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The Relationship of imitation to intelligence and scholastic achievement of Negro and White first grade pupils in integrated classes

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Title:
The Relationship of imitation to intelligence and scholastic achievement of Negro and White first grade pupils in integrated classes
Creator:
O'Connor, Andrew Louis, 1940- ( Dissertant )
Anderson, Richard J. ( Thesis advisor )
Schumacher, Audrey S. ( Reviewer )
Van de Riet, Vernon
Davis, Hugh C. ( Reviewer )
Thomason, Bruce ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1967
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 116 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic achievement ( jstor )
Adults ( jstor )
Behavior modeling ( jstor )
Child psychology ( jstor )
Ions ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Modeling ( jstor )
Observational learning ( jstor )
Social interaction models ( jstor )
White people ( jstor )
Child psychology ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF ( lcsh )
Imitation ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
Abbreviated introduction: In recent years there have been greatly increased federal and state efforts to promote and finance programs furthering racial equality. Outstanding among these is racial integration of public schools, now a federal legal requirement for more than a decade and a growing reality in school systems throughout the United States. While racial integration is intended to promote equality of opportunity, it does not guarantee Negro pupils greater than ordinary intellectual development or scholastic achievement, and the latter remains an important concern....For purposes of the present study, the question arose Ms adaptiveness manifested through some learning process displayed by pupils in the racially integrated classroom?' If adaptiveness can be measured, will it be found similar to the kind of adaptiveness manifested by intelligent behavior, hence positively correlated with standardized measures of intelligence and scholastic achievement?...Stated briefly, the present investigation attempted to determine the relative extent to which Negro and white first grade pupils would imitate a teacher-like model and Negro and white peer models, relating their imitation to their measured intelligence and scholastic achievement.
Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida, 1967.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 111-115.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
021596329 ( AlephBibNum )
13163548 ( OCLC )
ACW9980 ( NOTIS )

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THE RELATIONSHIP OF IMITATION TO
INTELLIGENCE AND SCHOLASTIC
ACHIEVEMENT OF NEGRO AND WHITE
FIRST GRADE PUPILS IN INTEGRATED
CLASSES







By
ANDREW LOUIS O'CONNOR, III












A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
December, 1967

































To my wife, Beverly















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The present study represents the culmination of a long and

complicated, though often heart-warming series of events, made possible

by the kind assistance of more than thirty-five people.

The author is most indebted to his five, doctoral committee

members: Dr. Richard J. Anderson, Chairman, Dr. Audrey S. Schumacher,

Dr. Vernon Van De Riet, Dr. Hugh C. Davis, and Dr. Bruce Thomason,

minor field member. Their perspective, understanding, and genuine

interest provided the author encouragement and a sense of appropriate

direction. Special appreciation is offered Dr. Anderson, not only for

his specific suggestions about the present study, but for the unrelenting

assurance he provided the author throughout his graduate training.

Various public school officials generously guided this study

from the realm of speculation to firmer reality. They include: Mr.

Boyd Ayers, Director of Pupil-Personnel Services for Alachua County,

Mr. Dwight, H. Hunter, Principal, Kirby-Smith School, Mr. James A.

Talbot, Principal, Idylwild Elementary School, and Mrs. Thelma Jordon,

Principal, A. Quinn Jones Elementary School. Ten teachers from three

schools provided suggestions and assistance, though their repayment

was largely inconvenience.

The six models in this study worked diligently, yet never

lost their charm. Most effort was expended by Mrs. Sharon Cooper, who

served both as the adult model for the female, peer model group, and










as typist. Participating with her as peer models were Valerie Jordan

and Karla Johnson. The author's wife, Beverly, served as the adult

model for the male, peer model group, and was joined by Danny Butler

and Mike Thomas.

Specific help, especially during moments of crisis, was

provided by four of the author's friends and colleagues: Mr. Lawrence

Ritt, Dr. Gerald Musselman, Dr. Philip Costanzo, and Dr. William E.

Boblitt. Mr. Ritt was most conscientious, and thoughtful in his

capacity as assistant investigator.















TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ............................................ vii

LIST OF FIGURES ........................................... ix

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION ................................... 1

II. SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE ....................... 6

Intelligence, Adaptation, and Imitation ... 6
The Phenomenon of Imitation ............... 8
Imitation, Identification, and
Scholastic Achievement ................. 12
Negro Scholastic Achievement Following
Integration and the Role of Identifi-
cation ................................. 13
Rationale for the Present Study ........... 16

111. METHOD ......................................... 2 1

Subjects .................................. 21
Mode ls .................................... 23
Procedure ................................. 24
Imitation Tasks ........................ 24
Primary Imitation Task ................. 26
Secondary Imitation Task ............... 27
Intelligence and Scholastic
Achievement Tests ................... 31
Scoring and Analyses ................... 32

IV. RESULTS ........................................ 37

Preliminary Analyses ...................... 37
Main Findings ............................. 41
Contrasts Between Subjects' Imitation .. 41
Correlation of Subjects' Imitation
With Their Intelligence Test Scores
and Scholastic Achievement Test Scores 51










TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)



Page

CHAPTER

V. DISCUSSION ...................................... 61

Conclusions and Implications About the
Results ................................ 61
Methodological Considerations ............. 68
Suggestions for Future Research ........... 71

VI. SUMMARY ........................................ 73

APPENDIX A: PRACTICE, PROCEDURE AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR
IMITATION TASKS ......................................... 76

APPENDIX B: IMITATION DATA SUMMED ACCORDING TO SUBJECT
GROUPS AND ADDITIONAL COMPUTATIONS ...................... 81

APPENDIX C: RAW DATA ....................................... 98

REFERENCES .................................................. 111

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ......................................... 116
















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

I The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects in
the Full Sample .................................... 22

2 The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects in
the Matched Sample ................................. 23

3 Bean Estimations by the Three Models in the Male
and Female Peer Model Groups on Experimental Days
I and 2 for Male and Female Subject Classes of
the Three Subject Groups ........................... 31

4 Reliability Primary Imitation Task ............... 38

5 Reliability Secondary Imitation Task ............. 39

6 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation of
Models, Creative Non-Imitation and Non-imitation
on the Primary Imitation Task (Experimental Days
Combined) by the Three Subject Groups .............. 40

7 Percentages of Imitation of Models and Non-Imitation
on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days
Combined) by the Three Subject Groups ............... 41

8 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation of
Models, Creative Non-Imitation and Non-Imitation
on the Primary Imitation Task (Experimental Days
Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex .......... 43

9 Percentages of Imitation of Models, and Non-Imita-
tion on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental
Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex ..... 43

10 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Complete
and Complete Plus Partial Imitation of the Adult
Models with Imitation of the Peer Models of Each
Race (Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary
Imitation Task by Subjects of Each Race and Sex ..... 47









LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page

11 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Imitation
of the Adult Models with Imitation of the Peer
Models of Each Race (Experimental Days Combined) on
the Secondary Imitation Task by Subjects of Each
Race and Sex ....................................... 47

12 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Complete
and Complete Plus Partial Imitation of the Negro
and White Peer Models on the Primary Imitation Task
(Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race
and Sex ............................................. 48

13 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Imitation
of the Negro and White Peer Models on the Secondary
Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by
Subjects of Each Race and Sex ...................... 49

14 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Negro
Subjects' Imitation of the Negro Peer Models with
White Subjects' Imitation of the Negro Peer Models
(Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary
Imitation Task ..................................... 50

15 Correlation Coefficients Between Imitation of
Models, Creative Non-Imitation, and Non-Imitation
(Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary
Imitation Task by Subjects in the Matched Sample
with Their Total IQ's .............................. 53

16 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated
and Non-Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task
(Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects in the
Matched Sample and Their Total IQ's ................ 54

17 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated,
Creative Non-Imitation, and Non-Imitation
(Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary Imitation
Task by Subjects in the Matched Sample and Their
Total Scholastic Achievement Test Scores ........... 57

18 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated and
Non-Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task
(Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects in the
Matched Sample and Their Total Scholastic Achievement
Test Scores ......................................... 58


vi ii
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1 Figures Drawn in the Primary Imitation Task by
Pairs of the Three Models in Each of the Two
Model Groups on Experimental Day 1 for the Three
Subject Groups ..................................... 28

2 Figures Drawn in the Primary Imitation Task by Pairs
of the Three Models in Each of the Two Model Groups
on Experimental Day 2 for the Three Subject Groups 29

3 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation
of Models, Creative Non-Imitation, and Non-
Imitation on the Primary Imitation Task (Experi-
mental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and
Sex ................................................ 44

4 Percentages of Imitation of Models, and Non-
Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experi-
mental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and
Sex ................................................ 45















CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION



In recent years there have been greatly increased federal

and state efforts to promote and finance programs furthering racial

equality. Outstanding among these is racial integration of public

schools, now a federal legal requirement for more than a decade and

a growing reality in school systems throughout the United States.

While racial integration is intended to promote equality of oppor-

tunity, it does not guarantee Negro pupils greater than ordinary

intellectual development or scholastic achievement, and the latter

remains an important concern.

Numerous studies cited in such diverse resource texts as

those of Anastasi (1958), Masland, Sarason, and Gladwin (1958), and

Shuey (1966), among others, have demonstrated that scholastic achieve-

ment of Negro and white pupils varies in a significantly positive

manner according to their measured intelligence, and socio-economic

status or cultural and educational experience. Moreover, among more

than 250 studies of this century comparing Negro and white intelli-

gence, the Negroes sampled were shown to be of lower measured intelli-

gence and socio-economic status with significant consistency. These

differences have impelled a continuing controversy relevant to the

achievement of integrated Negro pupils. That is, if lower Negro









intelligence, as measured by standardized tests, is largely due to a

difference in hereditary potential, then were increased educational

opportunity equally provided children of both races of the same age,

the relative intelligence and achievement difference between them

would be expected to change little. Those supporting this position

include McGurk (1959), Kilpatrick (1962), and Shuey (1966). If, on

the other hand, Negro pupils' lower intelligence test scores reflect

environmental or educational deprivation predominantly, their integra-

tion into an improved educational setting would be expected to increase

their level of measured intelligence and scholastic achievement. This

position is more popular; its supporters including Havighurst and

Neugarten (1962), Klineberg (1963), Pettigrew (1964a), and the American

Associations of Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology. In 1961 the

Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, a division of the

American Psychological Association concluded:

There are differences in intelligence test scores
when one compares a random sample of whites and
Negroes. What is equally clear is that no evidence
exists that leads to the conclusion that such
differences are innate. Quite to the contrary,
the evidence points overwhelmingly to the fact that
when one compares Negroes and whites of comparable
cultural and educational background, differences
in intelligence diminish markedly; the more com-
parable the background, the less the difference.
There is no direct evidence that supports the view
that there is an innate difference between members
of different racial groups ... (quoted by Pettigrew,
1964a, pp. 133-134).

Hereditary intellectual potential, on the one hand, and

environmental or educational influence, on the other, have generally

been treated in the literature as limiting conditions within which









the individual functions intellectually. As such, continual attempts

to resolve the heredity-environment controversy fail to yield

sufficient information about more manifest aspects of intelligence,

such as, specific learning processes by which Negro or white pupils

achieve scholasticly. To this end, another widely believed character-

istic of intelligence, adaptiveness, is suggested as a more fruitful

consideration.

For purposes of the present study, the question arose 'Is

adaptiveness manifested through some learning process displayed by

pupils in the racially integrated classroom?' If adaptiveness can be

measured, will it be found similar to the kind of adaptiveness mani-

fested by intelligent behavior, hence positively correlated with

standardized measures of intelligence and scholastic achievement?

An interesting, 'real life' setting in which to pose these

questions is presented by racially integrated first grade classes in

Southern, previously all white, elementary schools. Negro and white

first graders encounter varied circumstances in school quite different

from those of their previous experience. From week to week they work

and play for several hours each school day in as large a group as they

have ever participated. It may be supposed that the teacher and peers

with whom each child interacts present a complex, task oriented,

social environment in which personal acceptance and satisfactory

achievement require considerable adjustment and adaptation.

The adaptation of these children may depend upon reinforce-

ment of appropriate behavior, but, except when teaching machines or

other procedures of programmed learning are employed, there is little









evidence that reinforcement is dispensed according to the conditions of

operant or classical conditioning. The work of Albert Bandura and

certain others would suggest that pupils' adaptation to the integrated

classroom situation, particularly the adaptation of first graders,

proceeds in a measurable degree according to their modeling or imitation

of their teacher and peers. Bandura (1965a) has observed that a major

source of new behavior or new combinations of previously learned

behavior is the behavior of other humans. He emphasizes that modeling

procedures are a very efficient and occasionally indispensable way of

learning much complex and important behavior. By contrast, operant

learning methods may be efficient in strengthening and maintaining

behavior already demonstrated by individuals, but inefficient for

developing new behavior. Bandura has stated:

Research and theoretical interpretations of learning
processes have focused almost exclusively on a
single mode of response acquisition which is
exempl ified by the operant or instrumental condi-
tioning paradigm ...

The continued adherance to a relatively narrow range
of learning principles and procedures stems primarily
from the fact that certain critical conditions that
obtain in real life situations are rarely, if ever,
reproduced in laboratory studies of learning ...
Apart from the questions of efficiency ... and
survival, it is doubtful if many classes of responses
would every be acquired if social training proceeded
solely by the method of approximations through
differential reinforcement of emitted responses ...
(Bandura, 1965c, p. 1).

Epstein (1962) has indicated That studies of imitative

human learning have considerable potential for providing greater

understanding of complex learning in human social situations. A study

of imitative learning, then, suggests the exciting possibility of










increasing our knowledge about learning in the classroom. Moreover,

additional information about learning during an important stage of

human development. At least two theories of personality development,

those of Freud and Piaget, agree that children 5 to 7 years of age

experience a critical stage of personality development. In Freudian

Theory the superego undergoes its most critical stage of development

as the child identifies with the same sex parent. Piaget's theory

conceives of parental identification as a concomitant of intellectual

development through the two interrelated mental processes of assimila-

tion and accommodation.

Stated briefly, the present investigation attempted to

determine the relative extent to which Negro and white first grade

pupils would imitate a teacher-like model and Negro and white peer

models, relating their imitation to their measured intelligence and

scholastic achievement.

In the following review of studies those pointing toward

the potentially significant relationship between intelligence and

imitative human learning are discussed first. Second, studies of

imitation are reviewed in an attempt to show that it is a pervasive

type of learning which greatly needs investigation in the educa-

tional realm of the classroom. In a third section, imitative

learning is related to the process of identification (here considered

operationally as social facilitation) in an effort to indicate the

possible relationship to imitation and scholastic achievement. Lastly,

that literature will be reviewed which relates specifically to Negro

pupils' adjustment and scholastic achievement in integrated schools.















CHAPTER I1


SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE


Intelligence, Adaptation,and Imitation



The adaptive or adjustive nature of intelligence has been

recognized from the time of its sysTematic measurement. Binet (trans-

lated by Kite, 1916, p. 29) defined intelligence as "The sum of all

those thought processes which consist in mental adaptation." More

recently, revised views of the heredity environment controversy have

provided theoretical emphasis to the adaptive function of intelligence.

J. McV. Hunt's (1961) views of intelligence upset two long accepted

assumptions about intelligence that have provided a conceptual founda-

Tion for the heredity environment controversy regarding race differ-

ences. These he descriptively terms the assumptions of "fixed

intelligence" and "predetermined development." Hunt defines intelli-

gence as central neural processes which are established, developed,

and are continually adapted according to the individual's experience.

Indirectly, Guilford has made the adapTive function of intelligence

more credible by stating one conclusion about his research: "The

question 'Is intelligence inherited or is it acquired' made less sense

than it ever did. Such a question must be asked of each and every

factor" (1956, p. 287). By 1966 he and his co-workers, through the

use of factor analysis, had found evidence for the existence of










more than 80 different, though interrelated, intellectual abili ies.

If further research shows these many factors to be valid and meaningful,

They may suggest a much broader and more complex basis of intellectual

adaptability than the single "g" factor proposed by Spearman (1927)

and more recently, McNemar (1964).

The most thorough conceptual exploration of the relationship

between intelligence, adaptation, and imiTation appears to have been

described by Piaget (1951, 1963; Flavell, 1963). According to

Piaget, when an individual's interac-ion with his environment is in

equilibrium, the two interrelated cognitive processes of intelligent

adaptation, assimilation and accomoda7ion are in equilibrium.

However, according to Piage- imitation is not intelligent adaptation

because the process of assimilaTion is subordinate to That of

accommodation. In accommodation:

All energy is focused on tl ing exact account of -re
structured niciTies of the realiTy one is imitaTing
and in precisely dovetailing one's schematic repertoire
to these details. In other words, as in play the pri-
mary concern is to adap- reality to the self (assimi-
lation), in imitation the paramount object is to adapt
the self to reality accommodation) Flavell (1963, p. 66).

For Piaget imitation is mimicking that occurs by processes

of association and simple classical conditioning. In this sense,

Piaget and Bandura do not agree on the meaning of imitation or

vicarious learning and how it occurs. According to Bandura:

Unlike most previous accounts of modeling effects,
which tend to highlight the reinforcing stimulus
control of matching responses, the theory propounded
by the author emphasizes the function of representa-
Tional processes in observational learning. According
to this formulation, matching responses are acquired
on the basis of stimulus contiguity and are mediated
by cue-producing symbolic responses which exercise









discriminative stimulus control over corresponding overt
performances. Thus, in this mode of response acquisi-
tion, imaginal and verbal representations of modeling
stimuli constitute the enduring products of observational
experiences. (Bandura, 1965c, p. 41-42).

Moreover, Bandura (1965c) believes that the "association and

classical conditioning theories" of Piaget, Humphrey, Allport and

Holt fail to account for novel responses in the observer as a result

of his interaction with a model. Referring to the work of Hebb (1949)

and Hunt (1961) in which the early development of intelligence was

shown to depend intimately upon sensory experience, Bandura and

Walters (1963, p. 28) remarked that, "those experiences, however, will

be highly dependent on the social models with which a child is

presented ..." Moreover, Bandura (1965a, 1965c) has provided abundant

anecdotal and experimental evidence that imitation is a basic adap-

tive process in animals and humans. McDavid (1959), in an extended

study of imitative behavior and biographical, intellectual, and

various other factors, found a negative correlation (-.11) between

measured intelligence and imitative behavior. However, McDavid

reinforced imitative behavior, violating the non-reinforcement

criterion of imitation stated by Bandura. Hence, if as in the present

study, Bandura's criteria of imitation are accepted, the relationship

between imitation and intelligence remains uncertain and worthy of

investigation.



The Phenomenon of Imitation



Bandura (1965c, p. 2) has compiled various descriptions of

modeling in the contemporary literature essentially similar to the










hisTorically prior term "imitation" (used throughout the present

study) such as "vicarious learning," "observational learning,"

"social facilitation," "identificaTion," "role playing," "copying,"

and "contagion."l

Bandura (1965c, p. 2) operationally defines imitation or a

vicarious learning event as:

... one in which new responses are acquired or the
characteristics of exisT;ng response repertoires are
modified as a function of obse-ving The behavior of
others and its -einforcing consequences, without the
modeled responses being overtly performed by the viewer
during the exposure period. In demonstraT'ng vicarious
learning phenomena, it is Therefore necessary to
employ a nonresponse acquisition procedure in which a
subject simply observes a model's behavior, but other-
wise performs no over ins'rumenTal responses, nor is
administered any reinforcing stimuli during the period
of acquis'Tion. Any learning that occurs under these
limiting conditions is purely on an observational or
covert basis. This mode of response acquisition is
accordingly designated as nc-trial learning, since the
observer does not engage in any over- resoDndinc
-rials although ... he may require multiple observa-
-ionaI trials in order to reproduce the modeled
STimuli accurately. Moreover, the development of
mediational responses, `i the form of imaginal and
implicit verbal representations of The perceived
stimulus events, may play a critical role in the
vicarious learning process.

Most studies of vicarious learning have been confined to

determining its characteristics rather than relating iT experimentally

to naturally occurring learning situations. Moreover, most studies




SRecenTly the conceptual s'm'iarity beTween "imitation"
and "social faciliTation" has been dispu-ed by Wheeler (1966). Too,
The effects of "conformity" and "suggesTibility" may be similar to
these of "imitation," with the processes overlapping in various
social situations, but according to McConnell (1963) "conformity"
and "suggestibility" have different operational definitions than
"imitation."










measure overt, readily observable, imitative behavior. Thus, in order

to demonstrate that vicarious learning is in fact a learning phenomenon

and not merely a performance phenomenon Bandura (1965b) showed nursery

school children a film portraying an aggressive model who received

reward, punishment, or was treated neutrally for his aggressive

behavior. Although children who observed punishment of the aggressive

model produced significantly fewer imitative responses than the others,

this difference between the groups of children was no longer apparent

when all were rewarded if they could reproduce the models aggressive

behavior. Hence, negative reinforcement to the model had inhibited

their imitative responses but not Their learning.

Bandura has emphasized that vicarious learning is an indis-

pensable process of human learning. Under certain social conditions

it may be of the same magnitude (Kanfer and Marston, 1963), or even

more efficacious than direct reinforcement (Berger, 1961).

Most often cited among Bandura's vicarious learning experi-

ments are the following three. In two related experiments Bandura,

Ross and Ross (1961, 1963) exposed nurseryschool children, average age

approximately 41 years, to live (1961) and film-mediated (1963)

aggressive models pummeling an inflated plastic doll. Children

observing the real-life, film, and cartoon aggressive models

expressed a mean number of aggressive responses approximately twice

that of those observing an inhibited model or The control group.

Bandura and McDonald (1963) have shown that modification of attitudes

may occur by observation of models as well. Attempting to change

the objective and subjective moral orientations of children conceived









by Piaget, Bandura and McDonald assigned 5 to 11 year old children

to three observational groups. In the first of these, adult models

were verbally reinforced for expressing moral judgements counter to

those of the children, with the children subsequently reinforced for

adopting the judgements of the adult model. The second group, likewise,

observed the verbal reinforcement of the adult models' judgements, but

were not, themselves, reinforced for adopting the models' judgements.

The third group observed no model but was reinforced for making judge-

ments, like those of the models, which were counter to their original

orientation. The model-observation groups differed little between

them in changed moral judgements, but showed significantly greater

change toward the moral judgements of the models than the no-model

control group.

Two additional variables considered in studies of imitation

or vicarious learning, and relevant to the present study are sex of

subjects and non-imitation. Using a doll play experimental method

with children age 3 to 5, Hartup (1964) found that children would

generalize somewhat their imitation of same sex dolls but not

opposite sex dolls. Where models display nurturance or positive

social interaction to 5 year old girls, Mussen and Parker (1965)

found increases in the girls' task irrelevant imitative behavior, but

not task relevant behavior. Henker (1963) found an opposite kind of

imitative behavior in terms of task relevancy with 6 to 10 year old

boys. Brown (1956) studied the preferred sex-roles of 5 to 6 year

olds and found that male subjects had established a higher same sex

preference than had female subjects. In two studies previsouly cited,

McDavid (1959) and Hartup (1964), non-imitation by subjects was








observed. Whi;e dissimilar in other respects, both studies indicated

that an experimental design, which allows non-imitation by experimental

subjects, may yield additionally meaningful information.


Imitation, Identification, and Scholastic Achievement


It has already been observed that the psychoanalytic theories

of Freud and Piage-'s developmental theory of intelligence stress

children's identification with their parents, which greatly affects

their learning of socially appropriate attitudes, values and behavior.

When iden-ifica-ion is given emphasis as a social facilitation effect

or process of learning in early school age children,its relevance to

a first grade educational setting becomes clearer. Bandura believes

the process of identification is essentially similar to 'hat of

imitation and vicarious learning:

This -ype of learning is generally labeled "imitation"
in behavior theory, and "identification" in most
theories of personality. Those concerts, however, are
trea~ed....as synonymous since both encompass the same
behavioral phenomenon, i.e., the tendency for a person
to match the behavior or attitudes as exhibited by
actual or symbolized models (1962, p. 215).

Evidence of identi<'cation as imitation is provided by -wo

studies pairing adult and peer models. In a study by Bandura and

Kupers (1964) in which high and low criteria of self-reinforcement

were adopted by adult and peer models in two modeling conditions,

the observers, 7 to 9 years old, matched The pa terns of self-

reinforcement of their respective models. Greater matching of

the adul' models occurred in both reinforcement, modeling conditions.

In a study of 3 to 6 year old children, Hicks (1965) found









that these subject-observers imitated the aggressive behavior of male

peer models more than adult male or female models, though 6 months

later imitation of the adult male models was greater than the imitation

among those observing the other models.

Bandura and Walters (1963) have related imitation and achieve-

ment through identification of children with their self-indulgent or

self-denying parents of different cultures. Those most self-denying

were most achieving. One study they referred to was that of Crandall,

Katkovsky, and Preston (1962), in which it was found that girls whose

fathers devoted time to participate with them in intellectual pursuits

were inclined to give up free-play time to engage in intellectual

activities.

Virtually no studies have related imitation and scholastic

achievement, although Hilgard (1964), in a review of learning theories

and methods of instruction, has recognized the potential role of

imitative learning in the classroom situation.


Negro Scholastic Achievement Following Integration
and the Role of Identification


During the past 10 years primarily, reports about Negro pupils'

progress in scholastic achievement have come out of community-wide

improved educational programs. Frequently cited are the "Banneker

Group" in St. Louis (1962) and New York City's "Higher Horizons"

project (1961). In both cities' programs measured intelligence and

scholastic achievement increased substantially over like pupils in

non-enriched programs. Where racial integration has accompanied

sweeping educational improvements the gains have been no less










significant. Two examples of these findings are reported by McQueen

and Churn (1960) for the Boston area, and Hansen (1963) for Washington,

D. C. Both Hansen (1963) and Pe igrew (1964) believe that integration

alone did not account for the Negro pupils' betterment as much as the

educational improvements and general enthusiasm engendered for learning.

In the South where educational improvement's have not been carried out

on a large scale basis like The four ci-ies cited, the reported effects

of integration have varied considerably. Partly, this has been due to

most s udies reporting changes over a shor' period of time, as deseg-

regation has proceeded slowly. Davis (1966) reported -hat in 1963 a

survey showed only 9.2 percent' of Negro publ ic school students in

SouThern and border s-ates attending desegregated schools with whites.

In a review of evidence relating -o effects of desegregation

on the scholastic performance of Negroes, Katz (1964) noted that

there was a dearth of unequivocal information. Nonetheless, i+ was

his summary impression tha' -he reports were generally favorable.

Several years previously the United States Commission on Civil

Rights had found "... some evidence -ha- the scholastic achievement

:f Negroes has improved, and no evidence of a resultant reduction in

the achievement of white students" (Southern School News, 1960).

Ka-z wen- on to observe and substantiate, through his own inves-i-

gations, that newly integrated Negro pupils face serious challenges

to their academic success. These include social threat, low

expectancy of success, and failure threat. Silberman (1964)

reviewed many instances in which desegregation had brought about

emotional turmoil, disappointment, and worsened scholastic performance.








Coles has described the psychological experiences of the first Negro

children to enter schools in Atlanta and New Orleans:

When they are in school they may experience rejection,
isolation, insult. They live under what physicians
would call highly stressful circumstances.

...each child's case history would describe a balance
of defenses against emotional pain, and some exhaustion
under it, as well as behavior which shows an attempt to
challenge and surmount it (1963, p. 5).

In 1964 Coles drew these case histories together into a book, which

very amply and movingly depicts how the scholastic achievement of

newly integrated Negro pupils depends upon acceptance by their white

peers and the extent to which they can experience with them some

feeling of equality. Many Negro children, feeling acutely their

inadequacy and failure compared with their white peers, rebel and

respond aggressively in the classroom and on the playground. Yet,

there is a body of evidence that Negro children show a greater willing-

ness to identify with their fellow whites than the whites with them.

Goodman (1952) investigated the emergence of interracial

attitudes in a sample of Negro and white nursery school children

and found a medium to high degree of awareness of social differences

in 85 percent of the children of each race. Following a review of

various studies of self-identity in Negro children, Pettigrew stated:

Racial recognition in both white and Negro children
appears by the third year and rapidly sharpens each
year thereafter. But of special significance is
the tendency in all of these studies for Negro
children to prefer white skin. They are usually
slower to make racial distinctions, frequently
choose white dolls and white friends, and often
identify themselves as white or show intense
reluctance over "admitting" they are Negro (1964,
p. 15).









Eri kson (1964), illustrating Negro children's desire to identify with

their white peers, describes a 4 year-old Negro girl in a

desegregated nursery school, who painted her self-portrait with

quantities of all white paint. Masland, et al. (1958) noted this

phenomenon in the North as well as the South, adding that white

children prefer to be identified with children of their own race.

