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The Effects of visual feedback from a chart upon the rate of academic performance of junior and senior high school students

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Title:
The Effects of visual feedback from a chart upon the rate of academic performance of junior and senior high school students
Creator:
Quigley, Patrick Andrew, 1944-
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1972
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 102 leaves. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic achievement ( jstor )
Charts ( jstor )
Classrooms ( jstor )
Demo recordings ( jstor )
Error rates ( jstor )
Recordings ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Self control ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Academic achievement ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Self-control ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 98-101.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on World Wide Web
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Patrick A. Quigley.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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022920186 ( AlephBibNum )
14191653 ( OCLC )
ADB3769 ( NOTIS )

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IECTS OF VISUAL FEEDBACK FROM
IT UPON THE RATE OF ACADEMIC
ROMANCEE OF JUNIOR AND SENIOR
HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS












By

PATRICK A. QUIGLEY, JR.












l||lRE!';1T;:r) TO THiE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
.V.RSITY OF L'LORIDA INl PARTIAL
Il Tll:, R'-Q'ITRF.'llHTS FOP TilE DEGREE OF
DOCTOCr Ori.' PhILOSOPlY


.E : O'F FLORIDA
19t2


1





































To Ch airlotte















AC i-JOWLEDGtHLENTS


The task of sorting out the contribution of various

environmental changes with relationship to various be-

havioral changes is often a difficult task when precise

data are not kept. When the target behavior is professional

scholarship which has been shaped over a four-year period,

then accounting for the contribution of each environmental

cl:ancje becomes eve.n r.ore obfusciated. There are a few con-

tributors in the Ccse of this dissertation w\ho, however,

have had an e-ffect bey'ozd all others:

First, to Dr. John Newell, -who was the first to teach

r.e Icarning theory and then to reinforce my beliefs in this

aLCa over I t'i.cC-year per.od.

To Dr. 1Henrr. ennypacker who opened new vistas in my

traiixing as a .ciea .ingi theorist through precision teaching.

To Dr. Criile Jel:ter, who both as my advisor for the

master:'. dre'..ne' and later a.s a committee member for the

do:!-orate IelLpcd me re alize the importance of psychology

a::- the !o.Lhr.r L.ci- ncie for educational psychology.

To Dr. U L.li.-n Wolking, who hll'ped me realize the

.itpplica.ilit y of :Le L eC:perioiental. inalys.i.s of animal. behavior

in the area of sLirulus control t.o school learning. My





debt to him has not been paid in this dissertation and must

wait future payment.

To Dr. William Ware, who taught me a good deal of all

that I know in the areas of statistics and research design.

His presence on the committee helped me realize the positive

relationships between standard research methodology and the

experimental analysis of behavior.

To Joseph and Mary Otchin, I owe a wealth of thanks

for their support over the past few years.

Many thanks are due Pat Craig, Linda Howell, Pat

Cohles, and Margaret Tomlinson for initiating this re':;earch

and using Lheir classrooms to further our understanding of

junior and senior high school students.

Finally, and most important, to Charlotte, my wife,

and to Leigh, Catin, and Shannon, my children, who, as the

most significant features of my immediate environment,

provided most the incentive for finishing this work.


e

















TABLE 01F CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDMENTS . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES. . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . .

KEY TO SYMBOLS OF ABBREVIATIONS .

ABSTRACT . . . . . .

CHpAPTER


I

II

I [I



V

APP END ICES


Page

. . iii

. . vi

. . vii

. . viii


INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . .

REVILE OF LITERATURE . . . . . .

METHODS, PROCEDURES, AJD DESIGN. . . .

CA ALYS.S . . . . . . . . .

CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . .


1 SAMPLE OF Z FiAM.E FROM THE RATE
COMPUTATION SHEEI. . . . . .

2 SUMMARY TABLES OF AINALYSS OF VARIANCE
FOR RATER RELIABILITY DATA . . .

IEFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . .

BIO;RP.APHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . .


94

98

102
















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

I SEQUENCE OF EXPERIMENTAL PHASES . . . 36

2 DESIGN FOR ANALYSIS . . . . . 38

3 A COMPARISON OF PROGRAM X-G3 AND THE
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SUM OF SQUARES
FOR ERROR . . . . . . . . 48

'A SUMMARY T'A.BLE OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON
LOGS OF ACCOUI;TING WORK RATES . . . 49

5 CELL MEANS FOR 0log]0 ACCOUNTING WORK RATES
BY ORIGT:'NAL T'I''PORAL SEQUENCE OF THE
EXPERIMENT WITH' TREATMENT DESIGNATIONS
SUBSCRIPTED FOR TR':AT:-LE'NT X ORDER INTE-IRAC-
TION WITH RAW SCORP-. Mi:EANS IN BRACKETS . 51

G SUi:;I'RY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON
LOGS OF WORDS PER ML[:JUTE. TYPING . . . 5-1

7 RA!KN OBDER FRPi;1 LO.O.'ST TO HIGHEST OF CELL
MEANS FOR log.i '.:OMRD; PER ;iilNUTE DATA BY
'LREATM'4NT Oi.D:.,-. WITH i\AW SCORE MEANS IN
BRAC KET' ;. . . . . . ..... . . .55

8 SIUMMARi Y TABLE O'F ?A.NAiYSTS OF VARIANCE ON
LOGS C' L' kROR RATE r'11 TYPING . . . 57

9 RANK ORDER FROf1 LOWEST TO HIGHEST OF CELL
MEANS 'FO' lorj) 10 ROR RxATiS WI.TH TREATMENT
DSITGNATJ'IONr S(.1SCRITP':LED W'ITH RAW SCORE
MNE-.NS IN i:2.ACKNFTS . . . . ... . 69

1.0 TESTS OF DTFT-ERE:;CES FOR 1.ogr RATES
3ETWFEN N-.SILIN' ANi.D CHAIRTING PHASES FOR
TWO SUPJjLCTS iWTI! RA'I SCORE MEANS IN
BRACXKET'LS. . . . . . . .. . 70
















LIST OF FIGURES


Page


PERCENTAGE OF FOPJi USAGE IN TENTH-GRADE
TYPING CLASS BY POPULATION AND BY
TEMPORAL ORDER . . . . . .


PERCENTAGE OF FORM USAGE IN TENTH-GRADE
TYPING CLASS BY ABILITY LEVELS . . .. 61

PERCENTAGE OF FOPR USAGE IN TENTH-GRADE
TYPING BY ORDER AND ABILITY . . . .. 63

COMPARISON OF WORE: RATES IN ACCOUNTING--
FIRST SUBJECT . . . . . . . . 67

COMPARISON OF WORI: RATES IN ACCOUNTING--
SECOND SUBJECT. . . . . . . . 68

ACCOUNTING WORK RATES OF A HIGH ABSENTEE
STUDENT . . . . . . . . . . 72

ACCOUNTING WORK PRATES OF A SCHOOL DROP-OUT. .73


vii


Figure

1













KEY TO SYMBOLS OF ADBREVIATIONS



RCS Rate Computation Sheet

SBC Standard Bchavior Chart

KOR Knowledge of Results


vi.i.i









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE EFFECTS OF VISUAL FEEDBACK FROM
A CHART UPON THE RATE OF ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR AN!D SENIOR
HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

By

Patrick A. Quigley, Jr.

December, 1972

Chairman: John I1. .Howeell
Major Department: Foundations of Education

The purpose of the L-tudy w~:s to proc.dtic-e sel f--control

of academic behavior in ninth and tent: grade typing and

eleventh grade accounting students by providing continuous,

self-generated feedback through various: de-'.vices and to assess

the relative merits cf each devic.-. A e'.-ic'.; of prior self-

monitoring studies suggested t.ie apr- op:.-iat cornLrols used

in the research design. The de.vjces tl.'msel;.-es proved no

different from the controls. The .acceleraLiors in the pist

postLreatnment. basel.i.ne pr-ove.d rsignl.i -: t .y different fLr'on

all other phases; fo t::o scts of c-t.e. A thi.d set of data

only yielded a trc.nd toward sign ific-.nt *..:':.: dilriing the

last posttrcatLn ent baseline. .', revie..; f some i:i-l i-'i.dual

data revealedl directional chancg-es in rote '.l:i.ch ',Jure 10ot

mes,:-ured, by the ana lysi; of variance t.: :hni'ne. I' ults

surggc Lcd th.. tL tudnpts 'lemonst'-at-l re l.f--. r'ctL=d c lHing

OC pcr-formance rates withL thL dcevjc.s; terminaingr i.le ist

phase coi junctively ilith the endl of tL..., sclhtul. year e::ilains








the fixed interval scallop; statistical significance may

not be sensitive enough to reflect meaningful changes in

individual behavior; and weighting daily work more may

reduce scalloping and assure the longevity of self-control

through the end of the school year.
















CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


Purpose


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects

of self-charting on academic behavior in business edu-

cation classes. The charts served as a vehicle whereby

the student might generate his own feedback with respect

to his daily classroom performance. Efforts weire made

Lo leave the o'.going procedures of the classes intact so

that the effect: of the chart a.one might-. be clearly

assessed. Third; research will have significance in two

respects: tirst, the- chart 'was studied as a device for

sliaping sclf-control of academic behaviors-; and second,

in terms of Lfu-ure wor with self-generated charts, the

experimenter will be informed as to the reacti'.v effects of

charting and thlIus the need to incorporate additional con-

Crol gC.oups or phcsen uwi.thin an experiment to asrcess the

effects of the j.r.(c.-:[)Ondcn variables.


Problem

Currently in t.he field of education there is a move

afoot to make ;oii;e of the goats of the educational process

1









behaviorally or concrtl measurable. The recent clamor

concerning such practices as performance contracting,

accountability, contingency contracting, merit pay, and

oven behavioral objtctives attests to this underlying move-

ment toward the concrete statement of aims in those areas

where such a thrust is technologically feasible. Generally

speaking, those subject areas where the acquisition of a

fundamental --kill is involved are receiving most of the

attention. These areas are encompassed in the traditional

domains of reFading, -iriting, and arithmetic. Other, more

difficult to dofino areas of educational goals are not

receiving as much pressure- for reform. Under this heading

may be lodged such goztls as moral education, cooperation,

and self-control, to name a fecw. Given the hurried atmosphe-_re

of most contemporary classrooms, Lhe task of refoirm Seemts

least likely where the teacher must try some types of inno-

vative practices, in addition to the handling of deimands For

skill acquisition.

Concerning the more ethereal goals. ol- the process,

the teacher at mosL may try to serve as a behavioral model,

to issue exlhortations, or to rcprimaind the studeJnt-s Tor:

undesirable conduct, T1husi, while L-hecse goals ma,y he of

equal importancr: to those of skill learnincj wit"h roferenice

to Coe 9tudenit as a fuburec citizen, they rece~ive7 little

attention and miust' take ,-econd place, until the klsa-cc









With the use of an experimental analysis of behavior,

there remains the possibility of combining both the skill

acquisition and the learning of self-control techniques.

This is only possible because an experimenLal analysis of

behavior requires the behavioral definition of any dependent

variable under study. While school systems do not often

state their goals in terms of experimental analogies, this

language easily lends itself to the statement of routconles

or goals. Thus the teachers, curriculum, and peer-:; of Lhe

student provide the major independent vari,:bles or environ--

ment in which the student's behavior is to be chnil-.-d over

a course of 12 or more years.

Self-control :within the context of an expe::rim.:ental

analysis of behavior entails two responses: tihe controlling

response and the controlled response (S!:innci., 1.953). The

controlling response is emitted by the behave: to mnin ru.clate

those variables which are functionally related to the

controlled response. Thus, the controlling response may

determine the probability of occu-urence .n-d Lo:og-jraphy of

the controlled response. In school learning situti -.onrs,

the controlled response may be identified :s the sitiuden:'s

acad...mic behavior. The controlling r::pon may be any

behavior which the student emits to r.;ani.pu.lat.2 the occur-

renco and topography of his own academLc rer orrr:m,.nc o.

The problem, then, of -haping cel.--control in cla tsroom

learning situations becomes one of identifying con ILolling









responses which the student may emit to manipulate or monitor

his own academic behavior. Furthermore, in order to make

such self-control feasible, the form of the controlling

response should be one easily emitted by the student and

involve a minimum of teacher influence. The former cri-

terion should be tempered by the fact that at least initially

the controlling responses of the students may involve some

shaping to permit the students to emit the responses.

However, violation of the latter criterion in any extc-nded

sense would by definition not permit self-control to be

acquired.

Within the context of this research, t.he controlling

response under study was the recording of academic behaviors

on a standard behavior chart used in slightly different

settings (Johnson, 1971; Starlin, 1971; Haughton, 1971;

Duncan, 1971). After a small amount of izistruction and

practice in the use of the chart, the students were left

alone to record their own daily academic behaviors. It

was hoped that, by generating their own feedback for a period

of days, the students would be able to manipula-.e the rate

of their responses in a dci.rable direction. It was the

thesis of this research that the visual diSiploy generated

by the student on the chart would enable him to control

his own academic behaviors.

In terms of research methodology, the study of self-

control explores the reactivity of any given setL'ting or









test. If the setting or testing process produces cues

as to the acquisition of behavior which in itself will

be detected or influence later testing, then the test or

setting is said to produce a reactive effect (Campbell

and Stanley, 1963). The same may be said of sampling

procedures which change the members in any fashion. While

such an artifact may be a probleri to experimenters, it may

be of benefit to educators searching for devices to shape

self-control in students.















CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF LITERATURE


This chapter surveys the research and methodological

literature pertinent to this study. For purposes of

organization and clarity, this survey of the literautre

i-s presented in a number of sections which include: self-

cowii:rol, self-monitoring methodology, self-monitoring in

clinical settings; :elf-monitoring in school settings,

and knowledge of results through behavior graphs. A final

section presents a summary of the literature discussed in

ecach of the sections previously mentioned.


Se lf-Control

Over tlhe past half--century, behaviorists have worked

per; isLently to detail a precise science of behavior.

.:t times, this search for law and order led them to confuse

objectivity with empirical verifiable f.icts. These

1'ela'I/io.:is ts argued that unless a phenomenon were visible

aci. I could be reliably measured, it had no place in a science.

'SuchI .imitation:; oin che bounds of psychology caused confusion

lbo:!h within tlh field of behaviorism (Watson, 191.3) and to

a, gr,-ater extent outside of behaviorism (Scriven, 1972)

concerning those phenomena subject to empirical test. By

6









operating within the limited framework of accepting only

visible and observable behavior, psychology would never

adequately account for such subjective phenomena as moods,

feelings, urges, insights, thoughts, and free will. The

rejection of this last state resulted in little research

on self-control. To grant the existence of self-control

as a legitimate phenomena for study by psychologists

would be tantamount to admitting the existence of free will

and thus backsliding to a rationalist position (EPlles,

1967).

One notable exception in the arena of behaviorists was.

B. F. Skinner. Rather than admit the reliance of self-

control upon any special, internal mechanism (such as free

will), he described self-control as a behavioral phenomenon

which influences an individual's subsequent boh.avior

(1953). Thus the beaver emitted a response, calle-d a

controlling r_spon:se, which alters the occurrence oLf another

response, the controlled response within the r:cpe toirc.

The controlling and controlled responses may be either

public (outer or ohb_.ervable) or private (inner or unobserv7bhle

to the public) events (!ommin, 1965; Premack, 1971). Since

;-he private event '.-'..s said to share the same properties as

the public event (Skinner, 1953), self-control may become

a legitimate fi.eld of study for the behaviorist.

For behaviorists working w-itthin the Skinner.i.an frame-

work, the definition of sel.f-control was operational. zed

in terms of the context of research or therapy under









consideration. Goldiamond (1965) defined self-control as

a functional relationship between behavior and the environment.

Ferster, Nurnberger, and Levitt (1962) referred to self-

control as self-selected change in the environment to

produce changes in the individual's repertoire. For

Duncan (1969), self-control involved the self-selection

and application of behavior modification techniques. Later

work in the area of self-control led Duncan to adopt a

more euphemistic term (personal management) with relation

to the control of inner and outer behaviors (.971). B3rgjer,

one of Duncan's students, has produced the most exLtnsive

examination of personal management techniques for inner

(private) and outer (public) behaviors (1972). According

to :3lackw.ood (1970), self-control consisted of the emission

and reinforcement of verbal behaviors to courltercondition

sonic temptation to misbehave.

All of the above definitions may be encompasscd by

Sk nner's definition which emphasized the effect: oa self-

control on subsequent behavior. Where research has been

done in conjunction with the development of .e-lf-control,

self-monitor ing has been used as a data cotLecti.on device

(GoldJ.amond, 1965; Fer:,ter eI- al.., 1962; Crnca.n. L'99, 1971;

Berqer, 1972). Most of those studies use self-!oni:oring

in conjunction wiLh other indepen'l:ent variabl.os to change

behavior. However, self-monitoring may he studied as an

independent variable by itself (McFall, 1970). Other








articles which elaborate the possible use of inner behaviors

in conjunction with outer behaviors suggest the use of

self-monitoring without demonstrating its uses (Homme, 1965;

Premack, 1971). Cautela (1969) and other articles to be

mentioned later in this chapter suggested possible uses

of self-control procedures in clinical settings.


Methodological Considerations for the
Use of Self-Mionitorinq Procedures

Before examining the self-monitoring research, a review

of methodological considerations is necessary to assess

the validity and generalizability of the data in question.

Since self-monitoring as a data collection technique was

at first used extensively only in clinical settings, the

articles written with respect to validity and generali-

zability of results concern clinical data. These same

methodological considerations seem applicable to educational

settings with few exceptions and thus were applied to these

data.

As result of studies by McFall (1970) and Marston and

McPall (1971) where self-monitoring was used as both a data

collection device and one of the major independent variables

for research on smoking behavior, the following methodological

discussions were prepared (Orne, 1970; Kanfer, 1970;

Mausner, 1971; Lichtenstein, 1971).

Orne's questions concerning self-monitoring data

centered upon the three major points which characterized

the other critiques. First, are behavior changes in









self-monitoring settings due to unique treatments or may

they be interpreted as a result of some demand characteristic

of the experiment? If the noted behavior change may be

attributed to some subtle cues from the experilmenter or

from the larger setting of just being in an experiment, then

demand characteristics may account for the treatment effects.

For example, if the subject either by volunteering or

by learning the goal or nature of an experiment behaved

accordingly, the validity of experimental effects must be

questioned. Orne suggested the use of additional control

groups to assess the effect of the major independent: variable

(or variables) beyond the demand characteristics of an

experiment. Second, in those instances ..here a behavior

is occurring during all wakeful hours, what is the generality

of data taken in limited samples? This question is ans:wred

by either taking day-long samples or by being relatively

certain that the behavior under st'idy only occurs during

the sampling time. Third, Orne questioned the reliability

of the data gathered under self-monitored conditions. He

raised the possibility of the subject reporting faked data.

For example, when an observer of the subject'or behavior is

a colleague or relative, there could be some ccr'imnnicctLion

bct'.;een the observer and experimental subject. Thu:; relia-

bility measures taken to validate the self-monitored data

should be independent of the subject's recording. Having

an observer both personally or socially unknown to the









subject would constitute an ultimate answer. As will be

noted later, this objective was often compromised in experi-

mental studies which attempted to naturalize the setting

and facilitate the collection of reliability data.

Kanfer (1970) raised many of the same questions and

went further to state that the concurrent reliability and

validity of self-reports were maintained when reliability of

reports between subject and observer .:erLe high. The nature

of the observer w.as given a broader definition to include

behavioral products as evidence of a behavior occurring.

Thus showing butts for smoking, weight loss for reduced

consumption rates, longer fingernails :'or nail biting,

fewer bruises on the wife's body for wife-beating urges

may all serve as concurrent validation of Lelf-monitored

data. Kanfer also noted that the self-monitoring may

serve as a controlling response and thus facilitate self-

control. In addition, he '.iewed the results of self-

recorded data .s, knowicdge of results. Hence, the self-

recording techniques used in this study were related to the

general discussion of knowledge of results data later in

This ch..pter. I.'nally,, lie proposed thai: s-el.f -monitorcd

data was a poor subst.iLtute for control procedures prior

to behavior m'lification. Thu:; some independent measure of

r:-sponding or response rates should be gaLthcred prior

to any ;clf-monitoring to capture t:he results of the

r(-cord.ing aJ.one.









Mausner (1971) added little to prior methodological

considerations. However, as an alternative to recording

public behaviors, he mentioned as a possibility the

recording of a private event which represented a competing

response for the public's behavior under study. For

example, clicks on a wrist counter may be used to count

the number of times resistance to smoking urges occurs.

If there was a concurrent reduction in actual smoking rate,

the data on the private event are valid (Homme, 1965;

Premack, 1971).

Lichtenstein raised a further concern which was more

relevant to meaningful therapy than to the research method-

ology of self-monitoring. In the process of doing research,

the experimenter often categorized the treatments into

various groups to obtain experimental control. WLth

regard to the best outcomes for each individual in the

experiment, any one subject may not receive the most

promising treatment due to random assignment. One reply to

this concern would be to use counterbalanced designs which

permit each subject to receive each treatment or to base

the construction of manipulation upon previously demons Lrated

treatments from small sample or single subject research.


Self-Monitoring in
CliJnical Settings

The clinical literature on self-monitoring dealt with

a variety of human behaviors in many different settings.









