7-. leasum cristenum

be beoa nid leahtrum afyllede sun sua gefearhsugu.

and mid unurencum 1a un-nran fordod: heora yfel

-re-rrnia-. Ice mid forste; 3idd A eornostlice 310

_t t ne beo on wintra on,' on restenda3e. Done ge

inti 3; e ..e he Done winter be -uunelice

c on as res y !-. ac sa swa he on o8re

stowe c-?39; ula a a ibit iniquitas refri ..Ecet

caritas multorum; _t is on engliscur cereorde. >_t on bam

yfelan timan arist sco unrihtwis yss. and s,-ie ge-

Si lt. and seo sobe lufu swi5e acolan. na ealra

ac swi5e at. .: t hy nateshron ne

lufia' .e lific, ocd. ne hyra nyhstan. ne

fu. sylfe. for;on se Be God ne lufal: ne lufa9 320

he sylfne; oe lestendag is sua sun we rcda6.

on 1:1 freols : on idea folce. s in swa







-54-


we healdan bone halgan sunnandg. frame worold-

licum weorcum. and we sceolan wilnian afre. and at

gode biddan bmt we ne beon atige frame goodun 325

wcorcun. and on godes lufan acolode: bonne us se

endenyhsta d'g onsiSende bi; Donne bcoo witod-

lice swylce cedrefednyssa scrylce n3fre cr ne

genwAr?' ; licel ehtnys iras on anginne cristen-

r .. and eac lange syban for cristes geleafan. 330

-r 'am be nrn mihte bysne middaneard

ebigan frame an hmbenscype be hy on afedde

imron to ham soan eleafan bc3s lyfigce' an

codes; :an ac we-.l .e ba cristenan mid nislicun

cwylminisum. anid i ei 1, fealdum ti ..-, hi -e- 335

martyrode. ac hym geune se h1lend jt hy mihton ba p. 112

vyrcan ha ilcan wundra be he sylf geworhte; 'i ne

'i" hit 1ia sia on antecristes timan. he tintregao

Da halgan. and eac tacna uyrc?. and 1_ a *lnlan ne magon

on tirmn Ce'-. rca. cLnige tacna. ac hi yfele beo3 340

for ban e crefede: bonne se deo ol Vr n.menigfealde

wundra. and hi sylfe ne magon nane mihte Gefrerman

on mnna gesihe; 0 onne wet se deofol and ge itnc

ba haloan. mid slcwun nTundrui: sia we secjan ne magon.

and : I. deofles nihte: macac fela wundra; .utan god 345

gescyrtte ba sorhfullan Jas: call manncynn for-

Turde: .ritodlice ~tgmdere. ac for his gecorenum

halgum: he gescyrte ba dagas; Preo gear he ricsa?






-55-


and syx mondas on mancynne. on eallre modignysse

ealle nid deofle afylled. and on eallum unbeawum. and egeslicum

fylium hys lif bib gelogod on bam lytlan fyrste. and

alcne mannan he tiht to hys fulum beawum; and on slce

vTisan he wile mancynn fordon; Ac for godes ge-

corenan. god hrada) hys timan; Gif hw.a bonne

eow ;: t orist sylf beo Donne wunigende on weorolde 355

mid manntm: ne gelyfe ge bIs, forbaym e lease cristas

on ; tian arisab. and fela tacna wyrcaL menn

ao beswicanne mid heora scincrmftum. and eac ba gecore-

nan menn gif hit gewurnan nag. warnia5 eor

eornostlice ic hit L e eow gescd; Lre nalend crist 360

ne c:-'j na to mancynne -..cnlice mteowed on

bissere reorolde. mr yam nicclan deLe: bonne he mann-

cyine d ac j1a leasan cristas and pa leasan witegan

bonne cuma6 on antecristes timan. hi syndon

hys lina. and hys leasan geferan. and geond Das world 365

fara3 mid feondlicum create. and to fela bes:icab mid

heora scincrcfte. ac .a beo3 ge ealdene e Durhvunial p. 113

oB ende on cristes geleafan. sia s-wa he sylf gecvr5:

he gewarnode Da swa swa bis gewrit us seg6 hys hal-

gan apostolas, and eac us burh hi. Dlt we georne healdan hys

elea:-n mfre. and ure lif syllan: mr we hyne wihsacon.

and hyt soilice gewyr6 si-a svwa he sylf sede. swa svwa re

nu r2ddon on bissere redinge; Sona after p3re






-56-

Gedrefednysse adeorcal seo sunne. and mid ealle

abeostram. and eac se nona. and steorran fealla6 fmrlice 375

of heofonun and heofona~n nihta beo3 bonne astyrode;

Sona after >care ehtnysse bil antecrist ofslaGen.

burh cristee mihte on hys tocyme. and en;la werodu

beol astyrede. and mid I-ta h-:lende cuma? of ban

heofonlican brym~e svrutollice mteowde. si,- swnra 380

us ~- -' bis godspell; renn geseo hbonne r~nnes

sunu cuniende. on ban healicun wolcnun nid nicclum

'-uldre; Crist sylf is mannes sunu st- srl he sFde

foroft. he is anes nannes sunu swa. swr. nran owner man

nis. he : -. bonne on hln ;olcnum i1 icclun 385

-Tuldre. to ba_ niccl'n done smu s--" hit a-rriten is;

Pe sent sollice las. hi -er-aderia'

codes :- rrenan menn fr feover windir bissere

worulde. and of brre eor i. up oB bo. heofon-n; ta englas

bonne -.a'I heora -.n hlude, and eall imaricyn artist 390

be -3fre cucu rws. of heora byrgenun. a englas ge-

briwlab 'a --corenan nennr to cri-te sy' b2 _t hi nid

hin ricsian on heoif :- rice on li chan on sale

ges-'liGlice .' Crist c7'5 on oire stoi-e be be ar-

leasun Iuss: i 11i et .' ,,los de 395

nedio iustoru_ et mittent eos in canlnun i ibi erit

fletus et stridor denti ~ ; _l on lisc; '. 1- farab

bonne uad L -. rial ]-t -felan r I -. -, .f.llan menn p. 114






-57-


fram pan rihtwisum be ricsia8 mid gode. and awurpao hi

ealle into Dam widgillan fyre I>re bradan helle. 430

on 1cre hy byrna6 afre. ]ar bi3 wop and wanung

and toga gristbitunZ. and hi nahw-ar ne inuniaB butan

on le.m wituu afre; coolice : ha-lgan si1iaa mid

cricte to heofonan rice mid hys halgun englum. ge

wTeres wifmenn sir sin hi on worulde lyfodon. 405

and si", .. niavo esrll-e mid hin on unasccgend-

licre blisse a butan ende. AIii;

































TRANSLATION













TRANSLATION


Interrogatus autem Ihesus a phariseis quando

venit regnum dei et reliqua.

The holy book which tells of Christ's wonders

says that the pharisees, on a certain occasion, asked

our Savior Christ about His coming, and about God's

kingdom on that great day which we call the Day of

Judgment. And He answered them thus: "God's king-

dom will come according to no calculation. Nor will

men ever say 'Lo, He is coming now,' because He will 10

come suddenly, even as swift lightning which shoots

from the east, shining to the west. And just as it

happened long ago in Noah's flood: Men ate and

drank and lived foolishly, young men took wives and

women took husbands, until Noah went into the ark.

Then the flood came suddenly over them all, and all

mankind drowned, except for the eight people who

were in the ark as God had commanded them.

And just as afterwards in the days of Lot it

happened again: Men ate and drank, bought and sold,

built and planted, and went about their husbandry. 20

Then, as soon as Lot was led out of the city, God


-59-





-60-


immediately sent fire and brimstone as if it had

been a shower of rain and completely burned up the

five cities.

Even so will it be on the day when our Lord is

revealed, and He comes to judge all mankind in that

great judgment, each by his works. If anyone at that

time is about his work, or in his field, he will not

be able to hasten so that he may save anything, or

bring away garments or vessels.

On that night there will be two men in one bed. 30

One of them will be taken, and the other left. And

two women will be grinding together in one mill.

The one will be taken, and the other left. Two men

will be in a field plowing together. The one will

be taken and the other left."

They answered then, and asked Him thus: "Whither

will they be taken?" And He said to them "Where-

soever the body is, there the eagles will gather."

Now we wish to explain to you briefly, if we

may, the most hidden words in this gospel of the 40

Lord, for you can not easily understand it all. We

have now heard in this holy gospel that we cannot

calculate, nor is it known to any man, when our

Savior will come to judge mankind on the last day

of this world. But we believe, nevertheless, that






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it has not been said untruly to us that He will

come with His shining angels at the ending of this

world to judge us, each by his works, and that He

will then give to those who have obeyed Him, and 50

to those who have gladdened Him with good works

ever1 eternal joy and eternal dwelling among all

His saints in the kingdom of Heaven.

The wretched sinners who rejected Him in life,

and with evil deeds always provoked Him, these

shall be sunk in that dark Hell with the accursed

devils for ever and ever. And whoever does not

believe this, his belief is nothing. The Savior

told us truly a parable about Noah's flood, and

Lot's redemption. Now, some of you know how it

was with Noah, and with his flood, but many of you 60

do not know how it was with Lot. Therefore, we

wish to tell you.

Of old, Lot was the name of a certain holy

servant of God, a nephew of Abraham. Then, before

the law of Moses, he lived in the evil country of

the citizens of Sodom. They were evil men and dis-

gracefully made themselves guilty in shameful deeds.

Then God burned them up, with their five cities,

with heavenly fire and hellish brimstone. But He







-62-


sent on before two shining angels to the faithful

Lot, and led him out of that corrupt people, so

that he might not perish with them. 70

Even so will it be on the Day of Judgment at the

coming of our Lord. The fire will come so suddenly

that men will not be able to foresee it, and with

fearful flame it will cover all the world. And

because of the great terror, men will take heed of

no other thing except that one fear. No man will be

able to escape that great fire anywhere. And the

fire will purge the earth and will restore it to a

form beyond compare, and it will not be burnt up, but 80

will be purged of all the filth which has entered into

it since the beginning. And thus it shall remain, all

shining through eternity.

"On that night two men will be in one bed. One

of them will be taken and the other left." Night is

said here for the ignorance and the great persecution

in the time of antichrist. Then will two men be in one

bed together. One of them will be taken and the other

will be left. Those are in bed who are in tranquillity,

and free from all worldly cares. And they go about

God's husbandry with good conscience. Yetthey are 90

not simply two men, but divided into two worts. Some

are chosen and pleasing to God. Others are found












hypocritical in His service. Then the Savior will

take to His heavenly kingdom those who were ever free

from all worldly cares in His service up to the last

day. But some of those who were unblessed, and acted

with false appearances and flattery, He will leave

behind Him, and they will then be locked out from 100

the eternal joy. Thus will the one be taken and the other

left who will there be met in that bed, that is, in

the stillness of their steadfast minds. Not simply

two men, but in two ways disposed--the one with faith-

fulness, the other with hypocrisy.

"Two women will then be grinding in one mill to-

gether. The one will be taken, and the other left."

Before He said two men. Now He says two women in one

mill patiently grinding. Those are the worldly men

who cultivate worldly things. And worldly care is 110

likened to the mill, which ever goes about concerned with

the many thoughts and various deeds which occupy men,

and with heavy labors such as you yourselves know.

For this reason He said two women, and did not wish

to say two men, because they truly are not in such

perfection that they may rule themselves, but they

must live according to the guidance of their teachers--











bishops and priests--and amend their misdeeds by

the direction of their confessor, and by their

endeavors always to do alms. But they may not, 120

nevertheless, be equal to those who forsake all

things for the love of the Savior, and ever serve

Him. Therefore is said two women, and not two men,

because of the worldly cares among which they live.

Concerning laymen, they are truly of two minds, and

diversely disposed. Some are chosen, some reprobate.

Some live their lives justly, some evilly, and they

end in sin. Then the Savior will take to His

heavenly kingdom on that great day those of the lay- 130

men who always pleased Him with good will and works

until the end of their lives. And the reprobate will

be closed out. Then will the one woman be taken, and

the other left.

"Two men will be plowing toge :her in a field. One

will be taken, the other left." Here He said two

men, and did not wish to say two women, because of

the perfection, and the fair dignity which they should

have who work in God's field. God's field is God's 140

congregation, that is, all Christian folk who believe

in Christ, even as Paul said in one of his epistles

to the faithful men whom he brought to belief: "Dei


-64-







-65-


agriculture estis; Dei edificatio estis." That is

in English, "You are God's husbandry and God's

building." Now know you this: Bishops and priests

are the teachers of men. They should care for the

husbandry of the Savior so that they will gain many

souls from mankind for the loving Savior who wishes 150

to have us. They ought to give Christianity to

Christ's people, and with their learning ever draw

them to redemption, and always set them good examples

with works. And, in their prayers, those who serve

God ought to intercede for them. Then are they

truly husbandmen for God in the spiritual field. And

they will be as great in additional honor, as they

obtain more souls of mankind for the kingdom of

Heaven. And they will have authority in the eternal

life over all the souls that they gained for God 160

with their spiritual husbandry.

There are, however, too few teachers who will

now do thus, and mankind is greatly afflicted because

there are so few teachers of the people who earnestly

care how man may suppress evil and unrighteousness, and

praise the right. Even as we read in books: "Canes

muti non possunt latrare." They are dumb dogs and they

cannot bark. This is what the prophet said about God's






-66-


teachers who would not preach, and bend mankind to God's 170

will at the time they lived. Now it is even worse in

our time when we are all silent, and unrighteousness

goes forth openly and secretly, and we do not care

about it. Truly those teachers from whom knowledge

has come to us--they preached to the heathens and to

hostile persecutors, and gave their lives for God's

faith. But now we do not dare to tell God's commands

and God's will to a Christian king or to Christian folk.

Now they are called two men, those who ought to 180

labor for God in spiritual husbandry in God's church,

because they are not all made in one way. Some are

eager, some negligent, some resolute, some lazy, some

useful, some exceedingly profitable, some very harmful.

Then the one will be taken and the other left when the

Savior takes the good teachers to His holy angels in

God's kingdom, and the evil are closed out. All man- 190

kind is encompassed in these three orders: two in the

bed, two at the mill, and two in the field even as

you have just heard.

"They answered then and asked Him thus: 'Whither

will they be taken?' and He said to them, 'wheresoever

the body is, there the eagles will gather.'" The

pharisees then asked the Savior thus: "Where will the

good be taken, or where will the evil be left?" He

answered then concerning the good, but He would not






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answer concerning the evil. The eagles signify the 200

noble saints and like eagles they will gather there

where that body is. So will the holy men be gathered

to the Savior there where He will arise mightily in

human nature, true man and true God, the only son

of the Father Almighty, with whom He will ever rule,

and with the Holy Ghost in one Godhead, Amen. Then

they will be left, and closed out of the three groups

those who will go to Hell, condemned with all the

devils into eternity. And they will never after 210

receive any mercy because they always dwelt in sin

before.

Now have we told you how the pharisees asked the

Savior about the end of this world. Now we wish to

tell you shortly, if we may, how his own disciples

asked Him about it, even as the Book tells us about

that same thing.

Interrogatus Ihesus a discipulis de concummatione

seculi. Dixit eis: "Cum autem videritis abhominationem

desolationis et reliqua."

The holy apostles who were with the Savior while 220

He was living here on earth among men also asked Him

about the ending of this world. He answered the then,

and said thus to them: "When you see the abominable

idol standing in the holy place, even as Daniel described






-68-


(he who reads that or hears it read, let him then

understand the words of the prophet) those who are

then living in Judea will then flee to the mountain,

and to the great hills. And let him who is on the 230

high top of his house not descend from the roof in

order to rescue his household goods which are inside

the house. And he who is in the field about his

husbandry, let him not turn back to take his robe.

"Woe to those with child in the evil days, and

to those nursing in the peril. Pray earnestly that

it be not in the winter, or on the day of rest when

you are idle. Then will there truly be such dis-

turbance as never before was nor again will be.

Except that God cut short those sorrowful days, all

mankind would truly perish together. But for His 240

chosen He will cut short the days. If anyone tells

you, then, that Christ himself is living in the

world among men, do not believe it, because in that

time false christs will arise, and will do many miracles

in order to deceive men with their magic, and even the

chosen ones if it might come to pass. Zealously take

heed. I have said it to you.

"Immediately after the oppression the sun will be

darkened, and will be eclipsed completely. And also 250






-69-

the moon and the stars will fall suddenly from the

sky, and the powers of Heaven will then be stirred up.

Men will then see the Son of Man coming in the high

clouds with great glory. He will then truly send forth

His angels, and they will gather God's chosen men from

the four winds of this earth, and from the earth up

to the Heavens."

We have now told this holy gospel on one level,

but we also wish, through God, to reveal to you the

spiritual meaning.

The holy apostles who were with the Savior when 260

He lived here on earth among men also asked Him about

the ending of this world. He answered them then, and

said thus to them: "When you see the abominable idol

standing in the holy place, even as Daniel described

(he who reads that, or hears it read, let him then

understand the words of the prophet)." Long ago, in

the olden days, before Christendom existed, men made

idols widely through the world and prayed to them.

But our Lord quenched heathenship with His holy coming, 270

and exalted Christendom through his own resurrection, and

by His disciples and His teachers afterwards. Now no man

in this time, if he has belief, performs idolatry

openly. But the impious antichrist does many miracles

in this world through his fiendish might, and through

God's consent. And he says that he is God, and, because






-70-


of his great wonders, men bow down to him, and believe

in him, to their own undoing. But the chosen saints 280

will resist him forever, although the heretic will

believe his heresy. Lo it is a great idolatry when

the devilish antichrist appropriates to himself God's

glory, and considers himself to be God, and men bow

down to him because of his false miracles, and reject

the Savior who is all truth. In the holy place will

then stand the idol as the apostle described in one

of his epistles, "Ita ut in templo dei sedeat ostendens

se tamquam sit dis." "So that he sits in God's temple 290

and says that he is God." Invisible devils always go

with him, through whom he works miracles widely over

all the earth, and over all mankind will fall the

persecution.

"Those who are then living in Judea will then flee

to the mountain, and to the great hills. And let him

who is on the high top of his house not descend from

the roof in order to rescue his household goods, which

are inside his house. And he who is in the field about

his husbandry, let him not turn back to take his robe."

We must tell you even as you may understand, to 300

each one singly according to your understanding to open

to you at times the inner meaning, for you may not easily

understand it all.






-71-


"Woe to those with child in the evil days, and to

those nursing in the peril." In what do the women

offend who bear child by God's command, and feed their

children in the peril? But this is said about the

false Christians who are filled with sin even as a

farrowing sow, and who destroy the unwary with evil

tricks. And their evil is betokened by the food. 310

"Pray earnestly that it be not in winter or on

the day of rest when you are idle." He means not the

winter which ordinarily comes in the course of the

year, but as He said in another place: "Quia

abundabit iniquitas refrigescet caritas multorum." That is

is, in the English tongue that in the evil time will

arise unrighteousness, and it will multiply exceed-

ingly, and true love will become exceedingly cool,

not in all men, but in very many, so that they will

not love the living God at all, nor their neighbor,

nor even themselves. For he who does not love God 320

does not love himself.

The day of rest is, even as we read in the Holy

Book, a free day among the people of Judea, even as

we hold the holy Sunday from worldly works. And we



The translation of this sentence follows the Hatton
YS. See the note to lines 309-310.






-72-


should always wish, and pray to God that we are not

empty of good works, and chilled in God's love when

the last day has descended upon us.

"Then will there truly be such disturbance as has

never before been." There was great persecution in the

beginning of Christendom, and also long afterward for 330

belief in Christ, before this world could be turned

from the heathenship on which it was nourished, to the

true belief in the living God. But Christians were

ruled with diverse tortures, and martyred with manifold

tortures. But the Savior allowed them [the Christians]

to do the miracles that He Himself did. Now it will

not be so in the time of antichrist. He will torture

the saints and work miracles too, and the saints will 340

not be able to perform any wonders then and they will

be grievously vexed for that reason. Then the devil

will work manifold wonders, and they themselves [the

saints] will not be able to perform any mighty work

in the sight of man. Then the devil will become

angry, and will chastise the saints with such wonders

as we are not able to describe, and with devil's

might he will make many wonders.

"Zxcept that God cut short those sorrowful days,

all mankind would truly perish together. But for His







-73-


chosen saints He will cut short the days." For three

years and six months he will rule over mankind in all

pride, completely filled with the devil. And his 350

life will be lodged in all faults and in fearful

filth in that little time. And he will exhort each

man to his foul service, for He wishes to destroy

mankind by any means. But for His chosen, God will

hasten His time.

"If anyone tells you, then, that Christ himself

is living in the world among men, do not believe it,

because in that time false Christs will arise, and

will do many miracles in order to deceive men with

their magic, and even the chosen men if it might come

to pass. Earnestly take heed. I have said it to you." 360

Our Savior Christ will not come to mankind openly

revealed in this world before that great day when

He will judge mankind. But the false Christs and the

false prophets will come then in the time of anti-

christ. They are his limbs and his false companions.

And they will go throughout this world with fiendish

cunning, and will deceive too many with their magic.

But those who persevere until the end in belief in

Christ will be saved, even as He Himself said. He

warned his holy apostles, even as this scripture tells







-74-


us, and also [He warned] us through them, that we 370

diligently hold to His belief ever, and give our

lives before we reject Him. And truly it will come

do pass even as He Himself said, as we now read in

this lesson.

"Immediately after the oppression the sun will be

darkened and will be eclipsed completely. And also

the moon and the stars will fall suddenly from the

sky, and the powers of Heaven will then be stirred up."

Immediately after the persecution antichrist will be

slain through Christ's might at His coming. And bands

of angels will be stirred up, and will come with the

Savior from the heavenly powers, openly to earth even 380

as this gospel tells us: "Men will then see the Son

of Man coming in the high Heavens with great glory."

Christ Himself is the Son of Man even as He has often

said. He is the son of one person as no other man is.

He will come then in the clouds with great glory to

that great judgment even as it is written: "He will

then truly send forth His angels, and they will

gather God's chosen men from the four winds of this

earth and from the earth up to the Heavens." The

angels will then blow their horns loudly and all of 390

mankind, who ever were alive, will arise from their







-75-


graves. And the angels will bring the chosen men to

Christ Himself so that they may reign with Him in

the Kingdom of Heaven, happy forever in body and soul.

In another place Christ spoke of the wicked thus:

"Exibunt angel et separabunt malos de medio iustorum

et mittent eos in caminum ignis ibi erit fletas et

stridor dentium." In English that means, Angels will

come then and will separate the evil and the sinful

men from the righteous who will rule with God. And 400

they will cast them all into the widespreading fire

of that broad Hell, in which they will burn forever.

There will be cries, and wailing, and also gnashing

of teeth, and they will dwell nowhere except in

misery forever.

Truly the saints will travel with Christ to the

Kingdom of Ieaven with Hiis holy angels, both men and

women, even as they lived in the world. And after-

wards they will dwell with Him happily, in ineffable

bliss world without end. AMEN



































NOTES
















NOTES


Neither minor differences in spelling, such as

D/6 or i/y, nor differences in punctuation have been

recorded in the notes, unless they are of critical import.

The following abbreviations are used in the notes:

C.---Corpus Christi College Cambridge MS 178

H.---Bodleian, Hatton 1MS 115

g.c.---Marginal or interlinear gloss in C.

g.h.---Marginal or interlinear gloss in H.



Title: Sermo de die iudicii: In H. this is set in the
first line of the Latin introduction, following
"Interrogatus autem."

1-38. This is a rough paraphrase of Luke 17:20, 24, 26-31,
34-37. It is, however, the disciples, not the
pharisees, who are questioning Christ in the bulk
of the Biblical passage (see Introduction).

3. Seo halige cristes boc: This appears in H. totally
in capitals.
halige: H. halie. "In unaccented syllables in 1 W-S
and [Kentishi the syllable -ig interchanges freely
with -1. . In such unaccented positions, however,
I would doubtless soon be shortened" (Campbell,
para. 267).
ymbe: H. embe. "In the second element of compounds,
Lor] with reduction of stress a and i can become
e . with i from y, unaccented embe from ymbe"
TCampbell, para. 372, and fn. 2).


-77-






-78-


4. spryc_ : H. sprec_. "Spryco" is the normal W-S
form. "Sprec" could be Northumbrian, east
Kentish, or Anglian" (Campbell, para. 733).
sunderhalgan: g.c. "farisei"
on sumne sal: g.c. "aliquando"; time

5. ahsodan: H. acxodan. g.c. "interrogabant"
urne hmlend crist: H. urne helend drihten crist
ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)

6. ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)

7. buss: H. bus

8. menn: H. men

9. na: H. naut
efne: g.c. "ecce"
cymr: H. cim_
forbam be: H. forban Be

10. liget: g.c. "fulgur"; g.h. "fulgur"

11. An[d]: H. and. This variation might be regarded
as an early manifestation of the loss of d between
n and s, which gave us "answer" from andswarian.
However, the O.E.D. does not cite the former
spelling until the 12th-13th centuries.
gefyrn: g.c. dadum

12. noeys: H. noes
menn: H. men

13. leofodan: H. leofodon
wifodan: H. wifodon
ceorlodan: H. ceorlodon

15. ofer hi ealle: H. offer hi
eall: H. eal

16. butan: g.c. "preter"
innan: g.c. "intra"

17. swa swa hym wissode god: H. swa swa him god wissode
lobes: m.g. lotes; g.h. lotes; g.h. lot


18. menn: H. men






-79-


19. bohtan: H. bohton
byttlodan: H. jytlodon; g.c. "fundabant"
plantodan: H. plantodon

20. beeodan: H. beeodon; g.c. "excercebant"

21. almd: g.c. "ductus." The regular form here would
be almded, but Campbell points out, "the pass.
part. should have syncope of -i- in open syllables
after long root syllables in trisyllabic
forms. . In W-S, however, there is a tendency
for parts. in dentals to extend syncopation to
uninflected forms, e.g. "gelmdd". . (paras.
752-3).

22. swefel: g.c. sulfur
renscur: g.h. "pluvia"

24-29. eallswa bi . obWe fata: The homilist seems
to have slipped momentarily, and, while still
following his source in essence, changes the
pronominal references, and expands the source
slightly.

24. tteowed: g.c. "ostensum," "apertum"; g.h. "ischawed."
The normal form of this verb is stiewian, but
"when eo was analogically introduced into a position
in which it was followed by i in the next syllable,
the product oC i-umlaut was lo even in W-S, and
this io became eo later. Hence we find many W-S
texts with io (eo) where we should expect ie,
because before unlaut took place, io had been
replaced by analogical eo" (Campbell, para. 202).

26. manncynne: H. mancynne

27. ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)
S. tilunge obWe . .: In H. there is inserted
between these two words one on his house which
brings the text closer to the Biblical passage.

28. mcere: In H. there is a k interlined over the c;
sgh. "agera"
geefstan: g.c. "preperare"; g.h. "festinare"
ahredde: g.h. "liberet"

29. geweda: H. Eewmdu; g.c. "vesteY; g.h. "vestes"
fata: H. fatu; g.c. vasaa"; g.h. vasaa"






-80-


30. twegen: g.c. ii
gra: H. ara. "1 W-S has as variants of r,
h __r: bar hwar, .ara" (Campbell, para. 67).

31. forleten: g.c. "relinquentur"
twa: g.c. 11

33. twegen: g.c. ii

35. andwyrdan: C.c. "responderunt"; There was an inter-
linear gloss in H. which has been erased. A
marginal gloss, however, reads "responderunt."
ahsodan buss: H. acsodon bus

37. gadria3: H. gaderiab

39. diglostan: H. digloston; g.c. "secretiora verba"

40. forbon: H. forbam
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"

43. [na]num: This appears in C. as nun, with na as an
interlinear addition, in a different hand, appearing
immediately before and above the word in text. H.
has the expected nannum.
menn: H. men

44. endenyhstan: H. endenextan

45. bysse: H. byssere
ac: H. a
gelyfa6: There is an e inserted directly over the
y in H.
ac we gelyfao: g.h. "si nos credimus"

46. alogen: m.g. "falsum mentitur"; g.h. mentitu?,"
"mentitu[m" [?]

48. demanne: H. demenne

49. bam: g.c. "qgubus"
gehyrsumedan: H. gehyrsumodon

50. gegladodan: H. geglododon; g.c. "placuerunt

51. ecan wununge: Approximately three letters have been
erased between these two words in C. In H. the
word mid appears in this position. Midwunung is
used elsewhere by Alfric to mean "living in
company."






-81-


53. earman: g.c. "miseres[?]." This is a regular second
decl. adj. and the form should be "miseri." Perhaps
it has been confused with third decl.
forsawan: H. forsawon; g.c. "spreverunt"; a gloss
in H. has been erased.

54. gremodan: H. gremodon

56. awyrgedum: H. awyregedum. Over the Z in H. has
been inserted an a.

57. gelyfeb: H. gelyf6

58. gelicnysse: g.c. "similitudinem"
lobes: g.c. lotes; g.h. lot

59. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"

60. fela: H. feala. The form feala occurs in Anglian
Tsee Campbell, para. 210.2 and fn. 2), but such
spellings occur sporadically in W-S (see Campbell,
para. 281).

61. LoB: g.h. lot
iu: g.c. quondamm"
There is also a g.c. reading "de lot exemplum"

62. pegn: H. been

63. T: g.c. lawe

64. burhware: H. buruhware; g.c. "civium"
sodomitiscre burhware: This must be g.p. and should
read sodomitiscra burhwara. However, burhware
is a pl. noun and the -e spelling may be carried
over from the normal nom. acc. endings. Then
sodomitiscre might appear in sympathy. The
endings are the same in both MSS, and because of
the late Old English reduction of unstressed
vowels to schwa, would represent the same
pronunciation.

65. menn: H. men
bysmorlice: g.c. "ridiculose"
forscyldgode: H. forscyldegode; g.c. "delinquentes";
g.c. "peccaveriunt"; g.h. delinquentse"

66. hi: g.c. "illos"

67. swefle: g.c. sulfure; g.h. sulfure

68. on er: g.c. "ante"
twegen: g.c. ii






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69. almdde: g.c. "duxit"

70. ne forwurde: g.c. "non interiret"
forwurde: g.h. "periret"
eall: H. eal

71. on dome[s] dege: This appears in C. as on dome dege,
but in H. as on domes dege. It is perhaps only a
matter of a forgotten letter in anticipation of the
dative form dmge.

72. menn: H. men
foresceawian: H. forsceawian; g.c. "prmvidere"

73. egeslicum: g.c. "terribilo"

74. menn: H.mmen
gymay: g.c. "curant"; g.c. and g.h. "capiunt curam"

75. ooan: g.c. "timorum"; g.h. "metu"
Li Jnges : H. hinges
butan: H. button

76. brogan: g.c. "terrorem"; g.h. "terrorem." brogan is
g.s. However, the Ln. glosses are clearly a.s.
mann: h. man
wtberstan: g.c. "evadere"

77. ahwider: g.c. "alicubi"
afeormaM: g.c. "purgat"

78. pas: g.h. "illam"
hi: g.h. "earn"
geedniwao: g.c."renovat"; g.h. "renovatur"
anlicum: g.c. "ameno," "jocundo"

80. from: H. fram

81. eall: H. eal

83. ?ara: H. bra (see note, line 30)
forl~ten: g.h. "relinquentur"

84. nytennysse: g.c. "ignorantiam"

85. ehtnysse: g.c. "persecutionenm"






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86. menn: H. men

87. bedde: g.h. "lecto"

88. M: g.c. "1111"
be beob on stilnysse: be refers to pa in this same
line, not to bedde.

89. stillnysse: g.c. "tranquillitate"
woruldcarum: g.h. "scientia"
smtige bonne beoQ: H. bonne emtige beoo

90. beowdom: g.c. "officium"
bega : g.c. "excercet"
goodum: H. godum
innsehyde: H. ingehyde; g.c. "sciencia"

91. twegen: g.c. "duo"

92. gode: g.h. "deo"
hiwunage: g.c. "simulatione"; g.h. "fictitia"

93. beowdome: g.c. officioo"
afundene: g.h. "probati"

96. o5: g.c. and g.h. "usque"
endenyhstan: H. endenextan

97. barm: g.c. "illis"
hiwunge: g.h. simulationn"

98. lyffetunge: g.c. and g.h. adulationn"

101. beo, bonne gemette: H. bonne beob gemette

103. menn: H. men
gemodode: H. gemodude; g.c. "animati"

104. hiwunge: g.c. "dissimulation"

105. bonne: g.h. "tunc"

106. seCoJ an biB genumen: se appears in C. The reading
seo is supported by H., by Latin renderings of the
text, and by subsequent reference in C. (see lines
133-134).

