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An Analysis of the effects of instruction on college student's time management

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Title:
An Analysis of the effects of instruction on college student's time management
Creator:
Kirby, Alan Ferguson, 1951- ( Dissertant )
Riker, Harold ( Thesis advisor )
Cranney, A. Garr ( Reviewer )
Tolbert, E. L. ( Reviewer )
McDavis, Roderick ( Reviewer )
Tillman, Chester ( Reviewer )
Wittman, Joe ( Degree grantor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1977
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 91 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Analysis of variance ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Control groups ( jstor )
Grade levels ( jstor )
Recreation ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Study habits ( jstor )
Study skills ( jstor )
Time management ( jstor )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Time management surveys -- Florida -- Gainesville ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States--Florida--Gainesville

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a specific type of instruction designed to alter time management behavior of students enrolled in a University of Florida study skills course. Areas of investigation included amounts of time spent on study, social activity, leisure activities, and miscellaneous activities. Other areas included an assessment of study habits and attitudes, as well as reactions to attempts at time management. Sex and grade level differences on the time management criterion were also investigated. A total of 95 students participated in the study. Of that number, 34 were enrolled in two sections of EDC 301, "Student Development in a University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills," designated as the Experimental Group. Control Group I consisted of 31 students who enrolled in an additional two sections of the course; Control Group II included 30 students who were on the waiting list at the University of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center. Students in the Experimental Group were exposed to instruction in time management techniques.
Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 86-90.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on World Wide Web
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Alan F. Kirby.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
026386151 ( AlephBibNum )
04168726 ( OCLC )
AAX6877 ( NOTIS )

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTION
ON COLLEGE STUDENTS' TIME MANAGEMENT





BY

ALAN F. KIRBY


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1977












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author wishes to thank the following people who helped in

the completion of this study:

Dr. Harold Riker, Chairman who conscientiously edited the

manuscript, and provided support throughout the author's doctoral

program.

Dr. A. Garr Cranney, friend and colleague, who guided the author

into doctoral study and provided a model of professionalism and humanism

which will long be remembered.

Dr. Roderick McDavis, friend and advisor, who supported the

author in his earliest days as a counselor-in-training and served on

the supervisory committee.

Dr. E. L. Tolbert and Dr. Chester Tillman, who served on the

author's supervisory committee.

Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Kirby, the author's parents, who provided

the love, support, and encouragement necessary to reach this goal.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . .


CHAPTER


I. INTRODUCTION . . . . .
'Statement of the Problem . .
,Rationale for the Study . .
Purpose of the Study . . .
-Definition of Terms . . .
Organization of the Remainder of


II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . .
Time Management Skills . . . .
Students' Use of Time . . . .
General Descriptive Studies . .
Sex and Age Difference in Time Use .
Effects of Time Management on Academic
General Efficiency of Time Management
Reading and Study Skills Programs .
Summary of the Literature . . .

III. METHODOLOGY . . . . . . .
Research Design . . . . . .
The Setting . . . . . . .
The Study Skills Course . . .
Reading and Study Skills Center .
The Instruments . . . .
McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Stud)
Time-Use Inventory . . . . .
Self-Survey Index . . . . .
Procedures . . . .
Experimental Group Procedures . .
Control Group Procedires . . .
Analysis of the Data . . . . .
Follow-Up Procedures . . . . .
Limitations . . . . . . .


Achievement
. . . .
. . . .


I


the


Study











CHAPTER

IV. RESULTS . . . . . . . . . .

Hypotheses . . . . . . . . .
Additional Data . . . . . . . .

V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary . . . . .
Conclusions . . . .
Discussion . . . .
Implications . . . .
Recommendations . . .


APPENDICES

A. COURSE DESCRIPTION AND AVAILABLE TIMES

B. COURSE OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS . .

C. COURSE OUTLINE . . . . . . .

D. STUDY SKILLS TEST--INTENTORY OF STUDY
HABITS AND ATTITUDES . . . . .

E. STUDY SKILLS TEST--RELIABILITY DATA . .

F. TIME-USE INVENTORY . . . . . .

G. SELF-SURVEY INDEX . . . . . .

H. TIME MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT . .

I. SAMPLE MASTER PLAN . . . . . .

J. WEEKLY SCHEDULE BASED ON ASSIGNMENTS .

K. DAILY SCHEDULE . . . . . . .

L. INFORMED CONSENT FORM . . . . .

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . .


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Page


. . 45

. . 46
. . 56

. . 58
. . 58
. . 61
. . 62
. . 65
. . 65


. . . 68

. . . 69

. . . 70


. . . 71

. . . 75

. . . 78

. . . 80

. . . 81

. . . 82

. . . 83

. . . 84

. . . 85

. . . 86


I i












LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1. Results of analysis of variance for groups on
amount of study time per week as measured by the
Time-Use Inventory . . . . . . . . ... .46

2. Results of analysis of variance for groups on
amount of social activity per week as measured
by the Time-Use Inventory . . . . . .... .47

3. Results of analysis of variance for groups on
amount of leisure activity per week as measured
by the Time-Use Inventory . . . . . .... .48

4. Results of analysis of variance for groups on
amount of miscellaneous activity per week as
measured by the Time-Use Inventory . . . ... 48

5. Results of analysis of variance for groups on
the "Organization of Effort" subscale of the
Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes . . . ... 49

6. Results of analysis of variance for groups on
separate items of the "Organization of Effort"
subscale . . . . . . . . ... .. . .50

7. Results of analysis of variance for groups on
Item 2 and 8 of the Self-Survey Index . . . ... 51

8. Results of the Student-Newman-Keuls procedure
for analysis of group differences on Item 8
of the Self-Survey Index . . . . . . .... .52

9. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences
on the Time-Use Inventory . . . . . .... .52

10. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences
on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes . . .. 53

11. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences
on the Self-Survey Index . . . . . .... .54











Table


Page


12. Results of analysis of variance for grade
level differences on the Time-Use Inventory . . .. 55

13. Results of analysis of variance for grade
level differences on the Survey of Study
Habits and Attitudes . . . . . . . ... .55

14. Results of analysis of variance for grade
level differences on the Self-Survey Index . . .. .56

15. Results of analysis of variance for sex and
grade level interaction differences on the
Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes . . . ... 57








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTION
ON COLLEGE STUDENTS' TIME MANAGEMENT


By

Alan F. Kirby

July 1977

Chairman: Dr. Harold Riker
Major Department: Counselor Education


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a

specific type of instruction designed to alter time management behavior

of students enrolled in a University of Florida study skills course.

Areas of investigation included amounts of time spent on study, social

activity, leisure activities, and miscellaneous activities. Other areas

included an assessment of study habits and attitudes, as well as reac-

tions to attempts at time management. Sex and grade level differences

on the time management criterion were also investigated.

A total of 95 students participated in the study. Of that number,

34 were enrolled in two sections of EDC 301, "Student Development in a

University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills," designated

as the Experimental Group. Control Group I consisted of 31 students

who enrolled in an additional two sections of the course; Control Group

II included 30 students who were on the waiting list at the University

of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center. Students in the Experimental

Group were exposed to instruction in time management techniques.








Instruction for the two control groups was delayed until after the

evaluation process ended.

Three instruments were used in the research: 1) the Time-Use

Inventory which measured amounts of time for one seven day week devoted

to individual categories such as study, social, leisure, and miscel-

laneous activity; 2) the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (part of

a larger inventory, The Study Skills Test) which measured study habits

and attitudes including those related to time management; 3) the Self-

Survey Index which measured satisfaction and perceived improvement with

various study skills including those related to time management. Sub-

jects in the study completed all three of the inventories at approximately

the same time in the quarter.

An analysis of variance was computed to determine if significant

differences existed among groups on the above listed variables under in-

vestigation. A Student-Newman-Keuls procedure was then employed to

determine specifically where any differences occurred.


Results


Instruction in time management affected the perception which

students had of their abilities to effectively manage their time.

Students receiving time management instruction in the study skills class

felt that their time management skills had improved during the quarter.

This perceived improvement differed significantly from the self-percep-

tion of those students who had not received time management instruction.

The results also indicated that differences in study habits and

attitudes which were apparently unrelated to the class instruction in

viii








time management existed between males and females. Females consistently

reported more positive self-perceptions regarding their abilities with

academic skills.

A third finding centered on the lack of behavioral change in students

who received time management instruction. No change was recorded in the

amounts of study, social, leisure, or miscellaneous activity experienced

by students as a result of receiving instruction in time management.

This finding raises a question regarding the effectiveness of the type

of instruction given to students in the Experimental Group as well as

questions about the data-collection instruments utilized and the length

of time needed for noticeable changes in behavior to occur.











CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


Statement of the Problem


Perhaps the most valuable result of all education is the
ability to make yourself do the thing you have to do, when
it ought to be done, whether you like it or not .
However early a man's training begins, it is probably the
last lesson that he learns thoroughly. (Thomas Huxley as
cited by Resnick & Heller, 1963, p. 63)

Each year in universities and colleges across the country, large

numbers of students fail to meet academic requirements and leave school.

Many of the students who drop out of college are the intellectual equals

of those who succeed (Morgan & Deese, 1969). Consequently, factors

other than academic ability must contribute to the failure of those

unable to meet minimum academic levels. Many educators believe that

inadequate study skills are a major contributing factor. In fact, numerous

"how to study" books have been written based on the premise that certain

skills can be learned which for some students could mean the difference

between academic success or failure (Froe & Lee, 1965; Kalish, 1959;

Morgan & Deese, 1969; Norman, 1971; Pauk, 1974; Raygor & Wark,1970;

Robinson, 1961; Tussing, 1962; Weigand & Blake, 1955).

More specifically, there are certain educators specializing in

study skills who believe that the management of one's time is an

important key to the ultimate academic success of some students.

"Efficient planning and the ability to carry out one's plan is, in fact,








the most important single factor in successful work of every sort"

(Book, 1927b, p. 532). Book (1927a) further indicates that,

The most important educational problem does not consist
in determining more facts about differences in native
endowment or devising more practical and reliable methods
for their measurement, but in finding a way of helping each
student learn to make the best possible use of the talents
and the energy and the time which he possesses. (p. 22)

Headley (1927) proposed that "the heaviest responsibility carried

by any person is that of investing the twenty-four hours a day which

are allowed to him" (p. 377).

Many college counselors discuss the management of time with their

clients. Nearly every study skills book includes a segment on time

management and most study skills courses deal with the topic in class.

The implication is that many specialists in the field of study skills

believe that college success is due not only to capacity and aptitude,

but also to the way in which students use each period of the twenty-

four hours. Consequently, an effort should be made to help students

realize that efficient use of their time and energy might produce more

satisfying results (Johnson, 1938).

What are some problems encountered in providing this sort of guidance

and instruction? Often students rationalize to themselves that the

week contains enough time to study everything without adopting some

sort of study plan. Such students usually fail to realize the amount

of time wasted when studying is done "according to mood" (Olsen, 1958).

Many students complain of "not having enough time" to complete all

their schoolwork while maintaining a healthy combination of rest,

exercise, work, relaxation, and socializing. Yet, a study by Dole

(1959) showed that in a typical week, university students spent 49.3








hours in sleep, 19.8 hours in study, 18.7 hours in class and labs,

and 10.7 hours in meals. That totals 98.5 hours, leaving 69.5 hours

of the week unaccounted for--almost 10 hours a day. Pauk (1974) sug-

gests that students can gain more from their time in two ways: first,

by being more efficient in completing tasks, and second, by programming

their time and using small blocks of it that are usually wasted.

Many college students feel that any form of scheduling or planning

of time is an infringement on their personal liberty (Resnick & Heller,

1963). Some students are afraid that a schedule will make slaves of

them. Pauk (1974) maintains that the opposite is probably true; the

student who schedules his time in some manner wastes less time and thus

has more free time for personal activities. Scheduling can free the

student from "uncertainty, mental conflict, guilt, and fear of the

future" (Resnick & Heller, 1963, p. 63). But for some, a schedule is

made to be restrictive instead of beneficial; it begins to control the

student instead of the opposite. With proper scheduling, these problems

might be avoided.

One other aspect of the time management problem is more complex

and philosophic. College students often feel that "their own time"

has not yet begun, and probably will not until they find security in a

job (Kastenbaum, 1966). Although most students have a set number of

class hours and other regular time commitments, they are rarely free of

the feeling that an obligation is hanging over their heads. Their time

is primarily devoted to the pursuit of knowledge, credits, and degrees.

Thus, when they "steal" time for themselves, it is likely to arouse

feelings of guilt and concern. If a student's time is properly planned,








there usually can be ample time left over which can be considered

his "own time" to be used as he wishes without feeling as if it were

stolen (Kalish, 1959).

In attempting to solve time management problems, counselors and

instructors generally can list several values implicit in the process

of programming time. Pauk (1974) informally describes such values:

1. Effective time management techniques help "get

you started."

2. Scheduling "prevents avoidance of disliked subjects."

3. Time management "monitors the slackening off process."

4. Scheduling "eliminates the wrong type of cramming."

5. Programming helps "make studying enjoyable."

6. Effective management "promotes cumulative review."

7. Programming and goal setting can "free the mind."

8. Time management "controls the study break."

9. Scheduling "precludes overlooking recreation."

10. Effective management helps "raise your recreational

efficiency."

11. Programming "regulates our daily living." (Pauk, 1974, pp. 20-22)

Such statements as these represent both values and problems of

time management. For every positive aspect to be relayed to the student,

there occurs the problem of how to transmit that information effectively.

Over the years, surveys show that successful students use some sort of

time schedule (Pauk, 1974). But what approach to scheduling works

best and how do counselors and study skills instructors effectively

"teach" time management techniques?





5



Many educators have maintained that students should spend'two

hours in homework for every hour in class. This 2:1 ratio is probably

the most common myth existent in the study skills business (Raygor &

Wark, 1970; Yarington, 1967). More recent study skills manuals call

for the scheduling of time in a flexible manner, based on the demands of

each individual course. Circumstances as well as personality influence

the type of schedule a student will select (Pauk, 1974). It is essential

that each individual student adopt a schedule to fit his needs rather

than to adopt a rigid schedule which fits hardly anyone.

Some study skills experts approach time management with a set of

specific "do's and don't's": (a) Specify particular courses to study

rather than marking "study" on a schedule; (b) allow 50 to 90 minutes

at a time for each course; (c) figure approximately 5 to 10 minutes

break for each hour of study; (d) make use of free hours; (e) try to

schedule study time for the class that just ended or is about to begin;

(f) allow 3 to 5 minutes before and after each class to review lecture

and read notes; (g) allow a break of about 20 minutes between final

study and retiring for the night; (h) leave one to two hours late

Sunday afternoon or early evening to review all work during the week;

(i) make use of wasted minutes; and (j) try to leave one entire evening

free for social activities (Kalish, 1959).

Other educators describe the use of master schedules (a schedule

of fixed activities), detailed weekly schedules, and daily schedules

(Pauk, 1974). Still others (Raygor & Wark, 1970) stress the importance

of knowing one's work rate and deciding how much time to schedule in

order to complete assignments. The difference here is an emphasis on








amount accomplished rather than allotting certain set amounts of time

to get work done.


Rationale for the Study


Many instructional methods such as those listed here on previous

pages have been offered in the past. All probably have some merit.

Yet, which methods of instruction, if any, actually produce any change

in study behavior? A review of the literature in this area indicates

that very few researchers have attempted to assess specific teaching

techniques to determine if behavior changes as a result of the instruction.

Yet, there are many descriptive studies as well as prescriptive segments

of study skills books.

Students' admitted need for management skills has been documented

by Olsen (1958) in a study with 292 junior college freshmen. When

asked what their most troublesome study problems were, the second item

most frequently mentioned was "the inability to plan and regularly fol-

low a definite study schedule" (p. 330). Also, in a study by Strang

(1957) in which 536 students wrote compositions about, "What makes

studying easy or difficult for me," results showed that many students

registered complaints about a lack of planning which resulted in a pile-

up of homework at certain times.

Much has been written on this topic, but the proposed theories

of time management are not data-based. Consequently, no authoritative

emphasis can be placed on one specific technique of instruction;

counselors and study skills instructors should not discuss the topic

with confidence until they are supplied with data-based facts about the








effectiveness of time management instruction. It is time now to

develop experimentally based information for those professionals at-

tempting to assist students with this vital study skill.

The implications of such information could not only have an

effect upon students, but also upon departments of education where the

training of counselors and other helping professionals is of prime

concern. Specific knowledge about a variety of study skills might

become a useful, if not a necessary, component of a training program.

Both the experimental nature of this research and its possible implica-

tions make the present study unique in the area of time management.


Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a specific

teaching technique designed to alter the time management behavior of

students attending a University of Florida study skills course. The

following research questions were investigated:

1. What effect will time management instruction have
upon students' average amounts of time spent per
week on study, social activity, leisure activities,
and miscellaneous activities?

2. What effect will time management instruction have
on study habits or attitudes in relation to time
management?

3. What effect will time management instruction have
on students' perceived satisfaction and improvement
with general time management skills?

4. What effect will time management instruction have on
the variables of sex and grade level in relation to
the criteria stated above?








Definition of Terms


Time Management

Effective time management is the organization and control of one's

time which permits allocation of daily activities such as study, sleep,

recreation, exercise, organization commitments, and leisure time in

amounts adequate and efficient for the individual involved.


Study Skills Course

A study skills course offers instruction in a variety of areas

related to the academic setting. Examples of course topics include

reading rate and comprehension, vocabulary development, note-taking,

marking a text, time management, concentration techniques, and test

anxiety. The course is intended for both successful students desiring

to sharpen already adequate skills as well as those with identifiable

problems.


Master Schedule

A master schedule is the first step in programming student activities.

It contains all activities which are fixed items for the entire semester/

quarter. Examples would include classes, laboratories, meals, regular

meetings, and church (Pauk, 1974).


Assignment-Oriented Weekly Schedule

An assignment-oriented weekly schedule is based primarily on

specific assignments, rather than on time available. It is a supple-

ment to the master schedule and covers only one specific week (Pauk, 1974).








Daily Schedule

A daily schedule is kept on an index card to record a planned list

of activities for the day. Individual items might include classes,

errands, study topics, appointments, and recreation. These items are

then ranked in a priority system.


Study Activity

Study activity is defined as academic work outside of classroom

and laboratory requirements.


Social Activity

Social activity is defined as any period of time primarily devoted

to being with others for no particular reason or task (as in organiza-

tional meetings) other than companionship.


Leisure Activity

Leisure activity is defined as any period of time primarily devoted

to activities such as television viewing, stereo listening, or exercise.

Although others may be present, the primary emphasis is on the activity

rather than the people.


Miscellaneous Activity

Miscellaneous activity is defined as any period of time which is

unaccounted for each day.


Organization of the Remainder of the Study


Chapter I introduced the reader to the research topic. Chapter II

reviews relevant literature in the area of time management. Chapter III




10



provides a description of the methodology for this study. Chapter

IV analyzes the results of the research. Chapter V provides an over-

view of the study and suggests implications of the results.











CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Since the literature in the area of time management is relatively

scarce, it has been possible to include articles written as early as

the mid-1920's and thus provide a comprehensive coverage of available

literature. This review covers five areas. The first is a general

section on time management skills which emphasizes the need for specific

skills as well as examples of such techniques. The second section covers

descriptive studies illustrating students' use of time. The third reviews

articles describing the effects of time management on academic achieve-

ment. The fourth section deals with reports on the general effectiveness

of time management skills. The last section summarizes study skills

programs. This section has been included because of the importance of

the setting for the current study.


Time Management Skills


The need for some sort of time management skills has long been

recognized by college students. Olsen (1958) conducted a study with

292 junior college freshmen to determine what were their most trouble-

some study problems. "The inability to plan and regularly follow a

definite study schedule" was mentioned most frequently except for "lack

of concentration" (p. 330). Typical statements of students included
"'I'm always putting things off until the last minute,' 'Something else








usually comes up that is more interesting than studying,' 'I do the

easiest assignments first and never get around to the hard ones'"

(p. 330). Olsen maintains that students should be encouraged to follow

a study program after their loss of valuable study time is pointed out.

He states that

A further incentive to regular scheduling of study time
is provided students when they understand the aspects of
a well-planned study program, such as arranging study time
each week for a review of past assignments, planning study
time as close to the lecture sessions as possible, and pro-
viding adequate recreation breaks at suitable times of the
day. (p. 330)

Another study designed to record student perceptions of study dif-

ficulties was conducted by Strang (1957). Compositions on the topic,

"What makes studying easy or difficult for me," were obtained from 536

students. Among the many responses, students frequently registered

complaints about a lack of planning which resulted in a pile-up of

homework on certain days at certain periods. Many educators specializing

in the area of study skills believe that problems of this nature can P

avoided when effective techniques of time management are utilized. Book

(1927b) stated that "efficient planning and the ability to carry out

one's plan is, in fact, the most important single factor in successful

work of every sort" (p. 532). Many study skills books, which include

segments on time management, have been written because the authors

believed that certain academic skills such as note-taking, examination

preparation, and efficient use of time, could be learned (Froe & Lee,

1965; Kalish, 1959; Morgan & Deese, 1969; Norman, 1971; Pauk,1974,

Raygor & Wark, 1970; Robinson, 1961; Tussing, 1962; Weigand & Blake, 1955).

Pauk (1974) reported that surveys over the years indicated that

successful students use time schedules. Some work best with detailed,









comprehensive plans, while others prefer a brief list of things to do.

Whichever is the case, some type of planning is the rule. The student

who schedules his time in some manner wastes less time and thus has

more free time for personal activities.

Time management skills typically include daily, weekly, and

quarterly schedules for planning activities (Pauk, 1974). Some schedules

stress knowing one's work rate and establishing a plan to complete

assignments according to estimated time needed (Raygor & Wark,1970).

Other suggestions include making use of free daily hours, scheduling

breaks for each hour of study, setting specific study goals, and

reviewing lecture notes periodically (Kalish, 1959). In fact, Crewe

(1969) determined that spaced review periods that are short in comparison

to original study time appear to be effective. Thus, according to

Johnson (1938), an effort should be made to help students realize

that efficient use of their time and energy might produce more

satisfying results.