References to self-monitoring as a self-control device were

not always made. A few studies were reported in detail to

illustrate the use of the criteria discussed in the last

section. McFall (1970) used his own class to study the

smoking behavior of college students. In this study,

M.cFall asked two questions: first, does self-monitoring

alter behavior; and second, does the nature of the target

behavior yield differential effects in the self-monitoring

situation? The validity of the data were judged by the

reliability of observers covertly monitoring two treatment

groups. The first group was asked to count the number and

1,ime spent smoking each cigarette in class and the second

group ..'as asked to count both resistance to urges and the

total number of cigarettes smoked. Each of the sixteen

smokers in the class was placed into one of tihe two

treatment groups and sixteen non-smokers were assigned to

monitor the smoking behavior of the smokers. A baseline

period of nine days was followed by thirteen days of treat-

ment and then an additional nine days were added a'3 a return

to baseline conditions. The smokers recorded only during

the treatment phase while the observers recorded throughout

the experiment. In order to facilitate smoking during class,

the experimenter lit a cigaj:ette and remarked to the students

thit the no smoking sign in the room only applied to after-

noon classes. Furthermore, the experimenter expressed an

interest in collecting data on smoking behavior from the

students. Pol:h treatment groups demonstrated changes









during the self-mo-nitoring phase and these changes persisted

during the rebase phase when self-monitoring was discon-

tinued. Two of th.e eight pairs of subjects reported data

for a day in which. no class was held, and thus all of their

data was suspect. For the other six pairs during the

treatment phase the reliability between subjects and observer

was .61 and for each pair taken separately the reliabilities

ranged from -.05 to 1.00,with three of the six pairs above

.75. McFall concluded that the self-recording was a reactive

measure and thus should be assessed independent of any other

treatment.

Orne (1970) and Kanfer (1970), commenting upon this

study, suggested te possibility of demand characteristics

explaining the treatment effects rather than the treatments

themselves. By lihting a cigarette, the experimenter may

have communicated his hypothesis that self-monitoring would

change the smoking rates. The reduced smoking rate in the

"resistance to urgs" group may be due to instructions

alone. Stated mor specifically, the reviewers suggested

that the same resuts might have been obtained by merely

telling one group of students to smoke more and the other

less because they were in an experiment. Since it way be

safely assumed tha the smokers in the study continued

smoking all day, th generality of the data based upon the

limited sample was questioned by the authors. in lieu of

evidence to assure honest reports of Chose students not

caught cheating, th authors raised the Possybility of a









pact between smokers and observers. Given the opportunities

for socializing in most college classrooms, this suspicion

does not seem unreasonable.

Powell and Azrin (1968) studied the functional

relationships between the contingent, self-application of

electric shock and cigarette smoking. Three subjects

volunteered for the study and two of them gave names of

co-workers who would observe the smoking five to twelve

times a day. The subjects gave a self-report of their

smoking history and kept records of the count and time of the

day smoking occurred. The major treatment was the use of a

cigarette box which delivered an electric shock upon opening.

The value of the shock was varied from 0.0 milliamperes

to 2.0 milliamperes. The "participant-observers" served to

insure the subject was using the device, collect smoking

data, and check the working order of the cigarette box.

The percentage of subject-observer agreement was considered

acceptable for both subjects (98% and 88%). The main

finding was that as the intensity of the shock increased,

the smoking and the use of the box decelerated. Thus

while the subjects found other means to obtain cigarettes,

there was also a concurrent decrease in the total number of

cigarettes smoked. Once the shock was removed, the smoking

returned to its pretreatment level. The salient feature

of this self-monitoring study is obvious; the participant-

observer system insured reliability. While some suggestions









of a pact between the subject and the observer might be

raised, this was thought unlikely since the subjects

volunteered reports of not using the shocking device as

according to instructions. It would have been interesting

to have a covert observer gather additional data both when

the participant-observer was present and at another time

when the participant-observer was absent. These data would

both settle the reliability question and perhaps reveal the

extent to which the participant-observer may become a

discriminative stimulus for non-smoking. If this third

observer were paid, the social reasons for colluding would

also be minimized. The same authors have also reported

the use of the participant-observer system with similar

reliability in a smoking study using discriminated extinc-

tion through a cigarette box which sounded an alarm, and

unlocked after an elapsed time interval (Azrin and Pcwell,

1968) and in a study using response priming to improve

prescribed self-medication (Azrin and Powell, 1969).

None of the studies reported hence have incorporated

follow-up data collection to any significant extent to

demonstrate potent treatment effects. With a behavior

like smoking, long-term abstinence would be the only

obvious demonstration of experimental control. In an

attempt to compare several types of behavior modification

techniques (anti-smoking pill, stimulus satiation, extinc-

tion, and hierarchical reduction), Marston and McFall









(1971) set up a smoking clinic to attract volunteers.

Self-recording in a diary form was required of all subjects.

The smoking behavior patterns were typical of other data

using similar therapies. The only form of reliability data

available was through the number of cigarettes bought at

the clinic. Follow-up data revealed no differences due

to treatment as all subjects had approximately recovered

pre-experimental smoking rates.

After a review of previous stop-smoking literature

when adequate follow-ups were done, McFall and Hanmmen

(1941) agreed with Bernstein's (1969) conclusion that non-

specific or secondary factors accounted for the reliable

behavior patterns of temporary reduction and then long-term

resumption of smoking. The non-specific factors isolated

were: motivated subjects, structured participation in a

program, and self-monitoring. In order to create a climate

conducive to these factors, the authors advertised a clinic

in the student newspaper, asked participants to postdate

a twenty-five dollar ($25) check to insure against subject

withdrawing during the study, and set up four treatment

conditions. In the first condition, the subjects only

handed in a daily report of smoking; in the second, the

subjects used a wrist counter to monitor smoking and they

said aloud, "I do not want to smoke" with each urge; in the

third, the subjects awarded themselves twenty non-negotiable

points to be counted on a wrist counter for each urge resisted;









and in the fourth, the subjects recorded resistances to

temptations to smoke and award themselves one non-negotiable

point for each occurrence on a wrist counter. Data collected

six weeks and six months after treatment revealed no

differences due to treatments. The authors concluded that

the non-specific factors yielded as great a result as

the more elaborate, theoretically derived, and presumably

more potent procedures. In an earlier study comparing

self-monitoring alone with other self-control treatments

for smoking behavior, Rutner (1967) obtained the same

results. As for the smoking therapies themselves, Bernstein

(1970) has published a more extensive review of the litera-

ture than a review cited earlier.

Self-monitoring has also been used in other clinical

settings. Leitenberg, Agras, Thompson, and Wright (1968)

gave phobic subjects a stopwatch to self-monitor their

own relaxation times in desensitization therapies. The

self-monitoring was validated against automatic timing

devices. Initially, the self-monitoring was confirmed and

praised by the experimenter in conference with the subjects.

Eventually, the experimenter feedback was faded and follow-

up data revealed positive results of the therapy. Weight

control studies have shown positive results with self-

monitoring either by itself (Stollak, 1967) or in connection

with other environmental changes (Ferster et al., 1962).

Self-monitoring in diary or chart form with other









environmental changes (Goldiamond, 1965; Duncan, 1969)

and chart form alone (Kolb, Winter, and Berlew, 1968)

have proved successful in changing various social behaviors.

In a study which revealed unreliable self-reporting and

peer-reporting, Fixsen, Phillips, and Wolf (1972) demonstrated

the use of various progressive ratio schedules of rein-

forcement to increase reliability among delinquents in an

innovative therapy center.

Finally, Duncan (1971) and Berger (1972) demonstrated

the use of self-monitoring for inner and outer behaviors.

Both studies used the Standard Behavior Charts (Koenig,

1972) to record self-monitoring. Duncan had a three-and-

a-half-year-old girl self-monitor selfish thoughts and acts

and a twelve-year-old girl self-monitor feelings of anger

and outbursts. Since the inner and outer behavior patterns

were similar, it w.as assumed that the concurrent reports

confirmed one another. Berger enlarged Duncan's strategies

to include outer behaviors alone (twenty-three cases),

inner behaviors alone (thirty-seven cases), inner and outer

behaviors (three cases in which the urge or the act were

recorded as the same response), and inner-outer behaviors

(eight cases in which the movement cycle was in part outer

and in part inner). These last behaviors included such

pinpoints as eating when hungry and the occurrence of a

meaningful conversation. The author offered as criteria

for valid data such criteria as amount of "bounce" from









day to day on the chart, sequence of high and low rate days,

correlation between charts from the same person, and length

of charting period. These criteria were offered to make

self-charted data valid in themselves without continuous

observer checks. An example of the predictive validity of

these criteria was given for an inner behavior of one

subject. While the need for continual assessment of relia-

bility remains an open issue, Berger's work made a sub-

stantial contribution in exploring new movement cycles

and suggesting criteria for assessing the validity of

self-charted behavior itself. It may prove that the use

of movement cycles such as inner and outer behaviors and

inner-outer behaviors will never satisfy the traditional

methodologist and that criteria such as Berger listed will

provide the only means of judging validity.


Self-Monitoring in
School Settings

Self-monitoring has been used less frequently in

school settings than clinical settings. Two studies of

reliability under peer-monitoring conditions for peer-

tutoring revealed 90 percent reliability between a fifth

grader and his teacher for monitoring the academic behaviors

of fourth graders (Surratt, Ulrich, and Hawkins, 1969), and

90 percent accuracy of plotting rates on the Standard

Behavior Chart for a first grader tutoring classmates

(Starlin, 1971). Both studies also pointed to the successful

and timesaving features of peer-tutoring.








In an investigation of the relationship between non-

verbal and verbal behaviors of preschool children, Risley

and Hart (1968) found a low correspondence between the self-

reports of play equipment use and the actual use of the ma-

terials. When food snacks were made contingent upon corre-

spondence between the use of materials and the self-report,

the use of the materials accelerated to the level of the self-

reported use. This effect also generated to the use of other

materials in which the correspondence was not made contingent

upon food snacks.

Broden, Hall, and Mitts (1971) studied the effects

of self-recording on the classroom behavior of two junior

high school students. The first student went to the

school counselor and volunteered to record the frequency

with which she was on and off task during a history class.

Two observers entered the class to record the percentage

of ten-second intervals the girl was on or off task. Self-

monitoring brougb.t an increase in study time. The agreement

between the two observers varied from 87 to 96 percent.

Since the subject did not record on a fixed interval basis

and even failed to record at times, the direct reliability

between the observers' and the student's report was ques-

tionable even though the overall percentages were equivalent.

Once teacher attention was increased, self-recording was no

longer necessary to maintain study behavior. The second

subject did not volunteer. He was told by the teacher to

record on paper slips the number of talk outs for half of







the class session. Observers monitored the student as in

the previous case (agreement ranged from 84 to 100 percent).

There was little correspondence between the observer and

the subject report. After the slips were removed, the talk-

out rate accelerated. In this case, teacher praise was not

manipulated with the fading of self-recording. The authors

concluded that this fact accounted for accelerated talk-out

rates during the last phase of the study.

The criteria listed in the methodology section of this

chapter may be applied to the self-recording studies in

school settings. A critique of Broden et al. (1971) suf-

fices as a demonstration. Data based upon the self-

recording of the first subject do not lend clear support

to the positive effects of self-monitoring since the absence

or presence of the recording slips alone may have accounted

for the results. Broden et al. (1971) stated that physical

presence of the paper slips alone may account for the

results since the. self-recording was often omitted by the

subjects. To reiterate a previous question, could the

same results be obtained by merely telling a subject at

various times that an experiment is in progress? Since the

data collected by the observers and the subject were gathered

under different conditions (interval sampling as opposed

to unspecified recording), the reliability must be

questioned. As McFall and Hammcn (1971) concluded,

unspecific factors such as a formal setting or subject

motivation may underlie other treatment effects. In this

study, the formal setting and motivation (i.e., subject









initiated counseling) were confounded with the effects of

self-recording. For the second subject, motivation due to

volunteering was not a confounding feature. However, by

having the teacher in control of the intervention, differential

teacher attention may have accounted for some the effects.

While the authors reported taking observations of teacher

attention to both subjects, the data were missing for the

second subject and thus the omission raises additional

questions. Since the reliability for the second subject's

recording was poor, this study represented, perhaps, more

the effects of non-specific factors than of self-monitoring.


Knowledge of Results Through
Behavior Charts

As Kanfer (1970) noted, information provided through

self-monitored data qualified as knowledge of results (KOR).

Studies demonstrating KOR through self-monitoring and

self-charting have already been reviewed (eg., Duncan, 1971;

Berger, 1972). There were a few examples in the literature

of KOR through behavior charts which were not self-generated.

The behavior rates were plotted on a chart by a supervisor

or teacher and then shown to the behaver for evaluating his

performance. Johnson (1971) used the Standard Behavior Chart

to help one student in her first-grade class learn mathematics

and another decelerate his rate of ya.wning. Many more

examples of the effects of the Standard Behavior Chart as

a decelerator or accelerator may be found in the handbook

of Precise Behavior Facts (1971).








Jeus and Shores (1969) working with three trainable

mentally retarded adolescents found that showing a chart of

the previous day's work on a simple assembly task accelerated

performance on the same task. Equivalent procedures did

not yield similar results for ring assembly and packaging

tasks.

With regards to the KOR literature itself, much

work needs to be done to demonstrate the reinforcing

or non-reinforcing value of KOR (Geis and Chapman, 1971).

While pointing to self-monitored data collection as an

example of KOR, the authors stated that the general reinforcing

value of KOR in relation to schedule control, immediate

versus delayed, and nature of the reinforcement remained

an open question.


Summary

This chapter has reviewed the historical context

of self-control %with respect to the realm of behavioristic

inquiry, the methodological considerations necessary for

valid data collection in regards to one form of self-control--

self-monitoring, and the behavioral literature of self-

monitoring in clinical and educational settings. Self-control

was defined as encompassing two responses--the controlling

response and the controlled response. Self-monitoring

of behavior as a controlling response w.as the focal point

of the review. Criteria for valid data collection included

controlling for demand characteristics of experiment so









that instructions alone would not account for treatment

effects, reliability of self-monitored data with some

unbiased source, assessment of the response rates or

other measures of the behavior before self-monitoring

began, control for any non-specific factors underlying

the experimental setting (e.g., structured setting, and

motivation of the subjects), and adequate sampling of the

controlled response to insure generality of the findings.

All of the literature reviewed pointed to the positive

effects of self-monitoring and thus qualified the self-

monitoring response as a controlling response for the

acquisition of self-control. The main types of self-

monitoring responses were in diary form, note taking, and

on behavioral charts. Furthermore, the behavior chart

proved effective as a device for behavior change whether

it was self-generated or not.

With the exception of the McFall and Hammen (1971)

study, all of the studies failed to control for one or more

of variables demanded by the criteria. Since the study

by Berger (1972) both included some new behavioral defini-

tions and cited new sets of criteria for the assessment of

validity, the future course of scientific inquiry alone

must judge the validity of the new criteria. The contem-

porary technology cannot adequately assess the reliability

and validity of the movement cycles used.

As a result of this review, it is possible to restate

the purpose of the research at hand and justify the methods




26


and design using the criteria cited. As the title of the

present study states, this study was designed to assess the
feedback through a chart. Not all of the non-specific

features of the setting were controlled, rather a few
were purposely left unmanipulated. Thus the structured

setting for instruction in recording on unfamiliar forms
was tested against a familiar form of response recording

(i.e., posting responses and work times on manila
envelopes). Two new types of recording, one of which was

the Standard Behavior Chart, were studied in relationship
to another, more familiar type. The control for demand
characteristics through subjects guessing the hypotheses

of the experiment by instructions was accomplished by

exposing all subjects to the hypothesis or instruction that
all self-monitoring improves performance. Short baselines
were inserted between treatment pliases to assess the

persistence of experimental effects. In order to eliminate
a bias in the results due to teacher commitment or

differential teacher attention which might influence student

performance, the treatments wore counterbalanced in a Latin
squares fashion with the use of the old re-cording type
continuing while the new recording types weirc introduced.

As it was clear from the literatuire, the self-monitoring
is reactive for a number of reasons and thus serves as

a poor control technique prior to manipulation. Therefore,
ana~lt trtfcto rlvn opro lsro









performance was obtained to assess the approximate levels

or rates of the individual performance before any type

of self-monitoring was begun. The reliability of the.

self-recording was checked by each teacher during the term.

The teacher made comments concerning the high reliability.

One set of data was statistically examined to reinforce

these comments. The observers and subjects were unknown

to each other.

Finally, two points deserve further note. First,

if certain variables are known to be reactive, it is only

possible to examine the effects of one reactive variable

against other reactive variables with the treatment of

concern being hierarchically eliminated from other reactive

variables as controls. Thus the use of Standard Behavior

Chart was contrasted with the use of Rate Computation

Sheet (RCS) not because of any special properties ascribed

to the RCS,rather because it required recording responses.

Second, the generality of findings based upon academic

behavior sampled in classrooms is not as questionable as

taking a small sample of behavior in a clinical setting.

In a good number of cases, the academic behavior is under

the stimulus control of classroom. The behaviors observed

in the clinic can usually occur all day long. Thus the

methods and design of this study proved adequate to assess

the effects of visual feedback through a chart upon the

rate of academic performance of junior and senior high

school students.















CHAPTER III


METHODS, PROCEDURES, AND DESIGN


Subjects and Settings

As a result of a workshop given to business education

teachers, three classrooms were secured for research pur-

poses. Two of the classes were introductory typing at the

ninth- and tenth-grade levels while the third class was an

- introductory accounting class at the eleventh-grade level.

The academic behaviors for charting the two typing classes

consisted of three-minute, timed typing of a sample from

the texts.

In the introductory accounting class, the curriculum

consisted of workbook exercises and bookkeeping activities.

The students in the two typing classes were accustomed

to identifying the errors made during the three-minute

typing sample and making note of these along with the

total number of words or words per minute on envelopes

which the students used to file each exercise. This

recording on envelopes was introduced well in advance of

the first baseline for all three classes. For the ninth-

grade class in which the students posted the words per

minute, the teacher had student-aides proofread the

28


adii









exercises at a later time in order to identify any additional

errors overlooked by the typist. The other class, which just

posted the total number of words, exchanged their papers

with fellow students who then proofread the paper. In

both cases, number of additional errors identified by the

proofreader was posted on the typist's envelope. The

essential differences then, between the typing classes,

consisted of posting the typing rate for three minutes and

the delayed feedback of a day on the number of additional

errors found by a student-aide in the ninth-grade class as

opposed to posting the total number of words typed for

three minutes and the immediate feedback from a fellow

student concerning additional errors identified in the

tenth-grade class. Students in both typing classes used

the vertical scale in the texts to compute the total number

of words typed. The sample for typing was changed each

day during the experiment.

The ninth-grade class was composed of 29 students

of which 26 were females and 3 were males. Of this

number, 24 females and 3 males were included in the study

for analysis purposes. Of those not included for statistical

analysis of this class and the other two classes, some

were discarded for reasons of prominent absenteeism and the

rest were discarded by the randomization procedures employed

in the selection of subjects. These students did, however,

undergo the same treatments as the rest.




30


The tenth-grade class was composed of 25 students of

which 15 were females and 10 were males. Of this number

10 females and 8 males were included in the study for

analysis purposes. The remaining students underwent the
same treatments but their data were not included in the

statistical analysis.

The third class consisted of eleventh-grade, introductory

accounting students. These students worked at their own

pace through workbook exercises of fill-in-the-blank

questions and longer problems from the text of bookkeeping
activities. The sequence of classroom activity involved

reading the introductory material in a unit of the test;

answering short questions concerning the reading in the

workbook; and finally completing the bookkeeping problems

from the text in the workbook. The teacher made herself

available during class time on an individual basis t-o help

students and to provide answer sheets. The longer problems

were self-correcting because columns would not balance if

numbers were entered incorrectly or if there were mistakes

in addition or subtraction. By providing answ,.er sheets, the

teacher made attempts to have errors corrected as soon as

they occurred. These students were accustomed to posting

responses on envelopes before experimentation bcgan. The

response unit used for analysis consisted of any fill-ins,
column entries, and mathematical computations accomplished
duigtetta ls ie Det hIoulrshdln









at this school, the duration of class time varied from 50

minutes on three days of the week to 33 minutes for the
_J
remaining two days.
o_
In the 'Accounting class, a total of 21 students were

available for the study. Sixteen were female and 5 were

male. Of the students selected for the experiment, there

were 13 females and 5 males.


Procedure

In addition to the daily classwork performance by

all students in each of the three groups, each group of stu-

dents was assigned three different methods for recording the

results of their classwork for the day. The first method

of recording was "no method." This recording procedure

consisted of employing the usual method of recording

classwork performance that had been used in the classes

before the treatment phase of this study began. The second

method was the use of Rate Computation Sheets (RCS) only.

A rate computation sheet is designed to facilitate the

computation of behavior rates. Spaces are provided for

entering the amount of time recording occurs and the number

of movements observed during that time. Each division

panel is keyed to the day of the week. Appendix 1 provides

a sample frame for a week's recording on the RCS. The RCS

forms were used by the students. The third method of

recording consisted of the Standard Behavior Chart (SBC)








which is designed to provide a visual display of rates in

graphic form. The ordinate axis allows for recording

behavioral rates occurring as slow as once in a thousand

minutes or as fast as a thousand per minute. This axis is

arranged in a six-cycle, semilogarithmic fashion. The

abscissa permits recording by the calendar day. Samples

of the SBC are provided in Figure 4, 5, 6, and 7 (pp. 67,

68, 72, and 73) without the grid usually given to facilitate

recording.

During a given time period of the treatment phase of

this study, each group of students employed only one of the

three methods described above but over the entire treatment

phase each group employed all three of the methods of record-

ing. The method of assigning each recording method to the

three groups is described more fully in the design section

of this chapter.

Instruction in the use of the rate computation sheets

was given during the first two days of each treatment phase.