107. twegen: g.c. ii
twa: g.c. ii

108. emlice: g.c. "equanimiter"; g.h. "equaliter"
b]at synd . .: et is abbreviated in C. but written
out Dat in H. Its form is nsn., but the references
must be plural.






-84-

109. begai: g.c. "excercent"
woruldcaru: g.c. "studia"

110. wiometen: g.c. "aperatur"
ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)

ill. g.c. "exemplum"
fela: H. feala (see note, 1. 60)

112. behofia5: g.c. "indigent"
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"

114. forbam: H. forpan
fullfremednysse: H. fulfremednysse; g.c."perfectione"

115. hbt hi sylfe magon hy sylfum wissian: The reading in
H. is tet hi sylfe magon him sylfum wissian. Either
reading is possible, as wissian governs either d. or
a. This would entail a translation of the C. text:
"That they themselves cannot guide themselves by
themselves." If this is the earlier reading, the
error by the H. scribe is easily understood.

116. sceolan: H. sceolon
be heora lareowa: H. be lareowa

118. scrifta tacincge: H. scriftes tecinge

119. Tlmyssan: g.c. "operam" (see note on ymbe, line 3)

120. geefenlehte: g.c. "coequari," "imitantur"; g.h.
"assimiliati" L?] (a medieval variant of "assimilis"?)

121. ealle: This should appear as eal(l), but the -e
ending was widely adopted by analogy in 1 W-S.

122. peowodon: g.c. "ministrabant"

123. woruldcarum": g.c. "studio"

124. witodlice: g.c. "certe"

125. remodode: H1. gemodade
geloaode: g.c. "dispositi"

126. wilercorene: g.c. "reprobi"

127. police: g.c. indirectt"

130. goodum: H. godum






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131. gecwendan: H. gecwemdon
o_: g.c. "usque"

132. ba: g.h. 'eos"
winercorenan: g.c. "reprobi"

135. acere: There is a k interlined over the c.

13'. .er he c~wq: H. 'Te cwi

137. fullfremednysse: H. fulfremednysse;
g.c. 'perfectionem"

138. fagerum: g.c. "pulcra"
getingbum: g.c. "apice'"

143. geleaffulum: It appears from the rS that the scribe
wrote geleaffulan, and then attempted to emend it
to its present form. The reading in H. is
geleaffulum.

144. "Dei agriculture estis, dei edificatio estid': (St.
Paul) I Cor. 3:9. "ye are God's husbandry, ye
are God's building."
gebigde: g.c. "nimt

145. ge: g.c. "vos"
ge synd: H. ge syndon; g.h. ge beo9
godes tilung: P. godes eorl teolung

146. wita:i g.c. "custodite'
Biscopas: H. Bisceopas. During the late O.E. period
one of the great changes in accented vowels was the
monophthongization of diphthongs so that eo0o
(see Campbell, para. 329). This must be an early
inverted spelling.

147. manna: C. reads mannna

148. hi sceolon: H. his seolon. There is a c interlined
above the se of seolon in a different hand, and the
word separation is not clear.

149. manega: U-S has prevailingly -a [in apf.] (Campbell,
642); H. naga; g.h. "possint." either reading
is possible.
manncynne: H. mancynne

150. gestrynan: H. gestrynon; g.c. "lucrent"

152. symle: H. symble; g.c. "semoer." "Intrusion of
consonants occurs in a few forms only. (1) ml> mbl:
U-S simble "always" . beside sile. .
(Campbell, para. 478).







-86-


152- symle to geleafan wenian: II. symble wenian to
153. geleafan

153. wenian: g.c. "att[r.aLhe]re" L?], "suadere";
g.h. "suadere"
bysnian: H. gebysnian

154. beowdome: g.c. "offitio"

155. tilian: g.c. "acricole." Perhaps a confusion of
the 0.E. mcer and Latin "ager."

157. getinge: H. gebin.ce; g.c. "apice." "[Kentish]
and 1 Northumbrian have many nouns in -inc, -unc
for -ing, -ung, and this spelling may be ex-
tended to medial position" (Campbell, para. 450).
manncynne: H. mancynne

159. ealdordum: g.h. "principati"

160. gestryndon: g.c. "lucrati sunt"

161. teolunge: H. tilunge. "u and o umlaut of 1 are
equally frequent and common to all dialects. They
are limited by the following consonant, however,
appearing only before liquids and labials in U-S.
Analogical extension of unmutated i is very
frequent, especially in W-S" (Campbell, para. 212).

162. manncynn: ii. mancyn

163. geyrmed: g.c. "miser"
feawa: The normal form is feawe, but in W-S, through
the influence of fela, the form feawais found. In
1 a-S an indecl. feawa appears (see Campbell,
paras. 603.2). feawa may take a singular verb.

164. hogie: Subj. form denoting a condition contrary to
fact.

166. "Canes muti non possunt latrare"; Isaiah 56:10.
"Dumb dogs cannot bark."

167. hundaLs]: This is the reading in I. The reading
in C. is hundan, which follows both a widespread
plural ending, and analogy with dumban, but hund
is not elsewhere recorded with a weak form.

168. lareowum: H. lareowam

169. noldan: H. noldon
bodian: g.c. "predicare"
gebigan: g.c. "avertere"
manncynn: H. mancynn






-87-


172. suwiaa: g.c. "scilenimus," "tacemus"; g.h.
"silenimus"
digollice: H. aigellice; g.c. "clam"

173. embe: g.c. "circa" (see note, line 3)
witodlice: g.c. "certe"

174. bododan: H. bododon; g.c. "predicaverint"

175. hetelum ehterum: g.c. "exosis presecutionibus"

176. durran: H. durron

177. gedyrstlecan: g.c. "audaciam habere," "presumere"

178. beboda: g.c. "precepta"

179. secgan: H. secgon

180. sceolan: H. sceolon

181. form: H. forban

183. anrmde: g.c. "instantes"; g.h. "astantes"

184. asolcene: g.c. and g.h. "pigri"
sume nyttwyrie sume swibe fremfulle! H. sume nytwurie
sume unnytwurie sume swyae fremfulle. The H.
reading appears the more accurate, as the extra
phrase fits both the sense and the alliteration.

185. fremfulle: g.c. and g.h. benignn"

186. ooor: H. ooer

187. genimQ: g.c. "capit"
goodan: H. godan

189. endebyrdnyssum: g.c. "ordinibus"

190. twegen: g.c. ii

191. twa: g.c. ii
twegen: g.c. ii

192. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
andwyrdan: H. andwyrdon






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193. ahsodon: H. axodon; g.c. axsodan
buss: H. bus

194. hold: g.c. "cadaver"

195. gaderiab: H. gegaoeria6
sundorhalgan: H. sunderhalgan; g.c. and g.h.
"farisei"

196. ahsodan: H. axodon
goodan: H. goda
197. sceoldan: H. sceoldon
198. forlmtene: g.c. "relicti"

199. goodan: H. godan

200. gebungenan: g.c. perfectt"
g.c. with general reference, "exemplum"

201. bar par: H. par bar (see note, line 30)

202. gegadorade: H. gegaderade
bpr par: H. bar bar (seenote, line 30)

203. mihtiglice: H. mihtilice (see note to halige, line 3)
rihsa6: H. rixab; g.c. "regnat"

204. mann: H. man

205. ricsa6: H. rixa6

207. ba: g.c. "illi"
forlmtene: g.c. "relicti"

208. werodum: H. weredum; g.c. folc

209. fordemede: H. fordemde

211. forpam: H. forban
wnnedon: H. wunodon

212. sundorhalgen: g.c. "Farisei"
ahsodon: H. acxodon; g.c. "interrogabant"

213. will: The ending -e is regular when the 1st or 2nd
p. pronouns we or Ee follow immediately (see
Campbell, para. 729).






-89-


215. ahsodon: H. acxodon
be bam: bam refers back to ended, 1. 213. After
this line, in the margin, occurs an obvious mark
of separation, and the gloss, "incipit."

216- This paraphrase is taken in part from Matt. 24:
257. 15-25, 29-31, and in part from Mark 13: 14-27
(see Introduction).

216. seo boc: H. seo cristes boc
cyb: g.c. "dicit"

218. "abhominationem": H. "abominationem." The reading
in C. is based on an incorrect etymology which
traces the word to an hypothetical compound "ab
hominem." The spelling in H. preserves the
correct form.
"desolutionis"; H. "desolationis"

221. ahsodan: H. acxodon; g.c. "inqulrebant"
endemys: g.c. "per ordine"; g.c. "similiter";
g.h. "pariter," "omnes"

223. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"

224. onscuniendlic: H. onscunigendlic (see note to
halige, line 3); g.c. "abominationem"; g.h.
'bbhominationef' (see note, line 218)7

225. swa swa danihel awrat: See Dan. 9:27.
danihel: H. daniel. "In all West Gmc. languages,
medial x became a breathing between vowels. .
A few forms occur in the early glossaries in which
the breathing is still written as h . "
(Campbell, para. 461).
rade: g.c. "legat"; g.h. "legit"

228. ba fleob bonne to muntum: H. ba fleoZ to muntum

229. ne astige: g.c. "non ascendet." The gloss here is
confused. Astigian may have both the meaning "to
ascend," and "to descend," but here it must be
"to descend" as the party in question is already
atop his house.

230. sticolan: H. sticelan


yddisce: g.c. and g.h. familiarm"


231.






-90-


233. to genimenne: g.h. "capere"
reaf: H. hreaf; g.c. "vestrem." "In all Gmc.
languages, initial x became a breathing or
glottal spirant. Before 1, n, r, u, it disappeared,
leaving the consonant voiceless, and h is written
in English to indicate this" (Campbell, para. 461).
However, reaf does not have the h historically,
and of four occurrences in the two MSS it is
spelled hreaf only this once, probably through
false analogy.
wa: g.c. "ve"
eacniendum: g.c. "preignantibus[sic]; g.h.
pregnantibus

234. fedendum: H. fedyndum; g.h. "nutrientibus"

235. frecednysse: g.c. "periculum"; g.h. "tribulatione,"
"periculo"
eornostlice: g.c. "igitur"

236. wintra: The -a ending is a trace of an earlier u-
stem declension (Bosworth).
o6be on restedaege: g.c. "vel sabato"
restedmge: H. restenda3ge' g.h. "sabato"
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"

237. witodlice: g.c. "certe"
gedrefednyssa: g.c. "persecution," "tribulation";
g.h. "tribulation"

238. naran: H. neron

239. butan: H. button

240. manncynn: H. mancynn
forwurde: g.c. "periret"; g.h. *periret"
witodlice: g.c. "certe"

241. gecorenum he: H. gecorenum halgum he
gescyrte: g.c. "abreviavit"

242. sZ;: H. seg_ This could be Kentish g becoming e.
"By the tenth century m of whatever origin had been
raised to e in KentisI (Campbell, para. 288). It
could also reflect a second fronting shown in the
Vespasian Psalter and several other places whereby
a became e. This is an earlier change than the
Kentish.

242- sylf beo bonne: H. sylf bonne beo
243.







-91-


244. gelyfe: see note, line 213.
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
forbam: H. forban
on bam timan lease cristas: H. lease cristas on
bam timan
lease: g.h. "pseudo"
There is a g.c., "secu[n]do," which must refer to
bam timan, i.e,, the time of the second coming.

245. fela: H. feala (see note, line 60)
menn: H. men

246. scincraftum: g.c. and g.h. "magicis artibus"

247. warnia6: g.c. and g.h. "cavete"; g.c. "muniamini"
geornlice: H. eornostlice

249. gedrefednysse: g.c. persecutionne" "tribulatione";
g.h. "tribulatione"
adeorcaa: g.c. "obscurabitur"

251. mihta: g.c. and g.h. "virtutes"
mihta beo6: In C. there is an erasure between these
two words. It looks as if beo6 was written twice
and then the first one erased.

252. astyrode: g.c. "moti"

253. wolcnum: g.c. and g.h. "nube"

254. wuldre: g.c. "glorianP [? should be ablative]

255. gegaderia6 godes: H. gegaderaa bonne godes

256. feowor: H. feower

257. up o0: g.c. "usque"

258. anfealdum andgyte: g.c. and g.h. "simplici intellectu"

259. andgyt: g.c. "intellectum"; g.c. "sensum"
secgan: H. gesecgan

262. ahsodon: H. acxodon; g.c. "interrogabant"
endemes: H. endemys; g.c. "similiter," "pariter";
g.h. "pariter"

263. him ba andwyrde: H. him andwyrde

264. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"






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265. onscunigendlic: g.h. "abominationes"
onscunigendlic deofol: g.c. "abhominabilem idolum"
danihel: H. daniel (see note, line 225)

266. rede: g.c. "lem2at"
redan: This is the inf. used in a passive con-
struction, i.e., "or hears it read." This is
clearer in H. where the passage is, obbe redan
gehyre, without the repetition of et.

267. iu: g.c. quondamm"; g.h. "olim"

268. menn: H. men

270. ad-ascte: g.c. "destruxit"

273. burh hys lareowas: H. burh lareowas

274. wyrca: g.c. operatorr"
mann: H. man

275. arleasa: g.c. "impius"

276. on bissere worulde: H. on ende byssere worulde
wyrcb: g.c. operatorr"
fela: H. feala Tsee note, line 60)

278. gebafunge: g.c. permissionn"
si: g.h. beo
mycclan: H. micelan. "Consonants appear to have
doubled in O.E. after a short syllable when the
syncopation of vowels brought them before r and
1, thus recreating conditions which caused
doubling in West Gmc." (Campbell, para. 453).

279. bugab: g.c. "avertunt"

280. forwyrde: g.c. "damnatione"

281. beah _a: H. beah be. The only possible explanation
for this spelling given by Campbell is a 9th century
Kentish change where a > e, and resulted in many
inverted spellings (paras. 288-9). This would not
seem to be the case here, as C. shows no other
Kentish characteristics.
gedwolan: H. dwolan; g.c. "heretici"; a gloss has
been erased in H.
gedwyldum: g.c. "heresim errorem"


gelyfan" H. gelyfon


282.







-93-


284. geahnige: g.c. "apropriat," "possideat"; g.h.
appropriate [?], "possideat"
talige: g.c. "prtdicat_," "dicat"; g.h. "iudicat";
g.h. "dicat"

284- and men hym to gebiddan: H. and hym men to gebiddan
285.

285. gebiddan: g.c. "adorent"
tacna: "The nom. and acc. pl. of neuter nouns
with parasiting should have no ending, as -u should
drop after the long syllable before parasiting took
place . ., but -u is often restored, usually with
rejection of the parasite vowel, e.g., tacnu
S. wundru. . (Campbell, para. 574.3). a
is consistent here as a regular late spelling
for final, unstressed u.

286. forseon: g.c. "atempnent" [? the glossator seems
to have used the a- prefix to correspond to the
C.-. fo_]_; g.h. "Spernant"

287. stent: pres. ind. 3s. "The endings of these
Lpres. ind. 2s. and 3s.] are derived from Gmc.
-isi,-iii, and hence there is by normal develop-
ment in O.E. umlaut of the root vowel and change
of e to i, e.g., 3rd. s. . stent from . .
standan. ."(Campbell, para. 732).

288- "Ita ut temple dei seleat ostendens se tamquam sit
289 deus"; 2 Thes. 2:4. "So that he sits in the
temple of God, showing himself as if he were God."

298. sitt: H. sit

290. sy: g.h. beo

291. deoflu: H. deofla
2a: g.c. "illos"; g.h. "ea"
wyrc_ : g, operatorr"
wundra: see note on tacna, line 285.

292. aeond: g.c. "per"
manncynne: H. mancynne

293. seo ehtnyss: g.c. "ipsa persecution"
;a: g.c. "1111"







-94-


296. ne astige: g.c. "non ascendet" (see note, line 229)
sticolan: H. sticelan; in H. there is a k
interlined over the c.

297. yddisce: g.c. and g.h. familiarm"
be on bam bib: H. be on bam huse byb

298. ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)

299. under . .: g.c. "retro"
genimene: H. genimenne
reaf: g.c. "vestrum"
we: g.c. "ue"

300. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"

301. hwilcu[m]: This was the original reading of C.,
but has since been emended to hwilcun. The
strokes of the u and the m are confusing here,
so someone emended wrongly, thinking the m to
Iazve too MAiry stroLes. H. has hwilon.
andgite: g.c. "sensu"
hwilum: H. hwilon; g.c. "aliquando"

302. geopenian: g.c. "aperire"
inran: g.c. interiorr"
digolnysse: H. digelnysse; g.c. secrett"
forbam: H. forpan

303. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
w.a: g.c. "ve"

304. eacniendum: g.c. "pregnantibus; g.h. "pregnantibus"
fedendum: g.c. and g.h. "nutrientibus"

305. frecednysse: g.c. "periculum"; g.h. "tribulatione"
asyltaa: g.c. "delinquent"

306. hasse: g.c. "precepto"

307. frecednysse: g.c. "periculo"; g.h. "tribulatione"

308. leahtrum: g.c. "crimine"; g.h. [erased]
gefearhsugu: g.c. pregnants procus"; g.h.
'"regnans sus"


unwaran: g.c. and g.h. "incautus"


309.






-95-


309- and heora yfel geearniab swylce mid forste: H.
310. and heora yfel getacniab swylce mid fostre. The
reading of H. is in all likelihood the correct
one. Fostre refers back to bam fedendum and
the sentence is then a further explication of
the Biblical passage. The scribe of C. was
evidently looking forward to the following
passage when he wrote forste ("frost") for
fostre. The occurrence of geearniab for
getacniab is not so easily explained. There
is only a difference of two letters between the
two, but these would seem difficult to mix up
(see further the following glosses).

310. swylce: g.c. "quasi"
forste: g.c. "gelu"; H. has fostre and a gloss,
nutritionne"
eornostlice: g.c. "igitur"

311. r .c. andc g.h. "sabato"
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"

312. emtige: g.c. "vacui"

313. ymbryne: H. ymbrene

314- "Quia abundabit iniquitas refrigescet caritas
315. multorum"; Matt. 24: 12. "And because iniquity
shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold."

314. "abundabit": H. "abundabib"
"refrigescat": ii. "retrlescat"

315. gereorde: g.c. "lingua"

316. unrihtwisnyss: H. unrihtwisnys
suwie .emenigfylt: g.c. "multiplicat"

317. acolaO: g.c. "refrigescet"

318. nateshwon: g.c. "nulatenus"

319. nyhstan: H. nextan. This form seems explainable only
by the Kentish reduction of all front vowels to
e (see Campbell, para. 288).

320. furIan: g.c. "etiam"
foroon: H. forbam; g.c. "quia"

321. restendamg: g.c. "sabat"


woroldlicum: H. woruldlicum


323.






-96-


324. sceolan: H. sceolon
and at gode biddan bat: H. at gode baet

325. goodum: H. godum

326. lufon: H. lufe. These are two forms of the same
word--the first weak, the second strong (see
Campbell, para. 619.4).

327. endenyhsta: H. endenexta (see note to ymbe, line 3)
onsigende: g.c. "inminens"; g.h. "imminent"
witodlice: g.c. "certe"

328. swylce: g.c. "talia"
gedrefednysse: g.c. persecutione has been erased;
g.c. "perturbatione," "tribulationes"; g.h.
"tribulatione"

329. ewuirra6: In the margin before this word has been
aacued in another hand, eft ne which brings it into
agreement with the same phrase in H., i.e., n=fre
ar ne eft ne gewur3a6.
ehtnyss: H. ehtnys
ehtnyss was: "persecutio fuit"

330. sy7ian: The a was written as an e which the
scribe tried to modify into an a, the usual
spelling, as H., syoban.

332. gebigan: g.c. "avertere"

335. cwylmingum: g.c. "cruciatibus"
tintregum: g.c. "tormentis"

336. geube: g.c. "acessit"; g.h. "a[s]seLn3scit[?]"

337. nwundra: see note on tacna, line 285.

338. tintrega6: g.c. "tormentat"; g.h. [erased]

339. tacna: see note, line 285.

339- and eac . wnige tacna: g.c. "quia sancti non
341. pos[s]unt tempore anti cristi miracula facere"

340. gewyrcan: g.c. "operare"
tacna: see note, line 285; g.c. "notas"

340- ac hi yfele beo6 for am:n H. ac hi yfele for
341. Oam beob




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PAGE 1

"SERMO DE DIE lUDICII": AN AELFRICIAN HOMILY By WALLACE JOHN SWAN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA December, 1967

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For Anne and Johnny

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ACKNOlflLEDGMENTS My thanks raust go flrst and foremost to Dr. John Algeo, the chairman of my commlttee, whose knowledge and Judgment have enabled me to complete thls dlssertatlon. To the other members of the conmlttee, Dr. Paul Thurston, Professor Robert Bowers, and Dr. Oscar Jones, I can scarcely ^ive less profuse thanks for thelr continuing help and encouragement , Of course It would be Imposslble to thank the many people who have smoothed the path, and in thelr own ways helped with this dlssertatlon. Of these, I must mention Dr. Robert A. Bryan, Mrs. Jimmy C. Perklns, and the staff of the Graduate School, Carol MacDonald of the Engllsh Department, Ray Jones and the llbrary staff, and last but by no means least, my wife, Anne. A special note must go to Paul Thurston, a good friend, teacher and counselor through many trlals, and one whom I will never be able to thank properly for all he has done. 111

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TABLE OP CONTENTS Page DEDICATION 11 ACKNOIVLEDGKENTS 111 INTRODUCTION 1 Fianuscrlpts •.... •••.. 2 Authorshlp 11 Judgment Day Theme • . . • • , 15 The "Sermo de die ludlcll": Synopsis and Svalxiatlon. , 28 Sources and Analogues 33 TEXT liO TRANSLATION 58 NOTES 76 GL033ARY 101 BIBLIOGRAPI-fY 135 -Iv-

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODÜCTION Manuscrlpts Conplete verslons of thls prevlously unedited homlly ocour In two manusorlpts. Another manusoript oontains a three line fragment, now erased, of what was protably the samd tdzt« The followlng desoriptlons of the manusorlpts 1 are tasedoon those of Mr. N. li. Ker. Cam'bridge, Corpus Christi College 178 (Ker Number ^lAf article 9), pp. 101-11';. This laanuscript oontains U'jo books of homilies. The first, for general occasions, includes titles such as "De dominlca oratione," "Seiiflo ad populum"* and "De auguriie,'* and covei-s pp» 1-163, It Includes the '^Sezno de die ludlcii." Tho second book oontains hoailies for important festivals and includes such titles as "In purificatione Sanotse jsaris," "Die dominica paschae," and "^"In ascensione domlni." The homilies are largely Älfriolan, and indeed nineteen of N, R. Kerf Catalogue of Manusorlpts Contalning Anglo« Saxon ( Oxford I 1957). -2-

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-3thlrty-four (four In the flrst "book and all In the second) are drawn from the Sermones catholicl. Of these nlneteen, thlrteen are from the flrst serles, slx from the second. In the "Seimo de die iudicil" the majori ty of glosses, both mai^glnal and Interlinear, are in the "tremulous" hand, whlch, Ker notes, is found throughout the manuscrlpt, There are, however, glosses by at least one other hand in the homlly, and Ker notes glosses by several hands in the entire manuscrlpt. The homlly Itself Is all in one hand (Ker notes two hands for the entire manuscrlpt, the second beginning on p. I70, well after this text). S in this homlly takes all three formst low, round and long. Long s is usual in Initial and medial positions, never occurring finally, Low s is usual in final position, occurring sporadically in medial position, and is very seldom found in initial position. Round b occurs sporsidioally in all positions, although very seldom medially, and is of a much lower frequency of occxirrence than the other forms. When it occurs initially it is often found at the beginning of a Phrase, but this is not always so, It seems to alternate freely with low s in final position. Also the spelling ßood for modern English "good" is regulär here, as, accordlng to Ker, it is in the rest of the manuscrlpt, Details of the orthography of the second scribe are given by Ker, but are not relevant here.

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The title of thls homlly Is glven In rustlc capltals whlch are of a dlfferent color than the Ink In the maln text, The Initials of both the Latin scrlptural text precedlng the homlly and of the flrst word of the homlly are of the same color, whloh Ker describes as metalllc red. These appear to be the only colored letters In the homlly, Althovigh Ker states that flrst llnes of homllles are usually In red rustlc capltals, thls Is not the case wlth the "Sermo de die ludlcll," The manuscrlpt Is known to have been at Worcester, and Ker describes It as early eleventh Century. Bodlelan. H&tton 115 (Ker Number 332, artlcle ^) , ff. 23-30 , Thls manuscrlpt contalns thlrty-seven artlcles, of whlch twenty-flve are general homllles, not meant for use on special occaslons. These Include thls text of the "Sermo de die ludlcll." Along wlth thls homlly, slx other artlcles also reoccur In CC.C.C, I78 (see above) such as "Exameron Angllce," "De Dominica oratlone," and "De augurlls," Also flve artlcles are found repeated In Bodlelan. Hatten 116 (Ker Number 333), whlch does not Include thls homlly although thlrteen of Its twenty-seven artlcles are from the Sermones cathollcl. All these oollectlons are largely Älfrlclan, IIa t ton 115 contalns twelve artlcles from the Sermones cathollcl, Includlng slx of the elght homllles for the Rogation days In £lfrlc*s

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-5two series of Sermones csathollcl (artlcles 2, 3, 7-10), Artlcles 21-25 are £lfric»s homllies for the Common of Salnts (21~a Single apostle; 22 — more than one apostle; 23 — holy martyrs; 2ii — a Single confessor; 25 — holy vlrgins), and artlcle 26 Is for the dedlcatlon of a church. In thlB homlly, as In the i^st of the manuscrlpt as Ker notes, the hand Is very different from those found In other Anglo-Saxon manuscrlpts from Worcester. It is an upright round hand, and a is Caroline in s, while o has very obvious Joins at both top and bottom. In this homlly also all three forms of s are found. However, round s is muoh more restricted in distribution, oocurring only as a capital, i.e., the first letter of the text and the first letter after semi Colons, Long s never occurs finally, low £ being used exoltzsively in this position. Long and low £ altemate freely in medial position, and low £ occurs occasionally in initial position. The ends of descenders curve to the left here as Ker points out for the manuscript in general, and the mark of abbreviation is cup-shaped. In addition, Ker makes the Observation that words omitted in error from the text and added in the margin in the main hand are marked by a triangle of dots which oorresponds to a triangle of dots in the text at the point where the words are to be read. This however does not appear to

PAGE 10

-6be the case In the "Sermo de die ludicll." The trlangle of dots does appear often In the text of thls homlly. It refers, however, not to marginal addltlons, but to glosses In the "treraulous" hand. In additlon there are glosses by atleast one other hand In the marglns, The I of "Interrogatus," and the S of "Seo, respectlvely the Initials of the Latin Introductlon and the homlly Itself , are oversized and colored, the I taking two llnes, the S three. They do not appear to be the same color, and Ker Indicates that Initials are either metallic red or green. The title, whlch Is also in colored capitals (red, according to Ker), is inserted after the "autem" of the Latin introductory text, and takes up the second half of the flrst line. The second line continues the Latin text, The flrst line of the Anglo-Saxon text is In uncials, a rarity in thls manuscrlpt according to Ker. It does not appear to be colored, However, all capitals wlthin the homlly itself are filled with colored ink, whlch Ker States is red. The manuscrlpt whlch oontains thls homlly dates frora the second half of the eleventh Century, although bound wlth it is a Single qulre from the mlddle of the twelfth Century.

PAGE 11

-7Cambrldj3:e, Corpus Christi College 188 (Ker Number 43, artlcle i^6 — f ragmentary ) . Thls text conslsts only of the title and two llnes of text whloh oooupled the last three lines of what Is now the last page of the manuscrlpt. They have been erased. Two Initials— I (of "Interrogatus"?) and S (of Seo?) are falntly vlslble. The manuscrlpt itself conslsts of forty-slx artlcles, forty of whlch are diawn from the flrst serles of i«lfrlo»s Sermones cathollcl, Ker explalns the lack of certaln homllles in thls serles by the fact that qulres have been lost at both the beginnlng and end (where the "Sermo de die ludlcll" appears) and after p. 210. Also sorae leaves are mlsslng, Among the slx artlcles present whlch are not from the Sermones cathollcl are "Sermo ad populum In octavls penteoosten," and "Sermo In natale unlus confessorls" as well as the "Sermo de die ludlcll," all of whlch appear In C.C.C.C. 178 . The manuscrlpt dates from the flrst half of the eleventh Century. Comparlson of the Ilanuscrlpts A close comparlson of the two survlvlng coples of the "Sermo de die ludlcll" offers some Interestlng concluslons. From the close slmllarlty of the two, It Is obvlous that they are descandants of an ultlmate common

PAGE 12

-8archetype. There 1b, howe-c er, no evldence to Indlcate that the Hiatton yss (the later of the two) Is in any way dependent on the Corpue Christi MS, Yet even wlthout such evldence one night tend to assume that the older of two such close verslons would be the f ulier and more accurate. Thls Is not altogether the case, as will be shovm below, Yet slnce the dlfferences are relatlvelj'minor, and the Corpus Christi MS Is posslbly conteiirporary wlth Ällfrlc, It has been ohosen as the baslc text. Both MSS off er good samples of classlcal West Seixon, and the cholce le barely problematlcal. The followlng Is a complete llstlng of all relevant textual dlfferences between the two inanuscrlpts, Spelllng dlfferences have not been noted here, and dlfferlng word order, where elther o„-^er Is equally posslble, has been Ignored, as have equally posslble readlngs . Mlstakes In the Corpus Christi Version .«— «These generally conslst of mlsspelllngs and forgotten lettersr-llne 11, an[d] ; llne i|-3, [na]num; llne 71» dorne [s 3 ; llne 75t b[l3nges ; llne 106, seLol ; llne 11?» hundan should be hundas , as the weak form Is not elsewhere recorded (see Notes); llne 218, "abhomlnatlonem" should be "abomlnatlonem," although thls spelllng reflects a long medleval etymologlcal

PAGE 13

-9tradltlon; llne 218, "desolutlonls" should be " desolat ionls"; llne 309, seeamlal swylce mld forste whlch Is most dlfflcult to fit wlth the context , Is paralled by ^etacniaO swylce mld fostre, a muoh more lucld reading, in liatton; line 3^5$ deof Lljes , Mistakes in the Hatton Version . — line ^5» alc] « line 50t seglododon should be Kegladodon ; line 1^8, his seolan should be hi sceolan ; line 405 winmen should be wlfmen; line 378, and is probably misplaced. Omissions in the Corpus Christi Version , — The followlng (all occurring in Hatton) are almost oertainly omissions from Coipus Christi, and not additlons to Ilatton. Their inclusion is dictated either by the sense of the passage or the alliterative pattems: line 5i dryhten omitted; line 27, o50e on his huse omitted; line 5I, mid erased (see 'otes); line 1^5, eorS omitted; line 184, sume unnytwurOe omitted; line 216, cristes omitted; line 241, halgiun omitted; line 255, bonne omitted; line 276, ende omitted; line 297, huse omitted; line 329, eft ne omitted (see Notes); line 387, bonne omitted; line 397, is omitted; line 406, hl omitted. In addition to these, there are several casss which may be omissions, or may be additions to Hatton: line 153» bysnian ocours where Hatton YSiS

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-10gebysnlan ; llne 195» gaderiaa occurs where Hatton has gegaderiaO ; llne 259, secgan occurs where Ilatton has gesec,g;an ; line 35^, hradaS occurs where Ilatton has gehiadaO ; llne 3^3» ^ omitted. Omisslons in the Hatton Version .— The followlng are seen to be almost certalnly omisslons: llne 15, ealle omitted; llne 116, heora omitted; llne I36, her omitted; llne 228, ]3onne omitted; llne 263, ^ omitted; llne 266, l»t omitted; llne 273, hys omitted; llne 32^1-, blddan omitted; llne 389, and erased; llne 397» l^onne omitted. Further posslble omisslons are: llne 281, dwolan occurs where Corpus Christi has gedwolan ; llne 356» jS£ onü.tted, By a purely numerlcal count the Hatton KS Is seen to be more accurate. The Corpus Christi text has elght scrlbal errors and fourteen certaln omisslons, whlle the Hatton text has flve errors and only ten certaln omisslons. Yet, the mlstakes and omisslons In both cases are largely minor, and slnce the Corpus Christi Is the older of the texts, thls edltlon must be based upon It, although fully collated v;lth the Hatton MS.