White children's preference for identification with their white

peers had been previously no-ed by various authors, among them

Radke, Sutherland, and Rosenberg (1950), and Radke, Trager, and

Davis (1949). Once again, the process of identification, as it may

be seen in the context of Negroes' adjustmen' and scholastic per-

formance in integrated schools, seems to reflect what Bandura has

called imitation or a social facilitation effect. Particularly the

case histories of Coles (1964) suggest that Negro children's

scholastic achievement, as part of their whole school adjustment,

improves where the process is sustained.



Rationale for the Present Study


The foregoing review of literature was directed toward

interrelating previous research concerning the four major variables

of this study: imitation, intelligence, scholastic achievement, and

the subject variable of Negro and white first graders in integrated

classes.

Studies of imitation or vicarious learning now appear suffi-

cient in number to demonstrate that imitation is an-important and

pervasive type of learning in human social situations. Ye-, most









studies of imitation, such as those cited, have attempted to delineate

its characteristics or validate it as a learning process, and there-

fore, have studied gross overt behavior in experimental settings.

Consequently, there is little evidence, other than anecdotal, to

support Bandura's contention that imitation is at least as relevant

as operant conditioning to naturally occurring, human learning situations.

Significantly neglected has been an investigation of imitation in the

'real-life' setting of formal education. In the present study first

grade pupils were chosen for subjects, partly because imitation has

been most satisfactorily demonstrated among children of this age.

Although a necessary first step was to determine whether first grade

subjects would imitate adult and peer models in school related tasks,

this was not of major importance. More important was how subjects'

imitation of adult and peer models would be related to their social

adjustment and scholastic achievement.

In terms of social adjustment, two factors indicated that

first graders would imitate an adult teacher-like model more than peer

models. Most obvious of these factors is that a teacher is the class-

room authority and primary determiner of class activities and what

is learned. Secondly, Bandura has contended that imitation and

identification are synonymous. If imitation and identification are

essentially similar, first grade pupils would be disposed to imitate

an adult model most because they are in the most critical development

period of identification with adults. Of special interest was the

role of imitation in the social adjustment of Negro pupils in racially

integrated classes. Several studies have reported that Negro children










prefer to identify with white -hildren while white children prefer to

identify with those their own race. For pupils of both races, then,

social adjustment to the conditions of first grade would be found in

greatest imitation of adult -eacher-like models, second most imitation

of white peer models, and least imit'aion of Negro peer models. In

addition, -he disinclination of white children to identify with Negro

children would be expected to appear in less frequent imitation of

Negro peer models than Negro pupils' imitation of Negro peer models.

First graders' imitation was thought worthy of investigation

not only as a process of social adjustmen- or adaptation but of

intellectual and scholastic adap'a'icn as well. The relationship of

imitation to scholastic achievement' was aopcached throughh -he

controversy surrounding differences between the measured intelligence

of Negro and white children. The consistently found differences in

measured intelligence and the ensuing heredity-environment controversy

have been adduced as explanation for the racial differences in

scholastic achievement. On the basis of recent research it was

argued that the heredity-environment controversy has become an unpro-

ductive approach to investigating racial differences in scholastic

achievement. Seemingly more fruitful would be to consider intelli-

gence as the ability (ies) to adapt. When intelligence is regarded

as adaptation it appears to have more relevance to processes of

learning, such as imitation. Ye-, the theoretical relationship

between imitation and intelligence has been unclear. Piaget (Flavell,

1963) believes -hat imitation is not intelligent behavior. However,

Bandura (1965c) holds that imitation is a more thoughtful kind of









learning than Piaget's conception of it as simple mimicking. Therefore,

using Bandura's criteria of imitation, the present study attempted to

determine the relationship of first grade pupils' imitation to their

measured intelligence. Since adult white female (teacher-like) models

and white peer models were considered more potent models of imitation

than Negro peer models,it was expected that imitation of them would be

positively correlated with their measured intelligence. Because

measures of intelligencee have so consistently shown significant

positive correlations with measures of scholastic achievement, it was

expected that first grade subjects' imitation of adult models and

white peer models would be positively correlated wi'h their scholastic

achievement.

Three hypotheses were p-oposed to test the expected relation-

ships between Negro and white subjects' imitation of white female

adult models, Negro peer and white peer models. Tests of these

hypotheses were expected to provide information about the social adjust-

ment or adaptation of Negro and white first grade pupils in integrated

classes. Hypotheses 4 and 5 were proposed to -est the expected

positive correlations between subjects' intelligence and subjects'

scholastic achievement as an ind'ca'ion of their adaptation in the

scholastic realm of first grade. The five hypotheses of the present

study were stated as follows:

1. Subjects of each race will 'mitate white female adult models and

peer models of each race.

2. Subjects of each race will 'mitate white female adult models

significantly more than peer models of each race.









3A. Subjects of each race will imitate white peer models significantly

more than Negro peer models.

3B. Negro subjects will imitate Negro peer models significantly more

than will white subjects.

4. Imitation of white female adult models and white peer models by

subjects of each race will be positively correlated with their

measured intelligence.

5. Imitation of white female adult models and white peer models

by subjects of each race will be positively correlated with their

measured scholastic achievement.















CHAPTER III


METHOD



The methods employed in this investigation are described in

terms of the subjects, the models used in the imitation tasks, and

the procedures for measuring subjects' imitation, intelligence, and

scholastic achievement. No formal experimental design was followed.

Imitation was measured by two tasks, designated as primary and

secondary imitation tasks. Procedures for carrying out the imitation

tasks were complicated and entailed lengthy description because of

the uneven number of first grade classes and because of the detailed

nature of the primary imitation task. Measurement of subjects'

intelligence and scholastic achievement was accomplished by adminis-

tration of standardized tests.


Subjects


Subjects consisted of Negro and white first grade pupils

enrolled in two elementary schools in Gainesville, Florida. Kirby-

Smith School and Idylwild Elementary School wore chosen because they

were the two most racially integrated elementary schools in Gaines-

ville during the 1966-1967 school year. This was true both in per-

centage of Negro pupils, approximately 15 percent and 17 percent

respectively, and in total number of Negro pupils. Data were obtained










from 123 pupils in each of the five first grade classes at Kirby-

Smith School, and 55 pupils in each of three fi-st grade classes at

Idylwild Elementary School. Thirty-two of 'hese subjects provided

incomplete data, so the final sample consisted of 146 subjects.

Table 1 shows the number of subjects, their age range and mean age

according to their race and sex.




Table 1


The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects
in the Full Sample


Subjects

Negro Females

Negro Males

White Females

White Males

Total


N

15

25

50

56

146


Age Range (Months)

77 96

77 111

76 101

72 97

72 111


Mean Age (Months)

83.7

86.5

83.6

82.4

83.6


In order to test hypotheses 4 and 5 it was necessary to

select from the full sample as many Negro and white pupils as could

be matched on the basis of equal Total IQ score, and sex. The matched

sample consisted of 72 subjects, 36 Negro and 36 white. Their number,

age range and mean age, according to their race and sex, may be seen

in Table 2. The mean Total IQ of the Negro subjects in the matched










sample was 83.50, and the white subjects 86.19. A t test of this

difference yields a t equal .95, which is nons anificant.



Table 2


The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects
in the Matched Samp e


Subjects

Negro Females

Negro Males

White Females

White Males

Total


N

15

21

15

21

72


Age Range (Months)

77 96

77 1 1

75 99

76 97

76 111


Mean Age (Months)

83.7

84.6

87.0

84.2

34.3


Mode s


There weresix models employed in the 'mitation +asks. Since

all e'ght of -he subjects' teachers were while females, the two adult

models, likewise, were while females ;n their mid-20's and aporoxi-

mately the modal age of lhe subjec-s! teachers There were two Neg-o

peer models, one male and one female, and I'kewise two while peer

models, one male and one female. The four peer models were from

another school and none had acquaintance with any of the subjects.

The peer models were selected on 'he basis of apparen- similarity 'n

physical development' and at-rac-:veness, scholastic ability and










cooperativeness. Al-oge-her, 'he six models formed two c-oups of

three models, each including one cf the adult models and both peer

models of the same sex, but different race. In subsequent tables and

figures, models are labeled in abbreviation: A (Adul-), NP (Negro

Peer), and WP (Wh te Peer). As the two groups differing in 'he sex of

peer models carried ou- their modeling tasks separately and simultaneously,

an assistant experimenter was needed. The assistant experimenter was an

advanced graduate student in psychology.



Procedure


Three kinds of data: 1. frequencyy of imitation, 2. scholastic

achievement test scores, and 3. intelligence 'est scores)were obtained

n this order from all subjects a' separate, successive intervals

between April 1, 1967, and 'May 15, 1967. Each kind of data was

obtained between 8:30 A. V. and C1:30 A. M. when the subjects were

most rested and able 'o ccncen-ra'e.

Scholastic achievement tes's were administered by +he subjects'

teachers because of the time consuming nature o4 the tes-s. Each

teacher comple-ed the test administration during Ac-il, 1967. Testing

at the same time assured that scores were based uDon the same number

of months school a"endance that year, and comparable from class to

class. All other da+a were collected by the author and his assistant.


Imitation Tasks


Two tasks were employed in order 'c determine how frequently

the subjects would imitate each of the -'hee models. A second imitation









task, br eLe' n na -ue, as i- ude- eC_-se of dif iculty in

genera 'z'ng about results from a single task. The modeling parad'gc

-n wh'ch hey we-e based 's one cf Th-ee described by Beadu-a 'n which

Ihe behav'o- of -"e mode s:

S...ay e c" p-evicusly lea-ned -espcnses -ha-
maech D3ecise y c- beaj some -ese' ance 'o those
exh'b ed by 'he model. This -es-cnse cac'isa 'on
eLeec' can be d's incuished frcm 's'nhibo'on when
-"e behav'o- 'n ques'on 's no ''ke v -o have :n-
cL--ed j -'shmen- a-d e-efc-e, 2"y -C-ease in
rescs' v' y 's no= a-r'b._'ab e c he -educ`'on
Sih'b;mc-y resec-ses (196:a, 3. 32').

m ec ae.y before The exDe '~en-e-s aed models a r'ved a+

The schc:5s 'c ca ry ou -'-e irm'a'cn -asks The 'eachess o' -wo

classes in-e-changed -heir Dup' s so -ha" all female subjects 'e-e "n

one c assroom and all male sub ec-s 'n he oche-. Sepa-a-'on o4

sub ec's by sex was ccopl ca'ed s'nce -he-e were five classes 'n o-e

school and Th-ee in The a-he- s' oc;, c- an uneven -'"be' 'n each.

In the school .' h f ve classes, .'.o grcuDs oL -..'o classes each were

inte-changed by sex. A fif'h c ass -emained. In -he school w"h

'hree classes, one croup of -wo classes was 'nqe-chanced by sex. In

th: school a Third class -emailed. However, because of the e'--'ve

scarc'y of Negro oup'Is, i was des'rable no- tc ignore The f''h

and third classes, bu4 -o draw -he Negro pup''s from them and include

-he 'egr pup' s 'n The in-erchanged classes. The fif-h a'd th'rd

c'asses each school were The leas- 'neeg-aed of The firs- grade

c'asses. The Neg-o Duo'Is co these -.o leas' 'negc-a-ed classes

joined one of 'he "n-erchanged classes according -o -hei' sex.

Thereby, frc- The e'goh f'rs- grace school classes, Three subjec'

cgouos w..e-e fcmed w'- h ecc, a :cs's'ng o' cGe a I female subjec-










class and one all male subject' class. In Group I there were 45

subjects, in Group II 'here were 46 subjects, and in Group III there

were 55 subjects.

When the two classes of each group were settled in their

chairs, the model group, whose peer models were of the same sex as

the subjects, then entered the classroom and proceeded with the

modeling tasks. Both tasks, together, required each class approxi-

mately 30 minutes to complete on each of the two experimental days.

All imitation task procedures were identical for male and female

subject classes.


Primary Imitation Task


The primary imitation task consisted of drawing colored

geometric figures. Two at a time the models stood at the classroom

chalkboard before the subjects and drew the geometric figures in

either red, blue, or yellow chalk. At each drawing models stated the

color they would use, but said nothing at any other 'ime. Appendix A -

Practice describes how models' behavior was made uniform prior to

carrying out the imitation tasks. The colored figures drawn by the

models had been pre-designed by the author and drawn on separate

programs for each of the models. By turning the numbered pages of

their programs the models knew when to draw each figure, as well as

what color and shape each figure was to be drawn.

Each observing subject was provided a pad of paper and

sharpened red, blue and yellow pencils and asked to draw the figure

just drawn by one of the models, or one of their own. The subjects'









blue pencils had erasers. Their stapled pads of plain white paper

were 51 inches by 81 inches. Each contained 16 pages, numbered

beginning with the second page from one to fifteen. The first,

unnumbered page was for subjects to write their names and to make

a practice drawing.

Fifteen times on each of two successive mornings the models

arose in pairs from chairs placed before the subjects and drew the

geometric figures. On both experimental days, then, this imitation

task provided thirty imitation trials. On each experimental day

there were ten different figures, all ten of which were drawn by each

of the models, although in a different color and order. On each of

the thirty trials the two figures simultaneously drawn were never

the same shape or color. Figures 1 and 2 show the ten different

geometric figures on experimental days 1 and 2, respectively, in the

order they were drawn by the three models and observed by the subjects.

The color of each figure is indicated by the capitalized first letter

of the words red (R), bluP (B), and yellow (Y). Since the imitation

tasks were carried out with three groups of subjects, this made

possible counterbalancing of figure color and order of drawing for

the three models and model pairs. This was easily accomplished by

models trading programs from which they drew the figures. The

counterbalancing by groups and models is indicated at the top of

Figures 1 and 2.


Secondary Imitation Task


The secondary imitation task consisted of estimating the

number of dried beans in each of two bottles. One bottle contained






Figure 1. Figures Drawn ir -he
the Three Models in Each of the
1 for the Three Subject Groups.


Prima-y Imitation Task by Pairs
Two Vodel Groups on Experimental


GROUP I


GROUP II NP


A NP


WP


WP


N P


NP WP
WP A


GROUP ill


WP



p


WP NP

Y B


3


B


11
i2
13
14


A


R


Y


15 -
V
(RED) B(BLUE) Y(YLLOW)
R(RED, B(BLUE), Y(YELLOW)


R


R
R


of
Day


@
B

e-
Y


NP


-
R

ffi






B


R

B


Y


B


R






Figure 2. Figures Drawn in the
Three Models in Each of the Two
the Three Subject Groups.


Primary Imitation Task by Pairs of the
Model Groups on Experimental Day 2 for


GROUP I


A NP


GROUP NP WP
GROUP III WP A


A WP
NP A
WP NP


R


B


R


B


NP WP
WP A
A NP


0
B


R



B


Y


-p-
_LB


NIO


10


12


14

15


Y


V

A
Al


I\



B


R \
R


R




A

Y


Y


Y


B(BLUE), Y (YELLOW)


V


R(RED),










140 beans, the other 60. On each experimental day one of the bottles

was first shown to the models by the experimenter. Each model stated

his (her) estimate, as if guessing for the first time, and wrote it on

the chalkboard in red chalk. The bottle was then shown to the subjects

and they were requested to write whichever of the models' estimates

seemed most accurate, or an estimate of their own. On the second

experimental day the other bottle of beans was used. The sum of

scores on this task, then, consisted of two estimates by each of the

subjects.

Estimates made by the models for the larger bottle (140

beans) were 100, 70, and 40 beans. Estimates for the smaller bottle

(60 beans) were 40, 30, and 20 beans. Thus, with both bottles,

estimates presented by the models were lower than the real quantities,

with the average estimates being one-half -he real quantity. Model

estimates lower than the real quantity were chosen in order to bring

them into a range appearing reasonable 'o the subjects. In a similar

task with elementary school subjects, Musselman (1967) used a jar

containing 500 beans and found the mean estimate in a control group

to be 275.

Table 3 shows the bean estimates made by the adult, Negro

peer, and whi e peer models on both experimental days before the male

and female subject classes of the three subject groups.

Appendix A describes additional details of the procedure

including models' practice of the imitation tasks, and instructions to

the subjects.










Table 3


Bean E, 7mations by the Three Models in the Male and
Female Peer Model Groups on Experimental Days 1 and 2 for
Male and Female Subject Classes of the Three Subject Groups



A NP WP
Day 1 Day 2 Day 1 Day 2 Day 1 Day 2

Male Subjects 100" 40 70C 30 40* 20
Group I
Female Subjects 20 40* 30 100 40 70*


Male Subjects 40* 20 1CO* 40 70* 30
Group II
Female Subjects 40 70* 20 4C* 30 100*


Male Subjects 70* 30 4C* 20 100 40
Group III
Female Subjects 30 100* 40 7C* 20 40*


* Estimates made 'o the largest bct-le.



Intelligence and Scholastic Achievemen- Tests


Intelligence of the subjects was estimated by Level 1 of the

Ca ifornla Short-Form Test cf Mental Vaturity (1963 Rev'sion). This

recent revision provides seven sub-scores called factor pure by the

test's authors. Milholland's review of this test in Buros (1965)

indicates that it would be inaccurate -o make judgements on the basis

of these sub-scores because of their doub+ful validity. Consequently,

these scores were not obtained. Additionally, however, the specific

sub-scores were summed to more conventional IQ scores, accepted in this

study as estimates of intelligence: Language 10, Non-Language IQ, and









Total IQ. The test was administered to the eight first grade classes

during the first two weeks of May, 1967.

Scholastic achievement was estimated by the Stanford Achieve-

ment Test, Primary I Battery (196A Revision). This test was administered

to the subjects by their teachers during the next to last month of the

1966-1967 school year. The test yields stanine scores in six scholastic

areas entitled: Word Meaning, Parag-aph Meaning, Vocabulary, Spelling,

Word Study Skills, and Arithmetic. No total or average achievement

score is ordinarily obtained. However, for purposes of the present

study, the specific achievement area stanines were summed to a total

score. Teachers' scoring of these tests was checked by the author.


Scorinq and Analyses


For the primary imitation task each of the drawings (or lack

of them) of all subjects were scored as imitative of one of the three

models or non-imitative. In no case was an imitation versus non-

imitation judgement based upon poorly drawn figures. However, if

a figure was drawn similar in shape but notcolor to that drawn by one

o' the models, it was scored as partial Imitation. Upon scoring, it

was found that a distinction could be made between non-imitation and

creative non-imitation. The criteria of non-imitation were no drawing

on a given trial, a less than one-half complete figure, or repetition

of a previous figure. The criteria of creative non-imitation were

obvious elaboration of a figure, either in shape or color, or a

distinctly different original drawing, e.g., Batman, a house, or a ship.

A total of eight categories of imitation and non-imitation were derived from









this task: complete and partial imitation of the adult, Negro peer,

and white peer models, creative non-imitation, and non-imitation. In

subsequent tables and figures the eight categories are labeled: A,

(A), NP, (NP), WP, (WP), CNI, NI.

There was no scoring of partial imitation on the secondary

imitation task. Subjects' estimates, exactly the same as any of the

three models,were scored as imitative. All o'her estimates were scored

as non-;mitative. Four categories of imitation and non-imitation were

derived from this task: imitation of each of the three models, and

non-imitation. Labeling of categories in tables and figures is the

same as for the primary imitation task.

Imitation scores were frequency counts, and they were not

normally distributed. To determine hypothesized significant differences

in imitation of models both imitation tasks were analyzed by Chi-Square

(McNemar, 1960). Wherever Chi-Square values in tables indicate a

negative direction,this is shown by (-). Since the secondary imitation

task yielded only two scores by each subjec-, or non-continuous data,

analyses of thesedata were limited to Chi-Square and its related

nominal scale correlation, the Contingency Coefficient, "C".2 The data

yielded by the primary imitation task met criteria of the Pearson




Hypotheses 2, 3A, and 3B were tested by a one sample Chi-Square
technique described by Underwood (1954). The Chi-Square methods
employed were reviewed according to the criteria of Lewis and
Burke (1949) and found acceptable.

2 "C" is a statistic which ranges in value from 0 to a maximum of plus
1,depending uoon degrees of freedom. The directionality of its
value must be inferred. Ils statistical significance determined by
Chi-Square. "C" is not directly comparable to Pearson r.









Product %Momen' Co-eeiaicon, '"". An eauoticna, restriction on -he

analyses of ,e seconcday imita-io" task was 'moosed by the small

frequency of im'H'a'on by each sub ec ''s requi-ed combining of

categories 'o develop suf'*cien'ly earge frequencies. Consequently,

while da-a f'-c The p'-'a-y im'Ia ion ask ,we-e ana'vsed according 'o

subject s specific race and sex, e.g., \eg-c females, da-a rom -he

secondary im''a ion -ask ./ere comb'nec and analysed excesss hypc-hesis

1) accc-dinag subjec-s' se:ara-e -ace and sex, e.g., Nego-es, females.

Sccres de-'ved `rom the intel'iaence tes-s and schclas-ic

achievement tests .'ere con-inuous a'd ncr~a!ly d stribu-ed, thereby

amenable -o caae r'c ssa is-'ca' m"e-ods.

There w,'e-e ',.'o k'nds c' c:elm inary analyses. Firs' presented

a-e the -e 'abili y cceffic'ens o' al subjects' im'-ation of the

three models and non-i-7tation for both 'm;ta-ion -asks c" exoerimental

days 1 and 2. co- The pr'-ary im' a 'cn task subjects' e'gh4 imitation -

non-'*'ta ion 'recuencies c" the f'-s- expe mentala day w.e-e ccrreladed

w,'h 'heir frecuec' es on the second exoe-imen-a' day by Pea-scn r.

Fo- +he secondary *m'a-;on 'ask "e decree 'o which subject's imi' aed

' e s-me model c- non-i ila ed on both exoer:men al days was de-ermined

by -he Con-incency Coeffc'cen Second, the three subjec- groups'

m'ta 'cn and non-' a-ion frequencies on both 'asks are presented.

The s-a is-ical s'gnr finance between grcps' frequencies of imi-a 'on

and non-imi-a ion was determined by a Friedman Two-,ay Analysis of

Variance by Ranks 'Xf ) (Siegel, 1956).

Hypo-hes's 1, ccnce-n'qg -he cccu--ence of Tmi'ation, was

de-ermined by visual observation. Since There was no exoe-'mental








constraint against non-imit.tion, any migrationn of all models on each

task by any number of subjects confirms this hypothesis. In addition,

the statistical significance of the difference between all subjects'

imitation and non-imitation on both imitation tasks was tested by

Chi-Square.

Hypothesis 2, concerning frequency of imitating the adult

models versus peer models o' either race by subjects of both races,

was tested by first summing frequency of imitation of the models

on both experimental days for both tasks. For the primary imitation

task significance of the difference between frequency of imitating

the adult models versus peer models was tested by comparison of complete

imitation, and a comparison of complete plus partial imitation.

Statistically significant Chi-Square values expressing differences

in the predicted direction would confirm 'his hypothesis.

Hypotheses 5A and 3B, comparing subjects' imitation of the

peer models of each race, was tested by Chi-Square in the same manner

as hypothesis 2. Statistically significant Chi-Square values resulting

from greater imitation on both tasks of white peer models than Negro

peer models by subjects of both racps would confirm hypothesis 3A.

Hypothesis 3B would be confirmed by statistically significant Chi-

Square values resulting from greater imitation of the Negro peer models

by Negro subjects than white subjects.

Hypothesis 4, regarding the correlation between frequency

of imitation and measured intelligence, would be confirmed if, for

subjects of both races, coefficients were positive and statistically

significant between subjects' imitation of the adult models and white

peer models and their Total IQ's. Pearson r coefficients were calculated










between The criteria of :nteil gence and frequency of imitation in

the primary imitation 'ask. For 'e seconda-y imitation -ask the

Contingency Coefficient was employed. Pos''ive Pearson r and

Contingency Coefficients resulted where subjects of greater intelli-

gence 'han others imitated 'he models no-e frequently than others.

HypoThesis 5, regarding 'he correlation between frequency

Df subjects' imitation and 'heir scholas-ic achievement would be

confirmed if, for subjects of both races, coefficients were positive

and statistically sign'fican' between subjects' "mita icn of the adult

models and whi-e peer models and +heir total achievement 'est scores.

The same methods of correlation were used for The Drimary and

secondary imitation tasks as hypothesis 4.

The .05 level of sa 's ical sign:f'cance was employed in all

of -he analyses.















C'IAPTER Iv


RESULTS


Pre minary Analyses



The rel ab' i-y 'f all subjects' "m'a-ion and non- m ta-,on

n the primary and secondary im'-a- n -asks is shown in Tables 4 and 5.

Table 4 shows -e iabil'y cce fic'e-s (Pea-son r) of imitation,

and non-imi a'"cn on -he primary 'm'-a ion 'ask according c the

subjects' race and sex, and The 'u l sample. The coef;cieits are

further specific 'c cor- e-, Dart'a!, mo.eD e plus partial m'ta icn

?f each of 'he 'h'ee m-de c, crea ,'ve non-'mi a4 n, non-imita-ion,

and the we ca'eco-'es c' "mn--'m '"a'en aken 'cge'her. Ccef'cients

range from -.15 to +.?5, : ih c- y w.'c he s'x-y ccefficien-s

be'nc negat ve. 'c--y-eg'" .' ie s'x'y ceLLicen-s ae statistically

signif'can-. '.'os rel'ab'e sl b ec-ss e.'. e ma' e Da icular y whi e

males: most re 'ably im'ta-ed ..,ere +he adu;h models. The overall

impression is that subjects' imi-a-icn and ncn-im'taticn on -he

primary task was moderately re cble when the second exDerimental day

was immediately ccnsecu-ive to The first.

Table 5, showing Con-ingency Coeff'c'ents of reliabil'ty for

The secondary imita-ion tasK, demcnstra-es be res ric-ed information

yielded by -his ask. Subject ca-eor es were necessarily combined

to form caeco- es of boeh races pe- sex, c-d b'th sexes per race.










Reliability of these subjects' imitation or non-imitation was inter-

preted in terms of whether their imitation of one of the models or

non-imitation was the same on both experimental days. It will be

seen that all coefficients are positive, ranging from .02 to .25.

Reliability for males and the full sample is statistically significant,

with reliabil ity for the white subjects approaching significance at

The .10 level. These reliability coefficients are not directly compar-

able sta'islically to those of the primary task as 'hey are based upon

only one degree of freedom, which allows a maximum coefficient of .71.

However, it would appear thae subjects' imitation of the models or

non-imitation of 'he secondary imitation task was only minimally reliable.



Table A


Reliabiliy' Primary Imi at;on Task


Model Negro Negro White White Full
Imitated Females Vales Females Males Samole

A .56 .74 .36* .64* .56*
(A) .57* .60 .55* .55' .54*
A J -.15 .4 .26 .48* .7
NP .45 .50* .C7 .61 .44'
(NP) .93' .4 .29y- .66' .54*
NP + (NP) .49* .47* -.0 .54 .36*
WP .27 .42* .5J' .43*
(WP) .3 .75 .65' .57* .61*
',P + (WP) .16 .32 37' .37
CNI .61* .22 .4* .84* .82*
NI .38 .7 69 .74* .67*
CNI + NI .38 85 .78:* .2 .75*


p < .05*
Pearson r Correlation









Table 5


Re ability Secondary Imitation Task



Negroes .20
Whites .17
Females .02
Males .25
Full Sample .16*

p < .05*
Contingency Coefficien'


It will be recalled that the 'wo imitation tasks were carried

out with three groups of subjects. This allowed counterbalancing of

figure color and order of figure drawing for the three models in the

primary imitation task. The three independent groups of subjects may

be regarded as p-ov'ding two replications of the imitation tasks.

Tables 6 and 7 show the percentage of imita ion of models and non-

imitation in the three groups on each of the tasks. In addition, the

mean percentages of the three groups are oresen'ed. The frequencies

of imitation and non-imitation in these 'ables are expressed in per-

,-'ages because the 'hree groups were unequal in number of SL-' Zts.

Frequencies from which these percentages were calculated are shown in

Appendix B.

Chi-Square analysis of -he differences between frequencies

in the primary figure drawing task (Table 6) yielded an overall value

of 188.71. With df = 14, this was significant beyond the .001 level.

This significant difference was due to differences in frequencies of

model imitation, creative non-imitation, and non-imitation, and not

differences between groups. A statistical test of the difference










between groups resulted in a XJ va ue of .25. Wi'h df = 2, this showed

a high probability of occurrence by chance, p >.96. Consequently,

it may be asserted -hat figure color and order of figure drawing for

the "hree mode's did not have a significant effect; and that imitation

and non-imita'ion by -he hhree groups was much alike.



