Citation
Mental health of the unemployed

Material Information

Title:
Mental health of the unemployed an analysis of a CETA program
Added title page title:
CETA program
Creator:
Sanford, John Anderson, 1948- ( Dissertant )
Riker, Harold C. ( Thesis advisor )
McDavis, Roderick J. ( Reviewer )
Wattenbarger, James L. ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1981
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 201 leaves ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Demography ( jstor )
Employment ( jstor )
Femininity ( jstor )
Labor ( jstor )
Masculinity ( jstor )
Mental health ( jstor )
Public works legislation ( jstor )
Self actualization ( jstor )
Social psychology ( jstor )
Unemployment ( jstor )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Mental health -- Florida ( lcsh )
Unemployment -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the mental health characteristics of unemployed persons and the impact of participation in employment training activities funded under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978 (CETA) on those characteristics. This study endeavored to obtain mental health information not currently available from previous research for use in the development of counseling and training strategies used with unemployed persons. The subjects for this study were 191 participants (61 males, 130 females) in a north Florida CETA program during April and May, 1980. All subjects participated in either the Title II-B Adult Work Experience (AWE) program (N=69) or the Titles II-D and VI Public Service Employment (PSE) program (N=122). Each subject had either just begun training (Intake Group, N=96) or had just completed four months of training (Training Group, N=95) The dependent mental health variables were self-actualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control. These variables were measured using the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) , Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) , and Internal-External Scale (lES) , respectively. The test package was pre-recorded and presented to the subjects in a written and recorded format to control for the effects of limited reading skills. The Intake and Training groups were matched on 12 independent demographic variables to establish between group comparability. Of seven null hypotheses tested four were rejected as a result of finding significant differences between groups on the dependent mental health measures. The Training Group subjects perceived human nature in a more positive manner and perceived themselves as less feminine than Intake Group subjects. AWE subjects were more self-actualizing than PSE subjects in the Awareness dimension of the POI. Subjects who were older, unmarried, with 12 or more years of education, or affiliated with liberal religious denominations were more self-actualizing and more internally oriented than subjects who were younger, married, less education, or affiliated with fundamentalist denominations. Non-white subjects were more external in locus of control than white subjects. An examination of differences between AWE and PSE subjects on the demographic characteristics revealed the AWE subjects more likely to be female, older, unmarried, and unemployed longer, with less education and more children than PSE subjects. It was concluded that the AWE program and PSE program serve different elements of the unemployed population. Significant differences were found between the mental health characteristics of CETA subjects in this study and subjects reported in selected validation studies of the dependent mental health measures. With the exception of the POI Self-regard scale, the CETA subjects were less self-actualizing than a normal adult sample and were more externally oriented than two college samples. In contrast, the CETA subjects scored higher on the BSRI scales and had a higher percentage of androgynous subjects than two college samples. It was concluded that the CETA subjects experienced difficulty in objectively completing sophisticated self-evaluative tasks. These findings suggest three important implications for counselors. Unemployed persons may be more responsive to directive or structured counseling and training strategies as opposed to introspective approaches. The findings also suggest that unemployed persons have difficulty perceiving themselves as needing "help" or identifying problems areas, implying that the counselor may wish to re-examine how his/her role is presented to the unemployed client. Finally, the utility of the demographic characteristics in predicting willingness and ability to engage in mental health growth related activities was discussed. Additionally, recommendations were made for further research.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (leaves 178-200).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by John Anderson Sanford.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
024992944 ( AlephBibNum )
07803537 ( OCLC )
ABS1151 ( NOTIS )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text













MENTAL HEALTH OF THE UNEMPLOYED:
AN ANALYSIS OF A CETA PROGRAM















By

JOHN ANDERSON SANFORD


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE
COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1981






















This study is dedicated to the memory of



RICHARD H. JOHNSON

His challenges to the old way;
His joy in learning new things and
thinking new thoughts;
His delight in living
Touched all who knew him.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Many people have contributed time, energy, and support during the

course of this project. First, I would like to thank Harold Riker,

Rod McDavis, and James Wattenbarger for their unrelenting encouragement.

Regardless of how long each stage of this study required, they never

lost faith that the effort would reach a satisfactory conclusion.

Second, I would like to express my appreciation for the cooperation of

the staff and participants of the Northeast Florida Employment and

Training Consortium. Their tolerance of repeated testing sessions

and active participation in the collection of data made this study

possible. I would also like to acknowledge the staff and participants

of the Alachua County Comprehensive Employment and Training Program,

past and present, whose very existence provided me with the idea for

this effort. I would particularly like to recognized Jess Brannen from

the program for his guidance and encouragement in understanding the CETA

experience.

I would like to thank my parents, Richard and Jo Ann. It was from

these two students of life that I first learned the importance of

learning and clear thought in a happy life.

Finally, and most importantly, I would like to express my gratitude

to my wife, Robin Runyan. She had the thankless task of supporting the

creation of this study while trying not to interfere with her pursuit

of her own education. During the smooth and the rough, she hung in there.

Thank you.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .

LIST OF TABLES . .

ABSTRACT .

CHAPTER


I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM .

Need for the Study .

Purpose .

Research Questions .

Value of the Study .

Rationale .

Definition of Terms .

II REVIEW OF LITERATURE .

Unemployment .

Mental Health .


Summary .

III PROCEDURES .

Overview .

Hypotheses .

Subjects .

Research Design .

Data Collection .

Instrumentation .


Page

. iii


vi

Sviii


5

5


6

6


11

. 14

. 14

. 46

. 75

. 77

. 77

. 78

. 80

. 85

. 89

. 91
. 91








Analysis of Data .

Limitations of the Study .

IV RESULTS .

Evaluation of Comparison Groups . . .

Evaluation of Hypotheses . . . .

Comparison of CETA Subjects with Subjects From
Selected Validation Studies


Summary .

V DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Overview . .. .

Discussion .

Conclusions .

Mental Health of the CETA Subjects: A Composite
Picture .

Recommendations for Counseling . . .

Recommendations for Further Research

Summary .


APPENDICES

A

B

C


D

E


CETA ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA . . . . .

CETA PROGRAM SIGNIFICANT SEGMENTS . . . .

TEST PACKAGE INTRODUCTION AND PERSONAL DATA
QUESTIONNAIRE .

CETA APPLICATION .

INFORMED CONSENT FORM . . . . . .


BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


99

103

104

104

110


138

141

143

144

145

157


160

163

166

168
















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Cell Size of Comparison Groups . . . . 81

2 Recoded Values of Demographic Variables of Age and
Education 102

3 Comparison of Intake Group Subjects and Training Group
Subjects on 12 Selected Demographic Variables: Matched
and Unmatched for Education . . . . 106

4 Comparison of Unmatched and Matched Groups on the
Independent Variables and on the Dependent Mental
Health Variables 107

5 Comparison of Adult Work Experience Subjects and
Public Service Employment Subjects on the 12 Demo-
graphic Variables 109

6 Comparison of Intake (Group 1) Subjects and Training
(Group 2) Subjects on the Personal Orientation
Inventory 111

7 Comparison of Intake (Group 1) Subjects and Training
(Group 2) Subjects on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory . 113

8 Comparison of Program 1 (Adult Work Experience)
Subjects and Program 2 (Public Service Employment)
Subjects on the Personal Orientation Inventory . 115

9 Comparison of Program 1 (Adult Work Experience)
Subjects and Program 2 (Public Service Employment)
Subjects on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory . 117

10 Distribution of Bem Sex-Role Inventory Sex-Type
Classifications by the Demographic Variable of Sex
for the Combined Group, Group 2 (Training), and
Program 2 (Public Service Employment) Subjects . 132

11 Distribution of Bem Sex-Role Inventory Sex-Type
Classifications by the Demographic Variable of Race
for Group 1 (Intake) Subjects . . . . 133








12 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Normal Adult Sub-
jects Reported by Shostrom (1974) on the Personal
Orientation Inventory 139

13 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Two Samples of
College Students Reported by Rotter (1966) on the
Internal-External Scale 139

14 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Two Samples of
Stanford University Students Reported by Bem (1974,
1977) on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory . . . 140
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


MENTAL HEALTH OF THE UNEMPLOYED:
AN ANALYSIS OF A CETA PROGRAM


BY


John Anderson Sanford

March, 1981

Chairman: Dr. Harold C. Riker
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the mental health charac-

teristics of unemployed persons and the impact of participation in

employment training activities funded under the Comprehensive Employment

and Training Act of 1978 (CETA) on those characteristics. This study

endeavored to obtain mental health information not currently available

from previous research for use in the development of counseling and

training strategies used with unemployed persons.

The subjects for this study were 191 participants (61 males, 130

females) in a north Florida CETA program during April and May, 1980.

All subjects participated in either the Title II-B Adult Work Experience

(AWE) program (N=69) or the Titles II-D and VI Public Service Employment

(PSE) program (N=122). Each subject had either just begun training

(Intake Group, N=96) or had just completed four months of training

(Training Group, N=95).


viii






The dependent mental health variables were self-actualization,

psychological androgyny, and locus of control. These variables were

measured using the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), Bem Sex-Role

Inventory (BSRI), and Internal-External Scale (IES), respectively.

The test package was pre-recorded and presented to the subjects in a

written and recorded format to control for the effects of limited reading

skills. The Intake and Training groups were matched on 12 independent

demographic variables to establish between group comparability.

Of seven null hypotheses tested four were rejected as a result of

finding significant differences between groups on the dependent mental

health measures. The Training Group subjects perceived human nature in

a more positive manner and perceived themselves as less feminine than

Intake Group subjects. AWE subjects were more self-actualizing than PSE

subjects in the Awareness dimension of the POI. Subjects who were older,

unmarried, with 12 or more years of education, or affiliated with liberal

religious denominations were more self-actualizing and more internally

oriented than subjects who were younger, married, less education, or

affiliated with fundamentalist denominations. Non-white subjects were

more external in locus of control than white subjects.

An examination of differences between AWE and PSE subjects on the

demographic characteristics revealed the AWE subjects more likely to be

female, older, unmarried, and unemployed longer, with less education and

more children than PSE subjects. It was concluded that the AWE program

and PSE program serve different elements of the unemployed population.

Significant differences were found between the mental health charac-

teristics of CETA subjects in this study and subjects reported in

selected validation studies of the dependent mental health measures.

ix







With the exception of the POI Self-regard scale, the CETA subjects were

less self-actualizing than a normal adult sample and were more externally

oriented than two college samples. In contrast, the CETA subjects scored

higher on the BSRI scales and had a higher percentage of androgynous

subjects than two college samples. It was concluded that the CETA sub-

jects experienced difficulty in objectively completing sophisticated

self-evaluative tasks.

These findings suggest three important implications for counselors.

Unemployed persons may be more responsive to directive or structured

counseling and training strategies as opposed to introspective approaches.

The findings also suggest that unemployed persons have difficulty per-

ceiving themselves as needing "help" or identifying problems areas,

implying that the counselor may wish to re-examine how his/her role is

presented to the unemployed client. Finally, the utility of the demo-

graphic characteristics in predicting willingness and ability to engage

in mental health growth related activities was discussed. Additionally,

recommendations were made for further research.














CHAPTER I

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Need for the Study

Work and mental health have been repeatedly related (Maslow, 1970a;

Tiffany, D., Cowan, & Tiffany, P., 1970; Work In America, 1973).

Extended unemployment has been strongly associated with increased evi-

dence of mental illness (Cassel, 1966; Work In America, 1973). Tiffany,

D.,et al. (1970) found that work inhibition, one of the causes of long-

term unemployment, is directly related to poor mental health. Maslow

(1970a), in describing self-actualization, identified a direct link

between work and mental health. Maslow found that one of the identi-

fying characteristics of self-actualizing persons was a desire to have

a line of work external to their own lives without regard to the eco-

nomic benefits of working. Furthermore, food, water, shelter, and

security, the basic needs which serve as a foundation for mental health

(Maslow, 1970a), have been shown to be among the basic reasons people

work (Kaplan & Tausky, 1972; Morse & Weiss, 1955; Weiss & Kahn, 1960).

Work has long been viewed as basic to the smooth functioning of the

national socio-economic system (Lebergott, 1964). Most members of

society are expected to work; with work defined as a means of making

one's contribution to society, as a source of identity, and as a means

of supporting one's self and family (Super, 1976; Wilensky, 1966; Work

In America, 1973).









Prior to the depression in the 1930's and World War II, national

interest in work was primarily focused on vocational choice rather than

unemployment. Related federal legislation, the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917,

was limited to vocational education. Efforts to help the unemployed

occurred largely through agencies supported by private donations (State

of Florida Office of Manpower Planning, 1978).

Beginning in the depression and continuing after World War II,

national interest in assisting those without work increased rapidly

(Ginzberg, 1968; Levitan, 1967). This interest was reflected in the

passage of such legislation as the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1932, the Social

Security Act of 1935, the Employment Act of 1946, the Manpower Develop-

ment and Training Act of 1962 (as amended in 1963, 1965, 1966, and

1968), and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Acts of 1973 and

1978.

These legislative actions established programs designed to insure

full employment, help the unemployed, and meet the nation's manpower

needs. The goal of these programs was the development of a manpower pool

of adequate size and skill level through the provision of educational

and financial assistance to persons experiencing difficulty in finding

work. The Manpower Development and Training Act and the Comprehensive

Employment and Training Acts in particular were designed to provide

training, counseling, placement, and supportive services to the long-

term unemployed (State of Florida Office of Manpower Planning, 1978).

Interest in assisting the unemployed was stimulated by several

factors. Some, such as how to respond to the technological threat

represented by the Russian Sputnik, were of international origin.

Others, however, were of intranational origin. These included economic






3

demands for an adequate manpower pool, social demands that employment be

available for returning servicemen, and altruistic demands to help unem-

ployed persons improve their lives (Ginzberg, 1968; Levitan, 1964;

Levitan, 1967). Underlying these social factors was the belief that it

was better for the individual to be working than to be unemployed (Cassel,

1966; Work In America, 1973).

During the period following the depression and World War II, inter-

est was also increasing among psychologists in the development of the

healthy personality. Several theoretical descriptions of how and why

people develop a healthy, well-rounded, well-adjusted personality have

been presented (Jourard, 1963; Maslow, 1970a; Rogers, C., 1951; Rogers, C.,

& Dymond, 1954). These descriptions represented a shift from earlier,

problem-oriented theories of personality to a growth or health orienta-

tion. Rather than describe human functioning and personality development

in degrees of pathology, the health-oriented theorists focused on descrip-

tions of the personality in degrees of strengths (Wilson, 1972).

The psychology of mental health results from the blending of exis-

tential philosophy and psychology (Jourard, 1963; Misiak & Sexton, 1973).

A subjective philosophy of the individual, existentialism begins with

descriptions of the individual and his/her role in the development of

his/her life. This philosophy holds that only through the study of the

individual can the human condition be understood:

There is no such thing as truth or reality for a living human
being except as he participates in it, is conscious of it, has
some relationship to it. (May, 1960, p. 14)

The individual is seen as uniquely responsible for his/her existence.

To exist is to engage in the process of making choices, thereby defining






4

one's essence by becoming what one is. Existence is a state of freedom

to act and choose one's life and the responsibility to accept the conse-

quences of those choices and actions (Sartre, 1957).

Implicit in existentialism is a definition of the mentally healthy

person which is significantly different from earlier definitions. The

existential definition of mental health is based on the strengths and

actions of the individual rather than problems or weaknesses. The men-

tally healthy person has the courage to be what he/she can be, to be

him/herself, to act and accept the results of that action as his/her

responsibility, and the will and courage to act on that responsibility.

He/she is able to actualize his/her potential to the fullest, to tran-

scend the limiting effects of environmental and social roles, and to be

free to accept the self and others as individuals rather than as objects

or a collection of socially defined roles (Jourard, 1963).

Humanistic psychology, therefore, "is a multifaceted approach to

human experience which focuses on Man's uniqueness and his self-actu-

alization" (Misiak & Sexton, 1973, p. 127). The focus is on the mental

health characteristics of the individual, not his/her problems. An

example of this orientation is the concept of self-actualization

(Maslow, 1970a). The concept was derived, in part, through the exami-

nation of a population identified as being healthy. Maslow found that

a well defined body of characteristics served to separate the healthy

group from other, less healthy, groups. The definition of mental health

derived from this approach is one of the presence of strengths within

the individual rather than the presence of absence or problems (Wilson,

1972).

There is a well established relationship between work and mental

health (Maslow, 1970a; Tiffany, D., et al., 1970; Work In America; 1973) and









the goals of manpower programs to help the unemployed persons in society

obtain work and improve the quality of their lives (Ginzberg, 1968).

However, despite the strength of this relationship there has been no

mental health research examining the unemployed population or the impact

of going to work upon their mental health (Sheppard, 1972; Smith, E.,

1977).

Purpose

This study was designed to examine the mental health characteristics

of unemployed persons and to measure the effects of employment training

upon these mental health characteristics. This was accomplished through

observing unemployed persons as they began a Comprehensive Employment and

Training Act program and comparing these observations with similar obser-

vations of unemployed persons who had completed four months of training

in the program.

Research Questions

The specific research questions to be explored were:

1. What are the mental health characteristics of long-term
unemployed persons as thev enter a Comprehensive Employ-
ment and Training Act funded employment training program
as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom,
1974), the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (Bem, 1974), and the
Internal-External Scale (Rotter, 1966)?

2. What are the mental health characteristics of long-term
unemployed persons who have completed four months of
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act funded employ-
ment training as measured by the Personal Orientation
Inventory, the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, and the Internal-
External Scale?

3. How do the mental health characteristics of long-term
unemployed persons entering training differ from the
mental health characteristics of long-term unemployed
persons completing four months of training as measured
by the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Bem Sex-Role
Inventory, and the Internal-External Scale?






6

4. What is the relationship between the demographic factors
of age, race, sex, education, religious affiliation,
family history, and length of unemployment prior to the
employment training program experience and the mental
health characteristics of long-term unemployed persons
participating in the employment training program?

Value of the Study

There are several benefits to be derived from this study. Plans

for employment training programs will benefit from the identification

of mental health characteristics of their target population. Such a

description will enable the employment trainers and counselors to plan

training activities which take into consideration the mental health

characteristics of the clientele. In the process, therefore, it is

hoped to establish a foundation for programs designed to facilitate the

development of mental health in conjunction with the development of good

work habits. Furthermore, the description of mental health among long-

term unemployed persons will expand the population base of mental health

research beyond the traditional study group of college students enrolled

in introductory college psychology courses. The systematic definition

of the effects of employment training upon the mental health character-

istics of long-term unemployed persons will provide a fuller understanding

of mental health concepts.

Rationale

The basic premise of this study is that existing research in mental

health and research examining unemployed persons has failed to investi-

gate the relationship between mental health and unemployment. The need

for an examination of this relationship has long been acknowledged

(Ginzberg, 1968; Sheppard, 1972; Smith, E., 1977; Tiffany, D.,et al.,

1970).








Current manpower programs were initiated and developed to aid the

unemployed persons in society and to provide for the manpower needs of

the nation (Ginzberg, 1968; Levitan, 1967). These goals were to be met,

in part, by providing unemployed persons with education, training, coun-

seling, job placement, and supportive services designed to assist them

in overcoming barriers to employment and in obtaining and retaining

fulltime employment.

Despite these stated goals, evaluative studies of manpower program

results have failed to examine the psychological impact of employment

training upon the client. Research in related areas has been confined

to examining the consequences of extended unemployment, the meaning of

work, the motivation to work, job satisfaction, and the consequences of

job dissatisfaction. There have been studies examining the outcomes of

employment training programs but these have been limited to changes in

economic status and length of job retention.

This study focused on the mental health characteristics of unem-

ployed persons and on the effect of employment training upon these

characteristics. Three major mental health concepts were used: self-

actualization (Maslow, 1970a), psychological androgyny (Bem, 1974), and

locus of control (Rotter, 1966). Each of these concepts was defined as

representing a different, yet related, aspect of mental health for the

purposes of this study.

Self-actualization, as developed by Maslow (1970a), is one of the

basic elements of humanistic psychology. Maslow held that the individ-

ual not only could, but must become self-reliant, self-determining, and

self-actualizing as a natural part of continuing growth and development.






8

Self-actualization is the highest level of Maslow's need hierarchy.

He identified five need levels which serve progressively as the basic

motivators for human behavior: physical, security, belongingness and

love, esteem, and self-actualization. Following the initial definition

of self-actualization, Maslow developed and expanded the concept into an

extensive theoretical system of mental health for the individual, soci-

ety, science, religion, and values (Maslow, 1959a, 1959b, 1961, 1963a,

1963b, 1964a, 1964b, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1970b, 1971, Maslow & Mittleman,

1951).

Psychological androgyny was described by Maslow (1971) as a central

element of mental health:

The man who thinks you can be either a man, all man, or a
woman, and nothing but a woman, is doomed to struggle with
himself, and to eternal estrangement from women. To the
extent that he learns the facts of psychological "bisexuality,"
and becomes aware of the arbitrariness of either/or defi-
nitions and pathogenic nature of the process of dichoto-
mizing, to the degree that he discovers that differences
can fuse and be structured with each other, and need not be
exclusive and mutually antagonistic, to that extent will
he be a more integrated person, able to accept and enjoy
the "feminine" within himself (the "Anima" as Jung calls
it). (pp. 161-162)

The development of the concept of psychological androgyny was the

result of research on differences between men and women. The research

has found that there exists a clear and distinct difference between what

society views as appropriate for men and for women. Furthermore, these

sex-roles have been found to be valued differently by society, with the

masculine sex-role being valued more than the feminine sex-role. The

research has also found that sex-roles are flexible, varying among indi-

viduals and cultures (Angrist, 1969; Mead, 1950; Staples, 1973).






9

Work is traditionally defined as a masculine activity (Chafetz,

1974). Sex-roles are, therefore, of interest to the employment coun-

selor and trainer since the majority of unemployed persons served by

employment training programs are female (see Appendix B). Successful

employment training may be found to necessarily include elements of

training in sex-role flexibility.

Original conceptualizations of sex-roles placed masculinity and

femininity at opposite ends of a single bi-polar dimension (Chafetz,

1974). However, subsequent research has shown that sex-roles represent

two distinct dimensions (Bem, 1974; Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1975).

Psychological androgyny refers to the potential within the individual

to endorse as personally appropriate behaviors from either sex-role,

determining the appropriateness on the basis of situational determinants

and personal guidelines rather than traditional societal sex-role defi-

nitions of the behavior (Bem, 1974). Psychological androgyny may also

serve, therefore, as a measure of resistance to enculturation, a charac-

teristic of the self-actualizing person (Bem, 1974; Kelly, Caudill,

Hathorm, & O'Brien, 1977; Maslow. 1970a).

The third concept used in this study to assess mental health is that

of internal-external locus of control (Rotter, 1966). Maslow (1970a)

argued that self-actualizing persons would rely primarily upon their own

values and perceptions of the world rather than the values and judge-

ments of society. Locus of control is a related concept that is defined

as the expectancy or perceived probability that one's actions can influ-

ence the reinforcements of a given situation (Rotter, 1966). An inter-

nal orientation is defined as the expectancy that the outcome of the

situation can be influenced by one's behavior while an external locus of





10

control is defined as the expectancy that the outcome of the situation

is subject to chance and that no control can be exerted over the final

outcome.

Research has shown that locus of control is related to, though

different from, the inner-directed dimension of self-actualization

(Lambert, DeJulio, & Cole, 1976). Unlike other concepts utilized in

this study, locus of control has been used on a limited basis in studies

of unemployed persons. Lefcourt (1966), for example, found results that

suggest unemployed persons fail to take definitive action intended to

improve their situation out of the belief that such action would be to

no avail. In short, they remain unemployed as a result, in part, of an

external locus of control.

These three mental health concepts have been shown to identify

healthy, well-adjusted subjects consistently and accurately and to be

able to discriminate mentally healthy behavior from behavior that has

been clinically judged pathological or maladjusted (Bem, 1979; Rotter,

1966; Shostrom, 1974). However, none of these concepts has been used

to examine the mental health of unemployed persons or the effects of

employment training upon the mental health of the clientele.

In summary, it is argued that the CETA funded employment training

programs would be strengthened by the inclusion of mental health concepts

in the evaluation of unemployed persons and in the evaluation of employ-

ment training effects. Furthermore, it is argued that the concept of

mental health would be strengthened through the examination of a popu-

lation significantly different from traditional mental health research

populations and by examining the impact of employment training upon

mental health characteristics.






11

Definition of Terms

Several terms used in this study are defined in this section for the

purpose of establishing a common terminology.

Work. Super (1976) provides a broad, flexible definition of work

which will be used in this study. Work is:

The systematic pursuit of an objective valued by oneself
(even if only for survival) and desired by others; directed
and consecutive, it requires expenditure of effort. It may
be compensated (paid work) or uncompensated (volunteer work
or an avocation). The objective may be intrinsic enjoyment
of work itself, the structure given to life by the work role,
the economic support which work makes possible, or the type
of leisure which work facilitates. (p. 20)

Employment. The terms "work" and "employment" are often used

interchangeably resulting in confusion during discussions of related

concepts. To avoid this confusion "employment" will be given the more

limited definition of "paid work," regardless of the motivation for

working. Employment, therefore, is distinct from volunteer work.

Unemployment. This term refers to being without employment, i.e.,

without paid work.

Unemployed person. Within the definition provided for unemployment,

there is a broad range of persons defined as unemployed. College

students, for example, may be working hard towards a degree but they are

unemployed while engaged in the process. Therefore, for the purposes

of this study an individual will be considered as an unemployed person

if he/she meets the eligibility requirements for participation in a CETA

funded employment training program. Basically, these requirements are

that the individual must have been unemployed for an extended period of

time and have a sufficiently low income to be classified as economically

disadvantaged (see Appendix A). This definition will be applicable as

long as the individual is participating in an employment training program.






12

Employability. This term is used to refer to the individual's

ability to identify, obtain, and retain fulltime employment. This

ability includes such factors as being trained in the occupation,

good work attitudes, the ability to complete an application, and the

ability to interview for the position.

Employment training. Generally this term refers to any structured

activity designed to enhance an individual's employability. A college

education, for example, may be considered as a form of employment

training. However, for the purposes of this study, the term will refer

to activities funded under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act

of 1978 (CETA). The goal of employment training is to develop sufficient

employability skills within the individual to enable them to find full-

time employment outside of the CETA program.

Mental Health. This is a state of integration of needs, drives,

and values. It involves the acceptance of self and others, self-reli-

ance, non-judgemental interpersonal skills, freedom from defensive

interaction patterns, and self-actualization (Jourard, 1963). For the

purposes of this study the concepts of self-actualization, psychological

androgyny, and internal-external locus of control will be defined as

mental health concepts.

Self-actualization. The self-actualizing person has successfully

developed the ability to satisfy the basic needs (physical, security,

belongingness and love, and esteem) and is free to develop his/her

potential to the fullest (Maslow, 1970a). The ability to integrate

needs and potential represented by self-actualization is defined as a

mental health concept for the purposes of this study.

Psychological androgyny. Bem (1974) introduced the concept of psy-

chological androgyny to describe sex-role flexibility and the integration






13

of masculine and feminine sex-roles into a unified personal system.

The androgynous individual is able to engage in an activity on the

basis of its personal appropriateness in that situation rather than on

the basis of its traditional socially defined sex-role alignment. This

ability is defined as representative of mental health for the purposes

of this study.

Locus of Control. Internal-external locus of control was intro-

duced by Rotter (1966) to describe the degree of control the individual

expected to be able to exert over the rewards and outcomes of a given

situation. An internal locus of control refers to the expectancy that

such control is possible while an external locus of control refers to the

expectancy that the outcomes of the situation are, at best, randomly

determined. As with self-actualization and psychological androgyny,

an internal locus of control will be defined as indicative of mental

health for the purposes of this study.















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Literature relevant to the current study will be discussed in this

chapter. The review will be organized into two sections: Unemployment

and Mental Health.

Unemployment

The literature discussed in this section will cover three elements

required for understanding unemployment and efforts to help the unem-

ployed person: Work, Manpower Programs, and the Comprehensive Employ-

ment and Training Act of 1978.

Work

The importance of work. Work is widely recognized as basic to the

well-being of the individual and essential to the smooth functioning of

society. Economists argue that without enough work for those who wish

to work or enough workers for the work to be done the national economy

would collapse (Heller, 1964; Heron, 1948; Killingsworth, 1964; Pierson,

1972). Work is also seen as important by the government, as evidenced

by the establishment of national manpower programs and employment goals

for the nation (Bakke, 1969; Levitan, 1964). Wilensky (1966) identified

work as an important problem for the individual and the social system

because:

(1) Every society defines it as a central obligation for most
of the population, but in modern society some men cannot obtain
enough of it. The existing skills and talents of the popula-
tion never perfectly fit the demands of the technology and the
economy. (2) Many men are discontented with the work they do.
(3) Employers and officials often feel their subordinates are

14





15

not doing enough work or good enough work. Hardworking
portions of the population sometimes complain that others
are "featherbedding" or "goldbricking." (4) Lack of work
or alienation from it can place a heavy hand on the qual-
ity of life. (p. 118)

This study, however, focused on the perspective of the individual.

Rather than examine the importance of work from a social, economic, or

political point of view, the focus was on the impact of unemployment,

work, and employment training on the mental health of the individual.

In a report prepared for the Secretary of HEW (Work In America, 1973)

a task force of engineers, sociologists, social workers, economists,

anthropologists, and political scientists examined the role and function

of work in contemporary America and concluded:

Work is central "in the lives of most adults," it contributes
to identity and self-esteem, and it is useful "in bringing
order and meaning to life." Work offers economic self-suffi-
ciency, status, family stability, and an opportunity to inter-
act with others in one of the most basic activities of society.
Consequently, if the opportunity to work is absent, or if the
nature of work is dissatisfying (or worse), severe repercus-
sions are likely to be experienced in other parts of the
social system. (p. xv)

The meaning of work. One approach used in the study of the meaning

of work has been to ask the question: What is the difference between

working and not-working? Weiss and Kahn (1960) asked this question of

371 workers from several different occupations. They found that "over

three-fourths of respondents defined work either as activity which was

necessary though not enjoyed, or as activity which was scheduled or

paid" (Weiss & Kahn, 1960, p. 150). Further, they found that the defi-

nition of work as a necessary activity was associated with occupations

which accorded the worker some degree of autonomy and required advanced

education. The definition of work as scheduled or paid activity was

associated with occupations which had emotional separation from the job






16

and allowed the workers no social status or freedom on the job. In

response to the questions of how workers would feel different if they

were not working, Weiss and Kahn found that all workers except those

in low status jobs would feel emotionally worse. The low status workers

reported that they would feel the same or better if not working.

A second approach to the importance of work has been to examine the

significance of work in the lives of the workers. Dubin (1956) surveyed

491 workers and found that only 24% identified work as central to their

life interests although 61% identified the workplace as their central

formal organizational attachment. He concluded that the "worker has a

well developed sense of attachment to his work and workplace without a

sense of total commitment to it" (Dubin, 1956, p. 140). In a similar

study, Williams, R., Morea, and Ives (1975) asked a sample of students

and managers to rank several items in terms of personal importance. The

items included recreation, school, church, occupation, and family. They

found that approximately two-thirds (20 out of 33) of the students

ranked their future occupation as most important, more frequently than the

sample of managers (3 out of 17). Managers were found to rank their

families in first position most frequently (14 of 17). However, 80% of

the total sample (41 out of 51) ranked occupation in first or second

place. Furthermore, the top two functions of work identified were self-

realization and social contact. Economic security ranked third for both

groups as a function of work.

A third approach to understanding the importance of work has been

to ask the workers why they work and whether they would work if the eco-

nomic necessity were removed. Morse and Weiss (1955) found that 80% of

401 workers sampled would continue to work even in the absence of





17

economic need. Reasons for continuing to work included: to keep occu-

pied or interested (31%), would go crazy if not working (14%), wouldn't

know what else to do (10%), enjoyed work (9%), work justified existence

(5%), habit (6%), and to maintain self-respect (5%). This response

pattern was consistent across all age groups ranging from just entering

work (90% would continue to work) to retired workers (65% would continue

to work).

Kaplan and Tausky (1972) asked questions similar to those used by

Morse and Weiss (1955) of a sample of hard-core unemployed subjects

(N=275). They found that the most important reason given for having a

job was to make a living and support the self and family (52%). Other

reasons given included: liking the work (11%), security of a steady job

and income (10%), learning good work habits (4%), and having a chance to

use abilities and accomplish something (4%). They also found that most

of the respondents would rather wash cars than accept welfare (71%),

would work even if they did not need the money (84%), would work at a

lower paying respectable job rather than take a higher paying job which

was looked down on (57%), felt that the most important part of a promo-

tion was the increased respect they would get (54%), and would be con-

cerned about not being promoted even though their pay increased steadily

(54%).

Working appears to serve two basic functions in the lives of the

worker and in the lives of those who would like to work. The first

function is that of income and the support for self or family provided

by the income. The second function is equally important though less

tangible than income; the provision of self-respect, self-fulfillment,

respect from others, social standing, and a structure to life. A further









finding is that workers in higher level jobs with more education, gener-

ally management and white-collar positions, tend to rate the intangible

factors as more important than do the blue-collar or lower status workers

and unemployed individuals. Finally, groups at all levels of employment

have been found to express a desire to continue working independent of

economic needs.

Job satisfaction. The area of job satisfaction has been the subject

of extensive research and has been recognized as an important element

in the well-being of the working population:

Significant numbers of American workers are dissatisfied with
the quality of their working lives. Dull, repetitive, seemingly
meaningless tasks, offering little challenge or autonomy, are
causing discontent among workers at all occupational levels.
This is not so much because work itself has greatly changed;
indeed one of the main problems is that work has not changed
fast enough to keep up with the rapid and widespread changes
in worker attitudes, aspirations and values. A general increase
in their educational and economic status has placed many Americans
in a position where having an interesting job is now as important
as having a job that pays well. . As a result, the produc-
tivity of the worker is low--as measured by absenteeism, turn-
over rates, wildcat strikes, sabotage, poor-quality products,
and a reluctance by workers to commit themselves to their tasks.
Moreover, an increasing body of research indicates that, as work
problems increase there may be a consequent decline in physical
and mental health, family stability, community participation and
cohesiveness, and "balanced" socio-political attitudes, while
there is an increase in drug and alcohol addiction, aggression,
and delinquency. (Work In America, 1973, p. xvi)

Lyman (1955) identified job satisfied workers with three questions:

If you could start over, would you do the same work; Given the same pay,

what would you do; Do you want your son to do the same work as you do?

She found that only 77 of 249 workers were satisfied, i.e., answered all

three questions in the affirmative. She further found that among the

satisfied workers the white-collar subjects preferred the interesting

quality of the job and the freedom on the job while the blue-collar





19

workers preferred the economic rewards and the physical conditions of

the work. Among the dissatisfied workers the white-collar workers

found their work uninteresting and wanted to change the nature of the

job while blue-collar subjects disliked the physical demands of the job

and wanted to make the work easier.

The elements of work have been divided into intrinsic and extrinsic

categories (Herzberg, 1966). Intrinsic factors include characteristics

such as promotions, personal growth, recognition, responsibility, the

nature of the work, and an opportunity for advancement. Extrinsic

factors include working conditions, security, status, salary, super-

vision, and relationships with fellow employees.

Saleh and Singh (1973) studied the instrinsic and extrinsic elements

of the job valued by 3000 white-collar workers as moderated by the sub-

jects educational level, salary, and father's occupation. They found

that among the low salaried subjects (annual income less than $10,000)

intrinsic factors increased in importance as the father's occupational

level (unskilled versus skilled or professional) increased and as the

community size increased. Among the high salary group this relation-

ship was significant only for the university educated subjects. Over-

all, the higher salary group was significantly more intrinsically

oriented than the low salary group.

Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959) suggested that jobs which

allowed for increased opportunities for achievement, recognition,

responsibility, advancement, and growth would be more satisfying than

jobs which did not offer these elements. Sheppard and Herrick (1972)

found that satisfaction was shown to increase as job variety, autonomy,

meaningfulness, and responsibility increased. Kahn (1972), following






20

an extensive literature review, concluded that improved job satisfaction

resulted from: increases in job rewards and autonomy; decreases in repe-

tition, overspecialization, and fractionalism; and improvement in super-

vision, wages, promotions, peer relationships, and working conditions.

Chisholm (1975) interviewed 100 college graduates to assess the rela-

tionship between alienation on and off the job. He found that lack of

good supervisory evaluations, lack of upward mobility, and being young,

rather than the quality of work or type of job activities, were asso-

ciated with the highest levels of on or off the job alienation. Heron

(1948), in an earlier study of why individuals choose to work or are

satisfied with their work, concluded that workers needed to be involved

with their work. Without work involvement, workers were found to choose

no work at all, even when the work was available for them.

Slocum and Strawser (1972) compared assessments of job settings by

black and white Certified Public Accountants. They asked the subjects

to identify which elements of the job were satisfying and which personal

needs were not being satisfied on the job. They found that the black

subjects expressed a significantly higher unmet need for an opportunity:

to help people, for friendship, for a feeling of self-esteem, for indepen-

dent thought and action, for growth and development, and for compensation

than was expressed by the white subjects. After classifying these needs

according to Maslow's need heirarchy (1970a), they concluded that the

black subjects were expressing a pattern of unmet needs which was much

less self-actualizing than the white subjects.

Blood (1969) developed an instrument which measured endorsement of

the Protestant Ethic. He found that 306 United States Air Force airmen

instructors exhibited a positive relationship between the endorsement






21

of the Protestant Ethic and job satisfaction. Another 114 student

airmen did not exhibit the relationship between the Protestant Ethic

and job satisfaction.

Wanous (1974) surveyed 80 female telephone operators using the

Blood (1969) Protestant Ethic Scale and a questionnaire which gathered

data on childhood background, preferences for job characteristics, and

job satisfaction. Results indicated that the subjects' need for job

satisfiers, such as variety, autonomy, task identity, and task feedback

was a better predictor of job satisfaction than endorsement of the

Protestant Ethic or childhood background.

Although these studies make a strong case for the importance of

assisting workers in achieving job satisfaction, theorists have cau-

tioned that satisfaction may not represent the total explanation of

work related behavior. Kahn (1972) noted that:

For most workers it is a choice between no work connection
(usually with severe attendant economic penalties and con-
spicuous lack of meaningful alternative activities) and a
work connection which is burdened with negative qualities
(routine, compulsory scheduling, dependency). In these
circumstances the individual has no difficulty with the
choice; he chooses work, pronounces himself moderately
satisfied, and tells us more only if the questions become
more searching. (p. 200)

Rottenburg (1960) argued that economic factors will serve as a strong

influence in job choice in addition to job satisfaction and should not

be discounted. Blaumer (1960) noted that other factors influence job

choice including the need for structure in life, endorsement of the

Protestant Ethic, and the fact that the individual may never be fully

satisfied but will assign meaning to work which theorists would find

meaningless.






22

In summary, the research has shown that many workers are dissatis-

fied with their work and this dissatisfaction affects the overall quality

of their lives. Several factors have been found to affect the degree of

job satisfaction. Job characteristics such as autonomy, variety, feed-

back on performance, involvement in work, work conditions, pay, and

status as well as factors within the individual worker such as endorse-

ment of the Protestant Ethic, education level, desire for job satisfiers,

and family background all interact to determine the degree of job satis-

faction. Finally, research has shown that regardless of the degree of

satisfaction felt by the workers, they would continue to work even when

the monetary necessity had been removed suggesting that work is basic to

the self-concept of the workers independent of other functions.

The unemployed person. The motivations of unemployed persons

become increasingly important in view of the findings discussed in the

preceding section. It is important to understand why some people remain

unemployed while others will continue to work in unsatisfying jobs, even

if the economic motivations were absent.

Surveys have examined the demographic characteristics of long-term

unemployed persons and found four major groupings (Hargrett, 1965;

Killingsworth, 1968; Zeisel, 1964). First, blacks have a higher unem-

ployment rate than whites. Killingsworth reported an unemployment rate

for blacks at 7.3% as compared to a 3.3% rate for whites. Second, age

is a factor. Younger workers have difficulty finding employment due to

a lack of skills and experience while older workers have difficulty due

to the obsolescence over time of their skills and experience. Third,

those with less education and limited educational opportunities have

higher rates of unemployment. Finally, residency is a factor. Many






23

areas have limited employment opportunities due to changes in economic

conditions which force local companies to move to another area or to

cease operation.

Tiffany, D., et al. (1970) warn, however, that it is important to

avoid the misconception that the unemployed are a homogeneous group with

a common set of needs and barriers to employment. Lack of homogeneity

among unemployed persons was first demonstrated by Bakke (1933) in a

study of the impact of unemployment insurance on the persons' willingness

to return to work. Bakke's general finding was that if the subjects

were willing to support themselves before entering a period of unemploy-

ment then use of unemployment insurance would not decrease that desire

to work. Likewise, unemployment insurance was not found to create a

willingness to work, or a desire for self-sufficiency, if they were not

present before the period of unemployment began.

Further studies by Bakke (1940a, 1940b) found that unemployed

workers would use all available methods and skills to maintain themselves

and their self-esteem as the period of unemployment was extended. He

found that if the unemployed workers had a wide range of job seeking and

personal maintenance skills before being unemployed, they would use those

skills during the period of unemployment for survival and to fill the role

normally held by work. If no prior skills were present, then the workers

were found to rely on the unemployment insurance sooner and to a greater

extent.

Davis (1946) studied individual cases of persons unemployed for an

extended period of time and found several adjustments being made as the

period of unemployed grew longer. She found a gradual lowering of

aspirations, hopes, and educational and life goals. As control over

working decreased, ambition and a hope for the future were gradually






24

relinquished as luxuries too painful to maintain. Alfano (1973) found

that unemployed persons experienced few changes in their attitudes

towards work during the first few months of unemployment. However, as

the period of unemployment grew longer their attitudes towards work

deteriorated as did the level of their savings, the strength of their

family unit, their social standing, and their self-confidence.

Feldman (1973a, 1973b, 1974) conducted a series of studies designed

to examine assessments of work related outcomes among black and white

subjects who were employed and unemployed. He concluded that the intent

to work and job seeking behavior were not completely tied to race, socio-

economic status, employment status, or the expectation that work would

result in positive outcomes but are also moderated by local factors such

as available job markets, availability of support outside of work, and

individual differences.

Long-term unemployed persons should not, however, be construed to

have no desire to work. Searls, Braucht, and Miskimins (1974) compared

work values of supervisors, employees, and long-term unemployed subjects

on five work-related variables: personal habits, supervisory relations,

employee relations, company relations, and work habits. While they found

significant differences between work values endorsed by the supervisors

and the unemployed subjects, there were no differences between the

employed and unemployed subjects.

Cook (1971), in a comparison of motivation to work between 100

employed and 100 unemployed blacks found comparable levels of motivation

to work between the groups. Likewise, Kaplan and Tausky (1974) surveyed

275 long-term unemployed subjects with a questionnaire similar to those

used by Morse and Weiss (1955), Tausky (1969), and Kaplan and Tausky








(1972). They concluded that:

While the economic meaning and function of work weighed
heavily in many of our subjects' responses, there was also,
overall, a commitment to work not only similar to that of
employed blue-collar workers, but at times resembling the
values of people of higher socio-economic status. These
findings contradict the prevalent stereotype in the United
States that the poor have little desire or commitment to
work. (Kaplan & Tausky, 1974, p. 195)

Unemployment and mental illness. Several studies have demonstrated

that extended unemployment can be detrimental to the individual.

Zawailski and Lazarsfeld (1935) identified a sequence of mental health

deterioration among long-term unemployed persons through a review of their

autobiographies. The initial reaction to being unemployed was feeling

hurt by the dismissal, followed by, in order: numbness or apathy, hope

or calmness, a weakening of hope, hopelessness and suicidal ideas, and

dumb apathy. Shanthamani (1973) found that as unemployment lasted longer

among engineering graduates their level of neuroticism increased.

Triandis, Feldman, Weldon, and Harvey (1975) examined the trust

levels of long-term unemployed persons and found that they exhibited

little trust for others, even those from their own in-group. Further-

more, the subjects did not trust or believe that hard work would result

in any desired benefit and felt unimportant and, as a result, rejected

the establishment.

A strong relationship was demonstrated between social class and the

frequency and types of mental illness (Hollingshead and Redlich, 1958).

This relationship was confirmed in a follow-up study by Myers and Bean

(1968). Together these two studies demonstrated that the lower social

classes had higher incidences of mental illness and that the lower class

subjects were more likely to be diagnosed as having a mental disorder

and to receive custodial care.






26

Warheit, Schwab, Holzer, and Nadreau (1973) identified a similar

pattern of mental illness in an in-depth study of Alachua County.

Florida. They found a strong increase in psychopathological symptoma-

tology as the socio-economic status of the subjects decreased. Scott,

W., (1958) in a review of relevant literature, identified a pattern of

socio-psychological factors associated with mental illness that included:

the presence of a stressful event, being black, being in the lower socio-

economic classes, living in an urban area as opposed to rural areas, and

living in the inner-city as opposed to suburban areas.

Cassel (1966) concluded that "with one important exception every

study over the last 45 years has found the highest concentration of

mental disorders occurring in the lowest social class" (p. 42). The one

exception was a study by Pasamanic, Roberts, Lemkau, and Kreuger (1964)

which discovered that the greatest incidence of psychiatric diagnosis

was not among the lowest income group or among blacks. They concluded

that these findings resulted from a diagnostic focus on the more severe

disorders such as psychosis. Freedman (1969) similarly concluded from a

study of psychiatric records that the lower classes are more likely to

exhibit neurotic disorders expressed somatically and behaviorally than

they were to exhibit psychotic disorders of the thought processes.

Kornhauser (1965) studied the mental health of auto workers and

summarized his findings regarding unemployment and poor working condi-

tions stating that:

Poorer mental health occurs whenever conditions of work and
life lead to continuing frustration by failing to offer means
for perceived progress toward attainment of strongly desired
goals which have become indispensable elements of the indivi-
dual's self-identity as a worthwhile person. Persistent failure
and frustration bring lowered self-esteem and dissatisfaction
with life, often accompanied by anxieties, social alienation
and withdrawal, a narrowing of goals and curtailing of aspira-
tions--in short--poor mental health. (p. 269)








Unemployment and mental health. It is not surprising that evidence

has been found to indicate that work is conducive to the development of

mental health. Massimo and Shore (1964), for example, conducted a voca-

tionally oriented treatment program for anti-social youth and concluded

that not only was work therapeutic in itself but it also served as a focus

for other interventions, facilitated identity formation, provided an

avenue for channeling aggressive and sexual energies, and served to alle-

viate material needs. In a follow-up study, however, they found that

these benefits were lost if the work performed was demeaning or meaningless

(Shore & Massimo, 1969). Similarly, Tiffany, D., Cowan, Eddy, Glad, and

Woll (1967), in a study of hospitalized psychiatric patients, found that

patients involved in their work situations exhibited higher levels of

self-identity and self-satisfaction than patients not involved in their

work.

Clearly, working is conducive to the development of mental health.

However, a question must be raised, since unemployment has also been

associated with increased evidence of mental illness, as to whether

employment is a necessary condition for the development of mental health?

Bakke (1933, 1940a, 1940b), for example, stated that unemployed persons

continued to maintain their esteem following the loss of employment

using the same skills they had used while employed.

Tiffany, D., et al. (1970) warned against assuming that all long-

term unemployed persons were similar. As an example, they identified an

assumption that unemployed persons communicate in the same manner as

middle-class persons while being assumed to be cognitively deficient.

Reissman (1964) studied the cognitive and verbal patterns of lower-class

ghetto children and middle-class children and found no evidence to






28

suggest cognitive or verbal deficiency among the ghetto children. He

found the ghetto children to be as expressive in their verbal patterns

as middle-class children. The ghetto children excelled in fantasy and

spontaneous, unstructured self-expression instead of the more tradi-

tional patterns of self-expression exhibited by the middle-class

children.

Schesta (1976) studied the relationship between job satisfaction,

work as a central life interest, age, and an affinity for leisure

activities vis-a-vis working. He found that there was a stronger rela-

tionship between leisure and age when the worker was younger, dissatis-

fied with the work setting, or did not perceive work as central to his/

her life. Similarly, Hausknecht (1964) found that blue-collar workers

facing dry, uninvolving, routine work demands will use leisure and

voluntary group associations outside of the work setting to achieve and

maintain satisfaction. He found that by participating in social groups

the blue-collar workers had a medium for expressing themselves and

establishing social contact. Price and Levinson, H., (1964) developed

a description of the mentally healthy worker which might be applied to

mentally healthy persons regardless of their employment status. The

mentally healthy workers possessed a wide variety of sources of satis-

faction and psychological rewards, were flexible under stress, treated

others as individuals, recognized and accepted their own capacities and

limitations, and were active and productive.

Based upon these observations it may be possible to apply these

descriptions to appropriate groups of unemployed persons and identify

or anticipate the development of mental health among unemployed people.

As Tiffany, D., et al. (1970) stated:






29

If we were to indicate what human beings need, whether they
are an advantaged or disadvantaged group, we would probably
list the following: Human beings need to be self-determining,
to have control over their own fate, to be a person rather
than a thing, to be able to make decisions, to be able to
plan, to be loved rather than counted, and to be recognized
for one's accomplishments. (p. 115)

Summary. Research has found that work is important to society and

the individual. For most people work provides not only income but also

structure and meaning to life as well as personal identity. Without

satisfying work, or without any work at all, the overall quality of life

has been seen to deteriorate. Studies of the healthy worker have identi-

fied a pattern of life and needs similar to Maslow's (1970a) description

of the self-actualizing person. Some of the characteristics identified as

applicable to mental health among workers may also be found to apply to

mental health among unemployed persons. However, job dissatisfaction and

unemployment have been generally found to exert a strong negative effect

on the mental health and overall quality of life of the individual.

Manpower Programs

Manpower program goals. The current manpower training program for

the United States is emcompassed in the Comprehensive Employment and

Training Act (CETA) of 1978. The CETA, along with its predecessors, CETA

of 1973 and the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) of 1962, was

designed to fund a coordinated and comprehensive approach to the solution

of unemployment related problems. Included in CETA are provisions for

training youth through classroom training, work experience, and summer

jobs, and for adults by providing classroom training and on-the-job

training along with special programs designed to meet the needs unique

to the local community.






