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The Work values and career maturity of community college transfer and native students

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Title:
The Work values and career maturity of community college transfer and native students
Creator:
Keith, Edwin Monroe, 1948- ( Dissertant )
Wittmer, Joe ( Thesis advisor )
Meek, Phyllis ( Reviewer )
Riker, Harold ( Reviewer )
Sandeen, Arthur ( Reviewer )
McBailes, B. A. ( Degree grantor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, 131 leaves : ; 28cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Assessed values ( jstor )
College seniors ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
College transfer students ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Community colleges ( jstor )
Maturity groups ( jstor )
Occupations ( jstor )
Transfer students ( jstor )
Upper division colleges ( jstor )
College students -- Psychology -- Florida ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Vocational interests -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to compare the orientation to work values and the level of career maturity of community college transfer and native students at the University of Florida and to determine the relationship between work values and career maturity. It was hypothesized that no differences would exist in either the work values, as measured by the Work Values Inventory (WVI) , or the career maturity, as measured by the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) Attitude Scale of transfer and native students as a function of (a) sex, (b) Upper Division college, (c) father's occupation, (d) mother's occupation, (e) cumulative college grade-point average (GPA, (f) age, or (g) parents' yearly income. It was also hypothesized that no relationship would exist between the work values and career maturity of transfer students, native students or both groups combined. Alphabetized lists with the current local addresses were obtained from the Registrar and Admissions Office for (1) all juniors who had entered an Upper Division collegeat the University of Floridafor the first time Fall Quarter 1975 directly from Florida community colleges and (2) all first-quarter juniors in Upper Division in the 1975 Fall Quarter who had been enrolled as full-time students only at the University of Florida. From the lists 150 transfer and 150 native students were randomly selected to be subjects in this study. Each subject was mailed a large envelope containing a letter, a questionnaire, the Work Values Inventory (WVI) , the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) Attitude Scale, and a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Usable data were returned by 62.7% of the transfer students and 60.7% of the native students. The analysis of the data was accomplished through the use of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) computer subprograms. Independent t tests were used to compare the mean \«A7I scores and the mean CMI scores of transfer and native students. Both WVI and CMI scores of the two groups as a function of age and of cumulative college GPA were determined by finding the Pearson product-moment correlations, employing the z' transformation with the correlations, then finding the significance of difference between the correlations of transfers and of natives. Pearson product-moment correlations and their respective significance were also used to determine the relationship of WVI scores to CMI scores. The difference between the native and transfer students' WVI scores as well as the difference in their CMI scores as a function of sex. Upper Division college in which they were enrolled, parents' yearly income, father's occupation, and mother's occupation was determined through analyses of variance. The level of significance was .05 for all analyses. Few differences were found in the demographic characteristics, work values, or career maturity of transfer and native students. Transfer and native students were found to differ markedly only in socioeconomic status (with transfers being lower) , and the only significant differences in work values of the two groups were a function of socioeconomic status. Significant differences were found on the Associates scale of the WVI as a function of father's occupation and group (whether native or transfer) combined, and on the Creativity, Management, Security, and Independence scales as a function of mother's occupation and group combined. No significant differences were found in the CMI scores of transfer and native students as a function of any of the variables examined. The work values and career maturity of the subjects were found to be significantly related. A significant negative relationship was determined to exist between the Management scale of the \W1 and CMI score for transfer students, native students, and both groups combined.
Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 122-129.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Edwin Monroe Keith, Jr.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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THE WORK VALUES AND CAREER MATURITY OF
COIMUJINITY COLLEGE TRANSFER AND NATIVE STUDENTS










By

EDWIN MONROE KEITH, JR.


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1976














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This study was made possible by the efforts of several

people. I would like to express my sincere appreciation

to them.

I am particularly grateful to Dr. Joe Wit'mer, Chair-

man of my Supervisory Committee, and to committee members

Dr. Phyllis Meek, Dr. Harold Riker, and Dr. Art Sandeen.

Collectively and individually they have provided encourage-

ment, support, assistance, and friendship.

The assistance rendered by the Office for Student

Affairs was invaluable and is deeply appreciated. Both

the Office for Student Services and the Registrar and

Admissions Office were vital in providing information that

made this research possible.

Gratitude is expressed to Dr. Larry Loesh and Ms.

Barbara Rucker for their help in designing the research

methodology and analyzing the data. Appreciation is

expressed to Ms. Bette Hughes for typing the manuscript

and for her help in proofreading.

I am especially grateful to my wife, Susan, for her

assistance with this study and for her patience, love,

and devotion during the period of my doctoral studies.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDG(1ENTS . . . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER I, INTRODUCTION. . . . . .

Rationale for the Study. . . . . .

Purpose of the Study . . . . . .

Definition of Terms . . . . .

CHAPTER II, REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Characteristics and Problems of Community
College Transfer Students . . .

Career Development of College Students .

Work Values. . . . . . . . .

Career Maturity. . . . . . . .

S ur ri a r '. . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER III, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. . .

The Sample . . . . . . . .

The Experimental Hypotheses . . . .

Instruments. . . . . . . . .

Collection of Data . . . . . .

The Statistical Design . . . . .

Limitations . . . . . . .

CHAPTER IV, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . ..

Response Rate . . . . . . .


PAGE

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6

8

9
. . 10


. . 1







16
. . 2






. . 39
. . 47



. . 10

. . 16

. . 27

. . 39




. . 50

. . 51

. . 52

. . 53

. . 60

. 61

. . 62

. . 65

. . 65








TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED


PAGE


Demographic Data . . . . .

Testing the Experimental Hypotheses.

Summary . . . . . . .

CHAPTER V, SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS . . . .

Summary . . . . . . .

Conclusions . . . . . .

Recommendations . . . . .

APPENDIX A . . . . . . .

APPENDIX B . . . . . . .

REFERENCES . . . . . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. . . . .


. . . . . 65

. . . . . 74

. . . . . 109







. . . . . 114

. . . . . 117


. . . . . 119

. . . . . 120

. . . . . 122

. . . . . 130








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE WORK VALUES AND CAREER MATURITY OF
COMMUNITY COLLEGE TRANSFER AND NATIVE STUDENTS

By

Edwin Monroe Keith, Jr.

Chairman: Dr. Joe Wittmer
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of the study ,was to compare the orienta-

tion to work values and the level of career maturity of

community college transfer and native students at the

University of Florida and to determine the relationship

between work values and career maturity. It was hypo-

thesized that no differences would exist in either the

work values, as measured by the Work Values Inventory

(W\'I), or the career maturity, as measured by the Career

Maturity Inventory (CMI) Attitude Scale of transfer and

native students as a function of (a) sex, (b) Upper Divi-

sion college, ic) father's occupation, (d) mother's occu-

pation, (e) cumulative college grade-point average (GPA),

(f) age, or (g) parents' yearly income. It was also

hypothesized that no relationship would exist between the

work values and career maturity of transfer students,

native students or both groups combined.

Alphabetized lists with the current local addresses

were obtained from the Registrar and Admissions Office for

(1) all juniors who had entered an Upper Division college








at the University of Florida for the first time Fall Quarter

1975 directly from Florida community colleges and (2) all

first-quarter juniors in Upper Division in the 1975 Fall

Quarter who had been enrolled as full-time students only

at the University of Florida. From the lists 150 transfer

and 150 native students were randomly selected to be sub-

jects in this study. Each subject was mailed a large

envelope containing a letter, a questionnaire, the Work

Values Inventory (WVI), the Career Maturity Inventory

(CMI) Attitude Scale, and a self-addressed, stamped enve-

lope. Usable data were returned by 62.7% of the transfer

students and 60.7% of the native students.

The analysis of the data was accomplished through the

use of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

(SPSS) computer subprograms. Independent t tests were

used to compare the mean WVI scores and the mean CMI

scores of transfer and native students. Both WVI and

CMI scores of the two groups as a function of age and of

cumulative college GPA were determined by finding the

Pearson product-moment correlations, employing the z'

transformation with the correlations, then finding the

significance of difference between the correlations of

transfers and of natives. Pearson product-moment corre-

lations and their respective significance were also used

to determine the relationship of WVI scores to CMI scores.

The difference between the native and transfer students'

WVI scores as well as the difference in their CMI scores









as a function of sex, Upper Div.ision college in which they

were enrolled, parents' yearly income, father's occupation,

and mother's occupation was determined through analyses

of variance. The lev'.el of significance was .05 for all

analyses.

Few differences were found in the demographic charac-

teristics, work values, or career maturity of transfer

and native students. Transfer and native students were

found to differ markedly only in socioeconomic status

(with transfers being lower), and the only significant

differences in work values of the two groups were a

function of socioeconomic status. Significant differences

were found on the Associates scale of the WVI as a func-

tion of father's occupation and group (whether native or

transfer) combined, and on the Creativity, Management,

Security, and Independence scales as a function of mother's

occupation and group combined. [o significant differ-

ences were found in the CHI scores of transfer and native

students as a function of any of the .'ariables examined.

The work values and career maturity of the subjects

were found to be significantly related. A significant

negative relationship was determined to exist between the

Management scale of the WPVI and CMI score for transfer

students, native students, and both groups combined.


v'ii













CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


The inception of the concept of universal higher

education and the continuing pressure on Americans to

continue their education beyond the secondary level have

led to a dramatic rise in the number of students attend-

ing two-year junior and community colleges and in the

number of these two-year institutions. From 1962 to 1972

the number of two-year colleges more than doubled, while

the number of students attending such institutions in-

creased nearly fivefold (Sandeen & Goodale, 1974). Ac-

cording to Wray and Leischuck (1971) 75% of all entering

freshmen in some states enter community colleges.

Highly correlated with the boom in community and

junior colleges has been the rise in the number of stu-

dents transferring from community colleges to senior

institutions. Knoell and Medsker (1965) estimate that

two-thirds of those entering community colleges plan to

transfer to senior colleges and universities. Transfers

now make up at least 25% of the students at many senior

colleges and universities (Sandeen & Goodale, 1971). Some

states now have upper-division colleges and universities,

such as Florida Atlantic University and the University of








North Florida, composed of junior and senior divisions only

and especially designed to accommodate community college

transfer students.

For many years community college transfer students

have been seen by faculty and administrators as less aca-

demically' talented than native students of a four-year

institution and have been the objects of considerable

discrimination. And, many' have lost valuable credits and

grade points upon transferring and have been the last

to be admitted to academic programs, special classes, and

residence halls. They have received little if any. finan-

cial aid, while they often have needed it more than native

students. Transfer students have typically been left out

of student government, student committees and organiza-

tions, and many campus activities (Sandeen & Goodale, 1971,

1972). In essence, they have been considered second-class

citizens and generally have received what happened to be

left over after native students have had their pick.

As the number of community' college transfer students

has continued to increase, so has the research concerning

them. Several valuable studies (Knoell & Medsker, 1965;

Knoell, 1965; Hills, 1965; Sandeen & Goodale, 1972) have

pointed out the problems transfer students face and have

given needed descriptions of community college transfers

as a group. As a result of the strength in numbers of

transfers and the data gathered from studies regarding

them, steps have been taken to rectify some of the unjust








attitudes toward transfers as well as the discriminatory

actions against them. Since most of the research has been

done on articulation problems and prediction of academic

success, most of the improvements have been in those areas.

There are, however, still several important areas in which

the needs of community college transfers have not been

adequately described, much less met.

One area that demands special attention is the career

counseling needs of transfer students. In a review of the

research on community college transfer students Sandeen

and Goodale (1971) reported that community college trans-

fers have been found to be more apprehensive than native

students about selecting an educational goal and to have

lower vocational aspirations than native students. It

seems that transfer students differ from native students

in their career decision-making processes.

Differentiating career decision-making processes and,

subsequently, career counseling needs of transfer students

is a difficult task. This is due, in part, to the paucity

of universally accepted definitions and explanations of

career choice processes. There are several different

vocational choice theories, each of which presents career

choice in the theorist's own terms. It is necessary then,

first, to select a particular school of thought on voca-

tional choice to explain the components of the career

choice process of college students. Since the develop-

mental concept of career choice has gained wide acceptance








and popularity in the last 25 years, the terminology of

vocational choice in this study will be that of develop-

mental theories.

Developmental theorists (Super, 1957; Ginzberg et al.,

1951; Tiedeman, 1961) view career choice as an ongoing

process that takes place over a period of several years,

rather than as a single decision-making event. During his

lifetime an individual makes a series of decisions, all of

which contribute to his vocational development. Further,

career development theorists propose that an individual

progresses through a series of sequential life stages, each

of which has several tasks to be completed before one can

move to the next stage. The life stages correspond roughly

to chronological age spans. Thus, as a person grows older,

he is expected to complete the tasks of one stage and move

into the next stage (Tolbert, 1974).

Super (1957), Tiedeman (1961), and Ginzberg et al.

(1951) in their career development theories all empha-

size the importance of one's values in the vocational

choice process. They conclude that one's value orientation

plays a significant part in the career decision-making pro-

cess and in the satisfaction one derives from work. The

concept of work values, the feelings one has about the out-

comes of work activity (Katz, 1969), has come into being

to explain the goals which motivate people to work. People

with certain types of work value orientations are more

likely to be more attracted to certain types of work, i.e.,




5



those which offer a greater probability of satisfying the

needs (values) they deem most important. For example, if

one values autonomy highly, he will seek and be most satis-

fied with work in which he can be autonomous.

Work values are clearly related to one's basic needs

and the potential satisfaction of those needs. Many re-

searchers (Zytowski, 1970; Katz, 1963; Super, 1957, 1970;

Gable & Pruzek, 1971) consider the concept of work values

a viable one in describing the career choice process.

Some (Super, 1970; Katz, 1969) propose that work values

are more fundamental to the career decision-making process

than interests. Katz (1969), for example, suggests that

interesting work could be valued more highly by people at

certain stages of development while other values could be

more important to those at other stages.

A second critical concept in career development theo-

ries is that of career maturity. As previously stated,

developmental theorists propose that vocational develop-

ment is an ongoing process which takes place from shortly

after birth until late adulthood, during which time an

individual progresses through a series of life stages.