Students' Use of Time


General Descriptive Studies

The majority of studies which have been conducted in the area of

time management have been descriptive. Results have been generally

consistent over the past 50 years, although several different methods

of data collection have been used. Some studies rely on students're-

call of activities which occurred the previous day or even the previous

week. Others ask students to respond to a questionnaire about current








activities. Still others employ time-use forms for maintaining an

accurate, detailed record of events as they occur.

For a majority of studies, the long-standing ratio of two hours

of study for every hour in class is not supported. Goldsmith and Crawford

(1928), in studying a group of University of Idaho students, found that

approximately one hour was spent in study for every one hour in class.

Sturtevant and Strang (1927) found that minutes of study per day only

slightly exceeded minutes in class for a group of female students.

Marwardt and Sikkink (1970), using over 700 students at the University

of Wisconsin, discovered that 90% spent far less than 100 minutes in

preparation for each 50 minutes of class. In fact, the median time spent

studying for each 50-minute class was 35.8 minutes for one group and 23.5

minutes for another. Yarington (1967), in what is generally recognized

as the most comprehensive study of time use to date, obtained similar

findings of a 1:1 ratio. He instructed a total sample of 3,397

freshmen over a one-year period at Ohio University to keep detailed

charts of time devoted to reading. The mean number of hours spent in

reading was about 14 per week.

At least as far back as 1927, educators have been concerned with

how students use their time. Book (1927b) found the median number of

hours "wasted" or "lost" in a week to be approximately 31. In similar

fashion, Dole (1959) discovered that over 37 hours per week were left

unaccounted for after students reported all other activities. Total

time devoted to academic work was 41 hours, with 20 hours spent in

class or laboratory and 21 hours in study. Sleep accounted for 50

hours of the week, with meals taking 11.5 hours, recreation 16.3 hours,

and travel 5.9 hours.








The figure of 40 hours devoted to academic pursuits seems to be

consistent with several other studies. Comstock (1925), after admin-

istering time-use questionnaires to 500 Mt. Holyoke College students,

found that an average of 39 hours per week was devoted to a combination

of class and study time. Daily averages showed 5 hours of academic

work, 8 hours of sleep, 12 hours at meals, 1 hour 20 minutes in exercise,

40 minutes at chapel, and 6 hours unaccounted for. Hutchinson and

Connard (1926) had 500 Vassar College students keep daily records for a

semester. Again, the amount of time devoted to academic work was ap-

proximately 40 hours per week. The average daily distribution of time

for the typical week was as follows: academic work, 51 hours; extra-

curricular activities, 35 minutes; exercise, 40 minutes; and sleep, 7

hours and 55 minutes. One exception to this stable pattern of results

was that reported by Moore and Graham (1937), who found that 218 Mt.

Holyoke freshmen spent an average of 8-9 hours a day on academic work,

which created a total of 56-63 hours per week.

Several studies reported only study time per week without mention

of the number of class hours taken. Some slight differences among

studies can be noted regarding amount of time spent in study. Robinson

(1961), in presenting data from an unpublished study by Bean and Gaw,

indicated that the mean number of study hours per day for several hundred

women students was 3 hours and 5 minutes, or 21 hours, 35 minutes for

the week. Also, Crawford (1929) reported 20.56 as the mean number of

hours spent in study each week.

Yet, Bell (1931), in a study at State Teachers College, Chico,

California, used a sample of 127 students who collected data for 28








days and found an average weekly study time of only 14 hours. Also,

Eurich (1933) reported a weekly average of only 12-13 hours for 300

University of Minnesota students.

It is interesting to note that although the mean number of hours

reported for most studies is relatively stable (a few exceptions have

been noted), there is a wide range of individual averages and a definite

pattern of work cycles within the week. For instance, in the Crawford

study (1929), with a sample of 1,306 students, there was a standard de-

viation of 7.74 hours and a range of study hours for the week which went

from 0 to 36. Bell (1931) demonstrated that about 44% of study time

is at night. The greatest daily amount of studying occurs on Tuesday

and the least amount on Friday. Toward the end of the week, there is

a tendency for shorter duration of study periods and fewer students

studying. Maddox (1963) reported that college students worked in cycles

of enthusiasm lasting for two or three days. At other times they avoided

work completely. Also, there are indications that study habits are in

part a result of the type of testing schedule to which students are

subjected. Mawhinney (1971), in a tightly controlled study of testing

schedules and study habits, found that daily testing produced consistent

duration of study behavior. Weekly testing and testing every three

weeks produced sporadic bursts of study behavior with the amount of

study increasing as the test time drew near.


Sex and Age Differences in Time Use

Although there is little reported in the literature about sex

and age differences in time use, a few studies are worth noting.

Andrews (1930) had 700 students at the North Carolina College for Women

keep a record of their use of time for a week. A study of the data








revealed a constant decrease in the number of hours spent in curricular

activities by the freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior classes. The

medians for the four classes were: freshmen, 42.7; sophomores, 41;

juniors, 39.8; and seniors, 36.1 hours. Also, an increase was found

in the number of hours spent in extracurricular activities from the

freshman to the senior class. The study of Goldsmith and Crawford (1928)

also showed an increase in extracurricular activities for senior men.

Another similar finding (Dole, 1959) showed that sophomores studied

significantly more than other groups, while seniors studied less. At

the University of Birmingham, Theoday (1956) also discovered that first

year students study more than students in other grade levels. The only

exception to this pattern was reported by Marwardt and Sikkink (1970),

who found that students in the junior or senior year, in graduate school,

and those in courses requiring reading other than texts reported greater

study times.

One study reporting sex differences in time use indicated that

women study more than men. Malleson (1960) reported that by their

third year of college, 61% of the women in humanities reported studying

in excess of five hours daily. Only 39% of the men could report the

same.


Effects of Time Management on Academic Achievement


Several studies have been conducted to determine if a correlation

exists between amount of study time and academic achievement. The

results of such research are mixed, but the majority of the studies

show a small positive correlation. Hemmerling and Hurst (1961) administered








a questionnaire to 202 sophomore students at La Habre High School in

Fullerton, California, concerning time spent in nine activities:

television viewing, studying, working, listening to music, sports,

reading, dating, church, and movie viewing. The relationship between

grade point averages and time spent on sports, reading, dating, and

church was not found to be significant. The relationship between

grades and time spent on television, work, movies, and music was found

to be negative. The only exception was study time, which was found to

be very significant and highly correlated with grade point average. A

similar finding was made by Millott (1974) in using Christ's Survey

of Reading/Study Efficiency. Millott found that responses of high- and

low-grade point average students differed significantly only on one of

the study skills categories, that one being time management.

May (1923), surveying 450 Syracuse freshmen, discovered a positive

correlation of .32 between hours of study and scholarship. In addition,

through multiple correlation, it was determined that the relationship

between scholarship and the combined effect of intelligence and hours

of study was .82. Bell (1931) also discovered a positive correlation

of .32 between study time and scholastic standing. Ryans (1938) sup-

ported May's research by reporting a positive correlation of .37

between study and GPA for 40 junior college sophomores. He also found

a positive correlation between scholarship and intelligence, but no

statistical relationship between intelligence and study time. Although

the correlations were low, Menius (1949) also found a positive relation-

ship between academic success and various time expenditures.








Converse (1931) reported results from time studies conducted at

the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Illinois. He found

that the highest grades were attained by students of superior intelligence,

and also by those who put "a little extra time on study." Similar

findings were reported by Uhrbrock (1931) in a study of 245 Cornell

University freshmen. Data from time records indicated that high

scholarship men tended to spend more time in application to classroom

and academic work, giving slightly less time to social activities.

Some studies did not find a positive correlation between study time

and scholarship. Crawford (1929), in a study conducted with 22 Yale

freshmen, found a correlation of 0.00 between the two items. However,

in his report, he mentioned that since the study was done in the spring,

lowered scholastic motivation could have reduced amounts of study time.

Also, Yarington (1967) found only a minimal relationship between the

number of pages read during the semester and academic ability and

achievement.

Two studies actually found a negative correlation between study

time and academic achievement. Jones and Ruch (1928), in a study

conducted at the University of Iowa, discovered a negative correlation

of .28 between hours of study and grade points. The combined effect

of intelligence and study time correlated at +.69 with grade point

average. Also, Williamson (1935), in a study of 257 University of

Minnesota freshmen, found a negative correlation of .06 between scholar-

ship and hours of study.

Finally, one study attempted to assess the effects of definite

study planning on academic achievement. Johnson (1938) conducted an

experiment using matched-pair groups of girls at the State Normal School








of Geneseo, New York. Although there seemed to be no effect on academic

achievement as a result of planning for the use of the 24 hours of the

day, the author stated several possible reasons for the failure to

detect differences between the experimental and control groups. These

reasons included the method of time management instruction, the inter-

action effect of experimental and control group members, and the uncon-

trolled effect of the control group members receiving help elsewhere

with study skills.


General Efficiency of Time Management


There are more aspects of time management than just increased

amounts of time spent in study. Many authors, when addressing the topic

of time management, include a discussion about efficiency of time spent

in study or the effectiveness of time scheduling. Rather than merely

using larger amounts of time, good students are more effective in using

whatever amount of time is devoted to study (Raygor & Wark, 1970;

Williamson, 1953; Yarington, 1967). When students report hours of

study time, their calculations may not be entirely accurate. Troth

(1929) reported that even when Illinois men and women students were in

the library, only about half their time was directed toward study.

An interesting follow-up to the Troth study was conducted by Berrien

and Kennedy (1942). They found that the absence of girls increased

the efficiency of study time by Colgate men. The authors noted that

location and study environment greatly influenced time-use efficiency.

Johnson (1938), in her analysis of the effects of budgeting time

on the achievement of freshmen girls, found that 97% of the participants








felt that instruction in time management was helpful in increasing

their efficiency. Even though academic achievement was not affected,

Johnson noted that the overwhelming positive response to the instruction

was a strong indication that time management techniques could be useful.

Book (1927b) found that after giving instruction to students on how to

schedule their time, the percentage of efficiency in time use for one

group rose from 76 to 96%, and for another group it rose from 84 to 98%.

Williamson (1935) addressed the topic of time management by stating

that "piling up the number of study hours will not entirely compensate

for low academic ability, but a student of low ability will have to study

more hours to do passing work" (p. 687). He went on to say that counselors

or instructors who attempt to motivate students scholastically need to

remember that beyond a total of 20-30 hours of study per week, an in-

crease probably will not improve scholastic standing. A minimum of

18-20 hours and a maximum of 30-35 hours per week should permit students

to get the grades that their academic aptitude makes possible. Within

those limits, improvement in time-use efficiency is the key to academic

improvement.


Reading and Study Skills Programs


Since the setting for the present study involves a reading and

study skills course and voluntary program, it seems appropriate that

a review of similar programs be included in the review of literature.

Typically, study skills taught at the college level include making a

study schedule, organizing study materials, notetaking, summarizing,

using library skills, using reference skills, solving problems, writing

themes and reports, taking examinations, improving reading skills, outlining,








reviewing, improving study conditions, and listening skills (Spache,

1963).

The basis for reading and study skills programs can be seen in

statements such as the one by Lin and McKeachie (1970): "Student

study habits contribute to academic achievement independently of college

aptitude. Students with good study habits achieve significantly higher

than comparable students with poor study habits" (p. 308). Most evalua-

tions of reading and study skills programs are positive. Self-report

data such as those recorded by Ritter (1971) tend to be very positive.

Students at least feel as if they have gained something even if their

grades do not reflect the improvement. Improvement on study skills

inventories can also generally be witnessed after participation in a

reading and study skills program (Van Zoost & Jackson, 1974).

Many evaluations of such programs used improved grade point

average (GPA) or a combination of GPA and other factors as the criteria.

Entwisle (1960) reviewed the 22 evaluations of study skills courses

which could be found in the literature up to 1960. The criterion

used to determine effectiveness of courses included a measure of over-

all scholastic average, scores on reading tests, and scores on study

habits inventories. The main conclusion made by Entwisle is that some

kind of improvement following a study skills course seems to be the

rule. Improvement varies from a slight amount (Eckert & Jones, 1935)

to a considerable amount (McDonald, 1957; Smith & Wood, 1955). When

only those studies well controlled on intelligence and motivation were

evaluated, the range of improvement was just as broad as when all 22

studies were included.








Of the 22 studies, that of Smith and Wood (1955) clearly indicated

that motivation plays a key role in demonstrating improvement after

taking a reading/study skills course. They included a control group

wishing to take the course but unable to schedule it, and a second

control group which consisted of a representative sample of the freshman

class. The group taking the course obtained a significantly higher GPA

than either control group, while the group wanting to enroll in the

course did not score significantly higher than the representative sample.

Thus, the authors inferred that motivation in itself will not yield

significant improvement unless it is accompanied by participation in a

course. Entwisle (1960) noted that the amount of improvement seems

related to whether the course is voluntary or required. All voluntary

college-level courses report impressive gains, and in every case where

follow-up results are available, the gains persist.

Fairbanks (1974) reviewed 70 studies which evaluated reading/study

skills programs. Of the 79, 60 reported the use of some type of com-

parison group, made some mention of statistical procedures used, and

referred to the level of significance of results. Her review indicated

that, of the 60 studies which met minimum standards of adequate research

design, 30 reported that the programs had been "successful" in improving

overall GPA. Described as having a "successful tendency" were 18

studies, while 12 indicated no measurable GPA improvement for the group

participating in the reading/study skills program. Mixed results were

again reported by Fairbanks (1975) in a subsequent review of programs.

Of 68 studies in which statistical procedures were included and level

of significance reported, 33 proved to be "successful," 21 had a








"successful tendency," and 14 showed no GPA advantage as the result

of student participation in the academic skills improvement program.

In light of these program evaluations, a general statement can be

made about the effectiveness of college reading/study skills programs.

The reviews mentioned above, as well as similar ones by Santensanio

(1974) and Tillman (1972), indicate that although not all students en-

rolled in academic skills development programs necessarily record im-

provement in GPA, the number of students who do experience GPA gains

outnumber those who do not.


Summary of the Literature


Research was noted which indicated that students are concerned

with the ability to manage their time effectively. Other studies reported

consistent descriptions of students' time use over the past 50 years.

The figure of 40 hours devoted to academic pursuits seems to be an

average amount for college students. Sex and age differences in time

use were explored in several studies, resulting in a general consensus

that females tend to study more than males and that seniors engage in

more extracurricular activities than members of other grades.

Research results regarding the effects of time management on academic

achievement were mixed. Several studies indicated a slight positive

correlation between hours of study and grade point average. Others

showed no relationship; a few reported a negative correlation between

hours devoted to study and grades. Several studies explored time

management efficiency and found that instruction in the use of time

generally increased students' efficiency in their academic work. Finally,

a discussion of reading and study skills programs indicated that although





25



not all students enrolled in academic skills development programs

necessarily record improvement in grade point average, the number of

students who do experience grade point gains outnumber those who do

not.












CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this study was to assess effects of a specific

teaching technique designed to alter time management behavior of

students attending a University of Florida study skills course. Areas

of investigation included amounts of time spent on study, social activity,

leisure activities, and miscellaneous activities. Other areas included

an assessment of study habits and attitudes, as well as reactions to

attempts at time management. Sex and grade level differences on the

time management criterion were also investigated.

Subjects for the study were University of Florida students who

either sought the services of the Reading and Study Skills Center or

enrolled in a course entitled "Student Development in a University

Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills." As stated in the following

hypotheses, "experimental group" refers to that group of students,

enrolled in two sections of the study skills course, who received in-

struction in time management. The term, "control groups," refers to

the two groups not receiving instruction in time management. Control

Group I consisted of students from two additional sections of the

study skills course; Control Group II was composed of students who

wished to enroll in the Reading and Study Skills Center but were un-

able to do so because of space limitations at the Center. The

hypotheses are stated in null form.








Hypothesis 1: There are no significant differences
between experimental and control groups on total hours
of study time per week after instruction in time
management.

Hypothesis 2: There are no significant differences
between experimental and control groups on total hours
of social activity per week after instruction in time
management.

Hypothesis 3: There are no significant differences
between experimental and control groups on total hours
of leisure activity per week after instruction in time
management.

Hypothesis 4: There are no significant differences
between experimental and control groups on total hours
of miscellaneous activity per week after instruction in
time management.

Hypothesis 5: There are no significant differences
between experimental and control groups on study habits
and attitudes toward study after instruction in time
management.

Hypothesis 6: There are no significant differences
between experimental and control groups on perceived
improvement and satisfaction with general time management
skills after instruction in time management.

Hypothesis 7: There are no significant differences
between male and females on each of the first six
hypotheses after instruction in time management.

Hypothesis 8: There are no significant differences
between different grade levels on each of the first
six hypothesis after instruction in time management.


Research Design


A control group posttest-only design was used to test the

hypotheses. This design was selected because of the nature of the

data-collection procedures for this study. Since a detailed time-use

record had to be maintained for a week-long period late in the quarter,

it seemed likely that a similar experience early in the quarter could








have unduly sensitized the sample and created a strong possibility

for interactive effects to occur as a result of the pretest. Campbell

and Stanley (1966) stated that a posttest-only design assures a lack

of initial bias between groups by randomly assigning members to groups.

Further support for this design is shown in the following statement:

"While the pretest is a concept deeply embedded in the thinking of

research workers in education and psychology, it is not actually

essential to true experimental designs" (Campbell and Stanley, 1966,

p. 25). The design is represented as follows:



Experimental Group X 01

Control Group I 02

Control Group II 03

X=Treatment (Time Management Instruction)
01, 02, 03=Observations conducted at the
same time for all groups (Inventory
of Study Habits and Attitudes,
Time-Use Inventory, Self-Survey
Index



The class registration procedure closely approximated random

assignment since students chose which class section to attend based

only on available times and location. They had no prior knowledge

about instructors assigned to particular sections or any differences

in course content. Students responded to posters and information

sheets distributed in the residence halls regarding the course descrip-

tion and reported to the Reading & Study Skills Center to register

for the course. When four sections of the study skills class had








been filled, a total of 34 students in two sections were designated

as the experimental group; a total of 30 students in the other two

sections comprised Control Group I. Assignment to each of the two

groups was done randomly to increase the possibility of attaining

internal validity (Kerlinger, 1973); after numbers were assigned to

each section and deposited in a container, two were drawn by hand to

designate the sections which were statistically treated as the ex-

perimental group.

Control Group I was exposed to all study skills instruction which

the experimental group received with the exception of the unit on

time management. The additional study skills instruction created the

possibility of increased sensitization and interactive effects to occur.

For this reason, a second control group was selected which received

no instruction in study skills throughout the quarter. This design

further controlled threats to internal validity.

Control Group II was selected from students on the waiting list

at the Reading and Study Skills Center. At the time of this study,

there was a waiting list of 80 students at the Center who, like the

students enrolled in the study skills course, wanted to improve their

reading and study habits. Any graduate students or students solely

wishing to prepare for a graduate school entrance examination were

not considered for the control group. Of those remaining, approximately

40 were randomly selected for inclusion in Control Group II. This

selection was accomplished by first choosing every second name on

the list. An insufficient number was obtained, so a second search

was conducted by selecting every remaining name on the list. As a

result of the second search, a total of 50 students was chosen to be








contacted for possible participation in the study; 31 ultimately

participated.

Demographic characteristics were determined for all subjects

by collecting data on sex, grade point average, grade level, and

number of course hours taken spring quarter. Results of a chi square

analysis employed for each of the characteristics showed that no

significant differences existed between the groups on variables of

sex, grade level, grade point average, or number of credit hours taken

spring quarter. A breakdown of the data showed the sample to be com-

posed of 43 males and 52 females, with 31 freshmen, 34 sophomores, 21

juniors, and 9 seniors. They had a mean grade point average of 2.52

and took an average of 13.98 credit hours in the spring quarter. In

addition, a strong motivational factor is an important element of the

groups' uniformity. Students enrolled in the study skills course or

attempted to enroll at the Reading and Study skills center because

they were highly motivated to improve their academic skills.

There was a possibility that a few students registered for the

course primarily because it was pass/fail and fit their schedule.

However, this writer's experience with previous study skills courses

has led him to believe that the primary motivation for enrollment

is a strong desire to improve skills rather than a need for course

credit.


The Setting


The Study Skills Course

The study skills course in which students were enrolled for the

Experimental Group and Control Group I is actually part of a developmental









course composed of several sections with slightly different emphases.

This course in the Counselor Education Department is entitled, EDC

301: "Student Development in a University Setting." A course descrip-

tion follows:

EDC 301 examines factors affecting student growth and
development in the university setting, current
problems facing students, and the use of group processes
and leadership training in solving problems and
facilitating growth.

The study skills section of EDC 301 is entitled, "Student Development

in a University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills." A

course description follows:

Instruction in reading and study skills will be offered
on both an individual and group basis. Diagnostic tests,
evaluation of skill levels and reading/study techniques
will be considered. Class experience will include
lectures, discussions, demonstrations, and laboratory work.
Topics include: reading rate and comprehension, vocabulary,
note-taking, marking a text, time-use, concentration
techniques, test anxiety, etc. Direct application of skills
to coursework will be stressed. Intended for both successful
students desiring to sharpen already adequate skills as
well as those with identifiable problems. Enrollment limited
to 20 students. Grading on a pass/fail basis. Four sections
will be offered Spring Quarter.

Regarding the study skills portion of the course, four sections of

15 to 20 students per section were offered Spring Quarter, 1977. Classes

were graded on a pass/fail basis for three hours credit and taught in

three locations on campus at a variety of times (see Appendix A).

Students attended class for two hours each week and were required to

invest at least an additional two hours per week on individual skills

improvements outside of class (see Appendix B for course requirements).









A description of weekly topics can be found in Appendix C. Three

sections of the course were taught by this writer, with assistance

from three other graduate students from the College of Education.

The fourth section was taught by the Director of the University of

Florida Reading and Study Skills Center.


Reading and Study Skills Center

Since the second control group was selected from a waiting list

at the Reading and Study Skills Center, a description of the Center is

warranted. The Center offers help in virtually the same areas as the

study skills course. Reading rate and comprehension development as

well as improvement in a variety of study skills can be accomplished

on a voluntary, noncredit basis. Students work at their own pace on

materials they choose after recommendations from the staff. In the

past, approximately 250 students have attended the Center each quarter

at the time of this study, however, because of funding problems, the

Center could accommodate far less than that number, thus creating a

waiting list of nearly 80 students.