30

It is not within the scope of this study to provide a comprehensive

history of American manpower policies. Such a history may be obtained

from other sources (Levitan, 1967; Mirengoff & Rindler, 1976; State of

Florida Office of Manpower Planning, 1978). It is however, useful to

identify some of the key factors which have influenced the development

of manpower goals. Levitan (1964) identified six forces affecting the

development of national manpower policies: Russian success in space

technology, high levels of unemployment following the 1957 recession,

changes in defense technology resulting in changes in regional funding,

increased international competition for local markets, demographic

changes following the "baby boom," and long-term problems such as racial

and sexual discrimination in hiring and training practices. Ginzberg

(1968) stated:

World War I necessitated a balancing of military and civilian
needs. Next, the Immigration Laws of 1920 and 1924 put an end
to Europe's serving as our reserve pool of unskilled and skilled
workers. The Great Depression of the 1930's revealed that the
adjustments between supply and demand for labor were not auto-
matic. The World War II and the cold war which followed illumi-
nated the critical role of scientists and development engineers
in assuring national survival and technical progress. The
passage of the Employment Act of 1946 committed the federal
government to establishing and maintaining a high level of
employment. The civil rights movement . [and] a growing
demand for services, particularly health and education . .
led to further shifts. (p. 4)

Several different goals and tasks have been suggested for manpower

programs. Pierson (1972) argued that full employment is basic to the

stability of our economy and that employment programs should be indepen-

dent of the political structure. Ferman (1969) stated that an additional

goal for manpower programs should be expanded job development and

placement for unemployed persons. Killingsworth (1964) identified

as a major manpower goal the retraining of persons unemployed as a

result of automation. Goodman (1969) defined the restructuring of the







31

social system within which the trainee is trained and eventually

employed as a major task of manpower programs. Bakke (1969) argued

that the federal manpower programs should include efforts to expand

the total number of jobs available in addition to helping those without

a job find work. Ginzberg (1968) identified ten manpower program goals:

(1) The rapid growth of employment. (2) The matching of men
and skills. (3) The expansion of the supply of trained man-
power. (4) The diffusion of the benefits of automation. (5)
The reduction and elimination of poverty. (6) The development
of human potential. (7) The rehabilitation of depressed areas.
(8) The elimination of discrimination. (9) The Improvement of
labor market institutions. (10) The broadening and deepening
of manpower research. (p. 225)

It should be noted that the discussions cited above were concerned

with the MDTA. These discussions served as the basis for the creation

of CETA. There were three basic goals written into CETA: decentrali-

zation, structural training, and countercyclical employment. The first

goal was intended to place more control of manpower programs in the hands

of the local governments. This was designed to correct the lack of

responsiveness in meeting local needs common to many of the MDTA programs.

Structural training was common to both MDTA and CETA and involved training

for persons unemployed as a result of the structure of society, i.e.,

inability to find employment through lack of skills, education, or

opportunity resulting from some structural element such as racial or

sexual prejudice. The major difference in this goal is that CETA combined

all structural training under one Title for efficient administration.

Countercyclical employment was established to provide training and

employment opportunities to those persons unemployed as a consequence of

the cyclical changes in the national economy. Funding for this program

was based upon the current unemployment rate (Mirengoff & Rindler, 1978).






32

Evaluation of manpower programs. Efforts to evaluate the effec-

tiveness of manpower programs have met repeatedly with frustration

resulting first from the poor validity and quantity of evaluative data

and second from the limited scope of the evaluative studies. Mangum

(1967, 1969) has repeatedly noted the lack of valid data for the evalu-

ation of manpower programs:

For no program are there adequate valid data for evaluation of
strengths and weaknesses and ... no program has a reporting
system capable of producing such data. Data on services are
weak and follow-up data on program results are grossly inade-
quate and undependable. Ad hoc internal evaluations have been
limited, their data weak, and their investigations less than
probing. (Mangum, 1969, p. 131)

Another part of the problem has been the lack of adequate samples

for testing. Several researchers have noted that long-term unemployed

persons are singularly transient and difficult to use in controlled

research (Barnes, 1972; Hardin, 1972; Lewis, 1972). Their recommenda-

tions have included the paying of unemployed subjects to serve as a

stable research population; although they did not address the question

of whether such subjects continue to be unemployed. Scanlon, Nay, and

Wholey (1972) identified three problems basic to evaluative research

conducted on manpower programs. First evaluations have been one-shot,

one-time efforts rather than continuous, longitudinal studies. Second,

they have been done in terms of program categories and are weak on

process data. Finally, the sample populations used in the evaluations

have been too small when regional samples are needed.

The problems with program evaluation identified with MDTA did not

improve with the conversion to CETA even though the criticism made of

MDTA evaluation resulted in the inclusion of requirements for improved

data collection and reporting procedures in CETA:






33

Quantitative measurement of program results is seriously
hampered by limitations in the CETA reporting system. The
Employment and Training Administration restructured and
unified the system to streamline and reconcile the separate
reporting systems of a number of individual programs. As
a result, it is impossible to isolate CETA data with suffi-
cient detail to make comparisons with pre-CETA programs or
even to fully analyze CETA outcomes. (Mirengoff & Rindler,
1978, p. 221)

Several studies designed to examine aspects of manpower training

programs warrant review. Although there were several changes in MDTA

and CETA, the primary goal and basic methodology of training programs

remained the same. Furthermore, with limited exceptions, there has

been no research on CETA applicable to this study. Studies being done

on CETA are concerned with other areas of CETA not relevant to this

study (Klein & Ghozeil, 1979). For these reasons evaluations of both

programs will be reviewed together.

Several studies have been conducted to identify those factors which

contribute to the individual's completion of training and subsequent

success on the job. Beatty, R., (1975) examined the use of social self-

esteem, scholastic achievement, and job skills as predictors of job suc-

cess following training. He found that self-esteem did not improve

during training and was unrelated to success on the job. Both scholastic

achievement and job skills improved during the course of training and

were related to job success. Improved scholastic achievement was

directly related to increased salary while increased job skills were

directly related to improved supervisory evaluations.

Beatty, R., and Beatty, J., (1975) found that during the first six

months of employment following placement absenteeism was related to lower

salary, low supervisory evaluations, supervisors perceived as unsup-

portive, jobs which required little ability, and a short prior work






34

history. Absenteeism after 24 months on the job was related to percep-

tions of the supervisor, self-esteem in the work setting, skill levels

required by the job, and duties assigned. Goodman and Salipante (1976)

found that hard-core unemployed trainees were more likely to remain on

the job if there were frequent raises during the early part of employ-

ment, regardless of the size of the raise, and if there was frequent

job performance feedback. They concluded that, while telling the unem-

ployed person about the benefits of employment will improve job retention

on a limited scale, greater success will be achieved with frequent and

immediate reinforcement of good job behavior.

Personal characteristics of the trainees have also been found to

contribute to the success of training. Henke (1976) examined the rela-

tionship between completion of training and five groups of personal

attributes: Personal--marital status, age, and race; Academic--literacy,

level of education, and math and word knowledge; Economic--possession of

material goods, prior hourly wages, and length of prior unemployment;

Vocational--prior training, prior employment history, and veteran's

status; and Program Status--referral source and length of pre-vocational

training. He found that only the subjects'academic achievement and prior

vocational history were related to program completion. Similarly, in a

study of the characteristics of the successful trainee, Cole (1974)

found that completers were more likely to be female, older, with a better

academic background, and no prior arrest record.

The relationship between training success and expectancy theory has

been examined. Gumpper (1971) found that attitudes towards work and a

generalized expectation of success were not related to program comple-

tion while prior work history was predictive of success. On the other





35

hand, Goodman, Salipante, and Paransky (1973) found that job retention

was not the result of employment training but of the expectation that

remaining on the job would bring rewards.

Counseling has been found to facilitate completion of training.

Bryant, F.,and Showalter (1971) found that participation in a pre-

training orientation and assessment program which included strategies

to improve test taking, job seeking, and vocational exploration served

to significantly increase training completion. Baron and Bass, A.,

(1968) found that verbal reinforcement was more effective in improving

trainee self-esteem than material rewards while material rewards served

to increase task performance. Both types of rewards were found to be

more effective when the trainee perceived them as situation appropriate.

A Philadelphia study (Philadelphia Manpower Utilization Commission,

1969) found that participation in pre-training work adjustment training,

family services counseling, and social work counseling improved train-

ing completion. Salipante and Goodman (1976) found that counseling

during training in conjunction with role playing of job related skills

served to extend the effective length of the training process.

Goursslin and Roach (1964) concluded that while early MDTA programs

did indeed help the upper level trainee they were not significantly

effective with the disadvantaged or hard-core unemployed person. Solie

(1968) examined completers and non-completers of early training pro-

grams and found that completers had a better job experience following

training than did rejects and non-completers, but that the evidence

suggested a selection bias which screened out the less qualified, low

potential applicants. This problem has continued in later programs:

CETA programs have been least successful in finding unsubsi-
dized jobs for the hard-core unemployed--minority partici-
pants, persons with less than a high school education, younger
workers, and the poor. (Mirengoff & Rindler, 1978, p. 239)






36

Roskind (1975) compared retention records of hard-core unemployed

individuals who received special consideration in being selected for

employment and were oriented to the job with the retention records of

individuals hired through the regular process. He found that, as a

group, the hard-core unemployed subjects had a poorer track record in

the job situation than the regular employees. Quinn, Fine, and Levitan

(cited in Goodman et al., 1973), however, found that the hard-core

unemployed individuals completing a regular training program prior to

entry into work did as well on the job as regular hires. They also

found that the trained subjects sought greater on-the-job autonomy and

evaluated their supervisors lower than regular employees. Several other

studies have shown that completers of training programs generally tend

to have better job retention and a higher wage rate than hard-core

unemployed persons who do not complete training (Harris & Associates,

1967; Mangum, 1967; Mangum & Walsh, 1973; Thorpe, 1973). Levitan

(1969) suggested that training per se may not enrich the trainees so

much as it serves as an "aging vat" in which the trainees receive a job

and wages until they are ready to cope with the world of work on their

own.

Gordon and Scott, R., (1972) used a structured interview and alien-

ation scale to identify areas of the trainee'slives which were signi-

ficantly affected by employment training. Graduates of the training

program had a higher spending rate and better housing, read more of the

local news, were more likely to be members of unions, community action

groups, or civil rights groups than they were to be members of social

or recreational groups, attended church more frequently, and were less

alienated from society than were non-graduates.






37

Christensen (1974) matched parolees completing MDTA training with

parolees not completing or applying to MDTA training on several cri-

teria including age, type of crime for which the subject was convicted,

educational level, achievement test scores, and parental occupation.

He found that the program completers had significantly lower recidivism

rates, committed fewer felonies, and had a better employment rate than

non-completers.

The conclusions drawn from the evaluation studies of manpower pro-

grams are less than clear cut. In all studies examined there were no

reports of unqualified success in meeting training goals, although most

argued that the data suggested at least partial success. However, the

evaluators of the programs consistently support them as being benefi-

cial:

The conclusions reached by a number of critics of retraining
are disheartening. . But the expectations must both be seen
in perspective. Retraining has three major objectives: (1)
short run increases in employment; (2) long-run economic
growth; (3) improvement in the welfare and general well-being
of the trainees and society. Regardless of the short run
deficiencies, there can be little doubt that retraining the
unemployed, like the educational process as a whole, is a
worthwhile enterprise from the standpoints of the long-run
economic growth of the American economy and the general well-
being of its citizens. (Somers, 1964, pp. 152-153)

While the record is mixed, there are significant benefits
that should not be overlooked. CETA has provided access to
public service jobs to large numbers of minority group mem-
bers and other disadvantaged persons who might not otherwise
have had an opportunity for employment. There are also non-
economic advantages for participants, in terms of improved
morale, health, and ability to function in the labor market,
that cannot be evaluated by statistics. (Mirengoff & Rindler,
1978, p. 240)

Both of the above statements, one from the early years of manpower

programs and one from the most recent evaluation of the programs, refer

to the intangible, health oriented benefits in an effort to take some






38

of the sting out of criticisms of poor program performance. However,

there have been no studies designed to support these assertions even

though several writers and researchers have argued that the planning and

effectiveness of training could be significantly improved by research

into mental health and other factors associated with employment training

(Baron & Bass, A., 1968; Borus & Tash, 1970; Ginzberg, 1966; Sheppard,

1972; Smith, E., 1977; Tiffany, D., et al., 1970; Work in America, 1973).

Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978

Several of the evaluative studies cited above appeared to examine

similar variables in employment training but had differing results.

These contradictory studies included examinations of job retention (Quinn

et al., cited in Goodman et al., 1973; Roskind, 1975), expectancy theory

(Goodman et al., 1973; Gumpper, 1971), and self-esteem (Baron& Bass, A.,

1968; Beatty, R., 1975). One possible explanation for this variation in

findings is variation in training programs. Programs funded under CETA

and MDTA are frequently different from each other in specific services

provided trainees. CETA programs in particular are intended to vary from

program to program to accommodate local labor market requirements.

Therefore, the characteristics of the local CETA program participating

in this study will be included in the discussion of the overall

Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978.

CETA is designed to address the needs of several different groups

of unemployed persons. The Act was written to allow a degree of

responsiveness to local needs and environmental conditions by encour-

aging local control in the development of administrative procedures and

operational structure. The Act does establish general guidelines for

all programs and is divided into eight titles. The discussion will






39

follow the general format of the Act with additional information drawn

from the Master Plan of the participating Prime Sponsor (Northeast

Florida Employment and Training Consortium, 1979).

Title I--Administrative provisions. This Title contains the

administrative provisions for the overall operation of employment training

programs under the Act. CETA programs are administered by the local

governmental agency or agencies which represent a population group of

100,000 persons or more. The administrative body(ies) is(are) called

the Prime Sponsor. When the Prime Sponsor consists of two or more

governmental agencies working together to represent a population group

of 100,000 or more persons they are referred to as a consortium. In the

event a region of the state cannot be formed into a Prime Sponsor area

(such as counties with less than 100,000 population) the state government

serves as the Balance of State Prime Sponsor. The employment training

program participating in this study is a consortium composed of three

north Florida counties.

Also included in this Title are limitations on the time a person

may participate in CETA funded activities. The maximum participation

period is 30 months with individual programs having special limits:

Public Service Employment--78 weeks, Work Experience--1,000 hours, and

classroom training--104 weeks of allowances. Limitations are also placed

on annual salaries earned by CETA participants while in training. The

Title also includes extensive additions and exceptions to these limitations

and administration of the program which are not relevant to this discussion

of the Act.

Title II--Comprehensive employment and training services. This

Title is divided into four parts. Part A is a general introduction





40

and statement of purpose for the Title. Parts B and C cover programs

for training, education, upgrading and retraining, and supportive ser-

vices to prepare economically disadvantaged persons for unsubsidized

employment. Part D provides for long term employment training for

economically disadvantaged, structurally unemployed persons.

Part B of Title II provides for supportive services and training

in two activities: classroom training and work experience. Classroom

training is intended to assist economically disadvantaged persons who

do not have employable skills by providing them with the opportunity

to attend relevant skill training classes. The major forms of assis-

tance are the payment of an hourly allowance for class attendance and

the payment of tuition, fees, and book costs. The employment training

program in this study subcontracts classroom training activities to a

local junior college and an Opportunity Industrial Center in the area.

Classes are offered in programs designed to match the participants'

interests and potentials. Typical classes include welding, auto

mechanics, auto body work, cashiering, clerical skills, bookkeeping,

health care, and the General Education Degree (GED).

There are two types of work experience activities funded under

Title II-B: On-the-job training (OJT) and Adult Work Experience (AWE).

On-the-job training consists of placing a participant with a private

business which provides the participant with job experience and train-

ing in job skills under a contractual agreement with the employment

training program. The employment training program pays up to 50% of

the expense of training the participant and the business provides the

balance. The business is expected to hire the participant on a fulltime

basis following the contracted training period provided the participant









has demonstrated adequate progress. Adult Work Experience is quite

similar to On-the-job training. The major differences are that the

participant is placed with a public or private, non-profit agency, the

training program provides 100% of the participant's wages (usually the

federally established minimum wage), and the training agency is not

expected, though encouraged, to hire the participant at the end of

training. Adult Work Experience participants usually have fewer skills

prior to training than the On-the-job training participants and often

require further training following completion of the Adult Work Experi-

ence program activities.

Title II-C provides for upgrading and retraining programs. The

goal of these programs is to help workers who are underemployed and

economically disadvantaged or who are about to be laid off and have

no expectation of future employment with their current skills. The

employment training program participating in this study does not

currently offer training under Title II-C.

Title II-D provides for Public Service Employment for the economi-

cally disadvantaged, structurally unemployed person. Structurally

unemployed persons are those who are unable to obtain fulltime employ-

ment due to factors inherent in the very fabric and structure of soci-

ety over which they have no control. These factors include racial or

sexual discrimination in hiring practices, limited access to full or

quality education, or lack of mobility to the available jobs. Partici-

pants in this part often possess the basic skills necessary for the

performance of the positions for which they are training. Public Service

Employment training consists of placing the participant with a private,

non-profit or public agency to perform a normal job function in the

agency. The job slot must have a corresponding position in the regular






42

employment structure of the training agency and the participant is paid

a wage comparable to that received by persons in the regular position.

Participants under this part are expected to have been unemployed for a

longer period of time than participants under part II-B (15 of 20 weeks

prior to the application versus seven days) and may train longer (78

weeks versus 1000 hours--25 weeks). Title II-D also provides for a

limited educational program to expand the skill level of the partici-

pants similar to the classroom training program.

Title II includes provisions for counseling activities as a part of

the training process. Within the participating employment program

participants under Title II receive regular contact with the employment

training program counseling staff. On-the-job training participants do

not receive counseling as a part of the training process. The Adult

Work Experience participants receive two two-hour counseling-job reten-

tion skills training group sessions and two job site visits per month.

The Public Service Employment participants receive one two-hour group

session and one job site visit per month. The classroom training parti-

cipants receive one to two hours of group counseling per week from the

counselors at the training facility. These contacts are designed to

provide training in skills needed to identify, obtain, and retain full-

time unsubsidized employment. These skills include how to relate to a

supervisor, what does it feel like to work, what does it mean to be a

good employee, keeping regular attendance, personal hygiene, how to cope

with stress and anger, and communication skills. The counseling staff

also provides crisis intervention in crises on the job site and in the

participants' personal life as necessary. All contacts are structured

to assist in the completion of training and entry into the world of work.






43

Title Ill--Special federal responsibilities. This Title provides

for the meeting of special federal responsibilities such as assistance

for minorities, Native Americans, displaced homemakers, and women. The

participating Prime Sponsor in this study does not currently provide

or subcontract training under this Title.

Title IV--Youth programs. This Title provides for a wide range of

programs designed to meet the needs of economically disadvantaged youth.

Included in these programs are part-time employment opportunities to

encourage youth to remain in school or return to school, summer employ-

ment, and on-the-job training positions in private businesses. Youth

programs are quite similar to the adult programs outlined in Title II-B

in general design. There is less pressure on the training agency to

employ the youth following training, there is more leeway in inappro-

priate behavior, fewer of the youth positions are fulltime, and there

is more counseling contact with the youth.

Title V--National commission for employment policy. This Title

creates the National Commission for Employment Policy, formerly the

National Commission for Manpower Policy. The Commission acts as an

advisory group to the President of the United States in the development

of relevant national policy.

Title VI--Countercyclical public service employment. This Title

provides for a public service employment program to assist persons who

have been unemployed for an extended period of time as a result of the

cyclical variations in the national economy. The program is quite

similar to the Title II-D Public Service Employment program and the

employment training program participating in this study has combined

Title II-D and Title VI training activities in a common department for

administrative purposes. Overall funding for Title VI activities is






44

tied to the national economy and unemployment rates. There are two

types of public service employment training positions funded under Title

VI. One type is identical in structure and function to those provided

in Title II-D. The other type of positions is a part of a special public

works "Project" program. A Title VI Project is an activity sponsored

by local community based organizations (CBOs) to accomplish a specific

task beneficial to the public. Projects have a maximum operational

period of 18 months with an option to extend 18 months. Sponsoring

agencies must be public or private, non-profit and assume complete

operational and administrative responsibility for the project. The

employment training program provides the sponsoring agency with the

wages for the participants, screens participants for CETA eligibility,

provides counseling and some skill training, and monitors the progress

of the project. Projects in the employment training program participating

in this study have included area and school beautification, development

of a minority affairs library, rehabilitation of low-income housing, a

Teen theatre program, and general public works.

Title VII--Private sector opportunities for the economically

disadvantaged. This Title authorizes the creation of the Private Sector

Initiative Program (PSIP) and the Private Industry Council (PIC). The

PIC is intended to oversee the PSIP and to develop opportunities within

the private business community for training and employment activities for

the economically disadvantaged population. The PIC and PSIP are mandated

for all Prime Sponsors and serve to greatly expand the On-the-job

training program and related activities.

Title VIII--Young adult conservation corps. This Title provides

for training and employment activities for young people from all social

and economic backgrounds through work on conservation and other projects






45

on federal and public lands. As such this is the only program funded

under the Act which does not require the participants to be economically

disadvantaged or poverty level. The employment training program partici-

pating in this study does not currently offer a YACC program.

All participants follow the same basic track through the employ-

ment training program. The first stage consists of applying to the

program and being selected for training. The second stage is the pre-

training orientation during which the participants complete relevant

paper work and have their Employability Development Plans (EDP) prepared.

The EDP is a statement of what training the participants need to achieve

an adequate level of employability and identifies how that training will

be accomplished. The third stage is the training phase during which the

EDP is implemented. While the EDP often specifies one training program

it is possible to include more than one program. As an example, a

participant with absolutely no skills may be placed in classroom training

followed by a transfer to a Public Service Employment program position

to complete their training. The final stage of the training process is

job development during which the program assists the participants in

finding fulltime unsubsidized employment.

Summary

This review of research in the area of unemployment and work has

shown that the role of work and efforts to help the unemployed are basic

to the well-being of the individual and society. Without sufficient

work opportunities the individual has been shown to experience both eco-

nomic difficulties and a deterioration of health, family, and psycho-

logical well-being. The federal government has recognized this impor-

tance and has assumed increased responsibility for controlling the

impact of unemployment upon the individual and society. The strength of






46

this responsibility is reflected in the size and scope of the social

security, employment service, and manpower programs provided by the

government.

The primary goal of manpower programs is to insure an adequate man-

power pool for the economic structure of the nation and to assist the

long-term, economically disadvantaged persons in overcoming blocks to

employment and to improve the quality of their lives. Evaluation of

manpower programs, however, has not indicated an overwhelming success

in achieving the stated goals. In response to criticism generated by

these evaluations supporters of manpower programs have consistently

referred to the intangible psychological and social benefits of training

and employment. Researchers have also indicated a need for the inclusion

of psychological factors in planning and evaluation of manpower programs.

To date, however, there have been no studies which utilized mental

health concepts in an evaluative or planning capacity.

Mental Health

Three concepts of mental health are reviewed in this section for

use in evaluating manpower programs and examining unemployed persons:

self-actualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control.

Self-Actualization

General research. The wide acceptance of Maslow's (1970a) concept

of self-actualization as a description of psychological health was fol-

lowed by a demand for an objective measure of the concept. Shostrom

(1974) introduced the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) to meet this

demand. The POI was designed and tested as a measure of the values and

behaviors related to the development of self-actualization as described

by Maslow (Shostrom, 1974). Shostrom reports that the initial normative






47

studies were done on 2607 college freshmen. The initial validation

studies were comparisons of responses from a wide range of samples

including: supervisors, student nurses, service organization volunteers,

college students, high school students, psychiatric in-patients, delin-

quent males, alcoholic males, and psychopathic felons. The POI was found

to consistently discriminate between the groups in the predicted

direction.

King (1974) compared the level of self-actualization within 115

married couples. He found no sex differences in self-actualization as

measured by the POI, suggesting that self-actualizing subjects may

experience a stronger interpersonal attraction for other self-actualizing

persons. Olczak and Goldman (1975) examined attitude similarity and

interpersonal attraction as moderated by self-actualization among 59

college students. The self-actualizing subjects were more attracted to

persons with similar attitudes than were non-self-actualizing subjects.

Furthermore, non-self-actualizing subjects were more attracted to sub-

jects with dissimilar attitudes than were self-actualizing subjects.

Several studies have examined the impact of the college experience

upon levels of self-actualization. Schroeder (1973) compared responses

of 278 male and 290 female college freshmen on the POI at the beginning

and completion of a school year. He found that the female students had

higher levels of self-actualization than the male students and that

male and female subjects increased in self-actualization over the course

of the school year. Scott, S., (1975) reports that residence hall resi-

dents experienced increases in self-actualization more frequently than

non-residence hall students. Furthermore, student assistants in the

residence halls had higher initial levels of self-actualization and







48

exhibited greater increases than regular residents. Female student

assistants were more self-actualizing than male student assistants.

Schroeder and LeMay (1973) compared scores on the POI of students

living in coeducational and single-sex residence halls. Students in

the coeducational residence halls were found to have higher levels of

self-actualization than single-sex halls. Similarly, Brown, R.,

Winkworth, and Brascamp (1973) reported that coeducational residence

halls were more conducive to increases in self-actualization than single-

sex halls. McCleod (1973) studied college students' perceptions of self-

actualizing characteristics and behavior as moderated by residential

environment. Students in a restrictive environment (fraternity house)

viewed the self-actualizing characteristics as being deviant and rejected

them more frequently than students in a more open environment (a female

residence hall).

Participation in group experiences has been found to have an impact

on levels of self-actualization. Gilligan (1973) compared responses on

the POI and Omnibus Personality Inventory of selectors and non-selectors

of sensitivity training. His comparisons revealed that those who selected

the sensitivity training scored higher on the POI scales of Inner-

directed support, Existentiality, Spontaneity, and Capacity for Intimate

Contact than non-selectors. Similarly, selectors scored higher on the

Omnibus Personality Inventory scales of Introversion, Estheticism, Com-

plexity, Autonomy, Religious Orientation, and Impulse expression than

non-selectors and lower on Omnibus Personality Inventory scales of

Practical Outlook and Masculinity/femininity than non-selectors.

Montgomery (1975) found that growth group experiences increased levels of

self-actualization among college students without affecting college

retention.







49

Kimball and Gelso (1974) compared shifts in self-actualization and

scores on an ego strength scale (Barron, 1953) following participation

in a marathon growth group. They found that self-actualization increased

following the experience and that ego strength levels were unchanged

after the group experience. Furthermore, ego strength was not related

to changes in self-actualization even though high ego strength and high

self-actualization scores were directly correlated prior to the group

experience. Jones, D., and Medvene (1975) clarified the results obtained

by Kimball and Gelso with the finding that the low ego strength subjects

did not exhibit changes in self-actualization following participation in

a marathon group while high ego strength subjects increased in self-actu-

alization following the group experience.

Olim (1968) urged parents to avoid using enforced conformity, triv-

ialization, and dehumanizing child-raising practices which would inhibit

the child'slater development of self-actualization. Hjelle and Smith, G.,

(1975) compared retrospective reports of child-rearing practices and self-

actualization levels among college women. They found subjects reporting

parental practices of encouragement, acceptance, psychological autonomy,

and lax controls had higher levels of self-actualization than subjects

reporting more restrictive child-rearing practices. Rogers, M.,(1970)

compared reports of nuclear family interaction patterns and found that

greater amounts of family participation during childhood were related

to higher levels of self-actualization later in life. Gibb (1967)

reported that a retrospective analysis of the characteristics of self-

actualizing students revealed that the self-actualizing student most

likely was female, from a home where the parents finished high school,

from families with one to three children, had a mother who worked on a






50

fulltime basis, had little or no formal religious training or was not

currently involved in an active religious group, graduated from a high

school with a graduating class between 101 and 500 students, had spent

the first two years of college at a large university, was enrolled in

the College of Liberal Arts, had prior work experience but was not

currently working, and was engaged in extracurricular activities nine

or more hours per week.

Maslow (1970b) stated that present day religion was becoming formu-

listic, restrictive, and hampered the development of self-actualization.

Graff and Ladd (1971) compared self-actualization levels and degree of

religious commitment among 152 protestant males. They reported a strong

inverse relationship between strength of religious commitment and self-

actualization levels. Subjects reporting less religious commitment were

found to be significantly more self-accepting, spontaneous, accepting

of their own aggression, more inner-directed, and less dependent than

subjects with a strong religious commitment. Similar studies using a

Catholic population (Burke, 1973) and a Methodist population (Anderson,

1973) also indicated that endorsement of the more conservative doctrines

of the denomination was related to lower levels of self-actualization.

Reynolds (1970) reported similar results in a study of unrelated and

progressively more conservative religious groups. Hjelle (1975) and Lee

and Piercy (1974) found that among college students the frequency and

regularity of church attendance were inversely related to self-actu-

alization levels. Lee and Piercy also identified a sex difference in

the results with male subjects attending church regularly having lower

levels of self-actualization than females attending church regularly or

subjects of either sex who did not attend church on a regular basis.






51

There have been several studies comparing self-actualization to

responses on psychological measures. Vance (1967) found only limited

agreement between the POI and the Mental Health Analysis Test and

concluded that the two instruments were measuring different dimensions

of mental health. Wills (1974) compared the responses of a sample of

college males and females on the POI and the Tennessee Self-Concept

Scale. He reported the finding that high self-actualizing males were

more open to self-criticism, had a less positive self-concept from a

moral-ethical perspective, and generally felt better about themselves

than low self-actualizing males. High self-actualizing females were

more open to self-criticism, liked themselves better physically, and felt

better about their social interactions than low self-actualizing females.

Overall, the female subjects were found to be more inner-directed than

the male subjects.

Wexler (1974) found that self-actualization was positively related

to an increased desire for new experiences and creativity. Self-actu-

alizing subjects have also exhibited a more holistic and integrated time

sense than non-self-actualizing subjects (Gestinger, 1975). Likewise,

Yonge (1975) reported that increased self-actualization was positively

related to improved time perspectives and creativity.

Foulds and Warehime (1971b) explored the relationship between the

concept of emotional repression and sensitization (Byrne, 1961) and self-

actualization. They found, contrary to expectations, that there existed

a strong, direct relationship between repression of emotions and self-

actualization. Ginn (1974) replicated the Foulds and Warehime study

and found that defensiveness served to moderate the observed pattern

with non-defensive repressors having higher levels of self-actualization

than defensive repressors.






52

Wesch (1971) studied the relationship between self-actualization

and anxiety about death and reported an inverse relationship between the

two dimensions. deGrace (1974) compared self-actualization and anxiety

level. He found that self-actualization was not incompatible with mod-

erate levels of anxiety.

McClain and Andrews (1969) compared reports of peak experiences

from 139 college juniors and seniors with their responses on the Rokeach

Dogmatism Scale, the California F (Authoritarianism) Scale, and the

16 Pf Test. They found that those students reporting peak experiences

were significantly more open-minded, assertive, intelligent, tender-

minded, forthright, experimenting, self-sufficient, expedient, imagi-

native, and anti-authoritarian than students reporting no peak experiences.

Ormand (1973) compared 140 college students on self-actualization,

purpose in life, and dogmatism. He reported a significant inverse rela-

tionship between dogmatism and self-actualization or a positive purpose

in life.

Specific research. While the studies reviewed in the preceding

section do not represent an exhaustive review of the research on self-

actualization, they are representative of the field. It is important

to note that in all but five of these studies the research sample was

composed of college students. Four of the five exceptions used religious

membership to identify study subjects and one used married couples.

Similarly, samples reported in the POI test manual (Shostrom, 1974) were

composed of college students, persons functioning well in society, or

persons with severe adjustment problems. None of the samples were drawn

from populations with identified employment problems.






53

Lessner and Knapp (1974) compared 40 owners of small businesses

on self-actualization and business orientation. The owners were class-

ified on the basis of definitions developed by Smith, N.,(1967). A

"craft" orientation referred to persons perceiving and reacting to a

limited range of cultural input, narrowness of education, low social

awareness, lack of flexibility in dealing with the social and economic

environment, and a time sense focused on the past and present. The

"merchandising" orientation was related to persons responding to broad

social and cultural stimuli, with a broader education, increased social

awareness, flexibility, and a present and future time perspective. The

results of the study were that merchandising owners were significantly

higher than craft oriented owners on the Inner-directed, Spontaneity,

Self-acceptance, and Acceptance of aggression scales of the POI.

Ohlbaum (1971) compared self-concepts, values, and self-actualization

levels of professional, career, and non-professional women. Professional

women were those working in occupations requiring advanced education and

career women were those working in occupations not requiring advanced

education but which were self-supporting. Non-professional women were

those without a self-supporting occupation. She found that, in general,

professional and career women had higher levels of self-actualization

than the non-professional women.

Goldstein (1967) examined differences between 81 mental health

clinic outpatients and 77 non-patients on self-actualization, socio-eco-

nomic status, intelligence, and number of ungratified needs. She con-

cluded that socio-economic status was not a key determinant of mental

health while the number of ungratified needs served to predict the degree

of mental health. The quality of family life, mental health and self-







54

actualization were inversely related to the number of ungratified needs.

Socio-economic status was related to identification with parents, mood,

intelligence, and quality of interpersonal relationships, but not mental

health.

Reeves and Shearer (1973) examined the relationship between per-

ceived conformity, race, self-concept, and self-actualization. Five

groups were compared: members of the Black Student Union, persons who

identified themselves as average and conforming, persons identifying

themselves as being non-conforming in private while being publicly

conforming, persons identifying themselves as being non-conforming both

in private and in public, and a general group. All subjects were white

with the exception of the Black Student Union subjects. Subjects identi-

fying themselves as being non-conforming, either in public or private,

had higher levels of self-actualization than the other three groups.

The Black Student Union subjects had lower self-concepts than the other

subjects.

White (1971) compared 100 college sophomore females on several

scales intended to measure self-actualization, locus of control, and

alienation from self and society. Subjects with higher levels of self-

actualization tended to be more internal in their locus of control and

less alienated from self and society than low self-actualizing subjects.

Summary. The concept of self-actualization has been widely

researched and accepted as a measure of mental health. Research has

shown that self-actualization is affected by such factors as sex, family

history, size of family, education, and ungratified needs. It is related

to interpersonal attraction, liberal value systems, college experiences,

lower religious commitment, and sensitivity training. Self-actualization






55

has also been associated with a liberal (merchandising) business orien-

tation, non-conformance, an internal locus of control, and lower levels

of alientation from self and society. Research in the area of self-actu-

alization has been found to have a primary focus on populations which

do not have an identified history of employment problems.

Psychological Androgyny

General research. Early sex-role theory was primarily based upon

gender and conceptualized masculine and feminine sex-roles as being

inversely related on a single, bi-polar continuum (Maccoby & Jacklin,

1974; Roczak, B.,& Roczak, T., 1969). Other theorists have argued that

sex-roles are culturally determined rather than biologically determined

and were not necessarily inversely related (Holter, 1971; Komorovsky,

1950; Mead, 1950; Staples, 1973). Furthermore, sex-role theorists have

argued that the mentally healthy individual is able to engage in both

masculine and feminine behaviors regardless of gender and that it is

possible to integrate masculinity and femininity (Angrist, 1969; Bem,

1974; Block, 1973; Chafetz, 1974; Maslow, 1970a; Singer, 1976; Spence

et al., 1975).

The focus of sex-role research in recent years has been the examina-

tion of sex-role development and implications. Sternglanz and Serbin

(1974), after eliminating all children's television programs which did

not offer male and female characters, found twice as many male as female

characters and found that the males were consistently more aggressive,

more constructive, and more likely to be rewarded for their behavior than

were female characters. Freuh and McGee (1975) identified a strong rela-

tionship between strength of traditional sex-role endorsement among

children and time spent watching television and that the strength of the

relationship increased as the children grew older. McArthur and Eisen






56

(1976) found that when storybook characters achieved well, children

of the same sex were more likely to increase their own achievement

efforts. Chafetz (1974) reported that characters and performers in adult

movies, books, television shows, and popular songs and song groups

tended to be male or male oriented and that the presentation of roles

for men and women consistently showed the male role as more competent,

more performance oriented, and stronger.

There have been numerous studies assessing differences between male

and female perceptions of masculinity and femininity. Lunneborg, P., and

Lunneborg, C.,(1970) factor analyzed the responses of male and female

subjects on items drawn from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inven-

tory M/F Scale, the Guilford-Martin M Scale, the Gough Fe Scale, and the

California Personality Inventory Fe Scale. Eleven factors were found to

distinguish women from men: Feminine interests, Rejection of adventure,

Emotional sensitivity, Philistine versus artistic interests, Masculine

interests, Neurotic symptoms, Self-confidence, Indifference, Social

adequacy, Extraversion, and Unsociable non-conformity.

Engel (1966) factor analyzed responses on the Strong Vocational

Interest Blank, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the

Terman-Miles Attitude and Interest Analysis Test, the Gough Fe Scale,

and the Frank Drawing Completeness Test. Women were found to score

higher than men on the factors: Aversion to mechanical and scientific

occupations; Interest in domestic, nurturant, social, and journalistic

endeavors; Cultural, aesthetic, and verbal interests; Aversion to

detailed work; and Aversion to finance and business math.

Stewart and Winter (1974) compared Thematic Apperception Test

results of self-defined women planning self-supporting careers and






57

socially-defined women planning only marriage and family related activity.

Self-defined women were significantly more likely to perceive causality

than feelings, see themselves as their own agent, have fathers who were

self-employed, have no older brothers, have mothers who worked, and have

majors in masculine fields such as law, medicine, or engineering. Women

who were socially-defined were more likely to perceive feelings than

causality, see themselves as passive, have a father who worked in a

bureaucracy and a mother who did not work, have older brothers, and have

a feminine major.

Helland (1973) found that adolescent boys were more interested in

job aspirations and expectations while adolescent girls were more inter-

ested in numbers of dates and dating patterns. Banikotes, P.,and

Banikotes, F., (1972) found that both male and female college students

considered liberated women to be more intelligent, less moral, and more

aware of current events than other women.

Shemberg and Leventhal (1968) found that, on the Edwards Social

Desirability Scale, male subjects exhibited a stronger desire to avoid

appearing weak than female subjects. Derlega and Chaikin (1976) reported

that expressive males and quiet females were seen as less adjusted than

quiet males and expressive females, regardless of the sex of the rater.

Okman (1973) found that, while there were high levels of agreement

between male and female students on the basic content of sex-role

descriptions, the males were more likely to use physical and sexual words

to describe sex-roles while females were more likely to use emotional

and interpersonal words. Garske (1975) found that undergraduates tended

to perceive female graduate students as more masculine, than non-college

or undergraduate females. McGovern, Ditzian, and Taylor (1975) found






58

that persons in a helping role perceived male help seekers as strong,

brave, leader, dominant, competitive, and happy while female help seekers

were perceived as weak, cowardly, attractive, honest, and sad.

There have been several studies which asked subjects to complete

sex-role instruments for themselves, for their own-sex in general, for

the opposite-sex in general, for their own ideal-sex, for the opposite-

sex ideal-sex, and how the opposite-sex would describe their own ideal-

sex (Lunneborg, P., 1968; McKee & Sherriffs, 1959; O'Leary & Depner, 1975;

Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman, I., & Broverman, D., 1968; Steinmann,

1958; Steinmann, Fox, & Farkas, 1968). While there are some minor vari-

ations in the instructions and results of these studies, the general

conclusions have been consistent: the masculine sex-role related

characteristics are significantly different from the feminine sex-role

characteristics. A study typical of this body of research (Rosenkrantz

et al., 1968) found that the sex-role traits valued in males were active,

aggressive, independent, unemotional, dominant, competitive, logical,

worldly, direct, adventuresome, and self-confident. Female valued traits

were described as talkative, tactful, gentle, aware of others' feelings,

religious, quiet, and neat. Furthermore, all of these studies have found

that the masculine traits are more socially desirable than the feminine

traits.

Several studies have examined attitudes associated with traditional

sex-roles. Ellis and Bentler (1973) analyzed responses on the Sex-Role

Stereotype Questionnaire developed by Rosenkrantz et al. (1968) and the

Bentler Psychological Inventory. They found that endorsement of tradi-

tional sex-role stereotypes increased as the self-perceptions of male

and female subjects deviated from their perceptions of the opposite sex.

They also found that disapproval of the traditional sex-roles among both






59

male and female subjects was associated with liberal, extra-legal, non-

religious, and low status-seeking values. Among the female subjects the

rejection of traditional sex-roles was also associated with increased

intelligence.

Dunbar, Brown, M., and Amoroso (1973) found that strong endorsement

of conservative sex-roles among male subjects was directly correlated

with strong anti-homosexual attitudes, feelings of personal sex-guilt,

rejection of many heterosexual sex-practices, and rejection of any male

who did not adhere to their more constricted definition of male appro-

priate behavior. Langston (1975) found that females generally had

stronger feelings of sex-guilt and that more of their behavior was moti-

vated by sex-guilt. Furthermore, conservative behavior patterns, e.g.,

assertiveness in males and passivity in females, were associated with

elevated levels of sex-guilt. Morado (1973) and Woudenberg (1973) both

found that sexist attitudes and conservative sexual behavior were

strongly associated with racism, high valuation of material goods, sex-

guilt, depersonalization of sex, and an emphasis on personal and social

control of sexual expression.

There have been several studies which assessed perceptions of sex-

roles and mental health (Broverman, I., Vogel, Broverman, D., Clarkson, &

Rosenkrantz, 1972; Ginn, 1975; Heilbrun, A., 1968; Kravetz, 1976; Maslin

& Davis, 1975; Zeldow, 1976). These studies have consistently demonstrated

the same conclusions: that masculine sex-role traits are considered more

desirable and healthier by society than feminine sex-role characteristics.

As an example, Broverman, I.,et al. (1972) asked male and female mental

health professionals to describe the healthy male, the healthy female,

and the healthy adult. The responses were extremely consistent with






60

male and female professionals agreeing that the characteristics of the

healthy male and the healthy adult were quite similar and that the healthy

female was quite different. In general, the research has indicated that

as long as the bi-polar, single dimension definition of masculine and

feminine sex-roles is used it is not possible for females to behave in

a healthy female and healthy adult manner at the same time.

The concept of psychological androgyny was introduced in response

to these findings. Bem (1974) based the development of the Bem Sex-

Role Inventory on two assumptions:

(A) Largely as a result of historical accident, the culture
has clustered a quite heterogeneous collection of attributes
into two mutually exclusive categories, each category consid-
ered more characteristic and more desirable for one or the
other of the two sexes. These cultural expectations and
prescriptions are well known by virtually all members of the
culture. (B) Individuals differ from one another in the
extent to which they utilize these cultural definitions as
idealized standards of femininity and masculinity against
which their own personality and behavior are to be evaluated.
(Bem, 1979, p. 1048)

The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was designed to measure the

strength with which the individual endorsed socially desirable masculine

and feminine traits. These traits have been judged to be significantly

more desirable for one or the other sex. An individual endorsing an

equal number of masculine and feminine items was defined as psycho-

logically androgynous. In response to comments from Spence et al. (1975),

this definition was later modified to define an androgynous individual

as one endorsing an equal and high number of masculine and feminine

items (Bem, 1977). Other instruments introduced to measure psychological

androgyny are the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence et al.,

1975), a scale adapted for use with the Personal Research Form (Berzins,

Welling, & Wetter, 1978), and a subscale for the Adjective Checklist

(Heilbrun, A., 1976).







61

General research on psychological androgyny has found that the

androgynous individual is not influenced as strongly as non-androgynous

individuals by traditional sex-role stereotypes and expectations. Bem

(1975) compared masculine and feminine sex-typed subjects with androgynous

subjects in tests of willingness to engage in acts of independence and

nurturance. She found that masculine sex-typed and androgynous subjects

freely engaged in the independence activity more frequently than the

feminine sex-typed subjects. Feminine sex-typed and androgynous subjects

engaged more freely in the nurturance activity than the masculine sex-

typed subjects. She also found that feminine females hesitated in

engaging in the nurturance activity of playing with a kitten. This

hesitation was found to disappear when the nurturant activity was helping

a human (Bem, Martyna, & Watson, 1976). The relationship between sex-

typing and willingness to engage in same-sex or cross-sex behavior has

been consistently replicated (Bem & Lenney, 1976; Kelly et al., 1977;

Spence et al., 1975; Wiggins & Holzmuller, 1978).

Kelly and Worrell, L., (1976), in a study similar to that done by

Hjelle and Smith, G., (1975), identified a strong relationship between

parental childrearing practices and psychological androgyny. They found

that subjects reporting parental practices encouraging non-traditional

behavior in the child, e.g., emotional sensitivity among boys and

achievement among girls, exhibited a greater incidence of androgyny

than subjects reporting parental encouragement of the more traditional

patterns.

Specific research. Several studies have found that there exists

a strong positive relationship between freedom from restrictive sex-role

stereotypes and psychological health (Bem, 1974; Broverman, I., Broverman,






62

D., Clarkson, Rosenkrantz, & Vogel, 1970; Chafetz, 1974; Heilbrun, C.,

1973; Rosenkrantz et al., 1968). Spence et al. (1975) and O'Conner,

Mann, and Bardwick (1978) compared responses on the Personal Attributes

Questionnaire and a social self-esteem instrument. Androgynous subjects

exhibited higher levels of self-esteem than sex-typed or undifferen-

tiated subjects. Gump (1972) reported a strong inverse relationship

between strength of traditional sex-role attitudes and ego strength.

The relationship between psychological androgyny and psychological

adjustment is not, however, clear cut. In recent literature reviews

Kelly and Worrell, J., (1977) and Worrell, J., (1978) identified patterns

in the research suggesting that the development of androgyny may have

dramatically different implications for males and females. The process

of developing sex-role flexibility may mean making qualitatively differ-

ent decisions and adjustments for men and women. The social pressures

and consequences against women engaging in masculine behavior, even when

situationally appropriate, appear to be stronger than those associated

with males engaging in feminine behavior. Bem (1977), for example, in

an exploration of the median split sex-type classification method pro-

posed by Spence et al. (1975), found that self-esteem among female sub-

jects was related to high scores in both the masculine and feminine

dimensions while high self-esteem among the male subjects was related

only to high scores in the masculine dimension. She also found a direct

correlation between masculine males and conservative scores on the Spence

and Helmreich (1972) Attitudes Toward Women Scale. No significant corre-

lations were obtained between the BSRI and the Internal-External Scale

(Rotter, 1966), the Attitudes Towards Problem-Solving Scale (Carey, 1958),






63

the Mack IV Scale (Christie & Geis, 1970), or the Self-disclosure Scale

developed by Jourard (1971).

Deutsch and Gilbert (1976) compared scores on the Bell Adjustment

Inventory with descriptions of perceived-self sex-role, ideal-self sex-

role, ideal-self sex-role for the opposite sex, and the opposite sex's

description of own-sex ideal-self sex-role. They found that masculine

males scored higher on the adjustment instrument than androgynous males

while feminine females scored lower on the adjustment inventory than the

androgynous females. Furthermore, while the male descriptions of the

various sex-roles tended to agree with each other regardless of the sex-

role being described, the female descriptions showed a wide divergence

between perceived-self sex-role, ideal-self sex-role, and perceptions of

how males perceived the female ideal-self sex-role. They concluded that,

at least in terms of social utility and effectiveness, the masculine sex-

type was more desirable than the feminine sex-type, with androgyny some-

where between the two.

Wiggins and Holzmuller (1978) compared male and female subjects on

responses to an extensive interpersonal interaction questionnaire which

included an androgyny scale. They identified eight basic dimensions of

interpersonal behavior: dominant-ambitious, arrogant-calculating, lazy-

submissive, cold-quarrlesome, aloof-introverted, unassuming-igenious,

warm-agreeable, and gregarious-extraverted. Each subject had a profile

based upon their composite scores in each dimension. It was found that

each sex-type group had unique profile patterns, suggesting that the

different sex-types were associated with different interpersonal styles.

Furthermore, the androgynous males had a relatively flat profile, while

the androgynous females exhibited a profile which was a mirror image of the






64

female feminine sex-type subjects' profile. Wakefield, Sasek, Friedman,

and Bowden (1976) found that high masculinity scores on the MMPI M/F

Scale and the Omnibus Personality Inventory were positively correlated

with androgyny while high femininity scores were not correlated with

androgyny.

Jones, W., Chernovetz, and Hansson (1979) conducted a study in

which they compared responses of 1404 college students on the BSRI and

instruments measuring adjustment, including the Women's Liberation and

Attitudes Scale, the Internal-External Scale, tests of neuroses, alco-

holism, political awareness, and a self-report history. They concluded:

The most succinct description of the present findings is that
the more adaptive and flexible, unconventional, and competent
patterns of responding occurred among the more masculine sub-
jects independent of gender.... In one regard this is not
surprising, since the items that comprise the masculinity sub-
scale have the underlying commonality of being instrumental in
nature, that is, the ability to effectively and efficiently
accomplish objectives. Similarly, most of the vairables
examined involved stereotypically masculine endeavors. (p. 311)

The instrumental-expressive dimension noted by Jones, W., et al.

(1979) has been further established in several factor analytic studies

of the BSRI. These studies have consistently identified three, and

occasionally four, factors using a wide range of populations: 253 male

amd female industrial workers, 36 police officers, and 36 unemployed

housewives (Gaudreau, 1977); 419 undergraduate and 121 graduate students

(Gross, Batlis, Small, & Erdwins, 1979); and 1464 graduate students

(Pedhazur & Tetenbaum, 1979). These factors were most commonly labelled

as: Emotional and Interpersonal Sensitivity, consisting of items drawn

from the Femininity scale and the Social Desirability scale of the BSRI;

Assertiveness, consisting of items drawn from the BSRI Masculinity






65

scale; Self-sufficiency, consisting of items from the Masculinity scale;

and Gender, consisting of the two items--"masculine" and "feminine." Bem

(1979) notes that these factors are not inconsistent with the theoretical

foundations of the concept of androgyny and that the only factor not

predicted by the theory was the Gender factor.

Studies examining the relationship between psychological androgyny

and self-actualization, however, have had unambiguous results. Nevill

(1977) compared responses of a socially stratified sample on the POI,

the BSRI, and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The androgynous subjects

scored higher on the POI and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale than did

the sex-typed subjects. Similarly, Cristall and Dean (1976), Ott (1976),

and Pettus (1976) compared responses of college students on the BSRI,

the POI, and measures of anxiety, sex-role attitudes, and intelligence.