Career maturity is "the degree of development, the place

reached on the continuum of vocational development .

(Super, 1957, p. 186). The basic assumption underlying

the concept of career maturity is that vocational behavior

changes systematically with age and stage. As one grows

older, his vocational behavior becomes more goal-directed,








more realistic, and more independent (Super & Overstreet,

1960) .

Although others such as Strong (1943, 1955) and

Dysinger (1950) mentioned the concept of career maturity,

Super (1957) was the first to give an extensive descrip-

tion of vocational behaviors exhibited at various ages

and life stages and to then assess his theory using the

hypothesized behaviors as the criteria for measuring

career maturity,. Crites (1961, 1964) elaborated on Super's

conceptualizations and developed his definition of career

maturity to include degree, defined as a comparison of

one's vocational behaviors with those of the oldest people

in his life stage; and rate, defined as a comparison of

one's vocational beha'.'iors with those of his chronological

age group.


Rationale for the Study

The number of students entering community colleges

and transferring to senior colleges and universities has

increased dramatically in recent years. This has been

notable in Florida, which has developed one of the nation's

most extensive community college systems. The impact that

the rise in popularity of community colleges has had on

the University of Florida alone is demonstrated by the

fact that in the Fall Quarter of 1974, transfer students

from Florida community colleges comprised 44% of the be-

ginning junior class of the Univ.ersity.








As mentioned previously, several studies have demon-

strated that community college transfers represent a unique

population with unique needs. It is important to know if

community college transfer students differ from native

students in their processes of career choice; and, if so,

how they differ. Previous research has indicated that

transfer students are more apprehensive than native stu-

dents about selecting an educational goal. Transfer

students also have generally been found to have lower vo-

cational aspirations than do native students. When

differences are found between community college transfers

and native students, programs which attempt to meet career

counseling needs can be better geared to meet these unique

needs of transfer students. Career counseling and place-

ment, academic advisement, and orientation programs can be

adapted to better serve a unique and growing minority.

More concrete ways in which the career choice pro-

cesses of transfer and native students differ need to be

discovered. In this study some of these possible differ-

ences have been sought by attempting to answer the follow-

ing specific questions:

1. Do students transferring to the University of Florida
from Florida community colleges differ from native
students in their orientation to work values?

2. Do community college transfer students at the Uni-
versity of Florida differ from native students in
their respective levels of career maturity?

3. Is there a significant relationship between work
value orientation and level of career maturity for
college students?








Both work values and career maturity are well estab-

lished constructs in career development theories. Although

several studies have sought to determine each one's rela-

tionships to several other variables, few have examined

their relationship to one another. And, no one, to this

writer's knowledge, has studied the relationship of work

values with career maturity of college students. Do those

who are more mature vocationally differ from the vocation-

ally immature in their work value orientation? If so,

certain work values would seem to be more desirable than

others, assuming that it is more desirable to have a high

degree of career maturity.


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to compare the work

values and career maturity of community college transfer

students and native students at the University of Florida.

More specifically, transfer students from Florida community

colleges who entered the junior class at the University of

Florida for the first time in the Fall Quarter of 1975

were compared to native students who entered the junior

class for the first time on two variables, work value

orientation and career maturity. In addition, the rela-

tionship of the two variables to each other was examined.

The two groups were also compared on the following varia-

bles to help account for any differences found in the

criterion variables: (a) age, (b) sex, (c) cumulative








college grade-point average, (d) parents' yearly income,

(e) father's occupation, (f) mother's occupation, and (g)

Upper Division college in which enrolled.


Definition of Terms

Transfer student Students who have transferred from
Florida community colleges to the University of Florida
as first-quarter juniors in the Fall Quarter of 1975.

Native student Students who have been enrolled as full-
time students only at the University of Florida and who
are first-quarter juniors in Fall Quarter 1975.

Developmental theory Those theories that view career
choice as an ongoing process that takes place over a
period of years during which time an individual progresses
through a series of life stages. At each stage, which
corresponds roughly to a particular age range, specific
developmental tasks must be performed.















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


The review of the literature is divided into the

following four sections: (1) characteristics and problems

of community college transfer students, (2) the career

development of college students, (3) work values, and

(4) career maturity.


Characteristics and Problems of
Community College Transfer Students

The rapid jump in transfer enrollment experienced by

many senior institutions has certainly been encountered

by institutions in Florida. Sitzman (1972) reported that

from 1963 to 1969 the number of community college students

transferring to senior institutions in the State University

System of Florida increased by over 240%. In April 1971

the State University System entered into an articulation

agreement with the Florida Division of Community Colleges

whereby any graduate of a state approved Florida community

college would be admitted to the University System as a

junior once he completed the requirements of a university

parallel program and obtained an Associate of Arts degree.

The influence of this agreement is evidenced by the fact

that in the Fall Quarter of 1974 transfers from Florida








community colleges comprised over half the beginning jun-

iors in seven of the thirteen colleges of the University

of Florida.


Characteristics of Community College Transfer Students

Considerable research has been devoted to the identi-

fication of demographic characteristics of community

college transfer students. Knoell (1965) found that the

typical transfer student was male, white, age 19-20, from

a family of relatively low income, and from a family in

which few had attended college. A more recent study with

a population that is more specific and more relevant to

the current study was performed by the Florida Board of

Regents and the Division of Community Colleges in the fall

of 1971. The profile of students entering Florida com-

munity colleges that was developed was summarized by

Sistrunk (1974, p. 29) as follows:

64.3 percent of the entering community college
students were age 18 or less, 73 percent of the
students were Caucasian, their parents completed
high school, and the annual family income was less
than $12,000.00. Forty-nine and seven-tenths
percent of these students receive half or less than
half of the money to pay college expenses from
their families. Finally, 71.6 percent of the stu-
dents planned to transfer to a senior university
and 78.1 percent had tentatively selected a specific
academic major.

One of the most prominent characteristics of com-

munity college transfer students that researchers have

found is that transfers typically come from lower socio-

economic class families than do native students. Medsker








(1960) as well as the two previously mentioned studies

by Knoell and the Florida Board of Regents and Division

of Community Colleges, reported this finding. Addition-

ally, low cost has been found to be one of the most im-

portant reasons transfer students have chosen the senior

institutions to which they transferred (Moore & Hartsell,

1974; Sandeen & Goodale, 1971).

A second commonly reported characteristic of commu-

nity college transfer students has been that they are less

academically talented that native students. Cross (1968)

found that community college transfer students were less

intellectually oriented, less intellectually able, and

that they scored lower on tests of academic ability.


Problems of Community College Transfer Students

Probably the most common area of concern among senior

colleges and universities regarding community college

transfer students has been that of their academic per-

formance and the potential for predicting it. Host studies

have indicated that transfer students generally earn low.'er

grades, have lower graduation rates, and take longer to

graduate than native students (Webb, 1971). Walker (1969),

McFaddin (1971), and Voyles (1971), in studies comparing

transfer and native students at the University of Florida,

reported similar findings. Knoell (1965) stated that

transfer students generally have a drop from .0 to -.5 in

grade-point average (GPA) upon transferring. Both Knoell








and Hills (1965) reported the phenomenon of "transfer

shock," i.e. transfer students usually falter in their

initial term in a new college, then earn about the same

grades as native students with similar ability and back-

grounds after the initial shock of transferring.

Some studies have shown that differences in grades

earned by native and transfer students were greatly re-

duced when differences in academic potential were taken

into account. Nickens (1970b) found that community college

transfer students at Florida State University (FSU) did

not fare as well academically as native students. During

the 1968-1969 academic year, FSU dismissed for academic

reasons 27% of its first-year community college transfers,

but only 10% of its native students of a similar standing.

The mean score on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test, the

college placement test used in the state of Florida, was

significantly higher for FSU natives than for transfers.

Nickens found, however, that after adjusting for this

difference, community college transfers were not at a

disadvantage at the end of their college careers according

to senior year GPA.

Much of the discrimination transfer students face is

caused by attitudes they encounter as a result of their

poorer scores on academic and intellectual measures. Al-

though many community college transfer students have high

GPAs in community college, they are still seen as inferior

because faculty and administrators of senior institutions








often consider the grading standards of community colleges

more permissive and grades thus inflationary. Also, it is

believed that vocational/technical courses taught in many

community colleges have an adverse effect in preparing

students for senior colleges. Refuting these claims are

studies by Mickens (1970) who discovered no evidence that

the number of technical courses taken in community college

was related to academic performance, and by Wray and

Leischuck (1971) who found, as did Nickens, that the

community college GPA is the best predictor of academic

performance in senior college. Still skeptics remain

unconvinced since some research (Hecker & Lezotte, 1969;

Chickens, 1970) indicated transfers tend to raise their

chance for success by choosing lower educational objectives.

Nickens (1970), for example, reported that approximately

70% of the entering community college transfers at FSU

selected majors in which students had a mean Florida

Twelfth Grade Test score less than that of entering FSU

freshmen.

Community college transfer students typically face

unique problems in their academic performance in senior

colleges and universities. Although Knoell and Medsker

(1965) estimated that 75% of the transfers they studied

would eventually receive their degrees, the fact remains

that fewer transfers than natives graduate. Also, it

usually takes transfers longer to graduate (Knoell &

Medsker, 1965). Fewer transfers than natives continue








on to graduate or professional schools (Sandeen & Goodale,

1972).

The problem the largest percentage of transfer stu-

dents rate as serious is the increased cost of higher

education in moving from a community college to a senior

institution. Financial problems rank first among factors

associated with the withdrawal of those transfer students.

who do so voluntarily. Many do not expect the cost of

education to be so great and/or expect a better chance of

receiving financial aid than they actually have (Sandeen

& Goodale, 1971). Transfers often find that when they

arrive at a senior college, most of the financial aid has

already been distributed to native students.

Another major problem for community college transfer

students is a need for academic and career counseling.

As was previously stated, transfers typically are more

apprehensive about selecting a college major, more con-

cerned about academic success when they transfer, and

lower in vocational aspirations than native students.

Two methods that should aid in meeting the academic, edu-

cational, and vocational needs of transfer students are

academic advisement and orientation. Research seems to

indicate shortcomings in these two areas, however. Al-

though transfers rate personal counseling and academic

advisement received in community colleges less favorably

than various aspects of the instructional programs at

community colleges, they rank them more favorably than








that received at senior colleges (Sandeen & Goodale, 1971).

Sandeen and Goodale (1972) also reported that over one-half

of the 822 colleges and universities they surveyed did not

provide a separate orientation for transfers: instead they

were grouped with freshmen.

In an exploratory study of various senior institu-

tions in the State University System of Florida, Sistrunk

(1974) interviewed selected transfer students, faculty,

and administrators to examine transfer student problems

at each institution. At the University of Florida he

identified 24 problems, most of which were concerned with

academic counseling. The primary problems Sistrunk dis-

covered were inadequate academic counseling, impersonality

of academic counselors, insufficient orientation, and

insufficient encouragement to transfers to participate in

student organizations and activities.


Career Development of College Students


Theories of Career Development

Since the 1950s developmental theories of career

choice have been widely researched by vocational psy-

chologists. The first comprehensive developmental theory

was that of Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma (1951).

They originally proposed that "vocational choice is an

irreversible process, occurring in reasonably clearly

marked periods, which is characterized by a series of

compromises the individual makes between his wishes and








his possibilities" (Osipow, 1968, p. 71). The entire vo-

cational choice process was believed to take place over

a period of about ten years. Four variables were seen as

significant in the career choice process: reality fac-

tors, educational factors, emotional factors, and an

individual's values.

Ginzberg and his associates (1951) concluded that

vocational development occurs in three major periods, which

they call the Fantasy, Tentative, and Realistic Periods.

During the Fantasy period, from early childhood to about

age 10, a child's career choice is based on his dreams and

wishes. He feels he can do anything, irrespective of his

ability and interests or the requirements of the job. At

age 11 the Tentative period begins, during which time the

child begins making tentative and more realistic choices.

The Interest, Capacity, and Value stages make up the

Tentative period.

The Realistic period begins around age 17 and lasts

until age 22 to 24, the college years for most who attend.

During the Realistic period, which includes the Explora-

tion, Crystallization, and Specification stages, practical

considerations become more important. The Exploration

stage for college students is marked by college entrance

and the need to declare a major. According to Osipow

(1968, p. 75) the primary task of this stage is choosing

a major from a few strong areas of interest. In the

Crystallization stage, which is generally reached by








college graduation, one makes firmer commitments to a

career based on his experiences during the Exploration

stage. Finally, in the Specification stage one narrows

his decision further by choosing a specific job or area

of specialization.

Recently some major revisions have been made in the

original theory of Ginzberg et al. Ginzberg (1972) listed

the changes as follows:

1. The process of vocational development is lifelong
and open-ended.

2. The concept of irreversibility is no longer valid.

3. The concept of optimization replaces compromise.

4. More weight is given to the roles of constraints,
value orientation, and opportunity structure in
the career choice process.

After a comprehensive study of the theory of Ginzberg

and associates, Tiedeman and O'Hara developed a theory of

career development (Tiedeman, O'Hara, & Baruch, 1963;

Tiedeman, 1961). Tiedeman and O'Hara proposed that career

development is "the process of fashioning a vocational

identity through differentiation and integration of the

personality as one confronts the problem of work in living"

(Tiedeman, O'Hara, & Baruch; 1963, p. v). Their emphasis

is on the development of the total personality and its

adjustment to a career. A person initially forms an ego-

identity, which is influenced bv his biological constitu-

tion, as well as the meaning, values, and attitudes one

develops as a member of society. From the ego-identity,









one adjusts to a job through differentiation and integra-

tion to form a work identity.

According to Tiedeman and O'Hara (1963), people must

make a series of decisions using differentiation and inte-

gration. They suggest that a decision is made in two

periods: (1) Anticipation or Preoccupation and (2) Imple-

mentation or Adjustment. Tiedeman and O'Hara suggest that

one can return to a previous step in the decision-making

process and/or repeat the process entirely several times

since career development is a continuously evolving pro-

cess.