Table 6


Percentages of Comalete and Par'ial Imitation of models,
Creative Non-lmi 'a"on and Non-mnitation on the Primary
lmi"a-icn Task (Exoerimenal Days
Combined) by the Th'ee Subjec- Groups

A (A) :D (NP) WP (WP) CNI NI
Group I 2C.22 1V.?.4 11.1! 8.52 16.22 9.53 4.6- 13.56

Group II 1V.59 13.1^ 14.7- 11.73 16.09 14.09 3.49 6.97

Group III 24.06 7.41 18.47 5.22 18.29 6.62 6.93 13.00

X, 21.15 0.95 15.96 ..7 17.24 9.90 5.15 11.27
i, Ii, 1


Chi-Square analysis of the differences between f-equenc'es

in the secondary bean es-im--'on ask (Table 7) yielded an overall

value of 4.62. With df = 6, this was not significant. The difference

between groups was likewise not significant. With df = 2, the X value

of .50 showed a high probability of occurrence by chance, p >.93. For

both imitation tasks, -hen, it appears 'ha' the pattern of imitation

if the models and non-;mination was a stable phenomenon among the three

groups of first grade subjects.








--b e 7


Percen-aces o 'mi-a-'on o' Vcde!s and \cn-!mitac on on the
Secondary im'-at'on Task
(Exoer'men'a' Days Ccob"ned) by -he -hree S!b ec G-cL -s


AX ',,P NI

G-ou '.9 14.4 7.78 5 .39

3-cup 24.LC 9.73 5.22 5'.09

ous I ;' ''.5- 1 .3 5 .C9

,. .5 1 .3 0 56.51




In order a'- -hey be e'., .e c- QDc_ :'e review,, -he mr n

''s and mean scholas--'c chie.e-"n' -S- s-'res c" subjec's of ec:h

race and sex 'n -e a'c'"ed sa~?'^ arc u s e are Desen-ed ."

AoDend'x E.


P'a n Fi"drcs


Con-'ras's Beg .:.een Sub ies' ; a


Hypc'es s p-e' e'-s of bc+h -acues .ou d

r"' -. -e ,ahi' e -e-; e e2jr" 2 D; peer' cde cf bc' -

n bo-'h -asxs. iyDo- es' ..as _-- "'ec "n a: resoec's. b 'es

3 and 9, acd -he'- g-ap-c7 re-'ese--a cs, ciL-u-es 3 a- hc.: -he

percentage 'mi-a''cn "-d non-' -' '-he sub:ec-s on 'he r'ma-y

and secondary -asks. Freqjenc'es from which '"ese cercen-ages .,ere

:alcu a-ed and C '-Sc'ares compu ed e-e shc..,n in Append'x Subjec-

-eco' es re a-"e -"e 'n bch '-ab es a"d figu-es so 'ha- an 'n-''a

-ec- ccmDar 'sc" "wy be made be-' ee -he -..,,c tsks in -erms o0 "'-a-

and ncn-'* '-- .








On the Drima-y figu-. dra-aw' ,subje -s of ooth races and

sexes displayed complete and pa-t'al '" ation of +he adult, Necro pee-,

and whi'e peer models, creative non-im!ia ion, and non-imi action. Among

all subjects crea 've non-imi at'o- was least frequen- and imitation of

-he adult models The most 'requen-. See 'able 8 and Figure 3. 'W'i-h df =

21, an chained Chi-Square value -' 162.'2 deDonshraeed overall' signi-

,icar- di"e-ences among the frequencies =-om wh'ch The percentages in

Table S were calcula-ed, D <.001. Th*s difference was due to imita'on

of the -cdels and 'he twc kinds of non-imi a ion responses. A'X2 value

of 1.05 "nd'ca ed tha' -he difference between subjects c' d"ferent

race and sex .:as no- s'cn -:an-, ~ .TO. When subjects' complete plus

par ial imia n o' the threee -cdels .-.as cont-asted with the'r two

kinds of non-im'a ion i- '..,as apDarent 'here .%as s'gnifican-ly more

mitation Than "on- m a-; o (2 = 975.90, df = 5, p 001`.

As in the primary 7mita-in tasK. subject s of both races and

sexes displayed i'- a 'cn c he 'hree mude:s and non-imitation on the

secondary bean eslima icn 'ask. Among all subjects, imitation o' the

'.h'e peer models wias leas- f-eque- ncn-;m"'a'i on -e mos- frequen-.

See Tbl!e 9 and Figcre 4. ''i'h df = _, 'e chained Chi-Square value

cf 1,.77 d'd no' de ons-a'e overall a s'cn; fian-- di ference among the

f-equenc'es from which -he De-centages 'n Table 9 were calculated.

None heless, as '..'i I he c-imary 'mi'a-'cn task, there was a s
e fec+ due o "mih-a'on of models and non-imita on ('- = 9.98, df = 2,

D <.CI) and, therefore, no significant diffe-ence between subjects of

differen- race and sex. Unlike findings in -he primary 'mI-a-ion -ask,

subjects displayed significantly -,re rnon-:mi -a icn han imitation

C(2 = 16.24, df = 3, D < .01). I1 should be noted, however, -hat had










Table 8


Percentageslof Complete and Partial Imitation of
Models, Creative Non-Imitation and Non-imitation on the Primary
Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by
Subjects cf Each Race and Sex


A (A) NP (NP) WP (WP) CNI NI

Negro Females 24.12 11.50 17.04 8.63 16.37 6.64 2.21 13.50

Negro Males 21.23 12.55 18.42 8.95 15.75 8.54 .93 13.62

White Females 22.95 8.61 15.74 7.00 20.75 9.27 3.80 11.87

White Males 18.71 12.19 14.76 9.26 15.00 11.95 9.03 9.08


SBased on all subjects, N = 146.





partial imitation been scored as non-imitation in the primary

imitation 'ask, percentages of imitation of models and non-imitation

would have been much more nearly the same in both imitation tasks.




Table 9


'ercentages of Imitation of Models, and Non-Imitation
on the Secondary Imitation Task (Exper'mental Days Combined)
by Subjects of Each Race and Sex


A NP WP NI
Negro Females 23.33 23.33 13.33 40.00

Negro Males 24.00 8.00 12.00 56.00

White Females 23.00 15.00 13.00 49.00

White Males 16.07 7.14 8.93 67.86


Based on all subject, N
Based on all subjects, N


= 146.























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LVyp' :s 2 p'ed'c-ec 'at subjects of both races wou;d

mitate the whi'- female adult m: e's s'gn 'can--ly more than The peer

models o' eilhe- race on bcTh 'asks. y-Do-hes;s 2 .was confirmed com-

pletely wi-h the "imaa~v' mia"ion 'ask and Dar'ially w'h the

secondary :mi a'on eask. Tab!es 10 and 11 sho.' Ch'-Scuare values

ccnTras' ng d;fLerences in Lrecuency x* subjects' im aticn of -he

adul- models ,'-h th 'r i; a- 'n o D'e pee' models of each race on

-he Drima-y and seccnd27s \ '"'2-'cn -asks. All Ch-Square values 'n

Tables 10 and 11 are in -,e d-Pec-'cn o-ed'c-ed by hypothes's 2, hence

DOS i e.

On 'he D-'arrv i 'aton 'as'< three cf s'xteen Chi-Squa-e

values w'.ere no sc';f:can*. \ec'-c "ales dd no i"i-a e The adu t

rcdel they observed sign; f anr y m'-e -han The Negro peer model They

obse-ved :.,hen CCmDle-e "m' 'c' *'esOcnses '..e'e conr-as-ed, bu' d'd

..'hen ccmlee ''s ca'-' ma2n 'espDnses .,e-e ccn'ras-ed. h.hen

mrnDeJe and ccroDlee olus ?a-''l ;nm'a' cn -esoonses ,.,:e'e ccrnras'ed,

S'was no ed t"- .'.h:'e fe-D'es d' -c- ''-ae the adult' model h'-ey

csserved sicni- c-e "an 'e : e e-r mode! hey Tbserved.

These Three non s'cif'ica' Ch '-Squ -e values were due -o differences

in imr'atlicn be`' ,een the wo exes of each a. ''hen the sub ec's

f di erent sex .,:ere ccrmbnec fc~m'ng less sp- ific sub ec- ca-e-

gories, Negroes and w.'hi-es, s 'nificant c;fferences were obtained in

all Three ins-ances. Consequen-'v, hyDoThesis 2 was completely con-

firmed by Negro and wh:'e subjects' 'mi a-ion on he primary

mitaticn -ask.









~c e 10


Chi-Scqare v* ues Con rasti n Frequency cf C 'p ete
Id Complete P'us Partial Imi-a 'on of the Adult 'cdels 'h
Imit t:on of the Peer Mcdels of Each Race (Exper'mental Days Combined)
on the Primary Imita-ion Task by Subjects of Each Race and Sex


A + (A) -
NP + (NP)


7.32"*



5. 4"


21.40**"


14.4C *


.A WP


6. 7*


6.05'


(.65 3


5.32'


A + (A) -
IP + (WP)


12.26**"


11.58***


\4


&.50*y


, <-.C5', D <. **,


S Based on a c, ij c s, ': = '.
2 ) =
2 X = 5.52o, Cct-as f 'od:-
sex.
S 2 5.84', Ccn a 's cf -ode m 'm"
c sex.
= 4.10*, Contras- 'f cI de s im'
c- sex.


ed Dy all Negro subjects regardless


-ec by all whi e subjects regardless

-ecs by all whi e subjec-s regardless


Ch:-Square ValuesI Conq ras's : F'ec-e-cy -f Imi--ation of
Ae Adult Vodels ,.i -h m -' c c f e Pee- modelss o' Each Race
(ExDer'men al Days Ccnb'ned) _n -he Secondarv Imitation Task by
Subjec-s of Ech Race and Sex


A NP


A ,!,P


Negroes 2.12 2.80

Whi-es '.06

Females .2

Males -2 4.26'

df = 1, D <.C5", D <.:1"D


1 Based on !lI ubjecos, N


A NP


Negro
Females

Neg-c
Ma I es

Wh'te
FemalIes

Wh' te
Males


(5.50






20. 12**-


- 73**
m"Y~


' .^-V-V


= 145.








Subjects' imitation on the secondary imitation task fails to

confirm completely hypothesis 2. Only whi-e subjects and male

subjects imitated the adult models significantly more than the peer

models of either race. However, Negro subjects' and female subjects'

greater imitation of the adul' models than white peer models approached

significance a+ the .10 level. Data in Appendix B show that all four

instances on nonsignificance were due to differences in Negro females'

imitation. In this respect Negro females' imitation differed on the

primary and secondary imitation -asks.

Hypothesis 3A, which predicted significantly greater imitation

of white peer models than Negro peer models by subjects of both races,

was largely unconfirmed. Tables 12 and 13 show Chi-Square values

contrasting differences in frequency of subjects' imitation of the

white peer models with their imi+a'ion of the Negro peer models on

the primary and secondary imi-a-ion tasks.


Table 12


Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Complete and
Complete Plus Partial Imi'at'on of The Negro and White Peer
Models on -he Primary Imitat'on Task (Experimental Days Combined)
by Subjects of Each Race and Sex

NP WP NP + (NP) WP + (WP)
Negro Females (-) .06 (-) .66
Negro Males (-) 1.56 (-) 1.36

White Females 1C .2S*. 2 /15.02" A3
,White Mal es n 2.82

df = 1
p <.05*, p <.01*0 p < .001N

Based on all subjects, N = 146.
2 2
2 / = 5.92*, Contrast of models imitated by all white subjects
regardless of sex.
3 = 15.88***, Contras' of models imitated by all white subjects
regardless of sex.









Tab.e 13

Ch -Square values' Con-'.S g Fequency of Imia icn o' -he
Negrc and ','hie Peer Vodels on -he Secondary
m!ia ion -ask (ExDe-'rmenal Days Comb'ned) by
Subjec-s of Each Race and Sex


NP ',P

\ecrces (-) .
.',h -es

Fema.es (-) .64

Va es


df =

Based on subje:-s, \ = '6.



On -he Dr'mary f'gure drawing 'mi a'on -ask Negro females'

and makes' :"'a 'on o' "he Dee' "ode.s con-rad'c's hypothesis 3A.

Ta-- 's, Neg-c subjec-s 'r'+a+ed `e \ecgc Dee- -ode s more 'ha" The

wh :e peer models, Thcuch no' s 'cg can ly. ',','h ;e 'ema e and male

subjects' im'*ation o' 'he pee' models was ;n +~e coedic'ed direc o",

al hough only white femaless "mi-a-ed -he wh*'e pee- mcdel thev

observed s'gn'fican-ly mo'e Than -he \:eg-o oeer model -hey observed.

However, if bo'h 'ema e and male subjec- ca-egcr:es are combined lor

white subjects, 'he two resuinc Ch'-Scuare values are significant

as shc'.:n in "able 12. ThaE 's, w.h'e sjbjec s, unl *ke he Negrc

subjects, "m'*a-ed The %.,'' e oee- mode s s'n 'f;can ly mo'e -'an the

Negro Deer mode s.

On -he secondary bean ess'ma icn m'rat'on 'ask only males

imi-a-ion of -he peer models '..as 'n The ,redic'ed direc ion, al hcuch

c s gn'oca ly. \egc-ces' and females' !mi a'cn ,we-e ccn rad'c-ory









to hypothesis 3A, in that these subjects imitated the Negro peer

model more than the white peer model, although not significantly

more. As in hypothesis 2, a contrast was noted between female

subjects' imitation on 'he primary imitation task and their imitation

on the secondary imitation 'ask. White females' significantly

greater imitation of the wh'e peer model they observed than Negro

peer model they observed on the primary imitation task was clearly

not reflected in their imitation of these peer models on the

secondary imitation task. In other respects, subjects' imitation

was no- inconsis'en- on the two imi-at'on tasks.

Hyoo-hesis 3B predicted that Negro subjects would imitate

Negro peer models significantly more than would white subjects. On

the primary imitationn task Negro males and Negro subjects in general

did imitate the Negro peer model significantly more than did the

white males and white subjects in general. However, as Table 14 shows,



Table 14


Chi-Scuare Values Contrasting Frequency of Negro Subjects'
Imitation of the Negro Peer Models wi h Whi-e Subjects'
Imitation of the Negro Peer Models (Experimental Days
Combined) on the Primary Imitation Task


NP NP + (NP)
Females (N- W) (-) .11 (-) .80

Males (N W) 13.7 -** 12.92*'-*

Full Sample (N W) 4.32* 4.41*

df = 1

p <.05*, D < .001**

Based on all subjects, N = 146.









\ec'" fE s "' a-. -" go pee' mnoe -hey ooserved less -hen

the -...-' e e"a'es, a lhc_ no- s'cn'f'can-'y less. I le hypo-hes's

33 .was con4'-'ed by '-a'on on -'e D~'-aey "m a'n -ask, .:as

fema le subjects, once aga':, .,.hose im'-a'on dev'a-ed -rom he

'-ed'c-ed d'rec-'o". 0 -~h seccda'-y *m'a-ion 'ask Negro suojec-s

:m-ea'ed \ec-o oee- models mo'e ~"an dd *.h'e subjec s, bu- no-

:gn *'can-'y more 0(2 = L, d = > .50).


Core a-"c" of Sub ;ecs' 'm-:'-Q n'r' "-' 'r In&e' l ence Tes' Sccres

a-d Sc-'as' c Ac''evemen Tes= Sco-es


Ie .,o' ae ecaller `,a- ypo-hese~ and 5, recard'nc -he

measured n oe 'gence and schco'es'c chieve9en- of subjects, were

-es ed ,'.ih a sa-Dle of 36 \eg'o a"d 36 .*,, e sLbjec s -a ched 'n

To-a IQ and sex. Hypo-hes's sz ed'c-ed 'a im"a-'on of -he wh' e

female adu m-:ls and ..2h'e Dee- hode's by su:bec-s of bc-h races

would be Dos '' veL y cc- -e'a-eJ .. -. -'' measured "'nell'gence.

Tab es '5 and '" sc.., cc'--e -''on ceL c e' ', earson r and Co'"r-

;ency, resoec've'v., be- ,..een -ode s ',a ed and non- mr' asion on he

D'-mary and secondary '-'ae'cn asks cnd To-al I! of subjects 'n -he

-a-ched sample. Apoenc'x B '"c'udes -ab es sh:..:ing the correlaicn

coe"fic;en-s be'..een sbjec's' :'--a- C" c' -e -cdels and non-

-"'-a'on cn The c''-a-y m-*-:'cn asK and -'e'* \on-_ancuage, Language,

s we!; as o'al IQ's. Included a'e -'_e correa''on coeffc'ents Lor

The full sample on h .e w.c 'm-a"cn -asks. The sreg-h and direc-lon

of Pearscn r a-d CoC'-nge-cy CceLf'C'e--s depended upo- The ex-en- -o

S'ch subjects *e m'-a ed cer-a'n r"de!s mcre -equjen-lly 'han did

o'he~ subCjecs were -hcse ,.hose IC scc-es ..e-e h:Sher -anq o her sub ecos.








On the primary figure drawing imita' ion -ask hypothesis 4 .as

largely unconfirmed. Only white female and male subjects' imitation of

the adult models demonstrated a significan- positive correlation with

'heir Total IQ's. In addi licn, a'I subjects' non-imi aticn, and

creative non-'mi+at'on plus non-;mi'ation showed negative correlations

with their Total IQ's, with the negative correlations of white males

being signif'can-. Although not hypothesized, it was anticipated thae

:rea~ive non-;m'-a icn would be oos' vely correlated with subjects'

To al ICQ'. This an~ cioa ed positive correlation approached signi-

ficance for Negro females only, and was the single positive correlation

coefficien- among all Negro subjects on the primary imitation task

'hat approached sicnif'cance in testing hypothesis 4.

S'nce 'he matched sample (N = 72) consisted of Negro and white

subjects whose mean Toeal IQ was 86.10 as compared to the full sample

(N = 146) mean Total !Q of 9V.26, i+ may be asked, 'What were the

correlation cceff'cien s be ween imi' aion of models and non-imi-ation

and the -c-a' IC's of The _:re 'nfe 'gen full sample?' These coeffi-

ien's, shown Append'x _, were al lew and no4 significant, exceoD

between subjects' creative ncn-'m'a ion and 'heir Language, Non-

Language, and To al IQ's. On "he basis of results from 'he primary

imi'alion -ask, -hen, '' would appear ha wh, e females' and males'

imitation o'' he adult mode's may be adaptive behavior, bu- only for

those subjects whose intelligence was less than average. Fcr more

n el Igen4 subjects (thcse subjects in the full sample) creative non-

mita-ion, in contrast to imitation oc the models, was a response of

'e most inTe!ligent subjec-s. However, this does not mean necessarily

the- crea-'ve non-'mi action was an adaptive response of these subjects.





53



Table 15


Corr _n Coefficients' Between Imitation of Mo .Lis, Creative
n-Imita-ion, and Non-imitation (Exper'mental Days
C _-b'ned) on the Primary Imitation Task by Subjects in
the Mached Sample2 with Their Total IQ's

Mode Negro Negro White White
Imitated Females Vales Females Males

A .3 .10 .45 .56*

(A) .11 -.1 -.06 -.20

A + (A) .16 .3 5 .56*

NP .23 .07 .07 .15

(NP) -.09 -.06 .01 07

NP + (NP) .11 .3 .08 .20

WP -.22 .15 .02

(WP) -0.03 01 -.05 -.26

WP + (WP) -.19 -.20

CNI .46 4 0.4 .16

NI -.22 -.46 -.58*

CNI + NI -.06 -.C0 -.46 -.46*


p <.05'

Pearson r

2N = 72, 36 airs of subjects of each race.

No partial imitation of -he white peer model; no correla'icn possible.

No creative non-imita'ion; no correlation possible.


On the secondary bean estimation imitation task Negro subjects'

imi-ation of the adul- and Necro peer models and males' imita ion

f the Negro peer model they observed showed a significant










Table 16


Corre ati, n Cceff'c ents Between Vodels Imitated and
Non-lmidation on the Secondary lim-a"'on Task
(Experi-en'al Days Combined) by Subjec-s in -he
,.Ma ched Sample2 and Their Total IQ's

Necroes hi', es Females Iales

A .23_ .16 .27 .18

NP .32- .03 .24

12 .16 (-) .05

NI (- .' (-, .1 (-) .07 (-) .19

D <.05'

Ccn ncgecy Coeff'cien-

2 N = 72; 36 pai-s of subject's each race.


positive cor' elai on ..7' h 'heir Toaal IQ's. These findings con+-ast

w' h Thcse from The r'may "mi a'on task 'n so far as Negro subjects'

station n showed a s'gnifican-c Dos:-iv correla-ion with their To-al

IQ's, whi!e whi-e sub ec-s' mi' aion d'd no-. Resul's from the two

im'a'i!cn 'asks agreed, however, in the' for subjects of both races

,nd sexes non-im' tai on was negatively correlated w;th Total IQ.

Moreover, as in The primary imitation task, when imitation and Total

IQ were correlated in the full sample coefficients were likewise

uniformly low and nonsignifican-.

Overall, it would appear that the relationship between

imitation and in-elligence remains uncertain. Slight support '.'as

gained for the p'ed;c-ed positive correla-tin be-ween Negro and whi-e

subjects' imitation of the adult models and their measured in+ell -

gence. Yet, these significant Dositive cor-elaticns were found among









the ;eE in e gent match sample only, which suggests that mita-

tion of adult figures may be adaptive behavior for children whose

mental age is approximately six years or less. By contrast, creative

non-imi'ation may be adaptive behavior for first grade subjects of

average or be-ter intelligence. The predicted positive correlations

between imi-a-ion of the whi-e peer models and measured intelligence

were not found. Convincing general support for imitation as adaptive

behavior was no+ obtained, so 'hat hypothesis 4, as stated, was uncon-

firmed.

Hypothesis 5 predicted that imitation of the adult female

models and white peer models by subjects of both races would be

positively co-rela-ed wi*h their scholastic achievement. In hypothesis

5 the sum of stanines o- the to-a! achievement test score was considered

the criterion of scholastic achievement. Tables 17 and 18 show the

-orrela ion coefficients, Pearson r and Contingency, respectively,

between models imitated and non-'mitation on the primary and secondary

imitation tasks and the o al achievement est scores cf subjects in

-he matched sample. Appendix B includes tables showing the correlation

oefficients between subjects' im' a'ion o' -he models and non-imitation

n the primary imitation task and their stanine scores on the six

scholastic achievement subtests of the STanford Achievement Test.

Included are the correlation coefficients for the full sample on the

two imitation tasks.

On the primary imitation task white males' imitationn of the

adult model they observed and Negro males' imitation of the Negro peer

model they observed showed a significant positive correlation wi h










-he -_ hievemen' test scores. As in yo .:- s L, non-imita i on,

and cree ve ncn-'mi at'on plus non-'mi a-ion were neca-'ve'y

correlated with al' subjects' total achievement -es' scores, significantly

;o exceDo '"- .- ecro females. WI was an icipated 'ha' subjects'

crea-'ve dn"-'mia ion wou d be os'7ively cco e'ated with ,hei; to-al

achieveme r est scoees. These Dosi 've ccrelaticns were found among

Nec-o fema'es and whi e males, bu- were no' s'gni ican4 in both cases.

Aopendix shoA's lha+ .ihen ,"nd-ngs from the pr'ma-v imi-a-ion task

..,ere -es-ed c '" d'ng o hyocthesis 5 i'h the more intelligent' sub-

jec-s in The full sa~m; e, coef 'c"en's diminished and were generally

S sicnifican- as ''hey '.we e w'ih -he full sarn le in hypothesis 4.

S 'lariy howeve'ie, cream 've non-im: atfon was found significantly

correlated w"th subjects' ach evement est s'an'*es 'n the full sample.

On the secondary :-ia ion -ask no suppo- was found for

hypothesis 5. Con`agency coeffic:en-s we-e ICv, with perhaps two

excep ions, a-d none were suf 'c'ene ly high o be s-a-is ically signi-

ficanq. Appendix 3 shc.s coeff'c'en-s were even lower and equally

no s'cn:f 'cant -he Lu! sa ple.

Cve-al ; would aoDear -ha' meager suppc- fo- hypothesis 5

was found 'n -he positive correla ion between whi e males' 'mi a ion

c" The adult mode! they obse ved on -he Dr;'am y ;m;-a ion ask and

their oota' ac'"evemen- tes' scores. No support+ was found for the

predicted posi i.'e correlation between 'm'a-ion of the whi-e peer

models and to+a! achievement tes- sco-es. In general, hypohesis 5

aas unconfirmed.





5





Table 17



Corre -- cn Coefficien sI Be-ween ',lodels Imita-ed, Jreative
Non-In' -ion. and cNn-l' ta'ion (Expe-;men-al Davs Combined)
on '- Or-'marv Im'-a+ion Task by Subjec-s in the
Va-ched Samp e and Their Total Scholast c Ach'evemen Test Scores


,1Model Negro Negro Wh i te ',h ite
Imi-. ed females '.'les Females "ales

A .36 .3, -.18 .55*

(A) -.16 -.20 .34 -.03

A + (A) .L1 .20 .10 695

p .3" ."5 .10

(NP) -. L .20 .16 -

ND + (NP) -.22 .;,, .25 .03

WP .25 .-? -.10

(WP) -.'2 -.23

WP + (WP) .15 .2' .3 -.29

CNI .4 -.3.06 .5

%I -.37 -.- -.A7 -.5"

CNI + 'N -.22 -.z7 -.37


p <.05

Pea-son
2
N = 72, 36 pairs of subjects of each race.

No creative non-imitation; no ccrrela-ion possible.









Tab e '


Ccr-elat'on CoefficienTsl Bew,,eern odels Imita-ed and
Non-!mita+ on on he Secondary Imniation Task
(Exoerimeiital Days Cobined) by Subjects in the
Va-ched Samole2 and Their To'- ScholasT-c Ach'evenen- Tes Scores


c c' es ,,'~ e s -Fms'es i 'ales

A (-) .- .04 .'* (-) .*

NP -) .25 (-) .3 (-) .05

A (-) (-) .'2 (-) .13 (-) .04

NI .2 .07 .02



Con 'nrgency Coeff'cient

2
N = 72, 356 a' s sub jecs -f each race.



Si,' a-' ies w,,,ere no-ed be ween findings for hyDco hesis 4

and findings fc- hypo'hes's 5. N\i-her of the hyDo heses were

enficed as They .-'e-e s-aed. T-e primary imi at'on ask yielded

more support' fc- 'he '*.%o hy-'-heses Than The secondary iia+ion

-ask. Wh'te subjects' imita' on of -he adult models more frequently

se positive ccr-elation ,'i-h -heir Total IQ's and 'otal ach -ve-

men' 'es- sccres tha" Negro subjects' imita 'on of the adul- models.

For hypc'hesis 4 aed 5 eo',o subject's' ;m-a--ion of -he Nearc oeer

models showed s'gnifican- cos'tive cc- ela- c s w' h the'r Total IQ's

and total achievemenT 'es, scores. ','
Deer models, on the other hand, eas nc- slcn'fican-ly ccrrelaed with

h' Ttal IQ's and total ach'evemen- est scores. Non-im nation on

-he Dr'mary imi-ation -ask '.,as negatively correla-ed 'vi-h subjecTs'

Toaal IQ's and total ach'evemen- -es- scores. A fifTh sim' arity ,,as










noted in the diminished corre;at' ,n coefficients on both imitation

tasks when hypotheses 4 and 5 were tested on the basis of the full

sample in addition to the matched sample. Exceptions to these low

correlations with the full sample were found in the significant

positive correlations between subjects' creative non-imitation and

both their th-ee IQ scores, and their achievement test stanines. These

similarities, mos- likely, were due to the positive correlation between

all subjects' Total IQ's and their total achievement test scores

(Pearson r = .70).

From an overall viewpoint, the five hypotheses of the present

study received decreasing support in the same order they were presented.

Except for hypothesis 1, which was completely confirmed, there was

some disagreement between 'ndings from -he primary and secondary

imitation tasks on al of the hypotheses. Regarding findings for

hypothesis 1, it was noted that both imitation tasks would have shown

nearly equal proportions of imitation and non-imitation had findings

from the primary imitation 'ask been scored in the same manner as

the secondary imitation task. Hyootheses 2 through 5 received some

support, but only hypotheses 2, 3A and 3B received sufficient support

for partial confirmation. Slight support was found for hypotheses 4

and 5, those in which a positive correlation was predicted between

imitation and -wo factors relevant to classroom learning, intelligence

and scholas-ic achievement.

Certain results departing from the hypotheses were found

related to subjects' race and sex. However, among these departures no

specific race-sex interaction was found repeatedly. Only Negro subjects'










'ta' on s' wed cons sense dev a'o -rom 'e hypo heses. \ecro

subjects' Imi aion cn t+e Drima-y and secondary nationon -asks

o-cv'ded ess suDocDr fc 'yDothesese 2 -hrcuch 5 an wh'e sub 'ec s'

m''aic uypo heses 2 and 3A received less support from necro

ubjec s because hey imn-a-ed -he \gec" oee- models mc-e than predicted.

