Citation
A Study of the effect of examiner race on individual intelligence test scores of black and white children

Material Information

Title:
A Study of the effect of examiner race on individual intelligence test scores of black and white children
Creator:
Wellborn, Emily Louise Surgenor, 1937-
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1972
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v, 44 leaves. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
African Americans ( jstor )
Elementary school students ( jstor )
Grade levels ( jstor )
Intelligence quotient ( jstor )
Intelligence tests ( jstor )
Middle schools ( jstor )
Psychology ( jstor )
Social psychology ( jstor )
Wechsler scales ( jstor )
White people ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Special Education -- UF
Intelligence levels ( lcsh )
Mental tests ( lcsh )
Special Education thesis Ph. D
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 38-43.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on World Wide Web
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Emily S. Wellborn.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
029478230 ( AlephBibNum )
AEG8791 ( NOTIS )
014276554 ( OCLC )

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,1 J iui.'l Fl IL Lt: LI- IL '[Aii'" FC ,FLL
.*1 IrituiviL.iAL t:;lli.LLL'. L J L :T L l:.: .'I .r
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-lIL'i ". uiLLLE '.I















i [ii~ ,5..r:T, iTl':'i f rF L ,. L T:i I L l-' 'l.,'iTL
DISEF:.T.vli i-Al I E:C it EL ' '' tt'AE
C.OLu'Ii: L iOF THE 011ii1. .:r ..I FL'r ,* 'iA i 1 i' f 'l Ti..
FULFiLULilIIT O' THE i L h ,i.E lf-.EllF iI F. Tiu_ D L'-. iI E I 'F
D[OiC T-' F *jF i H iLi. 'Pi,'i


ii i L ; i r.,i.M.,i



































Copyright by
Emily S. Wellborn
1972








ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The completion of this study would not have been possible without the

combined efforts of many persons. My sincere thanks and appreciation are

expressed to my committee members, Dr. William R. Reid, Chairman, Dr. Cary

Reichard, Co-chairman, Dr. Myron Cunningham, Dr. Richard Anderson, and Dr.

James Whorton for their encouragement, assistance and valuable recommenda-

tions.

My appreciation is expressed to Dr. John Thornby for his contributions

to the statistical analyses of the data, and to Dr. Madelaine Ramey for her

contributions to the statistical design of the study.

The cooperation of Mr. Earl Kilgore at A. L. Mebane Middle School and

Mrs. Helen Teel at Alachua Elementary School is gratefully acknowledged.

Finally, to my husband, Charles, and to my children, Bill, Ricky, and

Linda goes a special thank you for their inspiration and patience.















Acknowledgments ..........


List of Tables. . . . . .


Abstract . . . . . . .


Chapter 1
Prcblm. .............



F.: 1 of the literature ...



L' . . . . . . .


Chapter 4
Results. . . . . . .


Chapter 5
Conclusions and Recommendations.


Appendix ..............


Eirli r.:. ari 1. S .. .. . .......


roiyraiL.:iL Sketch . . . .


TABLE OF COT.- ElJi


. . . . . . . . iii


. . . . . . . . v


. . . . . . . . vi



. . . . . . 1



. . . . . . . . 5





S . . . . . . . 19

. . . . . . . . 19



. . . . . . . . 26

................ 29
. . . . . . . . 29


. . . . . . . . 38


. . . . . . . . 44








LIE! .-F h-.lL L



Table 1
Mean Age of Students .......................... 1'.

Table 2
Analysis of Variance Summary Table ..... . . . . . . ..

Table 3
Mean Full Scale IQ Scores for Black and White Subjects
by Examiner Pairs .......................... 22

Table 4
Mean Full Scale IQ Scores of All Subjects by Order of



fl- -40 Fulli i I.. '. .r l f: r thiC :k i-i lilhi :t El ',--' ,tr ,
4-..1 iL .r..f I .J-AI- hl -ad JIni ofti- r .








Abstract of tiLs:-Erjlt.-n Presented Ec crE.
Graduate Council of the University of FI.-rijd in Fjrcirl
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree cf Dpcc.:-r of .irl .:*=iC-ph

A Study of the Effect of Examiner Race on Iiri' lLJa irelligii:Enc
Test Scores of Black and White *r.iidrnr

By

Emily S. Wellborn

August, 1972

Criirnan. Dr. William R. Reid
C ,.,-.r- ri,,in : Dr. Cary Reichard
laj..,r LEirLm-nrL* Special Education

-_4The purpose of this study was to determine if examiner race significantly

)jfre.d individual intelligence scores of Black and White children at two

rij l lIvels.

Three Black and three White female examiners administered the Wechsler

inr.eiian c i~,i. for Children to 24 Black and 24 White children in the

:c.:.n, ird cr. ir.j grades at Alachua Elementary School and to 24 Black and

Sir.ice .Cr.Lircr. in the seventh and eighth grades at A. L. Mebane Middle

3;cr il. *-r[icrL-.tely equal numbers of boys and girls were included in the



Tr.e licE:, of the study provided for each child to be tested by a Black

-nd L' i iiFcE .- miner with a seven-day interval between test administrations.

in L*r.drr c.* d r.ribute retest effects between races and among examiners, the

Cectir.in :cr.l ,1 was alternated so that equal numbers of Black and White chil-

dr.n .c r.:d. rd, level were tested first and second by each examiner.

L,.-1i ,.-.f ariance procedures utilizing a factorial with replications

it rr i 0 anc I.o Ii-i J3Lc.

1C v..z-, *ri1uJd dJ Lh.c c'..-r. .,: r.:, J d If, r-rc.:- in rac 1 lt ur. :,- cc ;d -C'r.r -

.c .tcrl-:cr crid, 1w l P I .. i tr. c, -i- E c I cL id t'ilc *im..iric r'..










C[R iTER O-.E





Stu-ief : or-pirin-. t[he iifcllij en.e l ra.ial, atiiri... .nd sc*-3 al gr:-.jps

5it:-.url in Ei- r ir** f 31un l !li[ CcCr3*c.jr.. TDii. .zB"? i a11j6li 3 tlCEF i [u

&cl.r Iucn Ctr tche crn *[1 me :EnLur'. iEn Eihi, EtinCt-3L...ljri ti5lur ni

tIC1 a d.a:Cepted 3EA a *al1d1 and re'.1able Ia1mejSjrE c* i rdiv.idu3i 1 n EC l I-

;-:n' rc I tror. 1 13; I unne, 1 17: F r a; nd: ,' a-d Tccc r. I' .I". n, i ct i 2 ;1

L.' la ,'23 .

Ii.e -lde n.e ifrori Lhc:c earlier c-dle ic.- e ill a- t. idence wi:ri ha

s.'-.i. ,r j ,.rec re, .:C l hr a dc.- -L r vr t j tra c th.,cr r, dJi iertC.c- L

pc r f :.r nci -.rn rn:. j i diuY int Elli inC tE. t which ri.) be ae ct rthuc tl t:

n'tLerlr;i ii p srti'.-ular c- .5.1a e -ci :, .r r.acttl a r-.p. S t ., 1 4 8,

*.* ry liti' 'J I :Qu-'en i 'hu rn 1- .t ; I ii1 s 1W I I L -.

L'cru n tr jr d ) I.r f- rr...e in i r.E t 11 rnr t- c. 't- Et .. En r cici I

rc-. up b.l'. s r. .-r LeJ ; r. unc .I* r- search cc-nclrnir3 crc.: ..iEurt.-

rurcur. controv' erz.,. 'oC.e in '.'e tlC .Lr rh .'e CA. -luded trat grc*p dii-

f-irer. I in, E[C.illn .r are du: c. Innra f a.corr h.: h art Pi.'L ai lerli

L--to dii._tEiun3l and en.1iru,,nl eni al j.anni -lratic-.n.

iun c:, 't59 81 ir. a rc'.,'iC' .f apr-fre' i el;.' .- .i-ed >= d al n;.i icth tcl-e

irac ill,.er e **1 IJe..rre .and l white ia rrn r crd the fc-ii..l oi thli. L cr-'up.

. L.- 1-..jldj Ern.r rnc r . lt L hie x in c i at ion . 11 p cinc Li r hnc

p -,R: e O.:f we i ni nauc 1% diiferene bs t E[ E r. uilj.. rono arid i tr d ce =-nited

t. in ceitif .c e c.. .' (p. 116-.

I-F :ent 1, iian.. ir.e L Lga3tc.r h..C conc luJi th ri e ro.p dif er nri.- in

inrll ience are due to en irurn.i-ntcl and ocl ial facccr u4l i ah .i r ien-ble







to educational and environmental manipulation. The position of these inves-

tigators has been summarized in an article in the American Journal of Ortho-

psychiatry (1957) which was endorsed by 18 social scientists including Otto

Klineburg, Gardner Murphy, Jerome Bruner, and Anne Anastasi. They stated:

"The conclusion is inescapable that any decision to use differences in the

average achievement of the two racial groups as a basis for classifying in

advance any individual child, Negro or White, is scientifically unjustified"

(p. 422).

Following a UNESCO conference attended by sociologists, anthropologists,

psychologists, and geneticists from around the world, Tumin (1963) issued

this statement:

Whatever classifications the anthropologist makes of
man, he never includes mental characteristics as a part of
those classifications. It is now generally recognized that
intelligence tests do not themselves enable us to differen-
tiate solely between what is due to innate capacity and what
is the result of environmental influences, training and
education. Wherever it has been possible to make all
allowances for differences in environmental opportunities,
the tests have shown essential similarity in mental charac-
teristics among all human groups. In short, given similar
degrees of cultural opportunity to realize their poten-
tialities, the average achievement of the members of each
ethnic group is about the same (pp. 5-6).

Although more and more investigators are accepting this latter position,

the variables which are responsible for the discrepancy between the measured

intelligence of Negro and White groups are still largely unexplained (Dreger

3nd Miller, 1960; Kennedy, Van De Riet, and White, 1961; Rosenthal, 1966;

.,il--r and Theye, 1967).

.~uong the many variables which may affect performance :n a,. intelligence

test are socioeconomic class (Arlitt, 1921; McGurk, 1953, McQueen and Churn,

1-'r'. ['D.j ch and Brown, 1964; Burnes, 1970; McFie anJ Tr.;.-.p:,:., 1970); caste

Jif -r.-.c (Canady, 1943; Dreger and IlIil-r. 1-' .; r..nned., i'nr [- iiet, and







White, 1961); emotional disturbance (Hammer, 1954); nutrition (Zach, 1970);

using the tests with groups not represented in the standardization sample

(Kennedy, 1965; Williams, 1970); and examiner and examine variables (Trent,

1954; Pasamanick and Knobloch, 1955; Masling, 1968; Dreger and Miller, 1960;

Kennedy, Van De Riet, and White, 1961).

Of these variables, the variable of examiner race has been examined the

least (Littell, 1960; Dreger and Miller, 1960; Kennedy, Van De Riet, and

White, 1961; Solkoff, 1971). These authors suggested that although investi-

gations of this variable have been few and inadequate, examiner race may be

an important factor which contributes to the observed decrement between Black

and White intelligence test scores.

The significance of this variable permeates the entire educational spec-

trum in our culture. Standardized tests measuring all aspects of personality

are routinely administered in public education from kindergarten through

adult education and job training programs. Educational decisions based on

standardized test scores mold and alter the education and training of each

child within the United States.

Special educators are especially concerned with standardized tests

since the results of these tests are used to determine placement in special

education programs and to design educational experiences for exceptional

children.

With the influx of minority group children into special education classes

following racial integration, knowledge about variables contributing to racial

differences in measured intelligence has become particularly important. Dunn

(1968) has estimated that well over half of the children in public school

special education classes for the educable mentally retarded are minority

group children. Williams (1970) has called for a moratorium on all t--icli~i

c tI F.i l -'= jnal1 rlt-l CrtiTirrito [ r.- Cd:[ jar. ia all al.i-.








In a recent article, Ross, DeYoung ..=n ich-rn 1',9 r1 .- : .,ir-I tEh the

continued existence of special education ir,n r f*-t-lb: schools depends upon

more accurate and less discriminatory placement procedures and the develop-

ment of curricula relevant to the needs of exceptional children. They

concluded:

Recently, suits have been brought against public schools
for placing certain children in special classes for the
educable mentally retarded. Through the courts parents
are challenging the placement procedures, and the
effectiveness and harmful impact of special class pro-
gramming. Special educators are urged to initiate
immediate reform in testing and placement procedures
or there is a likelihood that changes will be imposed
by the courts. (p. 5)

Present Study

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of examiner race on

individual intelligence test scores of Black and White children in the second

and third grades and in the seventh and eighth grades.

Most of the variables which have been correlated with performance on

psychological tests such as socioeconomic class, caste membership, motivation,

etc., are only indirectly amenable to educational intervention. In contrast,

if examiner race is an important variable in psychological testing, direct

educational intervention is possible through matching of examiner-examinee

race.













:LAfPI E R nju'

R iL, .. OF TlHE LITEF_ "rLP


licc L taL.ur E rtainrin re to ar.InE r a-:-. a a 3n irndPr.d-r rnt 't atifabl -

iarrd I .Ini *trul.-J u,< riar ila of E..auiiir race u ir., iLt..- 141t.

*;.r 1nfiord-E in. C Ir EC lli;. r:cE c le a [E -EE -rE.tc.- L i- J l. n 1 Ec'L h -t i egroc

and 2$ i Lr E t. a.-- -l- m. Hi.- iound Lh.E LQ 3v.:. i, 3 tor e u. r li r-- i.l.- d

ini a rag-- Inciirai of i.i\ points undnr thI ri.gro Eumyincr and in Q codiI

I:r O.Iio[5 =.-.m 1 ari a.Lerai.- Jd:r3-i- of 5a1 printL irnr- r Lhe rerc.



.'ta t1.r 1'",- .1 ri .- L i Lan 's p iorieer : E i.: and :or .iu d hat

r~ t li.u- .l.; i-: al rw ikn '-, i: rl. a- '-lm e ono l -:n- 'lrc e a -i r an.? vil-r.[ e

'rre anir.-, r ja,. ck of rar.Jo. m o n nd a irT,. rc of ijb3.: cE arnd

l ,.1 : f ; c ti ;: t i il i ni f i: ant rE. ult a p r: iud d in; :aliJ i:condl 1u :rt.