Shertzer and Stone (1966, p. 318) summarized the

steps in the Tiedeman and O'Hara model as follows:

I. The Aspect of Anticipation or Preoccupation.
Preoccupation with a problem can be subdivided
into four steps. Despite the fact that these
steps may be relatively inseparable, they may
be artificially separated and summarized here
as follows:
Step I-A, Exploration, or the introduction of a
previously absent distinction between two things.
Different alternates or possible goals are con-
sidered. Goals are affected by the. person's
past experiences, the degree of investment in
himself in modifying or continuing his present
state, and the help he seeks or is given.
Step I-B, Crystallization, or the stabilization of
thought. After considering the advantages,
disadvantages, cost, and value of each alterna-
tive, crystallization emerges. Definiteness,
clarity, and complexity develop and are advanced.
Step I-C, Choice, or decision follows crystalliza-
tion. A relevant goal orients the individual to
his problem.
Step I-D, Clarification, or the elaboration and
perfection of the image of the future ensues.
The making of a decision readies a person for
action.
II. The Aspect of Implementation or Adjustment.
Interaction is a necessary part of implementing








choice. An individual enters a social system,
is accepted, begins to assert himself, and
attain equilibrium. Three steps are involved
in implementation:
Step II-A, Induction, or the initiation of experi-
ence. He gains acceptance of others in the
field.
Step II-B, Reformation, or the acknowledgement that
the person is accepted and successful leads to
immersion in the field. He asserts his con-
victions of his role on society.
Step II-C, Integration, or the synthesis of the
older group members' convictions and the indi-
vidual's convictions into a compromise.

Perhaps the most comprehensive and most thoroughly

researched theory of career development is that of Super.

He posits career development to be a continuous and de-

velopmental process in which one chooses a means of

implementing his self-concept (Super, 1953, 1957). Listed

below are the ten basic propositions underlying Super's

theory:

1. People differ in their abilities, interests,
and personalities.
2. They are qualified, by virtue of these charac-
teristics, each for a number of occupations.
3. Each of these occupations requires a charac-
teristic pattern of abilities, interests, and
personality traits, with tolerances wide enough,
however, to allow both some variety of occupa-
tions for each individual and some variety of
individuals in each occupation.
4. Vocational preferences and competencies, the
situations in which people live and work, and
hence their self-concepts, change with time and
experience (although self-concepts are generally
fairly stable from late adolescence until late
maturity), making choice and adjustment a con-
tinuous process.
5. This process may be summed up in a series of
life stages characterized as those of growth,
exploration, establishment, maintenance, and
decline, and these stages may in turn be sub-
divided into (a) the fantasy, tentative, and
realistic phases of the exploratory stage, and








(b) the trial and stable phases of the establish-
ment stage.
6. The nature of the career pattern (that is, -the
occupational level attained and the sequence,
frequency, and duration of trial and stable
jobs) is determined by the individual's parental
socioeconomic level, mental ability, and
personality characteristics, and by the oppor-
tunities to which he is exposed.
7. Development through life stages can be guided,
partly by facilitating the process of maturation
of abilities and interests, and partly by aiding
in reality testing and in the development of
the self-concept.
8. The process of vocational development is essen-
tially that of developing and implementing a
self-concept: it is a compromise process in
which the self-concept is a product of the
interaction of inherited aptitudes, neural and
endocrine makeup, opportunity to play various
roles, and evaluations of the extent to which
the results of role playing meet with the
approval of superiors and fellows.
9. The process of compromise between individual
and social factors, between self-concept and
reality, is one of role playing, whether the
.role is played in fantasy, in the counseling
interview, or in real life activities such as
school classes, clubs, part-time work, and entry
jobs.
10. Work satisfactions and life satisfactions depend
upon the extent to which the individual finds
adequate outlets for his abilities, interests,
personality traits and values; they depend upon
his establishment in a type of work, a role
which his growth and exploratory experiences
have led him to consider congenial and appro-
priate. (Super, 1953, pp. 189-190)

Super took Buehler's (1933) life stages and developed

his theory around them. He sees the Exploratory stage

from ages 15 to 25, as a time for developing one's self-

concept, trying out the role of a budding adult, finding

an occupation, and finding a role in the community. The

Establishment stage, from 25 to 45, is spent establishing

one's place in the family, home, community, and world of








work. During the ages of 45 to 65, the maintenance stage,

an individual is concerned with holding his own in the

family, keeping the home intact, keeping up appearances

in the community, and continuing his success at work.

Finally, in the Decline stage, the years after age 65,

one lessens his responsibilities in the family, in the

community, and on the job (Super, 1957, p. 72).

The two most important life stages in Super's theory,

Exploratory and Establishment, each ha'.e several sub-

stages. The Exploratory stage, which includes the college

years for most who attend, is composed of the Tentative,

Transition, and Uncommitted Trial substages. The Com-

mitted Trial and Advancement substages make up the Estab-

lishment stage (Osipow, 1968).

Super has identified five vocational developmental

tasks which take place during these two significant stages.

The first task, crystallization, takes place over the

high school years. It requires the formulation of ideas

about work appropriate for oneself, and the development

of occupational and self-concepts to help make a tentative

vocational choice through educational decisions. Through

the task of specification, which is generally completed

in the college years, one narrows down his general career

direction and takes steps to implement his choice. The

third activity, implementation (ages 21 to 24) requires

one to finish his training and start working in his

chosen field. As one performs the task of stabilization








(25 to 35), he settles down within the specific vocation

appropriate to his training. The final activity, con-

solidation (35 and above), is completed as one establishes

himself, his skills and his seniority within his vocation

(Osipow, 1968).


Research on College Students

Although much has been written about the career de-

velopment of young people, not much has been written about

career development in college students (Myers, 1972). A

possible explanation for this is that theories of voca-

tional choice have generally been constructed in a fashion

,that would apply to all people. Nevertheless, some of the

ideas regarding career development stages can be applied

to college students. College students typically are in

the Exploratory stage according to theories of Super and

of Havinghurst, who defines the stage as a time for (1)

choosing and preparing for an occupation and (2) getting

work experience as a basis for occupational choice and

for assurance of economical independence (Myers, 1972).

Counselors at Augsburg College in Minneapolis,

Minnesota, surveyed the literature and after finding

little on the career development of college students,

formulated the following theoretical stages of career

development: (1) building expectations, (2) self-

assessment, (3) exploration, (4) formation of tentative

career goals, (5) reality testing, (6) access into the








world of work, and (7) reentry into college (Thoni u

Olsson, 1975).

Most college students are characterized by a concern

about career opportunities and by pressure toward a

commitment to career choice (tlyers, 1972). Many' students,

however, enter college without having done sufficient

exploration and without having formed tentative career

goals. A recent survey of two-year college students found

that 63% either were not at all satisfied with the way

they had planned their career choice or were fairly satis-

fied but felt they still needed some planning (Wollman,

Johnson, & Bottoms, 1975).

Several prominent studies on undecided majors echo

the finding that college students often are deficient in

the e::ploratory behavior associated with their stage.

Crites reviewed the research on indecision in college

students and found that approximately one freshman in

five is undecided on his major .Myers, 1972). Astin

and Panos (1969), in a study of 36,000 college students

from 246 different four-year institutions, surveyed the

students at the beginning of their freshman year and

again four years later. They found that

1. At least 75% changed their career plans after
entering college.

2. About .44' dropped out of the college in which
they first enrolled.

3. Some of the most frequently cited reasons for
leaving the college of first enrollment were .a)
dissatisfaction with the college environment, (b)









change in career plans, and (c) the need to recon-
sider career interests (Astin & Panos, 1969;
Myers, 1972).

Another landmark study on the career plans of youth

is the Career Pattern Study, a 20-year longitudinal study

of 200 boys. Some of the -results of a survey of the

boys toward the end of their senior year in high school

revealed that

1. About 50% were still considering occupations not in
the same field or on the same level.

2. Only one in twelve had made a specific career choice.

3. Two-thirds had very little confidence in or commit-
ment to an expressed vocational goal.

4. More than 50% were still considering three or more
career possibilities (Myers, 1972).

There have been numerous studies on the uncertainty

of the career plans of college students, and the results

have been contradictory. Many studies have found no

significant differences among students who are certain

of their majors and those who are undecided (Hecklinger,

1972). Miller (1956) concluded that indecision is re-

lated to the need for security; while Osipow, Ashby,

and Wall (1966) found undecided freshmen more inde-

pendent. Thompson (1966a) found committed students more

persistent in their majors and.less likely to withdraw;

but undecided students had higher GPAs, as well as higher

verbal and mathematics aptitude test scores. Hecklinger

(1972) discovered that college juniors who were undecided

about their immediate and long-range career plans were








significantly less satisfied with their majors. After

having undergone career counseling at a university coun-

seling center, students who still could not select a

major revealed no significant difference in academic

aptitude and little difference in interests and person-

ality traits when compared with those who chose a major

after counseling (Harman, 1973).

Other research has focused on correlates of career

indecision. Appel, Haak, and Witzke (1970) found si;:

factors meaningful in describing the undecided student:

(1) situation-specific choice anxiety, (2) data-seeking

orientation, (3) concern with self-identity, (4) general

indecision, (5) multiplicity of interests, and (6)

humanitarian orientation. Positive self-concept scores

and high self-esteem were determined to be significantly

related to the certainty of vocational choice in community

college students; but neither amount of educational ex-

perience, father's educational background, high school

GPA, college GPA, nor personality needs were related as

measured by the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule

(Wigent, 19741). Wachowiak (1973) found high self-concept

and low abasement scores significantly related to in-

creases in the vocational Decision-.laking Checklist

scores of undecided university male students.

Students who are uncertain of their educational and

vocational plans pose a problem to colleges and uni-

versities. "Students who are undecided about a choice of








major make up a large part of the clientele at most uni-

versity counseling centers" (Harman, 1973, p. 169).

Graff and MacLean (1970) report, however, that in coun-

seling centers vocational clients are often relegated to

practicum students, and that counselors with doctorates

see vocational/educational clients as dull and routine

when compared with personal/emotional clients. In a

survey of counseling center directors of the largest

universities in the country Graff and Raque (1974) found

that the academic training of counselors was inversely

related to the percentage of vocational clients seen per

week. Practicum students, interns, and master's level

counselors did most of the vocational counseling.


Work Values

The concept of work values emerged to enable valuing

to be related to careers and to the entire career deci-

sion-making process. Zytowski (1970, p. 176) defines work

values as "a set of concepts which mediates between the

person's affective orientation and classes of external

objects offering similar satisfactions." Katz (1969,

p. 461) states that work values "represent feelings about

outcomes or results, such as importance, purpose, or

worth of an activity." Work values then describe the

relationship between the needs of an individual and the

satisfactions that can be derived from various occupa-

tions. Katz explains the function of work values as

follows:








If there is a single synthesizing element that
orders, arranges, and unifies such interactions,
that ties together an individual's perceptions of
cultural promptings, motivating needs, mediating
symbols, differentiating characteristics, and sense
of resolution, that relates perception to self-
concepts, and that accounts more directly for a
particular decision or for a mode of choosing,
it is here suggested that the element is the
individual's value system. (1963, p. 16)

According to career development theory, work values

are a vital part of the vocational decision-making process.

Ginzberg and his associates see one's value orientation

as critical in the compromise process of choice (Ginzberg

et al., 1951). Tiedeman and O'Hara (1963) believe values

to be an important factor in forming the ego-identity as

well as the work identity. In Super's (1957) theory, the

value system is an integral part of the self-concept

system. "Taking the system of self-concepts as the

immediate control over occupational preferences, then it

seems likely that some hierarchy of values embedded in

the system dominates the preference-building process"

(Gribbons & Lohnes, 1968, p. 81).

Several researchers in the field of career develop-

ment advocate the inclusion of work values in career

development and career counseling. After a comprehensive

review of the literature regarding work values, Zytowski

states: "It seems reasonable to conclude that a concept

of work values is a viable one in the description of

vocational behavior . ." (1970, p. 181). According to

Kuehn (1974, p. 232), "If choice of occupation is an








expression . of basic personality rooted in the indi-

vidual's value system, students must be encouraged to

examine their values as part of the process of making a

career decision." Gable and Pruzek (1971) conclude:

The problem of choosing at a relatively early
time in life one's appropriate vocation must be
regarded as among the most serious and yet diffi-
cult problems which any person faces. We
believe that in the future one of the most fruit-
ful approaches to vocational decisions lies in
the area of the measurement of values. To be
able to give reliable and meaningful information
to students, for example, regarding their own
patterns of work values seems to us essential
for enlightened vocational decisions. (p. 41)


Classification of Work Values

There have been several attempts to specify the

various types of work values. Ginzberg and associates

(1951) classified work values into three types: (1) in-

trinsic, or those related to the work activity itself;

(2) extrinsic, or those related to the returns of work;

and (3) concomitant, or those related to the concomitants

of work. While working on the Career Pattern Study,

Super and his associates developed the Work Values Inven-

tory (WVI) to assess the degree of patterning of work

values, one of Super's indices of vocational maturity.

Super (1957) included in the WVI 15 work values which

were originally grouped under Ginzberg's trichotomy.

Later the concomitants were grouped with extrinsic work

values to form an intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy.

Factor analyses of Super's WVI have identified other








categories for work values. The first such study was

done by O'Connor and Kinnane (1961), who analyzed the

responses of 191 white male undergraduates of Catholic

University. They identified six factors: (1) Security-

Economic-Material, (2) Social-Artistic, (3) Work Condi-

tions, (4) Heuristic-Creative, (5) Achievement-Prestige,

and (6) Independence-Variety. O'Connor and Kinnane

concluded from the results of their study that Ginzberg's

classification of work values is too broad, and Super's

too discrete.

After Super revised the AWVI, he and Hendri:-: (1968)

did a factor analysis on the responses of 99 tenth-grade

students from a suburban high school. They found four

separate factors for the males and three for the females.

The male factors were as follows: (1) Situational, (2)

Goodness. of Life, (3) Self-E::pression, and (4) Behavior

Control. The dimensions identified for the females are

very similar to the first three factors for males.

Hendrix and Super reported that the first two factors

respectively are similar to the extrinsic and intrinsic

values of Ginzberg.

Gable (1973) made an additional revision to the WVI

and performed a factor analysis on his re.'ised version.

