Citation
Organic chemistry of transition metals

Material Information

Title:
Organic chemistry of transition metals I. New reactions of bis(arene)iron (II) salts. II. Synthesis and structure of pi-Cyclopentadienyl-pi-tetra-phenylcyclobutadienerhodium(I)
Creator:
Cash, Gordon Graham, 1947-
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1975
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 90 leaves : ill. ; 28cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Business management ( jstor )
Business structures ( jstor )
Corporations ( jstor )
Customers ( jstor )
Employment statistics ( jstor )
Meats ( jstor )
Merchandise ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Shopping ( jstor )
Supermarkets ( jstor )
Chemistry thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Chemistry -- UF
Transition metals ( lcsh )
City of Gainesville ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 86-89.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on World Wide Web
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gordon G. Cash.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
025212812 ( AlephBibNum )
02666751 ( OCLC )
AAS7593 ( NOTIS )

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THE CORPORATE IMAGE AS IT REFLECTS

FIRM SELF-CONCEPTION AND AFFECTS

PATRONAGE MOTIVES

















By

ROBERT NEWTON CARTER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


June, 1965













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude

to the members of his supervisory committee. The committee

was composed of Dr. R. B. Thompson, Dr. Frank Goodwin, Dr.

R. H. Blodgett, Dr. C. W. Fristoe and Dr. John H. James. A

special word of appreciation is extended to Dr. Thompson,

who gave generously of his time and guidance, and to Dr.

Frank Goodwin who considerably lightened the author's load

through helpful counsel and encouragement.

The Publix executives as well as many Publix managers

and employees have cooperated in every respect with the

author. However, the conclusions, opinions, and other

statements in this publication are strictly those of the

author. Thanks go to Mr. George Jenkins and Mr. William

Schroeter and especially to Mr. Mark Hollis for their

assistance and encouragement.

Undoubtedly the study would never have been completed

without the influence of the author's wife, Sylvia. To her

goes much credit for both technical assistance and moral as

well as financial support.

Use of the Computing Laboratory of the College of

Business Administration of the University of Florida was

granted by the Bureau of Business and Economic Research.

ii











Mr. Scottie Davis and Mr. Dale Moody rendered advice and

services in connection with the use of these facilities

without which the author would have had much more difficulty

in completing his task.

The typing of many preliminary pages was provided by

Mrs. Suzanne Degni and by the author's wife. Mrs. Thyra

Johnston deserves special thanks for the care with which

she prepared the final copy.

The time and skills of many people including students,

faculty, and non-faculty were kindly given in the prepara-

tion of this document. For this and the spirit in which

they were given the author is grateful.


iii












TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES. . . . . . . . . . vii

LIST OF EXHIBITS. . . . . . . . .. xii

Chapter

I. INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . .. I

II. CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY. . ... 7

Introduction . . . . . . . 7
The Emergence of Management. . . . 8
Technological Advance. . . . . ... 11
The Profession of Management . . . 17
Responsibilities of Management . . . 20
4Conclusion . . . . . . . . 25

III. IMAGERY, THE CONSUMER, AND THE INSTITUTION. 25

Introduction . . . . . . . 25
Organization Informational Concept . .. 26
Human Imagery and Cognition. . . ... 29
Economic Behavior. . . . . . 55
Imagery and Institutional Success. . . 37
The Institution and Feedback . . . 42
Authoritarian Management . . . . 45
-Conclusion . . . . . . . . 46

IV. PUBLIC SUPERMARKETS, INC: CONCEPTION,
PHILOSOPHY, GROWTH . . . . . . 48

Introduction . . . . . . .. 48
Origin of the Publix Corporation . . 49
A Management Philosophy Develops . . 51
Growth of Publix Food Stores Corporation 56
Conclusion . . . . . . . . 60

V. PUBLIC SUPERMARKETS INC: SELF-CONCEPT . . 62

Introduction . . . . . . . 62










Chapter


Policies Relating to Employee Treatment. 63
The Publix Personality . . . . . 71
Publix' Active Image Creation. . . . 80
"The Happy Difference" Series. . . . 82
Conclusion . . . . . . . . 85

VI. RESEARCH DESIGN . . . . . . . 86

Introduction . . . . . . . 86
Selected Stores . . . . . ... 86
Individual Survey Designs. . . . ... 87
Survey of Publix managers . . . ... 88
Survey of Publix Employees . . . . 89
Survey of Publix Customers.. . . . 92
Survey of Gainesville Household Shoppers 95
Conclusion . . . . . . . 97

VII. ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES OF SELECTED PUBLIC
STORE MANAGERS . . . . . . . 107

Introduction . . . . . . . 107
Manager Survey Analysis. . . . . 108
Conclusion . . . . . . . . 117

VIII. ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES OF SELECTED PUBLIC
STORE EMPLOYEES. . . . . . ... 120

Introduction . . . . . . . 120
Analysis of Employee Responses . . . 121
Conclusion . . . . . . . . 132

IX. ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES OF SELECTED PUBLIC'
CUSTOMERS. . . . . . . . . 134

Introduction . . . . . . . 134
Sample Composition . . . . . . 135
Analysis of Publix' Customer Responses . 140
Cross Tabulations. . . . . . . 149
Conclusion . . . . . . . . 155

X. ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES OF GAINESVILLE HOUSE-
HOLD RESPONDENTS . . . . . . 155

Introduction . . . . . . . 155
Response Analysis. . . . . . .. 155
Conclusion . . . . . . . . 174


Page










Chapter Page

XI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . 181

Summary: Basic Concepts. . . . ... 181
Conclusions. . . . . . . .. 188
General Conclusions. . . . . . 194

APPENDICES. . . . . . . . . . .. 200

Appendix I Tables
Appendix II Statistical Computations

BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . 235

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . 243












LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1. Personal Likes and Dislikes of Publix Managers
Classified by Selected Statements . . . 118

2. Personal Likes of Publix Employees Classified
by Selected Statements. . . . . . . 130

3. Personal Dislikes of Publix Employees
Classified by Selected Statements . . . 131

4. Percentages of Publix Respondents Classified on
the Basis of Personal Characteristics . . 136

5. Percentages of Publix Respondents Classified on
the Basis of Occupations. . . . . . 138

6. Percentages of Publix Respondents Classified by
Percentage of Total Grocery Shopping Done at
Publix. . . . . . . . . . . 139

7. Percentages of Publix Respondents Who Agreed
With Statements at the Left Pertaining to Store
Personality . . . . . . . . . 141

8. Percentages of Publix Respondents Who Agreed
With Statements at the Left Pertaining to Store
Sales Efforts . . . . . . . . 143

9. Percentages of Publix Respondents Who Agreed
With Statements at the Left Pertaining to Past
Transaction Satisfaction. . . . . . 145

10. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Likes
Classified by Most Common Responses . . . 147

11. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Dislikes
Classified by Most Common Responses . . . 148

12. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Attitudes
Favoring Stores Sales Efforts and Favoring Past
Transaction Satisfaction: Classified by Sex of
Respondents. . . . . . . . . . 150


vii












13. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Attitudes
Favoring Stores Sales Efforts and Favoring Past
Transaction Satisfaction: Classified by
Occupational Group . . . . . . . 151

14. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Attitudes
Favoring Store Sales Efforts and Favoring Past
Transaction Satisfaction: Classified by
Percentage of Total Grocery Shopping Done at
Public . . . . . . . . . . 152

15. Gainesville Household Survey: All Respondents'
Impressions of Supermarkets' Appeal to a
Particular Income Group. . . . . . . 175

16. Gainesville Household Survey: Respondents Who
Said They Had Never Shopped at Publix,
Classified by Reasons Given for Not Shopping
There. . . . . . . . . . . 176

17. All Respondents Classified by Personal
Characteristics and Number of Persons Residing
in the Household . . . . . . . . 177

18. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville)
Respondents' Attitudes Toward Selected Store
and Management Characteristics . . . . 202

19. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville)
Respondents' Attitudes Toward Other Publix
Customers. . . . . . . . . .. 202

20. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville)
Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Publix
Employee-Customer Service Relationship . . 203

21. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville)
Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Quality and
Price of Publix Merchandise. . . . . . 204

22. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville)
Respondents' Likes and Dislikes Classified on
the Basis of Most Common Responses . . . 205

23. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville)
Respondents' Percentage of Total Grocery
Shopping Done at Publix. . . . . . ... 206


viii


Table


Page











24. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville)
Respondents Classified on the Basis of
Selected Personal Characteristics . . . 206

25. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville)
Respondents Classified on the Basis of
Occupation. . . . . . . . . .. 207

26. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland,
Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents' Attitudes
Toward Selected Store and Management
Characteristics . . . . . . . . 208

27. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland,
Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents' Attitudes
Toward Other Publix Customers . . . . 208

28. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland,
Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents' Attitudes
Toward the Publix Employee-Customer Service
Relationship. . . . . . . . .. 209

29. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland,
Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents' Attitudes
Toward the Quality and Price of Publix
Merchandise . . . . . . . . . 210

30. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland,
Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents' Likes and
Dislikes Classified on the Basis of Most
Common Responses. . . . . . . . 211

31. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland,
Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents' Percentage
of Total Grocery Shopping Done at Publix. . 212

32. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland,
Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents Classified
on the Basis of Selected Personal
Characteristics . . . . . . . . 212

33. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland,
Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents Classified
on the Basis of Occupation. . . . . ... 215

34. Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant
City) Respondents' Attitudes Toward Selected
Store and Management Characteristics. . . 214


Table


Page











35. Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant
City) Respondents' Attitudes Toward Other
Publix Customers . . . . . . . 214

36. Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant
City) Respondents' Attitudes Toward the
Publix Employee-Customer Service Relationship. 215

37. Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant
City) Respondents' Attitudes Toward the
Quality and Price of Publix Merchandise. . 216

38. Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant
City) Respondents' Likes and Dislikes
Classified on the Basis of Most Common
Responses. . . . . . . . . .. 217

39. Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant
City) Respondents' Percentage of Total Grocery
Shopping Done at Publix. . . . . ... 218

40. Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant
City) Respondents Classified on the Basis of
Selected Personal Characteristics. . . . 218

41. Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant
City) Respondents Classified on the Basis of
Occupation . . . . . . . . . 219

42. Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont)
Respondents' Attitudes Toward Selected Store
and Management Characteristics . . . . 220

43. Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont)
Respondents' Attitudes Toward Other Publix
Customers. . . . . . . . . .. 220

44. Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont)
Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Publix
Employee-Customer Service Relationship . . 221

45. Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont)
Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Quality and
Price of Publix Merchandise. . . . ... 222

46. Low Volume Stores' Brooksville, Clermont)
Respondents' Likes and Dislikes Classified on
the Basis of Most Common Responses . . . 223


Table


Page










Table Page

47. Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont)
Respondents' Percentage of Total Grocery
Shopping Done at Publix . . . . . . 224

48. Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont)
Respondents Classified on the Basis of
Selected Personal Characteristics . . . 224

49. Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont)
Respondents Classified on the Basis of
Occupation . . . . . . . . . 225

50. Total Respondents' Attitudes Toward Selected
Store and Management Characteristics . ... 226

51. All Stores' Respondents' Attitudes Toward Other
Publix Customers. . . . . . . . 226

52. All Stores' Respondents' Attitudes Toward the
Publix Employee-Customer Service Relationship 227

53. All Selected Stores' Respondents' Attitudes
Toward the Quality and Price of Publix
Merchandise . . . . . . . . . 228

54. All Selected Stores' Respondents' Likes and
Dislikes Classified on the Basis of Most
Common Responses. . . . . . . .. . 229

55. All Selected Stores' Respondents' Percentage of
Total Grocery Shopping Done at Publix . .. 230

56. All Selected Stores' Respondents Classified on
the Basis of Selected Personal Characteristics. 230

57. All Stores' Respondents Classified According
to Occupation . . . . . . . 231













LIST OF EXHIBITS


Exhibit Page

1. Facsimile of questionnaire used to gather
information in the survey of selected
Publix managers . . . . . . . 98

2. Facsimile of questionnaire used to gather
information in the survey of selected
Publix employees. . . . . . . .. 100

5. Facsimile of questionnaire used to gather
information in the survey of selected
Publix customers. . . . . . . .. 102

4. Facsimile of questionnaire used to gather
information in the survey of selected
Gainesville household respondents . . . 104

5. Responses of selected Publix managers to
statements at left which refer to Publix
store personality . . . . . ... 109

6. Responses of selected Publix managers to
statements at left which refer to the
cooperativeness of supervisors. . . ... 1-11

7. Responses of selected Publix managers to
statements at left which refer to the
character of Publix management. . . ... 112

8. Responses of selected Publix managers to
statements at left which refer to the
Publix business philosophy. . . . ... 114

9. Responses of selected Publix managers to
statements at left which refer to the
dynamic nature of Publix management . . 115

10. Responses of selected Publix managers to
statements at left which refer to the
business-wise nature of Publix management . 116


xii











Exhibit


11. Responses of selected Publix employees to
statements at left which refer to Publix
store personality . . . . . . . 122

12. Responses of selected Publix employees to
statements at left which refer to immediate
management practice . . . . . . 124

13. Responses of selected Publix employees to
statements at left which refer to the Publix
work environment. . . . . . . . 125

14. Responses of selected Publix employees to
statements at left which refer to the
character of Publix management. . . ... 127

15. Responses of selected Publix employees to
statements at left which refer to the
business practices of Publix. . . . ... 128

16. Gainesville household survey: all shoppers'
attitudes toward Publix and Winn-Dixie
location and parking facilities . . . 157

17. Gainesville household survey: non-Publix
shoppers: attitudes toward Publix and Winn-
Dixie location and parking facilities . . 158

18. Gainesville household survey: Publix
shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and Winn-
Dixie location and parking facilities . . 159

19. Gainesville household survey: all shoppers'
attitudes toward Publix and Winn-Dixie store
personality . . . . . . . . 163

20. Gainesville household survey: non-Publix
shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and Winn-
Dixie store personality . . . . . 164

21. Gainesville household survey: Publix shoppers'
attitudes toward Publix and Winn-Dixie store
personality . . . . . . . . 165

22. Gainesville household survey: all shoppers'
attitudes toward Publix and Winn-Dixie store
sales efforts . . . . . . . . 167


xiii


Page











Exhibit


23. Gainesville household survey: non-Publix
shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and
Winn-Dixie store sales efforts . . . 168

24. Gainesville household survey: Publix
shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and Winn-
Dixie store sales efforts. . . . ... 169

25. Gainesville household survey: all shoppers'
attitudes toward Publix and Winn-Dixie past
transaction satisfaction . . . . . 170

26. Gainesville household survey: non-Publix
shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and Winn-
Dixie past transaction satisfaction. . . 171

27. Gainesville household survey: Publix shoppers'
attitudes toward Publix and Winn-Dixie past
transaction satisfaction . . . . . 172


xiv


Page













CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


Theory, research, and evolving concepts which have

practical applications for the businessman are dealt with

in this dissertation. This businessman, particularly the

professional manager, may be and probably is part social

scientist, psychologist, anthropologist, economist; and

above all he is profit oriented. Therefore, the implica-

tions to be drawn from this dissertation are both logical-

and useful. In this pragmatic frame of reference, the

attitude which is fundamental to this study recognizes

positive image creation as one of the essential functions

in the operation of corporations, if they are to compete

effectively in the American economy.

Rapidly changing conditions occurring in the American

corporate society are bringing with them stringent new de-

mands for increasing competitive effectiveness. These

changes and demands have given active image creation a

unique position in recent years.

The development of the corporation has paralleled

industrialization in the United States, and it is not un-

usual to find the corporation having absentee ownership and











professional management. When business firms remain small,

and when social communities remain stable, compact and close-

knit, the strong business leader is able to project himself

to members of the community. The projection of himself or

of his personality represents in effect the perception that

the community members have of the individual's business firm

as well as of the individual. (11, p. 15)

However, when businesses become larger and when the

owners are required to employ professional managers to aid

in the direction of the firm, it is likely that the close

community contact will be lost. The loss of the close

association may create a void in the competitive position

of the firm. The void is essentially one of communication,

and as the firm undertakes to fill the empty space, it may

do so by actively projecting an image, its corporate image.

SEven though much attention has been devoted to the

topic of the corporate image in recent years, still many

business executives fail to understand the significance of

imagery and they tend to give it only superficial treatment.

(11, p. 2) Each company has a "personality" that is unique

to that organization, and this "personality" tends to

"...reflect management's hopes, attitudes and biases."

(18, p. 5)

Project conception

The increasing recognition and emphasis being placed

on the social sciences as they are related to the field of










marketing, has resulted in much study and attention being

devoted to the corporate image concept in the past few years.

This r..Titer has developed a keen interest in this concept;

consequently, he proposed to devote the dissertation study

to this general area of the corporate image concept.

Initially, the dissertation proposal was to study

the comparative images of supermarkets in a given geo-

graphical area. This proposal was pursued until one of the

companies selected refused permission to allow the author

to work on the store premises. Only "lip-service" coopera-

tion was obtained from a second organization and even that

subsequently died. However, executives of the Publix

Company, including Mr. George Jenkins, the President, Mr.

Mark Hollis, the Personnel Director, and Mr. William Schroeter,

the Director of Advertising, were enthusiastic and optimistic

concerning a corporate image study. It was then proposed

that an image study be undertaken with the Publix Corporation

serving as a case study.

Organization

The author of this dissertation assumes that the

corporate image is the result of the total activities of the

firm. In so far as this assumption is valid, the study of

a corporate image must be bread. It must properly define

the setting in which the image will be studied. Therefore,

the evolution and current status of management philosophy is

analyzed in the first phase of this dissertation. Imagery











is also investigated in this initial facet of the study.

Phase two serves to present significant information related

to the history, management philosophy and self-concept of

the Publix Company. Depicted in the third part of the

dissertation are the results of field surveys. The surveys

were designed to allow an evaluation of the degree of

effectiveness with which the Publix self-concept has been

communicated to consumers.

Objectives

The objectives for this dissertation are quite modest.

One aim is to order, with clarity, some of the concepts

about imagery that have emerged from research, theory and

practice. A second aim is to analyze the company personality

of Publix Super Markets, Incorporated, in such a way as to

bring together in a usable framework a model for further

study of the corporate image.

Hypothesis

The author asks the question: Does the Publix Company

actively engage in image projection and, if so, is the

activity successful and to what degree? Stated positively,

Publix does have an image, the company is actively attempting

to project the dimensions of its conceived image and Publix

managers, employees and customers, as well as general super-

market shoppers are aware of that image.








5

AssumDtions

Any expression of ideas involves making certain

assumptions. The writer approaches the study of imagery

and image creation with certain assumptions which need to

be explicit. He assumes that: 1) the corporation exists

primarily for the purpose of earning a profit and only

secondarily for other purposes; 2) the American business

society is dynamic and competitive; 5) there is a need for

competitive change to meet the challenge of a changing

business society; 4) consumer patronage motives are in-

fluenced by a conceived image; 5) the conceived image is

intangible; and 6) human behavior is amenable to scientific

study.

These assumptions are implicit in much that is writ-

ten about the American competitive situation. They are an

explicit basis for the rationale of this paper.

General limitations

Some general limitations are recognized here which

affect the entire study. Others are treated throughout the

dissertation. Few studies Droceed with unlimited time and

resources. This one was not an exception; therefore, a

limitation is present to the extent that various deadlines

were met with general accuracy, and financial as well as

human resources were expended only as were necessary and

available. Another general limitation in this dissertation











relates to the methodology, descriptive analysis. Inherent

in descriptive analysis and the use of questionnaires and

interviews are the potential limitations of sample adequacy

and predisposition of respondents. A weakness may be

present to the degree that, in part, information was

gathered by indirect observation.

Perhaps the findings and ideas presented here will

serve best if, by providing a slightly different view of

competition or a more comprehensive one of image study, they

stimulate readers to think in a synthesizing manner. No

effort has been exerted to make these ideas especially

acceptable. It is hoped that they will at least prove to

be more than academic exercise and at best productive of

reactions.













CHAPTER II

CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY

Introduction


Illumination can further be directed to any one

particular management philosophy by investigating its

broader environment and that environment's heritage. The

purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to investigate the

practice of management as it is conceived in America today;

George Jenkins and Publix are a part of the American

environment, and the Jenkins' philosophy can perhaps be

better understood within the framework of contemporary

management.

Attempting to implement the title of this chapter

"Contemporary Management Philosophy," has proven to be a

challenging task; maybe it is even impossible to synthesize

within such a short treatise as this chapter, the funda-

mental factors incidental to the title. The attempt is

made, however, even though a myriad of defenses is necessary.

A clear understanding of philosophy as it is used here is

basic; a brief discussion of the birth of management aids in

focusing and illuminating "contemporary philosophy"; also,

the analysis must proceed in generalities in order to avoid

the trap of non-conforming individualities.

7










The philosophy of business management, or of any

other discipline for that matter, can apparently be best

determined by an investigation of the principles or objec-

tives underlying that discipline. For after all is said,

the philosophy is simply a reflection of fundamental

beliefs, laws, or rules of action which in effect are the

principles. So, clearly stating the meaning of a principle,

one can conclude that it is a "rule of action, a primary or

basic law or doctrine, a fundamental truth." The collective

rules of action or basic doctrines are the philosophy. This

chapter, then, is the culmination of a survey of general

basic principles that underly the practice of _- in

the Armerican corporate community today.

The Emergence of Hanagement

Management: a recent phenomenon

One can rightly say that the study of management is

a recent phenomenon; one can also conclude, after a brief

investigation of historical thought in economic writings,

that there existed not even a remote opportunity for manage-

ment as it is known today to be studied earlier than in

recent history. This is true because the writers and

scientists who influenced the thinking prior to modern times

did not conceive current management. The ideas, beliefs,

and writings of the classical economists discouraged










management and its practice as it is now commonly known as

so did the theory of evolution and the Poor Law of Great

Britain.

The twentieth century brought about the advent of

attitudes and conditions which allowed and condoned socially

responsible management practices. Even though the time of

this occurrence may seem to be astounding, it is really not,

because the behavior of businessmen was entirely consistent

with the basic philosophy dominating business activity. The

dominant philosophy prior to this century was grounded in

"natural laws," and entrepreneurs practiced economic

activity accordingly.

Smith. Malthus. Ricardo

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the busi-

ness practice code was strongly grc~_ied in traditional

thought. (13, p. 8) Adam Smith c.poused a laissez-faire

type of economy with self-interest acting as the "invisible

hand" to best guide social and personal policy. Smith be-

lieved that if everyone were motivated to gain as much as

possible for himself, both in production and in the market-

place, that these actions would enhance the wealth of

nations. This theory held labor as a commodity and that it

should be treated as such, commanding no greater price than

that necessary for maintaining just simple existence.










Malthuc' population theor-y and David Ricardo's "iron

law of .a_ s" gave additional support to early business

ideology. The workingiman was doomed tc live close to a

subsistence level, H-althus maintained, because population

increase would far outstrip production increase and wages;

therefore, wages could not possibly rise much beyond a

maintenance level. The "iron law" further proposed that

wages could never go beyond the amount required for sub-

sistence.

Social Darwinism

Employers and businessmen were economically educated

in these beliefs. The natural order of the universe and the

world was dominant; one should strive to gain the maximum,

giving little r-__rd to other factors. Add to these basic

beliefs Social Darwinism, chat only the fittest survive

whether it be animal or man, and what appears to have been

despicable business attitude becomes the only logical one.

The Poor Law

Preceding twentieth-century management practice was

another factor giving impetus to the traditional philosophy:

the Poor Law. (13, P. 10) As the Law existed in I-gland

from 1854- to the early 1900's, helping the poor was inter-

preted as dc reading and an act that tended to pauperize

them; the La-.: hld that public relief was demoralizing and

simply encouraged "shif-jlessness and indolence." Iny aid











that was given the deprived had t-o be in the form of insti-

tutionalism or relief that came from private agencies;

moreover, all aid emphasized "character.," and only those

individuals who appeared rehabilitable could be helped, the

others being left to survive as best they could.

'Dismal science"

Revolution was apparent from the close of the middle-

ages in both social and economic realms. Agriculture \w:as

giving way to manufacturing and commerce, and the self-

sustaining feudal system was breaking down in favor of

national loyalty and power through the development of new

nation-states. However, popular teachings were constant

reminders that the "natural" principles necessitated maximum

gain, self-interest and "survival of the fittest." It is

hardly surprising that critics referred to the nineteenth-

century economics as the "dismal science"; indeed, this

philosophy was dismal, and it was from such thinking that

modern-day business operation emerged.

Technological Advance

Routine and survival

The theories of the classical economists, Smith,

Malthus and Ricardo, and the theory of Darw-n reflected the

apparent notion that God, through His majestic creation of

the universe and its habitants, had also created a natural

cause-effect relationship that would insure stability and











survival through routine. It seemed that the result of

practicing routine would be balance, Population would

automatically adjust, the meek would be eliminated, and

only the strong would be rewarded.

It is true as the philosoDher Alfred North Whitehead

has recognized, that routine may propagate success so far

as survival-power is concerned. Lou-grade intelligence has

not inhibited the survival-power of some insect societies.

Perhaps some of them have existed for millions of years,

each succeeding generation following the pervading pattern

o' routine "...whose purposes they cannot possibly under-

stand, which yet are essential either for their own

individual survival or for race-survival." (5, p. 26)

Progressiveness

But the insect societies have one common character-

istic which differentiates then from the societies of man-

kind: the insects are not progressive. Progressiveness has

been the hallmark of western civilization and in modern

times, the rate of change, particularly technological

advance, challenges the imagination.

Centuries were required for new technological

inventions before the scientific age, and little significant

technological progress was accomplished from 100 A.D. to

the close of the M-iiddle Ages. (5, p. 27) The following 300

years witnessed great strides in the utilization of gunpowder,











the development of the art of navigation, and the practice

of commerce. (5, P. 27) From 1700 to 1900, the number of

inventions that rushed into effective operation was rela-

tively astounding. Those who have and are living in the

twentieth century have continued to see the evolution of

great technological gains. As mighty and as progressive

as Western civilization was in the first 1,940 years since

Christ, a glimpse of the American industrial community's

recent cuarter-century, 25 years, spectacularly eclipses

all that occurred prior to 1940.

The American competitive system and the second world

war propelled this economy into a fantastic era cf revo-

lutions among revolutions. As with the insect societies,

historically the men of one generation have spent much of

their efforts in preparing for the next generation. As

with the insect societies also, a historical observation is

that succeeding generations have lived substantially among

the conditions that governed the lives of their fathers.

For the young generations of today this assumption is no

longer true.

World War II: economic transition

Prior to the second world war, the American economy

was characterized by a company-oriented philosophy; aeavy

emphasis was placed on production. 'he most popular idea

in management thought even as late as 1950, was to make the










same or a limited number of .products at less cost. Companies

were working toward increased profit by selling more of the

same and producing it more economically when business

activity turned sharply downward in 1929.

Unemployment was at a high rate throughout the decade

of the 1930's; there exists much doubt as to whether re-

covery had occurred by the beginning of the war. Perhaps w-.-hat

the American society was able to accomplish during the war

period was underestimated in the war strategy of the aggres-

sors. A staggering economy characterized by low incomes,

unemployment and idle capacity became a booming economy very

rapidly at the onset of the war. A shortage of labor

quickly developed, and wages rose correspondingly. Incomes

increased so rapidly that public measures were necessary

along with private cooperation to halt potential financial

crisis. Public and private financing allowed capital out-

lays for plant and equipment never before paralleled in

history, and government supported research was responsible

for the development of many innovations in products and

productive techniques.

In retrospect, one sees that the war effort not only

supplied American men with modern -cuipment and supplies but

also can be credited with giving allies gre-t bul:s of

physical goods to support their war participation. In addi-

"-ion, by 1945 as the __d of the conflict approached, the

American consumer was able to some lu.ary items that had











been unavailable since the bginnin of te war. Sur-

prisin-ly enough, the economy has faltered only briefly

since the culmination of Jorld War II, and prosperity has

been continuously present in -merica.

Consumer wealth

This dynamic growth and c:spansion has caused the

!nmerican people to be aptly characterized as affluent. The

average family income has climbed to $6,000; the value of

the annual gross national product now exceeds $600 billion;

-mericans aru producing eight million autor-oA,-es a year.

Typically, the Anmrican home is equipped with work: elini-

nators such as automatic washin machines, clothes dryers,

vacuum cleaners, dish washers and electric can openers.

Radios, television sets, air conditioners and telephones

add to the comfort of living; thro bedrocus, two bathrooms,

a living room, study and playrooc are furnished with an

array of supposedly practical equipment to add to life's

pleasures.

Rescar-ch and development

I-any of America's consumer goods have been developed

only in the last 20 years. Government, institutional and

private spending for research and development of ne-. and

better products is now: approaching C>21 billion a year.

This is 25 times greater than the amount spent for research











and development in 1940, and it is prcxaicted tat the -figur

will reach $28 million by 1970. (28, p. 1)

Manap'em"n'c indis.onsable

'-he operation of an economyy of such preop~_'tion, one

wbhos esscnce of competition is innovation and invention,

has required the dcvelopment of a group of uniuo managers.

Those people have been referred to as a class, an elite, an

economic resource; they have been called professionals, both

as service renderors and tyrants. Regardless of how he is

referred to, the '.nerican corporate manager has successfully

net and coped. !ith a variety of problems and responsibilities

in his new undertaking. These challenges serve to point out

the demand for the cuer-ing group of managers,

Since the turn of the century, management has been in

great demand in this country but over the years, reasons for

shis demand have changed. The economic man myth has given

way to a society that recognizes that Western modern-a::e

spirit is one of organized economic advance. As these ad-

vances have taken place, -anagemont has been charged with

the responsibility of directing the progress, therefore it

may be true to conclude that professional management in

today's economy is in fact indispensable.

Ability and coura-e

The pace of technology is the fundamental factor

making the emergence of management so essential. Business










can no longer be operated as uncor.ncc- d parts but must form

an- integrated system, and oven though great stress is still

put upon p rdcction principles, the creation eaew markets

ras above all in -Jhe recuirocnts of the new managcment.

The business must be internally flexible so as to adapt to

new processes and circumstances anrd to adjust to environ-

mental changes, but it must also maintain structure to allow

and support the maintenance of a soing concern. These

conditions among others such as increased competition, make

it compulsory for the nanag-oont to make decisions reaching

into the future that -.ill ultimately result in failure or

success of the fira.

So the manage ent in this new society, in this age o0

explosive technological revolution must be, individually and

collectively, nan equipped to accomplish the goals set out

before then. They must be armed with tools which give then

the ability and the courage to live profitably in the

present and to forecast adequately in the future; to view

the business situation as a meaningful whole but respect

each part, and to demonstrate the integrity to keep Anerica

moving in the direction of the revolutionary society that

it is.

The Profession of .Management

One can see -chat in less than two centuries, society

as it is known in Anerica has evolveL from beirg an estab-

lished one to an adaptive society. He can also recog~ise










that the rate of change'has become enormously accelerated

in the past 25 years. As this rate of change has become

increasingly accelerated, businessmen have commanded more

and more attention as being instrumental in the fundamental

growth of America.

Family management demise

Typically, the leading firms in the early stages of

an industrial society are family owned, controlled and

managed. However, as the business environment becomes big-

ger and as the management of the firm becomes more complex,

a greater degree of technical competence may be required to

operate the business, and professional managers are employed.

In addition to the decline of family management, technical

professionals are in greater demand due to the public nature

of corporate ownership.

The professional manager's job

The professional manager is employed on the basis of

demonstrated ability or on the basis of specific training

which indicates that he can accomplish the management tasks

in a highly industrialized setting. As has already been

suggested, the professional manager must participate in

planning and innovation, he must coordinate and control, he

must accept risks and handle uncertainties, he must admin-

ister routine supervision. The professional manager may

hold the pinnacle position of director or other top








19

administrative officer or he may be a first line supervisor;

he may be a specialist in such areas as personnel, research

or training, or he may be a member of middle management.

As the need for professional management has become

more widely understood and as economic development has

continued to advance, many companies have outlined the pro-

fessional manager's job. Perhaps it is of interest to see

one company's conception of the duties of the management.

General Electric has stated that managing is a distinct

function and that the professional manager must be conscious

of many facets simultaneously: (7, p. 76)

1. He must be able to persuade, blending thought and
action in decision making.

2. He must be able to plan, organize, integrate and
measure.

3. He is required to effectively utilize all human
and natural resources.

4. The manager must understand and be able to apply
the specific skills required to manage his particu-
lar activity or operation.

5. Professional management must see each component
part as it enhances the whole being managed.


America: a pluralistic society

This writer believes that management as a group is a

powerful and dynamic and leading force in shaping and di-

recting the future of American society. The author also

recognizes that managers, both individually and collectively,










seek power and freedom of operation; however, these propo-

sitions are not to say that professional managers will

dominate the American industrial society.

Management can be only one leading group among many

in America because this is a pluralistic society composed

primarily of political and social interest groups in addi-

tion to the economic segment. (7, p. 84) Even though

there are many examples of business organizations violating

established laws and social ethics, professional management

strongly tends to be serviceable in nature as apposed to

tyrannical. American firms are guided by existing imperfect

competition and public opinion and when they are in oppo-

sition to accepted practices, they may be investigated and

rebuffed legally.

Responsibilities of Management


The American management community is charged with

responsibilities from many directions. It is expected to

conform to the legal framework; it is expected to meet varied

social demands; it is expected, above all perhaps, to avoid

financial loss and to prolongate itself into the future

successfully. One can further visualize the philosophy of

business management by analyzing the major activities of

the organizations in relation to their so-called responsi-

bilities.











Customer-oriented philosophy

It is a plausible suggestion to think that the most

important responsibility of management guiding and deter-

mining its philosophy is that of operating in such a way as

to make profit or to avoid loss. In a dynamic economy as

has been herein envisioned, the accomplishment of this

function for the corporation requires that it undertake to

create customers and to satisfy its market. Therefore

firms today practice as a part of their philosophy, the

marketing or customer-oriented concept.

Productivity

Production should not be thought of as having been

displaced. Indeed, the process of producing goods is more

efficient than ever before in history with emphasis on

efficiency continuing to command great attention. The

process of production, however, is not currently analyzed

in the strict sense of simply making more goods for less

money but is seen as only a part of the whole. As Peter

Drucker suggests, maybe a more fitting term to describe the

practice of management in the production realm is produc-

tivity. This term, productivity, is more useful; it is more

inclusive and refers to increasing profit as a percentage

related to some other element such as sales volume or

investment rather than practicing the philosophy of simply

increasing the production rate.










Innovation

A fundamental principle readily discernible in

corporate outlook today seems to be the recognition that if

one is to grow and expand, it must invest and innovate.

Actually, this recognition applies to the stationary or non-

expanding firm also, for if that company aspires to simply

hold the status quo in industry standing it sees that to

cease innovating and investing will cause it to fall behind

its competitors. New product development, in part or in

total, cannot be over-emphasized as fundamental to success

in this highly industrialized society where practice of the

marketing concept is the focal point of activity.

As the company achieves growth or stability, as the

company creates customers and satisfies markets, as the

company avoids loss, as it practices productivity, it will

also concurrently attempt to utilize its physical and

financial resources to the greatest possible degree. Under-

taking these measurable functions has become a major part of

management philosophy today.

Qualitative philosophy

There has been and is being much said and written

concerning areas of management operation which cannot be

measured as easily as those above. There seems little doubt

that the current professional management is following a

trend of developing management talent for replacement or











growth or both. In addition, management has found it

profitable to recognize the worker and to reward him for his

contribution to the growth of industry. Public responsi-

bility also has found favor with management, and management

practices are not generally against public sentiment but

with it.

It is important to remember that generally the

management group is still comprised of employees and that

although the welfare of the manager rests with the results

of his efforts, his social responsibilities as a manager

are essentially the same as his social responsibilities as

an individual. Management and firms operate for profit;

any substitute reasoning would be silly, but they, in

addition to working for the owners, are also working for

the labor force, communities, and for society as a whole,

as well as for themselves.