Viit i..al.-r. r ill.t i rand Fis-=in r 1P 5i -: >J-r ..C.J p .-.e prual FlF. 'rr -

.* .riimc-c i n whii r, pr-ic neii, r al, anJ dcror'j or: o:rd: E re lj .J :,n

a tL c L ,c -:[o Th;.'. fr rnd a ;igni ftr. a L Ilo r L jiC Oir. iri .- EO .li.roga-

cor., word: for :lI' -=bjT i .- w.rlinn. .'i ch a blad- c' -:nri r than fo i la.:k

i b =-c wrorl.in: uth 3 '.'tice C:-a.nir or for Iiriie t.bjictZs orl:;in- with 3

Witi c. -.. in r i. r ia L -A 1. ir.,: r.

Irrit L''i u-d a ij..k adr.J 3j hitie Ea.r..i-nr to r-rEsEnt a ritIhir-

iirti[cAi.of tak t1:. l tick 3ndJ WicEj 1 InJp arc-n. :lIhilJrn.. e f U..uid

ihitr %iin blaic- *:i.ldrr.n eir- e.jminrd b:. Lhe r. .ic 1 r. l l atiEOr r.nnv

r.fu-;cd ao mAk: 1 c ulec ion 15 per cent of Ch, ciiF.e. H..Low.L r, the lack

childrr imaid rn.c evadi.Ji r-po-3nsi to tri. Bladl e aiuinr. hi.r*i- .r 3 no

differencee in the r.ipon,-s of Whitie childr-r n tO elchEr etairn,er.








Pasamanick and Knobloch (1955), ts..:- nii E .ir.ner e, f.:.,ndJ a : ni ,,:,nc

difference in language responsiveness ar.- lnrua e Lo-.pr-rin ,...-i j la.urij

by the Gesell Developmental Examination in nNir... nrir-fnr ar 24 months.

No significant differences in physical or '-1r. iciral J.1 i.:pf.: r. had been

found in the two groups of infants during ti, rLr-E I ar:.i-. '1 the study.

They concluded that "apparent early awareness of racial differences and loss

of rapport has serious implications in the field of ethnic group psychology,

particularly in the use of verbal items on intelligence testing" (p. 402).

In a study involving 40 White male college students, Rankin and Campbell

(1955) measured Galvanic Skin Response to a Black and a White examiner. A

real GSR device and a dummy GSR device were connected to the arms of each

subject. One experimenter read emotional words to the subject while a Black

or a White examiner "adjusted" the dummy device. The found a significant

difference in GSR's for Black and White examiners.

Pettigrew (1964b) reported an unpublished study which used two groups

.. El'.a 3jdulc equivalent in income, age, education, and region of birth.

Ir.i r:.-c Inr.r [ewed by a Black examiner answered more questions on an

inl:ratlr.: -auc 'y and a synonym test than did the group interviewed by a

Ifa t L i i- Xl- r.

:ilr lr ar.-i Theye (1967) reported a study by LaCrosse (1964) in which a

ir- -1.-..;r.-r retested Negro subjects who had been tested with the Stanford-

ir;: iri.lii,-..:e Scale (L-M) by a Black examiner. The same White examiner

risi s-ccItd WL. subjects who had ae.n c i c..l r, i a Wi. t 3 .-i ..nr. i. in-c r the

rcc:t .:;En,. ti,.rn, the Black s-bji-:ci' .:.:res .-r-i ac gn aiiar l. .i ir than

prE '.'i.:..u i.res, whereas the W~ ~c :-.Lejec /' i,.:-'.: i r 1ig ii l.:iar i, higher

Eh -- pr. -: -ui .:.'res.








Pelosi (1968) reported a study by Kennedy and Vega (1966) which investi-

gated the variables of examiner race, subject intelligence, and grade level

in conjunction with the incentive conditions of praise, blame, or control.

They concluded:

No differences in performance were observed between subjects
seen by either Negro or White examiners when praise or neutral
comments were made during testing. It was only when examiners
made derogatory comments to subjects about their performance
that differences occurred. Under the blame condition, there
was a decrement in performance of subjects tested by White
examiners. (p. 9)

Baratz (1967), working with Black students at Howard University, con-

ducted a study on the effects of examiner race, instructions (neutral or

anxiety-producing), and comparison population (subjects were told they would

be compared with Black or White college students). Examiner race was the

only significant effect. Type of test and comparison population were not

significant.

Katz, Robinson, Epps, and Waly (1968) showed that performance on a

test of expressed hostility was influenced by race of the examiner. Seventy-

two Black boys were administered a hostility questionnaire and were then

divided into four groups. Two of the groups had a task structured as a

neutral research procedure under a Black and a White examiner. The other

two groups had a task structured as an intelligence test under a Black and

a White examiner. The subjects were retested with the hostility question-

naire. When the task was structured as a neutral one, there were no signifi-

cant effects of the experimenter's race on the subjects' hostility scores.

However, when the task was structured as an intelligence test, significantly

less hostility was expressed when the examiner was White.







Pelosi (1968) investigated the effects of examiner race, style, and sex

on 96 Black males involved in a youth training program. Each subject was

randomly assigned to the treatment conditions and was given a battery of eight

tests including six subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the

Purdue Pegboard Test, and IPAT Culture Fair Test. No significant main effects

were found for any of the variables under investigation.

Caldwell and Knight (1970) used the Stanford-Binet (L-M) to test the

effect of examiner race on intelligence test scores of 15 Black high school

boys. No significant differences in IQ scores were found under the Black or

the White examiner. The investigators noted that 13 of the 15 subjects had

lower IQ scores on the second test, regardless of examiner race.

Solkoff (1971) reported the first study which used the WISC as an evalua-

tion instrument to assess the effect of examiner race on intelligence test

scores. In addition, he administered a test-anxiety scale to assess whether

test anxiety scores would differ contingent on the race of the examiner.

Each of the four Black and four White female examiners administered the

anxiety scale and the WISC to 14 Black and 14 White children, ages 8-11.

Solkoff found no significant interaction between race of examiner and race of

child. No significant effects were obtained for the anxiety scale.

In a study which investigated examiner race as well as examiner expec-

tancy, Jacobs and DeCraff (1972) employed 16 Black and 16 White psychologists

t E core video-taped WISC tests of a White boy and a Black boy. Half the

- .liners were presented fictitious referral forms which indicated the boys

.r- of superior intelligence and achievement and half were pr.i5nr-. refer-

rjl forms which indicated the boys were of inferior intelligence and achieve-

-rn.c. They found that examiner expectancy .n oiif.-:in I affected WISC scores







nd ri.c bi -s ... i rrij:rr 3 ti n EliJ ack iiri-rir rtd rho illjit .utj'cr and

11i L --.srFi ner- r aced Lh, Wii t. ubj c E.

:3. acE 1, l 2 co;r..auci d a " :- 'i 2L-hi bl ck and '*irl C c hildlr=r, i,

lce f r: t LitrO 3ii, L tI h i 1 r i.J in ii =C. ri C L:C t id a dlnorli,-.rt :-p CL, =:Ch.; ) l

rE gii.- rii i Li-i ock DE.ain nd fDigi- njn p bci [r or f Lr-i.- I.i bL, 10' Elica.

1i.- I i w-0riti aiT n rfl rE. Ie tfourd ignifLircan diff-r.o:nc- rc.r biLac chiidr-.i

E- ic J_ b Lia'.k va, .n-ri,.r .:n Ll..*.L. bi i ., batL Oi..- o Cc ['IpgI .* -.. Th ,: Ethor

rp.'.rc d [lirt Piaci fir[lst-a- ad. : t in .'-,E rerCc. 3d :. 1 ;:.i- -.orid dtouI t half

S ,: ,i C ,a I d -:.*r- pclr.[: ,:-ri Lb :-c ili_ g,,i Wh.ii, C- d t: s cir .i ia ner.,

[t.fr whc' LE _i D j E .lac t : e" ii rf.

.,1 r i'J C tO tl-F F 3l- ar 3J L Ju c3 ic3 1 31 i ou c r rr.iE i.:.. C -Cci- r,

1 r. 3 F..-,-, Fi1.r1i f:r 3 1'-0TF.uL-r Ei.rch ic f EfiC docc-i.Ti.n rlE-'3rjn, .:r cr h

pr.s cirt r ud j im lcEd r:rl or j3dd- L rion31 n'i'i lc ion. FC-.r,; r.. i1-'4 i

ja ici d ch --f -CL; .: -i c. iTrLi rai c b.j. i CC r c jnd it d [p i.iPfr .:

SC-i n g'. r ii h a "roup t -" bijc :,. ird l'l hit., ulb3ej c -. E nr'--.lle i i a or'-

cradrr--.r rro.rais. r ubiecci .. ,cr rarJoil .L.' a iioncd Cc' l ur r c allI Lpr

r ted gr.-.up . 1 .lack ZrCi. a w3 i-, c, .. r i r di mi t.i : rel -1 batEtr" of

-- ir -r:port ..r,: i=ur.- ECr w.: ,i r [h f r:'.,r- urh.J r 3 riteu cr l ..1 id t i ..-n. Th.

:.l-.: [w.-. r,:.'p- rare c-ld crh [ ':-r u4 -c .r ji. ptie.i enLr The in'.',:cLi-

it.. r: h'pothCsizZ:d Etit urdJcr chi jot-plc-'-'nt-tLE-:t ,-c.iditi, o, -:mi lrtr,

of *fnik.- ca'c -'Juld rtprec1at a "Lrirra' d: Ehi iC i i ubi-Crc ahich d .-uoild re -iLt

in .i *.--c f-fa riri bh as. 1rh1 r-sulct -hcO.-d chEic the s- f-ri.orrLn i.i a

occ.urr fc.r illj -,tjr :C-- r c rdl-rj s .:f ':ariri r rac.,.

Li. cll ( iir', r.- i.-;ed r.-c ri-earch Literacurei fror I .0'-19r..0 w i.:-i

h-d us.jd Lh i;r.c int-C 11 igen- l Scali. f.r Children. tl mcude c h follui.ing

'Jg:cl i -iir or furth.-r r:Ec arch:








Much more systematic attention : .. 1. r c. r ,. I,' -- i : i.i,;
of the many practical problems -.' .:i. i 11-r, u-: r E.! ir.-= l;,
as a measuring device. There a-.pp r: c...- 1:: Lr.-:,r. r.j:-.:.r*n Ch
WISC scores are affected systemric11 i =.aan .ariabic.: ,r.rI-r
than intelligence but little iri.:r...as, c ..: - t..:ut L ,:. .[.r-
of these variables anrj [i, r IJL*.:ri; I-1 .i Ln ..!1 j j. jE Ijb ..
Especially in need -.:f : Lu-I; I. r Z: i...- c I r.L ..., i Lh .- .i.:r. ,:.
WISC scores by (a) '. rr =t-~. ir, I-,. r, i r i:.r.i l t -..- L-C-, i. r.., r
and examinee, (b) the circumsta-:...: :t cl..: jsr.~~iac n, n.- j .:
Ti-rm C LE i jo. ,r.i CE r Ei :A' of the jI- i- .

r. j ri'.'iiw : LV- L ii': literate r: 'r-...- l'",' -1'-' 1ir.-. r,.. r ai.-i Woo-Sam

(1972) indicated that the research questions posed by Little had not been

answered.

Hammond (1954) has pointed out the methodological weakness of studies

which employ one examiner of each race to investigate the effect of race on

subject performance. He stated that no valid, generalizable conclusions can

be jra-.. from these studies any more than valid, generalizable conclusions

can be drawn from a study using one subject. Using Hammond's criteria to

.i-i.: rii- studies which have used race of the experimenter as an independent

. ri l- i. i=.rl, .i.:-bs and DeCraff (1972), Kennedy and Vega (1966), Pelosi

il" i ". I ,. 1'V-2), and Solkoff (1971) have used more than one examiner

i,-. .jr, raci.i C:aLgory. Although Pelosi has controlled this variable, the

Lubct,.Em lit, ..- -. eriment were volunteers and may not have been representative

:.if Eh re.eul-L:._r. *=.:f Black male youths in work-training programs. Also, he

,i,- - .i .lilc. :.utjects. Jacobs and DeCraff have controlled the examiner

"ari .!:. .ut uid. a subject population of one in each racial category. Only

L.j- r.-n at r: of Savage ar.J .--L .-[[ r li. Lr,-rr, i a -p1i c.,:rr.-I jii11

- j.firin J b. I n.f:; ell and SZEii- ii '': .








I .: r cL'urE tirc-.ining c. E imi r- :1 iiree VFri tlu -- -i -.. IJ hih r x :a 1- C.