During the first 20 minutes of each day, the group using

the rate computation sheet (RCS) alone and the group

using the RCS and the chart were instructed in the use of

the RCS together. At the end of the 20 minutes, the group

using the RCS and the chart together remained with the

experimenter to practice using the chart. Generally, this

further instruction took more than an additional 15 minutes

and thus another day of instruction was planned. A second

day was used for review of procedures for both groups. Each









student demonstrated his proficiency with both forms

by logging the previous week's data in addition to the

data from the first two treatment days. The group using the

chart was also given instructions concerning the means of

interpreting this visual display of academic behavior. This

instruction involved brief statements concerning distances

between the daily rates and the record floor (i.e., the

reciprocal of the amount of time behavior is observed for

charting) and the general trend suggested by any sequence

of rates.

At the end of the second day of instruction, the students

were asked to use the particular type of recording procedure

to which they were assigned for a duration of 10 school

days. The teachers were also asked to check the students'

envelopes occasionally during the treatment phases to

insure the daily recording. Without the recording, the

effect of unused charts would be difficult to interpret

and one which the present design was not constructed to

handle. Each treatment phase was terminated by the teacher

removing all forms from the students' envelopes.


Design

In order to assess the effects of the standard behavior

charts as a device for affecting response levels, the

treatment phases incorporate the use of groups not keeping

any new forms, another group using the RCS alone, and a

group using the RCS and the standard behavior charts.









If no significant differences in increase in response

levels occurred for those groups not using the standard

behavior chart, when compared to the group using the chart,

the value of employing the standard behavior chart as a

device for effecting levels of classroom performance would

be questioned. Since all three classes were subjected to

special attention, novelty in the classroom as well as the

presence of a stranger in the classroom, it is assumed

that the effect of these variables on changes in classroom

levels of performance would be about equal for all three

classes during the treatment phase of this study. The

treatment phases are counterbalanced in a La'tin squares

fashion to permit all three groups to receive one of the

three experiences during the course of the three treatment

phases. There are also incorporated into the design four

baseline phases interspersed before, between, and after

each treatment phase. During these baselines, the students

merely did their classwork and posted the responses on

envelopes as mentioned in an earlier section of this

chapter. The actual assignment of the three treatment

methods as well as the overall experimental design of this

study are summarized in Table 1.

During the initial planning of this research, the

teachers expressed concern for the possible significance of

interactions of treatment with ability level of the students.

In order to study this possible interaction, it was agreed

to stratify the samples into three ability levels. C(hih,









average, and low). Since there were no standardized measures

available to permit an objective and replicable stratifica-

tion, the teachers merely used each student's previous

class performances and test scores to assign the students

to one of three ability levels.

Once three ability groups were identified, the students

in each ability group were randomly assigned to one of three

treatment sequences. As stated above, each student

received each treatment once during the course of the

experiment. Thus, there were equal numbers of students to

each strata in each treatment sequence. For the tenth-

grade typing class and the eleventh-grade accounting class

there were two students per each of the nine cells. The

ninth-grade class had three students per each of the nine

cells.

The three treatment sequences were randomly chosen

from a possible set of six treatment combinations with the

exception that any given treatment appeared only once in

a given column or'row. The first combination was assigned

to the first ability clustering, the second combination to

the second clustering, and so on for the last combination

to the last ability clustering.

The overall sequence of treatments and subject groupings

are presented in Table 1. This design held for all classes

with the exception that the ninth-grade typing class had

three subjects nested in each ability by treatment order
















Table 1

SEQUENCE OF EXPERIMENTAL PHASES


Bl T1 B2 T2 B3 T3 B4


Cl
S2 CW CW CW CW, CW CW, CW
S3 RCS, RCS
C2
S4 Chart
C S5
C3
S6
i S7
Cl
S8 CW CW, CW CW, CW CW CW
59 RCS, RCS
C2
S10 Chart
Sll
C3
S12


S13
S14
C2 S15
C2
S16
S17
C3
518


CW,
RCS


CW,
RCS
Chart


_____________________ A __________ L .1. A. a


CW..
RCS.
B. .
T...
Cl..
C2..
C3..


1..5, 6..15, 16..20, 21..30, 31..35,
Days


.Classwork
.Rale Computation Sheet
.Baseline
.Treatment
.High ability
.Average ability
.Low ability


36.. 45,


46..50








cluster. Each baseline lasted for five days and each

treatment phase for ten days. Whenever variations in the

number of days for each treatment phase occurred due to

difficulties in scheduling class time for instructing

students in the use of the Rate Computation chart or the

Standard Behavior Chart, the onset of the treatment phase

began at the earliest possible date. Hence, the baselines

prior to such treatment phases were extended. 1Where this

occurred, the phases were lengthened rather than protracted.


Research Questions

How data from the various phases and treatment

sequences were reorganized for purposes of statistical

analysis has been summarized in Table 2. According to

this design, an analysis of variance permitted the following

questions to be asked:

1. What are the contributions of the main effects

(Treatments, Order, and Ability) to the population variance?

The term treatments is used here to mean any one of the

seven phases, whether experimental manipulation phase or

baseline. These, of course, must show some differences

in order for additional and more pertinent questions both

to be asked and answered succinctly. If the treatments

are significant, there is justification for proceeding with

post hoc comparisons of means to identify the sources of

this variance. The treatment order was not a central

question to this study since the order variable was



















Table 2

DESIGN FOR ANALYSIS


I -_ I *


Sl
Cl
S2
S3
C2
S4
C3
S6


S7
S8
S9
S10
Sl1
S12


S13
Cl
S14
S15
3 C2 1
S16
C3 S17
C3
S18


A....Order of treatments
C.... Ability levels
bl...baseline for classwork alone
b2...classwork alone
b3...baseline for classwork + RCS
b4...classwork + RCS
b5...baseline for classwork + RCS + Chart
b6...classwork + RCS + Chart
b7...final baseline


.2 C2

C3


r


i.. ..........










originally used as a device for counterbalancing three

treatment combinations for each treatment phase and for

assuring each subject's exposure to each treatment.

Traditionally, a design controlling for order effects is

used when there is some support for the belief that the

effect of the independent variable or variables on the

dependent variable is irreversible. Such is not the case

with the treatments used in this study. Ability in itself

is not a prime concern to this study. Rather, in relationship

to previous behavioral studies (Rosenfeld, 1972), there is

a concern for the Treatment X Ability interaction. Should

the main effect of ability prove statistically significant,

this would indicate that initial differences in ability

among students contributed to differences in levels of

performance but would not contribute to the major question

being examined in this study, the effect of recording

procedures on levels of performance.

2. Are there any differences among the interactions

of the main effects? Of concern here were the Treatment

X Order, Treatment X Ability, and Ability X Order interac-

tions. A significant Treatment X Order interaction would

yield valuable information with regard to the primacy or

recency of the effects or, by association, the effect of

other naturally occurring phenomena within the school

setting (i.e., grading periods or termination of the

school year). Interest in the Treatment X Ability has








already been suggested by past behavioral literature. A

significant Order X Ability interaction would be difficult

to explain in terms of past behavioral literature but would

nonetheless yield information with regards to the work

patterns of the various ability levels over the duration

of the school semester.

3. Are there differences between the seven treatments

themselves? If the treatment effects are significant,

then mean comparisons by the Scheffe's technique will be

done to identify the sources of variability. This question

will also permit a comparison of baselines (both pre- and

post-) and experimental manipulation phases. If the data

for the manipulation phases prove better than their

pretreatment baselines, there would be some evidence to

suggest the effectiveness of the manipulations and thus

self-control on the part of the students. If the mani-

pulations prove better than their posttreatment baselines,

then a reversal shall have occurred and self-control on the

part of the students thus diminished. If the opposite

occurs, self-control will have been retained, unless some

alternative explanation is possible because of the occurrence

of events beyond experimental control. Such events might

be an upcoming grading period in which a given amount of

work needs completion or possibly the completion of the

school year and the attendant rush to finish incomplete ....'

work. An inspection of the means for experimental mani-iii

pulation pha:sees:will suggest any differences among th i

.,aiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ,,









three treatment combinations. If the recording in count

form on envelopes alone proves better than the Rate Compu-

tation Sheet (RCS) alone and the RCS with the chart, then

there would be reason to suspect the overall novelty of

a visitor, intraclass communication, and the fact that

the instruction in the type was given by teacher and not

by the experimenter account for the difference. If the

RCS recording alone proved superior to recording on

envelopes and charts, then just having a novel form or

practice using novel forms (the RCS alone is given after

the RCS and chart manipulations for the first two treatment

orders), or perhaps any difficulty the students might have

had using the chart with the RCS might explain the difference.

If the chart alone proved better than the other two manip-

ulations, then there is justification for believing

the usual display through the chart accounts for the

difference. Should there be no differences among all three

manipulations, then each must take credit as controlling

responses for varying reasons. The posting of a response

count would serve as a controlling response; however much

this recording can be explained on the basis of intraclass

communication or novelty of a visitor to a class. The

use of the RCS alone would also qualify as a controlling

response even though its use was originally intended by the

experimenter as a control for the novelty effects of intro-

ducing a new form to the students. While it has been argued

earlier in this study that the use of the chart, when under









tight experimental control, would alone represent a con-

trolling response less confounded with extraneous sources

the self-control acquired through the use of the chart may

be no different in terms of ends of performance than the

other two controlling responses in contrast.

If any one of the sets of data is so contaminated

with procedural difficulties that the data collected by the

students is rendered suspect, an accounting of these diffi-

culties will be made anecdotally and quantified to show

the extent of the damage done to the original experimental

strategies. Possible sources for such difficulties may

include: the experimenter failing to instruct the students

in the use of forms adequately enough to be used by the

students alone; the experimenter or teacher failing to

terminate experimental phases; teachers changing the class-

room procedures after the experiment has begun; teachers

not giving students the opportunity to use the forms;

students not being able to perform the simple, mathematical

computations necessary to use the forms correctly; or

students failing to use the forms for long periods of time.

While most or all of these difficulties could be remedied

as they occurred, this would entail a radical change in the

classroom environment and thus render clear demonstrations

of self-control impossible.

Finally, the last features of data to be analyzed will

be those pieces of individual data which either hold clini.bal









significance with regard to the control of academic behavior

or suggest meaningful significance beyond the significance

or non-significance indicated by the particular statistical

analysis used in this study. Since the import of this study

lies in the test of possible techniques to be used in class-

rooms, any data which may hold some application value is

considered worthy of mention. Furthermore, such individual

data may suggest tentative hypotheses for further classroom

research or intervention.

If there are missing data, there are two solutions which

may be used. Should there be missing data and there appears

to be no accounting for the loss due to the nature of the

treatments, an unweighted means solution will be employed.

If there are missing data and there is some reason to

believe that the nature of the treatments in some way

accounts for the missing data, then a least squares solution

must be employed (Kirk, 1968, p. 204). Thus, should a

student complain of his difficulty with the forms and

subsequently refuse to perform, there would be justification

for using the least squares solution. Alpha levels for all

statistical analyses were set at the (p < .05) level.

In summary then, three classes were secured for

research at the junior and senior high school levels. Two

were in typing and the remaining was in accounting. All

three classrooms were accustomed to posting the number of

responses on envelopes before experimentation began. Later









this response was to be contrasted with two other forms

of controlling responses: recording responses in rate form

on a sheet which lacked visual, graphic display of the

academic behavior and recording responses in rate form on

a chart which provided visual, graphic display of the

academic behaviors. The response units for the typing class

were words per minute and error rate for a three-minute,

once daily, timed typing. The response units for the

accounting class was any fill-in, row entry, column entry,

or mathematical computation occurring during the class

period. Counting responses and recording them in one of

three forms occurred once daily during the five-day school

week. Manipulations were counterbalanced in a Latin squares

fashion to insure equal exposure of all manipulations to

each student. Baselines were inserted before, between, and

after each manipulation phase to provide a contrast for

each manipulation phase. The students were stratified into

three ability levels and randomly assigned one of three

treatment sequences. The treatment sequences themselves

were randomly chosen from a possible set of six combinations.

The major research questions were listed and possible

answers were discussed with reference to the various

results which analyses may yield. Possible procedural

difficulties were suggested and the means of handling these

data were mentioned. The possibility of presenting individual

data was indicated and the reasons for this presentation





45



were given. Lastly, the techniques and rationale for

handling missing data were discussed.















CHAPTER IV


ANALYSES


This chapter is divided into four major sections:

analyses of group data, analyses of selected individual

data, reliability, and summary. There is a summary after the

first two subheadings to facilitate the reading. Before pro-

ceeding to review the analyses of group data, the reader

should refer back to Table 2 and review the treatment

designations since cross-reference will be made to these

designations in the body of the current chapter.


Group Data Analyses

Three analyses were run: these were on the accounting

work rates for the eleventh-grade class, words per minute

and error rate for the ninth-grade typing class. The

data from the tenth-grade class in typing were not treated

in a similar fashion for reasons to be given later. A

log (base 10) transformation was performed initially on

all rates because the effects of one of the major independent

variables, the Standard Behavior Chart, contained a lo910

transformation. Due to absenteeism and to one student

refusing to perform when asked to use the recording forms,

there were missing data and these were generated by us51n
..c...... '::









the least squares estimates provided by biomedical computer

program X-63 (Dixon, 1971). This program performed regression

analysis on the data. Using those parameters from the

regression analysis, an estimate of the missing values could

be obtained which would not radically effect the total

variance. A check on the validity of these estimates was

obtained by comparing the sums of squares for error using

the X-63 program and the sums of squares obtained from the

analysis of variance table.

If the estimates are satisfactory there should be very

little difference between the t'w.o error terms. The differ-

ences were felt to be negligible as indicated in Table 3.

The analysis on logs of accounting work rates is

presented in Table 4. The treatments were significant (p>.05),

yet there were no significant differences between the

manipulation phases (B2, B4, B6) and their pretreatment

baselines (Bl, B3, B ) using the Scheff4's multiple comparison

technique. There was no difference between the manipulation

phases and their posttreatment phases (B3, B5, B7). Ranking

the means of the treatments and making all pair-wise com-

parisons showed that B2 was significantly smaller and B7

was significantly larger than B1, B4, B6, B5, and B3 using

Scheff6's criterion. The only two treatments that differ

are classwork alone in a manipulation phase (B2) and the

last posttreatment baseline for all treatment orders (B7).



















Table 3

A COMPARISON OF PROGRAM X-63 AND THE
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SUM OF SQUARES
FOR ERROR


Data Source Sum of Squares for Error

X-63 ANOVA Difference

Accounting .7010 .6998 .0012

Words per minute .0639 .0640 -.0001

Error rate 1.5048 1.5703 -.0655











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50



The ability levels also differed significantly with

respect to means (p, < .05). Their means rank in the

expected order of high ability highest, average ability next,
and low ability last. The Treatment X Ability and Order X

Ability interactions were not significant.

The Treatment X Order interaction was also significant

(p < .05). An inspection of the cell means in Table 5 for
this interaction shows no significant patterns with the

exception being the last posttreatment baselines which for
the first and third orders are higher than all other cell

means. The cell means for classwork-alone group in a'

manipulation phase showed lower work rates than their

pretreatment baselines for the first two orders. Since
according to the original temporal sequence of the experiment

(see Table 1) the cell mean for the classwork alone in a

manipulation phase for the second order came in the next-
to-last phase of the experiment and since the rates were

higher for the last posttreatment baseline in com-rparison
to this treatment, even the second order tends to support the

conclusion that the high work rates during the last post-

treatment baseline contributed to the variance to this

interaction.

With regard to self-control, it cannot be said that

the manipulations were effective as accelerators for per-

formance. Further, it appears that for the group continuing
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groups, their exclusion served as a decelerator for per-

formance rates (except for the third treatment order and

here the cell means of .1718 for the first baseline and

of .1736 for the classwork alone during a treatment phase

were hardly different). With respect to the continuous

feedback through almost immediate knowledge of results

provided by the teacher and answer sheets, the self-

generated feedback did not implement accelerations signif-

icantly beyond those occurring through other available

sources. The superiority of the occurrence of final

examinatiDns and termination of the school year to serve

as accelerators was far more significant than any source

of feedback in this class environment.

The analyses of logs for the words per minute data

from the ninth-grade class showed treatments to be signifi-

cant (p <.05). Using Scheffe's multiple comparison

technique, it was found that the three manipulations

(B2, B4, B6) differed significantly from their pretreatment

baselines (Bl, B3, B5). There were no differences between

the manipulations and their posttreatment baselines (B3, B5,

B7). Ranking the means and making all possible pair-wise.

comparisons showed that the last baseline is significantly

higher than all of the other treatments while none of the

other means differ.

Ability levels differed significantly (p<.05) and

they were in the expected order: with high ability highiiti,

the average abi::ity next, and the i.,lrW ability last.

"' ,4 ii1111111 1









The Treatment X Order interaction differed significantly

(p <.05). Table 6 sheds some light on this interaction.

There is a positive acceleration of cell means for the

logs of the data with only two exceptions occurring as

noted. The rank order is almost precisely the same as

the temporal pacing of phases as in Table 1. This trend

was shown less pointedly in the accounting work rate data.

In the typing data, however, there are no reversals occurring

as a result of doing regular classroom work while some

students are receiving instruction in special forms. Using

the data from Table 6 and the mean comparisons of Treatment

effects, it can be shown that the data points are positively

accelerating with the only exceptions occurring where one

of the three manipulations is in effect. Thus the treat-

ments are functionally related to major upward movements

over baselines with the accelerations slowing during each

posttreatment baseline (with the exception of the seventh

phase for the second treatment). Without regard to treat-

ment order, however, the last posttreatment baseline

represents an acceleration over the highest manipulation

phase mean.

The words per minute data indicate the occurrence of

self-control during manipulation phases for all three devices

in comparison to pretreatment baselines. Further, there

are no data to suggest that any one of the manipulations was

any better than the others with regard to its properties for










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helping students demonstrate self-control. Thus this self-

control must be explained as being confounded with novelty,

intraclass communication, and perhaps differential teacher

enthusiasm occurring at the beginning of manipulation phases.

The multiple comparisons data suggest that self-control was

lost after manipulation phases and the naturally occurring

events as final examination period and final exams possess

much more control over academic behaviors than the students

themselves possess.

The analyses of variance on the logs of error rate for

the ninth-grade typing class as indicated in Table 8 showed

only the Treatment X Order interaction to be significant

(p <.05). The data do not lend themselves to clear

interpretation since the treatment means do not progress

in any orderly fashion nor in the original temporal sequence

of phases as in the words per minute data. By inspecting

the magnitude of treatment means there appears to be an

acceleration of error rates for the last posttreatment

baseline. Thus it appears that as the words per minute

increase, there is an increase in error rate but not to

a commensurate extent. The use of the chart alone seems to

facilitate control of error rate however,its use is

not better than the precharting baseline. Even this

conclusion must be modified by adding that the precharting

baseline is only better than the charting phase in the fir:t

treatment order. Without even statistical support, many of












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the above conclusions are at best tentative for this group

of students as a class. There is support in the typewriting

literature to anticipate increased error rates with increased

overall typing speed (West, 1969).

With regards to self-control, these group data offer

little support for the presence of controlling responses.

The effects of self-generated feedback through the chart

were only suggestive in two of the three treatment orders.

Furthermore, with the highest mean occurring in the last

posttreatment phase, the data share some of the same con-

clusion from the other data sets--that the occurrence of

events such as final grading periods and termination of

the school year possess more control over academic behavior

than the students themselves possess.

The data for the tenth-grade typing class was so contam-

inated with procedural errors that the analyses performed

for the other data sets was not done. A summary of the

difficulties collecting data representative of what the

original procedures demanded includes poor communication

between the experimenter and the teacher, teacher forgetting

to have the timed typing daily, rushing the students through

the recording of rates on the forms, starting the timed

typing before each student was ready with a piece of paper

in the carriage, and not checking to see that the forms were

being used daily. There was also an example of a few studeflts

calculating the rates one way during the manipulation ph.aaiis









and in another fashion during the baseline phases. Related

to all of these faults which must be shared by both experi-

menter and teacher, the students themselves failed to use

the forms as frequently as demanded by the procedures of this

study.

Figure 1 presents the percentage of form usage by the

entire class and by temporal order of introduction to the

RCS and the chart. These figures give some justification

for believing the loss of data for the chart is not solely

due to construction of the chart itself. There was some

expectation on the part of the experimenter and all three

teachers prior to introducing it to the classes that the

students would experience more difficulty with the chart

than the RCS due to the semi-logarithmic scale on the

ordinate of the chart. This, however, was not the case.

The greatest losses temporally occurred in the second order.

This may be explained by a four-day holiday occurring a few

days after instruction in the use of the forms and still

another four days before timed-typing exercises resumed.

The phase was thus extended to compensate for the holiday

and lost typing practice.

It is clear from Figure 2 that the greatest loss of

data by ability occurred in the low-ability groups. Even

here it may be noted that the chart fared no worse than the

RCS. Rather, by reviewing the forms of all three groups,

the experimenter found a number of division mistakes for














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the error rate data. The inability to do division when

not supervised by the experimenter perhaps accounts for

the greatest loss by the low-ability group with both forms.

Figure 3 presents the percentage of data loss for the

Treatment X Ability X Order interaction. Overall, the lines

restate the representations and explanations given for

the Treatment X Order interaction (Figure 1) and Treatment X

Ability interaction (Figure 2). The notable exceptions

occurred for the high- and low-ability groups in the second

and third order, respectively, using the RCS. There does

not appear to be any plausible explanation for handling these

data which would also explain the more frequent use of the

forms by the average-ability RCS users.