He added 32 new items to form the Revised Work Values

Inventory (RWN'I), which he administered to 611 tenth-

grade students from two suburban schools and one rural

school. Gable then analyzed the responses to find how








the new items fit in with Super's 15 categories, and a

second analysis to determine the effects of the modifi-

cations on the factorial dimensions. The a priori item

groupings were found to be reasonable and sufficient,

and the scale intercorrelations and factorial dimensions

of the WVI and RWVI were found to be highly comparable.


Work Values as Discriminants

People in or planning to enter certain fields of work

seem to have more similar work value orientations than

those entering different occupations (Zytowski, 1970).

Super explains this by stating that people with certain

work values are more likely to be attracted to certain

types of work. He believes those working in an occupa-

tion tend either to adapt to the role and values of that

occupation or to change to a more suitable line of work

(Super, 1957).

Two studies that attempted to use work values to

discriminate among college students in various curricula

had differing results. Underwood (1971) compared two

groups of-male freshmen at an Australian university on

their responses to a work values inventory based on the

WVI. He found the work value ordering of a sample of

students entering all curricula not significantly dif-

ferent from that of a sample entering only science and

business. Fretz (1972), however, found that under-

graduate males in different majors at an American








university differed significantly in their rank-ordering

of 11 occupational values. F.ie of the 11 values '..'ere

found to be significant discriminants among the groups.


Work Values and Job Satisfaction

If the choice of an occupation is seen as an attempt

to gain the greatest possible ]ob satisfaction, then one's

work value orientation is a good indication of the satis-

faction one can e:-:pect to derive from a job. In a survey

of 100 randomly selected military officers and enlisted

men Huskey (1973) found that job satisfaction is posi-

tively related to the degree to which an individual's

personal needs and .values are being met by his work. He

also determined that job satisfaction is more directly

related to the degree to which self-actualization (in-

trinsic) needs are met than to the degree to which economic

(extrinsic) needs are met.


Work Values and Life Values

Researchers have studied the relationships of work

values to several other factors which influence career

development. Probably the most logical comparison that

has been made is that of work values and life values.

Treesh (1959) reports that life values are related to

some aspects of career development. Poe (1954) and

Sternberg (1953) discovered that some groups of students

are differentiated by their life values.

Kinnane and Gaubinger (1963) conducted a stud' to








determine the correlation of life values as measured by

the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values (AVL) and work

values as measured by the WVI. Modified forms of both

instruments were given to 143 male college freshmen.

Kinnane and Gaubinger found five AVL scales significantly

related to five of the factorial dimensions of the WVI

found in the factor analysis by O'Connor and Kinnane (1961).

The correlations, however, were small; and Kinnane and

Gaubinger concluded that the AVL measures pure values,

while the WVI measures applied values.


Work Values and Interests

Much research has been done on the relationship of

work values and interests. As was stated in the first

chapter of this study, some believe that work values are

the set of which interests are a subset. Katz states

that values are feelings about outcomes of an activity,

but interests are "the differentiated means by which a

valued goal may be reached. They are concerned with

satisfactions inherent primarily in the process rather

than in the outcome of an activity" (1969, p. 461).

Zytowski (1970, p. 176) states: "The spectrum of

valuing is probably congruent with the spectrum of

interests, but the units into which the spectrum is

divided are considerably fewer than the number of

distinct interests . .

Kinnane and Suziedelis (1962) attempted to assess








the relationship between work values and inventoried

interests. The modified form of the WV'I used by O'Connor

and Kinnane (1961) and the Strong Vocational Interest

Blank (SVIB) were given to 191 college freshman and

sophomore males. Significant relationships were found

between all but one of the factorial dimensions of the

WVI and occupational groupings of the SVIB. The results

of the study indicate that there is a significant cor-

relation between measured interests and work v.alues.

Kinnane and Suziedelis conclude that "different work-

value orientations are predictive of distinctive interest

patterning . ." (1962, p. 146).

Subsequent research findings have contradicted the

results of the Kinnane and Suziedelis study. Ivey (1963)

administered the WV/I and the Kuder Preference Pecord

(Vocational) to 85 college freshmen. Very few high

correlations between the WVI and the Kuder were found,

suggesting less of a relationship between work values and

measured interests than Kinnane and Suziedelis found.

Unlike the previous study, however, Ivey' used all 15

WV1I scales rather than the six work value factors. Also,

the Kuder w'as used rather than the SVIB.

Two later studies found low correlations between

work values and interests measured by Holland's Vocational

Preference In.ventory (VPI). Breme and Cockriel (1975)

ga'.e the WVI and the VPI to 195 male university freshmen








and found that the two instruments do not correlate highly.

Salomone and Muthard (1972) administered the VPI and the

Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ), another work

values inventory, to a group of rehabilitation counselors.

Except for one common underlying personality variable,

the MIQ and VPI were found to measure separate and

independent dimensions.


Work Values and Age

The influence of age on work values has been examined

in a number of studies. Hales and Fenner (1972) admin-

istered the Ohio Work Values Inventory (OWVI) to small

samples of fifth, eighth, and eleventh grade students in

a small rural school district. They found that the work

values of students in each of the three grades were very

similar, implying that there is not much change in work

values over this period of time even though much physical,

social, and intellectual change takes place in these

years. Perrone (1973) studied the development of work

values from the beginning of junior high to high school

graduation for two successive graduating classes in a

suburban town. Both pupils and their parents were asked

to rate the importance of 16 occupational values in help-

ing to choose a career goal. The work value orientation

of the students was relatively constant over the period

studied. Little change was found in the importance placed

on work values by students surveyed in the ninth grade








then again a year later when Centers' Job Values and De-

sires Questionnaire and a personal information survey

were used to assess approximately 2,000 students in 10

California high schools (Thompson, 1966b).

Other researchers have found some changes in work

values with age. Gribbons and Lohnes (1965) did a longi-

tudinal study of 111 boys and girls beginning in 1958

when the subjects were beginning the eighth grade in

Boston. They were interviewed at that time, in the last

month of their tenth-grade year, and in the last month

preceding their high school graduation. Although there

was some constancy of work values, there was a trend from

"idealism" to "realism" in the values most prominently

mentioned as the students progressed. Kapes and Strickler

(1975) administered the Occupational Values Inv.entory

(OVI) to all the students enrolled in the ninth grade at

a Pennsylvania junior high school, then again just before

their high school graduation in 1972. Although the work

values were found to be fairly stable in terms of hier-

archy, they tended to change in intensity so that the

strong became stronger and the weak grew weaker.

Waqman (1965) examined the work values of university

students, then compared his findings with those of Singer

and Stefflre (1954a, 1954b), who had studied the work

values of high school students and adults. Wagman gave

Centers' Job Values and Desires Questionnaire, the in-

strument used by Singer and Stefflre, to 259 university








men and women. The comparisons which Wagman reported

have implications for both age and sex differences of

work values. Some of the results are as follows:

1. High school boys and adult men prefer job security
and independence; while university men prefer
leadership, interesting experience, and esteem.

2. University women value interesting experience, but
high school girls prefer security and independence.

3. University men prefer esteem, while university
women value social service.


Work Values and Sex

Differences in work values between males and females

have been discovered in several studies. Thompson (1966)

reported that, in his study of high school students,

males favored the work values of leadership, high pay,

and recognition; but females preferred self-expression

and social service. In their longitudinal study Gribbons

and Lohnes (1968) found that boys ranked salary and

prestige highly, while girls placed more value on personal

contact and social service. They state, however, that

there seem to be more similarities than differences in

the work value orientations of boys and girls.

Blai (1974) states that while it has been found that

men value economic rewards, management of others, recog-

nition, security, and independence; it has been assumed

that women seek different values in work. Wolfe (1969)

gave a work values questionnaire to about 2,800 women

and found that mastery-achievement received the highest








ranking, with the fulfillment of social needs ranked

second. Blai (1964) studied the work values of 470 male

and female employees of the federal government. Only

"interesting activity" was ranked in the top three for

both sexes; other values differed greatly.


Work Values and Family Background

Because high school and college students are typi-

cally tied to their parents financially and emotionally,

family influences can have an effect on their work values.

Centers' Job Values and Desires Questionnaire was given

to 261 university students who were told to rank the 10

work values as their parents would for themselves and

for the students (Wagman, 1968). Waqman found distinct

differences in the work value patterns of the students

and their perceptions of their parents' patterns. He

attributed these differences to realistic or stereotyped

sex patterning of occupational roles and to differences

in the experience and responsibility of the two genera-

tions. Wagman stated that there is an unknown amount

of emotionally-based distortion involving identifica-

tion, projection, dependency, and autonomy.

Kinnane and Pable (1962) studied the relationship

of family background and work value orientation. A

modified form of the W'.'I and the Biographical Inventory

dev'.ised by Super and Overstreet (1960) were given to 121

eleventh-grade white males. Relationships of the factors








discovered by O'Connor and Kinnane (1961) to selected

family influences were examined. The following correla-

tions were found:

1. Security-economic-material values are positively
related to the degree of family emphasis on money,
luxuries, and economic security.

2. Valuing work conditions and associates is positively
related to the degree of family cohesiveness.

3. Heuristic-creative values are positively related to
the amount of cultural stimulation provided by the
family.

4. Social-artistic values are positively related to the
cultural atmosphere and amount of cohesiveness found
in the family.

5. Independence-variety values are negatively related
to adolescent independence.


Career Maturity

According to Bartlett (1971) there are two differing

approaches to the definition and measurement of career

maturity: (1) the relative or absolute approach and (2)

the degree and rate approach. The primary proponents of

the absolute or relative concept are Super and Gribbons

and Lohnes. Crites is the main proponent of defining

career maturity in terms of degree and rate.


Definitions of Career Maturity

As part of his theory, Super (1957) outlined a

series of life stages with corresponding vocational be-

haviors that must be completed at each. He suggested

that career maturity is the point reached on the career

development continuum of life stages and behaviors (Super,








1957). There are two broad criteria for evaluating ab-

solute career maturity as conceptualized by Super. The

first, vocational maturity I (VMI), is one's chronological

age, which indicates that life stage in which one should

be found. Vocational maturity II (VMII), the second, is

one's method of performing vocational development tasks.

The vocational behaviors of specific life stages and the

vocational behaviors of people at different ages must be

known to utilize these criteria (Bartlett, 1971).

Super (1957) proposed five dimensions for career

maturity: (1) orientation to vocational choice, (2) in-

formation and planning, (3) consistency of vocational

preferences, (4) crystallization of traits, and (5)

wisdom of vocational preferences. The first factor,

orientation to career choice, is determined by measuring

one's concern for vocational problems and use of re-

sources in making career decisions. Information and

planning consist of (a) the specificity of information

on one's preferred occupation, (b) the specificity of

planning for one's occupational choice, and (c) the

extent to which one is involved in the planning. Con-

sistency of vocational preferences, the third dimension,

refers to the consistency of one's preferences within

fields, levels, and families (Roe, 1956). Liking for

work, concern for work rewards, vocational independence,

acceptance of responsibility, interest maturity, and

patterning are indices of crystallization of traits.









The final dimension, wisdom of vocational preferences,

is based on agreement between ability and preferences,

measured interests and preferences, measured interests

and fantasy preferences, occupational level of measured

interests and occupational level of preferences, and

socioeconomic accessibility of preferences (Osipow, 1968).

A second absolute conception of career maturity is

that of Gribbons and Lohnes (1968). They proposed eight

dimensions in the domain of Readiness for Vocational

Planning (or career maturity): (1) factors in curriculum

choice, (2) factors in occupational choice, (3) verbalized

strengths and weaknesses, (4) accuracy of self-appraisal,

(5) evidence for self-rating, (6) interests,. (7) values,

and (8) independence of choice.

There are three relative definitions of vocational

maturity or vocational maturity quotients (Crites, 1961).

The first, the comparison of life stage (as measured by

the developmental tasks) with chronological age, yields

a ratio score analogous to the IQ score. A second rela-

tive definition is the comparison of life stage to

expected life stage, the life stage in which one is

expected to be according to his chronological age. Com-

paring one's developmental behaviors to those of others

is the third relative method of defining career maturity.

Crites (1961) developed a definition of career

maturity to include degree and rate. He defined degree

of career maturity as "the maturity of an individual's








v'.ocational beha'.ior as indicated by the similarity be-

tween his beha'.ior and that of the oldest individuals in

his '.ocational life stage" (Crites, 1961, p. 259). Rate

of vocational development was defined as "the maturity of

an individual's behavior in comparison with that of his

own age group" (Crites, 1961, p. 259).

Crites (1964, 1965) theorized that career maturity

has four basic dimensions: (1) consistency of vocational

choice, (2) wisdom of .vocational choice, (3) vocational

choice competencies, and (4) vocational choice attitudes.

The first, consistency of vocational choice, includes

consistency over time and within fields, levels, and

families. Wisdom of vocational choice, the second dimen-

sion, includes the variables of abilities, activities,

interests, and social class. Problem solving, planning,

occupational information, self-knowledge, and goal selec-

tion comprise the dimension of vocational choice com-

petencies. The final factor in Crites' model, vocational

choice attitudes, includes involvement, orientation,

independence, preference and conception.


Measurement of Career Maturity

Although there were earlier attempts to measure

career maturity (Strong, 1943, 1955), the first compre-

hensive assessment of career maturity was by Super in

the Career Pattern Study (Super & Overstreet, 1960).

The subjects of the CPS were interviewed extensively,








and the data gathered was organized on the basis of

Super's indices of career maturity. Orientation to

choice tasks and use of resources were found to be the

two major factors relevant to career maturity for the

ninth-grade boys (Super & Overstreet, 1960).

In their career development study which followed

111 eighth-grade students until two years after their

high school graduation, Gribbons and Lohnes (1968) also

used extensive structured interviews to assess the career

maturity of their subjects. Their data were organized

on their hypothesized Readiness for Vocational.Planning

(RVP) scales. They found that self-rating and accuracy

of self-appraisal were the primary factors related to

career maturity (Gribbons & Lohnes, 1968).