3 r :..-r ,and .li a-r.J 11'9? j J-d inni c=r' jd tri- .C .L ,JI r E ,L.1- uE : -i r., Co -









Ci r-il- -: rpp -tn c i -i iior n: i:r- t u a i:t i- -.j gtutir I-n td -:d.= rn alr

i il: c r :lo ri r= L t.J iL : i-hi. a it:-=n .rc-up, d 3 .uw- ,an ou r r'. wh-
rln l .u b _. m .. : 11-clu,1 a 3. .% : Ia T' E r- t ,lL5 i -:i' c.1 Lh- l :'-- L,_-1 mr' i


b' t C r. l-r. r. i--' i P c-.- ir-1r ri C C il-p- I. -t l ir I C. I





al, d ior- rh : i-r ti r.: ,a -i -_: aritrl_: l: -rr- E I.,E r ni A itzr.-- -,r r Ir

et. a in l r app-.-rt on .i v tury i. r.i- :-ct o f Em' h p ai r E-A ur d-' r







Si-i ij -r al l t r lr.-i. iric r.: n a ri li= *i ;ril Eu. i I. '. ti l-i d ind i --a "rt,-u *-3i

IL-: i ri c I n r. h- :c i e-J .. -:. 1 h: :r C i Ck i E a i n r t.: i c .' :r- f i
hle r for- t ria-n.: C ri- j I:i E :iIr, C d -r 1 ., a n. i rr. .L dL ..1fT ric.r-L re




EZ I P. d 1' 1 I i- I,'- j i ..cv in LLE 1ale e.S" r e :E 4o ; 'ir*ir r r th.E W! :*.

c c 1:r J-r ir* cj: i j E. c.j c C 11 I ri'r A rid m 4 A ii-:. Ch I *: h rL d i p ipr 1c -

.: 3i.ui cr -:.J E- thu.--i.ru *- :r lt t -- a [ i.-uc L* ''w nsrni *-:.- cor nyt- Hc t. Hl -

rL porL c r [j c t,,I:tr, 9 ,.P -- f : b-j i: 3 Ec. .-.d .' b chu hitcr,-3,ir. c, .10, M a, .- r

r E r ,.I r-.,J 3 gni i C: ant et .=r ,:,n t '..cert.- l : ale ch an 1 1ubj -:- L L -E d L. En

le -arlu x.:u. .ararne- r Thr, n.: re n -- I c "-ift :-C'E ,iff r ..Er-. o chr t.- r r r'or jar.:e




I[IarI L I ii l n iir cIL d E i'Va E_- f rt I- "%.r31r" nd "cold" -j.b :c-:E .in

Ith. ori g f L, be rtor aTc n. i-om r-n.ar,_ I -:. r., r-..j tLi, 1 3rlt i. : "U *L t i :f

c-, c I'c ll r .*JulIE 1_;.E 1 i _',-,,r i f E : i. Tr,. C=- EU.ubjcCL.: --r*- Ecudinc r. :,:,,O -

cli.: 1 ir.,: va .Ec Tr ,:r iz d r, pona t c. ,a.:r. exa ar.i r. Li .-- r. n irmr 5

Jd'7 in 1 m tEr d trre c n r eSubLE c E :**n "C. r v nJa nJ "clm" -= i. C: r E. HE

C 1Ct..J-L d .








The results indicated that in scorine the responses, the examiners
tended to be more lenient to tr. i.ar i, ,l-.i.:r than the cold. The
examiners also tended to use more reinforcing comments and to give
more opportunity to clarify or correct responses to the warm sub-
jects.....The interaction also affected the examiners' "objective"
judgement of relatively "objective" material. Even though they
had the Wechsler manual available, a response given in the warm
condition tended to be given greater credit than the identical
response given in the cold condition. (pp. 43-44)

Miller, Chanskey, and Gredler (1970) used 32 graduate psychology students

to investigate discrepancies between raters on a fabricated WISC protocol.

The range of Full Scale IQ's for the one protocol was 76-93. The Vocabulary

and Comprehension subtests showed the most variability in scoring. In

addition, he found a mean of 2.12 clerical errors per rater.

Tyson (1969) investigated the effect of prior examiner-examinee contact

on WISC test scores. A group of 50 subjects was divided into four groups:

those who had no previous contact with the examiner; those who had limited

contact; those who had warm contact (examiner gave cookies and praise); and

those who had cold contact. No significant differences were found among the

groups.

Littell (1960) concluded from his review of the literature with the

TITC cbE3:

Tii, p,.- iL..=. effects of differences in the examiner's technique
.:.' j4.n.- :ration is another problem area which has not received
r.n arLLrn. :n it merits, as is the whole field of possibilities
arizii fircr: the relation between the examiner and the child and
cii ir*:i-:.cances of the examination. This is surprising as the
ir f:-rcan .: f these variables appears to be generally assumed.


Sur;,ar. *.: r. r-r.- view of the Literature

C...j.: r-' lewed in this section have shown that examine, examiner,

[ r.-c:.=rai, ar.J ituational variables may affect scores on psychological tests

i-i eni,- rc n:r c-. The amount :.f r ,i r.:l a :il 1 [ i.- pac ECr. c ,i .- ,: j

i-rnjerii, jrJ thus control tr-:-: ,rnjfi- ii- In 3ii i C a :t h-i' r : *-i:r .





13


r E 1:* rur n .:. l wue ir, e 4-if ii i .. r..: u :.:- iL.:ur cr~c cf t or r1.-,. fri i ahjl E

.. t.r,, ril a-.d tr- I i f:t -xa. tr. It.7lr.er ra.c in rarticulIr arc r.iE .EE

1%aillhie.













CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN


Instrumentation

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children ('TCI is an individually

administered instrument which yields a Verbal IQ, a Performance IQ, and a

Full Scale IQ. The six subtests which contribute to the Verbal IQ are Infor-

mation, Comprehension, Arithmetic, Similarities, Vocabulary, and Digit Span.

The six subtests which contribute to the Performance IQ are Picture Comple-

tion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, Object Assembly, Coding, and Mazes.

The Verbal IQ and the Performance IQ are combined to derive a Full Scale IQ.

The sixth, alternate subtests, Digit Span, and Mazes, were not used in this

study.

The WISC was chosen as the testing instrument for this study because of

its widespread acceptance as a valid and reliable test of intelligence of

school age children (Fraser, 1959; Burnstein, 1965; Littell, 1960; Zimmerman

and Woo-Sam, 1972). Reliability coefficients quoted for the WISC are:

.' t '.. .r. t 10 and 13 for the Verbal Scale; .86 at 7, .89 at 10,

r.i .":' at '-.: f:.r the Performance Scale, giving overall coefficients of .92,

.95. nr. .9- at those ages for the Full Scale (Fraser, 1 i.'

Fr. a~JLc:r.o to providing the necessary data for this study, each sub-

jc' ,r..r ji r L abil i E r- ,.3ur ., r:. t uc*. C ,:i E ijIi j lt.l U i r-

itc!.-. -I|*:r r. tLe usedi (cj.I.ir .r Ld *-r r r ;pr:..c.Ta-.








Setting

Alachua Elementary School and A. L. Mebane Middle School were selected as

sites for the present study. Both schools served the rural community of

Alachua, Florida. A large per centage of the students at both schools were

disadvantaged students whose parents worked on the farms in the area. The

elementary school had 600 students in kindergarten through fourth grades,

47 per cent of whom were Black students. There were 27 on the administrative

and teaching staff of the school, 7 of whom were Black. The middle school was

an ungraded school which had 520 students in fifth through eighth grades, 51

per cent of whom were Black students. (Although the school was completely

ungraded and students of all grade levels were found in any one classroom,

grade classifications were retained on the cumulative folders.) There were

25 on the administrative and teaching staff, 5 of whom were Black. Both

schools have been racially integrated since February, 1970.

The testing was completed within the period from April to June, 1972,

and was carried on simultaneously at both schools. Each test was conducted

in a private room at the schools with only the examiner and the subject present.

Sample

To obtain the sample for this study the investigator asked the Assistant

Principal for Curriculum at Alachua Elementary School to refer 24 Black and

24 White second and third grade students as subjects in the elementary grade-

level group. The Guidance Counselor at A. L. Mebane Middle School was asked

to refer 24 Black and 24 White seventh and eighth grade students as subje-:c:

in the middle grade-level group. Each administrator was asked to refer a.i,

L i . u -I ..- ..r-z ir,, .. IT : r r i ci-

E i i r- r r J1 -- 1 a .I .J r j -. J [: H .pl i c = c c-s: ..i c ei-dr ie

E* 2tr., lics ln el or to *:rjuj.li -- Eh- rc o....r. *1 i -, a -iL .- p -r c t-i. j', r







ability level. Approximately equal numbers of boys and girls were referred

as participants in both racial categories and at both grade levels.

Examiners

Three Black and three White female examiners were employed to administer

the tests. Each of the examiners had had at least one graduate level course

in the administration of individual intelligence tests and had had supervised

experience in the administration of the WISC. All examiners met the criteria

used by the Alachua County School System to select personnel to administer

intelligence tests within the public schools. Four of the examiners were

graduate students in the Department of Special Education at the University of

Florida. The other two held masters degrees in educational counseling.

Method

The design of the study provided that each of the 96 subjects would be

given the complete Wechsler Scale (10 subtests) by both a Black and a White

examiner with a seven-day interval between test administrations. Each of the

Black examiners was paired with a White examiner so that each of the three

examiner pairs administered 64 tests to 32 students, half Black and half

White, 16 at the elementary grade level and 16 at the middle grade level. In

order to distribute retest effects between races and among examiners, each

examiner alternated testing Black and White students first and second so that

at the conclusion of the study each examiner had tested equal numbers of Black

jia*nl lte -tudents first and second at both grade levels.

I l r. jt..j- of the Study

ir,? childrenn included in this sample had a mean age of 8.6 in the elemen-

[ar i-h.:-:- group and a mean a4.- of I3.4 in r.; --iJJli :1 .:. :.c r-:p. li.-

Ifri.'n;- *:- this study many nri: -nrsia.l cc. .:- cr a: ;r.:~up.









Aiii. cre pretenr sample micht n.-c hjr, bEn repr-sentari --' ii h he gene-

ral [.:pulI P 0 ,r. : ,: ..i .-h idrcr. irn. ct.h. i.co-nd aJd thir.i un- .E .enc-r a-nd






I E .1 E it n r.irl :1 i '. ir, .

,1rl a,[-r. E.i- ,ub'-. E. ir r inid:l a.i r .-ed LO .i-nrLine r raiL.r tEr.

i ci n rc r jn-I.e, le:cd atnd tn- hadicxr.i t r at-r ait [he cE ch(:l= mr

l a r r orlr imt .1e'c t w ii:. r reri in r- .:r: 'C r. r. th. gr c ceral F pu-

SL L-Ti, -1 .I Lu. c.r.L z .

Fl 1H 1icac a n E n t unJ inP i ci.mpl>: -C tiLcicaJ pr.e..ndur winh a rIla-

r'i -i -a-ll plpe i subje.ctz an i Ie I *sr crhE ifiJdePErJi-erL riic ie ar-

rt-:- zni:ed.



uti l p-th. h c : i


,-: 'Th.-r.- i n .:- i.S cricnc tdir.nf. r-, bretieen ti-E irndivi du-l incmtl-

li-irce iest c:-r.c ci Ii l. ud..0rs c trp s d:-:.re arni third qr ide; ier-c

E. :L.d by E-lad and whicc :. -:-.incr-

.ull i.prche-si i1

11.: The-r Is 1 C ;iscr.Lcllni2 C dLtffEr..nct bEt-H.c. rie iErlilirul i.Cel-

lincnci czE- -c. re.a f tich -tud-en In th.e secenrin, adJ ighch graij- iphen

[E -t d I., 1 ck and I lr.i e:.i'jnin--r .

l;. l li p.the- =i i ii

HO-c: ..hre_ 1i P- infic, anE di ffrence LEAnc'.,Tn LhE ndi,. Jt-. tr n,-

lienrice. mcireC of Whice crudentu in the uscnnd and third gradBs when ts tnd

b-1 Llack and WhitE cacinri.er-.







Null Hypothesis IV

Ho: There is no significant difference bei- n cth. Lnjl i.,.L intel-

ligence scores of White students in the seventh ~an . rr, grtj.3z L.llen tested

by Black and White examiners.

Data Analysis

Analysis of variance techniques using a factorial with replications

design were employed to test the hypotheses. The analysis was performed by

the University of Florida Computing Center using the Bi-Med 08V program.

The .05 level of significance was used to test all hypotheses.














*:I TiLP F -ULIP

i E': L L 1',


Tli- a r.I- r,* Eh:- pre.e- iE r [ .E E.- : f .' Lrct rnd Wi-iiEE. chi L-

rer. hrh th i-:cr..d and ilt.] gra = irnd -. ElC1:k n.J ? 'hi hil dr:n ir. chti

a--. -- tl'. ai r h. C ri d .

Taie- I iri-i-niC Ehe !.Cn j-s5 jnd riandjrd dji ijA-jr- rior l ict jnd

mir iC l t;.-. : L = j aj . -. 1- Eif l3 w ._ 1 m..h::l l i la clh-e m .odd .le .; t-,--- lr a.I I l.


rtALL I


? Ji. rA.-.E I'F SiCruCiiTS

II :, L l ..: r.-" r : 'j,.L -,,.j- c .- E
Sj.... ,..h E E: : ubj E-i C


- n.r.c. h=. = .. .-:-r rl--


Erl l l -3.3lc wrh '- ,liJil


= 1 :. e r.- .. = -i ." '.*'*-jr -
r = '<. 1 .. '.'n U 1 = 1 .1 -,'.chE

Titi 2? r-:-r.E' E2' r. i,: .:,f jri ir hiui ru.. t ijbi E .r Ern *3 L 3i.

P r' r .-r-r.e c E cd-t E[ i I. .i- E 1 c r- E M .. A r .:cE, E-,cjj ni r a.-, hia an F iEc ,

cr i..i)r., *.hilh a L i-gni fi a rC iE t' .'15 ) \i: T1 zhi --ull t J-i E*- CLE l

in .i- ofr Fr,'.-ous re r.I. rii- preernC n Fc il 3 i3 OE *1- iegnid Eo Erc

dLif riric.i: in iQ suOur- bctw---r.i Elct. iaii tAhhtc Subj-: t.







TABLE 2


ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE


Source

1. Examiner pair

2. Order

3. Student race

4. Grade level

5. Examiner race

6. Examiner Pair
x order

7. Examiner Pair
x student race

8. Order x
student race

9. Examiner Pair
x grade level

10. Order x
grade level

11. Student race x
grade level

12. Examiner pair x
Examiner race

13. Order x
Examiner race

1-. r.jjd L rare x
Sa.Jr-n r race

I:.. c 1-.- x
LE --n.ri r rce



r* j r
r xr,


SS DF


423.68

1740.02

11011.02

44.08

16.33


473.82


1079.19


270.74


2702.88


462.52


172.52


174.70


3120.18


20.022


16.33


MS

211.84

1740.02

11011.02

44.08

16.33


236.91


539.59


270.74


2 1351.44


462.52


172.52


87.35


F

.4015

7.3446

20.4060*

.0326

.1870


.4490


1.0227


3.4240


2.5613


.5123


2.5535


3.2066*


3120.18 76.7795*


20.022


16.33


79.07 .1499


158.14 2










S :.r.-

17. E/B ilr.1 r pair
*3rd.r A
o s r e 3 l1

ir. i...i..r pair p
ir.udJnr r.; /






': rad.JI. l ', l

". -. m .r, ., r pair l
.r e 1,,"E 1
sn .cr riac r

.' LE .r, r pair .
L. i..ir. r r ace



'2. riler
EI ..1 l r i 'i
Ej 3a-" r,i r r ac

2 E. E/ 3Tn..r pair x
:r ;..i. .% I -
La'".Lne r ra.-.

... *.'a .r .r




. ( iJeiL rae .