The Instruments


The following instruments were administered to each subject:

(a) McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Study Skills Test: Inventory of

Study Habits and Attitudes; (b) Time-Use Inventory; and (c) Self-

Survey Index.


McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Study Skills Test

The Study Skills Test was developed by Alton Raygor, consulting

editor for the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System. Although this test









contains five sections (Problem Solving, Underlining, Library Information,

Study Skills Information, and an Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes),

only the Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes was utilized for this

study since it was the only section containing questions on time

management (see Appendix D).

The Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes is a self-report

instrument which consists of 49 items designed to obtain information

about students' personal study habits and attitudes toward studying.

An example of a statement on the inventory is, "I use my study time ef-

ficiently." Students read the statement, assess how it applies to

themselves, then answer "yes" or "no" accordingly.

Seven subscales are included in the inventory: Listening and

Note-taking, General Study Habits, Relationships with Teachers and

Courses, Motivation, Organization of Effort, Concentration, and

Emotional Problems. For purposes of this study, data were separately

analyzed for the questions pertaining to the Organization of Effort

subscale, which deals with time management.

Reliability via internal consistency was established for the

Inventory by the McGraw-Hill Company in computing the Kuder-Richardson

20 formula (KR-20) for the total Inventory as well as for the individual

subscales. Using a sample of 1,787 college freshmen and sophomores

as well as college-bound high school juniors and seniors, a KR-20

reliability of .87 was established. For the Organization of Effort

subscale, a KR-20 of .74 was computed. Additional reliability data,

along with a detailed list of item difficulties, can be found in Appendix E.








In establishing the validity for the Inventory, a panel of

experienced test-makers from McGraw-Hill developed items chosen from

many statements by students about their own study habits as they

sought help at a reading and study skills center. Many more items

were initially tested before McGraw-Hill decided on the 49 for

standardization and publication. A Tryon Phi-coefficient cluster

analysis was computed to separate items into the seven subscales.


Time-Use Inventory

The Time-Use Inventory is a form developed by this writer for

use by students to record daily activities and the amount of time spent

in each. Labels for the various activities were chosen after experimenting

with different activity descriptions over the past two quarters of

teaching study skills classes. In addition, recommendations of the

Director of the University of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center

were sought because of his years of experience in using variations

of this inventory in study skills classes.

In completing the Time-Use Inventory, students recorded each of

their activities, the time it was begun and ended and its duration.

Activity units no smaller than 15 minutes were recorded and totaled

for a weekly summation of hours and minutes spent in each activity.

The list of units included (a) sleep; (b) meals; (c) class and

laboratory; (d) study; (e) outside work for pay; (f) campus activities

(clubs, committees, church); (g) leisure activities (television, stereo

listening, exercise); (h) social activity; (i) travel time (between

classes); (j) personal grooming (showering, shaving, fixing hair);

(k) errands (laundry, bookstore, shopping); and (1) miscellaneous








(all time left in each 24-hour period which was unaccounted for). An

example of the Time-Use Inventory and instructions.for its completion

can be found in Appendix F.


Self-Survey Index

The Self-Survey Index (see Appendix G) was developed by this

writer, based on his experience in study skills instruction and the

writings of others in the study skills field. The purpose of constructing

this index was to determine if students felt any perceived improvement

or general satisfaction with their time management skills after instruc-

tion. Although only two items on the index specifically related to

time management, other items were included which dealt with study skills

such as note-taking, concentration, and reading comprehension. These

items served to counteract any possibility that students might focus

their attention solely on the time management items and thus place

undue emphasis on their responses. An example of an item on the Self-

Survey Index is, "I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of

managing my time." Students are instructed to respond to each item

by indicating how they feel on a scale of five degrees, ranging from

"Strongly Agree" to "Strongly Disagree."

Experienced staff members at the Reading and Study Skills Center

established the content validity for this survey by critically

examining test items which best appeared to measure concepts essential

to study skills improvement. In addition, a test-retest reliability

study was conducted by this writer with 25 students in a University of

Florida undergraduate English class. Students completed the instrument

once, taking approximately five minutes to do so, then completed it








again two weeks later. A reliability score of .89 was computed for

the instrument.


Procedures

A brief description of the teaching methods used in the study

skills course is warranted here since both experimental and control

sections of the course received nearly the same instruction with the

exception of the time management unit. As indicated by the course out-

line (Appendix C), distinct topics were addressed each week. The in-

structional method every week included some lecture and some class dis-

cussion which was facilitated by the instructor or one of three graduate

students who often assisted in class discussions throughout the quarter.

In addition, all students met individually outside of class with the

instructor or a graduate student to determine the type of materials

to be used in work outside the classroom. Each student was required to

work on individually assigned study skills materials for two hours each

week. These materials included reading equipment, study skills books,

vocabulary books and projectors, and a variety of other books on

academic skills.


Experimental Group Procedures

As indicated by the course outline (Appendix C), students in the

two experimental sections of the course received instruction on time

management during the sixth week of the ten-week quarter. This in-

struction constituted a major element of the special treatment for the

experimental group in this study; the other two elements of the time

management instruction will be. discussed later in this section. During








the two hour instructional segment, seven steps were covered (see

Appendix H). Step I centered on reasons that time schedules fail for

many students. These reasons generally include a lack of flexibility,

a failure to account for other interests, and attempts to study the

same subjects every day at the same time. During this portion of the

period, students were encouraged to report reasons for their previous

unsuccessful attempts at time management.

Step II reviewed a list of advantages of scheduling time, already

outlined in Chapter I. Those items included in the class discussion

are as follows:

1) Effective time management techniques help "get

you started."

2) Scheduling "prevents avoidance of disliked subjects."

3) Time management "monitors the slackening off process."

4) Scheduling "eliminates the wrong type of cramming."

5) Programming helps "make studying enjoyable."

6) Effective management "promotes cumulative review."

7) Programming and goal setting can "free the mind."

8) Time management "controls the study break."

9) Scheduling "precludes overlooking recreation."

10) Effective management helps "raise your recreational

efficiency."

11) Programming "regulates our daily living." (Pauk, 1974, p. 20-22)

Step III involved the description of a master plan for students.

This description included the first real effort by the instructor

toward building a realistic and beneficial time management plan. Students








were advised that a master plan is designed to schedule all events

which are regular parts of the individual's activities each week of

a quarter (see Appendix I). Such events might include classes,

laboratories, part-time jobs, regular meetings, church activities, and

meals. With the master schedule as a base, the student can then create

a flexible schedule to meet his individual needs.

Step IV concentrated on a weekly schedule. The assignment-

oriented weekly schedule adapted from Pauk (1974) was the type chosen

for this instruction (see Appendix J). Students were advised to list

subjects, assignments for the week, estimated study times, dates when

assignments were due. This type of weekly schedule provides a fairly

loose structure, yet gives students a clear idea of weekly goals.

Step V considered establishment of daily goals. Students were

instructed to use index cards for writing down their list of goals

on a daily basis. This list should include classes and study as well

as such items as errands, exercise, social events, and appointments

(see Appendix K). Once these goals are established, the students

should rank order them for importance so that the more important goals

are accomplished in case unexpected events prohibit the completion

of all those listed. The daily goals list for the following day can

easily be prepared each night by students before going to bed or

early each morning before going on campus.

Step VI provided suggestions for establishing schedules and ef-

fectively programming one's time. Pauk's list (1974, pp. 22-23) below

was used as the basis for a final group discussion.








1. "Eliminate dead hours." Utilize small blocks of time

between classes. Much study can be accomplished without having to

wait until night for long periods of time for study.

2. "Use daylight hours." Research indicates that study during

the day is often more efficient than study at night.

3. "Study before recitation-type classes." Material will

be fresh in your mind as you go into class for discussion.

4. "Study after lecture-type classes." Retention and under-

standing can be increased by an immediate review of notes.

5. "List goals according to priorities." You are more certain

to get the important items done on time.

6. "Avoid too much detail." A schedule which is too rigid

and detailed takes too much time to plan and probably will not be

followed regardless of good intentions.

7. "Know your sleep pattern." Determine when you are most

effective during each 24-hour period and plan study hours accordingly.

8. "Discover how long to study." The time needed for each subject

varies. Start out allowing too much time and adjust according to your

needs. The "two hours outside for every hour inside class" ratio

is probably unrealistic for some courses. Some will require much

more study time and others much less.

9. "Plan blocks of time." Optimum efficiency is reached by

planning work in blocks of one hour; fifty minutes for study and ten

minutes for a break.

10. "Allow time for sleep." Sacrificing sleep for study on a

regular basis will eventually cause problems.








11. "Eat well-balanced meals." Dietary deficiencies decrease

study efficiency.

12. "Double time estimates and start long jobs ahead of time."

Start early on long-term projects and allow more time than is probably

needed.

13. "Make a plan for living." The schedule adopted must be a

plan for living, not merely studying (Pauk, 1974, pp. 22-23).

Before the end of the two-hour session, Step VII, an assignment

in goal-setting was explained. Students were asked to make a list of

daily goals on separate cards for each day during the next two weeks,

the seventh and eighth weeks of the course. At the class session

held during the seventh week of the quarter, the daily goals for the

previous seven days were collected by the instructor. For approximately

the first 15 minutes of this class session, the instructor led a dis-

cussion pertaining to the problems encountered and the benefits

derived by students in preparing lists of daily goals. During the

first 15 minutes of the class held during the eighth week of the

quarter, the same procedure was followed, with the lists of students'

goals collected and discussed. These discussions were intended to

further heighten the students' awareness of their use of time.

In summary, the special treatment on time management given to the

experimental sections of the study skills course included a two hour

segment detailing types of scheduling to be implemented by students,

an assignment in goal-setting, and two short review sessions over a

two week period. These last two sessions were designed to monitor

students' attempts at utilizing time management techniques. The entire








sequence of instruction took place during the sixth, seventh, and

eighth weeks of the quarter.

Near the end of the class session held during the eighth week

of the quarter, the instructor asked student members to complete

three instruments as part of a study on time management. Every effort

was made to avoid any social or academic pressure on students to par-

ticipate and they were assured that results would remain confidential.

It was stressed that participation in the study was not a requirement

of the course and in no way affected their grades. All students present

in each class agreed to participate and completed the consent forms

in class (see Appendix L).

Class members were then instructed to complete the Inventory

of Study Habits and Attitudes and the Self-Survey Index. This task

required approximately 15 minutes of class time. They were next asked

to complete the Time-Use Inventory for the following seven days. Each

day all activities were to be recorded in intervals of no less than

fifteen minutes per interval. Students were particularly requested

to record activities on the Inventory as they took place, and to avoid

filling out the form from memory at the end of the day. These completed

Inventories were returned to the instructor at the beginning of the

class held during the following week, the seventh week of the quarter.


Control Group Procedures

In Control Group I, the presentation of class session topics

was the same as that for the Experimental Group, except that time

management instruction was presented in the ninth week of the quarter








rather than the sixth week when the Myers-Briggs Personality Type

Inventory was taken by the class and a discussion about learning

styles and career choice was conducted.

As in the experimental sections of the couse, students were asked

to complete the Time-Use Inventory, Self-Survey Index, and the Inventory

of Study Habits and Attitudes during the eighth week of classes.

Instructions for collection of data were identical to those for the

experimental sections. Consent forms were signed by all class members

present and questions answered regarding completion of the inventories.

The 31 students in Control Group II selected from the Reading

and Study Skills Center waiting list also completed all of the

instruments in the eighth week of the quarter. Students in Control

Group II were reached by telephone by this writer during the sixth

week of classes to request their assistance with this research project.

The project was described, then students were asked to complete the

Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes, Time-Use Inventory, and the

Self-Survey Index. They were advised that upon completion of the

instruments they would have the option to receive instruction in time

management skills.

Within a few days of the students' agreement on the telephone

to participate in the project, this writer mailed the three instruments

along with an Informed Consent Form and a Directions Sheet to each

member of Control Group II. Students were advised to begin and end

their data collection on the same days as those being used by the

Experimental Group and Control Group I. A stamped envelope addressed








to this writer was included with materials mailed to Control Group

II students for delivery of the three completed instruments.


Analysis of the Data


The data were subjected to an analysis of variance to determine

significant differences among the three groups on variables of study

activity, social activity, leisure activity, miscellaneous activity,

scores on the Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes, and scores

from selected items on the Self-Survey Index. Differences on the

bases of sex and grade level were determined for the variables stated

above. For significant differences found, a Student-Newman-Keuls

comparison test was employed to locate the source of difference.

An alpha level of .05 was established as an acceptable level of

significance on all measurements. Responses to the instruments used

for this study were hand-scored and then converted for use in the

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Computer facilities

were utilized at the North Florida Regional Data Center, University of

Florida.


Follow-Up Procedures


After the data collection was completed, students in both the

Experimental and Control I groups were given the opportunity to

discuss in the final week of class any of the procedures and results

relating to the time management instruction and data collection.

Control II members received a notice in the mail indicating a time and

place for discussing their experience with the Time-Use Inventory and

receiving instruction in time management. The seven step instructional








method outlined in Appendix H and detailed earlier in this chapter

was used during the two hour session. Students discussed problems

with time management, completed sample schedules for setting quarterly,

weekly, and daily goals, and agreed to try setting daily goals for the

following week.


Limitations


Caution should be exercised in generalizing the results of this

study to populations where students' motivation to succeed differs

greatly from that of the population under investigation here. Mandatory

participation in a program such as the one described in this study

could result in different outcomes than those found when participation

is voluntary.

Another limitation of this research concerns the data-collection

instruments. Any time self-report instruments are used to measure

behavioral or attitudinal changes, there is a chance that the reports

could be inaccurate. Results could be biased either by students' desire

to report positive change or by inaccurate record-keeping which results

in no change being reported when, in fact, change may have occurred.













CHAPTER IV

RESULTS


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a

specific type of instruction designed to alter time management behavior

of students enrolled in a University of Florida study skills course.

Areas of investigation included amounts of time spent on study, social

activity, leisure activities, and miscellaneous activities. Other areas

included an assessment of study habits and attitudes, as well as reac-

tions to attempts at time management. Sex and grade level differences

on the time management criterion were also investigated.

A total of 95 students participated in the study. Of that number,

34 were enrolled in two sections of EDC 301, "Student Development in a

University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills," designated

as the Experimental Group. Control Group I consisted of 31 students

who enrolled in an additional two sections of the course; Control

Group II included 30 students who were on the waiting list at the

University of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center. Students in

the Experimental Group were exposed to instruction in time management

techniques. Instruction for the two control groups was delayed until

after the evaluation process ended.

Three instruments were used in the research: 1) the Time-Use

Inventory which measured amounts of time for one seven day week devoted

to individual categories such as study, social, leisure, and miscel-

laneous activity; 2) the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (part

of a larger inventory, The Study Skills Test) which measured study

45








habits and attitudes including those related to time management;

3) the Self-Survey Index which measured satisfaction and perceived

improvement with various study skills including those related to

time management. Subjects in the study completed all three of the

inventories at approximately the same time in the quarter.

An analysis of variance was computed to determine if significant

differences existed among groups on the above listed variables under

investigation. A Student-Newman-Keuls procedure was then employed to

determine specifically where any differences occurred. The remainder

of this chapter will be devoted to a description of the findings for

each of the hypotheses.
Hypotheses
. Hypothesis 1

There are no significant differences between experimental
and control groups on total hours of study time per week
after instruction in time management.

Inspection of Table 1 indicates that no significant difference

between groups was noted at the .05 level for the amount of time spent

in study in one week. Therefore, hypothesis 1 was not rejected.




Table 1. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of
study time per week as measured by the Time-Use Inventory.

Source SS D MS F

Between Groups 133.3723 2 66.6862 0.656*

Within Groups 9356.0598 92 101.6963

Total 9489.4297 94

*Not significant at .05 level.








Hypothesis 2

There are no significant differences between experimental
and control groups on total hours of social activity per
week after instruction in time management.

An inspection of Table 2 indicates that no significant difference

between groups was noted at the .05 level for the amount of time spent

in social activity in one week. Therefore, hypothesis 2 was not rejected.




Table 2. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of
social activity per week as measured by the Time-Use Inventory.

Source SS DF MS F

Between Groups 281.5134 2 140.7567 1.767*

Within Groups 7330.5747 92 79.6801

Total 7612.0859 94

*Not significant at .05 level.



Hypothesis 3

There are no significant differences between experimental
and control groups on total hours of leisure activity per
week after instruction in time management.

An inspection of Table 3 indicates that no significant difference

between groups was noted at the .05 level for the amount of time spent

in leisure activity in one week. Therefore, hypothesis 3 was not

rejected.


Hypothesis 4

There are no significant differences between experimental
and control groups on total hours of miscellaneous activity
per week after instruction in time management.










Table 3. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of
leisure activity per week as measured by the Time-Use
Inventory.

Source SS DF MS F

Between Groups 154.1263 2 77.0631 1.205*

Within Groups 5881.5659 92 63.9301

Total 6035.6914 94

*Not significant at .05 level.


An inspection of Table 4 indicates that no significant difference

between groups was noted at the .05 level for the amount of time spent

in miscellaneous activity in one week. Therefore, hypothesis 4 was

not rejected.


Table 4. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of
miscellaneous activity per week as measured by the Time-Use
Inventory.

Source SS DF MS F

Between Groups 515.1708 2 257.5852 2.787*

Within Groups 8503.5537 92 92.4299

Total 9018.7227 94

*Not significant at .05 level.


Hypothesis 5

There are no significant differences between experimental
and control groups on study habits and attitudes after
instruction in time management.










The Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes contained a subscale

of seven items which pertained to the management of one's time.

For purposes of addressing hypothesis 5, a total score was computed

for the seven items and then a comparison between the groups' mean

scores was made. An inspection of Table 5 indicates that no significant

difference between groups was noted at the .05 level for the total score

on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes subscale, "Organization

of Effort." Therefore, hypothesis 5 was not rejected.




Table 5. Results of analysis of variance for groups on the
"Organization of Effort" subscale of the Survey of Study
Habits and Attitudes.

Source SS DF MiS F

Between Groups 13.8377 2 6.9189 1.790*

Within Groups 355.5987 92 3.8663

Total 369.5364 94

*Not significant at .05 level.



In addition to an analysis of the mean group scores on the

"Organization of Effort" subscale, each of the seven items was separately

analyzed to determine if differences between groups existed on particular

items. Table 6 reports that analysis.

An inspection of Table 6 indicates that no single item on the

"Organization of Effort" subscale was answered in a way which separated

the three groups in a significant manner.











Table 6. Results of analysis of variance for groups on separate
items of the "Organization of Effort" subscale.

Source SS DF MS F
Group

Item 9* 0.087 2 0.044 0.625**
Item-10* 0.278 2 0.139 0.631**
Item 23* 0.231 2 0.116 0.537**
Item 24* 0.345 2 0.172 0.802**
Item 37* 0.256 2 0.128 0.590**
Item 38* 0.278 2 0.139 0.688**
Item 47* 0.094 2 0.047 0.261**

*Item 9 = "I need to plan my time better."
Item 10 = "I am usually up to date in my schoolwork."
Item 23 = "I use my study time efficiently."
Item 24 = "I tend to put things off much more than most students."
Item 37 = "I often study in a haphazard, disorganized way under
the threat of the next test."
Item 38 = "It is very difficult for me to stick to a study
schedule."
Item 47 = "Sometimes I let the work in a course pile up, then
cram madly at the end."
**Not significant at .05 level.





Hypothesis 6

There are no significant differences between experimental
and control groups on perceived improvement and satisfaction
with general time management skills after instruction in
time management.

The Self-Survey Index was used to obtain scores on perceived

improvement and satisfaction with time management skills. Two questions

out of ten on the survey dealt specifically with time management; thus,

those two were analyzed separately. It was decided that a combined

score for the two questions would not be particularly informative.









Table 7 shows that no significant difference between the groups

existed on Item 2, but a significant difference did occur for Item 8.




Table 7. Results of analysis of variance for groups on Items 2
and 8 of the Self-Survey Index.

Source SS DF MS F
Group
Item 2* 0.021 2 0.010 0.011
Item 8* 19.104 2 9.552 12.028**

*Item 2 = "I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of
managing my time."
Item 8 = "I feel that my time management skills have improved
since the start of this quarter."
**Significant at .05 level.



A further breakdown of Item 8, using a Student-Newman-Keuls pro-

cedure, revealed that the experimental group scored higher than Control

Group I, which in turn scored higher than Control Group II. Thus,

those students who received time management instruction in class felt

that their time management skills improved more during the quarter

than did the second group who experienced the other study skills instruc-

tion without receiving the time management instruction. Also, the

third group, composed of students on the waiting list who received

no study skills instruction, felt that their time management skills

had increased less than either of the other two groups. Table 8

reports this breakdown. Therefore, hypothesis 6 was rejected.











Table 8. Results of the Student-Newman-Keuls procedure for analysis
of group differences on Item 8 of the Self-Survey Index.

Subset 1 Control Group II
Group Mean . . . . . . . . . 2.48

Subset 2 Control Group I
Group Mean. .... . . . . . . . 3.30

Subset 3 Experimental Group
Group Mean . . . . . . . . . 3.85




Hypothesis 7

There are no significant differences between males and females
on each of the first six hypotheses after instruction in time
management.

Tables 9, 10, and 11 report a breakdown of each hypothesis by

sex. Table 9 shows that no significant differences were found on any

of the four categories of the Time-Use Inventory.




Table 9. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences on the
Time-Use Inventory.

Source SS DF MS F
Sex
Study Time 336.68 1 336.68 3.643*
Social Time 19.729 1 19.729 0.225*
Leisure Time 171.62 1 171.619 2.564*
Miscellaneous 32.056 1 32.056 0.353*

*Not significant at .05 level.











Table 10. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences on
the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes.