PAGE 15

-11Authorshlp There Is llttle doubt that £lfrlc Is the author of the "Sermo de die ludlcll." There are many facts whlch polnt to his authorship, and none which tend to dlsprove lt. Extemal evldence as to the authorship of this homily is limited. There are no references to the homily in other works, nor is there any reference in the homily which would indioate authorship. Thus the only extemal evidence rests on two facts. First, the dating of the K3S is appropriate, the earlier being dated by Ker from the first half of the eleventh Century. This period is considered to include the later years of yElfric's life. The second and weightier fact is that both of the M3S are predominately £lfrician. Again, since all the homilies contained in these I©S have not been proven to be y£lfric»s, this fact is not conclusive, but it does point to iELfric more certainly than to any other author. The internal evidence is more conclusive. i€lfric Shows a lively interest in the Last Judgment in the preface to the Catholic Homilies. He uses some of the same texts there whlch are included in the "Sermo de die

PAGE 16

-12ludlcll," euid hls phrasing is slmilar In places to that of the horally, Por example, on p. 4 of the preface to the Cathollc Homilles , we find " [loase crlstas] , . , wyrcaö fela tacna and T'mndra, to berescenne mancynn, and eac swyloe Jsa gecorenan men, gif hlt gewur8an laseg: and butan se yElmlhtlga God (5a dagas gescyrte, eall mennlsc fonmrde," Thls may be conpared wlth llnes 356-359, and 32^-5-3^8. A further Indicatlon is given by the vocabulary used in the homily itself. Of 586 vocabulary items, more than 96 percent are elther recorded as used by >Slfric elsewhere, or are closely related to forms used by hlm, These would include such unrecorded forms as the adverb fserlice « vrhere only the adjectlve fssrlic has been recorded, and gymeleas , where only the noun gymeleast , "oarelessness," is recorded, How large a percentage of these terms is used excluslvely by >Slfric, or whether he uses some terms with shades of meaning not found elsewhere is a question which goes beyond the scope of this work. Yet it is evident that all authors have a working vocabulary, and favored words within that vocabulary. This is refleoted in the vocabulary selection of the "Sermo de die iudicil." Eenjamin Thorpe, ed. The I.omilies of the AngloSaxon Churoh (London: 1844).

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-13Pinally, the identlty of the author Is indlcated clearly by hls unique use of the "rhythmic prose" style, whlch gives the effect of a loose renderlng of the characterlstlc Old Sngllsh verse style. It is clearly Seen throi^ghout thls homily, and only one example Is necessary here to Indlcate the style: menn aton and druncon and dwollice leofodan cnlhtas wifodan and wif ceorlodan o5 t)Kt noe eode into Jam arce. jÄt flod l>a becom fesrlice ofer hl ealle and sali mancynn adrencte buton eahta mannum "pe innan Jjam arce visron s^-ja swa hym wlssode god; and swa swa on lodes dagum eft syööan gelamp cienn eston, and druncon. bohton and sealdan byttlodan and plantodan and beeodan heora tilunge, Ja sende god fserlice sona swa loS was of JjEsre byrig alsd. fyr. and swefel svylce hlt renscur wsre. and mld ealle forbsmde Ipa. flf burhsclra (11. 12-23) It will be readily seen that as verse there is a good deal lacklng, yet the style is much more than prose with its prominent alliteration and obviously rhythmical grouplngs. The homily has been presented in prose form because Btrlctly speaking it is not verse. It lacks the regularity of alliteration and scansion as well as the inversions and kenningß of Old Snglish poetry. However, the rhythmical and all iterative features are prominent enough

PAGE 18

-14to prlnt it as somewhat ragged verse, as Is seen above, The questlon of Alfrieds "rhythmlcal prose" has been investlgated in some detail by several scholars In the past, so it will not be necessary to go Into it here. Thus, If we oonsider the scanty, extemal evidence in conjimotlon wlth the extremely welghty internal evidence, there oan remain little doubt of £lfrio*s authorship of the "Sermo de die iudicii," See, among others, G, H. Gerould, "Abbot £lfric»s Rhythnic Frose," I-iodem Philology . XXII (1925), 353-366; Dorothy Bethurum, "The Form of Älfric's Lives of Saints ." Studies in Philology . XXIX (1932), 515-533; and J. T. Algeo, £lfrlc»s "The Forty Soldiers" An Edition, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gainesville, Florida, i960, pp, 29-^2. The most recent treatment is by John C. Pope, ed. Homilies of iClfric . Vol. I (London, Toronto, Wevr York, 1967), IO5-I36.

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-15Judp:ment Day Theme Alfrieds use of the JudÄment Day theme in thls homlly lays stress on the necesslty for leadlng a truly Christian llfe, because of God*s omnlsclence and the xmcertalnty of the tlme of Judgment. He plac es llttle stress on the actvial Coming of Christ, on the final judgment itself , or on the eniimeration of punishments and rewards in the llfe etemal, Hather he concentrates hls efforts here upon the imposslbllity of hypocrlsy or deceit before the omnlscient God. The "one is taken" theme provides a perfect vehicle for thls task. It not only provides a valld metaphor for the futllity of hypocrlsy, but also lllustrates the necesslty for reform both among the laity and in the monastic and clerical establlshments as well. Thlsls, as will be pointed out below, a Standard exegesis of the "one is taken" theme. The second prong of £lfric*s attack, and the one which imparts meaning to the necesslty for reform, is the knowledge that doomsday may be upon us at any moment, Thls was especlally important in the late Old English period, as the year 1000 was the millennial year, and a llteral reading of scrlptures (rev, 20) glves a date of

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-161000 years after Christ for the resurrection of the dead and the day of Judgment. This conception gave rise to a great spate of doomsday llterature during thls period, such as the following from Wulf Stands homily, "Seoundum marcum" : Post mille annos soluetur Satanas » {«et is on engllsc, aefter Jiusend gearum blö Satanas unbunden. t)usend gear© and eac na Is nu agan, syö?5an Crist wses mid mannum on menniscan hiwe, and nu syndon Satanases bendas swyae toslepene, and Antecrlstes tloa Is wel gehende, and 5y hlt is on worulde a, swa leng, swa wacre. men syndon swicole, and woruld is t)e v^yrse, and teet us dereS eallum^ Yet throughout the scriptures, as in this illustratlon, and in the "Sermo de die iudicii," the uncertainty is maintained as to the exact time of Judgment, This is what gives the priest a good deal of his power in the struggle to reform mankind, and it is skillfully used by £lfric here. Mention is also made of the signs which are prophesied to precede the Judgment day. Here again we have a twofold reason for their inclusion. First, the fact that some of the signs (wars, pestllence, false prophets, etc.) have come to pass strengthens the concept of the imminenoe of Judgment Day. Second, these evils on the earth, seen as part of the signs, are specific temptations to test the eleot. ^A. S, Napier, Wulfs tan (Berlin, I883).

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-17Perhaps equally slgnlflcant wlth the stressed aspects in the homily r re those aspects of the Jecond Coming whlch >Elfrlc neglects. Some of the favorite toplcs of Anglo-Saxon authors were, as I shall lllustrate below, the place of Judgment, the Judge, and those Judged, as well as the usual torments of the damned and bllss of the elect, That Is to say a oomplete trlal Is envlsloned, durlng whlch a man's deeds and words are halanced, good agalnst evll. In order to determlne hls fate, But the Instantaneous summons and Judgment Implied by "sui |5ara bis geniimen, and se oSer bis forleeter. " Is much more effeotlve here for Älfrlc's piirpose, Concemlng the rewards of the Just yElfrlc has llttle to say— "and J» englas gebrlngaj) Ipa. gecorenan menn to crlste sylfum, {«et hl mid hlm rlcslan on heofonan rlce on llchaman and on sawle gesaellgllce asfre." There Is no reference In hls chosen Blbllcal texts to the fate of the damned, but Älfrlc, for a flttlng reInfo rcement of hls message, takes a Short passage relatlng to thls subjeot (Matt. 13: 49-50) and then embelllshes lt. Flnally, to end upon a Joyous note he makes a last rapid reference to the salnts* bllss In Heaven, and concludes hls homily. The argument of the homily Is then seen to move from the necesslty and reasons for reform. I.e., the Immlnence of doomsday and the

PAGE 22

-18swlftness of Justice, to end ultlmately wlth a streng motlvatlonal appeal to the sinner. Judfiment Day Theme Slsewhere In £lfrlc*s Works Although yElfrlc devotes no other homlly speclflcally to the Judgment lay, the concept oocurs from tlme to tlme throxighout the Sermones cathollcl and the Llves of Salnts . Reference Is made no less than flve tlmes to the Immlnence of the Jiidgment Day, and Its uncertalnty (for example, C.H. , Vol. I, pp. 4, 298; C.H, , Vol. II, pp. 370, 57ip;^ L.S, XVI, 1. 219ff, ), References to the slgns and sufferlng at the end of the world (C.H. , Vol. I, pp. 609ff.; C.H., vol. II, pp. 536ff.; L.s. xili, 11. 289299)» to corporeal resurreotlon (C.H. , Vol. I, pp, 236, 532) and to God»s elect (C.H. , Vol. I, p. 536; C.H., Vol. II, p. 82) all appear In more than one place, and there are at least Single references to false prophets (C.H. , Vol. I, pp. iK)5ff.) and to Antichrist (C.H., Vol. I, p. ^). From frequenoy of occurrence It would seem that JiltTlOt in all hls wrltlngs, as in thls homlly, lald the heavleat stress upon the fact that the great doom mlght be Thorpe. All further references to the Cathollc Homllles (C.H.) will ölte thls work. 2 W. W. Skeat, ed. jglfrlc's Llves of Salnts (London: 1900). All further references to Llves of Salnts (L.S.) will clte thls work.

PAGE 23

-19upon US at any monent. These references may be found in the Sermones catholicl, Vols. I and II, and In the Llves of Saints . They are sometimes found in Single sentences, such as ". . . nenn behoflaö godre lare swlöost on tlsum tlman "pe Is geendung {)yssere worulde. . ." (C.H., Vol« I, Introd.). They also occur In longer passages as In the "Sermo de memoria sanctorum": Nu on urum dagiun on ende Jjyssere worulde. swicaö se deofol digollice embe us. hu he t3urh leahtras forlasre Sa cristenan. and to mislicum synnvim heora mod awende. ac öa beos gessslige be his sxv^ic-domas to-cnawaö, and his lot-wrencaf lid geleafan ofer-swyöaö. He wet nu swiSe and v/ynS on öa cristenan. foröan "pe he wat geare J)eet ^ysre worulde geendung Is swySe gehende, and he on-et forSi. We sceolan eac onettan and urum sawlum gehelpan, turh gode biggengas gode to gecwemednysse. forSan Tpe we ne motan lange on Sysum life beon. And tsest is godes mildheortr^ss , teah öe hit digle sy, "" (L.S., 11. 219-231) These references to Judgment Day made by £lfric cra oonsistent with what is emphasized and omitted In the "Sermo de die iudicii." Likewise his treatment of the suffering of the damned in his other homilies is consistent with that in the "Sermo de die iudicii." It is largely ignored in the "Sexmo de die iudicii" and is seldom referred to in his other works. When he dces mention it, it is given little space or emphasis. Por example, in the homily "In dedicatione ecclesiss," he says only: "Soölice se öe 9a heafod-leahtras wyrc3, and on öam geendaa, he mot

PAGE 24

-20forbyman on 8am eciim fyre, and swa öeah Ja swaran synna ne beoS nasfre afeormode for nanes fyres sellncge" (C.H. , Vol. I, p. 590). The "courtroom scene" of the Judgraent is another aspeot of the theme whlch £lfrlc generally avoids. He makes use of the scene In the Sermones oathollcl In one homlly ("Dominica l. in quadrageslma," C.H,, Vol. II, pp. 106-108). Hls prlme purpose here, however, Is not to portray the Judgment scene, but to lllustrate through scrlpture the Joys and beneflts of charlty, Plnally there are numerous small detalls of agreement between "Sermc de die ludlcli" and £lfrlc*s other works. For example. In "Sermo de die ludlcli," It Is sald, "Ifet fyr tonne afeonnaö Iäs eorSan and hl geednlwaö" (11, 77-78), In "Dominica II. in adventum domlnl" (C.H. , Vol. I, p. 608), the same theme occurs : "Heofone and eoröe gewltaö, and t)eah öurhvmnlaö, foröan 5e hl beo8 fram Sam hlwe öe hl nu habbas Jjurh fyr geclasnsode, and swa-3eah symle on heora gecynde standaö." Agaln, /Elfric strongly emphaslzed corporeal resurrectlon: Gif hvrein tvjynlge be rarist e, {»onne maeg he tmderstandan on ^Isxua godspelle, t)eet Jjesr blö soa aerlst Ip^r Tp^T beoö eagan and teö, Eagan synd flasscene, and teö bssnene; foi'?)an te we sceolon, wylle we nelle we, arlsan on ende tyssere worulde mld flassce and mld bane, and onfon edlean ealio. ura dasda, , . , ("Dominica XXI, post pentecosten," C.H. , Vol. I, p. 532)

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-21We find further emphasls on thls doctrlne in "Sermo de die ludlcll": "t^et hl mld hlm rlcslan on heofonan rloe on llchaman and on sawle gesasliglloe eefre" (11. 392-39^) • Thus we See that thls homlly presents no confllct wlth and In some places even a stronger afflnnatlon of iElfrlc*s qulte conservatlve vlews. That these vlews and polnts of emphasls were not generally held "by other homlllsts of the perlod will be shovm In the next sectlon, The Judgment Day Theme In Other Anglo-Saxon Llterature £lf rlc • 3 approach to the Judgment Day theme Is not the usual one fotind In survlvlng homllles and poetry, The general approach seems to have been along a more sensatlonal avenue. Anglo-Saxon authors llked to stress the vlolent aspects of the theme. I.e., the torments of the damned, the Chaos at the end of the world, or the vlolence In the Heavens at Christ *s Coming, Some of thls tendency reflects the Anglo-Saxon herolc tradltlon, dwelllng on prowess In battle, encoxinters wlth fabled creatures, and emphaslzlng the sanctlty of the "comltatus," In fact many of these tradltlonal herolc themes, couched In language approprlate to the eplc, are reflected In the llterature deallng wlth the doomsday theme. For example, Christ Is seen as a leader In the conltatus and an earthly prlnce In such references to hlm as "herga fruma,"

PAGE 26

-22"eaöellnsa ord," and "slgora vreard" (Christ, 11. 8^5, 8^6, 1517). The torments of Hell are llkewlse remlnlscent of the tone and imagery of the herolc tradltlon, and Hell Itself Is populated wlth "blodlge eamas and blace nseddran" (Solomon and Saturn, 1. 9i|-3) and "wyrmsela" (Judith, 1. 119). Thle reliance on and contlnuatlon of the anclent traditlons naturally led the authors to dwell upon these sensatlonal aspects, whlch ^frlc largely Ignores. Even though the approach of the homllists Is generally milder than that of the poets, the same tendenoy Is seen. Emphasls Is lald on rauch the same aspects as were noted above — the Chaos, the judgment scene, and the horrorf of Hell. In the homlly for Easter Sunday (Number 7) of the Bllckllng Honllles, a good deal of space Is glven to the Judgment: Uton nu ge^encean hu mycel egsa gellmpet) eallum gesceaftum on Jäs ondweardan tld, Jxsnne se dorn nealsscej), and seo openung Ixes dages Is swljje egesfull eallum gesceaftum, . . . The author contlnues, descrlblng the days precedlng the Judgment In thls manner: Py eerestan dasge on mldne deeg gellmpe)5 mycel gnomung ealra gesceafta, and men gehyra]? mycel e stefne on heofenum swylce "pcsT man fyrde trymme and samnlge; t)onne ästige}) blodig wolcen mycel from nor^dasle, and ofortiect» ealne tysne heofon; and asfter }»em wolcne cjrmej) legetu and Jjunor ealne t)one desg; and rlne{) blodig regn ast aefen.

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-23After the seven days have passed, God will oome to Judge the World and , ... God sylfa l)onne ne gymet nanges irannes hreowe; ne Jesr nsenige l^lngimga ne beoj); ac bl{) Jionne rejjra L&] tearlwlsa J>onne aenlg wilde deor, otj^e asfre snig mod gewurde. & swa myocle swa Jäs nannes miht beo nare, & he blj) wellgra on J)lsse worulde, swa hlm tonne se uplioa Dema laare tosecj), t)onne he hlm sylfum re^ne dorn & heardne geeamaj» & gegytej), swa hit be t)on gecweden is: »Se mon se "pe nu demet) "psem earraum buton mlldheortnesse, t>onne bl}> J«m eft heord dorn geteod. The doomed are sentenced to etemal torment, descrlbed at length In a passage here translated from the Klddle Engllsh homiletlc treatise "Sawles V/arde" (ascrlbed to the author of the "Ancren Riwle" c. 1237). Hell Is Wide wlthout measure, and deep and bottomless; füll of incomparable fire, for no earthly fire roay be compared therewith; füll of atench intolerable, for no living thing on earth mlght endure it; füll of unutterable sorrow, for no mouth may, on accotint of the wretchednesE and of the woe thereof , give an account of nor teil about it. Yea, the darkness therein is so thick that one may grasp it, for the fire there gives out no light, but blindeth the eyes of them that are there with a snothering snoke, the worst of smokes. And nevertheless in that same black darkness they see blaok things as devils , that ever maul them and afflict and harass them with all kinds of tortures; and tailed drakes, horrible as devils, that devour them whole and spew them out afterwards before and behind; ^Pdchard Morris, Old !]:n;2:lish Ilomilies (Oxford, 1868).

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-Zitat other tlmes they rend them In pleces and chew each gobbet of them, and they afterwards become whole agaln, such as they prevlously were, to lindergo agaln such bale wlthout recovery, and füll well they see themselves very horrlble and dreadful; and to Increase thelr palns the loathsome hellworms, toads, and frogs that eat out thelr eyes and nostrlls , and adders and water-f rogs , not llke those here, but a hundred tlmes more horrlble, creep In and out at the mouth, ears, eyes, navel, and at the hollow of the breast, as maggots In putrid flesh, thlckest. There Is shrleklns in the flame, and chatterlng of teeth In the snovjy waters. Suddenly they fllt from the heat Into the cold, nor ever do they know of these tvro whlch Is worse for them, for each Is intolerable. And In thls marvellous ningllng the latter through the former tormenteth the more, The flre consumes them all to dead coals: the pltch boileth them untll they are altogether melted, and revlves them anon to undergo agaln all that same and much worse, ever wlthout end. And thls same wanhope Is thelr greatest tonaent, that none have never any more hope of any recoveiy, but are sure of every 111, to continue In woe, vrorld wlthout end, ever In etemlty. Each chokes the other, and each Is another's torment, and each hateth another and hlmself as the black devll; and even as they loved them the more In thls world, so the more shall they hate them there. And each curseth another, and gnaws off the other^s arms, ears, and nose also. I have begun to teil of thlngs that I am not able to bring to any end, though I had a thousand tongues of steel, and told untll they were all wom out. But thlnk now by thls what the greatest paln Is; for the least paln Is so hard, that had a man slaln both my father and mother, and all the remnant of my kln, and done to me all the shame and härm that a llvlng man mlght endure, yet If I saw thls man In the least paln that I See In Hell I would, If It mlght be, endure a

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-25thousand deaths to release hlm out thereof , so horrlble and plteous Is that slght to behold; for though there were never any other paln, except to See the wretched splrlts and thelr horrlble forme; to look on thelr grlm and dreadful faces, and to hear thelr roarlng, and how they In scom reproach and upbraid each other vrlth thelr slns; thls Infamy, and the horror of them, would be Immeasurable paln; and moreover to endure and to bear thelr immense blows wlth steel mallets, and wlth thelr awls gleed-red, and thelr buffetlngs, as though It mlght be a pllch-clout, each one tovjard the other In divers palns, hell, death's house, abode of woe, of dread, and of groanlng; horrld home, and hard dwelllng of all mlserles; clty of bale, and abode of every blttemess, thou most loathsome land of all, thou dark place, fllled wlth all drearlness! I quake wlth dread and fear, and each bone qulvereth wlthln me, and each halr brlstles up at the thought of thee; for there Is no volce between the damned but woe me! woe Is mel and woe Is theel and woe Is theel And woe they cry, and woe they have; nor shall they ever have ß.ny lack of whatever Is woeful. It were well for those that merlt thls abode through any temporary bllss here In thls world that they wer^ never bom, By thls ye may somewhat xmderstand what hell Is llke, for, of a truth, I have seen thereln a thousand tlmes worse (than I have told you). These thenes appear over and over agaln wlth frlghtful scenes llke the one above, and plctures of God (or Christ) slttlng In awful Judgment, They bear very 11t tle resemblance to the "Sermo de die ludlcll." Because of tltular resemblance, some conslderatlon Is necessary of the two Old Engllsh poems entltled "Be Domes lÄg," and of the sectlon of Cynewulf's "Christ" entltled "The Last Judgment," Only a brlef look Is necessary here as all three dlffer In mood, emphasls and treatment from the "Sermo de die ludlcll."

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-26The longer "Ee Dones Etesg' is a translatlon of a Short er Latin poem, "De die iudicll," ascrlbed to Bede. Its structure Is somewhat slmllar to that of "The Last Judgment," Both poems present the slgns of the Second Coming and the terrors accompanylng the Coming in thelr early sections. There is a great deal of emphasis on the sufferlng and horror of that tlne. Both then present what has been termed above as the "courtroom scene," where each man*s sins shall be knovm to all, and wlth elaborate Speeches and ceremony the daraned are conslgned to etemal torment and the blessed reoelve thelr rewards wlth approprlate and lurid descrlptlon. "The Be Domes Deeg" is couched in the flrst person,a monologue of Soxil to Body. "The lÄSt Judgment" is in the 1 hlrd person and is narratlve. The shorter "Be Domes DtBg* likewise deals flrst wlth the slgns of the Coming, and the terrors of the damned, as wellas the bllss of the elect, It does not, however, enter Into as maich detail as do the other two poems, and does not seem to be as finely wroiight, None of these poems bear much resemblance to the "Sermo de die ludloli," The three estates are not dealt wlth; there Is llttle reference in any of them to elther Lot or Noah, for exaniple; and the Judgment itself , as pointed out, is made into a focal polnt of both the longer

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-27"Be Domes Desg" and "The Last Judgment . " Likewlse the tone of the poems differs fron the "Sermo de die ludlcll." One has the feellng whlle readlng any one of these poems that the author feels he can elther "scare" or "brlbe" hls audlence into Heaven. On the other hand, the "Sermo de die ludlcli" seems to reason, and Is glven to nelther the flts of despalr or raptures of bllss in which the poets Indulge. >Slfric*s treatment of the Judgnent by the "one Is ta':cen" theme then, Is a deflnlte departure from the AngloSaxon tradltlon, as also, is his lack of emphasis on Hell and the damned. Th ae are, however, characterlstlc of hls other works , and would seem to be a f ew of the many thlngs which distinguish hlm from the other writers of hls tlme.

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-28The "::iermo de die ludlcil"; Synopsis and dValixatlon The "Sermo de die ludloli*' was deslgned as a "quando volerls" sermon, Thls is attested by the fact that there Is no deslgnatlon of the texts on whlch It is "based in the Church calendar of the time, and indeed the very fact that two texts are Involved. The fact that the texts themselves have been edited (several verses are omltted) and that they are dealt with in reverse order (the explicatlon of the passage in Luke precedes that of Ilatthew) strengthens this assumption further for the homilist would not have feit as free to do this were the sermon designated for a particular day. The homily is oomposed mainly of the : .ading and explication of two scriptural passages. Each of the texts is set forth in Old Bnglish, and thei lissected phrase by phrase to bring to light the "inran digolnysse" or innermost meaning for the congregation. üther quotations from scripture are liberally used for illustration and clarification, but the raain subject is alvra.ys at the fore. The sermon begins with a reading from Luke, which describes how the Pharisees questioned Christ about the Second Coming, In point of fact, the Biblical dialogue Is shifted to the disciples after the initial question by the Pharisee ut /üfric does not mention the shift.

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Christ* 8 mxunfT to thes« queations is that the tlcie of the : econd Co&dnff Iß Inoalculalüo, «nö vrlH be as swlft RM llghtnlng, an Noah's flood, or a» th« «•ectructlon of Sodom. i:« goac on to baj that ti«o will b« in a b«dt tno in a sdll and two in a fittld at this tiJB«, Of «aoh of thasa pairs, ono will be takan» and the other forMücen« In answer to the question of where they will be taken» He say«, ".mereso erver the body Is, therc the ea^les will gather* * Köw hßvlns giTen the first text in fall, /^fric prooeede to explioate it for hi» listenerc, -e explains that Christ will ooae again« although no one knows when« He enlaxE
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-30he Shows that these are God's lioly Saint s, who will flock to Christ at Hls Coming, Having finlshed with thls passage, the homlllst tums to a second, but closely related passage concemlng Christas answers to the dlsclples about the end of the World. Thls passage Is dealt vilth in the same manner as the f 1 3St , The passage begins with a warning concemlng idolatry in the temple, and noves to a warning sigainst the pregnant and those glvlng suck in the evll days, Then follows an exhortatlon to pray that Christ 's Coming be not in Winter or on the Sabbath. Then there is a reference to the persecutlon of the faithful whlch will take place at that time, and a warning agalnst the false Christs who will come. Finally, a descrlption is given of the wonders whlch will come to pass al the moment of the Second Coming. Having given the readlng, the homlllst once again dlssects and explicates t le passage. The idolatry in the temple is descrlbed as K.ppening when antlchrist sets himself up as God; and, through devlllsh miracles, persuades many to follow him to thelr damnatlon, The pregnant are seen as those false Christians who are fllled with lies, and the nourlshment afforded by those glvlng suck is wickedness, The Sabbath is flgured as the Day of Rest, i.e., emptiness or Idleness, whlle we hope to be fotmd

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-31amldst ßood works at Christas comlng. Llkewise the Winter Is seen, not as an ordlnary wlnter, "but ae the coldness of heaart found In those who lack the love of God. The persecutlon of the falthful will be acoompllshed by antlchrlst, who will be able to work wonders, and martyr the chosen, while they in tum are powerless, However, though many vrlll be fooled, God's chosen will persevere unto the end. At thls point the actual events heis-ldlng the Second Coming are enlarged upon, and the chosen are Seen In thelr happlness. By way of contrast, another Short Scriptural passage Is quoted, and translated, showlng the mlsery of the damned. At thls polnt the homlly Is brought to a close wlth a final reference to the inef fable .llss of God*s chosen ones In xieaven, It is easlly seen that the "Sermo de die ludlcll" Is very slmply, yet forcefully structured. The homlly breakß neatly Into two halves— the expllcatlon of two texts, yet its unlty Is malntalned In that the texts are very closely related, treatlng two aspects of the same theme, The break Is purposeful, and Is even emphaslzed by the homlllst's Statements that In the flrst Instance the Pharlsees are questlonlng Christ, and In the second, the dlsclples questlon Kim. Thls dlfference could have been mlnlmlzed, and Is, Indeed, wrongly made, so It Is evident

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-32that It Is purposeful, It fimotlons both to secure the contlnued attention of the audience, and to alert the listeners to a sllght shlft in emphasis, The first half of the homily was devoted to the question, "who are the elect?" The second half assimes the first and continues with, "what must they endure to merit salvation?" Thus the central break is both integral and functional, The subject, thus renewed, is followed as closely in the second half as it was in the first, and, charaoteristic of Älfric, little or no extraneous material is allowed to interfere, /Slfric has here created a unified work which is designed to keep the interest of his congregation, Triiile proceeding by logical steps to a fitting conclusion.

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-33Sources and Analopiues The \iltlmate source of thls homlly is, of c urse, the Blble. The homlly falls naturally Into two parts, each "belng an exegesls of a sorlptural text. The flrst text, coverlng llnes I-38 of the honlly, Is from Luke 1?« 20, 2k, 26-31, and 3^37. There follow I78 llnes of exegetical materlal, and then the second text, taken from two very slmilar passages — llatthew 2^*-: 15-25» »nd 29-3I; and Mark 13 : 1^2?, These passages appear In llnes 216257 of the text. Nelther of these passages are exact translatlons of the Blble, but are paraphrased. For example, the flrst passage purports to be Christas answer to the Pharlsees, whlle the second is Hls ansvrer to the dlsclples. Yet thls Is not the Blbllcal renderlng. The flrst verse (verse 20) Is Indeed addressed to the Pharlsees, but verse 22, not Incorpoititea Into thls text, shlfts the address to the dlsclples: "et alt ad dlsclpulos suos," and the rest of the passage Is addressed to them. Llkewlse, In the second maln scrlptural passage of the text, detalls from llatthew are found whlch are not In Mark, and vice versa. The homlly reads thus : Ponne ge geseoö standan on tassre halgan stowe onscunlendllc deofolglld. . .(1. 223)

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-3^ The reference to the "halgan stowe" is clearly foiand In Matthew (the quotatlons are from Jerome*s translation of the New Testament): Cum ergo videritls abomlnatlonem desolat lonis . . . stantem in loco sancto. . . . (I-Iatt. 25:15) The readlng in Hark, however, is: Cum autem videritls abomlnatlonem desolatlonls stantem . . . ubi non debet .... (Mark I3: 1^4-) On the other hand, later In the passage the Anglo-Saxon text is as follows: IVamlaö eow geomllce Ic hlt habbe eow gesasd. (11. 247-2^8) ITils agrees exaotly wlth Mark: Vos ergo vldete: eoce presdixi vobls omnla (Mark 13:23) Yet in I^atthew vre find only: Ecce prBdlxi vobls (Matt. 24: 25) In addltion to these two main passages from the Elble, the homlly contalns numerous shorter quotatlons, used as Illustration and authority. No iinmedlate souroe for the homlly as a whole is known, and probably none exists. The Judgment Day theme was of Wide occurrence in thls era, and the concepts su^ro^lnding The other Blbllcal quotatlons found in *-he text are from: I. Cor. 3:9 (1. 1^9); Isaiah 56:10 (1. I66); II Thes. 2: li' (11. 288-289); Matt. 2k''. 12 (11. 31^-315); Matt. I3: 49-50 (11. 395-397)5 Katt. 24: 13 (11. 367-368).