Conclusion

Social responsibility

Undoubtedly, much of the contemporary business

practice philosophy is a result of necessity. Certainly

such powers as the federal and local governments, the labor

unions and competition are strong influences. Stockholders

surely motivate professional managers, too. All these

factors on top of self-interests are necessary if this











industrial society is to survive, but management has gone

further. Management is also, in America today, practicing

a philosophy that is socially responsible.

That social responsibility can be said to influence

every decision that is made by the contemporary manager.

He must keep his own enterprise successful and profitable

in the present and at the same time, he must make decisions

that bring about growth and prosperity or failure in the

future. Mr. Drucker maintains that if the manager of today

fails to accomplish the above that capital is destroyed and

that resources have been impaired and utilized unproduc-

tively. Regardless of the position of the manager, his

philosophy today is achieving greater productivity while

simultaneously assuring the future. In achieving these

goals, professional management practices methods of manage-

ment which are in keeping with the technological revolution

progress and the needs and demands of the American society.













CHAPTER III


IMAGERY, THE CONSUMER, AND THE INSTITUTION

Introduction


The image is considered here not as a property of

the human but an extension of the organization. Environ-

mental information, human thinking and imagery, and the

institution and its image are the basic ideas presented in

this chapter. These areas have been investigated with the

intention of commercial application, and the presentation

has been designed with this objective claiming foremost

recognition.

Society is basically composed of three distinct

areas: individuals, groups to which individuals belong,

and organizations or institutions. The organizations seem

to be reflections of the individuals who compose them, and

groups appear to attract people who, although being dis-

tinct individuals, also are characterized by some homo-

geneous traits.

Groups and organizations develop characteristics

which tend to identify them as "individuals" also; in addi-

tion, groups and organizations, as well as individuals,

develop and can be identified by "personality" traits.

These assumptions allow one to proceed with the analysis

25








26

on a humanized basis which in essence is the premise of the

thesis: that organizations as well as groups and individuals

are perceived as being "alive."

The association between and the understanding of the

existence and activity of these various entities is often

misunderstood by other bodies. Perhaps a part of this mis-

understanding is due to poor communication between the

components. Therefore, the writer undertakes in this

chapter to analyze and evaluate the image, which seems to

be a fundamental concept involved in the communication

process.

Organization Informational Concept


Static structures

Organizations, structures, and institutions vary from

the extremely simple in movement, guidance and perception,

to the extremely complex. The brain, especially that of the

human, is probably the most difficult structural body to

understand; relatively simple structures of organization are

envisioned in the jig-saw puzzle and the clock. The jig-saw

puzzle and the clock represent structures that are static

or stationary formations; the individual parts of such

structures are connected and organized in such a way that

identical patterns of activity are followed each time a full

cycle is accomplished. The clock parts move in repeated

sequences due to individual parts being interrelated in











unique patterns, and the puzzle "fits" as a result of dis-

tinct connectedness. There is no information concept

involved in the static organization of the puzzle or clock

mechanism.1

As the analysis progresses beyond the level of

static organizations, the concept of organizational infor-

mation assumes great importance. The thermostat can serve

to represent what can be considered to be the most rudi-

mentary level of organization which is sensitive to

environmental information. The thermostat is a mechanism

that has the ability to react to certain stimuli that may

be present in its environment. The thermostat is capable

of operating due to the combination of several factors.

"Facts," the receptor, the control and the effector act in

combination with information as communication or feedback

to cause the mechanism to be effective. The receptor upon

being exposed to environmental conditions receives informa-

tion or "facts" which it in turn relays to a control system;

the control then acts to send the message on to the effector,

here a furnace; the effector then initiates action in

response to the message. (2, p. 20)


1The origin of many thoughts in this chapter is
difficult to determine, for identical or similar ideas may
be read in several sources. However, where material is
directly transferred, the attempt is made to give proper
recognition.










"Feedback": environmental information

It is pertinent to recognize and to emphasize that

conditions in the environment exercise ultimate control

over the action that is taken by the effector, and that as

a result of feedback, the receptor essentially becomes aware

that the effector has received the proper message and is

acting upon that information. Another example of reaction

to environmental information can be taken from the biologi-

cal level of activity. The paramecium, obviously a simple

form of animal life, appears to be unaware of its environ-

ment. But this unconscious, tiny bit of substance is not

completely unresponsive to stimuli. When a dark colored

liquid is splashed or sprayed in the direction of the small

organism, it does react. The reaction is one of recoiling

or withdrawing; this action indicates response to a

situational stimulus. (2, p. 39)

Mechanisms can be made by human ingenuity to have and

to conform to an "image"; botanical and biological levels

of life have been observed reacting to stimuli on an apparent

"instinct" basis; higher forms of animal life seem to avoid

danger and pain,thus indicating the possession of precon-

ceived expectations of results of given behavior. The human

being possesses every capability which characterizes lower

levels of life; however, the human is classed alone as a

result of his having the ability to think rationally and

to make use of logic.











Human Imagery and Cognition


The task of searching out and presenting structured

definitions is tedious and technical but is necessary to

substantiate that the human is the only organism capable of

such mental activity. The presentation also serves to

support image theory that is to be subsequently discussed.

Cognition

Cognition has been defined by psychologists as "the

means whereby organisms achieve, retain and transform

information." (6, P. 92) Cognition is the term used to

summarize certain conscious mental activities; it is "a

generic term for any process whereby an organism becomes

aware or obtains knowledge of an object. . .It includes

perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging, reasoning."

(6, P. 92) Webster's Dictionary states that cognition is:

1. Act or faculty of knowing; knowledge, perception.

2. a. The process of knowing; any mental operation by
which we become aware of objects of thought or per-
ception; knowledge or the capacity for it.

b. A product of this process, as a perception or
notion; as a priori cognitions.

Factors in thinking

Cognition is but one of the functions of thinking,

but in relation to human imagery, perhaps it is the most

influential function which affects the image process. One











dictionary of psychological terms states that, "In most

systems, cognition, affection, and conation are the three

categories under which all mental processes are classified.

(6, P. 93) David Russell proposes a general theory of the
thinking process and says that when thinking is studied as

a whole, it should include four main factors:

1. The materials of thinking such as sensations, per-
ceptions, memories, images, and concepts.

2. Motives for thinking: the feelings, needs, attitudes,
and habits of thought acquired earlier which help
initiate and determine the direction of thinking.

3. Processes in thinking: patterns of activity such as
selecting, eliminating, searching, manipulating and
organizing, which vary from relatively undirected
thinking through inductive thinking to problem
solving, critical thinking and discovery.

4. Abilities in thinking: the habits, techniques, and
guides to thinking which can be acquired and de-
veloped by children and by others who desire to
improve their thinking. (12, p. 8)

Lower animals and the human

The cognitive processes and the "factors" in thinking

differentiate the human from other forms of animal life.

In addition to being differentiated by cognitive and

thinking characteristics, the dimensions of animal and human

environmental awareness differ substantially. Man's think-

ing and mental processes are greatly influenced by intima-

tions and emotions; he finds himself in differing moods of

varying degrees. Man is frequently elated, depressed,

happy, inspired, sad. Do other animals experience similar










moods? Undoubtedly some do. The dog frequently demon-

strates happiness when his master appears, and as the master

approaches and touches the dog, one might conclude that the

usual surging movement of the dog's tail indicates even

strong elatedness. Surely most animals do not experience

all of the emotional moods of man and certainly not to as

broad a degree. Dimensions of man's environment are further

complicated by observing that the human is also aware of his

location in "space, time, personal relations and nature."

(2, p. 4)

Brain functions

Many theories have been put forth which may be useful

for demonstrating significant differences in instinctive and

rational behavior. Specifically suited for this illustra-

tion are analogies between the brain and a "map control

room" and a "cognitive map" can be beneficially analyzed to

demonstrate the complexity and superiority of the brain

organization. Messages received in the mentality of some

animals elicit behavior which appears to result instinct-

ively. One might assume that the brain activity of such

animals is similar to a simple switchboard concept. Thus,

the results of incoming stimuli are connected by simple one-

to-one plug-ins to outgoing responses. The human brain

activity, the process of logic and rationality, can be

thought of as resembling a central control room. In this










control room, incoming impulses are analyzed and elaborated

into a "tentative, cognitive-like map" of the outer environ-

ment. This tentative "map" is ultimately responsible for

determining what responses, if any, will finally be released.

(9, p. 8)

The creative aspect of the "cognitive map" can be

further illustrated through an analysis of the animal

passing through a maze. The animal, once it has been ex-

posed to the obstacles and has overcome them successfully,

can safely negotiate the maze even under different circum-

stances. The conclusion is that the animal has learned as

a result of his having perceived spatial relationships in

the maze rather than having learned a series of movements.

(14, p. 15)

Human imagery

Conceptually, one is aware that higher levels of

intelligence in living organisms culminate in the mental

ability of the human mind and being. The general superiority

of the human thinking process seems to be greatly influenced

by the fact that he cognitively perceives, that his mind

embodies and can recapture perceptual experiences, and that

the accumulation of continued association with certain per-

ceptions allows logic and rationality to occur. This

superior mental process is characterized by man's retaining,

organizing and manipulating mental representations; the










mental representations occur to the individual as pictures

or as images or concepts. (1, p. 188)

The image or mental thought process is an internal

conglomeration of things and events, of relationships and

classifications and here, in one's image or "mind's eye,"

is represented one's experiences, including goal-objects,

overt responses to the goals, and the resulting reinforce-

ment impressions. Thus it can be said that human behavior

is dependent on the image and that the image is his total

world or the knowledge of the world; the image appears to

be the intermediary factor between motivating messages and

behavioral responses./

The value system

Technical mechanisms such as the thermostat are

regulated by a value control, and the value is some ideal

condition. The automatic machine like the thermostat is a

machine which cannot in and of itself be altered. The

human, however, learns as a result of the information taken

in from his environment, and the human alone possesses the

ability to arrange and organize information into complex

abstract images. Concepts are the basis for the creation

and maintenance of the image, and together, concepts and

images serve to create within the individual a system of

hierarchial values. Goal-objects seem to be interpreted in

light of features of past experience which are brought to










bear on the current stimulus through the process of manipu-

lating concepts and perceptions.

Messages or facts

\From the many dimensions of existence, man is

constantly flooded with facts or messages which influence

his behavior or which are merely designed to influence his

behavior. The information received is consequently filtered

through his system of hierarchial values; this process,

depending on the degree and extent of prior experiences,

may have occurred many times previously in this same

individual. The messages are linked to concurrent behavior

of the person and that behavior represents the conclusion

of the systematic and consistent image manipulation of the

organism. It should be emphasized that so-called "facts"

and simple messages deserve no differentiation in relation

to one's image of an environmental situation. The two can

and should be used interchangeably and synonymously because

to one's image, either simply constitutes information.

Significance can be attached exclusively to the resulting

behavior and this behavior occurs only after the messages

have been filtered through the hierarchy of values and

interpreted within the framework of a complex structure of

concepts.

Apparently most of the multi-variety of messages to

which the human is exposed do not affect his image. When the








35

messages do bring about changes in the image, most of they

changes seem to take the form of simple additions to the

already existing compound of concepts, Although some

messages may bring about revolutionary changes in the image,

it seems that most messages serve to substantiate the image,

making it less certain or more certain, clearer or inducing

skepticism. (2, p. 8) When changes in the image do occur,

external behavior can be expected -o change similarly.

With the analysis and acceptance of the value system

proposition, it is clear that the image acts as a field

governing one's behavior; this conclusion leads to the

belief that the individual self then continually gravitates

toward its most highly valued part of the field and that

this gravitation results in predictable behavior.

Economic Behavior

Habitual behavior

It has been stated that possibly as much as 80 per

cent of human activity may be considered to be habitual.

This suggestion is significant in that habitual activities

are difficult to change because they are the result of

strongly imprinted patterns of reinforcement; habitual be-

havior flows from one's image with little active value

analysis. Man is engrossed in the cyclical phenomenon of

time, and he tends to follow a pervading pattern. Perhaps

these recognition partially explain why frequently a










majority of many retail stores' sales represent repeat

business. Images persist and people resist change as a

result of other factors also. For instance, society and the

commercial organization constantly reiterate messages which

may encourage the individual to resist change.

"Laws" of economic behavior

The image held by individuals bears heavily on be-

havior, and this factor is of extreme importance to the

commercial organization. In attempting to understand the

relationship that exists between human imagery and the

organization, one can look to Boulding for further support

in the area of humans resisting change. He gives two "laws"

of economic behavior:

1. One does what he did yesterday unless there are very
good reasons for doing otherwise.

2. Good reasons which are necessary if one does not do
today what he did yesterday are derived mainly from
dissatisfaction with what he did yesterday or with
what happened to him yesterday. (2, pp. 186-187)

Bruce Weale continues Boulding's suggestion in

pointing out that future business with the same customer is

dependent on the continuous satisfaction of the relationship

of her image to price, quality, and service.

Image: a human perception

I It is entirely necessary for an understanding of this

analysis of the individual, his imagery, and its relation to










the institution, that one be fully cognizant that the image

is a human perception. Organizations are quite simply re-

flections of those people who influence their growth and

existence. However, caution must be exercised when broach-

ing the subject of organizational image, for even though

the organization does possess a sort of self-consciousness

through its influential "agents," the image is never the

property of the organization. The image is an exclusive

property of the individual. Organizations may propound

highly esteemed ideological goals, and organizations may

constantly purport to maintain a false image; however,

people show little interest in abstract commercial ideology.

Pragmatism and logic based on believable messages, positive

association and creative feedback interpretation lead to

the development of the organization image in the mind of

the individual. (23, pp. 40-41)7

Imagery and Institutional Success


Personality and self-expression

SAlthough the organization does not possess an image

of its own, there does seem to exist somehow in the field

of organization an analogy to the phenomenon of self-

consciousness. This self-consciousness is related to the

image of the organization and when the self-consciousness

and the public image are identical, then one might say that

1,C -6 ///T /C/< 31V










those who participate in it or are related to the organi-

zation share the conscious awareness of the institution./

One definition of an organization maintains that the

organization is simply "a structure of roles tied together

by lines of communication." (2, p. 27) Following this

definition it can be recognized that it is essential for

every individual in any organization to fit and to play a

certain role. As the numerous roles which are played by

various individuals become combined and synthesized, the

self-consciousness or image of each role must be consistent

with the total image of the organization. ) ,

Consumer association and attraction

The very livelihood of the organization is dependent

on how well the roles are played; consumer behavior demands

that every role be played distinctively and significantly.

Upon analysis, one becomes aware that the individual must

also have an image of himself, and surely it is true that

overt behavior is conditioned in many ways. Social forces

and group associations may be the two most powerful moti-

vating factors which underlie goal-object behavior. In

addition, many think that the individual tends to associate

with others who appear to possess similar characteristics

to those held in the image of one's self. 1'

The individual is also governed by many fears and

anxieties. (19, p. 9) He has a high degree of sensitivity










to what seems to be logically appropriate. As one is ex-

posed to experiences, he creates inner ideals; he then

strives to uphold these measures for he does not want to be

untrue to himself although he probably is afraid that he

will be. The individual apparently strives to appear loyal,

to identify, and to avoid seeming foolish or strange. There

seems to be little question that society often penalizes

those who appear to be "out of character"; therefore,

individuals find it necessary to act in a "fitting" manner;

a manner that must not only be appropriate to the image

that one holds of himself, but a manner that is also fitting

to others in his social environment. (19, p. 9)

Mirrored image

The final expression of roles that create an organi-

zation is in the services, brands, and products which are

produced by that organization. The products and brands

seem to have personalities of their own, while all of the

facets together create a company or organization personality.

In personal relations similar personalities often are

attracted to each other, and perhaps a like conclusion can

be drawn from organization and human relationships:

organization, product and brand personalities attract. people

of similar personalities. The person seems to be seeking

self-expression in every act; in the commercial setting,

Bruce Weale says that consumer desires and ambitions are










expressed in "every selection" as well as in the "total

patronage motive." (25, p. 40) Although it cannot be con-

cluded that the image is the sole determinant of consumer

patronage, it seems that one can safely say that the

consumer does tend to patronize the organization that cor-

responds to her own self-conception or self-image. 0

Logical appropriateness

The appropriateness of consumer activities is derived

by the individual from a complexity of factors. It has

already been stated that people who appear "out of char-

acter" or out of place in their activity or interaction may

be penalized; reprimands may come from within themselves,

from their peers or from employees or individuals of the

organization. When the individual maintains associations

that are expected of him, however, and when his actions

bring positive reinforcement of expectations based on his

image, the image will probably continue to persist. ro

Image persistence

Even strong images, however, can be damaged or des-

troyed if the person is disappointed in the results of his

patronage behavior. Dorothy Diamond studied women shoppers

to discover some of their feelings toward commercial

organizations. (16, p. 93) She found that women want the

store management and employees to treat them with respect

and to recognize them as individuals; that the American










woman prefers a progressive yet pragmatic company, and that

women want the company to have a distinctive personality.

No difference was attached to various ethnic, race, income

or class groups in the Diamond study, so the conclusions

above are stated under this consideration. It is maintained

here that, in general, women have relatively the same basic

desires regardless of the class or prestige of the store

which they usually patronize. (

Commercial organizations are strongly aware of the

spending that is accounted for in America by women. To

this end, the progressive organization constantly attempts

to substantiate and reiterate the desired image in the mind

of the public. The Diamond study found, however, that many

of the messages directed at women shoppers were often con-

sidered by the shoppers to be insulting. Advertisements

often mislead the consumer by advertising "specials that

are not specials," by presenting advertisement sketches

which prove to be deceiving, and by claiming that clerks

are warmhearted, helpful friends when actually they appear

to be tired-footed grouches being persecuted by having to

"work" for a living. Many companies fail to achieve the

distinctive personality with American women by failing to

present practical identification symbols. Criticism has

been leveled at companies who expect the average American

woman to identify with "models, movie stars, and cooing,

gurgling babies." (16, p. 95)










The Institution and Feedback


"Central Agents"

Superior communication skills and highly intellectual

utilization of feedback have enabled man to extend the image

process much further than lower animal societies. Not only

have these factors made possible orderly growth and develop-

ment within the individual and in his personal relationships,

they have also led to the development of large and complex

commercial organizations.

As has been suggested previously, each of these

organizationsdiffers not only in complexity but also in

type, size and character. The character and behavior of

the organization are determined by one "most important

person" or a small group, and the decisions of the "central

agents" are the basic factors upon which the character of

the company is established. "Central agents" may of course

fail to determine the behavior of the organization, and

it is completely plausible to think that the "agents" or

executives achieve various degrees of success in controlling

organizational behavior. Nevertheless, it appears valid to

conclude that the chief executive or small group is able to

determine the organization's behavior to the extent that

the central group is capable of entering into the imagina-

tion and lives of others. (2, p. 27)











Leadership styles

Common styles of leadership that appear where

authority is present within a group have been called authori-

tarian, laissez-faire, and democratic. Rather than under-

taking a detailed discussion of the advantages and disad-

vantages of each style as applied in the commercial setting,

the objective here is to analyze and to caution against the

utilization of the authoritarian style of management or

leadership in the corporation. The importance of environ-

mental information or feedback to the initiator of messages

that lead to activity has already been emphasized. This

idea, however, deserves strong re-emphasis, particularly

in light of commercial activity. Sound decisions must be

considered those decisions that result in economic ex-

changes which allow satisfactory profit to the company and

ample satisfaction and positive reinforcement to the patron.

The danger in the authoritarian type management is that

decisions may be made that prove to be erroneous based on

the above criteria of company profit and customer satis-

faction. Possibly these decisions would have been different,

therefore, more sound, had they been made within a different

type of management orientation.

Authoritarian Management

When the adult individual is in such a mental state

that he is incapable of and does not possess the skill to










communicate his image into some other individual's mental

imagination, the psychologist says that he is insane. There

exist many types and various degrees of insanity; it may be

the result of one's having false perceptions or seeing

pictures or images in the mind's eye of things which do not

exist in reality. In people this particular sickness is

only a mild form of insanity, and the false perceptions are

referred to as hallucinations. However, people are not

alone in suffering hallucinations, and it is not infrequent

that organizations may demonstrate this type of insanity

also.

Feedback

With a democratic perspective, individuals who ful-

fill the higher roles act in behalf of those individuals

who staff the lower positions. However, authoritarian

structures tend to ignore the lower level staff as well as

customer reaction. Where the democratic structure not only

allows but encourages agreement or decision adjustment and

modification, the authoritarian tyrant may make little

satisfactory and probably no constructive criticism. Self-

orientation has been the doom of many commercial organiza-

tions and where feedback is controlled, indeed, discouraged,

nothing appears to be more damaging or defeating. The

customer-employee oriented corporation, most likely the

democratic one, thrives on feedback while the authoritarian

firm is likely to deplore it.










Wroe Alderson has stated: "The greatest value of

motivation research is to get people to try a product (or

service or brand) but they'd surely better be able to

continue to buy it on a rational basis." (22, p. 68) A

consumer buying behavior study in 1961 ranked the factors

which most frequently caused customers to refuse to buy:

(21,p.30)

1. Unsatisfactory goods.
2. False and misleading advertising.
3. Lack of salesmen's attention.
4. Unsatisfactory product
5. Store reputation.

Four of these five noted factors exist possibly as examples

of Mr. Alderson's contention.

Deterioration

The spoils of autocratic leadership tend to saturate

the entire organization and to breed dissatisfaction with

consumers. Employees become "yes men," and consequently

their information may be unreliable; therefore, it is likely

that higher level authority suffers from the hallucination

of an unreal image. It perhaps sees loyalty where there is

none or it may interpret customer satisfaction when in

actuality the company's market climate is deteriorating.

Organization insanity may take the form of espousing

customer orientation, customer satisfaction, and market

oriented concepts when in fact the "central agent" may think

and act on a company oriented policy and follow a










self-centered course. Kenneth Boulding maintains that such

an organization is eventually incapable of self-support and

will "disintegrate."

Conclusion

When Columbus sailed toward America in search of a

new sea route to the West Indies, his thinking was in

opposition to the majority of perceptions concerning the

shape of the world. Only so-called heretics believed as

Columbus did, that the world was round instead of flat, but

regardless of differences of opinion, the images or percep-

tions that the people held were clear; the concept or

symbol representing the earth in the individuals' conscious

activity was vivid.

Characteristically this seems to be true of images.

They are clear perceptions to their perceivers; however,

the result of behavior based on an image, even though the

expectation may be clear, may be surprising. It is the

anticipated result of economic behavior with which the com-

mercial organization should be vitally concerned.

Man has always lived in a perplexing state, and

perhaps the complexities of living in a highly industrialized,

relatively affluent society tend to increase his anxiety and

frustration. Unresolved internal conflict seems to abound

freely; therefore, apparently causing all consumer decisions

to be of an interim nature. Probably all consumer decisions











are interim to the extent that alternative opportunities

for behavior are present, and one can conclude, as does

Advertising Age magazine, that these alternatives will always

be present in this society because commercial advertising

accompanies or is concomitant to a highly industrialized

state. (26, p. 3) Elaborating on this concept, Advertising

Age states that, indeed, advertising has as its objective

the creation within an individual of a tension system; a

tension complex which can be solved only by the purchase

and use of the advertised benefit.

Dynamics of behavior analyzed in terms of mental

imagery present many difficulties; attempting to analyze an

abstraction is always rigorous. Images seemingly can be

compared only with other images but regardless of the

apparent obstacles, the implications of such an analysis

are significant to the commercial organization.

The profit oriented institution should recognize that

consumers predict results of their behavior and that the

image is confirmed or modified by actual results of behavior.

Of course only positive reinforcement or modification is

desired, but many firms elicit negative image modifications,

reaping as a consequence, lost or dissatisfied customers

who tend to communicate their images to other people.

Surely it behooves the commercial organization to consider

the significance of imagery as it affects the individual,

the group, and the firm.












CHAPTER IV


PUBLIC SUPERMARKETS, INC: CONCEPTION, PHILOSOPHY, GROWTH

Introduction


America has long been characterized as a country

possessing an abundance of opportunity. A tradition was

established by those men at Plymouth Rock which has been

sustained through the years of American growth and develop-

ment. Numerous statesmen have exemplified the American

spirit; business and industrial moguls have not been less

important in demonstrating the achievement of the fabled

"American Pioneer." Carnegie, Rockefeller, Strauss, Penney,

Du Pont, Westinghouse are some of the names associated with

commercial success. The pioneer in American industry has

truly broken new ground. He has led the world in taking

advantage of and contributing to technological developments.

His contribution in techniques and concepts have also been

recognized. Contemporary economics and social protocol

subtly demand of American citizens that tradition be upheld;

that continuation of the pioneering spirit be ever present

as a continuation of the American path to success. One man

appearing in the face of this challenge was George Jenkins.


1Information in this chapter has been gleaned from
published company reports and from interviews with execu-
tives. Needless duplication is eliminated by this recog-
nition. Copies of the reports, interviews, and correspon-
dence are on file. 48
48











Origin of the Publix Corporation

Land speculation was a phenomenon which attracted

great wealth to the state of Florida in the early twentieth

century. This land boom also beckoned many people; they

came with the hope of riches and wealth, and they often

came with meager or no resources except themselves. George

Jenkins was one of those who came to Florida seeking

affluence; he began his career with only nine dollars.

Jenkins: store clerk to manager

Within a week after arriving in Tampa,Florida, George

Jenkins had taken advantage of his previous work experience,

and had secured a job as a clerk in a Tampa grocery store.

His father had operated a general store in Georgia, and

Jenkins had worked in the store prior to his coming to

Florida. After one month of employment as a clerk, Mr.

Jenkins was promoted to store manager and shortly thereafter

was transferred to manage another store in Winter Haven,

Florida.

George Jenkins continued to work and in the passing

weeks and months accumulated a savings account. After two

years had elapsed, he had saved five hundred dollars. During

the year 1930, when Jenkins was nineteen years old, the

grocery chain which employed him was sold. The new manage-

ment, as Mr. Jenkins says today, was "more interested in

playing golf than in satisfying customers" so Jenkins

decided to open his own store.











Jenkins' early management philosophy

The primary driving force which encouraged the opening

of a competing store and which led to the formation of the

Publix Corporation, was Jenkins' displeasure with the manage-

ment methods imposed upon him by the new owners. When his

employer insisted that Jenkins, as store manager, employ

tactics and policies smacking of dishonesty and low ethics,

George Jenkins espoused complete honesty and fairness to

both employees and customers. He wanted to reward employees

with growth, and fair compensation, and to allow the

customer complete satisfaction.

Jenkins opens own store

With his total savings of five hundred dollars, and

as a result of a decision not to purchase an automobile,

George Jenkins opened a small grocery store in 1950. The

store, known as "George's," was located in the storebuilding

adjoining that of his former employer. Having been in

Winter Haven two years, Jenkins was well known; "George's"

volume of sales was heavy from the store's inception, and

success was immediate. Sales volume in the first full year

of operation was approximately $105,000. In 1932, a second

store was opened by Jenkins; it was the beginning of a new

corporation. The company was formally entitled Publix Food

Stores Corporation and became known as the Publix Corporation

or simply as Publix.











A Management Philosoohy Develops


Jenkins' original employees

Throughout the decade of the 1930's, three and some-

times four men constituted the work force of Jenkins and

Publix. The original employees remained in their jobs and

in close association with Jenkins for the eight to ten years

following their employment. Mr. Jenkins now believes that

the close working relationship of these men with himself

during the early years of the Publix Corporation was basic

to the success that the company has experienced. As a

result of group decisions present in the management policies

of Jenkins, the original group eventually thought alike and

held common principles. The employees became instilled

with the Jenkins' attitudes toward customers and subordi-

nates.

Publix' original customers

The original store "George's," continued to produce

a satisfactory sales volume throughout the 1930's. Gross

sales ranged between $100,000 and $110,000 annually during

the period. Jenkins had approached the opening of his store

with customer satisfaction as a major concern; the impor-

tance of this period in the history of Publix is emphasized

again in the customer-employee-manager relationship that

existed during the decade.











Mr. Jenkins associated closely with his customers

in his original store. His continuous contact with customers

allowed Jenkins to observe problems encountered by the

customers; the close contact also showed to Jenkins and his

employees the attitudes possessed by customers. Being able

to discuss and observe shopping habits and customer problems

and attitudes helped George Jenkins to further formulate

and define his beliefs concerning the operation of grocery

stores; his management philosophy became refined.

Objectives restated

By the late 1930's Mr. Jenkins believed more strongly

than ever that the success or failure of the corporation lay

in the customer and personnel policies. His original think-

ing in terms of fairness and service was strongly reinforced

during this period, and the fundamental elements of his

philosophy became clearly defined during the decade of the

1930's. Perhaps one can conclude that those years spent

managing "George's" were the most important years in George

Jenkins' business experience, for apparently those were the

years when he was able to develop and nurture his management

philosophy.

Fundamentally, the Publix Corporation was built on

the basis of fair treatment to people. Jenkins concluded

that people and personal relationships were more important

in his industry than was even food. He believed that Publix











could grow and prosper as long as the consumer could com-

pletely trust and have faith in the store and the management.

Growth and prosperity would result as long as the consumer

was given the satisfaction for which she paid; as long as

she experienced satisfactory benefits from the total trans-

action.

Personnel management constituted the second major

element in Mr. Jenkins' philosophy. Workers should also

get the best possible result from their experience with

Jenkins and Publix. Remuneration would take the form of

autonomous supervision, growth and security in the form of

internal promotion and profit sharing, and an amount of

direct income limited only by the revenue and profit reali-

zations of the company.

Mass merchandising popularized

Volatile economic activity resulted in depressed

business conditions in the early 1930's. Incomes of con-

suming units dwindled and in many instances disappeared.

Consumers became extremely price conscious and merchants

became increasingly cost conscious. One apparent outgrowth

of the price and cost conscious attitudes was mass merchan-

dising; particularly attracted to zhe mass merchandising

method were businesses distributing food items to the con-

suming public. The most attractive locations for low price,

mass distribution of food items were areas of heavy











population; consequently, the advent and growth of mass-

merchandised food occurred primarily in the Northeastern

United States. Cities such as New York and Philadelphia

were attractive market areas. Mr. Jenkins was interested

in observing the method of mass merchandising food items,

so in the late 1930's he toured some large northern cities

for the express purpose of a personal view and evaluation

of mass food distribution.

Mass merchandised food

George Jenkins' observations were both exciting and

disappointing to him. He saw that merchants had large

supplies of individual items in stock and that the number

of clerks had been significantly reduced. In the place of

many employees, customers were invited to and did make their

personal selections from open counters. Self-service left

a positive impression on Jenkins. But in order to observe

the customers shopping for mass-merchandised food items,

the Publix originator found that he had to travel to loca-

tions which were usually in hard to reach areas. Besides

being located inconveniently, Mr. Jenkins was also disap-

pointed to find that the physical plants were nothing more

than old rundown, ill-kept buildings, usually deserted

factory or warehouse buildings.

The buildings were dimly lighted and often dirty;

they were usually uncomfortable due to poor ventilation and











inadequate heating and cooling conditions. Equipment inside

the buildings was not better. At best shelves were con-

structed of old boards attached on cans or boxes; frequently,

the crate or box in which the product was shipped served

to dispense it. Neither the buildings nor the equipment

paralleled the Jenkins' philosophy of giving the customer

the most possible satisfaction in her shopping experience.

Jenkins' first supermarket

George Jenkins' conception of the ideal supermarket

building differed significantly from the physical food

distribution centers which he observed in the large cities.

Upon his return to Winter Haven, Jenkins called in archi-

tects and together they finalized plans for the first Publix

supermarket. When the plans were presented to bankers, some

of the financiers referred lightly to the plans as "George's

marble, glass and stucco food palaces." (29, p. 4 )

Subsequently Jenkins' concept of the building became known

as the :.-arble Palace." Mr. Jenkins was confident that the

housewife desired a pleasant atmosphere in which to buy

groceries. By selling both of the original scores and

mortgaging an orange grove that he had purchased during the

depression, Jenkins had his first "food palace" constructed

in Winter Haven in 1940.











The "Marble Palace"

The building was suited to carrying out Jenkins'

policy of providing a pleasant atmosphere and of providing

satisfaction to the consumer by experiencing benefits

offered by Publix. The building was characterized by large

areas of glass and block, and there were numerous lighting

fixtures installed to compliment a bright, airy atmosphere.

The building was air-conditioned and equipped with self-

opening, automatic doors; only the most modern equipment

furnished the building, and it included a frozen food

cabinet and piped music. Jenkins believed that each of

these factors contributed to enhancing the comfort and

pleasure of the customer. Cleanliness, neatness, comfort,

customer pleasure: these features highlighted the Jenkins'

innovation in supermarketing.

Growth of Publix Food Stores CorDoration

A nucleus for expansion

The Publix Food Stores Corporation had begun to form

a nucleus of management in the two original stores operating

in Winter Haven between 1930 and 1940. Also developed by

1940 was a distinct operating philosophy which was put into

practice in the first Publix supermarket. The sale of the

two original stores and the construction of the Winter Haven

"IMarble Palace" signaled the beginning of corporate growth

for Publix and of personal growth for George Jenkins.











Original expansion for the company was a slow process.

Most materials were being used in the war effort until after

1945, and, as a result, plans for expansion remained only

plans, but the future for Publix brightened significantly

in 1945. The purchase of two food distributing firms enhanced

the development of the corporation. In order for Publix to

enlarge, three assets were immediately necessary: a wholesale

distribution facility for grocery items, an additional number

of retail outlets, and a moro experienced management team to

staff the organization. All three additions were accom-

plished through acquisition in 1945.

The Lakeland Wholesale Company provided the basic

physical link between retail outlet and supplier; the All

American Grocery Company added a chain of stores to the

Public organization, and the two purchases together resulted

in the inclusion of "several good men" with grocery experi-

ence. With addition of this group and in cooperation with

the original group of Jenkins' workers, a sound management

nucleus was formed. Now growth and expansion were at hand.

Decade of decision

The retail outlets acquired as the All American Grocery

Company were gradually replaced by "Marble Palace" model

buildings as materials became more plentiful and available

after the second world war. By 1951, the Publix Corporation

was employing 700 people, was operating 24 supermarkets; it














Se t'.ods andaplosoh of t1ic hpblL-: :ic ~ gc: :~



ties and -,-arket- 9 ro achoc. a -o _st 3,au of oHrton -aj or

decisions had.~ to b_- ma co:cc~rix- t"-e arut:-)~a Lcoan-

Sion ofV tsCCM-Oy..

A a~oC.anaiysis of io ~o otentia_ 4-r- t.,E;

stuat-Ue of felori,.ca r-ovcalc. Mht any now i,d-~ st.:-ioz

movins irnto t-he s-*V--Lo J2; .ld2.st:.jcs zu3--lenmc:2ted t.e
i..e-al r~eo23cor-ditL-ios of stC cDo. I' -o.-s also d-i*s-

cove.rca tUhatU' --*- 195'19 the:ze ..c!~..3 ;z~z es'c.~

m o v i L -.-o PI o I i a- eac 0 oti a2. 11 a) El v-

-Facilities to su-o-oort a grfi~ssraktch-a--a -oresen.tod.

no s-oec--a.- -o:obl:o_. l-l -: 6.c i icz s or c t--- e __ub1 li

Pooa. Stores Ccrpora-.io~ could. acnd. :o-auf.1 o

"F -Pty by xr'

rr'-e goala es ua'-,-,iSh ed. --'cr 3: -v- ye ar2s o f a oxs -L0-

frc= 1951 to 1961 was t~o have bt*soo 'o~a.o y

1960, Te C o a 1 w as -pt -aizt-Ln"o t hD sa 3 ,?m t-y b y s ixt'y;

by the bo;-nfn- o-*' 1962- t"ic roj-- hacd b-z-n. 'rzras

as 's *'jt~t~5 y the folowz"- igrs (2 9 6-7

_~~~~~ t~be o o1 c ~ ~ cSCzs..S
195124 ~ 672 :j 2285::
10,51 532c:018~---6











The Publix Corporation has continued to increase the

number of supermarket outlets, to employ a greater number

of people, and to realize more sales revenue. In addition,

the central distribution center located in Lakeland has

undergone changes toward increased and more efficient service.

