Citation
K0-behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils during one-dimensional secondary compression aging and the quantitative prediction of the quasi-preconsolidation effect

Material Information

Title:
K0-behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils during one-dimensional secondary compression aging and the quantitative prediction of the quasi-preconsolidation effect
Added title page title:
K-behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils
Added title page title:
Ko-behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils
Added title page title:
Behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils
Creator:
Brown, Randall Wayne, 1956- ( Dissertant )
Davidson, John L. ( Thesis advisor )
Schaub, James H. ( Reviewer )
Townsend, Frank C. ( Reviewer )
Hall, Kermit L. ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1985
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiii, 139 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Civil engineering ( jstor )
Dehydration ( jstor )
Grain fineness ( jstor )
Pistons ( jstor )
Specimens ( jstor )
Stress functions ( jstor )
Stress tests ( jstor )
Test theory ( jstor )
Water loss ( jstor )
Water temperature ( jstor )
Civil Engineering thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Civil Engineering -- UF
Earth pressure ( lcsh )
Soil consolidation ( lcsh )
Soil mechanics ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
No consensus and little experimental evidence exist in the geotechnical engineering community regarding K Q -behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils during one-dimensional secondary compression aging and the origin and magnitude of the quasi - preconsolidation effect. After reviewing several concepts, a control volume triaxial-type test cell with support systems was developed. This equipment allows the maintenance and measurement of the K Q -condition during consolidation. Design considerations, development history, and performance parameters for the system are provided. Six normally consolidated fine-grained specimens, three Edgar Plastic Kaolinite and three Agsco novaculite, were allowed to age a minimum of 14 days under a 2 tsf vertical stress while the K -condition was maintained and measured. The specimens were loaded in small increments following aging to determine if the quasipreconsolidation effect had developed. Results show K decreases during secondary aging in one-dimensional compression for normally consolidated fine-grained soils. Moreover, the quasi-preconsolidation effect develops in both cohesive and cohesionless fine-grained soils. This suggests the quasi-preconsolidation effect develops due to increased friction rather than bonding as previously proposed. Finally, results indicate the existing theory for predicting the magnitude of the quasi-preconsolidation effect needs further refinement.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 135-137.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on World Wide Web
General Note:
On t.p. "0" is subscript.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
General Note:
AFESC/ESL-TR-85-45
Statement of Responsibility:
by Randall Wayne Brown.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
029585890 ( AlephBibNum )
AEH6519 ( NOTIS )
014911992 ( OCLC )

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


As might be expected for an effort so broad in scope and time,

the author has many people to recognize and thank. The author

expresses his sincere appreciation to

1) The National Science Foundation for its sponsorship of the

research;



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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................................................ii

LIST OF TABLES .................................................. vii

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................. viii

ABSTRACT ............................................................x

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION ............................................ 1

1.1 Problem Statement.................................. 1
I.? Purpose 3nd Scpe? ...................................
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LIST OF TABLES


Taole Page

4-1 Basic Functions, Design Parameters, and Performance
Specifications for the UF Ko-Consolidometer................26

4-2 Functional Analysis of Alternative Ko-Consolidometers......27

4-3 Correlation of Basic Functions to Test Cell Construction
Features.................................. ................35

5-1 Schedule of Tests..........................................57

5-2 Specimen Data.............................................. 58




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LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

2-1 Effective Stress Path (ESP) before, during, and after
the q-pc effect (Schmertmann, 1981, p. 479)................11

3-1 Vac-Aire Ceramic Extruder..................................19

3-2 Cutting Ring, Wire Saw, and Trimmed EPKW Specimen..........20

3-3 NOVW Specimen and Mold.................................... 23

4-1 Schematic of UF Ko-Consolidometer Mark II/Mark III
Systems .................................................... 29

4-2 UF Ko-Consolidometer Mark II Control Board.................30

4-3 1.1F K.-rnsnlidinmeter Mark ITN rontrol Board ................ 31

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T : .:, i f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99










B-i Test B: Ko with Aging Time.............................. 102

8-2 Test B: p'-q Diagram..................................... 103

B-3 Test B: e-log oF Plot ................................... 104

C-1 Test C: Ko with Aging Time................................108

C-2 Test C: p'-q Oiagram..................................... 109

C-3 Test C: e-log oj Plot....................................110

D-1 Test D: Ko with Aging Time............................. 114

D-2 Test 9: p'-q Diagram .....................................115

D-3 Test D: e-log oj Plot..................................116

E-I Test E: Ko with Aging Time...............................119

E-2 Test E: p'-q Oiagram................................ ...120

E-3 Test E: e-log al Plot ................................... 121

F-I Te rm F: v.. ,it 8 -1i1a; Ti ............................... -





'- 1 I:l ,". L.. 'i : i;',.. r r:,r i.r. .-r, r.4 '.:,h I i J..]:.T, .- .,', T: i . ..... i .
',- IJ .ev ,i'- iJ -,j I: lI,.,.r, r ':.r' .':,. ,r i .-n r ,.,ri I ,1 1-,] :,,n^' T., r T 'T . .. . I '*
















L':Lr.-:.L -: :.', .Ir'T.ution Presented to the Graduate School
:.r Tr.e ur. -. .'- ,, .:.r Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
,: .Qj1,,r, r.i r.:.,r the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

S.-:.aii,,ii ..i r!iuIALLY CONSOLIDATED FINE-GRAINED SOILS
'" l!i i, .1iJE.-L'.ilirSIONAL SECONDARY COMPRESSION AGING
Irnl DiHE juANTITATIVE PREDICTION OF THE
ju ..i -PRECONSOLIDATION EFFECT

BY

RANDALL WAYNE BROWN

August 1985


Cr ,ir,m,,-. Dr. j.-.rir. L. .=.idson
rij.:.r L',..o rL.T,:rrt: i' i i Engineering


:J' .:*',r ,i.,',, ,,.] ii f .le experimental evidence exist in the

. .t-.:..:',ni.:iI .:.r,. r...:;ri,. communityy regarding Ko-behavior of normally

.:.:.r..l i.i2 r..J. rinr -.r-r, .nr. soils during one-dimensional secondary

.:.:Tp,'.-r:: i.:.r. .iair.-) ,r. Lr.- origin and magnitude of the quasi-

.r ." ,:,', : :, I .] r r r .

ai'icr r',1..,,r.. :.:,-ral concepts, a control volume triaxial-type

L:r. .:.illi i[r.n ;u-..:,rr :yAtems was developed. This equipment allows

ir., T.,.rin.crnr.:.& j-., ,,,:urement of the Ko-condition during

:.:I,':u.i. .jri,. uj:;' )r, :.:.nsiderations, development history, and

,'r io'.:. ,r.:r c, r r.- r. : r.:., the system are provided.