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-35the theme were largely common property. In addltlon thls homlly contalns no Internal evldence that It Is a translatlon. C. L. White cltes two relevant pecullarltles characterlstic of £lfrlc*s treatment Df his sources: "First, he lays stress upon the authors whom he uses, and puts hlmself in the background; and secondly, while he gives the thoughts of hls authors wlth consclentlous accuracy, he Is Independent and free in his method of conveying thought," Looklng at these two points , we see f Irst that >tlfric cites no source f or his homily. Weither author nor work is mentioned throughout the homily, Second, the thought s in the homily are either widespread among his predecessors , or entirely lacking in their works. If there is no Single source of the homily as a whole, the analogues to be founc In the extrssis of the individual passages are so numerous that no Single one can be positively identifled as a r jurce, The Church Fathers* exegeses of passages in the Gospels agree with one another to a great extent, and Älfric agrees quite closely with them in the bulk of the homily, being characteristically quite conservative. His agreement with the Fathers is clearly shown, for C. L. \fliite, >21fric. A Kew Study of his Life and Writings (Boston, New York, London: I098), p. I89,

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-36eianrple, In hls treatment of the "two In one bed" theme. ;£lfrlc»s exegesls Is as follows: öa beoö Jjonne on beddet Ipe beo8 on stlllnysse. and fram eallum worüldcarum amtige Jiomie beoö. and sodes J)eowdom begaS nid goodum inngehyde ac hi ne beoö na twegen: ac on tiia todcslede; OJire beoö gecorene and gode geoweme. oöre beoö mld hlvmnge on hls t)eox^dome afundene, , , , Swa biö se an genumen, and se oöer forlaten: t>e on Jam bedde beoö Jionne gemette. ^ xst Is on l»ere stlllnysse heora stajjolfaestan raodes, na twegen mann ana, ac on twa wlsan gemodode, (11. 89-93. 100-103) Augustine comments In a telescoped exegesls: Qul sunt In lila nocte duo In lecto. et duc3 molentes In unum, et duo In af^ro « de quibus omnlbus blnls singull assumentur, et singull rellnquentur? Trla genera homlnxun hlc vldentur, slgnlflcarl: unum eorum qul otlum et quletem ellgunt, nesque negotlls sacularlbus neque negotlls eccleslastlcls occupatl; quse lllorum qules lectl nomine slgnlflcata est. . . . non quasi de duobus homlnlbus dictum est sed de duobus generlbus affectlonum, In slngiills generlbus trlum professlonum.-'Bede follows Augustine, but then goes further: duo erunt in lecto, 1111 vldellcet, qul otlum et quletem ellgunt, neque negotlls sajcularlbus , neque negotlls eccleslastlcls occupatl, qus lllorum qules lectl nomine slgnlflcata est .... Non quasi de duobus homlnlbus dictum est sed de duobus generlbus affectlontim. qul enlm propter Deum contlnentlse studuerlt, ut sine solllcltudlne vlvens cogltet quae Del sunt (I Cor. :vll). J. P, Klgne, ed., Patrologls cursus completus (Paris: 1862), Vol. :>CXX^/, Col. 1357 (Qusestlonum Svangellorum) .

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-37assiunetur a Deo; qul vero vel htunanee laudls amore, vel alla quallbet vltiorum corruptlone statiun monasticcs vlta. , ,_ laeserlt, hlc ubi rellquendus slt. . . 2 aaban-I'iaur quotes the above passage word for word. Thls type of agreement continues throußhout the entlre "one Is chosen, the other left" passage. Slmilarly, In the exegesls of the "Vse pi^sgmntlbus" theme, a close correspondence of Interpretation Is noted. /üfrlc Interprets the passage thus: V/a J)am eacnlendum on Jjam yfelum dagim, and jDam fedendtim on fiäre frecednysse; Hwst agyltaö J^a^wlf Jje be godes hrese tyinaö, and heoz^i clld fedaS on Jjsre frecednysse. ac J)is is gecweden be J)am leasum cristenim "pe beo5 nid leahtrum afyllede swa swa gefearhsugu. (11. 30 3308) Jerome on the other hand sees the passage as both historical and allegorlcal: •Vas autem pieegnantibus et nutrlentibus in Ulis diebus.» Vee illis animabus, quEs non in perfectum vlrum sua genimina perduxenmt, sed initia habent fidei, ut enutritione indlgeant magistrorun. Hoc quoque dici potest, quod in persecutione Antichristi, seu Romans captivitatis prägnantes et nutrientes, uteri et filiorum sarcina pregrarati,« expeditam fugara habere non qulverint,-^ Migne, Vol. XCII, Cols, 5^8-5^0 (In Lucse Evangelium Expositio liber V), 2 Kigne, Vol. CX, Cols. 2^4-6-2^1-7 (Homilee in Svangella et Epistolas) . 3 Kigne, Vol. XXVI, Col. 185 ( Commentarius in fiVangelium secundujn ilattheum) •

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-38Bede also follows thls f i^ument closely: Hoc quoque sectindum hlstorlam diel potest, quod In persecutlone Antlchrlstl seu riomans3 captlvltatls prägnantes et nutrlentes uteri, flllorum sarclna preegravlti, expeditam fugan» habere non quiverint. Splrltallter aJJlma qua deslderils camalibus In lila ultima ersecutione occupata invenitur »temiim vse subire oppressa cogitur.-^ Thus we See that the sources /21fric is knoim to have made Wide use of in other wo rks— Gregory, Bede, and Augustine— all comment upon these passages , and largely agree with one another. In addition, ninor sources such as Jerome, and authors evidently unknown to /Slfric like Hilaire also comment on them and likewise agree, VJhich of the works containing these exegeses were laio^«i to £lfric is still open to dispute. Oftentimes, as here, it is al:aost impossible to teil whether ySlfric is following one or another author, and locating the source of individual passages is impossible where so much agreement is to be found. This agreement is not attributable to any aridity of the author* s mind. It is a type of agreement which vras held in high repute in /Elfric's age, and is typical of his Iligne, Vol. XCII, Col. IO3 (In I%tthei livangelium Expositio liber IV).

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-39treatnent of such matters. It In no way vitlates the force of his method, or his perceptive powers in Organization and emphasis, Our belief in these could only be weakened by the unllkely dlscovery of a specific and closely followed source for the entire homlly, and untll vre dlscover such a specific source, vre must make the equally valld assumptlon that he Is relying on a conununlty of ideas~a body of generally held knowledge 2 and opinion — on whlch any author feit free to draw. "He L/Elfric] often derives from his sources the substance of thought, but clothes it entirely in his own language," Vfliite, p. 189, TIn J. C. Pope's, Homllles of £lfric , released when thls dlssertation Tms in its final stages, the author cites seven sources (analogues) for the homlly, They were: Adso, De ortu et tempore Antichristi Augustine, C i uastiones H^7-an/!:elloruiri . "In Luce.m 1?« 3^-35 •" Bede, In Luca ..Jvangelium £:xposltio . "In cap, 1?: 20-37" ______ . In r.arci Svangelium axpositio , "In cap, I3: 1^, 18, 19, 20" Cassarius of Arles , Sermones , "Sermo 15^.3" Gregory, i:oralla in lob, "Llber 32, cap. 2^]-" Jerome, In Llattheeum , "In cap. 2^1-: I5, 20" Of these seven, two had not previously been examlned In conneetion with thls dlssertation: Adso and Ceesarlus of Arles. Adso has been unavailable and the passage by Cffisarius is not followed by /£lfric closely enough to be cons Idered more than an analogue to one Short passage of the homlly.

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TEXT

PAGE 45

TEXT SERMO DE DIE lUDICII Interrogatus autem Ihesus a pharlsels quando p. 101 venlt regntun dei. et rellqua, Seo haiige crlstes boc Jje ymbe crlstes wundra sprycS. seg9 Ip est ?^a sunderhalgan on sumne sael ahsodan ume holend er Ist ymbe hys tocyme. 5 and ymbe godes rlce on Jäei mycclan dasge. J)e we domes daeg hataS. and he hym andwyrde Jjuse; Ne cyiii?5 na godes rlce. be nanre ceplnge. ne menn ne cwe}»3 na efne he cym!!5 nu forjÄm J>e he cymö faerllce swa swa fasrllc liget J)e scyt fram eastdaele 10 sclnende oS westdasll AnOi] swa swa gefym gelamp on noeys flode. menn eston and druncon and dwolllce loefodan, cnlhtas wlfodan and wlf ceorlodan. o?5 Jjeet noe eode Into Jjam arce. T jaet flod {ja becom fserlloe ofer hl ealle. and eall mancynn adrencte. 15 buton eahta mannum the Innan Jiam arce wssron swa swa hym wlssode god; And swa swa on loSes dagum eft sySSan gelamp. merax aeton, and druncon. bohtan and sealdan. byttlodan, and plantodan. and beeodsm heora tllunga, J» sende god feerllce 20 sona swa loS waes of Jsesre byrlg aleed. ofer Jjam flf burhsclmm. fyr. and swefel swylce hlt renscur wsere. and mld ealle forbeemde J» flf burhsclra; -in-

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-42Eallswa blö on Jaam daege ^e ure drlhten blö asteowed. and he cym?5 to demenne on J)am mlcclan dorne 25 p. 102 ealltun it»nncynne aslcim be hys weorciin; Gif hwa bis on losere tlde ymbe hys tllunge o85e on hys aecere. ne meeg he geefstan ] xRt he aht ahredde o58e aweg gebringe gew^eda oi^9e fata; On Jssre nlhte beo9 twegen on anum bedde. an Jssra bis 30 genumen and oSer bl5 forlesten, and twa grlndaö t>onne on anre cwyme eetgcsdere. seo an bis genumen and seo oSer bis forlseten; Twegen beoS on aecere erlgende sstgeedere. se an bis genxunen and se oSer bis forleeten; Hl andt^yrdan 1», and hyne ahsodan 35 Jjuss ; Ilwlder beoS hy genumene; And he hym cwses to; Swa hvreer swa feet hold bis. t)lder gaSrlaS Ja earnas; ie wlllaS eow nu secgan sceortllce, gif we magon Ipa dlglostan XTord on Jjlsum drlhtenllcan godspelle. for{>on "pe ge eaSe ne magon 40 hyt eall understandan; We habbaS nu gehyred on Jjlsum halgan godspelle bst we ne magon na cepan, ne Lna]num menn nls cuS: hwsenne ure drlhten cymS to demenne mancjmne on tiam endenyhstan dsege Jjysse worulde. ac we gelyfaS swa 45 Jjeah ] xst us alogen ne bis. b^t he cymS soSllce mld « hys sclnendum englum on Jjlssere worulde geendunge US to demanne aelcum be hys geeamungum

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-i4-3and he t)onne forglfS tß.m pe hym gehrysumedan and l>am pe hlne gegladodan mld goodum weorcum 50 aefre I» ecan myrhSe and J» ecan minunge mld eallum hls halgvun on heofonan rlce; Tö, earman s^mfullan Jse hyne forsawan on llfe. and mld yf elum das dum hyne ^fre gremodan. ]3a beo5 besencte on Jxere sweartan helle mld )»m 55 awyrgedxim deoflum sfre to worulde. and se Se t)yses ne gelyfe?5: nys hys geleafa naht; Se hslend us P» 1^3 saede so?511ce gellcnysse be noeys flode and loSes alysednysse. nu wlte ge sume hu hlt wes be noe: and be hys flode. ac eovxer fela nat hu hyt wass be 60 loöe. ac we wyllaö eow eecgan; Los wses lu gehaten ßum hallg godes >egn abrahames broSoreunu. asr moyses «. se eardode )». on J^am yfelan leodsclpe sodomltlscre burhware. J« wssron synfulle menn. and bysmorllce forscyldgode on sceamllcum 65 dasdum. J«. forbesmde hl god mld heora flf burhsclrum mld heofonllcum fyre and helllcum swefle. ac he sende on esr twegen sclnende englas to Jiam geleaffullan lo8e. and alaedde h3me ut of i&m» fulan mancynne, bat he mid hlm ne forwurde; Ealls-ja 70 bis on dorne [e] dasge on ures drlhtnes tocyme, Y eot fyr cymS swa fesrllce pst menn foresceawlan ne magon, and mld egesllcum bryne ealne mlddan-

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-wonne ne gymaö for l»m mlcclan oganj esnlges oSres JjClDnges: butan Jäss 75 anes "brogan. ne nan mann ne wsg eetberstan tarn bradan fyre: ahwlder. and best fyr l>onne. afeormaS l»s eoraan and hl geeänlvras, to fflnlloiim hlwe, and heo ne bis na forbumen: ac bis geclesnsod from eallum tarn fyljjum i>e hyre fram frymSe 80 becomon, and heo swa on ecnysse eall sclnende InxrhwunaS; On Jaere nlhte beoS twegen on anum bedde, an Jäis. bis genumen. and oSer bis forlaeten; Nlht Is her gecweden for Ssre ytennysse, and for Jjare myoelan ehtnysse on ante85 crlstes tlman. tonne beoS twegen menn on anum bedde aetgsdere. an t>a5ra bis genumen; and oSer bis forlasten; Sa beoS {»onne on bedde: t)e beoS on p. 10^^ stlllnysse. and fram eallum woruldcarum santlge. bonne beoS and gcdes t)eowdom begaS mld goodum Inngehyde 90 ac hl ne beoS na twegen: ac on twa todaslede; OJire beoS gecorene and gode gecweme. oSre beoS mld hlwunge on hls J^eowdome afundene; Ponne genlmS se haelend to hys heofonlloan rlce {» Ipe asmtlge wasron fram eall\m woruldcarum -^fre on hls 95 J)eowdome oS Sone endenyhstan daeg. and sume eao of Jjam Se xingeseellge wasron and mld leasre hlwunge. and lyffetunge ferdon: he forlst bsftan hym.

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100 -45and hl beo3 J)onne belocene v/1 'Ju tan JxBre ecan myrh^e; Swa bli5 se an genumen, and se oöer forla;ten: \>e on t«m bedde beoö )3onne gemette. t5st Is on teere stllnysse heora sta>5 olfesstan modes. na tv;egen nenn ana«ac on twa ivlsan gemodode. o9re mld sof5f£estnysse. o?^re mid hlvninge; T?wa grinda?) J)onne on anre cwyme setgaedere. 105 se an bi?5 genuinen and seo oöer bli5 forleeten; &T he cwses t^^^egen. Nu he cwseö twa on anre cwyrne emllce grindende; Peet synd J» woruldmenn J5e woruldt^ing bega5. and seo woruldcaru Is tseere cwyme wl^^meten. I^e sfre gsei^ abutan ymbe 110 fela geJ)Ohtas and mlslicum d^dum l^e menn behoflaö, and hefegun geswlncum swa swa ge sylfe wlton Be Ijysuni he cvres^ tTja, and nolde cwe?ian twegen. for]3am "^e hl soniice ne beo?i on swylcere fullfremednysse best hl sylfe magon hy sylfum 115 wlsslan. ac hy sceolan lybban be heora lareowa wlssunge, blsceopa. and messsepreosta. and heora mlsdsda betan be heora scrlfta tescincge. and of heora tllunge don syrole aslmyssan, ac hl P. 105 ne magon swa t5eah liam beon geefenlshte t»e 120 ealle J5lng forleton. for {«s heßlendes lufon, and hym csfre Jjeowodon; Por^l synd tvra, gecwede-

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-Ij.6ne. and na twegen vreras. for l^am woruldcarum: t>e hi onwunla?^ ; Of J)am woruldmanntm wltodllce beoS on t\e on godes acere swincaQ; Godes cscer is godes gela bvmg, b^t is l^l-O eall cristen folc fe on crist gelyfS swa swa paulus cwsTb on sumum his pistole to Ipam geleaffulliHa nannum b© he to geleafan gebigde; Del agricultura estls. d_ei edlficatio estis; Prat is on engllsc; Ge synd godes tilung 1^5 and godes getimbning; WitaS nu l)ls, Biscopas and LTSssepreostas syndon manna lareoi^as, hl soeolan hogian ymbe psa holendes ti-

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lunge ] 3cet hl manega sawla of aanncynne gestrjman Jäiü welwillendan heelende Jje wlle I50 p. 106 US habban; Hl sceolon hone crlstendom don crlstes folce. and mld heora lare symle to geleafan wenlan. and asfre mld weorciim hym wel bysnlan. and on heora fieowdome t>e hl gode t^eowlaö: hym foreblnglan, J)onne beoS hl rlhtllce godes tlllan I55 on Jfi-m gastllcan aecere. and hl swa ml dum beoö on maran gej3lng5e: swa hl ma sawla of manncynne begytaö to heofonan rlce. and hl habba?5 ealdordom on bam ecan llfe ofer eallun fcam sawlum Tpe hy gode gestiyndon mld beere gast8 I60 llcan teolunge; Is swa beah to lyt j^eara lareowa nu "pe t>us don wllle. and Is inannc3rnn fort)l ml dum geyrraed. forl^am be ^esra Is feavrei folces lareoT'/a ^e geomllce hogle hu man yfel alegce. and unrlhti^lsnysse, and rlht arare swa swa vre resI65 das on bocum; Canes rautl non possunt latrare; Hl synd Ja dunban hunra[sl. and hy ne magon beorcan; Pls cvrasQ se wltega be godes lareovmm. t>e noldan bodlan and geblpan manncynn to godes wlllan J». on jÄm tlnan l^e hl wseron. I70 nu Is hlt gyt wyrse on urum tlman. ]: gst xre ealle suwlaö and unrlht gcs5 forö openllce and dlgolllce and we embe ne hoglaJ^; ./Itodllce ba lareov/as

PAGE 52

-2^8J)e US lar of com. hl "bododan }>am hssaenura and ]3am hetelun ehtenun, and heora lif sealdon I75 for godes geleafan. ac we ne durran nu to Jam gedyrstlascan. ^ XBt vre cristenim cyninge o?^?Se crlstenum folce godes beboda and godes vrll?.an secgan; Ilu synd twegen gecwedene ^e gode tllir.n sceolan on psre gastlican tiluri^e 180 p. 107 on godes sela?3unge. fori^ara 5e hl ne beo3 ealle on ane wisan geworhte; Sume hl beo5 geomfulle, sume gynelease. sume anrrade sume asolcene. siime nyttwyröe, sume sulöe fremfulle, sume s^^rl?5e derigende; Ponne biS I85 se an genumen. and se oSor forlsten. IxDnne se halend genlm?5 to his halgum englum Äa goodan lareowas in to godes rice. and l?a yfelan beo?i wl5utan belocene; On l^isim ^rira endebyrdnyssum bis eall mancynn belocen, twegen on l&m bedde I90 and twa ?et b^re CTx'yrne, tT::egen on J^arn racere sT^/a svia ge genyrdon nu; il andwyrdan Tpa. and hyne ahsodon J)uss; Hwider beo?5 hi gehumene; And he hym c\its^ to; Swa hwnsr swa Jjat hold bl8: J)lder gaderiaS J)a earnas; Pa. sundorhalgan 195 ahsodan Jjone halend Jja J)us. hwider I» goodan sceoldan gegripene beon. o55e hwider Ipa. yfelan beon forlsetene; m andwyrde he be Jam

PAGE 53

gooduB: and nolde be "^m yfelum; Ja earnas getacnia» ]3a gebungenan halgan. and swa swa earnas 200 hl gegaderla?5 besr l^r T: 3t hold bi?i. svja beoö Jja halgan weras to Tpam heelende gegadorade p^r baer he on menniscnysse mlhtigllce rlhsa?5, soö mann and so?i god : an godes sunu b^es celmihtlgan fKder. mid bam he asfre rlcsa?^ and mld Jam 205 halgan gaste on anre godcundnysee amen; Sa be beo!^ forlfetene and belocene wi^utan of bam brlm werodiim. Tpa. gewenda?5 to helle mld eallum deoflum fordemede on ecnysse and hl nsfre sy55an nane mlltsunge ne begltaö. 210 forbam ?ie hi esfre eer on eynnura wunedon; We habbaö nu gesad hu Sa sundorhalgan ahsodon p. 108 bone heslend be ende blssere worulde. nu wllle we eow secgan sceortllce gif we magon: hu hys agene leomingcnlhtas hyne ahsodon be bam, 215 swa swa seo boc us cy?5 be ]3am ylcan; Interrogatus Ihesus a dlsclpulls de consuimnatlone Secull, dlxit eis; Cum autem viderltis abhominat Ionen, desolutlonls. et relloua; Tje. halgan apostolas be mld Jäh halendc ferdon. b*^. 'ba he her on worulde vrunode 220 mid mp.nnum: ahsodan hyne endenys be blssere worulde geendunge. he hym 1» andTjyrde and hjm bus to cvraeS; J>onne ge geseo?5 sta-ndan on bsre

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-50halgan stowe onscxinlendlic deofolglld swa s\\^, danlhel airrat. se Be l ^st rede o?5?5e redan 225 gehyre, undergyte he bonne pss wltegan word; Da J)e on ludea lande ]3onne lybbende beo?5; ]3a fleo5 J>orme to nunttim and to lalcclum dunun. and se :^e on his huse bis on bam heallcum hrofe. ne astige he Jx>nne of l»m sticolan hrofe. Jxet he hys 23O yddlsce ahredde be on Jjam huse blS; And se Jje on fecere beo ymbe hys tllunge, ne cyrre underbP3c to genimenne hys reaf; '.Ja Jjam eacnlendiin on Tpam yf eliom dagum and Ipam. f edendum on p^xe frecednysse; 31dda?5 eomostlice b^3t hyt ne beo 235 on rrlntra o5?^e on resteössge ^onne ge esmtlge beo?^; I>onne beo8 wltodllce swylce gedrefednyssa sxiylce nssfre sr n'^ran: ne eft ne gevrurt)a?5; Butan god gescyrte Ja sorhfullan dagas: eall manncjmn for\'Urde. vrltodllce 240 83tg3dere; Ac for hys gecorenum he gescyrte Ja dagas; Gif hwa JxDnne eow s^5 Jj^t crlst sylf beo "ponne on worulde wuniende mld nsannum P» 109 ne gelyfe ge Jxss. for>>ain pe on Jan tiiaan lease crlstas arlsa?5. and fela tacna vfyrcaö: nenn to beswlcenne 245 nid heora sclncrceftum» and eac Ja gecorenan nerai gif hlt gewiröan m^. wamias eow geomlice ic hyt hrabbe eow gescsdj Sona fsfter Jxsre

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-51gedref ednysse adeorca?) seo sunne and mld ealle alDeostra.?5 . and eac se mona. and steorran fea-lla» fasr^50 llce of heofonum: and heofone.n mihta beoS ]5onne astyrode; Kenn geseoö J)onne mannes sunu cunende on Jäei healicTom wolcnum mld nie dum wuldre. he asent J>onne soSlice hys englas. and hy gegaderlaö godes gecorenan menn fram Jäui 255 feowor wlnduH blssere worulde. and of basre eoröan up o8 }Da heofonan; We habbaö nu gesaed. 'pls hallge coclspell anfealdiim andgyte, and we eac v^lllan Jist gastllce andgyt furh god eow secgan; 5a halgan apostolas l>e mld bam holende ferdon 260 ba bß. he her on worulde T-nmode mld mannim: ahsodan hyne endemes be blssere worulde geendunge. he hym Je andvryrde and hym l>us to cwä^; Ponne ge geseo?5 standan on brare halgan stowe onscunlgendllc deofolgyld svja swa danlhel 265 awrat: se öe b^t resde: o?^?ie bat rradan gehyre: imdergyte he J>onne T^s wltegan word; lu on ealdum dagum eer 'iam be cristendom weere: menn worhton deofolgyld wlde geond l».s woruld. and hl bsrto ceb??don. ac ure c'rlhten adV7?3scte i^one 270 hesöenscype mld hys halgan tocyme. and iDone cristendom arrarde Jnirh hyne sylfne eerest. and burh hj'-s leomlngcnlhtas, and ]3urh hys lareot-jas

PAGE 56

-52s.y?)»an; Nu ne V7yrc5 nan mann nu on tysm tlman p, 110 gif he celeafan hafö hcej^engyld openllce. ac se ar275 leasa antecrlst on J^lssere ^'xorulde \TyTC^ fela T-rnndra "^uTh hye feondlican raihte. and Jnirh godes ge]>afunGe, and segS Jirat he god si. and burh hys mycclan wundra menn bugas to hym and on hlne gelyfa?^ hym sylfun to forri^rde. ac ]» gecorenan halgan 280 hym x-flöcueSaö zsfre jDeah ö« {« gedwolan hys ger'T-ryldim gelyfan; Hwst bia irare deofolgyld b^nne se deofolllca antecrist hym godes imramynt geahjilge; And hyne god talige. and men hym to gebiddan fiurh hys leasan tacna. and i)one hcslend 285 forseon: Ipe is eall so^faestnyss; On J)ssre halgan stowe Stent J^onne bat deofolgyld svia si-ra se apostol avrrat on sumiim hys pistole; Ita ut In templo del sedeat ostendens se tamquam Sit deu s; Swa bs3t he sitt on godes temple. and seg5 b^t he god sy; Hirn fara?5 mid sfre 290 ungesewenlice deoflu, burh 3a: he vryrc?? x-mndra Wide geond ]pas eor^an, and ofer eallum manncjnine becyma seo ehtnyss; 5a 3e on iudea lande bonne llbbende beo?^; b^fleoS to muntum and to mlcclum dunum. and se 9e on hls huse bi3 on b&ni healicum 295 hrofe, ne astige he bonne of bam sticolan hrofe tjrat he hys yddisce ahredde J e on bß-iQ bi5; And se ?5e on eecere beo ymbe hys tilunge. ne cyrre

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•53he imdert)sc to genimene hys ree.f ; We moton eow secgan svia swa ge mason understandan. 300 hwllcum anfealdlice be eowrum andglte. hwllum eow geopenlan l^a inran digolnysse. forj^am Tpe ge eaöe ne magon hyt eall understandan; vJa J«.m eacnlendum on Jäiu yfelum dagum. and bam fedendim on Jjeere frecednysse; Hweet agyltaS J« wif pe be ^®?m godes hesse tyma?5. and heora cild feda?5 on l^^re frecednysse. ac pis Is gecweden be Ipam leasvim crlstenum ]5e beo» nid leahtrum afyllede svja svja gefearhsugu. and mld untTrenotim J>a unt-jaran fordo3: and heora yfel geeamiafl svrylce mld forste; Bldd£ 9 eomostlice 310 bat hyt ne beo on wlntra oi^r5e on restendssge. bonne ge jsmtige beo?5; Ne nfsnde he Jione wlnter fe get-mnellce cym?5 on J)ces geares ymbryne. ac svra. swa he on oSre stowe cwäTti Qula abundablt inlquitas refrlgescet Caritas multo rum ; Prat Is on engllscun gereorde. b^^t on Ipam yfelan timan arlst seo iinrlhtvrlsnyss. and swl3e genenlgfylt, and seo so5e lufu swi»e acola^. na ealra manna, ac swl5e aanegra, b^t hy nateshwon ne lufla5 laone liflgendan god. ne hyra nyhstan. ne furöan hy sylfe. for'^on se Se god ne lufaS: ne lufaö 320 he hyne sylfne; Se restendseg is swa swa i^e readaS on bocvm haiig freols dsg on ludea folce, swa svia

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-5^ we healda» Jjone halgan sunnandisg, fram woroldllcum vreorcum, and we sceolan wllnian rafre, and cat gode blddan "kest vre ne beon fsratlce fram coodiim 325 weorcTOT, and on godes lufan acolode: t)onne us se endenyhsta d^sg onsigende bl5; Ponne beo5 x^ltodllce sx'^;^loe gedrefednyssa s\Tylce nc3fre tsr ne gevrur?5aS; Kicel ehtnys wh3s on an^lnne cristendomes. and eac lange sy35an for crlstes geleafan. 330 sr ?5am Ipe man mlhte ]3ysne mlddaneard geblgan fram J)am tej^enscype t© hy on afedde wsron to l^m soSan geleafan J)<2s lyfige:idan godes; Ilan ac irealde 1» cristenan rald mlsllouin cvrylmingum, and mid nenlgfealdim tintregun hige335 martyrode, ac hym geuSe se haslend ] 3B3t hy mihton J3a P» ^^^ xfyrcan ba ilcan t-nindra ]pe he sylf geworhte; Im ne bis hlt na s\')a on antecristes timan. he tintregag tia halgan. and eac taona i^yrc?5. and "jpa. halgan ne magon on Ixcn timan gev/yroan snige tacna. ac hi yfele beo5 3^ for Jam gedrefede: bonne se deofol wyrcö menigfealde wundra, and hi sylfe ne nagon nane mihte gefreimnan on manna gesihöe; lonne wet se deofol and gewitn^S {a halgan, mid swylcum wundrum: ST^a we secgan ne ne-gon. and mid deofles mihte: macas fela xfundra; Butan god 3^5 gescyrtte J». sorhfullan dagas : eall manncynn f orxs^urde: vritodlice estgesdere. ac for his gecoreniui halgum: he gescyrte Ja dagas; Dreo gear he ricsa(5

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-SS" and syx monöas on raanoyrme. on eallre modlsnysse ealle nid deofle afylled. and on eallum iinj)eavmm. and egesllc^im fyl?5um hys llf biS gelogod on l^am lytlan fyrste. and cslcne nannan he tiht to hys fulxjm beawuin; and on aslce wlsan he wlle mancynn fordon; Ac for godes gecorenam, god hrada?5 hys tlinan; Gif hvra Jjonne eow seg3 ] 3st crist sylf beo jDonne minlgende on weorolde 355 mid mannum: ne gelyfe ge J)J3s, forjÄm öe lease crlstas on J)am timan arisag, and fela ts.cna wyrcas menn to beswicanne mid heoxa scinci^ftim. and eac Jja gecorenan menn gif hit gewuröan EKSg. x^miaö eov: eomostlice ic hit hsbbe eow gessd; Lre hslend crist 36O ne cym3 na to mancynne openlice eeteowed on J)lssere xfeorolde. a3r Jjara micclan dcsge: ]3onne he manncjTine dem5, ac ]» leasan cristas and Ja leasan witegan fionne curaaö on antecristes timan, hi syndon hys lima. and hys leasan geferan. and geond Jaas woruld 3^5 fara5 mid feondlicvm crrafte, and to fela beswicaö mid heora scincit^fte. ac ^a beo^ gel ealdene fe t)urhwunia'^ p, II3 oö ende on cristes geleafan. s\is. svja he sylf gecwaeö; he gevjamode Ja swa s;*a J)is gewrit us segö hys halgan ap osto las . and eac us J)urh hi. b^t we geome healdan hys geleafan esfre. and ure lif syllan: eer we hyne xiiSsacon, and hyt soölice gewyrö swa swa he sylf ssde. swa swa v/e nu rsddon on Jiissere reedlnge; Sona elfter Jaesre

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-56gedrefednysse adeorca?5 seo svmne, and rald ealle aV>eostrc..'^. and eac se inona. and steorran fealla^ feerlice 375 of heofonun and heofonan mlhta beo5 j5onne astyrode; Sona jefter Jxsre ehtnysse bi^i antecrlst ofslagen. ]purh crlstes nlhte on hys tocyme, and engla werodu beo?5 astyrede. and mld ]5an holende ciuna^i of Jasi heofonlican brsmme swutolllce Esteowde, s\3an healicum wolcnm nid nicclum vruldre; Crlst sylf Is nannes snnu svra. sv/a he Scsde foroft. he is anes nannes sunu swa svra. nan o?5er man nis. he cymS ]Donne on bam wolcnum mld niccluin 385 wuldre. to bam nlcclan dorne s^tol sviv. hlt awrlten is; He asent bonne so511ce hys englas. and hl segjaderla?^ godes gecorena.n menn fram Jjam feower wlndum J^lssere worulde, and of {jcsre eor^ian. up oS l^a heofonan; Da englas bonne blawaö heora byman hlude, and eall nanncyn arist 39O }3e c-^fre cucu vtc^s, of heora bjrrgenum. and Jsa englas gebringaj) ]» gecorenan menn to crlst e sylfura: b^t hl mld hlm rlcsian on heofonan rice on llchaman and on sawle Ses'3llglice sfre; Crlst cwb3?5 on o5re stowe be ban arleasun J^uss: iSiibunt ang_eli et separabunt malos de 395 nedio iustorun et nlttent eos in caralnim Ignls Ibi erit fletus et Stridor dentium; I^st on engllsc; Snglas faia5 t)or-ne and asyndrla'5 Ja yfelan and Ja synnfullan menn p. 114