Publix CorDoration today

The corporation continues to expand today. The

company now has in excess of 100 supermarkets in operation,

employs over 5,400 employees, and realizes in excess of

$250 million in annual sales volume. The company is now

divided into two divisions in Florida the Southern and

Northern divisions. The Southern division is served from

central warehouses located in Miami while the Northern

division continues to be served by central supply houses

located at the company headquarters in Lakeland. In addi-

tion to creating warehouse facilities in Niami, warehouse

facilities in Lakeland have undergone five major construction

projects in the last twelve years increasing the facility to

the size of four hundred and fifty thousand square feet.

Other changes in the organization have occurred, too.

Architects have redesigned and enlarged individual

buildings, attempting to insure the most pleasant atmosphere

for grocery shopping as well as the most efficient working

conditions for employees. A fleet of more than 50 truck

tractors and 90 trailers servesthe chain of widely scattered











supermarkets. At least 150 railroad cars and trucks arrive

at the Lakeland warehouse each week bringing products to

Publix from all over the country.

Many people are required to store, ship, prepare and

control this flow of products. Consequently, the work force

at Publix headquarters exceeds 400 people. Modern machinery

has been installed at the central offices to aid in proper

inventory control and record keeping. Recognizing the

amount and variety of products that come to the warehouse

each week and recognizing the fact that each Publix store

maintains an inventory of over 7,000 items quickly illumi-

nates the necessity of the company's maintaining specialized

personnel and modern equipment to accomplish a smooth flow

of goods. Printing and advertising shops are also at the

Lakeland location; they prepare in-store displays to be

coordinated and sent to individual stores.

Conclusion

Publix Food Stores Corporation was conceived and born

of the American spirit; it was bred by a true American

pioneer, George W. Jenkins. The man lives on today pursuing

activities that will probably continue to push the company

forward in economic attainments. Those same activities are

undertaken to prolong the thirty-four-year age of the Publix

Corporation business; the business based on the philosophy

"...that the person who purchases groceries appreciates a











friendly smile and the service that goes with it ...

appreciates a clean, bright, neatly arranged store offering

a wide variety of name brand products and properly cared

for perishables of unquestionable quality, all at fair

prices." (29, p. 30) The belief continues in.the policy

of fair treatment to all employees through profit sharing,

internal promotion, and the best wages that can be paid

within the Publix profit structure.

Born as the organization was, managed as it is,

seemingly by one man, the future of Publix perhaps appears

precarious. However, possibilities appear unlimited;

actually, so rapid have been new store planning and con-

struction that conventional methods of location research

have been outdated at Publix. The company now makes ex-

tensive use of aerial photography to better study and

evaluate apparent mushrooming development opportunity.

Although George Jenkins seems to exert strong, de-

pendable leadership in the entire company, and although the

management is his conception of supermarketing in origin,

the managing executives firmly believe that the corporation

will continue to operate successfully after Mr. Jenkins has

left the helm. Management executives believe that the

Jenkins' philosophy will be mirrored by the men who operate

the company. Hence, the executives do not fear that Jenkins'

eventual leaving will drastically affect the future of the

Publix Food Stores Corporation.













CHAPTER V


PUBLIC SUPERMARKETS, INC: SELF-CONCEPT

Introduction


Competition and differential advantage

Entrepreneurs and would-be entrepreneurs discover

that the competitive American business society presents

significant opportunity for one to enter into private

business. Statistics quickly remind business hopefuls,

however, that failure is easier in the business community

than is success. The firm that profitably endures over a

long period seems to accomplish at least the following: it

recognizes and can identify the segment of the people or

the part of the market to which the firm can appeal; the

firm can contact and be in association with this market

group; a product or service and money are exchanged which

allows individual benefit and satisfaction to a strong

enough degree so as to cause the user to be able to

rationally undertake similar transactions at future times.\

When the firm that exists with either product or service

being individually capable of accomplishing a repeat sale,

one might logically conclude that the competitive position

of this firm is sufficiently strong to propagate its suc-

cessful existence. Publix Food Stores Corporation believes

it is one of these strong firms.
62










Market segmentation

Enduring food stores and grocery chain stores may

excel in one of three areas to account for their longevity.

The feature attraction of food stores may be merchandising

ability, food or service. Service through people and

personal relationships are conceived by Publix management as

the company's major feature of attraction. In addition, the

management also thinks that the best quality food possible

is offered at Publix, and with concern devoted to these

areas primarily, Publix Corporation has succeeded in meeting

the previously stated conditions.

Policies Relating to Employee Treatment


General personnel philosophy

The company personality is thought by its executives

to be strongly supported by the policies relating to the

guidance, direction and supervision of Publix employees.

Publix' management philosophy in application and practice is

reflected by the recognition by management of the dignity,

individuality, and self-esteem of the employee; it can be

seen in the emphasis that is placed on informal structure

or status lines and in the effort that is put forth to

create teamwork in the organization. Management believes

that employees at Publix are recognized for accomplishments,

are provided incentive for accomplishing, and are therefore

motivated to higher accomplishments. When one works for the











corporation he apparently receives the concern and benefits

that an employee-oriented management philosophy proposes.

This philosophy treats employees and their attitudes as

fundamental factors determining the degree of success of

the firm; employee concern and benefits are expressed

accordingly. Another strong motivating factor advocated by

the management group of the Publix Corporation is personal

relationships: relationships of workers to workers, workers

to superiors, and workers and superiors to customers.

Recognition of the individual

Employees at Publix are directly charged with the

responsibility of achieving established goals as required

by their particular job requirements. This attitude toward

the worker is part of the management function as practiced

in the company. Expectations and duties are made clear;

then the worker is free from close supervision to accomplish

his tasks. Autonomy is a major concern of the superior-

worker relationship, and the company believes that this

policy has been closely adhered to and has contributed to

the organization's success. This autonomous relationship

of task accomplishment is supported by the de-emphasis

placed on structure or status lines present internally.

Status lines

From department manager, store manager, area manager

to the company president, the indication is that superiors











have been able to substantially de-emphasize distinct

hierarchial breaks in authority. Publiix employees seem to

consider President Jenkins as one of them. It is generally

accepted that Jenkins, when visiting stores during operating

hours, may and does frequently lend himself to aiding the

workers if his help is needed. One senses this to be true

when visiting with Mr. Jenkins.

Upon knowing Ir. Jenkins, observing him, and talking

with him. one can understand why he has been successful in

de-emphasizing organizational status lines. A clean man

wearing a slight moustache clipped to perfection. But, a

working man, too. Missing are the symbolic "grey flannel"

suit and the smartly shined shoes. In their places appear

a light short-sleeved shirt held at the collar by a loosely

wrapped tie and a pair of creased trousers showing obvious

wear from active treatment and shoes bearing marks of

activity.

Central employees quickly elaborate on the activity

of the executive force, maintaining that frequent activity

includes executives loading or unloading trucks or otherwise

aiding the warehouse force during "tight" situations. These

factors strongly support Publix management beliefs that the

group, working as individual units and as one unit as a

whole, is responsible for the endurance and place of the

company in the food industry. Group behavioral studies have

recognized and reaffirmed the soundness of such management

philosophy. (10, pp. 46-64)










Structure and consideration bear heavily in group

dynamics. Where individual recognition is present in the

group and where the follower respects the leader's goal

direction, cohesiveness and group loyalty are observable

results. The Publix management claims that these factors,

cohesiveness and group loyalty, are strong parts of the

company. There is reason to accept the proposition as

exemplified by the current attitude of Publix workers toward

the future growth of the company. The responsibilities of

continued expansion have been shifted to the employees.

Employees concern

When, by 1960, the company had achieved its goal of

fifty stores, Mr. Jenkins proposed the following ideas con-

cerning the future of the company. (50, p. 5) He was a

wealthy man and had achieved enough; he was, personally,

prepared to maintain the "status quo" as it existed in 1960;

however, if the employees wanted to see the company continue

to grow, if the employees wanted this growth for themselves,

he would continue to support a growth and expansion program.

Indicative of the subsequent attitude that seemingly perme-

ates the entire organization is a slogan which was adopted

by the Southern division with the opening of store number

one-hundred. The slogan, "one-hundred plus," recognizes

no slowdown in expansion possibilities.










Employee benefits

Publix employees participate significantly in the

profits that are realized by the company's operations. In

total, 35 per cent of gross profits each year is returned

to employees either directly or indirectly. Twenty per

cent of gross profits are returned to employees each year

directly as cash bonus; 15 per cent of yearly gross profits

is placed in an employee trust which accrues funds to be

allocated to retiring employees through the employees'

retirement plan. The trust funds are invested by the ad-

ministrators of the fund for the employees. The employees

of Publix, through the fund, now own several Publix super-

market sites and buildings and four shopping centers, each

containing a Publix market. (29, p. 42)

Other benefits include medical, major medical expense,

life, and accidental death and dismemberment insurance; a

credit union, paid sick leaves, and paid vacations. The

full-time employee can accrue as much as four full weeks

annual vacation. For each quarter worked in a calendar

year on a full-time basis, the employee earns an extra week'.s

pay; by working the full calendar year, he earns four weeks'

pay; the employee may choose how he wants to receive this

accrual, and he may receive up to three weeks' pay as a

bonus or he may take the entire accrued time of four weeks

as his vacation.










Employee motivation

The Jenkins' philosophy is believed to have prolife-

rated down to the individual employee, thus having saturated

the entire organization. Through the awareness and apparent

faith in the employee and customer philosophies, and as a

result of employee benefits from successful store operations,

management thinks that each individual employee is motivated

toward efficiency and is alertly conscious of his store's

profit ability and his role in contributing to it. The

suggested strong conviction that each and every employee is

an important part of the company progress perhaps may be

singled out as one of the strongest reasons for the success

of the chain.

Management is convinced that employees make Publix

go. Personnel Director, Mark C. Hollis, says that other

chains have improved facilities and products as has Publix,

but he maintains that "the achievement of management goals

is unlikely" if the people in an organization fail to

"convey the desired image" to the public. (30, p. 5)

Mr. Hollis believes that the employees, from check-out

girl to vice president, are motivated because "...they've

got the spirit of the company; because they believe in what

we are trying to do." (30, p. 7)

Customer satisfaction concept

From the inception of the Publix Corporation, the

management philosophy has been grounded in the fair treatment











policy. Fair treatment to employees; fair treatment to

customers. Above all, management feels that the customer

should be given full value. Personal relationships, store

design, quality and variety of food, all at fair prices are

basic factors in the Publix concept of full value.

Mark Hollis says that the Publix belief is that "the

customer is paying for people to be nice to her." (30, P.10)

Helpful service, friendliness and courtesy are the funda-

mentals practiced by employees in their relationships with

Publix customers. The design of Publix stores is created

with the accomplishment of the particular concept of full

value in mind. The stores are built to be comfortable;

they are supposed to be clean and to have themselves, a

warm, friendly personality. In some respects the plans for

the buildings have been unconventional, but the differences

serve to point out that the planners of Publix stores have

"a customer point of view." In-store placement of the

produce department serves to illustrate.

Commonly, because produce typically contains a high

profit and is an attractive product, it is placed in an

area which is one of the first the customer must pass

through upon entering a supermarket. By placing the pro-

duce early in the shopper's tour, the strategy is that she

may purchase more of it. Planners of Publix stores have

done the opposite; they have placed the produce areas as










near the end of the shopper's store tour as is feasible.

The management and planners reason that the produce is

likely to be crushed and damaged by placing it in the

basket first. By placing the produce as the final major

department the customer will pass through, the fresh pro-

duce is automatically on top of the basket rather than on

the bottom perhaps being crushed and damaged. (530, p. 11)

This plan supports the belief of Publix management that

the transaction is not complete until the food has been

prepared and eaten and enjoyed. Obviously, maximum pro-

tection of perishables enhances the accomplishment of this

end.

Satisfaction, trust, benefit

The management believes that there is a high degree

of mobility present in the Florida market. New people are

arriving each day and many visitors are constantly entering

and leaving the market area. As a consequence of this

recognition, Publix has practiced a policy of minimizing

the development, introduction, and use of local brands of

merchandise. By carrying in stock regional and national

brands almost exclusively, the belief is that the continu-

ously changing market is being given a product that can be

trusted to meet given expectations. Mr. Hollis expresses

that this is a "major method" of insuring that the customer

gets the best for her money when shopping at Publix ) (30,










p. 2) This aspect of customer satisfaction is very impor-

tant to the people at Publix. They feel that if the

customer has confidence in the store, that she will be a

lasting customer; in addition to being a lasting customer

herself, it is believed that she will bring new customers

to shop at Publix. (30, p. 10)

Although well known brands are stocked in the Publix

stores, the policy is to allow the customer a variety of

products and brands from which to choose. All of these

benefits provided by the company are believed to be priced

fairly. Excessive markups is a policy which is not a part

of the Publix philosophy; rather, a distinct part of the

Publix full value concept is that the products and other

factors be offered to the customer at a "fair price."

The Publix Personality

From the foregoing discussion of the Publix Food

Stores Corporation operating philosophy and management

policies, it perhaps will be beneficial to attempt a brief

summary of the factors apparently involved in the manage-

ment's concept of the organization. A following discussion

of the ingredients presented to the public in active image

creating messages will further illuminate the image per-

ceived by the company of itself.










Image dimensions

People, both externally and internally, are the focus

of the entire personality of the company. The customer is

expected to be greeted by completely modern facilities upon

entering a Publix market. The entire physical plant as

seen by management is characterized by being spacious, very

clean and bright, and comfortable. In the store the cus-

tomer is expected to find only the best quality merchandise

presented at fair prices; the management sees Publix

employees as being helpful, friendly and courteous and pro-

viding a satisfying personal experience to the customer

upon contact. The service and products offered can be

completely trusted, and confidence can be placed in the

total shopping experience at Publix. This belief is empha-

sized by management in the guarantee that the transaction

is completed when the product has been used and enjoyed.

Other investigators' evaluations and findings

Other studies and articles concerning the Publix

Corporation have been undertaken and published. It will be

of interest to briefly present some findings and conclusions

of these writers. This chapter so far has attempted to

interpret the concepts that the Publix management has of

itself; this analysis will further serve to cast light on

the self-concept held by the management of the company.










Saint Petersburg Magazine

The Saint Petersburg Magazine published an article

in the March, 1964, issue which brought attention to Publix.

"Status Among the Celery Stalks" depicts the company as

providing the community with a service and quotes President

Jenkins as saying upon the company's reaching the number of

one hundred stores: "We are here to serve the people and

grow we must to serve their needs." (20, p. 35) The

article also concluded that there is a certain degree of

status attached to shopping at Publix, and that the public

image of the company is one of high priced merchandise.

This article says that Publix is mentioned most

frequently in Florida as the shopper's favorite market.

This recognition, however, may not be indicative of a com-

pletely valid implication for the article goes on to quote

the head of Zemp Advertising Agency: "'If the figures are

to be believed, even the ladies who don't shop regularly

at Publix say they do!'" (20, p. 35) The interpretation

is not all good. The connection of the shopper's pride

and the image or status of Publix has led, at least ap-

parently in some areas, to the belief by the public that it

costs more to shop at Publix.

The statement had become so common among shoppers

that even the check-out girls were "almost convinced" that

this was true. Since this discovery, the Publix management










has carried on an internal campaign "...designed to remind

employees that comparison shoppers are constantly checking,

to make sure that Publix prices on comparable merchandise

are equal to, or lower than, competition." (20, p. 55)

Food Business Magazine
The article "George W. Jenkins ... A Man for National

Brands" allows a closer insight into the operations of the

Publix Corporation. It emphasizes that Jenkins' chain is

the leading supermarket chain in sales volume in Florida,

averaging two million dollars a year per store; it empha-

sizes that net profit at Publix has been above the industry

average; it emphasizes that human relations have paid divi-

dends at Publix. (15, pp. 19-20)

A 1957 breakdown of Publix sales' figures percentage-

wise showed the following: (15, p. 20)

Cost of Merchandise 81.7%
Salaries and Employee Benefits 8.05%
Federal, State, Local Taxes 2.46%
General Expenses 1.22%
Rent and Utilities 1.17%
Depreciation 1.10%
Advertising 2.41%
Profit (re-invested in business) 1.91%

Although profit figures are not published, budgeted

volume in the post war years has been: (15, p. 20)

1945 $ 2,857,000
1947 4,881,000
1949 7,449,000
1951 18,228,000
1955 28,241,000
1955 49,001,000










1957 $ 77,012,000
1959 112,765,000
1960 140,957,000 .
1961 155,000,000
1964 250,000,000 (estimate)

A January 1, 1962, report on revenue breakdown per
dollar of sales volume and changes from 1957 are: (29, P-.7)


1962 1957 Change
Cost of Merchandise 80.25% 81.70% -1.45
Salaries and Employee Benefits 8.89% 8.03% + .86
Federal, State and Local Taxes 1.81% 2.46% .65
General Expenses 1.40% 1.22% + .18
Rent and Utilities 2.14% 1.17% + .97
Depreciation 1.02% 1.10% .08
Advertising 3.18% 2.41% + .77
Profit 1.31% 1.91% .60

If one can assume that each year's volume net re-
ported has been at least that of the preceding reported
year, the total sales' volume for the 1945-1964 period of
twenty years would have been $1,349,000,000 or $67,453,000
per year. Further assuming that profit averaged at least

1.50% of gross sales, one sees profit figures in total,
$20,235,900 or $1,011,795 per year.
Food Business states that Publix workers experience
a "moral imperative" to produce; this "moral imperative" is
illustrated by the inscription on a plaque presented to
George Jenkins in 1961, by the warehouse employees in Lake-
land. It read, "To Mr. Publix ... In appreciation for all
the things you have done for us through the years ... The
warehouse employees and their families in Publix ... 1961."










(15, P. 20) Food Business further emphasizes the apparent
worker satisfaction at Publix in the statement that, "People

work for Publix because they seem to want to ..." (15, p. 20)

"The Publix Story"

Daniel Yankelovich is the president of his own firm

in New York City; the firm specializes in applying psycho-

logical approaches to market research; his observations and

conclusions concerning the Publix Corporation perhaps are

of interest in this study of the company. (27, pp. 6-10)

"The Publix Story" features comments revolving around the

topics of the applied management in the company, employee

attitudes and company potential.

Mr. Yankelovich found that the Publix management

practices a combination of common and unique management

fundamentals. Factors in Publix also common to other organi-

zations include: (27, p. 7)

1. decentralized authority and responsibility
2. local store manager decision-making
3. clean, attractive store environments
4. success resulting in motivating more success.

Factors active in the management beliefs that in

combination apparently enhance the individualism of the

philosophy were found to be:

1. autonomy
2. tolerance of mistakes
3. true management concern for the individual
4. group goal orientation
5. blurred status lines.










Yankelovich believes that personnel motivation at

Publix is unique and that due to highly motivated people,

the company has achieved success. In support of his con-

clusions, Mr. Yankelovich describes some of his interviews

with Publix employees. (27, P. 6) Pride was expressed by

a woman grocery checker when she said that she would be

ashamed to wear a competitor's uniform in public but that

she was pleased when people associated her with Publix.

One person said that he was "glad" the company had retire-

ment and bonus plans; however, he continued, "I work here

just because I love it so much." Other typical comments

held that everyone, including customers, was very friendly

and that there was much satisfaction in the discharging of

work duties.

The article maintains that the workers at Publix are

fully aware of the Jenkins' management philosophy and that

they are in sympathy with the Jenkins' beliefs regarding the

customer and the employee. The opportunity, incentive and

responsibility are clear-cut at Publix and as a result of

rapid growth and promotion exclusively from within, many

opportunities are available to the ambitious and competent

workers.

The management practice of autonomy accepts that a

natural human condition is to make mistakes. Yankelovich

explains the employee reaction to this management practice










in stating that a worker told him he was ".. working hard.,

doing my best; when I m-ke a mistake it is explained; I am

not chewed out." (27, p. 9) "The Publix Story" relates

that it found that employees believed that the company hd-

a true concern for each individual employee.

Employees frequently mentioned the profit sharing

plan of bonus and retirement benefits but of more impor-

tance seemed to be the explicit individual attention given

to employees. A bag boy told Mr. Yankelovich that after

"only" six months of employment he received an "unexpected

Christmas bonus." (27, p. 9) Another employee said that

he had been employed by Publix three months when a member

of his family underwent surgery; his store manager went to

the hospital and remained there throughout the entire

operation. Many employees hold cards inviting them to use

a Publix golf course free of cost; for those workers at

the Lakeland offices and warehouse, a company cafeteria

prepares free lunch each day; some store managers give

Christmas parties on their own. Mr. Yankelovich says that

the most recurrent phrase by the employees at Publix in

describing the management attitude was: "You are treated

like a person, not like a number." (27., p. 9)

The article goes on to say that a warm, congenial

atmosphere in Publix stores is a source of pride for the

people at Publix. Management, customer and personnel re-

lationships account for the atmosphere, and "The Publix










Story" cnclaudes uhat persona-_ are motivated, not only by

maagement and orheL relationships, bu also as a result

of the custo-er's returning time after time.

Possibly the most interesting of Daniel Yankelovich's

conclusions concerns the potential market a_-ea for Publix~

He maintains that Publix can appeal to the mass of people

satisfactorily, not having to depend on reaching any one

segment of a stratified market: they do not "conform to a

socio-economic group, an income level, nor are they

ethnically homogeneous." (27, P. 3) It is proposed by the

motivation consultant that Publix reaches and services

people uho have a basic, psychological ne.ed for warm human

contact; "this is a basic human need which exists uni-

versally" is the conclusion of Yankelovich, and this need

is satisfied by th- corresponding attitude of both the

customers and employees who shop and work at Publix. (27,

pC 8)

Results of Daniel Yankelovich's study led hi.: to

conclude that some distinct areas of motivation appear to

bring about the degree of enthusiasm that exists at Publix.

They are:

1. the recognition of individual dignity
2. che customer motivation of personnel
3. the comparability of friendliness and efficiency
L. a unique market appeal.











Publix' Active Image Creation


Discovery of the need

William R. Schroeter is the executive who directs

advertising campaigns undertaken by Publix; until 1963, there

had been no explicit plan at the company headquarters to

emphasize a definite image to the customers and potential

customers of Publix. Prior to 1963, members of the manage-

ment team had "assumed" that Publix had a public image a

corporate personality; however, the dimensions of the image

were vague, and the typical comments of the company execu-

tives indicated that they believed "some" type'image

existed. (32, p. 9)

Upon the recognition that the company needed to

clearly state and undertake a definite reaffirmation of the

company policies toward the public, Mr. Schroeter pursued

the development of an active image-creating program. Dis-

cussions among management personnel were undertaken to this

end. These sessions further supported the apparent need for

a concise program; individual opinions differed substantially,

thus illuminating the proposition that the leaders of the

company did not know what the Publix personality was.

(32, p. 1)
The efforts resulted in the decision to clearly state

the intent and policies of the corporation and to undertake

an advertising campaign to present these ideas to the public










in parts of Florida. A search was undertaken to determine

the elements and characteristics of the personality that

should be portrayed to the public. In addition, there

needed to be created a simple theme around which the image-

creating advertising could be constructed.

The image factors

Under the direction of Mr. Schroeter and in coopera-

tion with an advertising agency, the dimensions of the

desired image evolved. Two comments received in letters

written by Publix customers set the stage for the campaign.

One letter came from a former customer who was then in

Pakistan; it requested pictures of Publix supermarkets so

the traveler could show other people "... the cleanest,

brightest supermarkets in the whole world." Another letter

stated: "I like to shop at Publix because of the clean odor."

(32, p. 1)
To the elements of cleanliness were added spacious,

completely modern markets. In keeping with the company

philosophy, messages should also include that only the very

best quality foods were available at Publix and that the

products offered there were priced fairly. The aspects to

be promoted became clear, and the institutional theme would

be pleasure; the actual phrase: "Where Shopping is a

Pleasure."







82


"The Happy Difference" Series

An advertising campaign evolved which would be pre-

sented to the public. It was entitled "The Happy Difference"

series and was designed to convey a definite image to the

grocery consuming public. Mr. Schroeter, Publix' Director

of Advertising, believes that every corporation should have

a planned image and a slogan that can be remembered by the

customer. (31, p. 1) He maintains that success of image

advertising is dependent primarily upon two basic factors:

the concepts promoted and the words utilized in the pro-

motional activity. (33, p. 1) Simple words used consis-

tently to propound the concepts of "truth and consumer

benefit" made the foundation for the Publix policy re-

affirmation and image creation campaign.

The advertisements

The entire series is comprised of twelve installments.

Each installment layout was prepared on a common basis. A

picture covers the top half of the advertisement; bold

letters placed across the lower part of each picture ask,

after the first installment, "Is this the Happy Difference?"

referring to the picture. The initial copy asks "Where does

the Happy Difference Begin?" Immediately following the

picture and question is an explanation of the concept pre-

sented in the picture. This explanation is brief and is

placed in black print against white background; each











explanation and copy layout ends with: "We invite you to

try it soon ... at Publix." The series was originally placed

in selected media including newspapers, radio broadcasts and

television broadcasts. Radio and television were utilized

to supplement newspaper advertising, and the installments

were placed one week apart.

Installments one through six

The first advertisement of the twelve-week series

serves to introduce the advertising program. It summarizes

the shopping tour from newspaper advertisement reading to

post-meal enjoyment and emphasizes the Publix guarantee.

Cleanliness and atmosphere are the themes of the following

copy. The third advertisement emphasizes the meat depart-

ment: quality of the meat and helpful attitude of the

department employees. The policy of carrying only well

known brands is presented the fourth week, and pre-packaged

produce serves as the subject the following week. The

explanation is that produce is packaged for the convenience

of the "average family," but it carries the message that

there is no hesitation whatsoever in breaking a carton for

more or less of the product. Making a joy out of a chore,

emphasizing Publix' wall directories and "customer comrade-

ship" are the messages in the sixth installment.











Installments seven through twelve

Service, treatment, confidence and ease of shopping

are highlighted in the concluding six weekly presentations.

Numbers seven and eight show a check-out girl and a bag boy.

They represent "efficient, friendly, helpful service, extra

smiles," and "royal treatment" that are parts of the "happy

difference." A blindfolded shopper and the Publix seal are

topics presented to support trust and confidence; the

eleventh advertisement continues to build customer confi-

dence by showing and telling how and why periodic testing

of products occurs. Finally, ease of shopping is emphasized.

Wide and spacious aisles prevent "traffic jams" and shopper

"frustration."

The series served, in addition to stating and re-

affirming the Publix objectives, as an internal training

program. Store managers and store personnel were made

completely aware of and were exposed to the presentations

before they went before the public. Not only were the

employees informed of what was to be shown to shoppers,

they also received the benefit of gaining a fuller under-

standing of the management philosophy. The program was

designed and is intended to be used at succeeding intervals

in order to maintain consumer awareness.











Conclusion

By analyzing the competitive differentiation and

market segmentation of the Publix Corporation, by investi-

gating their policies toward employees and consumers, by

interpreting what other researchers have discovered about

the company, and by summarizing Publix' active personality

creation activities, perhaps one can gain a general under-

standing of how the company actually perceives itself.

This chapter has been organized and presented with this

objective as the goal, and although the intangibles are

often difficult to synthesize, one is able to recognize

consistency in the total company activity. It might be con-

cluded that this discovery of consistent effort, both in

depth and breadth in the overall concept, is sufficient to

warrant the belief that the company is not a victim of

"organization insanity."




Full Text

PAGE 1

THE CORPORATE IMAGE AS IT REFLECTS FIRM SELF-CONCEPTION AND AFFECTS PATRONAGE MOTIVES By ROBERT NEWTON CARTER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNQL OF THE UNIVERSITi' OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA June, 1965

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 08552 2463

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude to the members of his supervisory committee. The committee was composed of Dr. R. B. Thompson, Dr. Frank Goodwin, Dr. R. H. Blodgett, Dr. C. W. Fristoe and Dr. John H. James. A special word of appreciation is extended to Dr. Thompson, who gave generously of his time and guidance, and to Dr. Frank Goodwin v;ho considerably lightened the author's load through helpful counsel and encouragement. The Publix executives as well as many Publix managers and employees have cooperated in every respect with the author. Kov/ever, the conclusions, opinions, and other statements in this publication are strictly those of the author. Thanks go to Mr. George Jenkins and Mr, William Schroeter and especially to Mr. Mark Hollis for their assistance and encouragement. Undoubtedly the study would never have been completed without the influence of the author's wife, Sylvia. To her goes much credit for both technical assistance and moral as well as financial support. Use of the Computing Laboratory of the College of Business Administration of the University of Florida was granted by the Bureau of Business and Economic Research. 11

PAGE 4

Mr. Scottie Davis and Mr. Dale Moody rendered advice and services in connection with the use of these facilities without which the author would have had much more difficulty in completing his task. The typing of many preliminary pages was provided by Mrs. Suzanne Degni and by the author's wife, Mrs. Thyra Johnston deserves special thanks for the care with which she prepared the final copy. The time and skills of many people including students, faculty, and non-faculty were kindly given in the preparation of this document. For this and the spirit in which they were given the author is grateful. 1X1

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page AGKNO\^^LEDGrlENTS ii LIST OP TABLES vii LIST 0? EXHIBITS xii Chapter I. INTRODUCTION I II. CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY 7 Introduction 7 Tlie Emergence of Management 8 Teclmological Advance H The Profession of Management 17 Responsibilities of Management 20 4 Conclusion 23 III. IMAGERY, THE CONSUMER, AND THE INSTITUTION. . 25 ^ Introduction 25 Organization Informational Concept .... 26 Human Imagery and Cognition 29 Economic Behavior 35 Imagery and Institutional Success 37 The Institution and Feedback ^2 Authoritarian Management ^3 Conclusion ^S IV. PUBLIX SUPERMARKETS, INC: CONCEPTION, PHILOSOPHY, GROV/TH ^Q Introduction ^8 Origin of the Publix Corporation ^9 A Management Philosophy Develops 51 Growth of Publix Food Stores Corporation . 56 Conclusion ^0 V. PUBLIX SUPERMARKETS INC: SELF-CONCEPT .... 62 Introduction ^2 iv

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Chapter Page Policies Relating to Employee Treatment. . 63 The Publix Personality 71 Publix' Active Image Creation 80 "The Happy Difference" Series 82 Conclusion 85 YI. RESEARCH DESIGN 86 Introduction 86 Selected Stores 86 Individual Survey Designs 8? Survey of Publix Managers 88 Survey of Publix Employees 89 Survey of Publix Customers 92 Survey of Gainesville Household Shoppers . 95 Conclusion 97 VII. ANALYSIS OP ATTITUDES OF SELECTED PUBLIX STORE MANAGERS 10? Introduction 10? Manager Survey Analysis 108 Conclusion 117 VIII. ANALYSIS OP ATTITUDES OP SELECTED PUBLIX STORE EMPLOYEES 120 Introduction 120 Analysis of Employee Responses 121 Conclusion 1$2 IX. ANALYSIS OP ATTITUDES OF SELECTED PUBLIX' CUSTOMERS 15^ Introduction 15^ Sample Composition 155 Analysis of Publix' Customer Responses . . l'n-0 Cross Tabulations 1^9 Conclusion 155 X. ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES OF GAINESVILLE HOUSEHOLD RESPONDENTS 155 Introduction 155 Response Analysis 155 Conclusion 17^

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Chapter Page XI. SU^IMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 181 Summary: Basic Concepts 181 Conclusions 188 General Conclusions 19^ APPENDICES 200 Appendix I Tables Appendix II Statistical Computations BIBLIOGRAPHY 235 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ?43 vi

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LIST 0? TABLES Table Page 1. Personal Likes and Dislikes of Publix Managers Classified by Selected Stateaients 118 2. Personal Likes of Publix Employees Classified by Selected Statements 150 3. Personal Dislikes of Publix Employees Classified by Selected Statements 151 4. Percentages of Publix Respondents Classified on the Basis of Personal Characteristics 156 5. Percentages of Publix Respondents Classified on the Basis of Occupations 138 5. Percentages of Publix Respondents Classified by Percentage of Total Grocery Shopping Done at Publix 159 7. Percentages of Publix Respondents \fh.o Agreed With Statements at the Left Pertaining to Store Personality 1^1 8. Percentages of Publix Respondents ^/Tho Agreed With Statements at the Left Pertaining to Store Sales Efforts 1^3 9. Percentages of Publix Respondents Who Agreed With Statements at the Left Pertaining to Past Transaction Satisfaction 1^5 10. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Likes Classified by Most Common Responses 1^7 11. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Dislikes Classified by Most Common Responses 1^8 12. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Attitudes Favoring Stores Sales Efforts and Favoring Past Transaction Satisfaction: Classified by Sex of Respondents ^50 vii

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Table Page 13. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Attitudes Favoring Stores Sales Efforts and Favoring Past Transaction Satisfaction: Classified byOccupational Group 151 1^. Percentages of Publix Respondents' Attitudes Favoring Store Sales Efforts and Favoring Past Transaction Satisfaction: Classified by Percentage of Total Grocery Shopping Done at Publix 152 15, Gainesville Household Survey: All Respondents' Impressions of Sup e r mark e^cs' Appeal to a Particular Income Group 175 15. Gainesville Household Survey: Respondents Who Said They Had Never Shopped at Publix, Classified by Reasons Given for Not Shopping There 176 17. All Respondents Classified by Personal Characteristics and Number of Persons Residing in the Household 177 18. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville) Respondents' Attitudes Toward Selected Store and Management Characteristics 202 19. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville) Respondents' Attitudes Tov/ard Other Publix Customers 202 20. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville) Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Publix Employee-Customer Service Relationship 20$ 21. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville) Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Quality and Price of Publix Merchandise 20^ 22. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville) Respondents' Likes and Dislikes Classified on the" Basis of Most Common Responses 205 23. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville) Respondents' Percentage of Total Grocery Shopping Done at Publix 206 viii

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Table Page 24. Extra High Volume Stores' (Gainesville) Respondents Classified on the Basis of Selected Personal Characteristics 206 25. Extra High Voluiae Stores' (Gainesville) Respondents Classified on the Basis of Occupation 207 26. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lalceland, Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents' Attitudes Toward Selected Store and Management Characteristics 208 27. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland, Orlando, Uinter Park) Respondents' Attitudes Tov:ard Other Puhlix Customers 208 28. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland, Orlando, Uinter Park) Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Puhlix Employee-Customer Service Relationship 209 29. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland, Orlando, Uinter Park) Respondents' Attitudes Tov;ard the Quality and Price of Publix Merchandise 210 30. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland, Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents' Likes and Dislikes Classified on the Basis of Most Common Responses 211 51. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland, Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents' Percentage of Total Grocery Shopping Done at Publix. . . . 212 32. High Volume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland, Orlando, Winter Park) Respondents Classified on the Basis of Selected Personal Characteristics 212 35. High Vol-ume Stores' (Holly Hill, Lakeland, Orlando, V/inter Park) Respondents Classified on the Basis of Occupation 215 34. Medium Volume Stores' (Bartov;, Leesburg, Plant City) Respondents' Attitudes Tov;ard Selected Store and Management Characteristics 214 ix

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m ^1 -age Table 35 Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant City) Respondents' Attitudes Toward Other Publix Customers 36 Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant City) Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Publix Employee-Customer Service Relationship. ^i^ 37 Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant City) Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Quality and Price of Publix Merchandise. ... ^-Lb 38 Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant City) Respondents' Likes and Dislikes Classified on the Basis of Most Common Responses 39 Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant City) Respondents' Percentage of Total Grocery Shopping Done at Publix 1^0 Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant * City) Respondents Classified on tne Basis ox Selected Personal Characteristics ^1 Medium Volume Stores' (Bartow, Leesburg, Plant City) Respondents Classified on the Basis ot ^^^ Occupation i\2 Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont) ' Respondents' Attitudes Toward Selected Store and Management Characteristics /^3 Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont) Respondents' Attitudes Toward Other Publix ^^^ Customers ^^ Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont) * Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Publix Employee-Customer Service Relationship .... ^^^ it-5 Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont) Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Quality and Price of Publix Merchandise 46 Low Volume Stores' Brooksville, Clermont) ' Respondents' Likes and Dislikes Classified on the Basis of Most Common Responses '^^'> X