V'h' e v'r-!ual y c sucDD as pacv :ded hypo heses L' and 5 by Negro sub-

jec s, 'nhe' 'ra-'~ n of he Necc ce C ode!s d'd show'. u?-edi ced

s;cn:f' c n- Dos''- ve co'-eIa 'c s .'.'h he'- Tc al IC 's and to'al

-:h'evemen. tes scr-res. '/ :e subj ecos, by co-'as-, Drovided

suDDc-' 'or hy:ceses Z- and 5 through the'- in'-a 'cn of 'he adult

m-dels, b', n -'"c'u a-'cn c' -he'r same-sex Deer models.















DISCUSSION


In this investigation, understanding of Negro and white pupils'

socia adjustment to racially in-egrated first grade classes was sought

in the relative frequency with which they imitated white female adult

models and Negro and white peer models. Negro first graders were

regarded with special interest in comparing their adjustment with

that of whi-e pupils. Secondly, Negro and white pupils' imitation

was correlated with their measured in-elligence and scholastic achievement

to assess their adaptation to academic aspec s of first grade.

The five hypotheses skated aboui these and other concerns of

the present study will be discussed first with respect to the findings

and the conclusions and implications stemming from them. Second,

the sufficiency of the results will be discussed with respect to the

meThods by which they were obtained and analysed. Third, directions

for future research will be proposed which appear most salient.


Conclusions and Implications Abou' the Results


Findings for hypothesis 1 show that the primary and secondary

imitation tasks effectively yielded imitation of each of the models

by first grade subjects of each race and sex. Since subjects recorded

their own responses on paper, both imitation tasks successfully

demonstrated that imitative behavior may be covert, and not necessarily










grossly motoric as in nearly all other imitation studies. In addition,

the first graders' responses included non-irimation. Because of the

varied scoring possible for -he primary imitation task, non-mitation

now may be seen as more than a simple failure of subjects to imitate.

On the pri-ary imitation task, imitation and non-imitation formed a

;oose continuum. Beginning with exact reD-oduction of figu-es drawn

by the models, in 'e-ms oL shape and color, subjects made intermediate

responses of partial' imitation and creative non-imitation, and at the

other extreme, absolute non-7mitat'on, or no drawing at all.

The findings from the primary and secondary imitation tasks

differed fcr hypothesis 2, which predicted greater imitation of adul*

models than oeer models ol each race. Nonetheless, from both there

was substantial support for the predicted greater imi-ation of adult

models Than imitation of peer models of either race. To the extent

the findings support hypothesis 2, 'hey also support well established

theories of Freud, Erikson, Piaget and others, which hold that adults

are +he prime de-e-'mners of children's learning about interpersonal

behavior to the children's age of s'x, approximately. In terms of

:' a'ion They are -he most potent models for children's learning

how -o respond to the world a-ound Them.

Al hough general support was found for hypothesis 2, there

were a number of Chi-Scuare values in the predicted direction that

were nonsignifican-. This indicated greater peer model imitation

relative 'o adult model imitation by subjects of each race than

exoeced. This contrary evidence agrees with two imi+ation studies,

.hose findings did no support The personality theories of Freud,









Er kson, rJ Jg- Hicks (1965) found greater m e peer model

mitation when imitation followed shortly after observation of adult

and peer models' behavior. Vusselman (1967) found that six and one

half year-old males did not imitate an adult male model more than a

male peer model on five different imitation tasks. In one of the five

-asks, similar to the secondary imitation task of the present study,

the peer model was imitated significan-ly more than the adult model.

Apparently, then, the results of the present study are divided between

support of the three personally theories and support of those con-

flicting findings from relevant imitation studies. Possibly the

divided support indicates a developing inclination of the Negro and

white subjects 'o imitate thei- peers as frequently as adults. Two

observations corroborate th's nference. The greater age of the

subjects in 'he present study (mean age seven years) than children

referred to in those personality theories cited may have brought

about in them increased comparison of themselves with their peers,

independence from parents, and involvement and competition in many

new tasks and games. Secondly, 't may be observed that the subjects'

more frequent than expected peer model imitation was discriminating.

Nonsignificant differences in -ables 10 and 11 are largely due to

Negro subjects' more frequent than expected imitation of Negro peer

models than adul- models and white subjects' more frequent than

exDected imitation of white peer models than adult models.

Findings for hypotheses 3A and 3B regarding the frequency of

peer model imitation by subjects of each race support the observation

tha- Negro and white subjects' imitation was discriminating and










biased. Recard;n,- ivpo'hcsis 3A, this was particularly surDr'sing

about Negro subjects, w.ho mutatedd Negro peer models more -ban white

peer models. Repuor-s by Pe'ticrew (1964), Erikson (1964) and others

agree that egcro children ore-er to identify with white children
of
raTher than ch ;dren/ ne.r own race. Nasland (1966) noted that the

preference of Negro children 'o identify with white children was

accentuated in the South. Contradictory findings of the present

study raise a4 leas" '. cques-'cns needing further investigation.

In what de-ons'-able -esoec-s are the processes of identifi-

cation and i7i-atio- a! ke? Twc Thecr'es have equal ed identification

and im'aa 'on through ope's enal consideration of identification as

behavior (Bronfenb-enner, 1960), and identification as social

ac'lI +a ion (Bandu-a, 1962). While -there is scme evidence -o

support this -hecre ical Dosi-icn, it seems insufficient to regard

`he processes as synonymous. The pc'n' is that for children age A to

6, app'ox'ma ely, iden ifica'ion /'th adults and iden ification wi*h

seers may be d;^feren- psychological processes, tha- imitation of

adults mig cccur on -his basis but no+ imi-a-icn of Deers. Barriers

g cns ident'fica- cn with adults and identifica-ion with peers

probably differ. Aany cf the Negro subjects in the present s+udy may

have ,.an ed to ;den-i y wi-h The'r whi-e peers, or wan-ed -o be like

-'e, ve noneTheless, i ce'-ain secifc situations, such as the

wo 'mita'ion -asks, may have imitated their same race peers to whom

-hey were more accustomed.

Secondly, how unifo-m ard widespread are Negro children's

preferences for identification with their white Deers? Previous










ob- e Pe-'-t'ae., Erikson, a-. o-hers have served imp:c'c

her s-c pr:: :s by sucges-'ng 'a Negro chi ldren, as a down-

--cdden, m'~o*'ry cou-', are qu' e ready "o conform 'o and ado-

. '-e C' id-en's ways. F'-d'ncs o -'he Dsese-' s'udy cf x'egro pusils'

'- *'ecra'ed classes do "ot sosDc-' -hese -eDo~ s. Ve-, a la-ge

a-sle, exD cra-oy s-udy would be needed 'o de-erm'ne 'he ex-en' o-

\ecro ch 'd-en's --ee-e' ce c den ; ca-'cn '.. and mi ;a-'on

S-'e- same race ee-s. ." Ie e ex-en s jnk~c i-, some o0' he

'ease-s 'cr Neo c c''h d-en's same race Drefere-ce may be 'Tn'ered.

In schcc -any ,e,', v "n-neg-ae' \egcc -'rs- c-ade-s may Derce ve

"--'e -e' .' d 'de^;'ca 'Cn ..-'"- wh' e c: 'dr en. Ce-'a'nly Lor

manv, he "rs- year's exser'ence- a-e scho'as'ic y and scc'ally

d'sc-- oD- c. '." h -'ese exse 'renes can be understood 'h...y \ego

i! lcren, !'Ke o '"e- c 'den, .c ld mee '-eec cn rejectonr,

fusr-alon wi b aqcr'-s' c, : ec: e for- -c 'earn "eS, behav'c

n favoh c accJS -o-ed .aa. -- a... e ecen'- f:nd'ngs ,,ih'ch sho,.'

c- "' cn-s-' ess'u' c'rcu : s:, 'd-en n-e'e- -c "m' a -e

:e .'C V De c 've as -' c ', -- elves. RoseKrans

Snd he-- n b he mi- ~'en and s'ze c-

eav'c- '-eertoive ...e-' create .., e ~1-'-" yea'- -d male scIjec's

-_aved themselves as s '- ar -c c ce' ('- -em-s 'n e-es-s,

s 's, backg'-run and gr'i me ~ s D') -ha- .,hen -he subjec's

-rc'ved -he'-s-lves s -ss'- 'a. In -e--s cf backc-ound and g-cuo

-e -- '-' -'"e-e *' evidence c- -hLe- bass f'r \ecro youThs'

nrLe'--e s-'- race 'de-'r s eempcra'!y Daral e and

n-eac-'--- i -vh -he'r scho: As '-ec-ed by Deger-










and \1; er (1965) Himes has emphasized th sign ficance 'he cul'ura.

facto-s which bring about Negro youths' rea iza-;on that 'hey, like

heir pa-ents, have little opportuni-y to at 'i the vocational and

-:oomic advantages of whites. Perceiving no likelihoodd of attaining

-hese edvsocages, Negro youths, even from a young age, may find little

m.-iva on fo- iden ifying ..i'b The white Protestant ethic of self-

mDrovemen' and striving.

General coun i-m ion o, hypothesis 3B, as well as racial

differences fcund fcr hypotheses A and 5 add ao the finding that

'ecgro subjec's 'mita'ed Neg-c peer models more than whi e peer models.

TogeTher, the findings strengthen 'he conclusion tha- Negroes' social

-djus-menq was d'fferen- han pred c'ed. Tha' is, 'he expec+at'on was

no+ supported 'ha' Negro subjects would make a greater social adjust-

ment to firs' cgade than whi+e subjects by imitating white peers wi+h

whom they /ere less fami "ar than \egro Deers.

HypoThesis 4 predicted positive correlations between subjects'

imitati .n and the'- measured :ntel igence because o^ evidence suggesting

both are adaptive processes. Similar reasoning underlay hypothesis 5,

,,h;rh D~ edic- ed positive corre'e ions between subjec-s' imitation and

'heir measured scholastic achievemen-. Five similarities were noted

between findings for hypoTheses I and 5, which appeared most likely

a4t-ibu-able Vo the significant positive correlation between subjects'

Tc'al IQ's and their total ach'evemen' test scores (Pearson r = .70).

In 'he ma ched samoie (N = 72, Z6 pairs of each race), signi-

ficant posi ive correlat'cns we"e found primarily for Negro subjects'

mita+irn of Negro peer models, and white subjects' 'mi'a'ion of adul*









models. By contr in 'he ful sample (N = 146) the jnly significant

positive correlatious were found between subjects' creative non-imitation

and each of the three IQ scores, and between creative non-imitation and

each of the seven achievement test stanine scores. Altogether, these

findings provide lit-le evidence that imitation in first grade is either

intellectually adaptive or a method of learning academic material. How-

ever, some explanation would seen 'o be needed for the finding that

there were differences between the matched sample and full sample in

support of hypotheses 4 and 5. Possibly the differences depended upon

the social and scholastic status of the subjects. As appendix B shows,

the mean mental age of subjects in the matched sample was one year less

than that of subjects in the ful sample. Moreover, subjects in the

matched sample were much less scholas'icly successful, on the whole,

than those in the full sample. The significant positive correlations

found among subjects in the matched sample suggests that their inter-

personal relationships play a greater role in their scholastic

endeavor than among those more in elligent subjects of the full sample.

By contrast, for subjects in the full sample intelligence and scholastic

achiev~men' were found less positively correlated with their imitation

,f adult or peer models than with creative responses. This was

interesting in view of positive correlations previously reported

between measures of intelligence and creativity, e.g., Cropley (1966).

Yet, more important for the present study, findings from the full

sample supported the theoretical position of Piaget, that imitation

*s not intelligent adaptation. However, this support was based upon

imitation in structured 'asks, which was correlated with a standardized









-est of genera in-el I; ene. In "his s-udy Imitation appeared -o

serve a func-ion of social adjus-men- or adaptation mcre Than

:n el!eccual or scholas-'c adaD-a-ion. Therefore, it would be

valuable to de erm'ne f '"; ta ion, Darticularly imitation in

uns'-uctured social si nations s positively correlated wi'h social

ne: igqence.


Ve'hodc'ccical Considerations


The development of an 'm;"a'"cn ask, one apo-op-la-e to The

Sass'oc- educa Tcn of firs gc-~de-s, w.'as a necessary initial step.

geome+ 7c 4:g re cda..,ingc ask '...'as chosen as the Do imary imitation

;ask. The -ask ...as desic ed -c cc inside wi-h -ist traders' level

f ab; i'es, and -he c. s'se~en en hus'as- wih wh'ch 'he imitation

"ask '.was me- by subjects suggests : was appropria-e. While some of

'he subjects could no' da.' as well as others, This d;d no' affect

sccr'ng ,' -hei- responses To The investiga or's knowledge the task

was un:cue qn demons rai
found 'n o'her '*mia ion s-udies, as ,we .. as "he var'ed scoring of

'm'' 'on and non- m i on. Si ce "he "ask consisted oF 'h'-v\

-ials, I ; ov;ded can inuous da-a. I- was ocss'ble -o ca-ry out

''een cf The th;r-y --ials on each of two success ve exce-;men'al

dsvs. This al .loed measus eme-- c subject s' -el ab li y of responding

Si, and i was found tha- -he D*'-a-v im:'ation task yielded

re ab e da a. Ccnsequently, 't may be considered an ap:popriate and

adequa-e measJre of im~ a'i i n +-e p-esen- s-udy.










A secondary imitation task was included in the present study

in order to allow generalization about the findings from the primary

imitation task. This task consisted of estimating the number of dried

beans in one of two different size bottles on each of the two experi-

mental days. Therefore, the number of estimates of frequency counts

for each subject was two. This made each subjects' frequency counts

non-continuous, and the total frequency small. Consequently, the

only methods of analyses possible were Chi-Square and its related

nominal scale measure of association, the Contingency Coefficient.

The necessity of comparing Contingency Coefficients with Pearson r

Coefficients from the primary imitation task was unfortunate because

of the different values possible for them. Another statistical

problem was that with df = 1 in all of the analyses except those for

hypothesis 1, Chi-Square and Contingency Coeffic'ent values had to

be relatively high before they reached significance at the .05 level.

Moreover, the small frequency of counts (two) for each subject required

combining of subject categories of both sexes per race and both races

per sex. This made results from the two imitation tasks more diffi-

ul' tr compare. Different subject categorization for the primary

imitation task was maintained, however, in order to show specific

race-sex interactions. In retrospect, this proved rather fruitless

in that consistent race-sQx interactions were not found.

A third major drawback of the secondary imitation task

resulted from the minimal reliability of subjects' responses to it.

becausee subjects' responses to this task were too unreliable it cannot

be considered as satisfactory validation of the primary imitation









task. Neither does it offer a surer statistical basis for generalizing

about findings from -he primary im'tat'on task. However, the serious-

ness of the p-oblem of validation and generalization is questionable.

Despite the minimal reliab'li y of the secondary imitation task,

there was some agreement4 between findings for both imi+ation tasks on

A! of the five hypotheses. Secondly, in v'ew of the face validity

f the primary imitation -ask, and 'he reliabil y of subjects'

resonses lo ;t, iH would appear 'ha- 'his 'ask would have been no

ess sufficient by '-se'f than o-her imi'atTon s udies, which employed

only one task.

One fur her observation should be made about the imitation

tasks. I' was observed tha- There were cera'n consistent race

differences in The ';ndings, bu4 no consistent race-sex interactions,

Dr sex differences. Yost likely this was due to the design of the

imitation -asks, wh'ch allowed subjects of each race and sex -o

observe models ;f each race, bu+ no- models o' each sex. In order

'c have subjects of each sex observe and imitate models of each sex,

it would probably be necessary -o emoloy a different type of task

:- -y cut a seDara-e s'udy like the Dresent one. The reason for

-his 's 'ha4 iV was observed that -oward the end of the thirty trials

n -he primary im''-a'on task subjects began to lose interest.

A second area of concern about' -he methodology is the size

f the matched sample employed. The thirty-six Negro and thirty-six

whi-e subjects in 'he ma ched sample should be regarded as the

minimum necessary for statistical analyses. The problem was parti-

cularly acute when correlations were performed on specific race-sex










subject categories, e.g., Negro females. In the matched sample there

were only fifteen female subjects of each race. This meant that

where Pearson r correlations were computed for the females of each

race, coefficients had to be .51 or greater to reach significance at

the .05 level. By contras', a statistically significant coefficient

for the full sample was .16 or greater. Hopefully, future research

concerning integrated Negro children will find them more numerous,

and thereby more available for inclusion in subject samples.



Suggestions for Future Research


As the title indicates, "his s-udy was more an attempted

synthesis than analysis. Those areas in which the synthesis was not

achieved appeared to offer the most worthy directions for future

research.

One assumption underlying hypotheses 2 through 5 was that

mi-ation and identification are essentially similar processes.

While these processes have been equaled theoretically, the present

findings, among those from certain ~'her studies, did not support

the equation. It remains, however, for a more in-depth study to be

directed specifically at both processes together.

Contrary to hypothesis 3A, Negro subjects imitated Negro

peer models more than white peer models. In view of the possibility

-hat many Negro children do not prefer to identify with white

children, a large sample, exploratory study would be valuable in

showing the actual extent and underlying reasons for their preferences.










The prediction 'hat mita'c n is s:m a- 'u inte ;ectual

adaDaa'-ion r thae it 's a method of learning academic material was

"o suDcored. however, -he lack of support' was derived from a

soec'c c"ade cf school ch' lden, only 'wc o' many kinds of

--a-'on -asks, and one in-el igence and one scholastic achievement

Yes -he possible rela';insh o between Ohese variables seems

u 'c en,' mo-'tanL 'o waeranr another s'udv wi h di 'e-en- measures.

I- was observed ha- im'-aicn served mo~e a unc-ion o'

s cial ad'usmen' s- adaDa 'cn han o~'el'ectual adaD a'on (as

measu-ed by a sta-dard'zed -es~ There o e, i- would be wc-th

deC e :n' n i' 'm' at'on in ra-he- uns-ruc'ured social s'-ua'ions is,

a- leas-, oar-lv a func-icn co children's social in el gence. An

o'e-es: ng mcd f'ca ion of a sudv employing uns ruc'u-ed social

s'+ua-ons would be to measure im' a"'cn when various reinforcements

. scca consequences acc-ued 'c models' behavior. In a s-udy similar

.c hae cP'cscsed, Suc'gura ('965) revealedd ha" findings can be

m lex and d'fe'en- than pred;c'ed.

Because racial d'feences '..eee cf greatest concern in 'he

-' -Jy, subjec-s cbse'ved Deer models of different race b'j

Peer m;des c copos' e sex. As a resul possible cons's'ent

d 'ferences between The -wo sexes' 'esoonses were masked. In addition,

-he res r;c-ed 'yVe c' models observed did not allow a comple-e

nves 'ca:ion c race-sex ;nterac-ions of responses. Ano her s'udy

a: low'g subjec s abservaticn and iW'tation ol peer models of each

race c-d sex would prov'de a more cc-Dle'e understanding of Ohe inter-

Dessona' rela-ionsh!Ds of the schoc children sampled.















SUMMARY


Thl- nves- gat on a'-empted to determine the extent to which

Negro and white first grade pupils in racially integrated classes

would imi'tae a teacher-like model, and Negro and white peer models.

Negro and white subjects' relative frequency of imitating the three

kind of models was expected to provide information about their social

adjustment -o 0irst grade. I+ was predicted that white female (teacher-

like) models would be imitated most frequently by subjects of each race,

white peer models next, and Negro peer models leas by subjects of each

race. Secondly, subjects' imi-a ion and non-imitation was correlated

with their tested intelligence and scholastic achievement to assess

their adaptation to academic aspects of f'rst grade. One hundred

'or-y-six subjects, ccmprising pupils of each race and sex, were

selected from the two most integrated elementary schools in Gainesville,

Floride. To test hypotheses regarding subjects' tested intelligence

and scholas-ic achievement a matched sample was employed. Thirty-six

pairs o4 Negrc and whi-e subjects were matched by sex and equal intelli-

gence score. Subjects were in erchanged by sex in the first grade

classes so they could observe and imitate a Negro and white peer model

f -heir same sex, and a (teacher-like) model. The primary imitation

task consisted of drawing thirty colored geometric figures. A

secondary task was es-imating the number of beans in two bottles.

Intelligence was estimated by the California Short-Form Test

73










of "'e-' al .'a-ur:-v ('963 Revs'on). Schoas-ic Achievemen- was

es'-ma ed by The S-anford Ach:evemen Test (1964 Revision).

Subjects' imiaa;'on and no-:m'-'ation of 'he models on The

or3mary -ask .,were reliable, bu' no' on -he secondary 'ask. Bo-h

asks yielded ':-a'-'c of all models by subjec's oL each race and

seY. \egI' and w,,h le subjects imT'raed -eacher-like models more

-han cee- "ode!s oL each race. However, c-eae'- than predicted

Deer model imca-icn 'was Lcuind als:'. 'hie subjects imi-ated whi e

seer mCdels mcre -"an N'ec'o peer mode' Necro subject's, contrary

S-'credici-en, '"m;aed 'he Necgo Dee" models more than wh'*e Deer

models. As oredicd, 'egro subje: s 'mI-a-ed Necro pee- models

.'-e Than d'd '.Whe suLJec s. Necro subject's' social adjus-men- to

'rs gc-ade, in `e'ms cl :m'-a-'cn of w'.,hie Deer models, was differen-

*han exDec-ed.

Gerera! ly, matched sample subjects' 'mitaion did no- show

sgrCif;caB D Dositt'Ve cc"ela-ions wi.h -hei- -es-ed 'ntellicence or

chlclas-'c ach'evement. ,'h e non-im; ~a ~ on ',,,as found negatively

-" e'a -ed ,,'-h i-el' C' ence a~n' sho'astic achievemen-, in The full

-- a (ean "en-al age one year c~ea'er Than -he matched samDoe) a

c'ealve -ype o- -on-!m'C a'oe showed oosi ive correla4ions wi+h

-ell 'ence and scholas-'c ach;evemen- scc-es. It was concluded

-'-2 c- ':rs cgraders of average cr higher inte!! cence and achieve-

men- m'tat'on is n3o a meThod of learning school subject's, and that

'- The subjec-s as a whole imi-a-ion served mo e 'n the realm of

'al adius- men-.









The findings were discussed first in terms of evidence that

first grade children, in certain situations, may prefer to identify

with or 'mitaVe peers in contrast to adults. The theoretical

position 'hat identification and imitation are similar was questioned,

particularly Deer identification and imita+'on. The findings indicated

that Negro children's preference for iden4ifica'ion with white children

may not be as widespread as suggested in previous reports. Possible

reasons for the'r same -ace iden-if'ca- on were discussed. The type

of in el I igence -es- employed may have accounted for the nonsigni icant

correlations between inee!l'gence and imi a'ion. Significant positive

correlations might' have resulted had a less school related measure of

social intelligence been used.

Ve'odoc gical problems -esul ed from 'he low discriminating

power o' he secondary 'mia-':cn ask, and the few number of available

Negro subjects (for y) 'n inecVrated f'rst grade classes.

































APPENDIX A


PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR IMITATION TASKS












Trac-ice, Procedure and Instructions for Imitation Tasks


Prac ce:

A o'lot s udy was carried out in order that the author learn

wha- p-ob'ems would arise in imi-ation "ask procedures. Pilot study

subjects were pupils in one firs' grade c'ass in T. K. Yonge Laboratory

School, Gainesv' le, Florida. The pilot study of imitation tasks was

carried ou- ,,'th 'he male peer model group on two successive days.

Fol ow'ng 'he oilo study, a portable chalkboard was brought

to The inves'oga'o-'s home, where, dur'-g -hree evenings the female

peer model group and male pee- mode! g-cup practiced Their presentation

of figures a"d feigned es-ima-icn of number oV beans. Besides practice

drawing on a chalkboard, the purpose of The c"act'ce sessions was to

make each model's behavior as precise, efficien- and as much like the

other models' behavio- as pcss'ble. 'odels were discouraged from

wearing clothes or displaying behav'o- 'ha would draw special attention

'o himself or herself The figure drawing imita+ion task required most

practice by the models. Each 'ime two models drew figures they arose

from their cha'rs together, completed drawing a' the same time and

returned to their chairs at the same t'me. They learned to draw their

figures the same distance above +~e cha krail, and draw them the same

s:ze, apDrox'mately eighteen 'nches in height and width. They faced

the ca kboard a' all times, excep' when returning -o their seats,

and sooke when stating wha color they would draw 'heir figures. In

the secondary imitation +ask some practice was necessary beFore the

models learned to pre+end They were stating 'heir own









estimate of number of beans. They wrote their estimates on the chalk-

board equidistant from one another and in red chalk, with the numbers

drawn 'he same size as the previous figures.


Procedure:

UDon arrival at each of the first grade classrooms on the first

experimental day, the experimenter introduced himself and the three

models by their real names, stating that the two peer models attended

first grade at another school.

By pre-arrangemen- the teacher then retired to the rear of the

classroom where she worked inconspicuously. While the experimenter

proceeded wi-h the instructions to the subjects, each model found a

chair and placed it so That a row of three chairs faced the chalkboard

approximately five feet away. Each model placed his (her) chalk on

the chalkrail, and seated himself (herself) with the adult model

between the 'wo peer models. Midway through instructions for the

primary imitation task each subject was given the drawing materials.

The experimenter attempted to minimize his influence on the subjects'

responses by sitting to one side of the class and only indicating to

the models when the subjects had completed their drawings and were

ready for the next trial.

Immediately following the figure drawing +ask the secondary

imitation task was carried out. After instructing the subjects, the

experimen-er showed the bottle to each model. Knowing from their

Programs what estimate +o feign as a real guess, the models first

stated their estimate verbally then wrote it on the chalkboard. The

experimenter then walked slowly down each aisle providing each subject










closer inspect on of the bottles'contents.

When each subject had written his (her) estimate of the number

-f beans on his (her) pad of paper, the experimenter collected the

drawing materials, making sure each subject's name was on his (her)

pad of paper. While the drawing materials were being collected the

three models retired from the rocm. The class was thanked for its

participation and told that the experimenter and three models would

return the next day to complete the second part of the game, which

would be like 'he first.

Procedure fcr the second experimen-al day differed from the

first in that there was no practice trial for the subjects on the

figure drawing task, and instructions were very briefly outlined.


Instructions:

I have invited these three people to play a school-like,

drawing game with you.

Can you draw circles, squares, and triangles? Well, these

three people have drawn these figures in new and interesting ways,

and they would like -o draw -hem for you on the chalkboard in different

colors. The game we will play is that two of them at a time will

draw their figures on the board. I would like you to choose one of

their figures 'o draw or draw a different one of your own, but only

draw one figure at a time.

I am giving each of you a pad of paper and three pencils.

One pencil is red, one is yellow, and one is blue. The blue one has

an eraser. When you have these,wr'te your first and last names at

the tcp of the first page.










Now, when you draw your figure don't copy off someone sitting

next 4 o you. Make one like either of these three people or one of your

own. Let's practice one. Let's have and Mrs.

draw figures on the board, and then you draw yours at your desk on

the page with your name. Good: Are there any questions? If one of

your penci ls breaks, ra!se your hand and I'll give you another.

Let's turn to page one. Le 's turn to page two.

Each of -he fifteen numbered pages in the subjects' pads of

paper for he fifteen imitation rialss on experimental days one and

two were completed in this manner.

Instructions for the secondary imitation task were as follows:

Now I have a little guessing game. I want you to guess how many beans

there are in 'his bottle. But first I'll ask these people how many

they think are in the bot-le. how many beans do you think

are in this bottle? s. _, how many beans do you think are

n the bottle? how many beans do you think are in the

bottle?

