All three studies demonstrated a direct relationship between self-actu-

alization and androgyny. Other results included a positive relationship

between androgyny and an internal locus of control (Ott, 1976) and

between androgyny and low anxiety and non-traditional sex-role attitudes

(Pettus, 1976). No significant relationships were identified between

intelligence or social desirability and androgyny (Pettus, 1976).

In a study of liberal and conservative female responses on the Per-

sonal Attributes Questionnaire and the POI, Hjelle and Butterfield

(1974) concluded:

The results of this study convincingly indicate that college
age females holding pro-feminist (liberal) attitudes vis-a-vis
their social and sexual roles exhibit a markedly higher level
of personal growth than their peer counterparts expressing
tradition bound attitudes. Specifically, these findings
suggest that pro-feminist subjects perceive themselves as
relying more confidently upon their own internal norms without
seeking constant support from others for self-validation. (p. 229)






66

Sex-role definitions have been found to associate masculine sex-

role behavior with an internal locus of control and feminine sex-role

behavior with an external orientation. House (1974) found that female

subjects tended to avoid an appearance of competition and were externally

oriented while male subjects activitely engaged in competition and had

an internal orientation. Hochreich (1975) found that, although the male

ideal-self descriptions among college students were internally oriented

and female ideal-self descriptions were externally oriented, perceived-

self descriptions were not significantly different on the locus of con-

trol dimension. She concluded that, while there existed clear stereo-

types which were markedly different in locus of control, the subjects

did not uniformly adhere to them on a day-to-day basis.

Research on relationships between sex-roles and vocational choices

has focused on the impact of traditional sex-role endorsement on female

vocational choices. Altman (1975) found that the mother's occupational

history and satisfaction with the work significantly influenced the

subject's adult life choices. If the mother did not work then her satis-

faction with the housewife role influenced the subject's willingness to

assume that role during her adult life. Darley (1976) argued that the

vocational choices open to females are usually limited by societal

pressures. As noted above, Stewart and Winter (1974) found that self-

defined women were more likely to engage in masculine occupations while

socially-defined women were more likely to pursue feminine occupations.

Vogel, Rosenkrantz, Broverman, I., Broverman, D., and Clarkson (1975)

found that non-traditional sex-role orientations were directly related

to a desire for more education, fewer children (if any), and pursuit of

a vocation, even if there were children.






67

Moreland, Harren, Krimsky-Montague, and Tinsley (1979) compared

male and female college student responses on the BSRI and the Harren

Assessment of Career Decision Making. They found that among men and

women, the androgynous subjects were more developed in their college

major and occupational choices and were more rational in their career

decision making processes than were the sex-typed subjects.

Summary. Several observations may be drawn from the literature

on sex-roles and psychological androgyny discussed in this section.

First, there exist culturally accepted stereotypes of masculinity and

femininity. Second, the masculine stereotype is identified as the most

socially desirable and mentally healthy of the two sex-roles. Third,

strict adherence to these sex-roles has been found to be associated with

increased incidence of sex-guilt, racism, authoritarianism, and dog-

matism. Fourth, work and vocational choices are influenced by sex-role

orientation and working has traditionally been considered a masculine

activity. Fifth, psychological androgyny appears to describe a blending

of the more desirable characteristics of both sex-roles. Sixth, androgyny

has been strongly associated with self-actualization while masculinity

has been associated with social adjustment. Seventh, the Bem Sex-Role

Inventory has been found to consist of three major factors which

serve to consistently discriminate between persons who have developed

a level of sex-role flexibility and those endorsing the more traditional

sex-roles. Finally, as with research on self-actualization, androgyny

has yet to be applied on an in-depth basis to persons with employment

problems, or persons outside of the college environment (Bem, 1979;

Locksley and Colton, 1979).








Locus of Control

General research. Rotter, Chance, and Phares (1972) identified as

their principal unit of investigation in the development of the Social

Learning Theory the interaction between the individual and the environment.

They focused on learned behavior, postulating that the person's prior

experiences influence what is learned from subsequent experiences. One

of the key concepts identified as predicting behavior in any given situ-

ation was the expectancy, based upon prior experiences, that one's behav-

ior might have an impact on the outcome of the situation. If the indi-

vidual believed that he/she could have an impact on his/her environment

and acted as if this were the case, then the person was defined as having

an internal locus of control. Conversely, an external locus of control

referred to the belief that one is subject to external forces and is

unable to exert control over the environment.

The Internal-External Scale was introduced by Rotter (1966) as an

instrument to assess the locus of control orientation of the individual.

This scale has been used to study the relationship between locus of

control and many different elements in the personality. Adams-Weber

(1969) found that subjects with an internal orientation were more likely

to view punishment as an appropriate consequence of an "immoral act"

than external subjects. Phares (1965) found that internally oriented

students were able to exert a greater amount of influence on the opin-

ions of mid-range (neither internal or external) students than were

externally oriented students.

Several studies have examined differences in degrees of willingness

to work at a difficult task. They have found that when the possibility

of success at a difficult task was presented as contingent upon the






69

skill and effort applied by the subject, internally oriented subjects

attempted the task with significantly higher levels of energy and dili-

gence than externally oriented subjects (Cohen, Rothbart, & Phillips,

1976; Newmanm 1977; Phares, 1957; Rotter & Mulray, 1965). Similarly,

internally oriented subjects were found to prefer a greater number of

internally controlled social activities than the externally oriented

subjects (Clark, 1976).

An internal locus of control has been found to be a characteristic

of individuals engaging in, or committing to engage in, voluntary action.

Gore and Rotter (1963) found that internally oriented black students were

more likely to commit to anti-racism activities than were externally

oriented black students. Strickland (1965), in a follow-up study to

the Gore and Rotter study, found that members of civil rights groups

were more internally oriented than members of non-activist groups. Kinder

(1976), while finding no differences in orientation between students

who volunteered to participate in psychological experiments, found that

the internally oriented subjects were more likely to actually complete

the experiment than were the externally oriented volunteers.

Bryant, B.,and Trockel (1976), in a study similar to the Hjelle and

Smith, G., (1975) and Kelly and Worrell, L., (1976) studies, examined the

effects of early childhood history upon the locus of control orientations

of college women. Externally oriented women were found to recall a higher

frequency of dramatic life changes during their early childhood years

than recalled by internally oriented women. Conversely, internally ori-

ented women were found to recall the greatest frequency of their stressful

life changes during their high school years.






70

Specific research. Several studies have examined the relationship

between locus of control and psychological adjustment. A series of

studies used the concept of locus of control as a measure of alienation

or perceived powerlessness (Seeman, 1959, 1963, 1972; Seeman & Evans,

1962). Seeman (1959) defined alienation as "the expectancy or proba-

bility held by the individual that his own behavior cannot determine the

outcomes or reinforcements he seeks" (p. 784). He found that subjects

who were institutionalized for health reasons (Seeman & Evans, 1962) or

for legal reasons (Seeman, 1963) were less likely to seek and use accurate

information pertaining to their status in the institution if they were

alienated or perceived themselves as having no control. Seeman (1972)

concluded that the powerless individual would be less likely to engage

in organizations which increase control over the environment (e.g., labor

unions), less likely to engage in planned action, more likely to engage

in short-term, unplanned protests (e.g., walk off the job when angry

with the supervisor), less likely to learn control relevant information

about the environment, and more likely to feel alienated if a member of

a minority group.

Efran (cited in Rotter, 1966) found that internal high school

students were more likely to repress failure experiences. Butterfield

(1964) found that internal subjects were less likely to experience

debilitating anxiety in test situations. Shybut (1968) reported that

the more disturbed psychiatric patients in a hospital setting were more

external and tended to have a shortened time sense. Externally oriented

students exhibited a higher suicide potential than internally oriented

students, especially among the female subjects (Williams, C.,& Nickels,

1969). Wolk (1976) reported that residents of low constraint (open-






71

entry, open-exit) retirement communities were more internally oriented

than residents of high constraint (nursing home) environments. Finally,

Chandler (1976) found that externally oriented students had lower self-

concepts, lower self-acceptance, and higher perceived-self ideal-self

discrepancies than internally oriented students.

Studies comparing locus of control and self-actualization are few

in number. Wall (1970) failed to find a significant relationship

between the POI Inner-directed scale and the Internal-External Scale,

although positive correlations were obtained between an internal locus

of control and the POI Self-regard, Self-acceptance, and Nature of Man

scales. Bass, B.,and Stek (1972), however, failed to find any signifi-

cant correlations between the POI and locus of control measures.

Lambert et al. (1976) factor analyzed college student responses on the

Internal-External Scale, the POI, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and

Kohlberg's Scale of Social Problems. They identified three major

factors: Mental health and effective living consisting of items from

the POI, Internalized values and principles of justice consisting of

items from the POI and Kohlberg's Scale of Social Problems, and Locus

of control consisting of Internal-External Scale items. They concluded

that while there were several strong correlations among the different

instruments, they appeared to measure different elements of mental

health and the substitution of one instrument for another would result

in a loss of information.

In addition to the studies of the relationship between locus of

control and sex-roles discussed in the preceding section, two other

studies warrant comment. Fox, L.,(1976) compared responses of black and

white freshmen women on a sex-role scale and the Internal-External Scale.

She found no significant differences in locus of control by race or sex






72

and suggested that a wider age range would reveal sex-role and racial

differences in locus of control. Foster (1975) compared responses

of subjects ranging in age from 20 to 40 years or more on the Internal-

External Scale, the Manifest Anxiety Scale, and a sex-role attitude

inventory. She found that an internal orientation was significantly

related to a lower anxiety level and a strong endorsement of masculine

attitudes.

Research has demonstrated a strong relationship between race and

locus of control. Battle and Rotter (1963) compared black and white

students in the sixth and eighth grades from upper and lower socio-eco-

nomic brackets of both sexes. They found that the black students were

more externally oriented than the white students and that the lower-

class blacks with high intelligence were more externally oriented than

middle-class students of either race. Lefcourt and Ladwig (1965) using

the Powerlessness Scale (Dean, 1961) compared locus of control among

black and white prisoners matched for age, socio-economic background,

intelligence, and reason for incarceration and found that the black pris-

oners were more external than the white prisoners. Lefton (1968) found

that among auto workers from high and low pay categories increased pay

was associated with decreased feelings of anomie and increases in inter-

nal orientation. He also found that among the high pay group the black

workers were more external and had higher anomie scores than the white

workers. Hall, Joesting, and Woods (1977) studied students from predomi-

nantly black and white universities and found evidence to suggest that

there existed a sense of powerlessness against a hostile environment

among the black and female subjects.






73

Gurin, P., Gurin, G., Lao, and Beattie (1969) factor analyzed

responses on an extended locus of control instrument administered to a

black population. They found that subjects with higher job aspirations

or achievements were more external in orientation than the subjects with

lower aspirations. Further analysis of the data identified a "blame

the system" pattern among the more achievement oriented subjects:

To summarize, our results indicate that when internal-external
control refers to Negroes' conceptions of causes for their
condition as Negroes, and these conceptions are related to
more innovative coping criteria, it is the external rather
than the internal orientation which is associated with the
more effective behaviors. When an internal orientation
implies self-blame as a Negro, it also seems to involve a
readiness to accept traditional restraints on Negro behavior.
(p. 47).

Locus of control has been studied with relation to work more exten-

sively than the other mental health concepts being considered in this

study. Hartley (1976) reported that among college officials an internal

locus of control was significantly related to increases in reported job

satisfaction. Andrisani and Nestel (1976), in a longitudinal study,

found that internally oriented subjects were more likely to have had

higher occupational achievement, higher hourly earnings, higher levels

of job satisfaction, higher achievement of occupational status, and

higher increases in annual earnings than subjects with an external locus

of control. Internally oriented subjects were also more likely to have

re-entered the labor force if they had left it than were externally

oriented subjects. Kimmons and Greenhaus (1976) reported trends towards

positive correlations between an internal locus of control and the

likelihood of reporting job satisfaction when autonomy, job feedback,

performance rewards, and work involvement were present in the work situ-

ation regardless of gender. Oldham (1976) found a direct relationship






74

between internality and an increased expenditure of effort in work,

a desire for growth in work, and supervisory and co-worker satisfaction

with the quality of the subjects' work performance.

Locus of control has also been related to socio-economic status.

Levinson, P., (1964) found that welfare recipients expressed evidence of

alienation, feelings of resignation, helplessness, pessimism, passivity,

and an inability to mobilize themselves to take corrective action.

Battle and Rotter (1963), as noted earlier, identified a pattern of

lower-class blacks with high intelligence being more externally oriented

than middle-class subjects of either race. Franklin (cited in Rotter,

1966), using a nationally stratified high school sample, found a direct

relationship between more internal scores and higher socio-economic

class. Crandall, V. C., Katkovsky, and Crandall, V. J., (1965) reported

that age, size of family, and ordinal position in the family served to

predict internality better than socio-economic status. They found that

older subjects had higher internality scores, with females scoring higher

than males, and that children of smaller families, or the first born

child, had higher internality scores.

Summary. In general, an internal locus of control has been shown

to be associated with more effective functioning. Individuals with an

internal orientation have been found to be more adaptive to unusual and

threatening situations and better able to obtain and utilize control

relevant information about the environment. Internal locus of control

has been associated with improved psychological functioning, a more open-

mind, non-traditional sex-role values and perceptions, childhood stress

experiences during high school years rather than earlier, smaller family

size, being first born, sex, and age. Blacks tend to be more external

than whites though among achievement oriented blacks this indicates an






75

improved ability to succeed while an internal orientation has been

associated with a willingness to accept the status quo of racial

inequality.

Summary

The literature reviewed in this chapter permits several observations.

As regards the concept of work, working is clearly significant to those

who work, providing them not only with an income for survival but also

with self-definition and meaning to life. Lack of satisfaction on the

job has been shown to result in lower self-esteem and a general dissatis-

faction with life. Job satisfaction has been seen to be based not only

on monetary factors but more importantly upon the worker's sense of work

involvement and the psychological rewards and social acceptance derived

from the work setting.

Persons without work for extended periods of time have been found

to have an increased incidence of mental illness. Evidence was found to

suggest that it may be possible to develop other sources of self-esteem

and psychological well-being outside of the work setting. Manpower

programs have been designed to address the problems of unemployment in

an effort to both help the unemployed persons and meet the nation's

manpower needs. National manpower programs have not, however, been

adequately evaluated in terms of the psychological impact of training.

The unemployed population has not been evaluated in an in-depth

manner on the basis of mental health measures of self-actualization,

psychological androgyny, and locus of control. Self-actualization is a

basic indicator of mental health, providing a measure of overall psycho-

logical adjustment and growth towards mental health. Psychological

androgyny is a concept of sex-role flexibility resulting from the







76

integration of the masculine and feminine sex-roles. Locus of control

is a measure of the individual's beliefs about his/her ability to

affect the outcomes and reinforcements of a situation. Overall these

concepts have been seen to be affected by such factors as age, race,

family position, sex, religious affiliation, socio-economic status, and

criminal or psychiatric records. Together these three concepts serve

to describe mental health for the purposes of evaluating the mental

health characteristics of unemployed persons.
















CHAPTER III

PROCEDURES

Overview

This study was designed to examine the mental health character-

istics of long-term unemployed persons and to investigate the effects of

employment training on these mental health characteristics. This study

was accomplished through the performance of four comparisons of subjects

drawn from the clientele of an employment training program in north

Florida funded under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of

1978.

The dependent variables on which these comparisons were made were

three measures of mental health: the Personal Orientation Inventory

(POI), the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI), and the Internal-External Scale

(IES). Also used in the comparison of subjects and subject groups were

seven independent variables consisting of the demographic characteristics:

age, sex, race, education, religious affiliation, family history,,and

length of unemployment prior to beginning the employment training

program.

The first comparison was on the basis of training status of the

subjects. Group 1 (Intake) was composed of all clients of the employment

training program beginning training during the months of April and May,

1980, in either the Adult Work Experience or Public Service Employment

programs. Group 2 (Training) was composed of all clients of the

employment training program who had completed four months of training

77






78

during the months of April and May, 1980, in either the Adult Work

Experience or the Public Service Employment programs.

The second comparison consisted of comparing subjects on the basis

of the component or program in which they were participating. Program 1

(Adult Work Experience) was composed of all subjects, regardless of

training status, participating in this study and receiving training in

activities funded under the Adult Work Experience section of Title II-B

of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978. Program 2

(Public Service Employment) was composed of all subjects participating

in this study and receiving training in activities funded under Title

II-D or Title VI of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of

1978 regardless of the subjects' training status.

The third comparison of this study was an examination of the vari-

ance in the scores of the subjects in this study on each of the dependent

mental health measures. The scores of the Combined Group on each of the

mental health measures was tested for a significant relationship with the

independent demographic variables.

The final comparison consisted of comparing the mean scores of the

Combined Group on each of the mental health measures with the mean scores

of subjects reported in selected validation studies for each of the mental

health measures.

Hypotheses

Based upon the research questions and the literature the following

hypotheses were developed for examination in this study:

Hypothesis 1. No differences exist in self-actualization character-

istics as a result of training in the CETA Adult Work Experience program

and the CETA Public Service Employment program between Intake subjects






79

just beginning training (Group 1) and Training subjects who have

completed four months of training (Group 2) as measured by the Personal

Orientation Inventory.

Hypothesis 2. No differences exist in psychological androgyny

characteristics as a result of training in the CETA Adult Work Experience

program and in the CETA Public Service Employment program between

Group 1 subjects and Group 2 subjects as measured by the Bem Sex-Role

Inventory.

Hypothesis 3. No differences exist in locus of control as a result

of training in the CETA Adult Work Experience program and the CETA

Public Service Employment program between Group 1 subjects and Group 2

subjects as measured by the Internal-External Scale.

Hypothesis 4. No differences exist between subjects in Program 1

(Adult Work Experience) and subjects in Program 2 (Public Service

Employment) in self-actualization as measured by the Personal Orientation

Inventory.

Hypothesis 5. No differences exist between Program 1 subjects and

Program 2 subjects in psychological androgyny as measured by the Bem

Sex-Role Inventory.

Hypothesis 6. No differences exist between Program 1 subjects and

Program 2 subjects in locus of control as measured by the Internal-

External Scale.

Hypothesis 7. No relationships exist between variance in self-

actualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control character-

istics of the combined subject groups and the independent demographic

characteristics of age, sex, race, education, religious affiliation,

family history, and length of unemployment prior to participation in

employment training.





80

Subjects

Subjects for this study were drawn from the clientele of an

employment training program in northern Florida funded under the Compre-

hensive Employment and Training Act of 1978. All subjects beginning

training in either the Adult Work Experience or Public Service Employment

programs during the months of April and May, 1980, were invited to

participate in this study as a part of the Intake group (Group 1).

None of the subjects declined to participate. Of the 113 possible

subjects tested for inclusion in Group 1, six were eliminated due to

improperly completed test packages and eleven were eliminated as a

result of matching the Intake and Training groups on the independent

variable of education. The final Group 1 was composed of 96 subjects

(31 males, 65 females). All subjects were tested during the second

half of their pre-training orientation.

All employment training program clients beginning training during

the months of December, 1979, and January, 1980, and therefore com-

pleting four months of training during the months of April and May,

1980, were invited to participate in the study as a part of the Training

group (Group 2). Approximately 160 clients were invited to attend the

testing sessions. Of the 135 possible subjects attending the testing

sessions for inclusion in Group 2, six declined to participate and

returned to work, ten were subsequently eliminated due to improperly

completed test packages, and 24 were eliminated as a result of matching

the Intake and Training groups on the independent variable of education.

The final Group 2 was composed of 95 subjects (30 males, 65 females).

All subjects were tested during a special testing session organized by

the employment training program staff for this purpose during the two

weeks following the completion of the subject's fourth month of training.






81

Of the total 191 subjects in this study, 69 were participating in

Program 1 (Adult Work Experience), eight of whom were males and 61 of

whom were females. Program 2 (Public Service Employment) contained the

remaining 122 subjects (53 males, 69 females). The final cell size

distribution of the subjects is presented in Table 1 below.

Table 1

Cell Size of Comparison Groups




Group 1 Group 2 Total
(Intake) (Training)

Program 1 (Adult
Work Experience) 35 34 69

Program 2 (Public
Service Employment) 61 61 122

Total 96 95 191



Group 1 (Intake)

All CETA participants complete the application process prior to

beginning the pre-training orientation. This process includes filling

out the CETA application, assessment of basic skill levels, participating

in a vocational assessment to identify vocational interests and goals,

and selection to a CETA employment training program. The person moves

from applicant status to CETA participant status and begins to receive

a wage for time spent in training activities at the beginning of pre-

training orientation. Pre-training orientation consists of completion

of all personnel and payroll paperwork necessary for participation in

training, explanation of the rules and regulations governing partici-

pation in CETA employment training, assignment to a training job site,

development of the clients' Employability Development Plan (EDP), and






82

discussion of job relevant attitudes such as punctuality, personal

hygiene and appearance, and employer-employee relations. The EDP is a

plan detailing the training goals of the client based upon his/her

interests, potentials, and needs. The EDP identifies the training

programs) in which the client will participate to achieve these training

goals. Pre-training orientation requires six to eight hours to complete.

Group 2 (Training)

CETA training follows completion of the pre-training orientation.

The training provided in both Program 1 and Program 2 is quite similar

consisting of placing the participant in a job slot at a public or

private,non-profit agency. The job slot must be identical to regular

positions in the agency in all respects except that the salary is paid

by CETA. Training is provided in job performance skills and job reten-

tion skills by the job site supervisor and the CETA counselor.

Job performance training is provided, for the most part, by the

job site supervisor. While in training the CETA participant performs a

regular job function at the job site. The job site supervisor provides

the CETA participant with instructions in the proper performance of job

duties and corrects the participant's work until mastery of the job

skills is achieved. The skills trained will vary across training slots.

Typical training slots will include clerical work, playground supervision,

traffic management and parking meter monitoring, carpentry, grounds

maintenance, Sunland Cottage Parent, child care aide, or supply clerk.

The counselor is involved in job skills training only as required to

mediate in differences of opinion between the participant and the job

site supervisor.

Job retention training is provided for the most part by the CETA

counselor. Job retention skills include all factors involved in the





83

identification, acquisition, and retention of full-time employment.

Some of these skills are knowing where to look for an employment position,

how to complete an application, good interview techniques, proper dress

and personal appearance for a job, proper employer-employee relations,

punctuality and attendance, and peer relations. The CETA counselor also

provides training in life skills such as preparation and management of a

budget, planning a healthy diet, personal medical attention, personal

hygiene, and how to resolve family problems. Training in these skill

areas is provided in group sessions and during job site visits by the

counselor. Program 1 participants receive group training sessions twice

a month and are visited on the job site by the counselor twice a month.

Program 2 participants receive group sessions and job site visits once

a month. Group sessions are usually two hours in duration and job site

visits vary from 15 to 60 minutes. The job site supervisor is involved

in the training of these skills only through the identification of the

specific job retention skills required by the training agency.

CETA counselors in both Program 1 and Program 2 provide the CETA

participants with limited personal-social adjustment counseling. Most

of this counseling is situation specific, designed to correct a personal

problem which is causing difficulties on the job site. This type of

counseling is usually done in conjunction with the job site supervisor

in a three-way conference to identify the problem as it pertains to the

work setting. Individual counseling topics will include resolution of

personal problems which are being carried onto the worksite and problems

between members of the worksite. The counselor also engages in a

continual review and update of the client's EDP to monitor client

progress towards training completion and to adjust the EDP to changes in

the client's interests and needs. The CETA counselor will also provide






84

group counseling as needed to address problems common to all members of

the training group as a part of the job retention group training sessions.

Personal-social problems requiring extended counseling are referred to a

fulltime counseling staff subcontracted by the employment training

program.

Program 1 versus Program 2

The intake and training phases of Program 1 (Adult Work Experience)

and Program 2 (Public Service Employment) are quite similar. The basic

structure of both programs was described in the preceding chapter.

There are, however, a few between program differences which can be

identified. First, examination of the eligibility criteria for partici-

pation in the two programs (Appendix A) reveals that Program 1 partici-

pants are required to be unemployed for a much shorter time period than

Program 2 participants. Program 1 requires a one week unemployment

period while Program 2 requires 10 of 12 weeks (Title VI) or 15 of 20

weeks (Title II-B) of unemployment. Second, Program 1 is designed for

persons unable to obtain employment due to a lack of most basic employ-

ability skills. Program 2 is designed for persons who possess the

basic skills required for employment but who are unable to obtain employ-

ment due to conditions beyond their control. Third, participants in

Program 1 receive a basic training wage while Program 2 participants

receive a salary equivalent to persons performing similar job functions.

Finally, participants in Program 1 may train for a maximum of 25 weeks

at 40 hours per week while participants in Program 2 may participate

in training activities for a maximum of 78 weeks.






85

Taken together, these differences between Program 1 and Program 2

serve to identify the basic difference in the intent of the two programs.

Both programs are designed to assist participants in the acquisition of

skills and attitudes necessary for the performance of fulltime employ-

ment. This is accomplished by placing the participants in a job slot at

a training agency for training in the performance of that job. The

basic difference is that Program 1 is intended to be a basic skills

training program while Program 2 is intended to more nearly approximate

a typical job.

Research Design

The primary comparison in this study between Group 1 (Intake) and

Group 2 (Training) was performed utilizing a modified form of the

quasi-experimental separate-sample, pretest-posttest design described

by Campbell and Stanley (1966):

Pretest R 0 (X)

Posttest R X 0

R = Random assignment of subjects to the
pre- and posttest conditions.
O = Observation/data collection.
X = Treatment received by subjects.
(X) = Treatment received by subjects but
not affecting the data collected
since it occurs after the data is
collected for that group. (pp.53-54)

Modifications in the basic design were necessitated by the projected

low average monthly intake rate for both programs. The intake rate for

Program 1 was estimated at 10-15 new participants per month and estimated

at 15-20 new participants per month in Program 2. In order to achieve a

reasonable sample size within a manageable time frame it was necessary

to modify the design to increase the efficiency with which the low

number of new participants could be utilized in the study.





86

The first modification was the elimination of the random group

assignment and simultaneous treatment elements of the design. The

original design calls for the assignment of all incoming subjects to

either the pretest or posttest condition on a random basis, testing the

pretest group, permitting both groups to receive the same treatment, and

testing the posttest group at the conclusion of the treatment phase.

This modification permitted the assignment of all new participants to

the pretest group, Group 1, and the use of participants beginning train-

ing four months prior to the data collection period for the posttest

group, Group 2. This modification permitted the completion of the data

collection process in two months as opposed to a minimum of six to eight

months without the modification.

The second modification was the collection of data over an extended

time frame. The original design used a simultaneous data collection

process, testing all subjects at the same time. However, CETA partici-

pants are oriented and enter training as training sites become available.

Consequently, not all subjects were available for testing at the same

time. It was therefore necessary to collect data over an extended time

period. Subjects were assigned to a monthly subgroup classification as

they were tested to facilitate a test of homogeneity (described below) to

control for variance in the data as a result of this modification.






87

The modified design is as follows for this study:

Group Monthly Data
Subgroup Collection Month


Group 1 (Intake)






Group 2 (Training)


1 2

(1) 0 (X)


(2) 0



(1) X X X X 0 (X)


(2) X X X X 0


Monthly Subgroup = The subgroup assignment on the
basis of the month in which the data was
collected for use in the homogeneity test.
Data Collection Month = The month in which the data
was collected.
O = Observation/data collection.
X = Training received by participants/subjects.
(X) = Training received by participants/subjects
but not affecting the data collected.
(1), (2) = Monthly subgroup classification for the
purposes of the homogeneity test.

These modifications raised two problems. The first was the possi-

bility of uncontrolled selection biases. In the basic design, as

described by Campbell and Stanley (1966), the comparability of comparison

groups was assured by the random assignment of subjects into the pretest

and posttest conditions. In order to reestablish comparability a test

of comparability was included in the design modification to control for

possible selection biases. The test of comparability consisted of the

comparison of Group 1 and Group 2 on the independent demographic

variables. It was found that Group 1 and Group 2 differed on the

independent variable of education. Group 1 was found to have a lower

average education level (M=11.46 years) than Group 2 (M=11.96 years,

F=4.12,df=l/224,p<.05). The two groups were matched on this variable






88

by the elimination of 11 cases with extremely low levels of education and

24 cases with extremely high levels of education. Upon completion of

matching Group 1 with Group 2 on the education variable the matched

Group 1 and Group 2 were compared with the unmatched Group 1 and 2 on

each of the dependent variables. No significant differences were

identified between the matched and unmatched groups and it was concluded

that comparability had been achieved as a result of matching the groups

without altering the information contained in the data.

A second problem was posed by the modification of the testing

period. The sampling of subjects over an extended period of time could

result in a loss of homogeneity within Group 1 and within Group 2. To

determine whether variance occurred between the first and second month

of data collection, a test of homogeneity was performed within the

Combined Group (Group 1 and Group 2), within Group 1, within Group 2,

and within both Program 1 and Program 2. The test of homogeneity con-

sisted of comparing the average scores of the subjects tested during the

first month of data collection (Monthly Subgroup 1) with the average

scores of subjects tested during the second month of data collection

(Monthly Subgroup 2) within each of the comparison groups on the

dependent mental health measures. No differences between monthly

subgroups were identified within the combined group and within Program 1.

The differences identified in the tests of homogeneity are discussed in

the following chapter. In general, however, it was concluded that there

was very limited variance in the mental health scales between the first

and second month of the data collection process and the data was

considered to be homogeneous.






89

Thus, the modified design retains the integrity of the original

design. Each threat to internal and external validity is controlled

for or identified within the modified design. Historical, maturational,

and mortality effects were controlled for by the homogeneity test. The

comparability procedure served to control for selection biases as well

as interactions between selection and maturational processes or treatment

effects. There were no testing effects since each subject was tested

only once and the instrumentation effects were controlled through the use

of a uniform presentation of test instruments and by all subjects being

administered the same test package. Statistical regression was not a

factor as the subjects were not selected for participation on the basis

of extreme test scores. Finally, multiple treatment effects and reactive

effects were not problems since the training experience was a single,

continuous, non-laboratory process.

Data Collection

Data for this study was collected during April and May, 1980. Sub-

jects for Group 1 (Intake) were tested during the pre-training orientation.

Intake subjects participating in Program 1 were tested at the conclusion

of normal orientation activities. Intake subjects in Program 2 were

tested just prior to the last pahse of the orientation activities. All

participants in the employment training program who had completed four

months of training during the months of April and May, 1980, in either

Program 1 or Program 2 were invited to attend the testing sessions for

inclusion in the Training Group (Group 2). All Group 2 subjects were

tested during group sessions organized by the training program to assist

in the collection of data for this research project. Each of the testing






90

sessions were scheduled during the two weeks immediately following the

completion of the fourth month of training.

Prior to administering the test package all subjects received and

had read to them the Informed Consent Form which they were then asked to

sign (See Appendix F). The test package consisted of an Introduction and

Personal Data Questionnaire (See Appendix C), the Personal Orientation

Inventory (Shostrom, 1974), the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (Bem, 1974), and

the Internal-External Scale (Rotter, 1966). In an effort to eliminate

potential testing effects due to a limited reading ability among some of

the subjects the test package was pre-recorded on cassette tape and played

back to the subjects as they read along. All instructions and questions

of each test instrument were presented in this manner. An answer period

of five to six seconds (six to seven on the BSRI) was allowed between

items for the subjects' response. The playback length of the combined

test package was 72:08 minutes with each section having playback times of

6:22 minutes (Introduction and Personal Data Questionnaire), 10:00 minutes

(Internal-External Scale), 9:50 minutes (Bem Sex-Role Inventory), and

42:56 minutes (Personal Orientation Inventory). The actual test admin-

istration timewas more nearly 90 minutes allowing for questions, seating

time, and the distribution and collection of materials. To avoid possible

serial effects the order of presentation of the segments of the test

package was randomly varied.

Each instrument was scored according to the published instructions.

If an instrument contained more than 10% of the items incorrectly answered

the instrument was eliminated from the subject's data set and referred

to as a missing case during the data analysis. If two or more of the

instruments in a subject's data set were eliminated the subject was

eliminated from the combined data set.




Full Text

PAGE 1

MENTAL HEALTH OF THE UNEMPLOYED: AN ANALYSIS OF A CETA PROGRAM By JOHN ANDERSON SANFORD A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1981

PAGE 2

This study is dedicated to the memory of RICHARD H, JOHNSON His challenges to the old way; His joy in learning new things and thinking new thoughts; His delight in living Touched all who knew him.

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people have contributed time, energy, and support during the course of this project. First, I would like to thank Harold Riker, Rod McDavis, and James Wattenbarger for their unrelenting encouragement. Regardless of how long each stage of this study required, they never lost faith that the effort would reach a satisfactory conclusion. Second, I would like to express my appreciation for the cooperation of the staff and participants of the Northeast Florida Employment and Training Consortium. Their tolerance of repeated testing sessions and active participation in the collection of data made this study possible. I would also like to acknowledge the staff and participants of the Alachua County Comprehensive Employment and Training Program, past and present, whose very existence provided me with the idea for this effort. I would particularly like to recognized Jess Brannen from the program for his guidance and encouragement in understanding the CETA experience. I would like to thank my parents, Richard and Jo Ann. It was from these two students of life that I first learned the importance of learning and clear thought in a happy life. Finally, and most importantly, I would like to express ray gratitude to my wife, Robin Runyan. She had the thankless task of supporting the creation of this study while trying not to interfere with her pursuit of her own education. During the smooth and the rough, she hung in there, Thank you. iii

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES vi ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Need for the Study 1 Purpose 5 Research Questions 5 Value of the Study 6 Rationale 6 Definition of Terms 11 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 14 Unemployment 14 Mental Health 46 Summary 75 III PROCEDURES 77 Overview 77 Hypotheses 78 Subjects 80 Research Design 85 Data Collection 89 Instrumentation 91 iv

PAGE 5

Analysis of Data 99 Limitations of the Study IO3 IV RESULTS 104 Evaluation of Comparison Groups lOA Evaluation of Hypotheses 110 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Subjects From Selected Validation Studies 138 Summary 1^1 V DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 143 Overview I44 Discussion I45 Conclusions I57 Mental Health of the CETA Subjects: A Composite Picture I50 Recommendations for Counseling 163 Recommendations for Further Research .... 166 Summary Igg APPENDICES A CETA ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA 169 B CETA PROGRAM SIGNIFICANT SEGMENTS 171 C TEST PACKAGE INTRODUCTION AND PERSONAL DATA QUESTIONNAIRE 172 D CETA APPLICATION I75 E INFORMED CONSENT FORM I77 BIBLIOGRAPHY jyg BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 201

PAGE 6

LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Cell Size of Comparison Groups 81 2 Recoded Values of Demographic Variables of Age and Education 102 3 Comparison of Intake Group Subjects and Training Group Subjects on 12 Selected Demographic Variables: Matched and Unmatched for Education 106 4 Comparison of Unmatched and Matched Groups on the Independent Variables and on the Dependent Mental Health Variables 107 5 Comparison of Adult Work Experience Subjects and Public Service Employment Subjects on the 12 Demographic Variables 109 6 Comparison of Intake (Group 1) Subjects and Training (Group 2) Subjects on the Personal Orientation Inventory Ill 7 Comparison of Intake (Group 1) Subjects and Training (Group 2) Subjects on the Bern Sex-Role Inventory . . 113 8 Comparison of Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) Subjects and Program 2 (Public Service Employment) Subjects on the Personal Orientation Inventory . . . 115 9 Comparison of Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) Subjects and Program 2 (Public Service Employment) Subjects on the Bern Sex-Role Inventory ... 117 10 Distribution of Bem Sex-Role Inventory Sex-Type Classifications by the Demographic Variable of Sex for the Combined Group, Group 2 (Training), and Program 2 (Public Service Employment) Subjects . . . 132 11 Distribution of Bem Sex-Role Inventory Sex-Type Classifications by the Demographic Variable of Race for Group 1 (Intake) Subjects 133 vx

PAGE 7

12 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Normal Adult Subjects Reported by Shostrom (1974) on the Personal Orientation Inventory 139 13 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Two Samples of College Students Reported by Rotter (1966) on the Internal-External Scale 139 14 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Two Samples of Stanford University Students Reported by Bern (1974, 1977) on the Bern Sex-Role Inventory 140 vii

PAGE 8

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy MENTAL HEALTH OF THE UNEMPLOYED: AN ANALYSIS OF A CETA PROGRAM BY John Anderson Sanford March, 1981 Chairman: Dr. Harold C. Riker Major Department: Counselor Education The purpose of this study was to examine the mental health characteristics of unemployed persons and the impact of participation in employment training activities funded under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978 (CETA) on those characteristics. This study endeavored to obtain mental health information not currently available from previous research for use in the development of counseling and training strategies used with unemployed persons. The subjects for this study were 191 participants (61 males, 130 females) in a north Florida CETA program during April and May, 1980. All subjects participated in either the Title II-B Adult Work Experience (AWE) program (N=69) or the Titles II-D and VI Public Service Employment (PSE) program (N=122). Each subject had either just begun training (Intake Group, N=96) or had just completed four months of training (Training Group, N=95) . viii

PAGE 9

The dependent mental health variables were self-actualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control. These variables were measured using the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) , Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) , and Internal-External Scale (lES) , respectively. The test package was pre-recorded and presented to the subjects in a written and recorded format to control for the effects of limited reading skills. The Intake and Training groups were matched on 12 independent demographic variables to establish between group comparability. Of seven null hypotheses tested four were rejected as a result of finding significant differences between groups on the dependent mental health measures. The Training Group subjects perceived human nature in a more positive manner and perceived themselves as less feminine than Intake Group subjects. AWE subjects were more self-actualizing than PSE subjects in the Awareness dimension of the POI. Subjects who were older, unmarried, with 12 or more years of education, or affiliated with liberal religious denominations were more self-actualizing and more internally oriented than subjects who were younger, married, less education, or affiliated with fundamentalist denominations. Non-white subjects were more external in locus of control than white subjects. An examination of differences between AWE and PSE subjects on the demographic characteristics revealed the AWE subjects more likely to be female, older, unmarried, and unemployed longer, with less education and more children than PSE subjects. It was concluded that the AWE program and PSE program serve different elements of the unemployed population. Significant differences were found between the mental health characteristics of CETA subjects in this study and subjects reported in selected validation studies of the dependent mental health measures. ix

PAGE 10

With the exception of the POI Self-regard scale, the CETA subjects were less self-actualizing than a normal adult sample and were more externally oriented than two college samples. In contrast, the CETA subjects scored higher on the BSRI scales and had a higher percentage of androgynous subjects than two college samples. It was concluded that the CETA subjects experienced difficulty in objectively completing sophisticated self-evaluative tasks. These findings suggest three important implications for counselors. Unemployed persons may be more responsive to directive or structured counseling and training strategies as opposed to introspective approaches. The findings also suggest that unemployed persons have difficulty perceiving themselves as needing "help" or identifying problems areas, implying that the counselor may wish to re-examine how his/her role is presented to the unemployed client. Finally, the utility of the demographic characteristics in predicting willingness and ability to engage in mental health growth related activities was discussed. Additionally, recommendations were made for further research.

PAGE 11

CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Need for the Study Work and mental health have been repeatedly related (Maslow, 1970a; Tiffany, D., Cowan, & Tiffany, P., 1970; Work In America , 1973). Extended unemployment has been strongly associated with increased evidence of mental illness (Cassel, 1966; Work In America , 1973). Tiffany, D., et al. (1970) found that work inhibition, one of the causes of longterm unemployment, is directly related to poor mental health. Maslow (1970a), in describing self-actualization, identified a direct link between work and mental health. Maslow found that one of the identifying characteristics of self-actualizing persons was a desire to have a line of work external to their own lives without regard to the economic benefits of working. Furthermore, food, water, shelter, and security, the basic needs which serve as a foundation for mental health (Maslow, 1970a), have been shown to be among the basic reasons people work (Kaplan & Tausky, 1972; Morse & Weiss, 1955; Weiss & Kahn, 1960). Work has long been viewed as basic to the smooth functioning of the national socio-economic system (Lebergott, 1964). Most members of society are expected to work; with work defined as a means of making one's contribution to society, as a source of identity, and as a means of supporting one's self and family (Super, 1976; Wilensky, 1966; Work In America, 1973) .

PAGE 12

Prior to the depression in the 1930' s and World War II, national interest in work was primarily focused on vocational choice rather than unemployment. Related federal legislation, the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917, was limited to vocational education. Efforts to help the unemployed occurred largely through agencies supported by private donations (State of Florida Office of Manpower Planning, 1978). Beginning in the depression and continuing after World War II, national interest in assisting those without work increased rapidly (Ginzberg, 1968; Levitan, 1967). This interest was reflected in the passage of such legislation as the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1932, the Social Security Act of 1935, the Employment Act of 1946, the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 (as amended in 1963, 1965, 1966, and 1968), and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Acts of 1973 and 1978. These legislative actions established programs designed to insure full employment, help the unemployed, and meet the nation's manpower needs. The goal of these programs was the development of a manpower pool of adequate size and skill level through the provision of educational and financial assistance to persons experiencing difficulty in finding work. The Manpower Development and Training Act and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Acts in particular were designed to provide training, counseling, placement, and supportive services to the longterm unemployed (State of Florida Office of Manpower Planning, 1978). Interest in assisting the unemployed was stimulated by several factors. Some, such as how to respond to the technological threat represented by the Russian Sputnik, were of international origin. Others, however, were of intranational origin. These included economic

PAGE 13

3 demands for an adequate manpower pool, social demands that employment be available for returning servicemen, and altruistic demands to help unemployed persons improve their lives (Ginzberg, 1968; Levitan, 1964; Levitan, 1967). Underlying these social factors was the belief that it was better for the individual to be working than to be unemployed (Cassel, 1966; Work In America , 1973). During the period following the depression and World War II, interest was also increasing among psychologists in the development of the healthy personality. Several theoretical descriptions of how and why people develop a healthy, well-rounded, well-adjusted personality have been presented (Jourard, 1963; Maslow, 1970a; Rogers, C, 1951; Rogers, C, & Dymond, 1954). These descriptions represented a shift from earlier, problem-oriented theories of personality to a growth or health orientation. Rather than describe human functioning and personality development in degrees of pathology, the health-oriented theorists focused on descriptions of the personality in degrees of strengths (Wilson, 1972). The psychology of mental health results from the blending of existential philosophy and psychology (Jourard, 1963; Misiak & Sexton, 1973). A subjective philosophy of the individual, existentialism begins with descriptions of the individual and his/her role in the development of his/her life. This philosophy holds that only through the study of the individual can the human condition be understood: There is no such thing as truth or reality for a living human being except as he participates in it, is conscious of it, has some relationship to it. (May, 1960, p. 14) The individual is seen as uniquely responsible for his/her existence. To exist is to engage in the process of making choices, thereby defining

PAGE 14

4 one's essence by becoming what one is. Existence is a state of freedom to act and choose one's life and the responsibility to accept the consequences of those choices and actions (Sartre, 1957). Implicit in existentialism is a definition of the mentally healthy person which is signif iciantly different from earlier definitions. The existential definition of mental health is based on the strengths and actions of the individual rather than problems or weaknesses. The mentally healthy person has the courage to be what he/she can be, to be him/herself, to act and accept the results of that action as his/her responsibility, and the will and courage to act on that responsibility. He/she is able to actualize his/her potential to the fullest, to transcend the limiting effects of environmental and social roles, and to be free to accept the self and others as individuals rather than as objects or a collection of socially defined roles (Jourard, 1963). Humanistic psychology, therefore, "is a multifaceted approach to human experience which focuses on Man's uniqueness and his self -actualization" (Misiak & Sexton, 1973, p. 127). The focus is on the mental health characteristics of the individual, not his/her problems. An example of this orientation is the concept of self-actualization (Maslow, 1970a). The concept was derived, in part, through the examination of a population identified as being healthy. Maslow found that a well defined body of characteristics served to separate the healthy group from other, less healthy, groups. The definition of mental health derived from this approach is one of the presence of strengths within the individual rather than the presence of absence or problems (Wilson, 1972). There is a well established relationship between work and mental health (Maslow, 1970a; Tiffany, D., et al., 1970; Work In America; 1973) and

PAGE 15

the goals of manpower programs to help the unemployed persons in society obtain work and improve the quality of their lives (Ginzberg, 1968). However, despite the strength of this relationship there has been no mental health research examining the unemployed population or the impact of going to work upon their mental health (Sheppard, 1972; Smith, E., 1977). Purpose This study was designed to examine the mental health characteristics of unemployed persons and to measure the effects of employment training upon these mental health characteristics. This was accomplished through observing unemployed persons as they began a Comprehensive Employment and Training Act program and comparing these observations with similar observations of unemployed persons who had completed four months of training in the program. Research Questions The specific research questions to be explored were: 1. What are the mental health characteristics of long-term unemployed persons as thev enter a Comprehensive Employment and Training Act funded employment training program as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1974), the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (Bern, 1974), and the Internal-External Scale (Rotter, 1966)? 2. What are the mental health characteristics of long-term unemployed persons who have completed four months of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act funded employment training as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, and the InternalExternal Scale? 3. How do the mental health characteristics of long-term unemployed persons entering training differ from the mental health characteristics of long-term unemployed persons completing four months of training as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, and the Internal-External Scale?

PAGE 16

6 4. IVhat is the relationship between the demographic factors of age, race, sex, education, religious affiliation, family history, and length of unemployment prior to the employment training program experience and the mental health characteristics of long-term unemployed persons participating in the employment training program? Value of the Studv — There are several benefits to be derived from this study. Plans for emplojonent training programs will benefit from the identification of mental health characteristics of their target population. Such a description will enable the employment trainers and counselors to plan training activities which take into consideration the mental health characteristics of the clientele. In the process, therefore, it is hoped to establish a foundation for programs designed to facilitate the development of mental health in conjunction with the development of good work habits. Furthermore, the description of mental health among longterm unemployed persons will expand the population base of mental health research beyond the traditional study group of college students enrolled in introductory college psychology courses. The systematic definition of the effects of employment training upon the mental health characteristics of long-term unemployed persons will provide a fuller understanding of mental health concepts. Rationale The basic premise of this study is that existing research in mental health and research examining unemployed persons has failed to investigate the relationship between mental health and unemployment. The need for an examination of this relationship has long been acknowledged (Ginzberg, 1968; Sheppard, 1972; Smith, E., 1977; Tiffany, D., et al., 1970).

PAGE 17

Current manpower programs were initiated and developed to aid the unemployed persons in society and to provide for the manpower needs of the nation (Ginzberg, 1968; Levitan, 1967). These goals were to be met, in part, by providing unemployed persons with education, training, counseling, job placement, and supportive services designed to assist them in overcoming barriers to employment and in obtaining and retaining fulltime emplojmient . Despite these stated goals, evaluative studies of manpower program results have failed to examine the psychological impact of employment training upon the client. Research in related areas has been confined to examining the consequences of extended unemployment, the meaning of work, the motivation to work, job satisfaction, and the consequences of job dissatisfaction. There have been studies examining the outcomes of employment training programs but these have been limited to changes in economic status and length of job retention. This study focused on the mental health charcteristlcs of unemployed persons and on the effect of employment training upon these characteristics. Three major mental health concepts were used: selfactualization (Maslow, 1970a), psychological androgyny (Bern, 1974), and locus of control (Rotter, 1966). Each of these concepts was defined as representing a different, yet related, aspect of mental health for the purposes of this study. Self-actualization, as developed by Maslow (1970a), is one of the basic elements of humanistic psychology. Maslow held that the individual not only could, but must become self-reliant, self-determining, and self-actualizing as a natural part of continuing growth and development.

PAGE 18

8 Self-actualization is the highest level of Maslow's need hierarchy. He identified five need levels which serve progressively as the basic motivators for human behavior: physical, security, belongingness and love, esteem, and self-actualization. Follov>7ing the initial definition of self-actualization, Maslow developed and expanded the concept into an extensive theoretical system of mental health for the individual, society, science, religion, and values (Maslow, 1959a, 1959b, 1961, 1963a, 1963b, 1964a, 1964b, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1970b, 1971, Maslow & Mittleman, 1951). Psychological androgyny was described by Maslow (1971) as a central element of mental health: The man who thinks you can be either a man, all man, or a woman, and nothing but a woman, is doomed to struggle with himself, and to eternal estrangement from women. To the extent that he learns the facts of psychological "bisexuality," and becomes aware of the arbitrariness of either/or definitions and pathogenic nature of the process of dichotomizing, to the degree that he discovers that differences can fuse and be structured with each other, and need not be exclusive and mutually antagonistic, to that extent will he be a more integrated person, able to accept and enjoy the "feminine" within himself (the "Anima" as Jung calls it). (pp. 161-162) The development of the concept of psychological androgyny was the result of research on differences between men and women. The research has found that there exists a clear and distinct difference between what society views as appropriate for men and for women. Furthermore, these sex-roles have been found to be valued differently by society, with the masculine sex-role being valued more than the feminine sex-role. The research has also found that sex-roles are flexible, varying among individuals and cultures (Angrist, 1969; Mead, 1950; Staples, 1973).

PAGE 19

9 Work is traditionally defined as a masculine activity (Chafetz, 1974). Sex-roles are, therefore, of interest to the employment counselor and trainer since the majority of unemployed persons served by employment training programs are female (see Appendix B) . Successful employment training may be found to necessarily include elements of training in sex-role flexibility. Original conceptualizations of sex-roles placed masculinity and femininity at opposite ends of a single bi-polar dimension (Chafetz, 197A). However, subsequent research has shown that sex-roles represent two distinct dimensions (Bern, 1974; Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1975). Psychological androgyny refers to the potential within the individual to endorse as personally appropriate behaviors from either sex-role, determining the appropriateness on the basis of situational determinants and personal guidelines rather than traditional societal sex-role definitions of the behavior (Bern, 1974). Psychological androgyny may also serve, therefore, as a measure of resistance to enculturation, a characteristic of the self-actualizing person (Bern, 1974; Kelly, Caudill, Hathorm, & O'Brien, 1977; Maslow. 1970a). The third concept used in this study to assess mental health is that of internal-external locus of control (Rotter, 1966). Maslow (1970a) argued that self-actualizing persons would rely primarily upon their own values and perceptions of the world rather than the values and judgements of society. Locus of control is a related concept that is defined as the expectancy or perceived probability that one's actions can influence the reinforcements of a given situation (Rotter, 1966). An internal orientation is defined as the expectancy that the outcome of the situation can be influenced by one's behavior while an external locus of

PAGE 20

10 control is defined as the expectancy that the outcome of the situation is subject to chance and that no control can be exerted over the final outcome. Research has shown that locus of control is related to, though different from, the inner-directed dimension of self-actualization (Lambert, DeJulio, & Cole, 1976). Unlike other concepts utilized in this study, locus of control has been used on a limited basis in studies of unemployed persons. Lefcourt (1966), for example, found results that suggest unemployed persons fail to take definitive action intended to improve their situation out of the belief that such action would be to no avail. In short, they remain unemployed as a result, in part, of an external locus of control. These three mental health concepts have been shown to identify healthy, well-adjusted subjects consistently and accurately and to be able to discriminate mentally healthy behavior from behavior that has been clinically judged pathological or maladjusted (Bem, 1979; Rotter, 1966; Shostrom, 1974). However, none of these concepts has been used to examine the mental health of unemployed persons or the effects of employment training upon the mental health of the clientele. In summary, it is argued that the CETA funded employment training programs would be strengthened by the inclusion of mental health concepts in the evaluation of unemployed persons and in the evaluation of employment training effects. Furthermore, it is argued that the concept of mental health would be strengthened through the examination of a population significantly different from traditional mental health research populations and by examining the impact of employment training upon mental health characteristics.