Crites' (1961) model of career maturity was designed

to provide a basis for measurement of that construct

based on his definition, including degree and rate of

career development. The result was Crites' (1965) Voca-

tional Development Inventory (VDI) which was the first

written inventory for measuring career maturity. The

VDI was designed to measure only one of the four dimen-

sions of Crites' model of career maturity, i.e. voca-

tional choice attitudes. Later Crites (1973) changed

the title and content of his instrument. It is now

known as the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) and includes

a section which measures vocational choice competencies

as well as the old attitude scale.








One of the newest measures of career maturity is

the Cognitive Vocational Maturity Test (CVMIT) developed

by Westbrook and Parry-Hill (1973). At the time it was

designed, the CVMT w'as the only '.written inventory which

measured the cognitive domain, as the VDI assessed only

the attitudes. The CVMT measures six areas in the cogni-

tive domain of career maturity: (1) fields of work, (2)

job selection, (3) work conditions, (4) education re-

quired, (5) attributes required, and (6) duties (West-

brook & Mastie, 1973).

Practically all methods of measuring career maturity

are designed for preadolescent and adolescent subjects.

Sheppard (1971), however, developed the Adult Vocational

Maturity Inventory (AVMI) to assess the career maturity

of adults based on past occupational decisions. His

hypothesis is that the attitudes an individual has during

the career selection process exist along the following

dimensions: (a) involvement in the career choice process,

(b) orientation toward work, (c) independence in decision

making, (d) preference for choice factors, and (e) con-

ceptions of the choice process. The AVMI has been found

to differentiate levels of career maturity among graduate

students, students enrolled in occupational training

programs, and the unemployed (Sheppard, 1971).

Hansen and Ansell (1973) studied the relationship

of the VDI and Gribbons and Lohnes' Readiness for Voca-

tional Planning scales in measuring the career maturity








of lower and middle class adolescent boys.. A stratified

random sample of 375 boys from grades 8-12 who were

divided into lower class blacks, lower class whites, and

middle class whites was given the VDI and a revised ver-

sion of the RVP. There were significant correlations

between the two instruments in general and in 9 of the

15 comparisons between the two. Career maturity generally

increased with age on both instruments, and middle class

whites earned the highest scores at all grade levels on

the RVP.


Correlates of Career Maturity

Certainly the most relevant correlate of career

maturity is adult success. Super (1969) examined as

predictor variables of adult career success the career

maturity and conventional measures such as intelligence,

socioeconomic status, and school grades of 200 Career

Pattern Study subjects. The criteria of adult success

were career development and career behavior measures,

college grades, and self-estimates of career success and

satisfaction at age 25. The CPS subjects' ninth grade

vocational maturity as judged by occupational information,

career planning, and interest maturity were found to be

significantly related to career success as young adults.

Some twelfth grade career maturity measures were even

more valid predictors of career success at age 25.

Career development is thought to be related to









personality development. Bartlett (1971) has translated

the findings of Heath (1965), who studied mature and im-

mature college men, into some basic assumptions about

vocationally mature people. Bartlett stated that the

vocationally mature person is "less disturbed by the

threatening experiences, more personally competent and

self-directing, more self-actualizing through achieve-

ment, and is more attracted to other people" (1971, pp.

225-226). Bohn (1966) studied the relationship between

vocational maturity and personality by comparing the

scores of 75 male vocational clients of a university.

counseling center on the Interest Maturity (IM) scale

of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) and the

Adjective Check List (ACL). He found that,, in general,

those with high IM scores were more mature, i.e. were

more achievement-oriented, independent, sociable,

sensitive, persuasive, and were less prone to be self-

critical.

A study by Tseng and Rhodes (1973) revealed several

correlates of career maturity. The basic purpose of the

study was to examine the belief of Super and Ov'erstreet

(1960) that knowledge of the prestige of occupations is

an important factor in career maturity. Tseng and Rhodes

ga'.e 313 students in grades 9 through 12 the VDI and a

short form of the North-Hatt Occupational Prestige Scale,

and collected other information from the students'

records. The following were found to be significant








correlates of career maturity: perception of occupational

prestige, educational level of father's occupation, grade

level, IQ, verbal ability, reading achievement, and

mathematics achievement.

The relationship of career maturity and work values

during adolescence was studied in both the CPS and in

Gribbons and Lohnes' longitudinal study. Super proposed

that degree of patterning of work values is a part of

crystallization of traits, one of his dimensions of

career maturity. In the CPS the orientation toward

intrinsic or extrinsic work values of the ninth-grade

boys was assessed as a potential correlate of career

maturity. The two constructs were not found to be sig-

nificantly related, however (Super & Overstreet, 1960).

The awareness of one's values and their relationship to

career choice is one of the variables of RVP, or career

maturity, in Gribbons and Lohnes' definition. They found

that tenth-graders showed significantly more awareness

of their values and their relationship to occupational

decisions than did eighth-graders (Gribbons & Lohnes,

1968).


Summary

Community college transfer students constitute an

increasingly large proportion of the student bodies of

senior colleges and universities. The transfer students

have many characteristics which distinguish them from

native students at senior institutions, and some of








these traits have caused transfer students unique problems.

One such unique problem area is that of career

counseling needs. More specifically, transfer students

ha'.'e been found to ha'.'e more difficulty than nati'.es in

selecting educational and vocational goals. It has been

shown that academic advising and orientation, two obvious

methods of meeting the career counseling needs of transfer

students, have all too often been inadequate and/or

irrelevant.

It is difficult to determine the reasons that the

career choice processes of transfer students differ from

those of native students since relatively little is known

about the career development of college students. The

consensus among career development theorists is that

during the college years, students should be exploring

their own abilities, interests, and values, as well as

the world of work; and that they should be making some

tentative career decisions, such as choosing a major.

Research indicates, however, that many students have

difficulty completing such developmental tasks.

Work values -- one's feelings about the outcomes of

work -- are believed by some to be one of the most vital

parts of the career decision-making process. Work values

have been used to predict both job satisfaction and entry

into an occupational field. They have been found to be

somewhat related to life values and to se:x. It has been

concluded that work values are a different concept from








interests and that they are relatively stable over time.

Career maturity is a concept which can be employed

to assess the progress of one's career development.

Several vocational theorists have offered definitions of

career maturity, but the degree and rate definition of

Crites (.1961) seems to be the most widely accepted. This

definition, by which one is compared with those in his

age group and those in his life stage, is the basis for

the development of the Vocational Development Inventory

(later revised and renamed the Career Maturity Inventory),

the first inventory approach to the assessment of career

maturity.














CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this study was to compare the work

value orientation and level of career maturity of community

college transfer students and native students at the Uni-

versity of Florida. The relationship of work values s to

career maturity was also investigated, as were possible

relationships of the following variables to work values

and career maturity: (a) age, (b) sex, (c) cumulative

college grade-point average, (d) parents' yearly income,

(e) father's occupation, (f) mother's occupation, and

(g) Upper Division college in which enrolled.

The Work Values Inventory (W.'I) and the Career

Maturity Inventory (CMI) were administered to a random

sample of 150 transfer students from Florida community

colleges and a random sample of 150 native students who

had entered the junior class of the University of Florida

for the first time Fall Quarter 1975. The results were

examined for differences between the two groups on both

the W'.'I and the CMI. Also, the relationships between

the scores on the two instruments to each other were

examined. In addition to these two measuring devices,

other data were gathered from a brief questionnaire and








from students'records maintained by the Registrar and

Admissions Office at the University of Florida. Rela-

tionships between these variables and the WVI and the

CMI scores of the transfer and native students were

determined.

The remainder of this chapter is comprised of a more

detailed explanation of the research procedures described

above, including: (1) the sample, (2) the experimental

hypotheses, (3) the instruments, (4) the collection of

data, (5) the statistical design, and (6) the limitations.


The Sample

The sample for this study consisted of two groups:

(1) students who had transferred from Florida community

colleges to the University of Florida as entering juniors

in the Fall Quarter of 1975 and (2) beginning juniors in

Fall Quarter 1975 who had been enrolled as full-time

students only at the University of Florida.

According to the University of Florida undergraduate

catalog an entering junior must have completed at least

90 quarter hours. Most of the Upper Division colleges

of the University of Florida require entering juniors

(1) to have completed at least 96 quarter hours of

acceptable college credit with a minimum overall average

of 2.0 on a 4.0 grading system, (2) to have completed all

freshman and sophomore courses in the desired curriculum,

and (3) to have passed all pre-professional courses with

at least a "C" average.








The transfer subjects for the present study were

randomly selected from an alphabetized list from the

Office of the Registrar Fall Quarter 1975 of beginning

juniors who are transfers from Florida community colleges.

A similarly alphabetized list of beginning juniors in

Upper Division colleges was used to select the native

students. The investigator's statistical consultant

determined that approximately 150 transfer students and

150 native students should be included to insure adequate

sampling. Thus, every tenth transfer student and every

fifth native student was selected from these lists and

was asked to participate in the study.

Since the subjects were to be contacted by mail, the

current local mailing address of each subject was included

on the alphabetized lists provided by the Registrar.

If a randomly selected subject had no address listed or

only had an address listed that was outside of a 40-mile

radius of Gainesville, Florida, he was disqualified as a

subject.


The Experimental Hypotheses

As stated previously, comparisons were made between

transfer students and native students at the University

of Florida on two main criterion variables. Relationships

between the two main criterion variables were also

examined. The following null hypotheses were tested:

HO1 -- There are no differences in the work values








of transfer students and native students as

a function of (a) sex, (b) Upper Division

college, (c) father's occupation, (d) mother's

occupation, (e) cumulative college GPA,

(f) age, or (g) parents' yearly income.

H 2 -- There is no difference in the career maturity

of transfer and native students as a function

of (a) sex, (b) Upper Division college,

(c) father's occupation, (d) mother's occu-

pation, (e) cumulative college GPA, (f) age,

or (g) parents' yearly income.

HO3 -- There are no significant relationships be-

tween work values and career maturity for

either transfer students, native students,

or both groups combined.


Instruments


Work Values Inventory

The Work Values Inventory (WVI) was constructed by

Donald Super and his associates in connection with the

Career Pattern Study (Super & Overstreet, 1960) as a

means of assessing the many values which motivate people

to work. The items included in the initial WVI were

based on the literature on job satisfaction and values.

The instrument was refined through a variety of procedures

including interviews and essays of junior high students,

card sorts by young men, and factor analyses and









different formats in experimental studies (Super, 1970).

The current version of the WV.I is a self-report

inventory comprised of 45 items which are rated on a

five-point Likert scale ranging from "Very Important" to

"Unimportant." The WVI is composed of 15 three-item

scales measuring the following: (1) Creativity, (2j

Management, (3) Achievement, (4j Surroundings, (5) Super-

visory Relations, (6) Way of Life, (7) Security, (8)

Associates, (9) Esthetics, (10) Prestige, (11) Independence,

(12) Variety, (13) Economic Return, (14) Altruism, and

(15) Intellectual Stimulation.

The AVI is brief and easy to comprehend. It is

written in a vocabulary that can be understood by seventh

graders but is not offensive to college students or adults.

The average respondent completes the WVI in 10 to 15

minutes (Super, 1970).

The WVI has been found to be a reliable instrument.

The manual for the test (Super, 1970)jpresents as relia-

bility e'.'idence the findings of a study by Hendrix and

Super (1968) in which the current form of the IWVI was

administered two weeks apart to 99 tenth-grade students.

The test-retest reliability of the 15 scales over the

two-week period ranged from .74 to .88 with a median of

.83. French (1971) stated in a re.'iew of the WVI that

"these reliability figures look reasonable and are, to be

sure, excellent for 3-item scales" (p. 53).

There are some intercorrelations among the 15 scales








of the WVI as can be expected in an instrument whose

scales are based on research, refined by internal con-

sistency methods, and which consist of rated items; but of

the 105 possible intercorrelations among the 15 scales,

very few have been found to correlate highly (Super, 1970).

The manual for the WVI describes the construct,

content, and concurrent validity of the instrument. Many

of the items of the WVI were derived from the Allport-

Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values (AVL) and Spranger's theory

(on which the AVL is based), from research on job satis-

faction by Hoppock (1935) and Centers (1948), and from the

theories of Ginzberg et al. (1951) and Super (1957). The

construct validity of the WVI is also evidenced by cor-

relations with the AVL, the Strong Vocational Interest

Blank, and the Kuder Preference Record (Kinnane & Gaubinger,

1963; Kinnane & Suziedelis, 1962; Ivey, 1963). Content

validity for the WVI was achieved through the development

of items by utilizing literature on values and job

satisfaction, interviews and essays of junior high and

high school students, and revisions through card sorts

by young adults. The case for concurrent validity of the

WVI is not reported in the manual.

National norms for the WVI were established by ad-

ministering the instrument in the spring of 1969 to a

national sample of 10,083 students in grades 7 through

12. The sampling procedures used in Project Talent

were employed to insure representative demographic








characteristics. The manual for the IWVI lists national

norms for males and females in grades 7 through 12.

College students were the subjects of several of

the most prominent studies in which the WVI was used.

O'Connor and Kinnane (1961) used the responses of college

students in their factor analysis of the WVI. The WVI

and the AVL were administered to college students by

Kinnane and Gaubinger (1963) to investigate the relation-

ship between work values and life values. Research on

the relationship of work values and interests was based

on the responses of college students to the WVI and

interest inventories (Kinnane & Suziedelis, 1962; Ivey,

1963; Breme & Cockriel, 1975).

Tiedeman (1972), in a re''iew in Buros' Mental Mea-

surements YearbooK, indicated that neither the reading

le''el nor the norms represent a problem in using the WVI

with college students. He stated that the test is not

offensive to adults as a result of the reading level on

which it is based. Tiedeman also concluded that the lack

of norms for college students poses no problem "since

the grade differences in the known range are not at all

marked" (p. 1480).


Career Maturity Inventory

The Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) was constructed

by John Crites (1973) and is based on his theory of career

development. The present form of the CHI measures two of








the four dimensions of Crites' model of career maturity,

career choice attitudes and career choice competencies.

Since the Attitude Scale has been used independently and

is the older and more thoroughly researched of the two

parts of the CMI, it alone was used in the present study.