.. I r,, i I ,:.r.:n, .Jlated fine-grained specimens, three Edgar

aiu::: ,..:.l r.i .- Jr..i hrt.n.. Agsco novaculite, were allowed to age a

-rir -,-u,,, .,r iL 1i, ur,..:.r 2 2 tsf vertical stress while the


- I









Ko-condition was maintained and measured. The specimens were loaded

in small increments following aging to determine if the quasi-

preconsolidation effect had developed.

Results show Ko decreases during secondary aging in one-

dimensional compression for normally consolidated fine-grained

soils. Moreover, the quasi-preconsolidation effect develops in both

cohesive and cohesionless fine-grained soils. This suggests the

quasi-preconsolidation effect develops due to increased friction

rather than bonding as previously proposed. Finally, results

indicate the existing theory for predicting the magnitude of the

quasi-preconsolidation effect needs further refinement.


, 1 1 i

















I. H I : I
i r] lT ,:' i., h. T i i,i








.i n.:. r n [r- ..E I,.: L i j r i T ri :i : ...--I] -c i a

:. .:. r r. n .:.r i 3, 3 :. i.: r. i.: i' i .j .i n i. r n -

i. :[ L .-1 ,rh....,:.m-r.i r. .r : :- . = [i.:.r -: r ., ,r,-1i 1: ons based

:. i r. ,:,r r. r :.- rL ,-'.r. .- .. .r i.: r.- : I r.: .-r live

j.r ; i C. :r.r .:. -l i r. :.r. .-. . .- .-n. :,r. j r,

. ,) rr, . r..r -., . J 1.- .] :. n t .-.'.inr .r 5...: ,; .) .:r.u l :. r. elements in



,.l InI. ,u rn rr.n : r.-n.:. .:. r ^ 7 i-;,: -= t : ,; ., r i i

.,..<,',..j, l.i.] .-.], ri,- :.u.;n i ]r.;.-.,,.-r.[ ". 1 ',[ *)r ir] ,r.. ..rI jI in .

Iujrri. iI L..r.n -Irn.:.r. ; ir. ::.il tr r i: r. i'.:r,: : :. i.r. ,.T.na contend

r,:,r r.- :.0j .i', c i ,: rr,, : ,j: .:, r ,r -(.. .- . t, : I ,.: o f

,,..I.'r r.I..dlrI r..: r -. j trI.t ,- ,. r-.; t ,[ jr ; r., ., [. .-.1 it: ; practicall

j:. in Elt I. ir.. ri :j li.:uji ...rL.

) ri.'t r.n ,E l' IT..) lr.r.:, r. Ir i..- i .:.; .:. i ..:jr ., ), under

r. llre.:.r. : ., ::.,r r. r.; ..i , i i:,.r i ,- r.:. F.'.u' ] r. .', NSF) and

ri.;-l i i r ; :.:.ri, ..i' p:rii L, r.., i r : l. i ir,-,r in j rr.,] .,- e ices

I nIT.1 T .rt... L i .ru.] I r.n, L .in: i .j, c. .,r,, .: r.:.:.I i.j Led (NC)

ri ie-- r i 1 .. ; .]ur ..i : In l .. : r-" 1' ; .:.rn j.tr -. ir, .e-neral,










and the subsequent inferences regarding the q-pc effect, in

particular. This paper discusses that study and its findings.



1.2 Purpose and Scope



The purpose of this study was to provide answers to the

following questions:

1) For a normally consolidated fine-grained soil, does

Ko = o3/ a increase, decrease, or remain constant during

secondary aging in one-dimensional compression?

2) Is the existing quantitative theory for predicting the q-pc

effect (Schmertmann, 1981) accurate in light of the answer to

question I?

ir..: r : r T| L- r, r-. r i .,r,- j E'.: Z



p1 1 :'*-; ,1jri ir, .J:A'l.l i la[ j r jr ]: .'1,',: ; : ',.: i i : l '.l
V*-' ,r1. J : ,q,] ri ,.l I ,l ,],jl' r,.. -,rri .]iT, r. ; ,i:'.rii I





fr'-.;Cil ,-j, '\.1, T.],.,,| r.',i ", j ,la[. 14 :S ,f:, r ,-, -.ri] ,'
.:l ,, ". .1 i i i r,. .t , -. r in rIr [i ,T .



IhuOi rb)[ li r:(.. [ . ..r T i r i. -,,:,jr. [3 1 ,r ,.jl ':] t,,, .;, i r. T.h,.:

ri>.''t. *.L ,-:r. -: ES- r ,]r:I r,- Ti r,:,' j 1 1 A:r q, I 1 '. i J :,.J l

u3r., rr., :f.: rr ,3 ":1, 1 r.ri U









1 3 r,'T.:.i.:;r. History



Si)'ude,1 A nr'is.nr, ).. ,:i.:,.',int of a Ko-consolidometer and

-;ur.i :.n *:.f r... 1 ::,u T. r), r,..:) program was a time-consuming and

A nr..i,: ;.r':..,:i mn. Tr, s; ..: r..:.,', provides the prospective

r. ar,:rl..r inc. 1 e :.r i.,,, nti, i L,, 'DiAms and documents the

: rl-iruI.t .:r,; .:.r rh.: uiLr..:.r' : fr. 11:.. IJF researchers.

in liar:r. i :., : s:.F ,r:.. .-2. Lt"c. John L. Davidson and Dr. John H.

.:.c.Tr jrinn i )rriL I .EE-SLL r ,r' i study the behavior of NC fine-

*jr ,i i-..i i.: jurir) ;..n a ri.f ai. n.) ina to evaluate Dr.

hr.,.tr [i.irn :. lu n iL [iE tl...:.r r..r the q-pc effect. Under their

.j .r. :r...:n inr. in :.". ;uili [ .r. .i r., ur Frank Townsend, W. David

. 'i.:u. Tir. ime i.r,..-. .-: .i:.i ,..:.r.-... er test cell dnd control

,itEiT. fi i jir.) :..u.j[, ir'. rrsj.jition in December 1982, graduate

:r.u. 'nt ui .2." -.)n nr.- r i,:r Al..ation tests on the new

i.u.,' r,. i.,u,'ir ir,.j i -,; ,r.5-, r.ir. problem of temperature sensitivity

11, :-.:.- .. ; ) ..:n Ltr:r.:i r. or .:, r i :E.r., foam control room with

trh;r7.'.:L:[i. i..:.'. r, :.:-- : [Ar: ir icated unreasonably low Ko

',e 5 5r..i n... pi r. i.in .,, ; .:..r, j that time.