2.. EL -i tr. r pair a.
*r '..1 r ,-
ar j.Jr-r rc-- a
*' r1.- He-i

'. L1.a1i..-. r pair

SLd.: r r

Larnifbr rac*



I'rdur X
*rai l--c;l x
Eaj.rer race


ESj i'T MS


9):, .Q


19u.75




I'S. 12


y.. -.


5a. 59


113.' I









IRS. r.3


* i .eru










1.. 19




2. C' S


.'- Ii',,


E2.51




67.6S,


3.. 226'


r 7. 68


2522. U


- 1-6.1. 35


2. J90





1.6.511


0.5.9 .3-.91


.J-S


21.19








Sr SS ,F tl F

29. 1ii.-.ir.:nr pa r x
Student race x
Grade level x
Examiner race 382.20 19l.i' ".,*

30. Order x
Student race x
Grade level x
Examiner race 56.33 1 'i.. ". "L

31. Cl) a-r.er pair x
,,rder ,
Student race x
Grade level x
,niner race 14.30 2 7.15 .2625



Sp .05

** p .01

Table 2 shows an F-ratio of 3.206 for the interaction, examiner pair X

examiner race, which is significant at the .05 level. Table 3 presents the

fear. 1Fill cal. Eii:r: -f E!lait anj rrit: :ut-jects tested by the Black and the

i r. -t -, E rir,. r icr. ir, facr. *,ir. -[,. -,I-.i: -tests comparing means showed no

:iLCiLr r,1 diff.rriince t-cr.lcn cth: :[.jlc :-r the White examiner in each pair.



11Ji FULL :-,-E Di' O:. C: :.r BLACK AND WHITE
.l[,.:i W i. L .AIlilCf PAIRS



Sjir i ". .' 1L r.=.." l



r i r ii 1, r 1j. j J. r,'''


p '. -l: 2.92'J fl- .'2 f. r c jCl i .:3i..









Pi..L r .- [-E bl I i h.h:.- an F-rCau t L, f r.l "Lf t..r ll i r- a .:L .'ii.

.:-rd.- L' c. '.u:r i'..- a t1 iL. r Is --i *ali at r E C. .r 1' =1r. i j -b : i pr. -

Since ch. = ^1 Fulal r?,al *; :- a J E C i d a rd J- L a L .: ..- ..r A i --u .b--c

L ;: -i .J ilr k t I' Lfi a Bi ). .n id I* i-.- l tiEE -. a r. i- r ii *r.- i I--dI. ii.- l a.:k

dii '1i-- r--. rr .- L 1al i1 buI.- an r a 11 r* r a-.- crf ajr-r*.: .'aCl I.

r it L i in E I-i. iC [-- :i r-; 11 -l Eubji.: rc.gmrdl of -v rin-r r C..

T.LLL -

iF,'. FI.LL : L ilQ ':'COPiEl '.* ALL -iI.R'ECT:
.'! i .i.,ti tIl T t'.1100 R A E.i TLlL[ i- f!.-E

F1iCr ii '.: -. r.,3 TI

l :l E .^ r-i r I'll L E m). rn-r

93.7 1 i. .i:
*rl = 1 l :il : :

r :t e r: -l 5. .i '


= .''. = 1i.11

LTat- i -..-- i i i- i -.- C ai-a .(. ,:. a 3 al .C. A i-iL i.3) .* radIi

' 3- M = L . r r ac-" liJa a .. r -ri I- ; r .a -.c il i i. ni- fi c -r. r ac cEl'-

. .1 V-i LO 1 L'u L o >: :iple-- t t E *:- r- r L 1 c i 0 of t' rch- c r -- r IrE--r-

SL.1: -i-, l-. j C ini tt. l t :.p 1 J r -, *Li i L* j.- f-Ci .i ri l ; I.

L'L :.i: '.- r. r f .--JJ e b-'" H.P C-iL ': :

'.il H'. 3 llE-h i. 1

Hi.i: i lf i m id f t E I r- na .: i nlit car d i r rt- cii e be L E un h --

Er- c ll-i rm : t -:s. 0r EF1 i ui c i t: G 0 L' i l, d daild E[ ird i di r .ac ilin-i.

L ,; C -.1 Lt F d.: al rd i l-li-c r tiiflr r b 'o r. 1 n L i a L d rif c;r.:r, wa. I'w undr,

ECni r- :rto c .--, tr, rul l-, ,po-,heil .0._ im a ccept d.








Null Hypothesis II

Ho: It was stated that there is no significant difference between the

intelligence test scores of Black students in the seventh and eighth grades

when tested by Black and White examiners. No significant difference was

found: therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted.

Null Hypothesis III

Ho: It was stated that there is no significant difference between the

intelligence test scores of White students in the second and third grades

when tested by Black and White examiners. No significant difference was

found: therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted.

Null Hypothesis IV

Ho: It was stated that there is no significant difference between the

intelligence test scores of White students in the seventh and eighth grades

when tested by Black and White examiners. No significant difference was

found: therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted.

The analysis of variance summary table presented in Table 2 shows an

F-ratio for student race X grade level X examiner race was .3542 which is

not significant at the .05 level.

Table 5 shows the mean Full Scale scores of Black and White subjects at

[r.. elementary and middle school grade levels. Post-hoc t-tests performed

with each of the pairs of means failed to reveal significant differences be-

tween scores of Black second and third grade students when tested by Black and

White examiners; between Black seventh and eighth grade students when tested

n silck and White examiners; between White second and third grade students

'.r.:. rested by Black and White examiners; and between White seventh and eighth

graii students when tested by Black and White examiners.

Therefore, Hypotheses I, i, Iii, snj ih ..r- ,_i._~.-p. .





25


TABLE 5

MEAN FULL SCALE IQ SCORES FOR BLACK AND WHITE
ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL SUBJECTS
UNDER BLACK AND WHITE EXAMINERS


Black Subjects

Black Examiners White Examiners t

Elementary 87.291 85.583 t = .4285

Middle 86.458 88.291 t = .4611

White Subjects

Black Examiners White Examiners t

Elementary 103.791 103.166 t = .1566

Middle 101.541 99.700 t = .4614


p ) .05 = 2.920












CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The findings of this study have shown that the individual intelligence

scores of Black and White children in the present sample were not signifi-

cantly affected by examiner race. Although the subjects were rural children,

these results support the evidence provided by Solkoff (1971) that examiner

race did not significantly affect IQ scores of urban school children. The

evidence also supports the conclusions of Pelosi (1968) that examiner race,

sex, or style did not affect the scores of Negro males on a variety of

psychological tests. The results do not support the findings of Savage

(1972) that examiner race significantly affected the scores of Black chil-

dren on the Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Scale. However, the

present study focused on Full Scale scores and did not attempt to assess

examiner race effects on particular subtests within the WISC.

The statistically significant difference in IQ scores of Black and White

subjects was expected in view of the hundreds of research reports which have

found that as a group Negroes score lower than Whites on intelligence tests.

t.inni.d, t jAl. 11i61) concluded:

l.jc i. needed, therefore, is not further evidence of
*?iEr-=nr:e Letween sample population scores, but broad
r.,~ 1 Jjda t on a Negro sample to make intelligence test
r--ir.i Ir. rl is group more meaningful. (p. 42)

l., a--rn FAul Scale scores for the Black subjects and for the White sub-

j-=C.r i-. rni j.nple were 86.90 and 102.05, respectively. Since no Negroes

i..*:r iilue. it, rne standardization sample .:; te 'ri:C. it is difficult to








.r." r r1: ch .: 1 1 t r .:: i .nr.-:, ; jL i liA i i j.i rjirdi.4 r.- r: i -




E P, c -" r i- 1 1C .- -: E 3c.- P i I ri r..: v. c ir .l ih Lc r :ii a r.I i i l :

itl=ar. 1,:.rJ-.1: .1 a1.7 li- .r. '.. J 3rLI On E j I i .5.*ir. np g r ch. Lr .1r' l r ._. rC..:

S.. [ ,r IE a ar .3 : d . C.r. Ir -' .:.r I *.r Ln -L .: .r J i C jL Lh .i.. : iT.i l.

-l:il 7 E -' u .i -. it CJ. E .h : 4. C--.: r ; :. C :.-. : I r I-.: J :
.: 0i, c ror .- ir c r:. r r. .-: r i r ,:,-, : : r r .
,L' i [ ,,O,: Fi:rI -i -1c, : ,- c _-: : r, i ,:ha cr- -,,J i c, i',, r r.:,



ci, .1 I- i r.. I j c.m r .-1 t-i Ch-- P- .an *1-.:1 i:f Ch
L.5- *ar -...id r- .uf f r . ( i ..- ;

r. .p3r ,fr :- il... .'2' rr1 Or j ...1 bE C t. Lr.a rn C a I.l

j- r. :.:.r.r..l. ii. I'.j 11, : li. a[ rd-..frri.L c 3 : r. ,dir ra :,: r,.J Ec:*

jr,:, -: : Ei .:. rd irrl- c.i c :r. i i r.n, n 12 ..; r= .: =;.. Th,: fi...ur.-

il. -r.it [\ .: ,fl. r, i, r i-,i .it -_,- .Or,-: SL i.c I-h =L.; 1.c.-.:. The, -: 1r...=-

Il. ,.r.. C -il -[E C*. 1 i, ,r v ...cc-.- Cr- A hC i .. ti.j I h. r. Ir..E L -
CI: i L or i 1 E | r f- Eh,: : t r. a E C r.- A u r- Lhrr




,l' lr ,l. :: C i c. -I r. ci r r . r,.:.. r.L l- I nc'.: .3

TI,: l r ir1 : ,nir-,: Oh Clr, i r, i,- fr.:,. Lt1 I. 1 m i :: I I- r.r,. f3.:E C- C

C-, r r 1t.L r., ir, -.:,r ,-,y I;- .= [ _a_. =t-i "-h, c.E r, x 2|T.j r r cr rr: -r. .
LI I r t- i- Ir 1. -a-.r.. I L s..-r- -si "cir- e4-i E, r.r LC.,.




Wh.c i-ir r r iz c L.a cit rr = i-.. gir i-cc, buch Fla.. "a. ibl[a t u1 j -





Ic ll I: .: I : r l ..cl : l -. : r.. t i-, l r .; r roup- or rn-

J: : aC i r '. r c r. I, J i,: i'J r.Ld .. .r, haL m 1,-l: -irn *..: 3 Eicrr

I.i "i,- Oi.C.--S'- *.- j -.:t- i'E F r.'., i.L pi 'rC IflL .u,: i :LC-n3 n.ild *.:* Lic.r, l

d.: 1 a:r.- .r cn.l. a chi hiii. l..r.aI i m.-.l on. ch. b :1 :-r CF. r-;=ula o.

p:.. r1-:_iL i C-CS .








This study was coarnrnrd only with the Ful i.:31ji- ..:.r-= i. e=.:h r.:Aul

group. Research investigating the effects of e *.ar..-r ra.:-- j.1 Lr.t !itrtrc-

tions of examiner race with subject race and sex on c.:n :.,'ritcE within the

WISC Scale would be fruitful. In addition to providing infrojr,.u:, about the

types of intellectual tasks which might be affected by examiner-examinee race,

this type of investigation would provide valuable information for educational

3ai-nitr3tor3 who employ Black and White teachers to implement curricula in

LrrE at- .: lassrooms.







































APP E iL- X:








TABLE 1


VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE II -C'.'i
OF BLACK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS 'IL:TEL
FIRST BY BLACK EXAMINERS AND
SECOND BY WHITE EXAMINERS


Black Examiner

First Test


White Examiner

Second Test


PAIR I


Subject V P FS

1 105 113 109

2 81 55 66

3 76 58 64

4 95 76 85



5 63 65 61

6 124 100 114

7 92 79 85

8 87 86 85


PAIR III


86 89

101 89

99 87


1: 104 108 107


V P FS

123 97 112

60 60 56


75 75

90 107


PAIR II


67 44 52

142 125 137

95 78 85

75 79 75



95 94 94

104 111 108

106 99 103

97 125 112








Sth! L


Vci i L. P'EF '.[:L'IJLCE, .'.T' FULL :i .iE I"'if EL:
:'F 1i.'- I 'llEI'L 'i:,iHO L :31l.ijLC TIL IEi
F .L EU o ht. i E*-L2ll i.riU. AND
': ":'.'n1 wnltlE EC*.VlllLE._


Fir-r Te:


FA.iP I


I-.

I, .






91 n.


tnii II


'.%iR iil


- 1 :9


Illn 113 lI'1










iii jIr...