PAGE 21

11 Definition of Terms Several terms used in this study are defined in this section for the purpose of establishing a common terminology. Work. Super (1976) provides a broad, flexible definition of work which will be used in this study. Work is: The systematic pursuit of an objective valued by oneself (even if only for survival) and desired by others; directed and consecutive, it requires expenditure of effort. It may be compensated (paid work) or uncompensated (volunteer work or an avocation). The objective may be intrinsic enjoyment of work itself, the structure given to life by the work role, the economic support which work makes possible, or the type of leisure which work facilitates. (p. 20) Employment. The terms "work" and "employment" are often used interchangeably resulting in confusion during discussions of related concepts. To avoid this confusion "employment" will be given the more limited definition of "paid work," regardless of the motivation for working. Employment, therefore, is distinct from volunteer work. Unemployment. This term refers to being without employment, i.e., without paid work. Unemployed person. Within the definition provided for unemployment, there is a broad range of persons defined as unemployed. College students, for example, may be working hard towards a degree but they are unemployed while engaged in the process. Therefore, for the purposes of this study an individual will be considered as an unemployed person if he/she meets the eligibility requirements for participation in a CETA funded employment training program. Basically, these requirements are that the individual must have been unemployed for an extended period of time and have a sufficiently low income to be classified as economically disadvantaged (see Appendix A). This definition will be applicable as long as the individual is participating in an employment training program.

PAGE 22

12 Employability. This terra Is used to refer to the individual's ability to identify, obtain, and retain fulltime employment. This ability includes such factors as being trained in the occupation, good work attitudes, the ability to complete an application, and the ability to interview for the position. Employment training. Generally this terra refers to any structured activity designed to enhance an individual's employability . A college education, for example, may be considered as a form of employment training. However, for the purposes of this study, the term will refer to activities funded under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978 (CETA) . The goal of employment training is to develop sufficient employability skills within the individual to enable them to find fulltime emplojmient outside of the CETA program. Mental Health. This is a state of integration of needs, drives, and values. It involves the acceptance of self and others, self-reliance, nonjudgemental interpersonal skills, freedom from defensive interaction patterns, and self-actualization (Jourard, 1963). For the purposes of this study the concepts of self-actualization, psychological androgyny, and internal-external locus of control will be defined as mental health concepts. Self-actualization. The self-actualizing person has successfully developed the ability to satisfy the basic needs (physical, security, belongingness and love, and esteem) and is free to develop his/her potential to the fullest (Maslow, 1970a). The ability to integrate needs and potential represented by self-actualization is defined as a mental health concept for the purposes of this study. Psychological androgyny. Bern (1974) introduced the concept of psychological androgyny to describe sex-role flexibility and the integration

PAGE 23

13 of masculine and feminine sex-roles into a unified personal system. The androgynous individual is able to engage in an activity on the basis of its personal appropriateness in that situation rather than on the basis of its traditional socially defined sex-role alignment. This ability is defined as representative of mental health for the purposes of this study. Locus of Control. Internal-external locus of control was introduced by Rotter (1966) to describe the degree of control the individual expected to be able to exert over the rewards and outcomes of a given situation. An internal locus of control refers to the expectancy that such control is possible while an external locus of control refers to the expectancy that the outcomes of the situation are, at best, randomly determined. As with self-actualization and psychological androgyny, an internal locus of control will be defined as indicative of mental health for the purposes of this study.

PAGE 24

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Literature relevant to the current study will be discussed in this chapter. The review will be organized into two sections: Unemployment and Mental Health. Unemployment The literature discussed in this section will cover three elements required for understanding unemployment and efforts to help the unemployed person: Work, Manpower Programs, and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978. Work The importance of work. Work is widely recognized as basic to the well-being of the individual and essential to the smooth functioning of society. Economists argue that without enough work for those who wish to work or enough workers for the work to be done the national economy would collapse (Heller, 196A; Heron, 1948; Killingsworth, 1964; Pierson, 1972). Work is also seen as important by the government, as evidenced by the establishment of national manpower programs and employment goals for the nation (Bakke, 1969; Levitan, 1964). Wilensky (1966) identified work as an important problem for the individual and the social system because: (1) Every society defines it as a central obligation for most of the population, but in modern society some men cannot obtain enough of it. The existing skills and talents of the population never perfectly fit the demands of the technology and the economy. (2) Many men are discontented with the work they do. (3) Employers and officials often feel their subordinates are 14

PAGE 25

15 not doing enough work or good enough work. Hardworking portions of the population sometimes complain that others are "f eatherbedding" or "goldbricking. " (4) Lack of work or alienation from it can place a heavy hand on the quality of life. (p. 118) This study, however, focused on the perspective of the individual. Rather than examine the importance of work from a social, economic, or political point of view, the focus was on the impact of unemployment, work, and employment training on the mental health of the individual. In a report prepared for the Secretary of HEW ( Work In America , 1973) a task force of engineers, sociologists, social workers, economists, anthropologists, and political scientists examined the role and function of work in contemporary America and concluded: Work is central "in the lives of most adults," it contributes to identity and self-esteem, and it is useful "in bringing order and meaning to life." Work offers economic self-sufficiency, status, family stability, and an opportunity to interact with others in one of the most basic activities of society. Consequently, if the opportunity to work is absent, or if the nature of work is dissatisfying (or worse), severe repercussions are likely to be experienced in other parts of the social system. (p. xv) The meaning of work. One approach used in the study of the meaning of work has been to ask the question: What is the difference between working and not-working? Weiss and Kahn (1960) asked this question of 371 workers from several different occupations. They found that "over three-fourths of respondents defined work either as activity which was necessary though not enjoyed, or as activity which was scheduled or paid" (Weiss & Kahn, 1960, p. 150). Further, they found that the definition of work as a necessary activity was associated with occupations which accorded the worker some degree of autonomy and required advanced education. The definition of work as scheduled or paid activity was associated with occupations which had emotional separation from the job

PAGE 26

16 and allowed the workers no social status or freedom on the job. In response to the questions of how workers would feel different if they were not working, Weiss and Kahn found that all workers except those in low status jobs would feel emotionally worse. The low status workers reported that they would feel the same or better if not working. A second approach to the importance of work has been to examine the significance of work in the lives of the workers. Dubin (1956) surveyed A91 workers and found that only 2A% identified work as central to their life interests although 61% identified the workplace as their central formal organizational attachment. He concluded that the "worker has a well developed sense of attachment to his work and workplace without a sense of total commitment to it" (Dubin, 1956, p. 140). In a similar study, Williams, R. , Morea, and Ives (1975) asked a sample of students and managers to rank several items in terms of personal importance. The items included recreation, school, church, occupation, and family. They found that approximately two-thirds (20 out of 33) of the students ranked their future occupation as most important, more frequently than the sample of managers (3 out of 17). Managers were found to rank their families in first position most frequently (14 of 17). However, 80% of the total sample (41 out of 51) ranked occupation in first or second place. Furthermore, the top two functions of work identified were selfrealization and social contact. Economic security ranked third for both groups as a function of work. A third approach to understanding the importance of work has been to ask the workers why they work and whether they would work if the economic necessity were removed. Morse and Weiss (1955) found that 80% of 401 workers sampled would continue to work even in the absence of

PAGE 27

17 economic need. Reasons for continuing to work included: to keep occupied or interested (31%), would go crazy if not working (14%), wouldn't know what else to do (10%), enjoyed work (9%), work justified existence (5%), habit (6%), and to maintain self-respect (5%). This response pattern was consistent across all age groups ranging from just entering work (90% would continue to work) to retired workers (65% would continue to work) . Kaplan and Tausky (1972) asked questions similar to those used by Morse and Weiss (1955) of a sample of hard-core unemployed subjects (N=275). They found that the most important reason given for having a job was to make a living and support the self and family (52%). Other reasons given included: liking the work (11%), security of a steady job and income (10%), learning good work habits (4%), and having a chance to use abilities and accomplish something (4%). They also found that most of the respondents would rather wash cars than accept welfare (71%), would work even if they did not need the money (84%), would work at a lower paying respectable job rather than take a higher paying job which was looked down on (57%), felt that the most important part of a promotion was the increased respect they would get (54%), and would be concerned about not being promoted even though their pay increased steadily (54%). Working appears to serve two basic functions in the lives of the worker and in the lives of those who would like to work. The first function is that of income and the support for self or family provided by the income. The second function is equally important though less tangible than income; the provision of self-respect, self-fulfillment, respect from others, social standing, and a structure to life. A further

PAGE 28

18 finding is that workers in higher level jobs with more education, generally management and white-collar positions, tend to rate the intangible factors as more important than do the blue-collar or lower status workers and unemployed individuals. Finally, groups at all levels of employment have been found to express a desire to continue working independent of economic needs. Job satisfaction. The area of job satisfaction has been the subject of extensive research and has been recognized as an important element in the well-being of the working population: Significant numbers of American workers are dissatisfied with the quality of their working lives. Dull, repetitive, seemingly meaningless tasks, offering little challenge or autonomy, are causing discontent among workers at all occupational levels. This is not so much because work itself has greatly changed; indeed one of the main problems is that work has not changed fast enough to keep up with the rapid and widespread changes in worker attitudes, aspirations and values. A general increase in their educational and economic status has placed many Americans in a position where having an interesting job is now as important as having a job that pays well. ... As a result, the productivity of the worker is low — as measured by absenteeism, turnover rates, wildcat strikes, sabotage, poor-quality products, and a reluctance by workers to commit themselves to their tasks. Moreover, an increasing body of research indicates that, as work problems increase there may be a consequent decline in physical and mental health, family stability, community participation and cohesiveness , and "balanced" socio-political attitudes, while there is an increase in drug and alcohol addication, aggression, and delinquency. ( Work In America , 1973, p. xvi) Lyman (1955) identified job satisfied workers with three questions: If you could start over, would you do the same work; Given the same pay, what would you do; Do you want your son to do the same work as you do? She found that only 77 of 249 workers were satisfied, i.e., answered all three questions in the affirmative. She further found that among the satisfied workers the white-collar subjects preferred the interesting quality of the job and the freedom on the job while the blue-collar

PAGE 29

19 workers preferred the economic rewards and the physical conditions of the work. Among the dissatisfied workers the white-collar workers found their work uninteresting and wanted to change the nature of the job while blue-collar subjects disliked the physical demands of the job and wanted to make the work easier. The elements of work have been divided into intrinsic and extrinsic categories (Herzberg, 1966). Intrinsic factors include characteristics such as promotions, personal growth, recognition, responsibility, the nature of the work, and an opportunity for advancement. Extrinsic factors include working conditions, security, status, salary, supervision, and relationships with fellow employees. Saleh and Singh (1973) studied the instrinsic and extrinsic elements of the job valued by 3000 white-collar workers as moderated by the subjects educational level, salary, and father's occupation. They found that among the low salaried subjects (annual income less than $10,000) intrinsic factors increased in importance as the father's occupational level (unskilled versus skilled or professional) increased and as the community size increased. Among the high salary group this relationship was significant only for the university educated subjects. Overall, the higher salary group was significantly more intrinsically oriented than the low salary group. Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderraan (1959) suggested that jobs which allowed for increased opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and growth would be more satisfying than jobs which did not offer these elements. Sheppard and Herrick (1972) found that satisfaction was shown to increase as job variety, autonomy, meaningfulness, and responsibility increased. Kahn (1972), following

PAGE 30

20 an extensive literature review, concluded that improved job satisfaction resulted from: increases in job rewards and autonomy; decreases in repetition, overspecialization, and fractionalism; and improvement in supervision, wages, promotions, peer relationships, and working conditions. Chisholm (1975) interviewed 100 college graduates to assess the relationship between alienation on and off the job. He found that lack of good supervisory evaluations, lack of upward mobility, and being young, rather than the quality of work or type of job activities, were associated with the highest levels of on or off the job alienation. Heron (1948), in an earlier study of why individuals choose to work or are satisfied with their work, concluded that workers needed to be involved with their work. Without work involvement, workers were found to choose no work at all, even when the work was available for them. Slocum and Strawser (1972) compared assessments of job settings by black and white Certified Public Accountants. They asked the subjects to identify which elements of the job were satisfying and which personal needs were not being satisfied on the job. They found that the black subjects expressed a significantly higher unmet need for an opportunity: to help people, for friendship, for a feeling of self-esteem, for independent thought and action, for growth and development, and for compensation than was expressed by the white subjects. After classifying these needs according to Maslow's need heirarchy (1970a), they concluded that the black subjects were expressing a pattern of unmet needs which was much less self-actualizing than the white subjects. Blood (1969) developed an instrument which measured endorsement of the Protestant Ethic. He found that 306 United States Air Force airmen instructors exhibited a positive relationship between the endorsement

PAGE 31

21 of the Protestant Ethic and job satisfaction. Another 114 student airmen did not exhibit the relationship between the Protestant Ethic and job satisfaction. Wanous (1974) surveyed 80 female telephone operators using the Blood (1969) Protestant Ethic Scale and a questionnaire which gathered data on childhood background, preferences for job characteristics, and job satisfaction. Results indicated that the subjects' need for job satisfiers, such as variety, autonomy, task identity, and task feedback was a better predictor of job satisfaction than endorsement of the Protestant Ethic or childhood background. Although these studies make a strong case for the importance of assisting workers in achieving job satisfaction, theorists have cautioned that satisfaction may not represent the total explanation of work related behavior. Kahn (1972) noted that: For most workers it is a choice between no work connection (usually with severe attendant economic penalties and conspicuous lack of meaningful alternative activities) and a work connection which is burdened with negative qualities (routine, compulsory scheduling, dependency). In these circumstances the individual has no difficulty with the choice; he chooses work, pronounces himself moderately satisfied, and tells us more only if the questions become more searching. (p. 200) Rottenburg (1960) argued that economic factors will serve as a strong influence in job choice in addition to job satisfaction and should not be discounted. Blaumer (1960) noted that other factors influence job choice including the need for structure in life, endorsement of the Protestant Ethic, and the fact that the individual may never be fully satisfied but will assign meaning to work which theorists would find meaningless.

PAGE 32

22 In summary, the research has shown that many workers are dissatisfied with their work and this dissatisfaction affects the overall quality of their lives. Several factors have been found to affect the degree of job satisfaction. Job characteristics such as autonomy, variety, feedback on performance, involvement in work, work conditions, pay, and status as well as factors within the individual worker such as endorsement of the Protestant Ethic, education level, desire for job satisfiers, and family background all interact to determine the degree of job satisfaction. Finally, research has shown that regardless of the degree of satisfaction felt by the workers, they would continue to work even when the monetary necessity had been removed suggesting that work is basic to the self-concept of the workers independent of other functions. The unemployed person. The motivations of unemployed persons become increasingly important in view of the findings discussed in the preceding section. It is important to understand why some people remain unemployed while others will continue to work in unsatisfying jobs, even if the economic motivations were absent. Surveys have examined the demographic characteristics of long-term unemployed persons and found four major groupings (Hargrett, 1965; Killingsworth, 1968; Zeisel, 1964). First, blacks have a higher unemployment rate than whites. Killingsworth reported an unemployment rate for blacks at 7.3% as compared to a 3.3% rate for whites. Second, age is a factor. Younger workers have difficulty finding employment due to a lack of skills and experience while older workers have difficulty due to the obsolescence over time of their skills and experience. Third, those with less education and limited educational opportunities have higher rates of unemployment. Finally, residency is a factor. Many

PAGE 33

23 areas have limited employment opportunities due to changes in economic conditions which force local companies to move to another area or to cease operation. Tiffany, D., et al. (1970) warn, however, that it is important to avoid the misconception that the unemployed are a homogeneous group with a common set of needs and barriers to employment. Lack of homogeneity among unemployed persons was first demonstrated by Bakke (1933) in a study of the impact of unemployment insurance on the persons' willingness to return to work. Bakke's general finding was that if the subjects were willing to support themselves before entering a period of unemployment then use of unemployment insurance would not decrease that desire to work. Likewise, unemployment insurance was not found to create a willingness to work, or a desire for self-sufficiency, if they were not present before the period of unemployment began. Further studies by Bakke (1940a, 19A0b) found that unemployed workers would use all available methods and skills to maintain themselves and their self-esteem as the period of unemployment was extended. He found that if the unemployed workers had a wide range of job seeking and personal maintenance skills before being unemployed, they would use those skills during the period of unemployment for survival and to fill the role normally held by work. If no prior skills were present, then the workers were found to rely on the unemployment insurance sooner and to a greater extent. Davis (1946) studied individual cases of persons unemployed for an extended period of time and found several adjustments being made as the period of unemployed grew longer. She found a gradual lowering of aspirations, hopes, and educational and life goals. As control over working decreased, ambition and a hope for the future were gradually

PAGE 34

24 relinquished as luxuries too painful to maintain. Alfano (1973) found that unemployed persons experienced few changes in their attitudes towards work during the first few months of unemployment. However, as the period of unemployment grew longer their attitudes towards work deteriorated as did the level of their savings, the strength of their family unit, their social standing, and their self-confidence. Feldman (1973a, 1973b, 1974) conducted a series of studies designed to examine assessments of work related outcomes among black and white subjects who were employed and unemployed. He concluded that the intent to work and job seeking behavior were not completely tied to race, socioeconomic status, employment status, or the expectation that work would result in positive outcomes but are also moderated by local factors such as available job markets, availability of support outside of work, and individual differences. Long-term unemployed persons should not, however, be construed to have no desire to work. Searls, Braucht , and Miskimins (1974) compared work values of supervisors, employees, and long-term unemployed subjects on five work-related variables: personal habits, supervisory relations, employee relations, company relations, and work habits. I'Jhile they found significant differences between work values endorsed by the supervisors and the unemployed subjects, there were no differences between the employed and unemployed subjects. Cook (1971), in a comparison of motivation to work between 100 employed and 100 unemployed blacks found comparable levels of motivation to work between the groups. Likewise, Kaplan and Tausky (1974) surveyed 275 long-terra unemployed subjects with a questionnaire similar to those used by Morse and Weiss (1955), Tausky (1969), and Kaplan and Tausky

PAGE 35

25 (1972). They concluded that: While the economic meaning and function of work weighed heavily in many of our subjects' responses, there was also, overall, a commitment to work not only similar to that of employed blue-collar workers, but at times resembling the values of people of higher socio-economic status. These findings contradict the prevalent stereotype in the United States that the poor have little desire or commitment to work. (Kaplan & Tausky, 1974, p. 195) Unemployment and mental illness. Several studies have demonstrated that extended unemployment can be detrimental to the individual. Zawailski and Lazarsfeld (1935) identified a sequence of mental health deterioration among long-term unemployed persons through a review of their autobiographies. The initial reaction to being unemployed was feeling hurt by the dismissal, followed by, in order: numbness or apathy, hope or calmness, a weakening of hope, hopelessness and suicidal ideas, and dumb apathy. Shanthamani (1973) found that as unemployment lasted longer among engineering graduates their level of neuroticism increased. Triandis, Feldman, Weldon, and Harvey (1975) examined the trust levels of long-term unemployed persons and found that they exhibited little trust for others, even those from their own in-group. Furthermore, the subjects did not trust or believe that hard work would result in any desired benefit and felt unimportant and, as a result, rejected the establishment. A strong relationship was demonstrated between social class and the frequency and types of mental illness (Hollingshead and Redlich, 1958). This relationship was confirmed in a follow-up study by Myers and Bean (1968). Together these two studies demonstrated that the lower social classes had higher Incidences of mental illness and that the lower class subjects were more likely to be diagnosed as having a mental disorder and to receive custodial care.

PAGE 36

26 Warheit, Schwab, Holzer, and Nadreau (1973) identified a similar pattern of mental illness in an in-depth study of Alachua County, Florida. They found a strong increase in psychopathological symptomatology as the socio-economic status of the subjects decreased. Scott, W., (1958) in a review of relevant literature, identified a pattern of socio-psychological factors associated with mental illness that included: the presence of a stressful event, being black, being in the lower socioeconomic classes, living in an urban area as opposed to rural areas, and living in the inner-city as opposed to suburban areas. Cassel (1966) concluded that "with one important exception every study over the last 45 years has found the highest concentration of mental disorders occurring in the lowest social class" (p. A2) . The one exception was a study by Pasamanic , Roberts, Lemkau, and Kreuger (1964) which discovered that the greatest incidence of psychiatric diagnosis was not among the lowest income group or among blacks. They concluded that these findings resulted from a diagnostic focus on the more severe disorders such as psychosis. Freedman (1969) similarly concluded from a study of psychiatric records that the lower classes are more likely to exhibit neurotic disorders expressed somatically and behaviorally than they were to exhibit psychotic disorders of the thought processes. Kornhauser (1965) studied the mental health of auto workers and summarized his findings regarding unemployment and poor working conditions stating that: Poorer mental health occurs whenever conditions of work and life lead to continuing frustration by failing to offer means for perceived progress toward attainment of strongly desired goals which have become indispensable elements of the individual's self-identity as a worthwhile person. Persistent failure and frustration bring lowered self-esteem and dissatisfaction with life, often accompanied by anxieties, social alienation and withdrav\7al , a narrowing of goals and curtailing of aspirations — in short — poor mental health. (p. 269)

PAGE 37

27 Unemployment and mental health . It is not surprising that evidence has been found to indicate that work is conducive to the development of mental health. Massimo and Shore (1964), for example, conducted a vocationally oriented treatment program for anti-social youth and concluded that not only was work therapeutic in itself but it also served as a focus for other interventions, facilitated identity formation, provided an avenue for channeling aggressive and sexual energies, and served to alleviate material needs. In a follow-up study, however, they found that these benefits were lost if the work performed was demeaning or meaningless (Shore & Massimo, 1969). Similarly, Tiffany, D. , Cowan, Eddy, Glad, and Woll (1967), in a study of hospitalized psychiatric patients, found that patients involved in their work situations exhibited higher levels of self-identity and self-satisfaction than patients not involved in their work. Clearly, working is conducive to the development of mental health. However, a question must be raised, since unemployment has also been associated with increased evidence of mental illness, as to whether employment is a necessary condition for the development of mental health? Bakke (1933, 1940a, 1940b), for example, stated that unemployed persons continued to maintain their esteem following the loss of employment using the same skills they had used while employed. Tiffany, D., et al. (1970) warned against assuming that all longterm unemployed persons were similar. As an example, they identified an assumption that unemployed persons communicate in the same manner as middle-class persons while being assumed to be cognitively deficient. Reissraan (1964) studied the cognitive and verbal patterns of lower-class ghetto children and middle-class children and found no evidence to

PAGE 38

28 suggest cognitive or verbal deficiency among the ghetto children. He found the ghetto children to be as expressive in their verbal patterns as middle-class children. The ghetto children excelled in fantasy and spontaneous, unstructured self-expression instead of the more traditional patterns of self-expression exhibited by the middle-class children. Schesta (1976) studied the relationship between job satisfaction, work as a central life interest, age, and an affinity for leisure activities vis-a-vis working. He found that there was a stronger relationship between leisure and age when the worker was younger, dissatisfied with the work setting, or did not perceive work as central to his/ her life. Similarly, Hausknecht (1964) found that blue-collar workers facing dry, uninvolving, routine work demands will use leisure and voluntary group associations outside of the work setting to achieve and maintain satisfaction. He found that by participating in social groups the blue-collar workers had a medium for expressing themselves and establishing social contact. Price and Levinson, H., (1964) developed a description of the mentally healthy worker which might be applied to mentally healthy persons regardless of their employment status. The mentally healthy workers possessed a wide variety of sources of satisfaction and psychological rewards, were flexible under stress, treated others as individuals, recognized and accepted their own capacities and limitations, and were active and productive. Based upon these observations it may be possible to apply these descriptions to appropriate groups of unemployed persons and identify or anticipate the development of mental health among unemployed people. As Tiffany, D., et al. (1970) stated:

PAGE 39

29 If we were to indicate what human beings need, whether they are an advantaged or disadvantaged group, we would probably list the following: Human beings need to be self-determining, to have control over their own fate, to be a person rather than a thing, to be able to make decisions, to be able to plan, to be loved rather than counted, and to be recognized for one's accomplishments. (p. 115) Summary . Research has found that work is important to society and the individual. For most people work provides not only income but also structure and meaning to life as well as personal identity. Without satisfying work, or without any work at all, the overall quality of life has been seen to deteriorate. Studies of the healthy worker have identified a pattern of life and needs similar to Maslow's (1970a) description of the self-actualizing person. Some of the characteristics identified as applicable to mental health among workers may also be found to apply to mental health among unemployed persons. However, job dissatisfaction and unemployment have been generally found to exert a strong negative effect on the mental health and overall quality of life of the individual. Manpower Programs Manpower program goals. The current manpower training program for the United States is emcompassed in the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) of 1978. The CETA, along with its predecessors, CETA of 1973 and the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) of 1962, was designed to fund a coordinated and comprehensive approach to the solution of unemployment related problems. Included in CETA are provisions for training youth through classroom training, work experience, and summer jobs, and for adults by providing classroom training and on-the-job training along with special programs designed to meet the needs unique to the local community.

PAGE 40

30 It is not within the scope of this study to provide a comprehensive history of American manpower policies. Such a history may be obtained from other sources (Levitan, 1967; Mirengoff & Rindler, 1976; State of Florida Office of Manpower Planning, 1978). It is however, useful to identify some of the key factors which have influenced the development of manpower goals. Levitan (1964) identified six forces affecting the development of national manpower policies: Russian success in space technology, high levels of unemployment following the 1957 recession, changes in defense technology resulting in changes in regional funding, increased international competition for local markets, demographic changes following the "baby boom," and long-term problems such as racial and sexual discrimination in hiring and training practices. Ginzberg (1968) stated: World War I necessitated a balancing of military and civilian needs. Next, the Immigration Laws of 1920 and 1924 put an end to Europe's serving as our reserve pool of unskilled and skilled workers. The Great Depression of the 1930 's revealed that the adjustments between supply and demand for labor were not automatic. The World War II and the cold war which followed illuminated the critical role of scientists and development engineers in assuring national survival and technical progress. The passage of the Employment Act of 1946 committed the federal government to establishing and maintaining a high level of employment. The civil rights movement . . . [and] a growing demand for services, particularly health and education . . . led to further shifts. (p. 4) Several different goals and tasks have been suggested for manpower programs. Pierson (1972) argued that full employment is basic to the stability of our economy and that employment programs should be independent of the political structure. Ferman (1969) stated that an additional goal for manpower programs should be expanded job development and placement for unemployed persons. Killingsworth (1964) identified as a major manpower goal the retraining of persons unemployed as a result of automation. Goodman (1969) defined the restructuring of the

PAGE 41

31 social system within which the trainee is trained and eventually employed as a major task of manpower programs. Bakke (1969) argued that the federal manpower programs should include efforts to expand the total number of jobs available in addition to helping those without a job find work. Ginzberg (1968) identified ten manpower program goals: (1) The rapid growth of employment. (2) The matching of men and skills. (3) The expansion of the supply of trained manpower. (4) The diffusion of the benefits of automation. (5) The reduction and elimination of poverty. (6) The development of human potential. (7) The rehabilitation of depressed areas. (8) The elimination of discrimination. (9) The Improvement of labor market institutions. (10) The broadening and deepening of manpower research. (p. 225) It should be noted that the discussions cited above were concerned with the MDTA. These discussions served as the basis for the creation of CETA. There were three basic goals written into CETA: decentralization, structural training, and countercyclical employment. The first goal was intended to place more control of manpower programs in the hands of the local governments. This was designed to correct the lack of responsiveness in meeting local needs common to many of the MDTA programs. Structural training was common to both MDTA and CETA and involved training for persons unemployed as a result of the structure of society, i.e.. Inability to find employment through lack of skills, education, or opportunity resulting from some structural element such as racial or sexual prejudice. The major difference in this goal is that CETA combined all structural training under one Title for efficient administration. Countercyclical employment was established to provide training and employment opportunities to those persons unemployed as a consequence of the cyclical changes in the national economy. Funding for this program was based upon the current unemployment rate (Mirengoff & Rindler, 1978).

PAGE 42

32 Evaluation of manpower programs. Efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of manpower programs have met repeatedly with frustration resulting first from the poor validity and quantity of evaluative data and second from the limited scope of the evaluative studies. Mangum (1967, 1969) has repeatedly noted the lack of valid data for the evaluation of manpower programs: For no program are there adequate valid data for evaluation of strengths and weaknesses and ... no program has a reporting system capable of producing such data. Data on services are weak and follow-up data on program results are grossly inadequate and undependable. Ad hoc internal evaluations have been limited, their data weak, and their investigations less than probing. (Mangum, 1969, p. 131) Another part of the problem lias been the lack of adequate samples for testing. Several researchers have noted that long-term unemployed persons are singularly transient and difficult to use in controlled research (Barnes, 1972; Hardin, 1972; Lewis, 1972). Their recommendations have included the paying of unemployed subjects to serve as a stable research population; although they did not address the question of whether such subjects continue to be unemployed. Scanlon, Nay, and Wholey (1972) identified three problems basic to evaluative research conducted on manpower programs. First evaluations have been one-shot, one-time efforts rather than continuous, longitudinal studies. Second, they have been done in terms of program categories and are weak on process data. Finally, the sample populations used in the evaluations have been too small when regional samples are needed. The problems with program evaluation identified with MDTA did not improve with the conversion to CETA even though the criticism made of MDTA evaluation resulted in the inclusion of requirements for improved data collection and reporting procedures in CETA:

PAGE 43

33 Quantitative measurement of program results is seriously hampered by limitations in the CETA reporting system. The Employment and Training Administration restructured and unified the system to streamline and reconcile the separate reporting systems of a number of individual programs. As a result, it is impossible to isolate CETA data with sufficient detail to make comparisons with pre-CETA programs or even to fully analyze CETA outcomes. (Mirengoff & Rindler, 1978, p. 221) Several studies designed to examine aspects of manpower training programs warrant review. Although there were several changes in MDTA and CETA, the primary goal and basic methodology of training programs remained the same. Furthermore, with limited exceptions, there has been no research on CETA applicable to this study. Studies being done on CETA are concerned with other areas of CETA not relevant to this study (Klein & Ghozeil, 1979). For these reasons evaluations of both programs will be reviewed together. Several studies have been conducted to identify those factors which contribute to the individual's completion of training and subsequent success on the job. Beatty, R., (1975) examined the use of social selfesteem, scholastic achievement, and job skills as predictors of job success following training. He found that self-esteem did not improve during training and was unrelated to success on the job. Both scholastic achievement and job skills improved during the course of training and were related to job success. Improved scholastic achievement was directly related to increased salary while increased job skills were directly related to improved supervisory evaluations. Beatty, R., and Beatty, J., (1975) found that during the first six months of employment following placement absenteeism was related to lower salary, low supervifriry evaluations, supervisors perceived as unsupportive, jobs which required little ability, and a short prior work

PAGE 44

34 history. Absenteeism after 24 months on the job was related to perceptions of the supervisor, self-esteem in the work setting, skill levels required by the job, and duties assigned. Goodman and Salipante (1976) found that hard-core unemployed trainees were more likely to remain on the job if there were frequent raises during the early part of employment, regardless of the size of the raise, and if there was frequent job performance feedback. They concluded that, while telling the unemployed person about the benefits of employment will improve job retention on a limited scale, greater success will be achieved with frequent and iiranediate reinforcement of good job behavior. Personal characteristics of the trainees have also been found to contribute to the success of training. Henke (1976) examined the relationship between completion of training and five groups of personal attributes: Personal — marital status, age, and race; Academic — literacy, level of education, and math and word knowledge; Economic — possession of material goods, prior hourly wages, and length of prior unemployment; Vocational — prior training, prior employment history, and veteran's status; and Program Status — referral source and length of pre-vocational training. He found that only the subjects' academic achievement and prior vocational history were related to program completion. Similarly, in a study of the characteristics of the successful trainee. Cole (1974) found that completers were more likely to be female, older, with a better academic background, and no prior arrest record. The relationship between training success and expectancy theory has been examined. Gurapper (1971) found that attitudes towards work and a generalized expectation of success were not related to program completion while prior work history was predictive of success. On the other

PAGE 45

35 hand, Goodman, Salipante, and Paransky (1973) found that job retention was not the result of employment training but of the expectation that remaining on the job would bring rewards. Counseling has been found to facilitate completion of training. Bryant, F.,and Showalter (1971) found that participation in a pretraining orientation and assessment program which included strategies to improve test taking, job seeking, and vocational exploration served to significantly increase training completion. Baron and Bass, A., (1968) found that verbal reinforcement was more effective in improving trainee self-esteem than material rewards while material rewards served to increase task performance. Both types of rewards were found to be more effective when the trainee perceived them as situation appropriate. A Philadelphia study (Philadelphia Manpower Utilization Commission, 1969) found that participation in pre-training work adjustment training, family services counseling, and social work counseling improved training completion. Salipante and Goodman (1976) found that counseling during training in conjunction with role playing of job related skills served to extend the effective length of the training process. Goursslin and Roach (1964) concluded that while early MDTA programs did indeed help the upper level trainee they were not significantly effective with the disadvantaged or hard-core unemployed person. Solie (1968) examined completers and non-completers of early training programs and found that completers had a better job experience following training than did rejects and non-completers, but that the evidence suggested a selection bias which screened out the less qualified, low potential applicants. This problem has continued in later programs: CETA programs have been least successful in finding unsubsidized jobs for the hard-core unemployed — minority participants, persons with less than a high school education, younger workers, and the poor. (Mirengoff & Rindler, 1978, p. 239)

PAGE 46

36 Roskind (1975) compared retention records of hard-core unemployed individuals who received special consideration in being selected for employment and were oriented to the job with the retention records of individuals hired through the regular process. He found that, as a group, the hard-core unemployed subjects had a poorer track record in the job situation than the regular employees. Qulnn, Fine, and Levitan (cited in Goodman et al . , 1973), however, found that the hard-core unemployed individuals completing a regular training program prior to entry into work did as well on the job as regular hires. They also found that the trained subjects sought greater on-the-job autonomy and evaluated their supervisors lower than regular employees. Several other studies have shown that completers of training programs generally tend to have better job retention and a higher wage rate than hard-core unemployed persons who do not complete training (Harris & Associates, 1967; Mangum, 1967; Mangum & Walsh, 1973; Thorpe, 1973). Levitan (1969) suggested that training per se may not enrich the trainees so much as it serves as an "aging vat" in which the trainees receive a job and wages until they are ready to cope with the world of work on their own. Gordon and Scott, R., (1972) used a structured interview and alienation scale to identify areas of the trainee's lives which were significantly affected by employement training. Graduates of the training program had a higher spending rate and better housing, read more of the local news, were more likely to be members of unions, community action groups, or civil rights groups than they were to be members of social or recreational groups, attended church more frequently, and were less alienated from society than were non-graduates.

PAGE 47

37 Christensen (1974) matched parolees completing MDTA training with parolees not completing or applying to MDTA training on several criteria Including age, type of crime for which the subject was convicted, educational level, achievement test scores, and parental occupation. He found that the program completers had significantly lower recidivism rates, committed fewer felonies, and had a better employment rate than non-completers . The conclusions drawn from the evaluation studies of manpower programs are less than clear cut. In all studies examined there were no reports of unqualified success in meeting training goals, although most argued that the data suggested at least partial success. However, the evaluators of the programs consistently support them as being beneficial : The conclusions reached by a number of critics of retraining are disheartening. . . . But the expectations must both be seen in perspective. Retraining has three major objectives: (1) short run increases in employment; (2) long-run economic growth; (3) improvement in the welfare and general well-being of the trainees and society. Regardless of the short run deficiencies, there can be little doubt that retraining the unemployed, like the educational process as a whole, is a worthwhile enterprise from the standpoints of the long-run economic growth of the American economy and the general wellbeing of its citizens. (Somers, 1964, pp. 152-153) While the record is mixed, there are significant benefits that should not be overlooked. CETA has provided access to public service jobs to large numbers of minority group members and other disadvantaged persons who might not otherwise have had an opportunity for employment. There are also noneconomic advantages for participants, in terms of improved morale, health, and ability to function in the labor market, that cannot be evaluated by statistics. (Mirengoff & Rindler, 1978, p. 240) Both of the above statements, one from the early years of manpower programs and one from the most recent evaluation of the programs, refer to the intangible, health oriented benefits In an effort to take some

PAGE 48

38 of the sting out of criticisms of poor program performance. However, there have been no studies designed to support these assertions even though several writers and researchers have argued that the planning and effectiveness of training could be significantly improved by research into mental health and other factors associated with employment training (Baron & Bass, A., 1968; Borus & Tash, 1970; Ginzberg, 1966; Sheppard, 1972; Smith, E. , 1977; Tiffany, D., et al., 1970; Work in America , 1973). Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978 Several of the evaluative studies cited above appeared to examine similar variables in employment training but had differing results. These contradictory studies Included examinations of job retention (Quinn et al., cited in Goodman et al., 1973; Roskind, 1975), expectancy theory (Goodman et al., 1973; Gumpper, 1971), and self-esteem (Baron & Bass, A., 1968; Beatty, R. , 1975). One possible explanation for this variation in findings is variation in training programs. Programs funded under CETA and MDTA are frequently different from each other in specific services provided trainees. CETA programs in particular are Intended to vary from program to program to accommodate local labor market requirements. Therefore, the characteristics of the local CETA program participating in this study will be included in the discussion of the overall Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978. CETA is designed to address the needs of several different groups of unemployed persons. The Act was written to allow a degree of responsiveness to local needs and environmental conditions by encouraging local control in the development of administrative procedures and operational structure. The Act does establish general guidelines for all programs and is divided into eight titles. The discussion will

PAGE 49

39 follow the general format of the Act with additional information drawn from the Master Plan of the participating Prime Sponsor (Northeast Florida Employment and Training Consortium, 1979). Title I — Administrative provisions. This Title contains the administrative provisions for the overall operation of employment training programs under the Act. CETA programs are administered by the local governmental agency or agencies which represent a population group of 100,000 persons or more. The administrative body(ies) is(are) called the Prime Sponsor. l,nien the Prime Sponsor consists of two or more governmental agencies working together to represent a population group of 100,000 or more persons they are referred to as a consortium. In the event a region of the state cannot be formed into a Prime Sponsor area (such as counties with less than 100,000 population) the state government serves as the Balance of State Prime Sponsor. The employment training program participating in this study is a consortium composed of three north Florida counties. Also included in this Title are limitations on the time a person may participate in CETA funded activities. The maximum participation period is 30 months with individual programs having special limits: Public Service Employment— 78 weeks. Work Experience--1 ,000 hours, and classroom training-104 weeks of allowances. Limitations are also placed on annual salaries earned by CETA participants while in training. The Title also includes extensive additions and exceptions to these limitations and administration of the program which are not relevant to this discussion of the Act. Title II— Comprehe nsive employment and training services. This Title is divided into four parts. Part A is a general introduction

PAGE 50

40 and statement of purpose for the Title. Parts B and C cover programs for training, education, upgrading and retraining, and supportive services to prepare economically disadvantaged persons for unsubsidized employment. Part D provides for long term employment training for economically disadvantaged, structurally unemployed persons. Part B of Title II provides for supportive services and training in two activities: classroom training and work experience. Classroom training is intended to assist economically disadvantaged persons who do not have employable skills by providing them with the opportunity to attend relevant skill training classes. The major forms of assistance are the payment of an hourly allowance for class attendance and the payment of tuition, fees, and book costs. The employment training program in this study subcontracts classroom training activities to a local junior college and an Opportunity Industrial Center in the area. Classes are offered in programs designed to match the participants' interests and potentials. Typical classes include welding, auto mechanics, auto body work, cashiering, clerical skills, bookkeeping, health care, and the General Education Degree (GED) . There are two types of work experience activities funded under Title II-B: On-the-job training (OJT) and Adult Work Experience (AWE). On-the-job training consists of placing a participant with a private business which provides the participant with job experience and training in job skills under a contractual agreement with the employment training program. The employment training program pays up to 50% of the expense of training the participant and the business provides the balance. The business is expected to hire the participant on a fulltime basis following the contracted training period provided the participant

PAGE 51

41 has demonstrated adequate progress. Adult Work Experience is quite similar to On-the-job training. The major differences are that the participant is placed with a public or private, non-profit agency, the training program provides 100% of the participant's wages (usually the federally established minimum wage), and the training agency is not expected, though encouraged, to hire the participant at the end of training. Adult Work Experience participants usually have fewer skills prior to training than the On-the-job training participants and often require further training following completion of the Adult Work Experience program activities. Title II-C provides for upgrading and retraining programs. The goal of these programs is to help workers who are underemployed and economically disadvantaged or who are about to be laid off and have no expectation of future employment with their current skills. The employment training program participating in this study does not currently offer training under Title II-C. Title II-D provides for Public Service Employment for the economically disadvantaged, structurally unemployed person. Structurally unemployed persons are those who are unable to obtain fulltime employment due to factors inherent in the very fabric and structure of society over which they have no control. These factors include racial or sexual discrimination in hiring practices, limited access to full or quality education, or lack of mobility to the available jobs. Participants in this part often possess the basic skills necessary for the performance of the positions for which they are training. Public Service Employment training consists of placing the participant with a private, non-profit or public agency to perform a normal job function in the agency. The job slot must have a corresponding position in the regular

PAGE 52

42 employment structure of the training agency and the participant is paid a wage comparable to that received by persons in the regular position. Participants under this part are expected to have been unemployed for a longer period of time than participants under part II-B (15 of 20 weeks prior to the application versus seven days) and may train longer (78 weeks versus 1000 hours — 25 weeks). Title II-D also provides for a limited educational program to expand the skill level of the participants similar to the classroom training program. Title II includes provisions for counseling activities as a part of the training process. Within the participating employment program participants under Title II receive regular contact with the employment training program counseling staff. On-the-job training participants do not receive counseling as a part of the training process. The Adult Work Experience participants receive two two-hour counseling-job retention skills training group sessions and two job site visits per month. The Public Service Employment participants receive one two-hour group session and one job site visit per month. The classroom training participants receive one to two hours of group counseling per week from the counselors at the training facility. These contacts are designed to provide training in skills needed to identify, obtain, and retain fulltime unsubsidized employment. These skills include how to relate to a supervisor, what does it feel like to work, what does it mean to be a good employee, keeping regular attendance, personal hygiene, how to cope with stress and anger, and communication skills. The counseling staff also provides crisis intervention in crises on the job site and in the participants' personal life as necessary. All contacts are structured to assist in the completion of training and entry into the world of work.

PAGE 53

43 Title III — Special federal responsibilities. This Title provides for the meeting of special federal responsibilities such as assistance for minorities, Native Americans, displaced homeraakers, and women. The participating Prime Sponsor in this study does not currently provide or subcontract training under this Title. Title IV — Youth programs. This Title provides for a wide range of programs designed to meet the needs of economically disadvantaged youth. Included in these programs are part-time employment opportunities to encourage youth to remain in school or return to school, summer employment, and on-the-job training positions in private businesses. Youth programs are quite similar to the adult programs outlined in Title II-B in general design. There is less pressure on the training agency to employ the youth following training, there is more leeway in inappropriate behavior, fewer of the youth positions are fulltime, and there is more counseling contact with the youth. Title V — National commission for employment policy. This Title creates the National Commission for Employment Policy, formerly the National Commission for Manpower Policy. The Commission acts as an advisory group to the President of the United States in the development of relevant national policy. Title VI — Countercyclical public service employment. This Title provides for a public service employment program to assist persons who have been unemployed for an extended period of time as a result of the cyclical variations in the national economy. The program is quite similar to the Title II-D Public Service Employment program and the employment training program participating in this study has combined Title II-D and Title VI training activities in a common department for administrative purposes. Overall funding for Title VI activities is

PAGE 54

44 tied to the national economy and unemployment rates. There are two types of public service employment training positions funded under Title VI. One type is identical in structure and function to those provided in Title II-D. The other type of positions is a part of a special public works "Project" program. A Title VI Project is an activity sponsored by local community based organizations (CBOs) to accomplish a specific task beneficial to the public. Projects have a maximum operational period of 18 months with an option to extend 18 months. Sponsoring agencies must be public or private, non-profit and assume complete operational and administrative responsibility for the project. The employment training program provides the sponsoring agency with the wages for the participants, screens participants for CETA eligibility, provides counseling and some skill training, and monitors the progress of the project. Projects in the employment training program participating in this study have included area and school beautif ication, development of a minority affairs library, rehabilitation of low-income housing, a Teen theatre program, and general public works. Title VII — Private sector opportunities for the economically disadvantaged. This Title authorizes the creation of the Private Sector Initiative Program (PSIP) and the Private Industry Council (PIC). The PIC is intended to oversee the PSIP and to develop opportunities within the private business community for training and employment activities for the economically disadvantaged population. The PIC and PSIP are mandated for all Prime Sponsors and serve to greatly expand the On-the-job training program and related activities. Title VIII — Young adult conservation corps. This Title provides for training and employment activities for young people from all social and economic backgrounds through work on conservation and other projects

PAGE 55

45 on federal and public lands. As such this is the only program funded under the Act which does not require the participants to be economically disadvantaged or poverty level. The employment training program participating in this study does not currently offer a YACC program. All participants follow the same basic track through the employment training program. The first stage consists of applying to the program and being selected for training. The second stage is the pretraining orientation during which the participants complete relevant paper work and have their Employability Development Plans (EDP) prepared. The EDP is a statement of what training the participants need to achieve an adequate level of employability and identifies how that training will be accomplished. The third stage is the training phase during which the EDP is implemented. While the EDP often specif ies one training program it is possible to include more than one program. As an example, a participant with absolutely no skills may be placed in classroom training followed by a transfer to a Public Service Employment program position to complete their training. The final stage of the training process is job development during which the program assists the participants in finding fulltime unsubsidized employment. Summary This review of research in the area of unemplojrment and work has shown that the role of work and efforts to help the unemployed are basic to the well-being of the individual and society. Without sufficient work opportunities the individual has been shown to experience both economic difficulties and a deterioration of health, family, and psychological well-being. The federal government has recognized this importance and has assumed increased responsiblity for controlling the impact of unemployment upon the individual and society. The strength of

PAGE 56

46 this responsibility Is reflected in the size and scope of the social security, employment service, and manpower programs provided by the government . The primary goal of manpower programs is to insure an adequate manpower pool for the economic structure of the nation and to assist the long-term, economically disadvantaged persons in overcoming blocks to employment and to improve the quality of their lives. Evaluation of manpower programs, however, has not indicated an overwhelming success in achieving the stated goals. In response to criticism generated by these evaluations supporters of manpower programs have consistently referred to the intangible psychological and social benefits of training and employment. Researchers have also indicated a need for the inclusion of psychological factors in planning and evaluation of manpower programs. To date, however, there have been no studies which utilized mental health concepts in an evaluative or planning capacity. Mental Health Three concepts of mental health are reviewed in this section for use in evaluating manpower programs and examining unemployed persons: self-actualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control. Self -Actualization General research. The wide acceptance of Maslow's (1970a) concept of self-actualization as a description of psychological health was followed by a demand for an objective measure of the concept. Shostrom (1974) introduced the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) to meet this demand. The POI was designed and tested as a measure of the values and behaviors related to the development of self-actualization as described by Maslow (Shostrom, 1974). Shostrom reports that the initial normative

PAGE 57

47 studies were done on 2607 college freshmen. The initial validation studies were comparisons of responses from a wide range of samples including: supervisors, student nurses, service organization volunteers, college students, high school students, psychiatric in-patients, delinquent males, alcoholic males, and psychopathic felons. The POI was found to consistently discriminate between the groups in the predicted direction. King (1974) compared the level of self-actualization within 115 married couples. He found no sex differences in self-actualization as measured by the POI, suggesting that self-actualizing subjects may experience a stronger interpersonal attraction for other self-actualizing persons. Olczak and Goldman (1975) examined attitude similarity and interpersonal attraction as moderated by self-actualization among 59 college students. The self-actualizing subjects were more attracted to persons with similar attitudes than were non-self-actualizing subjects. Furthermore, non-self-actualizing subjects were more attracted to subjects with dissimilar attitudes than were self-actualizing subjects. Several studies have examined the impact of the college experience upon levels of self-actualization. Schroeder (1973) compared responses of 278 male and 290 female college freshmen on the POI at the beginning and completion of a school year. He found that the female students had higher levels of self-actualization than the male students and that male and female subjects increased in self-actualization over the course of the school year. Scott, S., (1975) reports that residence hall residents experienced increases in self-actualization more frequently than non-residence hall students. Furthermore, student assistants in the residence halls had higher initial levels of self-actualization and

PAGE 58

48 exhibited greater increases than regular residents. Female student assistants were more self-actualizing than male student assistants. Schroeder and LeMay (1973) compared scores on the POI of students living in coeducational and single-sex residence halls. Students in the coeducational residence halls were found to have higher levels of self-actualization than single-sex halls. Similarly, Brown, R. , Winkworth, and Brascamp (1973) reported that coeducational residence halls were more conducive to increases in self-actualization than singlesex halls. McCleod (1973) studied college students' perceptions of selfactualizing characteristics and behavior as moderated by residential environment. Students in a restrictive environment (fraternity house) viewed the self-actualizing characteristics as being deviant and rejected them more frequently than students in a more open environment (a female residence hall) . Participation in group experiences has been found to have an impact on levels of self-actualization. Gilligan (1973) compared responses on the POI and Omnibus Personality Inventory of selectors and non-selectors of sensitivity training. His comparisons revealed that those who selected the sensitivity training scored higher on the POI scales of Innerdirected support, Existentiality, Spontaneity, and Capacity for Intimate Contact than non-selectors. Similarly, selectors scored higher on the Omnibus Personality Inventory scales of Introversion, Estheticism, Complexity, Autonomy, Religious Orientation, and Impulse expression than non-selectors and lower on Omnibus Personality Inventory scales of Practical Outlook and Masculinity/femininity than non-selectors. Montgomery (1975) found that growth group experiences increased levels of self-actualization among college students without affecting college retention.