'i[ .- P i.,.,'r ur.:-. ..- L,.n.T..' i)83, the author became the

'ti nri ir,. .: i .., i.i] :ra.-r s student Michael Stefadouros.

. r.l]'t',ur : .;t:.,.- r.u .. r r ln.,:r.;in .,r me Ko-consolidometer while the

Sutnuii' pr pr.:,i re [Lb ti- : i.-. ) ,':.'rim, part of the original scope

:.r 5r. ;r.. ,.:.;r.. r. i r, u. r.:. ,mle .,",:,ress in achieving reasonable Ko

. iu -: :.., r.r T,71i.ninr. rnr. :.: 'T : Jesign to eliminate excess and

.5 ,' tu nr .,,n r. ..li.,,- .:r.,..j.-.; :r-, )ccur. The Mlark II control








board, built by Stefadouros in June 1984, reflected this simpler

design. However, a new problem arose--a loss of water from the

Volume Change Measurement Subsystem apparently unrelated to the

consolidation process. In July 1984, the author and undergraduate

assistant James Pool began a concerted effort to improve the

equipment's performance and the project's productivity by building a

mercury backpressure subsystem for each test cell and by continuing

development of the Mark II testing equipment.

On August 16, 1984, the research team met at the author's

request to review the progress, discuss the problems, and chart the

course of the project. The research team decided to 1) request an

extension to the project's deadline to allow more time for equipment

development and testing, 2) abandon the IDS test phase of the project

in light of dwindling time, money, and manpower resources, and 3)

test only two soils due to these limited resources. Specifically,

equipment development primarily dealt with the problems of low Ko

values and the unexplained water loss.

Since August 16, 1984, the M[r..r ;'.n .T,:T.r' L -' ,r. i:r,,rI.,

Manzione, aided by student assi :r-r,-r .r,j I.: r.,iri n.r r' r.:.] .ri

process of equipment refinement i.'] -:..il r.e r. r 7Tr : ri ,,i

iteration included completion c.r rr..- ir'i L [ I i1' -i- ,:,r.,

replacement of the Mark I contr.:ol c.:. 1, -'I, :-.-,.-: .:.r u ;- r.:.-, c..:

fine-grained soils. This report -r ::.r rr: r.- ; ir: ...r itri

refinement/testing process, the i i ,1 jl r. in...r.,r, nr..:,r

approximately 60 man-months anc ', ...j *:.r ::..Tf.biri.' ..:.1 .' '.]

UF funds.

















4"H E.i t .iF TH1L LliLT'aI'RE



. Irtr.:..]J.: i s.



ir,. r :.: r:, r. s,T. :.r,..u,:r.ie.i c,.? ,::,r i., literature reviews

,,r"ir. n. ,Crj.- : 1.:r. .U.-rr ';..:....in; specific objective

.irl,-.i.3 inr. '.l ,t.-r I EU-ar.T,,' i T. i le an extensive survey of

tr.E? l :..,i : r..:.r, c..:r.l.Ii .- : r.r .-.: Tm .in ,-'I. .i during one-dimensional

*..* 1,:.. lji .:r.n L- i.r. T 1 -r- 'na-..- r.r, '. i ,-.: ..solidometer equipment.

Tin iutr,.:.r pri.r ] A I ,, -,i ,: :'.f ctr:,i-: r.n.iings in Chapter 4. The

:- :.3n.3] 1i.Lr r.ir., c.-.. r- .;u:-.i ,a'.i pn.ri ,o.i and concurrent work on

tr-e f1- :Fr.: v~.-: '.:2i ,. [n : i i r.t.ure survey addressed



I' .*rin c I : A-I,. r .-. E ai.A1 r c ren-ories have been offered

r..' : l I it i T.

.1 ,i ,ir, ti t. rlr.,r1 i : ; ro.r Cr.'Jaicting the q-pc effect

.aIlt i .i] .:ir. -.o :, :,ptiopr.j: i,r.: rese theories based?

31i rir .i r -.:.a r.: r,. ; -ar'c:n ,i'.* ]-i.ne on the q-Pc effect and

rd , b ru ..r ,r ljr 'i.) :. r.) i,]r, compression aging?

Ti : *.;r r.ii r-a.' '.r: r-,r n .. tc.- :n j.estions.









2.2 Qualitative Theories for the Quasi-Preconsolidation Effect



2.2.1 General

The q-pc effect may be defined as the capability of an "aged"

soil (a soil left under a constant effective stress over time) to

carry "additional load without undergoing significant settlements"

(Bjerrum, 1972, p. 18). Since the first observance of this

phenomenon by Casagrande (1936), researchers have assumed the q-pC

effect existed only in cohesive soils and have predicated their

qualitative theories for the q-pc effect on this assumption.

Qualitative theories based on this assumption all share the idea that

temporary bonds are formed within the soil as the soil ages.

However. no single esolanation emerqcen as to how and why these bonds

e -:r r.:.rT l .rir,: r rja, nr, ti 1 11I r ur Tr i rr .] r, .. r r.:.. r ':.j

*j i.- ry.i - rr -:r. i. i ::r.: I t r rF r *i.:. Ir. arI.r ri.r.

I..:rl-,lil ,.- tli .i.:.r i lrr .rn [t,i :.:.'i inr.i l iu: ris i-.. T" ti. ; ) I l I.: ': I 1i

l- ; r r I .-. ::le 1 I ...*". .Tl. rr;rTarll. T.:.:.|, li.'' l; 'i*l

r- .' ,i r-. r ir.- r : i.ri l : :r, r ,- C..rif l.AJ I r.,, r.r i:. r.n .i .1 ,.

i r'.:.i I :.ir :*.c.r. .rn pr.; -. : i :..[r [..r 1..] iri.j r'r i .:.r. Lr=.:.r i :.









ra'.,i- r mi ri i.j : i .l '..:ri.] *r i i lI 1I.*4 1 :r. r .: i,

L', r r. i .. i : I j .,r -i i i | i I ,.:. I. .; l L I I. C-1 Jir l C

'. r ,-^r, .m.jl.j I I '.:.r.r t n : ir.1 n.Ii.L :r..i ..Il ju 'ir .l.Ih:. LiWeiI* n'I l










Eu4gi. ** '.. r..- iti.:. n .:.r.n d.4.w;l u. rr4 iiTt.: 4 .: ,r. i E i .i;s i rri .:

:.3 ur in r ,:r r. .:.,: r.r r' .: ., I1.- 1 j)..rr jir. i i, I lu iI i r J i I *:

i : .I l A T i,.in :I .: i 4 r n rirf i.', ". ; ] .;..T. ] L i 'i i ,,,-l ii: nu L .