The CMI Attitude Scale is a self-report inventory

consisting of 50 true-false statements about careers and

career choice. It was constructed from a pool of items

theoretically and linguistically representative of the

vocational behavior of adolescents. The items which

differentiated among age and grade levels were selected

from this pool.

The CMI Attitude Scale is a brief and relatively

simple measuring device. It is written on a sixth grade

reading level and is, therefore, easy to comprehend and

to complete. The average respondent completes the CMI

Attitude Scale in approximately 20 minutes. The CMI

yields only one raw score, the number of correct responses,

although it is intended to measure all five factors in the

attitudinal dimensions of Crites' model of career maturity:

(1) involvement in the choice process, (2) orientation

toward work, (3) independence in decision making, (4)

preference for career choice, and (5) conceptions of the

career choice process.

The CMI Attitude Scale has proven to be a relatively

reliable instrument. The manual for the test (Crites,

1973b) indicated that over a one-year period the test-








retest reliability for 1,648 subjects in grades 6 through

12 was .71.

Content, criterion-related, and construct validity

for the CMI Attitude Scale are discussed in the manual

(Crites, 1973b;. Content validity was established by the

derivation of the items from career development theory

and verbal vocational behavior and by the validation of

items by e:.:pert judges. The criterion-related and con-

struct validity of the CMI Attitude Scale has been demon-

strated in a number of studies relating it to other

similar instruments. The CMI Attitude Scale has been

found to relate significantly to the Occupational Aspira-

tion Scale, which measures realism of aspiration (Bathory,

1967', and to Gribbons and Lohnes' Readiness for Voca-

tional Planning scales (Cooter, 1966). Also, Hollender

(1964) found the Attitude Scale to be a significant co-

variate of consistency, decision, and realism in career

choice.

There are no national norms for the CMI Attitude

Scale. According to the manual (Crites, 1973a; only

local norms that allow comparisons with one's peer group

are valuable in the interpretation of scores. Although

regional norms are given in the manual, Crites (1973a,

p. 13) states that "the most appropriate norms are those

collected locally for a specific school, system, or

program."

The CMI Attitude Scale has been used in several









studies with college students. It was used as a measure

of vocational maturity which was compared to consistency

and satisfaction in occupational preferences, self-

concept, and self-acceptance in a study of college fresh-

men (Walsh, Howard, O'Brien, Santa-Maria, & Edmundson,

1973). Walsh and Osipow (1973), in a study of college

undergraduates, utilized the Attitude Scale in assessing

the relationship of vocational maturity to consistency

of vocational preference with academic major and to self-

concept. Aiken and Johnston (1973), in a study of the

effects of group reinforcement counseling on career

information-seeking behavior of college freshman and

sophomore males, used the CMI Attitude Scale to classify

the subjects as vocationally mature or immature. In a

recent study with community college students, Devine

(1975) administered the CMI Attitude Scale and selected

CMI subscales as protests and posttests to examine the

effects of a computer-assisted career counseling program

on career maturity.

Although the CMI Attitude Scale is written on a

sixth-grade reading level, it can be used with college

students and adults (Crites, 1973a; Sorenson, 1974).

Crites (1973a, p. 5) states that "there is sufficient

ceiling on the Attitude Scale to administer it to college

sophomores and juniors and even selected seniors . "


Questionnaire

A questionnaire was given to all of the subjects








in the present study to investigate the effect of socio-

economic status on the scores on the Work Va'.'lues Inven-

tory and the Career Maturity Inventory. The variables

considered were parents' yearly income, father's occupa-

tion, and mother's occupation. A copy of the questionnaire

is presented in Appendix A.


Collection of Data

Each student who was selected as a subject in the

study was mailed a large envelope containing a letter,

the Work Values Inventory, the Career Maturity Inventory

Attitude Scale and answer sheet, the questionnaire

described above, and a stamped return envelope addressed

to the investigator. The letter (see Appendi:: B),

signed by both Dr. Arthur Sandeen, Vice President of

Student Affairs at the University of Florida, and the

investigator, informed the subject that he had been

selected to participate in the study, described some

benefits of participation, and offered some instructions

for those agreeing to participate. Subjects were asked

to return the materials to the investigator by a date

13 days following the mailout.

As incentives to the subjects to return the materials,

they were told that they could receive personal feedback

on the WVI and CMI scores and that they could receive a

summary of the study. Also, one piece of Dentyne gum was

attached (without explanation to each subject's letter

as a token of appreciation.









Of the 300 envelopes originally mailed to the sub-

jects, approximately 25 were returned because the mailing

addresses of those subjects furnished by the Registrar

were not current. Replacements were chosen for those

subjects by beginning with the second person on each

alphabetized list and, as before, choosing every tenth

transfer student and every fifth native student.

Two weeks after the research materials had been

mailed out, over half the subjects had returned usable

data. All data that was returned within three weeks of

the date of original mailing were included in the analysis.

The only information concerning the subjects which

was not obtained through the inventories or questionnaire

was their cumulative grade-point averages. This informa-

tion was obtained on each participating subject from the

Registrar and Admissions Office.


The Statistical Design

The raw scores yielded by both the Work Values In-.

ventory and the Career Maturity Inventory were used in

the analysis of the data. The mean scores on each of the

15 WVI scales were calculated for each group, and inde-

pendent t tests were conducted to test for significant

differences between the scores of transfer students and

native students. The alpha level was set at .05. The

results of the CMI, which has only one raw score, were

tested similarly.









The relationships between the variables of age and

WVI scores, age and CMI scores, GPA and WVI scores, GPA

and CMI scores, and WVI scores and CMI scores were

determined for both transfer and native students by

finding the Pearson product-moment correlations between

the variables, then determining the significance of the

correlations. For WVI and CMI scores, the correlation

and its significance were also found for both groups of

students combined. Using the z' transformation (Edwards,

1967), the significance of difference between the correla-

tions of native and transfer students on each comparison

was determined. The level of significance was set at

.05 for all analyses.

The impact of the variables of sex, Upper Division

college, father's occupation, mother's occupation, and

parental income level on the JVI scores and CMI scores

of transfer and native students was determined by using

analyses of variance. Father's occupation and mother's

occupation were classified into 15 and 13 categories,

respectively, based on the groupings used on the male

and female forms of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank

(Strong, 1966). The income level of each subject's

parents was classified according to the six categories

used in the questionnaire.


Limitations

Although the University of Florida is a large in-

stitution with a diverse student body, it was the only









receiving institution from which subjects were drawn.

Therefore, the findings do not necessarily apply to other

institutions.

A second limitation is that the definitions used for

transfer students and native students precluded the

inclusion of some students, such as community college

transfer students who were not beginning juniors in the

Fall Quarter 1975.

Since the data were gathered during one relatively

short period of time, history is a threat to the validity

of the study. The transfer students who entered the

junior class of the University of Florida Spring Quarter

1976 may differ from those entering the Fall Quarter of

1975. Also, the state of the economy, for example, could

influence students to have different work values and/or

career maturity than students had five years ago.

Another limitation of the study is that the statis-

tical design did not permit an examination of the inter-

action effects among the variables. Financial and time

constraints made this a necessary limitation.

Since neither the Work Values Inventory nor the

Career Maturity Inventory was standardized through the

use of a mailout, the norms are not necessarily applicable

to the present study. Neither test manual mentions the

mailing of -tests to subjects in the section regarding

administration (Super, 1970; Crites, 1973).

A final limitation of the study is that the subjects'





64



responses to the questionnaire could easily have been

distorted or inaccurate. Some students may. ha'.'e not

known their parents' yearly income, while others may have

consciously distorted the information.














CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The experimental hypotheses listed in Chapter III

were tested using the statistical design as outlined and

described in that chapter. The analysis of the data was

accomplished through the computer facilities of the North-

east Regional Data Center of the Florida State University

System, employing the Statistical Package for the Social

Sciences (SPSS) subprograms developed by Nie et al. (1975).

The results of the analysis are described below in both

narrative and tabular form.


Response Rate

Of the 300 subjects, 150 transfer students and 150

native students, to whom the research materials were

mailed, 184 (61.3%) returned usable data. The number of

transfer students who returned usable data was 94 (62.7%)

of the 150 who were contacted. Of the 150 native students

surveyed, 91 (60.7%) returned usable data.


Demographic Data

Sex

The number and percentage of subjects according to

sex, Upper Division college, parents' yearly income level,









mother's occupation, and father's occupation are listed

in Table 1. For natives, 56.0. were males and 44.01

females, while 61.3% of the transfers '..ere males and 38.7%

females. These figures approximate the percentages of

the entire Fall Quarter 1975 undergraduate population of

the University of Florida, which the Registrar listed as

60.3% male and 39.7' female.


Upper Div.ision College

Each of the 13 Upper Div'ision colleges of the Uni-

versity of Florida was represented in both the native and

transfer student samples. Students from the colleges of

Arts and Sciences and Business Administration comprised

30.8% and 24.2o, respectively, of the native student

sample. Transfer students were primarily enrolled in the

colleges of Arts and Sciences (25.8%), Engineering (16.1),

and Education (14.0%). The percentages of the two groups

are generally representative of the Fall 1975 Upper Divi-

sion enrollment. The Registrar reported Arts and Sciences

to have the largest enrollment (29.2%), followed by Edu-

cation (13.9'), Engineering (13.02), and Business Admini-

stration (12.2 ) .


Parents' Yearly Income

As stated previously, past research has indicated

that community college transfer students come from fami-

lies with a lower socio-economic status than those of

native students. The same was found to be true for the









TABLE 1

NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS
ACCORDING TO SEX, UPPER DIVISION COLLEGE, PARENTS'
YEARLY INCOME LEVEL, FATHER'S OCCUPATION, AND MOTHER'S OCCUPATION


Natives Transfers
Variable Number Percentage Number Percentage

Sex

Male 51 56.0 57 61.3
Female 40 44.0 36 38.7

Upper Division College

Agriculture 4 4.4 8 8.6
Architecture 5 5.5 4 4.3
Arts & Sciences 28 30.8 24 25.8
Business Adm. 22 24.2 8 8.6
Education 8 8.8 13 14.0
Engineering 6 6.6 15 16.1
Fine Arts 1 1.1 2 2.2
Forestry 2 2.2 3 3.2
Health Related Prof. 2 2.2 2 2.2
Journalism 4 4.4 8 8.6
Nursing 4 4.4 1 1.1
Physical Education 3 3.3 1 1.1
Pharmacy 2 2.2 3 3.2
None Listed 0 0.0 1 1.1

Parents' Yearly Income Level

Below $10,000 12 13.2 15 16.1
$10,000-$15,000 16 17.6 23 24.7
$15,000-$20,000 15 15.5 15 16.1
$20,000-$25,000 12 13.2 13 14.0
$25,000-$30,000 11 12.1 8 8.6
Over $30,000 21 23.1 8 8.6
None Listed 4 4.4 11 11.8

Father's Occupation

Biological Science 2 2.2 4 4.3
Physical Science 7 7.7 5 5.4
Technical Supervision 9 9.9 2 2.2
Technical & Skilled Trades 18 19.8 33 35.5
Social Service 2 2.2 7 7.5
Aesthetic-Cultural 3 3.3 0 0.0
CPA Owner 0 0.0 0 0.0
Business & Accounting 9 9.9 6 6.5
Sales 15 16.5 15 16.1





68





TABLE 1 COITIiNUED


lati.'es Transfers
Variable Number Per.entage Number Perceintage

Father's Occupation Continued

Verbal-Linguistic 4 4.4 1 1.1
Pres., Manufacturing Concern 1 1.1 0 0.0
Miscellaneous 1 1.1 2 2.2
Retired/Disabled 7 7.7 13 14.0
Unemployed 1 1.1 1 1.1
Deceased 8 8.9 4 4.3
None Listed 4 4.4 0 0.0

Mother's Occupation

Music 0 0.0 0 0.0
Verbal-Linguistic 4 4.4 2 2.2
Social Service 3 3.3 1 1.1
Sales 5 5.5 5 5.4
Business-Clerical 15 16.5 16 17.2
Domestic 41 45.1 51 54.9
Health-Related 7 7.7 5 5.4
Medical Sciences 2 2.2 0 0.0
Physical Sciences 2 2.2 0 0.0
Miscellaneous 2 2.2 5 5.4
Retired/Disabled 3 3.3 1 i.1
Unemployed 3 3.3 2 2.2
Deceased 1 1.3 4 4.3
None Listed 3 3.3 1 1.1








subjects of this study, based on estimated annual parental

income. The income range most frequently reported by

native students (24.1%) was over $30,000, while most

transfer students (28.0%) reported their parents' income

level to be $10,000-$15,000. Excluding those who did not

list their parents' income, nearly two-thirds (64.6%) of

the transfers reported an annual family income of $20,000

or less, while less than one-half (49.4%) of the natives

reported their annual family income to be that amount.


Father's Occupation

Transfer and native students seemed, at first glance,

to be quite similar when compared according to their

fathers' occupation. There are, however, some real dif-

ferences. Although most of the fathers in both groups

are employed in occupations that Strong (1966) classifies

as Technical and Skilled Trades and as Sales, the simi-

larity ends there. Over one-third (35.5%) of the fathers

of transfer students are employed in Technical and Skilled

Trades, 16.1% in Sales, 14.0% are retired or disabled,

and few are employed in any of the other categories. The

fathers of native students, however, are not nearly as

heavily concentrated in Technical and Skilled Trades

(20.7%) and have a wider distribution in the other cate-

gories, including 17.2% in Sales.


Mother's Occupation

The occupations of the mothers of native and transfer









students are quite similar according to Strong's classi-

fications. For both groups, approximately one-half (55.4,

of the mothers of transfer students and 46.61 of those of

native students) are employed in Domestic occupations.

The only other category in which a sizable percentage of

the mothers of either group are employed is Business-

Clerical (17.41 of transfers' mothers and 17.0% of natives'

mothers).


Age

Table 2 includes the mean, standard deviation, median,

and mode of native and transfer students according to age

and cumulative GPA. The age range for transfer students

was 18-34 years, with a mean age of 21.2, a median age of

20.2, and a mode of 20.0. For native students the age

range was 19-42 years, with a mean age of 20.4, a median

of 20.0, and a mode of 20.0. The average transfer student,

therefore, was slightly older than the average native

student, but the age range was greater for native students.