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Table Page 47, Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont) Respondents' Percentage of Total Grocery Shopping Done at Publix 224 48. Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont) Respondents Classified on tne Basis of Selected Personal Characteristics 224 4-9. Low Volume Stores' (Brooksville, Clermont) Respondents Classified on the Basis of Occupation 225 50. Total Respondents' Attitudes Toward Selected Store and Management Characteristics 225 51. All Stores' Respondents' Attitudes Toward Other Publix Customers 226 52. All Stores' Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Publix Employee-Customer Service Relationship . 22? 53. All Selected Stores' Respondents' Attitudes Toward the Quality and Price of Publix Merchandise 228 54. All Selected Stores' Respondents' Likes and Dislikes Classified on the Basis of Most Common Responses 229 55. All Selected Stores' Respondents' Percentage of Total Grocery Shopping Done at Publix 250 56. All Selected Stores' Respondents Classified on the Basis of Selected Personal Characteristics. 250 57* All Stores' Respondents Classified According to Occupation 251 Xi

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Exhibit LIST OF EXHIBITS Page 1 Facsimile of questionnaire used to gather information in the survey of selected Publix managers 2 Facsimile of questionnaire used to gather information in the survey of selected ^^^ Publix employees 3 Facsimile of questionnaire used to gather information in the survey of selected ^^^ Puhlix customers lir Facsimile of ouestionnaire used to gather information in the survey of selected Gainesville household respondeni:s ^^^ 5. Responses of selected Puhlix managers to statements at left which refer to Publxx store personality 6 Responses of selected Publix managers to statements at left which refer to the cooperativeness of supervxsors 7 Responses of selected Publix managers to statements at left which refer to the character of Pablix management 8 Responses of selected Publix managers to * statements at left which refer to the Publix business philosophy 9 Responses of selected Publix managers to 'statements at left which refer to the dynamic ixature of Publix management ^^^ 10. Resoonses of selected Publix managers to statements at left which refer to the business-wise nature of Publxx management . . lib XXI

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Exhibit Page 11. Responses of selected Publix employees' to statements at left which, refer to Publix store personality 122 12. Responses of selected Publix employees to statements at left which refer to immediate management practice 12^ 13. Responses of selected Publix employees to statements at left which refer to the Publix work environment 125 1^. Responses of selected Publix employees to statements at left which refer to the character of Publix management 12? 15. Responses of selected Publix employees to statements at left which refer to the business practices of Publix 128 15, Gainesville household survey: all shoppers' attitudes tov/ard Publix and Winn-Dixie location and parking facilities 157 17. Gainesville household survey: non-Publix shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and WinnDixie location and parking facilities .... 158 18. Gainesville household survey: Publix shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and WinnDixie location and parking facilities .... 159 19. Gainesville household survey: all shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and V/inn-Dixie store personality 163 20. Gainesville household survey: non-Publix shoppers' attitudes tov/ard Publix and WinnDixie store personality 15A21. Gainesville household survey: Publix shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and Winn-Dixie store personality 165 22. Gainesville household survey: all shoppers' attitudes tov;ard Publix and Winn-Dixie store sales efforts 167 xiii

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Exhibit Page 25. Gainesville household survey: non-Publix shoppers' attitudes tov/ard Public and Vinii-Dixie store sales efforts 168 2^. Gainesville household survey: Publix shopoers' attitudes tov;ard Publix and WinnDixie store sales efforts lo9 25. Gainesville household survey: all shoppers' attitudes tov;ard Publix and Winn-Dixie past transaction satisfaction 170 26. Gainesville household survey: non-Publix shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and WmnDixie past transaction satisfaction 1/1 27. Gainesville household survey: Publix shoppers' attitudes toward Publix and V/inn-Dixie past transaction satisfaction IV'^ XIV

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Theory, research., and evolving concepts v/liich have practical applications for the ousinessman are dealt with in this dissertation. This businessman, particularly the professional manager, may he and probably is part social scientist, psychologist, anthropologist, economist; and above all he is profit oriented. Therefore, the implications to be drawn from this dissertation are both logicaland useful. In this pragmatic frame of reference, , the attitude which is fundamental to this study recognizes positive image creation as one of the essential functions in the operation of corporations, if they are to compete effectively in the American economy. Rapidly changing conditions occurring in the American corporate society are bringing with them stringent new demands for increasing competitive effectiveness. These changes and demands have given active image creation a unique position in recent years. The development of the corporation has paralleled industrialization in the United States, and it is not unusual to find the corporation having absentee ov/nership and

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professional manasement. \Ihen business firms remain small, and when social communities remain stable, compact and closeknit, the strons business leader is able to project himself to members of the community. The projection of himself or of his personality represents in effect the perception that the community members have of the individual's business firm as well as of the individual. (11, p. 15) However, when businesses become larger and v/hen the o'^ers are required to employ professional managers to aid in the direction of the firm, it is likely that the close community contact will be lost. The loss of the close association may create a void in the competitive position of the firm. The void is essentially one of communication, and as the firm undertakes to fill the empty space, it may do so by actively projecting an image, its corporate image. I Even though much attention has been devoted to the topic of the corporate image in recent years, still many business executives fail to understand the significance of _ imagery and they tend to give it only superficial treatment^' (11, p. 2) Each company has a "personality" that is unique to that organization, and this "personality" tends x,o "...reflect management's hopes, attitudes and biases." (13, p. 5) Pro.iect conception The increasing recognition and emphasis being placed on the social sciences as they are related to the field of

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marketing, h.as resulted in much, study and attention being devoted to the corporate image concept in the past fev: years. This \.T?iter has developed a keen interest in this concept; consequently, he proposed to devote the dissertation study to this general area of the corporate image concept. Initially, the dissertation proposal v/as to study the comparative images of supermarkets in a given geographical area. This proposal was pursued until one of the companies selected refused permission to allov/ the author to work on the store premises. Only "lip-service" cooperation vjas obtained from a second organization and even that subsequently died. However, executives of the Publix Company, including Mr. George Jenkins, the President, Mr. Mark Hollis, the Personnel Director, and Mr, William Schroeter, the Director of Advertising, were enthusiastic and optimistic concerning a corporate image study. It v;as then proposed that an image study be undertaken x-jlth the Publix Corporation serving as a case study. Organization I The author of this dissertation assumes that the corporate image is the result of the total activities of the firm. In so far as this assumption is valid, the study of a corporate image must be bread. It must properly defir_e the setting in v;hich the image v/ill be studied. Therefore, the evolution and current status of management philosophy is analyzed in the first phase of this dissertation. Imagery

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is also investigated in this initial facet of the study. Phase two serves to present significant information related to the history, management philosophy and self-concept of the Publix Company. Depicted in the third part of the dissertation are the results of field surveys. The surveys ere designed to allow an evaluation of the degree of effectiveness with which the Puhlix self-concept has been communicated to consumers. w Oo,iectives The objectives for this dissertation are quite modest. One aim is to order, with clarity, some of the concepts about imagery that have emerged from research, theory and practice. A second aim is to analyze the company personality of Publix Super Markets, Incorporated, in such a way as to bring together in a usable framework a model for further study of the corporate image. Eyoothesis The author asks the question: Does the Publix Company actively engage in image projection and, if so, is the activity successful and to what degree? Stated positively, Publix does have an image, the company is actively attempting to project the dimensions of its conceived image and Publix managers, employees and customers, as well as general supermarket shoppers are aware of that image.

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5 Assumptions Any expression of ideas involves making certain assumptions. The v.'riter approaches the study of imagery and image creation v/ith certain assumptions which need to be explicit. He assumes that: 1) the corporation exists primarily for the purpose of earning a profit and only secondarily for other purposes; 2) the American business society is dynamic and competitive; 5) there is a need for competitive change to meet the challenge of a changing business society; ^) consumer patronage motives are influenced by a conceived image; 5) the conceived image is intangible; and 6) human behavior is amenable to scientific study. These assumptions are implicit in much that is v;ritten about the American competitive situation. They are an explicit basis for the rationale of this paper. General limitations Some general limitations are recognized here which affect the entire study. Others are treated throughout the dissertation. Pew studies proceed with unlimited time and resources. This one was not an exception; therefore, a limitation is present to the extent that various deadlines were met v/ith general accuracy, and financial as well as human reso\irces were expended only as v;ere necessary and available. Another general limitation in this dissertation

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relates to the methodology, descriptive analysis. Inherent in descriptive analysis and the use of questionnaires and interviews are the potential limitations of sample adequacy and predisposition of respondents. A v;eakness may he present to the degree that, in part, information was gathered hy indirect observation. Perhaps the findings and ideas presented here will serve best if, hy providing a slightly different view of competition or a more comprehensive one of image sT;udy, they stimulate readers to think in a synthesizing manner. No effort has been exerted to make these ideas especially acceptable. It is hoped that they v;ill at least prove to be more than academic exercise and at best productive of reactions.

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CHAPTER II COKTEIiPOHARY MANAGEME^^T PHILOSOPHY Introduction Illumination can further bo directed to any one particular nanagement philosophy by investigating its broader environment and that environment's heritage. The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to investigate the practice of management as it is conceived in America today; George Jenkins and Publix are a part of the American environment, and the Jenkins' philosophy can perhaps be better understood v;ithin the framework of contemporary management. Attempting to implement the title of this chapter "Contemporary Management Philosophy," has proven to be a challenging task; maybe it is even impossible to synthesize within such a short treatise as this chapter, the fundamental factors incidental to the title. The attempt i.s made, hovrever, even though a myriad of defenses is necessary, A clear understcLnding of philosophy as it is used here is basic; a brief discussion of the birth of management aids in focusing and illuminating "contemporary philosophy"; also, the analysis must proceed in generalities in order to avoid the trap of non-conforming individu....lities.

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8 The philosopiiy of "business management, or of any other discipline for that matter, can apparently be best determined by an investigation of the principles or objectives underlying that discipline. For after all is said, the philosophy is simply a reflection of fundamental beliefs, laws, or rules of action which in effect are the principles. So, clearly stating the meaning of a principle, one can conclude that it is a "rule of action, a primary or basic law or doctrine, a fundamental truth." The collective rules of action or basic doctrines are the philosophy. This chapter, then, is the culmination of a survey of general basic principles that underly ;;he practice of _. .^'J in the Ar-erican corporate community today. The Emergence of Man£.g:en5nt Management ; a recent phenomeron One can rightly say that the study of management is a recent phenomenon; one can also conclude, after a brief investigation of historical thought in economic writings, that there existed not even a remote opportunity for management as it is knov;n today to be studied earlier than in recent history. This is true because the vrriters and scientists v;ho influenced the thinking prior to modern times did not conceive current management. The ideas, beliefs, and writings of the classical economists discouraged

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management and its practice as it is noH commonly knovm as so did the theory of evolution and the Poor Lav; of Great Britain. The twentieth century brought about the advent of attitudes and conditions ^•^rhich allov;ed and condoned socially responsible management practices. Even though the time of this occurrence may seem to be astounding, i"c is really not, because the behavior of businessmen v;as entirely consistent v;ith the basic philosophy dominating business activity. The dominant philosophy prior to this century was grounded in "natural laws," and entrepreneurs practiced economic activity accordingly. Smith, Mai thus. Ricardo At the beginning of the tv/entieth century, the business practice code v;as strongly grou-ied in traditional thought. (13, p. S) Adam Smith espoused a laisses-f aire type of economy vri.th self-interest acting as the "invisible hand" to best guide social and personal policy. Smith believed that if everyone were motivated to gain as much as possible for himself, both in production and in the marketplace, that these actions would enhance the v/ealth of nations. This theory held labor as a commodity and that it should be treated as such, commanding no greater price than that necessary for maintaining just simple existence.

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10 Mai thus' population theory and David Ricardo's "iron law of i/ases" gave additional support to early business ideology. The v/orkinsinan v/as dooned to live close to a subsistence level, Hal thus maintained, because population increase v;ould far outstrip production increase and wages; therefore, v/ages could not possibly rise much boyond a maintenance level. The "iron lavj" further proposed that v/ages could never go beyond the amount required for subsistence. Social Darvj-Jnisa Employers and businessmen vjere economically educated in these beliefs. The natural order of the universe and the v;orld was dominant; one should strive to gain the ma>:imum, giving little r.^^^^rd to other factors. Add to these basic beliefs Social Dar\:inism, that only the fittest survive whether it be animal or man, and v;hat appears to have been despicable business attitude becomes the only logical one. The Poor Law Preceding twentieth-century management practice v;as another factor giving impetus to the traditional philosophy: the Poor Law. (13, p. lO) As the Law existed in Lngland from 1S;A to the early 1900's, helping the poor was interpreted as degrading and an act that tended to pauperize theni; the Law held that public relief was demoralising and simply encouraged "shif-jlessness and indolence." ijsy aid

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11 that was given the deprived had to be in the forsi of institutionalise: or relief that came from private agencies; moreover, all aid emphasized "character," and only those individuals v;ho appeared rehahili table could be helped, the others being left to survive as best they could. "Dismal science" Revolution v/as apparent from the close of the middleages in both social and economic realms. Agriculture v;as giving v/ay to manufacturing and commerce., and the selfsustaining feudal system v;as brealcing dovm in favor of national loyalty and power through the development of nevx nation-states. However, populcir teachings v/ere constant reminders that the "natural" principles necessitated maximum gain, self-interest and "survival of the fittest." It is hardly surprising that critics referred to the nineteenthcentury economics as the "dismal science"; indeed, this philosophy i;as dismal, and it was from such thinking that modern-day business operation emerged. Technological Advance Routine and survival The theories of the classical economists, Smith, Mai thus and Eicardo, and the theory of Dar\v_n reflected the apparent notion that God, through His majesuic creation of the universe and its inhabitants, had also created a natural cause-effect relationship that vrould insure stability and

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12 survival througii routine. It seemed that the result of practicins routine v;ould be balance. Population v;ould automatically adjust, tlie meek would be eliminated, cjad only the strong vj'ould be rewarded. It is true as the philosopher Alfred North Whitehead has recognized, that routine may propagate success so far as siirvival -power is concerned, Lov/-gi'ade intelligence has not inhibited the survival -pov/er of so:ie insect societies. Perhaps some of them have existed for millions of years, each succeeding generation follov;ing the pervading pattern of routine "...v/hose purposes they cannot possibly understand, which yet are essential either for their ovna individual survival or for race-survival." (5, p. 26) Progressiveness But the insect societies have one common characteristic which differentiates then from the societies of mankind: the insects are not progressive. Progressiveness has been the hallmark of Western civilization and in modern times, the rate of change, particularly technological advance, challenges the imagination. Centuries v/ere required for nev; technological inventions before the scientific age, and little sig"nificant technological progress was accomplished from 100 A.D. to the close of the Middle Ages. (5, p. 2?) The follov/ing 500 years witnessed great strides in the utilization of gunpov;der.

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13 the developmeiit of the art of navigation, and the practice of commerce(5, p, 2?) Prom 1700 to 1900, the nusiber of inventions that rushed into effective operation v/as relatively astounding. Those who have and are living in the tv/entieth century have continued to see the evolution of great technological gains. As Eighty and as progressive as l/Gstern civilization was in the first 1,9^0 years since Christ, a glinpse of the American industrial comiiLunity ' s recent quarter-century, 25 years, spectacularly eclipses all that occurred prior to 19^0. The American competitive system and the second world war propelled this economy into a fantastic era of revolutions among revolutions. As wdth the insect societies, historically the men of one generation have spent much of their efforts in preparing for the next generation. As v/ith the insect societies also, a historical observation is that succeeding generations have lived substantially among the conditions that governed the lives of their fathers. Por the young generations of today this assumption is no longer true. World \-7ar II: economic transition Prior to the second world v/ar, the American economy was characterized ''oj a company-oriented philosophy; heavy emphasis was placed on production. '2':ie most popular idoa in management thought even as late as 1930, was to make the

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14 same or* a limited ntimbez' of .products at less cost. Companies were working toward increased profit by ccllin3 more of the same and producins it more economically wiien business activity turned sharply dovmward in 1929. Unemployment was at a high rate throughout the decade of the 1950' s; there exists much doubt as to v/hether recovery had occurred by the beginning of the v/ar. Perhaps •..hat the American society via.s able to accomplish during the v/ar period v;as underestimated in the war strategy of the aggressors. A staggering economy characterised by lov; incomes,, unemployment and idle capacity became a booming economy very rapidly at the onset of the v;ar. A shortage of labor quickly developed, and wages rose correspondingly. Incomes increased so rapidly that public measures were necessary along with private cooperation to halt potential financial crisis. Public and private financing allowed capital outlays for plant and equipment never before paralleled in history, and government supported research v;as responsible for the development of many innovations in products and productive techniques. In retrospect, one sees that the v;ar effort not only supplied jlmerican men with modern equipment and supplies but also can be credited with giving allies grea^t bulks of physical goods to support their v;ar participation. In addition, by 19^5 as the w— d of the conflict approached, the American consumer was able to "^„," some lu^rciry items that had

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15 been unavailable since tlie beginning of the vrar. Surprisingly enough, the economy has faltered only briefly since the culmination of VJorld V/ar II, and prosperity has been continuously present in JLnierica. Consumer xrealth Ihis dynamic grov;th and expansion has caused the American people to be aptly characterized as affluent. Ihe average family income has climbed to ?/6,0C0; the value of the annual gross national product nov/ e>:ceeds svSOO billion; Americans aro producing eight million automobiles a year. Typically, the American home is equipped v;ith \\rori: eliminators such as automatic vjashing machines, clothes dryers, vacuum cleaners, dish v/ashers and electric can openers. Radios, television sets, air conditioners and telephones add to the comfort of living; three bedrooms, tv;o bathrooms, a living room, study and playroom are furnished v:ith an array of supposedly practical equipment to add to life's pleasures. Resear-ch and development Many of America's consumer goods have been developed only in the last 20 years. Government, institutional and private spending for research and development of new and better products is now approaching :^.21 billion a year. This is 25 times greater than the amoimt spent for research

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16 and development in 19^0, and it is predicted f^iat the figure will reach S28 nillion by 1970. (23, p. i) Manap;e!nent ; indispensahlo The operation of an econony of such propo:?tion, one whose essence of conpetition is innovation and invention, has required the dovelopaent of a s^oup of unique i^anagers. These people have been referred to as a class, an elite, an economic resource; they have been called professionals, both as service renderers and tyrants. Regardless of how he is referred to, the American corporate manager has successfully met and coped with a variety of problens and responsibilities in his new undertaking. These challenges serve to point ouo the demand for the emerging group of managers. Since the turn of the century, management has been in great demand in this country but over the years, reasons for this demand have changed. The economic man myth has given way to a society that recognizes that Western modern-a^-e spirit is one of organised economic advance. As these advances have talcen place, management has been charged with the responsibility of directing the progress, therefore it may be true to conclude that professional management in today's economy is in fact indispensable. Ability and couracie The pace of technology is the fundamental factor maliinrr the emergence of management so essential. Business

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17 can no lonser be operated as uaconnectr-d parts but must fori: an integrated system, and even though great stress is still put upon production principles, the creation ^-1 nev; markets ranks above all in ohe requirements of the nev; manageiaent . The business must be internally flexible so as to adapt to nex-7 processes and circumstances and to adjust to environmental changes, but it must also maintain structure to allov; and support the maintenance of a going concern. These conditions among others such as increased competition, make it compulsory for the management to make decisions reaching into the future that :.-ill ultimately result in failure or success of the firm. So the management in this neu society, in this age of explosive technological revolution must be, individually and collectively, men equipped to accomplish the goals set out before then. They must be armed vrith tools \;hich give them the ability and the courage to live profitably in the present and tc forecast adequately in the future; to viev; the business situation as a meaningful vrhole but respect each part, and to demonstrate the integrity to keep America moving in the direction ox the revolutionary society that it is. The Profession of Management One can see that in less than tvio centuries, society as it is knovrn in America has evolved from beir^ an established one to an adaptive society. He can also recognize

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18 that the rate of change has become enormously accelerated in the past 25 years. As this rate of change has become increasingly accelerated, businessmen have commanded more and more attention as being instrumental in the fundamental growth of America. Family management demise Typically, the leading firms in the early stages of an industrial society are family owned, controlled and managed. However, as the business environment becomes bigger and as the management of the firm becomes more complex, a greater degree of technical competence may be required to operate the business, and professional managers are employed. In addition to the decline of family management, technical professionals are in greater demand due to the public nature of corporate ownership. The professional manager's job The professional manager is employed on the basis of demonstrated ability or on the basis of specific training which indicates that he can accomplish the management tasks in a highly industrialized setting. As has already been suggested, the professional manager must participate in planning and innovation, he must coordinate and control, he must accept risks and handle uncertainties, he must administer routine supervision. The professional manager may hold the pinnacle position of director or other top

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19 administrative officer or he may "be a first line supervisor; he may he a specialist in such areas as personnel, research or training, or he may he a memher of middle management. As the need for professional management has become more widely understood and as economic development has continued to advance, many companies have outlined the professional manager's Job. Perhaps it is of interest to see one company's conception of the duties of the management. General Electric has stated that managing is a distinct function and that the professional manager must be conscious of many facets simultaneously; (7, p. 76) 1. He must be able to persuade, blending thought and action in decision making. 2. He must be able to plan, organize, integrate and measure. 3. He is required to effectively utilize all human and natural resources. ^, The manager must understajid and be able to apply the specific skills required to manage his particular activity or operation. 5. Professional management must see each component part as it enhances the whole being managed. America; a pluralistic society This writer believes that management as a group is a powerful and dynamic and leading force in shaping and directing the future of American society. The author also recognizes that managers, both individually and collectively.

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20 seek power and freedom of operation; however, these propositions are not to say that professional managers will dominate the American industrial society. Management can be only one leading group among many in America because this is a pluralistic society composed primarily of political and social interest groups in addition to the economic segment. (7, p. 8^) Even though there are many examples of business organizations violating established laws and social ethics, professional management strongly tends to be serviceable in nature as apposed to tyrannical. American firms are guided by existing imperfect competition and public opinion and when they are in opposition to accepted practices, they may be investigated and rebuffed legally. Responsibilities of Management The American management community is charged with responsibilities from many directions. It is expected to conform to the legal framework; it is expected to meet varied social demands; it is expected, above all perhaps, to avoid financial loss and to prolongate itself into the future successfully. One can further visualize the philosophy of business management by analyzing the major activities of the organizations in relation to their so-called responsibilities.

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21 Customer-oriented philosophy It is a plausible suggestion to think that the most important responsibility of management guiding and determining its philosophy is that of operating in such a way as to make profit or to avoid loss. In a dynamic economy as has been herein envisioned, the accomplishment of this function for the corporation requires that it undertake to create customers and to satisfy its market. Therefore firms today practice as a part of their philosophy, the marketing or customer-oriented concept. Productivity Production should not be thought of as having been displaced. Indeed, the process of producing goods is more efficient than ever before in history with emphasis on efficiency continuing to command great attention. The process of production, however, is not currently analyzed in the strict sense of simply making more goods for less money but is seen as only a part of the whole. As Peter Drucker suggests, maybe a more fitting term to describe the practice of management in the production realm is productivity. This term, productivity, is more useful; it is more inclusive and refers to increasing profit as a percentage related to some other element such as sales volume or investment rather than practicing the philosophy of simply increasing the production rate.

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22 Innovation A fundamental principle readily discernible in corporate outlook today seems to be the recognition tbat if one is to grow and expand, it must invest and innovate. Actually, this recognition applies to the stationary or nonexpanding firm also, for if that company aspires to simply hold the status quo in industry standing it sees that to cease innovating and investing will cause it to fall behind its competitors. New product development, in part or in total, cannot be over-emphasized as fundamental to success in this highly industrialized society where practice of the marketing concept is the focal point of activity. As the company achieves growth or stability, as the compsLny creates customers and satisfies markets, as the company avoids loss, as it practices productivity, it will also concurrently attempt to utilize its physical and financial resources to the greatest possible degree. Undertaking these measurable functions has become a major part of management philosophy today. Qualitative philosophy There has been and is being much said and written concerning areas of management operation which cannot be measxired as easily as those above. There seems little doubt that the current professional management is following a trend of developing management talent for replacement or

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23 growth, or both.. In addition, management has foiind it profitable to recognize the worker and to reward him for his contribution to the growth of industry. Public responsibility also has found favor with management, and management practices are not generally against public sentiment but with it. It is important to remember that generally the management group is still comprised of employees and that although the welfare of the manager rests with the results of his efforts, his social responsibilities as a manager are essentially the same as his social responsibilities as an individual. Management and firms operate for profit; any substitute reasoning would be silly, but they, in addition to working for the owners, are also working for the labor force, communities, and for society as a whole, as well as for themselves. Conclusion Social responsibility Undoubtedly, much of the contemporary business practice philosophy is a result of necessity. Certainly such powers as the federal and local governments, the labor unions and competition are strong influences. Stockholders surely motivate professional managers, too. All these factors on top of self-interests are necessary if this

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24 industrial society is to survive, but maLnagement has gone further. Management is also, in America today, practicing a philosophy that is socially responsible. That social responsibility can be said to influence every decision that is made by the contemporaxy manager. He must keep his own enterprise successful and profitable in the present and at the same time, he must maice decisions that bring about growth and prosperity or failure in the future. Mr. Drucker maintains that if the manager of today fails to accomplish the above that capital is destroyed and that resources have been impaired and utilized unproductively. Regardless of the position of the manager, his philosophy today is achieving greater productivity while simultaneously assuring the future. In achieving these goals, professional management practices methods of management which are in keeping with the technological revolution progress and the needs and demajids of the American society.

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CHAPTER III IMAGERY, THE CONSUMER, AlTD THE INSTITUTION Introduction The image is considered iiere not as a property of the human but an extension of the organization. Environmental information, human thinking and imagery, and the institution and its image are the basic ideas presented in this chapter. These areas have been investigated with the intention of commercial application, and the presentation has been designed with this objective claiming foremost recognition. Society is basically composed of three distinct areas: individuals, groups to which individuals belong, and organizations or institutions. The organizations seem to be reflections of the individuals who compose them, eind groups appear to attract people who, although being distinct individuals, also are characterized by some homogeneous traits. Groups and organizations develop characteristics which tend to identify them as "individuals" also; in addition, groups and organizations, as well as individuals, develop and can be identified by "personality" traits. These assumptions allow one to proceed with the analysis 25

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26 on a liumanized basis which in essence is the premise of the thesis: that organizations as well as groups and individuals are perceived as being "alive." The association between and the understanding of the existence and activity of these various entities is often misunderstood by other bodies. Perhaps a part of this misunderstanding is due to poor communication between the components. Therefore, the writer undertakes in this chapter to analyze and evaluate the image, which seems to be a fundamental concept involved in the communication, process. Organization Informational Concept Static structures Organizations, structures, and institutions vary from the extremely simple in movement, guidance and perception, to the extremely complex. The brain, especially that of the human, is probably the most difficult structural body to understand; relatively simple structures of organization are envisioned in the jig-saw puzzle and the clock. The Jig-saw puzzle and the clock represent structures that are static or stationary formations; the individual parts of such structures are connected and organized in such a way that identical patterns of activity are followed each time a full cycle is accomplished. The clock parts move in repeated sequences due to individual parts being interrelated in

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27 unique patterns, and the puzzle "fits" as a result of distinct connectedness. There is no information concept involved in the static organization of the puzzle or clock mechanism. As the analysis progresses beyond the level of static organizations, the concept of organizational information assumes great importance. The thermostat can serve to represent what can be considered to be the most rudimentary level of organization which is sensitive to environmental information. The thermostat is a mechanism that has the ability to react to certain stimuli that may be present in its environment. The thermostat is capable of operating due to the combination of several factors. "Facts," the receptor, the control and the effector act in combination with information as communication or feedback to cause the mechanism to be effective. The receptor upon being exposed to environmental conditions receives information or "facts" which it in turn relays to a control system; the control then acts to send the message on to the effector, here a furnace; the effector then initiates action in response to the message. (2, p. 20) The origin of many thoughts in this chapter is difficult to determine, for identical or similar ideas may be read in severed sources. However, where material is directly transferred, the attempt is made to give proper recognition.

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28 "Feedback": environmental information It is pertinent to recognize and to emphasize that conditions in the environment exercise ultimate control over the action that is taken by the effector, and that as a result of feedback, the receptor essentially becomes aware that the effector has received the proper message suad is acting upon that information. Another example of reaction to environmental information can be taken from the biological level of activity. The Paramecium, obviously a simple form of animal life, appears to be unaware of its environment. But this unconscious, tiny bit of substance is not completely unresponsive to stimuli. Vhen a dark colored liquid is splashed or sprayed in the direction of the small organism, it does react. The reaction is one of recoiling or withdrawing; this action indicates response to a situational stimulus. (2, p. 59) Mechanisms can be made by human ingenuity to have and to conform to an "image"; botanical and biological levels of life have been observed reacting to stimuli on an apparent "instinct" basis; higher forms of animal life seem to avoid danger and pain, thus indicating the possession of preconceived expectations of results of given behavior. The human being possesses every capability which characterizes lower levels of life; however, the human is classed alone as a result of his having the ability to think rationally and to make use of logic.

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29 Human Imagery and Cognition Tiie task of searching out and presenting structured definitions is tedious and technical but is necessary to substantiate that the human is the only organism capable of such mental activity. The presentation also serves to support image theory that is to be subsequently discussed. Cognition Cognition has been defined by psychologists as "the means whereby organisms achieve, retain and transform information." (6, p. 92) Cognition is the term used to summarize certain conscious mental activities; it is "a generic term for any process whereby an organism becomes aware or obtains knowledge of an object. . . .It includes perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging, reasoning." (6, p. 92) Webster's Dictionary states that cognition is: 1, Act or faculty of knowing; knowledge, perception. 2. a. The process of knov;ing; any mental operation by which we become aware of objects of thought or perception; knowledge or the capacity for it. b. A product of this process, as a perception or notion; as a priori cognitions, Factors in thinking -H Cognition is but one of the functions of thinking,' but in relation to human imagery, perhaps it is the most influential function which affects the image process. One

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30 dictionary of psychological terms states that, "In most systems, cognition, affection, and conation are the three categories xinder which all mental processes are classified. (6» P* 93) David Russell proposes a general theory of the thinking process and says that when thinking is studied as a whole, it should include four main factors: 1. The materials of thinking such as sensations, perceptions, memories, images, and concepts, 2. Motives for thinking: the feelings, needs, attitudes, and habits of thought acquired earlier which help initiate and determine the direction of thinking, 3. Processes in thinking: patterns of activity such as selecting, eliminating, searching, manipulating and organizing, which vary from relatively undirected thinking through inductive thinking to problem solving, critical thinking and discovery. A-. Abilities in thinking: the habits, techniques, and guides to thinking which can be acquired and developed by children and by others who desire to improve their thinking. (12, p. 8) Lower animals and the human The cognitive processes and the "factors" in thinking differentiate the human from other forms of animal life. In addition to being differentiated by cognitive and thinking characteristics, the dimensions of animal and hu m an environmental awareness differ substantially. Man's thinking and mental processes are greatly influenced by intimations and emotions; he finds himself in differing moods of varying degrees. Man is frequently elated, depressed, happy, inspired, sad. Do other animals experience similar

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51 moods? Undoubtedly some do. The dog frequently demonstrates happiness when his master appears, and as the master approaches and touches the dog, one might conclude that the usual surging movement of the dog's tail indicates even strong elatedness. Surely most animals do not experience all of the emotional moods of man and certainly not to as broad a degree. Dimensions of man's environment are further complicated by observing that the human is also aware of his location in "space, time, personal relations and nature," (2, p. ^) Brain functions Many theories have been put forth which may be useful for demonstrating significant differences in instinctive and rational behavior. Specifically suited for this illustration are analogies between the brain and a "map control room" and a "cognitive map" can be beneficially analyzed to demonstrate the complexity and superiority of the brain organization. Messages received in the mentality of some animals elicit behavior which appears to result instinctively. One might assume that the brain activity of such animals is similar to a simple switchboard concept. Thus, the results of incoming stimuli are connected by simple oneto-one plug-ins to outgoing responses. The human brain activity, the process of logic and rationality, can be thought of as resembling a central control room. In this

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32 control room, incoming impulses are analyzed and elaborated into a "tentative, cognitive-like map" of the outer environment. This tentative "map" is ultimately responsible for determining what responses, if any, v/ill finally be released, (9, p. 8) The creative aspect of the "cognitive map" can be further illustrated through an analysis of the animal passing through a maze. The animal, once it has been exposed to the obstacles and has overcome them successfully, can safely negotiate the maze even under different circumstsinces. The conclusion is that the animal has learned as a result of his having perceived spatial relationships in the maze rather than having learned a series of movements, (1^, p. 15) Human imagery Conceptually, one is aware that higher levels of intelligence in living organisms culminate in the mental ability of the human mind and being. The general superiority of the human thinking process seems to be greatly influenced by the fact that he cognitively perceives, ohat his mind embodies and can recapture perceptual experiences, and that the acc\imulation of continued association with certain perceptions allows logic and rationality to occur. This superior mental process is characterized by man's retaining, organizing and manipulating mental representations; the

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33 mental representations occur to the individual as pictures or as images or concepts. (l, p. 188) The image or mental thought process is aji internal conglomeration of things and events, of relationships and classifications and here, in one's image or "mind's eje," is represented one's experiences, including goal-objects, overt responses to the goals, and the resulting reinforcement impressions. Thus it can be said that human behavior is dependent on the image and that the image is his total world or the knowledge of the world; the image appears to be the intermediary factor between motivating messages and behavioral responses,/ The value system Technical mechanisms such as the thermostat are regulated by a value control, and the value is some ideal condition. The automatic machine like the thermostat is a machine which cannot in and of itself be altered. The human, however, learns as a result of the information taken in from his environment, and the human alone possesses the ability to arrange and organize information into complex abstract images. Concepts are the basis for the creation and maintenance of the image, and together, concepts and images serve to create within the individual a system of hierarchial values. Goal-objects seem to be interpreted in light of features of past experience which are brought to

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3^ bear on the current stimulus through, the process of manipulating concepts and perceptions. Messages or facts \Prom the many dimensions of existence, man is constantly flooded v/ith facts or messages v;hich influence his behavior or which are merely designed to influence his behavior. The information received is consequently filtered through his system of hierarchial values; this process, depending on the degree and extent of prior experiences, may have occurred many times previously in this same individual. The messages are linked to concurrent behavior of the person and that behavior represents the conclusion of the systematic and consistent image manipulation of the organism. It should be emphasized that so-called "facts" and simple messages deserve no differentiation in relation to one's image of an environmental situation. The two can and should be used interchangeably and synonymously because to one's image, either simply constitutes information. Significance can be attached exclusively to the resulting behavior and this behavior occurs only after the messages have been filtered through the hierarchy of values and interpreted within the framework of a complex structure of concepts. Apparently most of the multi-variety of messages to which the human is exposed do not affect his image. When the

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35 messages do bring about changes in tbe image, most of the;^ changes seem to take the form of simple additions to the already existing compound of concepts. Although some messages may bring about revolutionary changes in the image, it seems that most messages serve to substantiate the image, making it less certain or more certain, clearer or inducing skepticism. (2, p. 8) When changes in the image do occur, external behavior can be expected to change similarly. With the analysis and acceptance of the value system proposition, it is clear that the image acts as a field governing one's behavior; this conclusion leads to the belief that the individual self then continually gravitates toward its most highly valued part of the field and that this gravitation results in predictable behavior. Economic Behavior Habitual behavior It has been stated that possibly as much as 30 per cent of human activity may be considered to be habitual. This suggestion, is sign.ificant in that habitual activities are difficult to change because they are the result of strongly imprinted patterns of reinforcement; habitual behavior flov:s from one's image v;ith little active value analysis. Man is engrossed in the cyclical phenomenon of time, and he tends to follovr a pervading pattern. Perhaps these recognitions partially explain v/hy frequently a

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majority of many retail stores' sales represent repeat business. Images persist and people resist change as a result of other factors also. For instance, society and the commercial organization constantly reiterate messages which may encourage the individual to resist change. "Laws" of economic behavior The image held by individuals bears heavily on behavior, and this factor is of extreme importance to the commercial organization. In attempting to understand the relationship that exists between human imagery and the organ.ization, one can look to Boulding for further support in the area of humans resisting change. He gives two "laws" of economic behavior: 1. One does what he did yesterday unless there are very good reasons for doing otherv;ise. 2, Good reasons which are necessary if one does not do today what he did yesterday are derived mainly from dissatisfaction with what he did yesterday or with what happened to him yesterday. (2, pp. 186-18?) Bruce Veale continues Boulding' s suggestion in pointing out that future business with the same customer is dependent on the continuous satisfaction of the relationship of her image to price, quality, and service. Imase; a human perception ( It is entirely necessary for an understanding of this analysis of the individual, his imagery, and its relation to