0v'r ti, i I -rM rr Ii j rI r'r r ,r r I E rL -r.:.rE ....'ri.. jr.. r.- 3 L

.: n., r.nL r.i.,r l,: .,- r E : i: ; i 1 L i r 3.l.:.r Qu *:k .:i" a : r3 t i r. i En) Ir.

Q-I .r i.;:,: i. i. .: ir', I )' j rr' ui ,j,'I r Li. i *r ,. r ' .: r, L .,4 ,Eh

r. u' v ]i-.:r r.j,] .i r.-rr . .:52 iiu.TCi i. j r.i p1 i- luiu 'u

,3 I'Tiriu A., r-.:,rr : : F; r.irr. c r .r i '. *J'.T I r

re l j'ln i j] i J] a 3h or 3 ,,ur 1 n ;,-_' i al wr, 1.r r in ,

I .'J t- l I ', .:.,r,: r.n i ,. .TI r. r r.. -, .. r l.:

in i ., E' n r, r.:.rn .. r, La ,r L 'l i :1 ,- r it E:, r..- [ , 3r.]

SI r ; i ] i ,; lu ,li l ,: ,.-r. i ; c;. ..i irl ir.l i i r.1 r, w.

*:. r, i. : rIf ,r,"I r..j in Lf ,, E r. :,ir lc.jr.lu. A, Er.-r. ,, C i

rej.ri.-jd 0, L4 n v 1.. :ri .; i ] = 4 i: i 4 I ,ln.l r .E.ri r,. ] .,

U, i i i .. 1 I, 1 p lain; E r . I :..1i .:.r Cr., r E





lur in I i : .r I. C, r E . .4 :, i, L .iu 1b.i .C
.*: .n %Lir iE l43 :S 1 .. n ;. C[7r r i.-1i. 1 E.-.; :..r..
or Iln U 4.1 in L.N! 1 n i E. or r--- ] -- E..-r .- :.:.r, L3
PiaflE2:. 5.eEi.:I-. ;o i. .] i i Q .'r .:r.:-y~ inftu Lb
CO. E ii: i E r. irr ir,.-.i .rr p1 I nI iry.l r.. r ] .. in L
r -) i r -ri tr.." .. T .. Tii n.r i :k.i .:.n .: .'
Su .L3a r i pr z : jr I m-- r .-r a ll ..r, lEl-E i- ..rF3T r]...n
unti I ] i ri ] r .:ir r. I.: 1 i jr i ni Li t E l a h
i I -pr.-i n I 1 1 Ell i -n r ,r: r I L'li 1 ; r- I 1 . I


Fr'i ti. r, tnrior,. a; n7.4. L- 2 r 1 .l r, r..i r r.,. iii I I

u ,Ii c Ei. E ni 'r, r i'. r -- i t r.: i, .55 5 r .]i.:i l .1 1 Eur- rir.:..,

Er- re. i.. 4' 44 r I t :-r i aitrl 4 r., r .3 L L. DE.'.v t. j

. hiVT. .r ri n n rijI.Tr,. i :E : in01 i l: A:ir.r Du1 r.rj ...r









a clay can and will slowly readjust its fabric under
drained conditions, such as during long periods of time
at constant stress. The more easily dispersed (moved)
particles . yield sy particle-to-particle slippages
to those . with more rigidity and which probably also
have more strength and more resistance to
dispersion. . With time the soil becomes stronger
and stiffer as a result of the yield-transfer of applied
shear to those stiffer and stronger aggregates.
(Schmertmann, 1981, p. 477)




2.2.3 Summary

Until 1981, the q-pc effect was considered a phenomenon which

only occurred in cohesive soils and resulted from stronger oonds

being formed in the soil over time. No explanation as to how these

bonds form has been universally accepted. In 1981, Schmertmann

presented a new qualitative explanation of the q-pc effect. His

theory attributes the q-pc effect to an increase of particle friction

within the soil fabric and thus maintains the q-p- effect can exist

in all soils. An examination of the test data on the cohesionless

soil used in this study should di:Lc=. .n.; .:.r ,.. : tr..:.r.: .



2.3 Quantitative Prediction of :r.: Eu, :i-:i :n : .:.I:.,.[...,- Er' :[



2.3.1 General

Apparently, the uncertainty wr..:r. .. : ).er [n- ::,iij rA nr

q-pc effect has precluded attempt: ...r:. L i =a. in .iI].; 1..

Schmertmann (1981) is the only :eir:r.- E.) .cut.i ir. 1 j i-ir. iU Li.

theory for the q-pc effect. The r..i i ..i, ;.-.: .r i.'n :.: :;i r..









a L i i r 1 1 jn .rn .,ri 1 .;ri r. I K. r, i .-* r y] ad.i 1 i .r.-i :I ,-i w I r.A rj fur 7,.j I

r.:.r E.. r- r .; .




S, *.ij; 1 r ( .i i r Irjy

T ri jn r.].lr l i j E i.' t i r..-j rn.: r r. .n : .ju r. i Lj I l r..- ..r

. ,i rj r r i I I .:.r. .: ? L r :. : p* I j ... ir. .: r.i

L : i i 1 n. .-..' r rt..i,,r. j :,,. ,:3 I .. .i : .-:: I p I r.

1 .E ).r.. -I L V-ju r' 3 1 ..n E -1 L.. i i, .r -..] -r, r i r.,*- i,j i u

El. i r r ,-h ,i r ; .

Tr. E ,r',.... In.. l J '- i' ,. n. )r.-:r- : f ,.r n r i3 r ,

n.-r.T-. .j :.r i ;,j i i a- r i ..-i. .. : rjI L i. p..'..j.n I Ic .- ,. p .14 .




r-?p :n..TriT r.? 3I.a 1 , *..Cj u .r I. n. ]4ir .1 : .i i r,.- l I tr. .r. v.,n




n,1 pki,4.. n Ir I r .L-ii' ,41f r.. .:.il i uL *J-: C. rE ...rci.j I

t r-4 In.:r r ii: uri.]. L- .. -*:. .3 lI..n Lu Ic- 1 1 r .j W- .