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-51" fram Jam rlhtwlsum fie rlcsiaö mid gode. and awurpas hl ealle Innto öam wldßillan fyre i)c3re bradan helle, i*-00 on lX3re hy bymaö sfre, Jer bl8 wop and vra.niing and toSa gristbitung. and hl nahvra.r ne ininias butan on l^am wltvim aefre; Soöllce \b. lialgan slölaa mid criste to heofonan rlce mid hys halgum englum, ge weras ge wifmenn svra. swa hi on worulde lyfodon, 405 and siSöan wunias gessslige mid him on unasecgendllcre blisse a butan ende. AIIEl^I;

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TRANSLATION

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TRANSLATION Interrogatus autem Ihesus a pharlsels quando venit regnum dei et rellqua, The holy book whlch teils of Christas wonders says that the pharlsees, on a certaln occaslon, asked our Savlor Christ about Ilis Coming, and about God's klngdom on that great day whlch we call the Day of Judgment. j\nd He answered them thus : "God's klngdom will come accordlng to no calculatlon. Nor will men ever say 'Lo, Ke Iß comlng now,« because He will 10 come suddenly, even as swlft llghtnlhg whlch shoots from the east, shlnlng to the west. And Just as It happened long ago In Noeüi's flood: Men ate and drank and llved foollshly, young men took wlves and women took husbands, untll Noah went Into the ark. Then the flood came suddenly over them all, and all manklnd drowned, except for the elght people who were In the ark as God had commanded them. And Just as afterwards In the days of Lot It happened agaln: Men ate and drank, bought and sold, bullt and planted, and went about thelr husbandry. 20 Then, as soon as Lot was led out of the clty, God -59-

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-60immedlately sent flre and brimstone as If It had been a shower of raln and corapletely bumed up the flve eitles. Sven so will It be on the day when our Lord Is revealed, and He comes to Judge all manklnd In that great Judgment, each by hls works, If anyone at that tlme Is about hls work, or In hls fleld, he will not be able to hasten so that he may save anythlng, or bring away garments or vessels, On that night there will be two men In one bed. 30 One of them will be taken, and the other left. And two women will be grlndlng together In one mlll. The one will be taken, and the other left, Two men will be In a fleld plowlng iorf^^ther, The one will be taken and the other left," They answered then, and asked Hlm thus: "Whlther will they be taken?" And He sald to thera "v/heresoever the body Is, there the eagles will gather," Now we wlsh to explaln to you brlefly, If we may, the most hldden words In thls gospel of the ^0 Lord, for you can not easlly understand It all, We have now heard In thls holy gospel that we cannot calculate, nor Is It known to any man, when our Savlor will come to Judge manklnd on the last day of thls World, But we belleve, nevertheless , that

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-61It has not been sald untruly to us that He will come wlth Hls shinlng angels at the endlng of thls World to Judge us, each by his works, and that He will then glve to those who have obeyed Hirn, and 50 to those who have gladdened Hlm wlth good works ever. etemal joy and eternal dwelllng among all Hls salnts In the klngdom of Heaven. The wretched sinners who rejected Hlm In llfe, and wlth evll deeds always provoked Hlm, these shall be sunk In that dark Hell wlth the accursed devlls for ever and ever. And whoever does not believe thls, hls bellef Is nothing, The Savlor told US truly a parable about Noah's flood, and Lot 's redemptl,on. Now, some of :,ou know how It was wlth Noah, and wlth hls flood, but many of you 60 do not know how It was wlth Lot, Therefore, we wlsh to teil you, Of old, Lot was the name of a certaln holy servant of God, a nephew of Abraham. Then, before the law of Moses, he llved In the evll country of the Citizens of Sodom, They were evll men and dlsgracefully made themselves gullty In shameful deeds, Then God bumed them up, wlth thelr flve eitles, wlth heavenly flre and helllsh brlmstone, But He

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-62sent on before two shlnlng angele to the falthful Lot, and led hlm out of that corrupt people, so that he mlght not perish wlth them. 70 Sven so will It be on the Day of Judgment at the Coming of our Lord, The flre will come so suddenly that men will not be able to foresee It, and wlth fearful flame It will covar all the world. And because of the great terror, men will take heed of no other thlng except that one fear. No man will be able to escape that great flre anywhere. And the flre will puige the earth and will restore It to a fom beyond compare, and It will not be bumt up, but 80 will be purged of all the fllth vrtilch has entered Into It slnce the beglnnlng. And thus It shall remaln, all shlnlng through etemlty. "On that night two men will be In one bed. One of them will be taken and the other left." Night Is sald here for the Ignorance and the great persecutlon In the tlme of antlchrlst. Then will two men be In one bed together, One of them will be taken and the other will be left, Those are In bed who are In tranqullllty, and free from all worldly cares. And they go about God*s husbandry wlth good oonsclenoe, Yetthey are 90 not slmply two men, but dlvlded Into two worts, Some are chosen and pleaslng to God, Others are found

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-6^hypocrltlcal in Hls servlce. Then the Savlor will take to Hls heavenly klngdom those who were ever free from all worldly cares in Hls Service up to the last day. But some of those who were unblessed, and acted wlth false appearances and flattery, He will leave behlnd Hlm, and they will then be locked out from 100 the etemal Joy. Thus will the one be taken and the other left who will there be met In that bed, that Is, In the stlllness of thelr steadfast mlnds, Not slmply two men, but In two ways dlsposed — the one wlth falthfulness, the other wlth hypocrlsy. "Two women vrlll then be grlndlng In one mlll together. The one will be taken. and the other left." Before He sald two men. Mow He says two vromen In one mlll patlently grlndlng. Those are the ^/orldly men who cultlvate worldly thlngs. And worldly care Is 110 llkened to the mlll, whlch ever goes about concerned wlth the many thoughts and varlous deeds whicl-. occupy men, and wlth heavy labors such as you yourselves know. For thls reason He sald two women, and dld not wlsh to say two men, because they truly are not In such perfectlon that they may rule themselves, but they must live accordlng to the guldance of thelr teachers--

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-6ifblshops and priests— and amend thelr mlsdeeds by the directlon of their confessor, sind by thelr endeavors always to do alms, But they may not, 120 nevertheless, be equal to those who forsake all things for the love of the Savlor, and ever serve Hlm. Therefore is sald two women, and not two men, because of the worldly cares among whlch they live, Concernlng laymen, they ere truly of two mlnds, and diversely dlsposed. Some are ohosen, some reprobate. Some live thelr llves Jußtly, some evllly, ajid they end In sin. Then the Savlor will take to Hls heavenly klngdom on that great day those of the lay130 men who always pleased Hlm with good will and works untll the end of thelr llves. And the reprobate will be closed out. Then will the one woman be taken, and the other left. "Two men will be plowlng toge her In a fleld. One will be taken, the other left." Here He sald two men, and dld not wlsh to say two women, because of the perfectlon, and the fair dlgnlty whlch they should have who work In God's fleld. God's fleld Is God»s 1^ congregatlon, that Is, all Christian folk who belleve In Christ, even as Paul sald In one of hls epistles to the falthful men whom he brought to bellef : "Del

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-65agrlcultura estis; Dei edlflcatlo estls," That Is In Engllsh, "You are God's husbandry and God»s bullding." Now know you thls : Blshops ajid prlests are the teachers of men, They should care for the husbandry of the Savlor so that they will galn many souls from mankind for the lovlng Savlor x«rtio wlshes I50 to have us, They ought to glve Chrlstlanlty to Christ *s people, and wlth thelr leamlng ever draw them to redemptlon, and always set them good examples wlth works. And, In thelr prayers, those who serve God ought to Intercede for them. Then are they truly husbandmen for God In the splrltual fleld. And they will be as great In addltlonal honor, as they obtaln more souls of manklnd for the klngdom of Keaven. And they vrlll have authorlty In the eternal llfe over all the souls that they galned for God I60 wlth thelr splrltual husbandry. There are, however, too few teachers who will now do thus, and canklnd Is greatly affllcted because there are so few teachers of the people who eamestly care how man may suppress evll and unrlghteousness , and upralse the rlght. Even as we read In books: "Canes mutl non possunt latrare." They are dumb dogs and they cannot bark, Thls Is what the prophet sald about God's

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-66teachers who would not preach, and bend manklnd to God*s I70 will at the time they llved, Now It Is even worse In our time when we are all silent, and unrlghteousness goes forth openly and secretly, and we do not care about lt. Truly those teachers from whom knowledge has come to us — they preached to the heathens and to hostile persecutors, and gave thelr llves for God*s falth. But now we do not dare to teil God's conmiands and God^s will to a Christian klng or to Christian folk, Now they are called two men, those who ought to I80 labor for God in spirltual husbandry in God*s church, because they are not all raade in one way. Some are eager, some negligent, some resolute, some lazy, some useful, some exceedlngly profitable, some very harmful. Then the one will be tsiken and the other left when the Savlor takes the good teachers to Lls holy angels in God^s kingdom, and the evll are closed out. All manI90 kind is encompassed in these three orders : two in the bed, two at the mill, and two in the field even as you have just heard. "They ansvxered then and asked Hirn thus: 'Whlther will they be taken?* and He sald to them, »wheresoever the body is, there the eagles will gather.*" The pharlsees then asked the Savlor thus: "Where will the good be taken, or viiere will the evll be left?" He answered then concemlng the good, but He would not

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-67answer concemlng the evll. The eagles slgnlfy the 200 noble Saint s and like eagles they will gather there where that body Is. So will the holy men be gathered to the Savior there where He will arise mightily in human nature, true man and true God, the only son of the Father Almlghty, with whom He will ever rule, and with the Holy Ghost in one Godhead, Amen. Then they will be left, and closed out of the three groups^ those who will go to Hell, condemned with all the devils into etemity. And they will never after 210 receive any mercy because they always dwelt in sin bef ore . Now have we told you how the pharisees asked the Savior atout the end of this world. Now we wish to teil you shortly, if we may, how his own disoiples asked Him about it , even as the Book teils us about that seune thing. Interrogatus Ihesus a discipulis de concummatione seculi. Dixit eis: "Cum autem videritis abhominationem desolat ionis et reliqua." The holy apostles who were with the Savior vrhile 220 He was living here on earth among men also asked Him about the ending of this world. He answered the then, and Said thus to them: "Vflien you see the abominable idol Standing in the holy place, even as Daniel described

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-68(he who reads that or hears it read, let hlm then understand the words of the prophet) those who are then llving In Judea will then flee to the mountain, and to the great hüls. And let hlm who Is on the 23O high top of his house not descend from the roof in Order to rescue his household goods whlch are Inslde the house. And he who Is in the field about his husbandry, let him not tum back to take his robe. "Woe to those with child in the evil days , and to those nursing in the perll. Fray eamestly that It be not in the wlnter, or on the day of rest when you are Idle. Then will there truly be such dlsturbance as never before was nor agaln will be. Except that God cut Short those sorrowful days, all mankind would truly perlsh together, But for His 2^0 chosen He will cut Short the days. If anyone teils you, then, that Christ himself is llvlng in the World among men, do not believe it, because in that time false christs vrlll arise, and will do many miracles in Order to deceive men with their magic, and even the chosen ones if it might come to pass, Zealously take heed. I have said it to you« "Immedlately after the oppresslon the sun will be darkened, and will be eclipsed completely. And also 25O

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-69the moon and the stars will fall suddenly from the sky, and the powers of Heaven will then be stlrred up, Men will then see the Son of I^lan comlng In the high clouds wlth great glory. He will then truly send forth Hls angels, and they will gather God's chosen men from the four wlnds of thls earth, and from the earth up to the Heav ens." We have now told thle holy gospel on one level, but we eilso wlsh, through God, to reveal to you the Spiritual meanlng, The holy apostles who were wlth the Savlor when 260 He llved here on earth among men also asked Hlm about the endlng of thls world. He answered them then, and sald thus to them: "iAfhen you see the abomlnable Idol Standing In the holy place, even as Daniel descrlbed (he who reads that, or hears It read, let hlm then understand the words of the prophet)," Long ago, In the olden days, before Christendom exlsted, men made Idols wldely through the world and prayed to them. But our Lord quenched heathenshlp wlth Hls holy comlng, 270 and exalted Christendom through hls own resurrectlon, and by Hls dlsclples and Hls teachers afterwards. Now no man In thls tlme, If he has bellef, performs Idolatry openly. But the Implous antlchrlst does many mlracles In thls world through hls flendlsh mlght, and through God»s consent. And he says that he Is God, and, because

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-70of hls great wonders, men bow down to hlm, and believe In hlm, to thelr ovm undolng. But the chosen saints 280 will resist him forever, althotigh the heretlc will belleve his heresy, Lo it is a great Idolatry \ihen the devilish antichrist approprlates to himself God*s glory, and conslders himself to be God, and men bow down to him because of his false miracles, and reject the Savior who is all truth. In the holy place will then stand the idol as the apostle described in one of his epistles, "Ita ut in templo dei sedeat ostendens se tamquam Sit dis," "So that he sits in God's temple 290 and says that he is God." Invisible devlls always go with him, through whom he works miracles widely over all the earth, and over all maniiind will fall the persecution. "Those who are then living in Judea will then flee to the mountain, and to the great hills . And let him >rtao is on the high top of hls house not descend from the roof in order to rescue his household goods, which are inside his house. And he who is in the field about his husbandry, let him not tum back to take his robe." V/e must teil you even as you may understand, to 3OO each one singly according to your understanding to open to you at times the inner meaning, for you may not easily understand it all.

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-71"Woe to those wlth child in the evll days , and to those nursing In the perll." In what do the vromen offend who bear chlld "by God*s command, and feed their chlldren In the perll? But thls Is sald about the false Christians who are filled wlth sin even as a farrowlng sow, and who destroy the unwary wlth evll tricks. And thelr evll Is betokened by the food. 310 "Pray eamestly that It be not In wlnter or on the day of rest when you are Idle." He means not the Winter whlch ordlnarlly comes In the course of the year, but as He sald In another place: "Qula abundablt Inlqultas refrlgescet Caritas multorum." That Is Is, In the angllsh tongue that In the evll tlme will arlse unrlghteousness, and It will multlply exceedIngly, and true love will become exceedlngly cool, not In all men, but In very many, so that they will not love the llvlng God at all, nor thelr nelghbor, nor even themselves. For he who does not love God 320 does not love hlmself. The day of rest Is, even as we read In the Holy Book, a free day among the people of Judea, even as we hold the holy Sunday from worldly works. And we The translatlon of thls sentence follows the Hatten ^'?S. See the note to llnes 309-3IO.

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-72should always wish, and pray to God that we are not empty of good works, and chilled in God's love when the last day has descended upon ue , "Then will there truly be such disturbance as has never before been. " There was great persecutlon in the beginnlng of Christendom, and also long afterward for 330 belief In Christ, before thls world could be tumed from the heathenshlp on whlch It was nourished, to the true belief in the living God. But Christians were ruled wlth diverse tortures, eüid martyred wlth manlfold tortures, But the Savlor allowed them Lthe Christians] to do the miracles that He Himself did. Now it will not be so In the tlne of antlchrist. He will torture the saints and work mlracles too, and the saints will 3^ not be able to perform any wonders then and they will be grlevously -vexed for that' reason, Then the devil will work manlfold wonders, and they themselves [the saints ] will not be able to perform any mighty work In the slght of man. Then the devil will become angry, and will chastlse the saints wlth such wonders as we are not able to desoribe, and wlth devil 's mlght he vrill make many wonders, "Sxcept that God cut Short those sorrowful days , all manklnd would truly perlsh together. But for Hls

PAGE 77

-73chosen saints He will cut Short the days." For three years and slx monthe he will rule over manklnd In all pride, completely fllled wlth the devll. And his 350 llfe will be lodged In all faults and in f earful filth in that llttle time. And ha will exhort each man to his foul Service, for He wishes to destroy manklnd by any means, But for Eis chosen, God will hasten His time. "If anyone teils you, then, that Christ himself Is llvlng in the world among men, do not believe it, because in that time false Chris ts will arlse, and will do many mlracles in order to deceive men with their maglc, and even the chosen men if it might come to pass. 3amestly take heed. I have said it to you." 3^0 Our Savior Christ will not come to mankind openly revealed in this world before that great day when He will judge manklnd. But the false Chris ts and the false Prophet s will come then in the time of antlchrlst. They are his limbs and his false companlons. And they will go throiighout this world with fiendish cujining, and will deceive too many with their magic. Eut those who persevere until the end in belief in Christ will be saved, even as He Himself said. He wamed his holy apostles, even as this scrlpture teils

PAGE 78

-74us , and also [He wamed] us through them, that we 370 dillgently hold to ills "bellef ever, and glve our llves before we reject Hirn. And truly It will come do pass even as He Hlmself sald, as we now read in thls lesson, "Immediately after the oppression the sun will be darkened and will be eclipsed completely. And also the moon and the stars will fall suddenly from the sky, and the povrers of Heaven will then be stlrred up," Immediately after the persecutlon ant Ichrist will be slain through Christ *s might at I-Ils comlng, And bands of angels will be stirred up, and will coiae with the Savior from the heavenly powers , openly to earth even 380 as this gospel teils us: "Men will then see the Son of Man Coming in the high Heavens with great glory." Christ Hlmself is the Son of Man even as He has often said. He is the son of one person as no other man is. He will come then in the clouds with great glory to that great judgment even as it is written: "Ke will then truly send forth His angels, and they will gather God's chosen men from the four winds of this earth and frora the earth up to the Ileavens," The angels will then blow their homs loudly and all of 390 mankind, who ever were alive, will arise from their

PAGE 79

-75graves. And the angels will bring the chosen raen to Christ Hlmself so that they Ejay relgn vrlth Hlm in the Klngdom of Heaven, happy forever in body and soul. In another place Christ spoke of the wicked thus : "Exlbunt angeli et separabunt malos de medio iustorum et mittent eos in csaminum ignls ibi erit fletas et Stridor dentium." In English that means, i\ngels will come then and will separate the evil and the sinful men from the righteous who will rule with God. And ^0 they will cast them all into the widespreading f ire of that broad Hell, in which they will bum forever. There will be cries, and wailing, and also gnashing of teeth, and they will dvrsll nowhere ezcept in misery forever, Truly the saints will travel with Christ to the Klngdom of Heaven with Hiis holy angels , both men and women, even as they llved in the world. And afterwards they will dwell with Ulm happlly, in inef fable bllss World without end, A14S1^

PAGE 80

NOTES

PAGE 81

NOTES Nelther minor differences In spelling, such as J)/» or l/y, nor differences in piinctuation have been recorded in the notes, unless they are of critical Import. The followlng abbreviations are used In the notes: C. Corpus Christi College Cambridge MS 178 H. Eodlelan, I^itton MS 115 g.c— terglnal or interlinear gloss in C. g.h.— Marginal or interlinear gloss in H. Title: Sercio de die iudioii : In H. this is set in the first line of the Latin introduction, following "Interrogatus autem," 1-38. This is a rough paraphrase of Luke 17:20, 24, 26-31, 3^37. It is, however, the disciples, not the pharisees, who are questioning Christ in the bulk of the Biblical passage (see Introduction). 3» S90 haiige cristes boc : This appears in H. totally in capitals, haiige : H. halle. "In unaccented syllables in 1 W-S and [Kentishj the syllable ip interchanges freely with -T. ... In such unaccented posltions, however, T would doubtless soon be shortened" (Campbell, para, 267). ymbe : H. embe . "In the second dement of Compounds, Lor] with reduction of stress s and _! can become e , , . with 1 from ^, unaccented embe from srmbe " (Campbell, para. 372, and fn. 2). -77-

PAGE 82

-78^. spryoa : H, spreoS « "Spryca" Is the normal W-S form. "Sprech" could be North\imbrian, east Kentish, or Angllan" (Campbell, para, 733). sunderhalgan : g.c. "farlsei" on sumne sssl t g.c. "allquando" ; tlme 5» ahsodan : H. acxodan. g.c, " Int errogabant " ume hslend crist : H. \xme hfielend drihten crlst ymbe t H. embe (see note, line 3) 6. ymbe : H. embe (see note, llne 3) 7. ]3uss : H. l)us 8. menn t H. men 9. na* •'^» 2äi2i efne t g.c. "ecce" cymS ; H. clmO forbam be ; H. forban Oe 10. liget ; g.c, "fiilgur"; g.h. "fulgur" 11. An[d3 t H, and . Thls Variation mlght be regarded as an early manlf estation of the loss of d between n and £, whioh gave us "answer" from and^warlan . However, the O.E.D, does not clte the former spelling untll the 12th-l3th centuries, gefym : 3,c, dadiim 12. noeys ; H. noes menn ; H. men 13. leofodan ; H. leofodon wlfodan: H. wifodon ceorlodan: H. ceorlodon 15. ofer hl ealle ; H. of er hl eall : H. eal 16. butan: g.c. "preter" Innan ; g.c. "intra" 17« swa swa hym wissode god : H. svra swa him god wlssode loöes : m.g. lotes ; g.h, lotes ; g.h, lot 18. menn; H. men

PAGE 83

-7919, bohtan : H. bohton byttlodan t H. :.vtlodon ; g.c. "fundabant" plant odan ; H, plantodon 20, beeodan : H. beeodon; g.c. "excercebant" 21, alaed t ff.c. "ductus," The regulär form here would be algeded , but Campbell polnts out, "the pass, part, should have syncope of «l« In open syllables after lon^ root syllables in trlsyllablc forxtts, , . , In W-S, hovrever, there is a tendency for parts, in dentals to extend syncopation to uninflected forms, e,g. "gel^dd", , , (paras, 752-3). 22, swef el t g,c, sulfur renscur: g.h, "pluvla" 24-29, eallswa big « , « oOOe fata : The hontillst seems to have slipped momentarily, and, while still follovring hls source in essence, changes the pronominal ref erences , and expands the source slightly, 2k, ffiteowed: g.c. "ostensum," "apertum"; g.h, "ischawed," The normal form of thTs verb is äetiewian , but "when eo was analogically introduced into a position in which it was followed by 1 in the next syllable, the product of 1,-umlaut was io even in V/-S , and this lo became eo later. Hence vre find many W-S texts with lo (eo) where we should expect ie , because before iinlaut took place, io had been replaced by analogical eo" (CampbeTT, para, 202), 26, manncynne t H, manoynne 27, ymbe ; H, embe (see note, line 3) . . . tilunge oSSe . . . ; In H. there is inserted betueen these two words o^Oe on his huse which brings the text closer to the tiblical passage, 28, 830 ere ; In H, there is a k interlined over the c; s'»h, "agera" "" "" geefstan ; g,c, "preperare"; g,h, "festinare" ahredde ; g,h. "liberet" 29, gewasda ; H, gev;^du ; g,c. "vestelf; g.h. "vestes" fata ; H, fatu; g.c, "vasa"; g,h. "vasa"

PAGE 84

-8030. twegen ; g.c. 11 pera : H. ]3ara . "1 W-S has as varlants of bar « hwser ; t«.r hvfar , t«.ra " (Campbell, para. 678), 31. forlceten: g.c. " rel I nq uen tur" twa ; g.c, il_ 33» twegen ; g.c. 11 35» andwyrdan : g.c. "responde runt " ; There was an Interlinear gloss In H. which has been erased, A marginal glosB , hovrever, reads "responde runt . " ahsodan l^uss : IT. acsodon t^us 37. gadrla5 1 H. gaderlaS 39. dlplostan ; H. dlgloston ; g.c. "secretlora verba" ^, for^on: H. forbaa ge : g.c. and g.h. "vos" ^3« Lna jniun : Thls appears In C. as num , wlth na as an Interlinear addltlon, In a dlfferent hand, appearlng Immedlately before and above the word In text. H. has t'ne err ected nanniim . menn ; H. men ^. endenyhstan : H. endenextan ^5» Ipysse t H. layssere ac: H. a gelyfaO :"" There is an e Inserted directly over the j^ In H. "" ac we gelyfaa t g.h. "sl nos credl mus " ^6, alof^en: m.g. "falsum mentltur"; g.h. mentltuj," '' mentl tuLin]"[?] ^8, demanne t H. demenne ^9, j>am ; g.c. "qulbus" gehyrsuTTiedan t hT gehyrsumodon 50. gegladodan t H. geglododon; g.c. "placuerunt 51. ecan wununge i Approxlmately three le-cters have been erased betv;een these two words In C, In !I, the Word mld appears In thls posltlon. Mldvrunung Is used elsewhere by £lfrlc to nean "living In Company,"

PAGE 85

-8153. earman : g.c. "nlseresC?]." Thls Is a reeular second decT. adj. and the form shoiad be "miserl." Perhaps it has been confused with third decl. forsawan ; FI, forsawon ; g.c. "spreverunt"; a gloss In H. hae "been erased. 5i^. gremodan ; H, gremodon 56. awyrgedum t H. awyregedum . Over the ^ in H. has teen Inserted an a, 57« gelyf eO ; H. gelyf» 58. gelicnysse : g.c. "similltudinera" loöes: g.c. lotes ; g.h. lot 59. S^s g»c. and g.h. "vos" 60. fela ; H. feala . The form feala occurs In Angllan Tsee Campbell , para. 210.2 and fn. 2), but such spelllngs occur sporadically In W-S (see Ceunpbell, para . 281 ) . 61. Log t g.h. lot lu; g.c. "quondam" There Is also a g.c. readlng "de lot exe mpltim " 62. begn t II. begen 63. 2: g.c. lawe 64. burhware ; H. buruhvjare ; g.c. "clvlum" sodomitTscre burh-viare; Thls must be g.p. and should read sodomltlscra burhwara . However, burhware Is a pl. noun and the ^ spelling may be carrled over from the normal nom. acc. endlngs. Then sodomitlscre might appear in sympathj»-, The endlngs are the same in both I1S3, and because of the late Old Snglish reductlon of unstressed vowels to schwa, would represent the same p ronounc ia t i on . 65. menn t H. men bysmorllce t g.c. "ridlculose" forscyldgode : H. forscyldegode ; g.c. "delinquentes" ; g.c, "peccaveri unt " ; g.h, "deJ.inquentes" 66. hl: g.c. "lllos" 67. swefle t g.c. sulfure ; g.h. sulfure 68. on 2er ; g.c. "ante" t wegen ; g.c. 11

PAGE 86

-8269. aladde: g.c. "diixlt" 70. ne forvmrde ; g.o. "non Interlret" forwurde : g.h. "p er lret" " eall ; H, eal 71. on dorne [3 J dage i Thls appears In C. as on dorne deege , but In H. as on domes degge , It is perhaps only a matter of a forgotten letter In anticlpatlon of the datlve form dsege . 72. menn ! H. laen foresceawlan t H. forsceax>ylan ; g.c. "prB?vldere" 73. egeslloum t g.c. "t er ribllo" 7^. menn : H. mmen gymaa : g.c. "curant"; g.c, and g.h. "caplunt curam" 75» ogan ; g.c. "tlnorum"; g.h, "metu" HUnges ; li. Ringes butan : H. buton 76. brogan ; g,c. "terrorem"; g,h, "terrorem," brogan Is g.s. However, the Ln. glosses are clearly a.s. mann : h. man aetberstan: g.c. "evadere" 77. ahwider: g.c. "allcubi" af eorma5 : g.c, "purgat" ; 78. ^s: g.h. "illam" hl: g.h. "eam" geednlwag : g.c, "renovat " ; g.h, " renovatur" eenlicum : g.c, "ameno," "Jocundo" 80. fron : H. frag 81. eall : H. ^a ' 83. Sara : H. geera (see note, llne 30) forl33ten: g.h. " rel inquentur" 8^. nytennysse ; g.c, " Ignorant lam" 85, ehtnysse : g.c. "persecutlonem"

PAGE 87

-8386. merm: H. inen 87. bedde ; g.h. "lecto" 88. ^: g.c. "Uli" t)e beoO on stllnyeee: ]3e refers to Jba in thls same line. not to bedde . 89. stillnysse ; g.c. " t ranquill 1 täte" woruldcarum ; g.h. "sclentla" semtif^e bonne beoO : H. t>onne cgptige beoO 90. beoHdog. ; g.c. "officium" begaO ; g.c. "excercet" goodum ; H. godiun inngehyde ; H. ingehyde ; g.c, "sciencia" 91. twegen : g.c. "duo" 92. gode : g.h. "deo" hiwunge ; g.c. "simulatione"; g.h. "fictitia" 93. jpeowdome t g.c. "officio" af tmdene ; g.h. "probat i" 96. OB: g.c. and g.h. "usque" endenyhstan : H. enden ex tan 97. bam ; g.c, "illis" hiwunge : g.h. "siraulatl^one" 98. lyf f etunge t g.c. and g.h. "adulatlone" 101. bep8 bonne i^emette ; H. bonne beoS gemette 103. menn ; H. men geiaodode ; li. gemodude ; g.c. "animati" 10^. hiwunge: g.c. "dissiniulation" 105. t>onne ; g.h. "tunc" 106. seLo] an bia genumen ; se appears in C. The reading seo is supported by H. , by Latin renderings of the text, and by subsequent reference in C. (see lines 133-13^). 107. twegen : g.c. ii twa : g.c. ii 108. emlice ; g.c, "equanimiter"; g.h. "equaliter" \est synd . . . : best is abbreviated in C. but written out pset in H. Its form is nsn. , but the ref erences must be plural.

PAGE 88

-8^ 109. be^aO t g.c. "excercent" woruldcaru ; g.c. "studla" 110. wlSmeten t g.c. "aperatur" ymbe ; H, embe (see note, llne 3) 111 . g.c." exe mplum " fela ; hT feala (see note, 1. 60) 112. behofiaö: g.c. "Indlgent*' ge : g.c. and g.h.'*"vos" 11^. forbara t H. forban fullfremednysse ; H. f ul f remednyss e ; g.c. "perf eot Jone** 115» bee t hl sylfe magon hy sylfxim wlsslan ; The readlng In K, is fggt hl sylfe magon him sylfun wlsslan . Elther readlng is possible, as wlsslan go-vems elther d. or a, This would entail a translatlon of the C. text: "That they themselves cannot guide themselves by themselves." If thls is the earller readlng, the error by the 11, scribe is easily understood. 116. sceolan: H. sceolon be heora lareowa ; H. be lareowa 118, Serif ta tfficlnc^e : H, scriftes tacinge 119. eelmyssan ; g.c. "ope^ram" (see note on ymbe , line 3) 120. geefenlashte ; g.c. "ooequari," "Imitantur"; g.h. "assimiliatl" L?] (a medieval variant of "assimilis"?) 121, ealle ; This should appear as eal ( 1 ) , but the -e ending was widely adopted by analogy in 1 VJ-S. 122ii ^eowodon: g.c, "ministrabant" 123. woruldcaram " : g.c. "studio" 124. witodlice : g.c. "certe" 125. gemodode ; H. gemodade gelogode ! g.c. "dispositi" 126. wir^ercorene : g.c, "reprobi" 127. wolice ! g.c. "indirecti" 130. goodum ; H, godum

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-85131» gecwendan ; TT, gecwemdon £2.: s»c. "usque" 132, te: g.h. »'eos" wli^ercorenan : g.c. "reprobl" 135. '^cere ; There Is a k Interllned over the c. 136. ner he cws^ ; H. '^e cws?^ 137. füll f r emedny s s e : H. fulfremedriysse ; g.c. 'iDerfectlonem" 138. fegerum ; g.c. "pulcra** p:e|:lnp:bum ; g.c. "aplce" 1^3. geleaffulum ; It appears from the MJS that the scrlbe ^fnrote geleaffulan . and then attempted to emend it to Its present form. The readin^r In H. is geleaffulum . 1^4, "Dei agrlcultura estls, del edificatio estlö': (3t. I-aul) I Cor. 3:9. "ye are God's husbandry, ye are God's bullding. " gebigde : g.c, '^ nimt 1^5. ge: g.c. "vos" ge synd ; H. ge syndon ; g.h. ge beo^ godes tilun/g ; Fi. godes eor^ teolunf: 1^6. wltan: g.c. "custodite" Biscopas; H. Eisceopas . During the late O.E. period one of the great changes in accented vcwels ims the monophthongization of diphthongs so that eo>o (see Campbell, para. 329). This must be an early inverted spelling. 1^7. manna ; c. reads mannna 1^8» hi sceolon: H. his seolon . There is a c interllned above the se of seolon in a dlfferent hand, and the Word Separation is not clear. 1^9. raanega: W-S has prevailingly -a [in apf.] (Canpbell, 6^2); H. naga ; g.h. "possint." Either readlng is possible. manncynne : H. mancynne ^50. gestrynan; H. gestrynon ; g.c. "lucrent" 152. symle; K. symble ; g.c. "semper." "Intrusion of consonants occurs in a fex^: forms only. (1) ml> mbl ; i/-S simble "always" . . . beside simle . . . (Campbell, para. ^78).