Source SS DF MS F
Sex
Item 9* 0.118 1 0.118 1.690
Item 10* 1.158 1 1.158 5.264**
Item 23* 1.659 1 1.659 7.698**
Item 24* 0.311 1 0.311 1.447
Item 37* 0.525 1 0.525 2.420
Item 38* 0.071 1 0.071 0.352
Item 47* 0.699 1 0.699 3.856**

*Item 9 = "I need to plan my time better."
Item 10 = "I am usually up to date in my schoolwork."
Item 23 = "I use my study time efficiently."
Item 24 = "I tend to put things off much more than most students."
Item 37 = "I often study in a haphazard, disorganized way under
the threat of the next test."
Item 38 = "It is very difficult for me to stick to a study
schedule."
Item 47 = "Sometimes I let the work in a course pile up, then
cram madly at the end."
**Significant at .05 level.




Inspection of Table 10 indicates that three different items

discriminated in some way between males and females. A further

breakdown shows that on Item 10, "I am usually up to date in my school-

work," females indicated a positive response more often than males,

reporting a mean score of .4423 for females and .3721 for males. On

Item 23, "I use my study time efficiently," females again responded

in a positive manner more often than males, reporting mean scores of

.4231 and .2093. On Item 47, "Sometimes I let the work in a course

pile up, then cram madly at the end," once again the females indicated

that they have less difficulty with this sort of common problem than









do males, reporting mean scores of .2692 and .2326. Therefore,

Hypothesis 7 was rejected.

Table 11 illustrates that no differences between males and

females were detected for Item 2 or Item 8 of the Self-Survey Index.




Table 11. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences on the
Self-Survey Index.

Source SS DF MS F
Sex
Item 2* 0.172 1 0.172 0.183**
Item 8* 0.433 1 0.433 0.545**

*Item 2 = "I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of
managing my time."
Item 8 = "I feel that my time management skills have
improved since the start of this quarter."
**Not significant at .05 level.




Hypothesis 8

There are no significant differences between different
grade levels on each of the first six hypotheses after
instruction in time management.

Tables 12, 13 and 14 illustrate a breakdown of each hypothesis

by grade level. Table 12 indicates that there was a significant

difference between grade levels only on the variable of weekly study

time. A further breakdown of that finding, using the Student-Newman-

Keuls procedure, indicated that seniors studied more than the other

grade levels, reporting 29.9 hours per week. Freshmen were next

highest, reporting 22.2 hours, juniors were third highest with 21.8

hours, and sophomores studied the least, reporting 21.63 hours per

week. Therefore, Hypothesis 8 was rejected.











Table 12.


Results of analysis of variance for grade level differences
on the Time-Use Inventory.


Source SS DF MS F
Grade
Study Time 760.580 3 253.527 2.743*
Social Time 208.618 3 69.539 0.794
Leisure Time 51.965 3 17.322 0.259
Miscellaneous 81.067 3 27.022 0.298

*Significant at .05 level.



Inspection of Table 13 indicates that no significant differences

were found between grade levels for items on the Survey of Study Habits

and Attitudes.


Table 13.


Results of analysis of variance for grade level differences
on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes.


Source SS DF MS F
Grade
Item 9* 0.109 3 0.036 0.522**
Item 10* 0.141 3 0.047 0.213**
Item 23* 0.414 3 0.138 0.640**
Item 24* 0.173 3 0.058 0.268**
Item 37* 0.268 3 0.089 0.412**
Item 38* 0.331 3 0.110 0.546**
Item 47* 0.226 3 0.226 1.248**


*Item
Item
Item
Item
Item

Item

Item


9 = "I need to plan my time better."
10 = "I am usually up to date in my schoolwork."
23 = "I use my study time efficiently."
24 = "I tend to put things off much more than most students."
37 = "I often study in a haphazard, disorganized way under
the threat of the next test."
38 = "It is very difficult for me to stick to a study
schedule."
47 = "Sometimes I let the work in a course pile up, then
cram madly at the end."


**Not significant at .05 level.










Table 14 illustrates that no significant differences were found

between grade levels for the time management items of the Self-Survey

Index.



Table 14. Results of analysis of variance for grade level differences
on the Self-Survey Index.

Source SS DF MS F
Grade
Item 2* 7.212 3 2.404 2.560**
Item 8* 3.357 3 1.119 1.409**

*Item 2 = "I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of
managing my time."
Item 8 = "I feel that my time management skills have improved
since the start of this quarter."
**Not significant at .05 level.




Additional Data

Several 2-way interactions were discovered which did not specifically

relate to the hypotheses for this study, but which are closely related

and worth noting here. Table 15 illustrates a 2-way interaction which

occurred on several items of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes.

For all four items in Table 15 which proved to have significant differences

on sex and grade interactions, a further breakdown of the data suggested

that male seniors consistently reported lower mean scores than did the

female seniors. Senior females were "up to date in their schoolwork,"

did not tend to "put things off" as much as senior males, did not tend

to study in a "haphazard,disorganized way" as much as senior males, and

did not tend to "let course work pile up" as much as senior males.











Table 15. Results of analysis of variance for sex and grade level
interaction differences on the Survey of Study Habits and
Attitudes.

Source SS DF MS F
2-way Interactions
Sex Grade
Item 9* 0.249 3 0.083 1.186
Item 10* 2.820 3 0.940 4.272**
Item 23* 1.311 3 0.437 2.028
Item 24* 1.873 3 0.624 2.906**
Item 37* 4.848 3 1.616 7.445**
Item 38* 0.507 3 0.169 0.838
Item 47* 1.555 3 0.518 2.861**

*Item 9 = "I need to plan my time better."
Item 10 ="I am usually up to date in my schoolwork."
Item 23 ="I use my study time efficiently."
Item 24 ="I tend to put things off much more than most students."
Item 37 ="I often study in a haphazard, disorganized way under
the threat of the next test."
Item 38 ="It is very difficult for me to stick to a study
schedule."
Item 47 ="Sometimes I let the work in a course pile up, then
cram madly at the end."
**Significant difference at .05 level.












CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary

This study investigated the effects of a specific type of instruc-

tion designed to alter time management behavior of students enrolled in

a University of Florida study skills course. Areas of investigation

included amounts of time spent on study, social activity, leisure activities,

and miscellaneous activities. Other areas included an assessment of

study habits and attitudes, as well as reactions to attempts at time

management. Sex and grade level differences on the time management

criterion were also investigated.

A total of 95 students participated in the study. Of that number,

34 were enrolled in two sections of EDC 301, "Student Development in

a University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills," designated

as the Experimental Group. Control Group I consisted of 31 students who

enrolled in an additional two sections of the course; Control Group II

included 30 students who were on the waiting list at the University of

Florida Reading and Study Skills Center. Students in the Experimental

Group were exposed to instruction in time management techniques. Instruc-

tion for the two control groups was delayed until after the evaluation

process ended.

Three instruments were used in the research: 1) the Time-Use

Inventory which measured amounts of time for one seven day week devoted









to individual categories such as study, social, leisure, and miscel-

laneous activity; 2) the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (part of

a larger inventory, The Study Skills Test) which measured study habits

and attitudes including those related to time management; 3) the

Self-Survey Index which measured satisfaction and perceived improvement

with various study skills including those related to time management.

Subjects in the study completed all three of the inventories at approximately

the same time in the quarter.

An analysis of variance was computed to determine if significant


differences existed among groups on the above listed variables under

investigation. A Student-Newman-Keuls procedure was then employed to

determine specifically where any differences occurred. In summary,

the following results were obtained from the study:

1. No significant difference was found between experimental and

control groups on total hours of study time per week after instruction

in time management.

2. No significant difference was found between experimental and

control groups on total hours of social activity per week after instr

tion in time management.

3. No significant difference was found between experimental and


control groups on total hours of leisure activity per week after instruc-

tion in time management.

4. No significant difference was found between experimental and

control groups on total hours of miscellaneous activity per week after

instruction in time management.

5. No significant differences were found between experimental and

control groups on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes.


n


uc-









Total scores for the seven-item management subscale were analyzed as

well as each of the seven individual items of the subscale.

6. A significant difference between experimental and control groups

was found on Item 8 of the Self-Survey Index. An investigation of the

direction of differences indicated that in response to the statement,

"I feel that my time management skills have improved since the start

of the quarter," the experimental group responded in a positive manner

significantly more often than Control Group I, which in turn responded

in a positive manner significantly more often than Control Group II.

7. No significant difference between experimental and control

groups was found for Item 2 of the Self-Survey Index, "I feel that I

generally do a satisfactory job of managing my time."

8. No significant differences were found between males and females

on the four categories measured by the Time-Use Inventory (study,

social, leisure, and miscellaneous activity).

9. No significant differences were found between males and

females for the two items (#2 and #8) related to time management on

the Self-Survey Index.

10. A significant difference between males and females in the three

groups was found for three items on the Survey of Study Habits and

Attitudes. Females felt that they were more "up to date in their school-

work," "used their study time more efficiently," and experienced fewer

times when "the work in a course piled up, requiring mad cramming at

the end," as compared with males.

11. A significant difference between grade levels was found in

study activity on the Time-Use Inventory. Seniors reported a weekly

amount of study which was significantly more than that reported by








any of the other grade levels.

12. No significant difference between grade levels was found for

either of the two time management items on the Self-Survey Index or any

of the seven time management items on the Survey of Study Habits and

Attitudes.

13. A significant 2-way interaction was found for several items

on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Senior males consistently

reported lower mean scores than senior females on four items: 1) "I

am usually up to date in my homework;" 2) "I tend to put things off much

more than most students;" 3) "I often study in a haphazard, disorganized

way under the threat of the next test;" 4) "Sometimes I let the work in

a course pile up, then cram madly at the end." A lower score here

indicates a negative response in the sense that it is negative to fall

behind, put things off, study haphazardly, or let course work pile up.


Conclusions


Several conclusions cao be drawn from the findings of this study.

First, instruction in time management favorably affected the perception

which students had of their abilities to effectively manage their time.

Students receiving time management instruction in the study skills classes

felt that their time management skills had improved during the quarter.

This perceived improvement differed significantly from the self-percep-

tion of those students who had not received time management instruction.

Second, the results indicated that differences in study habits and

attitudes, which were apparently unrelated to the class instruction in

time management, existed between males and females. Females consistently








reported more positive self-perceptions regarding their academic

skills.

A third conclusion from this research is drawn from the lack of

behavioral change in students who received time management instruction.

Since no change was recorded in student allocation of time to study,

social, leisure, or miscellaneous activities after instruction in time

management, there are questions regarding: 1) the effectiveness of the

type of instruction given to the Experimental Group; 2) the data-collection

instruments utilized; and 3) the length of time needed for noticeable

changes in behavior to occur. These questions will be addressed in more

detail throughout the remainder of this chapter.


Discussion


After receiving instruction in time management, students perceived

their skills in managing their own time to have improved. Those

students who attended a study skills course without specifically re-

ceiving time management instruction during the period of data-collection

did not perceive their time management skills to have improved as much

as did the first group. Those students who received neither time

management instruction or any other study skills instruction perceived

their time management skills to have improved less than either of the

other two groups.

Time management instruction had a definite effect on students'

perceptions of their skills in this area, yet simply being exposed to

a variety of other study skills apparently helped somewhat in building

confidence in time management skills. Although students receiving time








management instruction perceived an improvement in their skills, very

few behavioral changes resulted from the instruction. No significant

differences among groups were found on time allocated to measures of

study, social, leisure, and miscellaneous activity. Also, no significant

changes occurred in study habits and attitudes after the experimental

group had received time management instruction.

These findings could be interpreted in at least two ways. First,

the fact that students felt better about their abilities to manage

their time effectively could be the most important factor. Although

related behavioral changes did not accompany the change in attitudes,

perhaps it was too soon after the instruction to gain an accurate ap-

praisal of what changes might occur. The attitude change could be the

first step toward actual changes in behavior which might occur at later

times.

A second interpretation suggests that teachers of time management

instruction as well as their students have been unjustifiably confident

that the instruction actually made a difference in behavior. The

literature in this area suggests that most study skills instructors

continue to provide time management instruction in the belief that it

will somehow benefit the student. This particular study has shown that

students also perceive the instruction making a difference, yet the

data suggest that no performance change occurred as the result of

instruction.

It was also interesting to note that a significant difference

between males and females was revealed by the Survey of Study Habits

and Attitudes. Apparently females in all three groups saw themselves








in a more positive light than males regarding their abilities to

"keep up to date in their schoolwork," "use their study time more ef-

ficiently," and "avoid letting course work pile up."

A significant 2-way interaction was also evident. Senior females

consistently differed from senior males on four items of the Survey of

Study Habits and Attitudes. Senior females tended to be "more up to

date in their schoolwork than senior males, had less of a tendency

to "put things off," tended to "study in a haphazard, disorganized way"

less often, and generally did not "let the work in a course pile up"

as often as senior males. Again, these differences could result from

a variety of reasons including a difference in motivation or study

patterns between males and females. One possible explanation for this

difference could be the interest level of females who now find themselves

actively competing with males for grades, job opportunities, and positions

in professional schools which formerly had been unavailable to them.

Perhaps these opportunities have generated a more positive attitude

toward studying for females.

Also, the results of this research indicated that a significant

difference between grade levels existed on the amount of time spent in

study activity. Apparently, seniors studied significantly more hours

than any of the other three grade levels. Since academic achievement

was not one of the variables explored in this research, it is unknown

if this additional study time had any effect on grade point average.

Again, a motivation factor could be present which accounted for

seniors' increased study time.








Implications


There appears to be an implication for counselors worth

noting at this point. This research has demonstrated that even though

students' time management behavior did not change as a result of instruc-

tion, students apparently felt better about their ability to organize

and efficiently manage their time. That positive feeling in itself

warrants attention from those who deal with student problems daily.

For some students, merely feeling better about themselves and their

abilities to control their lives could be far more important in leading

to or stimulating behavioral changes.

This realization in turn has implications for departments of

counselor education. Since college counselors often work with students

who feel as though they have little control over their lives in school,

it seems appropriate that a part of the counselor's training could be

in certain skill development areas such as the ones described in this

study. A knowledge of concrete skills which could enhance students'

self-perception and possibly their academic performance certainly

would seem to be a viable component of a counselor education program.

In fact, the results of this study suggest that there probably is no

one "right" way to counsel students in study skills such as time

management. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counselors' need

for adequate information in this area as well as a great deal of

flexibility in adapting learning techniques to the personality of the

student.

Recommendations

Improvements could be made on this type of time management research








if subjects under investigation could be observed for longer periods

of time. In connection with instruction in study skills, it is ques-

tionable whether students will implement the newly learned skills im-

mediately. Perhaps over a longer period of time, the need for time

management skills will become evident; therefore, it would be helpful

if a longitudinal study could be conducted to measure change over several

quarters of school. It might also be helpful to measure change in grade

point average over several quarters. For this particular study, one

quarter did not seem to be an adequate length of time to warrant an

inspection of grade point averages. However, if a longitudinal study

was conducted, it would be appropriate to investigate the possibility that

a relationship exists between time management instruction and grade point

average.

A second recommendation concerns study skills instructors who

teach techniques of time management. The type of instruction used

in the present study was fairly typical of that generally described

in study skills books. Therefore, it seems apparent that an evaluation

of current instructional practices might be warranted. If study skills

instructors are not achieving desired results in student behavioral

change, perhaps other methods of instruction should be investigated.

Apparently, a closer look should be taken at current instructional

practices in this area.

In summary, this research attempted to measure behaviors and

attitudes related to study skills which are greatly influenced by the

unique personal problems, motivation, and abilities of each individual

involved in the study. The data have indicated that certain self-perceptions





67



can be affected by instruction in time management, but that specific

behavioral changes related to time use are more difficult to detect.

Further research in this area should explore other methods of time

management instruction as well as possible factors affecting behaviors

related to the general area of study skills.












APPENDIX A


COURSE DESCRIPTION AND AVAILABLE TIMES


Dept. Course Section Credit Days Time B1dg.

EDC 301 DEP* 3 M 10:00-12:00 Hume Hall

EDC 301 DEP* 3 W 1:30-3:30 Hume Hall

EDC 301 DEP* 3 Tues. 7:00-9:00 p.m. Murphree Hall

EDC 301 DEP* 3 Tues. 10:00-12:00 Building E


Instruction in reading and study skills will be offered on both an
individual and group basis. Diagnostic test, evaluation of skill
levels and reading-study techniques will be considered. Class experiences
will include lectures, discussions, demonstrations, and laboratory work.
Topics include: reading rate and comprehension, vocabulary, note-taking,
marking a text, time-use, concentration techniques, test anxiety, etc.
Direct application of skills to coursework will be stressed. Intended
for both successful students desiring to sharpen already adequate
skills as well as those with identifiable problems. Enrollment limited
to 20 students. Grading ona pass/fail basis. Four sections will be
offered Spring Quarter.








*Section numbers may be obtained at the Reading and Study Skills
Center, 141 Building E, 392-0791.












APPENDIX B

COURSE OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS


Student Development in a University Setting: Applied
Techniques in Study Skills

I. Objectives

1. To familiarize students with a variety of reading and
study skills techniques.

2. To assist students apply skills to coursework and
develop effective personal study approaches.

3. In broad context, to encourage exploration of academic
skills and personal goals related to college success.


II. Requirements

1. Attend regularly (no more than two unexcused absences).

2. Complete an individual project (to be determined in
conference with instructor).

3. Read How to Study in College.

4. Participate in class discussions.

5. Work individually at least two hours per week at the
Reading and Study Skills Center.

6. Participate in a minimum of two individual conferences
with the instructor.












APPENDIX C

COURSE OUTLINE


EDC 301: Student Development in a University Setting--
Applied Techniques in Study Skills


Week 1: Objectives and Requirements; Introductions

Week 2: Diagnostic Reading Test

Week 3: Test Interpretation and Equipment Introduction

Week 4: Individual Practice with Materials

Week 5: Marking a Text

Week 6: Time Management Techniques

Week 7: Examination Preparation; Time Management

Week 8: Taking Lecture Notes; Time Management

Week 9: Myers-Briggs; Learning Styles; Career Choice

Week 10: Myers-Briggs Interpretation; Evaluations


Other Topics Considered

Concentration and Self-Discipline
Memory and Forgetting
Keeping Your Emotional Balance
Campus Resources
Vocabulary Development
Reading Rate and Comprehension













APPENDIX D

STUDY SKILLS TEST--INVENTORY OF STUDY HABITS AND ATTITUDES


Directions: Please answer the following statements with "yes" or
"no."

1. My class notes are sometimes difficult to understand later.

2. I often sit in class and forget to take notes.

3. I need to put in more time on my schoolwork.

4. In general, I think my study habits are good.

5. I tend to get along well with teachers.

6. When I don't like a course, I can't seem to study much.

7. Much of what I have to study will be of little use to me.

8. It is usually hard for me to get started on my schoolwork.

9. I need to plan my time better.

10. I am usually up to date in my schoolwork.

11. I tend to daydream when I study.

12. I tend to study where it is very quiet.

13. I often get moody and can't study at all.

14. Sometimes I can't do my best on examinations because I am so
nervous and tense.

15. When making notes on a lecture, I have trouble picking out the
main points.

16. My class notes are usually disorganized, even if the lecture
was well-organized by the teacher.

17. I spend an average of twenty hours a week or more studying.

18. I always make an outline of a theme or report before I begin
writing it.

19. I sometimes have trouble in courses because I don't agree with
the teacher.








20. I skip classes that I could just as easily attend.

21. I think I have trouble studying because I don't know what
my goals are.

22. I always put studying first.

23. I use my study time efficiently.

24. I tend to put things off much more than most students.

25. I can concentrate well when I study even if the material is
quite dull.

26. I often try to study with the radio or TV turned on.

27. My studies cause me a lot of worry.

28. Often some thought or idea keeps coming to me, and I can't
stop thinking about it.

29. I often miss important lecture information because I am
busy making notes on earlier material.

30. I seem to get the wrong material into my class notes.

31. I usually try to make a systematic review before a test.

32. I am eager to do my very best in my schoolwork.

33. I participate more than most students in class discussions.

34. I usually like the subject I am studying.

35. If I have trouble in a course, I tend to give up in discouragement.

36. I often consider dropping out of school.

37. I often study in a haphazard, disorganized way under the
threat of the next test.

38. It is very difficult for me to stick to a study schedule.

39. I can usually sit and study for long periods without becoming
tired or distracted.

40. I have a tendency to become sleepy in classes.

41. I am under a lot of tension when I study.

42. I sometimes get so worried about a personal problem that I
can't study.








43. I can take good notes if the teacher presents material in an
organized way.

44. Before I go to class, I try to test myself to be sure that I
know the material I have studied.

45. My approach to studies is usually active rather than passive.

46. I try to take courses so that I will not have to study hard.

47. Sometimes I let the work in a course pile up, then cram madly
at the end.

48. I am easily distracted from my schoolwork.

49. I get so upset about little things that I can't study.




McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Study Skills Test, 1970.































APPENDIX E

STUDY SKILLS TEST--RELIABILITY DATA












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Table E-2

Reliability Coefficients of Study Skills Test


MHBSS Inventory
MHBSS Study Skills Test of Study Habits
Form A Form B and Attitudes

KR-20 .78 .80 .87

N 935 941 1787

Mean 37.74 38.37 21.21

Median 38 39 21

SD 7.73 8.06 7.48

Std. error
of meas. 3.65 3.63 2.71


McGraw-Hill Basic Skills Systems Study Skills Test, 1970.
































APPENDIX F

TIME-USE INVENTORY
















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APPENDIX G


SELF-SURVEY INDEX


This scale has been prepared so that you can indicate how you feel about
a variety of study skills. Please circle the letters) on the left
indicating how you feel about each statement. (SA=Strongly Agree, A=
Agree, U=Undecided, D=Disagree, SD=Strongly Disagree.)


SA A U D SD


SA A U D SD


SA A U D SD


SA A U D SD


SA A U D SD


SA A U D SD


SA A U D SD


SA A U D SD


SA A U D SD


SA A U D SD


1. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of
taking lecture notes.

2. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of
managing my time.

3. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of
marking my textbook.

4. I feel that I generally maintain good concentration
while I study.

5. I feel that my reading rate and comprehension skills
have improved since the start of this quarter.

6. I feel that my vocabulary has improved since the
start of this quarter.

7. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of
memorizing details for an exam.

8. I feel that my time management skills have improved
since the start of this quarter.

9. I feel that I generally choose a study area which
is free from distractions.

10. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of
preparing for exams.