Grade-Point Average

The cumulative grade-point averages of the two groups

cannot be assumed to be equivalent since the transfer

students' grades were earned at several different insti-

tutions, while the natives' grades were earned at the

University of Florida. For transfer students the mean

GPA was 3.2; the standard deviation, .43; the median,

3.2; and the mode, 3.1. Native students had a mean GPA



















TABLE 2

MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION, MEDIAN, AND MODE
OF NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS ACCORDING
TO AGE AND CUMULATIVE GRADE-POINT AVERAGE

4


Variable


Mean S.D. Median Mode


Age


Natives
Transfers


Cumulative GPA

Natives
Transfers


20.41 2.62 20.00 20.00
21.17 2.88 20.24 20.00


2.91
3.18


.53
.43


2.93
3.20


3.00
3.10









of 2.9, a standard deviation of .53, a median of 2.9, and

a mode of 3.0.


Discussion

The demographic data obtained in this study suggest

that the transfer students closely parallel the profile

mentioned in Chapter II of community college transfer

students and of the typical Florida community college

student. Knoell (1965) described the typical transfer

student as male, age 19-20, from a family of relatively

low income, and from a family in which few. had attended

college. The transfer students in the present study were

predominantly male, had a mean age of 21.17, reported

generally lower family income than did the native students,

and reported that over one-third of their fathers :were

employed in occupational fields not requiring a college

degree. Sistrunk (1974) described the typical entering

Florida community college student as having an annual

family income of less than S12,000. Nearly half of the

transfer students in this study who gave their parents'

yearly income placed it at $15,000 or less.

The transfer students in this study, however, in some

ways differ from the image given them by past research.

As previously mentioned, Sandeen and Goodale (1971) stated

that transfer students tend to choose lower vocational

goals than native students. Ilickens (1970) found that

transfer students at Florida State University enter








"easier" majors. If the choice of a major is seen as

equivalent to selecting a vocational goal, the transfer

students in this study seem to contradict these findings.

Like native students, more of the transfers were in the

college of Arts and Sciences than any other college.

While there were fewer transfers than natives in Business

Administration, there were more transfers in Engineering,

which is generally considered a rigorous academic field.

Transfer students tended to have slightly higher

cumulative GPAs and less variability in them than did

native students. Of course, the grades were earned in

different institutions and, thus, cannot be regarded as

equivalent. Also, as stated in Chapter II, grading

standards in community colleges are viewed by many as

permissive and grades as inflationary. On the other hand,

the community college GPA is one of the best predictors

of academic success for transfer students (Nickens, 1970;

Wray & Leischuck, 1971).

When contrasting the transfer and native students in

this study according to demographic data, socioeconomic

differences between the groups are evident. There are

also similarities between the groups. The transfer and

native students are quite similar when compared according

to sex, Upper Division college in which they were en-

rolled, age, cumulative GPA, and mother's occupation. In

fact, the transfer and native students in this study were

generally more alike than different on all variables









considered except socioeconomic status.


Testing the Experimental Hypotheses


Work Values

As is indicated in Table 3, the mean scores of trans-

fer and native students on all 15 scales of the Work

Values Inventory (WYI) are equal. The greatest difference

in mean scores of the two groups was on the Altruism scale,

on which the average score of transfer students was 0.6

higher than that of native students. On one other scale,

Intellectual Stimulation, there was a difference in mean

scores of 0.5 between the two groups. The difference was

0.4 or less on the other 13 scales.

When the mean scores of the two groups are arranged

in hierarchies (see Table 4), the similarities in the

ordering of work values are evident. Both transfer and

native students ranked Way of Life first and Achievement

second; both ranked Prestige, Associates, Management, and

Esthetics as their lowest four work values. The hierar-

chies were, in fact, practically identical with the

exception of Altruism, which was ranked third by the

transfers and tied for sixth among natives.

The independent t tests that were used to analyze

the mean scores of transfer and native students verified

the evident similarities of the scores. The results are

given in Table 5. None of the differences in the mean

scores on any scale was significant at the .05 level.









TABLE 3

MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION, AND RANGE WORK VALUES
INVENTORY SCORES OF NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS


Mean S.d. Range


Creativity
Natives
Transfers

Management
Natives
Transfers

Achievement
Natives
Transfers

Surroundings
Natives
Transfers


Supervisory Relations
Natives
Transfers


Way of Life
Natives
Transfers

Security
Natives
Transfers

Associates
Natives
Transfers

Esthetics
Natives
Transfers

Prestige
Natives
Transfers

Independence
Natives
Transfers


11.5 2.4
11.6 2.8


9.3 2.2
9.5 2.5


12.5 2.7
12.4 3.0


10.6 2.8
10.7 2.6


12.1 2.6
11.8 3.4


13.4 2.7
13.0 3.1


10.6 2.9
11.0 3.1


10.0 2.5
10.0 2.3


8.6 3.0
8.9 2.9


10.2 2.6
10.4 2.7


11.6 2.3
11.6 2.7


Scale


3-15
3-15


4-14
3-15


3-15
3-15


3-15
4-15


3-15
3-15


3-15
3-15


3-15
3-15


4-15
5-15


3-15
3-15


4-15
4-15


3-15
3-15



















TABLE 3 CONTINUED




Lean S.d. Range


Scale


Variety
Natives
Transfers


Economic Return
tlativ,'es
Transfers

A ltru ism
INatives
Transfers


Intellectual Stimulation
flatives
Transfers


11.4 2.6
11.1 2.6


11.2 2.7
11.1 2.9


11.5 2.9
12.1 3.0


12.3 2.1
11.3 2.7


4-15
4-15


4-15
3-15


3-15
3-15


4-15
3-15











TABLE 4

RANK ORDER HIERARCHIES OF MEAN WORK VALUES INVENTORY
SCORES FOR NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS


Natives


Transfers


Way of Life

Achievement

Intellectual Stimulation

Supervisory Relations

Independence

Altruism (tie)
Creativity



Variety

Economic Return

Security (tie)
Surroundings



Prestige

Associates

Management

Esthetics


Way of Life

Achievement

Altruism

Supervisory Relations (tie)
Intellectual Stimulation



Independence (tie)
Creativity



Variety (tie)
Economic Return



Security

Surroundings

Prestige

Associates

Management

Esthetics


Rank










TABLE 5

T-TEST ANALYSIS OF WORK VALUES IN"VE NTORY
SCORES OF [NATI'V.E AND TRANSFER STUDENTS



Scale t d.f. Probability


Creativity -0.28 182 .78

Management -0.72 182 .47

Achievement 0.34 182 .74

Surroundings -0.26 182 .80

Supervisory Relations 0.56 182 .58

Way of Life 0.91 182 .37

Security -0.80 182 .43

Associates -0.00 182 1.00

Esthetics -0.71 182 .48

Prestige -0.51 182 .61

Independence 0.00 182 1.00

'a r iety 1.00 182 .32

Economic Return .09 182 .93

Altruism -1.49 182 .14

Intellectual Stimulation 1.14 182 .26









The null hypothesis that no differences would exist in the

work values of transfer students and native students,

therefore, was not rejected.

The scores on the WVI of transfer and native students

were also compared as a function of the variables of (a)

sex, (b) Upper Division college, (c) father's occupation,

(d) mother's occupation, (e) cumulative GPA, (f) age, and

(g) parents' yearly income. The relationships of both

age and cumulative GPA to the WVI scores were found using

the Pearson product-moment correlation. They were cal-

culated by the SPSS computer program, which also deter-

mined the significance of the correlations. Using a z'

transformation, the significance of the difference between

the correlations of transfer and native students was then

determined. The correlations of WVI scores with 'age and

cumulative GPA are presented in Table 6.

For transfer students, age was found to be signifi-

cantly related to the WVI scales of Security, Associates,

and Independence; but no significant relationships were

found between cumulative GPA and any of the WVI scales.

No significant relationships were discovered between

either age or cumulative GPA and any of the WVI scales

for native students. Additionally, neither the correla-

tions between age and WVI scores nor those between cumula-

tive GPA and WVI scores of transfer students were found

to differ significantly from the corresponding correlations

bf native students as indicated in Table 7. The null











TABLE 6

PEARSCONI PRODUCT-Of-EII NT CORFELATIONS ANID '
TPAEJSFOFJ-.*TIONCi '.'ALUES OF WORK '.'ALLIES Ii E.'ETORY
3COPES WITH AGE AND WITH CLIMlULATI'VE GRADE-POINT A'.'EFAGE


Aq G PAi
l r [1 r z


Cr-eati'vi t;
Ja t i.-ss
Transfers

Ilarnaqem-en t
Hati'. es
Transfers

Achie .emen t
lia t '.- s
Transfers

Surr ou nd i nqs
TIJa t es
Transfers


-.075 -.075
.144 .146k



-.028 -.030
.082 .080



-.096 095
.111 .110


-.081
- 11i
-.114


.i054 .030


-.07 3 .075


-. 127 -.126.



-. 079 -.080
.09*9' 100


-.080 91
-. 116 85


Supervisory Relations
t ia tl'es
Transfers


Way of Life
a t i'.es
Transfers

Secure ty
NIati '.ves
Transfers

Associates
Nlati'.ves
Transfers

Esthetics
1i a t I 'eS
iatlives
Transfers

Prestige
[iati'.'es

Transfer s


-.035 -.0 35
-. 48 -.050


-.137
.113


-.1 36 91
.11:0 5


.038 .0140
-.219* -.224



-.019 -.020
-.240* .245



-. 089 -. 090
-.041 -.040



-. 052 -. 05
-.017 -.015


-.128 -.131
.0410 .140



.c009 .0(10
.130 .130



.182 .182
.010 .010


.030
- 048


.030
-. 050


.092 .090
-.143 .146



-.077 -.075
.015 .015


"p .05


Scale


- 070
.010


. 008











TABLE 6 CONTINUED


Age
Scale N r z


GPA
N r z


Independence
Natives
Transfers

Variety
Natives
Transfers

Economic Return
Natives
Transfers

Altruism
Natives
Transfers


Intellectual Stimulation
Natives
Transfers


91 -.074 -.075
93 .207* .208


91 .150
93 .139


91 -.137
93 -.034



91 -.116
93 .005


91 -.059 -.060
93 .142 .141


91 .030 .030
85 .063 .060


.151 91 .077 .075
.141 85 .068 .070



.136 91 -.095 -.095
.035 85 -.023 -.025



.116 91 .062 .060
.005 85 -.072 -.070


91 .036 .035
85 .093 .095


*p <.05





82


TABLE 7

ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CORRELATIONS OF
NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS' WORK VALUES INVENTORY
SCORES AND AGE AND CUMULATIVE GRADE-POINT AVERAGE



z Values
Scale Age GPA


Creativity -1.474 .293

Management .734 .332

Achievement -1.368 -1.173

Surroundings .240 .521

Supervisory Relations .100 -1.114

Way of Life -1.641 .782

Security 1.761 -1.251

Associates 1.501 .521

Esthetics .334 1.537

Prestige .233 .586

Independence -1.388 .195

Variety -1.948 .033

Economic Return .674 .456

Altruism .307 .847

Intellectual Stimulation -1.341 .391


*p .05








hypothesis that no differences would exist in the WVI

scores of transfer and native students as a function of

age and cumulative GPA was, therefore, not rejected.

Although there has been little research on the rela-

tionship of GPA to work values, there have been several

studies conducted on the relationship between age and

work values. Some studies (Hales & Fenner, 1972; Perrone,

1973; Thompson, 1966) found little change in work values

with age. Gribbons and Lohnes (1965), however, reported

a trend from idealism to realism as their subjects grew

older, and Kapes and Strickler (1975) found a change in

intensity of work values with age. For transfer students

in the present study, significant relationships were

found between age and only three work values. Age had a

direct relationship with one scale of the WVI (Independ-

ence) and inverse relationships with two other scales

(Security and Associates). There were no significant

relationships between age and work values for native

students.