PAGE 90

-86152symle to geleafan wenian ; il, symble wenlan to 153» geleafan 153» wenlan ; g.c. "att Lr jaLhejre" [?], "suadere"; g.h, " suader e" bysnlan t H. gebysnian 15^. beowdome ; g.c, "offltlo" 155 • tllian ; g.c. "acrlcole." Perhaps a confuslon of the 0.3. secer and Latin "ager." 157. gebing^e ; H. g^e^JlncSe ; g.c. "apice." "[Kentlsh] and 1 Northumbrlan have many nouns in -Inc , -ujic for -Ing , -ung , and this spelllng may be extended to medial posltlon" (Campbell, para. ^50)» manncynne ; H. mancynne 159. ealdordum ; g.h. "prlnclpatl" 160. gestryndon ; g.c. "lucratl sunt" 161. teoliinge t H. tilunge . "u and o umlaut of 1^ are equally frequent and common to^all dialects. They are limited by the followlng consonant, however, appearlng only before llqulds and labials In W-S, Analoglcal extenslon of unmutated 1. Is very frequent, especlally In W-S" (Campbell, para. 212). 162. manncynn ; H. mancyn 163. geyrmed ; g.c. "mlser" feawa: The normal form Is feawe . but In W-S, through the Influence of fela, the form feawa Is found. In 1 W-S an irdecl. feawa appears (see Campbell, paras. 653*^2). feawa may take a Singular verb. I6ij-. hogle t SubJ. foiro denotlng a condltion contrary to faot. 166. "Canes mutl non possunt latrare"; Isaiah ^SilO, "Dumb dogs cannot bark." 167. hundaLs j i Thls Is the readlng In H. The reading In G. Is hundan , whlch follows both a wldespread plural endlng, and analogy wlth dumban, but hund Is not elsewhere recorded wlth a vreak form. 168. lareowum: H. lareowam 169. noldan ; K. noldon bodlan t g.c, "predlcare" geblf^an ; g.c. "avertere" manncynn : H . mancynn

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-87172. suwlaS: g.c. "scllenlmus," "tacemus"; g.h. "sllenlmus" dlßollice: H. aigelllce ; g.c. "clam" 173. embe: g.c. "circa" (see note, llne 3) witodllce : g.c. "certe" 17^. bododanj H. bododon ; g.c. "predlcaverlnt" 175» hetelum ehterum; g.c. "exosls pres ecut lonlbus ** 176. durran t H. durron 177» gedyrstl33can ! g.c. "audaciam habere," "presumere" 178. beboda: g.c. "precepta" 179» secgan ; H. secgon 180. soeolan : H. sceolon 181. forbam ; H. forl^an 183. anrsäde : g.c. "instantes"; g.h. "astantes' iW 18^. asolcene: g.c. and g.h. "pigri" sume nyttwyrOe sume swide fremfulle ^ H. svme nytwurae stuae unnytwurOe Bvime swySe fremfulle . The H. reading appears the more accurate, as the extra Phrase fits both the sense and the alliteration. 185. fremfulle : g.c. and g.h. "benigni" 186, oöor: H. o9er I87. genima : g.c. "capit" goodan t H. godan 189. end eby rdnys sum : g.c. "ordinibus" 190. twegen ; g.c. !_! 191. twa i g.c. il twegen: g.c. ii^ 192. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos" andwyrdan ; H. andwyrdon

PAGE 92

-88193» ahsodon t H. axodon; g.c, axs odan t>uss ; H. ^3us 19^. hold : g.c. "cadaver" 195» gaderlaa ; H. gegaaeria?^ sundorhalgan : H. sunderhalgan ; g.c. and g.h, "farisel" 196. ahsodan: H. axodon goodan ; H. godan 197. SQeoldan t H. sceoldon 198. forl33tene : g.c. "rellctl" 199. goodan : H. godan 200. getningenan ; g.c. "perfectl" g.c. wlth general reference, "exemglum" 201. tar t>aer : H. t>ar t^ar (see note, llne 30) 202. gegadorade : H. gegaderade peer liaer:" H. l^ar l3ar (see note, line 30) 203. mihtiglice : H. mlhtlllce (see note to hallge . llne 3) rlhsaö: H. rixaO ; g.c. "regnat" 204. mann : H. man 205. ricsaO ; H. rixa5 207. ias g.c. "illi" forleetene : g.c. "relicti" 208. werodum: H. wereduia ; g.c. folc 209. fordemede: H. fordernde 211. forbam : H. for"ban wunedon : H, vninodon 212. STindorhalgen : g.c. "Farlsei" ahsodon : H. acxodon ; g.c. " Int errogabant " 213. Wille ; The ending ^ Is regulär when the Ist or 2nd p, prcnouns we or £e follow immediately (see Campbell, para. 729T.

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-89215. ahsodon : H. acxodon be tiam : t>am refers back to ende , 1. 213. After this llne, In the niargln, occurs an obvlous mark of Separation, and the gloss, "Incipit." 216This Paraphrase Is taken in part from Matt. 24: 257. 15-25, 29-31, and in part from I'Iark I3: 14-2? (see Introductlon) . 216, seo boc : H. seo cristes boo cyO : g.c. "dicit" 218, "abhominatlonem" : H, "abominationem," The reading in C, is based on an incorrect etymology which traces the word to an hypothetical compo\ind "ab hominem," The spelling in H, preserves the correct form, "desolutionis"; H. "desolat ionis" 221, ahsodan : H. acxodon ; g.c, "inquirebant" endemys : g,c. "per ordine"; gTc, "simTliter"; g,h, "pariter," "omnes" 223, £S£: g,c, and g,h, "vos" 224, onscuniendlic t H. ons cunig endl i c (see note to halige « line 3)» g.c, "abonlnationem"; g,h, •febhominationenf' (see note, line 218)7 225, swa swa danihel awrat : See Dan, 982?. danihel : H, daniel , "In all West Gmc, languages, medial x became a breathing between vowels, , . , A few forms occur in the early glossaries in which the breathing is still written as h , , , " (Campbell, para. 461), "" rsede: g,c, "legat"; g,h, "legit" 228, ba fleoO bonne to muntum : H, ba fleoa to muntum 229, ne astige : g,c. "non ascendet." The gloss here is confused, Astigian may have both the meaning "to ascend," and "to descend," but here it must be "to descend" as the party in question is already atop his house, 230, sticolan ; H, sticelan 231, yddisce : g,o, suid g,h, "familiam"

PAGE 94

-90233« to f^enlmenne : g.h, "capere" reaf : H, hreaf ; g.c. "vestrem." "In all Gmc. languages, Initial x "became a "breathlng or glottal Spirant, Before 1, n, r, u, It dlsappeared, leavlng the consonant volcel'ess, and h Is wrltten In Engllsh to Indlcate thls" (Campbell, para. ^61), However, reaf does not have the h hlstorloally, and of four occurrences in the two MSS It Is spelled hreaf only this once, probably throtigh false analogy, wa ; g.c. "ve" eacniendum : g.c. "prelgnantlbus [sie]; g.h. pregnantlbus , 234, fedendum : H. fedyndum ; g.h. "nutrlentlbus" 235» frecednysse : g.c. "perlculum" ; g.h. "trlbtilatlone," "periculo" eomostlice ; g.c. "iglt ur " 236. wlntra ; The ^2: endlng Is a trace of an earlier ustem declenslon (Bosworth), '' oOOe on restedeege : g.c. "vel sabato" res tedegge : H. restendffige * g.h. "sabato" ge t g.c, and g.h, "vos" 237. wltodlice: g,c, "certe" gedref ednyssa t g.o, "persecution,** "trlbulatlon"; g.h. "tribulation" 238. naeran : H. neeron 239. butan ; H, buton 2^0, manne ynn ; H. mancynn forwurde ; g.c. "perlret"; g.h. •perlret" wltodlice: g.c. "certe" 2^1-1. gecorenum he : H, gecoreniira halgum he gescyrte : g,c, **abreviavit" 242, sae^S ; H. segO , This could be Kentlsh » becomlng e, "By the tenth Century s of whatever orlgin had been raised to e in i:entisW~( Campbell, para. 288). It oould also^reflect a second front Ing shown in the Vespasian Psalter and several other places whereby ee became e. This is an earlier change than the Kentish, ~ 2^2sylf beo bonne : H. sylf bonne beo 2/^3.

PAGE 95

-912i^, Relyfe t see note, llne 213, Ke ; g.c, and g.h. "vos" for^am: H. forl^an on "bam timan lease crlstas ; H. lease cristas on "pkm tlman lease ; g.h, "pseudo" There Is a g.c, "secuLnldo," whlch must refer to t?am tlman « l.e,, the tlme of the second comlng. 245. fela ; H. feala (see note, llne 60) menn t H, men 2i^6. solnoreeftiHa t g.c. and g.h, "maglcls artlbus" 247, wamlaS : g.c. and g.h, "cavete"; g.c. "raunlaminl" geomllce : H. eomostllce 2^. gedrefednysse : g.c. "persecutlone," "trlbulatlone" ; g.h, "t rl bulatlone" adeoroaO : g.c. ""obscurabitur" 251. mihta: g.c. and g.h. "vlrtutes" mlhta beoO t In C. there Is an erasure between these two words. It looks as if beoO was vrrltten twlce and then the flrst one erased. 252. astyrode ; g.c. "motl" 253» wolcnum ; g.c. and g.h. "nube" 254. wuldre: g.c. "glorlanf [? should be ablatlve] 255« gegaderla!^ godes ; H. ge^aderaO bonne godes 256. feovfor ; H. feower 257. up 00 t g.c. "usque" 258. anfealdum andgyte t g.c, and g.h. "slmpllcl Intellectu" 259. andgyt : g.c. "Intellectum"; g.c. "sensum" secgan : H. gesecgan *" 262. ahsodon t H. acxodon; g.c. ** Int errogabant " endemes: H. endemys ; g.c. "sTmiliter," "parlter"; g.h. "pari t er" 263. hlm ba andwyrde : H. hlm andwyrde 26^. ge: g.c. and g.h, "vos"

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-92265. onscunigendllc : g.h, "abominat l^ones " onscimlpiendlic deofol : g.c. "abhomlnabllem Idolum" danlhel ; H, danlel (see note, llne 225) 266. r^de ; g.c. "lernt" reedan ; Thls Is the Inf. used In a passive constructlon, I.e., "or heai« It read." Thls Is clearer In H. where the passage Is , obbe i^dan gehyre . wlthout the repetltlon of ]3set . 267. lu: g.c. "quondam" ; g.h. "ollm" 268. nenn ; PI. gen 270. ed'wascte i g.c. "destruxlt" 273« furh hys lareo-was ; H, furh lareox-?as 27^. wyrcg t g.c. "operatur" mann ; H, man 275. arleas a t g.c. "Implus" 276. on blssere womlde ; H. on ende byssere worulde wyrc?3 ; g.c. "operatur" fela ; H. feala Tsee note, llne 60) 278. geba fange : g.c. "permlsslone" sl : g.h. beo my Celan : H. mlcelan . "Consonants appear to have doubl ed In 0,S. after a Short syllable when the syncopatlon of vowels brought them before r and 1, thus recreatlng condltlons whlch caused"" doubllng In West Gmc." (Campbell, para, k^J) , 279. bugaö: g.c. "avertunt* 280. f orwyrde t g.c. "damnat_lone" 281. beah Os t H. ^eah_öe. The only posslble explanatlon for thls spelllng glven by Campbell Is a 9th Century Kentlsh change where ^ > e, and resulted In many Inverted spelllngs (päras. 288-9), Thls would not seem to be the case here, as C. shows no other Kentlsh characterlstlcs. aedwolan: H. dwolan; g.c. "heretlcl"; a gloss has been erased In H. ged^'fyldum ; g.c. "hereslm errorem" 282. gelyfan : H. gelyfon

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-9328^1-, ^eahnlp:e : s.c, "aproprlat ,** "possldeat"; g.h, "approprlat " [?], "possldeat" tallp:e ; g.c. "prsdlcat," "dicat"; g.h. "ludloat"; g.h. "dlcat" 284and men hym to p:eblddan i H. and hym men to f;eblddan 285. ""^ 285. geblddan : g.c. "adorent** tacna t "The nom. and äcc. pl. of neuter nouns with parasitlng should have no ending, as ^ should drop after the long syllable before parasitlng took place . . ., but ;^ Is often restored, usually wlth rejectlon of the paraslte vowel, e.g,, tacnu . . . vmndru . . . " (Campbell, para. 57^.3), a is consistent here as a regulär late spelling"" for final, unstressed u. 286. forseon ; g.c. "atempnent" [? the glossator seems to have used the a^ preflx to correspond to the O.E. fot-]; g.h. "öpemant" 287. Stent ; pres, Ind. 3s. "The endlngs of these [pres, Ind. 2s. and 3s,] are derlved from Gmc, -Is l, "itil , and henoe there Is by normal development In O.E. umlaut of the root vowel and change of e to 1^, e.g., 3rd. s. , . . Stent from . . . standan . . ."(Canpbell, para. 732). 288"Ita ut teraplo d^l se'^eat ostendens se tamquam Sit 289 deus"; 2 Thes. 2:^1-, "So that he sits in the temple of God, showing himself as If he were God." 298, sitt : H, Sit 290. s^: g,h, beo 291. deoflu : H. deofla Sa: g.c. "illos"; g.h. "ea" wyrcO ; g, "operatur" wundra : see note on tacna, llne 2P5, 292. g;eond 8 g.c, "per" manncynne : K. mancynne 293» seo ehtn,vss ; g.c. "Ipsa persecutio" ia: g.c, "1111" ~

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_9/j~ 296. ne astifie ; g.c. "non ascendet" (see note, line 229) stlcolan: H, sticelan ; In li, there Is a k Interllned over the o. "" 297. yddisce ; g.c, and g.h, "famlllam" l^e on ]3am "blS ; H. Tpe on ipem hus'e byB 298. ymbe ; II, embe (see note, llne 3) 299. under , , , : g.c, "retro" p;enlmene t H, genlmenne reaf: g.c, "vestrum" we: g,c. "ue" 300. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos" 301. hwllcuLm] ; This was the original readlng of C. , but has slnce been emended to hwilcun . The strokes of the u and the m are confuslng here, so someone emended wrongly, thlnklng the m to xiave too many strokes. H. has hwllon . "~ and^lte : g.c, "sensu" hwllun ; H. hwllon ; g,c. "allquando" 302. geopenian ; g.c, "aperlre" inran; g.c. "Interlora" digolnysse ; H. dlgeln.-ysse ; g.c, "secreta" forbam t PI. forban 303. £ie: g,c. and g.h. "vos" wa : g,c, "ve" 304. eaoniendum: g.c. "pregnantlbus; g.h. "pregnantlbus" fedendum : g.c. and g.h. "nutrlentibus" 305« frecednysse ; g.c. "perlculum" ; g,h, "trlbulatlone" agylta^ : g,c, "delinquent" 306. hfsse : g.c. "precepto" 307. frecednysse : g.c. "perlculo"*; g.h. "trlbulatlone" 308. leahtrum ; g.c. "crlmlne"; g.h. [erased] gefearhsugu ; g,c, "pregnans procus"; g,h, •i)regnans sus" *" 309» unwaran : g.c. and g.h. "Inoautus"

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-95309and heora yfel p:eeamiaa swylce mld forste : H. 310. and heora yfel /retacnlaO svr/lce mld fostre . The readlng of H, is In all llkelihood the correct one. Fostre refers back to t)am f edendum a nd the sentence is then a further explication of the Bibllcal passage. The scribe of C. vjas evidently looklng forv;ard to the following passage when he wrote forste ("frost") for fostre . The occurrence of ,c. and g.h. "sabato" ge ; g.c. and g.h. •^ros" 312. £3mtige ; g.c. "vacul" 313. yrabryne ; H. ymbrene 314"Quia abundabit inlquitas refrigescet Caritas 315. Eiultorum"; Matt. 2^1-: 12. "And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold." 31i|.. «feibundabit": H, "abundabi?" "refrigescat" j ü, 'retrlescat" 315. gereorde t g.c. "lingua" 316. unrihtwisnyss ; H. unrihtwisnys sui^e rvfenenirtfylt : g.c. "multiplicat" 317, acolaO ; g.c. "refrigescet" 318. nateshwon : g.c. "nulate nus " 319, nyhstan : H. nextan. This form seems explainable only by the Kentish reduction of all front vovrels to e (see Campbell, para. 288). 320, furSan : g.c. "etiam" foröon: H, forSam; g.c. "quia" M 321, res t endegg : g.c. "sabaf 323. woroldlicum : H. vroruldlicum

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-9632^. sceolan t H. sceolon and st gode blddan Ys^t i H. aet Kode tpeet 325. Koodum » H. godtun 326. luf cn ; H, lufe. These are two forms of the eame Word— the flrst weak, the second strong (see Campbell, para. 619,4). 327. endenyhsta ; H. endenexta (see note to ymbe, llne 3) onslfende t g.c. "Immlnens"; g.h. "Iramlnent" wltodllce t g.c. "certe*'" "" 328. swylce ; g.c. "talia" gedrefednysse : g.c. "persecutlon^ loas been erased; g.c. "perturbatlone," "trlbulatlones" ; g.h. "trlbulatlone" 329. /sewur5aa : In the margin before thls word has been aaued in another hand, eft ne which brlngs It Into agreement wlth the same phrase In H, , I.e., ngsfre sr ne eft ne gewurOaS . ehtnyss : H. ehtnys ehtnyss w^s : "persecutio fult" 330. syagF n ; The a was wrltten as an e whlch the scribe trled""to modlfy Into an a, the usual spelllng, as H,, syaoan » "" 332. geblgan ; g.c. "avertere" 335« cvQrlmlngum : g.c. "cruclatlbus" tlntrepciim ; g.c. "tormentls" 336. preuSe ; g.c. "acesslt"; g.h. "a[s]seLn3sclt [?]" 337« xmndra ; see note on tacna, llne 285. 338» tlntre^aS : g.c. "tonnentat"; g.h, [erased] 339. tacna : see note, llne 285, 339and eac . . . ssnlge tacna: g.c. "qula sanctl non 3^1. posLsjunt temp ore antl crlstl mlracula facere" 3^. gewyrcan : g.c. "operare" tacna: see note, llne 285; g.c. "notas" 3^ac hl yfele beog for bam : H, ac hl yfele for 341. aam beoS

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-97341. .Qcedref ede : g.c. and g.h, "turbatl" 342, TTundra ; see note on tacna, llne 285. mihte: H, nilrta: g.c. "viirtutem" p:efremman ; g.c. "facere" 3/4.3. wet: g.c. and g.h. "furlt"; g.c. "Insanlt," "furit" gewltnaS : g.c. and g.h. "punlt" Jkk, xaaadrum : H. tintregum; g.c. tlntregTun 3^5» fela : H. feala (see note, llne 60) Butan ; H. Buton deof Llles : The 1 Is interlined in G. and the normal spelling occurs in H. 3/1-6. A-escyrtte : li. gescyrte t g.c. "abreviasset" sorhfullan : g.c. "dolores" inanncynn t H« aanoyn furwurde: g.c. "periret** 347, vritodlloe ; g.c. "oerte" crt£22dere: g.c. "p ar iter" 3/4-8. gescyrte t g.c. "abreviabit Lsic]" 9reo ; g.h. iii ricsag : H. rixaS ; f^.c. "rexnat" [? for "regnat" by analogy with "rex"?] 3/19, eallre ; H. ealre 350, ealle ; H. eall 351, gelo,ccod i g.c. "dispositum" 352, mannan ; " mann has a weak bye-form manna " (Campbell, para. 623) . (see note on lufan . line 326) tihti .rr.c. "dicatur"[?] eelctr je ; This occurs in both M3S as slce. 353» gecorenam i H. gecorenum 35/4-. hrada9 ; H. gehradaO . ge is preflxed to hradaO Interlinearly in C; g.c. "preoccupat , '" "prevenit," "festinat"; g.h. "accelerat" 355« beo l:>onne wunigende on weorolde ; PI. beo bonne on worulcCe' •wunig ende

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-98356. ne .r^elyfe ^e Tjees ; H, ne r:elyfe Oees ^elyf e ; see note, llne zk^, ^e txss t g.c. "vos hoc" fortkam : H. forl^an iease crlstes : g.c. "pseudo p ro fethe" (note the mlstaken spelling In the Greek derivative) Iease : g.h. "seudo" Lsic] 357. fela i H, feala (see note, line 60) menn : H. men 358. to beswicanne t H. to beewicenne scrincresftun t g.c. "magicis artibus"; g.h. [erased] 359» menn : H. men warniaö: g.c. and g.h. "cavete" 361. ne cyna t g.c. "non venit" nanncynne : H. manc^Tine ateo-..'ed i G"«c. "oster>sus" 362, vreorolde : H. worulde . "In W-S u umlaut Is general before labials and liquids. . 7 . After w, combinative back umlaut s generally but not always intervened, e.g. , woruld. , . (Campbell, para. 210.1). ganncynne : H. mancynne 363l^a leasan witegan bonne cumaa : H. ]3a leasan witegan 36^. ]3e bonne ciAznaS 366. fela : H. feala (see note, llne 60). 367ac ba beo8 gehealdene be burhwuniaO oQ ende on 368, criste geleafan ; tiatt, 24: 13. 367. gehealdene ; ^.c. "salvl" 368. oö: g.c. "usque" 369. J^: g.c. "tunc" gev^amode : g.c. "p rem xmiv it "; g.h. ••preriunivlt'* 370. hl: g.c. and g.h, "eos" p;eome : g.c. "bene" healdan : H. healdon 371. syllajn : H. syllon wlSsacon: H. wiasacan 372. gewyrO : g.c. "erit"

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-9937^. Kedrefednysse ; g.c, "perturbat ione . " "trlbulatlone" 375. f eallaO : g.c. "cadunt" 376. heofonum : H. heofonan 377. ehtnysse : g.c. "persecutione" 378. werodu ; "The nom. and acc. pl. neuter should have ;iu after a long followed by a Short syllable, but no endlng after two Shorts, But analogy often occurs" ( Campbell , para. 57^»^) • g.c. "chorus"; g.h. [eiased] 379. beoa astyrede a n d mld bam heelende cunaO ; H. beoO astyrede mld"^m halen^e and CToraaa astyrede t g.c. "moti" 380. swutolllce : H. svrutelllce ;gteo-rde ; £:,c. "ostensl"; g.h. [erased] 381. Kenn ; H. Men 382. wolcnum: g.c. "nube" 386. nlcclan: H. mlcclum — ^— — ~— " ' lU. 387. hi: g.c. "1111" gegaderi aa f^odes : H. gegaderiaa bonne godes 388. menn ; H. men 389. worulde a nd oft H. woralde of . The abbreviation and has been erased in H. heofonan ; H. heofenan 391. cuc^: "Iraces of the u-declension are preserved in W-S by the adj. cwict i. cucu . . . other cases Lthan n, , a. , sing.j follow the a-, odeclension pattem" (Canpbell, paro-. 655). "^.cT~"vivus" 393. ricsianj H. rixian lichaman; i.e., the corporeal, as opposed to the Spiritual (Bosworth-Toller) « -^?^~ ""^^^^^^ angell et seperabunt rnalos de medio iustorum 397. et mlttent eos in caminim ignis ibi erlt fletus et Stridor dentlum." Matt. I3: l^-^O. «The angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the Just, and sliall cast them into the fumace of fire. There shall be waillng and gnashing of teeth."

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-100395. ^uss ; H. tms 397. I^t on engllsc : H. Psst Is on eiy^lisc 397Enp:las faraO ^onne and ; H. En^las fa ra?^ and 398. "*-* -'''^ =*=' 398. asyndrlas ; g.c. "seperabvmt" 399. ricslaO t H. rlziaö avrurpaO : g.c. "mlttent" il-OO. Innto ! H. into TTld^lllan: g.c. "lato vel spati^oso" 401, b.yrnaO ; In H. there Is an e Interllned over the £. 402, f^rlstbltung ; g.c. "Stridor" butan ; H. buton 403, witum: g.c. -'pLojenis" siaiaa ; g.c. "erlnt" 405. wlfmenn ; H. wlnmen. Thls Is probably a mlsspelllng of wlnmen vrhich is an asslmllated form of wlfmen. 406. and siaaan : H. and hl s;yaOan 406imasecrrendlicre t H. unasec/yendlicere 407.

PAGE 105

GLOSSARY

PAGE 106

GLOSSARY a (adv,)f "always, ever, forever"; 407, abraham (es) m. , "Abraham"; gs. abrahames, 62, abutan (adv^,), "about"; 110, ao (conj,), "but, yet, also, because"; (25 tlmes), ^5, 60, 61, etc. aoolan (wk), "to become cold, chilled"; pres, Ind, Jp, acolaö, 317; pp, acolode, 326. adeorclan (wk), "to be ecllpsed, to be darkened"; pres, Ind. 3s. adeoroas, 249, 374. adrinoan (wk) , "to be drowned"; pret. Ind. 3s. adrencte, 15. adwssscan (wk), "to put out, quench, extlngulsh, destroy"; pret. Ind. 3s. adwaescte, 270. afedan (wk), "to rear, bring up, feed, nourlsh"; pp. afedde, 532. afeormlan (wk),"to cleanse, purge, purlfy"; pres. Ind. 3s, afeonnas, 77, aflndan (3), "to find, dlscover, detect"; pp. afundene, 93, afyllan (wk), "t» fill"; pp. afylled, 350, afyllede, 308. agen (adj.), "own"; np, agene, 215, agyltan (wk), "to fall in duty, offend, sin against"; pres, Ind. 3p. agyltaS, 305. ahreddan (wk), "to rid, liberate, set free, deliver, rescue"; pres. subj. 3s. ahredde, 28, 23I, 297, aht (es) n, , "anything, aught"; as, aht, 28, ahwider (adv.), "in any direction"; 77. -102-

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-103alaedan (wk), "to conduct, bring, lead away, take off"; pret. Ind. 3s. alasdde, 69; pp. alasd, 21, alec/?an (wk), "to place, lay down, suppress, lay aslde, cease from"; pres. subj, 3s. alecge, 16^1-, aleogan (2), "to lle, deny, decelve"; pp. alogen, 46. alysednes (e) f., "redemptlon, ransom"; ds. alysednysse, 59. an (adj., pron. ) , "one, a, an, alone, only"; nsm. (9 tlmes), 30, 32, 3^1-, etc.; nsf. an, 106, 133; ssm. anes, 76, 384; dsf. anre, 32, I05, 10?, 206; dsn. anum, 30, 82, 86; wk, nsm. ana, 103. and (conj.), "and"; (173 tlmes), 6, 7, H» etc. andgyt (es) n. , "teense, meanlng"; ds, andgyte, 258, andglte, 301 ; as. andgyt, 259. andwyrdan (wk), "to answer, reply"; pret. Ind. 3s. andwyrde, 7» 198, 222, 263; 3P. andwyrdan, 35, 192, anfeald (adj.), "one, Single, simple"; dsn. anfealdum, 258. anfealdlioe (adv.), "singly, simply"; 301. angin (es) n. , "beginning"; ds. anginne, 329. anresd (adj.), "resolute"; np. anreede, I83. antecrist (es) m. , "antichrist" ; ns., 276, 283, 377; gs. antecrlstes, 85, 338, 364. apostol (es) m. , "apostle"; ns.t 287; np, apostolas, 219, 260; ap. apostolas, 37O. arePiran (wk) , "to ralse, set up, create, establish"; pret. ind. 3s. arerde, 272; pres. subJ. 3s. arrare, I65. arc (es) m.,*terk"; ds. arce, 14, 16, arisan (6), "to arlse, spring up, get up"; pres. ind. 3s, arist, 316, 390 ; 3p. arisaö, 245, 357. arleas (adj.), "disgraceful, Infamous, wicked"; dpm. arleasum, 394; wk. nsm. arleasa, 275. ascian (wk) , "to demand, question"; pret, ind. 3P. ahsodan, 5. 35. 196, 221, 262, ahsodon, 193, 212, 215.

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-10^ asendan (wk), "to send"; pres. Ind. Jb. asent, 254, 387, asolcen (adj.), "lazy"; npm. asolcene, 184. astlgan (6), "to go, come, cllmb, descend"; pres, subj. 3s, astige, 229, 296, astyrlan (v/k) , "to stlr up, agitate"; pp, astyrode, 252, 376, astyrede , 379 . asyndrlan (wk) , "to put asiinder, separate"; pres. Ind, 3P» asyndrlaS, 398. aaeostrian (wk) , "to become dlm, be ecllpsed"; pres, Ind. 3s. aJ)eostraa, 25O, 375, aweg (adv,), "away"; 29, aweorpan (3), "to cast off, down"; pres, Ind, 3p, awurpaö, 399. awrltan (6), "to write down, descrlbe"; pret, Ind, 3s. awrat, 225, 266, 288; pp, awrlten, 386. awyrged (adJ,), "cursed, danined"; dpm. awyrgedum, 56. 83 (Indec) f,, "law"; ds, ee, 63, aeoer (es) m, , "fleld"; ns., 1^; ds, aecere, 28, 33, I35, 139, 156, 191, 232, sefre (adv,), "ever, always"; (18 tlmes), 51f 5^» 56, etc, asfter (prep.), "after"; 248, 373. 377. eelc (adJ., pron, ) , "each, any, every, all"; dsm, irlciiin, 26, 48; dsf, aelclrDe, 352; asm, aelcnc;, 352, eslmesse (an) f., "alns, almsgivlng" ; ap, aslmyssan, 119. aslmlhtlp: (adJ,), "almlghty, all powerful"; wk, gsm, aelmlhtlgan, 204, 205, semtl^ (adJ,), "empty, free from"; npm, aemtlge, 89, 94, 236, 312, 325. eenlg (adj.), "any, anything"; gsn. aenlges, 75; apn, eenlge, 340,

PAGE 109

-105aenllc (adj.), "the same"; dsn. aenllcvim, 78. aer I. (adv.), "before, ahead" ; 68, 10?, 131, 211, 238, 328, 371; Superlative, asrest, 272. II. (prep,), "before"; 62, 362. III. (conj.), "before"; sr fam ^e. 331. aet (prep.), "to"; I9I, 32^)-. aetberstan (3), "to break out or away, escape from"; Inf., 76. gteowlan (wk), "to show, display, Tnanifest, reveal"; pp. asteowed, 2i)-, 36I, aeteowde, 38O. atgaedere (adv.), "together"; 32, 3^. 87, IO5, 135, 21^1, 3^4-7. beeftan (prep.), "behlnd" ; 98. be (prep.), "bjr, about, accordlng to, on account of, conceming"; (22 tlmes), 8, 26, 48, etc. bebod (es) n. , "command"; ap. beboda, I78. becuman {k) ^ "to become, happen, befall"; pres. Ind. 3s. becymS, 293; pret. Ind. 3s. becom, 14; 3p. becomon, 81. bed (es) n. , "bed"; ds. bedde, 30, 83, 87, 88, 101, I90. began (anom.), "to come by, care for, cultlvate, honor, observe, dwell, Inhablt"; pres. ind. 3p. begaö, 90, 109; pret. Ind. 3P» beeodan, 20. begletan (5), "to get , find, acqulre, attain"; pres. Ind. 3P» begytaS, I58, 210. behofian (x-rk), "to have need of, reauire, want"; pres. ind. 3p. behoflaS, 111, 112. belucan (2), "to lock, shut up, enclose"; pp. belocene, 99, 133, 189, 190, 207.