*~ ii*5 L'







M-i LI- I''

I'..-:

Si ici '

C4 -. i


i c-i .ij T r








TABLE 3


VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES
OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED
FIRST BY BLACK EXAMINERS AND
SECOND BY WHITE EXAMINERS


Black Examiner

First Test


White Examiner

Second Test


FAIR I


Subject

25

26

27


V P FS

101 108 105

79 78 76

104 94 99


28 89 85 85



29 123 142 135

30 101 108 105

31 86 97 91

32 99 115 107



33 119 106 114

34 100 114 107

35 103 107 105

36 140 133 141


PAIR II


PAIR III


V P FS

94 94 93

77 76 75

118 87 104

105 93 99



139 150 149

120 122 123

110 118 115

116 122 121



108 107 108

104 128 117

110 104 108

119 135 129









T.-ELE -


'.'[ I l. F T'.t ., Fl.'J .V;. tt LL .'Lt. b'. ":.-ORt.
OF l'TlllE[ IIL'LE I CiiOCIL 'I.ICJ[ TELtE -li
F it.1 I B LACi E.,Lr.IrF .[Lujr
;.:f[IE. 6'] VAITE E:D-UlliEF


tla.l E T..-r

ri- Ti--c


rT41R 1


Ty r'




*ti i 1S F

'* ~ ;'1 "r.


i'. i Ii


-1 *- ;

S i1 ii3 ile



92 J s2


P'! i'R iiI


., LI 9




94I 10 '95

9J :i *


. P F"




12- 11" 125

l' 1-3 15.








t. ij. 12.,


12') I2. 12:


E 00 93








'10' IN. 112

9 it. 93


. .W-i E% --T...r

--.:0,J 7i-











VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND i.ILL '-l-:1 I,' i:i-'i
OF BLACK ELEMENTARY SCH:'OL "L t .i[ iTi ITEL-'T
FIRST BY WHITE E-lilIIlr,: \%Jid
SECOND BY BLACK EXAMINERS


PAIR II


PAIR III


5- 63

- 74

5 106

89


Black Examiner

Second Test


V P FS

100 94 97

77 76 75

82 92 85

90 82 85



81 78 77

103 87 95

94 101 97

82 80 80



70 74 69

66 79 70

115 110 114

96 106 101


White Examiner

First Test


PAIR I








TABLE 6



VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES
OF BLACK MIDDLE SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED
FIRST BY WHITE EXAMINERS AND
SECOND BY BLACK EXAMINERS


White Examiner

First Test


Black Examiner

Second Test


PAIR I


Subject

61

62

63

64


PAIR II


.- ,, t.


eA L i- ill


, ,) '4 ', '+ L


"i' t2 5, "'

I c- -

-.*-*I K' L


?IL ..1 1


f:,; f:, ).r 1








TABLE 7


VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES
OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED
FIRST BY WHITE EXAMINERS AND
SECOND BY BLACK EXAMINERS


White Examiner

First Test


Black Examiner

Second Test


PAIR I


V P FS

99 108 104

80 71 73

118 114 117

86 83 83



85 78 80

123 118 123

105 94 100

85 113 98



105 107 107

91 96 93

71 65 65

96 89 92


PAIR II


PAIR III


V P FS

99 129 115

81 93 85

121 131 128

101 106 104



87 82 83

131 121 129

86 101 93

82 110 95



108 104 107

110 113 112

80 67 71

97 100 99


Subj ect

73

74

75

76









,ALL! I



VE Fr.L, Pin.f f LJi.:E. J;l FILL ,iLE iQ S.PES
..t uHI l. I[,LDI.E iH:.iL .i.ib.ii'U i :i EL L'
N Ei T EL LiiL Ti ; X E R. ii'-
4Er-,*.Gi E. ELi[,:t E7, UNE S.5


FLr-: T- E


:econl iT r
7*-:uni Ic it


jr i rl I


V_ P






,. "- "5







In.1- 1 1'-11-
';I ,I,






11,., 110. ,'

h.'ll 111 I_,


F[.i 11


'ij K






.i 5 a': r


F

i. ll1


111 11- 11-




' 115 1't






-,. .'," *t


L11 i'

ii. i3: i :




*'1 *'**'j e.




i9 iu i

11' 118 11''


8"
i.


PVniF l il







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F cr. ir,_ . rt . .c r ._rt .. . 1_ , '. c r. l C .



c: r 1" Ir 'r L. L a r.- CC IJ r I L'J .. I : .. ..- ." h.. .l ::.: l 1 [ .-
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-1



.' .-r. :r, L. Fer l r.-: 1 :r. i.r .tp itlrt i.-.n Eo Inr.i l if r..:, ar.! h .la; ic,
.i:nl- .* i r.E of 1 ;:rc. sr. WfhiL Firi L i fJ e Pq.1ii 3 1ii Ln L- r adr. i e :.
.inlt r :1 *:r Fl.:-r il "ri-

Oi r, c a r.i iriL li= .cr : r*:ru ar- .- C ird 1. :..L r n 1 I t r r, -
p,. .: ,1r. r lL r s :'. '0--22.

i:.crr . F..:)ci l dli f r n.:c i i t, L r -:r...,.Lt. anJ r ch.:.:. :l-i- 'i f L:
," l_,: L2 r dj ,3l ur.,j. l,:-, : l '.,- I f ,:.r( :, L' .., 7, 2J.i-" .

F:a ,,inii iC I i.3 Ij btll:,:h, l. t=rl, lin' u,=,. b.. e h IL r r ri., ;Jr. : r,-. ,: 1, 1.[ r-r.
anr chI L -Lic. o i rE: 11l r..-:C jo. urni of .rinirmTl jr.a loc a l F:i cri,.-oal,
1 in ., 1--U .

i- [ ... 1. '. L-a-J *: L h LftL -.t: f Irt jiil .r tF : ., .. r..j 1 1.- E ),r TEi~
t.ili.* I. ;; FF'i ., E *-F= FItr ? .-a ill: f -F f1Lri I i (F .Ij.y


.-r ,. .i.:.urr.=- .:-. '- r L1 c... . i-u ,, 1 3, F--:..

iFC r.1 r iT. z :>, ..i -E i lI, :5 r.r in ir r.1 r. c.n- L pi itr-i i.l.u1-1
.: !. i -. ., i-. ,: *,' rEcrl 1 h. 11, lC)-21..

f r : i L. ar. J T. E- r, . . : .: C i m.s-r. F :.- r J aF.n i Ihi LL : 1 r.-,
L, ,-an-ir: c. r..up a l-E .:, irr, i -l .er,:. .:..jrr.a : ,- 1lieJ F ,, I :,:.2 .
1,1''. 3, .-1 ?- .

r.jr r r. i P E. ,i .l lC ll. r T. '. l ar.iC r. r. = ,.r,: .., r -rd. hic
S-.Tir.-r: .iu-mEr,- .. -F..:.r..rl jrI :--:i1 L :ii IFl 1'aF, I1 31.'-j .i

r.:-.c.r.i P. L .,A: Ir. ti1 L ti EE l i .hi.-r ai r i r !E.. r.:
,', C p l[: i;,:,r -,: e L .' -C r-. ,c I 1 r*0 .
qple f e L- I

I.:,- r.i- ia 3- Fia c J ,.t-s-:n. L. Te chrlir e ip r. EaP C i-. rLr rL' f.2n n[ c f
pp .' i ",. a-r, -. F' h 1 .'al .r s, I t 11'-- ll..

F L. J PD -.- IH. C iri-. o-ir.ri, j. C.n: rr.int- L F -i. : tp.,: i al
*id i.: pIC iriC jri- LL.r .- E, PL F n,7i r.: 1 1: .r-r I'- 'I, F 3, .'--L.

a.:i i, L. lrc-, ll ,rer,.:- '.,:r.- 3-: t',jn L ri:.r., .- ._- rlra r._ e:c-r E AL.li :r, ,-d
:.cijl I 1 o.rac i.r ip- r ci--- r. chi 1 ar.] r .r'lr.uirr. J. urri r Arr.t r- v3-ji ,r.
-- P -- cu..:.1-- l-- ; J -3 .'.

Lar ?-.-. _,. ,arl ,i II air !, j T.=[ r,-let,. ?' r-. r- .n -c1l. in r car-.:ui.: -r
L i' L h _" [ t >J _l [ i nt c 1 1 1 : .- ni L C :, .: a i. J .: u r nl 3 r :Er iJri c E[E nrl E n: L tr E II
L9-', C Jl L f t *1. Ccr I f Ld-C E on3-':'- c.


*Iac l.r, J. al. L:(L1i.c: il r,: ail,': o, (of L A'in.J" T e f tcc r ppor r
or ihe- 1.4.: I F n p r-act- i t:t. pro- l.--i of r ciial p 3i--r:1- ,.*
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Savage, J. E. Testers' influence on children's intellectual performance.
Dissertation Abstracts, 1972, 32, 4429-A-4430-A.

Shuey, A. The Testing of Negro Intelligence. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell Co.,
Inc., 1958.

Solkoff, N. Race of Experimenter as a Variable in Research with Children.
1971, ERIC ED056-328.

Strong, A. C. Three hundred fifty white and colored children measured by
the Binet-Simon Measuring Scale of Intelligence: A comparative study.
Pedagogical Seminary, 1913, 20, 485-515.

Stroud, J. B. On the genetic basis of intelligence: A Note. Psychology
in the Schools, 1970, 7, 88.

Sunne, D. A comparative study of white and Negro children. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 1917, 1, 71-83.

Trent, R. D. The color of the investigator as a variable in experimental
research with Negro subjects. Journal of Social Psychology, 1954, 40,
:-1-287.

T..I.., M. M. (Ed.). Race and Intelligence: A Scientific Evaluation.
SYork: Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 1963.

T.rti-i, L. E. The Comparative Effect on Intelligence Test Scores of Negro
iar. White Children When Certain Verbal and Time Factors are Varied.
i.-.'.ersity of Florida, 1964.

i i:-. M. H. The effect of prior contact with the examiner on the WISC
-.:..res of third-grade children. Dissertation Abstracts, 1969, 29, 4372.

irell. G. R. The application of the Binet-Simon tests to groups of white
ar.j colored school children. Psychological Monographs, 1923, 32, 52-58.

oWIlir[aker, E. M., Gilchrist, J. C., and Fischer, J. Perceptual defense or
LI.ionse suppression? Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1952,
732-733.

' Liiams, Robert L. Black pride, academic r i*' ;.1v:, a.jl individual achieve-
.ric. Counseling Psychologist, 1970, 2, in-l.





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The author was born in Louisville, Kentucky o:-n Jan, r. 1, 1937. Her

undergraduate training began in 1954 at Centre Colle=y in Danville, Kentucky

and was completed in June, 1968, when she was awarded a Bachelor of Arts

degree in psychology from the University of Florida. In August, 1968, she

L. a 3. ard.J an NDEA fellowship to pursue graduate study in the field of

1:irrnn~l disabilities, Department of Special Education, at the University

:t Fl:rti. She was awarded a Master of Arts degree in August, 1969.

During the 1969-1970 school year she taught educable mentally retarded

c:bldri, ic J. J. Finley Elementary School in Gainesville, Florida, and be-

a.a i d.croral program in the field of mental retardation at the University

*.:f F!.:riJ. In August of 1970 she was awarded a Graduate School fellowship

f:r i.Jll-rtme graduate study during the academic year 1970-1971. She taught

.j.l:jatl -e.n.cill, r 'aried children at A. L. Mebane Middle School during the

' 'I-l'< 2: :hl..l ,r.

Tr.1 ULlr I: -airired to Charles G. Wellborn, Jr., Associate Professor,

Ci-il-'-: of .:=rnai Ls =nd Communications, University of Florida. They have

hr .- cliildr:n. bill, ficky, and Linda.


Bi.ll-r,'1J n ,:..L SIE. LIj















I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



R. Reid, Chairman
Professor of Special Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Cary E. Reichard, Co-chairman
Assistant Professor of Special Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Myron A. Cunningham /
Professor of Special Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




sJaes E. Whorton
distant Professor of Special I -3j :-r.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it c.: .nri:c.:
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequac-, r-
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Phil*--:;rf.




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k .!:li:: f :r I :- '









Thi J i i rca i.:.r. ,.- L utr.Itrl:t J E: trh- De n .of rh- C(. 1lEg. o- f Educaci-:n and
:* i. *r rjduae .' 'r : 1 1, i, .j c-* a jc i pc d a r[arn il ul ll. .- nr oit rhe
re ulrut ir i n :,[ ti d .cnr Ei f 'c [ :r o[ hi I .' C' :,.

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Full Text

PAGE 1

A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF EXAMINER RACE ON INDIVIDUAL INTELLIGENCE TEST SCORES OF BLACK AND WHITE CHILDREN By EMILY S. WELLBORN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1972

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Copyright by Emily S. Wellborn 1972

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The completion of this study would not have been possible without the combined efforts of many persons. My sincere thanks and appreciation are expressed to my committee members, Dr. William R. Reid, Chairman, Dr. Gary Reichard, Co-chairman, Dr. Myron Cunningham, Dr. Richard Anderson, and Dr. James Whorton for their encouragement, assistance and valuable recommendations. My appreciation is expressed to Dr. John Thornby for his contributions to the statistical analyses of the data, and to Dr. Madelaine Ramey for her contributions to the statistical design of the study. The cooperation of Mr. Earl Kilgore at A. L. Mebane Middle School and Mrs. Helen Teel at Alachua Elementary School is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, to my husband, Charles, and to my children. Bill, Ricky, and Linda goes a special thank you for their inspiration and patience. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments iii List of Tables v Abstract vi Chapter 1 Problem 1 Chapter 2 Review of the literature 5 Chapter 3 Design 1^ Chapter 4 Results 19 Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations 26 Appendix 29 Bibliography 38 Biographical Sketch 44 iv

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Mean Age of Students 19 Table 2 Analysis of Variance Summary Table 20 Table 3 Mean Full Scale IQ Scores for Black and White Subjects by Examiner Fairs 22 Table 4 Mean Full Scale IQ Scores of All Subjects by Order of Testing and Examiner Race 23 Table 5 Mean Full Scale IQ Scores for Black and White Elementary and Middle School Subjects Under Black and White Examiners 25

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Dpctor of Philosophy A Study of the Effect of Examiner Race on Individual Intelligence Test Scores of Black and White Children By Emily S. Wellborn August, 1972 Chairman: Dr. William R. Reid Co-chairman: Dr. Cary Reichard Major Department: Special Education — j^iThe purpose of this study was to determine if examiner race significantly affected individual intelligence scores of Black and White children at two grade levels. Three Black and three White female examiners administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to 24 Black and 24 White children in the second and third grades at Alachua Elementary School and to 24 Black and 24 White children in the seventh and eighth grades at A. L. Mebane Middle School. Approximately equal numbers of boys and girls were included in the sample. The design of the study provided for each child to be tested by a Black and by a White examiner with a seven-day interval between test administrations. In order to distribute retest effects between races and among examiners, the testing schedule was alternated so that equal numbers of Black and White children at each grade level were tested first and second by each examiner. Analysis of variance procedures utilizing a factorial with replications design were used to analyze the data. It was concluded that there was no difference in intelligence test scores at either grade level when tested by Black and White examiners.