The results of the analyses of variance comparing

the WVI scores of transfer and native students as a

function of sex, Upper Division college, income level,

father's occupation, and mother's occupation are pre-

sented in Tables 8-22. No significant differences were

found between the WVI scores of transfers and natives as

a function of sex, Upper Division college, or parents'

annual income; thus, that part of the null hypothesis













Ti.BLE d

.ANALYSIS COF .ARIA[lCE CF THE W,)J:F VALUESE S lllJ'.Tl TCR'i CREATI'.'ITY
SCALE SCORES OF lATI'.'E AND TPAIISFER STUDENTS BY
SE:X, UPPER DI'.'ISIC'li COLLEGE, FAFEI1TSS' YEARL'Y INCOME,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION, AIiD MOTHER'S OCCUPATION



Sou rce S- d f MS F



Main Effects
Group p 0.842 1 O. -12 0.122
Sex 12.096 1 12.096 1.757
Interaction Effect 1.748 1 i.748 0'.254
Residuia 1239.467 1i0 6.. 6
Total 1253. 848 183 G*.952

Mainr Effects
'.r ou p 1.562 1 0. 5 2 0.0; 1
Upper Di'.ision College i06.621i 13 .? 0? 1.177
Interaction Effect 52.62-1 12 4.385 :0.629
Res idua 1094. 065 157 6. 969
Tctal 1253. 49 133 6.852

Main Effects
Group 0.387 1 387 0.057
Parents' 'Yearly Income 44.470 5 10.894 1.601
In traction Effect 12.7S5 5 2.557 376
Residual 1068.041l 157 6. '803
Total 1135.453 168 6.759

Main Effects
G o p 0.01 1 0.01 0.01.03
Father's Occupatiorn 7.102 13 6.700 0.921
Interaction Effect. 35.i62 11 3.187 0.43S
Res iduia 1120.144 154 7.27
Total 1242.846 179 6.9-13

Main Effects
;Group 0. 001 1 0. ,1001 0. )000
Mother's Occujpaciion 157.332 ii 14.303 2.3-11
Interaction Effect 115.831 9 12.870 2.107*
Residual 965. 144 159 6.109
Total 123 .977 17" 6.922


*p ': .105





85






TABLE 9

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE WORK VALUES INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
SCALE SCORES OF NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS BY
SEX, UPPER DIVISION COLLEGE, PARENTS' YEARLY INCOME,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION, AND MOTHER'S OCCUPATION


Source SS df MS F


Main Effects
Group 2.783 1 2.783 0.490
Sex 0.592 1 0.592 0.104
Interaction Effect 3.199 1 3.199 0.563
Residual 1023.090 180 5.684
Total 1029.811 183 5.627

Main Effects
Group 0.751 1 0.751 0.129
Upper Division College 63.996 13 4.923 0.847
Interaction Effect 49.960 12 4.163 0.716
Residual 912.924 157 5.815
Total 1029.811 183 5.627

Main Effects
Group 0.944 1 0.944 0.175
Parents' Yearly Income 81.466 5 16.293 3.026*
Interaction Effects 18.447 5 3.689 0.685
Residual 845.355 157 5.384
Total 946.081 168 5.631

Main Effects
Group 7.788 1 7.788 1.359
Father's Occupation 77.282 13 5.945 1.037
Interaction Effects 54.172 11 4.925 0.859
Residual 882.812 154 5.733
Total 1019.227 179 5.694

Main Effects
Group 3.691 1 3.691 0.720
Mother's Occupation 40.667 11 3.697 0.722
Interaction Effects 136.575 9 15.175 2.962*
Residual 809.459 158 5.123
Total 991.185 179 5.537


*p < .05












TABLE 10

AIJA.LYSIS .: F .ARIAINCE 'I.F THE WORK VALUES IIl'EITO.rPY\ ACHiE'IEMEENT
ECALE SCO.:RES O'.:F NATI'V.E AND TRF'ASFEP STUDENTS BY
SEX, UPPEP DI'.ISI:.,'tl C'.LLEGE, PARENTS' YEARPLY ICICOME,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION. AIlD rITHEP'S .::'CC'UPAIT I'



Source CS df [IS F



Mlairn Effects
Group 0.51u8 0.518 0.065
Sex 19.316 1 19.316 2.435
Interaction Effect 3.512 1 3.512 0.443
Pesidu.i 1 1428.154 190 7.934
Total 1451. 95 193 ?.934

[lain Effects
Group 2.242 1 2.242 0.279
Upper Di'.'ision College 56. 560 13 4.351 0.542
Interaction Effect 133.035 12 11.086 1.380
Resid ud i 1261.387 157 9.034
Total 1451.995 193 7.934

fMlain Effects
Group 0. 60 1 0.960 0.125
Parents' Yearly, Income 122.071 5 24.414 3.167*
Interaction Effect 17.154 5 3.431 0.445
Pesidual 1210.238 157 7.709
Total 350.622 168 8.039

lain Effects
LGroup 0.977 1 0.977 0.115
Fath ier's Occupation 71.745 13 5.519 0.651
Interaction Effect 64.211 11 5.837 0.688
Pesidu.ial 1306.247 154 8.492
Total 1442.532 179 S.059

[lain Effects
Grcou p 6.361 1 6.361 0.827
other'ss Occupation 102.029 11 9.275 1.205
Inrteraction Effect 121.912 9 13.546 1.761
Residual 1215.683 1-59 7.694
Total 1440.533 179 8.048


*p '.05 5












TABLE 11

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE WORK VALUES INVENTORY SURROUNDINGS
SCALE SCORES OF NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS BY
SEX, UPPER DIVISION COLLEGE, PARENTS' YEARLY INCOME,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION, AND MOTHER'S OCCUPATION


Source SS df MS F


Main Effects
Group 1.086 1 1.086 0.148
Sex 38.947 1 38.947 5.312*
Interaction Effect 0.792 1 0.792 0.108
Residual 1319.815 180 7.332
Total 1360.060 183 7.432

Main Effects
Group 2.976 1 2.976 0.397
Upper Division College 82.930 13 6.379 0.850
Interaction Effect 98.156 12- 8.180 1.090
Residual 1178.468 157 7.506
Total 1360.060 183 7.432

Main Effects
Group 2.619 1 2.619 0.355
Parents' Yearly Income 90.800 5 18.160 2.460*
Interaction Effect 12.716 5 2.543 0.344
Residual 1159.196 157 7.383
Total 1264.679 168 7.528

Main Effects
Group 0.259 1 0.259 0.034
Father's Occupation 46.959 13 3-.612 0.479
Interaction Effect 112.988 11 10.272 1.361
Residual 1162.037 154 7.546
Total 1324.042 179 7.397

Main Effects
Group 0.002 1 0.002 0.000
Mother's Occupation 80.426 11 7.311 0.998
Interaction Effect 96.294 9 10.699 1.460
Residual 1157.952 158 7.329
Total 1334.957 179 7.458


*p < .05













TABLE 12

ANALYSIS OF '.'AFIAt.CE OF THE WOFK VALUESE S Ili'.TIiTORY SUPER'. ISORY
SCALE SCORES :OF' IATI'.E AIjD TFMtiSFER STUDENTS BY
SE:,', UPPER DI'. ISIOi, COLLEC-E, PAF.EITS' YEARLY It!COMiE,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION, AIJD MOTHER'S OCCUPATION



Source dSS f lS



flair Effects
SGroup 2.6 80 1 2 8 90
Sex 0. 794 1 0. 794 c0.086
Inrte-ract ion Effect 4.881 1 4.881 0.527
Residual 1665.803 180 9.254
T t al 1674.324 183 9.149

Main Effects
Group 1.796 1 1.796 187
Upper Division College 45.598 13 3.508 0.366
I, tract on Effect 120. 597 12 10.050 1.408
F.residual 1505.283 157 9.588
Total 1674.32-4 183 9.140

flain Effects
G r c.u p 1.850 1 1.85,-1 ':0. 1 99
Parents' Yearly Income 71.067 5 14.213 1.532
Interaction Effect 19.705 5 3.941 0.425
Fesidua 1 1456.820 157 9.279
Total 1548.823 168 9.219

lairn tEffects
Group 6.331 1 6.331 0.693
Father's Occupation 117 .982 13 9.076 0.994
Interaction Effect 126.788 11 11.526 1.262
Resid ual 1 i406. 0'93 154 9. 130
Tota 1 1652.560C 179 9.232

11air Effects
Group 3.414 1 3. 114 0.362
tiother's Occupatior 82.285 11 7.480 0.794
Interaction Effect 87.306 9 9.701 1.029
FResidua 1 1488.899 158 9.423
Tota 1660. 43 179 9.274


* p 05











TABLE 13

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE WORK VALUES INVENTORY WAY OF LIFE
SCALE SCORES OF NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS BY
SEX, UPPER DIVISION COLLEGE, PARENTS' YEARLY INCOME,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION, AND MOTHER'S OCCUPATION


Source SS df MS F


Main Effects
Group 5.611 1 5.611 0.681
Sex 20.416 1 20.416 2.478
Interaction Effect 7.463 1 7.463 0.906
Residual 1483.136 180 8.240
Total 1517.844 183 8.294

Main Effects
Group 5.967 1 5.967 0.690
Upper Division College 72.886 13 5.607 0.648
Interaction Effect 80.340 12 6.695 0.774
Residual 1357.789 157 8.648
Total 1517.844 183 8.294

Main Effects
Group 5.629 1 5.629 0.678
Parents' Yearly Income 81.450 5 16.290 1.964
Interaction Effect 17.095 5 3.419 0.412
Residual 1302.493 157 8.296
Total 1407.439 168 8.378

Main Effects
Group 7.272 1 7.272 0.819
Father's Occupation 51.224 13 3.940 0.444
Interaction Effect 85.106 11 7.737 0.871
Residual 1367.269 154 8.878
Total 1509.377 179 8,432

Main Effects
Group 15.207 1 15.207 1.896
Mother's Occupation 109.011 11 9.910 1.236
Interaction Effect 120.701 9 13.411 1.672
Residual 1266.989 158 8.019
Total 1504.709 179 8.406


*p< .05












TABLE 14

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE WORK VALUES IIJVErNTORY SECURITY
SCALE SCORES OF NATIVE AND. TRANSFER STUDENTS BY
SEX, UPPER DIVISION COLLEGE, FAFI-NTS' YEARLY INCOME,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION, ANlD MOTHER'S C'ICCiUFATIO'N


Source dS f MS F



Main Effects
Group 5.715 1 5.715 0.639
SSex 0.007 1 0.007 0.001
Interaction Effect 17.351 1 17.351 1.939
Residual 1611.065 180 8.950
Total 1634.134 193 8.930

Main Effects
Group 5.971 1 5.871 0.639
Upper Division College 86.010 13 6.616 0.7j20
Interaction Effect 100.143 12 9.345 0.908
Residual 1442.271 157 9.186
Total 1634.134 193 8.930

Main Effects
Group 4.689 1 4.688 0.522
Parents' Yearly Income 69.908 5 13.982 1.555
Interaction Effect 12.577 5 2.515 0.280
Residual i411.289 157 8.989
Total 1501.993 168 8.940

Main Effects
Group 1.552 1 1.552 0.163
Father's Occul.pation 64.372 13 4.952 0.534
Interaction Effect 120.670 11 10.970 1.184
Residual 1427.106 154 9.267
Tot r 1619.092 179 9.045

Main Effects
Group 5.154 1 5.154 0.596
Other's OccuL[.ation 84.048 11 7.641 0.984
Interaction Effect 173.743 9 19.305 2.234*
Residual 13'5.591 158 8.643
Total 1630. 32 179 9. 109


" p ..05




91






TABLE 15

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE WORK VALUES INVENTORY ASSOCIATES
SCALE SCORES OF NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS BY
SEX, UPPER DIVISION COLLEGE, PARENTS' YEARLY INCOME,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION, AND MOTHER'S OCCUPATION


Source SS df MS F


Main Effects
Group 0.054 1 0.054 0.009
Sex 18.457 1 18.457 3.157
Interaction Effect 1.063 1 1.063 0.182
Residual 1052.374 180 5.847
Total 1071.895 183 5.857

Main Effects
Group 2.686 1 2.686 0.484
Upper Division College 84.725 13 6.517 1.175
Interaction Effect 116.437 12 9.703 1.750
Residual 870.733 157 5.546
Total 1071.895 183 5.857

Main Effects
Group 0.760 1 0.760 0.137
Parents' Yearly Income 54.460 5 10.892 1.963
Interaction Effect 35.789 5 7.158 1.290
Residual 871.325 157 5.550
Total 961.774 168 5.725

Main Effects
Group 0.058 1 0.058 0.011
Father's Occupation 62.517 13 4.809 0.888
Interaction Effect 145.133 11 13.194 2.437*
Residual 833.876 154 5.415
Total 1041.628 179 5.819

Main Effects
Group 0.050 1 0.050
Mother's Occupation 79.290 11 7.208
Interaction Effect 56.928 9 6.325
Residual 881.196 158 5.577
Total 1017.782 179 5.686


*p <.05












TABLE 16

ANAL'i'SIS OF '.'RIAIiCE OF THE WORE VALUES S II[.'EtITOPR'i ESTHETICS
SCALE SCORES OF NIATI'.'E AND TRANSFER STUDENTS BY
SEX:, UPPEP DI'.ISION COLLEGE, PAREIlTS' Y''EARLYi INCOME,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION, ANiD MOTHER'S CCCUPATIION



Source MS df SS F



lain Effects
Group 5.162 1 5.162 0.602
Sex 10.633 1 10.633 1.240
Interaction Effect 16.39'9 1 16.399 2. 146
Residual 1543.036 160 6.572
Total 1576.462 183 8.615

Mlain Effects
Group 0.015 1 0.015 .002
Upper Di'.'ision Colleqe 326.363 13 25.105 3.476*
Interaction Effect 111.707 12 9.309. 1.269
Residual 1133.997 157 7.223
Total 1576.462 163 8. 615

Ilin Effects
Group 3.026:, 1 3.026 0.354
Parents' Yearly Income 36.611 5 7.322 0.656
Interaction Effect 12.152 5 2.436 0.285
Residual 1342.946 157 6.554
Total 1394.043 165 6.296

Main Effects
Group 0.659 1 0.898 0.102
Father's Occupation 104.066 13 8.007 0.911
Interaction Effect 67.888 11 6.172 0.702
Residual 1353.540 154 5.769
Total 1530.711 179 5.551

Main Effects
Group 3.668 1 3.668 0.491
1Mother's Occupation 220.977 11 20.069 2.691*
Interaction Effect 120.792 9 13.421 1.79S
Residual 1179.659 156 7.466
Total 1524.295 179 6.516


*P ...05












TABLE 17

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE WORK VALUES INVENTORY PRESTIGE
SCALE SCORES OF NATIVE AND TRANSFER STUDENTS BY
SEX, UPPER DIVISION COLLEGE, PARENTS' YEARLY INCOME,
FATHER'S OCCUPATION, AND MOTHER'S OCCUPATION


Source SS df MS F


Main Effects
Group 2.005 1 2.005 0.287
Sex 1.609 1 1.609 0.230
Interaction Effect 0.774 1 0.774 0.111
Residual 1257.206 180 6.984
Total 1261.412 183 6.893

Main Effects
Group 0.194 1 0.194 0.028
Upper Division College 75.531 13 5.810 0.834
Interaction Effect 90.063 12 7.505 1.077
Residual 1093.994 157 6.968
Total 1261.412 183 6.893

Main Effects
Group 1.897 1 1.897 0.285
Parents' Yearly Income 92.183 2 18.437 2.769*
Interaction Effect 20.525 2 4.105 0.616
Residual 1045.511 157 6.659
Total 1162.209 168 6.918

Main Effects
Group 1.558 1 1.558 0.213
Father's Occupation- 42.540 13 3.272 0.447
Interaction Effect 74.805 11 6.800 0.928
Residual 154
Total 179

Main Effects
Group 2.404 1 2.404 0.355
Mother's Occupation 94.623 11 8.602 1.269
Interaction Effect 75.460 9 8.384 1.237
Residual 1071.128 158 6.779
Total 1242.933 179 6.944


*p <.05