In summary, then, an analysis of variance was performed

on work rates for the eleventh-grade typing class and on the

words per minute and error rate data for the ninth-grade

typing class. Data in the form of percentage of form usage

alone was presented for the tenth-grade typing class because

the student performance data did not come in adequate contact

with the procedures for the study. The analysis of accounting

data revealed significant Treatment, Ability, and Treatment

X Order interaction effects. A Scheffe's mean comparison

revealed the last posttreatment baseline to be significantly

different from all other treatments. Furthermore the com-

parison indicated that for individuals continuing to do

regular classwork while others received instruction in the





63








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use of novel forms there was a decelerating effect. It was

concluded that no self-control wad demonstrated but rather

that the control of academic behavior was under the control'

of final examinations and the approaching end of the school

year.

An analysis of variance on the words per minute for

the ninth-grade typing class showed significant Treatment,

Ability, and Treatment X Order interaction effects. A

Scheff6's mean comparison showed all three manipulations to

be different from their pretreatment baselines but not

different from their posttreatment baselines. It was'con-

cluded that all three manipulations, and not any one in

particular, served as accelerators. An overall mean com-

parison indicated the difference between the last post-

treatment baseline and all other phases. Thus the self-

control that was demonstrated during manipulation phases

was confounded with a long-term, fixed interval scallop

peaking with the occurrence of final examinations and the

end of the school year. These data did not reveal any

decelerating effect of doing classwork alone during manipu-

lation phases.

The analysis of variance for the error rate data of

the ninth-grade typing class was less revealing and only

suggested the usefulness of the chart in reducing error

rate and in reconfirming the fixed interval scallop with

the impending examinations and end of the school year.









Both sets of typing data tended to reaffirm the finding of

increased error rates with increased typing speeds but not

to any demonstrable extent.

Because of procedural difficulties which did not occur

in the eleventh- and ninth-grade classrooms, the tenth-

grade class was analyzed only in terms of the percentage

of form usage. The data for the population did not indicate

that the students had any more difficulty using the charts

than the RCS. Looking at the loss by temporal order con-

firms the procedural interruptions and other weaknesses as

cited. The extreme loss of data with low-ability students

may, at least, in part be explained by the inability of

these students to readily perform the required division.

Inspection of the loss by Treatment X Order X Ability inter-

action reaffirm the conclusions drawn for Treatment X Order

and Treatment X Ability interactions. Where exceptions were

noted, no explanation was thought plausible.

The main conclusion to be drawn from all of data

analyzed was that where a demonstration of self-control

existed it was confounded by fixed scallops (a positively

accelerating increase in rate). This finding was clearly

indicated in the accounting and words per minute data but

only suggested by the error rate data. Suggestions concern-

ing the future prevention of data loss and the flattening

of the fixed interval scallop will be discussed in the

fifth chapter.





66

Selected Individual Data
The individual data are presented to suggest, frt
that the group statistical analysis used in this studyma
not represent meaningful significance with regard toefct
of the chart upon the rates of academic performance ad
second, that for at least one set of comparisons ofin-
vidual data there is demonstrated clinical value forth
inspection of individual charts. The first set of dat
came from two individual subjects in the eleventh-grad
accounting class.
Both charts contain the baselines prior to the chatn
phase for each student. In both cases the obtaine rte
are contrasted with the record floor (i.e., recipoafr
the amount of time the behavior was occurring forcatn

purposes). Most noticeable in both sets of dataarth
downward trends during baseline periods and the rvra
of these trends during the charting phase.
As may be seen in Table 9 for the mean comparsn
(Glass and Stanley, 1970) there is no differencebewnth
means of the two phases for each subject. The significac
then which seems meaningful is the directional change o h
trends and further this change is not statisticalyvsbe
It seems appropriate then to recommend the relianeuo
visual inspection of celebrations for ascertainingth
significance of effects in those cases %,here the en r
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Table 10

TESTS OF DIFFERENCES FOR logl0 RATES
BETWEEN BASELINE AND CHARTING PHASES
FOR TWO SUBJECTS WITH RAW SCORE MEANS IN BRACKETS



Phase Mean Variance N Test of
Significance


Subject 1

Baseline .4048 .0098 3
[2.54].
t = .0802
Charting .4027 .0160 10
phase [2.53]


Subject 2

Baseline .1920 .0218 5
[1.56]
t = .0036
Charting .1924 .0411 6
phase [1.56]


Critical value for Subject 1:
Critical value for Subject 2:


t.05, 11 = 1.796
t.05, 9 = 1.833









Figure 6 is a chart of a student who represents an

absentee problem to the school. Besides the scattered

instances of missing classes, there was one gross example

occurring from the middle of the third week lasting until

the end of the eighth week. While it is clear that this

student does not attend school frequently, it is also

evident that there is little declaration between the last

few work rates before the break and the work rates occurring

after the break. When this student was in school, he worked

quite consistently. The clinician's task would then become

largely one of keeping this student coming to class and not

one of further devising techniques to motivate the student

to work while there.

Figure 7 represents an entirely different case. This

student, as the chart depicts, dropped out of school. While

there are instances of absenteeism as with the previous

student, this student's behavior demonstrates the work of

punitive contingencies even while in school. Not only did

the student dislike coming to school, he also found the work

aversive. This conclusion was also supported by the

presence of various scatological comments peppering his

work envelope. Thus the clinician's task here would be to

reinforce both attendance and higher work rates.

The differences between the two students whose data

are represented on Figure 6 and 7 are only noticeable because

of the calendar-day comparisons of rates provided by the




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Standard Behavior Chart. Without this information, it might

have been quite easy to mistake the two,given the frequent

occurrences of absenteeism. As may be noted by the various

recommendations, these students are different and the types

of intervention required would differ in each case as sug-

gested by the charts.

In summary for this section, it has been noted that

the reliance upon the visual inspection of individual data

is necessary at times to assess the meaningful significance

of manipulations and to suggest appropriate interventions

where they can be attempted. For those cases where treat-

ment means are similar and the variances are small, a

statistic relying upon mean comparison is not as useful as

a directional or trend change. Further, it was suggested

that the calendar-day comparisons of rates on the Standard

Behavior Chart are not only suggestive of diagnosis but also

of prognosis for intervention with academic behavior prob-

lems.


Reliability

Due to the need for reliability with self-monitored

data, the teachers were asked to check the students' en-

velopes on an intermittent basis. The teachers spent

additional class time checking the recording on the en-

velopes daily upon initial introduction and thereafter only

checked on a random basis after class time. All teachers

reported accurate recording.









As a demonstration of this reliability, the error rate

components (i.e., number of errors found by the typist and

the number of errors found by the proofreader) were analyzed

for the ninth-grade typing class and the aides who rotated5

the responsibility of checking the papers. A technique sug-

gested by Winer (1962, pp. 124-128) was used to compare

frequency of student error and the frequency of proofreader-

identified error. Five days were randomly sampled and the

analysis yielded the following coefficients for those days:

.94 for the first day, .90 for the tenth day, .96 for the

twenty-seventh day, .82 for the fifty-second day, and .96-

for the sixty-third day. Summary tables for the analysis of

variance used to compute the reliabilities are located in

Appendix 2. These coefficients were computed by subtracting

the quotient of the mean squares within people divided by_

the mean squares between people from 1. These reliabilities

were felt high enough to demonstrate accurate recording.


Summary

Both group analysis and individual data were reviewed.

The group analysis of the eleventh-grade accounting class

suggestsabove all else the significance of the occurrence of

final examinations and the termination of the school year as

reinforcers for academic behavior. The analysis of the

ninth-grade words per minute typing data confirms this

conclusion significantly but go on to lend support for the








experimental manipulations as accelerating the fixed interval

scallop at intermediate points along the curve. The analysis

of the error rate data for the ninth-grade typing class only

tends to show support for the fixed interval curve and to

suggest that the Standard Behavior Chart may have helped the

students gain control over their error rates. An inspection

of form usage by the tenth-grade typing class indicated that

the chart is no more difficult for adolescent students to

use than the RCS and that low-ability students may need

remedial instruction in simple division before these forms

may be used without the aid of some prosthetic device (i.e.,

calculator or frequency finder).

The individual data were presented to indicate a differ-

ence between meaningful direction change of rates as opposed

to statistical change for the chart users. Two data sets

were then added to indicate the usefulness of the chart in

depicting individual differences with regard to academic

performance over time.

Self-control is said to have been demonstrated in a

statistically significant manner during the manipulation

phases for all recording responses in the words per minute

data of the ninth-grade typing class. The presence of

self-control was only suggestive for chart users within

the error rate recording for the ninth-grade typing class.

Two individual cases were presented for the accounting classii

in which significant self-control was deiiiimonstrated.. meaniing-a....

fully, but not statistically.





77



Accurate self-reports of work rates were insured by

teacher checks throughout the semester. A statistical com-

parison was performed for reliabilities between the student-

and proofreader-identified errors for five days selected

at random. The coefficients were high enough to demonstrate

accurate recording.













CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS

This final chapter contains three major sections:

discussion, implications, and summary. The discussion

section provides a review of the results as related to

prior literature and how this study has added to that body
of knowledge. The implications section reviews the results

and presents recommendations for future research and
classroom practices. Finally, the summary provides a

precis of the entire text.

Discussion

The literature pertinent to this discussion falls under

three headings: self-monitoring, self-control, and knowledge

of results. Previous research has indicated that self-

monitoring may serve as a device for behavior change

(Stollak, 1967; Rutner, 1967; Leitenberg et al., 1968;

Kolb, 1968; McFall, 1970; McFall and Hiammen, 1971), that
self-monitoring must be validated by an observer or ob-
serving device (McFall, 1970; Orne, 1970; Kanfer, 1970),

that self-monitoring may be included as one of many non-

specific factors such as structured situation and subject
78









motivation accounting for behavior changes in research

settings using elaborate treatments (Orne, 1970; Kanfer,

1970; McFall and Hammen, 1971), and that the effects of

self-monitoring are persistent for a period after self-

monitoring is terminated (Leitenberg et al., 1968;

McFall, 1970).

The analysis of the group data for the words per

minute data and for two of the pieces of individual data

indicated that self-monitoring during a treatment phase

served to change behavior in a desired direction. Besides

replicating previous research, this finding provided in-

formation with regard to the measure of the dependent

variable. Many of the prior studies use only gross number

or percentage data. The present study employed rate measures

and obtained many of the same findings reported by others.

Explanations for the non-replication in the accounting and

error rate data are presented under the discussion of

self-monitoring and non-specific factors.

Although steps were taken by the teachers (through spot

checks) in all three classes to insure reliable data

recording, there was only one set of data available for a

statistical description of the reliability. This set of

data was obtained from a comparison of self-recorded and

teacher-aide-recorded errors in the ninth-grade typing

class. Since the student and the aide were unknown to one

another, the reported high reliabilities were taken as









honest measures. It was unfortunate that the tenth-grade

typing class data could not be analyzed. The proofreading

technique employed in this class was a variant of the

"participant-observer" method used in clinical settings

(Powell and Azrin, 1968; Azrin and Powell, 1968; Azrin and

Powell, 1969). Thus the data would have served as a

systematic replication of this method for classroom settings.

As for the suggestion that self-recording serves as a poor

control device prior to behavior modification (Kanfer,

1970), the self-monitored data yielded the same ability

stratification as that given by teachers prior to the

study. Thus the self-recording served as a good control.

Just as McFall and Hammen (1971) used a sophisticated

design to isolate non-specific factors in smoking reduction,

the present study employed a design which would isolate non-

specific factors in self-recording through charts. This.

design permitted the most conservative test of self-monitoring

data up to the present since the recording on the chart was

contrasted to self-monitoring employed with relatively

non-reactive procedures (student recording on envelopes

after instruction by the teacher before the experiment

began) and to self-monitoring with reactive procedures

(students using the RCS after special instruction from

the experimenter). Thus the design recommends itself for

further use whenever behavioral devices are tested. A

simpler version of this design without the within-subjects

replication may be found in Azrin and Powell (1969).

::1:: .









The non-replication of self-monitoring effects for the

accounting work rate and error rate data was probably due

to the power of the design. Whereas prior research combined

self-monitoring with other reactive variables, this design

controlled for them. The results of mean comparisons for

the accounting work rates, i.e., the negative effects,

further demonstrate an instance of self-monitoring divorced

from the reactive variables. Therefore, it may be concluded

that the effects of self-monitoring are functionally related

to the immediate environmental context in which this

recording is accomplished.

As for the finding of persistent self-recording

effects lasting after this recording is terminated (McFall,

1970), both the data which did not reveal effects different

from baselines (the accounting work rate and error rate) and

the data which did reveal effects that were confounded

with other reactive variables (words per minute data)

indicated no lasting effects. In relationship to the

administratively scheduled events of exams and the termination

of the school year, the effects of self-monitoring were

shown to be evaporable.

The analysis of the group and individual data revealed

only a few instances of self-control. Where it was demon-

strated, the self-control was confounded with other

variables such as instructions and novelty. This finding

indicated that the controlling responses employed were









functionally related to the immediate environmental context.

Thus more powerful contingencies must be used and then later

faded for controlling responses if self-control is to

remain intact. The self-control acquired through the

recording responses used in this study was not sufficiently

buffered against the effects of examinations and the end of

the school year.

The use of the RCS and SBC as feedback devices for

knowledge of results showed only qualified results. Thus

the question of KOR as a reinforcer remains open. The error

rate data, which was gathered under delay conditions of a

day, pointed to the superiority of immediate feedback for

simple skill learning. A clear resolution to this question

may have to start in a more tightly controlled, laboratory

setting before clear generalizations to the school setting

may be drawn.


Implications

The implications of this research are twofold first,

with regard to future educational research and secondwith

regard to classroom practices. The impetus for this study

came from and was in part planned and conducted by four high

school teachers. Their active participation during work-

shops and in the initial planning insured a maximum of

benefits for each student during the course of the study

and at the same time permitted the conduct of this research

from escaping the ubiquitous demands of running a class:riom









on a daily basis. IThile communications problems still

existed, many difficulties listed in an earlier chapter

could have been remedied either by working with fewer

classrooms or by soliciting colleagues of the experimenter

to instruct the classes in the use of the recording forms.

Research conducted in this fashion has value for those most

involved in the educational process--teachers and students.

All of the teachers involved in this study noticed positive

changes in their students and thus planned to continue

self-monitoring in their future classes. Furthermore, the

teachers have expressed interest in doing further research

in their classes. Thus their participation will prove

mutually rewarding to both researcher and teacher.

Two additional remarks with regard to educational re-

search seem noteworthy because of events which failed to

occur. First, West (1969, P. 286) after a review of much

research on the point concluded that intensive practices of

timed typing incurs high error rates. This result was not

replicated under daily timed typings over a period of

twelve weeks. Perhaps the simultaneous self-monitoring of

both words per minute and error rates accounted for the

results.

Prior research has limited the effectiveness of

behavior modification to low ability and special education

classrooms (Rosenfeld, 1972). The author reported a study

in which money was employed as a reinforcement for sixth-

grade students having a high I.Q. (above 110 on the Lorge









Thorndike) and money reinforcement plus stars on a publicly

located paper for average and high I.Q.'s (b06 or better)

showed significant achievement gains. Rosenfeld's findings,

which ran counter to prior research, are replicated here

because no significant Treatment X Ability interaction

occurred.

The implications for classroom practices are directly

related to the analyses of the data. Even when the treat-

ments proved effective over pretreatment baselines, the

effects of these treatments did not effect the acceleration

of rates obtained at the end of the school year. While a

qualified demonstration of self-control was achieved, this

control passed to the occurrence of administratively

scheduled events. This finding suggests that, when possible,

testing or the deadline for large projects should be inter-

mittently scheduled to insure the longevity of student

self-control. Weighting daily work more and terminal work

rates less might have the same effects.

Another finding which holds implications was the fact

that rate measures may be used to achieve ability grouping.

While this measure has been used for such purposes in typing

class prior to this research, the replication of this finding

with a pinpoint as hetergeneously mixed as the accounting

work rate lends generality to the practice. Further study

with other types of curricula is necessary to insure this

generalization.









Finally, as a result of inspecting some of individual

data, it was suggested that the satisfaction of criteria by

statistical techniques may not always be consistent with

significant behavior changes actually occurring. The sta-

tistical techniques may prove too time consuming, expensive,

and not immediate enough to satisfy the daily needs of

teachers and students. Data collection in the form of

rates does not suffer these drawbacks. Furthermore, when

rates are plotted on the SBC, long-range trends may be

assessed at a moment's glance and communication time is

commensurately reduced. These features alone urged a

number of students to remark that "really bad days" were

not taken as seriously as they were before the SEC was

introduced.


Summary

The purpose of this study was to produce self-control

of academic behavior in high school business education

students by providing continuous, self-generated feedback

through various feedback devices and to assess the relative

merits of each device. This study was done to enlarge the

settings and vary the parameters under which the effects of

self-generated feedback have been found to be significant.

By using Skinner's (1953) definition of self-control, the

academic response rates were used as a controlled response

and the generation of feedback responses through the various

devices was used as the controlling response. For purposes









of this study, self-control is said to exist when celebrations

(acceleration or deceleration depending upon the nature of

the pinpointed responses) are better under treatment con-

ditions than under pretreatment baseline conditions.

The research was done in three classrooms. The first

was a ninth-grade, second semester typing class with

twenty-nine students. The second class was an eleventh-

grade, second semester accounting class with twenty-one

students. The last classroom was a tenth-grade, second

semester typing class with twenty-five students.

The response unit for the accounting class was any

fill-in-the-blank item, row or column entry, or any mathe-

matical computation. The dependent variable for this class

was work rate alone without respect to correct or incorrect

responding. Since the students had answer sheets and the

teacher available during the class for individual help, it

was felt that work rate alone was a sufficient pinpoint.

The response units for the typing classes were gross words

per minute and error rate for a three minute, once daily,

timed typing. The sample for typing was changed every day

during the experiment. Each student computed the total

number of words typed by using the vertical scale in his

text for each sample. The students then proofread their own

papersfor errors. Later, a student-aide or a neighbor

reread the papers to sift out any additional errors. Th.us,

during the treatment phases, error rates ":;re computel!!Bd a::i









day after the typing had been done for the class using the

aides and immediately for the class using the neighbor.

In all classes prior to the experiment, the students

were accustomed to counting the number of responses for

either the entire class period in the accounting class or

for the three minutes in the typing class and posting this

count on a manilla envelope used to hold all of their work

material. This type of self-recording was continued

throughout the experiment and contrasted with recording on a

rate computation form which lacked visual, graphic display

of the rates and Standard Behavior Chart which lent visual,

graphic display of the rates. During the first two days of

each treatment phase, the experimenter visited the classes

to teach the students the use of the new forms. At this

time, one-third of the students continued working and re-

cording as usual while the other two-thirds received

instruction on the rate computation sheet or the chart. This

was to control for any celebrations due to novelty due to the

presence of the experimenter, intraclass communication, or

teacher enthusiasm. After instruction in the forms, the

students were asked to use the forms daily for two weeks.

There was no differential reward given by the teachers for

using the forms. Since most of the students in these classes

were doing their daily work assignments, the reward was

thought superfluous and even contradictory to the goal of

self-control. Each treatment phase was interspersed with a

week's baseline condition before, between, and after the









three treatment-order combinations. Each treatment phase

was terminated by the teacher taking the forms from the

students' envelopes.

The three sets of data (accounting work rate for the

eleventh grade, typing rate, and error rate for the ninth

grade) were run independently through an analysis of

variance after appropriate transformations of the data

were performed. Since the tenth-grade typing class did not

experience the procedures as contended.. their data were not

analyzed in this fashion. Due to the data loss by subject

absenteeism, drop-out, and even one case of a student

complaining about her difficulty performing the operations

necessary to use the feedback devices, a least squares

solution was used to predict the missing scores. The

students were put into three ability levels according to

past class work and then randomly assigned to one of three

treatment orders. There were two subjects nested in each

Treatment X order X Ability crossing for the accounting

class and three students in the nesting for the typing class.

The main effects of treatments and ability were signifi-

cant for the accounting class ( p<.05 and p<.05, respec-

tively) and typing rate data (]p<.05 and p<.05 respectively).

These effects were not significant for the error rate data.

The Treatment X Order interaction was significant (p<.05)

for all sets of data. Using scheff6 comparisons, there was

a significant difference between the first six phases and









(p<.05) in the accounting and typing rate data. A comparison

of the first three pretreatment baselines and their treatments

reveals a difference in favor of the treatments (p<.05)

for the typing rate data. There were no significant

differences between the treatments themselves and their

posttreatment baselines (with the exceptions as noted above)

for the typing rate data. The reliability of the self-

monitored data was found to be acceptable for the error

rate data sampled.

The main conclusion to be drawn from the study is that

the students did evidence self-control for some of the

treatment conditions but not with regard to the last post-

treatment baseline. The Standard Behavior Chart while

serving as an accelerator of performance rates did no

better than the other devices. In the accounting class,

due to the presence of answer sheets and individual teacher

help, the devices alone were no better than these other

modes of feedback. The error rate data, which was gathered

under delay conditions of one day before feedback, confirms

the superiority of immediate feedback for simple skill

learning found by other researchers.