PAGE 59

49 Kimball and Gelso (1974) compared shifts in self-actualization and scores on an ego strength scale (Barron, 1953) following participation in a marathon growth group. They found that self-actualization increased following the experience and that ego strength levels were unchanged after the group experience. Furthermore, ego strength was not related to changes in self-actualization even though high ego strength and high self-actualization scores were directly correlated prior to the group experience. Jones, D., and Medvene (1975) clarified the results obtained by Kimball and Gelso with the finding that the low ego strength subjects did not exhibit changes in self-actualization following participation in a marathon group while high ego strength subjects increased in self-actualization following the group experience. Olim (1968) urged parents to avoid using enforced conformity, trivialization, and dehumanizing child-raising practices which would inhibit the child's later development of self-actualization. Hjelle and Smith, G., (1975) compared retrospective reports of child-rearing practices and selfactualization levels among college women. They found subjects reporting parental practices of encouragement, acceptance, psychological autonomy, and lax controls had higher levels of self-actualization than subjects reporting more restrictive child-rearing practices. Rogers, M.,(1970) compared reports of nuclear family interaction patterns and found that greater amounts of family participation during childhood were related to higher levels of self-actualization later in life. Gibb (1967) reported that a retrospective analysis of the characteristics of selfactualizing students revealed that the self-actualizing student most likely was female, from a home where the parents finished high school, from families with one to three children, had a mother who worked on a

PAGE 60

50 fulltime basis, had little or no formal religious training or was not currently involved in an active religious group, graduated from a high school with a graduating class between 101 and 500 students, had spent the first two years of college at a large university, was enrolled in the College of Liberal Arts, had prior work experience but was not currently working, and was engaged in extracurricular activities nine or more hours per week. Maslow (1970b) stated that present day religion was becoming formulistic, restrictive, and hampered the development of self-actualization. Graff and Ladd (1971) compared self-actualization levels and degree of religious commitment among 152 protestant males. They reported a strong inverse relationship between strength of religious commitment and selfactualization levels. Subjects reporting less religious commitment were found to be significantly more self-accepting, spontaneous, accepting of their own aggression, more inner-directed, and less dependent than subjects with a strong religious commitment. Similar studies using a Catholic population (Burke, 1973) and a Methodist population (Anderson, 1973) also indicated that endorsement of the more conservative doctrines of the denomination was related to lower levels of self-actualization. Reynolds (1970) reported similar results in a study of unrelated and progressively more conservative religious groups. Hjelle (1975) and Lee and Piercy (1974) found that among college students the frequency and regularity of church attendance were inversely related to self-actualization levels. Lee and Piercy also identified a sex difference in the results with male subjects attending church regularly having lower levels of self-actualization than females attending church regularly or subjects of either sex who did not attend church on a regular basis.

PAGE 61

51 There have been several studies comparing self-actualization to responses on psychological measures. Vance (1967) found only limited agreement between the POI and the Mental Health Analysis Test and concluded that the two instruments were measuring different dimensions of mental health. Wills (1974) compared the responses of a sample of college males and females on the POI and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. He reported the finding that high self-actualizing males were more open to self-criticism, had a less positive self-concept from a moral-ethical perspective, and generally felt better about themselves than low self-actualizing males. High self-actualizing females were more open to self-criticism, liked themselves better physically, and felt better about their social interactions than low self-actualizing females. Overall, the female subjects were found to be more inner-directed than the male subjects. Wexler (1974) found that self-actualization was positively related to an increased desire for new experiences and creativity. Self-actualizing subjects have also exhibited a more holistic and integrated time sense than non-self-actualizing subjects (Gestinger, 1975). Likewise, Yonge (1975) reported that increased self-actualization was positively related to improved time perspectives and creativity. Foulds and Warehime (1971b) explored the relationship between the concept of emotional repression and sensitization (Byrne, 1961) and selfactualization. They found, contrary to expectations, that there existed a strong, direct relationship between repression of emotions and selfactualization. Ginn (1974) replicated the Foulds and Warehime study and found that defensiveness served to moderate the observed pattern with non-defensive repressors having higher levels of self-actualization than defensive repressors.

PAGE 62

52 Wesch (1971) studied the relationship between self-actualization and anxiety about death and reported an inverse relationship between the two dimensions. deGrace (1974) compared self-actualization and anxiety level. He found that self-actualization was not Incompatible with moderate levels of anxiety. McClain and Andrews (1969) compared reports of peak experiences from 139 college juniors and seniors with their responses on the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, the California F (Authoritarianism) Scale, and the 16 Pf Test. They found that those students reporting peak experiences were significantly more open-minded, assertive, intelligent, tenderminded, forthright, experimenting, self-sufficient, expedient, imaginative, and anti-authoritarian than students reporting no peak experiences, Orraand (1973) compared 140 college students on self-actualization, purpose in life, and dogmatism. He reported a significant inverse relationship between dogmatism and self-actualization or a positive purpose in life. Specific research. While the studies reviewed in the preceding section do not represent an exhaustive review of the research on selfactualization, they are representative of the field. It is important to note that in all but five of these studies the research sample was composed of college students. Four of the five exceptions used religious membership to identify study subjects and one used married couples. Similarly, samples reported in the POl test manual (Shostrom, 1974) were composed of college students, persons functioning well in society, or persons with severe adjustment problems. None of the samples were drawn from populations with identified employment problems.

PAGE 63

53 Lessner and Knapp (1974) compared 40 owners of small businesses on self-actualization and business orientation. The owners were classified on the basis of definitions developed by Smith, N.,(1967). A "craft" orientation referred to persons perceiving and reacting to a limited range of cultural input, narrowness of education, low social awareness, lack of flexibility in dealing with the social and economic environment, and a time sense focused on the past and present. The "merchandising" orientation was related to persons responding to broad social and cultural stimuli, with a broader education, increased social awareness, flexibility, and a present and future time perspective. The results of the study were that merchandising owners were signficantly higher than craft oriented owners on the Inner-directed, Spontaneity, Self-acceptance, and Acceptance of aggression scales of the POI. Ohlbaum (1971) compared self-concepts, values, and self-actualization levels of professional, career, and non-professional women. Professional women were those working in occupations requiring advanced education and career women were those working in occupations not requiring advanced education but which were self-supporting. Non-professional women were those without a self-supporting occupation. She found that, in general, professional and career women had higher levels of self-actualization than the non-professional women. Goldstein (1967) examined differences between 81 mental health clinic outpatients and 77 non-patients on self-actualization, socio-economic status, intelligence, and number of ungratified needs. She concluded that socio-economic status was not a key determinant of mental health while the number of ungratified needs served to predict the degree of mental health. The quality of family life, mental health and self-

PAGE 64

54 actualization were inversely related to the number of ungratified needs. Socio-economic status was related to identification with parents, mood, intelligence, and quality of interpersonal relationships, but not mental health. Reeves and Shearer (1973) examined the relationship between perceived conformity, race, self-concept, and self-actualization. Five groups were compared: members of the Black Student Union, persons who identified themselves as average and conforming, persons identifying themselves as being non-conforming in private while being publicly conforming, persons identifying themselves as being non-conforming both in private and in public, and a general group. All subjects were white with the exception of the Black Student Union subjects. Subjects identifying themselves as being non-conforming, either in public or private, had higher levels of self-actualization than the other three groups. The Black Student Union subjects had lower self-concepts than the other subjects. White (1971) compared 100 college sophomore females on several scales intended to measure self-actualization, locus of control, and alienation from self and society. Subjects with higher levels of selfactualization tended to be more internal in their locus of control and less alienated from self and society than low self-actualizing subjects. Summary . The concept of self-actualization has been widely researched and accepted as a measure of mental health. Research has shown that self-actualization is affected by such factors as sex, family history, size of family, education, and ungratified needs. It is related to interpersonal attraction, liberal value systems, college experiences, lower religious commitment, and sensitivity training. Self-actualization

PAGE 65

55 has also been associated with a liberal (merchandising) business orientation, non-conformance, an internal locus of control, and lower levels of alientation from self and society. Research in the area of self-actualization has been found to have a primary focus on populations which do not have an identified history of employment problems. Psychological Androgyny General research. Early sex-role theory was primarily based upon gender and conceptualized masculine and feminine sex-roles as being inversely related on a single, bi-polar continuum (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974; Roczak, B.,& Roczak, T., 1969). Other theorists have argued that sex-roles are culturally determined rather than biologically determined and were not necessarily inversely related (Holter, 1971; Komorovsky, 1950; Mead, 1950; Staples, 1973). Furthermore, sex-role theorists have argued that the mentally healthy individual is able to engage in both masculine and feminine behaviors regardless of gender and that it is possible to integrate masculinity and femininity (Angrist, 1969; Bem, 1974; Block, 1973; Chafetz, 1974; Maslow, 1970a; Singer, 1976; Spence et al. , 1975). The focus of sex-role research in recent years has been the examination of sex-role development and implications. Sternglanz and Serbin (1974), after eliminating all children's television programs which did not offer male and female characters, found twice as many male as female characters and found that the males were consistently more aggressive, more constructive, and more likely to be rewarded for their behavior than were female characters. Freuh and McGee (1975) identified a strong relationship between strength of traditional sex-role endorsement among children and time spent watching television and that the strength of the relationship increased as the children grew older. McArthur and Eisen

PAGE 66

56 (1976) found that when storybook characters achieved well, children of the same sex were more likely to increase their own achievement efforts. Chafetz (1974) reported that characters and performers in adult movies, books, television shows, and popular songs and song groups tended to be male or male oriented and that the presentation of roles for men and women consistently showed the male role as more competent, more performance oriented, and stronger. There have been numerous studies assessing differences between male and female perceptions of masculinity and femininity. Lunneborg, P., and Lunneborg, C.,(1970) factor analyzed the responses of male and female subjects on items drawn from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory M/F Scale, the Guilford-Martin M Scale, the Gough Fe Scale, and the California Personality Inventory Fe Scale. Eleven factors were found to distinguish women from men: Feminine interests. Rejection of adventure. Emotional sensitivity, Philistine versus artistic interests. Masculine interests. Neurotic symptoms. Self-confidence, Indifference, Social adequacy, Extraversion, and Unsociable non-conformity. Engel (1966) factor analyzed responses on the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Terman-Miles Attitude and Interest Analysis Test, the Gough Fe Scale, and the Frank Drawing Completeness Test. Women were found to score higher than men on the factors: Aversion to mechanical and scientific occupations; Interest in domestic, nurturant, social, and journalistic endeavors; Cultural, aesthetic, and verbal interests; Aversion to detailed work; and Aversion to finance and business math. Stewart and Winter (1974) compared Thematic Apperception Test results of self-defined women planning self-supporting careers and

PAGE 67

57 socially-defined women planning only marriage and family related activity. Self-defined women were signficantly more likely to perceive causality than feelings, see themselves as their own agent, have fathers who were self-employed, have no older brothers, have mothers who worked, and have majors in masculine fields such as law, medicine, or engineering. Women who were socially-defined were more likely to perceive feelings than causality, see themselves as passive, have a father who worked in a bureaucracy and a mother who did not work, have older brothers, and have a feminine major. Helland (1973) found that adolescent boys were more interested in job aspirations and expectations while adolescent girls were more interested in numbers of dates and dating patterns. Banikotes, P., and Banikotes, F., (1972) found that both male and female college students considered liberated women to be more intelligent, less moral, and more aware of current events than other women. Shemberg and Leventhal (1968) found that, on the Edwards Social Desirability Scale, male subjects exhibited a stronger desire to avoid appearing weak than female subjects. Derlega and Chaikin (1976) reported that expressive males and quiet females were seen as less adjusted than quiet males and expressive females, regardless of the sex of the rater. Okman (1973) found that, while there were high levels of agreement between male and female students on the basic content of sex-role descriptions, the males were more likely to use physical and sexual words to describe sex-roles while females were more likely to use emotional and interpersonal words. Garske (1975) found that undergraduates tended to perceive female graduate students as more masculine, than non-college or undergraduate females. McGovern, Ditzian, and Taylor (1975) found

PAGE 68

58 that persons In a helping role perceived male help seekers as strong, brave, leader, dominant, competitive, and happy while female help seekers were perceived as weak, cowardly, attractive, honest, and sad. There have been several studies which asked subjects to complete sex-role instruments for themselves, for their own-sex in general, for the opposite-sex in general, for their own ideal-sex, for the oppositesex ideal-sex, and how the opposite-sex would describe their own idealsex (Lunneborg, P., 1968; McKee & Sherriffs, 1959; O'Leary & Depner, 1975; Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman, I., & Broverman, D., 1968; Steinmann, 1958; Steinmann, Fox, & Farkas, 1968). While there are some minor variations in the instructions and results of these studies, the general conclusions have been consistent: the masculine sex-role related characteristics are significantly different from the feminine sex-role characteristics. A study typical of this body of research (Rosenkrantz et al., 1968) found that the sex-role traits valued in males were active, aggressive, independent, unemotional, dominant, competitive, logical, worldly, direct, adventuresome, and self-confident. Female valued traits were described as talkative, tactful, gentle, aware of others' feelings, religious, quiet, and neat. Furthermore, all of these studies have found that the masculine traits are more socially desirable than the feminine traits . Several studies have examined attitudes associated with traditional sex-roles. Ellis and Bentler (1973) analyzed responses on the Sex-Role Stereotype Questionnaire developed by Rosenkrantz et al. (1968) and the Bentler Psychological Inventory. They found that endorsement of traditional sex-role stereotypes increased as the self-perceptions of male and female subjects deviated from their perceptions of the opposite sex. They also found that disapproval of the traditional sex-roles among both

PAGE 69

59 male and female subjects was associated with liberal, extra-legal, nonreligious, and low status-seeking values. Among the female subjects the rejection of traditional sex-roles was also associated with increased intelligence. Dunbar, Brown, M. , and Amoroso (1973) found that strong endorsement of conservative sex-roles among male subjects was directly correlated with strong anti-homosexual attitudes, feelings of personal sex-guilt, rejection of many heterosexual sex-practices, and rejection of any male who did not adhere to their more constricted definition of male appropriate behavior. Langston (1975) found that females generally had stronger feelings of sex-guilt and that more of their behavior was motivated by sex-guilt. Furthermore, conservative behavior patterns, e.g., assertiveness in males and passivity in females, were associated with elevated levels of sex-guilt. Morado (1973) and Woudenberg (1973) both found that sexist attitudes and conservative sexual behavior were strongly associated with racism, high valuation of material goods, sexguilt, depersonalization of sex, and an emphasis on personal and social control of sexual expression. There have been several studies which assessed perceptions of sexroles and mental health (Broverman, I., Vogel, Broverman, D., Clarkson, & Rosenkrantz, 1972; Ginn, 1975; Heilbrun, A., 1968; Kravetz, 1976; Maslin & Davis, 1975; Zeldow, 1976). These studies have consistently demonstrated the same conclusions: that masculine sex-role traits are considered more desirable and healthier by society than feminine sex-role characteristics. As an example, Broverman, I.,et al. (1972) asked male and female mental health professionals to describe the healthy male, the healthy female, and the healthy adult. The responses were extremely consistent with

PAGE 70

60 male and female professionals agreeing that the characteristics of the healthy male and the healthy adult were quite similar and that the healthy female was quite different. In general, the research has indicated that as long as the bi-polar, single dimension definition of masculine and feminine sex-roles is used it is not possible for females to behave in a healthy female and healthy adult manner at the same time. The concept of psychological androgyny was introduced in response to these findings. Bem (1974) based the development of the Bem SexRole Inventory on two assumptions: (A) Largely as a result of historical accident, the culture has clustered a quite heterogeneous collection of attributes into two mutually exclusive categories, each category considered more characteristic and more desirable for one or the other of the two sexes. These cultural expectations and prescriptions are well known by virtually all members of the culture. (B) Individuals differ from one another in the extent to which they utilize these cultural definitions as idealized standards of femininity and masculinity against which their own personality and behavior are to be evaluated. (Bem, 1979, p. 1048) The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was designed to measure the strength with which the individual endorsed socially desirable masculine and feminine traits. These traits have been judged to be significantly more desirable for one or the other sex. An individual endorsing an equal number of masculine and feminine items was defined as psychologically androgynous. In response to comments from Spence et al. (1975), this definition was later modified to define an androgynous individual as one endorsing an equal and high number of masculine and feminine items (Bem, 1977). Other instruments introduced to measure psychological androgyny are the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence et al., 1975), a scale adapted for use with the Personal Research Form (Berzins, Welling, & Wetter, 1978), and a subscale for the Adjective Checklist (Heilbrun, A. , 1976).

PAGE 71

61 General research on psychological androgyny has found that the androgynous individual is not influenced as strongly as non-androgynous individuals by traditional sex-role stereotypes and expectations. Bern (1975) compared masculine and feminine sex-typed subjects with androgynous subjects in tests of willingness to engage in acts of independence and nurturance. She found that masculine sex-typed and androgynous subjects freely engaged in the independence activity more frequently than the feminine sex-typed subjects. Feminine sex-typed and androgynous subjects engaged more freely in the nurturance activity than the masculine sextyped subjects. She also found that feminine females hesitated in engaging in the nurturance activity of playing with a kitten. This hesitation was found to disappear when the nurturant activity was helping a human (Bem, Martyna, & Watson, 1976). The relationship between sextyping and willingness to engage in same-sex or cross-sex behavior has been consistently replicated (Bem & Lenney, 1976; Kelly et al., 1977; Spence et al., 1975; Wiggins & Holzmuller, 1978). Kelly and Worrell, L., (1976), in a study similar to that done by Hjelle and Smith, G., (1975), identified a strong relationship between parental childrearing practices and psychological androgyny. They found that subjects reporting parental practices encouraging non-traditional behavior in the child, e.g., emotional sensitivity among boys and achievement among girls, exhibited a greater incidence of androgyny than subjects reporting parental encouragement of the more traditional patterns. Specific research . Several studies have found that there exists a strong positive relationship between freedom from restrictive sex-role stereotypes and psychological health (Bem, 1974; Broverman, I., Broverman,

PAGE 72

62 D., Clarkson, Rosenkrantz, & Vogel, 1970; Chafetz, 1974; Heilbrun, C, 1973; Rosenkrantz et al., 1968). Spence et al. (1975) and O'Conner, Mann, and Bardwick (1978) compared responses on the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and a social self-esteem instrument. Androgynous subjects exhibited higher levels of self-esteem than sex-typed or undifferentiated subjects. Gump (1972) reported a strong inverse relationship between strength of traditional sex-role attitudes and ego strength. The relationship between psychological androgyny and psychological adjustment is not, however, clear cut. In recent literature reviews Kelly and Worrell, J., (1977) and Worrell, J., (1978) identified patterns in the research suggesting that the development of androgyny may have dramatically different implications for males and females. The process of developing sex-role flexibility may mean making qualitatively different decisions and adjustments for men and women. The social pressures and consequences against women engaging in masculine behavior, even when situatlonally appropriate, appear to be stronger than those associated with males engaging in feminine behavior. Bern (1977), for example, in an exploration of the median split sex-type classification method proposed by Spence et al. (1975), found that self-esteem among female subjects was related to high scores in both the masculine and feminine dimensions while high self-esteem among the male subjects was related only to high scores in the masculine dimension. She also found a direct correlation between masculine males and conservative scores on the Spence and Helmreich (1972) Attitudes Toward Women Scale. No significant correlations were obtained between the BSRI and the Internal-External Scale (Rotter, 1966), the Attitudes Towards Problem-Solving Scale (Carey, 1958),

PAGE 73

63 the Mack IV Scale (Christie & Geis, 1970), or the Self-disclosure Scale developed by Jourard (1971) . Deutsch and Gilbert (1976) compared scores on the Bell Adjustment Inventory with descriptions of perceived-self sex-role, ideal-self sexrole, ideal-self sex-role for the opposite sex, and the opposite sex's description of own-sex ideal-self sex-role. They found that masculine males scored higher on the adjustment instrument than androgynous males while feminine females scored lower on the adjustment inventory than the androgynous females. Furthermore, while the male descriptions of the various sex-roles tended to agree with each other regardless of the sexrole being described, the female descriptions showed a wide divergence between perceived-self sex-role, ideal-self sex-role, and perceptions of how males perceived the female ideal-self sex-role. They concluded that, at least in terms of social utility and effectiveness, the masculine sextype was more desirable than the feminine sex-type, with androgyny somewhere between the two. Wiggins and Holzmuller (1978) compared male and female subjects on responses to an extensive interpersonal interaction questionnaire which included an androgyny scale. They identified eight basic dimensions of interpersonal behavior: dominant-ambitious, arrogant-calculating, lazysubmissive, cold-quarrlesome, aloof -introverted, unassuming-igenious, warm-agreeable, and gregarious-extraverted. Each subject had a profile based upon their composite scores in each dimension. It was found that each sex-type group had unique profile patterns, suggesting that the different sex-types were associated with different interpersonal styles. Furthermore, the androgynous males had a relatively flat profile, while the androgynous females exhibited a profile which was a mirror image of the

PAGE 74

64 female feminine sex-type subjects' profile. Wakefield, Sasek, Friedman, and Bowden (1976) found that high masculinity scores on the MMPI M/F Scale and the Omnibus Personality Inventory were positively correlated with androgyny while high femininity scores were not correlated with androgyny. Jones, W. , Chernovetz, and Hansson (1979) conducted a study in which they compared responses of 1404 college students on the BSRI and instruments measuring adjustment, including the Women's Liberation and Attitudes Scale, the Internal-External Scale, tests of neuroses, alcoholism, political awareness, and a self-report history. They concluded: The most succinct description of the present findings is that the more adaptive and flexible, unconventional, and competent patterns of responding occurred among the more masculine subjects independent of gender.... In one regard this is not surprising, since the items that comprise the masculinity subscale have the underlying commonality of being instrumental in nature, that is, the ability to effectively and efficiently accomplish objectives. Similarly, most of the vairables examined involved stereotypically masculine endeavors. (p. 311) The instrumental-expressive dimension noted by Jones, W., et al. (1979) has been further established in several factor analytic studies of the BSRI. These studies have consistently identified three, and occasionally four, factors using a wide range of populations: 253 male amd female industrial workers, 36 police officers, and 36 unemployed housewives (Gaudreau, 1977); 419 undergraduate and 121 graduate students (Gross, Batlis, Small, & Erdwins, 1979); and 1464 graduate students (Pedhazur & Tetenbaura, 1979). These factors were most commonly labelled as: Emotional and Interpersonal Sensitivity, consisting of items drawn from the Femininity scale and the Social Desirability scale of the BSRI; Assertiveness, consisting of items drawn from the BSRI Masculinity

PAGE 75

65 scale; Self-sufficiency, consisting of items from the Masculinity scale; and Gender, consisting of the two items — "masculine" and "feminine." Bem (1979) notes that these factors are not inconsistent with the theoretical foundations of the concept of androgyny and that the only factor not predicted by the theory was the Gender factor. Studies examining the relationship between psychological androgyny and self-actualization, however, have had unambiguous results. Nevill (1977) compared responses of a socially stratified sample on the POI, the BSRI, and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The androgynous subjects scored higher on the POI and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale than did the sex-typed subjects. Similarly, Cristall and Dean (1976), Ott (1976), and Pettus (1976) compared responses of college students on the BSRI, the POI, and measures of anxiety, sex-role attitudes, and intelligence. All three studies demonstrated a direct relationship between self-actualization and androgyny. Other results included a positive relationship between androgyny and an internal locus of control (Ott, 1976) and between androgyny and low anxiety and non-traditional sex-role attitudes (Pettus, 1976). No significant relationships were identified between intelligence or social desirability and androgyny (Pettus, 1976). In a study of liberal and conservative female responses on the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the POI, Hjelle and Butterfield (1974) concluded: The results of this study convincingly indicate that college age females holding pro-feminist (liberal) attitudes vis-a-vis their social and sexual roles exhibit a markedly higher level of personal growth than their peer counterparts expressing tradition bound attitudes. Specifically, these findings suggest that pro-feminist subjects perceive themselves as relying more confidently upon their own internal norms without seeking constant support from others for self-validation. (p. 229)

PAGE 76

66 Sex-role definitions have been found to associate masculine sexrole behavior with an internal locus of control and feminine sex-role behavior with an external orientation. House (1974) found that female subjects tended to avoid an appearance of competition and were externally oriented while male subjects activitely engaged in competition and had an internal orientation. Hochreich (1975) found that, although the male ideal-self descriptions among college students were internally oriented and female ideal-self descriptions were externally oriented, perceivedself descriptions were not significantly different on the locus of control dimension. She concluded that, while there existed clear stereotypes which were markedly different in locus of control, the subjects did not uniformly adhere to them on a day-to-day basis. Research on relationships between sex-roles and vocational choices has focused on the impact of traditional sex-role endorsement on female vocational choices. Altman (1975) found that the mother's occupational history and satisfaction with the work significantly influenced the subject's adult life choices. If the mother did not work then her satisfaction with the housewife role influenced the subject's willingness to assume that role during her adult life. Darley (1976) argued that the vocational choices open to females are usually limited by societal pressures. As noted above, Stewart and Winter (1974) found that selfdefined women were more likely to engage in masculine occupations while socially-defined women were more likely to pursue feminine occupations. Vogel, Rosenkrantz, Broverman, I., Broverman, D. , and Clarkson (1975) found that non-traditional sex-role orientations were directly related to a desire for more education, fewer children (if any), and pursuit of a vocation, even if there were children.

PAGE 77

67 Moreland, Harren, Krimsky-Montague, and Tinsley (1979) compared male and female college student responses on the BSRI and the Harren Assessment of Career Decision Making. They found that among men and women, the androgynous subjects were more developed in their college major and occupational choices and were more rational in their career decision making processes than were the sex-typed subjects. Summary . Several observations may be drawn from the literature on sex-roles and psychological androgyny discussed in this section. First, there exist culturally accepted stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. Second, the masculine stereotype is identified as the most socially desirable and mentally healthy of the two sex-roles. Third, strict adherence to these sex-roles has been found to be associated with increased incidence of sex-guilt, racism, authoritarianism, and dogmatism. Fourth, work and vocational choices are influenced by sex-role orientation and working has traditionally been considered a masculine activity. Fifth, psychological androgyny appears to describe a blending of the more desirable characteristics of both sex-roles. Sixth, androgyny has been strongly associated with self-actualization while masculinity has been associated with social adjustment. Seventh, the Bem Sex-Role Inventory has been found to consist of three major factors which serve to consistently discriminate between persons who have developed a level of sex-role flexibility and those endorsing the more traditional sex-roles. Finally, as with research on self-actualization, androgyny has yet to be applied on an in-depth basis to persons with employment problems, or persons outside of the college environment (Bem, 1979; Locksley and Colton, 1979).

PAGE 78

68 Locus of Control General research. Rotter, Chance, and Phares (1972) identified as their principal unit of investigation in the development of the Social Learning Theory the interaction between the individual and the environment. They focused on learned behavior, postulating that the person's prior experiences influence what is learned from subsequent experiences. One of the key concepts identified as predicting behavior in any given situation was the expectancy, based upon prior experiences, that one's behavior might have an impact on the outcome of the situation. If the individual believed that he/she could have an impact on his/her environment and acted as if this were the case, then the person was defined as having an internal locus of control. Conversely, an external locus of control referred to the belief that one is subject to external forces and is unable to exert control over the environment. The Internal-External Scale was introduced by Rotter (1966) as an instrument to assess the locus of control orientation of the individual. This scale has been used to study the relationship between locus of control and many different elements in the personality. Adams-Weber (1969) found that subjects with an internal orientation were more likely to view punishment as an appropriate consequence of an "immoral act" than external subjects. Phares (1965) found that internally oriented students were able to exert a greater amount of influence on the opinions of mid-range (neither internal or external) students than were externally oriented students. Several studies have examined differences in degrees of willingness to work at a difficult task. They have found that when the possibility of success at a difficult task was presented as contingent upon the

PAGE 79

69 skill and effort applied by the subject, internally oriented subjects attempted the task with significantly higher levels of energy and diligence than externally oriented subjects (Cohen, Rothbart, & Phillips, 1976; Newmanm 1977; Phares, 1957; Rotter & Mulray, 1965). Similarly, internally oriented subjects were found to prefer a greater number of internally controlled social activities than the externally oriented subjects (Clark, 1976). An internal locus of control has been found to be a characteristic of individuals engaging in, or committing to engage in, voluntary action. Gore and Rotter (1963) found that internally oriented black students were more likely to commit to anti-racism activities than were externally oriented black students. Strickland (1965), in a follow-up study to the Gore and Rotter study, found that members of civil rights groups were more internally oriented than members of non-activist groups. Kinder (1976), while finding no differences in orientation between students who volunteered to participate in psychological experiments, found that the internally oriented subjects were more likely to actually complete the experiment than were the externally oriented volunteers. Bryant, B., and Trockel (1976), in a study similar to the Hjelle and Smith, G., (1975) and Kelly and Worrell, L., (1976) studies, examined the effects of early childhood history upon the locus of control orientations of college women. Externally oriented women were found to recall a higher frequency of dramatic life changes during their early childhood years than recalled by internally oriented women. Conversely, internally oriented women were found to recall the greatest frequency of their stressful life changes during their high school years.

PAGE 80

70 Specific research. Several studies have examined the relationship between locus of control and psychological adjustment. A series of studies used the concept of locus of control as a measure of alienation or perceived powerlessness (Seeman, 1959, 1963, 1972; Seeman & Evans, 1962). Seeman (1959) defined alienation as "the expectancy or probability held by the individual that his own behavior cannot determine the outcomes or reinforcements he seeks" (p. 784). He foind that subjects who were institutionalized for health reasons (Seeman & Evans, 1962) or for legal reasons (Seeman, 1963) were less likely to seek and use accurate information pertaining to their status in the institution if they were alienated or perceived themselves as having no control. Seeman (1972) concluded that the powerless individual would be less likely to engage in organizations which increase control over the environment (e.g., labor unions), less likely to engage in planned action, more likely to engage in short-term, unplanned protests (e.g., walk off the job when angry with the supervisor), less likely to learn control relevant information about the environment , and more likely to feel alienated if a member of a minority group. Efran (cited in Rotter, 1966) found that internal high school students were more likely to repress failure experiences. Butterfield (1964) found that internal subjects were less likely to experience debilitating anxiety in test situations. Shybut (1968) reported that the more disturbed psychiatric patients in a hospital setting were more external and tended to have a shortened time sense. Externally oriented students exhibited a higher suicide potential than internally oriented students, especially among the female subjects (Williams, C.,& Nickels, 1969). Wolk (1976) reported that residents of low constraint (open-

PAGE 81

71 entry, open-exit) retirement communities were more internally oriented than residents of high constraint (nursing home) environments. Finally, Chandler (1976) found that externally oriented students had lower selfconcepts, lower self-acceptance, and higher perceived-self ideal-self discrepancies than internally oriented students. Studies comparing locus of control and self-actualization are few in number. Wall (1970) failed to find a significant relationship between the POX Inner-directed scale and the Internal-External Scale, although positive correlations were obtained between an internal locus of control and the POI Self-regard, Self-acceptance, and Nature of Man scales. Bass, B.,and Stek (1972), however, failed to find any significant correlations between the POI and locus of control measures. Lambert et al. (1976) factor analyzed college student responses on the Internal-External Scale, the POI, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and Kohlberg's Scale of Social Problems. They identified three major factors: Mental health and effective living consisting of items from the POI, Internalized values and principles of justice consisting of items from the POI and Kohlberg's Scale of Social Problems, and Locus of control consisting of Internal-External Scale items. They concluded that while there were several strong correlations among the different instruments, they appeared to measure different elements of mental health and the substitution of one instrument for another would result in a loss of information. In addition to the studies of the relationship between locus of control and sex-roles discussed in the preceding section, two other studies warrant comment. Fox, L.,(1976) compared responses of black and white freshmen women on a sex-role scale and the Internal-External Scale. She found no significant differences in locus of control by race or sex

PAGE 82

72 and suggested that a wider age range would reveal sex-role and racial differences in locus of control. Foster (1975) compared responses of subjects ranging in age from 20 to 40 years or more on the InternalExternal Scale, the Manifest Anxiety Scale, and a sex-role attitude inventory. She found that an internal orientation was significantly related to a lower anxiety level and a strong endorsement of masculine attitudes. Research has demonstrated a strong relationship between race and locus of control. Battle and Rotter (1963) compared black and white students in the sixth and eighth grades from upper and lower socio-economic brackets of both sexes. They found that the black students were more externally oriented than the white students and that the lowerclass blacks with high intelligence were more externally oriented than middle-class students of either race. Lefcourt and Ladwig (1965) using the Powerlessness Scale (Dean, 1961) compared locus of control among black and white prisoners matched for age, socio-economic background, intelligence, and reason for Incarceration and found that the black prisoners were more external than the white prisoners. Lefton (1968) found that among auto workers from high and low pay categories increased pay was associated with decreased feelings of anomie and increases in internal orientation. He also found that among the high pay group the black workers were more external and had higher anomie scores than the white workers. Hall, Joesting, and Woods (1977) studied students from predominantly black and white universities and found evidence to suggest that there existed a sense of powerlessness against a hostile environment among the black and female subjects.

PAGE 83

73 Gurin, P., Gurin, G., Lao, and Beattie (1969) factor analyzed responses on an extended locus of control instrument administered to a black population. They found that subjects with higher job aspirations or achievements were more external in orientation than the subjects with lower aspirations. Further analysis of the data identified a "blame the system" pattern among the more achievement oriented subjects: To summarize, our results indicate that when internal-external control refers to Negroes' conceptions of causes for their condition as Negroes, and these conceptions are related to more innovative coping criteria, it is the external rather than the internal orientation which is associated with the more effective behaviors. When an internal orientation implies self-blame as a Negro, it also seems to involve a readiness to accept traditional restraints on Negro behavior, (p. ^7). Locus of control has been studied with relation to work more extensively than the other mental health concepts being considered in this study. Hartley (1976) reported that among college officials an internal locus of control was significantly related to increases in reported job satisfaction. Andrisani and Nestel (1976), in a longitudinal study, found that internally oriented subjects were more likely to have had higher occupational achievement, higher hourlv earnings, higher levels of job satisfaction, higher achievement of occupational status, and higher increases in annual earnings than subjects with an external locus of control. Internally oriented subjects were also more likely to have re-entered the labor force if they had left it than were externally oriented subjects. Kimmons and Greenhaus (1976) reported trends towards positive correlations between an internal locus of control and the likelihood of reporting job satisfaction when autonomy, job feedback, performance rewards, and work involvement were present in the work situation regardless of gender. Oldham (1976) found a direct relationship

PAGE 84

74 between internality and an increased expenditure of effort in work, a desire for growth in work, and supervisory and co-worker satisfaction with the quality of the subjects' work performance. Locus of control has also been related to socio-economic status. Levinson, P., (1964) found that welfare recipients expressed evidence of alienation, feelings of resignation, helplessness, pessimism, passivity, and an inability to mobilize themselves to take corrective action. Battle and Rotter (1963), as noted earlier, identified a pattern of lower-class blacks with high intelligence being more externally oriented than middle-class subjects of either race. Franklin (cited in Rotter, 1966), using a nationally stratified high school sample, found a direct relationship between more internal scores and higher socio-economic class. Crandall, V. C, Katkovsky, and Crandall, V. J., (1965) reported that age, size of family, and ordinal position in the family served to predict internality better than socio-economic status. They found that older subjects had higher internality scores, with females scoring higher than males, and that children of smaller families, or the first born child, had higher internality scores. Summary . In general, an internal locus of control has been shown to be associated with more effective functioning. Individuals with an internal orientation have been found to be more adaptive to unusual and threatening situations and better able to obtain and utilize control relevant information about the environment. Internal locus of control has been associated with improved psychological functioning, a more openmind, non-traditional sex-role values and perceptions, childhood stress experiences during high school years rather than earlier, smaller family size, being first born, sex, and age. Blacks tend to be more external than whites though among achievement oriented blacks this indicates an

PAGE 85

75 improved ability to succeed while an internal orientation has been associated with a willingness to accept the status quo of racial inequality. Summary The literature reviewed in this chapter permits several observations. As regards the concept of work, working is clearly significant to those who work, providing them not only with an income for survival but also with self-definition and meaning to life. Lack of satisfaction on the job has been shown to result in lower self-esteem and a general dissatisfaction with life. Job satisfaction has been seen to be based not only on monetary factors but more importantly upon the worker's sense of work involvement and the psychological rewards and social acceptance derived from the work setting. Persons without work for extended periods of time have been found to have an increased incidence of mental illness. Evidence was found to suggest that it may be possible to develop other sources of self-esteem and psychological well-being outside of the work setting. Manpower programs have been designed to address the problems of unemployment in an effort to both help the unemployed persons and meet the nation's manpower needs. National manpower programs have not, however, been adequately evaluated in terms of the psychological impact of training. The unemployed population has not been evaluated in an in-depth manner on the basis of mental health measures of self-actualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control. Self-actualization is a basic indicator of mental health, providing a measure of overall psychological adjustment and growth towards mental health. Psychological androgyny is a concept of sex-role flexibility resulting from the

PAGE 86

76 integration of the masculine and feminine sex-roles. Locus of control is a measure of the individual's beliefs about his/her ability to affect the outcomes and reinforcements of a situation. Overall these concepts have been seen to be affected by such factors as age, race, family position, sex, religious affiliation, socio-economic status, and criminal or psychiatric records. Together these three concepts serve to describe mental health for the purposes of evaluating the mental health characteristics of unemployed persons.

PAGE 87

CHAPTER III PROCEDURES Overview This study was designed to examine the mental health characteristics of long-term unemployed persons and to investigate the effects of employment training on these mental health characteristics. This study was accomplished through the performance of four comparisons of subjects drawn from the clientele of an emplojrment training program in north Florida funded under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978. The dependent variables on which these comparisons were made were three measures of mental health: the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI), and the Internal-External Scale (lES). Also used in the comparison of subjects and subject groups were seven independent variables consisting of the demographic characteristics: age, sex, race, education, religious affiliation, family history,, and length of unemployment prior to beginning the employment training program. The first comparison was on the basis of training status of the subjects. Group 1 (Intake) was composed of all clients of the employment training program beginning training during the months of April and May, 1980, in either the Adult Work Experience or Public Service Employment programs. Group 2 (Training) was composed of all clients of the employment training program who had completed four months of training 77

PAGE 88

78 during the months of April and May, 1980, in either the Adult Work Experience or the Public Service Employment programs. The second comparison consisted of comparing subjects on the basis of the component or program in which they were participating. Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) was composed of all subjects, regardless of training status, participating in this study and receiving training in activities funded under the Adult Work Experience section of Title II-B of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978. Program 2 (Public Service Employment) was composed of all subjects participating in this study and receiving training in activities funded under Title II-D or Title VI of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978 regardless of the subjects' training status. The third comparison of this study was an examination of the variance in the scores of the subjects in this study on each of the dependent mental health measures. The scores of the Combined Group on each of the mental health measures was tested for a significant relationship with the independent demographic variables. The final comparison consisted of comparing the mean scores of the Combined Group on each of the mental health measures with the mean scores of subjects reported in selected validation studies for each of the mental health measures. Hypotheses Based upon the research questions and the literature the following hypotheses were developed for examination in this study: Hypothesis 1. No differences exist in self-actualization characteristics as a result of training in the CETA Adult Work Experience program and the CETA Public Service Employment program between Intake subjects

PAGE 89

79 just beginning training (Group 1) and Training subjects who have completed four months of training (Group 2) as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory. Hypothesis 2. No differences exist in psychological androgyny characteristics as a result of training in the CETA Adult Work Experience program and in the CETA Public Service Employment program between Group 1 subjects and Group 2 subjects as measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory. Hypothesis 3. No differences exist in locus of control as a result of training in the CETA Adult Work Experience program and the CETA Public Service Employment program between Group 1 subjects and Group 2 subjects as measured by the Internal-External Scale. Hypothesis 4. No differences exist between subjects in Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) and subjects in Program 2 (Public Service Employment) in self-actualization as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory. Hypothesis 5. No differences exist between Program 1 subjects and Program 2 subjects in psychological androgyny as measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory. Hypothesis 6. No differences exist between Program 1 subjects and Program 2 subjects in locus of control as measured by the InternalExternal Scale. Hypothesis 7. No relationships exist between variance in selfactualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control characteristics of the combined subject groups and the independent demographic characteristics of age, sex, race, education, religious affiliation, family history, and length of unemployment prior to participation in employment training.

PAGE 90

80 Subjects Subjects for this study were drawn from the clientele of an employment training program in northern Florida funded under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978. All subjects beginning training in either the Adult Work Experience or Public Service Employment programs during the months of April and May, 1980, were invited to participate in this study as a part of the Intake group (Group 1). None of the subjects declined to participate. Of the 113 possible subjects tested for inclusion in Group 1, six were eliminated due to improperly completed test packages and eleven were eliminated as a result of matching the Intake and Training groups on the independent variable of education. The final Group 1 was composed of 96 subjects (31 males, 65 females). All subjects were tested during the second half of their pre-training orientation. All employment training program clients beginning training during the months of December, 1979, and January, 1980, and therefore completing four months of training during the months of April and May, 1980, were invited to participate in the study as a part of the Training group (Group 2) . Approximately 160 clients were invited to attend the testing sessions. Of the 135 possible subjects attending the testing sessions for inclusion in Group 2, six declined to participate and returned to work, ten were subsequently eliminated due to improperly completed test packages, and Ik were eliminated as a result of matching the Intake and Training groups on the independent variable of education. The final Group 2 was composed of 95 subjects (30 males, 65 females). All subjects were tested during a special testing session organized by the employment training program staff for this purpose during the two weeks following the completion of the subject's fourth month of training.

PAGE 91

81 Of the total 191 subjects in this study, 69 were participating in Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) , eight of whom were males and 61 of whom were females. Program 2 (Public Service Employment) contained the remaining 122 subjects (53 males, 69 females). The final cell size distribution of the subjects is presented in Table 1 below. Table 1 Cell Size of Comparison Groups Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) Program 2 (Public Service Employment) Total Group 1 (Intake) 35 61 96 Group 2 (Training) 34 61 95 Total 69 122 191 Group 1 (Intake) All CETA participants complete the application process prior to beginning the pre-training orientation. This process includes filling out the CETA application, assessment of basic skill levels, participating in a vocational assessment to identify vocational interests and goals, and selection to a CETA employment training program. The person moves from applicant status to CETA participant status and begins to receive a wage for time spent in training activities at the beginning of pretraining orientation. Pre-training orientation consists of completion of all personnel and payroll paperwork necessary for participation in training, explanation of the rules and regulations governing participation in CETA employment training, assignment to a training job site, development of the clients' Employability Development Plan (EDP) , and

PAGE 92

82 discussion of job relevant attitudes such as punctuality, personal hygiene and appearance, and employer-employee relations. The EDP is a plan detailing the training goals of the client based upon his/her interests, potentials, and needs. The EDP identifies the training program(s) in which the client will participate to achieve these training goals. Pre-training orientation requires six to eight hours to complete. Group 2 (Training) CETA training follows completion of the pre-training orientation. The training provided in both Program 1 and Program 2 is quite similar consisting of placing the participant in a job slot at a public or private, non-prof it agency. The job slot must be identical to regular positions in the agency in all respects except that the salary is paid by CETA. Training is provided in job performance skills and job retention skills by the job site supervisor and the CETA counselor. Job performance training is provided, for the most part, by the job site supervisor. I'Jhile in training the CETA participant performs a regular job function at the job site. The job site supervisor provides the CETA participant with instructions in the proper performance of job duties and corrects the participant's work until mastery of the job skills is achieved. The skills trained will vary across training slots. Typical training slots will include clerical work, playground supervision, traffic management and parking meter monitoring, carpentry, grounds maintenance, Sunland Cottage Parent, child care aide, or supply clerk. The counselor is involved in job skills training only as required to mediate in differences of opinion between the participant and the job site supervisor. Job retention training is provided for the most part by the CETA counselor. Job retention skills include all factors involved in the

PAGE 93

83 identification, acquisition, and retention of full-time employment. Some of these skills are knowing where to look for an employment position, how to complete an application, good Interview techniques, proper dress and personal appearance for a job, proper employer-employee relations, punctuality and attendance, and peer relations. The CETA counselor also provides training in life skills such as preparation and management of a budget, planning a healthy diet, personal medical attention, personal hygiene, and how to resolve family problems. Training in these skill areas is provided in group sessions and during job site visits by the counselor. Program 1 participants receive group training sessions twice a month and are visited on the job site by the counselor twice a month. Program 2 participants receive group sessions and job site visits once a month. Group sessions are usually two hours in duration and job site visits vary from 15 to 60 minutes. The job site supervisor is involved in the training of these skills only through the identification of the specific job retention skills required by the training agency. CETA counselors in both Program 1 and Program 2 provide the CETA participants with limited personal-social adjustment counseling. Most of this counseling is situation specific, designed to correct a personal problem which is causing difficulties on the job site. This type of counseling is usually done in conjunction with the job site supervisor in a three-way conference to identify the problem as it pertains to the work setting. Individual counseling topics will include resolution of personal problems which are being carried onto the worksite and problems between members of the worksite. The counselor also engages in a continual review and update of the client's EDP to monitor client progress towards training completion and to adjust the EDP to changes in the client's interests and needs. The CETA counselor will also provide

PAGE 94

84 group counseling as needed to address problems cominon to all members of the training group as a part of the job retention group training sessions. Personal-social problems requiring extended counseling are referred to a fulltime counseling staff subcontracted by the employment training program. Program 1 versus Program 2 The intake and training phases of Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) and Program 2 (Public Service Employment) are quite similar. The basic structure of both programs was described in the preceding chapter. There are, however, a few between program differences which can be identified. First, examination of the eligibility criteria for participation in the two programs (Appendix A) reveals that Program 1 participants are required to be unemployed for a much shorter time period than Program 2 participants. Program I requires a one week unemployment period while Program 2 requires 10 of 12 weeks (Title VI) or 15 of 20 weeks (Title II-B) of unemployment. Second, Program 1 is designed for persons unable to obtain employment due to a lack of most basic employability skills. Program 2 is designed for persons who possess the basic skills required for employment but who are unable to obtain employment due to conditions beyond their control. Third, participants in Program 1 receive a basic training wage while Program 2 participants receive a salary equivalent to persons performing similar job functions. Finally, participants in Program 1 may train for a maximum of 25 weeks at 40 hours per week while participants in Program 2 may participate in training activities for a maximum of 78 weeks.

PAGE 95

85 Taken together, these differences between Program 1 and Program 2 serve to identify the basic difference in the intent of the two programs. Both programs are designed to assist participants in the acquisition of skills and attitudes necessary for the performance of fulltime employment. This is accomplished by placing the participants in a job slot at a training agency for training in the performance of that job. The basic difference is that Program 1 is intended to be a basic skills training program while Program 2 is intended to more nearly approximate a typical job. Research Design The primary comparison in this study between Group 1 (Intake) and Group 2 (Training) was performed utilizing a modified form of the quasi-experimental separate-sample, pretest-posttest design described by Campbell and Stanley (1966) : Pretest R (X) Posttest R X R = Random assignment of subjects to the preand posttest conditions. = Observation/data collection. X = Treatment received by subjects. (X) = Treatment received by subjects but not affecting the data collected since it occurs after the data is collected for that group, (pp. 53-54) Modifications In the basic design were necessitated by the projected low average monthly intake rate for both programs. The intake rate for Program 1 was estimated at 10-15 new participants per month and estimated at 15-20 new participants per month in Program 2. In order to achieve a reasonable sample size within a manageable time frame it was necessary to modify the design to increase the efficiency with which the low number of new participants could be utilized in the study.

PAGE 96

86 The first modification was the elimination of the random group assignment and simultaneous treatment elements of the design. The original design calls for the assignment of all incoming subjects to either the pretest or posttest condition on a random basis, testing the pretest group, permitting both groups to receive the same treatment, and testing the posttest group at the conclusion of the treatment phase. This modification permitted the assignment of all new participants to the pretest group, Group 1, and the use of participants beginning training four months prior to the data collection period for the posttest group. Group 2. This modification permitted the completion of the data collection process in two months as opposed to a minimum of six to eight months without the modification. The second modification was the collection of data over an extended time frame. The original design used a simultaneous data collection process, testing all subjects at the same time. However, CETA participants are oriented and enter training as training sites become available. Consequently, not all subjects were available for testing at the same time. It was therefore necessary to collect data over an extended time period. Subjects were assigned to a monthly subgroup classification as they were tested to facilitate a test of homogeneity (described below) to control for variance in the data as a result of this modification.

PAGE 97

87 The modified design is as follows for this study: Group Group 1 (Intake) Monthly Subgroup (1) Data Collection Month 1 2 (X) (2) Group 2 (Training) (1) X (X) (2) X X Monthly Subgroup = The subgroup assignment on the basis of the month in which the data was collected for use in the homogeneity test. Data Collection Month = The month in which the data was collected. = Observation/data collection. X = Training received by participants/subjects. (X) = Training received by participants/subjects but not affecting the data collected. (1), (2) = Monthly subgroup classification for the purposes of the homogeneity test. These modifications raised two problems. The first was the possibility of uncontrolled selection biases. In the basic design, as described by Campbell and Stanley (1966), the comparability of comparison groups was assured by the random assignment of subjects into the pretest and posttest conditions. In order to reestablish comparability a test of comparability was included in the design modification to control for possible selection biases. The test of comparability consisted of the comparison of Group 1 and Group 2 on the independent demographic variables. It was found that Group 1 and Group 2 differed on the independent variable of education. Group 1 was found to have a lower average education level (M=11.A6 years) than Group 2 (M=11.96 years, F=4.12,df=l/224,p<.05) . The two groups were matched on this variable

PAGE 98

88 by the elimination of 11 cases with extremely low levels of education and 24 cases with extremely high levels of education. Upon completion of matching Group 1 with Group 2 on the education variable the matched Group 1 and Group 2 were compared with the unmatched Group 1 and 2 on each of the dependent variables. No significant differences were identified between the matched and unmatched groups and it was concluded that comparability had been achieved as a result of matching the groups without altering the information contained in the data. A second problem was posed by the modification of the testing period. The sampling of subjects over an extended period of time could result in a loss of homogeneity within Group 1 and within Group 2. To determine whether variance occurred between the first and second month of data collection, a test of homogeneity was performed within the Combined Group (Group 1 and Group 2), within Group 1, within Group 2, and within both Program 1 and Program 2. The test of homogeneity consisted of comparing the average scores of the subjects tested during the first month of data collection (Monthly Subgroup 1) with the average scores of subjects tested during the second month of data collection (Monthly Subgroup 2) within each of the comparison groups on the dependent mental health measures. No differences between monthly subgroups were identified within the combined group and within Program 1. The differences identified in the tests of homogeneity are discussed in the following chapter. In general, however, it was concluded that there was very limited variance in the mental health scales between the first and second month of the data collection process and the data was considered to be homogeneous.