APPENDIX H

TIME MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT


Discussion of previous attempts at using a time schedule.

Discussion of advantages of using a time schedule.

Description of a Master Plan for time management.

Description of a Weekly Schedule.

Description of a Daily Goals List.

Discussion of suggestions for effectively programming one's
time (Pauk, 1974).

Assignment of daily goal-setting for following week.


Step

Step

Step

Step

Step

Step


I:

II:

III:

IV:

V:

VI:


Step VII:










APPENDIX I

SAMPLE MASTER PLAN


Plan of Study, Classes, and Recreation


Tues. Wed.


Thurs. Fri.


Sat.


Sun.


8:00 Math Math Math
(1 )
905 English English English English Church

O10:0 Church
(3)
11:15 Biology Biology Church
(
12:20 Lunch Biology Lunch Biology Lunch Church
(5)
1:25 Lunch Lunch
(6)
230 Spanish Spanish Spanish

3:35
(8)
4:40 Tennis Tennis
(9)
5:45
55 Tennis Tennis
(10)
Dinner Dinner Dinner Dinner Dinner
7:10 Biology Hall
(El) Lab Meeting
8:10 Biology Hall
(E2) Lab Meeting
9:10
(E3)
10:00

11:00


12:00


Mon.









APPENDIX J

WEEKLY SCHEUDLE BASED ON ASSIGNMENTS


Assignment

Problems on pp. 50-56

Paper to Write

Read Chapt. II, 25 pp.

Study Chapt. IV, Quiz

Read Chapts. III, IV,
60 pp.


Es timated Date Time


Estimated
Time

5 hrs.

10 hrs.

3 hrs.

5 hrs.


4 hrs.


Date
Due

Mon. 12th

Wed. 14th

Wed. 14th

Thurs. 15th


Fri. 16th


Day Assignment Morning Afternoon Evening

Sunday Math Problems 3-5 7-10

English--gather notes 11-12
Monday Biology--start Chapt. II 2-4

Tu y English--first draft 9-11
English--final copy 7-10

Biology--finish Chapt. II 9-10
Wednesday Spanish--start Chapt. IV 7-10

Thursday Spanish--finish Chapt. IV 9-11
thursday Astronomy--read Chapt. IV 7-10


Friday Astronomy--read Chapt. IV. 9-11


Subject

Math

English

Biology

Spanish

Astronomy


Time
Due

8:00

9:00

11:00

1:00


2:00


--













APPENDIX K

DAILY SCHEDULE


Monday



Time Item Priority

8-9 Review notes for Soc. class discussion *2

9-10 Sociology Class

10-11 Biology Lecture

11-12 Fix up Biology lecture notes

12-1 Lunch

1-2 Return book to library and buy notebook *3
at bookstore

2-5 Literature homework--read Chapts. 3-6 *1

5-6 Basketball

6-7 Dinner

7-10 Math homework--problems on pp. 10-14









APPENDIX L


INFORMED CONSENT FORM


University of Florida
Gainesville, 32611


To the student,

I am collecting information for a study concerned with how students
manage their time. I would appreciate it if you would take the time now
to complete the attached Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes along
with the Self-Survey Index. In addition, I would like you to complete
the Time-Use Inventory over the next week. The person giving you these
instruments will fully explain how to fill out the forms.

Participation is voluntary, so if for any reason you would rather
not take part in this project, please feel free to say so. Furthermore,
you may withdraw at any time. Your answers and time sheets will be used
for statistical purposes only.

Thank you,



Alan F. Kirby
Principal Investigator

375-2120

1311 NW 7th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32603



I have read and understand the procedure described above. I agree to
participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this
description.



Date Signature of Student












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Resnick, W. C., & Heller, D. H. On your own in college. Columbus:
Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc., 1963.

Ritter, J. H. University study skills program. Journal of Reading,
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Robinson, F. P. Effective study. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1961.

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90



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Alan Ferguson Kirby was born on January 6, 1951, in St. Charles,

Missouri. He is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Kirby of

Greenfield, Indiana. In June, 1969, he graduated from Greenfield

High School, Greenfield, Indiana. In June, 1973, he received the degree,

Bachelor of Science, with a major in psychology from Ball State

University, Muncie, Indiana. During 1973 and 1974, he worked for

the Housing Office at Ball State University and completed the degree,

Master of Arts, with a major in educational psychology in August, 1974.

From 1975 to 1976, he worked part-time for the University of Florida

Reading and Study Skills Center while pursuing a degree in the

Department of Counselor Education. In August, 1976, he received

the degrees, Master of Education and Specialist in Education. Since

September, 1976, until the present time, he has been the Project

Coordinator for Residence Hall Learning Centers (half-time) and a

full-time candidate for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy, in the

Department of Counselor Education.

Mr. Kirby will be employed as the Coordinator of Educational

Programming at the University of California, Santa Barbara.




Full Text

PAGE 1

AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTION ON COLLEGE STUDENTS' TIME MANAGEMENT BY ALAN F. KIRBY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1977

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to thank the following people who helped in the completion of this study: Dr. Harold Riker, Chairman who conscientiously edited the manuscript, and provided support throughout the author's doctoral program. Dr. A. Garr Cranney, friend and colleague, who guided the author into doctoral study and provided a model of professionalism and humanism which will long be remembered. Dr. Roderick McDavis, friend and advisor, who supported the author in his earliest days as a counselor-in-training and served on the supervisory conmittee. Dr. E. L. Tolbert and Dr. Chester Tillman, who served on the author's supervisory committee. Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Kirby, the author's parents, who provided the love, support, and encouragement necessary to reach this goal. n

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii LIST OF TABLES v ABSTRACT vi CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 *Statement of the Problem 1 /-Rationale for the Study 6 "'Purpose of the Study 7 ^Definition of Terms 8 Organization of the Remainder of the Study 9 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 Time Management Skills 11 Students' Use of Time 13 General Descriptive Studies 13 Sex and Age Difference in Time Use 16 Effects of Time Management on Academic Achievement . . 17 General Efficiency of Time Management 20 Reading and Study Skills Programs 21 Summary of the Literature 24 III. METHODOLOGY 26 Research Design 27 The Setting 30 The Study Skills Course 30 Reading and Study Skills Center 32 The Instruments 32 McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Study Skills Test . 32 Time-Use Inventory 34 Self-Survey Index 35 Procedures 36 Experimental Group Procedures 36 Control Group Procedures 41 Analysis of the Data 43 Follow-Up Procedures 43 Limitations 44 m

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Page CHAPTER IV. RESULTS 45 Hypotheses 46 Additional Data 56 V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 58 Summary 58 Conclusions 61 Discussion 62 Implications 65 Recommendations 65 APPENDICES A. COURSE DESCRIPTION AND AVAILABLE TIMES 68 B. COURSE OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS 69 C. COURSE OUTLINE 70 D. STUDY SKILLS TEST--INTENTORY OF STUDY HABITS AND ATTITUDES 71 E. STUDY SKILLS TEST--RELIABILITY DATA 75 F. TIME-USE INVENTORY 78 G. SELF-SURVEY INDEX 80 H. TIME MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT 81 I. SAMPLE MASTER PLAN 82 J. WEEKLY SCHEDULE BASED ON ASSIGNMENTS 83 K. DAILY SCHEDULE 84 L. INFORMED CONSENT FORM 85 REFERENCES 86 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 91 IV

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LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of study time per week as measured by the Time-Use Inventory 46 2. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of social activity per week as measured by the Time-Use Inventory 47 3. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of leisure activity per week as measured by the Time-Use Inventory 48 4. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of miscellaneous activity per week as measured by the Time-Use Inventory 48 5. Results of analysis of variance for groups on the "Organization of Effort" subscale of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes 49 6. Results of analysis of variance for groups on separate items of the "Organization of Effort" subscale 50 7. Results of analysis of variance for groups on Item 2 and 8 of the Self-Survey Index 51 8. Results of the Student-Newman-Keuls procedure for analysis of group differences on Item 8 of the Self-Survey Index 52 9. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences on the Time-Use Inventory 52 10. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes 53 11. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences on the Self-Survey Index 54

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Table Page 12. Results of analysis of variance for grade level differences on the Time-Use Inventory 55 13. Results of analysis of variance for grade level differences on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes 55 14. Results of analysis of variance for grade level differences on the Self-Survey Index 56 15. Results of analysis of variance for sex and grade level interaction differences on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes 57 VI

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTION ON COLLEGE STUDENTS' TIME MANAGEMENT By Alan F. Kirby July 1977 Chairman: Dr. Harold Riker Major Department: Counselor Education The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a specific type of instruction designed to alter time management behavior of students enrolled in a University of Florida study skills course. Areas of investigation included amounts of time spent on study, social activity, leisure activities, and miscellaneous activities. Other areas included an assessment of study habits and attitudes, as well as reactions to attempts at time management. Sex and grade level differences on the time management criterion were also investigated. A total of 95 students participated in the study. Of that number, 34 were enrolled in two sections of EDC 301, "Student Development in a University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills," designated as the Experimental Group. Control Group I consisted of 31 students who enrolled in an additional two sections of the course; Control Group II included 30 students who were on the waiting list at the University of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center. Students in the Experimental Group were exposed to instruction in time management techniques. vii

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Instruction for the two control groups was delayed until after the evaluation process ended. Three instruments were used in the research: 1) the Time-Use Inventory which measured amounts of time for one seven day week devoted to individual categories such as study, social, leisure, and miscellaneous activity; 2) the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (part of a larger inventory, The Study Skills Test) which measured study habits and attitudes including those related to time management; 3) the SelfSurvey Index which measured satisfaction and perceived improvement with various study skills including those related to time management. Subjects in the study completed all three of the inventories at approximately the same time in the quarter. An analysis of variance was computed to determine if significant differences existed among groups on the above listed variables under investigation. A Student-Newman-Keuls procedure was then employed to determine specifically where any differences occurred. Results Instruction in time management affected the perception which students had of their abilities to effectively manage their time. Students receiving time management instruction in the study skills class felt that their time management skills had improved during the quarter. This perceived improvement differed significantly from the self-perception of those students who had not received time management instruction. The results also indicated that differences in study habits and attitudes which were apparently unrelated to the class instruction in viii

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time management existed between males and females. Females consistently reported more positive self-perceptions regarding their abilities with academic skills. A third finding centered on the lack of behavioral change in students who received time management instruction. No change was recorded in the amounts of study, social, leisure, or miscellaneous activity experienced by students as a result of receiving instruction in time management. This finding raises a question regarding the effectiveness of the type of instruction given to students in the Experimental Group as well as questions about the data-collection instruments utilized and the length of time needed for noticeable changes in behavior to occur. IX

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem Perhaps the most valuable result of all education is the ability to make yourself do the thing you have to do, when it ought to be done, whether you like it or not .... However early a man's training begins, it is probably the last lesson that he learns thoroughly. (Thomas Huxley as cited by Resnick & Heller, 1963, p. 63) Each year in universities and colleges across the country, large numbers of students fail to meet academic requirements and leave school. Many of the students who drop out of college are the intellectual equals of those who succeed (Morgan & Deese, 1969). Consequently, factors other than academic ability must contribute to the failure of those unable to meet minimum academic levels. Many educators believe that inadequate study skills are a major contributing factor. In fact, numerous "how to study" books have been written based on the premise that certain skills can be learned which for some students could mean the difference between academic success or failure (Froe & Lee, 1965; Kalish, 1959; Morgan & Deese, 1969; Norman, 1971; Pauk, 1974; Raygor & Wark,1970; Robinson, 1961; fussing, 1962; Weigand & Blake, 1955). More specifically, there are certain educators specializing in study skills who believe that the management of one's time is an important key to the ultimate academic success of some students. "Efficient planning and the ability to carry out one's plan is, in fact, 1

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the most important single factor in successful work of every sort" (Book, 1927b, p. 532). Book (1927a) further indicates that, The most important educational problem does not consist in determining more facts about differences in native endowment or devising more practical and reliable methods for their measurement, but in finding a way of helping each student learn to make the best possible use of the talents and the energy and the time which he possesses, (p. 22) Headley (1927) proposed that "the heaviest responsibility carried by any person is that of investing the twenty-four hours a day which are alloted to him" (p. 377), Many college counselors discuss the management of time with their clients. Nearly every study skills book includes a segment on time management and most study skills courses deal with the topic in class. The implication is that many specialists in the field of study skills believe that college success is due not only to capacity and aptitude, but also to the way in which students use each period of the twentyfour hours. Consequently, an effort should be made to help students realize that efficient use of their time and energy might produce more satisfying results (Johnson, 1938). What are some problems encountered in providing this sort of guidance and instruction? Often students rationalize to themselves that the week contains enough time to study everything without adopting some sort of study plan. Such students usually fail to realize the amount of time wasted when studying is done "according to mood" (Olsen, 1958). Many students complain of "not having enough time" to complete all their schoolwork while maintaining a healthy combination of rest, exercise, work, relaxation, and socializing. Yet, a study by Dole (1959) showed that in a typical week, university students spent 49.3

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hours in sleep, 19.8 hours in study, 18.7 hours in class and labs, and 10.7 hours in meals. That totals 98.5 hours, leaving 69.5 hours of the week unaccounted for--almost 10 hours a day. Pauk (1974) suggests that students can gain more from their time in two ways: first, by being more efficient in completing tasks, and second, by programming their time and using small blocks of it that are usually wasted. Many college students feel that any form of scheduling or planning of time is an infringement on their personal liberty (Resnick & Heller, 1963), Some students are afraid that a schedule will make slaves of them. Pauk (1974) maintains that the opposite is probably true; the student who schedules his time in some manner wastes less time and thus has more free time for personal activities. Scheduling can free the student from "uncertainty, mental conflict, guilt, and fear of the future" (Resnick & Heller, 1963, p. 63). But for some, a schedule is made to be restrictive instead of beneficial; it begins to control the student instead of the opposite. With proper scheduling, these problems might be avoided. One other aspect of the time management problem is more complex and philosophic. College students often feel that "their own time" has not yet begun, and probably will not until they find security in a job (Kastenbaum, 1966). Although most students have a set number of class hours and other regular time commitments, they are rarely free of the feeling that an obligation is hanging over their heads. Their time is primarily devoted to the pursuit of knowledge, credits, and degrees. Thus, when they "steal" time for themselves, it is likely to arouse feelings of guilt and concern. If a student's time is properly planned.

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there usually can be ample time left over which can be considered his "own time" to be used as he wishes without feeling as if it were stolen (Kalish, 1959). In attempting to solve time management problems, counselors and instructors generally can list several values implicit in the process of programming time. Pauk (1974) informally describes such values: 1. Effective time management techniques help "get you started." 2. Scheduling "prevents avoidance of disliked subjects." 3. Time management "monitors the slackening off process." 4. Scheduling "eliminates the wrong type of cramming." 5. Programming helps "make studying enjoyable." 6. Effective management "promotes cumulative review." 7. Programming and goal setting can "free the mind." 8. Time management "controls the study break." 9. Scheduling "precludes overlooking recreation." 10. Effective management helps "raise your recreational efficiency. " n. Programming "regulates our daily living." (Pauk, 1974, pp. 20-22) Such statements as these represent both values and problems of time management. For every positive aspect to be relayed to the student, there occurs the problem of how to transmit that information effectively. Over the years, surveys show that successful students use some sort of time schedule (Pauk, 1974). But what approach to scheduling works best and how do counselors and study skills instructors effectively "teach" time management techniques?

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Many educators have maintained that students should spend two hours in homework for every hour in class. This 2:1 ratio is probably the most common myth existent in the study skills business (Raygor & Wark, 1970; Yarington, 1967). More recent study skills manuals call for the scheduling of time in a flexible manner, based on the demands of each individual course. Circumstances as well as personality influence the type of schedule a student will select (Pauk, 1974). It is essential that each individual student adopt a schedule to fit his needs rather than to adopt a rigid schedule which fits hardly anyone. Some study skills experts approach time management with a set of specific "do's and don't's": (a) Specify particular courses to study rather than marking "study" on a schedule; (b) allow 50 to 90 minutes at a time for each course; (c) figure approximately 5 to 10 minutes break for each hour of study; (d) make use of free hours; (e) try to schedule study time for the class that just ended or is about to begin; (f) allow 3 to 5 minutes before and after each class to review lecture and read notes; (g) allow a break of about 20 minutes between final study and retiring for the night; (h) leave one to two hours late Sunday afternoon or early evening to review all work during the week; (i) make use of wasted minutes; and (j) try to leave one entire evening free for social activities (Kalish, 1959). Other educators describe the use of master schedules (a schedule of fixed activities), detailed weekly schedules, and daily schedules (Pauk, 1974). Still others (Raygor & Wark, 1970) stress the importance of knowing one's work rate and deciding how much time to schedule in order to complete assignments. The difference here is an emphasis on

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amount accomplished rather than allotting certain set amounts of time to get work done. Rationale for the Stud y Many instructional methods such as those listed here on previous pages have been offered in the past. All probably have some merit. Yet, which methods of instruction, if any, actually produce any change in study behavior? A review of the literature in this area indicates that very few researchers have attempted to assess specific teaching techniques to determine if behavior changes as a result of the instruction. Yet, there are many descriptive studies as well as prescriptive segments of study skills books. Students' admitted need for management skills has been documented by Olsen (1958) in a study with 292 junior college freshmen. When asked what their most troublesome study problems were, the second item most frequently mentioned was "the inability to plan and regularly follow a definite study schedule" (p. 330). Also, in a study by Strang (1957) in which 536 students wrote compositions about, "What makes studying easy or difficult for me," results showed that many students registered complaints about a lack of planning which resulted in a pileup of homework at certain times. Much has been written on this topic, but the proposed theories of time management are not data-based. Consequently, no authoritative emphasis can be placed on one specific technique of instruction; counselors and study skills instructors should not discuss the topic with confidence until they are supplied with data-based facts about the

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effectiveness of time management instruction. It is time now to develop experimentally based information for those professionals attempting to assist students with this vital study skill. The implications of such information could not only have an effect upon students, but also upon departments of education where the training of counselors and other helping professionals is of prime concern. Specific knowledge about a variety of study skills might become a useful, if not a necessary, component of a training program. Both the experimental nature of this research and its possible implications make the present study unique in the area of time management. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a specific teaching technique designed to alter the time management behavior of students attending a University of Florida study skills course. The following research questions were investigated: 1. What effect will time management instruction have upon students' average amounts of time spent per week on study, social activity, leisure activities, and miscellaneous activities? 2. What effect will time management instruction have on study habits or attitudes in relation to time management? 3. What effect will time management instruction have on students' perceived satisfaction and improvement with general time management skills? 4. What effect will time management instruction have on the variables of sex and grade level in relation to the criteria stated above?

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8 Defini t1on of Terms Time Management Effective time management is the organization and control of one's time which permits allocation of daily activities such as study, sleep, recreation, exercise, organization commitments, and leisure time in amounts adequate and efficient for the individual involved. Study Skills Course A study skills course offers instruction in a variety of areas related to the academic setting. Examples of course topics include reading rate and comprehension, vocabulary development, note-taking, marking a text, time management, concentration techniques, and test anxiety. The course is intended for both successful students desiring to sharpen already adequate skills as well as those with identifiable problems. Master Schedule A master schedule is the first step in programming student activities. It contains all activities which are fixed items for the entire semester/ quarter. Examples would include classes, laboratories, meals, regular meetings, and church (Pauk, 1974). Assignment-Oriented Weekly Schedule An assignment-oriented weekly schedule is based primarily on specific assignments, rather than on time available. It is a supplement to the master schedule and covers only one specific week (Pauk, 1974).

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Daily Schedule A daily schedule is kept on an index card to record a planned list of activities for the day. Individual items might include classes, errands, study topics, appointments, and recreation. These items are then ranked in a priority system. Study Activity Study activity is defined as academic work outside of classroom and laboratory requirements. Social Activity Social activity is defined as any period of time primarily devoted to being with others for no particular reason or task (as in organizational meetings) other than companionship. Leisure Activity Leisure activity is defined as any period of time primarily devoted to activities such as television viewing, stereo listening, or exercise. Although others may be present, the primary emphasis is on the activity rather than the people. Miscellaneous Activity Miscellaneous activity is defined as any period of time which is unaccounted for each day. Organization of the Remainder of the Study Chapter I introduced the reader to the research topic. Chapter II reviews relevant literature in the area of time management. Chapter III

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10 provides a description of the methodology for this study. Chapter IV analyzes the results of the research. Chapter V provides an overview of the study and suggests implications of the results.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Since the literature in the area of time management is relatively scarce, it has been possible to include articles written as early as the mid-1920's and thus provide a comprehensive coverage of available literature. This review covers five areas. The first is a general section on time management skills which emphasizes the need for specific skills as well as examples of such techniques. The second section covers descriptive studies illustrating students' use of time . The third reviews articles describing the effects of time management on academic achieve ment . The fourth section deals with reports on the general effectiveness of time management skills . The last section summarizes study skills programs . This section has .been included because of the importance of the setting for the current study. Time Management Skills The need for some sort of time management skills has long been recognized by college students. Olsen (1958) conducted a study with 292 junior college freshmen to determine what were their most troublesome study problems. "The inability to plan and regularly follow a definite study schedule" was mentioned most frequently except for "lack of concentration" (p. 330). Typical statements of students included "'I'm always putting things off until the last minute,' 'Something else 11

PAGE 21

12 usually comes up that is more interesting than studying,' 'I do the easiest assignments first and never get around to the hard ones'" (p. 330). Olsen maintains that students should be encouraged to follow a study program after their loss of valuable study time is pointed out. He states that A further incentive to regular scheduling of study time is provided students when they understand the aspects of a well -planned study program, such as arranging study time each week for a review of past assignments, planning study time as close to the lecture sessions as possible, and providing adequate recreation breaks at suitable times of the day. (p. 330) Another study designed to record student perceptions of study difficulties was conducted by Strang (1957). Compositions on the topic, "What makes studying easy or difficult for me," were obtained from 536 students. Among the many responses, students frequently registered complaints about a lack of planning which resulted in a pile-up of homework on certain days at certain periods. Many educators specializing in the area of study skills believe that problems of this nature can se avoided when effective techniques of time management are utilized. Book (1927b) stated that "efficient planning and the ability to carry out one's plan is, in fact, the most important single factor in successful work of every sort" (p. 532). Many study skills books, which include segments on time management, have been written because the authors believed that certain academic skills such as note-taking, examination preparation, and efficient use of time, could be learned (Froe & Lee, 1965; Kalish, 1959; Morgan & Deese, 1969; Norman, 1971; Pauk,1974, Raygor & Wark, 1970; Robinson, 1961; fussing, 1952; Weigand & Blake, 1955) Pauk (1974) reported that surveys over the years indicated that successful students use time schedules. Some work best with detailed.