None of the treatment or baseline means were any better

than the last posttreatment baseline. In graphic form,

this behavior would when plotted cumulatively represent a

fixed interval scallop. Given the fact that the daily

classwork played little part in grade determination and that

this phase ended simultaneously with the end of the school




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PAGE 1

THE EFFECTS OF VISUAL FEEDBACK FROM A CHART UPON THE RATE OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS By RICK A. QUIGLEY, JR, A DISSERTATION P PED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF SITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTI FULF] NTS FOR ': OF DOC PHILOSOPHY ' FLORIDA 19 72

PAGE 2

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 08552 5979

PAGE 3

To Charlotte

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The task of sorting out the contribution of various environmental changes with relationship to various behavioral changes is often a difficult task when precise data are not kept. When the target behavior is professional scholarship which has been shaped over a four-year period, then accounting for the contribution of each environmental change becomes even more obfuscated. There are a few contributors in the case of this dissertation who, however, have had an t eyond all others: First, to Dr. John Newell, who was the first to teach me learning theory and then to reinforce my beliefs in this area over a throe-year period. To Dr. Henry, -/packer, who opened new vistas in my ining as a learning theorist through precision teaching. To Dr. Emile Jester, who both as my advisor for the master' cee and later as a committee member for the doctorate helped me realize the Importance of psychology as Lh for educational psychology. To Dr. WJ 'king, who helped me realize the ' of the experimental analysis of animal behavior in the area of stimulus control to school learning. My in

PAGE 5

debt to him has not been paid in this dissertation and must wait future payment. To Dr. William Ware, who taught me a good deal of all that I know in the areas of statistics and research design. His presence on the committee helped me realize the positive relationships between standard research methodology and the experimental analysis of behavior. To Joseph and Mary Otchin, I owe a wealth of thanks for their support over the past few years. Many thanks are due Pat Craig, Linda Howell, Pat Nobles, and Margaret Tomlinson for initiating this research and using their classrooms to further our understanding of junior and senior high school students. Finally, and most important, to Charlotte, my wife, and to Leigh, Catie, and Shannon, my children, who, as the most significant features of my immediate environment, provided most the incentive for finishing this work. IV

PAGE 6

TABLE OF CONTENTS P age ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES vii KEY TO SYMBOLS OF ABBREVIATIONS viii ABSTRACT ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 III METHODS, PROCEDURES, AND DESIGN 2 8 IV (JALYSES 46 V CONCLUSIONS 78 APPENDICES 1 \MPLE OF A FRAME FROM THE RATE COMPUTATION SHEET 92 2 SUMMARY TABLES OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR RAT] LIABILITY DATA 94 ENCES 9 8 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 102 v

PAGE 7

LIST OF TABLES Table Pago 1 SEQUENCE OF EXPERIMENTAL PHASES 36 2 DESIGN FOR ANALYSIS 3 8 3 A COMPARISON OF PROGRAM X--63 AND THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SUM OF SQUARES FOR ERROR 4 8 4 SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON LOGS OF ACCOUNTING WORK RATES 49 5 CELL MEANS FOR log] ACCOUNTING WORK RATES BY ORIGINAL TEMPORAL SEQUENCE OF THE EXPERIMENT WITH TREAT DESIGNATIONS SUBSCRIPTED FOR TREATMENT X ORDER INTERACTION WITH RAW SCORE MEANS IN BRACKETS ... 51 6 SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON LOGS OF WORD;' MINUTE TYPING 54 7 RANK ORDER FROM LOWEST TO HIGHEST OF CELL 1ANS FOR Id >RDS PER MINUTE DATA BY TREATMENT ORD RAW SCORE MEANS IN BRACK 55 8 >F ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON LOGS OF ERROR R >R TYPING 57 9 RANK ORDER FROM LOWEST TO HIGHEST OF CELL LogiQ ERROR WITH TREATMENT IIGNAT] [ i WITH RAW SCORE MEANS II ITS 69 10 STS OF D] FOR log 10 R ' VTES BETW1 YINC PHASES EOR SUBJECTS I ..' SCOF kNS IN S 70 VI

PAGE 8

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 PERCENTAGE OF FORM USAGE IN TENTH-GRADE TYPING CLASS BY POPULATION AND BY TEMPORAL ORDER 60 2 PERCENTAGE OF FORM USAGE IN TENTH-GRADE TYPING CLASS BY ABILITY LEVELS 61 3 PERCENTAGE OF FORM USAGE IN TENTH-GRADE TYPING BY ORDER AND ABILITY 6 3 4 COMPARISON OF WORK RATES IN ACCOUNTING — FIRST SUBJECT 67 5 COMPARISON OF WORK RATES IN ACCOUNTING — SECOND SUBJECT 68 6 ACCOUNTING WORK RATES OF A HIGH ABSENTEE STUDENT 72 7 . ACCOUNTING WORK RATES OF A SCHOOL DROP-OUT. . 73 Vll

PAGE 9

KEY TO SYMBOLS OF ABBREVIATIONS RCS Rate Computation Sheet SBC Standard Behavior Chart KOR Knowledge of Results vin

PAGE 10

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE EFFECTS OF VISUAL FEEDBACK FROM A CHART UPON THE RATE OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS By Patrick A. Quigley, Jr. December, 197 2 Chairman: John M. Newell Major Department: Foundations of Education The purpose of the study was to produce self-control of academic behavior in ninth and tenth grade typing and eleventh grade accounting students by providing continuous, self -genera ted feedback through various devices and to assess the relative merits cf each device. A ' w of prior selfmonitoring studies suggested the Late controls used in the research design. The devices elves proved no different from the controls. The accelerations in the past posttreatment baseline proved signifj t] Lfferent Erom all other phases for two sets of data. A third set of data only yielded a trend toward signify ' Lng the last posttreatment baseline. A revi.._ / of s me in ual data revealed directional ch. hich wore not 'sured by the analysis of vat ; I Lque. Results suggested that students Lemonstrated I cham of performance rates with the d raiinating the Last phase conjunctively with the of the school ; Lains ix

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the fixed interval scallop; statistical significance may not be sensitive enough to reflect meaningful changes in individual behavior; and weighting daily work more may reduce scalloping and assure the longevity of self-control through the end of the school year.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-charting on academic behavior in business education classes . The charts served as a vehicle whereby the student might generate his own feedback with respect to his daily classroom performance. Efforts were made to leave the ongoing procedures of the classes intact so that the effects of the chart alone might be clearly assessed. This research will have significance in two respects: first, the chart was studied as a device for shaping self-control of academic behaviors; and second, in terms of; future work with self-generated charts, the experimenter will be informed as to the reactive effects of charting and thui need to incorporate additional control groups or phases within an experiment to assess the effects of the in' dent /ariables . P roblem Currently in the field of education there is a move afoot to make soiue of the goals of the educational process 1

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behaviorally or concretely measurable. The recent clamor concerning such practices as performance contracting, accountability, contingency contracting, merit pay, and even behavioral objectives attests to this underlying movement toward the concrete statement of aims in those areas where such a thrust is technologically feasible. Generally speaking, those subject areas where the acquisition of a fundamental skill is involved are receiving most of the attention. These areas are encompassed in the traditional domains of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Other, more difficult to define areas of educational goals are not receiving as much pressure for reform. Under this heading may be lodged such goals as moral education, cooperation, and self-control, to name a few. Given the hurried atmosphere of most contemporary classrooms, the task of reform seems least likely where the teacher must try some types of innovative practices in addition to the handling of demands for skill acquisition. Concerning the more ethereal goals of the process, the teacher at most may try to serve as a behavioral model, to issue exhortations, or to reprimand the students for undesirable conduct. Thus, while these goals may be of equal importance to those of skill learning with reference to the student as a future citizen, they receive little attention and must take second place until the skills are acquired or until i student mi taves.

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With the use of an experimental analysis of behavior, there remains the possibility of combining both the skill acquisition and the learning of self-control techniques. This is only possible because an experimental analysis of behavior requires the behavioral definition of any dependent variable under study. While school systems do not: often state their goals in terms of experimental analogies, this language easily lends itself to the statement of outcomes or goals. Thus the teachers, curriculum, and peers of the student provide the major independent variables or environment in which the student's behavior is to be changed over a course of 12 or more years. Self-control within the context of an experimental analysis of behavior entails two responses: the controlling response and the controlled response (Skinner, 1953) . The controlling response is emitted by the behaver to manipulate those variables which are functionally related to the controlled response. Thus, the controlling response may determine the probability of occurrence and topography of the controlled response. In school learning situations, the controlled response may be identified as the student's academic behavior. The controlling respc ' any behavior which the student emits to manipu] the occurrence and topography of his own academic performa The problem, then, of shaping sell." -control in cL oom learning situations becomes one of identifying controlling

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responses which the student may emit to manipulate or monitor his own academic behavior. Furthermore, in order to make such self-control feasible, the form of the controlling response should be one easily emitted by the student and involve a minimum of teacher influence. The former criterion should be tempered by the fact that at least initially the controlling responses of the students may involve some shaping to permit the students to emit the responses. However, violation of the latter criterion in any extended sense would by definition not permit self-control to be acquired. Within the context of this research, the controlling response under study was the recording of academic behaviors on a standard behavior chart used in slightly different settings (Johnson, 1971; Starlin, 1971; Haughton, 1971; Duncan, 1971). After a small amount of instruction and practice in the use of the chart, the students were left alone to record their own daily academic behaviors. It was hoped that, by generating their own feedback for a period of days, the students would be able to manipulate the rate of their responses in a desirable direction. It was the thesis of this research that the visual display generated by the student on the chart would enable him to control own academic behaviors. In terms of research methodology, the study of selfcontrol explores the reactivity of any given setting or

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test. If the setting or testing process produces cues as to the acquisition of behavior which in itself will be detected or influence later testing, then the test or setting is said to produce a reactive effect (Campbell and Stanley, 1963) . The same may be said of sampling procedures which change the members in any fashion. While such an artifact may be a problem to experimenters, it may be of benefit to educators searching for devices to shape self-control in students.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter surveys the research and methodological literature pertinent to this study. For purposes of organization and clarity, this survey of the literautre is presented in a number of sections which include: selfcontrol, self -monitoring methodology, self-monitoring in cliniceil settings; self-monitoring in school settings, and knowledge of results through behavior graphs. A final ction presents a summary of the literature discussed in each of the sections previously mentioned. Self -Control Over the past half -century , behaviorists have worked per itly to detail a precise science of behavior. :.ies, this search for law and order led them to confuse objectivity with empirical verifiable facts. These •ists argued that unless a phenomenon were visible mid be reliably measured, it had no place in a science. Such limiti lie bounds of psychology caused confusion h within the field of behaviorism (Watson, 1913) and to ir extent outside of behaviorism (Scriven, 1972) concerning those phenomena subject to empirical test. By 6

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operating within the limited framework of accepting only visible and observable behavior, psychology would never adequately account for such subjective phenomena as moods, feelings, urges, insights, thoughts, and free will. The rejection of this last state resulted in little research on self-control. To grant the existence of self-control as a legitimate phenomena for study by psychologists would be tantamount to admitting the existence of free will and thus backsliding to a rationalist position (Bolles, 1967). One notable exception in the arena of behaviorists wa:; B. F. Skinner. Rather than admit the reliance of selfcontrol upon any special, internal mechanism (such as free will) , he described self-control as a behavioral phenomenon which influences an individual's subsequent behavior (1953) . Thus the behaver emitted a response, called a controlling response, which alters the occurrence of another response, the controlled response within the repertoire. The controlling and controlled responses may be either public (outer or observable) or private (inner or unobservable to the public) events (Homme, 1965; Premack, 1971). Since e private event was said to share the same properties as bhe public event (Skinner, 1953), self-control may become a legitimate field of study for the behavior is t. For behaviorists working within the Skinner inn framework, the definition o£ self-control was opera tionalized in terms of the context of research or therapy under

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consideration. Goldiamond (1965) defined self-control as a functional relationship between behavior and the environment, Ferster, Nurnberger, and Levitt (1962) referred to selfcontrol as self-selected change in the environment to produce changes in the individual's repertoire. For Duncan (1969) , self-control involved the self-selection and application of behavior modification techniques. Later work in the area of self-control led Duncan to adopt a more euphemistic term (personal management) with relation to the control of inner and outer behaviors (1971). Berger, one of Duncan's students, has produced the most extensive examination of personal management techniques for inner (private) and outer (public) behaviors (1972) . According to Blackwood (1970), self-control consisted of the e; on and reinforcement of verbal behaviors to countercondition some temptation to misbehave. All of the above definitions may be encompassed bySkinner's definition which emphasized the effect of selL"ccntrol on subsequent behavior. Where research has been done in conjunction with the development of self-control, self-monitoring has been used as a data collect! levice (Goldiamond, 1065; ' er e t a.l . , 1962; Duncan, 1969, L971; Berqer, 1972). Most of these studies use . ring in conjunction with other indepi t variables behavior. However, s( ' mitoring may be stu an independent variable by itself (McFall, 1970). Other

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articles which elaborate the possible use of inner behaviors in conjunction with outer behaviors suggest the use of self-monitoring without demonstrating its uses (Homme, 1965; Premack, 1971). Cautela (1969) and other articles to be mentioned later in this chapter suggested possible uses of self-control procedures in clinical settings. Methodological Considerations for the Use of Self-Monitoring Procedures Before examining the self -monitoring research, a review of methodological considerations is necessary to assess the validity and generalizability of the data in question. Since self-monitoring as a data collection technique was at first used extensively only in clinical settings, the articles written with respect to validity and generalizability of results concern clinical data. These same methodological considerations seem applicable to educational settings with few exceptions and thus were applied to these data . As result of studies by McFall (1970) and Marston and McFall (1971) where self-monitoring was used as both a data collection device and one of the major independent variables for research on smoking behavior, the following methodological discussions were prepared (Orne, 1970; Kanfer, 1970; Mausner, 1971; Lichtenstein, 1971). Orne's questions concerning self -monitoring data centered upon the three major points which characterized the other critiques. First, are behavior changes in

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10 self-monitoring settings due to unique treatments or may they be interpreted as a result of some demand characteristic of the experiment? If the noted behavior change may be attributed to some subtle cues from the experimenter or from the larger setting of just being in an experiment, then demand characteristics may account for the treatment effects. For example, if the subject either by volunteering or by learning the goal or nature of an experiment behaved accordingly, the validity of experimental effects must be questioned. Orne suggested the use of additional control groups to assess the effect of the major independent variable (or variables) beyond the demand characteristics of an experiment. Second, in those instances where a behavior is occurring during all wakeful hours, what is the generality of data taken in limited sampler? This question is a ed by either taking day-long samples or by being relatively certain that the behavior under study only occurs during sampling time. Third, Orne questioned the reliability of the data gathered under self-monitored conditions. He raised the possibility of the subject reporting faked data. Foe example, when an observer of the subject's behavior is a colleague or relativ ere could be some communication on the observer and experimental subject. Thus relia7 measures taken to validate the self-monitored data should be independent of the subject's recording. Having an observer both personally or socially unknown to the

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11 subject would constitute an ultimate answer. As will be noted later, this objective was often compromised in experimental studies which attempted to naturalize the setting and facilitate the collection of reliability data. Kanfer (197 0) raised many of the same questions and v/ent further to state that the concurrent reliability and validity of self-reports were maintained v/hen reliability of reports betv/een subject and observer were high. The nature of the observer was given a broader definition to include behavioral products as evidence of a behavior occurring. Thus showing butts for smoking, weight loss for reduced consumption rates, longer fingernails for nail biting, fewer bruises on the wife's body for wife-beating urges may all servo as concurrent validations of self-monitored data. Kanfer also noted that the self -monitoring may serve as a controlling response and thus facilitate selfcontrol. In ion, he viewed the results of selfcorded da1 > knowledge of results. Hence, the selfrecording techniques used in this study were related to the general discussion of knowledge of results data later in this chapter. Finally, he proposed that self-monitored data was a poor substitute for control procedures prior to behavior modification. i some independent measure of -.ponding or r< ise rates should be gal d prior to any self-monitoring to capture the results of the sording alone.

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12 Mausner (1971) added little to prior methodological considerations. However, as an alternative to recording public behaviors, he mentioned as a possibility the recording of a private event which represented a competing response for the public's behavior under study. For example, clicks on a wrist counter may be used to count the number of times resistance to smoking urges occurs . If there was a concurrent reduction in actual smoking rate, the data on the private event are valid (Homme, 1965; Premack, 1971) . Lichtenstein raised a further concern which was more relevant to meaningful therapy than to the research methodology of self-monitoring. In the process of doing research, the experimenter often categorized the treatments into various groups to obtain experimental control. With regard to the best outcomes for each individual in the experiment, any one subject may not receive the most promising treatment due to random assignment. One reply to this concern would be to use counterbalanced designs which permit each subject to receive each treatment or to base the construction of manipulation upon previously demons I treatments from small sample or single subject resear' So 1 f-Moni toring i n cTTn letting!" The clinical literature on self-monitoring dealt wil a variety of human behaviors in many different settings.

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13 References to self-monitoring as a self-control device were not always made. A few studies v/ere reported in detail to illustrate the use of the criteria discussed in the last section. McFall (1970) used his own class to study the smoking behavior of college students. In this study, McFall asked two questions: first, does self-monitoring alter behavior; and second, does the nature of the target behavior yield differential effects in the self-monitoring situation? The validity of the data were judged by the reliability of observers covertly monitoring two treatment groups. The first group was asked to count the number and time spent smoking each cigarette in class and the second group was asked to count both resistance to urges and the total number of cigarettes smoked. Each of the sixteen smokers in the class was placed into one of the two treatment groups and sixteen non-smokers were assigned to monitor the smoking behavior of the smokers. A baseline period of nine days was followed by thirteen days of treatment and then an additional nine days were added as a return to baseline conditions. The smokers recorded only during the treatment phase while the observers recorded throughout the experiment. In order to facilitate smoking during class, the experimenter lit a cigarette and remarked to the students bhat the no smoking sign in the room only applied to afternoon classes. Furthermore, the experimenter expressed an interest in collecting data on smoking behavior from the students. Both treatment groups demonstrated changes

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14 during the self-monitoring phase and these changes persisted during the rebase phase when self-monitoring was discontinued. Two of the eight pairs of subjects reported data for a day in which no class was held, and thus all of their data was suspect. For the other six pairs during the treatment phase the reliability between subjects and observers was .61 and for each pair taken separabely the reliabilities ranged from -.05 to 1.00, with three of the six pairs above .75. McFall concluded that the self-recording was a reactive measure and thus should be assessed independent of any other treatment. Orne (1970) and Kanfer (1970) , commenting upon this study, suggested the possibility of demand characteristics explaining the treatment effects rather than the treatments themselves. By lighting a cigarette, the experimenter may have communicated his hypothesis that self-monitoring would change the smoking rates. The reduced smoking rate in the "resistance to urges" group may be due to instructions alone. Stated more specifically, the reviewers suggested that the same results might have been obtained by merely telling one group of students to smoke more and the other less because they were in an experiment. Since it may be safely assumed that the smokers in the study continued smoking all day, the generality of the data based upon the limited sample was questioned by the authors. In lieu of evidence to assure honest reports of those students not caught cheating, the authors raised the possibility of a

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15 pact between smokers and observers. Given the opportunities for socializing in most college classrooms, this suspicion does not seem unreasonable. Powell and Azrin (1968) studied the functional relationships between the contingent, self-application of electric shock and cigarette smoking. Three subjects volunteered for the study and two of them gave names of co-workers who would observe the smoking five to twelve times a day. The subjects gave a self-report of their smoking history and kept records of the count and time of the day smoking occurred. The major treatment was the use of a cigarette box which delivered an electric shock upon opening. The value of the shock was varied from 0.0 roilliamperes to 2.0 milliamperes . The "participant-observers" served to insure the subject was using the device, collect smoking data, and check the working order of the cigarette box. The percentage of subject-observer agreement was considered acceptable for both subjects (98% and 88%) . The main finding was that as the intensity of the shock increased, the smoking and the use of the box decelerated. Thus while the subjects found other means to obtain cigarettes, there was also a concurrent decrease in the total number of cigarettes smoked. Once the shock was removed, the smoking returned to its pretreatmcnt level. The salient feature of this self-monitoring study is obvious; the participantobserver system insured reliability. While some suggestions

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16 of a pact between the subject and the observer might be raised, this was thought unlikely since the subjects volunteered reports of not using the shocking device as according to instructions. It would have been interesting to have a covert observer gather additional data both when the participant-observer was present and at another time when the participant-observer was absent. These data would both settle the reliability question and perhaps reveal the extent to which the participant-observer may become a discriminative stimulus for non-smoking. If this third observer were paid, the social reasons for colluding would also be minimized. The same authors have also reported the use of the participant-observer system with similar reliability in a smoking study using discriminated extinction through a cigarette box which sounded an alarm, and unlocked after an elapsed time interval (Azrin and Powell, 1968) and in a study using response priming to improve prescribed self-medication (Azrin and Powell, 1969). None of the studies reported hence have incorporated follow-up data collection to any significant extent to demonstrate potent treatment effects. With a behavior like smoking, long-term abstinence would be the only obvious demonstration of experimental control. In an attempt to compare several types of behavior modification techniques (anti-smoking pill, stimulus satiation, extinction, and hierarchical reduction) , Marston and McFall

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17 (1971) set up a smoking clinic to attract volunteers. Self-recording in a diary form was required of all subjects. The smoking behavior patterns were typical of other data using similar therapies. The only form of reliability data available was through the number of cigarettes bought at the clinic. Follow-up data revealed no differences due to treatment as all subjects had approximately recovered pre-experimental smoking rates . After a review of previous stop-smoking literature when adequate follow-ups were done, McFall and Hammen (1941) agreed with Bernstein's (1969) conclusion that nonspecific or secondary factors accounted for the reliable behavior patterns of temporary reduction and then long-term resumption of smoking. The non-specific factors isolated were: motivated subjects, structured participation in a program, and self-monitoring. In order to create a climate conducive to these factors, the authors advertised a clinic in the student newspaper, asked participants to postdate a twenty-five dollar ($25) check to insure against subject withdrawing during the study, and set up four treatment conditions. In the first condition, the subjects only handed in a daily report of smoking; in the second, the subjects used a wrist counter to monitor smoking and they said aloud, "I do not want to smoke" with each urge; in the third, the subjects awaided themselves twenty non-negotiable points to be counted on a wrist counter for each urge resisted;