PAGE 99

89 Thus, the modified design retains the integrity of the original design. Each threat to internal and external validity is controlled for or identified within the modified design. Historical, maturational, and mortality effects were controlled for by the homogeneity test. The comparability procedure served to control for selection biases as well as interactions between selection and maturational processes or treatment effects. There were no testing effects since each subject was tested only once and the instrumentation effects were controlled through the use of a uniform presentation of test instruments and by all subjects being administered the same test package. Statistical regression was not a factor as the subjects were not selected for participation on the basis of extreme test scores. Finally, multiple treatment effects and reactive effects were not problems since the training experience was a single, continuous, non-laboratory process. Data Collection Data for this study was collected during April and May, 1980. Subjects for Group 1 (Intake) were tested during the pre-training orientation. Intake subjects participating in Program 1 were tested at the conclusion of normal orientation activities. Intake subjects in Program 2 were tested just prior to the last pahse of the orientation activities. All participants in the employment training program who had completed four months of training during the months of April and May, 1980, in either Program 1 or Program 2 were invited to attend the testing sessions for inclusion in the Training Group (Group 2). All Group 2 subjects were tested during group sessions organized by the training program to assist in the collection of data for this research project. Each of the testing

PAGE 100

90 sessions were scheduled during the two weeks immediately following the completion of the fourth month of training. Prior to administering the test package all subjects received and had read to them the Informed Consent Form which they were then asked to sign (See Appendix F) . The test package consisted of an Introduction and Personal Data Questionnaire (See Appendix C) , the Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrora, 1974), the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (Bern, 1974), and the Internal-External Scale (Rotter, 1966). In an effort to eliminate potential testing effects due to a limited reading ability among some of the subjects the test package was pre-recorded on cassette tape and played back to the subjects as they read along. All instructions and questions of each test instrument were presented in this manner. An answer period of five to six seconds (six to seven on the BSRI) was allowed between items for the subjects' response. The playback length of the combined test package was 72:08 minutes with each section having playback times of 6:22 minutes (Introduction and Personal Data Questionnaire), 10:00 minutes (Internal-External Scale), 9:50 minutes (Bem Sex-Role Inventory), and 42:56 minutes (Personal Orientation Inventory). The actual test administration time was more nearly 90 minutes allowing for questions, seating time, and the distribution and collection of materials. To avoid possible serial effects the order of presentation of the segments of the test package was randomly varied. Each instrument was scored according to the published instructions. If an instrument contained more than 10% of the items incorrectly answered the instrument was eliminated from the subject's data set and referred to as a missing case during the data analysis. If two or more of the instruments in a subject's data set were eliminated the subject was eliminated from the combined data set.

PAGE 101

91 Instrumentation The mental health variables were measured through the use of the following instruments: the Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1974), the Bem-Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974), and the Internal-External Scale (Rotter, 1966). Personal Orientation Inventory The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) assesses levels of selfactualization in this study. The POI consists of 150 paired statements. These forced-choice items require the respondent to make a comparative value judgement on which statement of each pair is more true for him/her. The items are scored twice: once for the two basic personal orientation scales, the Inner-directed support scale (127 items) and the Time-competent scale (23 items); and once for the ten subscales, each of which measures a conceptually important element of self-actualization. The two personal orientation scales. Inner-directed support and Time-competent, have a reflexive scale, Other-directed support and Timeincompetent, respectively. Together, these two pairs of scales form ratio scales identifying the personal orientation of the respondent. The support ratio is comprised of the Other-directed/lnner-directed (O/I) ratio and represents the general orientation of the respondent's mode of interpersonal interaction. Inner, or self-directed, respondents are guided primarily by internalized values while other-directed subjects are motivated by peer group influences and other external forces. Similarly, the time-competent respondent, as measured by the ratio of the Time-incompetent /Time-competent scales (Ti/Tc) , lives in the present while the time-incompetent subject dwells upon events in the past and future. The POI Test Manual suggests that the self-actualizing Ti/Tc ratio score

PAGE 102

92 ranges between 1:6 and 1:22, while the self-actualizing O/l ratio ranges between 1:3.2 and 1:6. A (Shostrom, 1974, pp. 14-16). In addition to these basic personal orientation scales the POI contains ten subscales which serve to measure five conceptually important factors of self-actualization. Valuing. This factor is assessed by using the Self-Actualizing Values (SAV) scale and the Existentiality (Ex) scale. The SAV scale contains 26 items and measures the degree of affirmation of the primary values of self-actualizing persons. The Ex scale, containing 32 items, assesses the person's degree of flexibility in the application of values to living. Feeling. This factor is composed of the Feeling Reactivity (Fr) and Spontaneity (S) scales. The Fr scale measures the degree of sensitivity and responsiveness to one's own needs while the S scale measures the freedom with which the individual expresses these needs. The scales contain 23 and 18 items respectively. Self-Perception. This factor, considered equivalent to a measure of self-concept, is measured through the use of the Self-Regard (Sr) scale and the Self-Acceptance (Sa) scale. The Sr scale (16 items) measures degree of affirmation of self-worth while the Sa scale (26 items) measures willingness to accept both one's strengths and one's weaknesses . Awareness . This factor is composed of the Nature of Man, Constructive (Nc) scale and the Synergy (Sy) scale. The Nc scale (16 items) measures the degree to which the individual sees humankind as essentially good and the extent to which he/she can understand the synergistic nature of humankind. The Sy scale (9 items) is a measure of

PAGE 103

93 the extent to which the individual can synergistically resolve such dichotomies of life as work and play or selfishness and unselfishness. Interpersonal Sensitivity. The final factor consists of the Acceptance of Aggression (A) and Capacity for Intimate Contact (C) scales. The A scale (25 items) measures the ability to accept one's own natural aggressive feelings and express them constructively rather than repress them. The C scale measures the ability to establish and maintain intimate relationships with others, unencumbered by destructive or limiting expectations and obligations (28 items). The validity of the POI has been repeatedly demonstrated using nominated groups. This procedure involved identifying groups as healthy or unhealthy on several different criteria including: other established measures (e. g., hospitalized psychiatric patients versus fully functioning businessmen) and expert diagnosis. The POI has consistently discriminated between subjects clinically judged to be self-actualizing and subjects judged to be non-self-actualizing (Shostrom, 1964), psychiatric inpatients (Fox, J., Knapp, & Michael, 1968), psychopathic felons (Fisher, 1968), and neurotic groups as measured by the Eysenck Personality Inventory (Knapp & Comrey, 1973), and the MI>IPI (Shostrom, 1974). Test-retest reliability coefficients for the major scales (I and Tc) are reported at 0.71 and 0.84 respectively (Klavetter & Morgar, 1967). Test-retest reliability coefficients have been reported as significant for all scales but the Fr scale (Ilardi & May, 1968). Reliability has also been tested by instructing subjects to attempt to "fake good" responses on the POI. Even subjects provided with information on selfactualization were unable to "fake good" responses successfully (Foulds & Warehime, 1971a ; Ckildman & Olczak, 1976; Warehime, Routh, & Foulds, 1974).

PAGE 104

94 Test reviews of the POI have generally agreed that it should not be used as a diagnostic tool, though it can be used profitably as a therapeutic tool (Ranaan, 1973; Tosi & Lindamood, 1975). Ranaan (1973) further suggests that the POI would be of limited use as a research instrument due to questions regarding instrument validity and reliability. However, Tosi & Lindamood (1975), following a review of later studies, concluded that the POI should be regarded as a valid research instrument. Use of the POI in this study provides a psychological health measure that has been widely used and accepted (Shostrom, 1973). Bem Sex-Role Inventory The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was introduced by Bern (1974) as a measure of psychological androgyny. The BSRI contains 60 adjectives and adjective phrases which the respondents are asked to rate as describing themselves on a scale of 1-7. The scale values are: (1) never or almost never true for me, (2) often not true for me, (3) sometimes not true for me, (4) neither true or not true for me, (5) sometimes true for me, (6) often true for me, or (7) always or nearly always true for me. The BSRI has three subscales: Masculinity, Femininity, and Social Desirability. The items were selected by judges rating 200 personality characteristics on their desirability for males and females. If an item was judged by both male and female judges as being significantly more desirable for males than females then the item was included in the Masculinity subscale. Likewise, items judged more desirable for females were placed in the Femininity subscale. Both the Masculinity and Femininity scales contain 20 positive items. The Social Desirability scale contains 10 items judged to be negative for both males and females and 10 items judged to be positive for both males and females.

PAGE 105

95 The Masculinity and Femininity scales are scored by computing the average ranking of the 20 items in each scale. The Social Desirability scale is scored by reversing the rankings of the 10 negative items and computing the average for all 20 items. The Masculinity and Femininity averages are used in the determination of the subject's sex-type classification. The original sex-type classification method was developed by Bem (1974) and consisted of applying the Student's _t-test of differences between means to the Masculinity and Femininity averages. If the t-test value was significant then the subject was classified as sex-typed in the direction of the higher average. Therefore, if the ^-test value was significant and the Masculinity average was higher than the Femininity average then the subject was classified as masculine sex-typed, regardless of the subject's gender. If the _t-test value was not significant then the subject was classified as androgynous, since the level of endorsement of masculine and feminine items was approximately the same. An alternative scoring method was proposed by Bem (1974) as an approximation of the _^-test value. This method consists of multiplying the absolute value of the difference between the masculine and feminine means by a constant. The approximate _t-test value is used to classify the subject in the same manner as the exact t-test value. Spence et al. (1975) questioned the ;t-test classification method. They suggested that the classification of all subjects with no significant difference between the masculine and feminine averages as androgynous may be inappropriate. They argued that two low levels of endorsement may be indicative of a condition different from psychological androgyny. They proposed the median-split classification method as an alternative. This method consists of calculating the median score for the

PAGE 106

96 the sample on each of the two sex-role scales. If an individual subject in the sample had masculinity and femininity averages above the sample median scores, then the subject would be classified as androgynous. If only one of the subject's average scores was above the median, then the subject would be classified as sex-typed in the direction of the higher average. If both of the subject's scores were below the median values for the two scales, then the subject would be classified "undifferentiated.' Following an examination of the median-split classification method, Bern (1977) agreed that, although a limited amount of additional information was obtained, the median-split method of classifying sex-types should be used as the more appropriate. Regardless of the scoring and classification method used, the BSRI has been shown to demonstrate validity consistently by predicting androgynous versus sex-typical behavior. Several studies have used the BSRI and found that persons classified as sex-typed are less willing to engage in cross-sex behavior; i. e., behavior normally associated with the other sex-type sex-role. Androgynous subjects do not exhibit this unwillingness (Bern, 1974, 1977; Bern & Lenney, 1976; Bern et al., 1976). The BSRI has also been found to correlate strongly with the POI as a measure of mental health (Cristall & Dean, 1976; Nevill, 1977; Ott; 1976; Pettus, 1976). Test-retest reliability values over a four week test period were quite high: Masculinity scale, r=.90; Femininity scale, r=.90; Social Desirability, r=.89; and Androgyny, r=.93 (Bem, 1974). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory has been widely accepted and used as a measure of psychological androgyny (Bem, 1979) and is used in this study as a measure of androgyny.

PAGE 107

97 Internal-External Scale Rotter (1966) introduced the Internal-External Scale (lES) as a measure of locus of control. The lES contains 29 paired statements, six of which are fillers. The 23 scoring pairs contain an external and an internal statement. The respondents are asked to select the statement in each pair which is more true for them. The lES is scored by totaling the number of external items endorsed. The resultant score is a measure of external locus of control. Since locus of control is conceptualized as a single bi-polar dimension, a low score is considered indicative of an internal locus of control. The validity of the lES has been demonstrated by discriminating between persons willing to engage in external or internal actions. These studies have examined subjects' willingness to take risks or attempt a difficult problem (Cohen et al., 1967; Phares, 1957; Rotter & Mulray, 1965) as well as willingness to engage in social action (Gore & Rotter, 1963; Kinder, 1976; Strickland, 1965). Rotter (1966) reports test-retest reliability correlations of r=.49 over a two month interval and r=.83 over a one month interval on the lES. Zerlga, Tseng, and Greever (1976) reported an eight month test-retest correlation of r=.55 (p <.001). As with the POI and the BSRI, the lES is selected as the most widely used measure of locus of control for use in this study. Demographic Variables This study used seven demographic factors in the analysis of the dependent measures and in the comparability test. The seven factors were age, sex, race, education, religious affiliation, family history, and length of unemployment prior to participation in CETA training. The variables of age and education were measured in years and the length

PAGE 108

98 of unemployinent was measured in months. Three variables were used to assess degree of religious affiliation: church membership, church attendance ( frequency --never or rarely, one to six times a year, twice a month, at least once a week), and denomination of religious affiliation (not affiliated; Baptist; Fundamentalist-including Church of Christ, Church of God, Church of the Nazarene, Holiness, and Pentacostal; and Liberal-including Methodist, Presbyterian, Catholic, Episcopal, and Unitarian). Four variables were used to measure family history. Two of these variables represented past family history: Parent (raised by both parents, by one parent and one step-parent, by one parent only, by other relatives, or by legal guardians) and Ordinal position in the family (only child, oldest child, second oldest child, third oldest child, fourth or younger child, youngest child). Two of the variables were measures of the current family history: Marital Status (single, married, divorced, widowed, or separated) and Number of children. The demographic variables were drawn from two sources. The subjects' age, race, sex, education, length of unemployment, marital status, and number of children were drawn from their CETA applications (see Appendix D) . The subjects' church membership, church attendance, denomination, parents, and family position were drawn from the Personal Data Questionnaire (Appendix C) . A total of 12 demographic variables were assessed: age, race, sex, education, church membership, church attendance, denomination, parents, family position, marital status, number of children, length of unemployment .

PAGE 109

99 Analysis of Data The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether persons beginning CETA training differed significantly from persons completing four months of CETA training on three dependent mental health measures. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether participants in the CETA Adult Work Experience program differed significantly from participants in the CETA Public Service Employment program on the selected independent demographic variables and the dependent mental health measures. Finally, this study had the purpose of determining whether there existed a relationship between the mental health characteristics of the CETA participants and their selected demographic characteristics and whether differences existed between the mental health characteristics of the CETA participants and subjects reported in a selected validation study for each of the three mental health measures. The three mental health measures used in this study were the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI), and the Internal-External Scale (lES) . The demographic variables used in this study were age, race, sex, education, church membership, church attendance, denomination of church affiliation, parents, family position, marital status, number of children, and length of unemployment prior to participation in CETA training. Data collected in this study were evaluated using statistical procedures described by Roscoe (1975) and by Nie, Hull, Jenkins, Steinbrenner, and Bent (1975). The confidence level for all comparisons was set at the p <.05 level. Differences which had significance levels of p <.10 and p >.05 were identified as trends. The first stage of the data analysis was to examine between group comparability and the within group homogeneity. The between group

PAGE 110

100 comparability was demonstrated by comparing Group 1 and Group 2 on each of the 12 demographic variables. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) , described by Nie et al. (1975, pp. 2A9-261), was used to compare differences between Group 1 and Group 2 on the demographic variables of age, education, number of children, and length of unemployment. A Chisquare test of homogeneity was used to compare differences between Group 1 and Group 2 on the remaining demographic variables (Nie et al., 1975, pp. 218-248). The between group tests of comparability were also performed examining differences between Program 1 and Program 2 on the demographic variables using the same statistical procedures. Within group homogeneity was examined to identify differences within each comparison group on each of the dependent mental health variables between subjects sampled during the first month of testing (Monthly Subgroup 1) and subjects tested during the second month of data collection (Monthly Subgroup 2) . The one-way ANOVA was used to compare monthly subgroups within the Combined Group (all subjects) , Group 1, Group 2, Program 1, and Program 2 on all scales of the POI , the lES, and the Masculinity, Femininity, and Social Desirability scales of the BSRI. A Chl-square test of homogeneity was used to compare monthly differences on the BSRI sex-type classification. The seven null hypotheses were tested in the following manner: Hypotheses 1-3. The hypotheses state that no differences exist between Group 1 (Intake) and Group 2 (Training) subjects on measures of: a. Self-actualization (Hypothesis 1) b. Psychological Androgyny (Hypothesis 2) c. Locus of Control (Hypothesis 3). These null hypotheses were tested using a one-way ANOVA to compare differences between Group 1 and Group 2 on the POI scales, the lES, and

PAGE 111

101 the Masculinity, Femininity, and Social Desirability scales of the BSRI . The Chi-square test of homogeneity was used to compare Group 1 and Group 2 on the BSRI sex-type classification. Hypotheses 4-6. These hypotheses state that no differences exist between participants in Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) and Program 2 (Public Service Employment) of the CETA program on measures of: a. Self-actualization (Hypothesis 4). b. Psyhcological Androgyny (Hypothesis 5). c. Locus of Control (Hypothesis 6). These null hypotheses were tested using the one-way ANOVA procedure to compare differences between Program 1 and Program 2 on the POI scales, the lES, and the Masculinity, Femininity, and Social Desirability scales of the BSRI. The Chi-square test of homogeneity was used to compare differences between Program 1 and Program 2 on the BSRI sex-type classification. Hypothesis 7. This hypothesis states no relationships exist between the variance in the dependent mental health measures and the selected independent demographic varaibles. This hypothesis was tested using the three-way ANOVA procedure (Nie et al., 1975, pp. 398-422). The three factors used in the three-way ANOVA were: Factor 1 — Group 1 versus Group 2, Factor 2 — Program 1 versus Program 2, Factor 3 — the twelve demographic variables. The three-way ANOVA procedure was used to examine variance in the POI scales, the lES, and the Masculinity, Femininity, and Social Desirability scales of the BSRI. A series of Chi-square tests of homogeneity were used to examine variation in the distribution of the BSRI sex-type classification. The age and education variables were recoded for ease of analysis (see Table 2 for grouped values) .

PAGE 112

102 Table 2 Receded Values of Demographic Variables of Age and Education

PAGE 113

103 the distribution of sex-type classifications among Stanford University students reported by Bern (1977, p. 198) using the Chi-square test of homogeneity procedure (Roscoe, 1975, pp. 254-262). Limitations of the Study The overall purpose of this study was to examine the mental health characteristics of unemployed persons through the comparison of samples of CETA participants. Although the definition of the unemployed person for the purpose of this study was to be eligible for participation in a CETA funded employment training program, the question may be raised whether all eligible persons actually apply to CETA for training. If they do not apply for training, then it may be possible that the sample of subjects used in this study and the findings obtained are not fully generalizable to all unemployed persons. In view of the multitude of reasons a person may be unemployed for extended periods of time, the results of this study may be most applicable to persons who are eligible for and apply to CETA employment training programs. While these results certainly have meaning for non-participant unemployed persons, fullscale application of these results to those persons may be speculative and should be done with caution. Another limitation of this study is the locale from which the subjects were drawn. This study examined subjects participating in a north Florida metropolitan based CETA program. There may exist differences between unemployed persons applying for and receiving training in rural versus metropolitan areas, as well as between different regions of the nation. Likewise, all subjects were tested during the Spring of the year. Seasonal differences in subject characteristics may exist which should be considered in understanding and using the results of this study.

PAGE 114

CHAPTER IV RESULTS The purpose of this study was the investigation of mental health characteristics of unemployed persons participating in CETA funded employment training activities. There were four major comparisons performed in this investigation. The demographic and mental health characteristics of persons beginning training were compared with persons completing four months of CETA training. The demographic and mental health characteristics of participants in the CETA Adult Work Experience program were compared with the characteristics of participants in the CETA Public Service Employment program. The relationships between the mental health characteristics and the demographic characteristics of the CETA participants were examined. Finally, the mental health characteristics of the CETA participants were compared with the mental health characteristics of subjects reported in the initial validation studies of the mental health measures used in the study. Three dependent measures of mental health were used: the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Bern Sex-Role Inventory, and the Internal-External Scale. The subjects were participants in a northern Florida employment training program and were identified and tested during the Spring of 1980. Evaluation of Comparison Groups Comparability of Intake and Training Groups The first stage of the data analysis was the establishment of between group comparability. A test of comparability comparing the 104

PAGE 115

105 demographic characteristics of the subjects in the Intake Group (Group 1) with those of the subjects in the Training Group (Group 2) was performed. The results of these comparisons, presented in Table 3, reveal that the Group 1 subjects did not differ significantly from the Group 2 subjects on 11 of the 12 demographic variables examined. The average level of education among the Group 1 subjects (11.46 years) was found to be significantly lower than the average level of education among the Group 2 subjects (11.96 years, F=4.123, df=l/224, p <.05). In view of the difference in education levels Group 1 and Group 2 were matched on the demographic variable of education. The matching process involved the elimination of 24 subjects with extremely high educational levels and the elimination of 11 subjects with extremely low levels of education. This process reduced the overall sample size from 226 subjects to 191 subjects. Following completion of the matching process, the between group test of comparability was repeated. The results of these comparisons, also presented in Table 3, support the conclusion that the matched groups may be judged comparable on the basis of the 12 demographic variables examined. The matched data set consisting of 191 subjects was compared with the original unmatched data set (N=226) on each of the dependent mental health measures as well as on each of the demographic variables. The absence of significant differences between the matched and unmatched data sets on the dependent mental health varibles (See Table 4) supported the conclusion that the mental health and demographic characteristics of the overall CETA sample had not been significantly altered by the matching process.

PAGE 116

106 Table 3 Comparison of Intake Group Subjects and Training Group Subjects on 12 Selected Demographic Variables: Unmatched and Matched for Education Unmatched Data Matched Data Categorical Variables Sex Race Church Membership Church Attendance Denomination of Church Parent Family Position Marital Status Continuous Variables Age Education Number of Children Length of Unemployment df 0.324

PAGE 117

107 Table 4 Comparison of Unmatched and Matched Groups on the Independent Demographic Variables and on the Dependent Mental Health Variables. Categorical Variables df Sex Race Church Membership Church Attendance Denomination of Church Parent Family Position Marital Status Bern Sex-Role Classication Continuous Variables Age Education Number of Children Length of Unemployment Internal-External Scale Personal Orientation Inventory I Tc Ti SAV Ex Fr S Sr Sa No Sy A C Inner-directed Other-directed Time-competent Timeincompetent Self-Actualizing Values Existentiality Feeling Reactivity Spontaneity Self-regard Self -acceptance Nature of Man Synergy Acceptance of Aggression Capacity for Intimate Contact Bern Sex-Role Inventory Masculinity Femininity Social Desirability M F SD 0.134 0.238 0.105 1.024 0.368 0.584 0.490 0.176 0.181 0.016 4.452 5.589 0.019 0.007 1.069 1.927 0.139 0.329 0.004 0.013 0.818 0.533 0.472 0.472 0.000 0.001 0.000 1 2 1 3 3 5 5 4 Mean

PAGE 118

108 The Combined Group subjects and Program 1 subjects exhibited no significant differences between subjects tested during the first month of data collection (Monthly Subgroup 1) and subjects tested during the second month of data collection (Monthly Subgroup 2). Within Group 1 (Intake), Monthly Subgroup 1 subjects were found to score higher on the POI Spontantiety scale (F=4.699, df=l/90, p <.05) and higher on the POI Capacity for Intimate Contact scale (F=4.398, df=l/90, p <.05) than the Monthly Subgroup 2 subjects. Within Group 2 (Training), Monthly Subgroup 1 subjects scored lower on the POI Acceptance of Aggression scale than the Monthly Subgroup 2 subjects (F=6.859, df=l/90, p <.05). Monthly Subgroup 1 subjects within Program 2 (Public Service Eraplojmient) scored lower on the POI Acceptance of Aggression scale than the Monthly Subgroup 2 subjects (F=4.297, df=l/114, p <.05). These differences were examined in the context of other differences discussed in this study. In view of the absence of significant within group differences within the Combined Group and within Program 1, and the limited number and pattern of within group differences observed within Group 1, Group 2, and Program 2, it was concluded that the comparison groups were sufficiently homogeneous for use as comparison groups in this study. Comparability of Adult Work Experience Program and Public Service Employment Program The subjects in this study were also compared on the basis of the CETA training program in which they were participating. Of the 191 subjects in the final matched data set, 69 subjects (8 males, 61 females) were participants in the Adult Work Experience program (Program 1) and 122 subjects (53 males, 69 females) were participants in the Public Service Employment Program (Program 2). Program 1 subjects were compared with subjects in Program 2 on each of the 12 independent demographic variables

PAGE 119

109 for the purpose of obtaining a clear demographic description of the two programs. The results of these comparisons are presented in Table 5. Table 5 Comparison of Adult Work Experience Subjects and Public Service Employment Subjects on the 12 Demographic Variables. Categorical

PAGE 120

110 Furthermore, Program 1 subjects were found to be older (F=32.19, df=l/189, p <.001), have less education (F=25.34, df=l/189, p <.001), have more children (F=18.53, df = l/189, p -^.001), and have been unemployed for a longer period of time prior to entering CETA (F=42.31, df=l/189, p <.001) than subjects in Program 2. Based upon these findings, the second observation is that Program 1 and Program 2 may be serving different segments of the unemployed population. Program 1 appears to be serving the single, older mother who has limited education and has been unemployed for an extended period of time. Program 2, on the other hand, is serving younger unemployed persons of either sex, who have completed high school, are married with few, if any, children, and have not been unemployed for as long as the Program 1 subjects. Thus, Program 1 appears to be serving the welfare mother while Program 2 is serving the unskilled high school graduate. Evaluation of Hypotheses Seven null hypotheses were tested on the basis of the data collected in this study. The results of these analyses are presented in this section. Hypothesis 1 This hypothesis states: No differences exist in self-actualization characteristics as a result of training in the CETA Adult Work Experience program and in the CETA Public Service Employment program between Intake (Group 1) subjects just beginning training and Training (Group 2) subjects who have completed four months of training as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory. This hypothesis was evaluated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare differences between the mean scores of Group 1 subjects and Group 2 subjects on each of the POI scales. The results of these comparisons are presented in Table 6.

PAGE 121

Ill Table 6 Comparison of Intake (Group 1) Subjects and Training (Group 2) Subjects on the Personal Orientation Inventory.

PAGE 122

112 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2 states: No differences exist in psychological androgyny characteristics as a result of training in the CETA Adult Work Experience program and in the CETA Public Service Employment program between Group 1 subjects and Group 2 subjects as measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, This hypothesis was evaluated using the one-way ANOVA procedure and the Chi-square test of homogeneity. During the evaluation of the data obtained from the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) two observations were made regarding the character of the data. First, it was observed that a higher percentage of the respondents failed to complete the BSRI appropriately (8%0 than failed to apporpriately complete the POI (4%) or the Internal-External Scale (3%). As discussed in the preceding chapter, appropriate completion of a test instrument consists of correctly responding to at least 90% of the test items. The second observation was that 30% of the subjects correctly completing the BSRI exhibited a pattern of responses which is, at best, questionable. The BSRI requires the respondent to rank 60 adjectives on a scale of 1-7 ranging from "1" (never or almost never true for me) to "7" (always or almost always true for me). The questionable response patterns consisted of a majority of the 60 items being ranked at one or two levels, e. g. , most of the items were ranked mostly "7's," mostly "6's' and "7's," mostly "I's" and "7's," mostly "6's" and "7's," or mostly "2's" and "6's." It seems questionable that the items would realistically be ranked in such a regular fashion. These two observations, in conjunction with the results of later analyses of the data in this chapter (Comparison of CETA Subjects with Subjects in Selected Validation Studies), lead to serious questions regarding the utility of the BSRI in the study of sex-

PAGE 123

113 roles and sex-role flexibility among the CETA subjects in this study. With these reservations in mind the results of the evaluation of Hypothesis 2 are presented in Table 7. Table 7 Comparison of Intake (Group I) Subjects and Training (Group 2) Subjects on the Bern Sex-Role Inventory.

PAGE 124

114 subjects in this study, suggesting that working leads to a less feminine self-perception. No differences were found between subjects in Group 1 and Group 2 on the BSRI Masculinity scale, the BSRI Social Desirability scale, or the BSRI Sex-Type Classification. Hypothesis 3 This hypothesis states: No differences exist in locus of control as a result of training in the CETA Adult Work Experience program and the CETA Public Service Employment program between Group 1 subjects and Group 2 subjects as measured by the Internal-External Scale. This hypothesis was tested using the one-way ANOVA procedure to compare the mean scores of subjects in Group 1 and Group 2 on the Internal-External Scale. Group 1 subjects (Mean=10.04) were not found to differ significantly from Group 2 subjects (Mean=9.59) on the Internal-External Scale (F=0.767, df=l/177, p=NS) . The null hypothesis was accepted and it was concluded that four months of training did not result in changes in the locus of control among the CETA subjects in this study. Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4 states: No differences exist between subjects in Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) and subjects in Program 2 (Public Service Employment) in self-actualization characteristics as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory. This hypothesis was evaluated using the one-way ANOVA procedure to compare the mean scores of Program 1 subjects on the POI scales with the mean scores of the Program 2 subjects on the POI scales. The results of these comparisons are presented in Table 8.

PAGE 125

115 Table 8 Comparison of Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) Subjects and Program 2 (Public Service Employment) Subjects on the Personal Orientation Inventory.

PAGE 126

116 Existentiality scale (F=2.97, df=l/181, p <.10), the POI Feeling Reactivity scale (3.02, df=l/181, p <.10), and the POI Capacity for Intimate Contact scale (F=3.84, df=l/181, p <. 10) . Program 1 subjects tended to score higher than Program 2 subjects on the POI Nature of Man scale (F=3.50, df=l/181, p <.10). These trends suggest that the subjects in this study participating in Program 1 had higher levels of mental health than Program 2 subjects in their view of human nature and the dichotomies of life and lower levels of mental health than the Program 2 subjects in their sensitivity to their own feelings, their ability to establish intimate interpersonal relationships, and the flexibility of their values system. Hypothesis 5 Hypothesis 5 states: No differences exist between Program 1 subjects and Program 2 subjects in psychological androgyny characteristics as measured by the Bern Sex-Role Inventory. This hypothesis was evaluated using the one-way ANOVA procedure and the Chi-square test of homogeneity. The reservations regarding the utility of the BSRI when used with the CETA subjects in this study identified in the evaluation of Hypothesis 2 are applicable to the results discussed in relation to this hypothesis. Examination of the results of this evaluation, presented in Table 9, reveals no significant differences between Program 1 subjects and Program 2 subjects on the BSRI scales and on the BSRI Sex-type classification. Therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted.

PAGE 127

117 Table 9 Comparison of Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) Subjects and Program 2 (Public Service Emplojmient) Subjects on the Bern Sex-Role Inventory

PAGE 128

118 Program 2 Mean=9.56) indicating a slightly more external orientation among Program 1 subjects than among Program 2 subjects. The difference between the subjects in the two programs was a non-significant trend (F=3.002, df=l/177, p <.10). Hypothesis 7 Hypothesis 7 states: No relationships exist between variance in self-actualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control characteristics of the subjects in this study and the independent demographic characteristics of age, sex, race, education, religious affiliation, family history, and length of unemployment prior to participation in employment training. This hypothesis was evaluated using a three-way ANOVA procedure to identify the amount of variance within the dependent mental health scores of the subjects in this study explained by the selected demographic characterisitcs, the training status of the subjects, and the program status of the subjects. Two of the factors in the three-way ANOVA procedure, the subjects' training status (Factor 1: Group 1 versus Group 2) and the subjects' program status (Factor 2: Program 1 versus Program 2), were the same for all ANOVAs. Since only the mental health characteristics (the dependent variable) and the demographic characteristics of the subjects (Factor 3) changed across ANOVAs, each ANOVA will be identified by the dependent variable and the demographic characteristic of that ANOVA. Therefore, the Inner-directed/denoraination ANOVA refers to the threeway analysis of the variance in the POI Inner-directed scale by Group by Program by Denomination. The term "variance" is used to refer to the measure of deviation of individual subject scores on the scale from the Combined Group (Group 1 plus Group 2) Mean for that scale.

PAGE 129

119 There were 18 dependent mental health scales analyzed in the evaluation of the null hypothesis. These were the 14 POI scales, the three subscales of the BSRI, and the Internal-External Scale. A total of 12 independent demographic variables were used in the evaluation of the null hypothesis: age, sex, race, education, church membership, church attendance, denomination (of church affiliation), parents, family position, marital status, number of children (in subjects' current family), and length of unemplojrment (prior to participation in employment training). In all a total of 216 three-way ANOVAs were performed. Of these 216 only 30 ANOVAs were found to identify a significant relationship between the variance in mental health scores of the subjects and one or more of the three factors in the ANOVA. These results are presented in the order of the mental health variable analyzed rather than by factors. POI Inner-directed scale. The Inner-directed /denomination ANOVA explained a significant amount of the variance in the POI Inner-directed scores of the subjects in this study. The ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Denomination Factor (F=3.004, df=3/163, p <.05) and a significant interaction between the Program Factor and the Denomination Factor (F=3.029, df=3/163, p <.05). The Scheffe' Test for Multiple Comparison of Group Means, referred to as the Scheffe' test, was used to further examine the results of the ANOVA (Roscoe, 1975, pp. 313-315). Application of the Scheffe' test revealed that the subjects in the Fundamentalist subgroup scored lower on the POI Inner-directed scale than did subjects in the Non-denomination, Baptist, and Liberal subgroups combined (F=3.047, df=l/163, p <.05). Application of the Scheffe' test to the Program by Denomination interaction revealed the source of interaction to be a significant

PAGE 130

120 difference between the subjects in the Program 1-Liberal subgroup and the Program 2-Liberal subgroup. Program 1-Liberal subgroup subjects were found to have POI Inner-directed scores at the same level as the Fundamentalist subgroup subjects of both programs. The Program 2-Liberal subgroup subjects scored significantly higher than the Fundamentalist and Program 1-Liberal subgroup subjects combined (F=2.04, df=7/163, p <.05). The interaction pattern between the Program Factor and the Denomination Factor on the POI Inner-directed scores of the CETA subjects will be shown to repeat several times during the following discussion. In subsequent analyses this interaction pattern will be referred to as simply the Program-Denomination Interaction. Specific subgroups will be identified only when they deviate from the pattern identified above. POI Other-directed scale. The Other-directed/denomination ANOVA was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the POI Other-directed scores of the subjects in this study. The POI Otherdirected scale is conceptually and functionally the inverse of the POI Inner-directed scale, decreasing as the Inner-directed scale increases. As a result, the Denomination Factor main effect was significant in the ANOVA (F=3.203, df=3/163, p <.05) as was the Program-Denomination interaction (F=3.841, df=3/163, p <.05). Application of the Scheffe'test revealed that the Fundamentalist subgroup subjects scored significantly higher on the POI Other-directed scale than the combined subgroup of the subjects in the Non-denomination, Baptist, and Liberal subgroups (F=3.299, df=3/163, p <.05). The Scheffe' test examination of the data revealed the Program-Denomination interaction to be the exact inverse of the POI Inner-directed Program-Denomination interaction (F=2.136, df=7/184, p <.05).

PAGE 131

121 POI Time-competent scale. The Time-competent/education ANOVA was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the POI Timecompetent scale scores of the subjects in this study. A significant main effect was obtained on the Education Factor (F=3.469, df=7/169, p <.05). The Scheffe' test revealed that subjects with an education level of at least 11 years completed or more scored higher on the POI Time-competent scale, were more time-competent, than subjects with less education (F=2.477, df=7/169, p <.05). POI Time-incompetent scale. The Time-incompetent/education ANOVA was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the POI Time-incompetent scale scores of the subjects in this study. The POI Timeincompetent and POI Time-competent scales are inversely related. The ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Education Factor (F=3.382, df=7/173, p <.01). The application of the Scheffe' test revealed that subjects with at least 12 years of education scored lower, were less time-incompetent, than subjects with less education (F=3.106, df=7/173, p <.01). POI Self-Actualizing Values scale. None of the three-way ANOVAs was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the POI Self-Actualizing Values scale scores of the subjects in this study. POI Existentiality scale. The Existentialiy/denomination ANOVA was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the POI Existentiality scale scores of the subjects in this study. Two significant interactions were obtained: the Program by Denomination interaction (F=2.831, df=3/167, p <.05) and the Group by Program interaction (F=5.096, df=l/167, p <.05). The Program by Denomination interaction was found to follow the Program-Denomination interaction pattern identified in the

PAGE 132

122 Inner-directed/denomination ANOVA with the exception that subjects in the Program 2-Non-denomination subgroup scored as high as the Program 2-Liberal denomination subgroup on the POI Existentiality scale. The application of the Scheffe' test failed to identify significant differences in the interaction pattern although it was quite close: F=1.99, df=3/180, p <.10; where p=.05 at 3/180 degrees of freedom when F=2.06. Furthermore, the Scheffe' test application did not yield significant results in the Group by Program interaction effect (F=2.12, df=l/180, p <,10). A more detailed analysis of the two interaction patterns identified the source of both interactions to be situated among the scores of the Group 1 subjects where the Program-Denomination interaction was repeated (F=6.353, df=7/83, p <.01). The strength of this interaction among the Group 1 subjects' scores was sufficient to result in the significant interaction effects identified in the overall ANOVA procedure. POI Feeling Reactivity scale, POI Spontaneity scale. POI Self-Regard scale. None of the three-way ANOVAs was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the scores of the CETA subjects in this study on these three scales. POI Self-acceptance scale. The Self-acceptance/denomination ANOVA was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the POI Self-acceptance scale scores of the subjects in this study. The ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Denomination Factor (F=4.412, df=3/167, p <.01) and a significant interaction between the Denomination and Program factors (F=3.774, df=3/167, p <.01). The pattern of responses on both the main effect and the interaction pattern was similar to the patterns identified in the Inner-directed/denomination ANOVA. The Scheffe'

PAGE 133

123 test revealed that the subjects in the Fundaraentallst subgroup were significantly less self-accepting than subjects in the other three subgroups of the denomination variable (F=3.588, df=3/180, p <.05). The Scheffe' test also revealed that the Program-Denomination interaction pattern identified above was repeated in the Self-acceptance/denomination ANOVA (F=2.685, df=7/183, p <.05). POI Nature of Man, Constructive scale. A significant amount of the variance in the scores of the subjects in this study on the POI Nature of Man scale was accounted for in six of the ANOVAs . The demographic variables associated with these ANOVAs were: race, family position, marital status, number of children, age, and education. Although no significant main effects or interaction effects were obtained in the Nature of man/race ANOVA, the analysis was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the scores on the POI Nature of Man scale. Two of the main effects were found to approach significance: the Group Factor main effect (F=3.227, df=l/178, p <.10) and the Program Factor main effect (F=3.124, df=l/178, p <.10). The trends were for the subjects in Group 1 and Program 2 to score lower on the POI Nature of Man scale than subjects in Group 2 and Program 1, respectively, without either difference achieving significance. The Nature of man/family position ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Program Factor (F=4.424, df=l/158, p <.05) and a significant interaction effect between the Group Factor and the Family Position Factor (F=2.482, df=5/158, p <.05). Application of the Scheffe' test revealed that Program 1 subjects scored higher on the POI Nature of Man scale than Program 2 subjects (F=4.501, df=l/158, p <.05). Application of the Scheffe' test to the interaction effect revealed that subjects in the

PAGE 134

124 Group 2-Only Child subgroup scored higher on the POT Nature of Man scale than subjects in the combined subgroup of Group 1-Only Child and Group 1-Third Oldest Child while the other subjects scored in the midrange (F=2.209, df=ll/171, p <.05). The Nature of man/marital status ANOVA was found to obtain two significant main effects. The Group Factor main effect was found to reveal Group 2 subjects scoring higher on the POI Nature of Man scale than Group 1 subjects (F=4.195, df=l/164, p <.05). The Marital Status main effect was found to reveal the married subjects scoring lower on the POI Nature of Man scale than the combined subgroups of single, divorced, widowed, and separated subjects (4.100, df=4/183, p <.01). The Nature of man/number of children ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Group Factor. Group 2 subjects were found to score higher on the POI Nature of Man scale than the Group 1 subjects (F=4.893, df=l/173, p <.05). The Nature of man/age ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Age Factor (F=2,620, df=7/173, p <.05). Examination of the data with the Scheffe' test revealed that subjects who were 31 years of age or older scored higher on the POI Nature of Man scale than subjects 30 years of age or younger (F=2.228, df=7/173, p <.05). Finally, the Nature of man/education ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Education Factor (F=3.167, df=7/173, p <.01). The application of the Scheffe' test revealed that subjects with 13 years of education or more scored higher on the POI Nature of Man scale than the subjects with a high school education or less (F=3.013, df=7/173, p <.01). In general the following observations may be made with regard to the variance observed in the scores on the POI Nature of Man scale. Group 2

PAGE 135

125 subjects were found to score higher on the POI Nature of Man scale than Group 1 subjects. These findings support the rejection of Hypothesis 1 since the indication is that training does affect subjects' responses on this scale when those responses are moderated by the subjects' marital status and number of children. Program I subjects were found to score higher on the POI Nature of Man scale than subjects in Program 2, further supporting the findings discussed in the rejection of Hypothesis 4. Furthermore, subjects who scored higher on this scale were found to be older, unmarried, have more education, and more likely to be affiliated with a liberal religious denomination, or no affiliation at all, than subjects who scored lower on the scale. Higher scores on the POI Nature of Man scale indicate a more positive perception of human nature while lower scores indicate a negative perception of human nature. POI Synergy scale. Variance in the POI Synergy scale scores of subjects in this study was associated with the demographic variables of race, denomination, marital status, age, and education. Two of the threeway ANOVAs obtained Program Factor main effects indicating that Program 1 subjects scored significantly higher on the POI Synergy scale than the Program 2 subjects. These two ANOVAs were the Synergy /race ANOVA (F=5.506, df=l/178, p <,05) and the Synergy/denomination ANOVA (F=7.368, df=l/178, p <.01). The Synergy /marital status ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Marital Status Factor (F=4.637, df=4/183, p <.001). The Scheffe' test revealed the married subjects to have scored significantly lower on the POI Synergy scale than the combined single, divorced, widowed, and separated subjects (F=2.933, df=4/I83, p <,05).

PAGE 136

126 The Synergy/age ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Age Factor (F=2.858, df=7/173, p <.01). Subsequent application of the Scheffe' test revealed a continuous increase in the POI Synergy scale scores of subjects in this study as the subjects' age increased. Subjects 23 years of age or older scored higher on the POI Synergy scale than subjects 22 years of age or younger (F=2.142, df=7/173, p <.05) and subjects who were 31 years of age or older scored higher on the POI Synergy scale than subjects who were 30 years of age or younger (F=2.327, df=7/173, p <.05). Finally, the Synergy/education ANOVA obtained two significant main effects. The Program Factor main effect was significant with Program I subjects scoring higher on the POI Synergy scale than Program 2 subjects (F=6.745, df=l/173, p <.01). The Education Factor main effect was also significant (F=2.078, df=7/173, p <.05). However, subsequent application of the Scheffe' test to differences between subgroup means did not identify significant differences between individual subgroups or combinations thereof. The pattern of scores was generally a repeat of earlier patterns discussed which identified a relationship between increased levels of education and increased levels of self-actualization. Upon examination of the results it was found that the main effect was marginally significant since the p <.05 significance value of F at 7/173 degree of freedom is F=2.06. The marginal nature of the significance value in conjunction with the extremely conservative nature of the Scheffe' test (Roscoe, 1975, pp. 313-315) resulted in the failure to identify the specific source of the significant main effect. In general, POI Synergy scale scores among the subjects in this study were found to increase as the subjects' age or educational levels increased. Furthermore, Program 1 subjects scored higher on the scale

PAGE 137

127 than Program 2 subjects and unmarried subjects scored higher on the scale than married subjects. The pattern of results identified on the POI Synergy scale is very similar to the pattern of results discussed in the preceding section on the POI Nature of Man scale. Together these two scales form the Awareness dimension of the POI. POI Acceptance of Aggression scale. The Acceptance of aggression/ denomination ANOVA obtained a significant Program-Denomination interaction effect (F=4.009, df=3/167, p <.01). Application of the Scheffe' test revealed that this interaction pattern was a repeat of the ProgramDenomination interaction discussed earlier in the Inner-directed/denomination ANOVA (F=2.135, df=3/167, p <.05). The Acceptance of aggression/education ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Education Factor (F=2.741, df=7/173, p <.01). The Scheffe' test analysis of the data revealed subjects who had 11 years of education or more were more accepting of their own aggression as a natural process than subjects who had completed less than II years of education (F=2.287, df=7/173, p <.05). POI Capacity for Intimate Contact scale. The Capacity for intimate contact/denomination ANOVA was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the POI Capacity for Intimate Contact scale scores of of the subjects in this study. The ANOVA obtained a significant interaction effect between the Program Factor and the Denomination Factor (F=5.114, df=3/167, p <.01) and a significant three-way interaction between the Group Factor, the Program Factor, and the Denomination Factor (F=3.072, df=3/167, p <.05). Application of the Scheffe' test revealed the Program-Denomination interaction to be a repeat of the interaction pattern discussed earlier (F=2.483, df=7/167, p <.05). Examination of

PAGE 138

128 the three-way interaction pattern with the Scheffe' test revealed the source of the interaction to be a Group by Denomination interaction among the Program 1 subjects. Program 1-Group 1-Fundamentalist subjects were found to score higher on the POX Capacity for Intimate Contact scale than Program 1-Group 2-Fundamentalist subjects (F=2.847, df=7/59, p <.05). The Capacity for intimate contact/age ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Age Factor (F=2.712, df=7/173, p <.05). Application of the Scheffe' test revealed subjects who were 35 years of age or older scored higher on the POI Capacity for Intimate Contact scale than subjects who were 34 years of age or younger (F=2.326, df=7/173, p <.05). The Capacity for intimate contact/education ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Education Factor (F=2.896, df=7/173, p <.01). Application of the Scheffe' test revealed that subjects who had completed 12 or more years of education scored higher on the POI Capacity for Intimate Contact scale than subjects with less than a high school education (F=2.259, df=7/173, p <.05). Bern Sex-Role Inventory Masculinity scale. The Masculinity/family position ANOVA was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the BSRI Masculinity scale scores of the subjects in this study. A three-way interaction pattern between the Group Factor, the Program Factor, and the Family Position Factor was obtained (F=3.219, df=5/158, p <.01). Application of the Scheffe' test revealed the source of the interaction to be among the scores of the Program 1 subjects. Among the Program 1 subjects an interaction pattern was identified where subjects who were either the Oldest-Child or the Third-Oldest Child scored higher on the BSRI Masculinity scale than the other Program 1 subjects (F=2.790, df=5/69, p <.05) while Program 2 subjects did not exhibit this pattern.