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37 the institution, that one be fully cognizant that the image is a human perception. Organizations are quite simply reflections of those people who influence their growth and existence. However, caution must be exercised v;hen broaching the subject of organizational image, for even though the organization does possess a sort of self-consciousness through its influential "agents," the image is never the property of the organization. The image is an exclusive property of the individual. Organizations may propound highly esteemed ideological goals, and organizations may constantly purport to maintain a false image; however, people show little interest in abstract commercial ideology. Pragmatism and logic based on believable messages, positive association and creative feedback interpretation lead to the development of the organization image in the mind of I \ Imagery and Institutional Success the individual. (23, pp. ^0-^1)'^ Personality and self-expression ^Although the organization does not possess an image of its ovra., there does seem to exist somehow in the field of organization an analogy to the phenomenon of selfconsciousness. This self-consciousness is related to the image of the organization and when the self-consciousness and the public image are identical, then one might say that

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38 those who participate in it or are related to the organi7 zation share the conscious awareness of the institution,/ One definition of an organization maintains that the organization is simply "a structure of roles tied together by lines of communication." (2, p. 2?) ?ollov;ing this definition it can be recognized that it is essential for every individual in any organization to fit and to play a certain role. As the numerous roles which are played by various individuals become combined and synthesized, the self-consciousness or image of each role must be consistent with the total image of the organization. ) 'i Consumer association and attraction The very livelihood of the organization is dependent on how well the roles are played; consumer behavior demands that every role be played distinctively and significantly. Upon analysis, one becomes aware that the individual must also have an image of himself, and surely it is true that overt behavior is conditioned in many ways. Social forces and group associations may be the \mo most powerful motivating factors which underlie goal-object behavior. In addition, many think that the individual tends to associate with others who appear to possess similar characteristics to those held in the image of one's self. '' The individual is also governed by many fears and anxieties. (19, p. 9) He has a high degree of sensitivity

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39 to what seems to be logically appropriate. As one is '"exposed to experiences, he creates iimer ideals; lie then strives to uphold these measures for he does not want to he untrue to himself although he probably is afraid that he will be. The individual apparently strives to appear loyal, to identify, and to avoid seeming foolish or strange. There seems to be little question that society often penalizes those who appear to be "out of character"; therefore, individuals find it necessary to act in a "fitting" manner; a manner that must not only be appropriate to the image that one holds of himself, but a manner that is also fitting to others in his social environment. (19, P« 9) Mirrored image The final expression of roles that create an organization is in the services, brands, and products which are produced by that organization. The products and brands seem to have personalities of their own, while all of the facets together create a company or organization personality. In personal relations similar personalities often are attracted to each other, and perhaps a like conclusion can be drawn from organization and human relationships; organization, product and brand personalities attract people of similar personalities. The person seems to be seeking self-expression in every act; in the commercial setting, Bruce Veale says that consumer desires and ambitions are

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^0 expressed in "every selection" as well as in the "total patronage motive." (25, P. ^0) Although it cannot be concluded that the image is the sole determinant of consumer patronage, it seems that one can safely say that the consumer does tend to patronize the organization that corresponds to her own self-conception or self-image. Logical appropriateness The appropriateness of consumer activities is derived by the individual from a complexity of factors. It has already been stated that people who appear "out of character" or out of place in their activity or interaction may be penalized; reprimands may come from within themselves, from their peers or from employees or individuals of the organization. When the individual maintains associations that are expected of him, however, and when his actions bring positive reinforcement of expectations based on his image, the image will probably continue to persist. Image persistence Even strong images, however, can be damaged or destroyed if the person is disappointed in the results of his patronage behavior. Dorothy Diamond studied women shoppers to discover some of their feelings toward commercial organizations. (16, p. 93) She found that women want the store management and employees to treat them with respect and to recognize them as individuals; that the American i

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41 woman prefers a progressive yet pragmatic company, and that women want the company to have a distinctive personality. No difference was attached to various ethnic, race, income or class groups in the Diamond study, so the conclusions above are stated under this consideration. It is maintained here that, in general, women have relatively the ssime basic desires regardless of the class or prestige of the store which they usually patronize. '^ Commercial organizations are strongly aware of the spending that is accounted for in America by women. To this end, the progressive organization constantly attempts to substantiate and reiterate the desired image in the mind of the public. The Diamond study found, however, that many of the messages directed at women shoppers were often considered by the shoppers to be insulting. Advertisements often mislead the consumer by advertising "specials that are not specials," by presenting advertisement sketches which prove to be deceiving, and by claiming that clerks are warmhearted, helpful friends v;hen actuailly they appear to be tired-footed grouches being persecuted by having to "work" for a living. Many companies fail to achieve the distinctive personality with American women 'oj failing to present practical identification symbols. Criticism has been leveled at companies v/ho expect the average American woman to identify with "models, movie stars, and cooing, gurgling babies." (16, p. 93)

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^2 The Institution and Feedback "Central Agents" Superior communication skills and higlaly intellectual utilization of feedback have enabled man to extend the image process much further than lower animal societies. Kot only have these factors made possible orderly growth and development within the individual and in his personal relationships, they have also led to the development of large and complex commercial organizations. As has been suggested previously, each of these organizations differs not only in complexity but also in type, size and character. The character and behavior of the organization are determined by one "most important person" or a small group, and the decisions of the "central agents" are the basic factors upon which the character of the company is established. "Central agents" may of course fail to determine the behavior of the organization, and it is completely plausible to think that the "agents" or executives achieve various degrees of success in controlling organizational behavior, ^Nevertheless, it appears valid to conclude that the chief executive or small group is able to determine the organization's behavior to the extent that the central group is capable of entering into the imagination and lives of others. (2, p. 27)

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^3 Leadership styles Common styles of leadership that appear where authority is present within a group have been called authoritarian, laissez-faire, and democratic. Rather than undertaking a detailed discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each style as applied in the commercial setting, the objective here is to analyze and to caution against the utilization of the authoritarian style of management or leadership in the corporation. The importance of environmental information or feedback to the initiator of messages that lead to activity has already been emphasized. This idea, however, deserves strong re-emphasis, particularly in light of commercial activity. Sound decisions must be considered those decisions that result in economic exchanges which allov; satisfactory profit to tlie company and ample satisfaction and positive reinforcement to the patron. The danger in the authoritarian type management is that decisions may be made that prove to be erroneous based on the above criteria of company profit and customer satisfaction. Possibly these decisions v/ould have been different , therefore, more sound, had they been made within a different type of management orientation. Authoritarian Hanag:ement ^-/hen the adult individual is in such a mental state that he is incapable of and does not possess the skill to

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commimicate his image into sone other individual's mental imagination, the psychologist says that he is insane. There exist many types and various degrees of insanity; it nay be the result of one's having false perceptions or seeing pictures or images in the mind's eye of things v/hich do not exist in reality. In people this particular sickness is only a mild form of insanity, and the false perceptions are referred to as hallucinations. Eov/ever, people are not alone in suffering hallucinations, and it is not infrequent that organizations may demonstrate this type of insanity also. Feedback With a democratic perspective, individuals who fulfill the higher roles act in behalf of those individuals who staff the lov;er positions. However, authoritarian structures tend to ignore the lower level staff as well as customer reaction. Where the democratic structure not only allows but encourages agreement or decision adjustment and modification, the authoritarian tyrant may make little satisfactory and probably no constructive criticism. Selforientation has been the doom of many commercial organizations and where feedback is controlled, indeed, discouraged, nothing appears to be more damaging or defeating. The customer-employee oriented corporation, most likely the democratic one, thrives on feedback while the authoritarian firm is likely to deplore it.

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^5 Vroe Alderson has stated: "'2he greatest value of motivation research is to get people to try a product (or service or brand) but they'd surely better be able to continue to buy it on a rational basis," (22, p. 68) A consumer buying behavior study in 1961 ranked the factors which most frequently caused customers to refuse to buy: (21, p. 30) 1. Unsatisfactory goods. 2. False and misleading advertising, 3. Lack of salesmen's attention. 4. Unsatisfactory product 5. Store reputation. Four of these five noted factors exist possibly as examples of Mr, Alderson' s contention. Deterioration The spoils of autocratic leadership tend to saturate the entire organization and to breed dissatisfaction with consumers. Employees become "yes men," and consequently their information may be unreliable; therefore, it is likely that higher level authority suffers from the hallucination of an unreal image. It perhaps sees loyalty where there is none or it may interpret customer satisfaction when in actuality the company's market climate is deteriorating. Organization insanity may take the form of espousing customer orientation, customer satisfaction, and market oriented concepts when in fact the "central agent" may think and act on a company oriented policy and follow a

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^6 self-centered course. Kenneth Boulding maintains that such, an organization is eventually incapable of self-support and will "disintegrate." Conclusion When Columbus sailed toward America in search of a new sea route to the Vest Indies, his thinking was in opposition to the majority of perceptions concerning the shape of the v/orld. Only so-called heretics believed as Columbus did, that the v/orld was round instead of flat, but regardless of differences of opinion, the images or perceptions that the people held were clear; the concept or symbol representing the earth in the individuals* conscious activity was vivid. Characteristically this seems to be true of images. They are clear perceptions to their perceivers; hov/ever, the result of behavior based on an image, even though the expectation may be clear, may be surprising. It is the anticipated result of economic behavior X'/ith v;hich the commercial organization should be vitally concerned. Man has alv;ays lived in a perplexing state, and perhaps the complexities of living in a highly industrialized, relatively affluent society tend to increase his anxiety and frustration. Unresolved internal conflict seems to abound freely; therefore, apparently causing all consumer decisions to be of an interim nature. Probably all consumer decisions

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^7 are interim to the extent that alter native opportunities for behavior are present, and one can conclude, as does Advertising; Age magazine, that these alternatives will always be present in this society because commercial advertising accompanies or is concomitant to a highly industrialized state. (26, p. 3) Elaborating on this concept. Advertising Age states that, indeed, advertising has as its objective the creation within an individual of a tension system; a tension complex v;hich can be solved only by the purchase and use of the advertised benefit. Dynamics of behavior analyzed in terms of mental imagery present many difficulties; attempting to analyze an abstraction is alv;ays rigorous. Images seemingly can be compared only with other images but regardless of the apparent obstacles, the implications of such an analysis are significant to the commercial organization. The profit oriented institution should recognize that consumers predict results of their behavior and that the image is confirmed or modified by actual results of behavior. Of course only positive reinforcement or modification is desired, but many firms elicit negative image modifications, reaping as a consequence, lost or dissatisfied customers who tend to communicate their images to other people. Surely it behooves the commercial organization to consider the significance of imagery as it affects the individual, the group, and the firm.

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CHAPTER IV PUBLIX SUPEHMAHEETS, IITC: CONCEPTION, PHILOSOPHY, GROWTH Introduction America has long been characterized as a country possessing an abundance of opportunity. A tradition was established by those men at Plymouth Rock which has been sustained through the years of American grov;th and development. Numerous statesmen have exemplified the American spirit; business and industrial moguls have not been less important in demonstrating the achievement of the fabled "American Pioneer." Carnegie, Rockefeller, Strauss, Penney, Du Pont, Vestinghouse are some of the names associated with commercial success. The pioneer in American industry has truly broken new ground. He has led the world in taking advantage of and contributing to technological developments. His contribution in techniques and concepts have also been recognized. Contemporary economics and social protocol subtly demand of American citizens that tradition be upheld; that continuation of the pioneering spirit be ever present as a continuation of the American path to success. One man appearing in the face of this challenge v/as George Jenkins. Information in this chapter has been gleaned from published company reports and from interviews with, executives. Needless duplication is eliminated by this recognition. Copies of the reports, interviev/s, and correspondence are on file. . o

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49 Origin of the Publix Corporation Land speculation v;as a phenomenon which attracted great wealth to the state of Florida in the early twentieth century. This land hooia also "beckoned nany people; they came with the hope of riches and wealth, and they often came v;ith meager or no resources except themselves. George Jenkins was one of those who came to Florida seeking affluence; he began his career with only nine dollars. /''." Jenkins: store clerk to manager Within a v/eek after arriving in Tampa, Florida, George Jenkins had taken advantage of his previous work experience, and had secured a job as a clerk in a Tampa grocery store. His father had operated a general store in Georgia, and Jenkins had worked in the store prior to his coming to Florida. After one month of employment as a clerk, Mr. Jenkins v;as promoted to store manager and shortly thereafter v;as transferred to manage another store in V/inter Eaven, Florida. George Jenkins continued to v/ork and in the passing weeks and months accumulated a savings account. After two years had elapsed, he had saved five hundred dollars. During the year 1950, when Jenkins was nineteen years old, the grocery chain which employed him was sold. The new management, as Nr. Jenkins says today, was "more interested in playing golf than in satisfying customers" so Jenkins decided to open his own store.

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50 Jenkins' early management philosophy The primary driving force v.'hich encouraged the opening of a competing store and v;hich led to the formation of the Publix Corporation, was Jenkins* displeasure with the management methods imposed upon him by the new ov/ners. V/hen his employer insisted that Jenkins, as store manager, employ tactics and policies smacking of dishonesty and low ethics, George Jenkins espoused complete honesty and fairness to both employees and customers. He wanted to reward employees v;ith growth, and fair compensation, and to allov; the customer complete satisfaction, Jenkins opens ovm store With his total savings of five hundred dollars, and as a result of a decision not to purchase an automobile, George Jenkins opened a small grocery store in 1950. Tb.e store, kno\«i as "George's," v/as located in the storebuilding adjoining that of his former employer. Having been in V/inter Haven two years, Jenkins was well knovm; "George's" volume of sales v;as heavy from the store's inception, and success was imonediate. Sales volume in the first full year of operation was approximately $105,000. In 1952, a second store was opened by Jenkins; it v/as the beginning of a new corporation. The company v;as formally entitled Publix Pood Stores Corporation and became known as the Publix Corporation or simply as Publix.

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51 A Managenent Philosophy Develo-ps Jenkins' original employees Throughout the decade of the 1930' s. three and sometimes four men constituted the work force of Jenkins and Puhlix. The original employees remained in their Jobs and in close association v/ith Jenkins for the eight to ton years following their employment. Kr. Jenkins nov; believes that the close v/orking relationship of these men with himself during the early years of the Publix Corporation was basic to the success that the company has experienced. As a result of group decisions present in the management policies of Jenkins, the original group eventually thought alike and held common principles. The employees became instilled with the Jenkins' attitudes toward customers and subordinates. Publix' original customers The original store "George's," continued to produce a satisfactory sales volume throughout the 1930' s. Gross sales ranged between $100,000 and $110,000 annually during the period. Jenkins had approached the opening of his store with customer satisfaction as a major concern; the importance of this period in the history of Publix is emphasized again in the customer-employee-manager relationship that existed during the decade.

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52 Mr. Jenkins associated closely v/ith. h.is customers in his original store. His continuous contact with, customers allowed Jenkins to observe problems encountered by the customers; the close contact also shov;ed to Jenkins and his employees the attitudes possessed by customers. Being able to discuss and observe shopping habits cind customer problems and attitudes helped George Jenkins to further formulate and define his beliefs concerning the operation of grocery stores; his management philosophy became refined. Ob.i'ectives restated By the late 1950' s Mr. Jenkins believedmore strongly than ever that the success or failure of the corporation lay in the customer and personnel policies. His original thinking in terms of fairness and service was strongly reinforced during this period, and the fundamental elements of his philosophy became clearly defined during the decade of the 1930's. Perhaps one can conclude that those years spent managing "George's" v;ere the most important years in George Jenkins' business experience, for apparently those v;ere the years when he v;as able to develop and nurture his management philosophy. Fundamentally, the Publix Corporation v;as built on the basis of fair treatment to people. Jenkins concluded that people and personal relationships were more important in his industry than was even food. He believed that Publix

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53 could grox^ and prosper as long as the consumer could completely trust and have faith, in the store and the management. Growth and prosperity would result as long as the consumer was given the satisfaction for v;hich she paid; as long as she experienced satisfactory benefits from the total transaction. Personnel management constituted the second major element in Mr. Jenkins' philosophy. VJorlcers should also get the best possible result from their experience v/ith Jenkins and Publix. Remuneration x^^ould take the form of autonomous supervision, growth and security in the form of internal promotion and profit sharing, and an amount of direct income limited only by the revenue and profit realizations of the company. Mass merchandising popularized "Volatile economic activity resulted in depressed business conditions in the early 1950' s. Incomes of consuming units dwindled and in many instances disappeared. Consumers became extremely price conscious and merchants became increasingly cost conscious. One apparent outgrowth of the price and cost conscious attitudes v:as mass merchandising; particularly attracted to 'che mass merchandising method were businesses distributing food items to the consuming public. The most attractive locations for lov; price, mass distribution of food items v;ere areas of heavy

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5^ population; consequently, the advent and growth of massmerchandised food occurred primarily in the Northeastern United States. Cities such as New York and Philadelphia v/ere attractive market areas. Mr. Jenl:ins was interested in observing the method of mass merchandising food items, so in the late 1950' s he toured some large northern cities for the express purpose of a personal viev; and evaluation of mass food distribution. Mass merchandised food George Jenkins' observations v;ere both exciting and disappointing to him. He savj that merchants had large supplies of individual items in stock and that the number of clerks had been significantly reduced. In the place of many employees, customers v/ere invited to and did make their personal selections from open counters. Self-service left a positive impression on Jenkins. But in order to observe the customers shopping for mass-merchandised food items, the Publix originator found that he had to travel to locations v/hich were usually in hard to reach areas. Besides being located inconveniently, Mr. Jenkins v;as also disappointed to find that the physical plants were nothing more than old rundovm, ill-kept buildinoS, usually deserted factory or v:arehouse buildings. The buildings v;ere dimly lighted and often dirty; they were usually uncomfortable due to poor ventilation and

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55 inadequate heating and cooling conditions. Equipment inside the buildings was not better. At best shelves vjere constructed of old boards attached on cans or boxes; frequently, the crate or box in vrhich the product v;as shipped served to dispense it. Neither the buildings nor the equipment paralleled the Jenkins' philosophy of giving the customer the most possible satisfaction in her shopping experience. Jenkins ' first supermarket George Jenkins' conception of the ideal supermarket building differed significantly from the physical food distribution centers v/hich he observed in the large cities. Upon his return to Winter Haven, Jenkins called in architects and together they finalized plans for the first Publix supermarket. VJhen the plans v;ere presented to bankers, some of the financiers referred lightly to the plans as "George's marble, glass and stucco food palaces." (29 » P» ^ ) Subsequently Jenkins' concept of the building became known as the '-.garble Palace." Mr. Jenkins v;as confident that the housewife desired a pleasant atmosphere in which to buy groceries. By selling both of the original s;;ores and mortgaging aoi orange grove that he had purchased during the depression, Jenkins had his first "food palace" constructed in Winter Haven in 19^0.

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56 The "Marble Palace" The building v/as suited to carrying out Jenl-cins' policy of providing a pleasant atmosphere and of providing satisfaction to the consumer by experiencing benefits offered by Publix. The building v;as characterized by large areas of glass and block, and there v;ere numerous lighting fixtures installed to compliment a bright, airy atmosphere. The building was air-conditioned and equipped with selfopening, automatic doors; only the most modern ecuipment furnished the building, and it included a frozen food cabinet and piped music. Jenkins believed that each of these factors contributed to enhancing the comfort and pleasure of the customer. Cleanliness, neatness, comfort, customer pleasure: these features highlighted the Jenkins' innovation in supermarketing. Growth of Publix Pood Stores Cor-Qoration A nucleus for expansion The Publix Pood Stores Corporation had begun to form a nucleus of management in the two original stores operating in Winter Haven between 1930 and 19^0. Also developed by 19^0 was a distinct operating philosophy which was put into practice in the first Publix supermarket. The sale of the two original stores and the construction of the Winter Haven "Marble Palace" signaled the beginning of corporate grov:th for Publix and of personal grov;th for George Jenkins.

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57 Original expansion for the company \ra.s a slov; process. Most materials v;ere "being used in the v:ar effort until after 19^5, and, as a result, plans for expansion remained only plans, "but the future for Publi:-: brightened significantly in 19^5* The piirchase of tv;o food distributing firms enhanced the development of the corporation. In order for Publix to enlarge, three assets v/ere immediataly necessary: a wholesale distribution facility for grocery items, an additional number of retail outlets, and a more experienced management team to staff the organization. All three additions were accomplished through acquisition in 19^5. The Lakeland VJholesale Company provided the basic physical link between retail outlet and supplier; the All American Grocery Company added a chain of stores to the Public organization, and the two purchases together resulted in the inclusion of "several good men" v;ith grocery experience. With addition of this group and in cooperation with the original group of Jenkins* workers, a sound management nucleus v;as formed. Nov/ gro\^th and expansion were at hand. Decade of decision The retail outlets acquired as the All American Grocery Company v;ere gradually replaced by "Marble Palace" model buildings as materials became more plentiful and available after the second v;orld v/ar. By 1951, the Publix Corporation v;as employing 700 people, v;as operating 2-4supermarkets; it

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53 had attained a sales volime in e:-:cess of vlS nillion. By this time the obvious conclusion was that the business methods and philosophy of the Pablix management group v;or& sound. Hov/ever, the company'', with its then current facilities and market, reached a plateau of operation. Hajor decisions had to be made concerning the growth and e:cpansion of the company. A detailed analysis of the mai-het potential in the state of Florida revealed that many now industries were moving into the state; these industries supplemented the ideal retirement conditions of the state. It vras also discovered that in 1951 •> there XTere ^r;73C permanent residents moving in"JO Florida each month. (29 -j P* p) Expanding the facilities to support a growing supermarket chain presented no special problem. Ihe decisions ;:cre that the Publix Food Stores Corporation could and would grow. "Fifty by Sixty" The goal established for the ten years of er^rpansion from 1951 to 19ol \."as to have fifty stores in operation 'dj I960. The goal was put into the slogan "fifty by sixtj'-" ; by the beginning of 1961 the goal had been far surpassed, as is demonstrated by the follc-./ing figures. (29, pp. 6-7) Year Number of Number of C-rosc Sales Stores i;mplo'''ees 1951 24672 013,228,55^19&I 75 2,65c 156,^-5-r,^63

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59 The Publix Corporation has continued to increase the nunber of supermarket outlets, to employ a greater number of people, and to realize more sales revenue. In addition, the central distribution center located in Lakeland has undergone changes tov/ard increased and more efficient service. Publix Corporation today The corporation continues to expand today. The company now has in excess of 100 supermarkets in operation, employs over 5»'4-00 employees, and realizes in excess of $250 million in annual sales voltune. The company is now divided into two divisions in Florida the Southern and Nor-chern divisions. The Southern division is served from central warehouses located in Miami while the ITprthern division continues to be served by central supply houses located at the company headquarters in Lakeland. In addition to creating warehouse facilities in Hiami, warehouse facilities in Lakeland have undergone five major construction projects in the last twelve years increasing the facility to the size of four hundred and fifty thousand square feet. Other changes in the organization have occurred, too. Architects have redesigned and enlarged individual buildings, attempting to insure the most pleasant atmosphere for grocery shopping as well as the most efficient v/orking conditions for employees, A fleet of more than 50 truck tractors and 90 trailers serves the chain of widely scattered

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60 supermarkets. At least 150 railroad cars and trucks arrive at the Lakeland warehouse each week bringing products to Publix from all over the country. Many people are required to store, ship, prepare and control this flow of products. Consequently, the work force at Puhlix headquarters exceeds 400 people. Modern machinery has been installed at the central offices to aid in proper inventory control and record keeping. Recognizing the amount and variety of products that come to the warehouse each week and recognizing the fact that each Publix store maintains an inventory of over 7,000 items quickly illuminates the necessity of the company's maintaining specialized personnel and modern equipment to accomplish a smooth flow of goods. Printing and advertising shops are also at the Lakeland location; they prepare in-store displays to be coordinated and sent to individual stores. Conclusion Publix Food Stores Corporation was conceived and born of the American spirit; it was bred by a true American pioneer, George V/. Jenkins. The man lives on today pursuing activities that will probably continue to push the company forward in economic attainments. Those same activities are undertaken to prolong the thirty-four -year age of the Publix Corporation business; the business based on the philosophy "...that the person who purchases groceries appreciates a

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61 friendly smile and the service that goes v;ith it ... appreciates a clean, bright, neatly arranged store offering a v/ide variety of name brand products and properly cared for perishables of unquestionable quality, all at fair prices." (29 » P. 50) The belief continues in. the policy of fair treatment to all employees through profit sharing, internal promotion, and the best wages that can be paid within the Publix profit structure. Born as the organization v;as, managed as it is, seemingly by one man, the future of Publix perhaps appears precarious. Hov;ever, possibilities appear unlimited; actually, so rapid have been nev; store planning and construction that conventional methods of location research have been outdated at Publix. The company now makes extensive use of aerial photography to better study and evaluate apparent mushrooming development opportunity. Although George Jenkins seems to exert strong, dependable leadership in the entire company, and although the management is his conception of supermarketing in origin, the managing executives firmly believe that the corporation will continue to operate successfully after Mr. Jenkins has left the helm. Management executives believe that the Jenkins' philosophy will be mirrored by the men v;ho operate the company. Hence, the executives do not fear that Jenkins' eventual leaving v;ill drastically affect the future of the Publix Pood Stores Corporation.

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CHAPTER V PUBLIX SUPSEMAHKETS, IITC: SELF-COITCEPT Introduction Competition and differential advantage Entrepreneurs and v;ould-be entrepreneurs discover that the competitive American business society presents significant opportunity for one to enter into private business. Statistics quickly remind business hopefuls, however, that failure is easier in the business community than is success. The firm that profitably endures over a long period seems to accomplish at least the following: it recognizes and can identify the segment of the people or the part of the market to v/hich the firm can appeal; the firm can contact and be in association with this market group; a product or service and money are exchanged which allows individual benefit and satisfaction to a strong enough degree so as to cause the user to be able to rationally undertake similar transactions at future times. \ When the firm that exists with either product or service being individually capable of accomplishing a repeat sale, one might logically conclude that the competitive position of this firm is sufficiently strong to propagate its successful existence. Publix Food Stores Corporation believes it is one of these strong firms. 62

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63 Market segmentation Enduring food stores and grocery chain stores may excel in one of three areas to accoiint for their longevity. The feature attraction of food stores may "be merchandising ability, food or service. Service through people and personal relationships are conceived by Publix management as the company's major feature of attraction. In addition, the management also thinks that the best quality food possible is offered at Publix, and with concern devoted to these areas primarily, Publix Corporation has succeeded in meeting the previously stated conditions. Policies Relating to Employee Treatment General personnel philosophy The company personality is thought by its executives to be strongly supported by the policies relating to the guidance, direction and supervision of Publix employees, Publix' management philosophy in application and practice is reflected by the recognition by management of the dignity, individuality, and self-esteem of the employee; it can be seen in the emphasis that is placed on informal structure or status lines and in the effort that is put forth to create teamwork in the organization. Management believes that employees at Publix are recognized for accomplishments, are provided incentive for accomplishing, and are therefore motivated to higher accomplishments. When one works for the

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6^ corporation he apparently receives the concern and benefits that an employee-oriented management philosophy proposes. This philosophy treats employees and their attitudes as fundamental factors determining the degree of success of the firm; employee concern and "benefits are expressed accordingly. Another strong motivating factor advocated hy the management group of the Puhlix Corporation is personal relationships: relationships of workers to workers, workers to superiors, and workers and superiors to customers. Recognition of the individual Employees at Publix are directly charged with the responsibility of achieving established goals as required by their particular job requirements. This attitude toward the worker is part of the management function as practiced in the company. Expectations and duties are made clear; then the worker is free from close supervision to accomplish his tasks. Autonomy is a major concern of the superiorworker relationship, and the company believes that this policy has been closely adhered to and has contributed to the organization's success. This autonomous relationship of task accomplishment is supported by the de-emphasis placed on structure or status lines present internally. Status lines Prom department manager, store manager, area manager to the company president, the indication is that superiors

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65 have been able to substantially de-emphasize distinct hierarchial breaks in authority. Publix employees seesi to consider President Jenkins as one oi ths^m. It is generally accepted that Jenkins, when visiting stores during operai;ing hours, nay and does frequently lend hinselx to aiding the workers if his help is needed. One senses this to be true when visiting v/ith Mr. Jenkins. Upon knowing Mr. Jenkins, observing him, and talking with him.^ one can understand why he has been successful in de-emphasizing organizational status lines. A clean man v;earing a slight moustache clipped to perfection. But, a working man, too. Missing are the symbolic "grey flannel" suit and the smartly shined shoes. In their places appear a light short-sleeved shirt held at the collar by a loosely wrapped tie and a pair of creased trousers showing obvious wear from active treatment and shoes bearing marks of activity. Central employees quickly elaborate on the activity of the executive force, maintaining that frequent activity includes executives loading or unloading trucks or otherwise aiding the vxarehouse force during "tight" situations. These factors strongly support Publix management beliefs that the group, working as individual units and as one unit as a whole, is responsible for the endurance and place of the company in the food industry. Group behaviorial studies have recognized and reaffirmed the soundness of such management philosophy. (10, pp^ 45-6'^)

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66 Structure and consideration bear heavily in group dynamics. Vhere individual recognition is present in the group and where the follower respects the leader's goal direction, cohesiveness and group loyalty are observable results. The Publix management claims that these factors, cohesiveness and group loyalty, are strong parts of the company. There is reason to accept the proposition as exemplified by the current attitude of Publix workers toward the future growth of the company. The responsibilities of continued expansion have been shifted to the employees. Employees concern When, by I960, the company had achieved its goal of fifty stores, I'lr. Jenkins proposed the following ideas concerning the future of the company. (50, P. 5) Se was a wealthy man and had achieved enough; he was, personally, prepared to maintain the "status quo" as it existed in I960; however, if the employees wanted to see the company continue to grow, if the employees wanted this growth for themselves, he would continue to support a growth and expansion program. Indicative of the subsequent attitude that seemingly permeates the entire organization is a slogan which was adopted by the Southern division with the opening of store number one-hundred. The slogan, "one-hundred plus," recognizes no slowdown in expansion possibilities.

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67 Employee "benefits Publix employees participate significantly in the profits that are realized by the company's operations. In total, 35 per cent of gross profits each year is returned to employees either directly or indirectly. Twenty per cent of gross profits are returned to employees each year directly as cash bonus; 15 per cent of yearly gross profits is placed in an employee trust which accrues funds to be allocated to retiring employees through the employees' retirement plan. The trust funds are invested by the administrators of the fund for the employees. The employees of Publix, through the fund, now own several Publix supermarket sites and buildings and four shopping centers, each containing a Publix market. (29, p. 42) Other benefits include medical, major medical expense, life, and accidental death and dismemberment insurance; a credit union, paid sick leaves, and paid vacations. The full-time employee can accrue as much as four full weeks annual vacation. For each quarter worked in a calendar year on a full-time basis, the employee earns an extra week's pay; by working the full calendar year, he earns four weeks' pay; the employee may choose how he wants to receive this accrual, and he may receive up to three weeks' pay as a bonus or he may take the entire accrued time of four v/eeks as his vacation.

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68 Employee motivation The Jenkins' philosopliy is believed to have proliferated down to the individual employee, thus having s£.turated the entire organization. Through the awareness and apparent faith in the employee and customer philosophies, and as a result of employee benefits from successful store operations, management thinks that each individual employee is motivated toward efficiency and is alertly conscious of his store's profit ability and his role in contributing to it. The suggested strong conviction that each and every employee is an important part of the company progress perhaps may be singled out as one of the strongest reasons for the success of the chain. Management is convinced that employees make Publix go. Personnel Director, Mark C. Hollis, says that other chains have improved facilities and products as has Publix, but he maintains that "the achievement of management goals is unlikely" if the people in an organization fail to "convey the desired image" to the public. (30, p. 3) Mr. Hollis believes that the employees, from check-out girl to vice president, are motivated because "...they've got the spirit of the company; because they believe in what we are trying to do." (50, p. 7) Customer satisfaction concept From the inception of the Publix Corporation, the management philosophy has been grounded in the fair treatment

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69 policy. Fair treatment to employees; fair treatment to customers. Above all, management feels that ttie customer should be given full value. Personal relationships, store design, quality and variety of food, all at fair prices are basic factors in the Publix concept of full value. Mark Hollis says that the Publix belief is that "the customer is paying for people to be nice to her." (50* P«10) Helpful service, friendliness and courtesy are the fundamentals practiced by employees in their relationships vrith Publix customers. The design of Publix stores is created with the accomplishment of the particular concept of full value in mind. The stores are built to be comfortable; they are supposed to be clean and to have themselves, a warm, friendly personality. In some respects the plans for the buildings have been unconventional, but the differences serve to point out that the planners of Publix stores have "a customer point of view." In-store placement of the produce department serves to illustrate. Commonly, because produce typically contains a high profit and is an attractive product, it is placed in an area which is one of the first the customer must pass through upon entering a supermarket. By placing the produce early in the shopper's tour, the strategy is that she may purchase more of it. Planners of Publix stores have done the opposite; they have placed the produce areas as

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70 near the end of the shopper's store tour as is feasible. The management and planners reason that the produce is likely to be crushed and damaged by placing it in the basket first. By placing the produce as the final major department the customer will pass through, the fresh produce is automatically on top of the basket rather than on the bottom perhaps being crushed and damaged. ($0, p. 11) This plan supports the belief of Publix management that the transaction is not complete until the food has been prepared and eaten and enjoyed. Obviously, maximum protection of perishables enhances the accomplishment of this end. Satisfaction, trust, benefit The management believes that there is a high degree of mobility present in the Florida market. New people are arriving each day and many visitors are constantly entering and leaving the market area. As a consequence of this recognition, Publix has practiced a policy of minimizing the development, introduction, and use of local brands of merchandise. By carrying in stock regional and national brands almost exclusively, the belief is that the continuously changing market is being given a product that can be trusted to meet given expectations. Mr. Hollis expresses that this is a "major method" of insuring that the customer gets the best for her money when shopping at Publix. (30,

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71 p. 2) This aspect of customer satisfaction is very important to the people at Publix, They feel that if the customer has confidence in the store, that she will be a lasting customer; in addition to being a lasting customer herself, it is believed that she will bring new customers to shop at Publix. (30, p. 10) Although well known brands are stocked in the Publix stores, the policy is to allow the customer a variety of products and brands from which to choose. All of these benefits provided by the company are believed to be priced fairly. Excessive markups is a policy which is not a part of the Publix philosophy; rather, a distinct part of the Publix full value concept is that the products and other factors be offered to the customer at a "fair price." The Publix Personality From the foregoing discussion of the Publix Food Stores Corporation operating philosophy and management policies, it perhaps will be beneficial to attempt a brief summary of the factors apparently involved in the management's concept of the organization. A following discussion of the ingredients presented to the public in active image creating messages will further illuminate the image perceived by the company of itself.

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72 Image dimensions People, both externally and internally, are th.e focus of the entire personality of the company. The customer is expected to be greeted by completely modern facilities upon entering a Publix market. The entire physical plant as seen by management is characterized by being spacious, very clean and bright, and comfortable. In the store the customer is expected to find only the best quality merchandise presented at fair prices; the management sees Publix employees as being helpful, friendly and courteous and providing a satisfying personal experience to the customer upon contact. The service and products offered can be completely trusted, and confidence can be placed in the total shopping experience at Publix. This belief is emphasized by management in the guarantee that the transaction is completed when the product has been used and enjoyed. Other investigators' evaluations and findings Other studies and articles concerning the Publix Corporation have been undertaken and published. It will be of interest to briefly present some findings and conclusions of these writers. This chapter so far has attempted to interpret the concepts that the Publix management has of itself; this analysis will further serve to cast light on the self-concept held by the management of the company.