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18 and in the fourth, the subjects recorded resistances to temptations to smoke and award themselves one non-negotiable point for each occurrence on a wrist counter. Data collected six weeks and six months after treatment revealed no differences due to treatments. The authors concluded that the non-specific factors yielded as great a result as the more elaborate, theoretically derived, and presumably more potent procedures. In an earlier study comparing self-monitoring alone with other self-control treatments for smoking behavior, Rutner (1967) obtained the same results. As for the smoking therapies themselves, Bernstein (1970) has published a more extensive review of the literature than a review cited earlier. Self-monitoring has also been used in other clinical settings. Leitenberg, Agras, Thompson, and Wright (1968) gave phobic subjects a stopwatch to self-monitor their own relaxation times in desensitization therapies. The self-monitoring was validated against automatic timing devices. Initially, the self-monitoring was confirmed and praised by the experimenter in conference with the subjects. Eventually, the experimenter feedback was faded and followup data revealed positive results of the therapy. Weight control studies have shown positive results with selfmonitoring either by itself (Stollak, 1967) or in connection with other environmental changes (Ferster et al . , 1962) . Self-monitoring in diary or chart form with other

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19 environmental changes (Goldiamond, 1965; Duncan, 1969) and chart form alone (Kolb, Winter, and Berlew, 1968) have proved successful in changing various social behaviors. In a study which revealed unreliable self-reporting and peer-reporting, Fixsen, Phillips, and Wolf (1972) demonstrated the use of various progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement to increase reliability among delinquents in an innovative therapy center. Finally, Duncan (1971) and Berger (1972) demonstrated the use of self-monitoring for inner and outer behaviors. Both studies used the Standard Behavior Charts (Koenig, 1972) to record self -monitoring. Duncan had a three-anda-half-year-old girl self-monitor selfish thoughts and acts and a twelve-year-old girl self-monitor feelings of anger and outbursts. Since the inner and outer behavior patterns were similar, it was assumed that the concurrent reports confirmed one another. Berger enlarged Duncan's strategies to include outer behaviors alone (twenty-three cases) , inner behaviors alone (thirty-seven cases), inner and outer behaviors (three cases in which the urge or the act were recorded as the same response) , and inner-outer behaviors (eight cases in which the movement cycle was in part outer and in part inner) . These last behaviors included such pinpoints as eating when hungry and the occurrence of a meaningful conversation. The author offered as criteria for valid data such criteria as amount of "bounce" from

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20 day to day on the chart, sequence of high and low rate days, correlation between charts from the same person, and length of charting period. These criteria were offered to make self-charted data valid in themselves without continuous observer checks. An example of the predictive validity of these criteria was given for an inner behavior of one subject. While the need for continual assessment of reliability remains an open issue, Berger's work made a substantial contribution in exploring new movement cycles and suggesting criteria for assessing the validity of self-charted behavior itself. It may prove that the use of movement cycles such as inner and outer behaviors and inner-outer behaviors will never satisfy the traditional methodologist and that criteria such as Berger listed will provide the only means of judging validity. Self-Monitoring in School Settings Self-monitoring has been used less frequently in school settings than clinical settings. Two studies of reliability under peer-monitoring conditions for peertutoring revealed 90 percent reliability between a fifth grader and his teacher for monitoring the academic behaviors of fourth graders (Surratt, Ulrich, and Hawkins, 1969), and 90 percent accuracy of plotting rates on the Standard Behavior Chart for a first grader tutoring classmates (Starlin, 1971) . Both studies also pointed to the successful and timesaving features of peertutoring.

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21 In an investigation of the relationship between nonverbal and verbal behaviors of preschool children, Risley and Hart (1968) found a low correspondence between the selfreports of play equipment use and the actual use of the materials. When food snacks were made contingent upon correspondence between the use of materials and the self -report, the use of the materials accelerated to the level of the selfreported use. This effect also generated to the use of other materials in which the correspondence was not made contingent upon food snacks. Broden, Hall, and Mitts (1971) studied the effects of self-recording on the classroom behavior of two junior high school students. The first student went to the school counselor and volunteered to record the frequency with which she was on and off task during a history class. Two observers entered the class to record the percentage of ten-second intervals the girl was on or off task. Selfmonitoring brought an increase in study time. The agreement between the two observers varied from 87 to 96 percent. Since the subject did not record on a fixed interval basis and even failed to record at times, the direct reliability between the observers' and bhe student's report was questionable even though the overall percentages were equivalent. Once teacher attention was increased, self-recording was no longer necessary to maintain study behavior. The second subject did not volunteer. He was told by the teacher to record on paper slips the number of talk outs for half of

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22 the class session. Observers monitored the student as in the previous case (agreement ranged from 84 to 100 percent) . There was little correspondence between the observer and the subject report. After the slips were removed, the talkout rate accelerated. In this case, teacher praise was not manipulated with the fading of self-recording. The authors concluded that this fact accounted for accelerated talk-out rates during the last phase of the study. The criteria listed in the methodology section of this chapter may be applied to the self-recording studies in school settings. A critique of Broden et al . (1971) suffices as a demonstration. Data based upon the selfrecording of the first subject do not lend clear support to the positive effects of self-monitoring since the absence or presence of the recording slips alone may have accounted for the results. Broden et al . (1971) stated that physical presence of the paper slips alone may account for the results since the. self-recording was often omitted by the subjects. To reiterate a previous question, could the same results be obtained by merely telling a subject at various times that an experiment is in progress? Since the data collected by the observers and the subject were gathered under different conditions (interval sampling as opposed to unspecified recording) , the reliability must be questioned. As McFall and Hammcn (1971) concluded, unspecific factors such as a formal setting or subject motivation may underlie other treatment effects. In this study, the formal sotting and motivation (i.e., subject

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23 initiated counseling) were confounded with the effects of self-recording. For the second subject, motivation due to volunteering was not a confounding feature. However, by having the teacher in control of the intervention, differential teacher attention may have accounted for some the effects. While the authors reported taking observations of teacher attention to both subjects, the data were missing for the second subject and thus the omission raises additional questions. Since the reliability for the second subject's recording was poor, this study represented, perhaps, more the effects of non-specific factors than of self -monitoring. Knowledge of Results Through Behavior Charts As Kanfer (1970) noted, information provided through self-monitored data qualified as knowledge of results (KOR) . Studies demonstrating KOR through self-monitoring and self-charting have already been reviewed (eg,, Duncan, 1971; Berger, 1972) . There were a few examples in the literature of KOR through behavior charts which were not self -generated. The behavior rates were plotted on a chart by a supervisor or teacher and then shown to the behaver for evaluating his performance. Johnson (1971) used the Standard Behavior Chart to help one student in her first-grade class learn mathematics and another decelerate his rate of yawning. Many more examples of the effects of the Standard Behavior Chart as a decelerator or accelerator may be found in the handbook of Precise Behavior Facts (1971) .

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24 Jeus and Shores (1969) working with three trainable mentally retarded adolescents found that showing a chart of the previous day's work on a simple assembly task accelerated performance on the same task. Equivalent procedures did not yield similar results for ring assembly and packaging tasks. With regards to the KOR literature itself, much work needs to be done to demonstrate the reinforcing or non-reinforcing value of KOR (Geis and Chapman, 1971). While pointing to self-monitored data collection as an example of KOR, the authors stated that the general reinforcing value of KOR in relation to schedule control, immediate versus delayed, and nature of the reinforcement remained an open question. Summary This chapter has reviewed the historical context of self-control with respect to the realm of behavioristic inquiry, the methodological considerations necessary for valid data collection in regards to one form of self-control-self -monitoring, and the behavioral literature of selfmonitoring in clinical and educational settings. Self-control was defined as encompassing two responses--the controlling response and the controlled response. Self -monitoring of behavior as a controlling response was the focal point of the review. Criteria for valid data collection included controlling for demand characteristics of experiment so

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25 that instructions alone would not account for treatment effects, reliability of self-monitored data with some unbiased source, assessment of the response rates or other measures of the behavior before self-monitoring began, control for any non-specific factors underlying the experimental setting (e.g., structured setting, and motivation of the subjects) , and adequate sampling of the controlled response to insure generality of the findings. All of the literature reviewed pointed to the positive effects of self-monitoring and thus qualified the selfmonitoring response as a controlling response for the acquisition of self-control. The main types of selfmonitoring responses were in diary form, note taking, and on behavioral charts. Furthermore, the behavior chart proved effective as a device for behavior change whether it was self-generated or not. With the exception of the McFall and Hammen (1971) study, all of the studies failed to control for one or more of variables demanded by the criteria. Since the study by Berger (1972) both included some new behavioral definitions and cited new sets of criteria for the assessment of validity, the future course of scientific inquiry alone must judge the validity of the new criteria. The contemporary technology cannot adequately assess the reliability and validity of the movement cycles used. As a result of this review, it is possible to restate the purpose of the research at hand and justify the methods

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26 and design using the criteria cited. As the title of the present study states, this study was designed to assess the feedback through a chart. Not all of the non-specific features of the setting were controlled, rather a few were purposely left unmanipulated. Thus the structured setting for instruction in recording on unfamiliar forms was tested against a familiar form of response recording (i.e., posting responses and work times on manila envelopes). Two new types of recording, one of which was the Standard Behavior Chart, were studied in relationship to another, more familiar type. The control for demand characteristics through subjects guessing the hypotheses of the experiment by instructions was accomplished by exposing all subjects to the hypothesis or instruction that all self -monitoring improves performance. Short baselines were inserted between treatment phases to assess the persistence of experimental effects. In order to eliminate a bias in the results due to teacher commitment or differential teacher attention which might influence student performance, the treatments were counterbalanced in a Latin squares fashion with the use of the old recording type continuing while the new recording types v/ere introduced. As it was clear from the literature, the self -monitoring is reactive for a number of reasons and thus serves as a poor control technique prior to manipulation. Therefore, an ability stratification relevant to prior classroom

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27 performance was obtained to assess the approximate levels or rates of the individual performance before any type of self-monitoring was begun. The reliability of the self-recording was checked by each teacher during the term. The teacher made comments concerning the high reliability. One set of data was statistically examined to reinforce these comments. The observers and subjects were unknown to each other. Finally, two points deserve further note. First, if certain variables are known to be reactive, it is only possible to examine the effects of one reactive variable against other reactive variables with the treatment of concern being hierarchically eliminated from other reactive variables as controls. Thus the use of Standard Behavior Chart was contrasted with the use of Rate Computation Sheet (RCS) not because of any special properties ascribed to the RCS, rather because it required recording responses. Second, the generality of findings based upon academic behavior sampled in classrooms is not as questionable as taking a small sample of behavior in a clinical setting. In a good number of cases, the academic behavior is under the stimulus control of classroom. The behaviors observed in the clinic can usually occur all day long. Thus the methods and design of this study proved adequate to assess the effects of visual feedback through a chart upon the rate of academic performance of junior and senior high school students.

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CHAPTER III METHODS, PROCEDURES, AND DESIGN Subjects and Settings As a result of a workshop given to business education teachers, three classrooms were secured for research purposes. Two of the classes were introductory typing at the ninthand tenth-grade levels while the third class was an 1 introductory accounting class at the eleventh-grade level. The academic behaviors for charting the two typing classes consisted of three-minute, timed typing of a sample from the texts. In the introductory accounting class, the curriculum consisted of workbook exercises and bookkeeping activities. The students in the two typing classes were accustomed to identifying the errors made during the three-minute typing sample and making note of these along with the total number of words or words per minute on envelopes which the students used to file each exercise. This recording on envelopes was introduced well in advance of the first baseline for all three classes. For the ninthgrade class in which the students posted the words per minute, the teacher had student-aides proofread the 28

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29 exercises at a later time in order to identify any additional errors overlooked by the typist. The other class, which just posted the total number of words, exchanged their papers with fellow students who then proofread the paper. In both cases, number of additional errors identified by the proofreader was posted on the typist's envelope. The essential differences then, between the typing classes, consisted of posting the typing rate for three minutes and the delayed feedback of a day on the number of additional errors found by a student-aide in the ninth-grade class as opposed to posting the total number of words typed for three minutes and the immediate feedback from a fellow student concerning additional errors identified in the tenth-grade class. Students in both typing classes used the vertical scale in the texts to compute the total number of words typed. The sample for typing was changed each day during the experiment. The ninth-grade class was composed of 29 students of which 26 were females and 3 were males. Of this number, 24 females and 3 males were included in the study for analysis purposes. Of those not included for statistical analysis of this class and the other two classes, some were discarded for reasons of prominent absenteeism and the rest were discarded by the randomization procedures employed in the selection of subjects. These students did, however, undergo the same treatments as the rest.

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30 The tenth-grade class was composed of 25 students of which 15 were females and 10 were males. Of this number 10 females and 8 males were included in the study for analysis purposes. The remaining students underwent the same treatments but their data were not included in the statistical analysis. The third class consisted of eleventh-grade, introductory accounting students. These students worked at their own pace through workbook exercises of f ill-in-the-blank questions and longer problems from the text of bookkeeping activities. The sequence of classroom activity involved reading the introductory material in a unit of the test; answering short questions concerning the reading in the workbook; and finally completing the bookkeeping problems from the text in the workbook. The teacher made herself available during class time on an individual basis to help students and to provide answer sheets. The longer problems were self-correcting because columns would not balance if numbers were entered incorrectly or if there were mistakes in addition or subtraction. By providing answer sheets, the teacher made attempts to have errors corrected as soon as they occurred. These students were accustomed to posting responses on envelopes before experimentation began. The response unit used for analysis consisted of any fill-ins, column entries, and mathematical computations accomplished during the total class time. Due to the modular scheduling

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31 at this school, the duration of class time varied from 50 minutes on three days of the week to 33 minutes for the remaining two days, a. In the ^Accounting class, a total of 21 students were available for the study. Sixteen were female and 5 were male. Of the students selected for the experiment, there were 13 females and 5 males. Procedure In addition to the daily classwork performance by all students in each of the three groups, each group of students was assigned three different methods for recording the results of their classwork for the day. The first method of recording was "no method." This recording procedure consisted of employing the usual method of recording classwork performance that had been used in the classes before the treatment phase of this study began. The second method was the use of Rate Computation Sheets (RCS) only. A rate computation sheet is designed to facilitate the computation of behavior rates. Spaces are provided for entering the amount of time recording occurs and the number of movements observed during that time. Each division panel is keyed to the day of the week. Appendix 1 provides a sample frame for a week's recording on the RCS. The RCS forms were used by the students. The third method of recording consisted of the Standard Behavior Chart (SBC)

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32 which is designed to provide a visual display of rates in graphic form. The ordinate axis allows for recording behavioral rates occurring as slow as once in a thousand minutes or as fast as a thousand per minute. This axis is arranged in a six-cycle, semilogarithmic fashion. The abscissa permits recording by the calendar day. Samples of the SBC are provided in Figure 4, 5, 6, and 7 (pp. 67, 68, 72, and 73) without the grid usually given to facilitate recording. During a given time period of the treatment phase of this study, each group of students employed only one of the three methods described above but over the entire treatment phase each group employed all three of the methods of recording. The method of assigning each recording method to the three groups is described more fully in the design section of this chapter. Instruction in the use of the rate computation sheets was given during the first two days of each treatment phase. During the first 20 minutes of each day, the group using the rate computation sheet (RCS) alone and the group using the RCS and the chart were instructed in the use of the RCS together. At the end of the 20 minutes, the group using the RCS and the chart together remained with the experimenter to practice using the chart. Generally, this further instruction took more than an additional 15 minutes and thus another day of instruction was planned. A second day was used for review of procedures for both groups. Each

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33 student demonstrated his proficiency with both forms by logging the previous week's data in addition to the data from the first two treatment days. The group using the chart was also given instructions concerning the means of interpreting this visual display of academic behavior. This instruction involved brief statements concerning distances between the daily rates and the record floor (i.e., the reciprocal of the amount of time behavior is observed for charting) and the general trend suggested by any sequence of rates. At the end of the second day of instruction, the students were asked to use the particular type of recording procedure to which they were assigned for a duration of 10 school days. The teachers were also asked to check the students' envelopes occasionally during the treatment phases to insure the daily recording. Without the recording, the effect of unused charts would be difficult to interpret and one which the present design was not constructed to handle. Each treatment phase was terminated by the teacher removing all forms from the students' envelopes. Design In order to assess the effects of the standard behavior charts as a device for affecting response levels, the treatment phases incorporate the use of groups not keeping any new forms, another group using the RCS alone, and a group using the RCS and the standard behavior charts.

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34 If no significant differences in increase in response levels occurred for those groups not using the standard behavior chart, when compared to the group using the chart, the value of employing the standard behavior chart as a device for effecting levels of classroom performance would be questioned. Since all three classes were subjected to special attention, novelty in the classroom as well as the presence of a stranger in the classroom, it is assumed that the effect of these variables on changes in classroom levels of performance would be about equal for all three classes during the treatment phase of this study. The treatment phases are counterbalanced in a Latin squares fashion to permit all three groups to receive one of the three experiences during the course of the three treatment phases. There are also incorporated into the design four baseline phases interspersed before, between, and after each treatment phase. During these baselines, the students merely did their classwork and posted the responses on envelopes as mentioned in an earlier section of this chapter. The actual assignment of the three treatment methods as well as the overall experimental design of this study are summarized in Table 1. During the initial planning of this research, the teachers expressed concern for the possible significance of interactions of treatment with ability level of the students, In order to study this possible interaction, it was agreed to stratify the samples into three ability levels (high,

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35 average, and low). Since there were no standardized measures available to permit an objective and replicable stratification, the teachers merely used each student's previous class performances and test scores to assign the students to one of three ability levels. Once three ability groups were identified, the students in each ability group were randomly assigned to one of three treatment sequences. As stated above, each student received each treatment once during the course of the experiment. Thus, there v/ere equal numbers of students to each strata in each treatment sequence. For the tenthgrade typing class and the eleventh-grade accounting class there were two students per each of the nine cells. The ninth-grade class had three students per each of the nine cells . The three treatment sequences were randomly chosen from a possible set of six treatment combinations with the exception that any given treatment appeared only once in a given column or" row. The first combination was assigned to the first ability clustering, the second combination to the second clustering, and so on for the last combination to the last ability clustering. The overall sequence of treatments and subject groupings are presented in Table 1. This design held for all classes with the exception that the ninth-grade typing class had three subjects nested in each ability by treatment order

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36 Table 1 SEQUENCE OF EXPERIMENTAL PHASES

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37 cluster. Each baseline lasted for five days and each treatment phase for ten days. Whenever variations in the number of days for each treatment phase occurred due to difficulties in scheduling class time for instructing students in the use of the Rate Computation chart or the Standard Behavior Chart, the onset of the treatment phase began at the earliest possible date. Hence, the baselines prior to such treatment phases were extended. Where this occurred, the phases were lengthened rather than protracted. Research Questions How data from the various phases and treatment sequences were reorganized for purposes of statistical analysis has been summarized in Table 2. According to this design, an analysis of variance permitted the following questions to be asked: 1. What are the contributions of the main effects (Treatments, Order, and Ability) to the population variance? The term treatments is used here to mean any one of the seven phases, whether experimental manipulation phase or baseline. These, of course, must show some differences in order for additional and more pertinent questions both to be asked and answered succinctly. If the treatments are significant, there is justification for proceeding with post hoc comparisons of means to identify the sources of this variance. The treatment order was not a central question to this study since the order variable was

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38 •

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39 originally used as a device for counterbalancing three treatment combinations for each treatment phase and for assuring each subject's exposure to each treatment. Traditionally, a design controlling for order effects is used when there is some support for the belief that the effect of the independent variable or variables on the dependent variable is irreversible. Such is not the case with the treatments used in this study. Ability in itself is not a prime concern to this study. Rather, in relationship to previous behavioral studies (Rosenfeld, 1972), there is a concern for the Treatment X Ability interaction. Should the main effect of ability prove statistically significant, this would indicate that initial differences in ability among students contributed to differences in levels of performance but would not contribute to the major question being examined in this study, the effect of recording procedures on levels of performance. 2. Are there any differences among the interactions of the main effects? Of concern here were the Treatment X Order, Treatment X Ability, and Ability X Order interactions. A significant Treatment X Order interaction would yield valuable information with regard to the primacy or recency of the effects or, by association, the effect of other naturally occurring phenomena within the school setting (i.e., grading periods or termination of the school year) . Interest in the Treatment X Ability has

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40 already been suggested by past behavioral literature. A significant Order X Ability interaction would be difficult to explain in terms of past behavioral literature but would nonetheless yield information with regards to the work patterns of the various ability levels over the duration of the school semester. 3. Are there differences between the seven treatments themselves? If the treatment effects are significant, then mean comparisons by the Scheffe's technique will be done to identify the sources of variability. This question will also permit a comparison of baselines (both preand post-) and experimental manipulation phases. If the data for the manipulation phases prove better than their pretreatment baselines, there would be some evidence to suggest the effectiveness of the manipulations and thus self-control on the part of the students. If the manipulations prove better than their posttreatment baselines, then a reversal shall have occurred and self-control on the part of the students thus diminished. If the opposite occurs, self-control will have been retained, unless some alternative explanation is possible because of the occurrence of events beyond experimental control. Such events might be an upcoming grading period in which a given amount of work needs completion or possibly the completion of the school year and the attendant rush to finish incomplete work. An inspection of the means for experimental manipulation phases will suggest any differences among the