APPENDIX B


IMITATION DATA SU'T"ED ACCORDING TO SUBJECT
GROUPS AND ADDITIONAL COMPUTATIONS











Mean Language, Non-Language, and Total IQ's of
Subjects of Each Race and Sex in the Matched Sample


Negro Females

Negro Va'es

1h' e Females

WV ite M les


Language IC



78.4S8

85.27

-6.00


Non-Language IQ

90.67

86.52

91.33

88.52


Vean Scholastic Ach'evement Test Stanines of
Subjects of Each Race and Sex in the Matched Sample


Negro Females

Negro Males

whitee Females

hi te Males


W'o'd ParagranDh
.'ean;ng 'ea 'n

3.33 3.73

2.67 3.48

3.80 3.37

3.00 3.86


V"cabu-


5.20

3.33



3.90


SpelI ing

4.00

3.38

3. 30

3.36


Word S-udy
Skills

4.07

3.33

3.93

3.62


Total IQ

86.00

81.71

86.73

85.81


Arith-
reti c

4.20

3.86

4.00

4.43


Sum of
San ines

22.53

20.14

22.73

24.38










Mean Language, Non-L ngu.ge, and Total IQ's of
Subjects of Each Race and Sex in the Full Sample


Negro Females

Negro Males

Whi e Females

White Males


Language IQ Non-Languaqe IQ Total 10

84.67 90.67 86.00

78.92 84.96 81.00

103.14 107.34 105.48

100.57 105.20 102.80


Mean Scholastic Ach'ovement Test S'anines of
Subjects of Each Race and Sex ;n the Full Sample


Negrc Females

Negro Males

White Females

White Males


Word
vleaningo

3.33

2.76

5.50

4.83


Paragraoh
Mean ing

3.73

3.60

5.68

5.32


3.20

3.44

5.22

5.32


p.: li ng

4.00

3.60

5.56

5.13


Word Study
SkiI ls

4.07

3.68

5.76

5.39


Arith-
met ic

4.20

3.96

5.86

6.09


Sum of
Stanines

22.53

21.12

33.56

32.79










Frequency of 'i ure Drawing Imiation, Creative Non-
Imitation, and Non-Im'-ation by Subjects in the Three
Groups on Bo"h Experimental Days


G-ouo I


273


Group I I


Group I I


256


203


(NP)


219


235


(WP)


Frequency of Bean Es+ima-ion Imitation and Non-Imitation
Dy Subjects n 'he Three Groups on Both Experimental Days


Grouo I Group II Group III

17 22 21

15 9 12

7 14 12

53 47 65










Frequency of Fiou-e C-awing Im'tation, Creative Non-
Inita -cn, and Non-lmi-ation by Subjec's of Each Race
and Sex on Both Experimental Days


Nec-o Females


\ecrc 'vales


Whi-e Females


Whi e Males


236


(NP)


200


Freouency of Bean Es Ima ion Imitation and Non-lmita-ion
by Subjects of Each pace and Sex on Bo-h Experimen al Days


lecro Females


\ec'o Vales


',Whte Fema es


Whi e M. 1es


7 12 23 18

- 15 5

4 6 13 10

12 28 49 76


(',/P)










Frequency of Figure Drawing Imitation, Creative Non-
Imitation, and Non-lmi a4ion by Subjects of Each Race
and Sex on Each Experimental Day


Negro

Day 1


Females

Day 2


Negro

Day 1


Males

Day 2


White

Day 1


Females

Day 2


White

Day 1


Ma I es

Day 2


A

(A)

NP

(NP)

*, P

(WP)

CNI

NI


Frequency of Bean Estimation Imi+ation and Non-imitation
by Subjects of Each Race and Sex on Each Experimental Day


Negro Females

Day 1 Day 2


Negro NMales

Day 1 Dey 2


White Females

Day 1 Day 2


White Males

Day 1 Day 2


3 4 8 4 11 12 6 12

3 4 1 3 8 7 4 4

3 1 3 3 7 6 5 5

6 6 13 15 24 25 41 35






87












Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated, Creative Non-
Imitation, and Non-Imitation by Negro Females (N = 15) in the
Matched Sample on Both Experimental Days with Language,
Non-Language and Total IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form)


Model
Imitated


Language
IQ


-.04


A + (A)


(NP)


NP + (NP)


-.11

-.10

-. 18

-.22

.23

-.05

.50

-.06


(WP)

WP + (WP)

CNI

NI

CNI + NI


Non-Language
IQ


Total
IQ


.07

.08

.19

.36

-.06


-.09


-.18

-.16

-.26

.39

-.28


-.22

-0.0

-.19


-.22

-.06


.11 -.14





88













Correlation r efficient Setween Models Imitated, Creative Non-
Imi+ation, and Non-lm'tation by Neoro Vales (N = 21) in the
'.'ached Sample on Bo'h Experimental Days with Language,
Non-Language and Total IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form)


dodel
Imitated


Laneuace
IQ


N"on-Language
IQ


Total
C1


.05


A + (A)


- D2

-.

-.05


-.10


-. 06


-.03


NP + (NP)


-.06


-.09


-. 1


F' + (WP)


- A

.D4


-.05

-.18


-.04

-.08

-.08


.04 -. 17


(N\p)


(',)'P)


CI +- NI





89













Cor-elation Coeffic'ents Between Modeis Imitated, Creative Non-
Imitation, and Non-imitation by White Females (N = 15) in the
Ma-ched Sample on Both Experimental Days with Language,
':c-Language and Total IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form)


Model
Imi ated


Language
10


-.00


Non-Language
IQ


Total
IQ


-.10


-.06


A + (A)


-.05


NP + (\P)


-.06

-.03


WP + (WP)


-.40

-.40


C'\l + N


-.05


-.04

.16


-.44

-.44


-0.0

-.46

-.46


1 No creative non-imiation; no correlation possible.


(\P)


(WP)


-0.0 1





90















Correlation Coeff'cien's Between Models Imita'ed, Creative Non-
Imi a4ion, and Non-lmitao ion by White Males (N = 21) in the
'*ached Sample on 9?oh Experimental Days with Language,
No"-Lncuace and To-al IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form)


Lancuace
IQ


.41

-.13


A (A)


- 1

-.15

-. 04

-A7

-.46


Non-Language
IQ


-.16

.60


Total
SQ


-.20

.56


-.22

-.14


-.26

-.20


-.55

-.40


-.58

-.46


Vodel
Imi ated


(NP)


NP + (*,D)


'* + (WP)


C'! + !NI


(WAI3)




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PAGE 1

THE RELATIONSHIP OF IMITATION TO INTELLIGENCE AND SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT OF NEGRO AND WHITE FIRST GRADE PUPILS IN INTEGRATED CLASSES By ANDREW LOUIS O'CONNOR, III A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA December, 1967

PAGE 2

UNIVERSITY OF FI-0R|D;,, 3 1262 08552 4097 III

PAGE 4

To my wi fe, Bever ly

PAGE 5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The present study represents the culmination of a long and complicated, though often heart-warming series of events, made possible by the kind assistance of more than thirty-five people. The author is most indebted to h i s five, doctoral committee members: Dr. Richard J. Anderson, Chairman, Dr. Audrey S. Schumacher, Dr. Vernon Van De Riet, Dr. Hugh C. Davis, and Dr. Bruce Thomason, minor field member. Their perspective, understanding, and genuine interest provided the author encouragement and a sense of appropriate direction. Special appreciation is offered Dr. Anderson, not only for his specific suggestions about the present study, but for the unrelenting assurance he provided the author throughout his graduate training. Various public school officials generously guided this study from the realm of speculation to firmer reality. They include: Mr. Boyd Ayers, Director of Pup i I -Personne I Services for Alachua County, Mr, Dwight, H. Hunter, Principal, Kirby-Smith School, Mr. James A. Talbot, Principal, Idyl wild Elementary School, and Mrs. The I ma Jordon, Principal, A. Quinn Jones Elementary School. Ten teachers from three schools provided suggestions and assistance, though their repayment was largely inconvenience. The six models in this study worked diligently, yet never lost their charm. Most effort was expended by Mrs. Sharon Cooper, who served both as the adult model for the female, peer model group, and

PAGE 6

as typist. Participating with her as peer models were Valerie Jordan and Karia Johnson. The author's wife, Beverly, served as the adult model for the male, peer model group, and was joined by Danny Butler and Mi ke Thomas. Specific help, especially during moments of crisis, was provided by four of the author's friends and colleagues: Mr. Lawrence Ritt, Dr. Gerald Musselman, Dr. Philip Costanzo, and Dr. William E. Boblitt. Mr. Ritt was most conscientious, and thoughtful in his capacity as assistant investigator.

PAGE 7

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES vi i L I ST OF F I CURES i x CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . SURVEY OF THE L 1 TERATURE 6 Intelligence, Adaptation, and Imitation ... 6 The Phenomenon of Imitation 8 Imitation, identification, and Scholastic Achievement 12 Negro Scholastic Achievement Following Integration and the Role of Identification 13 Rationale for the Present Study 16 III. METHOD 21 Subjects 21 Models 23 Procedure 24 Imitation Tasks 24 Primary Imitation Task 26 Secondary Imitation Task 27 Intelligence and Scholastic Achievement Tests 31 Scoring and Analyses 32 IV. RESULTS 37 Preliminary Analyses 37 Ma in Findings 41 Contrasts Between Subjects' Imitation .. 41 Correlation of Subjects' Imitation With Their Intelligence Test Scores and Scholastic Achievement Test Scores 51

PAGE 8

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION 61 Conclusions and Implications About the Results 61 Methodological Considerations 68 Suggestions for Future Research 71 VI. SUMWRY 73 APPENDIX A: PRACTICE, PROCEDURE AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR IMITATION TASKS 76 APPENDIX B: IMITATION DATA SUMMED ACCORDING TO SUBJECT GROUPS AND ADDITIONAL COMPUTATIONS 81 APPENDIX C: RAW DATA 98 REFERENCES Ill B 1 OGRAPH I CAL SKETCH 116

PAGE 9

LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects in the Fu I I Samp I e 22 2 The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects in the Matched Samp I e 23 3 Bean Estimations by the Three Models in the Male and Female Peer Model Groups on Experimental Days I and 2 for Male and Female Subject Classes of the Three Subject Groups 31 4 Reliability Primary Imitation Task 38 5 Reliability Secondary Imitation Task 39 5 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation of Models, Creative NonI mi tat ion and Non1 mi tat ion on the Primary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by the Three Subject Groups 40 7 Percentages of Imitation of Models and NonI mi tat i on on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by the Three Subject Groups 41 8 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation of Models, Creative NonImitation and Non1 mi tat ion on the Primary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex 43 9 Percentages of Imitation of Models, and Non-Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex 43 10 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Complete and Complete Plus Partial Imitation of the Adult Models with Imitation of the Peer Models of Each Race (Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary Imitation Task by Subjects of Each Race and Sex 47

PAGE 10

LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Table Page 11 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Imitation of the Adult Models with Imitation of the Peer Models of Each Race (Experimental Days Combined) on the Secondary Imitation Task by Subjects of Each Race and Sex 47 12 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Complete and Complete Plus Partial Imitation of the Negro and White Peer Models on the Primary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex 48 13 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Imitation of the Negro and White Peer Models on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex 49 14 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Negro Subjects' Imitation of the Negro Peer Models with White Subjects' Imitation of the Negro Peer Models (Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary Imitation Task 50 15 Correlation Coefficients Between Imitation of Models, Creative Non-Imitation, and Non-Imitation (Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary Imitation Task by Subjects in the Matched Sample with Their Total IQ's 53 16 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated and Non-Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects in the Matched. Sample and Their Total IQ's 54 17 Correlation Coefficients Betweea Models Imitated, Creative Non-Imitation, and NonI mi tat ion (Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary Imitation Task by Subjects in the Matched Sample and Their Total Scholastic Ach i evement Test Scores 57 18 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated and Non-Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects in the Matched Sample and Their Total Scholastic Achievement Test Scores 58

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure Pagg 1 Figures Drawn in the Primary Imitation Task by Pairs of the Three Models in Each of the Two Model Groups on Experimental Day _1_ for the Three Subject Groups 28 2 Figures Drawn in the Primary Imitation Task by Pairs of the Three Models in Each of the Two Model Groups on Experimental Day 2 for the Three Subject Groups . 29 3 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation of Models, Creative Non-Imitation, and NonImitation on the Primary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex 44 Percentages of Imitation of Models, and Nonimitation on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex 45

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In recent years there have been greatly increased federal and state efforts to promote and finance programs furthering racial equality. Outstanding among these is racial integration of public schools, now a federal legal requirement for more than a decade and a growing reality in school systems throughout the United States. While racial integration is intended to promote equality of opportunity, it does not guarantee Negro pupils greater than ordinary intellectual development or scholastic achievement, and the latter remains an important concern. Numerous studies cited in such diverse resource texts as those of Anastasi (1958), Masland, Sarason, and Gladwin (1958), and Shuey (1966), among others, have demonstrated that scholastic achievement of Negro and white pupils varies in a significantly positive manner according to their measured intelligence, and socio-economic status or cultural and educational experience. Moreover, among more than 250 studies of this century comparing Negro and white intelligence, the Negroes sampled were shown to be of lower measured intelligence and socio-economic status with significant consistency. These differences have impelled a continuing controversy relevant to the achievement of integrated Negro pupils. That is, if lower Negro

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intelligence, as measured by standardized tests. Is largely due to a difference in hereditary potential, then were increased educational opportunity equally provided children of both races of the same age, the relative intelligence and achievement difference between them would be expected to change little. Those supporting this position Include McGurk (1959), Kllpatrick (1962), and Shuey (1966). If, on the other hand, Negro pupils' lower intelligence test scores reflect environmental or educational deprivation predominantly, their integration into an Improved educational setting would be expected to increase their level of measured Intelligence and scholastic achievement. This position is more popular; its supporters including Havlghurst and Neugarten (1962), Klineberg (1963), Pettigrew (1964a), and the American Associations of Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology. In 1961 the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, a division of the American Psychological Association concluded: There are differences in intelligence test scores when one compares a random sample of whites and Negroes, What is equally clear is that no evidence exists that leads to the conclusion that such differences are innate. Quite to the contrary, the evidence points overwhelmingly to the fact that when one compares Negroes and whites of comparable cultural and educational background, differences In Intelligence diminish markedly; the more comparable the background, the less the difference. There is no direct evidence that supports the view that there is an innate difference between members of different racial groups .,. (quoted by Pettigrew, 1964a, pp. 133-134). Hereditary Intellectual potential, on the one hand, and environmental or educational influence, on the other, have generally been treated in the literature as limiting conditions within which

PAGE 14

the individual functions intellectually. As such, continual attempts to resolve the heredity-environment controversy fail to yield sufficient information about more manifest aspects of intelligence, such as, specific learning processes by which Negro or white pupils achieve scho 1 ast i c I y . To this end, another widely believed characteristic of intelligence, adapt i veness , is suggested as a more fruitful cons i derat i on. For purposes of the present study, the question arose Ms adaptiveness manifested through some learning process displayed by pupils in the racially integrated classroom?' If adaptiveness can be measured, will it be found similar to the kind of adaptiveness manifested by intelligent behavior, hence positively correlated with standardized measures of intelligence and scholastic achievement? An interesting, 'real life' setting in which to pose these questions is presented by racially integrated first grade classes in Southern, previously all white, elementary schools. Negro and white first graders encounter varied circumstances in school quite different from those of their previous experience. From week to week they work and play for several hours each school day in as large a group as they have ever participated. It may be supposed that the teacher and peers with whom each child interacts present a complex, task oriented, social environment in which personal acceptance and satisfactory achievement require considerable adjustment and adaptation. The adaptation of these children may depend upon reinforcement of appropriate behavior, but, except when teaching machines or other procedures of programmed learning are employed, there is little

PAGE 15

evidence that reinforcement is dispensed according to the conditions of operant or classical conditioning. The work of Albert Bandura and certain others would suggest that pupils' adaptation to the integrated classroom situation, particularly the adaptation of first graders, proceeds in a measurable degree according to their modeling or imitation of their teacher and peers. Bandura (1965a) has observed that a major source of new behavior or new combinations of previously learned behavior is the behavior of other humans. He emphasizes that modeling procedures are a very efficient and occasionally indispensable way of learning much complex and important behavior. By contrast, operant learning methods may be efficient in strengthening and maintaining behavior already demonstrated by individuals, but inefficient for developing new behavior. Bandura has stated: Research and theoretical interpretations of learning processes have focused almost exclusively on a single mode of response acquisition which is exenip I i f i ed by the operant or instrumental conditioning paradigm ... The continued adherance to a relatively narrow range of learning principles and procedures stems primarily from The fact that certain critical conditions that obtain in real life situations are rarely, if ever, reproduced in laboratory studies of learning ... Apart from the questions of efficiency ... and survival, it is doubtful if many classes of responses would every be acquired if social training proceeded solely by the method of approximations through differential reinforcement of emitted responses ... (Bandura, 1965c, p. 1 ). Epstein (1962) has indicated that studies of imitative human learning have considerable potential for providing greater understanding of complex learning in human social situations. A study of imitative learning, then, suggests the exciting possibility of

PAGE 16

increasing our l
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CHAPTER I I SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE Intelligence, Adaptat ion, and Imitation The adaptive or adjustive nature of intelligence has been recognized from the time of its systematic measurement. Binet (translated by Kite, 1916, p. 29) defined inTelligence as "The sum of all those thought processes which consist in mental adaptation." More recently, revised views of the heredity environment controversy have provided theoretical emphasis to the adaptive function of intelligence. J. McV. Hunt's (1961) views of intelligence upset two long accepted assumptions about intelligence that have provided a conceptual foundation for the heredity environment controversy regarding race differences. These he descriptively termis the assumptions of "fixed intelligence" and "predetermined development." Hunt defines intelligence as central neural processes which are established, developed, and are continually adapted according to the individual's experience. Indirectly, Guilford has made the adaptive function of intelligence more credible by staring one conclusion about his research: "The question 'Is intelligence inherited or is it acquired' made less sense than it ever did. Such a question must be asked of each and every factor" (1956, p. 287). Sy 1966 he and his co-workers, through the use of factor analysis, had found evidence for the existence of

PAGE 18

more than 80 different, though interrelated, intellectual abilities. If further research shows these many factors to be valid and meaningful, they may suggest a much broader and mjore complex basis of Intel lecTual adaptability than the single "g" factor proposed by Spearman (1927) and more recently, McNemar (1954). The most thorough conceptual exploration of the relationship between intelligence, adaptation, and imiration appears to have been described by Piaget (1951, 1963; Flavell, 1963). According to Piaget, when an individual's interaction with his environment is in equilibrium, the two interrelated cognitive processes of intelligent adaptation, assimilation ana accomodation are in equilibrium. However, according to Piager imitation is not intelligent adaptation because the process of assimilation is subordinate to that of accomodation. In accomodation: All energy is focused on taking exact account of the structured nicities of the reality one is imitating and in precisely dovetailing one's schematic repetoire to these details. In other words, as in play the primary concern is to adapt reality to the self (assimilation), in imitation the paramount object is to adapt the self to reality (accomodation), Flavell (1963, p. 66). For Piaget imitation is mimicking that occurs by processes of association and simple classical conditioning. In this sense, Piaget and Bandura do not agree on the meaning of imitation or vicarious learning and how it occurs. According to Bandura: Unlike most previous accounts of modeling effects, which tend to highlight the reinforcing stimulus control of matching responses, the theory propounded by the author emphasizes the function of representational processes in observational learning. According to this formulation, matching responses are acquired on the basis of stimulus contiguity and are mediated by cue-producing symbolic responses which exercise

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discriminative stimulus control over corresponding overt performances. Thus, in this mode of response acquisition, imaginal and verbal representations of modeling stimuli constitute the enduring products of observational experiences. (Bandura, 1965c, p. 41-42). Moreover, Bandura (1955c) believes that the "association and classical conditioning theories" of Piaget, Humphrey, Allport and Holt fail to account for novel responses in the observer as a result of his interaction with a model. Referring to the work of Hebb (1949) and Hunt (1961) in which the early development of intelligence was shown to depend intimately upon sensory experience, Bandura and Walters (1963, p. 28) remarked that, "those experiences, however, will be highly dependent on the social models with which a child is presented ..." Moreover, Bandura (1965a, 1965c) has provided abundant anecdotal and experimental evidence that imitation is a basic adaptive process in animals and humans. McDavid (1959), in an extended study of imitative behavior and biographical, intellectual, and various other factors, found a negative correlation (-.11) between measured intelligence and imitative behavior. However, McDavid reinforced imitative behavior, violating the non-reinforcement criterion of imitation stated by Bandura. Hence, if as in the present study, Bandura's criteria of imiitation are accepted, the relationship between imitation and intelligence remains uncertain and worthy of i nvest i gati on. The Phenomenon of Imitation Bandura (1955c, p. 2) has compiled various descriptions of modeling in the contemporary literature essentially similar to the

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historically prior term "imitation" (used throughout the present study) such as "vicarious learning," "observational learning," "social facilitation," " i denti f i caxi on, " "role playing," "copying," and "contagion." Bandura (1965c, p. 2) operationally defines imitation or a vicarious learning event as: ... one in which new responses are acquired or the characteristics of existing response repertoires are modified as a function of observing the behavior of others and its reinforcing consequences, without the modeled responses being overtly performed by the viewer during the exposure period. In demonstrating vicarious learning phenomena, it is therefore necessary to employ a nonresponse acquisition procedure in which a subject simply observes a model's behavior, but otherwise performs no overr instrumenTal responses, nor is administered any reinforcing stimuli during the period of acquisition. Any learning that occurs under these limiting conditions is purely on an observational or covert basis. This mode of response acquisition is accordingly designated as no-trial learning, since the observer does not engage in any overt respond i nq trials although ... he may require multiple observat iona I tr ia I s in order to reproduce the modeled stimuli accurately. Moreover, the development of mediational responses, in the form of imaginal and implicit verbal representations of the perceived stimulus events, may play a critical role in the vicarious learning process. Most studies of vicarious learning have been confined to determining its characteristics rather than relating It experimentally to naturally occurring learning situations. Moreover, most studies ^ Recently the conceptual similarity between "imitation" and "social fac i I iration" has been disputed by Wheeler (1956). Too, the effects of "conformity" and "suggestibility" may be similar to these of "imitation," with the processes overlapping in various social situations, but according to McConnell (1963) "conformity" and "suggestibility" have different operational definitions than " imi tation."

PAGE 21

measure overt, readily observable, imitative behavior. Thus, in order to demonstrate that vicarious learning is in fact a learning phenomenon and not merely a performance phenomenon Bandura (1955b) showed nursery school children a film porrraying an aggressive model who received reward, punishment, or was treated neutrally for his aggressive behavior. Although children who observed punishment of the aggressive model produced significantly fewer imitative responses than the others, this difference between the groups of children was no longer apparent when all were rewarded if they could reproduce the models aggressive behavior. Hence, negative reinforcement to the model had inhibited their imitative responses but not Their learning. Bandura has emphasized that vicarious learning is an indispensable process of human learning. Under certain social conditions it may be of the same magnitude (Kanfer and f^iarston, 1963), or even more efficacious than direct reinforcement (Berger, 1961). Most often cited among Bandura's vicarious learning experiments are the following three. In two related experiments Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961, 1963) exposed nursery schoo 1 children, average age approximately A{ years, to live (1961) and film-mediated (1963) aggressive models pummeling an inflated plastic doll. Children observing the real-life, film, and cartoon aggressive models expressed a mean number of aggressive responses approximately twice that of those observing an inhibited model or The control group. Bandura and McDonald (1963) have shown that modification of attitudes may occur by observation of models as well. Attempting to change the objective and subjective moral orientations of children conceived

PAGE 22

11 by Piaget, Bandura and McDonald assigned 5 to 1 1 year old children to three observational groups. in the first of these, adult models were verbally reinforced for expressing moral judgements counter to those of the children, with the children subsequently reinforced for adopting the judgements of the adult model. The second group, likewise, observed the verbal reinforcement of the adult models' judgements, but were not, themselves, reinforced for adopting the models' judgements. The third group observed no model but was reinforced for making judgements, like those of the models, which were counter to their original orientation. The mode I -observation groups differed little between them in changed moral judgements, but showed significantly greater change toward the moral judgements of the models than the no-model control group. Two additional variables considered in studies of imitation or vicarious learning, and relevant to the present study are sex of subjects and non-imitation. Using a doll play experimental method with children age 3 to 5, Hartup (1964) found that children would generalize somewhat their imitation of same sex dolls but not opposite sex dolls. Where models display nurturance or positive social interaction to 5 year old girls, Mussen and Parker (1965) found increases in the girls' task irrelevant imitative behavior, but not task relevant bfshavior, Henker (1963) found an opposite kind of imitative behavior in terms of task relevancy with 6 to 10 year old boys. Brown (1956) studied the preferred sex-roles of 5 to 6 year olds and found that male subjects had established a higher same sex preference than had female subjects. In two studies previsouly cited, McDavid (1959) and Hartup (1964), nonim i tat i on by subjects was

PAGE 23

12 observed. Wh i ! e dissimilar in other respects, botii studies indicated that an expe;' imenta I design, which allows noni mi tat ion by experimental subjects, may yield additionally meaningful information. Imitation, Identification, and Scholastic Achievement It has already been observed that the psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Piage"^'s developmental theory of intelligence stress children's identification with their parents, which greatly affects their learning of socially appropriate attitudes, values and behavior. When identification is given emphasis as a social facilitation effect or process of learning in early school age children, its relevance to a first grade educational setting becomes clearer. Bandura believes the process of identification is essentially similar to that of imitation and vicarious learning: This type of learning is generally labeled "imitation" in behavior theory, and "identification" in most theories of personality. Those concepts, however, are treated. .. .as synonymous since both encompass the same behavioral phenomenon, i.e., the tendency for a person to match the behavior or atti-^udes as exhibited by actual or symbolized models (1952, p. 215). Evidence of identification as imitation is provided by +wo studies pairing adult and peer models. In a study by Bandura and Kupers (1964) in which high and low criteria of self-reinforcement were adopted by adult and peer models in two modeling conditions, the observers, 7 to 9 years old, ma-^ched the patterns of selfreinforcement of their resoective models. Greater matching of the adult models occurred in both rei nforcemen-:-, modeling conditions. In a study of 3 to 6 year old children. Hicks (1965) found

PAGE 24

13 that these subject-observers imitated the aggressive behavior of male peer models more than adult male or female models, though 6 months later imitation of the adult male models was greater than the imitation among those observing the other models. Bandura and Walters (1963) have related imitation and achievement through identification of children with their self-indulgent or self-denying parents of different cultures. Those most self-denying were most achieving. One study they referred to was that of Crandall, Katkovsky, and Preston (1962), in which it was found that girls whose fathers devoted time to participate with them in intellectual pursuits were inclined to give up free-play time to engage in intellectual act i vi t i es. Virtually no studies have related imitation and scholastic achievement, although Hilgard (1964), in a review of learning theories and methods of instruction, has recognized the potential role of imitative learning in the classroom situation. Negro Scholastic Achievement Following integration and the Role of Identification During the past 10 years primarily, reports about Negro pupils' progress in scholastic achievement have come out of community-wide improved educational programs. Frequently cited are the "Banneker Group" in St. Louis (1962) and New York City's "Higher Horizons" project (1961). In both cities' programs measured intelligence and scholastic achievement increased substantially over like pupils in non-enriched programs. Where racial integration has accompanied sweeping educational improvements the gains have been no less

PAGE 25

14 significant. Two examples of tliese findings are reporf-ed by I^,cQueen and Churn (1960) for the Boston area, and Hansen (1965) for Washington, D. C. Both Hansen (1963) and Petti grew (1964) believe that integration alone did not account for the Negro p'joils' bet-t-erment as much as the educational improvements and general en-husiasm engendered for learning. In the South where educational improvements have not been carried out on a large scale basis like the four cities cited, the reported effects of integration have varied considerably. Partly, this has been due to most studies reporting changes over a short period of time, as desegregation has proceeded slowly. Davis (1966) repor-^-ed that in 1963 a survey showed only 9.2 percent of Negro public school students in Southern and border states attending deseG'"egated schools with whites. In a review of evidence relating -^o effects of desegregation on the scholastic performance of Negroes, Katz (1964) noted that there was a dearth of unequivocal information. Nonetheless, i+ was his summary impression that the reports were generally favorable. Several years previously the United States Commission on Civil Rights had found "... some evidence that the scholastic achievement of Negroes has improved, and no evidence of a resultant reduction in the achievement of white studen-l-s" (Scuthern School News, 1960). Katz wen+ on to observe and substantiate, through his own investigations, that newly integrated Negro pupils face serious challenges to their academic success. These include social threat, low expectancy of success, and failure threat. Silberman (1964) reviewed many instances in which desegregation had brought about emotional turmoil, disappointment, and worsened scholastic performance.

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15 Coles has described the psychological experiences of the first Negro children to enter schools in Atlanta and New Orleans: When they are in school they may experience rejection, isolation, insult. They live under what physicians would call highly stressful circumstances. ...each child's case history would describe a balance of defenses against emotional pain, and some exhaustion under it, as we I I as behavior which shows an attempt to challenge and surmount it (1963, p. 5). In 1964 Coles drew these case histories together into a book, which very amply and movingly depicts how the scholastic achievement of newly integrated Negro pupils depends upon acceptance by their white peers and the extent to which they can experience with them some feeling of equality. Many Negro children, feeling acutely their inadequacy and failure compared with their white peers, rebel and respond aggressively in the classroom and on the playground. Yet, there is a body of evidence that Negro children show a greater willingness to identify with their fellow whites than the whites with them. Goodman (1952) investigated the emergence of interracial attitudes in a sample of Negro and white nursery school children and found a medium to high degree of awareness of social differences in 85 percent of the children of each race. Following a review of various studies of self-identity in Negro children, Pettigrew stated: Racial recognition in both white and Negro children appears by the third year and rapidly sharpens each year thereafter. But of special significance is the tendency in al I of these studies for Negro children to prefer white skin. They are usually slower to make racial distinctions, frequently choose white do I Is and white friends, and often identify themselves as white or show intense reluctance over "admitting" they are Negro (1964, p. 15).