PAGE 139

129 Bern Sex-Role Inventory Femininity scale. The Femlnlnity/famlly position ANOVA was found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the BSRI Femininity scale scores of subjects in this study. The ANOVA obtained a three-way interaction between the Group Factor, the Program Factor, and the Family Position Factor (F=3.219, df=5/158. p <.05). Examination of the results Identified the source of the three-way interaction to be located in a Program by Family Position interaction. Subjects in the combined subgroups of Program 1-Only-Chlld, Oldest-Child, and Third-Oldest Child were found to score higher on the BSRI Femininity scale than the other Program 1 and Program 2 subjects (F=1.870, df=ll/158, p <.05). The Femininity/family position ANOVA also obtained a significant main effect on the Group Factor with Group 1 subjects scoring higher on the BSRI Femininity scale than Group 2 subjects (F=6.66A, df=l/158, p <.05). The Femininity/number of children ANOVA was also found to account for a significant amount of the variance in the BSRI Femininity scores of the subjects in this study. A significant main effect was obtained on the Group Factor with Group 1 subjects scoring higher on the BSRI Femininity scale than Group 2 subjects (F=6.335, df=l/173, p <.05). Similarly, the Femininity/ length of unemployment ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Group Factor with Group 1 subjects scoring higher than the Group 2 subjects on the BSRI Femininity scale (F=7.145, df=l/173, p <.01). Bem Sex-Role Inventory Social Desirability scale. The Social desirability/family position ANOVA obtained a significant three-way interaction between the Group Factor, the Program Factor, and the Family Position Factor to account for a significant amount of the variance in the BSRI Social Desirability scale scores of the subjects in this study (F=3.972,

PAGE 140

130 df=5/158, p <.01). As was the case in the other two BSRI scales, the interaction was found to have its source located in the Program by Family Position interaction. The Program 1-Only Child, Oldest-Child and Third-Oldest-Child subjects were found to score higher on the BSRI Social Desirability scale than the combined group of the remaining Program 1 subjects and the Program 2 subjects (F=1.783, df=5/158, p <.05). The Program by Family Position interaction pattern identified in the three BSRI scales is unusual and resists ready explanation. The confusing point about the pattern is the elevated scores among the Program 1-Third-Oldest-Child subjects. This researcher is not familiar with any theory of family position dynamics which would account for this elevation of scores on all three sex-role scales. Further study of this interaction pattern is needed before an adequate explanation may be attempted. Internal-External Scale. The Internal-external scale/race ANOVA was found to account for a significant amount of the variance among the Internal-External Scale scores of the subjects in this study. A significant main effect v/as obtained on the Race Factor (F=6.160, df=2/17A, p <.01). Application of the Scheffe' test revealed that non-white subjects scored higher on the Internal-External Scale than the white subjects (F=6.152, df=2/174, p <.01) indicating a more external locus of control among the non-white subjects than among the white subjects. The Internal-external scale/age ANOVA obtained a significant main effect on the Age Factor (F=2.111, df=7/169, p <.05) to account for a significant amount of the Internal-External Scale score variance of the subjects in this study. The Scheffe' test revealed subjects who were 45 years of age or older scored in the more internal locus of control

PAGE 141

131 direction than subjects who were 20 years of age or younger (F=2.058, df=7/169, p <.05). This ANOVA also obtained a significant main effect on the Program Factor with Program 1 subjects having a more external locus of control orientation than Program 2 subjects (F=7.604, df=l/169, p <.01). The Internal-external scale/education ANOVA explained a significant amount of the variance in the Internal-External Scale scores of subjects in this study with a significant main effect in the Education Factor (F=2.028, df=7/169, p=.05). Application of the Scheffe' test revealed that subjects with 11 years or less of education had higher InternalExternal Scale scores, i.e., more external, than subjects who had 12 or more years of education (F=2.223, df=7/169, p <.05). Bem Sex-Role Inventory sex-type classification. The final mental health measure to be examined was the BSRI Sex-type classification of the subjects on the basis of their BSRI sex-role scale scores using the mediansplit classification method. The classification is a categorical variable and required the use of a series of Chi-square tests of homogeneity to test Hypothesis 7. The results of these tests indicated that the independent demographic variables of sex and race were related to the distribution of sex-type classifications. The significant Chi-square distributions are presented in Table 10 and Table 11. Examination of the results in Table 10 reveals that the distribution of sex-type classifications by sex is not uniform. Male subjects were classified as Masculine sex-typed and Undifferentiated more frequently than expected in the Chi-square test of homogeneity. Conversely, female subjects in this study were classified as Feminine sex-typed and Androgynous more frequently than the Chi-square test predicted. The finding

PAGE 142

132 associating males with the masculine sex-type and females with the feminine sex-type is not surprising. However, the noteworthy finding is that female subjects were more likely to be classified as Androgynous while male subjects were more frequently classified as Undifferentiated. The indication is that the female subjects in this study reported a higher level of sex-role flexibility than the male subjects in this study. Table 10 Distribution of Bem Sex-Role Inventory Sex-Type Classifications by the Demographic Variable of Sex for the Combined Group, Group 2 (Training), and Program 2 (Public Service Employment) Subjects. Combined Group Male Female Total Masculine Sex-Typed Observed 10 9 13 Expected 6 13 Feminine Sex-Typed Observed 4 26 30 Expected 10 20 Androgynous Observed 32 77 109 Expected 34 74 Undifferentiated Observed 10 7 17 Expected 5 12 Total 56 119 175 x^=l^-5 ** df=3 Group 2 (Training) Male Female Total Masculine Sex-Typed Observed 7 6 13 Expected Feminine SexTyped Observed 1 9 10 Expected Androgynous Observed 13 42 55 Expected 17 Undifferentiated Observed 7 4 11 Expected 7

PAGE 143

133 Table 10-continued Program 2 (Public Service Employment) Male Masculine Sex-typed Observed 9 Expected 4 Feminine Sex-typed Observed 3 Expected 7 Androgynous Undifferentiated Total Observed 27 Expected 31 Observed 10 Expected 6 A9 Female 2 6 13 9 46 42 8 12 65 Total 11 16 73 18 118 X^=16.3 *** df=3 * p <.05 ** p <.01 •** p <,001 Table 11 Distribution of Bern Sex-Role Inventory Sex-Type Classifications by the Demographic Variable of Race for Group 1 (Intake) Subjects. Group 1 (Intake) Black White Total 72 11 Other Total Masculine Sex-typed

PAGE 144

134 Examination of the results presented in Table 11 reveals that the racial distribution of sex-type classifications is not uniform among the subjects in Group 1 (Intake). The black subjects were found to be classified as feminine less frequently than the white subjects and more frequently as androgynous than the white subjects. The results suggest that among the Intake subjects in this study the black subjects reported a greater amount of sex-role flexibility than the white subjects. The most striking aspect of the distributions presented in Table 10 and Table 11, however, is not the relationship between the sex-type classifications and demographic variables but the overall percentage of subjects classified as androgynous. Of the 175 subjects in this study appropriately completing the BSRI, 109 were classified as androgynous, 66% of the total. This is an unusually high percentage of subjects classified as androgynous, suggesting that the BSRI may not be accurately measuring sex-role flexibility among the CETA subjects in this study. In general, the results discussed in the evaluation of Hypothesis 7 support the rejection of the null hypothesis and the acceptance of the conclusion that a relationship does exist between the mental health characteristics of the CETA subjects in this study and selected demographic characteristics of those subjects. Of the 19 dependent measures of mental health examined, 15 were found to have a significant amount of the variance in the scores of the subjects in this study accounted for by one or more of the demographic variables. Of the 12 independent demographic variables used in the study, eight were found to be related to the variance in the scores on at least one of the dependent mental health measures .

PAGE 145

135 The independent demographic variable of Denomination of Church Affiliation was found to contribute significantly to the explanation of variance in the mental health scores of the subjects in this study on six of the POI scales: Inner-directed support. Other-directed support, Existentiality, Self-acceptance, Acceptance of Aggression, and Capacity for Intimate Contact. An interaction effect between the Program Factor and the Denomination Factor was obtained on all six scales. The interaction pattern consisted of subjects in the Program 2-Liberal denomination subgroup scoring significantly higher, i.e., in the self-actualizing direction, than subjects in the Program 1-Liberal denomination subgroup and subjects in the Fundamentalist subgroup from either program. Furthermore, a significant main effect was obtained on the Denomination Factor in the POI Inner-directed scale, the POI Other-directed scale, and the POI Self-acceptance scale. The subjects in the Fundamentalist subgroup were found to score significantly lower, in the less self-actualizing direction, than the subjects in the combined group of Non-denominational, Baptist, and Liberal subgroup. The overall pattern of responses on these six POI scales indicated that those subjects affiliated with fundamental denominations or with fundamental teachings within liberal denominations were generally less self-actualizing than subjects affiliated with more liberal denominations or teachings. The independent demographic variable of Education was found to contribute significantly to the explanation of variance in the mental health scores of the subjects in this study on five scales: the POI Nature of Man scale, the POI Synergy scale, the POI Acceptance of Aggression scale, the POI Capacity for Intimate Contact scale, and the InternalExternal Scale. Subjects with more than a high school education were

PAGE 146

136 found to score in the more mentally healthy direction than subjects with less than a high school education. Similarly, the independent demographic variable of Age was found to contribute significantly to the variance in mental health scores among subjects in this study on the POI Nature of Man scale, the POI Synergy scale, the POI Capacity for Intimate Contact scale, and the InternalExternal Scale. It was found that subjects who were at least 30 years of age or older generally scored in the more mentally healthy direction on these scales than subjects who were younger. The independent demographic variable of Race was found to contribute significantly to the explanation of variance in the Internal-External Scale scores among the subjects in this study. The non-white subjects were found to score in the less mentally healthy, external locus of control direction than white subjects. The independent demographic variable of Marital Status was found to contribute significantly to the explanation of variance in the mental health scores of subjects in this study on the POI Nature of Man scale and the POI Synergy scale. Married subjects were found to score in the less self-actualizing direction on both of the scales to a greater extent than the subjects who were single, divorced, widowed, or separated. The independent variable of Family Position was found to contribute significantly to the explanation of variance in the mental health scores of subjects in this study on four scales: the POI Nature of Man scale, the BSRI Masculinity scale, the BSRI Femininity scale, and the BSRI Social Desirability scale. Group 1-Only-Child and Group 1-Third Child subjects were found to score lower on the POI Nature of Man scale than Group 2Only-Child subjects. The Program 1-Oldest-Child and Program 1-Third-

PAGE 147

137 Oldest-Child scored higher on the BSRI Masculinity scale, the BSRI Femininity scale, and the BSRI Social Desirability scale than the other subjects in either program. Seven different independent demographic variables were found to contribute indirectly to the explanation of variance in the mental health scores of the subjects in this study. An indirect contribution to the explanation of variance was identified when an ANOVA obtained a significant main effect in either the Program Factor or the Group Factor without obtaining a significant main effect in the Demographic Factor of the ANOVA. As an example, the Femininity/number of children ANOVA and the Femininity/length of unemployment ANOVA both obtained significant Group Factor main effects in the explanation of the variance in BSRI Femininity scale scores. The results of the ANOVAs indicated that neither the Number of Children or Length of Unemployment variables contributed directly to the significant explanation of the variance in the scores while both demographic variables served to indirectly contribute to the identification of a significant difference between subjects in Group 1 and subjects in Group 2. Similarly, the demographic variables of Marital Status and Number of Children were found to contribute indirectly to the identification of a significant difference between Group 1 subjects and Group 2 subjects on the POI Nature of Man scale. The Family Position variable was found to contribute indirectly to the identification of a difference between subjects in Program 1 and Program 2 on the POI Nature of Man scale. The demographic variables of Race, Education, and the Denomination of Church Affiliation were found to contribute to the identification of significant differences between subjects in Program 1 and Program 2 on the POI Synergy scale.

PAGE 148

138 Finally, the Bern Sex-Role Inventory sex-type classifications were found to be significantly related to the demographic variables of sex and race. Male subjects were found to be classified more frequently as masculine sex-typed and undifferentiated than females while female subjects were classified more frequently as feminine sex-typed or androgynous than the male subjects in the Combined Group, Group 2 (Training), and Program 2 (Public Service Employment) . The finding was that the female subjects in this study appear to report higher degrees of sex-role flexibility than the male subjects. The other finding was that black subjects were more likely to be classified as androgynous than white subjects in Group 1 (Intake). Comparison of CETA Subjects with Subjects From Selected Validation Studies The final analysis of the data collected in this study was the comparison of the Combined Group mean score on each of the dependent mental health measures with the mean scores of subjects reported in selected validation studies of each of the mental health measures. The results of these comparisons are presented in Table 12, Table 13, and Table 14. Examination of the results presented in Table 12 reveals that the CETA sample in this study scored significantly lower on the POI than the "normal" adult sample reported by Shostrom (1974, p. 24). The normal adult sample was composed of subjects nominated as being neither selfactualizing or non-self-actualizing by expert judges as a part of the validation process. The results permit the observation that the CETA subjects were less self-actualizing on 11 of the 12 POI scales than the normal adult subjects. The CETA subjects were found to hold themselves in as high a self-regard as the normal adult subjects.

PAGE 149

139 Table 12 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Normal Adult Subjects Reported by Shostrom (1974) on the Personal Orientation Inventory. POI Scale Inner-directed Timecompetent Self-Actualizing Values Existentiality Feeling Reactivity Spontaneity Self-regard Self -acceptance Nature of Man Synergy Acceptance of Aggression Capacity for Intimate Contact Shostrom Sample (a) Mean SD 87.2 17.7 20.2 21.8 15.7 12.7 12.0 17.1 12.4 7.6 16.6 18.8 13.6 2.8 3.0 5.1 3.3 2.9 4.6 CETA Sample Mean SD 75.1 14 18 15 14 11.0 12.2 13.3 10.3 5.5 14.7 17.1 9.9 2.9 3.1 4.3 2.8 2.2 2.5 3.0 2.1 1.5 3.0 3.9 * p <.05 ** p <.01 *** p <.001 (a) Shostrom, 1974, p. 24 df 339 339 339 339 339 339 339 339 339 339 339 339 t-value 9.44 *** 11.55 *** 5.93 *** 12.15 *** 4.64 *** 2.27 ** .61 11.53 *** 9.64 *** 12.02 *** 5.25 *** 3.63 *** Table 13 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Two Samples of College Students Reported by Rotter (1966) on the Internal-External Scale. Rotter Sample

PAGE 150

140 The CETA subjects were found to be more externally oriented in their locus of control than either the racially mixed Ohio State University students or the all black Florida State University students. Table 14 Comparison of CETA Subjects with Two Samples of Stanford Univversity Students Reported by Bem (1974, 1977) on the Bern SexRole Inventory. Sex/BSRI Scales Bem Sample (a) Mean Male Subjects Masculinity 4.97 Femininity 4.44 Social Desirability 4.91 Female Subjects Masculinity 4.57 Femininity 5.01 Social Desirability 5.08 CETA Sample SD

PAGE 151

141 Examination of the results in Table 14 reveals an entirely different set of findings than the results in Table 12 and Table 13. The CETA subjects were found to have higher mean scores on the three BSRI subscales than the Stanford Unviersity subjects reported by Bem (1974). Furthermore, the CETA subjects were found to have a higher frequency of subjects classified as Androgynous than the Stanford University students reported by Bem (1977). The results in Table 14 indicate that the CETA subjects are more mentally healthy than the college students as measured by selfreported levels of sex-role flexibility. This finding is discrepant with the findings reported in Table 12 and Table 13 indicating that the CETA subjects were less mentally healthy than the comparison subjects on measures of self-actualization and locus of control. In view of the high degree of intercorrelation identified between these three mental health measures in the literature, the discrepancy identified in these findings is indicative of an effect not previously obtained. The implications of this discrepancy will be discussed in the following chapter. Summary In this chapter the data collected on the CETA subjects were analyzed. The comparability of Group 1 (Intake) and Group 2 (Training) subjects was established and the homogeneity of the comparison groups examined. Differences between the subjects in Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) and subjects in Program 2 (Public Service Employment) on selected demographic characteristics were also examined. Seven null hypotheses were evaluated on the basis of the data collected resulting in the rejection of Hypotheses 1, 2, 4, and 7 on the basis of identifying significant relationships between the mental health characteristics of the CETA subjects and their training status, their program status, and their demographic variables.

PAGE 152

142 Finally, the CETA subjects were compared with "normal" adults and college samples in selected validation studies for each of the mental health measures used in this study. These comparisons identified a discrepancy between the relative mental health characteristics of the CETA subjects and the validation study subjects as measured by the three mental health measures. The CETA subjects were found to be less mentally healthy than the validation study subjects reported for the Personal Orientation Inventory and the Internal-External Scale and more mentally healthy than the validation study subjects on the Bern Sex-Role Inventory. These results are discussed in the following chapter.

PAGE 153

CHAPTER V DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study was designed to identify and investigate the mental health characteristics of long-term unemployed persons as represented by participants in a Comprehensive Employment and Training Act funded employment training program. Previous research examining the psychological characteristics of long-term unemployed persons has been limited to investigations of elements of mental illness. Research into the effects of employment training has been limited to examinations of changes in job retention, income levels, and social activities. Research into mental health has been generally limited to subjects without an extended history of employment difficulties. Relevant literature reviews have repeatedly suggested an increase in the use of psychological research on the impact of employment training upon long-term unemployed persons. This study was prompted by an interest in examining the impact of CETA training on participants in mental health terms rather than degrees of mental illness or changes in economic status. Furthermore, this study was prompted by the desire to expand mental health research to include persons with extended histories of employment difficulties. Hopefully, the results of this study may serve as a basis for improving the effectiveness of employment training and counseling strategies intended for use with long-term unemployed persons. 143

PAGE 154

144 Overview During the Spring of 1980, 226 CETA participants were studied. The mental health characteristics of these participants were compared on the basis of training status, the program to which they were assigned, and the demographic characteristics of age, race, sex, education, marital status, number of children, parents, family position, church membership, church attendance, denomination of religious affiliation, and length of unemployment prior to beginning training. They were also compared with subjects described in studies used in the validation of the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Bern Sex-Role Inventory, and the InternalExternal Scale. All subjects in this study were participants in the Adult Work Experience program (Program 1) or the Public Service Employment program (Program 2) of the CETA program examined in this study. Subjects who were just beginning training were assigned to Group 1 (Intake) and subjects who had completed four months of training were assigned to Group 2 (Training) . Group 1 and Group 2 were compared on the basis of the independent demographic variables to establish between group comparability prior to the evaluation of Hypotheses 1-3. A significant (p <.05) between group difference was identified on the demographic variable of education. This difference was eliminated by removing 35 subjects with extreme levels of education from the combined subject group. Of the 191 subjects in the final combined subject group 96 were assigned to Group 1 (Intake) and 95 were assigned to Group 2 (Training) . A total of 69 subjects was receiving training in Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) and 122 subjects were in Program 2 (Public Service Employment). A mental health test package was administered to all subjects. The test package contained an Introduction, a Personal Data Questionnaire,

PAGE 155

145 the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Bern Sex-Role Inventory, and the Internal-External Scale. Subjects with limited reading skills were assisted in understanding the test items by pre-recording the complete test package and playing it back to all subjects during the testing procedure. Potential serial presentation effects were controlled by random variation of the order in which the three mental health measures were presented. The testing procedure was the final activity of the pre-training orientation program for subjects in Group 1-Program 1. Subjects in Group 1-Program 2 were tested just prior to the final activity of their pre-training orientation. All subjects in Group 2 were tested during the two weeks following completion of four months of training in special group sessions organized by the employment training program staff. The data collection process required two months to complete. A test of within group homogeneity was performed to identify possible threats to the validity of this study which may have resulted from the extended data collection period. The test consisted of comparing subjects tested during the first month of data collection with subjects tested during the second month of data collection. Examination of the results of these comparisons failed to identify systematic or pervasive significant differences within comparison groups. It was concluded that the sample of data obtained was sufficiently homogeneous for use in the evaluation of the hypotheses examined in this study. Discussion Four major comparisons were made in the evaluation of the null hypotheses and data analysis. The first comparison examined differences between Group 1 (Intake) subjects and Group 2 (Training) subjects on

PAGE 156

146 measures of self-actualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control (Hypotheses 1-3) . The second comparison consisted of examining differences between participants in Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) and participants in Program 2 (Public Service Employment) on the measures of self-actualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control (Hypotheses 4-6) . The third comparison examined the relationships between the mental health and demographic characteristics of the CETA subjects in this study (Hypothesis 7). The final comparison examined differences between the mental health characteristics of subjects in this study and the mental health characteristics of subjects utilized in the validation of the mental health instruments in this study. Comparison 1; Group 1 (Intake) versus Group 2 (Training) The first major comparison of this study was an examination of changes in mental health among CETA subjects resulting from completion of four months of training. The greatest difference obtained on the POI was a non-significant (p <.10) trend which indicated that subjects completing four months of training (group 2) tended to score higher on the POI Nature of Man scale than subjects who were just beginning training (Group 1). This difference was significant (p <.05) when the independent demographic variables of marital status or number of children were included in the analysis. This finding supported the rejection of Hypothesis 1. Shostrom (1974) defined the POI Nature of Man scale as a measure of the degree to which "one sees man as essentially good ... [and] can resolve the goodness-evil, masculine-feminine, selfishness-unselfishness, and spirituality-sensuality dichotomies in the nature of man" (p. 18). The data suggest that the CETA subjects in this study were more likely

PAGE 157

147 to view human nature as basically good after four months of training than before they began training. Since this difference in the perception of human nature was most noticable when the subjects' marital status and number of children were included in the data analysis it would appear that some element of the training experience interacts with these variables to alter the subjects' perception of human nature toward improved mental health. Findings discussed in a later section of this chapter suggest that this element is in part a function of economic changes which result from entering training The BSRI Femininity scale measures perceived-self femininity by assessing the degree to which subjects will describe themselves with feminine sex-role related attitudes and behaviors. Subjects in this study who had completed four months of training (Group 2) ranked the Femininity scale items of the BSRI as being significantly (p <.05) less self-descriptive than did subjects who were just beginning training (Group 1). Group 2 subjects were concluded to have significantly less feminine self-perceptions than Group 1 subjects and Hypothesis 2 was rejected. Sex-role theory identifies work as a masculine sex-role related behavior (Chafetz, 1974). CETA subjects, as a result of not working for extended periods of time prior to beginning CETA training, have had limited exposure to this masculine activity. It is reasonable to conclude that CETA subjects will begin to shift toward a more masculine self-perception as they progress in training and become more acclimatized to work. Based upon the results obtained in this study it would appear that one manifestation of this shift is a decrease in the level of perceived-self femininity after four months of employment training.

PAGE 158

148 This finding is not surprising, in view of the high percentage of females among the CETA subjects in this study (68%). However, based upon other findings in this study, there is some question as to the validity of instruments which contain sophisticated self-evaluative items, such as the BSRI, when used with CETA subjects. Therefore, these findings must be considered as tentative pending further research on sex-roles and the utility of the BSRI for use with CETA subjects. No differences were identified between subjects in Group 1 and Group 2 on the Internal-External Scale. It was concluded that four months of CETA training did not significantly affect the locus of control orientation of the CETA subjects examined in this study. The acceptance of Hypothesis 3 was supported. The evaluation of Hypotheses 1-3 supports the conclusion that CETA employment training had a limited effect upon the mental health characteristics of the CETA participants examined in this study. This conclusion suggests that either the development and enhancement of mental health among the CETA participants is not one of the primary goals of the CETA employment training staff or that the mental health enhancement stategies employed by the training staff are not effective. There is evidence to support both alternatives. It is the personal experience of this researcher that the primary statistic used by the U.S. Department of Labor to assess program effectiveness is the percentage of participants completing training and entering fulltime, unsubsldized employment. As a consequence, although employment training programs include counseling services as provided for by the Act, the primary goal of the programs is more often concerned with completion of training and job placement rather than with development of mental health. Improvement in

PAGE 159

149 the mental health of the participant is apparently a byproduct of training rather than a targeted goal. At the same time, findings from this study which are discussed later suggest that certain counseling strategies may not be effective with long-term unemployed persons. Comparison 2; Program 1 (Adult Work Experience) versus Program 2 (Public Service Employment) This comparison examined demographic and mental health differences between participants in Program 1 and Program 2. Program 1 participants differed significantly (p <.001) from Program 2 participants on six of the twelve independent demographic variables. Program 1 participants were more likely to be female, unmarried, and older with more children, less education, and a longer history of unemployment prior to entering training than Program 2 participants. These differences support the conclusion that the two programs serve different segments of the unemployed population in this study. Program 1 is apparently used by the CETA program participating in this study to serve the unskilled, unmarried, welfare mother with an extended unemployment history while Program 2 is used to serve married high school graduates with limited skills and a relatively short history of unemployment. The evaluation of Hypotheses 4-6 comparing the mental health differences of participants in Program 1 and Program 2 identified only one significant difference. Participants in Program 2 were found to be significantly (p <.05) more self-actualizing in their ability to perceive life's dichotomies as being meaningfully related (POI Synergy scale). The data supported the rejection of Hypothesis 4 and the acceptance of Hypotheses 5 and 6.

PAGE 160

150 However, there was a contradictory pattern of trends which suggested the existence of mental health differences between participants in the two programs which warrant discussion. As noted above. Program 1 participants were more self-actualizing than Program 2 participants in their synergistic perception of life's dichotomies as being related. A non-significant trend (p <.10) also indicated a tendency for Program 1 subjects to be more self -actualizing in their perception of human nature. In contrast. Program 1 participants exhibited non-significant (p <,10) trends to be less self-actualizing than Program 2 participants in their poorer sensitivity to their own emotions, in their less flexible values, and their limited capacity to establish meaningful interpersonal relationships. Program 1 participants also tended (p <,10) to be more external in their locus of control orientation than Program 2 participants. The pattern of these trends is inconsistent with previous research which found that increased mental health in one area would be associated with increased mental health in other areas, Shostrom (1974) has reported a high degree of positive intercorrelation among the scales of the POI. Likewise, a strong positive correlation has been reported between high scores on the POI and an internal locus of control as measured by the Internal-External Scale (White, 1971), It is reasonable to suggest, therefore, that there exist some characteristics of the participants in the different programs which result in the discrepant mental health differences identified. Findings of this study, discussed in a later section, indicate that this discrepancy is associated with the independent demographic variables of age, sex, race, and religious affiliation.

PAGE 161

151 Comparison 3: Mental Health Variables versus Demographic Variables The third major comparison of this study was an examination of the relationship between the mental health characteristics and selected demographic characteristics of the CETA subjects. Several significant relationships were identified between mental health and the demographic characteristics of the subjects, CETA participants affiliated with liberal religious denominations were generally more self-actualizing than those participants affiliated with fundamentalist denominations. However, a significant interaction effect indicated that Program 1 participants affiliated with liberal denominations exhibited levels of self-actualization similar to participants affiliated with fundamentalist denominations. This interaction suggests that fundamentalist teachings exist within the liberal denominations which Program 1 participants are more likely to endorse than Program 2 participants. Overall, CETA participants affiliated with liberal religious teachings were more inner-directed, more accepting of themselves, more accepting of aggression as a natural process, more flexible in the application of their values, and better able to establish meaningful interpersonal relationships than participants affiliated with fundamentalist religious teachings. These findings are consistent with previous research which has identified a strong inverse relationship between self-actualization and association with a fundamentalist religion (Anderson, 1973; Burke, 1973; Reynolds, 1970). The independent demographic variables of age and education were found to be associated with the mental health levels of CETA subjects examined in this study. Those subjects with approximately 12 years of education or more, or who were 30 years of age or older, were generally

PAGE 162

152 more mentally healthy than subjects who had less education or who were younger. Specifically, the more educated or older subjects were more internal in their locus of control, more oriented in the here and now, more likely to perceive the dichotomies of life as being meaningfully related, more positive in their perception of human nature, better able to accept their aggression as being natural, and better able to establish meaningful interpersonal relationships. A strong relationship was found to exist between race and locus of control orientation. As suggested by previous research (Battle & Rotter, 1963; Hall et al., 1977; Lefton, 1968) the white subjects in this study were more internal in their locus of control than the non-white subjects. These findings are consistent with the findings of Gurin, P. et al. (1968), since participation in CETA employment training is voluntarily initiated and maintained by the participants. Unmarried CETA subjects were more self-actualizing than married CETA subjects. Unmarried subjects were more likely to perceive the dichotomies of life as being meaningfully related and were more likely to have a positive view of human nature than married subjects. Some characteristic of the marriage relationship or of married persons in this study would appear to limit the development of these self-actualization characteristics among the married subjects. The exact source of this limiting effect must be the subject of future research. Sex-role flexibility was related to the sex and race of the CETA subjects. In three of the comparison groups (the Combined Group, Group 2, and Program 2) the male subjects were less willing to describe themselves with feminine sex-role related items than were female subjects to describe themselves with masculine sex-role related items. As a

PAGE 163

153 result, a higher percentage of females were classified as androgynous than were males and a higher percentage of males were classified as undifferentiated or sex-typed than were females. Among the subjects in Group 1, the black subjects were more willing to describe themselves with opposite-sex sex-role related items, indicating a higher level of sex-role flexibility, than were white subjects. In general, the data suggest that the blacks and females tended to be more flexible in their sex-role self-descriptions than were males and whites among the subjects in this study. This finding may reflect the predominantly female (68%) and black (82%) composition of the CETA sample since, as discussed previously, work is primarily a masculine sex-role related activity. Working, therefore, would require the development of greater flexibility in sex-role self-perceptions among females than males. However, in view of the tentative nature of the data obtained with the BSRI as discussed earlier, these findings must await further clarification. Finally, a relationship was identified between mental health and the family position of CETA subjects. A significant interaction in the data analysis indicated that subjects who were the oldest or only child in their families were more self-actualizing in their view of human nature as positive than were other CETA subjects. Furthermore, this same group had higher levels of perceived-self masculinity, feminity, and social desirability, i.e., scored higher on these three subscales of the BSRI, than the other CETA subjects. While evidence in the literature suggests that higher levels of mental health might be expected among subjects who are the oldest or only child in their families (Crandall, V. C.,et al., 1965; Gibb, 1967), no evidence has been found to suggest increased levels of mental health among subjects who are the

PAGE 164

154 third oldest member of their families. This pattern is unusual and further research is needed in this area. Hypothesis 7 was rejected because these findings identified strong relationships between mental health and demographic characteristics of the CETA subjects in this study. Of the 12 demographic variables selected for study, denomination, age, education, race, marital status, sex, number of children, and family position were found to be related to mental health differences. Comparison 4: CETA subjects versus Subjects in the Validation Studies The final comparison was an examination of mental health differences between CETA subjects and subjects reported in studies validating the three mental health measures used in this study. Previous research has identified a strong positive relationship between the concepts of selfactualization, psychological androgyny, and locus of control as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Bern Sex-Role Inventory, and the Internal-External Scale (Bass, B., & Stek, 1972: Hochreich, 1975; House, 1974; Lambert et al., 1976; Nevill, 1977; Ott, 1976; Pettus, 1976; Wall, 1970; White, 1971). The relative levels of mental health found by comparing the CETA subjects with the subjects in the validation studies are inconsistent with previous research. CETA subjects were significantly (p <.01) less self-actualizing than the sample of normal adults (defined as being neither self-actualizing nor non-self-actualizing) reported by Shostrom (1974, p. 24), Similarly, CETA subjects were significantly (p <.05) less internal in their locus of control than samples of students from Ohio State University and Florida State University (Rotter, 1966, pp. 279-280). In contrast, however, CETA subjects exhibited a

PAGE 165

155 significantly (p <.05) higher level of mental health as measured by sexrole flexibility than subjects reported by Bern (1977, p. 198). The CETA subjects also had higher scores on the three subscales of the Bern Sex-Role Inventory than did Stanford University students used by Bern (1974, p. 161) in the development of the BSRI. These contrasts suggest that the data measured the existence of factors other than relative differences in mental health among the subjects in this study. Perhaps one factor reflected in these findings is the ability to engage in accurate self-evaluative behavior. The only mental health scale which did not differ significantly between the CETA subjects and the subjects in the validation studies was the POI Self-regard scale. The CETA subjects were found to hold themselves in as high a self-regard as the "normal" adults reported by Shostrom (1974, p. 24). The high self-regard level is noteworthy since the CETA subjects were less mentally healthy than the normal adult subjects on every other POI scale and than college students on the Internal-External Scale. The solitary elevation of the POI Self-regard scale, in association with the relative depression of the other POI scales and Internal-External Scale, serves to suggest that the CETA subjects hold themselves in comparatively high regard without the relative strengths to support this high regard. They do not, therefore, appear to be engaging in accurate, critical selfanalysis. An examination of the item structure in the three mental health measures used in this study and the pattern of responses to these items also serves to indicate that the CETA subjects experienced difficulty in self-evaluative activities. The items used in the POI and the lES are constructed of pairs of statements. Subjects are required to select

PAGE 166

156 the statement in each pair which is more true for them. This is a relatively structured task permitting, at the most, three choices: either statement 1 is true, statement 2 is true, or both statements are true and the item, is left blank. The items in the BSRI, however, require much more sophisticated responses. Each item on the BSRI requires the subjects to decide, on a scale of 1-7, how accurately the items describe themselves. The BSRI items clearly require a more complex self-evaluative response than either the POI or the lES. The unusual response pattern observed on the BSRI and reported in Chapter IV (page 112) becomes more significant in view of the relative complexity of the items. It was observed that 30% of the subjects correctly responding to the BSRI did so in a systematic fashion. These subjects ranked a majority of the 60 items at one or two levels: either mostly "7's," mostly "I's" and "7's," mostly "6's" and "7's," or mostly "2's" and "6's." It seems unlikely that a majority of the items would realistically be ranked in such a regular pattern if the subjects were not experiencing difficulty in responding to the items. Furthermore, these responses resulted in 66% of the CETA subjects being classified androgynous as compared to the 24% so classified among the Stanford University students (Bem, 1977, p. 198). It seems reasonable to conclude that CETA subjects experienced difficulty in accurately evaluating the personal applicability of each BSRI item because of the complexity of the response required. These findings raise serious questions about the applicability of the BSRI to populations which might be expected to have difficulty with sophisticated self-evaluation. As a consequence, the findings obtained with the BSRI on the mental health characteristics of CETA participants

PAGE 167

157 are not discussed further. There is a need for research to develop a more appropriate sex-role inventory for use with the CETA-type subjects. Conclusions The findings of this study support the following conclusions. Conclusion 1 The CETA employment training program investigated in this study does not appear to improve the mental health of the participants. With the exception of an improved perception of human nature as being inherently good, no significant mental health differences were identified as a result of four months of training among the CETA subjects examined. The improved perception of human nature was significant only when the subject's marital status and number of children were included in the comparison. Conclusion 2 The CETA Adult Work Experience program and the CETA Public Service Employment program seem to be serving different elements of the unemployed population. Mental health differences. The mental health profile of participants in the CETA Adult Work Experience program and the CETA Public Service Employment program appeared to differ. The Adult Work Experience participants tended to be more mentally healthy than the Public Service Employment participants in their ability to perceive human nature as being basically good and in their ability to experience the dichotomies of life as being meaningfully related. The Public Service Employment participants tended to be more mentally healthy than Adult Work Experience participants in their greater sensitivity to their own emotions, more flexible values, greater ability to establish intimate interpersonal relationships, and more internal locus of control.

PAGE 168

158 Demographic differences. The demographic characteristics of those in the two programs were significantly different. The Adult Work Experience participants were more likely to be female, older, and unmarried with more children, less education, and a longer history of unemployment than the Public Service Employment participants. Conclusion 3 Mental health differences among the CETA subjects in this study were related to differences in their demographic characteristics. Religious affiliation. CETA subjects affiliated with liberal religious teachings seemed to be more mentally healthy than CETA subjects affiliated with fundamentalist religious teachings by virtue of their more inner-directed support, increased interpersonal sensitivity, greater self-acceptance, and greater flexibility of values. Education. CETA subjects with at least a high school education appeared to be more mentally healthy than CETA subjects with less than a high school education. CETA subjects with more education were more oriented in the here and now, interpersonally sensitive, able to experience the dichotomies of life as being meaningfully related, likely to perceive human nature as being good, and more internally oriented. Age. CETA subjects who were approximately 30 years of age or older indicated that they were more mentally healthy than CETA subjects who were younger. The older subjects were better able to experience the dichotomies of life as being meaningfully related, to perceive human nature as being good, to establish meaningful interpersonal relationships, and exhibited a more internal locus of control. Marital status. CETA subjects who were not married appeared to be more mentally healthy than the married subjects on the basis of their

PAGE 169

159 greater ability to perceive human nature as basically good and to experience the dichotomies of life as meaningfully related. Race. White subjects indicated greater mental health than the nonwhite subjects by virtue of being more Internally oriented. Conclusion 4 CETA subjects in this study were apparently less mentally healthy than subjects reported in validation studies of the Internal-External Scale and the Personal Orientation Inventory. CETA subjects were more external in their locus of control than college students and less selfactualizing than normal adults. Conclusion 5 CETA subjects in this study seemed to have difficulty with accurate self -evaluation. Comparisons of CETA subjects with samples of college students and normal adults included in the validation studies of the Internal-External Scale and the Personal Orientation Inventory indicated that the CETA subjects held themselves in relatively high regard without substantial support for that opinion. Furthermore, the CETA subjects' response patterns on the Bex Sex-Role Inventory suggested difficulty in responding to the relatively more sophisticated questionnaire items. Conclusion 6 The usefulness of the Bern Sex-Role Inventory for use in assessing the sex-roles among the CETA subjects is questionable. CETA subjects exhibited difficulty in responding to the more sophisticated BSRI items in an accurate and consistent manner. The findings obtained through the use of the Bex Sex-Role Inventory are identified as tentative pending further research.

PAGE 170

160 Mental Health of the CETA Subjects: A Composite Picture Based upon these conclusions, it is possible to generate a composite mental health picture of the CETA subjects in this study. Although this picture is in part speculative, the intent is to propose an overall picture of the mental health of the CETA subjects. The composite picture is composed of elements drawn from the combined Group, Program 1 versus Program 2, and Group 1 versus Group 2 comparisons. Element 1 : The Combined Group In comparison with normal adults and with college students, CETA subjects were found to be less mentally healthy in their locus of control and levels of self-actualization. CETA subjects exhibited an unusually elevated level of self-regard without the supporting strengths to justify the opinion. These findings are consistent with research identifying increased levels of mental illness among persons with extended histories of unemployment (Tiffany, D. et al., 1970; Work in America , 1973). Jourard (1963) notes that one of the most common forms of poor mental health is an inaccurate or incomplete self-concept resulting from a failure to acknowledge unpleasant or undesirable elements of the self. Mental health differences among the CETA subjects in this study were found to be related to several demographic characteristics. Subjects who were older, unmarried, or had completed high school were found to have higher levels of mental health than those who were younger, married or less educated. Subjects affiliated with liberal religious teachings were found to have higher levels of mental health than subjects affiliated with more fundamentalist teachings. Finally, white subjects were found to have a more internal locus of control than non-white subjects.

PAGE 171

161 Based upon these findings a composite mental health picture of the demographic characteristics of the typically most mentally healthy subject would a unmarried, white, female over the age of 30 with a high school education and affiliated with liberal religious teachings. This rather general mental health picture of the subjects in this study may be further refined by examining mental health differences between different groups of subjects. Element 2; Program 2 (Adult Work Experience) versus Program 2 (Public Service Employment) Mental health differences and demographic differences among the CETA subjects were found to be associated with differences in program participation. Program 1 participants were found to have higher mental health levels than Program 2 participants in their ability to experience the dichotomies of life as being meaningfully related and to perceive human nature as being inherently good. However, Program 1 participants exhibited a trend toward lower mental health levels by virtue of having a more external locus of control, poorer sensitivity to their own emotions, less flexibility of values, and a poorer ability to establish meaningful interpersonal relations. In addition, an interaction pattern between religious affiliation and program participation indicated that Program 1 participants affiliated with liberal denominations were more likely to endorse the more fundamental teachings within the liberal denominations. Finally, Program 1 participants were found to differ markedly from Program 2 participants on the basis of demographic characteristics. Program 1 participants were more likely to be female, older, and unmarried with more children, less education, and a longer history of unemployment than Program 2 participants.

PAGE 172

162 Based upon the strength of the demographic differences and the pattern of trends in mental health differences between participants in the two programs, it is possible to suggest the existence of two patterns of mental health within the general composite mental health picture. First, increased mental health as measured by perceptions of human nature and the dichotomies of life appears to be associated with being female, older, unmarried, and having children. Second, increased mental health as measured by locus of control, sensitivity to one's own emotions, flexibility of values, and capacity for intimate contact appears to be associated with being white, being affiliated with liberal religious teachings, having at least a high school education, and having a shorter history of unemployment. Element 3: Group 1 (Intake) versus Group 2 (Training) The final element of the composite picture of the mental health of the CETA subjects in this study is the effect of four months of training on their mental health. The only mental health difference which was associated with completion of four months of training was a tendency for subjects in Group 2 to have a more positive perception of human nature. This trend became significant when the subjects' marital status and number of children were included in the comparison. In view of the preceding discussion it would appear that unmarried mothers with limited education and an extended history of unemployment responded to training by perceiving human nature more positively. While the specific element of training is not readily evident, it seems possible that one of the most immediate effects of training is that the participants begin to receive a regular income, either again or for the first time. The suggestion is that the perception of human nature as

PAGE 173

163 being inherently good Is sensitive to economic pressures, especially when the person Is economically responsible for others. Recommendations for Counseling Based upon the conclusions of this study, several recommendations may be made for counselors and trainers working with CETA clients. Recommendation 1 It is recommended that CETA counseling staffs develop counseling strategies which are not dependent upon introspection or responses to open-ended questions. The CETA subjects in this study were unable to respond to test items which required sophisticated, self -evaluative behavior. CETA clients may be expected, therefore, to have a noticeable degree of difficulty in responding to interventions which require them to engage in complex self-analysis, such as open-ended paraphrases and questions. It has been this researcher's experience that CETA clients are more receptive to directive or structured counseling efforts. As an example, the question, "In this situation were you happy or sad?" was found to elicit a more productive response than the question, "How did you feel when this happened?". While arguments have been made that this type of approach limits the client's response, it has been this researcher's experience that only be limiting the range of possible responses is it possible to obtain genuine responses. The findings of this study support the experience that ambiguous, open-ended questions will result in ambiguous, uninformative responses. Reconmiendation 2 CETA counselors should reexamine the manner in which their role and function as counselors is presented to CETA clients. Traditionally, counselors are presented as being available to "help" the clients deal

PAGE 174

164 with problems. However, if the difficulty in self-evaluation identified in this study results in an inability to perceive problem areas in the self then CETA clients may not respond to efforts to "help" them. CETA clients encountered by this researcher were most open to help offered within the context of current problems. As an example, CETA clients have been more willing to admit the need for help when failure to obtain help would clearly result in some aversive consequence, such as loss of job. Without the identification of a problem which the clients could not aviod , ignore, or discount, the presentation of help from the counselor was often spurned as insulting and unnecessary. To recall a quote from May (1960): There is no such thing as truth or reality for a living human being except as he participates in it, is conscious of it, has some relationship to it. (p. 14) Recommendation 3 It is recommended that CETA counseling staffs carefully reexamine CETA clients' understanding of work related statements. Previous research has identified strong similarities between blue-collar workers and unemployed persons in their respective endorsement of work related values and motivation to work (Cook, 1971; Kaplan & Tausky, 1974; Searls et al., 1974). However, in view of the findings in this study regarding self-evaluative behavior among CETA clients it may be that statements of desire to work or endorsing work related values and activities with which the clients have no prior experience are made without a full understanding of the implications of such statements. As an example, the work related value of punctuality may be endorsed without considering how it will feel to get out of bed early enough to be at work on time. The resultant discomfort of having to get out of

PAGE 175

165 bed early or face an angry boss for being late may cause the client to withdraw from the program. CETA counselors should anticipate such discrepancies between the clients' stated and actual values and habits and prepare interventions to help the clients overcome the shock associated with the discovery that there is more to working than receiving a paycheck. Recommendation 4 CETA counselors should be sensitive to the demographic characteristics of their clients. Differences in mental health among CETA subjects in this study were found to be related to differences in the subjects' age, race, sex, education, marital status, number of children, religious affiliation, and length of unemployment. The clients' willingness and ability to engage in successful attitudinal change or mental health counseling may well be predicted and affected by their demographic characteristics. Recommendation 5 CETA counselors should also be aware of the program in which the clients are training. Different mental health patterns were identified among CETA subjects in this study on the basis of the program in which they were participating. Although there are several possible explanations for these different patterns such as different selection criteria for the programs, demographic differences between the clients in the programs, or the effects of different training staffs or activities, it is clear that these patterns exist and should be considered in the preparation of training and counseling interventions. Recommendation 6 It is recommended that the counseling element of CETA employment training programs be restructured to facilitate the development of

PAGE 176

166 mental health among CETA clients. As discussed in preceding sections, the goals of CETA training programs are currently focused upon the placement of clients in fulltime employment. Other training outcomes seem to be secondary to this goal. It is not surprising, therefore, that the CETA subjects examined in this study were found to exhibit limited improvement in mental health as a result of four months of training. Previous research has demonstrated a strong relationship between good mental health and good productivity (Tiffany, D.,et al., 1970; Work In America , 1973). For this reason, greater attention to the improvement of mental health seems likely to increase the chances for satsifactory work performance. Recommendations for Further Research Several areas of interest for further research are indicated by this study. Recommendation 1 This study should be replicated in other regions of the nation. Subjects participating in this study were enrolled in a CETA training program located in a north Florida metropolitan area. It would be useful to determine whether similar mental health differences exist among unemployed persons in other regions of the nation. Recommendation 2 A related question is whether mental health differences exist between unemployed persons applying for and participating in CETA training and unemployed persons who live in the same area but do not apply for or participate in the training program. Research in this area may prove difficult, however, in view of reported difficulty in obtaining a stable research sample from this extremely transient population (Barnes, 1972; Hardin, 1972; Lewis, 1972).

PAGE 177

167 Recommendation 3 Research is needed to determine the length of CETA training required to effect a significant improvement in the overall mental health of CETA clients. CETA subjects in this study exhibited little change in mental health following four months of training. A longitudinal study of changes in the mental health of unemployed persons as they enter and complete training would be beneficial. Recommendation 4 Further research should be conducted to investigate the effectiveness of various counseling and training strategies for facilitating the development of mental health among CETA clients. In view of the difficulties experienced with accurate self-analysis by CETA subjects in this study, counseling strategies other than one-on-one, client-centered therapy should be studied. Recommendation 5 Research is needed to investigate sex-roles and sex-role flexibility of CETA clients as well as to identify an appropriate sex-role instrument for use with CETA clients. The CETA subjects in this study were unable to respond with sufficient accuracy and consistency to the items on the Bern Sex-Role Inventory to produce reliable information regarding sexroles and sex-role flexibility. Recommendation 6 Research would be helpful to examine further the relationships between mental health differences and demographic characteristics of CETA clients. This study identified several significant relationships between the mental health levels of the CETA subjects and their demographic characteristics of family position, marital status, number of children.

PAGE 178

168 length of unemployment, religious affiliation, age, sex, race, and education. Determining how these characteristics are associated with mental health differences would be beneficial. Recommendation 7 Finally, further research would be helpful in identifying the sources and implications of the self-analysis difficulties identified among the subjects in this study. The difficulty experienced by CETA subjects in accurately and consistently completing self-evaluative tasks has significant implications for future planning of counseling strategies for CETA clients. Improved understanding of this mental health dimension of CETA clients would greatly enhance the planning and development of counseling and training activities designed for the CETA eligible, unemployed population. Summary This study sought to examine the mental health of unemployed persons from the perspective of humanistically oriented mental health theory. This study grew out of the need to understand and help the long-term unemployed and particularly, the need to integrate employment training and mental health. Hopefully, through identification of mental health characteristics among unemployed persons participating in a CETA funded employment training program, this study will provide a foundation for improved understanding of the unemployed population of our society. Such an understanding can contribute to the development of more effective measures for improving the mental health of unemployed persons and assisting them to live as more fully functioning members of the American society.

PAGE 179

APPENDIX A CETA ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Participation in employment training activities funded under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978 is contingent upon meeting federally established eligibility criteria. These criteria for the programs examined in this study are presented as follows. Title II-B— An eligible participant must: 1. Be a resident of the geographical area served by the CETA program from which training is to be received. 2. Be economically disadvantaged.* (Annualize the last six months income to determine annual income.) 3. Be unemployed for seven (7) days prior to submitting the application, underemployed, or in school (youth only). Title II-D— An eligible participant must: 1. Be a resident of the geographical area served by the CETA program from which training is to be received. 2. Be economically disadvantaged.* 3. Be unemployed at the time of application. A. Have been unemployed at 15 of the 20 weeks prior to the date of application. 5. Not have voluntarily terminated without good cause in the last six months, his/her last fulltlme position paying at least minimum wage. Title VI— An eligible participant must: 1. Be a resident of the geographical area served by the CETA program from which training is to be received. 2. Be unemployed at the time of application. 3. Be unemployed for at least 10 of the 12 weeks prior to the date of application. A. Have a family income which does not exceed 100 per cent of the Lower Living Standard Income Level,** annualized on the basis of the three months prior to the application date. ^. Not have voluntarily terminated without good cause in the last six months, his/her last fulltime position paying at least minimum wage. 169

PAGE 180

170 Income Eligibility guidelines for CETA participation are as follows. Size of Family Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 *Economical

PAGE 181

APPENDIX B CETA PROGRAM SIGNIFICANT SEGMENTS The federal government requires each Prime Sponsor to serve the most needy segments of the population. In order to insure this goal is accomplished the Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics defines for each Prime Sponsor the demographic characteristics of the local unemployed population. The Prime Sponsor's clientele must reflect these characteristics. The significant percentages for the Prime Sponsor participating in this study are presented as follows. Title II-B Total Participants for Fiscal Year 1979-1980: 2040 Title II-D 1519 Title VI 1318 Percentages

PAGE 182

APPENDIX C TEST PACKAGE INTRODUCTION AND PERSONAL DATA QUESTIONNAIRE (Title on Subject's copy was "Introduction and History") You have in front of you a research packet. The packet contains questions which ask you to tell us about who you are and what you believe to be true for you. We are asking these questions so we can learn how to make the CETA program better help you prepare for work. Before you begin it is important for you to understand four Important points. First, this study cannot work unless you are completely honest in your answers to the questions. If at any point you feel that you cannot honestly answer the questions in the packet please stop and return the packet to me. There is no penalty for stopping and it would harm the study more if you answered falsely. Second, it is important that you understand that your answers will be kept completely confidential. I am the only person who will know how you answered the questions. Before anyone else sees the results of this study I will have removed your name from the answer sheets and I will have assigned your answers a code number. The only reason I need to know which answers are yours is so I can tell you the results of your answers and so I can follow you through your CETA experience. Third, as I mentioned above, I plan to tell you what your answers were. If you want, after I have completed the study I will be happy to sit down with each of you individually and explain the results of the study and what they mean. 172

PAGE 183

173 Finally, it is important to point out that while we have tried to design this packet so it is easy to complete with clear instructions, we are not perfect. There will be areas where some of you will not understand the questions or instructions. If this happens, please feel free to ask me for help. It is not your fault, it just means that we did not do our job right. Thank you for your help in this study. Before you start the first group of questions please answer the History questions below. History In this group of questions you are asked to answer questions about yourself. These questions are about your history. They will help us understand your answers to the other questions better. Please read with me and circle the letter on the answer sheet which best describes you. Please answer each question only once. 1. Are you a member of a church? A. Yes. B. No. 2. If you answered YES to question #1 above please write the name of your church on the answer sheet and the denomination (Baptist, Methodist, Catholic, or others) of your church in the space on the answer sheet. 3. How often do you attend church? A. Do not attend church, not currently a member, or an inactive member. B. Attend church only on special occasions, such as Christmas, Easter, or others, or between one (1) and six (6) times a year. C. Attend church about once or twice a month, D. Attend church at least once a week.

PAGE 184

174 4. Who raised you? (For this question please circle all answers that are true for you) A. Both of your parents. B. One of your parents and a step-parent. C. One parent or one step-parent. D. Other relatives such as aunt, uncle, brother, sister, or grandparents. E. Foster parents or legal gaurdians. 5. How many older brothers and sisters do you have? If none please write a zero (0). 6. How many younger brothers and sisters do you have? If none please write a zero (0) . THIS COMPLETES THE HISTORY SECTION, PLEASE STOP UNTIL TOLD TO PROCEED. THANK YOU.