-- t f..: .. 7 i f .: .1-. ;r- : ir '. T3 .i.n .irT r [r.: t. ^ rL 4.; : .:4'..n. .

j. 1 a r r r n.ni r. p,.irn 1 r.r.. 3 ] i r.1 ..*.i I ..iluir i..l :r r :Lr 3i ;

3 a C.:I .3 I: I I t'rjr : in.:rV -; .' r r.i ..-:; r ::: nr I ,l,

1-:LLyi. tn. e-:ial f r D i.r .3i7 r f :r E 1 ..i 1 n.:r f E-, L In-1

* r.: 2 n J .-Jlur in.) -A. -I 4 rij. n.n r.ri i r. . j 1A 1 r c- rV :

["- ? in ri tia l I -i r i2 i 7. ...i c 1 Ur..:. r- T riri. I i. 1. .1 .




F r<.: i II .;Ir Ir.r n- 3. . 3 t .:i n.



S: C. f -i t- i
-. U 1 1.'1 *









where Apgq = the magnitude of the q-pc effect;

p, = mj = the normal consolidation pressure;

S2 = the slope of the initial Ko-line;

S4 = the slope of the Ko-line after the q-p effect; and,

Aq = the net effect of the pore pressure parameter A over

the entire 2-4 ESP of the q-p process.



2.3.3 Summary

Schmertmann (1981) has published the only theory to predict the

magnitude of the q-pc effect. Schmertmann assumed a stress path

based on his qualitative soil friction-increase theory and derived a

formula to express the q-pc effect. Data from this research will be

important in evaluating his assumptions and theory.



2.4 Concurrent ..Trenrch nn th? Qliii-Pr .n.-.liti.in Eff-:t










I i. i ..T.r :;Li.,, Tr. rr .i L- i .,






,* .- i E- i .1 :, -. :..- ,h: ,-r : .' .n. ,, *r,, ,, .r, .: r.. : -, : j;.
'. 4.ii l : ,l ,i .S.. i' T- r.f i 9 r [. i i. ,






11














-. FECT (SLOPE=S1)





S* ME (SLOPE=S2)















I '


























F 'r .- r..r.A. rA :; ,ri ,,I r i r -. .ur i, and after the
: rr.:r 1.: i a .: ,,,-r L. .r., 1 81, p. 479)










1981 paper and that a "prominent reviewer" challenged this

assumption. This challenge prompted Schmertnann to poll 40

geotechnical engineers, renowned for their work in soil

consolidation, for their opinions. As reported in the technical

note, his survey indicated there was no consensus of opinion

regarding Ko-behavior during secondary aging.

Responses published subsequent to Schmertmann's technical note

revealed a broad interest and several research efforts toward

answering the Ko-behavior question. However, these research efforts

did not address the application of this answer to the development of

qualitative and quantitative theories for the q-pc effect. Section

2.4.2 offers the information presently available on concurrent

research efforts.



2.4.2 Concurrent Research

Kavazanjian and Mitchell (1984) concluded that K, would increase

for NC saturated clays and decrease for OC saturated clays. This

suggestion was based on "limited. thoijuh fairly conclusive" triYicil



i., n -. i . I I r, 5 .:.n | rLit)r ., i 1 i -i i u5.0 r. r,, ir, -

1 [l:r l r, i. ;. u ). ,' r-.:r .-' r, i ; : ; [ Ju r. I 1 . 1'r.






,5:-, r i i:. i.n 1r., i ,4_ r :.,r, r. : I ,.r,I.- r,.r .










" : .: ',']. I:. rj L'. t rE, r f.:.rli ,r.] r. :. ir.: n v :, t.. ; but no

C 'ii ir i t .. r: "; : E r, ." ir .*:-' r. l"T1 :I ..I

.u-,1. ..ir i 4 1 ,i:. .:2 r.,,:I uj. ] i ir..,:r : .rtr. ij ing for NC

.: .::, .. :.:' ii : .,,. ,.:-,.T r J rn,, jr:,..r :.. j 1T, r..:.Tia cal analysis

',r ,:. . -:oI: I .: ,T. 3 :', I r. r i: I r, r,] t.ri 1i .. 'i. )f

iT,.;.r-, rrc. r) r.: ;.;.l..,ir : ir:...:r i: -' ,i r in i: u.;i option of

i .:. :. 'l i, t : r ,.' ..:. i .- r -, ,,,n t.ri . ,:n r:. .

A:..,r,- E I~ -l .irr 'u t I r IriiI r...r i r.rI..:i .i. with aging

L i:.- u:.;e .:Our.ir, ci .r.: ...:..u.r u- .: r : i ;r ,.jj, transition

rr lT. i.i.;:r.:.,...re 2 T*. r.:,C .r .1 .., .] .lr, ir.,- n. l .r.,-, r tr.iinn, 1984,

p. t Jn I n. .- :. L. r .1 -r, i ,-.:,* n .;r :.:, ..: r. than

:.2n'-l tj. Iu.r. r I i ,, j i r j ( r .:.r r.: r C.. 3 rect

r T ;r., n I i J r... t- ;, ,..a r t ri : -x..T..r.i...r.

lii).r j ) L1 1 ,,j i c i 3 in.- ,r r.. 1 r i. 1 .Il-i | i ill with

: T.. r Lr;.- r : .: t,.- r, .' .r. Ir., r 1. 1. 1i'l : :. ,; J .r n r u i ng.

.':r: .r tr., a.Er i n :rnT. cr ie nr-. ; A mU Z :.nr 'i, 7 changes in

I l tr.j : 2 jr .jur si ri i n pr.:.jj.:p ,r r. .:r .i in :lay modulus

In. s r, iar r. r . .En t' r... u.:.; i ..-,:. ,,: 1 .. .r-. ,, : rain rate

rirn 4.;: 2 :. J.L- :r 3-. Jurir) 1.: ,.i. r. r:.I.-.. r r.T rr,. 7 .U, -p. 673).