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73 Saint Petersburg Magazine The Saint Petersburg Magazine published an article in the March, 196^, issue which brought attention to Publix. "Status Among the Celery Stalks" depicts the company as providing the community with a service and quotes President Jenkins as saying upon the company's reaching the number of one hundred stores: "Ue are here to serve the people and grow we must to serve their needs." (20, p. 35) The article also concluded that there is a certain degree of status attached to shopping at Publix, and that the public image of the company is one of high priced merchandise. This article says that Publix is mentioned most frequently in Florida as the shopper's favorite market. This recognition, however, may not be indicative of a completely valid implication for the article goes on to quote the head of Zemp Advertising Agency: "'If the figures are to be believed, even the ladies who don't shop regulairly at Publix say they do!'" (20, p. 35) The interpretation is not all good. The connection of the shopper's pride and the image or status of Publix has led, at least apparently in some areas, to the belief by the public that it costs more to shop at Publix. The statement had become so common among shoppers that even the check-out girls were "almost convinced" that this was true. Since this discovery, the Publix management

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7^ has carried on an internal campaign "...designed to remind employees that comparison shoppers are constantly checking, to make sure that Publix prices on comparable merchandise are equal to, or lower than, competition." (20, p. 55) Food Business Magazine The article "George W. Jenkins ... A Man for National Brands" allows a closer insight into the operations of the Publix Corporation. It emphasizes that Jenkins' chain is the leading supermarket chain in sales volume in Florida, averaging two million dollars a year per store; it emphasizes that net profit at Publix has been above the industry average; it emphasizes that human relations have paid dividends at Publix. (15, pp. 19-20) A 1957 breakdown of Publix sales' figures percentagewise showed the following: (l5, p. 20) Cost of Merchandise 81.7% Salaries and Employee Benefits 8.05% Federal, State, Local Taxes ^*ol5 General Expenses "^ o/ Rent and Utilities }'}?!/ Depreciation \,?o/ Advertising , 2.^1^ Profit (re-invested in busxness; i.9l/<» Although profit figures are not published, budgeted volume in the post war years has been: (15, P. 20) 1945 S 2,857,000 1947 4,881,000 1949 7,^^9,000 1951 18,228,000 1955 28,241,000 1955 49,001,000

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81.70%

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76 (l5» P« 20) Food Business further emphasizes the apparent worker satisfaction at Publix in the statement that, "People work for Publix because they seem to want to ..." (15^ p. 20) "The Publix Story" Daniel Yankelovich is the president of his own firm in New York City; the firm specializes in applying psychological approaches to market research; his observations and conclusions concerning the Publix Corporation perhaps are of interest in this study of the company. (27, pp. 6-10) "The Publix Story" features comments revolving around the topics of the applied management in the company, employee attitudes and company potential. Mr. Yankelovich found that the Publix management practices a combination of common and unique management fundamentals. Factors in Publix also common to other organizations include: (27, p. 7) 1. decentralized authority and responsibility 2, local store manager decision-making 5. clean, attractive store environments 4, success resulting in motivating more success. Factors active in the management beliefs that in combination appajrently enhance the individualism of the philosophy were found to be: 1. autonomy 2. tolerance of mistakes 3. true management concern for the individual 4. group goal orientation 5. blurred status lines.

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77 Yankelovich "believes that personnel motivation at Publix is unique and tliat due to highly motivated people, the company has achieved success. In support of his conclusions, Mr. Yankelovich describes some of his interviews with Publix employees. (27, p. 5) Pride was expressed by a woman grocery checker when she said that she would be ashamed to wear a competitor's uniform in public but that she was pleased when people associated her with Publix. One person said that he was "glad" the company had retirement and bonus plans; however, he continued, "I work here just because I love it so much." Other typical comments held that everyone, including customers, was very friendly and that there was much satisfaction in the discharging of work duties. The article maintains that the workers at Publix are fully aware of the Jenkins' management philosophy and that they are in sympathy with the Jenkins' beliefs regarding the customer and the employee. The opportunity, incentive and responsibility are clear-cut at Publix and as a result of rapid growth and promotion exclusively from within, many opportunities are available to the ambitious and competent workers. The management practice of autonomy accepts that a natural human condition is to make mistakes. Yankelovich explains the employee reaction to this management practice

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?3 in stating that a v;orlcer told him he v^as "... v/orking hard, doing my best; v/hen I make a mistake it is explained; I am not che\vred out." (2?, p. 9) "The Publix Story" relates that it found that employees believed that the company Lad a true concern for each individual employee. Employees frequently mentioned the profit sharing plan of bonus and retirement benefits but of more importance seemed to be the explicit individual attention given to employees, A bag boy told Kr. Yankelovich that after "only" six months of employment he received an "unexpected Christmas bonus." (2?, p. 9) Another employee said that he had been employed by Publix three months when a member of his family underv/ent surgery; his store manager went to the hospital and remained there throughout the entire operation. Many employees hold cards inviting them to use a Publix golf course free of cost; for those v/orkers at the Lakeland offices and warehouse, a company cafeteria prepares free lunch each day; some store managers give Christmas parties on their ov/n. Mr. Yankelovich says that the most recurrent phrase by the employees at Publix in describing the management attitude was: "You are treated like a person^ not like a number." (27, p. 9) The article goes on to say that a v;arm, congenial atmosphere in Publix stores is a source of pride for the people at Publix. Management, customer and personnel relationships account for the atmosphere, and "The Publix

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79 story" concludes that; personnel are motiva'ced, not only by msnasement and worker relationships ^ but also as a result of the custoner' s returning time after time. Possibly the most interesting of Daniel Yankelovich's conclusions concerns the potential market area for Publix. He maintains that Publix can appeal to the mass of people satisfactorily, not having to depend on reaching any one segment of a stratified market: they do not "conform to a socio-economic group, an income level, nor are they ethnically homogeneous." (27, p, 3) It is proposed by the motivation consultant that Publix reaches and services people v:ho have a basic, psychological need for v;arm human contact; "this is a basic human need vmich exists universally" is the conclusion of Yankelovich, and this need is satisfied by the corresponding attitude of both the customers and employees v/ho shop and work at Publix. (27, p. S) Results of Daniel Yaiikelovich's study led him to conclude that some distinct areas of motivation appear to bring about the degree of enthusiasm that exists at Publix. They are : 1. the recognition of individual dignit3?2. the customer motivation of persorjiel 3. the conpatability of friendliness and efficiency A-, a unique market appeal.

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80 Publix' Active Imap;e Creation Discovery of ttie need William R. Schroeter is tlie executive who directs advertising campaigns undertaken by Publix; until 1965, there had been no explicit plan at the company headquarters to emphasize a definite image to the customers and potential customers of Publix. Prior to 1965, members of the management team had "assumed" that Publix had a public image a corporate personality; however, the dimensions of the image were vague, and the typical comments of the company executives indicated that they believed "some" type image existed. (52, p. 9) Upon the recognition that the company needed to clearly state and undertake a definite reaffirmation of the company policies toward the publxc, Mr. Schroeter pursued the development of an active image-creating program. Discussions among management personnel were undertaken to this end. These sessions further supported the apparent need for a concise program; individual opinions differed substantially, thus illuminating the proposition that the leaders of the company did not know what the Publix personality was. (52, p. 1) The efforts resulted in the decision to clearly state the intent and policies of the corporation and to undertake an advertising campaign to present these ideas to the public

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81 in parts of Florida, A search was undertaken to determine the elements and characteristics of the personality that should be portrayed to the public. In addition, there needed to be created a simple theme around which the imagecreating advertising could be constructed. The image factors Under the direction of Mr. Schroeter and in cooperation with an advertising agency, the dimensions of the desired image evolved. Two comments received in letters written by Publix customers set the stage for the campaign. One letter came from a former customer who was then in Pakistan; it requested pictures of Publix supermarkets so the traveler could shov; other people "... the cleanest, brightest supermarkets in the whole world," Another letter stated: "I like to shop at Publix because of the clean odor." (32, p. 1) To the elements of cleanliness were added spacious, completely modern markets. In keeping with the company philosophy, messages should also include that only the very best quality foods were available at Publix and that the products offered there were priced fairly. The aspects to be promoted becajae clear, and the institutional theme would be pleasure; the actual phrase: "Where Shopping is a Pleasure,"

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32 "The Happy Difference" Series An advertising campaign evolved which would he presented to the public. It was entitled "The Happy Difference" series and was designed to convey a definite image to the grocery consuming public. Mr. Schroeter, Publix' Director of Advertising, believes that every corporation should have a planned image and a slogan that can. be remembered by the customer. (31, p. l) He maintains that success of image advertising is dependent primarily upon two basic factors: the concepts promoted and the words utilized in the promotional activity. (35, p. l) Simple words used consistently to propound the concepts of "truth and consumer benefit" made the foundation for the Publix policy reaffirmation and image creation campaign. The advertisements The entire series is comprised of twelve installments. Each installment layout was prepared on a common basis. A picture covers the top half of the advertisement; bold letters placed across the lower part of each picture ask, after the first installment, "Is this the Happy Difference?" referring to the picture. The initial copy asks "Where does the Happy Difference Begin?" Immediately following the picture and question is an explanation of the concept presented in the picture. This explanation is brief and is placed in black print against white backgroxind; each

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83 explanation and copy layout ends with.: "V/e invite you to try it soon ... at Publix." The series was originally placed in selected media including newspapers, radio broadcasts and television broadcasts. Radio and television were utilized to supplement newspaper advertising, and the installments were placed one week apart. Installments one through six The first advertisement of the twelve-week series serves to introduce the advertising program. It summarizes the shopping tour from newspaper advertisement reading to post-meal enjoyment and emphasizes the Publix guarantee. Cleanliness and atmosphere are the themes of the following copy. The third advertisement emphasizes the meat department: quality of the meat and helpful attitude of the department employees. The policy of carrying only well known brands is presented the fourth week, and pre-packaged produce serves as the subject the following week. The explanation is that produce is packaged for the convenience of the "average family," but it carries the message that there is no hesitation whatsoever in breaking a carton for more or less of the product. Making a joy out of a chore, emphasizing Publix* wall directories and "customer comradeship" are the messages in the sixth installment.

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8^ Installments seven through tvfelve Service, treatment, confidence and ease of shopping are highlighted in the concluding six weekly presentations. Numbers seven and eight show a check-out girl and a bag boy. They represent "efficient, friendly, helpful service, extra smiles," and "royal treatment" that are parts of the "happy difference." A blindfolded shopper and the Publix seal are topics presented to support trust and confidence; the eleventh advertisement continues to build customer confidence by showing and telling how and why periodic testing of products occurs. Finally, ease of shopping is emphasized. Wide and spacious aisles prevent "traffic jams" and shopper "frustration. " The series served, in addition to stating and reaffirming the Publix objectives, as an internal training program. Store managers and store personnel were made completely aware of and were exposed to the presentations before they went before the public. Not only were the employees informed of what was to be shown to shoppers, they also received the benefit of gaining a fuller xinderstanding of the management philosophy. The program was designed and is intended to be used at succeeding intervals in order to maintain consumer awareness.

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85 Conclusion By analyzing th.e competitive differentiation and market segmentation of the Publix Corporation, by investigating their policies toward employees and consumers, by interpreting what other researchers have discovered about the company, and by summarizing Publix' active personality creation activities, perhaps one can gain a general understanding of how the company actually perceives itself. This chapter has been organized and presented with this objective as the goal, and although the intangibles cire often difficult to synthesize, one is able to recognize consistency in the total company activity. It might be concluded that this discovery of consistent effort, both in depth and breadth in the overall concept, is sufficient to warrant the belief that the company is not a victim of "organization insanity."

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CHAPTER VI RESEARCH DESIGN Introduction Chapters VII, VIII, IX, and X, serve as vehicles to relate. the results of surveys undertaken by the author. Although the reader may find the description of store selection and of the four survey methods tedious reading, it is hoped that the presentation of the information at this point will aid him in better understanding the writer's findings. Therefore, the methods of store selection, manager survey, employee survey, Publix customer survey, and the random household survey are the subjects of Chapter VI. Selected Stores The stores of the Publix Corporation are divided into two geographical divisions: northern Florida and southern Florida. Such a division places some seventy stores in the former group. It was the belief of Mr. Hollis, the Publix Personnel Director, that a representative group of stores could be selected from the northern division. Stores located in the following cities were selected: 86

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87 Brooksville, Florida" Clermont, Florida Plant City, Florida Bartov;, Florida Leesburg, Florida Winter Park, Florida Orlando, Florida Holly Hill, Florida Lakeland, Florida Gainesville, Florida. All Publix stores are classified on the basis of volume of sales and location. The number of stores selected in each classification was directly related to the total number of stores in that classification in the chain. Total

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88 (2^, pp. 264-275); as if the image is perceived on a cognitive plane (17, pp. 1-8); as if the perception is partially subconscious and partially conscious. To the degree that this study is based on the Publix self-concept, the latter of the three mentioned approaches is more suitable. The ultimate and basic dimensions for the questionnaires used in this study were unknown \intil the Publix officials stated their philosophy and self-concept. In light of the hypothesis, the writer was guided strongly by what the company thought its image to be. For the purpose of this particular study, no benefit would be derived from indiscriminately gathering and using a list of popular image dimensions. Therefore, only where pertinent to this study, its hypothesis, and its objectives, have image dimensions other than those explicitly stated by the Publix management been employed. Survey of Publix Managers Each Publix store has two managers, the store manager and the meat department manager. After the store sample had been drawn, both of the managers in each store were mailed a prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire was constructed on a semantic differential basis. (3, p. 355) The author constructed the manager survey questionnaire to reflect manager attitudes toward their own stores, toward immediate supervisory practices and toward the Publix Company

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89 philosophy. After the basic dimensions for the manager survey had been established, positive modifying terms or phrases were selected; opposing terms were then selected. The managers were allov;ed six spaces in v/hich to place their answers, and they could mark spaces indicating "agree," "strongly agree," or "very strongly agree" in tha direction of either term. A total of tv^enty questionnaires was mailed to managers and eighteen were returned. However, only sixteen of the eighteen questionnaires proved to be usable. Survey of Publix Employees After the participating stores had been selected, a mailing list of all Pub],ix employees at uhe selected stores exclusive of store and meat market managers was obtained. One-third of all employees, male and female, part-time and 2 full-time, were randomly selected to participate. The total number of selected employees xvTas one hundred and fifteen. A cover letter and a questionnaire vrere then mailed to the selected employees. Of the total sample of one hundred and fifteen, sixty-nine usable questionnaires represented a return of 50 oer cent. ^The store manager questionnaire is reproduced as Exhibit 1. 2 The store employee sample was dravm by using systematic selection.

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90 Questionnaire design As in the formulation of the Publix manager survey questionnaire, the Publix employee questionnaire was designed to glean employee responses pertaining directly to the stated Publix business policies and active image-creating 2 efforts. The format of the employee survey questionnaire was similar to that of the manager questionnaire; some adjustments were necessitated by the general differences of the survey group, however. The employee questionnaire was also of the semantic differential type. Opposing terms or statements were placed opposite each other with six spaces provided, one of which the respondent was asked to check. His mark could indicate "agree," "strongly agree" or "very strongly agree" with either term or phrase. Exhibit plan; manager and employee responses The Publix Personnel Director, Mr. Mark Hollis, was asked to complete two manager questionnaires and two employee questionnaires. He was requested to use two criteria for his judgment: 1) the degree of success which he, as the Personnel Director, thought the Company wanted to achieve, and 2) the degree of success he felt the Company actually had achieved. The manager and employee responses are compared to Mr. Hollis' ratings of his perceptions of ideal and reality in Company image creation. Exhibit 2. 2 The store employee questionnaire is reproduced as

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91 Tlie questionnaires returned by managers and employees were then edited and tabulated, and the responses were assigned weights in order to determine the average response. After determining the total number of responses in each of the six spaces, the sum of the responses in each space was multiplied by the position of that space, one through six. The products of the spaces were then combined and that sum was divided by the total number who responded to that particular term or phrase. Elaboration of the significance of the range of responses and reply tendencies is enhanced in the exhibitions by the utilization ajid application of certain statistical methods. Both the mode and the median responses were determined; and each supported the positions of the weighted means although the mode best expressed the general pattern of response. Therefore, a note signifying the position of the modal response to each statement appears on the face of the individual charts. The range of answers, one through six, is shown on the exhibits. Frequently, however, the line representing the range of responses appeared to be misleading; therefore, the depicted range of responses is in modified form. An example will be helpful: In the choices one through six, twelve respondents marked choice one, one respondent marked two, two respondents marked three, and one individual chose six. Showing the entire range of replies by a connected

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92 line causes the line to stretch from one through all choices to six. Consequently, the implication is that the choices of one through six were significant but, as the reader sees, this reasoning can he fallacious. In fact, this situation was present in the manager and employee survey responses. The "Ten-Ninety Percentile Hange" method, having been found useful, was applied to the range of responses shown in Chapters VII and VIII. (^, p. 19?) This method allows the researcher to exclude the upper and lower 10 per cent, giving the two values between which the central 80 per cent of the responses occur. Where the employment of this measure eliminated any apparent range in responses a broken line connects the positions of the adjusted range and the weighted average. Thus the exhibits in Chapters VII and VIII depict the range of responses, the weighted mean, and the opinions of Mr. Hollis, ideal and reality. Survey of Publix Customers Details of Publix customer survey During the week of November 16, 196^, each of the selected stores was visited by an interviewing team composed of four or five individuals. The interviewers were members of a marketing research class at the University of Florida, and they participated in this survey as part of a class project. On Monday, November 16, a team visited two stores: Clermont Publix customers were interviewed from

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93 9:30 A.M. xintil approximately 12:15 P.M.; Publix customers in Leesburg were interviewed from 1:^5 P.M. until about ^:4-5 in the afternoon. On Tuesday, November 17, two teams visited and interviewed Publix customers at four Publix Supermarkets. One team interviewed Publix customers at Lakeland in the morning and at Bartow in the afternoon; the other team interviewed Publix customers at Orlando and at Winter Park Publix stores. Brooksville Publix customers were contacted on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, and Gainesville and Holly Hill Publix customers were interviewed on Friday. Gainesville customers were interviewed in the afternoon, and Holly Hill customers were contacted Friday evening from 5:00 to 8:00 P.M. The remaining selected Publix store customers, those at Plant City, were interviewed on Saturday morning, November 20. The selected stores were visited at different hours during the day: morning, afternoon, and evening. The selected stores were also visited on different days of the week: Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday. Another advantage inherent in this survey was that members of a marketing research class were primarily responsible for completing the total of 952 personal interviews. These students were studying the principles of consumer surveying in a formal class situation. In addition, they were instructed in the use of proper techniques of interviewing

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94 and were aware of common problems faced by the field researcher. There were female and male interviewers. Questionnaire design The design of questionnaires to be used in the questioning of Publix customers was different from the design of the questionnaires used in the manager and employee surveys.^ Whereas the manager and employee surveys were conducted as mail surveys, customers were interviewed personally. The customer was asked to "agree," "disagree," or give "no opinion" concerning selected statements referring to the Publix management, products and policies. Data presentation The presentation of the data collected in the Publix customer survey is the subject of Chapter IX. There was a total of 952 interviewees; therefore, the data are presented in terms of percentages for greater comprehension. In addition, the information is grouped and depicted by the volume store size. Tendencies and differences are more easily recognizable by showing the comparative percentages of low, medium, high and extra-high volume groups. ^The Publix customer questionnaire is reproduced as Exhibit 5. ^Response totals of the survey are presented in the Appendix.

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95 Survey of Gainesville Household Shoppers In Chapter X, material based on a household survey of grocery shoppers in Gailesville, Florida is displayed and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed to he used in a personal interview, and the respondent was asked to rank in order of preference, the Gainesville supermarkets 5 with which he was familiar, A statement was read by the interviewer pertaining to "location and parking facilities," "store personality," "post-transaction satisfaction" and "store sales efforts." The respondent then ranked stores or gave "no preference" or "no opinion" replies. Method Making use of a table of numbers and the 196^ edition of Polk's Gainesville, Florida City Directory , a random sample of 200 households in Gainesville was drawn. Each address was then visited by an interviewer. Upon being greeted by the addressee and after a brief introduction, the interviewer asked to see the resident who was responsible for the grocery shopping. If this person was not available, the interviewer was instructed to make an appointment to see him at a later time and to return at the given time. Should there have been no one at home at the address, the interviewer left a card stating that a visit -^The Gainesville household sxirvey questionnaire is reproduced as Exhibit 4,

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96 had been made and that the interviewer intended to return. If, after three visits no response was obtained, a substitution address was visited. Following the interviews, the questionnaires were edited and tabulated. There were 172 usable questionnaires. Examination of the responses reveals a definite tendency indicating that Publix and Winn-Dixie received much more frequent recognition in ranking than did the other three chains. Therefore, Chapter IX shows only comparisons of Publix and Winn-Dixie. It is felt that the recognition given to A & P, Food Fair, and Thriftway by respondents was so slight that these responses should be analyzed as a separate group. Plan of presentation The individual store could have been ranked by the respondent in any position, 1 through 5. The total number of respondents who checked each position was again weighted as were the totals of the manager and employee responses. The assigning of weights facilitated the obtaining of the weighted average which is depicted on the exhibits in Chapter X. The exhibits compare the replies of three groups of respondents: those respondents who shopped at Publix most frequently; those respondents who shopped at supermarkets other than Publix most frequently; and the total of those two groups of respondents. Each group's reaction is

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97 represented by an individual exhibit and the lines on the exhibits show the range of respondent rankings. Conclusion It is evident that the overall research design gives each of the surveys a common foundation. However, it must be noted that each survey has distinctive aspects. The likenesses of the specific survey designs stem from the overall objectives of the study; the differences of the individual survey designs reflect the heterogeneity of the responding groups.

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102

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103 o 13 (=1 O Pi u

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10^ Exhibit ^.-Facsimile of questionnaire used to gather information in the survey of selected Gainesville household respondents, A STUDY OF CHAIN SUPESMARKET IHAGES AS HELD BY CONSUMERS IN GAINESVILLE, FLA. Good.,., My name is ... and I am a student at the university. As a project in our marketing class, v/e are attempting to determine your preferences for supermarkets inGainesville, Your name has been selected from the city directory to be a part of our sample. I would like to take a few minutes of your time to answer these questions, 1, Who in the household most frequently does the shopping? \]±fe Husband Both wife and husband Other Note: if "person answers other than himself/herself ask ifhe/she is home now? If yes, ask to see this person; if no, ask when he/she will be home? Date Time Who 2, How many times have you shopped at a supermarket in the last 2 weeks? 1 2 3 AOther 3, a, \Th.ere do you most frequently shop? (open-end) A 8: P Food Fair (l$th Main ), Winn-Dixie (Main 6th West Univ, ), Thriftway (13th Waldo ), Publix (If respondent answers OTHER, ask the following questions, ) 1. Have you ever shopped at a chain supermarket in Gainesville? Yes No 2, \^fhy don't you shop at a chain supermarket regularly or frequently? ,„,_,__, b. Which of the supermarkets in Gainesville have you shopped? 13 M 13 W A& P Food Fair Publix Thriftway 6 ~H W Winn-Dixie_^ c. If respondent has shopped at more than 1 Food Fair, 1 Winn-Dixie, 1 Thriftway; ask him/her to indicate the one most shopped, READ AS V/RITTEN To determine your preferences of the Gainesville stores which you have shopped, I would like you to rank them on certain characteristics. I will read the characteristic. Would you please give the names of the stores the way you rank them: 1-best, 2-second best, 3-third best, 4-fourth best, 5-fifth best. Please rank them JUST AS THEY COME TO MIND. (Use the most frequently shopped W-D, TW, FF) Are there any questions?

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105 If respondent is confused about v;hat ranking involves, proceed with this example: Vhich of these drinks do you prefer — 1st , 2nd , and 5rd? Coffee Tea Hot Choc. If respondent can't rank tEe stores, give the stores the same appropriate number. A&P ?.?. PUB. T.W. W-D 4. LOCATION a) Convenience of location (distance and/or time) b) Adequate parking facilities MERCHANDISE SUITABILITY a) Variety of brands b) Variety of meats c) Variety of produce d) Availability of products e) Quality of meats f) Quality of produce g) Buy in staples(Price h) Buy in meats ( &, i) Buy in produce (Quali ty STORE PERSONALITY a) Willingness to please customer b) Courteous clerks c) Helpful clerks d) Layout of mdse. e) Mdse. display f) Efficient traffic flow g) Clean and attractive STORE SALES EFFORTS a) Usefulness of adv'g to plan shopping b) Money-saving specials_ c) Preference for stamps d) Premiums offered STORE POLICIES a) Truthfulness of advertising b) Willingness to make adjustments on merchandise

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106 c) Availability of new products d) Ease of check cashing e) Efficient check-out services 5. Do you think that certain supermarkets appeal to a particular income group? Yes No (If YES, vrnich ones to which groups?) A&.'P F.F, PUB. T.W. V-D 6. NON-PUBLIX SHOPPER OITLY ! ! ! You indicated you have never shopped at Publix. Is there any particular reason? RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS 7. a. V/hat is the "Principle wage earner's" occupation? b. Exactly what does he do? 8, Number of persons residing in household: Number of persons under 18 "THANK YOU EOR YOUR CO-OPERATION" TO Bm FIELED OUG? BY THE INTERVIEWS [ Age of respondent: 18-25 ( ) 25-35 ( ) 35-^5 C ) ^5-65 ( ) 65+ ( ) Addr e s s Substitution Address Race: V ( ) Non-W ( ) Sex: Ee. ( ) M. ( ) Interview Characteristics Date Time of interview Duration Eirst call Second call Third call Refusal

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CHAPTER VII ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES 0? SELECTED PUBLIX STORE MANAGERS Introduction Fundamental to ttie analysis of manager and employee responses is the belief that is held by this v;riter that the consumer is perceptually affected primarily by his contact with the individual store and the service he receives while there. The pursuit of the objectives of this dissertation require that manager attitudes be analyzed. In addition, a study that involves image communication must be cognizant of any group which vitally affects the success of image dimension communication. Therefore, findings of the manager attitude survey are related in Chapter VII. To further substantiate the inclusion of manager and employee attitudes in this image study, it is assumed that the retail store image is created at the point of purchase and during the use of the purchased product. This being true, local managers and local employees are primarily responsible for the creation of the real image which the consumer maintains. To reiterate the Publix stand as stated in Chapter III, the Personnel Director, Mr, Eollis, believes 107

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108 that the achievement of company goals is unlikely "...if the people in an organization fail to convey the desired image." (30, p. 2) Manap;er Survey .Inalysis Store personality Mr. Hollis ' rating of what he thinks the Publix Company wants to achieve was number 1 on every statement pertaining to the "personality" of the Publix stores (Sxhibit 5). He marked number 1 for his ideal rating on every manager and employee survey statement. The tendency for respondents to answer in the first space was strong, and the mode of replies differed from the most positive response only in reference to the statements "very clean" and "strictly up to date." Old and modern stores are represented in the manager sample as are small and large ones. Average response measures of "very clean" and "strictly up to date" may di. rectly reflect the building and fixtures of the older store group . Supervisor cooperativeness Manager responses as depicted in Exhibit 6 indicate perhaps, some important differences in actual supervisory practices and policy statements. Autonomous management, decentralized responsibility and authority, and group loyalty and cohesiveness were recipients of expressed pride

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110 wtierL the management pb.il osophy of Publix was stated. Consequently, interest is drawn to Mr. Hollis' ratings of Publix' actual achievement in these areas (Exhibit 5). The manager responses imply less positive attitudes, particularly concerning the statement "keeps you 100% informed" and the topic of respect for superiors' decisions. Character of management The managers' average rating of the statements "complete respect" for management and fairness of supervisors was relatively v/eak (Exhibit 7)» In choosing betv;een the statements "supervisors have all of your respect" and "supervisors could gain more of your respect," the adjusted range of response by respondents was v;ider, 1 through 3, than on other statements relating to management character in Chart 7. The Publix' philosophy, as stated, is fundamentally based on fairness: complete honesty and fairness to customers and complete honesty and fairness with employees. Managers at the store level indicate by their replies to "honesty with customers and employees" that they, the managers, believe the honesty policy to actually be in practice (Exhibit 7). Mr. Hollis' ratings of actual achievements were lower than were the manager response means. The actual lowest rating given on the range was in space 2 for these two statements. Perhaps managers are not as skeptical about management honesty as they are thought to be.

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I CO u B, o o o 0} +> o •p 0) !h o •H & -p (U iH +i CO OT -P G i (1) P rt P (0 o p CO rt C CO s H -§ . -o o © tn P -H o > 0) ^^ rH O to 3 O t^^ O CO CO to CO C 0) o c Oto > p:', P 1 vO P •H 5 w 111 CO U o ri a to o H tvi Q) C TO CO cti nJ O >i P ni P o P fi) a. o o a, p o 3 — o >i & o O P rH 01 r-i CC O n to c nH p o •H Jh CTJ p c =i H o > o 13 S o c •H \.^ o o 3 O >i CO P j:: to •H f-. C •H ^ Jh > © P CO o E O x: p o u o p o s o u a CO CO

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113 Publix business philosophy Manager responses indicate that they strongly concur in the Publix belief that the managers are aware of their importance to the organization and that there is a strong element of group cohesiveness and goal-orientation in the store level management ranks (Exhibit 8). Only one difference in rating appears in Exhibit 8, and that variance is in reference to the Jenkins' business philosophy. Dynamic nature of Publix Publix has been recognized in the food distributing industry as being an innovator and leader in food merchandising (Chapter VIII). Managers rated the company positively in the areas of leadership, progressiveness, and goal-orientation (Exhibit 9). However, manager attitudes as reflected by their responses toward the pioneering aspect of the dynamic nature of Publix were more negative than the indicated attitudes toward the other terms. Business-wise nature of Publix Responding managers regarded the Publix pricing policy as being fair to the consumer and competitive. (Exhibit 10) Quality of merchandise deserves explicit attention in that the respondent chose between the statements: "offers the best quality of merchandise available" and "offers various levels of quality if desired." Consequently, the extreme negative rating of 6 regarding quality is not

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117 measuring the degree of quality from positive to negative. The statement \-ias poorly chosen and constructed; perhaps it should have referred to various brands of merchandise. Personal likes and dislikes The manager questionnaire design allov;ed the managers to respond to an open-end question (Chapter VI). The managers were asked to list two things they liked most about working for Publix and two things they disliked about working for the Company (Table 1). The responses were classified and presented in Table 1 under the general headings of company related working conditions and manager-supervisor relationships. Factors indicating cohesiveness, autonomy, individual recognition and Publix association were frequently cited as being the things favored by the Publix managers. Job satisfaction is implied by the lack of respondents' citing definite "dislikes." The bulk of respondents either stated that they had no dislikes or simply left the space blank. Conclusion One can readily understand the difficulty of attempting to interpret the overall attitudes of managers as Mr. Hollis was asked to do. His responses, however, do permit comparisons with the manager replies. Mr. Hollis did not hesitate to cooperate, but it should be pointed out that he recognized that his responses, as one removed from

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113 TABLE 1 PBRSON-ll LIKES AKD DISLIKES CI PUBLIX MANAGERS CLASSIFIED BY SELECTED STATEMENTS Statement Company Related Working Condition3: Feeling as being a necessary part of Publix (family, closeness) Fringe benefits Challenging work Seoijrity Pride Future Loyalty of Mr. Jenkins Everything (nothing) Hours Money and check responsibility General (transfers, time clocks) Manager-Superior Relationships : Feeling as being a necessary part of Publix (prestige; like ovming own store, company reputation) Fair', trustworthy, respect Autonomous management methods (free self-expression; free operation) Recognition Number and Percentage of Respondents Likes Dislikes :To. J/ 6 3 3 1 1 17 11 11 9 9 3 3 5

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119 actual store-level management, were extremely difficult to make. Another potential difficulty v/as ttie fact that Mr. Eollis' answers were those of one individual and these responses represented the entire management attitude. Overall, the management replies do reflect considerable strength of awareness and of agreement with the Publix philosophy. From the level of in-store managers, data representing attitudes as recorded and analyzed in this chapter lead to the conclusion that the higher echelon of management has successfully transmitted the stated philosophy to the store-level management. It also appears that the store-level management is in agreement with the stated policies and objectives.

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CHAPTER VIII ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES OF SELECTED PUBLIX STORE EMPLOYEES Introduction In Chapter VII the writer concluded that the top Publix management team had effectively projected and communicated to selected store-level managers the desired image. However, the store-management group has relatively limited contact with the consumer compared to that of all other store employees. Therefore, it is appropriate to attempt an evaluation of store employees' attitudes reflecting impressions of pertinent image factors. The questionnaire used with Publix employees was designed to measure the workers' perception of the Company image. Image dimensions deemed applicable to this group include "store personality," "immediate management practice," "local work environment," "character of Publix management," "business practices of the company" and "personal likes and dislikes" of Publix employees. Analysis of employee responses to these measures indicate a full range of reaction from most negative to most positive response. However, in no instance does there occur any average of responses that is greater than 5 for 120

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121 any one statement in the questionnaire. This is the nost obvious finding to he dra\m from the data, and it tends to build a frame of reference for analysis of further specific findings. The model response to each statement v/as most positive or number 1 in every instance except on the statement "keeps you 100% informed," Exhibit 12. Therefore, to gain greater clarity from the data the median of responses is pointed out for each statement response in the appropriate exhibit. Analysis of Employee Responses Store personality Achievement ratings regarding statements describing "store personality" v;ere, overall, lower than with any other image dimension response shovm in Chapter VIII (Exhibit 11). The adjusted range of employee responses indicates a high degree of agreement among the respondents as does the average response which is between 1-1/2 and 2 on each of the six personality statements. The statement involving "spaciousness" was given an exceptionally low rating by the Personnel Director on achievement but the average employee response did not correspond to Mr. Hollis' judgment.. Management practices Response averages, reality ratings, range extremes and median responses imply that stated management policies

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122 o u o (0 a. o u o Cm o o -p O -P m w -P c o> 5 •p rt -P to o -p to o o !>> o s 0) P-. Q) -P O Q} rH (D to Cm o >i -p to -H Q) f-l C C o o Ci:i ft. I rA -P •H •H -^ W •H 0) o p to o o H O CD > •H -P O nJ J-. P P CO

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123 and practiced policies have generated strong feelings among some employees (Exhibit 12). This researcher cannot logically support the differences in the reality ratings of most positive or 1 and the employee response average of 1-5/^ and 2-1/4, to the statements "voluntarily does things for you" and "promotes exclusively internally." The v/riter tends to think that an internal promotion policy, strictly adhered • to, could not be misinterpreted. Mr, Hollis' scores on other "personality" statements correspond favorably v/ith employee response averages. Particularly should the reader note Mr. Hollis' evaluation of the level of achievement and average employee response to the statement "keeps you 100% informed." Obviously, the general employee does not usually knov/ everything about company operation, but reconciliation of democratic management and the reality rating poses a special problem. The most common rating of "keeps you 100% informed" was in space A-; this mode was the lowest of all statement modal responses, Work environment Desire for Company grov;th and prosperity appears to be very strong among Publix employees (Exhibit 13). I^i^e Publix philosophy of motivation as a result of personal relationship is reflected in Exhibit 13 as is employees' satisfaction with individual recognition and the feeling of being necessary "co the organization. All of Mr. Hollis'

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124 0)

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125 r-i a. o -p o -p u 0) %-, o •H -P a -p a to -P c o 5 -p -p to o -p to o o >i o a o •p o r-i -P o c 10 A 0^ CV 3 O o 13 5 p. > o ^ O >i o ••-5 3CV O (D P,
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126 ratings of Company acliievement tend to conform to average responses of employees concerning their attitudes tov/ard their "work environment." This perhaps reflects again the belief by Publix that their employees are the most importan.t factor in the success of the Company. Character of management Statements of "fair wages" and "treats you as an equal" were given relatively negative ratings by employees (Exhibit 12). Perhaps these reactions can be related to similar employee responses on the statements concerning management's "commanding all of their respect" and being "completely fair" (Exhibit 14), The achievement rating by Mr. Hollis v/as 2 on "trustworthy management" but this rating was 1 on "advertising truthfulness" and "honesty with the customer." However, employees on the average, rated "trustworthy management" and "honesty with the customer" as 1-1/2. Their average rating of "advertising truthfulness" was 1-3/^. Publix business practices I Responses to the statement "offers the best quality of merchandise" should be cautiously interpreted (Exhibit 15). The respondent chose betv;een the statements "offers the best quality of merchandise" and "offers various levels of quality"; therefore, the response is not reflecting absolute quality of merchandise.