PAGE 185

APPENDIX D CETA APPLICATION •.?«1.1CATICM I»TU_

PAGE 186

176 Jl. lODNQMIC Xt/inS (CIROE at) AT OR BaUM 0« PRDVBinf l£Va OR TCI oil L 35. fwiiLT INCcre:! Ktv€b< 86-100 peromt ujil KTXEN 71-85 PERCOff LLSIL ABWt lOO rtHCtNT IXSIL KAfE OF F/«iLr feeoa liSAIIONSHlP A/TUCAW itcrre tnxtn tA.Tr 5 fty. [AST 6 Tn^. -Xit -O-Jfc_ EXTEMJeD ACTIVE B/IY (CIRCLE Ot) YES lO DISCHIRGE On€R THW DISKXMOLE (CIRCLE Oc) YES n 3(K DISABILITY C« DISABIUTY 01 SCH»RC£ (circle C»«) YES K> VIETMAn-EKA (35 TEARS OD CR YIXMGBl) (CIRCLE Oc) YU K] NOTE: rCR H«VE HAD ANY EXTErCED ACTIVE tUTY tN T>C U. S. KveO FORCES IN T>€ 60 DAY PERICD PRIOR TO E>nj01MJ*1JJ»ED IN Afl AIMINISTMTIVE CAPACITY BY A RECIPIEKT, SUBRXIPIEKT OR E>*UJYING AGENCr OF A CETA FunS) «£MCY I AM FOffllCDEII BY LAW TD ACCEPT A POSITim IN AN AIHINISTJWTIVE CAPACITY, STAFF POSITIO*, HJBL1C SERVICE ErHjOwe*T POSITIcn, CB Ott-T>«-JDa TRAINING PaSITlm. T>f TEHn 'PERSCW IN AN AmiNISIRATIVE CAPACITY* INCULCES THKE PERSCNS >«) mVE OVTRILL AtMINlSTRAIlVE RESPOISIBIHTY fa> A PRCCRArt, INCUCIW. AIL EUKTO) Alt) AFTOINIED OFFICIALS HO H4VE AW RESPOISIBILITY FCR T>C OBTAINING OF AMVOH APPflWAL OF ANY GRANT FLtCED l»«R T>C tCX, AS WELL AS OTHER OFFICIALS HO HAVE IHFUtNCE CR CDHTROL EVER T>E ACrlNlSTRATlOtt OF T>C PROGRAM, SICH AS TVt PROJECT DIRECTCR, DEPUTY DIRFCTOR tm U1II CHIEFS, AX) PERSCrC HO WVE SELECTION, HIRING, PLACEfENI CR SUPERVISCRY RiSPOISIBILlTltS FOR PUBLIC SERVICE BVUmfKl CR C»-TX£X8 TRAINING PARTICIPANTS. ( (ED H»^) CdO IOT HAVE) RELATIVES RELATED TO It ST BUX]0,rW«C GCM»»efIS Of T>€ CITY OF JACKSOft'ILLt. BAttR OH NASSAU CO/€ It«)l»VlTICH PRCr/IDED IS TRUE TD Tl« BEST OF Kl COA-EEGE. I AM ALSO AWARE TmT T>€ INFOimTION I HAVE PWJVIOED IS SUBJECT TO REVIBf HO VERIFICATIOI Alf> I «Y HAVE TO PfiCMDC DOCLTOITS TD Sl^TOST THIS APPVICATIOr<. I AM ALSO AMARE THVT I AM SUS-IECT TD IrrtDlAIE TEmlHATiat IF I AM FCAM) INELIGIBLE AFTER EMKUTENT A>4) fttV BE FHOSEO/TED FOR FRAU) AMVOR PE/LAITf. I ALLCW RELEASE OF THIS INKRmnCM FCR VERIFICATICW PIJIPOSES Arc IMJERSTAfC THAT IT HIU Bf USED TO DETEWINE ELIGIBILITY. I AM FIRHIWING MY SOCIAL SECVRIDf HTBER 01 A VOULMARY BASIS WITH Tl€ IMJEHSTAfCING SUH IS NOT REQUIRED BY FEDERAL STATUE CR REOOLATICrt. I HAVE BEEN ACWISED TmT CEIA Hia UTILIZE TMIS Ht^ER 0«.Y 10 FACILIIAIE TIC LDCATIOt OF E«\JCm«NT, MILITARY, CREDIT, HO EEUCATIOUL RECORDS COCERNIIC « IN COrMECTION WITH THIS APPUCATlOh. applicant's siciutuie_ _ft»TI (rOl,nAY,YEAR)_ PARSIT OR CUWSIAN SIG>WTUC_ NOT REOJIRai IF HEAD OF HUSEHXJD OR ABOVE Hi) IlfTERVIEVOt S SIO«TVInH,nAY,YEAR)_ _»te(mchtm,!»y,year)_ PAGE 2 Of ? PACES

PAGE 187

APPENDIX E INFORMED CONSENT FORM (Title was omitted on the subjects' copies) You are about to participate in a research project. This project is designed to increase our understanding of CETA employment training programs. This project is being conducted in conjunction with your CETA program and your participation is greatly appreciated. You will receive your usual pay for group participation for participating in this study. This study consists of several questions which you are asked to answer. The questions have no right or wrong answers but are designed to have you describe what is true for you. If you do not understand any of the questions you are asked to seek clarification from the researcher present . You may withdraw from this study at any time if you wish and return to your normal CETA group activities. If you wish you may receive a complete interpretation of your responses from the researchers at the end of the research project. If you wish this interpretation please indicate this at the bottom of this page. If you change your mind please contact the researchers at the address or telephone number listed below. Please read the following statements carefully and sign your name if you chose to participate in the project: I have read and understand the procedures described above. I agree to participate in the procedures and I have received a copy of this description. I do/do not (circle one) wish to receive an interpretation of my responses to the questions in this project. I do/do not (circle one) give the research staff permission to share my responses by name with others, including my CETA counselor. Your Name Counselor John A. Sanford (9C4) 376-0210 P. 0. Box 14253 Gainesville, FL 32604 177

PAGE 188

BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams-Webber, J. Generalized expectancies concerning locus of control of reinforcements and the perception of moral sanctions. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology , 1969, 8(4), 340-343. Alfano, A. M. A scale to measure attitudes toward working. Journal of Vocational Behavior , 1973, 3(3), 329-333. Altman, S. L. Women's career plans and maternal employment (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University Graduate School, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1975, 3_5, 3569B. (University Microfilms No. 75-12) Anderson, P. G. An analysis of the scales and items of the Personal Orientation Inventory as it relates to adherents of two religious groups (Doctoral dissertation. University of Northern Colorado, 1972). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1973, 33, 3364A. (University Microfilms No. 73-254) Andrisani, P. J., & Nestel, G. Internal-external control as a contributor to and outcome of work experience. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1976, 6^(2), 156-165. Angrist, S. S. The study of sex-roles. Journal of Social Issues , 1969, 25(1), 215-232. Bakke, E. W. The unemployed man . London: Nisbet & Co., 1933. Bakke, E. W. Citizens without work . New Haven: The Yale Press, 1940. (a) Bakke, E. W. The unemployed worker . New Haven: The Yale Press, 1940. (b) Bakke, E. W. The mission of manpower policy . Kalamazoo, Mi.: The W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1969. Banikotes, P., & Banikotes, F. Male and female perceptions of liberated versus conventional sex-roles. Psychonomic Science , 1972, 29(2), 111-112. Barnes, H. N. Finding and interviewing the hard-to-locate : The DMI experience. In M. E. Borus (Ed.), Evaluating the impact of man power programs . Lexington f4a . : D. C. Heath & Co., 1972. Baron, R. M. , & Bass, A. R. The role of social reinforcement parameters in improving trainee task performance and self-image . Detroit, Mi.: Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, 1968. 178

PAGE 189

179 Barron, F. An ego strength scale which predicts response to psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1953, j^(5), 327-333. Bass, B. A., & Stek, R. J. Perceived locus of control and self-actualization: Failure to replicate. Perceptual and Motor Skills , 1972, 35(2), 646. Battle, E. S., & Rotter, J. B. Children's feelings of personal control as related tn social class and ethnic group. Journal of Person ality , 1963, 11(4), 482-490. Beatty, R. W. A two year study of hard-core unemployed clerical workers: Effects of scholastic achievement, clerical skill, and self-esteem on job success. Personnel Psychology , 1975, 28(2), 165-173. Beatty, R. W. , & Beatty, J. R. Longitudinal study of absenteeism of hard-core unemployed. Psychological Reports , 1975, 26(2), 395-406. Bem, S. L. The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1974, 42(2), 155-162. Bem, S. L. Sex-role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psy chology, 1975, 31(4), 634-643. Bem, S. L. On the utility of alternative procedures for assessing psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1977, 45(2), 196-205. Bem, S. L. Theory and measurement of androgyny: A reply to the Pedhazur-Tetenbaum and Locksley-Colton critiques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1979, 17(6), 1047-1054. Bem, S. L., & Lenney, E. Sex typing and avoidance of cross sex behavior. Journal of Personality and So cial Psychology, 1976, 33(1), 48-54. — Bem, S. L., Martyna, W. , & Watson, C. Sex typing and androgyny: Further explorations of the expressive domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1976, 14(5), 1016-1023. Berzins, J., Welling, M. , & Wetter, R. A new measure of psychological androgyny based on the Personality Research Form. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1978, 46(1), 126-138. Blaumer, R. Work satisfaction and industrial trends. In W. Galenson & S. M. Upset (Eds.), Labor and trade unionism . New York: Wiley & Sons, 1960. Block, J. H. Conceptions of sex roles. American Psychologist, 1973, 28(5), 512-526.

PAGE 190

180 Blood, M. R. Work values and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1969, 53(6), 456-459, Borus, M. E., & Tash, W. R. Measuring the impact of manpower programs: A primer. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Rela tions , 1970, j_7. Broverman, I. K. , Broverman, D. M. , Clarkson, F. E., Rosenkrantz, P. S., & Vogel , S. R. Sex role stereotypes and clinical judgements of mental health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1970, 34(1), 1-7. Broverman, I. K., Vogel, S. R., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F. E., & Rosenkrantz, P. S. Sex role stereotypes: A current appraisal. Journal of Social Issues , 1972, ^(2), 59-78. Brown, R. , Winkworth, J., & Brascamp, L. Student development in a coed residence hall: Promiscuity, prophylactic, or panacea? Journal of College Student Personnel , 1973, i4(2), 98-104. Bryant, B. K. , & Trockel, J. F. Personal history of psychological stress related to locus of control orientation among college women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1976, 44^(2), 266271. Bryant, F. L., & Showalter, J. M. An evaluation of orientation and assessment effectiveness in the Work Incentive Program. Journal of Employment Counseling , 1971, 8^(2), 59-64. Burke, J. F. The relationship between religious orientation and selfactualization among selected Catholic groups (Doctoral dissertation. United States International University, 1973). Disser tation Abstracts International , 1973, 34_, 1721B-I722B. (University Microfilms No. 73-22, 655) Butterfield, E. C. Locus of control, test anxiety, reactions to frustration, and achievement attitudes. Journal of Personality , 1964, 32(3), 355-370. Byrne, D. The Repression-Sensitization Scale: Rationale, reliability, and validity. Journal of Personality , 1961, ^(3), 334-349. Campbell, D. T. , & Stanley, J. C. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research . Chicago: Rand-McNally , 1966. Carey, G. L. Sex differences in problem solving performance as a function of attitude differences. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psy chology , 1958, 56, 256-260. Cassel, J. Social class and mental disorders: An analysis of the limitations and potentialities of current epidemiological approaches. In K. S. Miller & C. M. Grigg (Eds.), Mental health and the lower social classes . Tallahassee, Fl . : Florida State University, 1966.

PAGE 191

181 Chafetz, J. S. Masculine/ feminine or human? An overview of the sociology of sex-roles . Itasca, II.: F. E. Peacock Publishers, 1974. Chandler, T. A. A note on the relationship of internality-externality , self-acceptance, and self-ideal discrepancies. Journal of Psy chology , 1976, _9i(n, 145-146. Chisholm. R. F. Alienation and activities in on-the-job and off-the-job life spheres (Doctoral dissertation, Case-Western Reserve University, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1975, 36 , 1962B. (University Microfilms No. 75-19, 193) Christensen, D. T. Relationship of Manpower Development and Training Act education/training and parole success of one-hundred-eleven matched pairs of parolees from Utah State Prison (Doctoral dissertation. University of Utah, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts Inter national , 1974, 35, 2044A. (University Microfilms No. 74-23, 098) Christie, R. , & Geis, F. L. Studies in machiavelianism . New York: Academic Press, 1970. Clark, R. A. The Internal-External Scale: Control of what? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1976, ^(1), 154. Cohen, S. , Rothbart, M. , & Phillips, S. Locus of control and the generality of learned helplessness in humans. Journal of Person ality and Social Psychology , 1976, 34(6), 1049-1056. Cole, A. Mooney Problem Checklist differences among unemployed individuals in a work evaluation setting (Doctoral dissertation. State University of New York at Buffalo, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1974, 35., 1520A-1521A. (University Microfilms No. 74-19, 971) Cook, V. S. A comparison of work values of disadvantaged black males with work values of advantaged black males (Doctoral dissertation. The Catholic University of America, 1971). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1971, 32, 1848A. (University Microfilms No. 71-23, 401) Crandall, V. C, Katkovsky, W. , & Crandall, V. J. Children's beliefs in their own control of reinforcements in intellectual-academic situations. Child Development , 1965, 36.(1), 91-109. Cristall, L. , & Dean, R. S. Relationship of sex-role stereotypes and self-actualization. Psychological Reports , 1976, _32(3, Pt. 1), 842. Darley, S. A. Big-time careers for the little women. Journal of Social Issues , 1976, ^(3), 85-98. Davis, A. The motivations of the underpriveleged worker. In W. F. Whyte (Ed.), Industry and society . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1946.

PAGE 192

182 Dean, D. G. Alienation: Its meaning and measurement. American Soci ological Review , 1961, 26(5), 753-758. deGrace, G. The compatibility of self-actualization and anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 1974, 30(4), 566-568. Derlega, V. J. , & Chaikin, A. L. Norms affecting self-actualization in men and women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1976, 44(3), 376-380. Deutsch, C. J., & Gilbert, L. A. Sex-role stereotypes: Effects on perceptions of self and others and on personal adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1976, 23(4), 373-379. Dubin, R. Industrial workers' worlds: A study of the "Central Life Interests" of industrial workers. Social Problems , 1956, 2(3), 131-142. Dunbar, J., Brown, M. , & Amoroso, D. Some correlates of attitudes toward homosexuality. Journal of Social Psychology , 1973, 89(2) , 271-279. Ellis, L. J., & Bentler, P. M. Traditional sex determined role standards and sex-stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1973, 25(1), 28-34. Engel, I. M. A factor analytic study of items from five masculinityfemininity tests. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1966, 30(6) , 565. Feldman, J. Race, economic class, and evaluation of work. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1973, 58(1), 10-15. (a) Feldman, J. Race, economic status, and perceived outcomes of work and unemployment. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1973, 58(1), 16-22. (b) Feldman, J. Race, economic class, and the Intention to work: Some normative and attitudinal correltatlons. Journal of Applied Psychology . 1974, 59(2), 179-186. Ferman, L. A. Job development for the hard to employ. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations , 1969, 11 . Fisher, G. Performance of psychopathic felons on a measure of selfactualization. Educational and Psychological Measurement , 1968, 28(2), 561-563. Foster, N. J. Women: Locus of control and attitudes toward femininity and masculinity (Doctoral dissertation. Northwestern University, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1975, 35.. 5109B. (University Microfilms No. 75-7912)

PAGE 193

ion 183 Fox, J., Knapp, R. , & Michael, W. An assessment of self-actualization of psychiatric patients: The validity of the Personal Orientat Inventory. Educational and Psychologica l Measurement, 1968 28(2), 565-5697^ " Fox, L. L. A comparative analysis of internal-external locus of control and sex role concepts in black and white freshmen women (Doctoral dissertation. East Texas State University, 1975). Disserta tion Abstracts International . 1976, 36, 5143A-5144A. (University Microfilms No. 76-4631) Foulds, M. L., & Warehime, R. G. Effects of a "Fake Good" response set on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1971, 18(3), 279-280. (a) "" Foulds, M. L., & Warehime, R. G. The relationship between repressionsensitization and a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology . 1971, 36(2), 257-259. (h) Freedman, L. Z. Psychopathology and poverty. In A. B. Shostak & W Gomberg (Eds.), The blue collar world: Studies of the Ameri can worker. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Freuh, T., & McGhee, P. Traditional sex role development and the amount of time spent watching television. Develop mental Psychology 1975 11(1), 109. ^ ^ ' Garske, J. P. Role variation as a determinant of attributed masculinity and femininity. Journal of Psychology , 1975, 91(1), 31-37. Gaudreau, P. Factor analysis of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1977, 45(2), 299-302. Gestinger, S. H. Temporal relatedness: Personality and behavioral correlates. Journal of Personality Assessment , 1975, 39(4), 405408 . Gibb, L. L. A study of differences in sex, home background, educational background, work experience, extra-curricular participation, and self-actualization in college juniors (Doctoral dissertation. Northern Illinois University, 1966). Dissertation Abstracts . 1967, £7, 2358A-2359A. (University Microfilms No. 66-11, 538) Gilligan, J. F. Personality characteristics of selectors and non-selectors of sensitivity training. Journal of Counsel ing Psychology, 1973, 20(3), 265-268. " ^ ^ ^' Ginn, R. 0. Defensive and non-defensive repressors and sensitizers and self-actualization. Journal of Clinical Psychology . 1974, 30(1) 82-83. — '

PAGE 194

184 Ginn, R. 0. Male and female estimates of personal problems of men and women. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1975, ^(6), 518-522. Ginzberg, E, The development of human resources . New York: McGrawHill, 1966. Ginzberg, E. Manpower agenda for America . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. Goldman, J. A., & Olczak, P. V. Effects of knowledge about self-actualization on faking the Personal Orientation Inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1976, 44_(4), 680. Goldstein, M. W. Mental health, social status, and Maslow's need system (Doctoral dissertation, Yeshiva University, 1967). Dissertation Abstracts , 1967, ^S, 2123B-2124B. (University Microfilms No. 6714, 571) Goodman, P. S. Hiring and training the hard-core unemployed: A problem in system definition. Human Organization , 1969, 2^(4), 259-269. Goodman, P. S., & Salipante, P., Jr. Organizational rewards and retention of the hard-core unemployed. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1976, 6j^(l), 12-21. Goodman, P. S., Salipante, P., Jr., & Paransky, H. Hiring, training, and retraining hard-core unemployed: A selected review. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1973, 58(1). 23-33. Gordon, M. E. , & Scott, R. P. Evaluation of a manpower development project in terms of its effects on the personal lives of its graduates. Journal of Vocational Behavior , 1972, 2^(4), 467-478. Gore, P. M. , & Rotter, J. B. A personality correlate of social action. Journal of Personality , 1963, 2i(U, 58-64. Goursslin, 0. R. , & Roach, J. C. Some issues in the training of the unemployed. Social Problems , 1964, 21(1), 86-98. Graff, R. W. , & Ladd, C. E. Personal Orientation Inventory correlates of a religious committment inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 1971, 22(4), 502-504. Gross, R. , Batlis, N. , Small, A., & Erdwins, C. Factor structure of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1979, 47^(6), 11221123. Gump, J. P. Sex-role attitudes and psychological well-being. Journal of Social Issues, 1972, 28(2), 79-92.

PAGE 195

185 Gurapper, D. C. Implications of economic need, expectancy, and attitudes towards work (Doctoral dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University, 1970). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1971, 32, 605B. (University Microfilms No. 71-16, 605) Gurin, P., Gurin, G., Lao, R. C., & Beattie, M. Internal-external control in the motivation dynamics of Negro youth. Journal of Social Issues , 1969, 25(3), 29-53. Hall, E. R. , Joesting, J., & Woods, M. J. Relationships among measures of locus of control for black and white students. Psychological Reports , 1977, 40(1), 59-62. Hardin, E. On the choice of control groups. In M. E. Borus (Ed.), Evaluating the impact of manpower programs . Lexington, Ma.: D. C. Heath and Co., 1972. Harford, T. C., Willis, C. H., & Deabler, H. L. Personality correlates of masculinity and femininity. Psychological Reports , 1967, 21(3) , 881-884. Hargrett, A. J. The education-unemployment relationship in Chicago as revealed in the 1960 Census. Journal of Negro Education , 1965, 34(2), 121-129. Harris, L., & Associates. A study of Job Corps non-graduate terminations. In Hearings on the Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1967: 90th Congress, First Session . Washington, D. C: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1967 (Part 1). Hartley, M. P. The relationship of locus of control and need achievement to job satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University-The State University of New Jersey, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1976, 3^, 6553A. (University Microfilms No. 76-8689) Hausknecht, M. The blue collar joiner. In A. B. Shostak & W. Gomberg (Eds.), The blue collar world: Studies of the American worker . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964. Heilbrun, A. B. Sex-role, instrumental-expressive behavior, and psychopathology in females. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 1968, 73(1) , 131-136. Heilbrun, A. B. Measurement of masculine and feminine sex-role identities as independent dimensions. Journal of Consulting and Clin ical Psychology , 1976, 44(2), 183-190. Heilbrun, C. G. Toward a recognition of androgyny . New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

PAGE 196

186 Helland, D. J. Sex-role correlates of adolescent self-esteem (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1973, 34. 2026A-2027A. (University Microfilms No. 73-24, 584) Heller, W. W. Employment and manpower. In S. Lebergott (Ed.), Men without work: The economics of unemployment . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964. Henke, R. 0. Factors in successful job training and job performance of the disadvantaged. Journal of Experimental Education , 1976 45(1), 61-68. Heron, A. R. Why men work . Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1948. Herzberg, F. Work and the nature of man . Cleveland: World Publishing, 1966. Herzberg, F. , Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. The motivation to work . New York: Wiley, 1959. Hjelle, L. A. Relationship of a measure of self-actualization to religious participation. Journal of Psychology , 1975, ^(2), 179-182. Hjelle, L. A., & Butterfield, R. Self-actualization and women's attitudes toward their roles in contemporary society. Journal of Psychology , 1974, 87(2), 225-230. Hjelle, L. A., & Smith, G. Self-actualization and retrospective reports of parent-child relationships among college females. Psychological Reports , 1975, 36(3), 755-761. Hochreich, D. J. Sex-role stereotypes for internal-external control and interpersonal trust. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1975, 43(2), 273. Hollingshead, A. B. , & Redlich, F. C. Social class and mental illness . New York: Wiley & Sons, 1958. Holter, H. Sex-roles and social change. Acta Sociologica , 1971, 14(1) , 2-12. House, W. C. Actual and perceived differences in male and female expectancies and minimum goal levels as a function of competition. Journal of Personality , 1974, 42(3), 493-509. Ilardi, R. , & May, W. T. A reliability study of Shostrum's Personal Orientation Inventory. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 1968, 8(1), 68-72. Jones, D. S., & Medvene, A. M. Self-actualization effects of a marathon growth group. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1975, 22^(1), 39-43.

PAGE 197

187 Jones, W. , Chernovetz, M. E., & Hansson, R. 0, The enigma of androgyny: Differential implications for males and females. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1979, j46(2), 298-313. Jourard, S. M. Personal adjustment; An approach through the study of the healthy personality (2nd ed . ) . New York: MacMlllan, 1963. Jourard, S. M. Self-disclosure: An experimental analysis of the trans parent self . New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1971. Kahn, R. L. The meaning of work: Interpretation and proposals for measurement. In A. Campbell & P. E. Converse (Eds.), The human meaning of social change . New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1972. Kaplan, R. , & Tausky, C. Work and the welfare cadillac: The function and commitment to work among the hard-core unemployed. Social Problems , 1972, J_9(4), 469-483. Kaplan, R. , & Tausky, C. The meaning of work among hard-core unemployed. Pacific Sociological Review , 1974, ]J_(2) , 185-189. Kelly, J. A., Caudill, S. , Hathorm, S. , & O'Brien, C. G. Socially undesirable sex correlated characteristics: Implications for androgyny and adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1977, 45(6), 1185-1186. Kelly, J. A., & Worrell, J. New formulations of sex-roles and androgyny: A critical review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psycholo gy, 1977, 45(6), 1101-1115. Kelly, J. A., & Worrell, L. Parent behaviors related to masculine, feminine, and androgynous sex-role orientations. Journal of Con sulting and Clinical Psychology , 1976, 44(5), 843-851. Killingsworth, C. C. Automation, jobs, and manpower. In S. Lebergott (Ed.), Men without work: The economics of unemployment . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964. Killingsworth, C. C. Jobs and income for negroes. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations , 1969, 6. Kimball, R. , & Gelso, C. T. Self-actualization in a marathon growth group: Do the strong get stronger? Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1974, 2A(l), 38-42. Kimmons, G. , & Greenhaus, J. H. Relationships between locus of control and reactions of employees to work characteristics. Psychological Reports , 1976, 39(3, Pt. 1), 815-820. Kinder, B. Locus of control and "pseudovolunteerlng. " Journal of Applied Psychology , 1976, 6^(2), 251-252.

PAGE 198

188 King, M. Sex differences in self-actualization. Psychological Reports , 1974, 35(1, Pt. 2), 602. Klavetter, R. E., & Mogar, R. E. Stability and internal consistency of a measure of self-actualization. Psychological Reports , 1967, 21^(2), 422-424. Klein, L. R. , & Ghozeil, S. A popularized version of 21 doctoral dissertations (Research and Development Monograph No. 70, U. S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration) . Washington, D. C. : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1979. Knapp, R. R. Relationship of a measure of self-actualization to neuroticism and extraversion. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1965, 29(2), 168-172. Knapp, R. R. , & Comrey, A. L. Further construct validation of a measure of self-actualization. Educational and Psychological Measurement , 1973, 33(2), 419-425. Komorovsky, M. Functional analysis of sex-roles. American Sociological Review , 1950, ^5(4), 508-516. Kornhauser, A. Mental health and the industrial worker . New York: Wiley, 1965. Kravetz, D. F. Sex-role concepts of women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1976, 44(3), 437-443. Lambert, M. J., Dejulio, S. S., & Cole, A. M. Internality versus externality and personal adjustment: A factor analytic study. Psychological Reports , 1976, 39(3, Pt . 1), 920-922. Langston, R. D. Stereotyped sex-role behavior and sex-guilt. Journal of Personality Assessment , 1975, 3^(1), 77-81. Lebergott, S. (Ed.). Men without work: The economics of unemployment . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964. Lee, R. , & Piercy, F. Church attendance and self-actualization. Journal of College Student Personnel , 1974, j_5(5) , 400-403. Lef court, H. M. Belief in personal control: Research and implications. Journal of Individual Psychology , 1966, 22^(2), 185-195. Lefcourt, H. M. , & Ladwig, G. M. The American negro: A problem in expectancies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1965, i(4), 377-380. Lefton, M. Race, expectancy, and anomia. Social Forces , 1968, 46(3) , 347-352.

PAGE 199

189 Lessner, M., & Knapp, R. R. Self-actualization and entrepreneurial orientation among small business owners: A validation study of the Personal Orientation Inventory. Educational and Psychol ogical Measurement . 1974, 34(2), 455-460. ~ Levinson, P. Chronic dependency: A conceptual analysis. Social Service Review, 1964, 38(4), 371-381. Levitan, S. A. Federal manpower policies and programs to combat unemployment . Kalamazoo, Mi. : The W. E. Upjohn Institute for Eraployment Research, 1964. Levitan, S. A. The design of federal antipoverty strategies. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations , 1967, 1. Levitan, S. A. Antipoverty work and training efforts: Goals and reality. Policy Papers in Human Resou rces and Industrial Relations, 1969, 3. ' Lewis, M. V. Finding the hard-to-locate: A review of best practices. In M. E. Borus (Ed.), Evaluating the impact of manpower programs . Lexington, Ma.: D. C. Heath, 1972. Locksley, A., & Colton, M. E. Psychological androgyny: A case of mistaken identity. Journal of Persona lity and Social Psychology, 1979, 37(6), 1017-103E ^ Lunneborg, P. Stereotypic aspects to masculinity-femininity measurement. Proceedings of the 76th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association , 1968, 3, 163-164. (Summary) Lunneborg, P., & Lunneborg, C. E. Factor structure of masculinityfemininity scales and items. Journal of Clinical Psychologv. 1970, 26(3), 360-366. " ^ Lyman, E. Occupational differences in the value attached to work. American Journal of Sociology , 1955, ^(1), 138-144. Maccoby, E. E. , & Jacklin, C. The psychology of sex-differences . Stanford: Stanford Univeristy Press, 1974. Mangum, G. L. Contributions and costs of manpower development and training. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Indus trial Relations, 1967, 5. ~' Mangum, G. L. The emergence of manpower policy . New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1969. Mangum, G. L. , & Walsh, M. F. A decade of manpower development and training . Salt Lake City: Olympus Printing, 1973. Maslin, A., & Davis, J. L. Sex-role stereotyping as a factor in mental health standards among counselors in training. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1975, 22^(2), 87-91.

PAGE 200

190 Maslow, A. H. Cognition of being in the peak experience. Journal of Genetic Psychology , 1959, 94(1), 43-66. (a) Maslow, A. H. Critique of self-actualization I: Some dangers of being cognition. Journal of Individual Psychology , 1959, J^(l), 24-32. (b) Maslow, A. H. Eupsychia-The good society. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 1961, ^(1), l-U. Maslow, A. H. Fusion of facts and values. American Journal of Psychoanalysis . 1963, 22(2). 117-131. (a) Maslow, A. H. The need to know and the fear of knowing. Journal of General Psychology , 1963, 68(1), 111-128. (b) Maslow, A. H. Further notes on the psychology of being. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 1964, 4_(1), 45-58. (a) Maslow, A. H. Synergy in the society and the individual. Journal of Individual Psychology , 1964, 20(2). 153-164. (b) Maslow, A. H. Humanistic science and transcendent experiences. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 1965, 5(2), 219-227. Maslow, A. H. A theory of metamotivation: The biologic rooting of the value life. Journal of Humanistc Psychology , 1967, _7(2), 93-127. Maslow, A. H. Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed . ) . New York: D. Van Nordstrand, 1968. Maslow, A. H. Motivation and personality (2nd ed . ) . New York: Harper & Row, 1970. (a) Maslow, A. H. Religion, values, and peak experiences . New York: Viking Press, 1970. (b) Maslow, A. H. The farther reaches of hviman nature . New York: Viking Press, 1971. Maslow, A. H. , & Mittleman, B. Principles of abnormal psychology: The dynamics of psychic illness . New York: Harper & Brothers, 1951. Massimo, J. L. , & Shore, M. F. Job focused treatment for anti-social youth. Children , 1964, n.(4) , 142-146. May, R. Existential psychology (2nd ed . ) . New York: Random House, 1960.

PAGE 201

191 McArthur, L. Z., & Eisen, S. V. Achievements of male and female storybook characters as determinants of achievement behavior by boys and girls. Journal of Personality and Social Psy chology, 1976, 33(4), 467-473. ~~ ~ McClain, E. W. , & Andrews, H. B. Some personality correlates of peak experiences: A study in self-actualization. Journal of Clinical Psychology . 1969, 25(1), 36-38. McGovern, L. P., Ditzian, J. L., & Taylor, S. P. Sex and perceptions of dependency in a helping situation. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society . 1975, 5(4), 336-338. McKee, J. P., & Sherriffs, A. C. Men's and women's beliefs. Ideals, and self-concepts. American Journal of S ociology. 1959, 64(4), 356363. — McLeod, A. I. The self-actualizer as a deviant (Doctoral dissertation. University of Nebraska, 1972). D issertation Abstracts Interna tional , 1973, 33, 3796A-3797A. (University Microfilms No. 73-120) Mead, M. Sex and temperment in three primitive societies . New York: The New American Library of World Literature, 1950. " Mirengoff, W. , & Rindler, L. The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act: Impact on people, places, and programs — An interim report. Washington, D. C. : National Academy of Sciences. 1976. Mirengoff, W. , & Rindler, L. The Comprehensive Employment and Train ing Act: Manpower programs under local control . Washington, D. C.:^ National Academy of Sciences, 1978, Misiak, H. K. , & Sexton. V. S. Phe nomenological, existen tial, and humanistic psychologies: A historical survey . New York: Grune & Stratton, 1973. Montgomery, E. F. A study of the effects of career and personal group counseling on retention rates and self-actualization (Doctoral dissertation. University of Southern Mississippi. 1975). Disser tation Abstracts International . 1975, 36, 2028A-2029A. (Univers'ity Microfilms No. 75-22, 512) Morado, C. Racism and sexism: An investigation of common traits (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University Graduate School, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1973, 34, 1729B-1730B. (University Microfilms No. 73-23, 501) Moreland, J. R. , Harren. V. A., Krimsky-Montague, E., & Tinsley. H. E. Sex-role self-concept and career decision making. Journal of Counseling Psychology . 1979, 26(4), 329-336. Morse, N. C, & Weiss, R. S. The function and meaning of work and the job. American Sociological Review . 1955, 20(2), 191-198.

PAGE 202

192 Myers, J. K. , & Bean, L. L. A decade later: A follow up of social class and mental illness . New York: Wiley & Sons, 1968. Nevill, D. Sex-roles and personality correlates. Human Relations . 1977, 30(8), 751-759. Newman, J. M. Comparison of the Internal-External Scale and a specific locus of control measure in predicting risk taking behavior under novel task conditions. Psychological Reports , 1977, 40(3, Pt.2), 1035-1040. ~ Nie, N. H., Hull, C. H., Jenkins, J. G. , Steinbrenner , K. , & Bent, D. H. Statistical package for the social sciences (2nd. Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. Northeast Florida Employment and Training Consortium. Northeast Florida Emplo>Tnent and Training Consortium Master Plan . Jacksonville, Fl . : Author, 1979. O'Conner, K. , Mann, D. W. , & Bardwick, J. M. Androgyny and self-esteem in the upper-middle class: A replication of Spence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1978, 46(5), 1168-1769. Ohlbaum, J. S. Self-concepts, value characteristics, and self-actualization of professional and non-professional women (Doctoral dissertation. United States International University, 1971). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1971, yi, 1221B-1222B. (University Microfilms No. 71-14, 181) Okman, G. An exploration of sex differences in the coiistruction of sexroles (Doctoral dissertation. University of Connecticut, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1973, 34^, 420B. (University Microfilms No. 73-16, 718) Olczak, P. v., & Goldman, J. A. Self-actualization as a moderator of the relationship between attitude similarity and attraction. Journal of Psychology , 1975, 89(2), 195-202. Oldham, G. R. Job characteristics and internal motivation: The moderating effects of interpersonal and individual variables. Human Relations, 1976, 29.(6), 559-569. O'Leary, V. E., & Depner, C. E. College males' ideal female: Changes in sex-role stereotypes. Journal of Social Psychology , 1975, 95(1), 139-140. Glim, E. G. The self-actualizing person in the fully functioning family: A humanistic viewpoint. Family Coordinator , 1968, ll_0) , 141-148.

PAGE 203

193 Ormand, H. A. Relationship of measurements of dogmatism, purpose in life, and self-actualization (Doctoral dissertation. United States International University, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1973, 34, 1730B-1731B. (University Microfilms No. 73-23, 160) Ott, T. J. Androgyny, sex-role stereotypes, sex role attitudes, and self-actualization among college women (Doctoral dissertation. University of Notre Dame, 1976). Dissertation Abstracts Inte rnational , 1976, 37.. 3527A. (University Microfilms No. 76-27 292) Pasamanick, B., Roberts, D. W. , Lemkau, P. W., & Kreuger, D. B. A survey of mental diseases in an urban population: Prevalence by race and income. In F. Reissman, J. Cohen, & A. Pearl (Eds.), Mental health of the poor . New York: The Free Press. 1964. Pedhazur, E. J., & Tetenbaum, T. J. The Bern Sex-Role Inventory: A theoretical and methodological critique. Jo urnal of Perso nality and Social Psychology . 1979, 37(6), 996-1016. Pettus, J. P. Psychological androgyny: Construct validation and relationship to mental health and sex stereotypes (Doctoral dissertation. University of Montana, 1976). Dissertation Abstrac ts International, 1976, 37, 2575B. (University Microfilms No. 7625, 703) Phares, E. J. Expectancy changes in skill and chance situations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1957, 54, 339-342. Phares, E. J. Internal-external control as a determinant of amount of social influence exerted. Journal of Persona lity and Social Psychology , 1965, 2(5), 642-647. ' Pierson, J. H. G. Essays on full employment . Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1972. Philadelphia Manpower Utilization Commission. A study of the effects of pre-vocat ional training and family services on the long term unemployed (Office of Manpower Research Contract //14-64, Title I, MDTA, U. S. Department of Labor). Washington, D. C. : Government' Printing Office, 1969. Price, C. R., & Levinson, H. Work and mental health. In A. B. Shostak & W. Gomberg (Eds.), Blue collar world: Studies of the Ame rican worker. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall , 1964. Ranaan, S. L. Test Review. Journal of Counseling Psvcholoov 1973 20(5), 477-478. -^ ^ ^' Reeves, T. G., & Shearer, R. A. Differences among campus groups on a measure of self-actualization. Psychological Reports . 1973, 32(1),

PAGE 204

194 Reissman, F. Are the deprived non-verbal? In F. Reissraan, J. Cohen, & A. Pearl (Eds.). Mental health and the poor . New York: The Free Press, 1964. Reynolds, E. N. Interpersonal risk and self-actualization in four religious groups (Doctoral dissertation, Case-Western Reserve University, 1968). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1970, S^' 4019A-4029A. (University Microfilms No. 70-5046) Roczak, B., & Roczak, T. Masculine/feminine: Readings in sexual mythology and the liberation of women . New York: Harper & Row, 1969. Rogers, C. Client Centered Therapy . Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1951. Rogers, C, & Dymond, R. (Eds.). Psychotherapy and personality change . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954. Rogers, M. I. Self-actualization as process (Doctoral dissertation, Case-Western Reserve University, 1968). Dissertation Abstracts International . 1970, 30, 4380B-4381B. (University Microfilms No. 70-5049) Roscoe, J. T. Fundamental research statistics for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1975. Rosenkrantz, P. S., Vogel, S. R. , Bee, H. , Broverman, I. K. , & Broverman, D. M. Sex-role stereotypes and self-concepts in college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1968, 32(3), 287295. Roskind, W. L. A longitudinal study comparing chronically unemployed with other employees in an industrial organization (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1975, 35.. 3638B. (University Microfilms No. 74-29, 852) Rottenburg, S. On choice in the labor markets. In W. Galenson & S. M. Lipset (Eds.), Labor and Trade Unionism . New York: Wiley & Sons, 1960. Rotter, J. B. Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs , 1966, 8£ (1, Whole No. 609). Rotter, J. B., Chance, J. E. , & Phares, E. J. Applications of a social learning theory of personality . New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1972. Rotter, J. B., & Mulray, R. C. Internal versus external control of reinforcement and decision time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1965, 1, 598-604.

PAGE 205

195 Saleh, S. D. , & Singh, T. Work values of white collar employees as a function of sociological background. Journal of Applied Psvcholosv 1973, 58(1), 131-133. ~ ^ ^' Salipante, P., Jr., & Goodman, P. S. Training, counseling, and retention of hard-core umemployed. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1976 62_(1), 1-11. ^ Sartre, J. Existentialism and human emotions . New York: The Wisdom Library, 1957. Scanlon, J. W. , Nay, J. N., & Wholey, J. S. An evaluation system to support a decentralized, comprehensive manpower program. In M. E. Borus (Ed.), Evaluating the impact of manpower p rograms. Lexington, Ma.: D, C, Heath, 1972. ~~~ Schesta, J. F. Leisure: Compensation for job dissatisfaction (Doctoral dissertation. University of Missouri-Columbia, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1976, 36, 6A88A. (University Microfilms No. 76-7547) ~~ Schroeder, C. C. Sex differences and growth toward self-actualization during the freshmen year. Psychological Reports , 1973, 32(2), 416-418. Schroeder, C, C, , & LeMay, M. L. The impact of coed residence halls on self-actualization. Journal o f College Student Personnel. 1973 i4(2), 105-110, ~ Scott, S. H, Impact of residence hall living on college student development. Journal of College Student Personnel , 1975, 16(3), 214-219, Scott, W. A. Social psychological correlates of mental illness and mental health. Psychological Bulletin , 1958, 55^(2), 65-87. Searls, D. J., Braucht, G. N., & Miskimins, R. W. Work values of the chronically unemployed. Journal of Applied PsycholoRy, 1974 59(1), 93-95, " ^ ^ Seeman, M, On the meaning of alienation. American Sociological Review, 1959, 24(6), 783-791, Seeman, M. Alienation and social learning in a reformatory, American Journal of Sociology , 1963, 69(3), 270-284, Seeman, M. Alienation and engagement. In A. Campbell & P. Converse (Eds,), The human meaning of social change . New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1972, Seeman, M. , & Evans, J, W. Alienation and learning in a hospital situation. American Sociological Review , 1962, 27^(6), 772-783, Shanthamani, V. S, Unemployment and neuroticism. The Indi an Journal of Social Work , 1973, 34(1), 43-45.

PAGE 206

196 Shemberg, K. M. , & Leventhal, D. B. Masculinity-femininity and the need for social approval. Journal of Projective Techniques a nd Person ality Assessment , 1968, 32(6), 575-577. Sheppard , H. L. The value of attitude and opinion measures in manpower evaluation research. In M. E. Borus (Ed.), Evaluating the impact of manpower programs . Lexington, Ma.: D. C. Heath, 1972. Sheppard, H. L. , & Herrick, N. Where have all the robots gone ? New York: The Free Press, 1972. Shore, M. F., & Massimo, J. L. Five years later: A follow up study of comprehensive vocationally oriented psychotherapy. In C. Caplan & S. Lebovici (Eds.), Adolescence, psychosocial perspectives . New York: Basic Books, 1969. Shostrom, E. L. An inventory for the measurement of self-actualization. Educational and Psychological Measurement , 1964, TAil) , 207-218. Shostrom, E. L. Comment on a test review: The Personal Orientation Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1973, ^(5), 479-481. Shostrom, E. L. Manual: Personal Orientation Inventory . San Diego: Educational & Industrial Testing Service, 1974. Shostrom, E. L., & Knapp , R. A. The relationship of a measure of selfactualization (Personal Orientation Inventory) to a measure of pathology (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). American Journal of Psychotherapy , 1966, 20(1), 193-202. Shybut, J. Time perspective, internal versus external control, and severity of psychological illness. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 1968, 24_(3), 312-315. Singer, J. Androgyny: Toward a new theory of sexuality . Garden City, N.J.: Anchor Press/Doubleday , 1976. Slocum, J. W. , & Strawser, R. H. Racial differences in job attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1972, 56(1), 28-32. Smith, E. J. Work attitudes and the job satisfaction of black workers. Vocational Guidance Quarterly , 1977, 25(3), 252-263. Smith, N. R. The entrepreneur and his firm . East Lansing, Mi.: Graduate School of Business, Michigan State University, 1967. Solie, R. J. Employment effects of retraining the unemployed. Indus trial and Labor Relations Review , 1968, 2J.(2), 210-225. Somers, G. G. Retraining the unemployed: A preliminary survey. In S. Lebergott (Ed.), Men without work: The economics of unemployment . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964.

PAGE 207

197 Spence, J. , & Helmreich, R. The Attitudes Towards Women Scale: An objective instrument to measure attitudes toward the rights and roles of women in contemporary society. JSAS Catalogue of Selected Documents in Psychology , 1972, 1, 66-67. (Ms. No. 153) Spence, J., Helmreich, R. , & Stapp, J. Ratings of self and peers on sex-role attributes and their relation to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1975, 32(1), 29-39. Staples, R. Male-female sexual variations: Function of biology or culture? Journal of Sex Research , 1973, 9^(1), 11-20. State of Florida Office of Manpower Planning. History and coordination of employment and training programs: Summer, 1978 . Tallahassee, Fl.: Author, 1978. Steinmann, A. Lack of communication between men and women. Marriage and Family Living , 1958, 20(4), 350-352. Steinmann, A., Fox, D., h Farkas , R. Male and female perceptions of male sex-roles. Proceedings of the 76th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association , 1968, 2. 421-422. (Summary) Sternglanz, S., & Serbin, L. Sex-role stereotyping in children's television programs. Developmental Psychology , 1974, 10(5), 710-715. Stewart, A., & Winter, D. Self-definition and social definition in females. Journal of Personality , 1974, 42(2), 238-259. Strickland, B. R. The prediction of social action from a dimension of internal-external control. Journal of Social Psychology, 1965 66(2), 353-358. ^ Super, D. Career education and the meaning of work . Washington, D. C. : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1976. Tausky, C. Meaning of work among blue collar men. Pacific Soc iological Review, 1969, j_2(l), 49-54. Thorpe, C. B. An exercise in the reclamation of human resources: A study in manpower development. Journa l of Negro Education, 1973, 42(1) 11-18. — Tiffany, D. W, , Cowan, J. R. , Eddy, W. , Glad, D. , h Woll, S. Part I: Work involvement and self-perceptions of ex-psychiatric patien ts: An exploratory study . Kansas City, Mo.: Institute for Community Studies, 1967. Tiffany, D. W. , Cowan, J. R. , & Tiffany, P. M. The unemployed; A social-psychological approach . Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : PrenticeHall, 1970.

PAGE 208

198 Tosi, D. J., & Lindamood, C. A. The measurement of self-actualization: A citical review of the Personal Orientation Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment . 1975, 2i(3), 215-224. Triandis, H. C. , Feldman, J., Weldon, D. , & Harvey, W. Ecosystem distrust and the hard to employ. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1975, 60(1), 45-56. Vance, E. M. Relationship of self-actualization to mental health (Doctoral dissertation. North Texas State University, 1967). Dissertation Abstracts , 1967, ^, 135A. (University Microfilms No. 678084) Vogel, S., Rosenkrantz, P. S., Broverman, I. K. , Broverman, D. M. , 6. Clarkson, F. Sex-role concepts and life style plans of young women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1975, 4^(3), 427. Wakefield, J. A., Sasek, J., Friedman, A. F. , & Bowden, J. D. Androgyny and other measures of masculinity-femininity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1976, 44(5), 766-770. Wall, J. B. Relationship of locus of control and self-actualization. Psychological Reports , 1970, 22(1), 282. Wanous, J. P. Individual differences and reactions to job characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1975, _59(5) , 616-622. Warehime, R. G. , Routh, D. R. , & Foulds, M. L. Knowledge about selfactualization and presentation of self as self-actualized. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1974, 2^(1), 155-162. Warheit, G. J., Schwab, J. J., Holzer, C. E. , III, & Nadreau, S. E. New data from the south on race, sex, age, and mental illness . Paper Presented at the American Sociological Association National Convention, New York, New York, 1973. Waters, C. W. , Waters, L. K. , & Pincus, S. Factor analysis of masculine and feminine sex-typed items from the Bern Sex-Role Inventory. Psychological Reports . 1977, 40(2), 567-570. Weiss, R. S. , & Kahn, R. L. Definitions of work and occupation. Social Problems , 1960, 8(2), 142-151. Wesch, J. E. Self-actualization and the fear of death (Doctoral dissertation. University of Tennessee, 1970). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1971, 2i» 6270B-6271B. (University Microfilms No. 71-7692) Wexler, D. A. Self-actualization and cognitive processes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1974, j42(l)> 47-53.

PAGE 209

199 White, H. M. An investigation of some characteristics of high and low self-actualization and their relationship to alienation from self and society (Doctoral dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, 1970). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1971, 31 , 5142B. (University Microfilms No. 71-9954) Wiggins, J. S. , & Holsmuller, A. Psychological androgyny and interpersonal behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1978, 46(1), 40-52. Wilensky, H. Work as a social problem. In H. S. Becker (Ed.), Social problems: A modern approach . New York: Wiley, 1966. Williams, C, & Nickels, J. Internal-external control dimension as related to accident and suicide proneness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1969, 33i^) , 485-494. Williams, R. S. , Morea, P. C. , & Ives, J. M. The significant os work: An empirical study. Journal of Occupational Psychology , 1975, 48(1), 45-51. Wills, B. S. Personality variables which discriminate between groups differing in levels of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1974, 2j_(3), 222-227. Wilson, C. New pathways in psychology: Maslow and the post-f reudian revolution . New York: The New American Library, 1972. Wolk, S. Situational constraint as a moderator of the locus of controladjustment relationship. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psy chology , 1976, 44(3), 420-427. Work in America: A special report to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, prepared under the auspices of the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research . Cambridge, Ma.: The MIT Press, 1973. Worrell, J. Sex-roles and psychological well-being: Perspectives on methodology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1978, 46(4), 777-791. Woudenberg, R. A. The relationship of sexual attitydes, sexual stereotypes, racial-sexual stereotypes, and racial attitudes (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1973, 2i» 2958B. (University Microfilms No. 73-29, 805) Yonge, G. D, Time experiences, self-actualizing values, and creativity. Journal of Personality Assessment , 1975, 39_i6) , 601-606. Zawailzki, B. , & Lazarsfeld, P. Psychological consequences of unemployment. Journal of Social Psychology , 1935, 6^, 224-251.

PAGE 210

200 Zeisel, J. A profile of unemployment. In S. Lebergott (Ed.). Men without work; The economics of unemployment . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964. Zeldow, P. B. Effects of non-pathological sex-role stereotypes on student evaluations of psychiatric patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology . 1976, 44(2), 304. Zerlga, W. D., Tseng, M. S., & Greever, K. B. Stability and concurrent validity of the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement , 1976, 36^(2), 473-475.

PAGE 211

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH John Anderson Sanford was born on May 6, 1948, in Wichita, Kansas. He was raised and educated in Borger, Texas, and Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and graduated from the College High School, Bartlesville, in May 1966. He attended the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, from 1966 through 1970 and received the Bachelor of Arts degree in the double fields of psychology and philosophy. He attended graduate school at the Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, from 1972 through 1974 and received the Master of Science Degree in guidance and counseling. He thesis title was Self-Esteem Levels of Homosexuals in Two University Communities. Mr. Sanford was married to Robin Ann Runyan in 1976. He served with the United States Army between 1970 and 1972 as a counselor for enlisted personnel stationed in the Stuttgart, Germany, US Army Medical Service Area. During his graduate work Mr. Sanford has been actively involved in social serve activities. He has served as a volunteer trainer with the Alachua County Crisis Center training suicide and crisis intervention volunteers from 1974 to 1980. He was employed as a supervisor and counselor by the Alachua County Comprehensive Employment and Training Program from 1976 to 1979. 201

PAGE 212

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Harold C. Riker, Chairman Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in ray opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. lid liQA )j;(^ . ( \iU Roderick McDavis Associate Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^James L. wattenbarger Professor of Education *^dministration This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Counselor Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. March, 1981 Dean, Graduate School