)1 :CASi'j'nI 3 r- i i n rr i *n .1 e.:. r .:r 1 i jvurr. 1s depicted

n cow ccr.r4 i.rn .cver mr cr:.,r U. 7:r..-, cr nr.n : .u-- tion as in

ricnrl.: ., j..urri, I F.:.r ., .C.i.: j. Cr.: :.; r- i, r.;l..3 r : r ,nzawa (1983)

Sin r.] ,r il i :. r f.;r *r . r r.-. Fr .i J 1 :-i4.j : L-i the

-:-3r. rn:, r >. iti ir .) j. 1.:- j. r, r :',r,I L 51iJI ,.r. sents

r P.-ia- rh,,; L, 1 .i r.:. to :.j ; : r. C .i. :r :-: L r. i r ii j. Yasuhara

ari. u.i I l .r i 1 i: n.- r i r. v . J ri'i. .:.n. -.1. nensional









consolidation is very sensitive to methods and devices used to

measure it.

In the latest discussion of the Ko-behavior question,

Jamiolkowski et al. (1985) cited test results on undisturbed

Panigaglia clay using a square oedometer with a flush pressure

transducer at Studio Geotechnico Italiano of Milan and on two organic

silty clays using the MIT Lateral Stress Oedometer as evidence that

Ko is constant during secondary compression aging. Moreover, those

researchers say Kavazanjian and Mitchell's views "either do not apply

to all cohesive soils or are premature" (Jamiolkowski et al., 1985,

p. 33).



2.4.3 Summary

The UF research team, aided by published responses to

Schmertmann's 1983 technical note, gathered information regarding

:,ri,: r '- .1 :r. f, r )rt.: ',' ,, r., .4- ,. rf.-,:c E n.] i -,-r,, n ,:r .Jjr ,ii

:...' r .r . r r.-..- [ :rI. 1.1 r r : r..



II if,'., u ,ir, h.,,-,', r.r.,...,.r. ,T|.'t' :,rj. : r. ,-, ri j r,' ] -r i ,',.-r h ri r,irr l

L :. :i. r.. i r.J or I. l..r... l ) iN



.l. l : r- ." l, :i ,r .-i r -l::,r. .,r ir.,: Er p. l' iil i :'



ir..














Er>I rl i.TC.fL m'viip.





r-r .jr tiir.. r: n n
















CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS



3.1 Introduction



The three criteria for selecting the soils to be tested were

1) Was a large quantity of the material readily available for

the preparation of duplicate specimens as dictated by the

extended and iterative nature of the project?

2) Was some previous information on the soil's behavior

available as a guide for separating equipment and procedural

deficiencies from actual soil behavior during the

developmental phase?


...r, z j l-.-:. ri, -.)r .,-, ] ,-, r. I,' [ ,2 r'j- :Es I.. r,- ,


r r,: L .]



r... I i r ,.T, Er ,- I:' i' r r,, l I I. 1i I ...r. i 3 I, r

l...r l I ; .. 01-1: i .*Ii -: T : -p I |T, r ri, I *.r .IE l..










3.2 Edgar Plastic Kaolinite



3.2.1 General Properties

Edgar Plastic Kaolinite was a particularly attractive choice

: ir,.: . r. : ilibul, ir. i r 4us,.:i i l n., .u to the

.iru ,b r ,,,ra, ,:'. ..- ,.i. .rr,,r ,i .ri n, mn r if r.n: .' i .. vision of

F ;. i.1 ..rp r E ...r., .'. l.r-e .-r mr.i; .. i a, r ) i c.- ui :r used

rr -n E i i Erj :E :r. I. i :.-. r.: n T nr,- I .I ..r : 1, of Florida,

i l'j, i ) :, o r 1.,r. .; -r r ,r . l i :r ;., v .. ,i,. r,: several

.jur.-. :.ui] b: ~ l r. .a r.J .r at; jr.:r l .r',..:rr.a-: and

,r p" ') lIi .

r i :.m T. r. i 1.:.i .:.r u5:.. a ere i .i u i D.j i L.: 3 ta and

r.i ri.:i i i L ri': e .' . [i-r .:. r '..3 r 1 i :E : oh.i ie may be






L ,j-u l I- T r LL :4 .I

I Ei L Im it ., :L = L .2.

i ;[ r,. ., [ .i.. I": = L L -' l. = .. 'j

i r ..'1-.; I::: irn i =

: l I. l I .r"i, :1.. I :: rnrsr, .- -





:..I I ,- -.,r :r '


I '. : : i. A, :.r Er. : ar. :. ,,.-r. r C I Pic i : ..aolinite

fr: *i .:.n .r....: .ii, ,u :. i r. i'..] i .. ur,[ ,;: i i. E ,r.h









step-by-step instructions and photographs, is presented in a

companion report by Manzione (1985).

Edgar Plastic Kaolinite is received in dry, powdered form. This

powder is mixed with distilled water to a predetermined water content

of 404 and then cured overnight. Next, the mixture is circulated

through a Vac-Aire ceramic extruder (Figure 3-1) while under vacuum

to achieve thorough mixing and de-airing. At the end of the fourth

pass through the extruder, the specimen is cut, rolled in waxed

paper, and dipped in warm wax three times to prevent moisture loss by

evaporation. The UF research team also found wrapping the specimen

in cellophane after waxing an effective deterrent to evaporation.

The specimens, designated EPKW, are stored in a steel cabinet in the

temperature control room until needed. Immediately prior to the

start of a test, the cellophane and waxed paper are carefully removed

,I, .i -,, ~;: .C:. T ;. : I-1 rim- *:j r.i, :i n.1 rr i, ..-] F. Er,-




I: i r, 3 i,,- l r' i j. [ :r .::,- r .: -. :rn -.r ,r r : r'., rr,.-E


:' i., I r) r L. ).,- -: T',' .- i. ,-.:. 1r '. J ,r.i- ri -,r, . .-. :"h : rEr ''n.c




i [T, r" *jr' Er ,i. ,i : lr ,. 1 I:. . Ir Er :-r ,1_ ,,- in.E:

T: 3 l r. :. t ) l- l ] r :




19





muiiip









2 1


4 .4,, ,~ ,r,] rrr.dLI:L p-.













;. J. l ,', r'-f i ir :-p-rr r.1

*.-.. :u'i T. i: nr.)r. :.:il i', i-.. Cr-iiitional sense of the word.

. r.Ir, I,.,ji .;u. I i ; : ,1- [r l I i b,r,:ive created by grinding very

nr], I ]Jri : .-',- tur.J, 1 1 1 -L.- ,'rhig rock into fine

i:,,' :l . 1:. lvi:ui i ,j..] 1'1 rl- manufacturing of glass and

.,, r.;i.:.r.,-:. n.n .ijnjr:.J iT:..j r.3: :. ,.:. lite were purchased from

.i :.:., *.f.r '..:.,r '.'..' r.:,. m:> ; [n- : r.: i : lesss, fine-grained material

h. i11. "r- 'r.;.i. I r..u.an :.7-. .,:.r hl novaculite was done at UF

in r.r,: iri, : j' : in m ri, l.,r' li r.le was published and

i bri r...r' ', r:L?. f'uT [Eri ri e.r r..:Ihy. Consequently, the bulk

..., 1 ,r.,*T,, r, .:.-o n Ci' n.: 3:'i n] i Ei: c.'.- aration was found through

r r.- riinul ji urr r n .1 -i..-i- L ti E ri.