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41 three treatment combinations. If the recording in count form on envelopes alone proves better than the Rate Computation Sheet (RCS) alone and the RCS with the chart, then there would be reason to suspect the overall novelty of a visitor, intraclass communication, and the fact that the instruction in the type was given by teacher and not by the experimenter account for the difference. If the RCS recording alone proved superior to recording on envelopes and charts, then just having a novel form or practice using novel forms (the RCS alone is given after the RCS and chart manipulations for the first two treatment orders) , or perhaps any difficulty the students might have had using the chart with the RCS might explain the difference If the chart alone proved better than the other two manipulations, then there is justification for believing the usual display through the chart accounts for the difference. Should there be no differences among all three manipulations, then each must take credit as controlling responses for varying reasons. The posting of a response count would serve as a controlling response; however much this recording can be explained on the basis of intraclass communication or novelty of a visitor to a class. The use of the RCS alone would also qualify as a controlling response even though its use was originally intended by the experimenter as a control for the novelty effects of introducing a new form to the students. While it has been argued earlier in this study that the use of the chart, when under

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42 tight experimental control, would alone represent a controlling response less confounded with extraneous sources the self-control acquired through the use of the chart may be no different in terms of ends of performance than the other two controlling responses in contrast. If any one of the sets of data is so contaminated with procedural difficulties that the data collected by the students is rendered suspect, an accounting of these difficulties will be made anecdotally and quantified to show the extent of the damage done to the original experimental strategies. Possible sources for such difficulties may include: the experimenter failing to instruct the students in the use of forms adequately enough to be used by the students alone; the experimenter or teacher failing to terminate experimental phases; teachers changing the classroom procedures after the experiment has begun; teachers not giving students the opportunity to use the forms; students not being able to perform the simple, mathematical computations necessary to use the forms correctly; or students failing to use the forms for long periods of time. While most or all of these difficulties could be remedied as they occurred, this would entail a radical change in the classroom environment and thus render clear demonstrations of self-control impossible. Finally, the last features of data to be analyzed will be those pieces of individual data which either hold clinical

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43 significance with regard to the control of academic behavior or suggest meaningful significance beyond the significance or non-significance indicated by the particular statistical analysis used in this study. Since the import of this study lies in the test of possible techniques to be used in classrooms, any data which may hold some application value is considered worthy of mention. Furthermore, such individual data may suggest tentative hypotheses for further classroom research or intervention. If there are missing data, there are two solutions which may be used. Should there be missing data and there appears to be no accounting for the loss due to the nature of the treatments, an unweighted means solution will be employed. If there are missing data and there is some reason to believe that the nature of the treatments in some way accounts for the missing data, then a least squares solution must be employed (Kirk, 1968, p. 204). Thus, should a student complain of his difficulty with the forms and subsequently refuse to perform, there would be justification for using the least squares solution. Alpha levels for all statistical analyses were set at the (p < .05) level. In summary then, three classes were secured for research at the junior and senior high school levels. Two were in typing and the remaining was in accounting. All three classrooms were accustomed to posting the number of responses on envelopes before experimentation began. Later

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44 this response was to be contrasted with two other forms of controlling responses: recording responses in rate form on a sheet which lacked visual, graphic display of the academic behavior and recording responses in rate form on a chart which provided visual, graphic display of the academic behaviors. The response units for the typing class were words per minute and error rate for a three-minute, once daily, timed typing. The response units for the accounting class was any fill-in, row entry, column entry, or mathematical computation occurring during the class l period. Counting responses and recording them in one of three forms occurred once daily during the five-day school week. Manipulations were counterbalanced in a Latin squares fashion to insure equal exposure of all manipulations to each student. Baselines were inserted before, between, and after each manipulation phase to provide a contrast for each manipulation phase. The students were stratified into three ability levels and randomly assigned one of three treatment sequences. The treatment sequences themselves were randomly chosen from a possible set of six combinations. The major research questions were listed and possible answers were discussed with reference to the various results which analyses may yield. Possible procedural difficulties were suggested and the means of handling these data were mentioned. The possibility of presenting individual data was indicated and the reasons for this presentation

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45 were given. Lastly, the techniques and rationale for handling missing data were discussed.

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSES This chapter is divided into four major sections: analyses of group data, analyses of selected individual data, reliability, and summary. There is a summary after the first two subheadings to facilitate the reading. Before proceeding to review the analyses of group data, the reader should refer back to Table 2 and review the treatment designations since cross-reference will be made to these designations in the body of the current chapter. Group Data Analyses Three analyses were run: these were on the accounting work rates for the eleventh-grade class, words per minute and error rate for the ninth-grade typing class. The data from the tenth-grade class in typing were not treated in a similar fashion for reasons to be given later. A log (base 10) transformation was performed initially on all rates because the effects of one of the major independent variables, the Standard Behavior Chart, contained a logj.0 transformation. Due to absenteeism and to one student refusing to perform when asked to use the recording forms, there were missing data and these were generated by using 46

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47 the least squares estimates provided by biomedical computer program X-63 (Dixon, 1971). This program performed regression analysis on the data. Using those parameters from the regression analysis, an estimate of the missing values could be obtained which would not radically effect the total variance. A check, on the validity of these estimates was obtained by comparing the sums of squares for error using the X-63 program and the sums of squares obtained from the analysis of variance table. If the estimates are satisfactory there should be very little difference between the two error terms. The differences were felt to be negligible as indicated in Table 3. The analysis on logs of accounting work rates is presented in Table 4. The treatments were significant (p>.05), yet there were no significant differences between the manipulation phases (B 2 , B 4 , Bg) and their pretreatment baselines (B , B , B ) using the Schef f e ' s multiple comparison technique. There was no difference between the manipulation phases and their posttreatment phases (B 3 , B 5 , B 7 ) . Ranking the means of the treatments and making all pair-wise comparisons showed that B 2 was significantly smaller and B 7 was significantly larger than B-^, B 4 , Bg, B 5 , and B 3 using Schef f^'s criterion. The only two treatments that differ are classwork alone in a manipulation phase (B 2 ) and the last posttreatment baseline for all treatment orders (B 7 ) .

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48 Table 3 A COMPARISON OF PROGRAM X-63 AND THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SUM OF SQUARES FOR ERROR Data Source

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49 rH X tO fell O M W 6 M CD E^ 0) td (0 Q) 3 co MH o e o to tj a> a> Sh n 0) Q 0) O 1 CO CO CD O >H o co

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50 The ability levels also differed significantly with respect to means (p < .05) . Their means rank in the expected order of high ability highest, average ability next, and low ability last. The Treatment X Ability and Order X Ability interactions were not significant. The Treatment X Order interaction was also significant (p < .05). An inspection of the cell means in Table 5 for this interaction shows no significant patterns with the exception being the last posttreatment baselines which for the first and third orders are higher than all other cell means. The cell means for classwork-alone group in a" manipulation phase showed lower work rates than their pretreatment baselines for the first two orders. Since according to the original temporal sequence of the experiment (see Table 1) the cell mean for the classwork alone in a manipulation phase for the second order came in the nextto-last phase of the experiment and since the rates were higher for the last posttreatment baseline in comparison to this treatment, even the second order tends to support the conclusion that the high work rates during the last posttreatment baseline contributed to the variance to this interaction. With regard to self-control, it cannot be said that the manipulations were effective as accelerators for performance. Further, it appears that for the group continuing to work as usual during the introduction of forms to other

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51 in d) <-i Xi (0 Eh CO 2 O H Eh < 2 H CO o w H Q o Hi 2 Eh W £ Eh CO < fa W Eh < o o K Eh Eh 2 2 W Eh 2 ID O Ch U X o w
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52 groups, their exclusion served as a decelerator for performance rates (except for the third treatment order and here the cell means of .1718 for the first baseline and of .1736 for the classwork alone during a treatment phase were hardly different) . With respect to the continuous feedback through almost immediate knowledge of results provided by the teacher and answer sheets, the selfgenerated feedback did not implement accelerations significantly beyond those occurring through other available sources. The superiority of the occurrence of final examinations and termination of the school year to serve as accelerators was far more significant than any source of feedback in this class environment. The analyses of logs for the words per minute data from the ninth-grade class showed treatments to be significant (p <.05). Using Scheffe's multiple comparison technique, it was found that the three manipulations {#2' B 4' B 6^ differed significantly from their pretreatment baselines (B, , 133/ Br) . There were no differences between the manipulations and their posttreatment baselines (B-., Br, B-j) . Ranking the means and making all possible pair-wise comparisons showed that the last baseline is significantly higher than all of the other treatments while none of the other means differ. Ability levels differed significantly (p<.05) and they were in the expected order with high ability highest, the average ability next, and the low ability last.

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53 The Treatment X Order interaction differed significantly (p <.05). Table 6 sheds some light on this interaction. There is a positive acceleration of cell means for the logs of the data with only two exceptions occurring as noted. The rank order is almost precisely the same as the temporal pacing of phases as in Table 1. This trend was shown less pointedly in the accounting work rate data. In the typing data, however, there are no reversals occurring as a result of doing regular classroom work while some students are receiving instruction in special forms. Using the data from Table 6 and the mean comparisons of Treatment effects, it can be shown that the data points are positively accelerating with the only exceptions occurring where one of the three manipulations is in effect. Thus the treatments are functionally related to major upward movements over baselines with the accelerations slowing during each posttreatment baseline (with the exception of the seventh phase for the second treatment) . Without regard to treatment order, however, the last posttreatment baseline represents an acceleration over the highest manipulation phase mean. The words per minute data indicate the occurrence of self-control during manipulation phases for all three devices in comparison to pretreatment baselines. Further, there are no data to suggest that any one of the manipulations was any better than the others with regard to its properties for

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54 VD rH (0 Eh fol H O g n p. p (1) W £-> CD C P. td n3 CD 3 o 6 o W T5 CO 0) 0) 0) P. P tnfc, 0) Q (0 HH CD o u e 3 3 tr to to

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55

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56 helping students demonstrate self-control. Thus this selfcontrol must be explained as being confounded with novelty, intraclass communication, and perhaps differential teacher enthusiasm occurring at the beginning of manipulation phases, The multiple comparisons data suggest that self-control was lost after manipulation phases and the naturally occurring events as final examination period and final exams possess much more control over academic behaviors than the students themselves possess. The analyses of variance on the logs of error rate for the ninth-grade typing class as indicated in Table 8 showed only the Treatment X Order interaction to be significant (p <.05). The data do not lend themselves to clear interpretation since the treatment means do not progress in any orderly fashion nor in the original temporal sequence of phases as in the words per minute data. By inspecting the magnitude of treatment means there appears to be an acceleration of error rates for the last posttreatment baseline. Thus it appears that as the words per minute increase, there is an increase in error rate but not to a commensurate extent. The use of the chart alone seems to facilitate control of error rate; however, its use is not better than the precharting baseline. Even this conclusion must be modified by adding that the precharting baseline is only better than the charting phase in the first treatment order. Without even statistical support, many of

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58 the above conclusions are at best tentative for this group of students as a class. There is support in the typewriting literature to anticipate increased error rates with increased overall typing speed (West, 1969). With regards to self-control, these group data offer little support for the presence of controlling responses. The effects of self-generated feedback through the chart were only suggestive in two of the three treatment orders. Furthermore, with the highest mean occurring in the last posttreatment phase, the data share some of the same conelusion from the other data sets — that the occurrence of events such as final grading periods and termination of the school year possess more control over academic behavior than the students themselves possess. The data for the tenth-grade typing class was so contaminated with procedural errors that the analyses performed for the other data sets was not done. A summary of the difficulties collecting data representative of what the original procedures demanded includes poor communication between the experimenter and the teacher, teacher forgetting to have the timed typing daily, rushing the students through the recording of rates on the forms, starting the timed typing before each student was ready with a piece of paper in the carriage, and not checking to see that the forms were being used daily. There was also an example of a few students calculating the rates one way during the manipulation phases

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59 and in another fashion during the baseline phases. Related to all of these faults which must be shared by both experimenter and teacher, the students themselves failed to use the forms as frequently as demanded by the procedures of this study. Figure 1 presents the percentage of form usage by the entire class and by temporal order of introduction to the RCS and the chart. These figures give some justification for believing the loss of data for the chart is not solely due to construction of the chart itself. There was some expectation on the part of the experimenter and all three teachers prior to introducing it to the classes that the students would experience more difficulty with the chart than the RCS due to the semi-logarithmic scale on the ordinate of the chart. This, however, was not the case. The greatest losses temporally occurred in the second order. This may be explained by a four-day holiday occurring a few days after instruction in the use of the forms and still another four days before timed-typing exercises resumed. The phase was thus extended to compensate for the holiday and lost typing practice. It is clear from Figure 2 that the greatest loss of data by ability occurred in the low-ability groups. Even here it may be noted that the chart fared no worse than the RCS. Rather, by reviewing the forms of all three groups, the experimenter found a number of division mistakes for

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62 the error rate data. The inability to do division when not supervised by the experimenter perhaps accounts for the greatest loss by the low-ability group with both forms. Figure 3 presents the percentage of data loss for the Treatment X Ability X Order interaction. Overall, the lines restate the representations and explanations given for the Treatment X Order interaction (Figure 1) and Treatment X Ability interaction (Figure 2) . The notable exceptions occurred for the highand low-ability groups in the second and third order, respectively, using the RCS. There does not appear to be any plausible explanation for handling these data which would also explain the more frequent use of the forms by the average-ability RCS users. In summary, then, an analysis of variance was performed on work rates for the eleventh-grade typing class and on the words per minute and error rate data for the ninth-grade . typing class. Data in the form of percentage of form usage alone was presented for the tenth-grade typing class because the student performance data did not come in adequate contact with the procedures for the study. The analysis of accounting data revealed significant Treatment, Ability, and Treatment X Order interaction effects. A Scheffe's mean comparison revealed the last posttreatment baseline to be significantly different from all other treatments. Furthermore the comparison indicated that for individuals continuing to do regular classwork while others received instruction in the

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63 ;» < 'V . V * ! V \ \ A I m i. •i I! , > •V *. < I : i ; I • i ' i V m o <* p» o

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64 use of novel forms there was a decelerating effect. It was concluded that no self-control wad demonstrated but rather that the control of academic behavior was under the control i of final examinations and the approaching end of the school year. An analysis of variance on the words per minute for the ninth-grade typing class showed significant Treatment, Ability, and Treatment X Order interaction effects. A Scheffe's mean comparison showed all three manipulations to be different from their pretreatment baselines but not different from their posttreatment baselines. It was' concluded that all three manipulations, and not any one in particular, served as accelerators. An overall mean comparison indicated the difference between the last posttreatment baseline and all other phases. Thus the selfcontrol that was demonstrated during manipulation phases was confounded with a long-term, fixed interval scallop peaking with the occurrence of final examinations and the end of the school year. These data did not reveal any decelerating effect of doing classwork alone during manipulation phases. The analysis of variance for the error rate data of the ninth-grade typing class was less revealing and only suggested the usefulness of the chart in reducing error rate and in reconfirming the fixed interval scallop with the impending examinations and end of the school year.

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65 Both sets of typing data tended to reaffirm the finding of increased error rates with increased typing speeds but not to any demonstrable extent. Because of procedural difficulties which did not occur in the eleventhand ninth-grade classrooms, the tenthgrade class was analyzed only in terms of the percentage of form usage. The data for the population did not indicate that the students had any more difficulty using the charts than the RCS. Looking at the loss by temporal order confirms the procedural interruptions and other weaknesses as cited. The extreme loss of data with low-ability students may, at least, in part be explained by the inability of these students to readily perform the required division. Inspection of the loss by Treatment X Order X Ability interaction reaffirm the conclusions drawn for Treatment X Order and Treatment X Ability interactions. Where exceptions were noted, no explanation was thought plausible. The main conclusion to be drawn from all of data analyzed was that where a demonstration of self-control existed it was confounded by fixed scallops (a positively accelerating increase in rate) . This finding was clearly indicated in the accounting and words per minute data but only suggested by the error rate data. Suggestions concerning the future prevention of data loss and the flattening of the fixed interval scallop will be discussed in the fifth chapter.

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66 Selected Individual Data The individual data are presented to suggest, first, that the group statistical analysis used in this study may not represent meaningful significance with regard to effects of the chart upon the rates of academic performance and, second, that for at least one set of comparisons of individual data there is demonstrated clinical value for the inspection of individual charts. The first set of data came from two individual subjects in the eleventh-grade accounting class. Both charts contain the baselines prior to the charting phase for each student. In both cases the obtained rates are contrasted with the record floor (i.e., reciprocal for the amount of time the behavior was occurring for charting purposes) . Most noticeable in both sets of data are the downward trends during baseline periods and the reversal of these trends during the charting phase. As may be seen in Table 9 for the mean comparisons (Glass and Stanley, 1970) there is no difference between the means of the two phases for each subject. The significance then which seems meaningful is the directional change of the trends and further this change is not statistically visible. It seems appropriate then to recommend the reliance upon visual inspection of celerations for ascertaining the significance of effects in those cases where the means are similar and the variances are small.

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67 o CM VO o o

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69

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70 Table 10 TESTS OF DIFFERENCES FOR log 1Q RATES BETWEEN BASELINE AND CHARTING PHASES FOR TWO SUBJECTS WITH RAW SCORE MEANS IN BRACKETS Phase

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71 Figure 6 is a chart of a student who represents an absentee problem to the school. Besides the scattered instances of missing classes, there was one gross example occurring from the middle of the third week lasting until the end of the eighth week. While it is clear that this student does not attend school frequently, it is also evident that there is little decleration between the last few work rates before the break and the work rates occurring after the break. When this student was in school, he worked quite consistently. The clinician's task would then become largely one of keeping this student coming to class and not one of further devising techniques to motivate the student to work while there. Figure 7 represents an entirely different case. This student, as the chart depicts, dropped out of school. While there are instances of absenteeism as with the previous student, this student's behavior demonstrates the work of punitive contingencies even while in school. Not only did the student dislike coming to school, he also found the work aversive. This conclusion was also supported by the presence of various scatological comments peppering his work envelope. Thus the clinician's task here would be to reinforce both attendance and higher work rates. The differences between the two students whose data are represented on Figure 6 and 7 are only noticeable because of the calendar-day comparisons of rates provided by the

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73 csi CM -| CO Tf _ O u is « u o •H > <1) CQ O o tn U O •H > o CQ J* eg o r CO O = ^ 1 k i-f n t f i r i — jTrrTp-r-i — rtttttt T—fjTfTTnri — : /mriVTrr^fH7T7-Y""*v O Oo oo o 'ft ~ m ~s io O 9 O l0 O io o o m o o O O co o < Q 2: bJ -J < O LJ > LJ O O CO Eh D O I o Cd Q ^ O O X u CO o CO CO w 8 o H Eh O U CJ < u d -H 3inNiyj ;j2d sjlm3itj3A0W

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74 Standard Behavior Chart. Without this information, it might have been quite easy to mistake the two, given the frequent occurrences of absenteeism. As may be noted by the various recommendations, these students are different and the types of intervention required would differ in each case as suggested by the charts. In summary for this section, it has been noted that the reliance upon the visual inspection of individual data is necessary at times to assess the meaningful significance of manipulations and to suggest appropriate interventions where they can be attempted. For those cases where treatment means are similar and the variances are small, a statistic relying upon mean comparison is not as useful as a directional or trend change. Further, it was suggested that the calendar-day comparisons of rates on the Standard Behavior Chart are not only suggestive of diagnosis but also of prognosis for intervention with academic behavior problems. Reliability Due to the need for reliability with self-monitored data, the teachers were asked to check the students' envelopes on an intermittent basis. The teachers spent additional class time checking the recording on t he envelopes daily upon initial introduction and thereafter only checked on a random basis after class time. All teachers reported accurate recording.

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75 As a demonstration of this reliability, the error rate components (i.e., number of errors found by the typist and the number of errors found by the proofreader) were analyzed for the ninth-grade typing class and the aides who rotated 3 the responsibility of checking the papers. A technique suggested by Winer (1962, pp. 124-128) was used to compare frequency of student error and the frequency of proofreaderidentified error. Five days were randomly sampled and the analysis yielded the following coefficients for those days:. .94 for the first day, .90 for the tenth day, .96 for.the twenty-seventh day, .82 for the fifty-second day, and .96for the sixty-third day. Summary tables for the analysis of variance used to compute the reliabilities are located in^ Appendix 2. These coefficients were computed by subtracting the quotient of the mean squares within people divided by the mean squares between people from 1. These reliabilities were felt high enough to demonstrate accurate recording. Summary Both group analysis and individual data were reviewed. The group analysis of the eleventh-grade accounting class suggests above all else the significance of the occurrence of final examinations and the termination of the school year as reinforcers for academic behavior. The analysis of the ninth-grade words per minute typing data confirms this conclusion significantly but go on to lend support for the

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76 experimental manipulations as accelerating the fixed interval scallop at intermediate points along the curve. The analysis of the error rate data for the ninth-grade typing class only tends to show support for the fixed interval curve and to suggest that the Standard Behavior Chart may have helped the students gain control over their error rates. An inspection of form usage by the tenth-grade typing class indicated that the chart is no more difficult for adolescent students to use than the RCS and that low-ability students may need remedial instruction in simple division before these forms may be used without the aid of some prosthetic device (i.e., calculator or frequency finder) . The individual data were presented to indicate a difference between meaningful direction change of rates as opposed to statistical change for the chart users. Two data sets were then added to indicate the usefulness of the chart in depicting individual differences with regard to academic performance over time. Self-control is said to have been demonstrated in a statistically significant manner during the manipulation phases for all recording responses in the words per minute data of the ninth-grade typing class. The presence of self-control was only suggestive for chart users within the error rate recording for the ninth-grade typing class. Two individual cases were presented for the accounting class in which significant self-control was demonstrated meaningfully, but not statistically.