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o V rt a ,G o CD ,a -P o -p !h O «n Q) o •H •P i o a* o }:^ -§ 73 • O -P -P C -O 127 "A r^ CM O
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to Vi CO XI (0 o u o 2 o •rl iH -P a w c © 5 -p -p 10 o o O .i^ r-!

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129 The Publix management has felt that employees have believed its pricing policy to be one that causes Publix to be considered a "high-priced" supermarket. This management attitude is reflected by Mr. Hollis' estimate of employee attitudes for legitimate mark-up and for competitive price policy. As v/ith trading stamp policy, again the Personnel Director's rating indicates penetrating insight into the employee attitudes. Personal likes and dislikes Employees v/ho ansv/ered the open-end questions involving the listing of "two personal likes" and "tv;o personal dislikes" cited personal relationships with others as the thing they liked most about v/orking for Publix (Table 2). Pifty-three per cent of the provided spaces for listing "dislikes" indicated no complaint or dislike (Table 3). Other employee, customer and supervisor interaction apparently motivates employees of Publix and "general working conditions," "company attitude" and "fringe benefits" v;ere also given recognition (Table 2), "Company policies," "employee relations" and "general v;orking conditions" received the most criticism by respondents although the percentage referring to each sub-topic was low (Table 3).

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150 ?r?.302TAL LIICCS 0? PUBLIZ EllPIOYIlES CLASSIFIEJ 3Y SELECTED STATET^EKTS^ S-catemer.-t: Number and Percentage cf 1 Responses' 0' Gei-xers-l Gor-ipany Policies Fringe benefits 21 1^ Wages 7 5 General attitude 16 11 Euture 7 5 Hours 3 2 Enplcjee R slat ions Gen:ra:i. attitude 15 ' 10 Eriendly ^2 8 E^ioloyee-Custo^.er Relations 17 12 (employee ia.O"';ivation; friendly, pleasant) En ol eye e~Sut) ervi s or Rel at i ons Recognition yJ> ^ General attitude 10 7 Pair tres^tsien-; ^•; 5 Autonouou3 11.0 jnod ? 2 Genera?\/crId.ng Conditions IQ -2 "Based on 147 responses. Soiiie respondents gave more than two.

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131 TABLE 3 PERSOUiLL DISLIKES OF PUBLIX EMPLOYEES CLASSIFIED BY SSLSG'IED STATEMENTS Number and Percentage of Statement Responses-'No. % General Comoar.:-^ Policies Uniforms (old-fashioned) 2 1 Not paying part-tine v/orkers for inventory v;ork 5 ^ Miscellaneous 6 4 Relatives running company No quick ch.eck-out counters Giving out of advertised specials Time clock Charging employees to cash checks Employee Relations Management attitude 9 7 Friction 6 ^ Quality and appearance of personnel 5 ^ Personal Factors 8 6 (hours, leaving company) General Working Conditions Time v/orked 11 3 Wages 3 2 Standing 5 2 Job difficulties 7 5 (insufficient help; varied duties; stamp dispensers; floor scrubbing) Nothing 73 ^3 138 100 Based on 133 responses.

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132 Conclusion The weighted mean response to every statement except one in the manager survey was betv/een 1 and 2. The most frequent rating by managers was 1 and the node of the respondent was 2 regarding only tv/o statements. This researcher, therefore, concluded that the managers interviewed v;ere aware of and in agreement v;ith the stated factors of projected Publix image. Employee attitudes v/ere not as strongly positive as were those of managers. Measuring the responses by the weighted mean, employees gave a second place rating on the six place scale to nine of the statements. On the basis of the median response, nine of the statements were rated as 2 and one received a rating of ^. Employees who were interviewed rated all statements pertaining to "management practices" relatively low. Their attitudes reflected essentially complete agreement with "v;ork environment" statements and strong positive responses were given "store personality" and "character of management" factors. Sixty per cent of the "business practice" were rated 1, and the remainder received a rating of 2. Responses to certain statements by managers indicate that the managers believe that they practice the stated methods of the Publix management philosophy. But employee responses to selected statements imply that managers do not

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13^> follow the stated policies. The question at this point is one of degree, but the fact that employees rated factors of "management practices" lower than any other group deserves emphasis. This area is one in which the stated image factors do not appear to have "been successfully transmitted to employees. Eov.^ever, strong evidence is present that other fundamental factors of the management philosophy and active image creation are shared by the employees.

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CHAPTER IX MALYSIS OF ATTITUDES OF SELECTED PU3LIX' CUSTOMEHS Introduction Continuing in the attempt to gather data v/liich v:ould allow this researcher to effectively evaluate the transmittal of certain image dimensions, 952 Publix' customers vera interviev;ed. Positive replies to selected statements are discussed in this chapter. Their responses are interpreted in terms of percentages. The analysis of these responses is made in terms of the total group of interviewees as well as with specific sub-groups of respondents: extra-high, high, medium, and low-volume store interviev/ees. Tables ^^, 5, and 6, show the composition of the group interviewed; Tables 7, 8, and 9, relate reactions concerning "store personality," "store sales efforts," and "post transaction satisfaction. " The customers v;ho were contacted v;ere asked to express two "likes" and two "dislikes" concerning Publix. The writer presents percentages of the respondents' replies in Tables 10 and 11. The sex of the respondent, his occupation and the percentage of his grocery ""Detailed exhibits, relating both absolute numbers and percentage replies, are presented in the Appendix. 13^

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135 buying accomplished at Publix are bases for cross-tabulation results as v;ill be seen in Tables 12, I3, and 1^. Sample Composition Sex, Race.. Age^ Occupation Uliite females v/ere by far the most frequently interviev/ed Publix' customers in each sub-group. The proportion of male and non-white respondents varies inversely v;ith the volume classification of each sub-group. (Table 4) Considering the age tendencies of the individual groups in relation to their sex composition, a direct relationship exists betn^reen the number of male respondents and the fifty and over age group. By age classification, respondents in the extra-high volume group v/ere younger than respondents in the other volume groups. A number of inferences can be drav/n from this information. Assuming that the groups that were interviewed were representative of store clientele, it could be said that, the extra-high-volume store attracts a younger 2 shopping group than do the other selected stores. But one might also attribute the difference in patronage group ages to such factors as population composition, spending habits of different age groups or shopping habits of the groups. 21 mtervievrers v;ere instructed to exercise care in order to avoid favoring any particular age, sex or race group in the selection of interviev/ees.

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136 TABLE ^ PERCENTAGES OF PUBLIX RESPONDENTS CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS

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137 Ext ra-iii git-volume store respondents v;ere the youngest interviewees, and lovz-volume stores liad nore people in the oldest age bracket (Table 4). Perhaps indicative of Florida climate appeal for the residence of retired citizens is the fact that almost half of all the respondents v/ere thought to be fifty years of age and older (Table ^), Those shoppers saying that they v/ere retired were encountered less frequently in the extra-high volume group. Further analysis of occupational classifications indicates professionalism to be an identifying mark of the extra-high volume group respondents (Table 5). Examination of the data reveals that the proportion of customers in the professional and technical classification is related to the size categories of stores. In general the smaller the volume, the lower the proportion of its customers v:ho belong to this classification. Percentage of shopping done at Publix Eighty-eight percent of all respondents bought in excess of half of their groceries at Publix. (Table 6) Almost three-fourths of all respondents said that they bought at least 70 per cent of their groceries at Publix, and half of the respondents said that they shopped ao Publix stores over 90 per cent of the time. To the extent that attitudes discussed in this chapter are desired to be those of shoppers v/ho are regular Publix customers, success is indicated by the percentages in Table 6.

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1$8 TABLE 5 PEHCENTAGES OF PUBLIX RESPOUDENTS CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF OCCUPATIOlsfS

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159 TABLE 6 PERCENCDAGES OE PUBLIX RESPONDENTS CLASSIEIED BY PERCENTAGE OE TOTAL GROCERY SHOPPING DOITS AT PUBLIX

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1^0 Analysis of Public' Customer Resoonses Slioppinc; tour e:q>erience The Publi::' officials have apparently been successful in the projection of their conceived image dimensions (Table 7). This is inferred from the large percentage of positive group responses to the statements in this attitude survey. One exception to this tendency involved the statement that 5 "Publix customers are usually highly skilled workers.""^ Publix' customers interviewed at the low-voliime stores were not as strongly in agreement with some statements as were the other groups* The most frequent complaint of the low-volume group respondents X'/as that the store floor plan V7as inefficient, therefore efficient traffic flow was not present (Table 7). Another statement with v/hich the low-volume group agreed less was that the company "is very successful. " Hesitation to commit themselves was evident in some groups' replies to the statement about the most common type of employment of Publix' customers. One-third of the interviewees in the extra-high and high volume groups said they had no opinion regarding Publix customers' occupations. The medium and lovr volxime groups had more definite opinions as 55 per cent of the customers interviev/ed in these groups -^VJhere the question was stated negatively in the questionnaire, it has been presented as a positive statement.

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1^1 TABLE 7 PERCEITT'AGES OE PUBLIX RESPONDENTS UKO AGREED WITH STATEMENTS AT THE LEET PERTAINING TO STORE PERSONALITY

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142 disagreed v/ith the statement that Publix "serves customers who are highly skilled workers," The Publix management expressed great pride in the service aspect of their business strategy; however, v;hen Questioned about particular area or department service, some Publix customers said that the service was not satisfactory (Table S). Rudeness exhibited by check-out girls was judged to be more common by the high and medium volume group respondents than by the extra-high and low volume interviewees. Although no pattern is discernible in reference to overall service, the same respondent groups, medium and high volume, rated "meat department service" relatively low. Goods are indicated to be frequently "out of stock" _ in each of the store groups (Table 8). In reply to the statement: "Publix has various levels of merchandise quality available," the number of respondents who agreed varied directly with the size of the store in which they were contacted. Perhaps one can conclude that these answers reflect the limits placed on the ability of smaller stores to maintain a variety of products. Hov;ever, only 50 per cent of all respondents agreed that various levels of quality were available. An inverse relationship is present in the percentages pertaining to attitudes toward trading stamp policy (Table 8). However, 42 per cent of the high volume group respondents refused to agree or disagree with the statement that.

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1^5 TABLE 8 PEHCEXTAGES OP PUBLIX RESPOITDENTS WHO AGREED WITH STATEMENTS AT TrIE LEPT PERTAINING TO STORE SALES EEPORTS

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1^^ "This store v;ould lose sales if trading stamps were discontinued. " Post-transaction, satisfaction Attitudes toward the quality of meat, quality of produce, and Publix prices appear to be particularly significant in that the responses are those of Publix customers (Table 9). There v;as a direct relationship between the percentages of positive replies and each volume group when Publix customers v;ere asked about "higher quality meat," "higher quality produce" and "higher prices." Of the total responses, many shoppers said they did not buy the meat offered at Publix, and the average "no opinion" response to the statement was 1$ per cent. Comparing the general attitudes toward product quality and price, more than half of all the respondents thought that they received a higher quality of meat and produce at Publix without paying higher prices. The indication is that consumers who shop at the low volume Publix stores may actually receive lower quality products. These respondents gave the least favorable answers of any group to the statement, "offers various levels of quality" (Table 8). These Publix customers were the least positive also when replying to the statements "Publix offers higher quality of meat" and "Publix offers higher quality of produce" (Table 9). In addition, it is of interest to

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1^5 TABLE 9 PERGENTAGSS OF PUBLIX SESPONDEUTS \mO AGREED WITH STATEMENTS AT THE LEPT PEHTAINING TO POST-TPJUJS ACTION SATISFACTION Statement Class of Store Total xra StateHigh. High. Medium Low meat Volume Volume Volume Volmae Averapie TIT T2y No. of stores Compared to other suT^ermarkets, Publix: OT (AT offers higher quality of meat

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1^6 note that the respondents in the low-volume group agreed less than any other group with the statement that Publix "charges higher prices." Likes and dislikes Publix customers ^^^ho were interviewed were asked to specify two things that they disliked about Publix. Many specific replies were given by the respondents when they were asked to cite "likes" and "dislikes" about the Publix stores. In order to more readily present and analyze this information, similar interviewee responses were categorized under general headings. (Tables 10 and 11) Vmen given an opportunity to cite those things which they liked most about shopping at Publix, respondents referred most frequently to factors classified as "consumer shopping habit" and to statements pertaining to "promotion policy" (Table 10).^ The most frequently voiced "dislike" cited by respondents, concerned the "promotion policy" of Publix (Table 11). However, over half of the interviewees stated that they associated no "dislike" with their grocery shopping at Publix stores. The reader will notice that the attitude of the high volume group seems stronger toward trading stamps and promotion than the attitude of any other "^Respondents occasionally cited "likes" abouo Publix which had vague meanings and many of these replies indicated that force of habit brought them to Publix or that traditional shopping oatterns were being maintained. These responses are grouped together under the heading, "consumer shopping habit."

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TABLE 10 PERCENTAGES OE PU3LIX RESPONDENTS' LIKES CLASSIFIED BY MOST COMMON RESPONSES 1^7

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TABLE 11 PERCENTAGES OF PUBLIX RESPONDENTS' DISLIKES COLASSIPIED BY MOST COMMON RESPONSES lA-8

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1^9 responding group (Table 10). Yet the response of this same group placed less emphasis on trading stamp effectiveness as shown in Table 7 than did the other groups. Cross Tabulations Searching for possible hidden or disguised attitudes, cross tabulations on certain selected statements were computed (Tables 12, 1$, 1^). Sample composition bases of "sex," "occupation" and "percentage of total grocery shopping done at Publix" served as grouping classifications. With but one exception, the percentages of male responses toward selected statements were lower than the percentages indicating female attitudes toward the statements in Table 9. Varying causes may be purported for these results. Perhaps one could say that men gave the questions more thought; or in contrast, that they do less shopping, therefore are poorer judges; or that they tend to rationalize more. The author refrains from assessing the cause or causes. Managers,' officials,' and proprietors' responses show least respect for the attractiveness and strength of shopping stamps. In contrast to the reaction of this group of respondents, the retired group of interviewees placed the most value on trading stamps. These factors might encourage one to believe that managers and proprietors, who would also perhaps use trading stamps in their businesses, see the

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150 TABLE 12 PERCENTAGES 0? PUBLIX RESPONDEInTTS ' ATTITUDES FAVORING STORES SALES EFFORTS AND FAVORING POSTTRANSACTION SATISFACTION: CLASSIFIED BY SEX OF RESPONDENTS Statement

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151

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152 TABLE 14 PERCENTAGES OF PUBLIX RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES FAVORING STORE SALES EFFORTS AND FAVORING POST-TRANSACTION SATISFACTION: CLASSIFIED BY PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL GROCERY SHOPPING DONE AT PUBLIX Statement

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153 stamp policy as a "necessary evil"; the retired group attitude perhaps supports the popular idea that stamp collecting is a form of saving. The retired group attitude is indicated to be lower thsm the other groups' implied attitudes toward "higher prices" and "higher quality produce"; the most favorable response regarding higher quality meat and produce was voiced by the craftsmen and foremen group (Table 15). When compared to other supermarkets, the group purchasing less than 70 per cent of their groceries at Publix said that the Publix meat quality was not higher, that Publix produce quality was not higher, and that Publix prices were higher (Table 1^). The greater the proportion of grocery shopping the group did at Publix, the higher the rating given to the quality of meat and the quality of produce. The same can be said for attitudes toward prices: the more purchased at Publix, the lower Publix prices were judged to be. Conclusion Publix managers at the store level indicated strong agreement with the Publix stated image. Store employees showed less strength in their responses to selected statements, Publix customers tend to be even less agreeable than were Publix employees, particularly in regard to certain areas of the Publix conceived image.

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15^ Respondents at low-volume stores rated the "store personality" factors significantly lower than did other groups; otherwise, general "store personality" factors drew strong support from the respondents. The positive rating of general service also supported the Publix management beliefs. One-third of the customer respondents felt that Publix prices were higher, and 86 per cent of this group felt they were getting higher quality merchandise. More significance is attached to the attitudes expressed by a majority of the Publix customers who were interviewed. This majority said that they thought they were getting better quality meat and produce at Publix at normal or competitive prices. Ratings of image factors appear in many instances to reflect the individual store, it's competition and it's location. In addition, the writer believes that different ratings of other factors, such as "courtesy of check-out girls," is indicative of local store management. Therefore, it is apparent that the elements of the conceived and stated image are in fact transmitted at the point of purchase and in post-transaction use of the product. The data in Chapter IX support this line of reasoning and lead to the suggestion that the people employed at the store level are, ultimately, responsible for the creation of the customer image .

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CHAPTER X ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES OF GAINESVILLE HOUSEHOLD RESPONDENTS Introduction The objective of this phase of the study was to try and measure the image of Publix relative to that of other stores held by a sample of all shoppers, not just Publix shoppers. The method used to accomplish this objective was to survey a random sample of households in Gainesville, Florida, This survey was similar to the Publix customer survey in content, but the respondent was asked to rank in order of preference the supermarket chains with which he was familiar and which operated at least one store in Gainesville. Characteristics were devised to measure aspects of the image held by consumers of various chain organization's "location and parking facilities," "store personality," "post-transaction satisfaction" and "store sales efforts," Plan of presentation The format of the following group of exhibits is similar to that of the exhibits used previously in this study. The five chains could have been given a rating of from 1 to 5 to reflect both the direction and intensity of 155

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156 feeling about each, stated characteristic. The extremes of each line indicate the range of values by which the store was rated in regard to the given characteristic. The broken line represents attitudes relative to Publix; the smooth line represents attitudes relative to Winn-Dixie, The slash on the Publix line shows the weighted average of responses for that statement, and the same is true for the circle on the line representing Winn-Dixie, These exhibits serve to relate responses in terms of four areas: "location and parking facilities," "store personality," "post-transaction satisfaction," and "store sales efforts." Within each of the major group headings there are three exhibits. Responses relating to each of the major topics were tabulated separately for the whole sample of respondents, for those who reported that they did not shop at Publix, and for those who shopped at Publix only, and are the data for each graph as shown in the exhibits accompanying this chap2 ter. Following the analysis of the twelve charts, three tables elaborate additional information. Some respondents had never viated the Publix store. These respondents were The reader is reminded that only Winn-Dixie and Publix were given adequate recognition by respondents to warrant conclusions. 2 Replies of respondents who had shopped at both Publix and Winn-Dixie were considered. Two-thirds of all respondents said that they had shopped at both stores. Therefore, their replies are not presented as they woiild closely parallel the ratings given by the total group.

PAGE 173

158

PAGE 174

159

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160 asked to specify reasons for their not having shopped at Publix, The reasons cited by these respondents are presented in Table 15. Interviewees were also asked if they thought certain supermarket chains appealed to specific income groups. Their reactions are recorded in Table 16, Composition of the sample is shown in Table 17. Response Analysis Location and parking Different attitudes of the three groups of respondents are illustrated in Exhibits 16, 17, and 18. The mean rating of Publix shoppers (Exhibit 18) of the "location and parking facilities" of Winn-Dixie was slightly lower than that of all shoppers (Exhibit 16) but the range of values was identical. However, as perhaps one would expect, Publix shoppers gave Publix a more positive rating than did the all shopper group. Seventeen percent of the total population which was sampled rated Publix 1 on the characteristic "convenience of location" and 51 per cent rated Winn-Dixie 1. Based on these percentage ratings, it can be stated with 95 per cent confidence that of all shoppers in the population sampled, between 11 per cent and 23 per cent would rate Publix 1 on the trait "convenience of location," and between 43 per cent As a reading aid, the group being referred to in the text is underlined: Publix shoppers , all shoppers , nonPublix shoppers .

PAGE 176

161 and 59 per cent would rate Winn-Dixie 1 on this character2 istic. This calculation shows that rating differences of the all shopper group are not due exclusively to chance. Non-Publix shoppers' attitudes as measured by mean ratings in Exhibit 1? show greater differences in comparison to the mean ratings of the other two groups. Publix received a lower negative rating than did Winn-Dixie as seen by the weighted mean. Publix was rated over the entire range on "parking facilities" and "location," but Winn-Dixie received a score of 3 as its most negative rating. It is appropriate to recognize here, however, that there are three Winn-Dixie stores located in Gainesville and one Publix store. Store personality Averages of all shoppers' responses toward particular factors of "store personality" of the two chains show Publix being given ratings equal to or higher than those for WinnDixie for each element (Exhibit 19). However, when considering the range of ratings there appesirs little difference in respondents' attitudes concerning Publix and Winn-Dixie. The difference in the mean ratings of the all shopper group are significant. For example, ^7 per cent of the population which was sampled rated Publix 1 on "merchajidise display" 2 Statistical computation to support this contention is presented in the Appendix.

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162 and 17 per cent rated Winn-Dixie 1. It can be stated with 95 per cent confidence that of all shoppers in the population sampled, between 39 per cent and 55 per cent would rate Publix 1 on "merchandise display." Confidence intervals for Winn-Dixie on this same trait are 11 per cent and 23 per cent.'' Publix shoppers rated the overall Publix "store personality" very strong with the lowest weighted mean rating being 1-lA (Exhibit 21); however, this group of respondents rated Winn-Dixie favorably also. Non-Publix shoppers rated Publix recognizably more negatively than did Publix shoppers . However, the non-Publix shoppers ranked Publix more positively than Winn-Dixie on four of the seven topics of "store personality." (Exhibit 20) Replies of non-Publix shoppers to the features based on employee attitude show Publix ranked substantially more positively than Winn-Dixie. Responses of the non-Publix shoppers toward "traffic flow" and "merchandise layout" are almost equal for the two chains (Exhibit 20), Store sales efforts All shoppers indicated attitudes that vary considerably concerning "store sales efforts" (Exhibit 22). The averages show that overall, Winn-Dixie had ratings higher than those of Publix for "money-saving specials," "premiums offered," ^Ibid.

PAGE 178

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2 164 o

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PAGE 181

166 "truthfulness of advertising" and "willingness to make adjustments." Also, Publix received a wider range of rankings, being ranked in each, of the five positions on seven of these topics. In contrast, respondents gave Winn-Dixie ratings of 1 through 5 on only four of the qualities. Publix shoppers rated Publix higher than Winn-Dixie in regard to "new product availability" (Exhibit 2^), Both chains received about equal scores by Publix respondents for "money-saving specials" and "premiums offered," but their responses show preference for Publix on "willingness to make adjustments." Non-Publix shoppers as a group ranked Publix second to Winn-Dixie on almost every characteristic in Exhibit 23. This group gave Publix ratings of 1 through 5 on every store sales effort topic except "truthfulness of advertising." The weighted average response of non-Publix shoppers favors Winn-Dixie over Publix on seven of the nine attributes. (Exhibit 25). Post-transaction satisfaction Attitudes pertaining to post-trainsaction satisfaction are measured in Exhibits 25, 26, and 27. Primarily, these charts reflect consumer opinions on variety, quality, and the "best buy" in specific products. Exhibits 25 and 26 are similar on the weighted averages except on "quality of produce," "best buy in meats," and "best buy in produce."

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167

PAGE 183

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175 "Best buy in meat" ratings were selected by tbe writer to further demonstrate significance of the all shopper group ratings. Forty-four percent of the sampled population rated Publix 1 on this trait, and 58 per cent rated Winn-Dixie 1. It can be stated with 95 per cent confidence 'that of all shoppers in the population sampled, between 17 per cent and 51 per cent would rate Publix 1 on the characteristic "best buy in meats," and between 50 per cent and ^6 per cent would rate Winn-Dixie 1 on this same characteristic . The weighted average rating of all shoppers was higher for Publix than for Winn-Dixie in "quality of produce" and "best buy in produce"; Winn-Dixie was favored on "best buy in meats (Exhibit 25). Non-Publix shoppers rated Winn-Dixie and Publix almost equal on produce quality but they rated Publix much lower than Winn-Dixie on "best buy in meats and produce" (Exhibit 25). Exhibit 27 indicates that Publix shoppers as a group are strongly biased toward Publix. They rated Publix very positively on eight of the nine statements and higher than Winn-Dixie on all the topics. Income group appeal The responses of the all shoppers group to individual supermarket's appeal to particular income groups are shown ^Ibid.

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17^ in Table 15. Forty-seven percent of the total 172 respondents said that Publix appealed to a higher income group, and ^3 per cent had no opinion about Publix income group appeal. Of the respondents who voiced an opinion concerning the income group appeal of Winn-Dixie, most classified WinnDixie as appealing to medium sind low income groups. A limited number of the total respondents stated that WinnDixie appealed to a high income group. Reasons cited for never having shopped at Publix If the respondent, in answer to the question "Which supermarkets have you shopped at in Gainesville?" indicated that he had never shopped at Publix, he was later asked if he had any specific reason for not having shopped there. Table 16 shows that "location" and "price" were the major reasons given. It should be pointed out that the respondents citing price said that they had "heard" that the store was high-priced. Many respondents gave no explicit reason. Conclusion Are there several distinct images of a corporation? If so, can the dimensions of the various images held by different groups of consumers be clearly identified and measured? The Publix shopper respondents favored Puhlix over Winn-Dixie in response to 2^ of the 27 statements. Responses of the entire group caused each chain to be ranked

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175 TABLE 15 GAINESVILLE HOUSEHOLD SURVEY: ALL RESPONDENTS' IMPRESSIONS OF SUPERMARKETS' APPEAL TO A PARTICULAR INCOME GROUP Income Group ^__ Supermarket High Medium Low No Opinion Total No, % No, % No. % No, % No. %^ A&P 3 1 21 12 26 15 123 Pood Fair 2 1 2^ 13 38 22 108 Publix 82 47 12 6 3 1 75 Tliriftway 1 14 8 18 10 159 Winn-Dixie 9 5 51 29 23 13 89 ^Percentages in the various categories may not add up to 100 due to rounding. 70

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176 TABLE 16 GAINESVILLE HOUSEHOLD SURVEY: RESPONDENTS WHO SAID THEY HAD NEVER SHOPPED AT PUBLIX CLASSIFIED BY REASONS GIVEN FOR NOT SHOPPING THERE Number and Percentage of Responses No. % Reason stated: Location 16 Price 10 Publix attitude 2 Automobile congestion 1 Pork meat variety 1 Discrimination in hiring 1 No explicit reason 19 Total^ 50^ 32 20 2 2 2 58 100 'Total number of respondents: ^0, "Total exceeds 40 due to citing more tban one reason.

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177 TABLE 17 ALL RESPONDENTS CLASSIFIED BY PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BY NUMBER OF PERSONS RESIDING IN THE HOUSEHOLD Classification Nximber and Percentage of Respondents No. % Age 18 through 25 26 through ^5 ^6 through 65 66 and over unclassified

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178 more equally, Publix being ranked highest on 16 statements, Winn-Dixie on 11. Eliminating the Publix shopper interviewees aind analyzing replies of the non-Publix group only, one sees that Winn-Dixie was favored on 20 of the 27 statements. The results of this study of a cross-section of the Gainesville household residents indicate that different groups do have distinctly different images of the same phenomenon — a conclusion which has been reached by other researchers (7, p. 26^). Consideration of the differences between the mean ratings for Publix and Winn-Dixie within each of the sub-groups indicates that responding groups are aware of dimension factors, that the groups have attitudes toward the elements of the store image, and that the elements can be defined and measured. In theory, business firms do not attempt to sell identical products to all consumer groups. The overall "marketing strategy" and in particular, the "marketing mix," are designed to reach given and well-defined groups of consumers. Unique combinations of product, location, price £Lnd promotional activities allow stores or corporations to reach and to satisfy distinct consumer groups. Any one of the elements of the "mix" may be a limiting factor. Results of this study indicate that place or location may be particularly so in this case. To the extent

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179 that grocery items are convenience goods, perhaps image building efforts are weakened "by the location of specific stores. The efforts of image building may also be hampered in that routine and habit apparently provide the guidance for much human activity, and patronage groups, as long as they can rationally justify their actions, may continue to patronize given stores even in the face of these efforts. Only the Publix shopper group rated Publix higher than they did Winn-Dixie for "best buy" in staples, meats and produce (Exhibits 25,26,27), The same was true for "quality" of meats and produce. The question arises then, is the quality of the Publix merchandise actually higher than that of Winn-Dixie? If it is, the discrepancy might be attributed to a lack of consumer awareness. Assuming that Publix does offer higher quality goods and that consumers are aware of that, then it is plausible to believe that many of the respondents prefer "lower quality" food. Group cohesiveness and group association may also affect patronage motives. Of the 97 respondents who rated the chains for their appeal to a "particular income group," 82 said Publix appealed to a "high" income group (Table 15). Pifty-one said that Winn-Dixie appealed to consumers in the "medium" income bracket, and 25 replied that Winn-Dixie attracted a "low" income clientele.

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180 Numerous variables are present in any study involving human motives and emotions. However, data presented in Chapter X support the proposition that study of the corporate image is feasible, and that such investigations must be approached objectively and scientifically if findings are to be meaningful. The hypothesis of this investigation is also supported by the data to the degree that, at least in part, the general consuming public is aware of and in agreement with the image dimensions that are projected by the Publix Company,

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CHAPTEH XI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary; Basic Concepts Introduction The American economy is characterized by corporations. The growth and development of the corporation as a major form of business structure has resulted in making professional management and absentee ownership common elements of the American business society. Due to the larger size of businesses correlated with professional management and absentee ownership, the relationship between corporate managers and customers has tended to become impersonal. This tendency can be detrimental to a company, but it can be controlled. By taking positive action managers can effectively create consumer awareness of the "personality" of the firm. First, however, they must determine and define those elements and activities of the company which the consumer perceives and out of which he consciously or sub-consciously conceives his impression of the corporate personality. The ultimate objectives of this dissertation are to clarify some of the concepts that have been put forward 181

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182 relating to the corporate personality or image, and to create a basic framework for further study and evaluation of individual corporate or store images. To these ends, library research is supplemented by a case study of the self-concept and image of an actuail corporation, Publix Super Markets, Inc. It has been discovered that the Publix Company does have a "personality," that the managers of the organization have a concept of it and are actively engaged in projecting the dimensions of that image. The purpose, then, is to find out if managers in the Publix stores, if Publix employees and Publix customers, and if general supermarket shoppers are aware of that image. A thorough investigation of one active attempt to create a company image should provide insight into the development of the images of other corporations. Original research directed at Publix managers and employees and at Publix and non-Publix customers provides the necessary original data; existing material provides the secondary sources of data. Contemporary management It might be helpful to briefly trace the emergence of modern management as it has come to exist in the American economy. The development after World War I of modern largescale production methods brought into being the first indications of the type of management that can be designated as

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183 professional. This development was slowed down by the depression of the 1930 's but the second World War thrust the necessity of progressive professional management onto the American business society. Productive capacity rapidly expanded and increasing consumer wealth brought about the setting for an economy characterized by research and innovation. The professional managers of competing companies have discovered the meaning of the "marketing concept," This approach to business management keeps all activities focused on specific company objectives in terms of profit, sales volume and market position targets. Customer and social orientation, innovation and efficient resource utilization parallel the implementation of the practice of the "marketing concept" and accepting these responsibilities requires the achievement of immediate goals while simultaneously assuring the future of the company. Society is the ultimate beneficiary of these activities, for achievement of the goals will push the technological revolution ahead and bring more and better economic goods to the American people. The new breed of corporate managers are being trained in many disciplines; consequently, they are interested in a broader perspective of the business-customer relationship. One such discipline is the behavioral sciences which take into account attitudes of the consumer other than the purely

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180economic. One of the phenomena which is commaxiding increased attention and research is the concept of the corporate image. However, these managers have had to overcome and ward off much traditional thinking in order to grasp the broader perspective. Concepts pertaining to imagery The process of human imagery is fundamentally one of communication. This seemingly innocent statement is grossly superficial, however, for the components necessary to the conception of an image are multiple and complex. Brain activities in the form of cognitive constituents: perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging and reasoning must be considered. An individual's "value system" ultimately determines how a message will be interpreted. The interpretation of one's self, his personality, his position and status among his peers, his economic and sociological heritage or standing, and his desire for self-expression must all, individually and collectively, be recognized as bearing heavily on the image of a firm that is possessed by an individual , In addition to having an image of institutions as a result of these factors, the individual also has an image of other individuals. Individuals, groups and institutions, or organizations constitute the community, and communication between the various entities is frequently distorted and

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185 hence misunderstood or it can "come through" clearly and be misinterpreted or both. In an attempt to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation, the corporate managers attempt to create company images. In this dissertation the image is analyzed and evaluated as being a fundamental concept involved in this communication process. The ability to consciously form and modify images is unique to man. The human is the only form of life that can rationalize, and he is able to do so as a result of cognitive brain functions, memory, and messages, both external and internal. Organizations, are in fact perceived by people as being "alive," as possessing the ability to "do" things, as being capable of "offering" services. "Therefore, the corporate image is a mental percept held by people of that company and the elements of the perception are semblances of these which some person holds of the personality of other people. In addition to perceiving the "personality" of companies and other individuals, consumers also perceive their own personalities, Individuals seem to be attracted to those stores which project "personality" traits similar to those that constitute the person's perception of himself just as they are attracted to other persons with similar traits and interests. Buying behavior is affected by the image, and when the results of one's buying behavior are in conflict with his expectations, different economic behavior patterns

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186 are likely to be pursued. It is of vital importance that managers sense these disappointments and changes, and seek out feedback to evaluate the problem. Research described in Chapter III has sought to demonstrate that the "personality" of a firm or corporation is a reflection of the influential center-group which is commonly known as the central management of the company. This reflection can result from conscious effort or from no effort to "create" an image. If the commercial organization is considered to be a reflection of the group which directs it, success of the organization can be directly related to the group's ability to encounter and interpret informational feedback. False perceptions of the information through misinterpretation of the feedback may lead the firm to ineffective decisions, therefore bringing about financial deterioration. Ultimately total destruction of the firm may occur as a result of the misuse of feedback, j Motivation research as a method of securing feedback is commanding more attention and scientific interest as competition in America becomes increasingly dynamic. The profit-oriented concern needs to recognize that imagery is an important element in the communication process; indeed, that the consumer images dictate customer behavior.

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187 Summary: Pulplix philosophy and self-concept Mr. George Jenkins has stated that the objective of Publix superniarkets tovrard consuners is satisfaction through honesty and fair treatment. The firm's stated objectives toward employees are opportunity, security, fair wages, autonomous management and profit sharing. The Publix management believes its people to be the company's most valuable asset. Individual employees are said to be recognized for their accomplishments and the usual hierarchial status structure is de-emphasized. Complete satisfaction and trust are the benefits the company tries to impart to customers. Management of the company has clearly defined what it wants the company image to be to its customers and the dimensions of that image are being projected tov;ard the public. As one example, a series^' of twelve advertisements is being utilized to project the image of Publix food stores as clean, spacious and comfortable. The series advertises honest and trustworthy management and that only the best quality merchandise can be purchased there. In viev7 of the imperfections of the communicative process referred to above the author undertook research to try and ascertain the effectiveness of these efforts of the Publix management to project its desired image to managers, employees, and consumers.

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188 Summary: field research The field research, included the accomplishment of four distinct surveys: Puhlix managers at the store level, Publix store employees, Publix customers and supermarket shoppers in general. Data from these surveys allow an evaluation of the success of communication between the Publix management and the various groups questioned. The semantic differential questioning method was used in the manager and employee mail surveys. Publix customers were interviewed personally and were asked to agree or disagree with selected statements. Finally, a survey of general supermarket customers was made in Gainesville, Florida. It, too, utilized personal interviews but the respondent was asked to rank supermarkets located in Gainesville with which he was familiar in order of preference and in response to selected, stated characteristics. Conclusions This dissertation was begun xinder a hypothesis which required some assumptions be made in order for the study to proceed. The hypothesis, however, has been shown to be true. Consumer imagery does in fact exist and it can be studied. The findings of the research indicate both theoretical and practical implications, and contain observable economically significant inferences.