PAGE 110

-106beon (anom. ) , "to be, exlst" (in the present IndicS'tlve and subjunctlve the forms of beon and eom take on separate meanlng. eom Is limited to usage denotlng the present, whlle beon is used for future and generic Statements); Inf. beon, 120, 197, 198; pres. ind. 3s, is (17 tlmes), 84, 101, 109, etc.; bi» (38 times), 24, 27, 30, etc., nls (ne is), 43, 385, nys, 57; Ip. beon, 325; 2p. synd, 145; 3P« synd, 108, 122, I67, I79, syndon, 147, 364, beo^j (39 times), 30, 33, 36, etc.; pret, ind. 3s. wses, 21, 59, 60, 61, 329, 39I; 3p. wa5ron, 16, 64, 95, 97, 170, 333, nsron (ne waeron) , 238; pres. subj. 3s. si, 278, sy, 290, beo, 232, 235, 243, 298, 3II, 355; pret. subj. 3s. wasre, 23, 268. beorcan (3), »to bark"; inf., I67, I68. besencan (wk), "to sink"; pp. besencte, 55« beswican (6), "to deceive, lead astray"; Inf. to beswicanne, 358, to beswicenne, 245; pres. ind. 3p, beswica^, 366, betan (wk), "to amend, repair, make amends"; inf., 118. biddan (5), "to ask, beg, pray"; inf., 325; imp. 2p. biddaS, 235, 310. bisceop (es) m. , "bishop"; np. bisceopas, 146; gp. bisceopa, 117. blawan (7), "to blow, sotmd"; pres. ind. 3P» blawaö, 390. bliss (e) f., "happiness, bliss"; ds. blisse, 407. boc (e) f., "book"; ns, 3, 216; dp. bocum, 166, 322. bodian (wk), "to teil, annovince, proclaim, preach"; Inf,, 169; pret. ind. 3p, bododan, 174, brad (ad;),), "broad, spaclous, wide"; wk, gsf, bradan, 400; wk. dsn. bradan, 77. broga (an) m, , "terror, dread, danger"; gs, brogan, 76. broaorsunu (a) m. , "nephew"; ns,, 62. bryne (es) m. , "buming, flame, heat"; ds. bryne, 73» bugan (2), "to bow down, submit"; pres. ind. 3p. buga?5, 279. burh, bürg (e) f., "town, fortress"; ds, byrig, 21,

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-107burhsclr (e) f., "clty llmlts, boundary" ; dp. burhsclrum, 22, 66; ap, burhsclra, 23. "burhware (pl. only) m. , "Citizens"; gp, burhware, 64. butan I. (prep.), "without, except f or" ; butan, ii-07, buton, 16. II. (conj.), "except, unless, save that"; butan, 75, 239, 3^5, 402. bycgan (wk) , "to buy"; pret. ind. 3P« bohtan, 19. byme (an) f., "hom, trumpet"; ap. byman, 390. byrgen (e) f., "sepulchre, tomb, grave"; dp. byrgenum, 391« byman (wk), "to bum"; pres. ind. 3P» bymaö, 401. bysmorlice (adv.), "shamefully, contemptuously" ; 63» bysnian (wk), "to set an example, instruct by ezample"; inf., 153. bytlian (wk), "to build"; pret. ind. 3p. byttlodan, 19. ceorlian (wk), "to take a husband"; pret. ind. 3p. ceorlodan, I3. cepa-n (wk), "to observe, attend, watch for"| inf., 43, ceping (e) f., "traffic, merchandise, negotiation"; ds. cepinge, 8. cild (es) n., "child"; ap. cild, 306. cj^iht (es) m. , "boy, youth, attendant, servant"; np. cnlhtas, I3. C'i^ft (es) m. , "power, cunning, science"; ds. creefte, 366. crlst (es) m. , "Christ"; ns. 355, 36O, 383, 394; gs. cristes, 3, 152, 330, 368, 378; ds. criste, 392, 404; as. crist, 5, 141; np. cristas, 244, 356, 363. cristen (adj.), "Christian"; nsn. cristen, 141; dsm. cristentun, I77; dsn. cristenum, I78.

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-108crlstena (an) m. , "a Christian"; dp. crlstenum, 307; ap, crlstenan, 33^*-. crlstendom (es) m. , "Christendom, Chris tlanlty"; ns., 268; gs. crlstendomes, 329; as, crlstendom, I5I, 272, cucu (adj.), "sü-lve"; nsn. cucu, 39I, cuman (4-), "to oome"; pres. Ind. 3s. cymö (10 tlmes), 7» 9» 9» etc.; 3p. ciomaS, 36^1-, 379; pres. p. cumende, 253, 382. I ! cug (adj.), "known, manifest, certaln"; nsm. , ^3» cwe??£ui (5)» "to say, speak, teil"; Inf. cweSan, 113, cwetsan, 137; pres. Ind. 3p. cwet)a8, 8; pret. Ind. 3s, cwaeS (12 tlmes), 37, 107, 107, etc., gecviaS, 368; pp. gecweden, 84, 307, gecwedene, 122, 179 . cwylmlng (e) f., "torture, sufferlng"; dp, cwylmlngum, 335, cwym (e) f., "mlll"; ds. cwyme, 32, I05, I07, 110, I9I. oynlng (es) m. , "klng"; ds. cynlnge, 177* cyrran (wk), "to tum, go, retum"; pres. subj. 3s. cyrre, ?32, 298, cySan (wk), "to make known, teil, relate"; pres, Ind. 3s. cy», 216. danlhel (proper novin) »., "Daniel"; 225, 265. daed (e) f., "deed, action"; dp. daedum, 5^» 66, 111. (es) m., "day"; ns., 327; ds. dsge, 6, 24, ^-5, 71, 129. 362; as. daeg, 7. 96; dp. dagim, 18, 234, 268, 304; ap. dagas, 240, 242, 346, 348. deman (wk), "to Judge"; Inf. to demenne, 25, 44, to demanne, 48; pres. Ind. 3s. dem», 363. deofol (es) m. , or n. , "demon"; ns., 341, 343; gs. deofles, 345; ds. deofle, 350; np. deoflu, 29I; dp. deoflvim, 56, 209. deofolgyld (es) n. , "idolatry, Idol, devll worshlp"; ns., 282, 287; as. deofolgyld, 265, 269, deofolglld, 224,

PAGE 113

-109deofolllc (adj.), "devlllsh"; wk. nsm, deofolllca, 283, derlan (wk), "to Injure, hurt, damage"; pres, p. derlgende, 185« dlgol (adJ.), "hldden"; super, apn. dlglostan, 39, dlgolllce (adv.), "secretly"; 172. digolnys (e) f., "solitude, solitarlness, secrecy, mystery"; as. dlgolnysse, 302, dorn (es) m. , " judgment" ; gs. iomes, 6, dorne [s], 71; ds. dorne, 25, 386, don (anom,), •*to make, act, perform, glve, bestow, confer, do"; Inf. 119, 151 f 162. drlhten (es) n. , "Lord, Savlor"; ns., 2^, ^3, 270; gs, drlhtnes, 71. drlhtenlic (adj.), "dlvlne, of the Lord"; wk, dsn. drlhtcnllcan, 39, 40. drlncan (3), "to drlnk"; pret. ind. 3p. druncon, 12, 18. ävaoih (adJ.), "dximb, speechless, mute"; wk. npm. dumban, I67. dun (e) f., "height, hlll, mountain"; dp, dunum, 228, 295, durran (pret. pres.), "to dare, presume"; pres. Ind. Ip. durr&n, I76. dwolllce (adv.), "foolishly, heretlcally"; 12. eac I. (conj,), "also"; 2^6, 250, 358, 37O, 375II. (adv.), "also"; 96, 258, 330, 339. eacnlan (wk), "to bring forth"; pres. o. dp. eacnlendum, 233. 304. eethta (num. ), "elght"; 16. eald (adJ.), "old, suncient"; dp. ealdum, 268. ealdordom (es) m. , "eldershlp, authorlty, magist racy"; as, ealdordom, 159.

PAGE 114

-110eall (adj.)i "each, every, all"; nsm. , I90, 2^0, J^-Si nsf, eall, 81, 286; nsn. eall, 15, 141; dsm. eallum, 26, 292; dsf, eallre, 3^9; asm, ealne, 73; asn, eall, 41, 303; np. ealle, I7I, 182, 350, gp. ealra, 31?; dp. eallum, 52, 80, 89, 95» 159, 209, 350; ap. ealle, 15, 23, 121, 249, 37^f ^00. eallswa (adv. ) , "eüLso, llkewlse, even so"; 24, 70, eardlan (vrk), "to Inhablt, dwell"; pret. Ind, 3s. eardode, 63. eana (adj.), "poor, wretohed, pltiful"; wk. np. earman, 53, eam (es) m. , "eagle"; np, eamas, 38, 195, 199» 200, eastdal (es) m, , "the East"; ds. eastdasle, 10. eaOe (adv.), "easlly, llghtly"; 40, 303, ece (adj,), "etemal, everlasting"; wk. dsf, ecan, 99; wk. dsn. 159; wk, asf, ecan, 5I, 5I. ecnys (e) f., "etemity"; ds, ecnysse, 81, 209. efne (InterJ.), "Lo, behold, truly"; 9. eft (adv,), "agaln, afterwards, a second tlme"; 18, 238, egesllc (adj.), "awful, dreadfiil, terrlble"; dsm. egesllctim, 73; dp. egesllcum, 350. ehtere (es) m, , "perseoutor"; dp, ehterum, 175. ehtnys (e) f , , "persecution"; ns,, 293, 329; ds. ehtnysse, 55, 377. emllce (adv.), "evenly, equ6Ü.ly, patlently"; 108, ende (es) m, , "end"; ds. ende, 213, 368, 407; as. ende, I32, endebyrdnyss (e) f., "ways"; dp. endebyrdnysstun, I89. endemys (adv.), "llkewlse, In like manner, together"; 221, endemes, 262, endenyhst (adJ,), "final, last"; wk. nsm. endenyhsta, 327; wk. dsm. endenyhstan, 44; wk. asm. endenyhstan, 96, engel (es) m. , "angel"; np, englas, 389, 39I, 397; gp. engla, 378; dp. engliim, 47, I87, 404; ap. englas, 68, 254, 387.

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-111engllsc (adj.), "Engllsh"; dsn. engllscum, 315; on engllsc, "In the Engllsh language"; 145, 397. eomostllce (adv.), "eamestly, truly"; 235, 310, 36O. eorSe (an) f., "earth"; gs. eoröan, 256, 389; as. eoröan, 78, 292. eower (poss. adj.)» "your" (see also Jiu); dsn. eowrum, 301» erlan (wk), "to plow"; pres, p, erigende, 3^» 135» etan (5), "to eat"; pret, ind. 3p. eeton, 12, 18. faran (6), "to go, Joumey"; pres. Ind. ?p. fara», 290, 366, 397. fader (indecl. in sing.) m. , "father"; gs, faeder, 205. faaper (adJ.), "lovely, beautlful, pleasant, agreeable^; dpf. faegerum, I38, fssrllc (adj.), "swlft"; nsm. fsrllc, 10. fesrlloe (adv.), "suddenly"; 9, 14, 20, 25O, 375. f33t (es) n. , "vat, vessel, Jar, cup"; gp. fata, 29. feallan (1), "to fall (doxm)"; pres, Ind. 3p. feallaa, 250, 375. feawa (adJ.), "few"; np, (no sing.), I63. fedan (wk), "to feed, nourlsh, support"; pres, Ind. 3p, fedaa, 306; pres. p. dp, fedendum, 234, 304, fela (Indecl. noun) , "inany"; 60, 111, 245, 276, 345, 357, 366. feondllo (adJ,), "flendlike, hostlle"; dsn, feondllcum, 366; wk. gsf. feondllcan, 277, feowor (ntun,), "four"; (Indecl. when immedlately precedlng the quallfled noun); 256, 388. feran (wk), "to go, cone, behave, act , fare, undergo, suffer"; pret. Ind. 3p. ferdon, 98, 220, 260.

PAGE 116

-112flf (num. ), "five"; 22, 23, 66. fleon (2), "to flee, escape"; pres. Ind. 3p. fleoS, 228, 29^».. flod (es) m. , '^flood"; ns. 14; ds, flode, 12, 58, 60. folc (es) n. , «people, nation, trlbe"; ns., lifl; gs. folces, 163; ds. folce, 152, 178, 322, for (prep.), "because of, for, by reason of"; (12 tlmes), 74, 8k, 85, etc. forbeenaan (wk) , "to bum up, consume"; pret. Ind. 3s. f orbeemde , 23, 66. forbeoman (3), "to bum up, be consumed"; pp. forbumen, 79. fordeman (wk) , "to condemn, damn"; pp. fordemede, 209. fordon (wk) , "to destroy, kill"; Inf., 353; pres. Ind. 3p. fordoa, 309. foresceawlan (wk), "to foresee, preorde-ln" ; Inf., 72. foreblnglan (wk), "to plead for, Intercede, defend"; Inf., I55. forp;lefan (5), "to glve, grant, allow, forglve"; pies. Ind. 3s. foreifö, U^. forl83tan (7), "tc abandon, rellnqulsh, neglect"; pres. Ind. 3s. forlaet, 98; 3P. forleton, 121; üp, forlsten, 3I, 33, 35, 83, 88, 100, 106, 134, 136, 186, forlaetene, I98, 207. foroft (adv.), "very often"; JQk, forscyldigian (wk), "to condemn, to make guilty"; pp. forscyldgode , 65. forseon (5), "to scom, neglect, desplse, rejeot"; Inf., 286; pret. Ind. 3p. forsa^mn, 53. forst (es) m. , "frost"; ds. forste, 310. foro (adv.), "forth"; I72. forOam (conj.), "because"; forden, 320, forfion Je, i^K), forjÄia 5e, 114, 181, 211, 302, 356, forjÄm Jö, 9, x63, 244.

PAGE 117

-113forOl (adv.), "consequently, for that cause, therefore"; 122, 162. forweoraan (3), "to perlsh, pass away, vanish"; pret. subj , 3s. forwurde, 70, 240. Jii'S, forwyrd (e) f., "loss, destructlon, ruln, death"; ds. forx'fyrde, 280. fram (prep.), "from, of"; (10 tlmes), 10, 80, 89, etc., from, 80. frecednys (e) f., "danger, perll, mlschlef, härm"; ds, frecednysse, 235, 305, 307. fremful (adj.), "profitable"; np. fremfulle, I85. freolsde^ (es) m. , "feast day, festlval"; ns., 322, frymO (es) m. , "beglnnlng, foundatlon, orlgln" ; ds. frymöe, 80. ful (adj.), "foul, dlrty. Impure"; dp. fulum, 352; wk. ds. fullan, 69. fullfremednys (e) f., "perfectlon"; ds. fullfremednysse, 114, 137. furSan (adv.), "even, Indeed" ; 320. fyl5 (e) f., "Impurlty, rottenness, fllth"; dp. fylj)um, 80, 351. fyr (es) n. , "flre"; ns. 72, 77; ds. fyre, 67, 77, ^00; as. fyr, 22. fyrst (es) m. , "tlme, space of tlme, respite"; ds. fyrste, 351. gaderlan (wk) , "to gather, collect, unite"; pres. Ind. 3p, gadriaö, 37, gegaderiaS, 195, 201, 255, 387; pp. gegadorade, 202, gan (anom. ), "to go"; pres. ind. 3s. gseS, 7^, HO, 172; pret. Ind. 3s. eode, 14. gast (es) m. , "breath, ghost"; ds. gaste, 206.

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-11^^ gastllc (adj.), "splrltual, holy"; wk. dsm. gastllcan, I56; wk. dsf. gastllcan, I60, 180; wk. asn, gastllce, 259, ge (conj,), ge , • . ge, "both , , , and"; 40^. geahnlan (wk), "to own, appropriate to one's seif"; pres, Ind. 3s. geahnige, 28^, gear (es) n. , "year"; gs, geares, 313; ap. gear, 3^8, gebiddan (5), "to ask, entreat, pray"; Inf. 285; pret. Ind. 3p. gebeedon, 27O, gebigan (wk), "to bend, persuade, convert"; Inf. I69, 332; pret. ind. 3s. gebigde, 1^^, gebringan (wk), "to bring, bear"; pres. Ind. 3P« gebrlngaö, 391; pres. subj, 3s. gebringe, 29. geceosan (2), "to choose, select"; pp, npm. gecorene, 92, 126; dp. gecorenum, 2^l^ 3i^7, 353; wk, np. 280; wk, ap, gecorenan, 2i^6, 255, 358, 392, geolasns ian (wk), "to cleanse, purify"; pp. geclsensod, 79» gecweman (wk) , "to gmtlfy, please, satlsfy, propltlate"; pret. ind. 3P» gecwemdan, 131« gecweme (adj.), "pleaslng, acceptable"; npm, gecweme, 92. gedrefan (wk) , "to disturb, trouble, vex"; pp. gedrefede, 34'1. gedrefednys (e) f., "trouble, disturbance, confusion, tribulation" ; ds, gedrefednysse, 2^9, 37^» np, gedrefednyssa, 237, 328. gedwola (an) m, ,"heretlo"; np. gedwolan, 281. gedwyld (es) n, , "error, heresy"; dp. gedwyldum, 281. gedyrstlascan (wk) , "to dare"; inf. 177. geeamian (wk), "to eam, deserve, enjoy"; pres. ind. 3P» geeamiaö, 310. geeamung (e) f., "merit, reward, labor"; dp. geeamungum, ^8. geedniwian (wk), "to restore, renew, change"; pres. ind. 3s. geedniwas, 78. geefenlescan (wk) , "to be like, eqiial"; pp. geefenlashte, 120.

PAGE 119

-115geefstan (vrk) , "to hasten, be quick"; Inf. 28. geendlan (wk) , "to die, come to an end"; pres. Ind. 3P» geendlaö, 128. geenduni^ (e) f., "endlng, end"; ds. geendunge, if-7, 222, 262. gefearhsugu (e) f., "a farrowlng sow"; nß., 308. gefera (an) m. , "a companlon, conrade, servant"; np. geferan, 365. gefremman (wk) , "to do"; Inf. 3^2, gefym (adv.), "long ago, formerly"; 11, gegladlan (wk), "to gladden, rejolce, gratlfy, appease"; pret. Ind. 3p. gegladodan, 50, gegrlpan (6), "to seize, take, grasp"; pp. gegrlpene, I97. gehatan (7), "to name, call"; pp. gehaten, 61, gehiersumlan (v/k), "to obcy, serve"; pret. Ind. 3p. gehyrsumedan, li-$, gehyran (wk), "to hear"; pret. ind, 2p. gehyrdon, 192; pres. subj. 3s. gehyre, 226, 266. gelabung (e) f., "church, assembly"; ns. l^l-O; ds. gelt.aange. geleafa (an) m, , "belief, falth"; ns,, 57; ds. geleafan, 1^1-3, 152, 176, 330, 333, 368; as. geleafan, 275. 371. geleafful (adj.), "belleving, faithful"; dpm. geleaffullum, 143; wk. dsm. geleaffullan, 69. gellcnys (e) f., "parable, Image, flgure"; f.s. gelicnysse, 58, gellmpan (3), "to happen, occur, befall, come to pass"; pret. Ind. 3s. gelamp, 11, 18. geloglan (wk) , "to place, lod^e, Order, arrange, dlspose"; pp. gelogod, 351, gelogode, 125, gelyfan (wk), "to belleve, trust"; pres. Ind. 3s. gelyfeö, 57, gelyfö, 141; Ip. gelyfa?), k5i 3p. gelyfaö, 279; pres. subj. 3p. gelyfan, 282; imp. 2p. gelyfe, 2/^-4, 356. gemartvrlan (wk), "to martyr"; pret. Ind. 3s. gemartyrode, 335,

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-116gemenlKfealdan (wk) , "to multlply, Increase, extend"; pres. ind. 3s. gemenlgfylt, JlS, gemodod (adj.), "dlsposed"; npm. gemodode, 103, 125, genlman (4), "to take"; Inf. to genlmenne, 233, 5° genlmene, 299; pres. Ind. 3ß. genlmS, 93» 128, 18?; pp. genumen, 31, 32, 3if, 83, 100, 106, 133, 136, 186, genumene, 36, 193. geond (prep.), "throiigh, throughout"; 269, 292, 365. geopenian (wk), "to open, manifest, show, reveal"; Inf, 302. geome (adv.), "»zealouEly, dlllgently, eagerly"; 370, geomful (adj.), "füll of deslre, eager, sollcltous"; np, geomfulle, I83. geomllce (adv.), "anxlously, dlllgently, eamestly" ; 164, 2^7. f^ereord (es) n. , "language, speech, ton^^ue"; ds. gereorde, 315. gessellge (adv.), "happlly"; 406, geseellgllce (adv,), "happlly"; 394. gescyrtan (wk), "to shorten"; pret, Ind. 3s. gescyrte, 239, 241 , 348, gesoyrtte, 346, geseon (5), "to see, percelve, understand, know"; pres, Ind, 3s, geseoS, 223, 252, 264, 38I. geslhO (e) f., "slght, vlslon"; ds, geslhSe, 343. gestrynan (wk), "to galn, get^ obtaln"; pret, Ind. 3p. gestryndon, I6O; pres, subj. 3p. gestrjrnan, I50, geswlnc (es) n. , "toll, work, effort"; dp. geswlncum, 112. getacnlan (wk), "to slgnlfy, betoken"; pres. Ind. 3p. getacnlaa, 200. getlmbrung (e) f., "structure, edlf Icatlon" ; ns., 146. gebafung (e) f., "permlsslon, assent, consent"; gs, gepafunge, 278, geblngbu (e) f., "honor, dlgnlty, rank, offlce"; ds, ge^lngSe, 157; dp. geJjlngJjTiin, I38,

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-117Ret>oht (es) m. , "thovight, Idea, purpose"; ac. sejjohtas, 111, get>utv^en (adj.)» "faithrul"; wk, ap, gelJungenan, 200, geurman (wk) , "to glve, grant, allow, concede"; pret, Ind, 3s. geuSe, 336. gewasde (es) n, , " garment, clothlng"; gp. gewsda, 29, gewendan (wk), "to go, return"; pres, ind. 3p, gewendaö, 208. gewitnlan (wk) , »to punish, torture, affllct"; pres. Ind. 3s, gewltnaS, ^kj, gewrit (es) n, , "writlng, scrlpture, book, treatise"; ns,, 369. gewunelioe (adv,), "ordlnarlly, commonly" ; 312, gevrurOan (3), "to be, become, happen, come to pass"; Inf. 2iF7» 359; pres. Ind. 3p. gemir?5a5, 329, gewurlsa», 238, ge£rmn(wk), "to affllct, i30,ke miserable"; pp, geyrmed, I63, £lf (conj,), "if"; 26, 39, 214, 2i^2, 2^1-7, 275, 35^, 359. ^od (es) m, , "God"; ns, (10 tlmes), I7, 20, 66, etc.; gs. godes (27 tlmes), 6, 8, 62, etc.; ds. gode, 92, 15^1., I60, 179, 325, 399; as. god, 259, 319, 320. godcundnys (e) f., "Godhead, dlvinlty, Delty"; ds. godciindnysse, 206. godspell (es) n. , "gospel"; ns., 38I; ds. godspelle, 40, 42; as. godspell, 258. f^ood (adJ.), "good"; dsn. goodiim, 9O; wk, npm, goodan, I96; dp, goodum, 50, 130, 199, 325; wk. ap. goodan, 187 . gremian (wk) , "to enrage, provoka, Irrltate"; pret, ind. 3p. gremodan, 54, grindan (3), "to Erin-^"; pres. ind, 3p. grlndaa, 3I, 105; pres. p. grindende, lü8. grlstbltrmg (e) f., "snash.lng"; ns., 402.

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-118gyman (wk), "to take notlce of, heed, regard, observe"; pres. Ind. 3p. gyiaaS, 74, g^rmeleas (adj.), "negllßent*'; np. gymelease, I83. «yt (adv.), "still, yet" ; I7I. habban (wk) , "to have, possess, hold*»; Inf. 139, I5I; pres, Ind. Is, hsebbe, 2^1-8, 36O; 3s. hrafS, 275; Ip. habbas, 41, 212, 257; 3p. habbaS, I58. halga (an) m. , "salnt"; np. halgan, 280, 339, 403; dp. halgum, 52, 348; ap. halgan, 200, 339, 3^4. hallg (adj.), "holy"; nsm. 62, 322; wk. nsf. liallge, 3; dsm. halgan, 206, 27I; dsf, halgan, 224, 264, 286; dsn. halgan, 42; asm, halgan, 323; asn. hallge, 258; np. halgan, 202, 219, 260; dp. halgum, 187, 404; ap. halgan, 369, 370. hatan (wk), "to call"; pres. Ind. Ip. hataS, 7. haelend (es) m. , "Sa-vlor"; ns. S'^ ^ 94, 128, I87, 336, 36O; gs. heslendes, l-:.l, 148; ds. hslende, I50, 202, 220, 260, 379; as. healend, 5, I96, 213, 285, hass (e) f., "command, order"; ds. hsese, 306. hEsaena (an) m. , "heathen"; dp, hseSenum, 174, haeOengyld (es) n. , "Idolatry"; as. hasjjengyld, 275. hesSenscype (es) m. , "Idolatry, paganlsm"; ds. hrajjenscype, 332; as. haaaenscype, 271. he. heo. hlt (pron. ), "he, she, it, hlmself, herseif, Itself"; nsm. (56 times), 7, 9, 25, etc.; nsf., 79, 81; nsn. hlt, 22, 59, 247, '^'^". "^59, 386, hyt, 60, 17I, 235, 311, 372; gsm. hls (8 times;, 52, 93, 95, etc.; hys (37 tlmes), 5, 26, 27, etc.; dsm. hym (8 times), 49, 98, 122, him, 290, 393, 406; dsf. hyre, 80; asm. hyne (12 times), 35, 53, 5^, hine, 50, 279; asf. hi, 78; asn. hyt, 41, 248, 303, hit, 36O; np. hi (34 times), 9I, 99, 114, etc.; hy (9 times), 36, 116, I60, etc.; gp. heora (I9 times), 20, 66, 120, etc., hyra, 319; dp. hym (12 times), 7, 17, 36, etc., him, 70; ap. hi, 15, 66, 335, 370, 399, hy, 115, 320.

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-119healdan (?), "to hold, preserve, support"; pres, Ind. Ip. healdaa, 323; pres, subj , Ip. healdan, 370; pp. gehealdene, 3^7. heallc (adj.), "high, lofty"; dsm. healicum, 229, 295; dp. healicum, 253, 382, hefig (adJ,), "heavy, oppressive, grievous, grave, Important"; dpn, hefegum, 112, hell (e) f., "Hell"; ge. helle, i^OO; ds. helle, 55, 208, hellic (adj,), "Hellish"; dsm, hellicura, 67. heofone (an) f., "Heaven"; gs, heofonan, 52, I58, 251, 376, 393» ^04; dp, heofonum, 251, 376; ap. heofonan, 257, 389. heofonlic (adj,), "Heavenly"; dsn, heofonlicum, 67» wk. dsm, heofonlican, 38O; wk, dsn, heofonlican, 9^, 129. her (adv.), "here"; 8h, I36, 220, 26l, hetol (adj,), "hostile, mallPinant, evil"; dp, hetelum, 175» hieran (wk), "to hear"; pp, gehyred, ^1. hiw (es) n, , "shape, foiro, appearance, beauty"; ds. hlwe, 78. hiwung (e) f., "appearance, hypocrlsy, pretense"; ds, hltvunge, 92, 9 3, 97, 98, 104. hlude (adv.), "loudly"; 390, hogian (wk) , "to think about, strive for, care for"; Inf, 148; pres, ind. Ip, hogiaö, 173» pres. subj, 3s, hogle, 164, hold (es) n, , "(dead) body, carcass"; ns,, 37, 194, 201, hradian (wk), "to hasten, quicken"; pres. ind. 3s. hradaö, 354, hrof (es) m. , "roof, top, highest part"; ds. hrofe, 229, 230, 296, 296. hu (adv.), "how"; 59, 60, 164, 212, 214. hund (es) m. , "dog"; np. hunda[s], I67. hus (es) n. , "house"; ds. huse, 229, 23I, 295.

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-120hvwit hwest I. (Indef. paron. ) » "anyone, someone"; nsm. hwa, 27, 2^2, 35^1-. II. (Inter. pron. ) , "who? what?"; nsn. hwst, 282, 305, hweenne (adv.), "when"; ^3» hweer (adv,), "where"; swa hwssT swa , "wheresoever" ; 37, 19^. hwlder (adv.), "whlther"; 36, 193» 196, 197. hwllc (pron,), "any, sone"; ds. hwllcum, 30I, hwlliim (adv,), "for a tlme, sometimes"; (dp, of hwll used in adverbial sense), 3OI» Ic (pers, pron,), "I"; ns,, 2^8, 36O; np, we (26 tlmes), 6, 38, 39, etc.; gp, ure, 2k, ^3, 27O, 36O, 37I; dp, us, ^6, 1^8, 57, 17^, 216, 326, 369, 381; ap, us, I5I, 37O. llca (pron,), "the same"; wk, ap, ilcan, 337, Ingehyd (es) n, , "thought, consclence, Intention, purpose"; ds, inngehyde, 90. innan (prep,), "inside"; 16, innera (wk adj.), "inner, interior"; asf, inran, 302. into (prep.), "into"; 1^, 188, innto, ^00, lu (adv,), "once, formerly, of old"; 61, 267, iudea (indecl, proper name), "Judea"; 227, 293, 322, land (es) n, , "ertrth. land, soil, realm, province"; ds, lande, 227, 293. lanj:;e (adv,), "long"; 330, lar (e) f,, "lore, learning, story, preaching, exhortation" ; ns., 17^; ds, lare, 152,

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-121lareow (es) m, , "teacher, master, preacher"; np, lareowas, ^^if7, 173; ßP. lareowa, 116, l6l, 164; dp. lareovmm, 168; ap. lareowas, 188, 273. leahter (es) m. , "crime, fault, sin, offense"; dp. leahtmm, 308. leas (adj.), "false, valn, lylng, deceltful"; dsf. leasre, 97; npm. lease, 244, 356; wk. np. leasan, 363, 363, 365; wk. gp. leasan, 285; ^k, dp. leasum, 307. leodscype (es) m. , "nation, people, country, region" ; ds. leodscipe, 63. leomlnj^cniht (es) m. "dlsclple, scholar"; np. leomingcnihtas, 215; ap» leomingcnihtas , 273. llbban. llflan (wk) , "to live"; Inf. lybban, 116; pres. Ind. 3p. llbbaa, 127; pret. Ind. 3p. lyfodon, 405, leofodan, 13; pres. p. llbbende, 294, lybbende, 227; wk. gsm. lyfigendan, 333; wk, asm. llflgendan, 319. llohama (an) m. , "body"; ds. lichaman, 393« llf (es) n. , "life"; ns,, :51; gs. lifes, I32; ds, life, 53, 159; as(p.?) llf, 127, 175, 371. llget (es) m. , "lightning"; ns., 10. lim (es) n. , "llmb, Joint, member"; np. lima, 365« loa (proper noun) , "Lot"; ns,, 21, 61; gs. loSes, 17» 58? ds. loöe, 61, 69. luflan (wk), "to love"; pres. Ind. 3s. lufaö, 320; 3p. lufiaS, 319. lufu (an) f., "love"; ns., 3I7; ds. lufan, 326, lufon, 121. lyffetung (e) f., "adulation, flattery"; ds. lyffetiinge, 98. lyt (indecl. adj., adv., and subj.), "little, few"; I6I, lytel (adj.), "little"; wk, dsm. lytlan, 351. macian (wk), "to make, do, act"; pres, ind, 3s, macaö, 345. magan (pret. pres.), "to be able, can, may"; pres. ind. 3s. mag, 28, 76, 247, 359; Ip. magon, 39, 42, 214, 344; 2p. magon, 40, 300, 303; 3p. magon, 73, 115, 120, I67, 339, 342; pret. ind, 3s. mihte, 331; 3p. mihton, 336.