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CHAPTER ONE PROBLEM Studies comparing the intelligence of racial, ethnic, and social groups abound in the professional literature. These comparative studies began to appear soon after the turn of the century when the Binet-Simon Measuring Scale was accepted as a valid and reliable measure of individual intelligence. (Strong, 1913; Sunne, 1917; Pressey and Teter, 1919; Arlitt, 1921; Wells, 1923). The evidence from these earlier studies as well as evidence which has accumulated more recently has demonstrated that there are differences in performance on individual intelligence tests which may be attributable to membership in a particular social, ethnic, or racial group. (Shuey, 1958; Osborne, 1960; McQueen and Churn, 1960; Williams, 1970). Demonstrated differences in intelligence test scores between racial groups have generated a vast amount of research concerning the naturenurture controversy. Some investigators have concluded that group differences in intelligence are due to innate factors which are not amenable to educational and environmental manipulation. Shuey (1958) in a review of approximately 24A studies dealing with the intelligence of Negroes and Whites summarized the position of this group. She concluded that the results of these investigations "...all point to the presence of some native differences between Negroes and Whites as determined by intelligence tests" (p. 318). Recently, many investigators have concluded that group differences in intelligence are due to environmental and social factors which are amenable

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to educational and environmental manipulation. The position of these investigators has been summarized in an article in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1957) which was endorsed by 18 social scientists including Otto Klineburg, Gardner Murphy, Jerome Bruner, and Anne Anastasi. They stated: "The conclusion is inescapable that any decision to use differences in the average achievement of the two racial groups as a basis for classifying in advance any individual child . Negro or White, is scientifically unjustified" (p. 422). Following a UNESCO conference attended by sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and geneticists from around the world, Tumin (1963) issued this statement: Whatever classifications the anthropologist makes of man, he never includes mental characteristics as a part of those classifications. It is now generally recognized that intelligence tests do not themselves enable us to differentiate solely between what is due to innate capacity and what is the result of environmental influences, training and education. Wherever it has been possible to make all allowances for differences in environmental opportunities, the tests have shown essential similarity in mental characteristics among all human groups. In short, given similar degrees of cultural opportunity to realize their potentialities, the average achievement of the members of each ethnic group is about the same (pp. 5-6). Although more and more investigators are accepting this latter position, the variables which are responsible for the discrepancy between the measured intelligence of Negro and White groups are still largely unexplained (Dreger and Miller, 1960; Kennedy, Van De Riet, and White, 1961; Rosenthal, 1966; Sattler and Theye, 1967). Among the many variables which may affect performance on an intelligence test are socioeconomic class (Arlitt, 1921; McGurk, 1953, McQueen and Chum, 1960; Deutsch and Brown, 1964; Burnes, 1970; McFie and Thompson, 1970); caste differences (Canady, 1943; Dreger and Miller, 1960; Kennedy, Van De Riet, and

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White, 1961); emotional disturbance (Hammer, 195A) ; nutrition (Zach, 1970); using the tests with groups not represented in the standardization sample (Kennedy, 1965; Williams, 1970); and examiner and examinee variables (Trent, 1954; Pasamanick and Knobloch, 1955; Masling, 1968; Dreger and Miller, 1960; Kennedy, Van De Riet, and White, 1961). Of these variables, the variable of examiner race has been examined the least (Littell, 1960; Dreger and Miller, 1960; Kennedy, Van De Riet, and White, 1961; Solkoff, 1971). These authors suggested that although investigations of this variable have been few and inadequate, examiner race may be an important factor which contributes to the observed decrement between Black and White intelligence test scores. The significance of this variable permeates the entire educational spectrum in our culture. Standardized tests measuring all aspects of personality are routinely administered in public education from kindergarten through adult education and job training programs. Educational decisions based on standardized test scores mold and alter the education and training of each child within the United States. Special educators are especially concerned with standardized tests since the results of these tests are used to determine placement in special education programs and to design educational experiences for exceptional children. With the influx of minority group children into special education classes following racial integration, knowledge about variables contributing to racial differences in measured intelligence has become particularly important. Dunn (1968) has estimated that well over half of the children in public school special education classes for the educable mentally retarded are minority group children. Williams (1970) has called for a moratorium on all testing of Blacks until nondiscriminatory tests are available.

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In a recent article, Ross, DeYoung and Cohen (1971) have warned that the continued existence of special education in the public schools depends upon more accurate and less discriminatory placement procedures and the development of curricula relevant to the needs of exceptional children. They concluded: Recently, suits have been brought against public schools for placing certain children in special classes for the educable mentally retarded. Through the courts parents are challenging the placement procedures, and the effectiveness and harmful impact of special class programming. Special educators are urged to initiate immediate reform in testing and placement procedures or there is a likelihood that changes will be imposed by the courts. (p. 5) Present Study The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of examiner race on individual intelligence test scores of Black and White children in the second and third grades and in the seventh and eighth grades. Most of the variables which have been correlated with performance on psychological tests such as socioeconomic class, caste membership, motivation, etc., are only indirectly amenable to educational intervention. In contrast, if examiner race is an important variable in psychological testing, direct educational intervention is possible through matching of examiner-examinee race.

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CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Literature PertainlnR to Examiner Race as an Independent Variable Canady (1936) studied the variable of examiner race using the 1916 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale in a test-retest design with 48 Negroes and 25 Whites, ages 4-16. He found that IQ scores for the Negroes showed an average increase of six points under the Negro examiner and IQ scores for Whites showed an average decrease of six points under the Negro examiner. Sattler (1966) reviewed Canady 's pioneer study and concluded that methodological weaknesses such as using only one Black examiner and twenty White examiners, lack of random selection and assignment of subjects, and lack of statistically significant results precluded any valid conclusions. Whittaker, Gilchrist, and Fischer (1952) conducted a perceptual defense experiment in which positive, neutral, and derogatory words were flashed on a tachistoscope. They found a significantly longer reaction time to derogatory words for Black subjects working with a Black examiner than for Black subjects working with a White examiner or for White subjects working with a White examiner or a Black examiner. Trent (1954) used a Black and a White examiner to present a motheridentification task to 81 Black and White kindergarten children. He found that when Black children were examined by the White investigator they refused to make a selection 25 per cent of the time. However, the Black children made no evading responses to the Black examiner. There was no difference in the responses of White children to either examiner. 5

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Pasamanick and Knobloch (1955), two White examiners, found a significant difference in language responsiveness and language comprehension as measured by the Gesell Developmental Examination in Negro infants at age 24 months. No significant differences in physical or behavioral development had been found in the two groups of infants during the first 18 months of the study. They concluded that "apparent early awareness of racial differences and loss of rapport has serious implications in the field of ethnic group psychology, particularly in the use of verbal items on intelligence testing" (p. 402). In a study involving 40 White male college students, Rankin and Campbell (1955) measured Galvanic Skin Response to a Black and a White examiner. A real GSR device and a dummy GSR device were connected to the arms of each subject. One experimenter read emotional words to the subject while a Black or a White examiner "adjusted" the dummy device. The found a significant difference in GSR's for Black and White examiners. Pettigrew (1964b) reported an unpublished study which used two groups of Black adults equivalent in income, age, education, and region of birth. The group interviewed by a Black examiner answered more questions on an information survey and a synonym test than did the group interviewed by a White examiner. Sattler and Theye (1967) reported a study by LaCrosse (1964) in which a White examiner retested Negro subjects who had been tested with the StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale (L-M) by a Black examiner. The same White examiner retested White subjects who had been tested by a White examiner. Under the retest condition, the Black subjects' scores were significantly lower than previous scores, whereas the White subjects' scores were significantly higher than previous scores.

PAGE 13

Pelosi (1968) reported a study by Kennedy and Vega (1966) which investigated the variables of examiner race, subject intelligence, and grade level in conjunction with the incentive conditions of praise, blame, or control. They concluded: No differences in performance were observed between subjects seen by either Negro or White examiners when praise or neutral comments were made during testing. It was only when examiners made derogatory comments to subjects about their performance that differences occurred. Under the blame condition, there was a decrement in performance of subjects tested by White examiners. (p. 9) Baratz (1967), working with Black students at Howard University, conducted a study on the effects of examiner race, instructions (neutral or anxiety-producing), and comparison population (subjects were told they would be compared with Black or White college students) . Examiner race was the only significant effect. Type of test and comparison population were not significant. Katz, Robinson, Epps, and Waly (1968) showed that performance on a test of expressed hostility was influenced by race of the examiner. Seventytwo Black boys were administered a hostility questionnaire and were then divided into four groups. Two of the groups had a task structured as a neutral research procedure under a Black and a White examiner. The other two groups had a task structured as an intelligence test under a Black and a White examiner. The subjects were retested with the hostility questionnaire. When the task was structured as a neutral one, there were no significant effects of the experimenter's race on the subjects' hostility scores. However, when the task was structured as an intelligence test, significantly less hostility was expressed when the examiner was White.

PAGE 14

Pelosi (1968) investigated the effects of examiner race, style, and sex on 96 Black males involved in a youth training program. Each subject was randomly assigned to the treatment conditions and was given a battery of eight tests including six subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Purdue Pegboard Test, and IPAT Culture Fair Test. No significant main effects were found for any of the variables under investigation. Caldwell and Knight (1970) used the Stanf ord-Binet (L-M) to test the effect of examiner race on intelligence test scores of 15 Black high school boys. No significant differences in IQ scores were found under the Black or the White examiner. The investigators noted that 13 of the 15 subjects had lower IQ scores on the second test, regardless of examiner race. Solkoff (1971) reported the first study which used the WISC as an evaluation instrument to assess the effect of examiner race on intelligence test scores. In addition, he administered a test-anxiety scale to assess whether test anxiety scores would differ contingent on the race of the examiner. Each of the four Black and four White female examiners administered the anxiety scale and the WISC to 14 Black and 14 White children, ages 8-11. Solkoff found no significant interaction between race of examiner and race of child. No significant effects were obtained for the anxiety scale. In a study which investigated examiner race as well as examiner expectancy, Jacobs and DeCraff (1972) employed 16 Black and 16 White psychologists to score video-taped WISC tests of a White boy and a Black boy. Half the examiners were presented fictitious referral forms which indicated the boys were of superior intelligence and achievement and half were presented referral forms which indicated the boys were of inferior intelligence and achievement. They found that examiner expectancy significantly affected WISC scores

PAGE 15

and that bias was greater when Black examiners rated the Black subject and White examiners rated the White subject. Savage (1972) conducted a study in which 240 Black and White children in the first, third, and fifth grades in segregated and non-segregated schools were given the Block Design and Digit Span subtests of the WISC by 10 Black and 10 White examiners. He found significant differences for Black children tested by Black examiners on Block Design, but not on Digit Span. The author reported that Black first-grade boys in segregated schools scored about half as many scaled score points on Block Design when tested by White examiners than when tested by Black examiners. A request to the Florida Educational Resources Information Center, Tallahassee, Florida for a computer search of ERIC documents relevant to the present study yielded only one additional investigation. Cotnam (1969) assessed the effects of examiner race, subject race, and stated purpose of testing with a group of 40 Black and 40 White subjects enrolled in a worktraining program. Subjects were randomly assigned to four racially integrated groups. A Black and a White examiner administered a battery of self-report measures to two of the groups under a neutral condition. The other two groups were told the tests were for job placement. The investigators hypothesized that under the job-placement-test condition, examiners of unlike race would represent a "threat" to the subjects which would result in a self-favoring bias. The results showed that the self-favoring bias occurred for all subjects regardless of examiner race. Littell (1960) reviewed the research literature from 1950-1960 which had used the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. He made the following suggestions for further research:

PAGE 16

10 Much more systematic attention should be given to investigations of the many practical problems involved in the use of the WISC as a measuring device. There appears to be strong reason that WISC scores are affected systematically by many variables other than intelligence but little information about the exact nature of these variables and the relationships involved is available. Especially in need of systematic investigation is the effect on WISC scores by (a) variables in the relationship between examiner and examinee, (b) the circumstances of the examination, and (c) repeated administration of the WISC. (p. 153) In a review of the WISC literature from 1960-1970, Zimmerman and Woo-Sam (1972) indicated that the research questions posed by Little had not been answered. Hammond (1954) has pointed out the methodological weakness of studies which employ one examiner of each race to investigate the effect of race on subject performance. He stated that no valid, generalizable conclusions can be drawn from these studies any more than valid, generalizable conclusions can be drawn from a study using one subject. Using Hammond's criteria to assess the studies which have used race of the experimenter as an independent variable, only Jacobs and DeCraff (1972), Kennedy and Vega (1966), Pelosi (1968), Savage (1972), and Solkoff (1971) have used more than one examiner in each racial category. Although Pelosi has controlled this variable, the subjects in the experiment were volunteers and may not have been representative of the population of Black male youths in work-training programs. Also, he used only Black subjects. Jacobs and DeCraff have controlled the examiner variable, but used a subject population of one in each racial category. Only the investigations of Savage and Solkoff have internal and external validity as defined by Campbell and Stanley (1970).