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13 comprehensive plans, while others prefer a brief list of things to do. Whichever is the case, some type of planning is the rule. The student who schedules his time in some manner wastes less time and thus has more free time for personal activities. Time management skills typically include daily, weekly, and quarterly schedules for planning activities (Pauk, 1974). Some schedules stress knowing one's work rate and establishing a plan to complete assignments according to estimated time needed (Raygor & Wark,1970). Other suggestions include making use of free daily hours, scheduling breaks for each hour of study, setting specific study goals, and reviewing lecture notes periodically (Kalish, 1959). In fact, Crewe (1969) determined that spaced review periods that are short in comparison to original study time appear to be effective. Thus, according to Johnson (1938), an effort should be made to help students realize that efficient use of their time and energy might produce more satisfying results. Students' Use of Time General Descriptive Studies The majority of studies which have been conducted in the area of time management have been descriptive. Results have been generally consistent over the past 50 years, although several different methods of data collection have been used. Some studies rely on students 'recall of activities which occurred the previous day or even the previous week. Others ask students to respond to a questionnaire about current

PAGE 23

14 activities. Still others employ time-use forms for maintaining an accurate, detailed record of events as they occur. For a majority of studies, the long-standing ratio of two hours of study for every hour in class is not supported. Goldsmith and Crawford (1928), in studying a group of University of Idaho students, found that approximately one hour was spent in study for every one hour in class. Sturtevant and Strang (1927) found that minutes of study per day only slightly exceeded minutes in class for a group of female students. Marwardt and Sikkink (1970), using over 700 students at the University of Wisconsin, discovered that 90% spent far less than 100 minutes in preparation for each 50 minutes of class. In fact, the median time spent studying for each 50-minute class was 35.8 minutes for one group and 23.5 minutes for another. Yarington (1967), in what is generally recognized as the most comprehensive study of time use to date, obtained similar findings of a 1:1 ratio. He instructed a total sample of 3,397 freshmen over a one-year period at Ohio University to keep detailed charts of time devoted to reading. The mean number of hours spent in reading was about 14 per week. At least as far back as 1927, educators have been concerned with how students use their time. Book (1927b) found the median number of hours "wasted" or "lost" in a week to be approximately 31. In similar fashion. Dole (1959) discovered that over 37 hours per week were left unaccounted for after students reported all other activities. Total time devoted to academic work was 41 hours, with 20 hours spent in class or laboratory and 21 hours in study. Sleep accounted for 50 hours of the week, with meals taking 11.5 hours, recreation 16.3 hours, and travel 5.9 hours.

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15 The figure of 40 hours devoted to academic pursuits seems to be consistent with several other studies. Comstock (1925), after administering time-use questionnaires to 500 Mt. Holyoke College students, found that an average of 39 hours per week was devoted to a combination of class and study time. Daily averages showed 5k hours of academic work, 8 hours of sleep, ]h hours at meals, 1 hour 20 minutes in exercise, 40 minutes at chapel, and 6 hours unaccounted for. Hutchinson and Connard (1926) had 500 Vassar College students keep daily records for a semester. Again, the amount of time devoted to academic work was approximately 40 hours per week. The average daily distribution of time for the typical week was as follows: academic work, b^ hours; extracurricular activities, 35 minutes; exercise, 40 minutes; and sleep, 7 hours and 55 minutes. One exception to this stable pattern of results was that reported by Moore and Graham (1937), who found that 218 Mt. Holyoke freshmen spent an average of 8-9 hours a day on academic work, which created a total of 56-63 hours per week. Several studies reported only study time per week without mention of the number of class hours taken. Some slight differences among studies can be noted regarding amount of time spent in study. Robinson (1961), in presenting data from an unpublished study by Bean and Gaw, indicated that the mean number of study hours per day for several hundred women students was 3 hours and 5 minutes, or 21 hours, 35 minutes for the week. Also, Crawford (1929) repoted 20.56 as the mean number of hours spent in study each week. Yet, Bell (1931), in a study at State Teachers College, Chico, California, used a sample of 127 students who collected data for 28

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16 days and found an average weekly study time of only 14 hours. Also, Eurich (1933) reported a weekly average of only 12-13 hours for 300 University of Minnesota students. It is interesting to note that although the mean number of hours reported for most studies is relatively stable (a few exceptions have been noted), there is a wide range of individual averages and a definite pattern of work cycles within the week. For instance, in the Crawford study (1929), with a sample of 1,306 students, there was a standard deviation of 7.74 hours and a range of study hours for the week which went from to 36. Bell (1931) demonstrated that about 44% of study time is at night. The greatest daily amount of studying occurs on Tuesday and the least amount on Friday. Toward the end of the week, there is a tendency for shorter duration of study periods and fewer students studying. Maddox (1963) reported that college students worked in cycles of enthusiasm lasting for two or three days. At other times they avoided work completely. Also, there are indications that study habits are in part a result of the type of testing schedule to which students are subjected. Mawhinney (1971), in a tightly controlled study of testing schedules and study habits, found that daily testing produced consistent duration of study behavior. Weekly testing and testing eyery three weeks produced sporadic bursts of study behavior with the amount of study increasing as the test time drew near. Sex and Age Differences in Time Use Although there is little reported in the literature about sex and age differences in time use, a few studies are worth noting. Andrews (1930) had 700 students at the North Carolina College for Women keep a record of their use of time for a week. A study of the data

PAGE 26

17 revealed a constant decrease in the number of hours spent in curricular avtivities by the freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior classes. The medians for the four classes were: freshmen, 42.7; sophomores, 41; juniors, 39.8; and seniors, 36.1 hours. Also, an increase was found in the number of hours spent in extracurricular activities from the freshman to the senior class. The study of Goldsmith and Crawford (1928) also showed an increase in extracurricular activities for senior men. Another similar finding (Dole, 1959) showed that sophomores studied significantly more than other groups, while seniors studied less. At the University of Birmingham, Theoday (1956) also discovered that first year students study more than students in other grade levels. The only exception to this pattern was reported by Marwardt and Sikkink (1970), who found that students in the junior or senior year, in graduate school, and those in courses requiring reading other than texts reported greater study times. One study reporting sex differences in time use indicated that women study more than men. Malleson (1960) reported that by their third year of college, 61% of the women in humanities reported studying in excess of five hours daily. Only 39% of the men could report the same. Effects of Time Management on Academic Achievement Several studies have been conducted to determine if a correlation exists between amount of study time and academic achievement. The results of such research are mixed, but the majority of the studies show a small positive correlation. Hemmerling and Hurst (1951) administered

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18 a questionnaire to 202 sophomore students at La Habre High School in Fullerton, California, concerning time spent in nine activities: television viewing, studying, working, listening to music, sports, reading, dating, church, and movie viewing. The relationship between grade point averages and time spent on sports, reading, dating, and church was not found to be significant. The relationship between grades and time spent on television, work, movies, and music was found to be negative. The only exception was study time, which was found to be very significant and highly correlated with grade point average. A similar finding was made by Millott (1974) in using Christ's Survey of Readinq/Study Efficiency . Millott found that responses of highand low-grade point average students differed significantly only on one of the study skills categories, that one being time management. May (1923), surveying 450 Syracuse freshmen, discovered a positive correlation of .32 between hours of study and scholarship. In addition, through multiple correlation, it was determined that the relationship between scholarship and the combined effect of intelligence and hours of study was .82. Bell (1931) also discovered a positive correlation of .32 between study time and scholastic standing. Ryans (1938) supported May's research by reporting a positive correlation of .37 between study and GPA for 40 junior college sophomores. He also found a positive correlation between scholarship and intelligence, but no statistical relationship between intelligence and study time. Although the correlations were low, Menius (1949) also found a positive relationship between academic success and various time expenditures.

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19 Converse (1931) reported results from time studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Illinois. He found that the highest grades were attained by students of superior intelligence, and also by those who put "a little extra time on study." Similar findings were reported by Uhrbrock (1931) in a study of 245 Cornell University freshmen. Data from time records indicated that high scholarship men tended to spend more time in application to classroom and academic work, giving slightly less time to social activities. Some studies did not find a positive correlation between study time and scholarship. Crawford (1929), in a study conducted with 22 Yale freshmen, found a correlation of 0.00 between the two items. However, in his report, he mentioned that since the study was done in the spring, lowered scholastic motivation could have reduced amounts of study time. Also, Yarington (1967) found only a minimal relationship between the number of pages read during the semester and academic ability and achievement. Two studies actually found a negative correlation between study time and academic achievement. Jones and Ruch (1928), in a study conducted at the University of Iowa, discovered a negative correlation of .28 between hours of study and grade points. The combined effect of intelligence and study time correlated at +.69 with grade point average. Also, Williamson (1935), in a study of 257 University of Minnesota freshmen, found a negative correlation of .06 between scholarship and hours of study. Finally, one study attempted to assess the effects of definite study planning on academic achievement. Johnson (1938) conducted an experiment using matched-pair groups of girls at the State Normal School

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20 of Geneseo, New York. Although there seemed to be no effect on academic achievement as a result of planning for the use of the 24 hours of the day, the author stated several possible reasons for the failure to detect differences between the experimental and control groups. These reasons included the method of time management instruction, the interaction effect of experimental and control group members, and the uncontrolled effect of the control group members receiving help elsewhere with study skills. General Efficiency of Time Management There are more aspects of time management than just increased amounts of time spent in study. Many authors, when addressing the topic of time management, include a discussion about efficiency of time spent in study or the effectiveness of time scheduling. Rather than merely using larger amounts of time, good students are more effective in using whatever amount of time is devoted to study (Raygor & Wark, 1970; Williamson, 1953; Yarington, 1967). When students report hours of study time, their calculations may not be entirely accurate. Troth (1929) reported that even when Illinois men and women students were in the library, only about half their time was directed toward study. An interesting follow-up to the Troth study was conducted by Berrien and Kennedy (1942). They found that the absence of girls increased the efficiency of study time by Colgate men. The authors noted that location and study environment greatly influenced time-use efficiency. Johnson (1938), in her analysis of the effects of budgeting time on the achievement of freshmen girls, found that 97% of the participants

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21 felt that instruction in time management was helpful in increasing their efficiency. Even though academic achievement was not affected, Johnson noted that the overwhelming positive response to the instruction was a strong indication that time management techniques could be useful. Book (1927b) found that after giving instruction to students on how to schedule their time, the percentage of efficiency in time use for one group rose from 76 to 96X, and for another group it rose from 84 to 98%. Williamson (1935) addressed the topic of time management by stating that "piling up the number of study hours will not entirely compensate for low academic ability, but a student of low ability will have to study more hours to do passing work" (p. 687). He went on to say that counselors or instructors who attempt to motivate students scholastical ly need to remember that beyond a total of 20-30 hours of study per week, an increase probably will not improve scholastic standing. A minimum of 18-20 hours and a maximum of 30-35 hours per week should permit students to get the grades that their academic aptitude makes possible. Within those limits, improvement in time-use efficiency is the key to academic improvement. Reading and Study Skills Programs Since the setting for the present study involves a reading and study skills course and voluntary program, it seems appropriate that a review of similar programs be included in the review of literature. Typically, study skills taught at the college level include making a study schedule, organizing study materials, notetaking, summarizing, using library skills, using reference skills, solving problems, writing themes and reports, taking examinations, improving reading skills, outlining.

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22 reviewing, improving study conditions, and listening skills (Spache, 1963). The basis for reading and study skills programs can be seen in statements such as the one by Lin and McKeachie (1970): "Student study habits contribute to academic achievement independently of college aptitude. Students with good study habits achieve significantly higher than comparable students with poor study habits" (p. 308). Most evaluations of reading and study skills programs are positive. Self-report data such as those recorded by Ritter (1971) tend to be very positive. Students at least feel as if they have gained something even if their grades do not reflect the improvement. Improvement on study skills inventories can also generally be witnessed after participation in a reading and study skills program (Van Zoost & Jackson, 1974). Many evaluations of such programs used improved grade point average (GPA) or a combination of GPA and other factors as the criteria. Entwisle (1960) reviewed the 22 evaluations of study skills courses which could be found in the literature up to 1960. The criterion used to determine effectiveness of courses included a measure of overall scholastic average, scores on reading tests, and scores on study habits inventories. The main conclusion made by Entwisle is that some kind of improvement following a study skills course seems to be the rule. Improvement varies from a slight amount (Eckert & Jones, 1935) to a considerable amount (McDonald, 1957; Smith & Wood, 1955). When only those studies well controlled on intelligence and motivation were evaluated, the range of improvement was just as broad as when all 22 studies were included.

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23 Of the 22 studies, that of Smith and Wood (1955) clearly indicated that motivation plays a key role in demonstrating improvement after taking a reading/study skills course. They included a control group wishing to take the course but unable to schedule it, and a second control group which consisted of a representative sample of the freshman class. The group taking the course obtained a significantly higher GPA than either control group, while the group wanting to enroll in the course did not score significantly higher than the representative sample. Thus, the authors inferred that motivation in itself will not yield significant improvement unless it is accompanied by participation in a course. Entwisle (1960) noted that the amount of improvement seems related to whether the course is voluntary or required. All voluntary college-level courses report impressive gains, and in e\/ery case where follow-up results are available, the gains persist. Fairbanks (1974) reviewed 70 studies which evaluated reading/study skills programs. Of the 79, 60 reported the use of some type of comparison group, made some mention of statistical procedures used, and referred to the level of significance of results. Her review indicated that, of the 60 studies which met minimum standards of adequate research design, 30 reported that the programs had been "successful" in improving overall GPA. Described as having a "successful tendency" were 18 studies, while 12 indicated no measurable GPA improvement for the group participating in the reading/study skills program. Mixed results were again reported by Fairbanks (1975) in a subsequent review of programs. Of 68 studies in which statistical procedures were included and level of significance reported, 33 proved to be "successful," 21 had a

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24 "successful tendency," and 14 showed no GPA advantage as the result of student participation in the academic skills improvement program. In light of these program evaluations, a general statement can be made about the effectiveness of college reading/study skills programs. The reviews mentioned above, as well as similar ones by Santensanio (1974) and Tillman (1972), indicate that although not all students enrolled in academic skills development programs necessarily record improvement in GPA, the number of students who do experience GPA gains outnumber those who do not. Summary of the Literature Research was noted which indicated that students are concerned with the ability to manage their time effectively. Other studies reported consistent descriptions of students' time use over the past 50 years. The figure of 40 hours devoted to academic pursuits seems to be an average amount for college students. Sex and age differences in time use were explored in several studies, resulting in a general concensus that females tend to study more than males and that seniors engage in more extracurricular activities than members of other grades. Research results regarding the effects of time management on academic achievement were mixed. Several studies indicated a slight positive correlation between hours of study and grade point average. Others showed no relationship; a few reported a negative correlation between hours devoted to study and grades. Several studies explored time management efficiency and found that instruction in the use of time generally increased students' efficiency in their academic work. Finally, a discussion of reading and study skills programs indicated that although

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25 not all students enrolled in academic skills development programs necessarily record improvement in grade point average, the number of students who do experience grade point gains outnumber those who do not.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to assess effects of a specific teaching technique designed to alter time management behavior of students attending a University of Florida study skills course. Areas of investigation included amounts of time spent on study, social activity, leisure activities, and miscellaneous activities. Other areas included an assessment of study habits and attitudes, as well as reactions to attempts at time management. Sex and grade level differences on the time management criterion were also investigated. Subjects for the study were University of Florida students who either sought the services of the Reading and Study Skills Center or enrolled in a course entitled "Student Development in a University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills." As stated in the following hypotheses, "experimental group" refers to that group of students, enrolled in two sections of the study skills course, who received instruction in time management. The term, "control groups," refers to the two groups not receiving instruction in time management. Control Group I consisted of students from two additional sections of the study skills course; Control Group II was composed of students who wished to enroll in the Reading and Study Skills Center but were unable to do so because of space limitations at the Center. The hypotheses are stated in null form. 26

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27 Hypothesis 1 : There are no significant differences between experimental and control groups on total hours of study time per week after instruction in time management. Hypothesis 2 : There are no significant differences between experimental and control groups on total hours of social activity per week after instruction in time management. Hypothesis 3 : There are no significant differences between experimental and control groups on total hours of leisure activity per week after instruction in time management. Hypothesis 4 : There are no significant differences between experimental and control groups on total hours of miscellaneous activity per week after instruction in time management. Hypothesis 5 : There are no significant differences between experimental and control groups on study habits and attitudes toward study after instruction in time management. Hypothesis 6 : There are no significant differences between experimental and control groups on perceived improvement and satisfaction with general time management skills after instruction in time management. Hypothesis 7 : There are no significant differences between male and females on each of the first six hypotheses after instruction in time management. Hypothesis 8 : There are no significant differences between different grade levels on each of the first six hypothesis after instruction in time management. Research Design A control group posttest-only design was used to test the hypotheses. This design was selected because of the nature of the data-collection procedures for this study. Since a detailed time-use record had to be maintained for a week-long period late in the quarter, it seemed likely that a similar experience early in the quarter could

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28 have unduly sensitized the sample and created a strong possibility for interactive effects to occur as a result of the pretest. Campbell and Stanley (1966) stated that a posttest-only design assures a lack of initial bias between groups by randomly assigning members to groups, Further support for this design is shown in the following statement: "While the pretest is a concept deeply embedded in the thinking of research workers in education and psychology, it is not actually essential to true experimental designs" (Campbell and Stanley, 1966, p. 25). The design is represented as follows: Experimental Group x Control Group I n Control Group II n X=Treatment (Time Management Instruction) O-] . 0^, O^^Observations conducted at the same time for all groups (Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes, Time-Use Inventory, Self-Survey Index The class registration procedure closely approximated random assignment since students chose which class section to attend based only on available times and location. They had no prior knowledge about instructors assigned to particular sections or any differences in course content. Students responded to posters and information sheets distributed in the residence halls regarding the course description and reported to the Reading & Study Skills Center to register for the course. When four sections of the study skills class had

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29 been filled, a total of 34 students in two sections were designated as the experimental group; a total of 30 students in the other two sections comprised Control Group I. Assignment to each of the two groups was done randomly to increase the possibility of attaining internal validity (Kerlinger, 1973); after numbers were assigned to each section and deposited in a container, two were drawn by hand to designate the sections which were statistically treated as the experimental group. Control Group I was exposed to all study skills instruction which the experimental group received with the exception of the unit on time management. The additional study skills instruction created the possibility of increased sensitization and interactive effects to occur. For this reason, a second control group was selected which received no instruction in study skills throughout the quarter. This design further controlled threats to internal validity. Control Group II was selected from students on the waiting list at the Reading and Study Skills Center. At the time of this study, there was a waiting list of 80 students at the Center who, like the students enrolled in the study skills course, wanted to improve their reading and study habits. Any graduate students or students solely wishing to prepare for a graduate school entrance examination were not considered for the control group. Of those remaining, approximately 40 were randomly selected for inclusion in Control Group II. This selection was accomplished by first choosing every second name on the list. An insufficient number was obtained, so a second search was conducted by selecting every remaining name on the list. As a result of the second search, a total of 50 students was chosen to be

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30 contacted for possible participation in the study; 31 ultimately participated. Demographic characteristics were determined for all subjects by collecting data on sex, grade point average, grade level, and number of course hours taken spring quarter. Results of a chi square analysis employed for each of the characteristics showed that no significant differences existed between the groups on variables of sex, grade level, grade point average, or number of credit hours taken spring quarter. A breakdown of the data showed the sample to be composed of A3 males and 52 females, with 31 freshmen, 34 sophomores, 21 juniors, and 9 seniors. They had a mean grade point average of 2.52 and took an average of 13.98 credit hours in the spring quarter. In addition, a strong motivational factor is an important element of the groups' uniformity. Students enrolled in the study skills course or attempted to enroll at the Reading and Study skills center because they were highly motivated to improve their academic skills. There was a possibility that a few students registered for the course primarily because it was pass/fail and fit their schedule. However, this writer's experience with previous study skills courses has led him to believe that the primary motivation for enrollment is a strong desire to improve skills rather than a need for course credit. The Setting The Study Skills Course The study skills course in which students were enrolled for the Experimental Group and Control Group I is actually part of a developmental

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31 course composed of several sections with slightly different emphases. This course in the Counselor Education Department is entitled, EDC 301: "Student Development in a University Setting." A course description follows: EDC 301 examines factors affecting student growth and development in the university setting, current problems facing students, and the use of group processes and leadership training in solving problems and facilitating growth. The study skills section of EDC 301 is entitled, "Student Development in a University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills." A course description follows: Instruction in reading and study skills will be offered on both an individual and group basis. Diagnostic tests, evaluation of skill levels and reading/study techniques will be considered. Class experience will include lectures, discussions, demonstrations, and laboratory work. Topics include: reading rate and comprehension, vocabulary, note-taking, marking a text, time-use, concentration techniques, test anxiety, etc. Direct application of skills to coursework will be stressed. Intended for both successful students desiring to sharpen already adequate skills as well as those with identifiable problems. Enrollment limited to 20 students. Grading on a pass/fail basis. Four sections will be offered Spring Quarter. Regarding the study skills portion of the course, four sections of 15 to 20 students per section were offered Spring Quarter, 1977. Classes were graded on a pass/fail basis for three hours credit and taught in three locations on campus at a variety of times (see Appendix A). Students attended class for two hours each week and were required to invest at least an additional two hours per week on individual skills improvements outside of class (see Appendix B for course requirements).