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189 Publix self-imap;e Th.e management of the Publix Corporation does have a concept of the Publix image and is actively engaged in projecting the dimensions of the conceived "personality" toward the general consuming public. Attempts to transmit the elements of the image take two forms: 1) advertising, utilizing the media of newspapers and television primarily; and 2) communication through employee contact and shopping experience. The self-concept, and consequently, advertising and training efforts of the Publix Corporation are based fundamentally on a basic theme: that grocery shopping need not be a chore and that actually, it can be a pleasure. Elements considered necessary by the Publix executives to the successful communication of grocery shopping pleasure are clean, spacious, well-lighted, comfortable facilities in which to shop; top quality national brands of merchandise at fair prices; friendly, helpful personnel; trustworthy, honest management, and complete guarantee of satisfaction with every purchase. These factors are the subjects of the Publix image building efforts. Survey implications Replies of store-level managers indicate that this group is aware of the conceived image dimensions and that they agree that the stated characteristics are actually true in practice. Results of the store employee research also

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190 indicate that the questioned employees are cognizant of the expressed dimensions, but their ratings of some of these dimensions are not as strongly positive as are those of the store and meat department manager group. The employee group tended to indicate a more negative attitude toward supervisory activities than the Publix executives thought that attitude to be. Publix customer responses demonstrate that they, too, are aware of the asserted image dimensions. Although the interviewed customers were asked to agree or to disagree with selected statements which were constructed to elicit attitudes concerning the image elements, the overall group replies imply that Publix customers are less positive in their attitudes toward the image factors than are either the management or employee groups. However, the Publix customer group was not asked about management methods; therefore the lower ratings applied to factors which directly affected them such as prices or service. The elements differed with each group surveyed, and this lack of similarity of elements discourages general comparisons of group responses. It appears that the tendency is present for the image factors to become less distinct and less clear the farther the image perceiver is from the point of origin of the message. Perhaps this indicates that distortion of messages occurs in direct relation to the "distance" of the receiver

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191 from the source of the message. An example of this tendency can be seen in the ratings of Mr, Hollis as compared to those of managers, employees, and customers. A conclusion can be drawn from the survey of household respondents in Gainesville, Florida, that the interviewees were able to consciously rate Publix and Winn-Dixie on the basis of selected image factors. One cannot conclude that the respondents were capable of rating these chains on the basis of efforts by the companies to create a definite public image. It is of importance that the respondents were able to evaluate the stated factors of the Publix image. This writer is not aware of any effort on the psirt of the Publix management to isolate by buying behavior patterns or by personal characteristics and concentrate its sales efforts on any particular segment of the grocery buying public. V/hether or not a "target market" has been segmented and the Publix advertising messages are being directed at that segment is questionable. If the Publix Company management has not defined its market segment and if other supermarket companies have not defined their market segments, then the question can be raised as to whether all supermarket chains advertise essentially the same things. Do not all supermarket companies claim quality products, attractive stores, fair prices, and trustworthy management?

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192 Additional research is necessary to determine whether supermarkets other than Publix have vmdertaken to define the dimensions of their desired images, and have pursued an image-building advertising campaign to inform the consuming public of their conceived image. Perhaps the efforts of the Publix management to communicate the stated "personality" factors are put forth only when necessitated by competition. It is obvious to one who has visited the selected stores that all of the stores are not "clean," "spacious," "bright," and "comfortable." This observation is supported by the responses of the interviewees who were contacted at the low-volume stores, "It may be possible that the Publix management has neglected some important factors of a favorable Publix image. For example, it is possible that "convenience" has been neglected in building the Publix image. An analysis of the Gainesville study gives some indication of this. The mean of respondents' ratings of "convenience of location" of Publix and Winn-Dixie stores in Gainesville shows that Winn-Dixie stores were judged to be more conveniently located than was the Publix store by each of the groups. The Publix shopper group rated Winn-Dixie only slightly above Publix on this element but the non-Publix group and the total group rated Winn-Dixie substantially above Publix. If the presumptions are made that grocery items axe still convenience

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193 goods to most shoppers and that the element of convenience to the shopper might overshadow all other image creating efforts, then Publix was unwise to neglect this factor in building their image. However, it must be noted that the Publix shopper group of respondents goes to Publix to purchase groceries despite the Winn-Dixie advantage in convenience of location. This is not an indication that the "loyal Publix" group would not be larger if "convenience" had been incorporated in the Publix image. Perhaps it is true that the Publix Company executives have attempted to overcome inconvenient location by creating a "specialty" store image. It is probable that appealing to a high income segment would result in the development of status appeal. However, in order to substantiate such a hypothesis the research design of the Gainesville household survey would need to be extended to include other communities which are served by Publix and other supermarket chains. The Publix shopper group rated the Publix parking adequacy well above that of Winn-Dixie, Non-Publix shoppers rated Winn-Dixie essentially an identical degree above Publix on the same characteristic. The tendency to give something a favorable rating as a result of positive association apparently is always present in one's attitudes. In making value ^judgments, the image a customer has of a store affects her Judgment of even physical aspects such as parking adequacy.

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It appears plausible on the basis of the Gainesville household responses to conclude that those people who patronize given supermarket chains have definite preferences for the "total product" which is offered by the management of that particular company. The mean ratings of the total group responses of the Gainesville interviewees show that the rating of the two chains differed significantly in respect to produce quality, "best buy in staples," new product availability, "money-saving specials," "premiums offered," attitude toward adjustments, check-out efficiency, "merchandise layout" and "merchandise display." The data indicate perhaps if the market segments were, for some reason, lumped into a "general public," such a general public, even though preferring one store over another, actually conceives of effective differences between the stores in only a minority of the total possible differences. General Conclusions Income and class influence The dimension of income group also appears to have a definite affect on where consumers buy. Eighty-five percent of the respondents who said that Publix appealed to a certain income group believed that the Publix appeal was to the "high income" group and 14 per cent replied that the Publix appeal was to the medium income group. Only 10 per cent of

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195 ttie respondents who voiced an opinion thought Winn-Dixie appealed to a "high income" group. Fifty-four percent said they thought Winn-Dixie appealed to a medium income group and 36 per cent connected Winn-Dixie with the low-income group. Studies have shown that even though some store managements think that their stores are appealing to "everybody," the stores are patronized by different classes of people. (8, p. 25^), Some company managements take positive action toward creating this image but even where this is not done, the tendency appears to be that shoppers gravitate toward stores where they think the shoppers of their own class buy. Provisions for further study Insights into the development of "personalities" for other companies are indicated by the findings presented in this dissertation. These penetrations take two forms, one for the researcher who undertakes further study of an image of a firm which is held by consumers and the second for the business majiager. The researcher must clearly define his objective before beginning the actual research. Suggestions for further study might be: 1. Similar studies of other food stores to discover if results correspond as to image characteristics and relation to management objectives.

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196 2, A more inclusive investigation of the effect of location in relation to the influence of other image factors. 3. A study of class influence on patronage motives based on a sample of housewives stratified hj socio-economic groups to determine if upper-class people patronize Publix to a greater extent than do lower classes. A-, Studies in other types of communities to verify the Gainesville survey results, 5. Investigation of hiiman personality factors and their effect on patronage motives, 5, Evaluation of image building campaigns of other supermarkets to determine their effectiveness: perhaps of real specialty store. 7. Testing of different types of questions or use of projective techniques. The study of imagery requires one to be flexible but yet to have specific objectives within a broad perspective. There are many variables to be considered but with patience and application of scientific research methods, findings can be valuable. The primary insight provided by this study is that regardless of the many complexities apparent in the study of imagery, it is deserving of further research, both for theoretical and practical application.

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19? Fraiaework for further study The research design of this study v;as created to allow an appraisal of the success of an image building advertising campaign of an individual firm. The baoic framework of the study has been: 1. To investigate the concept of the firm or what the objectives of the management are and the methods utilized to achieve the objectives. 2. To discover if this concept is commonly held throughout lov.'er employee levels, both manager and employee. 3. To explore the attitudes of customers of this store or company to get an under £"canding of their attitudes regarding stated imagery factors. ^, To examine the attitudes of a part of the general consuming public tov;ard the factors of management concept of the company. This plan is useful to the degree that consumer behavior in the market place is a result of rationalization and e>:periences at the point of purchase and in use of the product. The design can be refined and adapted, in whole or in part, for employment in investigation of attitudes tov:ard image factors held by a specific group about an organization or for study of an image in general. Should one attempt to make use of these findings for fur-cher study of the corporate image, the author would offer

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198 three concise suggestions: first, that the researcher be aware of the meaning of the image as it has been studied here; second, that he be conscious of the synthesis of concepts which pertain to imagery as has been accomplished in this investigation; and third, that he be cognizant of the design of the research which has been undertaken in this study. Insights for the business manager Implied insights for the business manager are that he should be aware of the intangible influences present that affect consumer shopping conduct. Psychological and sociological influences are inferred to be of particular importance. The theory of "marketing strategy" deserves attention by business executives as does the understanding and practice of the entire marketing concept. The management of the Publix Company divulged that the only objective of the Corporation was "to do better than last year." With this objective as a guide, the Company proceeds to pour over $8,000,000 annually into advertising and promotional activities. It is certainly not incomprehensible on the basis of this study to believe that much of that expenditure may be wasted. Maybe the Company executives will continue to operate on the basis of general and vague objectives; however, by making use of the marketing strategy and the marketing concept in its entirety this Corporation should possibly enhance the degree of success in its image building efforts.

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199 Promotional and selling activities have long attempted to make tlie consumer aware of the benefits that result from shopping at particular stores. However, a common fallacy apparent in much selling activity is that the buyer will not want what appear to be consumer benefits to the seller. It is of utmost importance to validly interpret consumer wants, but it is also apparently quite easy to misinterpret consumer desires. Perhaps one of the important phenomena which deserves more attention is that consumers gravitate toward the firms or companies that they interpret to have "personalities" which are similar to their own.

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APPENDICES

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201 APPENDIX I Tables Data used in this dissertation pertaining to the attitudes of Publix customers were gathered by personal interviews at the site of the selected Publix stores. To facilitate presentation and analysis, the results of the customer survey were shown exclusively in terms of partial percentages in Chapter IX. However, to aid this author in gaining clesirer insight and understanding to the Publix image, the information was broken down and tabulated on an individual store basis. Numbers and percentages of "agree," "disagree," and "no opinion" responses were calculated; store responses in each volume group were then combined for the data presentation. Tables 18 through 25 relate the findings of the extra-high volume interviews at the Gainesville store. Holly Hill, Lakeland, Orlando, and Winter Park stores are high volume stores, and their customers' replies are recorded in Tables 26 through 35. Tables 5^ through ^9 depict the medium and low volume group responses. Finally, eight tables serve to show the combined totals of each group.

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202 TABLE 18 EXTRA HIGH VOLUME STORES' (GAINESVILLE) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD SELECTED STORE AND MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS Statement

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203 TABLE 20 EXTRA HIGH VOLUME STORES' (GAINESVILLE) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PUBLIX EMPLOYEE-CUSTOMER SERVICE RELATIONSHIP Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No. % No. % No. % Meat depsu?tment service is sometimes poor

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204 TABLE 21 EXTRA HIGH VOLUME STORES' (GAINESVILLE) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE QUALITY AITO PRICE OP PUBLIX MERCHANDISE Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No. % No. % No. % Quality of meat is higher than at other supermarkets Quality of produce is higher than at other 67 63 29 27 10 10 106 100 supermarkets

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205 TABLE 22 EXTRA HIGH VOLUMi; STORES' (GAINESVILLE) RESPONDENTS' LIKES AND DISLIKES CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF MOST COMMON RESPONSES Classification Number and Percentage of Responses Likes Dislikes No. % No. % Products Physical characteristics Service and management attitude Location Shopping stamps and promotion policy Consumer shopping habit Price Everything (nothing) Unclassified Total 3

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206 TABLE 23 EXTRA HIGH VOLUME STORES' (GAINESVILLE) RESPONDENTS' PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL GROCERY SHOPPING DONE AT PUBLIX Percentage Done at

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207 TABLE 25 EXTRA HIGH VOLUME STORES' (GAINESVILLE) RESPONDENTS CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF OCCUPATION Occupation Number and Percentage of Respondents No^ ^ Professional and Te clinical

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208 TABLE 26 HIGH VOLUME STORES' (HOLLY HILL, LAKELAND, ORLANDO, WINTER PARK) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD SELECTED STORE AND MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No. % No. % No. % This store is: a little bit old fashioned

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209 TABLE 28 HIGH VOLUME STORES' (HOLLY HILL, LAKELAND » ORLANDO, WINTER PARK) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PUBLIX EMPLOYEECUSTOMER SERVICE RELATIONSHIP Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No» % No. % No. % No. % Meat department service is sometimes poor Check-out girls are never rude The bagboys are occasionally discourteous You are sometimes unable to get help when you want it 51

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210 TABLE 29 HIGH VOLUME STORES' (HOLLY HILL, LAKELAND, ORLANDO, WINTER PARK) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE QUALITY AND PRICE OF PUBLIX MERCHANDISE Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No. % No. % No. % 259

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211 TABLE 30 HIGH VOLUME STORES' (HOLLY HILL, LAKELAND, ORLANDO, WINTER PARK) RESPONDENTS' LIKES AND DISLIKES CJLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF MOST COMMON RESPONSES Classification Number and Percentage of Responses Likes Dislikes No. % No. % Products Physical characteristics Service and management attitude Location Shopping stamps and promotion policy Consumer shopping habit Price Everything (nothing) Unclassified Total 1 Based on 814 responses. 18

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56

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213 TABLE 35 HIGH VOLUME STORES' (HOLLY HILL, LAKELAND, ORLANDO, WINTER PARK) RESPONDENTS CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OP OCCUPATION Occupation Number and Percentage of Respondents Ma ^ Professional and Technical

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21^ TABLE 5^ MEDIUM VOLUME STORES' (BARTOW, LEESBURG, PLANT CITY) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD SELECTED STORE AND MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS Statement

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215 TABLE 36 MEDIUM VOLUME STORES' (BARTOW, LEESBURG, PLANT CITY) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PUHLIX EMPLOYEECUSTOMER SERVICE RELATIONSHIP Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No, % No, % No. % No. % Meat department service is sometimes poor

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216 TABLE 37 MEDIUM VOLUME STORES' (BARTOW, LEESBURG, PLANT CITY) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE QUALITY AND PRICE OF PUBLIX MERCHANDISE Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No. % No. % No. % 71

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217 TABLE 38 MEDIUM VOLUME STORES' (BARTOW, LEESBURG, PLANT CITY) RESPOM)ENTS' LIKES AND DISLIKES CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF MOST COMMON RESPONSES Classification

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218 TABLE 59 MEDIUM VOLUME STORES' (BARTOW, LEESBURG, PLANT CITY) RESPONDENTS' PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL GROCERY SHOPPING DONE AT PUBLIX Percentage Done at

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219 TABLE 41 MEDIUM VOLUME STORES' (BARTOW, LEESBURG, PLANT CITY) RESPONDENTS CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF OCCUPATION Occupation Number and Percentage of Respondents No^ % Professional and Technical

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220 TABLE 42 LOW VOLUME STORES' ( BROOKSVILLE » CLERMONT) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD SELECTED STORE AND MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS Statement

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221 TABLE i\-tV LOW VOLUME STORES' ( BROOKS VILLE, CLERMONT) RESPOin)ENTS ' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PUBLIX EMPLOYEE-CUSTOMER SERVICE RELATIONSHIP Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No. % No. % No. % Meat department service is sometimes poor Check-out girls are never rude The bagboys are occasionally discourteous You are sometimes unable to get help when you want it 9 1^7 6 155 88 96 1 1^8 96 6 138 90 6 155 100 5 155 100 5 155 100 ii155 100 'Based on 155 respondents.

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222 TABLE ^5 LOW VOLUME STORES' (BROOKSVILLE, CLERMONT) RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE QUALITY AND PRICE OF PUBLIX MERCHANDISE Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No. % No. % No. % Quality of meat is higher than at other supermarkets 76 ^7 60 59 21 14 153 100 Quality of produce is higher than at other supermarkets 77 50 60 39 16 11 153 100 Publix offers the best quality available 158 90 11 7 1^ 3 153 100 Publix offers lower levels of quality if desired 73 ^8 47 31 53 21 155 100 Your total food bill is probably higher when shopping at Publix (if yes, then asked following) 57 24 105 67 15 9 155 100 The extra quality is worth the extra money* 52 86 5 14 116 155 100 You would bxiy less at Publix if they stopped giving green stamps 40 26 88 58 25 16 155 100 Based on 155 respondents, *Based on 57 positive replies in preceding question.

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223 TABLE ^6 LOW VOLUME STORES' BROOKS VILLE, CLERMONT) RESPONDENTS' LIKES AND DISLIKES CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF MOST COMMON RESPONSES Classification Number and Percentage of Responses Likes Dislikes No. % No. % Products Physical characteristics Service and management attitude Location Shopping stamps and promotion policy Consumer shopping habit Price Everything (nothing) Unclassified Total Based on 306 responses. 12

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22^ TABLE ^7 LOW VOLUME STORES' (BROOKSVILLE, CLERMONT) RESPONDENTS' PERCENTAGE OP TOTAL GROCERY SHOPPING DONE AT PUBLIX Percentage Done at

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225 TABLE ^9 LOW VOLUME STORES' ( BROOKSVILLE , CLERMONT) RESPONDENTS CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF OCCUPATION Occupation Number and Percentage of Respondents NOj % Professional and Technical

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226 TABLE 50 TOTAL RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD SELECTED STORE AND MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No> % No. % No. % This store is: a little bit old fashioned 71 7 860 90 21 5 952 100 planned and laid out efficiently poorly decorated usually very clean very successful never out of stock This Publix store keeps aisles uncongested 865 91 80 8 7 1 952 100 The management of this Publix store is reT^utable 955 97 1 1 18 2 932 100 Based on 952 respondents. TABLE 51 ALL STORES' RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD OTHER PUBLIX CUSTOMERS 765

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227 TABLE 52 ALL STORES' RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PUBLIX EMPLOYEE-CUSTOMER SERVICE RELATIONSHIP Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No. % No. % No. % Meat department service is sometimes poor

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228 TABLE 55 ALL SELECTED STORES' RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE QUALITY AND PRICE OF PUBLIi MERCHANDISE Statement Number and Percentage of Respondents Agree Disagree No Opinion Total No. % No. % No. % No. % '0 Quality of meat is higher than at other supermarkets 562 59 265 28 12? 15 952 100 Quality of produce is higher than at other supermarkets 570 60 295 51 8? 9 952 100 Publix offers the best quality available 889 95 ^0 4 25 5 952 100 Your total food bill is probably higher when shopping at Publix (if yes, then asked following) 288 50 567 60 97 10 952 100 The extra quality is worth the extra o ^ ^ money 2^4 84"=^ 59 1^ 5 2 288 100 You would buy less at Publix if they stopped giving green stamps ^ '' ^ 180 19 555 58 219 25 952 100 Based on 952 respondents. ^Based on 288 positive replies in preceding question.

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229 TABLE 5^ ALL SELECTED STORES' RESPONDENTS' LIKES AND DISLIKES CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF MOST COMMON RESPONSES Classification Number and Percentage of Responses Likes Dislikes No. % No. % Products

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230 TABLE 55 ALL SELECTED STORES' RESPONDENTS' PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL GROCERY SHOPPING DONE AT PUBLIX Percentage of Shopping Done at Publix

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231 TABLE 57 ALL STORES' RESPONDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO OCCUPATION Occupation Number and Percentage of Respondents' No^ ^ Profession and Technical

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252 APPENDIX II Statistical Computations Confidence intervals can be calculated to indicate the statistical significance of the percentages of respondents of the all-shopper group who rated each store 1 on given characteristics. Computations relating to selected characteristics are presented below. Convenience of location Seventeen per cent of the population which was sampled rated Publix 1 on "convenience of location" and 51 per cent rated Winn-Dixie 1 (Exhibit 12), The following formula is utilized to measure the confidence intervals: (formula derived from personal notes of Richard Rollins) p 1 C(t)( Vpq/n-1) + -^] where n = 172, p, = 17% and q » 83%, one sees that: '\/(.17)('83)/171 = V. 1^11/171 = V. 00825 = ,0287; then 17 ± (1.96)(.0287) + ,0029; and 17 + .0592 17 ± .06 11-23%. With 95 per cent confidence, it can be stated that of all shoppers in the population sampled, between 11 per cent and 23 per cent would rate Publix 1 on convenience of location. These confidence intervals apply only to the Gainesville household survey.

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233 Where n = 172, p = 51% and q = 49%, '\/(51)C^9)/171 V. 2499/171 V. 001461 = .038; then .51 + (1.96) (.058) + .0029 = .077; and .51 + .08 = 4359%. With 95 per cent confidence, it can be stated that of all shoppers in the population sampled, between 43 per cent and 59 per cent would rate Winn-Dixie 1 on convenience of location. Merchandise display Forty-seven percent of the population which was sajapled rated Publix 1 on "merchandise display" and 17 per cent rated Winn-Dixie 1 (Exhibit 15). Utilizing the same formula as above, where n = 172, p = 47% and q = 53%, -v/(.47)(.53)/171 = ^/. 2491/171 >/. 001456 .058; then 47% + (1.96)(.038) + .0029; and 47 + .077 = 47 + .08 « 39-55%. With 95 per cent confidence it can be stated that of all shoppers in the population sampled, between 39 per cent and 55 per cent would rate Publix 1 on display of merchandise. Where n = 172, p = 17%, and q = 83%, the 95% confidence intervals are 11% and 23%. This computation is shown for the Publix rating of "convenience of location" and is the same for Winn-Dixie "merchandise display."

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254 Best buy in meats Twenty-four percent of the population which was sampled rated Publix 1 on "best buy in meats" and 38 per cent rated Winn-Dixie 1 (Exhibit 21). Making use of this formula, where n = 172, p = 24% and q = 76%, -v/(.24)(.76)/171 >/.182Vl71 = V. 001066 .032; then 24% + (1.96) (.032) + .0029; and 24% + .063 + .0029 » .066 « 7% » 17-31%. With 95 per cent confidence it can be stated that of all shoppers in the population sampled, between 17 per cent and 31 per cent would rate Publix 1 on "best buy in meats." Where n « 172, p = 38% and q = 62%, ^(.38)(.62)/171 = V. 2356/171 = >/.001377 = .037; then 38% + (1.96)(.037) + .0029 7-1/2% = 30-46%. With 95 per cent confidence it can be stated that of all shoppers in the population sampled, between 38 per cent and 46 per cent would rate Winn-Dixie 1 on "best buy in meats."

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books 1. Berelson, Bernard and Gary Steiner. Human Behavior; An Inventory of Scientific Findings . New York; Harcourt. Brace and World Inc., 1964. y2. Boulding, Kenneth. The linage . Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1956. 5. Boyd, Harper W. , Jr. and Ralph Vestfall. Marketing Research . Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1956. 4. Croxton, Frederick E. and Dudley J. Cowden. Applied General Statistics . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 5Donham, Wallace B. Business Adrift . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931. 6. English, Horace and Ava English, A Comprehensive Dictionary of Psychological and Psychoanalytical Terms . New York; Longmans, Green and Company, 1958. 7. Haynes, W. Wsirren and Joseph L, Massie. Management Analysis, Concepts and Cases. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.; PrenticeHall, Inc., 1%1. 8. McCarthy, E. Jerome. Basic Marketing : A _ Managerial Approach . Homewood, Illinois; Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1956. 9. Miller, George, Eugene Gal ant er and Karl Pribram. PI ans and the Structure of Behavior . New York; Holt, Rinehart , Winston Company, 196(5^ 10. Olmsted, Michael S. The Small Group . New York; Random House, 1959. 11. Riley, John W. , Jr. "The Nature of the Problem," The Corporation and Its Publics . John W. Riley, Jr. . (ed.; New York: John Wiley and "Sons, Inc., 1963. 12. Russell, David. Children's Thinking . New York: Ginn and Company, 195^^ 235

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256 13. Selekman, Benjamin M. A Moral Philosophy for Management . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company » Inc., 1959. 14. Tolman, Edward, Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men . Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1932. Articles 15. "...A Man For National Brands," Food Business . July, 1961, pp. 18-20. 16. Diamond, Dorothy. "Why Women Won't Buy," Sales Management . November 10, 1957, p. 93. 17. Fisk, George. "Conceptual Model for Studying Customer Image," Journal of Retailing , Winter 1961-62, pp. 1-8. IC. Gellerman, Soul W. "The Company Personality," Management Review , March, 1959» pp. 5-8. 'JS» Goode, Mackarness H, "Motivation Research and Public Relations," Public Relations Journal , February, 1958, p. 9. 20. Kohlenberg, Jim, "Status Among the Celery Stalks," St, Petersburg Magazine , March, 1964, PP. 34-35. 21. Munn, Henry L. and William F. Opdyke, "Group Interview Consumer Buying Behavior," Journal of Retailing , Fall, 1961, pp. 26-31. 22. "New Way to Size Up Consumer Behavior," Business Week , July 22, 1961, pp. 68-69. ' 23. Roper, Elmo. "Corporate Advertising: What Does It Say?" Management Review , July, 1962, pp. 39-42, 1^4. Spector, Aaron J. "Basic Dimensions of the Corporate Image," Journal of Marketing , October, 1961. :25. Weale, W, Bruce. "Measuring the Corporate Image of A Department Store," Journal of Retailing , Summer 1961, pp. 40-48. 26. "When It Comes To Consumer Ads, Consumer Guard Is Up," Advertising Age , December 7, 1959, p. 3. 27. Yankelovitch, Daniel. "The Publix Story," Proceedings of 1964 Mid-Year Conference, Miami, Florida, 1964, Published by Super Market Institute,

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237 Reports 28. Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner and Smitli Stock Brokers. Annual Report, 196^ . New York: Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner and Smith, 1965, p. 1. 29. Puhlix Super Markets Inc. Publix Prog;ress Reoort , January 1, 1962. Unpublished Sources 30. Hollis, Mark, Personnel Director, Publix Super Markets Inc., in a personal interview, August Is, 196^ (on file); permission to quote secured. 31. Schroeter, William R. "Advertising Policies and Techniques. Speech read at N.A.R.G.U.S. Seminar (National Association of Retail Grocers of the United States), Chicago, Illinois, March 11, 196^. 32. Schroeter, William R. Director of Advertising, Publix Super Markets, Inc., in a personal interview August IS, 1964 (on file); permission to quote secured. 33. Schroeter, William R. "Newspapers and the Public Image," Speech read at F.N.A.S. Convention (Florida Nev;spaper Advertising Executives), Miami, Florida, May 24-, 1965. Additional References Baker, Stephen. "Art of Building A Corporate Image," Public Relations Journal . January 1962, pp. 16-20. i Bonham, Roger D. "Ambassador of Ill-V/ill," Public Relations Journal, July 1959, pp. 16-1?. ^'"Basic Dimensions of The Image," Journal of Marketing ^ October 1961. pp. ^7-51. Bernays, E.L. "Why Understanding Human Motives Is Essential To Business Success Today," Printer's Ink . September 19, 1952. pp. ^^-^Y, !/!Bolger, Jr. John F. "How To Evaluate Your Company Image," Journal of Marketing . October 1959. PP. 7-10.

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258 t^^'Br ennan , Charles H. "Is There A Hole In Your Corporate Image?" Sales Manac^ement , September 18, 1959, PP» 35-55, 13"^"^ Britt, S. H. "The S-crategy of Human Motivation," Journal of Marketing , April 1950, pp. 666-6?^. Broi^rai, V. F. "The Determination of Factors Influencing Brand Choice," Journal of Marketing: , April 1959, pp. 699-706. U^Building Coroorate Images," Industrial Marketing , February 1959, pp. 57-59. U*^uilding the Company Image," Public Utilities , February 27, 1958, pp. 550-55^. tXTarroll, Robert F. "Building The Corporate Image," Financial Executive , April 1965, p. 53. Chamberlain, John. The Enterprising Americar^ . New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1961. " Chase, Stuart, Stanley Ruttenberg, Edwin Nousse, and VJilliam B. Given, Jr. The Social Responsibility of Mana3:ement. New York: School of Commerce, Accounts and Finance, New York University, 1950. "Consumer Shor)ping Habits: Predictable?" Printer's Ink , November 50, 1962, pp. ^8-50. / ktlox, Ted. "The Dangerous Compromise: The Corporate Image," Public Relations Journal , April 1962, pp. 28-29. "Creativity and Consumer Research," Journal of Marketing , October 1961, pp. 5^-58. Crisp, R.D. "Reliability in Ads and Use Go Together," Printer's Ink , May 22, 1955, PP. 57-58. "Customer Loyalty To Store and Brand," Harvard Business Review, November 1961, pp. 127^^1577 >^'Customer Relations and The Coro.orate Image," Public Utilities , May 10, 19&2, pp. 15-17. "Customers, They Won't Stay the Same," Business V/eek , May 21, 1955, p. 1^0. "Day of Reckoning Near for Motive Studies," Advertising Age , December 11, 1961, p. 28.

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239 "Despite Motive Studies, Ads Alter Attitudes," Advertising; Age, October 26, 1959, p. 23. "Develop Employee Interest In Our Customer Well-3eing," Personnel Journal , December 1957, PP. 2'4-5-248. "Don't Separate Product and Corporate Image," Advertising Age , October 1?, I960, p, 75. Dichter, Ernest, "A Psychological View of Advertising Effectiveness," Journal of Marketing , July 19'^9, pp. 61-66. Dichter, Ernest, "These are the Real Reasons V/hy People I y Goods," Advertising and Selling , July 19^8, pp. 353^. Dichter, Ernest, "What Are The Real Reasons People Buy Today?" Sal as Management , February 15, 1955, pp. ^655. Duffy, Ben, "\-7hy We Buy W.at We Buy," Look, June 12,, 1956, p. 9^. i/'Ely, Claire G. , "Corporate Image: Shadow or Substance," Management Review , November 1961, pp. '4—10. Fenn, Jr. , Don H. Business Responsibility in Action , New York; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. , I960. Finn, Daniel, "Price of Corporate Vanity," Harvard Business Review , July 1961, pp. 135-l'4-3. "Food Industry: Building Store Image by Attention to Detail," p3?ogressive Grocer , March 1961, p. 168. "Food Retailing In The Sixties," Progressive Grocer , December 1959, pp. 52-59. Goodman, David S. , "Learning Secrets of Human Motivation," Public Relations Journal , October I960. Gustafson, Phillip, "You Can Gauge Customer V/ants," National Business , April 195S, pp. 76-8^. Hacke, Al, "What Are The Hidden Meanings of Color?" Printer's Ink, November 5, 195^, PP. ^0-^^. Harbison, Frederick and Charles A. Myers, Management In The Industrial V/orld . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1959*

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2^0 ,//enry, Kenneth, "Creating and Selling Your Corporate I^age," linn's Review and riodern Industry , January 1, x958, p. ^. ">6ere's How To Measure Corporate Image," Industrial Karketincr, September 1959, PP. 163-169. Fewens ^rank E. , "Public Relations Is Becoming People Heuens, -^^^^.^^g^,, pu blic Relations Journal , November 1961, pp. 5^-36. "How Buying Habits Change," Business Week , November 22, 1952, pp. 111-112. "How Can You Be Sure They Like You?" Printer's Ink, Kay 2, 1958, pp. 65-6^. "How To Define and Get Identity," Printer's Ink, March 8, 1965, pp. ^7-^8. "How Winn-Dixie Keeos Up Local Image," Progressive Grocer, May 1962, p. 93. "Inside the Consumer," Newsweek , October 10, 1955, PP. 89-95. KapT^el, Frederick R. , Vital ity_^n_A_3u siness Snterorise . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., l9oU. Katona, George, "Economic Psychology," Scientifi c American , October 195^, PP. 51-35. "Latest Fad Among The Businesses: Find the Corporate Image," Business Week , October 5, 1959, PP. 65-65. Martineau, Pierre, "A New Look At Old Symbols," Printer's Ink, June ^, 195^, P. 32. Martineau, Pierre, "It's TimeTo He ^^e arch the Consumer," Harvard Business Review , July-August i^!?:?, PP. 45-5^. "Motivation Research For Retail Use," Journal of Retailing, Winter 1962-1965, PP17-20. O'Connor, Michael J., "Get Out In The Field ^^^^{-^^0^^053 VThat's Going On," Sales Management , March 21, 19pii, pp. 76-84. U-"Only Better Company Performance Can Win Better Company Image," Advertising Age , March 196:>, p. 44.

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2^1 "Past Finds More Men Share In Buying Decisions," Advertising Age, October 30, 1961., p. 10. "People: V/hat ' s Behind Their Choices In Buying, In Working?" Business Week , August 14, 195'^, 9'?, 50-61. '^Personnel and The Corporate Image," Personnel Journal , January 1961, pp. 511-513. "Promote The Company First, The Product Second," Printer' s Ink, July 23, 1961, pp. 43-^4. "Public Relations: Marketing's Velvet Hammer," Sales Management , March 16, 1962, pp. 37-^0. "Psychological Dimensions of Consumer Decisions," Journal of Marketing , February I960, pp. 15-19. "Quality 0. K. But Numbers Are Necessary," Advertising Age , October 5, 1959, p. 79. j/Hoss, Thomas J., "Some Basic Attitudes and Their Importance," Public Relations Journal , April 1958, pp. 19-23. Sawyer, Howard G. , "Your Best Prospects: Your Previous Customers," Sales Management , September 18, 1959, pp. 82-88. "Sharper Focus On The Corporate Image," Harvard Business Review, November 1953, pp. 49-5HT "Shopping In Supermarkets Isn't Fun For 51% of Moms," Advertising Age , June 15, 1961, p. 9^. Shepardson, Wallace L., "New Lights On Corporate Advertising," Public Relations Journal , October 1962, pp. 51-52. "Signs: Image Builders Sales Builders," Progressive Grocer , December I960, pp. 44-43. "Six Ways To Build Good Will," Nation' s Business , November, 1961, p. 98. "Supermarkets Battle for Store Loyalty," Journal of Marketing, October 1961, pp. 8-15. Tearney, Orville B. , "Seven Publics: How To Reach Them," Cre dit and Financial Management , March I960, pp. 16-

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242 "The Marketing Pattern: Probing the Mysteries of King Consumer," Business Week , October 30, 195^, p. 56. "Voice of A Smile," Management Peviev; , September 1959, "or*. 41-45. Weiss, S. 3., "American Shoppers Want More and Paster Change in Petailing," Printer's Ink , December 12, 1952, pp. 42-47. "What Customers Think of The Supermarket Manager," Progressive Grocer , December 1961, pp. 134-140. "What Makes People Buy?" Management Re view, May 1959, op. 48. ^ \^rhite, L. T. , and Med Serif, "Retailer: Leader of Tomorrow's Community," Journal of Retailing , Fall 1959, op. 153-158. "]Ih.j A Concept Outsells A Product," Printer's Ink , July 28, 1961, :p:p, 43-44. "Why do People Buy?" Fortune , April 1952, pp. 104-10?. "\^^hy $500 Million Given The United Way," Public Relations Journal, March 1963, PP. 20-22. Williams, Douglas, "Hov; Employees Influence Company Reputation," Public Relations Journal , May 1959, 'ov>» H14.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Robert Newton Carter was born on March 30, 1955? in Athens, Georgia, After graduating from Athens High School in 1953* the author entered the United States Marine Corps. On being discharged from the military service, he enrolled at Young Harris College, Young Harris, Georgia, In 1958, he began attending the University of Georgia and was awarded the Bachelor of Business Administration degree in I960, An important event during this period was the author's marriage to Sylvia Annette McCoy on December 19, 1959. The following year the author taught at Dacula High School, Dacula, Georgia, and in June, 1961, he entered the Graduate School of Business at the University of Georgia. He received the M, B, A. degree in 1962. Since September, 1962, the author has been working for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Economics and Business Administration while simultaneously being an instructor in Marketing, He was admitted to candidacy in June, 196'+-, Starting in July, 1965 » the author will be an assistant professor in the Division of Business and Economics at Arlington State College, Arlington, Texas. 243

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This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and has been approved by all members of that committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Business Administration and to the Graduate Council, and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. June 22, 1965 Dean, College of Business Administration Dean, Graduate School Supervisory Committee: Chairman X t^i/\^ ,


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24 82