PAGE 27

16 Er i k son (1 964 ), illustrating Negro children's desire to identify with their white peers, describes a 4 year-old Negro girl in a desegregated nursery school, who painted her self-portrait with quantities of all white paint. Masland, ejt^ a_!_, (1958) noted this phenomenon in the North as we I I as the South, adding that white children prefer to be identified with children cf their own race. White children's preference for identification with their white peers had been previously no+ed by various authors, among them Radke, Sutherland, and Rosenberg (1950), and Radke, Trager, and Davis (1949). Once again, the process of identification, as it may be seen in the context of Negroes' adjustment and scholastic performance in integrated schools, seems to reflect what Bandura has called imitation or a social facilitation effect. Particularly the case histories of Coles (1964) suggest that Negro children's scholastic achievement, as part of their whole school adjustment, improves where the process is sustained. Rationale for the Present Study The foregoing review of literature was directed toward interrelating previous research concerning the four major variables of this study: imitation, intelligence, scholastic achievement, and the subject variable of Negro and white first graders in integrated c I asses . Studies of imitation or vicarious learning now appear sufficient in number to demonstrate that imitation is an -important and pervasive type of learning in human social situations. Yet, most

PAGE 28

17 studies of imitation, sucti as those cited, liave attempted to delineate its characteristics or validate it as a learning process, and therefore, have studied gross overt behavior in experimental settings. Consequently, there is little evidence, other than anecdotal, to support Bandura's contention that imitation is at least as relevant as operant conditioning to naturally occuring, human learning situations. Significantly neglected has been an investigation of imitation in the 'real-life' setting of formal education. In the present study first grade pupils were chosen for subjects, partly because imitation has been most satisfactorily demonstrated among children of this age. Although a necessary first step was to determine whether first grade subjects would imitate adult and peer models in school related tasks, this was not of major importance. More important was how subjects' imitation of adult and peer models would be related to their social adjustment and scholastic achievement. In terms of social adjustment, two factors indicated that first graders would imitate an adult teacher-like model more than peer models. Most obvious of these factors is that a teacher is the classroom authority and primary determiner of class activities and what is learned. Secondly, Bandura has contended that imitation and identification are synonymous. If imitation and identification are essentially similar, first grade pupils would be disposed to imitate an adult model most because they are in the most critical development period of identification with adults. Of special interest was the role of imitation in the social adjustment of Negro pupils 'n racially integrated classes. Several studies have reported that Negro children

PAGE 29

prefer to Ideniify with white children while white children prefer to identify with those their own race. For pupils of both races, then, social adjustment to the conditions of first grade would be found in greatest imitation of adult "!"eacher1 i ke models, second most imitation of white peer models, and least imitation of Negro peer models. In addition, the disinclination of white children to identify with Negro children would be expected to appear in less frequent imitation of Negro peer models than Negro pupils' imitation of Negro peer models. First graders' imitation was thought worthy of investigation not only as a process of social adjustment or adaptation but of i n-t-e I! ectua I and scholastic adaptation as well. The relationship of imitation to scholas'^ic achievement was approached through the controversy surrounding differences between the measured intelligence of Negro and white children. The consistently found differences in measured intelligence and the ensuing heredity-environment controversy have been adduced as explanation for the racial differences in scholastic achievement. On the basis of recent research it was argued that the heredity-environment controversy has become an unproductive approach to investigating racial differences in scholastic achievement. Seemingly more fruitful would be to consider intelligence as the ability (ies) to adapt. When intelligence is regarded as adaptation it appears to have more relevance to processes of learning, such as imitation. Yet, the theoretical rela+ionship between imitation and intelligence has been unclear. Piaget (Flaveil, 1963) believes that imitation is not in+elligent behavior. However, Bandura (1965c) holds that imitation is a more thoughtful kind of

PAGE 30

19 learning than Piaget's conception of it as simple mimicking. Tlierefore using Bandura's criteria of imitation, tlie present study attempted to determine the relationship of first grade pupils' imitation to their measured intelligence. Since adult white female (teacher1 i ke) models and white peer models were considered more potent models of imitation than Negro peer models, it was expected that imitation of them would be positively correlated with their measured intelligence. Because measures of intelligence have so consistently shown significant positive correlations with measures of scholastic achievement, it was expected that first grade subjects' imitation of adult models and white peer models would be positively correlated with their scholastic ach i evement. Three hypotheses were proposed to test the expected relationships between Negro and white subjects' imitation of white female adult models, Negro peer and white peer models. Tests of these hypotheses were expected to provide information about the social adjustment or adaptation of Negro and white first grade pupils in integrated classes. Hypotheses 4 and 5 were proposed to test the expected positive correlations between subjects' intelligence and subjects' scholastic achievement as an indication of their adaptation in the scholastic realm of first grade. The five hypotheses of the present study were stated as follows: 1. Subjects of each race will imitate white female adult models and peer models of each race. 2. Subjects of each race will imitate white female adult models . significantly more than peer models of each race.

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20 3A. Subjects of each race will imitate white peer models significantly more than Negro peer models. 3B. Negro subjects will imitate Negro peer models significantly more than will white subjects. 4. Imitation of white female adult models and white peer models by subjects of each race will be positively correlated with their measured intel I igence. 5. Imitation of white female adul+ models and white peer models by subjects of each race will be positively correlated with their measured scholastic achievement.

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CHAPTER METHOD The methods employed in this investigation are described in terms of the subjects, the models used in the imitation tasks, and the procedures for measuring subjects' imitation, intelligence, and scholastic achievement. No formal experimental design was followed. Imitation was measured by two tasks, designated as primary and secondary imitation tasks. Procedures for carrying out the imitation tasks were complicated and entailed lengthy description because of the uneven number of first grade classes and because of the detailed nature of the primary imitation task. Measurement of subjects' intelligence and scholastic achievement was accomplished by administration of standardized tests. Subjects Subjects consisted of Negro and white first grade pupils enrolled in two elementary schools in Gainesville, Florida. KirbySmith School and 1 dy I w i I d Elementary School were chosen because they were the two most racially integrated elementary schools in Gainesville during the 1966-1967 school year. This was true both in percentage of Negro pupils, approximately 15 percent and 17 percent 'respectively, and in total number of Negro pupils. Data were obtained 21

PAGE 33

22 from 123 pupils in each of the five first grade classes at KlrbySmith School, and 55 pupils in each of three fi-st grade classes at Idylwild Elementary School. Thirty-two of these subjects provided incomplete data, so the final sample consisted of 146 subjects. Table 1 shows the number of subjects, their age range and mean age according to their race and sex. Table The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects i n the Fu I I Samp I e Subjects M Age Range (Mon-^hs) Kesri Age (Months) 83.7 86.5 83.6 82.4 Negro Females

PAGE 34

23 sample was 83.50, and the white subjects 86.19. A t test of this difference yields a t equal .95, which is nonsignificant. Table 2 rhe Number, Age Range, and I^ean Age of Subjects in the Matched Sample Subjects N Age Range (Months) Mean Age (Months) Neg''o Females Negro Males White Females White Males 15

PAGE 35

24 cooperat i veness. A l-i-ogethe*", the six models formed two croups of three models, each including one of the adult models and both peer models of the same sex, but different race. In subsequent -^ab I es and figures, models are labeled in abbreviation: A (Adult), NP (Negro Pee*"), and WP (White Peer). As the two groups diffe'"ing in i-he sex of peer models carried ou-^ their modeling tasks separately and simultaneously, an assistant experimenter was needed. The assistant exper i men"*"er was an advanced graduate student in psychology. Procedure Three kinds of da-^a: 1. frequency of imitation, 2. scholastic achievement tes"!" scores, and 3. intelligence "I"est scores were obtained in this order from all subjec-fs at separate, successive intervals between April 1, 1967, and May 15, 1967. Each kind of data was obtained between 8:30 A. M. and 10:30 A. M. when the subjec+s were most rested and able to concen-ra-^e. Scholastic achievement tests were administered by the subjects' teachers because of the time consuming nature of the tests. Each teacher completed the test administration during April, 1967. Testing at the same time assured that scores were based uDon the same number of months school attendance that year, and comparable from class to class. All other da+a were collected by the author and his assistant. Imitation Tasks Two tasks were emoloyed in order to determine how frequently ^he subjec-!-s would imitate each of the three models. A second imitation

PAGE 36

25 task, briefer in nature, was included because of difficulty in generalizing about results from a s'ngle task. The modeling paradigm on which they were based is one of three described by Bandura in which the behavic of the models: ...may elicit previously learned responses that match precisely or bear some resemblance to those exhibited by the model. This response facilitation effect can be distinguished from d ; s i nh i b i t ion when -he behavior in question is not likelv "o have i ncu'"red punishment enc therefore, any increase in responsivity is not a-^-r i butab i e to +he reduction of inhibitory responses (1955a, p. 321). Immediately before the experimenters and models arrived at the schools to carry out the imita-^ion tasks the teachers of two classes i n"^e''changed their pupils so ~hat all female subjects were in one classroom and all male subjects in the other. Separation of subjects by sex was com.plicated since -here were five classes in oneschool and three in the other school, or an uneven number in each. In the school with five classes, two groups of two classes each were interchanged by sex. A fifth class remained. In the school with three classes, one group of two classes was interchanged by sex. In th i ? school a third class remained. However, because of the rela-^'ve scarcity of Negro pupi Is, it was desirable not to ignore the fifth and third classes, but to draw the Megro pupils from them and include the Negro pupils in the i nte'-chanced classes. The f i f +h and third classes f each school were the least integ^'ated of the first grade classes. The Negro pupils of these ~wo least integrated classes joined one of the interchanged classes according to "^hei" sex. Thereby, from the eight first grade school classes, three subject groups were formed with each group consisting of one all female subject

PAGE 37

26 class and one all male subject class. In Group I there were 45 subjects, in Group I I there were 46 subjects, and in Group I I I there were 55 subjects. When the two classes of each group were settled in their chairs, the model group, whose peer models were of the same sex as the subjects, then entered the classroom and proceeded with the modeling tasks. Both tasks, together, required each class approximately 30 minutes to complete on each of the two experimental days. All imitation task procedures were identical for male and female subject classes. Primary Imitation Task The primary imitation task consisted of drawing colored geometric figures. Two at a time the models S"!"Ood at the classroom chalkboard before the subjects and drew the geometric figures in either red, blue, or yellow chalk. At each drawing models stated the color they would use, but said nothing at any other time. Appendix A Practice describes how models' behavior was made uniform prior to carrying out the imitation tasks. The colored figures drawn by the models had been pre-designed by the author and drawn on separate programs for each of the models. By turning the numbered pages of their programs the models knew when to draw each figure, as well as what color and shape each figure was to be drawn. Each observing subject was provided a pad of paper and sharpened red, blue and yellow pencils and asked to draw the figure just drawn by one of the models, or one of their own. The subjects'

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27 blue pencils had erasers. Their stapled pads of plain white paper were 5f inches by 8? inches. Each contained 16 pages, numbered beginning with the second page from one to fifteen. The first, unnumbered page was for subjects to write their names and to make a practice drawing. Fifteen times on each of two successive mornings the models arose in pairs from chairs placed before the subjects and drew the geometric figures. On both experimental days, then, this imitation task provided thirty imitation trials. On each experimental day there were ten different figures, all ten of which were drawn by each of the models, although in a different color and order. On each of the thirty trials the two figures simultaneously drawn were never the same shape or color. Figures 1 and 2 show the ten different geometric figures on experimental days 1 and 2, respectively, in the order they were drawn by the three models and observed by the subjects. The color of each figure is indicated by the capitalized first letter of the words red (R), b I ue (B), and ye I low (Y). Since the imitation tasks were carried out with three groups of subjects, this made possible counterbalancing of figure color and order of drawing for the three models and model pairs. This was easily accomplished by models trading programs from which they drew the figures. The counterbalancing by groups and models is indicated at the top of Figures 1 and 2. Secondary Imitation Task The secondary imitation task consisted of estimating the number of dried beans in each of two bottles. One bottle contained

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28 Figure 1. Figures Drawn in -i-he Primary imitation Task by Pairs of the Tf^ree Models in Each of the Two Model Groups on Experimental Day J_ for the Three Subject Groups. GROUP 1

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29 Figure 2. Figures Drawn in the Primary Imitation Task by Pairs of the Three Models in Each of the Two Model Groups on Exoeri mental Day 2 for the Three Subject Groups. GROUP 1

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30 140 beans, the ether 50. On each experimental day one of the bottles was first shov/n to the models by the experimenter. Each model stated his (her) estimate, as if guessing for the first time, and wrote it on the chalkboard in red chalk. The bo"l"tle was then shown to the subjects and they were requested to write whichever of the models' estimates seemed most accurate, or an estimate of their own. On the second experimental day the other bottle of beans was used. The sum of scores on this task, then, consisted of two estim.ates by each of the subjects. Estimates made by the models for the larger bottle (140 beans) were 100, 70, and 40 beans. Estimates for the sma I I er bottle (60 beans) were 40, 30, and 20 beans. Thus, with both bot-^les, estimates presented by the models were lower than the real quantities, with the average estimates being one-half the real quantity. Model estimates lower than the real quantity were chosen in order to bring them into a range appearing reasonable -""o the subjects. In a similar task with elementary school subjects, Musselman (1957) used a jar containing 500 beans and found the mean estimate in a control group to be 275. Table 3 shows the bean estimates made by the adult, Negro peer, and whi-!-e peer models on both experimental days before the male and female subject classes of the three subject groups. Appendix A describes additional details of the procedure including models' practice of the imitation tasks, and instructions to the subjects.

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31 Table 3 Bean Estimations by the Three Models in the IMa I e and Female Peer Model Groups on Experimental Days 1 and 2 for Male and Female Subject Classes of the Three Subject Groups

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32 Total !Q. The test was administered to the eight first grade classes during the first two weel
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33. this task: complete and partial imitation of the adult, Negro peer, and white peer models, creative non-imitation, and noni mi tat ion. In subsequent tables and figures the eight categories are labeled: A, (A), NP, (NP), WP, (V/P), CNI, Nl . There was no scoring of partial imitation on the secondary imitation task. Subjects' estimates, exactly the same as any of the three models, were scored as imitative. All other estimates were scored as non! mi tat i ve. Four ca-^egories of imitation and non-imitation were derived from this task: imitation of each of the three models, and noni mi tat ion. Labeling of categories in tables and figures is the same as for the primary imitation task. Imitation scores were frequency counts, and they were not normally distributed. To determine hypothesized significant differences in imitation of models both imitation tasks were analyzed by Chi-Square (McNemar, 1960). Wherever Chi-Square values in tables indicate a negative d i rect ion, th i s is shown by (-). Since the secondary imitation task yielded only two scores by each subjec"^, or non-continuous data, analyses of thesedata were limited to Chi-Square and its related 2 nominal scale correlation, the Contingency Coefficient, "C". The data yielded by the primary imitation task met criteria of the Pearson Hypotheses 2, 3A, and 3B were tested by a one sample Chi-Square technique described by Underwood (1954). The Chi-Square methods employed were reviewed according to the criteria of Lewis and Burke (1949) and found acceotable. 2 , C" is a statistic which ranges in value from to a maximum of plus 1, depending upon degrees of freedom. The directionality of its value must be inferred. Its statistical significance determined by Chi-Square. "C" is not directly comparable to Pearson r.

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34 Product Moment Cor-'e I at ion, "r". An sdc'iticnal restriction on the analyses of "^'ne secondary imitation task was imposed by the small frequency of imitation by eacin subject. This required combining of categories +o develop sufficiently large frequencies. Consequently, while data from -^he p^ima.-y imi-^a-icn -ask we-'e analvsed acceding to subjects' specific race and sex, e.g., \egro females, da-a from the secondary imitation task were comb'nec and analysed (except hypothesis 1) according to subjects' secara-e race and sex, e.g., Negroes, females, Scores ce''ivec -rom the intelligence tes"^s and scholastic achievement tests were con-inuous and normally d i s+r i bu"^ed, thereby amenable ~o oa^ame^r'c s~a'^i S"^ i ca 1 methods. There we'"e "^wo kinds of p-eliminary analyses. First oresented a'-e the i^e! lability coefficients o'' ail subjec"^s' imitation of the three models and non-imitation for both imitation tasks on expei" i menta I days 1 and 2. For the primary imitation task subjects' eight imitation noni mi tat ion frequencies on the firsexpe'" ' menta 1 day we'^e correla-^ed with their frequencies on -he second expe"" i menta 1 day by Pearson r. For the secondary imi"^a-ion "l"ask the decree to which subjects imitated the S3m.e model or noni mi ta-^ed on both exoerimental days was de-ermined by "^he Contingency Coef f i c ien-^. Second, the three subject groups' imita-ion and noni mi -l-at i on frequencies on bo"l"h -^asks ere presented. The S"^a-^ i s-i ca I s'gnificance be-^ween groups' frequencies of imi-^ation and non-imi -{-at ion was determined by a Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks (*\5) (Siege! , 1956). Hypothesis 1, ccnce-ning the occurrence of imitation, was determined by visual observation. Since there was no exoe-imenta!

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35 constraint against non-imitation, any imiration of all models on each task by any number of subjects confirms this hypothesis. In addition, the statistical significance of the difference between all subjects' imitation and non-imitation on both imitation tasks was tested by Ch i-Square. Hypothesis 2, concerning frequency of imitating the adult models versus peer models of either race by subjects of both races, was tested by first summing frequency of imitation of the models on both experimental days for both tasks. For the primary imitation task significance of the difference between frequency of imitating the adult models versus peer models was tested by comparison of complete imitation, and a comparison of complete plus partial imitation. Statistically significant Chi-Square values expressing differences in the predicted direction would confirm this hypothesis. Hypotheses 3A and 3B, comparing subjects' imitation of the peer models of each race, was tested by Chi-Square in the same manner as hypothesis 2. Statistically significan+ Chi-Square values resulting from greater imitation on both tasks of white peer models than Negro peer models by subjects of both races would confirm hypothesis 3A. Hypothesis 3B would be confirmed by statistically significant ChiSquare values resulting from grea+er imitation of the Negro peer models by Negro subjects than white subjects. Hypothesis 4, regarding the correlation between frequency of imitation and measured intelligence, would be confirmed if, for subjects of both races, coefficients were positive and statistically significant between subjects' imitation of the adult models and white peer models and their Total IQ's. Pearson r coefficients were calculated

PAGE 47

36 between "^he cri+e'"ia of intelligence and frequency of Imitation in the pi^imary imitation task. For the seconcar-y imitation ^ask the Contingency Coefficient was emoloyed. Positive Pearson r and Contingency Coefficients resulted where subjec+s of greater intelligence than others imitated the models mce frequently than others. Hypothesis 5, -egarding the correlation between frequency of subjec+s' imitation and thei'' schoias"^ic achievement, would be confirmed if, for subjects of both races, coef f i c i en-^s were positive and sta-^i s"I"i ca I 1 y significant betiveen subjec"^s' imitation of the adult models and whi-e pee'models and thei-" total achievemen+ test scores. The same methods of correlation were used for the orimary and secondary imitation tasks as hypothesis 4. The .05 level of s"^a-istical significance was employed in all of the ana lyses.

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37 CHAPTER IV RESULTS Preliminary Analyses The reliability of al! subjects' imitation and non-imitation on the primary and secondary imita-^ion -^asks is shown in Tables 4 and 5. Table 4 shows reliability coefficients (Pea'"son r) of imitation, and nonimi tat i on on the primary imitation task according to the subjects' race and sex, and the full sample. The coefficients ere further specific to comple-^e, partial, complete plus partial imitation of each of "^he three models, creative nonimi tat ion, nonimi tat ion, and the two categories of non-imitation taken together. Coefficients range from -.15 to +.93, with only two of the six"^y coefficients being negative. Fc'^y-e i ght of "^he s:x-!-y coefficients are statistically significant. Most reliable subjects we-'e males, pai't i cu 1 ar I y white males; most reliably imitated were the adult models. The overall impression is that subjects' imitation and non-imitation on the primary task was moderately reliable when the second experimental day was immediately consecutive to the first. Table 5, showing Contingency Coefficients of reliability for the secondary imitation task, demonstra-es the restricted information yielded by this "^ask. Subject ca"^eGories were necessarily combined to form categories of both races per sex, and both sexes per race.

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38 Reliability of these subjects' imitation or nonimi tat ion was interpreted in terms of wliether their imitation of one of the models or nonimi tat ion was the same on both experimental days. It will be seen that all coefficients are positive, ranging from .02 to .25. Reliability for males and the full sample is statistically significant, with reliability for the white subjects approaching significance at ^he .10 level. These reliability coefficients are not directly comparable statistically to those of the primary task as they are based upon only one degree of freedom, which al lows a maximum coefficient of .71. However, it would appear that subjec-^s' imitation of the models or nonim i tat ion of the secondary imitation task was only minimally reliable. Tab le ^ Reliability' Primary Imitation Task Mode 1 n i fated Negro Fema I es Negro "'ia I es Whi+e Fema I es p < .05* Pearson r Correlation White Ma 1 es Ful i Samo I e A

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39 Table 5 Reliability Secondary Imitation Task Negroes .20 Whites .17 Females .02 Males .25* Full Samp I e . ' '* p < .05* Contingency Coefficient It will be recalled that the two imitation tasks were carried out with three groups of subjects. This allowed counterbalancing of figure color and order of figure drawing tor the th-ee models in the primary imitation task. The three independent groups of subjects may be regarded as p'-oviding two replications of the imitation tasks. Tables 6 and 7 show the percentage of imita-^ion of models and nonimitation in the three groups on each of the tasks. In addition, the mean percentages of the three groups are presented. The frequencies of imitation and noni mi tat i on in these tables are expressed in percen+ages because the three groups were unequal in number of subj-cts. Frequencies from which these percentages were calculated are shown in Appendix B. Chi-Square analysis of the differences between frequencies in the primary figure drawing task (Table 6) yielded an overall value of 188.71. With df = 14, this was significant beyond the .001 level. This significant difference was due to differences in frequencies of model imitation, creative non-imitation, and nonimi tat i on, and not differences between groups. A statistical test of the difference

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40 between groups resulted in a X^ value of .25. With df =2, this showed a high probability of occurrence by chance, p >.96. Consequently, it may be asserted that figu''e color and order of figure drawing for the three models did not have a significant effect; and that imitation and non-imi tat ion by -he ^hree groups was much alike. Table 6 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation of Models, Creative Non-Imitation and i\lon! mi tati on on the Primary Imita'l'ion Task (Experimental Days Combined) by the Three Subject Groups A ;A) \= (\D) V/P (WP) CNl \I Group I 20.22 15.04 14. 15 8.52 16.22 9 .,55 4.67 15.56 Group II 13.59 15.14 K.7/1 11.93 16.99 14.09 5.49 6.97 Group 111 24.06 7.^1 18.47 5.22 18.29 6.62 6.95 15,00 X| II III 21.15 10.95 15.96 8.57 17.24 9.90 5.15 11.27 Chi-Square analysis of the differences be"^ween frequencies in the secondary bean es-^imnt'on -ask (Table 7) yielded an overall value of 4.62. With df = 6, this was not significant. The difference betv/een groups was likewise not significant. With df = 2, the X value of .50 showed a high probability of occurrence by chance, p >.95. For both imitation tasks, then, it appears that the pattern of imitation of the models and noni mi tat i on was a stable phenomenon among the three groups cf first grade subjects.

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41 Table 7 Percentages of Imita-ion of Models and Non-Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by the Three Subject Groups Gl-OUD 1

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42 On the prima'-y ficu-'e dr-awing +ask, sub jec^s of both ^aces and sexes displayed complete and partial imi'^ation of the adul"^, Mec''o peer, and white peer models, crea"^ive non-imitation, and non-imitation. Among all subjec"^s creat've noni m i -at i on was least frequenand imitation of the adult models the most frequen-^. See Table 3 and Figure 5. With df = 21, an obtained Chi-Square value o" 162.12 demons"^ra-^ed overall significant differences among the frequencies from which the percentages in Table 3 were calculated, p -r^.OOl. This di"ference was due to imitation of the models and the two kinds of non-imi "!"a+ ion responses. A X'^ value r of 1.05 indicated that the difference between subjects of different race and sex was not s i gn i f i can-!-, p p>..70. V/hen subjects' complete plus partial imitation of the -*-hree models was contrasted with their two kinds of non-imi-^a^ion it was apparent -^here was significantly more imitation than noni mi ta^ ' on (X? = 1975.90, df = 3, p -<.001), As in the primary imitation task, subjects of both races and sexes displayed imitation of "^he -^hree models and noni mi tat ion on the secondary bean estim.ation -*-ask. Among all subjects, imitation of the whi-t-e peer models was least f^'-equent, noni mi -!-ati on the most frequent. See Table 9 and Figure 4. With df = 9, -'r'-e obtained Chi-Square value of 1^1.74 did not de'^cnstra-^e overall a significant difference among the frequencies from which the percentages in Table 9 were calcula-^ed. Nonetheless, as with -!-he p'-imary imitation task, there was a significant effec"!due to imitation of models and non-imitation CC^ = 9.93, df = 2 r ' ' <.C1) and, therefore, no significant difference between subjects of dif-erent race and sex. Unlike findings in the primary imitation task, subjects displayed significantly m.ore nonimi tat ion than imitation (7x2 = 16.24, df = 3, p < .01 should be noted, however, that had

PAGE 54

43 Table 8 Percentages' of Complete and 'Partial Imitation of Models, Creative Non-Imitation and Non1 mi tat ion on the i^rimary Imitation Tasi< (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex A (A) NP (NP) WP (WP) CNl Nl Negro Females 24.12 11.50 17.04 3.63 15.57 6.64 2.21 15.50 Negro Males 21.23 12.55 18.42 8.95 15.75 8.54 .93 13.62 White Females 22.95 8,61 15,74 7.00 20,75 9.27 3.80 11.87 White Males 18.71 12.19 14.76 9.25 15.00 11.95 9.03 9.08 Based on all subjects, N = 146. partial imitation been scored as nonimi tat i on in the primary imitation task, percentages of imitation of models and noni mi tat i on would have been much more nearly the same in both imitation tasks. Table 9 Percentages of Imitation of Models, and Non-Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task (Exper ' menta I Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex NP WP Nl Negro Females 23.33 23.33 13.33 40.00 Negro Males 24.00 8,00 12.00 56.00 White Females 23.00 15.00 13.00 49.00 White Males 16.07 7,14 8.93 67.85 Based on all subjects, N = 145.

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46 l-'ypothesis 2 predic-^ed ~hat sL'bjec-1-s of both races would imitate the white female adui"^ models significantly more -^han the peer models of either race on ho~h "^asks. Hypothesis 2 was confirmed completely with the prima''y imitation task and partially with the seconda'-y imi-^e-^ion task. Tables 10 and 11 show Chi-Scuare values contrasting differences in frequency of subjects' imitation of the adult models with their imita-'on of ^he pee'" models of each race on the primary and secondar\ imita-'on -f-asks. All Chi-Squere values in Tables 10 and 11 sre in -^he direction o'-edic^ed by hypothesis 2, hence pos i t i ve. On "^he orimary imi"I"aticn task three of sixteen Chi-Square values were not s i gn i f i can-^, Negro males did not imita-f-e "f"he adult model they observed significantly mor-e than the Negro peer model they observed when ccmo I e"^e imi-!"at:on responses we^e con-i-as'^ed, bu"^ did when ccmole't'e plus partial imi-^ation responses we'^e contras"l"ed . ',','hen comDle"^e and complete plus partial imi^at'on -esDonses were contras"^ed, it was noted that whi"^e females did no~ imi"!"ate the adult model they observed significantly more than the white peer mode! they observed. These three nonsignificant Chi-Square values were due '^c differences in imitation between the two sexes of each race. When the subjects of different s.ex were combined fcm^ng less specific subject categories, Negroes and whites, significant diffe^^ences were obtained in all •^h''ee instances. Consequently, hypo"^hesis 2 was completely confirmed by Negro and white subjects' imitation on the primary imitation ~ask.