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11 Literature Pertaining to Examiner-Examinee Variables — The Wechsler Scales Sarason and Minard (1962) administered the Vocabulary, Block Design, Comprehension, and Digit Symbol subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) to 96 college students who had been grouped as low-anxious or highanxious by scores on an anxiety scale. The results showed that low-anxious subjects were superior to high-anxious subjects on Vocabulary, Block Design, and Comprehension. No differences were found on Digit Symbol. Exner (1966) used 33 pairs of subjects, ages 7-14, matched for age, sex, Stanford-Binet IQ, and academic performance to test the effect of examinerexaminee rapport on WISC scores. One subject of each pair was tested under a "rigid" examiner condition and the other subject was tested under a "relaxed" condition. He concluded, "Results show statistically significant decrements in the performance of those subjects treated rigidly, and these decrements are mainfest in specific subtests rather than in a global effect" (pp. 305-306). Egeland (1967) employed two White male examiners to administer the WISC to 54 fifth grade subjects. The examiners and the subjects had been previously categorized as high-anxious or low-anxious by means of an anxiety scale. He reported that both groups of subjects tested by the high-anxious examiner performed significantly better on the Verbal Scale than subjects tested by the lowanxious examiner. There were no significant differences on the Performance Scale. Masling (1968) investigated the effect of "warm" and "cold" subjects on the scoring of the Information, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The test subjects were student accomplices who gave memorized responses to each examiner. Eleven examiners administered the three subtests to one "warm" and one "cold" subject. He concluded:

PAGE 18

12 The results indicated that in scoring the responses, the examiners tended to be more lenient to the warm subject than the cold. The examiners also tended to use more reinforcing comments and to give more opportunity to clarify or correct responses to the warm subjects.... The interaction also affected the examiners' "objective" judgement of relatively "objective" material. Even though they had the Wechsler manual available, a response given in the warm condition tended to be given greater credit than the identical response given in the cold condition. (pp. 43-44) Miller, Chanskey, and Gredler (1970) used 32 graduate psychology students to investigate discrepancies between raters on a fabricated WISC protocol. The range of Full Scale IQ's for the one protocol was 76-93. The Vocabulary and Comprehension subtests showed the most variability in scoring. In addition, he found a mean of 2.12 clerical errors per rater. Tyson (1969) investigated the effect of prior examiner-examinee contact on WISC test scores. A group of 50 subjects was divided into four groups: those who had no previous contact with the examiner; those who had limited contact; those who had warm contact (examiner gave cookies and praise); and those who had cold contact. No significant differences were found among the groups. Littell (1960) concluded from his review of the literature with the WISC that: The possible effects of differences in the examiner's technique of administration is another problem area which has not received the attention it merits, as is the whole field of possibilities arising from the relation between the examiner and the child and the circumstances of the examination. This is surprising as the importance of these variables appears to be generally assumed, (p. 146) Summary of the Review of the Literature Studies reviewed in this section have shown that examinee, examiner, procedural, and situational variables may affect scores on psychological tests and measurements. The amount of research conducted in the past three decades to identify and thus control these variables is indicative of their assumed

PAGE 19

13 importance. However, definitive conclusions about the effects of these variables in general and the effect of examinee-examiner race in particular are not yet available.

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CHAPTER THREE DESIGN Instrumentation The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is an individually administered instrument which yields a Verbal IQ, a Performance IQ, and a Full Scale IQ. The six subtests which contribute to the Verbal IQ are Information, Comprehension, Arithmetic, Similarities, Vocabulary, and Digit Span. The six subtests which contribute to the Performance IQ are Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, Object Assembly, Coding, and Mazes. The Verbal IQ and the Performance IQ are combined to derive a Full Scale IQ. The sixth, alternate subtests, Digit Span, and Mazes, were not used in this study. The WISC was chosen as the testing instrument for this study because of its widespread acceptance as a valid and reliable test of intelligence of school age children (Fraser, 1959; Burnstein, 1965; Littell, 1960; Zimmerman and Woo-Sam, 1972). Reliability coefficients quoted for the WISC are: .88 at Ih, .96 at V^h and 13% for the Verbal Scale; .86 at 7%, .89 at 10%, and .90 at 13% for the Performance Scale, giving overall coefficients of .92, .95, and .94 at those ages for the Full Scale (Fraser, 1959).In addition to providing the necessary data for this study, each subject's profile of abilities as measured by ten subtests yields valuable information which can be used by teachers for educational programming. 14

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15 Setting Alachua Elementary School and A. L. Mebane Middle School were selected as sites for the present study. Both schools served the rural community of Alachua, Florida. A large per centage of the students at both schools were disadvantaged students whose parents worked on the farms in the area. The elementary school had 600 students in kindergarten through fourth grades, 47 per cent of whom were Black students. There were 27 on the administrative and teaching staff of the school, 7 of whom were Black. The middle school was an ungraded school which had 520 students in fifth through eighth grades, 51 per cent of whom were Black students. (Although the school was completely ungraded and students of all grade levels were found in any one classroom, grade classifications were retained on the cumulative folders.) There were 25 on the administrative and teaching staff, 5 of whom were Black. Both schools have been racially integrated since February, 1970. The testing was completed within the period from April to June, 1972, and was carried on simultaneously at both schools. Each test was conducted in a private room at the schools with only the examiner and the subject present, Sample To obtain the sample for this study the investigator asked the Assistant Principal for Curriculum at Alachua Elementary School to refer 24 Black and 24 White second and third grade students as subjects in the elementary gradelevel group. The Guidance Counselor at A. L. Mebane Middle School was asked to refer 24 Black and 24 White seventh and eighth grade students as subjects in the middle grade-level group. Each administrator was asked to refer any student "on whom you want more information." The only criteria for participation were grade level and race. No attempt was made to test children within any ability level or to equalize the number of subjects in any particular

PAGE 22

16 ability level. Approximately equal numbers of boys and girls were referred as participants in both racial categories and at both grade levels. Examiners Three Black and three White female examiners were employed to administer the tests. Each of the examiners had had at least one graduate level course in the administration of individual intelligence tests and had had supervised experience in the administration of the WISC. All examiners met the criteria used by the Alachua County School System to select personnel to administer intelligence tests within the public schools. Four of the examiners were graduate students in the Department of Special Education at the University of Florida. The other two held masters degrees in educational counseling. Method The design of the study provided that each of the 96 subjects would be given the complete Wechsler Scale (10 subtests) by both a Black and a White examiner with a seven-day interval between test administrations. Each of the Black examiners was paired with a White examiner so that each of the three examiner pairs administered 64 tests to 32 students, half Black and half White, 16 at the elementary grade level and 16 at the middle grade level. In order to distribute retest effects between races and among examiners, each examiner alternated testing Black and White students first and second so that at the conclusion of the study each examiner had tested equal numbers of Black and White students first and second at both grade levels. Limitations of the Study The children included in this sample had a mean age of 8.6 in the elementary school group and a mean age of 13.5 in the middle school group. The findings of this study many not generalize to other age groups.

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17 Also, the present sample might not have been representative of the general population of school children in the second and third and seventh and eighth grades. The subjects in this study were representative of a southern community where many Blacks and Whites maintained a marginal subsistencelevel standard of living. Although the subjects were randomly assigned to examiner pairs, they were not randomly selected, and the administrators at the two schools may have referred students who differed in some aspects from the general population of students. The limitations of using a complex statistical procedure with a relatively small sample of subjects and levels of the independent variable are recognized. Hypotheses : Null Hypothesis I Ho: There is no significant difference between the individual intelligence test scores of Black students in the second and third grades when tested by Black and White examiners. Null Hypothesis II Ho: There is no significant difference between the individual intelligence test scores of Black students in the seventh and eighth grades when tested by Black and White examiners. Null Hypothesis III Ho: There is no significant difference between the individual intelligence scores of White students in the second and third grades when tested by Black and White examiners.

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18 Null Hypothesis IV Ho: There is no significant difference between the individual intelligence scores of White students in the seventh and eighth grades when tested by Black and White examiners. Data Analysis Analysis of variance techniques using a factorial with replications design were employed to test the hypotheses. The analysis was performed by the University of Florida Computing Center using the Bi-Med 08V program. The .05 level of significance was used to test all hypotheses.

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CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS The sample in the present study consisted of 24 Black and 24 White children in the second and third grades and 24 Black and 24 White children in the seventh and eighth grades. Table I presents the mean ages and standard deviations for Black and White subjects at the elementary school level and at the middle school level. TABLE I MEAN AGE OF STUDENTS Black Elementary School Subjects X = 8.6 years s = 9.8 months White Elementary School Subjects X = 8.5 years s = 7.2 months Black Middle School Subjects X = 13.2 years s = 9.2 months White Middle School Subjects X = 13.7 years s = 12.1 months Table 2 presents the analysis of variance summary table for the data. Reference to the table shows that the main effect, student race, has an F-ratio of 20.406, which is significant at the .05 level. This result was expected in view of previous research. The present study was not designed to test differences in IQ scores between Black and White subjects. 19

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20

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21 Source SS DF MS F 17. Examiner pair x order x grade level 1805.75 2 902.87 1.7112 18. Examiner pair x Student race x Grade level 135.12 2 67.56 .1280 19. Order x Student race x Grade level 36.74 1 36.74 .0291 20. Examiner pair x Order x Examiner race 81.28 2 40.64 1.4919 21. Examiner pair x Student race x Examiner race 113.18 2 56.59 2.0775 22. Order x Student race x Examiner race 27.00 1 27.00 .6000 23. Examiner pair x Grade level x Examiner race 165.63 2 82.81 3.0402 24. Order x Grade level x Examiner race 67.68 1 67.68 6.3860 25. Student race x Grade level x Examiner race 67.68 1 67.68 .3542 26. Examiner pair x Order x Student race x Grade level 2522.77 2 1261.38 2.3906 27. Examiner pair x Order x Student race x Examiner race 89.95 2 44.97 1.6511 28. Examiner pair x Order x Grade level x Examiner race 21.19 2 10.59 .3891

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22 Source 29. Examiner pair x Student race x Grade level x Examiner race 30. Order x Student race x Grade level x Examiner race 31. Examiner pair x Order x Student race x Grade level x Examiner race SS DF 382.20 2 56.33 1 14.30 2 MS 191.10 7.0153** 56.33 7.8781 7.15 .2625 * p ^ .05 ** p > .01 Table 2 shows an Fratio of 3.206 for the interaction, examiner pair X examiner race, which is significant at the .05 level. Table 3 presents the mean Full Scale scores of Black and White subjects tested by the Black and the White examiner within each pair. Post-hoc t-tests comparing means showed no significant difference between the Black and the White examiner in each pair. TABLE 3 MEAN FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF BLACK AND WHITE SUBJECTS BY EXAMINER PAIRS Pair I Pair II Pair III Black Examiner

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23 Reference to Table 2 shows an F-ratio of lb. lib for the interaction, order X examiner race, which is significant at the .05 level. Table 4 presents the mean Full Scale scores and standard deviations for all subjects tested first by the Black and by the White examiners and second by the Black and White examiners. The table shows an average increase of approximately eight points on the second test for all subjects regardless of examiner race. TABLE 4 MEAN FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF ALL SUBJECTS BY ORDER OF TESTING AND EXAMINER RACE First Test

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24 Null Hypothesis II Ho: It was stated that there is no significant difference between the intelligence test scores of Black students in the seventh and eighth grades when tested by Black and White examiners. No significant difference was found: therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted. Null Hypothesis III Ho: It was stated that there is no significant difference between the intelligence test scores of White students in the second and third grades when tested by Black and White examiners. No significant difference was found: therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted. Null Hypothesis IV Ho: It was stated that there is no significant difference between the intelligence test scores of White students in the seventh and eighth grades when tested by Black and White examiners. No significant difference was found: therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted. The analysis of variance summary table presented in Table 2 shows an F-ratio for student race X grade level X examiner race was .3542 which is not significant at the .05 level. Table 5 shows the mean Full Scale scores of Black and White subjects at the elementary and middle school grade levels. Post-hoc t-tests perfoirmed with each of the pairs of means failed to reveal significant differences between scores of Black second and third grade students when tested by Black and White examiners; between Black seventh and eighth grade students when tested by Black and White examiners; between White second and third grade students when tested by Black and White examiners; and between White seventh and eighth grade students when tested by Black and White examiners. Therefore, Hypotheses I, II, III, and IV were accepted.

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TABLE 5 MEAN FULL SCALE IQ SCORES FOR BLACK AND WHITE ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL SUBJECTS UNDER BLACK AND WHITE EXAMINERS 25 Elementary Middle Elementary Middle Black Sub.jects Black Examiners White Examiners t^ 87.291 85.583 t = .4285 86.458 88.291 t = .4611 White Subjects Black Examiners White Examiners t^ 103.791 103.166 t = .1566 101.541 99.700 t = .4614 p y .05 = 2.920

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CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The findings of this study have shown that the individual intelligence scores of Black and White children in the present sample were not significantly affected by examiner race. Although the subjects were rural children, these results support the evidence provided by Solkoff (1971) that examiner race did not significantly affect IQ scores of urban school children. The evidence also supports the conclusions of Pelosi (1968) that examiner race, sex, or style did not affect the scores of Negro males on a variety of psychological tests. The results do not support the findings of Savage (1972) that examiner race significantly affected the scores of Black children on the Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Scale. However, the present study focused on Full Scale scores and did not attempt to assess examiner race effects on particular subtests within the WISC. The statistically significant difference in IQ scores of Black and White subjects was expected in view of the hundreds of research reports which have found that as a group Negroes score lower than Whites on intelligence tests. Kennedy et al. (1961) concluded: What is needed, therefore, is not further evidence of differences between sample population scores, but broad normative data on a Negro sample to make intelligence test findings in this group more meaningful, (p. 42) The mean Full Scale scores for the Black subjects and for the White subjects in this sample were 86.90 and 102.05, respectively. Since no Negroes were included in the standardization sample of the WISC, it is difficult to 26

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27 interpret these differences. Kennedy et al. (1961) standardized the Revised Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale on Negro elementary school children in the southeastern United States. The mean IQ for their standardization sample (N=1800) was 80.7 with a standard deviation of 12.4 compared to the mean of 100 with a standard deviation of 16 for the original standardization sample of the Stanford-Binet. The authors concluded: Although there was no significant trend in IQ from grades one through six, the IQ was negatively correlated with age. For instance, the five-year-old group had a mean IQ of 86 as compared with the mean IQ of the 13-year-old group of 65. (p. 144) Zimmerman and Woo-Sam (1972) reported a study by Barclay and Carolan (1966) in which both the WISC and the Stanford-Binet were administered to groups of Black and White children, 7 and 12 years of age. They found insignificantly higher Binet mean scores at both age levels. These investigations lend support to the hypothesis that the Black subjects in the present sample may have been above average in mean intelligence while the White subjects were average in mean intelligence. The significance of the findings from this study lies in the fact that the variability in scoring between Black and White examiners was very low. There was less than a two-point difference in mean scores between Black and White examiners at both grade levels with both Black and White subjects. RECOMMENDATIONS It would be valuable to replicate this study with larger groups of students at different age levels. No study of this nature has been done with high-school-age subjects. Yet many important educational and vocational decisions are made at the high school level on the basis of the results of psychological tests.