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-122inanlp; (adj.), "raany"; cpm. manegra, 318» apf, manega, m-9, laanlfcfeald (adj.), "many (fold)"; dpm. menlgfealdum, 335; apm. menlgf ealde , 3^1» mann (es) m. , "man, person"; ns., 76, 164, 204, 274, 331, 334, 384; gs, mannes, 252, 381, 382, 384; ds. merm, 8, 43; np. merm, 12, 18, 65, 72, 74, 86, IO3, 111, 252, 258, 279, 284, 381; gp. manna, 147, 3^3» dp. marmiiBi, 16, 143, 221, 243, 261, 356; ap, merni, 245, 247, 255, 357, 359, 388, 392, 398. manna (an) m. , "man"; as, mannan, 352, mannc;vTin (es) n. , "rnanklnd, men, the hiiman race"; ns,, I5, 2Z2, 190, 240, 346, 390 ; ds. manncynne, 26, 44, 70, 1^, 157, 292, 349, 361, 362; as. mancynnu, I69, 353. mesnan (wk) , "to mean"; pret. Ind. 3s. mssnde, 312. meessepreost (es) m. , "priest"; np. raasssepreostas, 147; gp, meessepreosta, 117 . menniscnys (e) f., " l^iuraanlty, human nature (generally In reference to Christ), incsarnatlon"; ds. mennlscnysse, 203. micel (adj.), "many, great, much"; nsf. mlcel, 329; dsm. mlcltun, 162; dsn. miclum, 253, 382, 3R5; epf, mlcclxim, 228, 294; wk. dsm. mlcclan, 25, 75, 129, 362, 386, mycclan, 6; wk. dsf. mlcelan, 85; wk, sp. mycclan, 278. comp, mara, "nore, great er"; nsn. mare, 282; dsn. maran, 157« Indecl. comp, ma, "more"; 157. miclum (adv,), "much, great"; I56. mld (prep,), "wlth, among, by means of"; (53 tlmes), 46, 50, 52, etc. mlddaneard (es) n. , "the mlddle dwelllng, world, earth"; as, mlddaneard, 73, 33I. miht (e) f., "mighty deed, vrork"; gs. mlhte, 277, 342; ds. nlhte, 345; as. mlhte, 378. mlfetip^llce (adv.), "powerfully, mightily"; 203. mlltsung (e) f., "mercy, pity, compassion, pardon"; as, mlltsunge, 210. ml s deed (e) f., "nisdeed"; gp. misdEsda, 118. mislic (adJ.), "various , manlfold"; dpf. mlslicum, 111, 334,

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-123mlslice (adv.), "diversely"; 125. mod (es) n. , "heart, nlnd, splrlt"; gs. modes , 102. modlgnys (e) f., prlde"; ds. modlgnysse, 3^1-9. mona (an) m. , "moon"; ns., 25O, 375. monaO (es) m. , "month"; ap. monöas, 3^9. motan*(pret, pres,), "to be allowed, be obllged, raust"; pres. Ind. Ip. moton, 299. moyses (Indecl. proper noun) , "Moses"; gs. noyses, 63. munt (es) m. , "hlll, mountaln" ; dp. rauntum, 228, ^9^', myrha (e) f., "Joy, pleasure"; ds. myrhöe, 100; as. myrhSe, 51» na (adv,), "not, never, not at all"; (10 tlmes), 8, 9, ^2, etc. naht (es) n. , "naught, nothing"; ns., 57» nahwar (adv.), "nowhere"; iK)2, nan (adj.), "none, no, not any"; nsm. , 76, 27^, 384; dsm. [najniua, ^3; dsf. nanre, 8; asf. nane, 210, 3^2. nat ; see wltan nateshwon (adv.), "not at all, by no means"; 3I8. nafre (adv.), "never"; 210, 238, 328. nseron ; see beon. ne (adv.), "not"; m$ tlmes), 7, 6, 8, etc. niht (e) f., "night"; ns., 8^; ds. nlhte, 30, 82. nis , nys ! see beon . noe (proper noun) m. , "Noah"; ns,, lij-; gs. noeys, 12, 58» ds. noe, 59» nolde, noldan ; see willan . nu I. (adv,), "now"; (16 tlmes), 9, 38, 41, etc. II (interj.), "nowl"; 59, 337.

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nyhsta (an) m. , "nelghbor"; as. nyhstan, 319, nytenys (e) f., "Ignorance"; ds, nytennysse, 84, 85, nyttwurS (adj,)» "useful"; npm. nyttwyröe, 18i^. of (prep.)i "off, from, from among, conceming, out from"; (17 tlmes), 21, 69, 97, etc. ofcuiaan (4), "to spring fron, derive from"; pret, Ind. 3s, ofcom, 17^, ofer (prep.), "over"; I5, 21, 7^, 159, 292. ofslean (6), "to slay, kill, destroy"; pp. ofslagen, 377. oga (an) m. , "fear, terror, dread"; ds. ogan, 75, on (prep.), "on. In, among, toward, over, at"; (I33 tlmes), 4, 6, 12, etc. onscunlendllc (adj.), "abomlnable, detestable"; asn, onscunlendllc, 224, onscunlgendllc, 265. onslgan (wk) , "to sink, descend"; pres.part. onsigende, 327. onwunlan (wk) , "to Inhablt, remaln" ; pres. Ind. 3p. orcininlaa, 124. openllce (adv.), "openly"j I72, 275, 361. OS (prep.), "to, unto, as far as, untll"; 11, 13, 96, I3I, 257, 368, 389. oger (adJ., pron. ) , "other, another, one of two, the second"; nsm. , 31, 33, 34, 83, 87, 100, I36, 384, o5or, 186; nsf. oöer, IO6, 134; gsn. oSres, 75; dsf. oöre, 313» 394; np. oöre, 92, 104, 104, o]5re, 9I. osae (conj.), "or" 27, 29, 29, 177, 197, 225, 236, 3II. paulus (proper noun) m. , "Faul"; ns., 142. plstol (es) m. , "letter, eplstle"; ds. plstole, 142, 288. plant lan (vrtc) , "to plant"; pret. Ind. 3p. plantodan, I9.

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-125reedan (vj-k), "to read"; Inf., 266; pres. Ind. Ip. resdaS, 166, 321; pres. subj. 3s. resde, 225, 266; pret. Ind. Ip. reeddon, 373. i^din^ (e) f., "readlns"; ds. rssdlnge, 373. reaf (es) n. , "robe, garment, rainent"; as, reaf, 233, 299. regns cur (es) m. , "ralnshower"; ns, renscur, 22. restendaf; (es) m. , "the rest day, Sabbath"; ns., 321; ds. restendaage, 311» rested^ege, 236, rice (es) n. , "kingdom, reign, povrer" ; ds. rlce, 52, 9^, 129, 158, 188, 393, ^04; as. rice, 6, 8. rlcsian (wie), "to rule, govem, have power"; pres. Ind. 3s. ricsas, 205, 348, rlhsaö, 203; 3p. rlcsiaö, 399» pres. subj. 3p. ricslan, 393. rlht (es) n. , "equlty, justice, law, canon"; as, riht, I65. rihtlice (adv.), "Justly, rprightly, virtuously"; 12?, 155, rlhtwis (adj.), "(the) righteous, just"; dp. rlhtwisum, 399. sawol (e) f., "soul"; ds. sawle, 393; dp. sawlum, I6O; ap, sawla, 1^9, 157. sael (es) m. , "occaslon"; as. sssl, 21. soeamllc (adj.), "shameful, dlsgraceful"; dpf. sceamllcum, 65. sceortllce (adv.), "shortly, brlefly"; 38, 214, sceotan (2), "to shoot"; pres. Ind. 3s. scyt, 10, scinan (1), "to shlne"; pres, p. sclnende, 11, 68, 81, sclnendum, 4?. sclncrsft (es) m. , "maglc, magic art, trlck"; ds. soincreefte, 367; dp. scincreeftum, 246, 358. Serif t (es) n. , "penance, absolution, prescribed penalty"; gp. scrifta, 118, sculan (anom, ) , "to be obliged, have to, OToght"; pres, ind, Ip, sceolan, 324; 3p. sceolan, 116, I39, 148, 180, soeolon, 151 ; pret. Ind. 3p. sceoldan, I97.

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-126se« seo, )3S8t (dem. pron. , dem. adj,, and def. art.)» "the, that, he, she, It, whlch, who"; nsm. se (32 tlmes^ 3^» 56, 63, etc.; nsf. seo {lUtlmes), 3, 32, 33, etc.; nsn. Ijeet (13 tlmes), 1^]-, 37, 73» etc.; gsm. Jjees (7 tlmes), 75» 1^8, 204, etc.; gsf. J^ere, 256, 389, ^0; gsn. {«es, 2^, 313, 356; dsm. tarn (37 tlmes), 6, 14, 16, etc., J^am, 400; dsf. l^eere (23 tlmes), 21, 27, 29, etc., 58ere, 84; dsn. tarn (8 tlmes), 69, 77, 101, etc.; asm, t)one (9 tlmes), 96, 151^ 196, etc., Sone, 96; asf. Ja, 51, 51, 302; asn. I:ö5t, 225, 259, 266; np. Ja (32 tlmes), 4, 38, 52, etc., 5a, 4, 88, 212, 219, 227, 389; gp. t)Kra, 87, 161, lara, 83; dp. lam (32 tlmes), 21, 49, 50, etc.; ap. Ja (20 tlmes), 29, 33» 94, etc., 3a, I87, 29I. secgan (wk) , "to say, teil"; Inf. (7 tlmes), 38, 61, 79, etc.; pres. Ind. 3s. segö, 4, 278, 290, 355, 369, 38I, eae^ö» 242; pret. Ind. 3s. ssede, 58, 372, 383; pp. gessd, 212, 248, 257, 36O. sellan (wk) , "to glve, seil"; pres. Ind. Ip. syllan, 371; pret. Ind. 3P« sealdon, 175» sealdan, I9. sendan (wk), "to send"; pret. Ind. 3s. sende, 20, 68. Sit tan (5), "to Sit"; pres. Ind. 3s, sltt, 289, slOlan (wk), "to go, travel wlth"; pres. Ind. 3p, slSlaö, 403, sodomltlsc (adj,), "sodomltlsh"; gpm, sodomltlscre, 64, sona (adv,), "Immedlately"; 248, 373» 377; sona swa . "Immedlately after"; 21, sorhfull (adJ,), "sorrowfull"; wk, apm. soitifullan, 239, 346. soO (adJ.), "true, very, rlghteous, Just"; nsm. soQ, 204; wk. nsf. soöe, 317; wk. dsm, soSan, 333. soOfsestnys (e) f , , "truth"; ns,, 286; ds, soöfsastnysse, 104, soailce (adv.), "truly"; (7 tlmes), 46, 58, 114, etc. sprecan (5), "to speak"; pres. Ind. 3s. sprycS, 4. standan (6), "to stand, occupy"; Inf., 223, 264; pres. Ind. 3s. Stent, 287. staOolfgst (adJ.), "flxed, firm, steadfast"; wk. gsn, stat)olfS5stan, 102,

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-127steorra (an) m. , "star"; np. steorran, 250, 375, stlcol (adj.), "Sharp, abrupt, steep, arduous , roxogh"; wk. dsm, stlcolan, 23O, 296, stlllnyss (e) f., "stlllness, qulet"; ds, stlllnysse, 89, 102. stow (e) f., "Spot, Site, location"; ds. stowe, 22^, 264, 287, 314, 394. sum (adJ,, indef. pron. ) , "some, a certain"; nsm, , 62; dsm, sumum, 288; asm. sumne, 4; np, siune (11 times), 126, 126, 127, etc.; dp. suraum, 142; ap, siime, 96. sume (adv.), "somewhat, a llttle blt"; 59» simdorhalga (an) m, , "pharlsee"; np. sundorhalgan , 195, 212, sxmderhalgan, 4. sunnandeeg (es) m. , "Simday" ; as, sunnandasg, 323. sunne (an) f., "sun"; ns., 249, 374. sunu (a or u) m. , "son"; ns., 204, 383, 384; as. sunu, 252, 382. suwian. su^ian (wk), "to be or to become sllent"; pres, Ind. Ip. suwlaö, 172. swa (adv.), "so, thus"; (7 tlmes), 72, 81, 100, etc.; swa hw3r swa, "wheresoever" ; 37; swa . • . swa, "so . • • as"; 156, 157. swa sv;a (conj.), "even as"; (27 tlmes), 10, 11, I7, etc. swa beah (conJ.), "nevertheless , however"; 45, 46, 120, I6I. sweart (adJ.), "swarthy, black, gloomy, dark"; wk, dsf. sweartan, ^5, swefel (es) m. , "sulphur, brlmstone"; ds, swefle, 67; as. swefel, 22. swlncan (3), "to labor, work at, strlve"; pres. Ind. 3p. swlncaö, 140. swiae (adv.), "very much, exceedlngly" ; 184, I85, 316, 317, 3I8, swutolllce (adv.), "clearly"; 38O. swylc (pron.), I. demonstr. , "such"; dsf. swylcere, 114; dp. swylcum, 344. II. correl., "such . . . as"; swylce . . . swylce, 238, 328.

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-128swylce (oonj,), "llkewlse, also"; 22, 310, sylf (pron.), "seif"; nsm. , 242, 337, 355, 368, 372, 383; dsm. sylfum, 392; asm. sylfne, 272, 320, 321; np. sylfe, 112, 115, 3^1-2; dp, sylfum, II5, 280. symle (adv.), "always, ever, contlnually" ; II9, I52. syrm (e) f,, "gullt, crime, sin"; dp. syrmvim, 128, 211. synnful (adj.), "wlcked, corrupt, guilty, slnful"; np. synfulle, 64; wk. np. synftaian, 53; wk. ap. synnfullan, 398. syOOan (adv.), "afterwards, slnce"; 18, 210, 274, slSöan, 330, 506. syx (adj. Indecl. when precedlng the word modlf ied) , "slx"; 3^. tacn (es) n. , "sign, wonder, mlracle"; gp. tacna, 245, 357; ap. tacna, 285, 339$ 340. tallan (wk) , "to lay to the account of, ascrlbe"; pres. Ind. 3s. talige, 284. teecin/?: (e) f., "dlrection, teaching, Injunctlon, Instruction, rule, oommand"; ds. teecincge, 118. templ (es) n, , "temple"; ds, temple, 290. tld (e) f., "time"; ds. tide, 27. tilla (an) m. , "tlller, workman, farmer, husbandman"; np. tilian, 155. tilian (wk), "to aspire to, strive after"; Inf., 180. tilunj^ (e) f., "endeavor, occupatlon, care, treatment, acquisition, fruit"; ns,, 145; ds. til\inge, 27, II9, 148, 180, 232, 298, teolunge, 161; gp. tilunga, 20. tima (an) m. , "time, hour"; ds. timan (10 tlmes), 86, I70, 171» etc.; as. timan, 354. timan (wk), "to teem, be productive, bear, bring forth"; pres, ind. 3p. tymaS, 306. tintrep:a (an) m. , "torment"; dp, tintregum, 335,

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-129tlntreglan (wk), "to torment, torture"; pres. Ind. 3P« tintregaö, 338. to I. (prep.), "to"; (31 times), 37, 68, 78, etc. II. (adv.), "too,"; 366. tocyme (es) m. , "comlng"; ds. tocyme, 71, 27I, 378; as , tocyme, 5» todaelan (wk) , "to dlvide, separate"; pp. todalede, 91. top (es) m. , "tooth"; gp. toöa, ^2. twegen (num. ), "two"; nsm. , (1^ tlmes), 30, 33t 82, etc.j nsf. twa, 31, 105, 107, 113, 122, 125, 137, 191| asm. twegen, 68; asf. twa, 103; asn. twa, 9I. tyhtan (wk) , "to ezhort, sollclt"; pres. Ind. 3s. tiht, 352. ^ I. (adv.), "then, when"; I>a (11 tlmes), 1^, 20, 35, etc., öa, 198, Ipa l3a, 220, 261. II. (conj.), "when"; 66, Ipasr ( adv . ) , "there, where"; Jcsr, iJ-Ol, tjaera, I63; ^t {jeer, 201, 202. Ijaerto (adv.), "thereto, to It (them)"; 270, ^e (indecl. rel. part.), "who, whlch, that"; Jje (45 tlmes), 3, 6, 10, etc., öe (9 tlmes), 56, 97, 225, etc. Ijeah Pe (conj.), "though, although"; t^eah 5se, 281. l)eaw (es) m. , "custom,nianner, bellef"; dp. teawum, 352. l^egn (es) m., "servant, vassal, follower"; ns., 62, peowdom (es)m., "servlce"; ds, ^eowdome, 93, 96, 15^? as, Jjeowdom, 90. iDeowlan (wk) . "to serve"; pres. Ind. 3P» l^eowlaS, 15^? pret, Ind. 3p, tseowodon, 122, t>es, l3eos, bis (dem, pron, , adj . ) , "thls"; nsn, "bis, 307, 369, 30I; gsf. tJlssere, ^7, 213, 221, 256, 388, Jjysse, 45; gsn, J)yses, ^6; dsm, fysum, 224; dsf, t)lssere, 276, 362, 373; dsn. tlsum, 39, 42; asm, t)ysne, 331; asf, l>as, 78, 269, 292, 365; asn, J)ls, 146, 168, 257; dp, J)lsum, I89, t>ysum, II3,

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-130l:)ider (adv.), "thlther"; 37, 195. t>ing (es) n., "thlng, creature, object, property, af f alr" ; gs. tLljnges, 75; ap. tlng, 121. Ijonne I. (adv,)» "then"; (46 tlmes), 32, i^9, 7^1-, etc.; II. (conj.), "when, then" ; 236, 283, 3II. l3rle (num.), "three"; na. 5reo, 3^8; d. trim, I89 , 208, t>rymm (es) m. , "host, force, multltude" ; ds. {»lymme, 38O, tiu (pers. pron. ) , "you, thou" ; np, ge (I3 tlmes), 40, 59 1 112, etc.; (3;p, eov/er, 60; dp, eow (9 tlmes), 38, 61, 242, etc.; ap, eow, 214, 24?, 359, l3urh (prep.), "through, by" ; (11 tlmes), 259, 272, 273, etc. t)urhvmnlan (wk), "to contlnue, last"; pres, Ind. 3s, t>urhT)mna3, 82; 3p, turhwvmlaS , 3^7. ]3us (adv,), "thus, so. In thls manner','; t>us , 162, I96, 223, 263, tuss, 7, 36, 193. 395. unasecF:endllc (adj,), "Inef fable, Inexpresslble"; dsf, unasecgendllcre, 406, underbsc (adv,), "backwards, back"; 232, 299. undergltan (5)* "to note, mark, iind erst and " ; pres. subj, 3s. undergyte, 226, 267, understandan (6), "to understand" ; Inf,, 41, 3OO, 303, tmp:esgllp; (adj,), "unhappy , unfortunate, unblessed, wlcked"; npm, un^essllge, 97. ungesevrenllce (adv,), "Invlslbly"; 291. unrlht (es) n. , "vnrong, sin, vice"; ns., I72. unrlhtwlsnys fe) f., "unrlghteousness , Inlqulty, Injustlce"; ns. unrlhtwlsnyss, 316; as, unrlhtwlsnysse, I65. unbeaw (es) m, , "fault, vice"; dp. unteawum, 350. unwöer (adJ.), "(the) unwary, heedless, vincautlous"; wk. ap. unwaran, 309 . unwrenc (es) m. , "evll trlck, wlcked artlflce"; dp. unwrencum , 309 .

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-131u£ (adv.), "up"; 257, 389. ure (poss, pron. ) f "our"; ssm. ures, 71; dsm. urum, 171; asm, ume, 5» ut (ad\-.), "out"; 69. jra (an) m. , "woe, alas"; ns,, 233, 303. wanxxng (e) f., "walllng, lamentatlon"; ns., ^01. wamian (wk), "to put on guard, warn"; pret, Ind. 3e. gewamode, 369; Imp. 2p. WBrnla?^, 2^1-7, 359. wealdan (7), "to have power over, rule, control"; pres. Ind. 3s. wealde, 33^+. wedan (wk) , "to become mad, rage"; pres. ind. 3s, wet, 3^3. wel(adv.), '-well, abundantly"; 153. welwillende (adj.), "benevolent, kindly"; wk. dsm. welwlllandan, I50. wenian (wk) , "to accustom, habltuate, Inure, traln" ; Inf,, 153. weorc (es) n. , "work, labor, actlon, deed"; dp. weorcum, 26, 50, 131, 153, 32i^, 326. vreorOm.ynd (e) f., "honor, favor, respect"; as. wurömynt, 283, 28^. wer (es) m, , "man"; np. weras . 123, 202, 1^5. werod (es) n. , "crowd, host, troop" ; np. werodu, 378; dp. werodum, 208. westdeel (es) m. , "the West"; as. westdael, 11. Wide (adv.), "wldely"; 269, 292. widgll (adj.), "wldespreading , spaclous, broad, vast"; wk. ds. wldgillan, ^00. wif (es) n. , "woman, female person"; np. wlf, I3, 305. wlfian (wk), "to take a wife"; pret, Ind. 3p. wlfodan, I3.

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-132wlfman (es) m. , "woman"; np. wlfmerm, ^05. willa (an) m, , "will, purpose, deslgn, commancl'' ; as. willgm, 178; ds. wlllan, I3I, I70. willan (anom.)» "to wlsh, thlnk, Intend, want, deslre"; pres. Ind. 3s. wile, I50, 353, wllle, 162; Ip, wlllaö, 38, 259, wyllaö, 61, Wille, 213; pret. Ind. 3s. nolde (ne wolde), II3, 137, 199» 3p. noldan (ne woldan) , 169. wllnlan (wk) , "to deslre"; Inf., 32^. wind (es) m., "wind"; dp. wlndum, 256, 388, Winter (es) m. , "wlnter"; de. wlntra, 236, 3II; as, wlnter, 312. wlse (an) f., "way, fashlon, manner"; as. wlsan, 182, 353; ap. wlsan, 103, 125 . wlsslan (wk), "to gulde, dlrect, rule"? Inf., 116; pret. Ind. 3s. wlssode, 17 . wissung (e ) f., "showlng, Instruction, guldance"; ds, wlssunge, 117» wltan (pret. pres.), "to be aware of, know, be consclous of " ; pres, Ind. 3s. nat (ne wat), 60; 2p. wlton, 113; pres. subj. 2s. wlte, 59» Imp. 2p. wltaS, 1^6. wlte (es) n. , "punlshment, torture"; dp, wltum, ^03. wltega (an) m, , "wlse man, prophet"; ns,, 168; gs. wltegan, ^26, 267; np, wltegan, 363, wltodllce (adv,), "truly"; 12i+, 173t 237, 2^1-0, 327, 3^7. wiacwe?^an (5), "to cont radlet, oppose, res Ist"; pres. Ind. 3P» wlScweöaö, 281. wlSercoren (adj,), "rejected, reprobate, wlcked"; npm, v^l^ercorene, 126; wk, npm, wl?5ercorenan, 132, wiametan (5), "to compare wlth, llken to"; pp, widmeten, 110, wlgsacan (6), "to renounce, forsake, deny, refuse, reject"; pres, Ind, Ip, wli5sacon, 371. wlOutan I, (adv,), "outside, wlthout"; I33, 188, 207; II. (^rep,), "outside of"; 99. woloen (es) n, , "cloud"; dp. wolcnum, 253, 382, 385, wolloe (adv.), "perversely, wrongly, \injustly"; 127,

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-133wop (es) m. , "cry, walllng, lamentatlon"; ns,, ^1. Word (es) n. , "word, meaning"; ap. woi^, 39« 226, 26?. woruld (e) f., "world" ; gs. worulde, ^5, ^7, 213,222, 256, 262, 389; ds. worulde, 220, 2^^^ 261, 276, ^05, weorulde, 355» 3^2; as. woruld, 269, 365. eefre to worulde, "for ever"; 56. woruldcaru (e) f., "worldly care"; ns., 109; dp. woruldcarum, 597T5, 123. woruldllo (adj.), "worldly"; dp. woroldlicum, 323» 324. woruldmann (es) m. , "layman, worldly man"; np. woruldmenn, lOÖ; dp. woruldmannura, 124, I30. woruldOinp: (es) n. , »worldly affalr, thlng"; ap. woruldjjlng, I09 wuldor (es) n. , "glory" ; ds. ^«uldre, 254, 383, 386. wundor (es) n. , "wonder, mlracle"; gp. wundi«, 3, 277, 279, 345; dp. wundrum, 3^4; ap. wundra, 29I, 337, 3^2. wunlan (wk) , "to dwell, remaln"; pres, ind. 3p. vniniaS, 402, If06; pret. Ind. 3s. wunode, 220, 261; 3p. wunedon, 211; pres. p. wunlgende, 355» wuniende, 243. wunung (e) f., "dwelling, habltatlon"; as. vmnunge, 51. wyroan (wk) , "to work, do, perform"; Inf. vryroan, 337» gewyrcan, 340; pres. Ind. 3s. wyrc», 274, 276, 291, 339» 341; 3P. wyrca», 245, 357; pret. Ind. 3s. geworhte, 337; 3p. worhton, 269; pp. geworhte, 182, yddisc (es) m. or n. , "household stuff, fumlture, possesslons" ; ds. yddlsce, 23I, 297. yfel (adJ.), "evll"; npm. yfele, 340; wk. dsm. yfelan, 63, 316; wk. npm, yfelan, 188, 197; wk. dpm. yfelum, 199» 234, 304; dpf. yfelum, 54; wk. apm. yfelan, 398. comp, wyrse, "worse"; 171. yfel (es) n. , "evll"; as. yfel, 164; np. yfel, 309.

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-13^ ylca (pron. wk, only), "the same"; dsm, ylcan» 216, ymbe (prep.), "about"; 3, 5, 6, 27, 110, 148, 232, 298, embe, 173. ymbryne (es) m. , "course, perlod, revolutlon"; ds, ymbryne, 3T3.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Algeo, J. T. /ilfric^s "The Forty Soldlers" An Edition, Galnesvllle, Florida, I96O, Unpubllshed doctoral dlssertatlon. Anderson, G. K, Th e Llterature of the An^lo-Saxons . Prlnceton, New Jersey, 19^9. Baumstark, Anton, Comparatlve Llturpiy . l'iaryland, I958. Baxter, J, H, and Johnson, L, Kedleval Latin Word-List . London, 1934, Bethurum, Dorothy, "The Form of >£lfrlc»s Llves of Saints ." Studles in Phllology , XXIX (1932), 515-533, Bolton, W. F. An Old aycllsh Antholop!:y , Evaneton, Illinois, 19^^; Bosworth, J, and Toller, T. N, An An^^lo-Saxon Dictlonary . Oxford, 189 8, Bright, J, vi,, ed, The Gospel of Saint Luke in AngloSaxon. Oxford, 1893, Campbell, Alan. Old iSnKlish Grammar , Oxford, 1959. Campion, Rev, './. r, , ed, The Prayer Book , New York and London, 1872, Clark Hall, J. R, A Concise Anglo-.^ja xon Dictlonary, London, I894. Clark Hall, J. R. and Meritt, H, D, A Concise An;3:lo-Saxon Dictlonary , Cambridge, i960, Cook, A. 3. Bibllcal Quotatlons in Old :^g:lish Prose Wrlters . IJew York, I898. Curtlus, E. R, j:uropean Litei^ature and the Latin I.iddle Mes , New York, 1953. -136-

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-137Deerlng, l^ller. The Anglo^Saxon Poets on the Judgment Day . Ifelle, 1890. Dobble, i. ^''. K., ed. The An;glo-Saxon Minor Foems . New York, 19^2. Dubols , M. M. iSlfrlc; Sermomiaire. Docteur. et Graiaiiialrlen . Paris, 19^3. Forst er, Ifex, ed. "A New Version of the Apocalypse of Thomas In Old iängllsh," Anßlla. Tubingen, 1955. Gerould, G. H. "Abbot £lfrlc's Hhythmic Prose," Kodem Phllology , Kn.1 (1925), 353-366. Greenfield, S. B. A Orltlcal Illstory of Old Sngllsh Llterature . New York, 19 65. Holthausen, ?. and Sples, H. , eds. "Pestschrift Pur Lorenz korsbach," Studien zur Ejigllshen Philologie « Vol. L (rialle, 1913). Kennedy, C. .7,, trans. Sarly Sngllsh Christian Poetry . New York, 1952. Ker, N, R. Catalop:ue of lianuscrliJts Contalnln^ AngloSaxon. Oxford, 1957. Krapp, G. P. and Dctble, E. V. K. , eds. The laceter Book . New York, 1936. Lawlor, R. J., ed. The P.oeslyn Missal . London, I899. Leverett, P.. P. A New and Coplous Lexlcon of the Latin Languaf^e . Dos ton, I85O. Ilaas, Paul. Textual Crltlclsm . Oxford, 1958. Martin, C. T. The Record Interpreter . London, I9IO, Migne, J, P., ed. Patrolop:lfe cursus completus . Paris, varlcus dates. 221 vols. Moore, Samuel and Knott, Thoinas. The ülements of Old Engllsh , Ann Arbor, Illchlgan, I962. Morris, Richard. Old Enprllsh Homllles . Oxford, 1868.

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-138Ilueller, Slster J'ary M. , trans. "St, Cessarlus of Arles» Sermons," The Fathers of the Church . vol. :\LV11 ( Washington, D.O., 1963). Kapier, A. S. ^.^/ulfstan (Berlin, I883). Pope, John C, ed. Homilies of ySlfrio . Vol. I, London, Nevr York, Toronto, 19 67. Pyles, Thomas. The Orig^ins and Development of the Bn/^lish Langruaae . New York, 196^. Roman I.'issal. The . Dublin, 1862. Skeat, W. W. , ed. ySlfric's Lives of Saints . London, I9OO, Snell, 7, J. The Ap:e of Alfred . London, I912. Streckner, i
PAGE 143

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Wallace John Swan was bom on June 7» 1938, in Brooklyn, New York, After serving four years wlth the U.S.A.P. he entered the Unlverslty of Florida, where he recelved his A.B. wlth High Honors , In Aiigust, 1963« As a member of the Ford Poiindatlon he entered graduate school at the Unlverslty of Florida where, bypasslng the M.A., he recelved the Ph.D, In Decenber, 196?, under the ausplces of an N.D.E.A. Pellowshlp. Mr. Swan Is a member of Phl Beta Kappa and Phl Kappa Phl.

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Thls dlssertatlon was prepared tmder the dlrectlon of the chalrman of the candldate*s supervlsory coiamlttee and has been approved by all members of that conmlttee. It was submltted to the Dean of the College of Arts and Solences and to the Graduate Council, and v:as approved as partlal fulf illment of the requireraents fbr the degree of Doctor of Phllosophy. December, 196? Dean, College of Arts and Sciences Supervlsory Comnlttee: rt-<— 1 Dean, Graduate School