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32 A description of weekly topics can be found in Appendix C. Three sections of the course were taught by this writer, with assistance from three other graduate students from the College of Education. The fourth section was taught by the Director of the University of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center. Reading and Study Skills Center Since the second control group was selected from a waiting list at the Reading and Study Skills Center, a description of the Center is warranted. The Center offers help in virtually the same areas as the study skills course. Reading rate and comprehension development as well as improvement in a variety of study skills can be accomplished on a voluntary, noncredit basis. Students work at their own pace on materials they choose after recommendations from the staff. In the past, approximately 250 students have attended the Center each quarter at the time of this study, however, because of funding problems, the Center could accoiiniodate far less than that number, thus creating a waiting list of nearly 80 students. The Instruments The following instruments were administered to each subject: (a) McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Study Skills Test: Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes; (b) Time-Use Inventory, and (c) SelfSurvey Index. McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Study Skills Test The Study Skills Test was developed by Alton Raygor, consulting editor for the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System. Although this test

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33 contains five sections (Problem Solving, Underlining, Library Information, Study Skills Information, and an Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes), only the Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes was utilized for this study since it was the only section containing questions on time management (see Appendix D). The Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes is a self-report instrument which consists of 49 items designed to obtain information about students' personal study habits and attitudes toward studying. An example of a statement on the inventory is, "I use my study time efficiently." Students read the statement, assess how it applies to themselves, then answer "yes" or "no" accordingly. Seven subscales are included in the inventory: Listening and Note-taking, General Study Habits, Relationships with Teachers and Courses, Motivation, Organization of Effort, Concentration, and Emotional Problems. For purposes of this study, data were separately analyzed for the questions pertaining to the Organization of Effort subscale, which deals with time management. Reliability via internal consistency was established for the Inventory by the McGraw-Hill Company in computing the Kuder-Richardson 20 formula (KR-20) for the total Inventory as well as for the individual subscales. Using a sample of 1,787 college freshmen and sophomores as well as college-bound high school juniors and seniors, a KR-20 reliability of .87 was established. For the Organization of Effort subscale, a KR-20 of .74 was computed. Additional reliability data, along with a detailed list of item difficulties, can be found in Appendix E.

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34 In establishing the validity for the Inventory, a panel of experienced test-makers from McGraw-Hill developed items chosen from many statements by students about their own study habits as they sought help at a reading and study skills center. Many more items were initially tested before McGraw-Hill decided on the 49 for standardization and publication. A Tryon Phi-coefficient cluster analysis was computed to separate items into the seven subscales. Time-Use Inventory The Time-Use Inventory is a form developed by this writer for use by students to record daily activities and the amount of time spent in each. Labels for the various activities were chosen after experimenting with different activity descriptions over the past two quarters of teaching study skills classes. In addition, recommendations of the Director of the University of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center were sought because of his years of experience in using variations of this inventory in study skills classes. In completing the Time-Use Inventory, students recorded each of their activities, the time it was begun and ended and its duration. Activity units no smaller than 15 minutes were recorded and totaled for a weekly summation of hours and minutes spent in each activity. The list of units included (a) sleep; (b) meals; (c) class and laboratory; (d) study; (e) outside work for pay; (f) campus activities (clubs, committees, church); (g) leisure activities (television, stereo listening, exercise); (h) social activity; (i) travel time (between classes); (j) personal grooming (showering, shaving, fixing hair); (k) errands (laundry, bookstore, shopping); and (1) miscellaneous

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35 (all time left in each 24-hour period which was unaccounted for). An example of the Time-Use Inventory and instructions for its completion can be found in Appendix F. Self-Survey Index The Self-Survey Index (see Appendix G) was developed by this writer, based on his experience in study skills instruction and the writings of others in the study skills field. The purpose of constructing this index was to determine if students felt any perceived improvement or general satisfaction with their time management skills after instruction. Although only two items on the index specifically related to time management, other items were included which dealt with study skills such as note-taking, concentration, and reading comprehension. These items served to counteract any possibility that students might focus their attention solely on the time management items and thus place undue emphasis on their responses. An example of an item on the SelfSurvey Index is, "I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of managing my time." Students are instructed to respond to each item by indicating how they feel on a scale of five degrees, ranging from "Strongly Agree" to "Strongly Disagree." Experienced staff members at the Reading and Study Skills Center established the content validity for this survey by critically examining test items which best appeared to measure concepts essential to study skills improvement. In addition, a test-retest reliability study was conducted by this writer with 25 students in a University of Florida undergraduate English class. Students completed the instrument once, taking approximately five minutes to do so, then completed it

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36 again two weeks later. A reliability score of .89 was computed for the instrument. Procedures A brief description of the teaching methods used in the study skills course is warranted here since both experimental and control sections of the course received nearly the same instruction with the exception of the time management unit. As indicated by the course outline (Appendix C), distinct topics were addressed each week. The instructional method every week included some lecture and some class discussion which was facilitated by the instructor or one of three graduate students who often assisted in class discussions throughout the quarter. In addition, all students met individually outside of class with the instructor or a graduate student to determine the type of materials to be used in work outside the classroom. Each student was required to work on individually assigned study skills materials for two hours each week. These materials included reading equipment, study skills books, vocabulary books and projectors, and a variety of other books on academic skills. Experimental Group Procedures As indicated by the course outline (Appendix C), students in the two experimental sections of the course received instruction on time management during the sixth week of the ten-week quarter. This instruction constituted a major element of the special treatment for the experimental group in this study; the other two elements of the time management instruction will be. discussed later in this section. During

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37 the two hour instructional segment, seven steps were covered (see Appendix H). Step I centered on reasons that time schedules fail for many students. These reasons generally include a lack of flexibility, a failure to account for other interests, and attempts to study the same subjects every day at the same time. During this portion of the period, students were encouraged to report reasons for their previous unsuccessful attempts at time management. Step II reviewed a list of advantages of scheduling time, already outlined in Chapter I. Those items included in the class discussion are as follows: 1) Effective time management techniques help "get you started." 2) Scheduling "prevents avoidance of disliked subjects." 3) Time management "monitors the slackening off process." 4) Scheduling "eliminates the wrong type of cramming." 5) Programming helps "make studying enjoyable." 6) Effective management "promotes cumulative review." 7) Programming and goal setting can "free the mind." 8) Time management "controls the study break." 9) Scheduling "precludes overlooking recreation." 10) Effective management helps "raise your recreational efficiency. " 11) Programming "regulates our daily living." (Pauk, 1974, pp. 20-22) Step III involved the description of a master plan for students. This description included the first real effort by the instructor toward building a realistic and beneficial time management plan. Students

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38 were advised that a master plan is designed to schedule all events which are regular parts of the individual's activities each week of a quarter (see Appendix I). Such events might include classes, laboratories, part-time jobs, regular meetings, church activities, and meals. With the master schedule as a base, the student can then create a flexible schedule to meet his individual needs. Step IV concentrated on a weekly schedule. The assignmentoriented weekly schedule adapted from Pauk (1974) was the type chosen for this instruction (see Appendix J). Students were advised to list subjects, assignments for the week, estimated study times, dates when assignments were due. This type of weekly schedule provides a fairly loose structure, yet gives students a clear idea of weekly goals. Step V considered establishment of daily goals. Students were instructed to use index cards for writing down their list of goals on a daily basis. This list should include classes and study as well as such items as errands, exercise, social events, and appointments (see Appendix K). Once these goals are established, the students should rank order them for importance so that the more important goals are accomplished in case unexpected events prohibit the completion of all those listed. The daily goals list for the following day can easily be prepared each night by students before going to bed or early each morning before going on campus. Step VI provided suggestions for establishing schedules and effectively programming one's time. Pauk's list (1974, pp. 22-23) below was used as the basis for a final group discussion.

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39 1. "Eliminate dead hours." Utilize small blocks of time between classes. Much study can be accomplished without having to wait until night for long periods of time for study. 2. "Use daylight hours." Research indicates that study during the day is often more efficient than study at night. 3. "Study before recitation-type classes." Material will be fresh in your mind as you go into class for discussion. 4. "Study after lecturetype classes." Retention and understanding can be increased by an immediate review of notes. 5. "List goals according to priorities." You are more certain to get the important items done on time. 6. "Avoid too much detail." A schedule which is too rigid and detailed takes too much time to plan and probably will not be followed regardless of good intentions. 7. "Know your sleep pattern." Determine when you are most effective during each 24-hour period and plan study hours accordingly. 8. "Discover how long to study." The time needed for each subject varies. Start out allowing too much time and adjust according to your needs. The "two hours outside for every hour inside class" ratio is probably unrealistic for some courses. Some will require much more study time and others much less. 9. "Plan blocks of time." Optimum efficiency is reached by planning work in blocks of one hour; fifty minutes for study and ten minutes for a break. 10. "Allow time for sleep." Sacrificing sleep for study on a regular basis will eventually cause problems.

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40 n. "Eat well-balanced meals." Dietary deficiencies decrease study efficiency. 12. "Double time estimates and start long jobs ahead of time." Start early on long-term projects and allow more time than is probably needed. 13. "Make a plan for living." The schedule adopted must be a plan for living, not merely studying (Pauk, 1974, pp. 22-23). Before the end of the two-hour session, Step VII, an assignment in goal-setting was explained. Students were asked to make a list of daily goals on separate cards for each day during the next two weeks, the seventh and eighth weeks of the course. At the class session held during the seventh week of the quarter, the daily goals for the previous seven days were collected by the instructor. For approximately the first 15 minutes of this class session, the instructor led a discussion pertaining to the problems encountered and the benefits derived by students in preparing lists of daily goals. During the first 15 minutes of the class held during the eighth week of the quarter, the same procedure was followed, with the lists of students' goals collected and discussed. These discussions were intended to further heighten the students' awareness of their use of time. In summary, the special treatment on time management given to the experimental sections of the study skills course included a two hour segment detailing types of scheduling to be implemented by students, an assignment in goal-setting, and two short review sessions over a two week period. These last two sessions were designed to monitor students' attempts at utilizing time management techniques. The entire

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41 sequence of instruction took place during the sixth, seventh, and eighth weeks of the quarter. Near the end of the class session held during the eighth week of the quarter, the instructor asked student members to complete three instruments as part of a study on time management. Every effort was made to avoid any social or academic pressure on students to participate and they were assured that results would remain confidential. It was stressed that participation in the study was not a requirement of the course and in no way affected their grades. All students present in each class agreed to participate and completed the consent forms in class (see Appendix L). Class members were then instructed to complete the Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes and the Self-Survey Index. This task required approximately 15 minutes of class time. They were next asked to complete the Time-Use Inventory for the following seven days. Each day all activities were to be recorded in intervals of no less than fifteen minutes per interval. Students were particularly requested to record activities on the Inventory as they took place, and to avoid filling out the form from memory at the end of the day. These completed Inventories were returned to the instructor at the beginning of the class held during the following week, the seventh week of the quarter. Control Group Procedures In Control Group I, the presentation of class session topics was the same as that for the Experimental Group, except that time management instruction was presented in the ninth week of the quarter

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42 rather than the sixth week when the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Inventory was taken by the class and a discussion about learning styles and career choice was conducted. As in the experimental sections of the couse, students were asked to complete the Time-Use Inventory, Self-Survey Index, and the Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes during the eighth week of classes. Instructions for collection of data were identical to those for the experimental sections. Consent forms were signed by all class members present and questions answered regarding completion of the inventories. The 31 students in Control Group II selected from the Reading and Study Skills Center waiting list also completed all of the instruments in the eighth week of the quarter. Students in Control Group II were reached by telephone by this writer during the sixth week of classes to request their assistance with this research project. The project was described, then students were asked to complete the Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes, Time-Use Inventory, and the Self-Survey Index. They were advised that upon completion of the instruments they would have the option to receive instruction in time management skills. Within a few days of the students' agreement on the telephone to participate in the project, this writer mailed the three instruments along with an Informed Consent Form and a Directions Sheet to each member of Control Group II. Students were advised to begin and end their data collection on the same days as those being used by the Experimental Group and Control Group I. A stamped envelope addressed

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43 to this writer was included with materials mailed to Control Group II students for delivery of the three completed instruments. Analysis of the Data The data were subjected to an analysis of variance to determine significant differences among the three groups on variables of study activity, social activity, leisure activity, miscellaneous activity, scores on the Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes, and scores from selected items on the Self-Survey Index. Differences on the bases of sex and grade level were determined for the variables stated above. For significant differences found, a Student-NewmanKeuls comparison test was employed to locate the source of difference. An alpha level of .05 was established as an acceptable level of significance on all measurements. Responses to the instruments used for this study were hand-scored and then converted for use in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Computer facilities were utilized at the North Florida Regional Data Center, University of Florida. Fol low-Up Procedures After the data collection was completed, students in both the Experimental and Control I groups were given the opportunity to discuss in the final week of class any of the procedures and results relating to the time management instruction and data collection. Control II members received a notice in the mail indicating a time and place for discussing their experience with the Time-Use Inventory and receiving instruction in time management. The seven step instructional

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44 method outlined in Appendix H and detailed earlier in this chapter was used during the two hour session. Students discussed problems with time management, completed sample schedules for setting quarterly, weekly, and daily goals, and agreed to try setting daily goals for the following week. Limitations Caution should be exercised in generalizing the results of this study to populations where students' motivation to succeed differs greatly from that of the population under investigation here. Mandatory participation in a program such as the one described in this study could result in different outcomes than those found when participation is voluntary. Another limitation of this research concerns the data-collection instruments. Any time self-report instruments are used to measure behavioral or attitudinal changes, there is a chance that the reports could be inaccurate. Results could be biased either by students' desire to report positive change or by inaccurate record-keeping which results in no change being reported when, in fact, change may have occurred.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a specific type of instruction designed to alter time management behavior of students enrolled in a University of Florida study skills course. Areas of investigation included amounts of time spent on study, social activity, leisure activities, and miscellaneous activities. Other areas included an assessment of study habits and attitudes, as well as reactions to attempts at time management. Sex and grade level differences on the time management criterion were also investigated. A total of 95 students participated in the study. Of that number, 34 were enrolled in two sections of EDC 301, "Student Development in a University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills," designated as the Experimental Group. Control Group I consisted of 31 students who enrolled in an additional two sections of the course; Control Group II included 30 students who were on the waiting list at the University of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center. Students in the Experimental Group were exposed to instruction in time management techniques. Instruction for the two control groups was delayed until after the evaluation process ended. Three instruments were used in the research: 1) the Time-Use Inventory which measured amounts of time for one seven day week devoted to individual categories such as study, social, leisure, and miscellaneous activity; 2) the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (part of a larger inventory. The Study Skills Test) which measured study 45

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46 habits and attitudes including those related to time management; 3) the Self-Survey Index which measured satisfaction and perceived improvement with various study skills including those related to time management. Subjects in the study completed all three of the inventories at approximately the same time in the quarter. An analysis of variance was computed to determine if significant differences existed among groups on the above listed variables under investigation. A Student-Newman-Keuls procedure was then employed to determine specifically where any differences occurred. The remainder of this chapter will be devoted to a description of the findings for each of the hypotheses. Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 There are no significant differences between experimental and control groups on total hours of study time per week after instruction in time management. Inspection of Table 1 indicates that no significant difference between groups was noted at the .05 level for the amount of time spent in study in one week. Therefore, hypothesis 1 was not rejected. Table 1. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of study time per week as measured by the Time-Use Inventory, Source

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47 Hypothesis 2 There are no significant differences between experimental and control groups on total hours of social activity per week after instruction in time management. An inspection of Table 2 indicates that no significant difference between groups was noted at the .05 level for the amount of time spent in social activity in one week. Therefore, hypothesis 2 was not rejected. Table 2. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of social activity per week as measured by the Time-Use Inventory. Source SS DF MS F 1.767* Between Groups

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48 Table 3. Results of analysis of variance for groups on amount of leisure activity per week as measured by the Time-Use Inventory. Source SS DF MS Between Groups

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49 The Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes contained a subscale of seven items which pertained to the management of one's time. For purposes of addressing hypothesis 5, a total score vyas computed for the seven items and then a comparison between the groups' mean scores was made. An inspection of Table 5 indicates that no significant difference between groups was noted at the .05 level for the total score on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes subscale, "Organization of Effort." Therefore, hypothesis 5 was not rejected. Table 5. Results of analysis of variance for groups on the "Organization of Effort" subscale of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Source SS DF MS Between Groups

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50 Table 6. Results of analysis of variance for groups on separate items of the "Organization of Effort" subscale. Source

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51 Table 7 shows that no significant difference between the groups existed on Item 2, but a significant difference did occur for Item 8. Table 7. Results of analysis of variance for groups on Items 2 and 8 of the Self-Survey Index. Source SS DF MS F Group Item 2* 0.021 2 0.010 0.011 Item 8* 19.104 2 9.552 12.028** *Item 2 = "I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of managing my time. " Item 8 = "I feel that my time management skills have improved since the start of this quarter." ** Significant at .05 level A further breakdown of Item 8, using a Student-Newman-Keuls procedure, revealed that the experimental group scored higher than Control Group I, which in turn scored higher than Control Group II. Thus, those students who received time management instruction in class felt that their time management skills improved more during the quarter than did the second group who experienced the other study skills instruction without receiving the time management instruction. Also, the third group, composed of students on the waiting list who received no study skills instruction, felt that their time management skills had increased less than either of the other two groups. Table 8 reports this breakdown. Therefore, hypothesis 6 was rejected.

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52 Table 8. Results of the Student-Newman-Keuls procedure for analysis of group differences on Item 8 of the Self-Survey Index. Subset 1 Control Group II Group Mean 2.48 Subset 2 Control Group I Group Mean 3.30 Subset 3 Experimental Group Group Mean 3.85 Hypothesis 7 There are no significant differences between males and females on each of the first six hypotheses after instruction in time management. Tables 9, 10, and 11 report a breakdown of each hypothesis by sex. Table 9 shows that no significant differences were found on any of the four categories of the Time-Use Inventory. Table 9. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences on the Time-Use Inventory. Source

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53 Table 10. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Source

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54 do males, reporting mean scores of ,2692 and .2326. Therefore, Hypothesis 7 was rejected. Table 11 illustrates that no differences between males and females were detected for Item 2 or Item 8 of the Self-Survey Index. Table 11. Results of analysis of variance for sex differences on the Self-Survey Index. Source

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55 Table 12. Results of analysis of variance for grade level differences on the Time-Use Inventory. Source

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56 Table 14 illustrates that no significant differences were found between grade levels for the time management items of the Self-Survey Index. Table 14. Results of analysis of variance for grade level differences on the Self-Survey Index. Source SS DF MS F Grade Item 2* 7.212 3 2.404 2.560** Item 8* 3.357 3 1.119 1.409** *Item 2 = "I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of managing my time. " Item 8 = "I feel that my time management skills have improved since the start of this quarter." *^Not significant at .05 level. Additional Data Several 2-way interactions were discovered which did not specifically relate to the hypotheses for this study, but which are closely related and worth noting here. Table 15 illustrates a 2-way interaction which occurred on several items of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. For all four items in Table 15 which proved to have significant differences on sex and grade interactions, a further breakdown of the data suggested that male seniors consistently reported lower mean scores than did the female seniors. Senior females were "up to date in their schoolwork," did not tend to "put things off" as much as senior males, did not tend to study in a "haphazard, disorganized way" as much as senior males, and did not tend to "let course work pile up" as much as senior males.

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57 Table 15. Results of analysis of variance for sex and grade level interaction differences on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Source

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary This study investigated the effects of a specific type of instruction designed to alter time management behavior of students enrolled in a University of Florida study skills course. Areas of investigation included amounts of time spent on study, social activity, leisure activities, and miscellaneous activities. Other areas included an assessment of study habits and attitudes, as well as reactions to attempts at time management. Sex and grade level differences on the time management criterion were also investigated. A total of 95 students participated in the study. Of that number, 34 were enrolled in two sections of EDC 301, "Student Development in a University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills," designated as the Experimental Group. Control Group I consisted of 31 students who enrolled in an additional two sections of the course; Control Group II included 30 students who were on the waiting list at the University of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center. Students in the Experimental Group were exposed to instruction in time management techniques. Instruction for the two control groups was delayed until after the evaluation process ended. Three instruments were used in the research: 1) the Time-Use Inventory which measured amounts of time for one seven day week devoted 58

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59 to individual categories such as study, social, leisure, and miscellaneous activity; 2) the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (part of a larger inventory, The Study Skills Test) which measured study habits and attitudes including those related to time management; 3) the Self-Survey Index which measured satisfaction and perceived improvement with various study skills including those related to time management. Subjects in the study completed all three of the inventories at approximately the same time in the quarter. An analysis of variance was computed to determine if significant differences existed among groups on the above listed variables under investigation. A Student-Newman-Keuls procedure was then employed to determine specifically where any differences occurred. In summary, the following results were obtained from the study: 1. No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups on total hours of study time per week after instruction in time management. 2. No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups on total hours of social activity per week after instruction in time management. 3. No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups on total hours of leisure activity per week after instruction in time management. 4. No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups on total hours of miscellaneous activity per week after instruction in time management. 5. No significant differences were found between experimental and control groups on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes.