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47 Table 10 Chi -Square Values' Contrasting Frequency c^ Complete and Complete Pius Partial Imitation of the Adult Models with mitation of the Peer Models of Each Race (Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary Imitation Task by Subjects of Each Race and Sex A NP A + (A) N!^ -r (NP) A WP A + (A) -V/P -^ (WP) i^legro Fema I es Negro Ma les Wh i te Fema I es White Ma les 5.5C 1.48 20.12* 7.32* 5.04* 21 .40*** 6.70** 5.05* 12,26* .58* ,58 V p
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Subjec-!-s' imitation en the secondary imitation task fails to confirm completely hypothesis 2. Only v/hite subjects and male subjects imi-t-a + ed -I"he adult mode's significantly more than the peer models of either race. Hov/ever, Negro subjects' and female subjects' greater imitation of the adul")" models than white peer models approached significance at the .10 level. Data in Appendix B show that all four instances on nons i gn i f i cance were due to differences in Negro females' imitation. In this respect N'egro females' imitation differed on the primary and secondary imitation tasks. Hypothesis 3A, which predicted significantly greater imitation of white Deer models than Negro peer models by subjects of both races, was largely unconfirmed. Tables 12 and 13 show Chi-Square values contrasting differences in frequency of subjects' imitation of the white peer models with their imitation of the Negro peer models on the primary and secondary imitation tasks. Table 12 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Complete and Complete Plus Partial Imitation of the Negro and White Peer Models on the Primary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex NP WP NP + (NP) WP + (WP) Negro Females (-) .06 (-) .66 Negro Males (-) 1 . 56 • (-) 1 .36 Wh i te Fema I es Wh i -^e Ma I es /l0.2S**Y /l5.02***V V -^^ J \ 2-82 J df = 1 p <.05*, p <.01**, p < .00i*'<-* Based on all subjects, N = 146. 2 2 X = 5.92*, Contrast of models imitated by all white subjects regard 1 ess of sex. X = 15.88***, Contrast of models imitated by all white subjects regardless of sex.

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49 Table 13 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Trequency of Imitation of the Negro and V/hite Peer Models on the Secondary Imitation Task (Expeimenta 1 Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race end Sex Negroes (-) .04 Whites .00 Females (-) .64 Ma I es . 53 C7 1 Based on all subjec-s, N = 146. On the primary figure drawing imitation task Negro females' and males' imita-f-ion of the Dee-" models contradicts hypothesis 3A. That is, Negro subjects imitated the Negro oeer models more than the white peer models, though not s ; gn i f i canI y. V,'h i te female and male subjec"l"s' imi"l"ation of the peer models was in the predicted direction, although only white females imitated the whi-^e peer model they observed significantly more than the Negro oeer model they observed. However, if both female and male subjec"^ categories are combined for white subjects, the two resulting Chi-Square values are significant as shown in Table 12. That is, white subjects, unlike the Negro subjects, imita"^ed the white peer models significantly more than the Negro peer models. On the secondary bean estimation 'mitation task only males' imitation of the peer models was in the predicted direction, although not significantly. Negroes' and females' imitation were contradictory

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50 to hypothesis 5A, in that these subjects imitated the Negro peer model nore than the white peer mode!, aKhough not significantly more. As in hypothesis 2, a contrast was noted between female subjects' imitation on the primary imitation task and their imitation on the secondary imitation task. White females' significantly greater imitation of the white peer model they observed than Negro peer model they observed on the primary imitation task was clearly not reflected in their imitation of these peer models on the secondary imitation task. In o"^he^ respects, subjects' imitation was no"?" i neons i S"^ent on the two imi"!"ation tasks. Hyoothesls 3B predicted that Negro subjects would imitate Negro peer models significantly more than would white subjects. On the primary imitation task Negro males and Negro subjects In general did imitate the Negro peer model significantly more than did the white males and white subjects in general. However, as Table 14 shows. Table 14 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Negro Subjects' Imitation of the Negro Peer Models wi"^h White Subjects' Imitation of the Negro Peer Models (Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary Imitation Task Females (NW) Males (N W) Ful I Samole (N W) (-) 13. 78*** 4 . 32* \ip + (MP) (-) .80 12 92*** 4.41* df = 1 p <.05*, D < .001*** Based on all subjects, N = 146,

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51 Negro fe'^a'es imitated the N!egro peer model they observed less than the '.vh i te females, although no"^ significantly less. While hypothesis 3B was confirmed by im.itetion on the primary imitation task, it was female subjects, once again, whose imitation deviated from the predic-^ed direction. On -he secondary imitation task Negro subjects imi"^ated Negro peer models mce -han did white subjects, but not significantly more CX. =.44, df 1, p >.50). Corr-el3~ion of Subjects' '"""^a-'cn V/'-^h ""'o'r 1 n-^el 1 ' oence Test Scores and Scl'^olas'ic Ach'evement Tes~ Scces It will be recalled that hypo'l'heses 4and 5, regarding the measured intelligence and scholastic achievement of subjects, were tes'!"ed with a sample of 36 Negro and 36 white subjects ma")"ched in Total IQ and sex. Hypothesis ^ predicted that imitation of the white female adult models and white peer models by subjects of both races would be Dositively correlated wi"!"h theim.easured intelligence. Tables 15 and 16 show correlation coefficients, Pearson r and Contingency, respectively, between models imi"!"ated and non-imitation on the primary and secondary imi"^ation -^asks and To-^a I IQ of subjects in ^he matched sample. Appendix B includes tables showing the correlation coefficients between subjects' imitation of the models and nonimitation on the primary imitation task and -heir Non-Language, Language, as well as To"!'a I IQ's. Included are the cofrelation coefficients for the full sample on the two imitation tasks. The strength and direction of Pearson r and Con-^ingency Coefficients depended upon the extent "o which subjects who imitated cer-I-ain m.odels more frequently than did other subjects were those whose IQ scores were higher than o"^her subjec~s,

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52 On "!-he primary figure drawing imita"!'ion ^ask hypo'!"hesis 4 was largely unconfirmed. Only white female and m.a ! e subjects' imita-f-ion of the adult models demonstrated a significan"^ positive correlation with their Total IQ's. In addition, all subjects' noni mi tat ion, and creative non-imitation plus non-i m,i tation showed negative correlations with their Total IQ's, with the nega+ive correlations of white males being significant. Although not hypothesized, it was anticioated -hat creative noni mi ta"^ ion would be posi"I"ively coirelated with subjects' Total IQ's. This an-^i c i pa-^ed positive correlation approached significance for Negi'o females only, and was the single positive correlation coefficient among all Negi'o subjects on the primary imitation task tha-^ approached significance in testing hypothesis 4. Since the matched sample (N' = 72) consis^t-ed of Negro and white subjects whose mean To-*a I !Q was 36.10 as compa'-ed to the full sample (N = 146) mean Total IQ of 93.26, it may be asked, 'What were the correlation coef f ic i en-^s be"^ween imitation of models and noni mi -j-ati on and theTo-^al IQ's of -^he more in-^elligent full sample?' These coefficien-^s, shown in Appendix 3, were all low and not significant, except between subjects' creative non-imitation and their Language, NonLanguage, and To -Ia I IQ's. On -^he basis of results fi-om the primary imitation task, then, it would aopear that white females' and males' imita-I-ion of the adult models '^ay be adaptive behavior, bu"^ only for those subjec-^s whose i n-^e I 1 i genoe was less than average. For more intelligent subjects (those subjects in the full sample) creative nonimitation, in contrast to imitation of the models, was a response of the most in-^elligent subjects. However, this does not mean necessarily that creative noni mi ta-!ion was an adaptive response of these subjects.

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53 Table 15 Correlation Coefficients^ Between Imita-^ion of Models, Creative Non-1 mi ta"^ion, and Non1 mi tati on (Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary Imitation Task by Subjects in the Matched Sample with Their Total IQ's Mode I I mi tated Negro Fema 1 es Negro Males Wh i te Fetna I es Wh i+e Wa 1 es A

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54 Table 16 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated and Noni mi "!"ati on on the Secondary Imi-^a-^ion Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects in the Matched Sample"^ and Their Total IQ's es ema i es A NP V,'P NI .23^ .52^ .06 (-) .i9 .16 .00 .12 ( ) .14 .27 .03 .16 (-) .07 .24* (-) .05 (-) .18 D <.C5^^ Con-^Ingency Coefficient N = 72; 56 pairs of subjects of each race. positive correlation with their Total IQ's. These findings con-^rast with those from the primary imi-^ation task in so far as Negro subjects' imitation showed a s i gn i f i can-;positive correlation with their Total IQ's, while white subjects' imit3"!-ion did not. Results from the two imif-ation tasks agreed, however, in that for subjects of both races and sexes noni mi tat i on was negatively correlated w'th Total IQ. Moreover, as in -^he primary imitation task, when imitation and Total IQ were cor'-elated in the full sample coefficients were likewise uniformly low and nonsignificant. Overall, it would appear that the relationship between imitation and in-^elligence remains uncctain. Slight support was gained for the predic-^-ed positive correla-^ion between Negro and white subjects' imi-fation of the adult models and their measured intelligence. Yet, these significant positive correlations were found among

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ve 55 the less intelligent natched sample only, whicli suggests that imitation of adult figures may be adaptive behavior for children whose mental age is approximately six years or less. By contrast, creative noni mi tati on may be adaptive behavior for first grade subjects of average or better intelligence. The predicted positive correlations between imitation of the white peer models and measured intelligence were not found. Convincing general support for imitation as adapti behavior was not obtained, so that hypothesis 4, as stated, was unconf i rmed. Hypothesis 5 predicted that imitation of the adult female models and white peer models by subjects of both races would be positively correlated with their scholastic achievement. In hypothesis 5 the sum of stanines or the total achievement test score was considered the criterion of scholastic achievement. Tables 17 and 18 show the correlation coefficients, Pearson r and Contingency, respectively, between models imitated and non-imitation on the primary and secondary imitation tasks and the total achievement +est scores of subjects in the matched sample. Appendix B includes tables showing the correlation coefficients between subjects' imitation of the models and non-imitation on the primary imitation task and their stanine scores on the six scholastic achievement subtests of the S"^anford Achievement Test. Included are the correlation coefficients for the full sample on the two imitation tasks. On the primary imitation task white males' imitation of the adult model they observed and Negro males" imitation of the Negro peer model they observed showed a significant positive correlation with

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56 their total achievement test scces. As in hyoo-^hesis ^, noni mi tat i on, end cea^ive non-imitation plus noni mi ta"!" ion were nega-!-ive!y correlated with all subjects' total achievement ^es" scores, significantly so exceot e'^o"-Vegro females. it was anticipated that subjects' creative noni mi tat ion would be oosi^ively correlated with !"hei'' to"^a 1 ach i evem.en"!" "^est scores. These positive correlations were found among Negro females and white males, but were not s i gn i •f' i can-^ in both cases. Appendix 3 shows ^ha+ when findings frcm -^he primary imi-f-atlon task >vere tested acceding to hyoothesis 5 with the more intelligen"^ subjects in -!-he full samole, coefficients diminished and were generally not significan-^ as they were with the full samole in hypo"!"hesis 4-. Similarly however, cree"^ive noni m i tat Ion was found significantly correla"^ed with subjects' achievement test stanines in the full sample. On the secondaf"Y imitation -^ask no support was found for hypothesis 5. Contingency coef f i c i en"l"s we-'e low, with perhaps two exceptions, and none were sufficiently high to be s'^a"^ i S"l"i ca I I y significant. Appendix B shows coeff'cients were even lower and equally not significant in the full sample. Overall, it would ^;i';>e^'r that meage'support for hypothesis 5 was found in the positive correlation between wh i -^e males' imitation of the aduli" mode! they observed en the primary imita-^ion task and their total achievement test scores. No support was found for the predicted positive correlation be"^ween imitation of the white peer models and to^a I achievement test scores. In general, hypothesis 5 was unconfirmed.

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57 Table 17 Correlation Coefficients^ Between Models imita-^ed, Creative Non-1 mi taticn, and Non-Imitation (Experimental Days Combined) on -^'n^ Primary Imitation Task by Subjects in the Matched Sample and Their Toi-a I Scholastic Achievement Test Scores Model

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58 Table 18 Corre ! a"!" ! on Coefficients 3e"^v,'eep Models Irnita+ed and NonI mi i-at ion on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by Subjec-^s in -he Matched Samole^ and Their Total Scholastic Achievement Tes"^ Scores A

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noted in the dininished correlation coefficients on botli iTiitation tasks when hypotheses 4 and 5 were tes+ed on the basis of the fui I sample in addition to the matched sample. Exceptions to these low correlations with the full sample were found in the significant positive correlations between subjects' creative non-imitation and both their th-ee IQ scores, and their achievement test stanines. These similarities, most likely, were due to the positive correlation between all subjects' Total IQ's and their total achievement test scores (Pearson r = .70). From an overall viewpoint, the five hypotheses of the present study received decreasing support in the same order they were presented. Except for hypothesis 1, which was completely confirmed, there was some disagreement between findings from the primary and secondary imitation tasks on all of the hypotheses. Regarding findings for hypothesis 1, it was noted that both imitation tasks would have shown nearly equal proportions of imitation and non-imitation had findings from the primary imitation task been scored in the same manner as the secondary imitation task. Hypotheses 2 through 5 received some support, but only hypotheses 2, 3A and 3B received sufficient support for partial confirmation. Slight support was found for hypotheses 4 and 5, those in which a positive correlation was predicted between imitation and two factors relevant to classroom learning, intelligence and scholastic achievement. Certain results departing from the hypotheses were found related to subjects' race and sex. However, among these departures no specific race-sex interaction was found repeatedly. Only Negro subjects'

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60 imitation shewed consis")-ent devia"Mon from the hypo"^heses. Negro subjects' imita"^ion on the prim3'"Y and secondary imitation tasks provided less supDor"+ fc hypo"T"heses 2 -^hrcugh 5 "^han white subjects' imitation. Hypo"^heses 2 and 3A received less suppor+ from Negro subjects because ^hey imitated -^he Mecro peer models more than predicted. While virtually no supoor-^ was provided hypo"^heses ^ and 5 by Negro subjec-^s, "heir imitation of the Negro peer models did show unpredicted significant posi"^ive cere 1 anions with their Total IQ's and total achievement test scores. V/h i +e subjects, by con-f-ras^, provided support for hypo"^heses ^ and 5 -f-hrough their imitation of the adult models, but no~ through imi-^ation of "i"heir same-sex oeer models.

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DISCUSSION In this investigation, understanding of Negro and wiiite pupils' social adjustment to racially integrated first grade classes was sought in the relative frequency with which they imitated white female adult models and Negro and white peer models, Negro first graders were regarded with special interest in comparing their adjustment with that of white pupils. Secondly, Negro and white pupils' imitation was correlated with their measured intelligence and scholastic achievement to assess their adap-^ation to academic aspects of first grade. The five hypotheses stated about these and other concerns of the present study will be discussed first with respect to the findings and the conclusions and implications stemming from them. Second, the sufficiency of the results will be discussed with respect to the methods by which they were obtained and analysed. Third, directions for future research will be proposed which appear most salient. Conclusions and Implications About the Results Findings for hypothesis 1 show that the primary and secondary imitation tasks effectively yielded imitation of each of the models by first grade subjects of each race and sex. Since subjects recorded their own responses on paper, both imitation tasks successfully demonstrated that imitative behavior may be covert, and not necessarily 61

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62 grossly motoric as in -^.early all ©''her imitation s"!"udies. in addition, the first graders' responses included nonim : "I"at ion. Because of the varied scoring possible for the primary imitation task, nonimi tat i on now may be seen as more than a simple failure of subjects to imitate. On the prim3!-y imitation task, imitation and non-imitation formed a loose con-^inuum. Beginning with exact roDroduction of figures drawn by the models, in terms O'^ shaoe and color, subjects made intermediate responses of partial imitation and creative noni mi tat ion, and at the other extreme, absolute nonimi ta"l" ion, or no drawing at all. The findings from the primary and secondary imitation tasks differed for hyDO"!"hesis 2, which predicted greater imitation of adult models than peer models of each race. Nonetheless, from both there was substantial support for the predicted greater imitation of adult models than imita-'-ion of peer models of either race. To the extent the findings support hypothesis 2, they also support well established theories of Freud, Erikson, Placet and others, which hold that adults are the prime determiners of children's learning about interpersonal behavior to the children's age of six, aoprox i mate I y . In terms of im'^a-^ion they are -he most potent models for children's learning how +o respond to the world around them. Although general support was found for hypothesis 2, there were a number of Chi-Scuare values in the predicted direction that were nonsignificant. This indicated greater peer model imitation relative to adult model imitation by subjects of each race than expeci"ed. This contrary evidence agrees with two imita+ion studies, whose findings did not support the personality theories of Freud,

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63 Erikson, and Piaget. Hicks (1965) found greater male peer model imitation when imitation followed shortly after observation of adult and peer models' behavior, I^iusselman (1967) found that six and one half year-old males did not imitate an adult male model more than a male peer model on five different imitation tasks. In one of the five tasks, similar to the secondary imitation task of the present study, the peer model was imitated significantly more than the adult model. Apparently, then, the results of the present study are divided between support of the three personality theories and support of those conflicting findings from relevant imitation studies. Possibly the divided support indicates a developing inclination of the Negro and white subjects to imitate their peers as frequently as adults. Two observations corroborate this inference. The greater age of the subjects in the present study (mean age seven years) than children referred to in those personality theories cited may have brought about in them increased comparison of themselves with their peers, independence from parents, and involvement and competition in many new tasks and games. Secondly, it may be observed that the subjects' more frequent than expected peer model imitation was discriminating. Nonsignificant differences in Tables 10 and 11 are largely due to Negro subjects' more frequent than expected imitation of Negro peer models than adult models and white subjects' more frequent than expected imitation of white peer models than adult models. Findings for hypotheses 3A and 5B regarding the frequency of peer model imitation by subjects of each race support the observation that Negro and white subjects' imitation was discriminating and

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64 biased. Reaardina hypothesis 3A, this was part i cu I a^1 y surprising about Negro subjects, who imitated Nec'-o peer rrode I s more -^han white peer models. Reports by Pe-^-l-icrew (1964), Erikson (1964) and others aaree that Negro children orefer to identify with white children rather than ch i I dren/ tne : r own race. Masland (1956) noted that the preference of t^egro children -*-o identify with white children was accen-^uated in the South. Contradictory findings of the present S"l"udY raise at least two questions needing further i nves"!"i gat ion . In what demonstrable resoec"'-s are the processes of identification and imitation alike? Two theories have equated identification and imitation through operational consideration of identification as behavior (Bronf enbrenner, 1960), and i dent i f i ca"l~ ion as social facilitation (Bandura, 1962). While there is some evidence to support this thecre";" i ca I position, it seems insufficient to regard the processes as synonymous. The poin"^ is that for children age 4 to 5, approximately, i den-^i f ication with adults and identification with peers may be different psychological processes, that imitation of adults might occur on this basis but no+ imitation of peers. Barriers ags'ns" identification with adul'^s and i den"!" i f i cat i on with peers probably differ. Many of the Negro subjects in the present s+udy may have wanted to iden-ify wi-fh their white peers, or wan-^ed to be like them, ye"!nonetheless, in ce-'tain soecific situations, such as the ^wo imitation tasks, may have imitated their same race peers to whom they were more accustomed. Secondly, how uniform and widespread are Negro children's preferences for identification with their white oeers? Previous

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65 obse^va^icns by Pett'crew, Erikson, and others have served implicit heu'ristic p'jrposes by sugges-ing that Negro children, as a dov/ntrcdden, fninority group, are qui"^e ready to conform to and adopt white children's ways. Findings of the presen-ls~'jdy of X'ecro p'jpils' in i n-^egra^ec classes do not supoor"!" -hese reports. Ve~, a large sample, explora~0!-y s~udy would be needed to determine the extenof Kearo children's preference for identification with, and imita"!"ion of their same race pee-'s. While the ex"!"ent is unknown, some of the reasons fo^ Negro child-en's same race preference may be inferred. In school, many newly i nteg-a-^ed, Negro firs"^ crade'^s may perceive lit-le rewa-d in i den-^i f i cat ion with white children. Certainly for many, the first year's experiences a-e scho 1 as-^i c I y and socially d i scomfori ng. V/ith these exoe-iences i "f can be understood why Negro children, like other children, would meet rejection with rejection, f rus-!"rat ion with aggression, and forego effort to learn new behavior in favor of accustomed ways. There sre recent findings which show that in non-stressful c i rcums-|-ances, also, children orefer to imitate those who they perceive as most similar to themselves. RoseK^ans (1967) found that bo^^'h the frequency of imitat'on and size of behavior repertoire we-e g-ea-^er when 11-K yea!--old male subjects perceived themselves as simMar -^o mode! (in terms of interests, skills, background, and group membership) than when the subjects perceived themselves as d'ssimila--. In terms of background and group membership the-e is evidence of anothe" basis for Negro youths' preferred sam.e race i den-^ i f i cat ion that is temporally parallel and interacting with their frus-ration in school. As reported by Dreger

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66 and Mi I lei(1965) Himes has e-riDhasized i-he significance of the cul-^-ural factors which bring about Negro youths' reaiiza-^ion that they, like -heir parents, have little opportuni-^y to at"^ .• i n the vocational and econo"nic advan-^aces of whites. Perceiving no likelihood of attaining ^hese advantages, Negro youths, even from a young age, may find I ittle motivation fc identifying with the white Protes+ant ethic of selfimprovemen-^ and siriving. General confirmation of hypothesis 3B, as well as racial differences found for hypotheses 4 and 5 add to the finding that Negro subjects imitated Negro peer models more than white peer models. Toae-her, the findings strengthen "!"he conclusion that Negroes' social adjustment was different tha'^ predicted. That is, the expectation was not supported that Negro subjects would make a greater social adjustment to first grade than white subjects by imitating white peers with whom they were less familiar than Negro oeers. Hypothesis 4 predicted positive correlations be'^ween subjects' imita-l"ion and their measured Intel I icence because of evidence suggesting both a^e adaptive processes. Similar reasoning underlay hypothesis 5, which c"-edic-*-ed positive coi^re I ai" ions between subjects' imitation and -I"heir measui'ed scholas-^ic ach i evemen-^. Five similarities were noted between findings for hypc^heses ^ and 5, which appeared most likely a1"tr i butab I e "^o the significant positive correlation between subjects' Total IQ's and their total achievement test scores (Pearson r = .70). In the matched samole (N = 72, 36 pairs of each race), significant positive correlations were found primarily for Negro subjects' imitation of Negro peer models, and white subjects' imitation of adult

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67 models. By contrast, in -|-he full sample (N = 146) the only significant positive correlations were found between subjects' creative nonimi tat i on and each of the three \Q scores, and between creative noni mi tat ion and each of the seven achievement test stanine scores. Altogether, these findings provide little evidence that imitation in first grade is either intellectually adaptive or a method of learning academic material. However, some explanation would seen to be needed for the finding that there were differences between the matched sample and full sample in support of hypotheses 4 and 5. Possibly the differences depended upon the social and scholastic status of the subjects. As appendix B shows, the mean mental age of subjects in the matched sample was one year less than that of subjects in the full sample. Moreover, subjects in the matched sample we^-e much less scholssticly successful, on the whole, than those in the full sample. The significant positive correlations found among subjects in the matched sample suggests that their interpersonal relationships play a greater role in their scholastic endeavor than among those more i nte I I i gent subjects of the full sample. By contrast, for subjects in the full sample intelligence and scholastic ach i evemen")were found less positively correlated with their imitation of adult or peer models than with creative responses. This was interesting in view of positive correlations previously reported between measures of intelligenco and creativity, e.g.. Crop I ey (1966). Yet, more important for the present study, findings from the full sample supported the theoretical position of Piaget, that imitation is not intelligent adaptation. However, this support was based upon imitation in structured tasks, which was correlated with a standardized

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68 -^est of General i n-f-e I ' i gence. In this s"^udy I ti i -f-a-fion apoeared to se'-ve a function of soc'a! ad jus")"men-^ or adaotation more "!"han i nte I 1 ec"^'ja I or scholas"^ic adaD"l"at ion. The'^efore, It would be valuable to de"^ermine if imitation, particularly imitation in uns-^ructyed social situations is positively correla-^ed with social i nte I I i gence, Methodo I oqica 1 Considerations The development of an imitaf"ion task, one aporopr i a+e to the class'-oom educa"!"ion of firs"!" g^ade^'s, '.vas a necessary Initial step. A geometr-ic figure d'-awinc task was chosen as the p'"imary imitation task. The task was designed to coincide wi"^h fl-'S"^ graders' level of abili"^ies, and the consistent enthusiasm with which the imitation task was met by subjects suggests i "I" was appropriate. While some of the subjects could not draw as well as o"!"he:'s, this did not affect scoring of their responses. To the investigator's knowledge the task was unique in demonstrating a more cove-'t kind of imi+a"^Ion than found in other imitation studies, as wel I as the varied scoring of imi+a-^ion and nonimi tat Ion. Since the task consisted of thirty trials, i "^ D'^ovided continuous da"^a. It was possible to ca^ry out fifteen o-' -^he thi'—l-y -^i-Ials on each of two successive experimental days. This allowed measu--eme"t of subjects' reliability of responding to It, and I"!" was found tha"!" the orima'-y imitation task yielded reliable data. Consequently, it may be considered an app'"opriate and adequate measure of imitation in the p^'esent study.

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69 A secondai-y imitation task was included in the present study in order to a M ow generalization about the findings from the primary imitation task. This task consisted of estimating the number of dried beans in one of two different size bottles on each of the two experimental days. Therefore, the number of estimates of frequency counts for each subject was two. This made each subjects' frequency counts non-continuous, and the total frequency small. Consequently, the only methods of analyses possible were Chi-Square and its related nominal scale measure of association, the Contingency Coefficient. The necessity of comparing Contingency Coefficients with Pearson r Coefficients from the primary imitation task was unfortunate because of the different values possible for them. Another statistical problem was that with df = 1 in al I of the analyses except those for hypothesis 1, Chi-Square and Contingency Coefficient values had to be relatively high before they reached significance at the .05 level. (Moreover, the small frequency of counts (two) for each subject required combining of subject categories of both sexes per race and both races per sex. This made results from the two imitation tasks more difficult to compare. Different subject categorization for the primary imitation task was maintained, however, in order to show specific race-sex interactions. In retrospect, this proved rather fruitless in that consistent racs-sex interactions were not found. A third major drawback of the secondary imitation task resulted from the minimal reliability of subjects' responses to it. Because subjects' responses to this task were too unreliable it cannot be considered as satisfactory validation of the primary imitation

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70 task. Neither does it offer a su'-er statistical basis for generalizing about findings f'"om the primary imitation task. However, the seriousness of the p-oblemof validation and generalization is questionable. Despite the minimal reliability of the secondary imitation task, there was some ag'"eement between findings for both imitation tasks on all of the five hypotheses. Secondly, in view of the face validity of the primary imitation -^ask, and the reliability of subjects' •-esponses to it, it would appear -^hat this -^ask would have been no less sufficient by i"^self than other imitation studies, which employed on ly one task. One fur"!"he'" observation should be made about the imitation "^asks. 1"^ was observed that there were cer-*-ain consistent race differences in -^he findings, but no consIs"!"ent race-sex interactions, or sex differences. Most likely this was due to the design of the imitation tasks, which allowed subjects of each race and sex to observe models of each race, but not models of each sex. In order to have subjects of each sex observe and imitate models of each sex, it would probably be necessary to e-^oloy a different type of task or ca'-'-y ou"!" a separate study I ike the present one. The reason for this is "!"hat it was observed that +oward the end of the thirty trials on the primary imitation task subjects began to lose interest. A second area of concern about the methodology is the size of the matched sample employed. The thirty-six Negro and thirty-six whi-^e subjects in the matched sample should be regarded as the minimum necessary fc" statistical analyses. The problem was particularly acute when correlations were performed on specific race-sex

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71 subject categories, e.g., Negro females. In the matched sample there were only fifteen female subjects of each race. This meant that where Pearson r correlations were computed for the females of each race, coefficients had to be .51 or greater to reach significance at the .05 level. 3y contrast, a statistically significant coefficient for the full sample was .16 or greater. Hopefully, future research concerning integrated Negro children will find them more numerous, and thereby more available for inclusion in subject samples. Suggestions for Future Research As the title indicates, this study was more an attempted synthesis than analysis. Those areas in which the synthesis was not achieved appeared to offer the most worth/ d i rect ions for future research. One assumption underlying hypotheses 2 through 5 was that imitation and identification are essentially similar processes. While these processes have been equated theoretically, the present findings, among those from certain other studies, did not support the equation. It remains, however, for a more in-depth study to be directed specifically at both processes together. Contrary to hypothesis 3A, Negro subjects imitated Negro peer models more than white peer models. In view of the possibility that many Negro children do not prefer to identify with white ch i I dren, a large samp I e, exp I oratory study would be valuable in showing the actual extent and underlying reasons for their preferences.