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77 Accurate self-reports of work rates were insured by teacher checks throughout the semester. A statistical comparison was performed for reliabilities between the studentand proofreader-identified errors for five days selected at random. The coefficients were high enough to demonstrate accurate recording.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS This final chapter contains three major sections: discussion, implications, and summary. The discussion section provides a review of the results as related to prior literature and how this study has added to that body of knowledge. The implications section reviews the results and presents recommendations for future research and classroom practices. Finally, the summary provides a precis of the entire text. Discussion The literature pertinent to this discussion falls under three headings: self -monitoring , self-control, and knowledge of results. Previous research has indicated that selfmonitoring may serve as a device for behavior change (Stollak, 1967; Rutner, 1967; Leitenberg et al . , 1968; Kolb, 1968; McFall, 1970; McFall and Hammen, 1971), that self-monitoring must be validated by an observer or observing device (McFall, 1970; Orne, 1970; Kanfer, 1970), that self-monitoring may be included as one of many nonspecific factors such as structured situation and subject 78

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79 motivation accounting for behavior changes in research settings using elaborate treatments (Orne, 1970; Kanfer, 1970; McFall and Hammen, 1971), and that the effects of self-monitoring are persistent for a period after selfmonitoring is terminated (Leitenberg et a_l. , 1968; McFall, 1970). The analysis of the group data for the words per minute data and for two of the pieces of individual data indicated that self-monitoring during a treatment phase served to change behavior in a desired direction. Besides replicating previous research, this finding provided information with regard to the measure of the dependent variable. Many of the prior studies use only gross number or percentage data. The present study employed rate measures and obtained many of the same findings reported by others. Explanations for the non-replication in the accounting and error rate data are presented under the discussion of self -monitoring and non-specific factors. Although steps were taken by the teachers (through spot checks) in all three classes to insure reliable data recording, there was only one set of data available for a statistical description of the reliability. This set of data was obtained from a comparison of self-recorded and teacher-aide T -recorded errors in the ninth-grade typing class. Since the student and the aide were unknown to one another, the reported high reliabilities were taken as

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80 honest measures. It was unfortunate that the tenth-grade typing class data could not be analyzed. The proofreading technique employed in this class was a variant of the "participant-observer" method used in clinical settings (Powell and Azrin, 1968; Azrin and Powell, 1968; Azrin and Powell, 1969). Thus the data would have served as a systematic replication of this method for classroom settings. As for the suggestion that self-recording serves as a poor control device prior to behavior modification (Kanfer, 1970) , the self-monitored data yielded the same ability stratification as that given by teachers prior to the study. Thus the self-recording served as a good control. Just as McFall and Hammen (1971) used a sophisticated design to isolate non-specific factors in smoking reduction, the present study employed a design which would isolate nonspecific factors in self-recording through charts. This design permitted the most conservative test of self-monitoring data up to the present since the recording on the chart was contrasted to self-monitoring employed with relatively non-reactive procedures (student recording on envelopes after instruction by the teacher before the experiment began) and to self-monitoring with reactive procedures (students using the RCS after special instruction from the experimenter) . Thus the design recommends itself for further use whenever behavioral devices are tested. A simpler version of this design without the within-subjects replication may be found in Azrin and Powell (1969) .

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81 The non-replication of self-monitoring effects for the accounting work rate and error rate data was probably due to the power of the design. Whereas prior research combined self -monitoring with other reactive variables, this design controlled for them. The results of mean comparisons for the accounting work rates, i.e., the negative effects, further demonstrate an instance of self-monitoring divorced from the reactive variables. Therefore, it may be concluded that the effects of self-monitoring are functionally related to the immediate environmental context in which this recording is accomplished. As for the finding of persistent self-recording effects lasting after this recording is terminated (McFall, 1970) , both the data which did not reveal effects different from baselines (the accounting work rate and error rate) and the data which did reveal effects that were confounded with other reactive variables (words per minute data) indicated no lasting effects. In relationship to the administratively scheduled events of exams and the termination of the school year, the effects of self -monitoring were shown to be evaporable. The analysis of the group and individual data revealed only a few instances of self-control. Where it was demonstrated, the self-control was confounded with other variables such as instructions and novelty. This finding indicated that the controlling responses employed were

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82 functionally related to the immediate environmental context. Thus more powerful contingencies must be used and then later faded for controlling responses if self-control is to remain intact. The self-control acquired through the recording responses used in this study was not sufficiently buffered against the effects of examinations and the end of the school year. The use of the RCS and SBC as feedback devices for knowledge of results showed only qualified results. Thus the question of KOR as a reinforcer remains open. The error rate data, which was gathered under delay conditions of a day, pointed to the superiority of immediate feedback for simple skill learning. A clear resolution to this question may have to start in a more tightly controlled, laboratory setting before clear generalizations to the school setting may be drawn. Implications The implications of this research are twofold first, with regard to future educational research and, second, with regard to classroom practices. The impetus for this study came from and was in part planned and conducted by four high school teachers. Their active participation during workshops and in the initial planning insured a maximum of benefits for each student during the course of the study and at the same time permitted the conduct of this research from escaping the ubiquitous demands of running a classroom

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83 on a daily basis. While communications problems still existed, many difficulties listed in an earlier chapter could have been remedied either by working with fewer classrooms or by soliciting colleagues of the experimenter to instruct the classes in the use of the recording forms. Research conducted in this fashion has value for those most involved in the educational process — teachers and students. All of the teachers involved in this study noticed positive changes in their students and thus planned to continue self -monitoring in their future classes. Furthermore, the teachers have expressed interest in doing further research in their classes. Thus their participation will prove mutually rewarding to both researcher and teacher. Two additional remarks with regard to educational research seem noteworthy because of events which failed to occur. First, West (1969, P. 286) after a review of much research on the point concluded that intensive practices of timed typing incurs high error rates. This result was not replicated under daily timed typings over a period of twelve weeks. Perhaps the simultaneous self -monitoring of both words per minute and error rates accounted for the results . Prior research has limited the effectiveness of behavior modification to low ability and special education classrooms (Rosenfeld, 1972) . The author reported a study in which money was employed as a reinforcement for sixthgrade students having a high I.Q. (above 110 on the Lorge

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84 Thorndike) and money reinforcement plus stars on a publicly located paper for average and high I.Q.'s (1'06 or better) showed significant achievement gains. Rosenf eld's findings, which ran counter to prior research, are replicated here because no significant Treatment X Ability interaction occurred. The implications for classroom practices are directly related to the analyses of the data. Even when the treatments proved effective over pretreatment baselines, the effects of these treatments did not effect the acceleration of rates obtained at the end of the school year. While a qualified demonstration of self-control was achieved, this control passed to the occurrence of administratively scheduled events. This finding suggests that, when possible, testing or the deadline for large projects should be intermittently scheduled to insure the longevity of student self-control. Weighting daily work more and terminal work rates less might have the same effects. Another finding which holds implications was the fact that rate measures may be used to achieve ability grouping. While this measure has been used for such purposes in typing class prior to this research, the replication of this finding with a pinpoint as hetergeneously mixed as the accounting work rate lends generality to the practice. Further study with other types of curricula is necessary to insure this generalization.

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85 Finally, as a result of inspecting some of individual data, it was suggested that the satisfaction of criteria by statistical techniques may not always be consistent with significant behavior changes actually occurring. The statistical techniques may prove too time consuming, expensive, and not immediate enough to satisfy the daily needs of teachers and students. Data collection in the form of rates does not suffer these drawbacks. Furthermore, when rates are plotted on the SBC, long-range trends may be assessed at a moment's glance and communication time is commensurately reduced. These features alone urged a number of students to remark that "really bad days" were not taken as seriously as they were before the SBC was introduced. Summary The purpose of this study was to produce self-control of academic behavior in high school business education students by providing continuous, self -generated feedback through various feedback devices and to assess the relative merits of each device. This study was done to enlarge the settings and vary the parameters under which the effects of self -generated feedback have been found to be significant. By using Skinner's (1953) definition of self-control, the academic response rates were used as a controlled response and the generation of feedback responses through the various devices was used as the controlling response. For purposes

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86 of this study, self-control is said to exist when celerations (acceleration or deceleration depending upon the nature of the pinpointed responses) are better under treatment conditions than under pretreatment baseline conditions. The research was done in three classrooms. The first was a ninth-grade, second semester typing class with twenty-nine students. The second class was an eleventhgrade, second semester accounting class with twenty-one students. The last classroom was a tenth-grade, second semester typing class with twenty-five students. The response unit for the accounting class was any f ill-in-the-blank item, row or column entry, or any mathematical computation. The dependent variable for this class was work rate alone without respect to correct or incorrect responding. Since the students had answer sheets and the teacher available during the class for individual help, it was felt that work rate alone was a sufficient pinpoint. The response units for the typing classes were gross words per minute and error rate for a three minute, once daily, timed typing. The sample for typing was changed every day during the experiment. Each student computed the total number of words typed by using the vertical scale in his text for each sample. The students then proofread their own papers for errors. Later, a student-aide or a neighbor reread the papers to sift out any additional errors. Thus, during the treatment phases, error rates were computed a

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87 day after the typing had been done for the class using the aides and immediately for the class using the neighbor. In all classes prior to the experiment, the students were accustomed to counting the number of responses for either the entire class period in the accounting class or for the three minutes in the typing class and posting this count on a manilla envelope used to hold all of their work material. This type of self-recording was continued throughout the experiment and contrasted with recording on a rate computation form which lacked visual, graphic display of the rates and Standard Behavior Chart which lent visual, graphic display of the rates. During the first two days of each treatment phase, the experimenter visited the classes to teach the students the use of the new forms. At this time, onethird of the students continued working and recording as usual while the other two-thirds received instruction on the rate computation sheet or the chart. This was to control for any celerations due to novelty due to the presence of the experimenter, intraclass communication, or teacher enthusiasm. After instruction in the forms, the students were asked to use the forms daily for two weeks. There was no differential reward given by the teachers for using the forms. Since most of the students in these classes were doing their daily work assignments, the reward was thought superfluous and even contradictory to the goal of self-control. Each treatment phase was interspersed with a week's baseline condition before, between, and after the

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88 three treatment-order combinations. Each treatment phase was terminated by the teacher taking the forms from the students' envelopes. The three sets of data (accounting work rate for the eleventh grade, typing rate, and error rate for the ninth grade) were run independently through an analysis of variance after appropriate transformations of the data were performed. Since the tenth-grade typing class did not experience the procedures as contended, their data were not analyzed in this fashion. Due to the data loss by subject absenteeism, drop-out, and even one case of a student complaining about her difficulty performing the operations necessary to use the feedback devices, a least squares solution was used to predict the missing scores. The students were put into three ability levels according to past class work and then randomly assigned to one of three treatment orders. There were two subjects nested in each Treatment X Order X Ability crossing for the accounting class and three students in the nesting for the typing class. The main effects of treatments and ability were significant for the accounting class (p<.05 and p<.05, respectively) and typing rate data (p<.05 and p<.05 respectively). These effects were not significant for the error rate data. The Treatment X Order interaction was significant (p<.05) for all sets of data. Using Scheffe comparisons, there was a significant difference between the first six phases and the last posttreatment baseline for all treatment orders

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89 (p<.05) in the accounting and typing rate data. A comparison of the first three pretreatment baselines and their treatments reveals a difference in favor of the treatments (p<.05) for the typing rate data. There were no significant differences between the treatments themselves and their posttreatment baselines (with the exceptions as noted above) for the typing rate data. The reliability of the selfmonitored data was found to be acceptable for the error rate data sampled. The main conclusion to be drawn from the study is that the students did evidence self-control for some of the treatment conditions but not with regard to the last posttreatment baseline. The Standard Behavior Chart while serving as an accelerator of performance rates did no better than the other devices. In the accounting class, due to the presence of answer sheets and individual teacher help, the devices alone were no better than these other modes of feedback. The error rate data, which was gathered under delay conditions of one day before feedback, confirms the superiority of immediate feedback for simple skill learning found by other researchers. None of the treatment or baseline means were any better than the last posttreatment baseline. In graphic form, this behavior would when plotted cumulatively represent a fixed interval scallop. Given the fact that the daily classwork played little part in grade determination and that this phase ended simultaneously with the end of the school

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90 year, this finding is in no way surprising. For educators who would make more of daily classwork, the grades for daily work should be weighted in proportion to a final examination with more frequent, terminal projects receiving equal weight as the final exam. Hopefully, this procedure would eliminate the accelerated performance prior to exam periods and the end of the school year. Finally, by using the individual data from the charts, both teachers and experimenters could achieve an understanding of the students which is mutually helpful in evaluating student progress and the effects of some manipulation. The individual data revealed differences between drop-outs and high absentee students. Research making use of individual data will hopefully aid teachers to plan instruction according to individual needs and, at the same time, advance the science of education.

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APPENDICES

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APPENDIX 1 SAMPLE OF A FRAME FROM THE RATE COMPUTATION SHEET

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93 PTOJfCT NAMES I . use no, ; lead rexo. VO.tvtM T«ZT q CLOCK READING Hrs — » — FINISH START | 1 Mln CLOCK | IN Hrs x GO MINUTES RATE COMPUTATION RATE COMPUTATION INSTRUCT FRAME Wte« Q (RCF-4) B«'-»' " ft«Mtrct C«ft**»«« *liC> 52T5 day COMMENT 1 JJ_i ULL •mt» « — ^— M. Minutes of Counting ' FINISH j | t { START f I I I J_Li JLLi Mlnures of Counting j* JFINISH | | ! | J START M I | U. 1 1 1 Minutes of Counting FINISH 1 j I 1 ST APT I ; I I -LLL i_LL Minutes of Counting i FINISH | [ I { START I I ' | LLL LLL Minutes of Counting FINISH j | I | jSTART | | ! | 1J_L! J_1_L Mlnutoi of Counting FINISH MM START , j j I | 1_L1 LLL Minutes f Counting »*>w i . i i >.jL^ -»--,-i .— r -, Rote LLLiiJLi ft I I I I I I MON Movemonfs Counted ' Rote J I I I i I I 1 /miiiii Movements Counted LAST TUE fi«*^ It*''-'" Rote 'JI IMIII / ! I I I i I I I * Movements Counted IfiS?: WED ^,0*^ I Rote U i 1 1 J f LL /I M i in.i ' Movements Cour.red THU IS*** If Rote "' J I M .' i I I /I I l I | | | I Movements Counted FRI ^VAUO^f^ Rote J ' U 1 ' I L /l I I I I I I i Movements Counted tASt SAT prS^QKOfiEB! I Rote 1 J I I I I I I | Movnraentii _ Counted ~-" v n UASt SUN / -»..» : ;VA^ D ,or^ 1 o= £0

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APPENDIX 2 SUMMARY TABLES OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR RATER RELIABILITY DATA

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95 Summary Table of Analysis of Variance for Rater Reliability on Day 1 Source

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96 Summary Table of Analysis of Variance for Rater Reliability on Day 27

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97 Summary Table of Analysis of Variance for Rater Reliability on Day 63 Source

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REFERENCES Azrin, N. , and Powell, J. Behavioral engineering: The reduction of smoking behavior by a conditioning apparatus and procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1968, 1, 193-200. Azrin, N. , and Powell, J. Behavioral engineering: The use of response priming to improve prescribed self-medication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1969, 2, 39-42. Berger, K. Adolescent self-awareness and change . Doctoral dissertation. Ferkauf Graduate School of Education, Yeshiva University, 1972. Bernstein, D. A. Modification of smoking behavior: An evaluative review. Psychological Bulletin , 1969, 71, 418-440. Bernstein, D. A. Modification of smoking behavior: An evaluative review. In W. A. Hunt (Ed.) Learning mechanisms in smoking . Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 19 70. Blackwood, R. O. The operant conditioning of verbally mediated self-control in the classroom. Journal of School Psychology , 1970, 8, 251-258. Bolles, R. C. Theory of motivation . New York: Harper and Row, 1967. Broden, M. , Hall, R. V., and Mitts, B. The effects of selfrecording on t he classroom behavior of two eighthgrade students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1971, 4, 191-199. Campbell, D. T., and Stanley, J. C. Experimental and quasiexperimental designs for research. In N. L. Gage (Ed.) Handbooks of research on teaching . Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963. 98

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99 Cautela, J. R. Behavior therapy and self-control: Techniques and implications. In C. M. Franks (Ed.) Behavior therapy Appraisal and status . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. Dixon, W. J. (Ed.). BM P Biomedical computer programs . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971. Duncan, A. D. Self -application of behavior modification techniques by teen-agers. Adolescen ce, 1969, 4, 541-556. Duncan, A. D. The view from the inner eye: Personal management of inner and outer behaviors. Teaching Exceptional Children , 1971, 3, 152-156. Ferster, C. B., Nurnberger, J. I., and Levitt, E. B. The control of reacting. Journal of Mathemati cs, 1962, 1, 95-97. Fixsen, D. L., Phillips, E. L., and Wolf, M. M. Achievement Place: The reliability of self-reporting and peerreporting and their effects on behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1972, 5, 19-30. Geis, G., and Chapman, R. Knowledge of results and other possible reinforcers in self-instructional systems. Educational Technology , 1971, 11, 38-51. Glass, G. V., and Stanley, J. C. Statistical methods in education and ps ych ology . New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970. Goldiamond, I. Self-control procedures in personal behavior problems. Psychological Reports , 1965, 17, 851-868. Haughton, E. Great gains for small starts. Teaching Exceptional Children , 1971, 3, 141-146. Homme, L. Perspectives in psychology: XXIV. Control of coverants, the operants of the mind. Psychological Record , 1965, 15, 501-511. Jeus, K. G., and Shores, R. E. Behavioral graphs as reinforcers for work behavior of mentally retarded adolescents. Educat ion and Training of the Mentally Retarded , 1969, 4, 21-27. Johnson, E. C. Precision teaching helps children learn. Teaching Exceptional Children , 1971, 3, 106-110. Kanfer, F. H. Self-monitoring: Methodological limitations and clinical applications. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1970, 35, 148-152.

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100 Kirk, R. Experimental design; Procedures for the behavioral sciences . Belmont: Brooks-Cole Publishing Company, 1968. Koenig, C. Charting the future course of behavior . Kansas City: Precision Media, 1972. Kolb, D. A., Winter, S. K. , and Berlew, D. E. Self -directed change: Two studies. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science , 1963, 4, 453-471. Leitenberg, H. , Agras, W. S., Thompson, L. E. f and Wright, D. E. Feedback in behavior modification: An experimental analysis in two phobic cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1968, 1, 131-137. Lichtenstein, E. Modification of smoking behavior: Good designs--inef fective treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1971, 36, 163-166. Marston, A. R., and McFall, R. M. Comparison of behavior modification approaches to smoking reduction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1971, 36, 153-162. Mausner, B. Some comments on the failure of behavior therapy as a technique for modifying cigarette smoking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1971, 36, 167-170. McFall, R. M. Effects of self-monitoring on normal smoking behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1970, 35, 135-142. McFall, R. M., and Hammen, C. L. Motivation, structure, and self-monitoring: The role of nonspecific factors in smoking reduction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1971, 37, 80-86. Orne, M. T. From the subject's point of view, when is behavior private and when is it public: Problems of inference. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1970, 35, 143-147. Powell, J., and Azrin, N. The effect of shock as a punisher for cigarette smoking. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1968, 1, 63-71. Precise behavior facts . Kansas City: Precision Media, 1971, 1.

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101 Premack, D. Mechanisms of self-control. In W. Hunt (Ed.) Learning mechanisms in smoking . New York: Aldine, 1971. Risley, T. R. , and Hart, B. Developing correspondence between the non-verbal and verbal behavior of preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1968, 1, 267-281. Rosenfeld, G. W. Some effects of reinforcement on achievement and behavior in a regular classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1972, 63, 189-193. Rutner, I. T. "The modification of smoking behavior through techniques of self-control." Master's thesis, Wichita State University, 1967. Scriven, M. Freedom beyond Beyond Freedom. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, April 1972. Skinner, B. F. Science and human behavior . New York: Macmillan Company, 1953. Starlin, C. Peers and precision. Teaching Exce p tional Children , 1971, 3, 129-132, 137-140. Stollak, G. E. Weight loss obtained with different experimental procedures. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice , 1967, 4, 61-64. Surratt, P. R. , Ulrich, R. E., and Hawkins, R. P. An elementary student as a behavioral engineer. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1969, ], 85-92. Watson, J. B. Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review , 1913, 20, 158-177. West, L. Acquisition of typewriting skills, methods of research in teaching typing . New York: Pitman Publishing Company, 1969. Winer, B. Statistical principles in experimental design . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Patrick Andrew Quigley, Jr., was born November 30, 1944, in the Bronx, New York. In June of 1962, he graduated from Ryken High School in Leonardtown, Maryland. In August, 1968, he graduated from Brooklyn College of the City University of New York with a Bachelor of Arts and Sciences in history. The following month, he entered the Graduate School of Education at the University of Florida. While working on his advanced degrees, he worked as a graduate research assistant and graduate teaching assistant. In June of 1970, he received an M.Ed. degree and in December of 1972, he received his Ph.D. in the psychological foundations of education. In the fall of 1972, he began working as an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Southern Mississippi. Mr. Quigley is married to the former Charlotte Otchin Moyer and they have three children: Elizabeth Leigh, Cathleen Erin, and Shannon Maura. 102

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. \JU \\u~JX Johriy Newell, Chairman Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. William Wolking Associate Professor of Edi ucation \J I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Robert E. ^e-ster Associate Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^i William B. Ware Assistant Professor of Education

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^ «-> S . PennypacKer Professor of Psychology This dissertation was submitted to the Dean of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1972 ,6 j'Ak^i CW&/3
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