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28 This study was concerned only with the Full Scale scores of each racial group. Research investigating the effects of examiner race and the interactions of examiner race with subject race and sex on each subtest within the Wise Scale would be fruitful. In addition to providing information about the types of intellectual tasks which might be affected by examiner-examinee race, this type of investigation would provide valuable information for educational administrators who employ Black and White teachers to implement curricula in integrated classrooms.

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APPENDIX

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30 TABLE 1 VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF BLACK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED FIRST BY BLACK EXAMINERS AND SECOND BY WHITE EXAMINERS

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TABLE 2 VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF BLACK MIDDLE SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED FIRST BY BLACK EXAMINERS AND SECOND BY WHITE EXAMINERS 31

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32 TABLE 3 VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED FIRST BY BLACK EXAMINERS AND SECOND BY WHITE EXAMINERS

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33 TABLE 4 VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF WHITE MIDDLE SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED FIRST BY BLACK EXAMINERS AND SECOND BY WHITE EXAMINERS Black Examiner First Test White Examiner Second Test PAIR I Subiect

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34 TABLE 5 VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF BLACK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED FIRST BY WHITE EXAMINERS AND SECOND BY BLACK EXAMINERS

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TABLE 6 VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF BLACK MIDDLE SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED FIRST BY WHITE EXAMINERS AND SECOND BY BLACK EXAMINERS 35 .

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36 TABLE 7 VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED FIRST BY WHITE EXAMINERS AND SECOND BY BLACK EXAMINERS

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TABLE 8 VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL SCALE IQ SCORES OF WHITE MIDDLE SCHOOL SUBJECTS TESTED FIRST BY WHITE EXAMINERS A2TO SECOND BY BLACK EXAMINERS 37

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38 BIBLIOGRAPHY Arlitt, A. On the need for caution in establishing race norms. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1921, 5, 179-183. Barclay, A. L. and Carolan, P. A comparative study of the WISC and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Form, LM. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1966, 30, 563. Baratz, S. Effect of race of experimenter, instructions and comparison population upon level of reported anxiety in Negro subjects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1967, 7, 194-196. Bodmer, W. F. and Cavalli-Sforza, L. Intelligence and race. Scientific American , 1970, 223, 19-29. Brown, F. An experimental and critical study of the intelligence of Negro and White kindergarten children. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1944, 65, 161-175. Bumes, K. Patterns of WISC scores for children of two socioeconomic classes and races. Child Development , 1970, 41, 493-499. Bumstein, A. G. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. In 0. K. Euros (Ed.). Sixth Mental Measurements Yearbook . Highland Park, New Jersey: The Gryphon Press, 1965, 843-845. Caldwell, M. B. and Knight, D. The effect of Negro and white examiners on Negro intelligence test performance. Journal of Negro Education , 1970, 39, 177-179. Caldwell, M. B. and Smith, T. A. Intellectual structure of southern Negro children. Psychological Reports , 1968, 33, 63-71. Campbell, D. T. and Stanley, J. C. Experimenta l a nd Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research . Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1970. Canady, H. G. The effects of 'rapport' on the I. Q. A new approach to the problem of racial psychology. Journal of Negro Education , 1936, 5, 209-219. Canady, H. G. The problem of equating the environment of Negro-white groups for intelligence testing in comparative studies. Journal of Social Psychology , 1943, 17, 3-15. Clarke, R. B. and Campbell, D. T. A demonstration of bias in estimates of Negro ability. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1955, 51, 585-588. Cotnam, J. D. Variance in self-report measures of disadvantaged young adults as a function of race and stated purpose of testing . Rochester University, 1969. Deutsch, M. and Brown, B. Social influences in Negro-white intelligence differences. Journal of Social Issues , 1964, 20, 24-35.

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39 Dreger, R. M. and Miller, K. S. Comparative psychological studies of Negroes and whites in the United States. Psychological Bulletin , 1960, 57, 361-402. Dunn, L. M. Special education for the mildly retarded — Is much of it justifiable? Exceptional Children , 1968, 35, 5-22. Egeland, B. Influence of examiner and examinee anxiety on WISC performance. Psychological Reports , 1967, 21, 409-414. Exner, J. E. , Jr. Variations in WISC performance as influenced by differences in pre-test rapport. Journal of General Psychology , 1966, 74, 299-306. Fraser, E. D. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. In 0. K. Euros (Ed.). Fifth Mental Measurements Yearbook . Highland Park, New Jersey: The Gryphon Press, 1959, 558-559. Garrett, H. E. A note on the intelligence scores of Negroes and whites in 1918. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology . 1945, 40, 344-346. Goodenough, F. L. Racial differences in the intelligence of school children. Journal of Experimental Psychology , 1926, 9, 388-397. Guinagh, B. J. An experimental study of basic learning ability and intelligence in low-socioeconomic-status children. Child Development , 1971, 42, 27-36. Hammer, E. F. Comparisons of the performances of Negro children and adolescents on two tests of intelligence, one an emergency scale. Journal of Genetic Psychology . 1954, 84, 85-93. Hammond, D. R. Representative vs. systematic design in clinical psychology. Psychological Bulletin , 51, 1954, 150-159. Hess, R. D. Controlling culture influence in mental testing: An experimental test. Journal of Educational Research , 1955, 49, 53-58. Jacobs, J. F. and DeCraff, C. A. Expectancy and Race: Their Influences Upon the Scoring of Individual Intelligence Tests. Final Report, Project No. l-e-096, U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Bureau of Research, Office of Education, March 14, 1972. Jensen, A. R. The culturally disadvantaged: Psychological and educational aspects. Educational Research , 1967, 10, 4-20. Katz, I., Robinson, J. M. , Epps, E. G. , and Waly, P. The Influence of race of the experimenter and instructions upon the expression of hostility of Negro boys. In W. L. Barnette, Jr. (Ed.). Readings in Psychological Tests and Measurements . Homewood, Illinois: The Dorsey Press, 1968, 46-50. Kennedy, W. A. A Follow-Up Normative Study of Negro Intelligence and Achievement . Tallahassee: The Florida State University, 1965.

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40 Kennedy, W. A., Van De Riet, V,, and White, J. C. The Standardization of the 1960 Revision of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale on Negro Elementary School Children in the Southeastern United States . Tallahassee: The Florida State University, 1961. Kennedy, W. A. and Vega, M. Negro children's performance on a discrimination task as a function of examiner race and verbal incentive. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology . 1966, 2, 839-843. Kirk, R. E. Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences . Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc., 1968. Klineburg, 0. Negro-White differences in intelligence test performance: A new look at an old problem. American Psychologist , 1963, 18, 198-203. Klineburg, 0. Negro Intelligence and Selective Migration . Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1969. LaCrosse, J. E. Examiner Reliability on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Form L-M) in a Design Employing White and Negro Examiners and Subjects. Master's Thesis, University of North Carolina, 1964. Littell, W. M. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Review of a decade of research. Psychological Bulletin , 1960, 57, 132-156. Masling, J. The effects of warm and cold interaction on the administration and scoring of an intelligence test. In W. L. Barnette, Jr. (Ed.). Readings in Psychological Tests and Measurements . Homewood, Illinois: The Dorsey Press, 1968, 40-45. McCord, W. and Demerath, J. Negro versus white intelligence: A continuing controversy. Harvard Educational Review , 1958, 28, 120-135. McFie, J. and Thompson, J. A. Intellectual abilities of immigrant children. British Journal of Educational Psychology , 1970, 40, 348. McGuigan, F. J. The experimenter: A neglected stimulus object. Psychological Bulletin , 1963, 60, 421-428. McGurk, F. C. J. On white and Negro test performance and socioeconomic factors. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1953, 48, 448-450. McQueen, R. and Churn, B. The intelligence and educational achievement of a matched sample of white and Negro students. School and Society , 1960, 88, 327-329. Miller, C. K. , Chansky, N. M. , and Gredler, G. R. Rater agreement on WISC protocols. Psychology in the Schools . 1970, 7, 190-193. Musgrove, W. J. and Lawson, J. R. A comparison of lower class Negro and white children on three standardized tests. Journal of Negro Education , 1971, 40, 33-55.

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41 O'Connor, A. L. The Relationship of Imitation to Intelligence and Scholastic Achievement of Negro and White First Grade Pupils in Integrated Classes . University of Florida, 1967. On race and intelligence: A joint statement. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 1957, 27, 420-422. Osborne, R. T. Racial differences in mental growth and school achievement: A longitudinal study. Psychological Reports , 1960, 7, 233-239. Pasamanick, B. and Knobloch, H. Early language behavior in Negro children and the testing of intelligence. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1955, 50, 401-402. Pelosi, J. W. A Study of the Effects of Examiner Race, Sex, and Style on Test Responses of Negro Examinees . Syracuse University, 1968. Pettigrew, T. F. Negro American intelligence: A new look at the old controversy. Journal of Negro Education , 1964a, 33, 6-25. Pettigrew, T. F. Race, mental illness and intelligence: A social psychological view. Eugenics Quarterly , 1964b, 11, 189-215. Pressey, S. L. and Teter, G. F. A comparison of colored and white children by means of a group scale of intelligence. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1919, 3, 277-282, Rankin, R. E. and Campbell, D. T. Galvanic skin response to Negro and white examiners. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1955, 51, 30-33. Rosenthal, R. Experimental Effects in Behavioral Research . New York: Appleton-Century-Crof ts, 1966. Rosenthal, R. and Jacobson, L. Teacher's expectancies: determinants of pupil's I. Q. gains. Psychological Reports , 1966, 19, 115-118. Ross, S. L., Jr., DeYoung, H. G. , and Cohen, J. S. Confrontation: Special education placement and the law. Exceptional Children , 1971, 38, 5-12. Sacks, E. L. Intelligence scores as a function of experimentally established social relationships between child and examiner. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1952, 47, 354-358. Sarason, I. G. and Minard, J. Test anxiety, experimental instructions, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1962, 53, 299-302. Sattler, J. M. Statistical reanalysis of Canady's "The effect of 'rapport' on the I.Q.: A new approach to the problem of racial psychology." Psychological Reports , 1966, 19, 1203-1206.

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42 Sattler, J. M. and Theye, F. Procedural, situational and interpersonal variables in individual intelligence testing. Psychological Bulletin , 1967, 68, 347-360. Saunders, B. T. and Vitro, F. T. Examiner expectancy and bias as a function of the referral process in cognitive assessment. Psychology in the Schools , 1971, 8, 168-171. Savage, J. E. Testers' influence on children's intellectual performance. Dissertation Abstracts , 1972, 32, 4429-A-4430-A. Shuey, A. The Testing of Negro Intelligence . Lynchburg: J. P. Bell Co., Inc., 1958. Solkoff, N. Race of Experimenter as a Variable in Research with Children. 1971, ERIC ED056-328. Strong, A. C. Three hundred fifty white and colored children measured by the Binet-Simon Measuring Scale of Intelligence: A comparative study. Pedagogical Seminary , 1913, 20, 485-515. Stroud, J. B. On the genetic basis of intelligence: A Note. Psychology in the Schools , 1970, 7, 88. Sunne, D. A comparative study of white and Negro children. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1917, 1, 71-83. Trent, R. D. The color of the investigator as a variable in experimental research with Negro subjects. Journal of Social Psychology , 1954, 40, 281-287. Tumin, M. M. (Ed.). Race and Intelligence; A Scientific Evaluation . New York: Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 1963. Tuttle, L. E. The Comparative Effect on Intelligence Test Scores of Negro and White Children When Certain Verbal and Time Factors are Varied . University of Florida, 1964. Tyson, M. H. The effect of prior contact with the examiner on the WISC scores of third-grade children. Dissertation Abstracts , 1969, 29, 4372. Wells, G. R. The application of the Binet-Simon tests to groups of white and colored school children. Psychological Monographs , 1923, 32, 52-58. Whittaker, E. M., Gilchrist, J. C, and Fischer, J. Perceptual defense or response suppression? Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1952, 47, 732-733. Williams, Robert L. Black pride, academic relevance, and individual achievement. Counseling Psychologist , 1970, 2, 18-22.

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43 Wilson, J. L. Changes in Brightness of Children, Age Three to Eleven, Living in a Low Socioeconomic Environment . Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1970. Witty, Paul and Garfield, Sol. Trends in discussions of intelligence: Race differences. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1942, 33, 584-594. Young, F. M. and Bright, H. A. Results of testing eighty-one Negro rural juveniles with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Journal of Social Psychology , 1954, 39, 219-226. Zach, L. The I.Q. test: Does it make black children unequal? School Review , 1970, 78, 249-258. Zimmerman, I. L. and Woo-Sam, J. Research with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: 1960-1970. Journal of Clinical Psychology , Supplement No. 33, April, 1972, 1-44.

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44 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH The author was born in Louisville, Kentucky on January 1, 1937. Her undergraduate training began in 1954 at Centre College in Danville, Kentucky and was completed in June, 1968, when she was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology from the University of Florida. In August, 1968, she was awarded an NDEA fellowship to pursue graduate study in the field of learning disabilities. Department of Special Education, at the University of Florida. She was awarded a Master of Arts degree in August, 1969. During the 1969-1970 school year she taught educable mentally retarded children at J. J. Finley Elementary School in Gainesville, Florida, and began a doctoral program in the field of mental retardation at the University of Florida. In August of 1970 she was awarded a Graduate School fellowship for full-time graduate study during the academic year 1970-1971. She taught educable mentally retarded children at A. L. Mebane Middle School during the 1971-1972 school year. The author is married to Charles G. Wellborn, Jr., Associate Professor, College of Journalism and Communications, University of Florida. They have three children, Bill, Ricky, and Linda.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. wxlliam R. Reid, Chairman Professor of Special Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 1 Gary E. Reichard, Co-chairman Assistant Professor of Special Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Myron A. Cunningham / Professor of Special Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. r c^v.k A< \Xih'\^ JaVes E. Whorton Assistant Professor of Special Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. £tLM. /Au Q^n^^^~y\ Richard J^ Anderson Professdr of Psychology

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This dissertation was submitted to the Dean of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August, 1972 S!i%4 4 7v&/'j^^ Dean, College of Ediication \ Dean, Graduate School


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