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The prediction that imitation is similar to intellectual adaptation or that it is a method of learning academic ma+erial was not s'jDDorted. However, -^-he lack of suppc-""^ was derived from a soeci"^ic c-sde of school child''en, only two of many kinds of 'mi-^ation tasks, and one intelligence and one scholas"^ic achievement test. The Dossible relationship be'^ween these variables seems sufficiently important ~o warrant another s"^udy with different measures, 1"^ was observed tha-^ imitation served mc'"e a 'unction of social adjus~men-^ cr adao-^a"!ion -j-han in-^ellectual adao^^ation (as measured by a s't'andard i zed "!"es"^). Therefo''e, i "^ would be worth de"^erminlng i -^ imi-^ation in ra-^he" unstructured social situations is, a^ leas^, cartly a function of children's social intelligence. An intef"estinq modification of a study emnloying unstructu'-ed social si+ua-^ions would be to measu'-e imitation when various reinforcements or social consequences accued to models' behavior. In a study similar -!-o that p'-oposed, Sucimura ('965) '"evealed +hat findings can be complex and diffcen^ than predicted. Because racial differences were of g'"ea"!"es"^ concern in the presen"^ study, subjec'^s observed Deer models of different race but no"!" peer models of oppos'"^e sex. As a result, possible consistent differences be"^ween the two sexes' resoonses were masked. In addition, the restricfed type of models observed did not allow a complete i nves"!" ' gat ion of race-sex interactions of responses. Another study allowing subjects observation and imitation o* peer models of each race and sex would provide a more complete understanding of the interpersonal re 1 at ionsh i Ds of the school children samoled.

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SUMMARY This investigation attempted to determine the extent to which Negro and white first grade pupils in racially integrated classes would imitate a teacher-like model, and Negro and white peer models, Negro and white subjects' relative frequency of imitating the three kind of models was expected to provide information about their social adjustment to first grade. It was predicted that white female (teacherlike) models would be imitated most frequently by subjects of each race, white peer models next, and Negro peer models least by subjects of each race. Secondly, subjects' imita+ion and noni mi tat i on was correlated with their tested intelligence and scholastic achievement to assess their adaptation to academic aspects of first grade. One hundred forty-six subjects, comprising pupils of each race and sex, were selected from the two most integrated elementary schools in Gainesville, Florida. To test hypotheses regarding subjects' tested intelligence and scholastic achievement a matched sample was employed. Thirty-six pairs of Negrc and white subjects were matched by sex and equal intelligence score. Subjects were interchanged by sex in the first grade classes so they could observe and imitate a Negro and white peer model of their same sex, and a (teacherI i ke) model. The primary imitation task consisted of drawing thirty colored geometric figures. A secondary task was estimating the number of beans in two bottles. Intelligence was estimated by the California Short-Form Test 73

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74 of Menial Maturity (1963 Revision). Scholastic Achievement was estima-J-ed by -he S"^anford Achievement Test (1964 Revision). S'jhjects' imitation and non-imitation of *he models on the primary ^ask we-'e reliable, bu^ noon the secondary task. Both "^asks y'e'ded imita'f'ion of al I models by subjec"^s of each race and sex. Negro and wh i -e subjects imi"l"a^ed teacher-like models more -!"han pee" models of each race. However, g^'ea'^e'" than predic'^ed oeer model imi-^a-Mon was found also. White subjects imitated white peer models more -han Neg^o peer models. Negro subjects, contrary to orediction, imitated "^he Negro peer models more than white oeer models. As oredic^ed, Negro subjects imi+ated Negro peer models mce -han did whi-^e subjects. Nec-'o subjects' social adjustment to firs^ grade, in terms of imitation of white peer models, was differen-i than exDec^ed. Generally, matched samole subjec-^s' imitation did not show significa'^^ positive correlations with thei:tes'^ed intelligence or scholastic achievement. While non-imi "!"at ion was found negatively ccrrela-ed wi-h i n"^e 1 I i gence and scholastic achievement, in the full sa'^nle (mean mental age one year grea^^er than the matched sample) a creative "*"ype of non-imitation showed DOsi"^ive correlations with intelligence and scholas-^ic ach i evemen"!" sco'"es. It was concluded ^ha-^ 'c firsigraders of average or higher intelligence and achievement imitation is no" a method of learning school subjects, and that fc^ -^he subjects as a whole imitation served more in the realm of see i a I 3d iustment.

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75 The findings were discussed first in terms of evidence that first grade children, in certain situations, may prefer to identify vnth or imitate peers in contrast to adults. The theoretical position that identification and imitation are similar was questioned, particularly peer identification and imitation. The findings indicated that Negro children's preference for identification with white children may not be as widespread as suggested in previous reports. Possible reasons for their same race identification were discussed. The type of intelligence test employed may have accoun-l-ed for the nonsignificant correlations between intelligence and imitation. Significant positive correlations might have resulted had a less school related measure of social intelligence been used. Methodological oroblems '-esulted from the low discriminating power of the secondary imitation task, and the few number of available Negro subjects (forty) in integrated first grade classes.

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APPENDIX A PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR IMITATION TASKS

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77 Practice, Procedure and Instructions for Imitation Tasks Practice: A pilot study was carried out in order that the author learn what problems would arise in imitation task procedures. Pilot study subjects were pupils in one firs"^ g'-ade class in P. K. Yonge Laboratory School, Gainesville, Florida. The pilot study of imitation tasks was carried out with the male peer model group on two successive days. Following the d i I ot study, a portable chalkboard was brought to the investigator's home, where, dur'ng -^hree evenings the female peer model group and male peer mode! group practiced their presentation of figures and feigned estimation of number o'' beans. Besides practice drawing on a chalkboard, the purpose of the practice sessions was to make each model's behavior as precise, efficient and as much like the other models' behavic as possible. Models were discouraged from wearing clothes or displaying behavic that would draw special attention to himself or herself. The figure drawing Imitation task required most practice by the models. Each time two models drew figures they arose from their chairs together, completed drawing at the same time and returned to their chairs at the same time. They learned to draw their figures the sam.e distance above the cha I kra i I , and draw them the same size, approximately eighteen inches in height and width. They faced the chalkboard at all times, except when returning to their seats, and spoke when stating what color they would draw their figures. In the secondary imitation +ask some practice was necessary before the models learned to pre+end they were stating their own

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78 estimate of number of beans. They wrote their estimates on the chalkboard equidistant from one another and in red chalk, v/ith the numbers drawn the same size as the previous figures. Procedure: Uoon arrival at each of the first grade classrooms on the first experimental day, the experimenter introduced himself and the three models by their real names, stating that the two peer models attended first grade at another school. By pre-arrangement the teacher then retired to the rear of the classroom where she worked inconspicuously. While the experimenter proceeded with the instructions to the subjects, each model found a chair and placed it so -^hat a row of three chairs faced the chalkboard approximately five feet away. Each model placed his (her) chalk on the chalkrail, and seated himself (herself) with the adult model between the two peer models. Midway through instructions for the primary imitation task each subject was given the drawing materials. The exper i men-*-er attempted to minimize his influence on the subjects' responses by sitting to one side of the class and only indicating to the models when the subjects had completed their drawings and were ready for the next trial. Immediately following the figure drawing task the secondary imitation task was carried out. After instructing the subjects, the experimenter showed the bottle to each model. Knowing from their programs what estimate to feign as a real guess, the models first stated their estimate verbally then wrote it on the chalkboard. The experimenter then walked slowly down each aisle providing each subject

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79 closer inspection of the bott 1 es' contents. When each subject had written his (her) estimate of the number of beans on his (her) pad of paper, the experimenter collected the drawing materials, making sure each subject's name was on his (her) pad of paper, V/h i I e the drawing materials were being collected the thpee models retired from the room. The class was thanked for its participation and told that the experimenter and three models would return the next day to complete the second part of the game, which would be like the first. Procedure for the second experimental day differed from the first in that there was no practice trial for the subjects on the figure drawing task, and instructions were very briefly outlined. I nstructions: ! have invited these three people to play a school-like, drawing game with you. Can you draw circles, squares, and triangles? Well, these three people have drawn these figures in new and interesting ways, and they would like to draw them for you on the chalkboard in different colors. The game we wi I I play is that two of them at a time wi I I draw their figures on the board. I would like you to choose one of their figures to draw or draw a different one of your own, but only draw one figure at a time. I am giving each of you a pad of paper and three pencils. One pencil is red, one is yellow, and one is blue. The blue one has an eraser. When you have these, write your first and last names at the top of the first page.

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Now, when you draw your figure don't copy off someone sitting next to vou. Make one like ei'^her of these three people or one of your own. Let's practice one. Let's have and Mrs. draw figures on the board, and then you draw yours at your desk on the page with your name. Goodi Are there any questions? If one of your pencils breaks, ra'se your hand and I'll give you anothe'". Let's turn to page one. Let's turn to page two. Each of the fifteen numbered pages in the subjects' pads of paper 'or -^he fifteen imitation trials on experimental days one and two were completed in this manner. Instructions for the seconda.^-y imitation task were as follows: Now I have a little guessing game. I want you +o guess how many beans there are in this bottle. But first I'll ask these people how many they think are in the bottle. , how many beans do you think are in this bottle? Mrs. , how many beans do you think are in the bottle? , how many beans do you think are in the bo-t-tle?

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APPENDIX B MITATION DATA SUMMED ACCORDING TO SUBJECT GROUPS AND ADDITIONAL COMPUTATIONS

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82 Mean Language, Non-Language, and Total iQ's of Subjects cf Each Race and Sex in the Matched Sample Language IC Non-Language \Q Total \Q Negro Females S^.67 90.67 86,00 Negro Males 78.^3 86.52 81.71 White Females 85.27 91.33 86.73 White Males 86,00 88.52 85.81 Mean Scholas"^ic Achievement Test Stanines of Subjects of Each Race and Sex in the Matched Sample Word Paragraph VocabuWord Study ArithSum of Mean i nc >:ean ] nc / Soe I I 1 nc Skills met ! c S~an I ne; Negro Females 3.33 Negro Males 2.67 White Females 3.80 Whi te Males 3.00 3.73

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83 Mean Language, Non-Language, and Total IQ's of Subjects of Each Race and Sex in the Full Sample Language IQ Non-Languaqe IQ Total IQ Negro Females 84.67 90.67 86.00 Negro Males 73.92 84.96 81.00 White Females 103.14 107.84 105.48 White Males 100.57 105.20 102.80 _Mean Scholastic Achievement Test Stanines of Subjects of Each Race and Sex in the Full Sample Word Paragraph VccabuWord Study ArithSum of Meaning Meaning In-y Spelling Skills met i c Stanines Negro Females 3.33 3.73 Negro Males 2.76 3.60 White Females 5.50 5.68 White Males 4.83 5.32 3.20

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Frequency of Ficjre Drawing Imitation, Creative NonImitation, and Mon-I mi tat ion by Subjects in the Thre< Groups on Both Experimental Days G-ouo I GrouD A (A) NP (NP) WP (WP) ONI Nl 273 175 191 115 21 9 130 65 255 181 203 165 234 194 48 95 396 122 304 85 301 109 1 14 214 Frequency of Bean Estimation Imitation and Non-1 mi tat i on by Subjects in the Three Groups on Both Experimental Days A NP WP NI GrouD 13 7 ?rouD I I 22 9 14 47 GrouD 21 12 12 65

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Frequency of Figure D-awing Imitation, Creative NonImitation, and Non-Imitation by Subjects of Each Race and Sex on Both Experimental Days Necc Females Necro Males Wh i -^e Females White Males A (A) NP (NP) W P (WP) CNI NI 52 77 39 74 30 10 61 94 138 67 118 64 7 102 544 129 236 105 311 139 57 170 204 247 155 251 200 151 152 Frequency of Sean Estimation Imitation and Non-Imitation by Subjects of Each Race and Sex on Both Experimental Days Nearo Females Necro Males White Females White Moles A NP WP NI 7 4 12 12 4 6 23 23 15 13 10 76

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Frequency of Figure Drawing Initation, Creative NonImitation, and Non-1 mi -!-at ion by Subjects of Each Race and Sex on Each Experimental Day Negro Females Negro Males White Females White Males Day 1 Day 2 Day 1 Day 2 Day 1 Day 2 Day 1 Day 2 A

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87 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated, Creative NonImitation, and Non-Imitation by Negro Females (N 15) in tlie [patched Sample on Both Experimental Days with Language, Non-Language and Total IQ Scores (CTI^IM Short Form) Model I mi fated Language Non-Language IQ Total IQ A (A) A + (A) NP (NP) NP + (NP) WP (WP) WP + (WP) CNI NI CNI + NI -.04 .14 .08 -.11 -.10 -.18 -.22 .23 -.05 .50 -.06 .11

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Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated, Creative NonImi+stion, end IxionI m i ta+i on by Negro Ma I es (N =21) in the Matched Sample on Both Experimental Days with Language, Non-Language and Total IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form) Model 1 mi tated

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89 Correlation Coefficients Between I^odels imitated. Creative NonImitation, and Non-Imitation by Win i te Females (N = 15) in the I^atchied Sample on Both Experimental Days with Language, Non-Language and Total !Q Scores (CTMI^ Short Form) Model Language Imitated IQ A .40 (A) -.00 A + (A) .53 NP .05 (NP) .06 NP + (NP) .11 WP .03 (WP) -.06 WP + (WP) -.03 CNI -0.0 NI -.40 CNI + NI -.40 Non-Lanouage

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90 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated, Creative NonImitation, and Non-Imitation by Wh i te Ma I es (N = 21) in ihe Matciied Sample on roth Experimental Days with Language, Non-Lancuace and Total \Q Scores (CTMM Short Form) Model

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91 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated, Creative NonImitation, and Non-Imitation by Subjects in the Fu I I Sample (N = 146) on Both Experimental Days with Language, Non-Lsnguage and Total IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form) Mode I mi tated Language Non-Languaae IQ

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92 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated, Creative NonImitation, and Kon-1 mi tation by Neoro Females (M = 15) in the Matched Sample on Both Experimental Days on the Primary Imitation Tasks with Stanford Achievement Test Stan i nes Mode 1 Imi^ai-ed

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93 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated, Creative NonInvitation, and Mon-I mi tat ion by Neoro Ma I es (N =21) in the Matched Sample on 3oth Experimental Days on the Primary Imitation Tasks wi-h Stanford Achievement Test Stanines Model V/ord Paragraph Vocabumitated Meaning Meen'ng iary Spel V/ord Study ArithSum of nc Skills metic S"^anines A

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94 ;cr'-eIs~'on Coefficients Between Models 1 imitated. Creative Non'nl-s^'on, and \'on-l ni tation by White Females (N 15) in the 'e-ched Sc-^.Dle on Both Experi rental Days on the Primary Imita-^ion Tasks with Stanford AchievemenTest S^anines y.ode I 'nOrd Pa^ec'-ao'^ Vccab'jV.'crd S-^udy Ar-i"^hSum of "'^2~ed •.5,3-'-o .9?-'-c ie'"\''' Soeli'nc Skills Te'^ic S^anines A

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95 Corroiation Coefficients Between Models imitated. Creative NonImitation, and Non-imitation by VJh i te Ma I es (N = 21 ) in the Matched Sample on Both Experimental Days on the Primary Imitation Tasks v/ith Stanford Achievement Test Stanines Model V/ord Paragraoh VccabuV/ord Study ArithSum of mitated Veaning N'eaning !s-y' Spelling Skills m9"!"ic Stanines A

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96 Correlation Coefficients Be+ween Models imitated, Creative Nonlmi-^a^ion, and Non-Imitation by Subjects in the Fu I I Samp I e (N = K5) on Both Experimental Days on the Primary Imitation Tasks wi"^h Stanford Achievement Test Stanines Mode 1 1 m' -^ated

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97 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated and Non-Imitation on Both Experimental Days on the Secondary Imitation Task by Subjects in the Full Sample and Their Total iQ's Neqroes Wh i tes Fema I es Ma I es A NP WP Nl .22 .31^ (-) .12 (-) .20 (-) .01 (-) .01 (-) .03 . 10 (-) .02 (-) .01 (-) .01 .00 .12 (-) .09 .00 P < Contingency Coefficienl Correlation Coefficients^ Between Models Imitated and [^Qn_l mi tation on Both Experimental Days on the Secondary Imitation Task by Subjects in the Full Sample and Their Total Scholastic Achievement Test Scores Negroes Wh i tes Fema I es Males A NP WP Nl .01 .01 (-) .09 ,00 (-) .01 (-) .01 (-) .01 .00 (-) .08 (-) .10 (-) .09 .12 .07 (-) .03 (-) .04 .00 Contingency Coefficient

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APPENDIX C RAW DATA

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99

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REFERENCES Anastasi, A. Differential psychology : Individual and group differences in behavior ( 5rd Ed i t ion ) . New York: The Macmillan Company, 1958. Bandura, A. Social learning through imitation. In M. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation . Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1962. Bandura, A. Behavioral modification through modeling procedures. In Krasner and L. Ullmann (Eds.), Research in behavior modification . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965a. Bandura, A. Influence of model's reinforcement contingencies on the acguisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1965b, 1, 539-595. Bandura, A. Vicarious processes: A case of no-trial learning. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology . Vol. II., New York: Academic Press, 1965c. Bandura, A., and Huston, A. C. Identification as a process of incidental learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1961, 63, 311-318. Bandura, A,, and Kupers, C. Transmission of patterns of self-reinforcement through modeling. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1964, 69, 1-9. Bandura, A., and IMcDonald, C. The influence of social reinforcement and the behavior or models in shaping children's moral judgements. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1963, 67, 274-281. Bandura, A., Ross, D., and Ross, S. A. Transmission of agression throughii imitation of agressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology . 1961, 63, 575-532. Bandura, A., Ross, D., and Ross, S. A. Imitation of film-mediated agressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1963, 66, 5-1 1. Bandura, A., and Walter, R. Social learning and personality development . New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, Inc., 1965. Berger, S. M. Incidental learning through vicarious reinforcement. Psychological Reports . 1961, 9, 477-491. 11 1

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Biiet A., and Simon, T, "^he deve ! opmen-^ p-f^ iitelligence in children . Translated by E. S. Ki'^e, Vineland, \ev/ Jersev Training School, 1916. Bronfenbrenner, u. Freud'an +heories of identification and their derivatives. Ch i I d Deve Icsnen, 196C, 31, 15-4C. Buros, 0. K. (Ed.). The s"x~'^ ""en~al measu-'e^-^en-^s yearbook . Highland '^a'-k, i^Iew Je'"sey: Gryphon Press, 1965. Coles, R. T'"^e de5egreca+ i on of southern schools : A psvchia + ric s^udy . New York: Ant i -Def ema-M on League, 1965. Coles, R. C^ ' i d^e^'' o~ c ' s ' s : A s'^udv of cou^'ace and •^ee^ . Sos"^on: Lit^ie, Brown and Comoany, 196^. Crandall, V. J., Katkovsky, 'a'., and ^reston, A. Motivational and ability deteTn i nance O'' young children's achievement behaviors. Ch i I d Dgvelopr-^en, 1962, 53, 54-3-652. Cronbac*^, L. J. Essentials of osvcho ' oa : ce I +es+'nQ . \'ew York: Harper and Bro"^''^e' s, 1950. Crcpley, A. J. Crea-^ivi-y and ' n-^e I 1 i gence. Bri-^ish Journal of Educa-!'c'a ' -svc^oiocv , 1966, 36 (5), 259-266. Davis, J. ^. T'-e Ame'"'cgn Neco handbook . Englewooc Cliffs, New Jersey: ^reni ce-'-'a i I , Inc., 1966. D^ege--, R. M. , e-'i Miller, K. S. Recent research in psychological compa'-iscns of Negroes and whi"^es in +he United States. Paper presen-^ed at the Southeastern Psychological Association Mee^ 1 nc, Apr 1 ! , 1 965. Eps^e'n, S. Commen-^s on B-. Bandu'-a's oaper. In M. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska sv-^ncs " j"" q"'q-' ' '/aq-'. . Lincoln, Nebraska: L'n i vans' ~y of 'lebraskc Press, 1962. Erikson, E. H. A memorandum on ^denti-y and Negro youth. Jou'-na I of Social Issues , 1954, 20 'A), 29-^-2. Ferguson, G. A. '-'u-^an eblli-^les. A^^er'can Rev'ew q-^ Psychology , 1965, 16, 39-62. ^lavell, J. H. The deve 1 oomen-^a I psycho I ocy o-^ Jean Placet . New York: D. Van Nostrand Cornea ny, 1963. Goodman, M. E. Race awareness In vcunc children . Cambridce, Mass.: Add ison-lVes i ey, 1952.

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1 13 Grusec. J. E. Model character i si i cs, techniques of punishment, and reinforcement contingency as antecedents of self-criticism. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, S-anford University, 1965, Guilford, J. P. The structure of intellect, Psvcho 1 oo i ca 1 Bu M et i n , 1956, 53, 267-295. Guilford, J. P. Intelligence: 1965 model. American Psychologist , 1966, 21, (1 ), 20-26. Hansen, C. F. Scholastic performance of Negro and white pupils in i nteorated public schools of the District of Columbia. Journa I of Educational Sociology , 1963, 36, 287-291. Hartup, W. Patterns of imitative behavior in young children. Ch i Id DeveloDmen+ , 1964, 35, 183-191. Havighurst, R. J., and Neugarten, B. L. Society and education , Boston: Al lyn and Bacon, Inc., 1962. Hebb, D. 0. The organization of behavior : A neurophys i o log i ca I theory . New York: Wi ley, 1949. Hicks, D. Imitation and retention of film-mediated aggressive oeer and adult models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1965, 2, 97-100. Hilgard, E. R. (Ed.). Theories of learning and i r-struct ion : The 63rd yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education : j_. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1964. Hunt, J> McV. Intelligence and experience . New York: Ronald Press, 1961 . Kanfer, F. H. , and Marston, A. R. Human reinforcement: Vicarious and direct. Journal of Expe'' i men-^a I Psychology , 1963, 65, 292-296. Katz, 1. Review of evidence relating to effects o-*" desegregation on the intellectual performance of Negroes. American Psychologist , 1964, 19 (6), 381-399. Kelley, T. L., Madden, R., Gardner, E. F., Rudman, H, C. Stanford Achievement Test (1964 Revision). Primary I Battery . New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1964. Kennedy, W. A., Van De Riet, V., and White, J. C. A normative sample of intelligence and achievement of Negro elementary school children in the southeastern United States. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development , 1963, 28, No.90. Kilpatrick, J. J. The southern case for school desegregation . Riverside, New Jersey: The Crowe 11 -Co 1 I i er Pr-ess, 1962.

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1 K ^-^c-o-r K''''9be'"c, C. Xecro-.vh -e d '. "e-e-^ces A rev; look at an o ' c' or; 15 (^). '98-203. e ; ice'^ce ~9S~ ce'^torr^a'^ce: Cc n -s'/c'-^c i cc i s~ , 1955, L9'.'.''s, D., and 3L."-k9, f^svchc ! cc ' C2 jse e'^d i^is'jse C"' ~ne Chi-Scua'"e Tes" 949. ^6 (6). ^53-439. 'as i and J. K. A ccrDar'sc" C" •'Sce av/a^'e'^.ess " n nor-he'"" aid sc'J~be^n c'l^i'd-e". A""e-'c5" Jcj-"a' o~ C""~'"C'05vc^ ' a~-v , ' 965, 56 (11), 22-51. 'as'a-^d, -,. _. Sarascn. S. 3., Giadwlp, '^o-rx: rasic Seeks, 1953. Isvsr "' . "^^9 ccod s i 'j"" sc'~ooi s. —'a "09' -V. Nev ;_s, 1961, 222, 46-52. .' cL/On' Sl;cco=;"'d-gn as a fu-^c-^lcn of c'rT-onol og i ca I a-c Sec la: l^sychclccv . 1965, 67 (3), ycDsv'c, J, enec-ae^s , "Igc-c vs, 0'"9SChoo! Ch i ld'"9''. Pgy^So ' eo ' C3 , ^35. Q^^TQ — a '^ answer '" "^ '.v .^ '" d ^ ^ • • ^ ^ ~ ^, New Yo'"k: Jehn '.V'ley, 196( 'IcNerr^ar, 0. '_os~: 0'-"" ' n"!"e I ! i cenc9? ',','hv? A"ip-"ca" ^svche ! eg i s"^ . 1964, 19, 371-332. 'cC'jee'^, ?.., ere C'-^'j'-n, 3. T''^9 i "^-e ! I : C9nc9 and 9C'Jcat'onel achieve'nen+ c~ a ~'a~c''^9d sa^e'9 c~ v/h " te aic \'9oro s~'jd9r:"l"S. Scncol a'^d S'~"C • o~'-' '--SC. "3 527-529 ''jsse I •^a'^, G. C. ~'ne effects c" cbs9'"v9r ace aid tyoe c^ task on "^'r>e 'ml"t"a~ior> of adult and e99^ models. L'np'jb ! : shed doc+ora I d i sse-'^a^ i en, L'nlvgrs'^y of Ficida, ^967. -e"^~ 1 G^ev;, ~". -. \9c-c A-^e-'can p9'"sena I 1 "^y : '.Vhy isn't mere known? JcLJ-^a :Scci;' !ss'J9s , 1964a, 20 (2), 4-25. -e~~ ' C QV! . F , Je-sey : :e"^on. New -y. Inc., 1964b. n r'-.d'-^ced. New York: W. IV. P'ace^, J, ^S C ~ : n-e 1 d^en. New York: IV. W

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Radke, M., Sutherland, J,, and Rosenberg, P. Racial attitudes of children. Sociome+ry , 1950, 13, 154-171. Radke, M.. Trager-, H. G. , and Davis, H. Social perceptions and attitudes of children. Genetic Psychology Monographs , 1949, 40, 327-447, Rosekrans, M. Imitation in children as a function of perceived similarity to a social model and vicarious reinforcement. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development meeting. New York, 1967. Shuey, A. T'^e ^esting c^ Negro intelligence . New York: Social Science Press, 1966. Siege I, S. Nonparametr ic statistics for the behavioral sciences . New York: [vlcGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956. Silberman, C. E. Crisis in black and whi^^e . New York: Random House, 1964. Southe'-n School News , Untitled, 1960, 7, 5. Southern School News , 1962, 8 (8); 8 (12). Spearman, C. The ebi I i ties of man . New York: The Macmillan Company, 1927, Sugimura, T. Implicit reinforcement in the classroom as a function of grade and sociometric status. Japanese Psychological Research , 1965, 7 (^), 166-170. Sullivan, E. T. , Clark, W. W. , Tiegs, E. W, California Short-Form Test of Mental i-feturity. Level 1 . Monterey: California Test Bureau, 1963. Underwood, B. J., Duncan, C. P., Taylor, J. A., Cotton, J. W. Elementary s+ati s-^ics . New Yck: App I eton-Century-Crof ts. Inc., 1954. Walters, R. P., Leat, M., and Mezei, L. Inhibition and d i s i nh i b i t ion of responses through emphatic learning. Canadian Journal of Psychology , 1965, H, 235-243. Walters, R. H., and Parke, R. D. Influence of response consequences to a social model on resistance to deviation. Journal of Experimen+a! C'i ! d Psychology . 1964, 1, 269-280. Wheeler, L. Toward a theory of behavioral contagion. Psychol oqi ca I Review , 1966, 73 (2), 179-192.

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16 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH A-d-ev/ Lc'jis O'Conr-cr, !1I was bcrn August 11, 19^0, in Detroi"^, yichigsn. in June, 1956, he was g^sduated from Cranbrook Prepare-^ory Scincol, BIcomfield Hills, Michigan. In June, 1952, he received the deg^'ee of Bachelor of Ar-^s from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. In 1962, he enrolled in the Graduate School of the University of Florida, '-ie worked as a graduate assistant -Q" the Department of Psychology for four consecutive trimes~ers. In eddi-ion, he worked "C" Sunland Training Center, Gainesville, Florida, du-ing -^e summer of 196^, and the Alachua Coun-^y Health Department ^rC'm Seotember, 1966 to Sep~embe'', 1967. In Aucus-, 1964-, he received the 'ie'2ree of Mas"^er of Arts. From that time to the present, he has cc^tinued his wck towa-'d ~he degr^ee of Doctor of Philosophy. He was ewai-ded a Vocational Re'-^ab i I i -^at ion Ad"" ' n ' s~ra-^ i on Traineeship for the veer prior to, and "^he yea" during his clinical internship a"^ "^he J. Hi II is Miller Health Center, University of Florida. He is curr-ently emoloyed as Director of the Guidance Clinic of the Florida Keys. Andrew Lou ' s O'Connc:", I'l is married to the former Beverly Kay B i cke'-sraf !". He is an associate member of the American Psychoioaica Association, and Alachua Couni-y Mental Health Association.

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This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and has been approved by al ! members of that committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1967 J ^ Dean, CoMeg^/of A'rts/and Sciences Dean, Graduate School Chairman // (/ ., ' ..'hAx^ L-t '^-> --^j'-^ t^^ c^ yu ^i^^^^C-^^ 'c^oA^ J^ / ry^L^^^-tSL, c—A