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60 Total scores for the seven-item management subscale were analyzed as well as each of the seven individual items of the subscale. 6. A significant difference between experimental and control groups was found on Item 8 of the Self-Survey Index. An investigation of the direction of differences indicated that in response to the statement, "I feel that my time management skills have improved since the start of the quarter," the experimental group responded in a positive manner significantly more often than Control Group I, which in turn responded in a positive manner significantly more often than Control Group II, 7. No significant difference between experimental and control groups was found for Item 2 of the Self-Survey Index, "I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of managing my time." 8. No significant differences were found between males and females on the four categories measured by the Time-Use Inventory (study, social, leisure, and miscellaneous activity). 9. No significant differences were found between males and females for the two items (#2 and #8) related to time management on the Self-Survey Index. 10. A significant difference between males and females in the three groups was found for three items on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Females felt that they were more "up to date in their school work," "used their study time more efficiently," and experienced fewer times when "the work in a course piled up, requiring mad cramming at the end," as compared with males. 11. A significant difference between grade levels was found in study activity on the Time-Use Inventory. Seniors reported a weekly amount of study which was significantly more than that reported by

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61 any of the other grade levels. 12. No significant difference between grade levels was found for either of the two time management items on the Self-Survey Index or any of the seven time management items on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. 13. A significant 2-way interaction was found for several items on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Senior males consistently reported lower mean scores than senior females on four items: 1) "I am usually up to date in my homework;" 2) "I tend to put things off much more than most students;" 3) "I often study in a haphazard, disorganized way under the threat of the next test;" 4) "Sometimes I let the work in a course pile up, then cram madly at the end." A lower score here indicates a negative response in the sense that it is negative to fall behind, put things off, study haphazardly, or let course work pile up. Conclusions Several conclusions can be drawn from the findings of this study. First, instruction in time management favorably affected the perception which students had of their abilities to effectively manage their time. Students receiving time management instruction in the study skills classes felt that their time management skills had improved during the quarter. This perceived improvement differed significantly from the self-perception of those students who had not received time management instruction. Second, the results indicated that differences in study habits and attitudes, which were apparently unrelated to the class instruction in time management, existed between males and females. Females consistently

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62 reported more positive self-perceptions regarding their academic skills. A third conclusion from this research is drawn from the lack of behavioral change in students who received time management instruction. Since no change was recorded in student allocation of time to study, social, leisure, or miscellaneous activities after instruction in time management, there are questions regarding: 1) the effectiveness of the type of instruction given to the Experimental Group; 2) the data-collection instruments utilized; and 3) the length of time needed for noticeable changes in behavior to occur. These questions will be addressed in more detail throughout the remainder of this chapter. Discussion After receiving instruction in time management, students perceived their skills in managing their own time to have improved. Those students who attended a study skills course without specifically receiving time management instruction during the period of data-collection did not perceive their time management skills to have improved as much as did the first group. Those students who received neither time management instruction or any other study skills instruction perceived their time management skills to have improved less than either of the other two groups. Time management instruction had a definite effect on students' perceptions of their skills in this area, yet simply being exposed to a variety of other study skills apparently helped somewhat in building confidence in time management skills. Although students receiving time

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63 management instruction perceived an improvement in their skills, very few behavioral changes resulted from the instruction. No significant differences among groups were found on time allocated to measures of study, social, leisure, and miscellaneous activity. Also, no significant changes occurred in study habits and attitudes after the experimental group had received time management instruction. These findings could be interpreted in at least two ways. First, the fact that students felt better about their abilities to manage their time effectively could be the most important factor. Although related behavioral changes did not accompany the change in attitudes, perhaps it was too soon after the instruction to gain an accurate appraisal of what changes might occur. The attitude change could be the first step toward actual changes in behavior which might occur at later times. A second interpretation suggests that teachers of time management instruction as well as their students have been unjustifiably confident that the instruction actually made a difference in behavior. The literature in this area suggests that most study skills instructors continue to provide time management instruction in the belief that it will somehow benefit the student. This particular study has shown that students also perceive the instruction making a difference, yet the data suggest that no performance change occurred as the result of instruction. It was also interesting to note that a significant difference between males and females was revealed by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Apparently females in all three groups saw themselves

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64 in a more positive light than males regarding their abilities to "keep up to date in their schoolwork," "use their study time more efficiently," and "avoid letting course work pile up." A significant 2-way interaction was also evident. Senior females consistently differed from senior males on four items of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Senior females tended to be "more up to date in their schoolwork " than senior males, had less of a tendency to "put things off," tended to "study in a haphazard, disorganized way" less often, and generally did not "let the work in a course pile up" as often as senior males. Again, these differences could result from a variety of reasons including a difference in motivation or study patterns between males and females. One possible explanation for this difference could be the interest level of females who now find themselves actively competing with males for grades, job opportunities, and positions in professional schools which formerly had been unavailable to them. Perhaps these opportunities have generated a more positive attitude toward studying for females. Also, the results of this research indicated that a significant difference between grade levels existed on the amount of time spent in study activity. Apparently, seniors studied significantly more hours than any of the other three grade levels. Since academic achievement was not one of the variables explored in this research, it is unknown if this additional study time had any effect on grade point average. Again, a motivation factor could be present which accounted for seniors' increased study time.

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65 Implications There appears to be an implication for counselors worth noting at this point. This research has demonstrated that even though students' time management behavior did not change as a result of instruction, students apparently felt better about their ability to organize and efficiently manage their time. That positive feeling in itself warrants attention from those who deal with student problems daily. For some students, merely feeling better about themselves and their abilities to control their lives could be far more important in leading to or stimulating behavioral changes. This realization in turn has implications for departments of counselor education. Since college counselors often work with students who feel as though they have little control over their lives in school, it seems appropriate that a part of the counselor's training could be in certain skill development areas such as the ones described in this study. A knowledge of concrete skills which could enhance students' self-perception and possibly their academic performance certainly would seem to be a viable component of a counselor education program. In fact, the results of this study suggest that there probably is no one "right" way to counsel students in study skills such as time management. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counselors' need for adequate information in this area as well as a great deal of flexibility in adapting learning techniques to the personality of the student. Recommendations Improvements could be made on this type of time management research

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66 if subjects under investigation could be observed for longer periods of time. In connection with instruction in study skills, it is questionable whether students will implement the newly learned skills immediately. Perhaps over a longer period of time, the need for time management skills will become evident; therefore, it would be helpful if a longitudinal study could be conducted to measure change over several quarters of school. It might also be helpful to measure change in grade point average over several quarters. For this particular study, one quarter did not seem to be an adequate length of time to warrant an inspection of grade point averages. However, if a longitudinal study was conducted, it would be appropriate to investigate the possibility that a relationship exists between time management instruction and grade point average. A second recommendation concerns study skills instructors who teach techniques of time management. The type of instruction used in the present study was fairly typical of that generally described in study skills books. Therefore, it seems apparent that an evaluation of current instructional practices might be warranted. If study skills instructors are not achieving desired results in student behavioral change, perhaps other methods of instruction should be investigated. Apparently, a closer look should be taken at current instructional practices in this area. In summary, this research attempted to measure behaviors and attitudes related to study skills which are greatly influenced by the unique personal problems, motivation, and abilities of each individual involved in the study. The data have indicated that certain self-perceptions

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67 can be affected by instruction in time management, but that specific behavioral changes related to time use are more difficult to detect. Further research in this area should explore other methods of time management instruction as well as possible factors affecting behaviors related to the general area of study skills.

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APPENDIX A COURSE DESCRIPTION AND AVAILABLE TIMES Time Bidg. 10:00-12:00 Hume Hall 1:30-3:30 Hume Hall 7:00-9:00 p.m. Murphree Hall 10:00-12:00 Building E Instruction in reading and study skills will be offered on both an individual and group basis. Diagnostic test, evaluation of skill levels and reading-study techniques will be considered. Class experiences will include lectures, discussions, demonstrations, and laboratory work. Topics include: reading rate and comprehension, vocabulary, note-taking, marking a text, time-use, concentration techniques, test anxiety, etc. Direct application of skills to coursework will be stressed. Intended for both successful students desiring to sharpen already adequate skills as well as those with identifiable problems. Enrollment limited to 20 students. Grading on a pass/fail basis. Four sections will be offered Spring Quarter. Dept.

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APPENDIX B COURSE OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS Student Development in a University Setting: Applied Techniques in Study Skills I. Objectives 1. To familiarize students with a variety of reading and study skills techniques. 2. To assist students apply skills to coursework and develop effective personal study approaches. 3. In broad context, to encourage exploration of academic skills and personal goals related to college success. II. Requirements 1. Attend regularly (no more than two unexcused absences) 2. Complete an individual project (to be determined in conference with instructor). 3. Read How to Study in College . 4. Participate in class discussions. 5. Work individually at least two hours per week at the Reading and Study Skills Center. 6. Participate in a minimum of two individual conferences with the instructor. 69

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APPENDIX C COURSE OUTLINE EDC 301: Student Development in a University SettingApplied Techniques in Study Skills Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Objectives and Requirements; Introductions Diagnostic Reading Test Test Interpretation and Equipment Introduction Individual Practice with Materials Marking a Text Time Management Techniques Examination Preparation; Time Management Taking Lecture Notes; Time Management Myers-Briggs ; Learning Styles; Career Choice Week 10: Myers-Briggs Interpretation; Evaluations Other Topics Considered Concentration and Self-Discipline Memory and Forgetting Keeping Your Emotional Balance Campus Resources Vocabulary Development Reading Rate and Comprehension 70

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APPENDIX D STUDY SKILLS TEST-INVENTORY OF STUDY HABITS AND ATTITUDES Directions: Please answer the following statements with "yes" or "no." 1. My class notes are sometimes difficult to understand later. 2. I often sit in class and forget to take notes. 3. I need to put in more time on my schoolwork. 4. In general, I think my study habits are good. 5. I tend to get along well with teachers. 5. When I don't like a course, I can't seem to study much. 7. Much of what I have to study will be of little use to me. 8. It is usually hard for me to get started on my schoolwork. 9. I need to plan my time better. 10. I am usually up to date in my schoolwork. 11. I tend to daydream when I study. 12. I tend to study where it is yery quiet. 13. I often get moody and can't study at all. 14. Sometimes I can't do my best on examinations because I am so nervous and tense. 15. When making notes on a lecture, I have trouble picking out the main points. 16. My class notes are usually disorganized, even if the lecture was well-organized by the teacher. 17. I spend an average of twenty hours a week or more studying. 18. I always make an outline of a theme or report before I begin writing it. 19. I sometimes have trouble in courses because I don't agree with the teacher. 71

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72 20. I skip classes that I could just as easily attend. 21. I think I have trouble studying because I don't know what my goals are. 22. I always put studying first. 23. I use my study time efficiently. 24. I tend to put things off much more than most students. 25. I can concentrate well when I study even if the material is quite dul 1 . 26. I often try to study with the radio or TV turned on. 27. My studies cause me a lot of worry. 28. Often some thought or idea keeps coming to me, and I can't stop thinking about it. 29. I often miss important lecture information because I am busy making notes on earlier material. 30. I seem to get the wrong material into my class notes. 31. I usually try to make a systematic review before a test. 32. I am eager to do my very best in my schoolwork. 33. I participate more than most students in class discussions. 34. I usually like the subject I am studying. 35. If I have trouble in a course, I tend to give up in discouragement. 36. I often consider dropping out of school. 37. I often study in a haphazard, disorganized way under the threat of the next test. 38. It is very difficult for me to stick to a study schedule. 39. I can usually sit and study for long periods without becoming tired or distracted. 40. I have a tendency to become sleepy in classes. 41. I am under a lot of tension when I study. 42. I sometimes get so worried about a personal problem that I can' t study.

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73 43. I can take good notes if the teacher presents material in an organized way. 44. Before I go to class, I try to test myself to be sure that I know the material I have studied. 45. My approach to studies is usually active rather than passive. 46. I try to take courses so that I will not have to study hard. 47. Sometimes I let the work in a course pile up, then cram madly at the end. 48. I am easily distracted from my schoolwork. 49. I get so upset about little things that I can't study. McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Study Skills Test, 1970.

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APPENDIX E STUDY SKILLS TEST-RELIABILITY DATA

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:3 4-> •J <: -o c to (/) 'f— .a O o 00 -t-j r-c 1 — ^ > ^ fO c — ' 00 o 4m * o tt o +: 5: 1 cu a: CJ3

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76 Table E-2 Reliability Coefficients of Study Skills Test

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APPENDIX F TIME-USE INVENTORY

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>DC O I LlJ -a 'rc rd cn . OJ -!-> >!•'4J C ."O > -1•E M U O fO 4-> x: +J o ^ 13 cn O) -r1-' -o -c E +J E O) o E S•I<++-> CD OJ c

PAGE 88

79

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APPENDIX G SELF-SURVEY INDEX This scale has been prepared so that you can indicate how you feel about a variety of study skills. Please circle the letter(s) on the left indicating how you feel about each statement. (SA=Strongly Agree, A= Agree, U=Undecided, D=Disagree, SD=Strongly Disagree.) SA A U D SD 1. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of taking lecture notes. SA A U D SD 2. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of managing my time. SA A U D SD 3. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of marking my textbook. SA A U D SD 4. I feel that I generally maintain good concentration while I study. SA A U D SD 5. I feel that my reading rate and comprehension skills have improved since the start of this quarter. SA A U D SD 6. I feel that my vocabulary has improved since the start of this quarter. SA A U D SD 7. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of memorizing details for an exam. SA A U D SD 8. I feel that my time management skills have improved since the start of this quarter. SA A U D SD 9. I feel that I generally choose a study area which is free from distractions. SA A U D SD 10. I feel that I generally do a satisfactory job of preparing for exams. 80

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APPENDIX H TIME MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Step I: Discussion of previous attempts at using a time schedule. Step II: Discussion of advantages of using a time schedule. Step III: Description of a Master Plan for time management. Step IV: Description of a Weekly Schedule. Step V: Description of a Daily Goals List. Step VI: Discussion of suggestions for effectively programming one's time (Pauk, 1974). Step VII: Assignment of daily goal-setting for following week. 81

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APPENDIX I SAMPLE MASTER PLAN Plan of Study, Classes, and Recreation

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Monday Tuesday Thursday APPENDIX J WEEKLY SCHEUDLE BASED ON ASSIGNMENTS Estimated Date Time Subject Assignment Time Due Due Math

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APPENDIX K DAILY SCHEDULE Monday Time Item Priority Review notes for Soc. class discussion *2 Sociology Class Biology Lecture Fix up Biology lecture notes Lunch Return book to library and buy notebook *3 at bookstore Literature homework--read Chapts. 3-6 *1 Basketball Dinner Math homework--problems on pp. 10-14 8-9

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APPENDIX L INFORMED CONSENT FORM University of Florida Gainesville, 32611 To the student, I am collecting information for a study concerned with how students manage their time. I would appreciate it if you would take the time now to complete the attached Inventory of Study Habits and Attitudes along with the Self-Survey Index. In addition, I would like you to complete the Time-Use Inventory over the next week. The person giving you these instruments will fully explain how to fill out the forms. Participation is voluntary, so if for any reason you would rather not take part in this project, please feel free to say so. Furthermore, you may withdraw at any time. Your answers and time sheets will be used for statistical purposes only. Thank you, Alan F. Kirby Principal Investigator 375-2120 1311 NW 7th Avenue Gainesville, Florida 32603 I have read and understand the procedure described above. I agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Date Signature of Student 85

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REFERENCES Andrews, M. G. A time questionnaire study. Personality Journal , 1930, 9, 72-81. Bednar, R. L., & Weinberg, S. L. Ingredients of successful treatment programs for underachievers. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1970, U_, 1-7. Bell, H. M. Study habits of teachers college students. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1931, 22, 538-543. Berrien, F. K. , Kennedy, J. L., & Carme, D. L. How quickly do students start studying? School and Society , 1942, 55, 482-483. Book, W. F. How to succeed in college . Baltimore: Warwick and York, 1927a. Book, W. F. Results obtained in a special how to study course given to college students. School and Society , 1927b, 14, 529-534. Campbell, D. T. , & Stanley, J. C. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research . Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Co., 1966. Comstock, A. Time and the college girl. School and Society , 1925, 21 , 326-327. Converse, P. D. Time studies in the university. Journal of Higher Education , 1931, 2, 258-262. Crawford, A. B. Incentives to study: A survey of student opinion . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1929. Crewe, J. C. The effect of study strategies on the retention of college text material. Journal of Reading Behavior , 1969, j_, 45-52. Dole, A. A. College students report on their use of time. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1959, 3_7, 633-637. Eckert, R. E., & Jones, E. S. Longtime effects of training college students how to study. School and Society , 1935, 42, 685-688. Entwisle, D. R. Evaluations of study-skills courses: A review. Journal of Educational Research, 1960, 53, 243-251. 86

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87 Eurich, A. C. The amount of reading and study among college students. School and Society , 1933, 37^, 102-104. Fairbanks, M. M. The effect of college reading improvement programs on academic achievement. Twentythird Yearbook of the National Reading Conference . Clemson, S.C.: The National Reading Conference, Inc., 1974, 105-114. Fairbanks, M. M. Relationship between research control and reported results of college reading improvement programs. Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Reading Conference . Clemson, S.C: The National Reading Conference, Inc., 1975, 80-93. Free, 0. D. , & Lee, M. A. How to become a successful student . New York: Arco Publishing Company, Inc., 1965. Goldsmith, A. G. , & Crawford, C. C. How college students spend their time. School and Society , 1928, 27^, 299-402. Headley, L. A. How to study in college . New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1926. Hemmerling, R. L. , & Hurst, H. The effects of leisure time activities on scholastic achievement. California Journal of Educational Research , 1961, 12, 86-90. Hutchinson, R. G., & Connard, M. H. What's in a college week? School and Society , 1926, 24, 769-772. Huxley, T. Cited by W. C. Resnick and D. H. Heller, On your own in college . Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc., 1963. Johnson, B. E. The effect of budgeting time on the achievement of freshmen normal school girls. Journal of Experimental Education , 1938, 7, 44-45. Jones, L. , & Ruch, G. M. Achievement as affected by amount of time spent in study. Twenty-seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education , Part II. Bloomington: Public School Publishing Company, 1928, 130-134. Kalish, R. A. Making the most of college . San Francisco: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1959. Kastenbaum, R. On the meaning of time in later life. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1966, 109, 9-25. Kerlinger, F. N. Foundations of behavioral research . New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1973.

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88 Lin, Y., & McKeachie, W. J. Aptitude, anxiety, study habits, and academic achievement. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1970, U, 306-309. Maddox, H. Advice on how-to-study versus the actual practices of university students. Perceptions and Motor Skills , 1963, J_6, 202. Malleson, N. B. University student, 1953, III. Men and women, hours of study. Universities Quarterly (London), 1960, 1_4, 156-164. Marwardt, F. , & Sikkink, D. E. Student preparation time. Improving College and University Teaching , 1970, 15, 308-309. Mawhinney, V. T. A comparison of students studying: Behavior produced by daily, weekly, and three-week testing schedules. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1971, 4, 257-264. May, M. A. Predicting academic success. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1923, U, 429-440. McDonald, A. S. Influence of a college reading improvement program on academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1957, 48, 171-181. Menius, S. C. Time utilization as related to academic success. University of North Carolina Record, Research in Progress . . . 1948 . 1949, 464, 339. Millott, R. F. Reading performance as a correlate of the personality type of college freshmen . Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 1974. Moore, H. , & Graham, L. A study of freshmen's distribution of time. School and Society , 1937, 44, 336-338. Morgan, C. T. , & Deese, J. How to study . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1969. Norman, M. H. How to read and study for success in college . New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1971. Olsen, L. R. Study problems of junior college students. Journal College Journal , 1958, 28, 329-331. Pauk, W. J. How to study in college . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974. Raygor, A. L. McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System: Study Skills Test . Monterey, Calif.: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1970.

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89 Raygor, A. L., & Wark, D. M. Systems for study . New York: McGrawHill Book Co. , 1970. Resnick, W. C, & Heller, D. H. On your own in college . Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc., 1963. Ritter, J. H. University study skills program. Journal of Reading , 1971, U, 377-380. Robinson, F. P. Effective study . New York: Harper and Brothers, 1961 Ryans, D. G. Some observations concerning the relationship of time spent at study to scholarship and other factors. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1938, 30, 372-377. Santeusanio, R. P. Do college reading programs serve their purpose? Reading World , 1974, 13, 258-272. Smith, D. E. P. , & Wood, R. L. Reading improvement and college grades: A follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1955, 46, 151-159. Spache, G. D. Toward better reading . Chicago: Garrard Publishing Co., 1963. Strang, R. An introspective approach to study problems. Journal of Educational Research , 1957, 5^, 271-287. Sturtevant, S. M. , & Strang, R. The daily schedule as an aid to advisors. Teaching College Record , 1927, 29^, 31-45. Theoday, D. How undergraduates work. University Quarterly , 1956-57, 11, 172-181. Tillman, C. E. Measuring outcomes in college reading programs. Twenty-first Yearbook of the National Reading Conference , II. Boone, N.C.: The National Reading Conference, Inc., 1972, 205-212. Troth, D. C. A ten minute observation in the library. School and Society , 1929, 29, 336-338. Tussing, L. Study and succeed . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962. Uhrbrock, R. S. The freshman's use of time. Journal of Higher Education, 1931, 2, 137-143.

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90 Van Zoost, B. L. , & Jackson, B. T. Effects of self-monitoring and self-administered reinforcement on study behaviors. Journal of Educational Research , 1974, 67, 216-218. Weigand, G. , & Blake, W. S. College orientation: A study skills manual . Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1955. Williamson, E. G. The relationship of numbers of hours of study to scholarship. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1935, 26^, 682-688. Yarington, D. A study of the relationships between the reading done by college freshmen and aptitude and scholastic achievement. (Cooperative Research Project #5-8421). Athens, Ohio: Ohio University, 1967.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Alan Ferguson Kirby was born on January 6, 1951, in St. Charles, Missouri. He is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Kirby of Greenfield, Indiana. In June, 1969, he graduated from Greenfield High School, Greenfield, Indiana. In June, 1973, he received the degree. Bachelor of Science, with a major in psychology from Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. During 1973 and 1974, he worked for the Housing Office at Ball State University and completed the degree. Master of Arts, with a major in educational psychology in August, 1974. From 1975 to 1976, he worked part-time for the University of Florida Reading and Study Skills Center while pursuing a degree in the Department of Counselor Education. In August, 1976, he received the degrees. Master of Education and Specialist in Education. Since September, 1976, until the present time, he has been the Project Coordinator for Residence Hall Learning Centers (half-time) and a full-time candidate for the degree. Doctor of Philosophy, in the Department of Counselor Education. Mr. Kirby will be employed as the Coordinator of Educational Progranming at the University of California, Santa Barbara. 91

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 14 d. y< Harold Riker, Chairman Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ,/ X A. Garr Cranney / Associate Professor of CoL(nselbr Education and English ^ I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. id-t^ E. L. Tolbert Associate Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / / Yit n Y.'
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I certify that I conforms to acceptable adequate, in scope and Doctor of Philosophy. have read this study and that in my opinion it standards of scholarly presentation and is fully quality, as a dissertation for the degree of 1/^ Chester Tilljrian Associate Professor of English This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August, 1977 College of Edutation

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rJ J^^<^ .M0 f ]-i OM3 3 7.7. 3.10 4.