Tr.- ;.r ~, r.'. .:, .: '.:. ij, i i include

. :If '.- .*. , [i .-.i :, ll =,. = 2.65

.[ i : i ir.] 3 L = > .. ,.nr.lastic)

ri. .;i : i.. : : r.r i r, ,.*, : .:, (74o) = 98.12%

Uir.ili .1 it i : r. icrn ML





3.].. p:,a,: ii.-." m, -f, r i i o:,n

Tni .:[i .n un-iri rI .; r.n r. ,:.. lres for preparing novaculite

r.,.-.e-.. .c .- rn .. ,- :.,n. r .-: i jjId'- ses the intracacies of "how

r.c In nl; ri?uar{ .








Novaculite is also received in dry, powdered form. Fellow

researchers should use extreme caution when handling this material in

powdered form because exposure can result in silicosis and eye

irritation. Thus protected by dust masks and goggles, researchers

mix the powder with distilled water to a predetermined water content

of 33.58%. This water content is significant because the material is

easily handled as a paste which can be spooned into a specimen

mold. Water contents above or below this point make the material

difficult to handle. The paste is spooned into the mold in three

lifts with the mold moved across a glass plate 10 times after each

lift. The material is allowed to cure overnight in the mold.

Immediately before the test, tne mold is gently removed and the

specimen is weighed and measured before insertion into the test cell








7 i'- i: jr _.e. . .. .; .: ,:l m. T .. r1 l 0 .





F I : : .1 .i. 1 .,C. E1 3 F 3,' J ,

















































































r o' r "J J .- 3 : II "1 ,..- : . r I l .l1 1 1 I11
















CHAPTER 4
EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES



4.1 Introduction



This chapter examines the design and operation of the UF Ko-

consolidometer. Section 4.2 summarizes the initial design process.

Section 4.3 reviews the individual subsystems which comprise the

final system design. section 4.4 synopsizes the soil testing

procedures. Chapter 4 is not intended to be a handbook for the

. : ; r ir ] .:.t- r on t i .- :.:..; :. I ) l i L r i r. r.i I; I r

i li l : i i rie r.:.r.-,T, n. n .im '.] ::.,,.,i ,;."- r' ]:..jr l ir ,4 : n on :

l..- I. r in.ir I : ,:r ri ' iL i ,' E :r,- ....I, u ;i. r, .r tr,,- IJ -

- .:jll 'j ,l ]..1 ', L **' ,'L 1 )i1 ., 2 l] :,u i l l. ;'l ;.'.J.:- ,],'J' .



4 .. :1 r "I. f 5 O :-,':.. E I i, : : r. E,



I,; ., r :, I , ,,',[.).I r, '. f.I. n I.!, r 1: 13_:;_ : r-: rIIiiii, :.:,' n i : rI'l e

.r j.:., ir, -ifT .4 l ,'l; i.,:,;in ) in ini tii l jF:1 i r. :. .re J- ,

:o i iI.:...- : r". ;r:,]r ,T ir 11. 1 -- : 'il n.1 n E 'i, r :3. .1 L n. i : I 11 1i l

]' i' ,-,r' ,::::. T. 'i: :r '..: : In ,,:.j ,, r.:.ur : 1r n:. 11 l7Ji i n. E l.n ..

r alr. -] :.i l r..i l.nl : E1 i r ,tcih., : .f.iri. :'~I lj.fr.l iji-fti

..0 iT: 1 ir a 71, rt : an ] r .r l.ma .lS :Or.:i CiL.n:l., J l -..l f L Ei L

i Ii ; ': r : U UI fl II ( l ,ri 2 'ri'. E r.r. iI' "r L f. r i Jr,; i :










,rsi 4n1 h jil, .ir.n aj'.L'v. '.: '; r :1 --. I l.*raiE. : [-:L.ed in

1 1i .

L LTC- 1I, Lr : ,-r.;r .: ir. V er.- ... r. ri p u : i r.jn: I onS as

l' -1i' > e. L i I' L.. L ::, 3 i :I f-: r.r. 4 i r a in

r:.- iJ mi rn La n r-::, r.] i j r I : i n .;. r. n

S. r...AIr..J L.r .i.r: l ni r. r rr...: rir E..nr.; ..[. ]* i

a r3 .. r,- r:. Ir,.. r, f.5rm,,i. I :nc- r i r. 1 .:. fa i C -1 i : : -ach

r. r :.r. L u i A r. .L 5 .:.: '; r.- 1 1 : -*1-r i .3 .

i .. 3.': i. .lo:J g.ir- j fil-ril.3 i I1 -[ je ,I t, r l I' T.j to

:i l:r., r.ri. ] ji 3 r .:irV. iir.- :z .: i ., r ; r. : i .. r. *.: rn i cal

1i r. r .ur iTIr.j r [Lur 1 r *: LI IU I: C.J r V r ,. ; ri r i., cation

iat-,r i Ir : : j'Ji r i A. i ElI in j r- ri r r i .: r' ': ,rc.h team,

.r; L .Iil-: uijl] .. i i1 1 m .r. : 'lt -,,rri e ,: .:.. 1.j ra:. itS

Sl i i E .i L r. E r,: r.jr..; ..ni I r Q|uir --:.|r. Lj .n :r .r3 r -.:eived a

4;* rr..a,i I I.:, 1.. i r- j.r ,jli ; r- r :-.[EI y : E L.: 3 0 1 i ty to

l r I f r.. ru..i t. .,,' I r i r rr o I j .. pr .: r. r r.r results

.r [ri, . I ,ji r .

L.- I In. 1 .-3 *.nr, in Ia .* r;j i -ir n fr i, L. iected

..u..r.. i : j)i... Eri I :-Il :.:.n.:,.rC . e : .: 73 *Ajrrent UF

:.* -*: .:*:I -j r r.:r ; :L-. if. pr .. .] ', -:L n pr 1. -i 1] l r.:ione

S.'fi.*1. -,. : ,L.j r NO., ir.. : 1. r u...c..:.E : : a whole

._ i | r.:. r li t. :.- .- .. 3 .l .j i n e r. li .r ] l ut. I C % .

"17 Iv r :ci3 ..c- .-.n E r1.::?] .. r, E c -e : lI, rE. .. irmen is

*' ; p' ::: '.-.] tL:- r..r ;i uri Li.-r. dr..In r. :i:...:.1-1.: n.] system

rr; rull, A %r3 ;, rt. .: : r. :: i: ioci ... .. -;,l Iic,.' to the

-pe.:q' T 1 C cl- vi r i .: i :Lr. :: ,..r.-u i TI. :;u:.:. rn.: : p. A:in n to try











Table 4-1 Basic Functions, Design Parameters, and Performance
Specifications for the UF Ko-Consolidometer


Basic Function


Design Parameters and Performance Specifications


Prevent Strain 10*10-6 in/in lateral strain tolerance

Apply Stress 0-111 psi variable lateral stress capability

Measure Stress 0.1 psi lateral stress sensitivity
0.1 psi pore pressure sensitivity
222 psi pore pressure capacity

Drain Water Drainage without disturbance to the specimen or
other functions

Maintain Stress 0.1 psi stress tolerance over 30 days

Reduce Friction Reduce or eliminate skin friction on the
specimen without interference with other
functions













I u I . rf.jn.':ri An l '-.', li ; r* [l :rr ir '- ., .: ;,' .i ,.: r




I-j.: A i. E n

:r r. Al['c ; i -.. r. 1 3 F r.L- L 1 1 'ral T ,




1. ..Ti r I. i.
cr.tr i i .j '-. i r I 3 I 3'.








J. O.,in ,. I ) I


I i i i I r U



r. -Jri i ll [, .,
I ri r. L.:.r.,
Lr343 .i 3 TIIr I .. .1 1'



i..in l i J.Tli .; r r I 1 4 1 [I



.,iur. ;": .'r.)u .lTir--, L i3 -. ;4









to strain laterally (bulge) as indicated on the mercury manometer.

Lateral stress is applied until the manometer indicates the specimen

is neither bulging nor compressing laterally, the Ko-condition.

Following application of the last vertical stress increment and the

ensuing dissipation of pore pressures, the lateral stress is

regulated at frequent intervals to keep the specimen at the Ko-

condition for at least 14 days. The lateral stress required and pore

pressure measurements are recorded at every interval.

Three versions of the UF Ko-consolidometer system were built

during the project. The original system, Mark I, was dismantled for

parts in December 1984 after a history of inadequate performance.

The Mark II system, which began operations in September 1984,

performed well and featured a simpler, streamlined construction.

Salvaging some Mark I parts, the Mark III system was built after the

Mirl, II de:ign to double 'oil t?;ting :3;3Lbili t. Mirl, IT7 h3.5 i1-

;.r .jrT,:.] .. II. '.iure -L[ )j Tr?- : ;.: iTa [m, .jr [r 11 rb i ( 1i r'

I 1 -, :'.> '-. L Ijr' ,.J J cr:j [r,. i* ,i, [i ,ll lIrl, I|









E. Ir., l ., ] I r,'Ajl: : rr --



J I : T.: :



i Lrn., 1 E :C-iL. ,>I -:*: 4i r 4'J' -i. *4 ,r. A TiKr.'..































: 4Z~I












































































































































































-T. r


































































Fi jr: 1 Ur n I *.-A r.'.,II j)T.-, L, r i r .... r:l i


































































I ,. Ur.- J, -4 T ,: I.'r I...'.,' l ';,,.' r. ," T,: : ; .r : lj










3l ur I rJu 1:.' 1 in- ] a jn ] ;) i c. j i in iE : ir- : ; i Lr. 1 ri-l 3 r.r1 ; ...;

" T- in. : ',il i-l, [ u [rrri;: i |I.:,,< "i .pi.; .Ir ina. -r. ir :;ur,:




- 7r, ni e; : I: i. d.:rti.; 1 3 l a .r : .r L .l J crL, :,Zr....i ai a

II. ir .. h--. )I .. rt r tL .: r,.... r.. i r . -.] 'r... [r..: = .:.n. T r.:I L .-I

r.:. r i ,!3 in t.) i l n..' ;, r. ,nl. :: ; [ in lr.. r ball [uLr.ir, ; i nr

ll i .: .Srru i l4 ar:i..J :a u l l : :m r .r i.ji 3r. r.: r. i c- L* 1

in, i ; :, ,,.; r..- i r. ,il h.r,:. b: t i ; ita 'i ;.' : in: r,.- l .r, j,-:,

" 1] l ,r' .',,r,]. ] :,a i :. I r t : E -t,.r .a-tr, rn. ijur,: -', i.

i)1i : 1-;: i r ir, r... tr.. ,:.:.r. ;[r.u:, ..,n r, a ur r. ] iL b..-". .

',i- ita j.3 ruiri llr ir i r. l: r un,;ti. n3 .:.r rr.. ;, ., .I




4.* . ,':5' i'r,-:':ure .i.; -,lr'i,,,. .. b ;:. ,;ir. |B 'UlJ I

n r. i i.:.r .:...ir n.. n lt ,rf n. I 'j; i ji ur. i- r r.r -e .r. -;jur-

;Our.;- tr- ii r.,r ,r, r:r Lirk If r.] 4 n,.:.- : 11.,14i T 'i):

o-r-; iur.. Lr 4. lu. r F' r..] s 1.j .IS.r 1.. -1 I 12' I rr.:, ..-r i n.. ]. .:.i

1i .1*! In IFi. '-. 4 1L1. T ,,zr 7- ':r.-,: i.:. -]. I[' ".- plr : -. ur ra ri l.ju: ?r

ni i .1:i. : i or li4 :;l ir: ; .:.. "-ij.nr iti : r:, : riir.. :li .] r. r C :r.

.,r'.i-r .1.1 i. :h r : .:- i .. 1 : r.-:. u [E ,-3.] i 1 l i r 4 r ,

r iur- r., ,,',j. Tn,. fi s': r i" ou'.:- .;.T ,l .1 r i,: ; ;i. ,.:.r.]..i Cia

n Il. r ., : r, i r : ,:.r:.u Z r. r.E- ] : r. ] r, .:k i:.- :; ir.: .; .r.

r.. uij itIr 141 rr.in r.ie C r ..r..(. s;.)r Er.n ; .: i.; .] r..:. Er..: ...r:u ,

b :k ; i* : ur.: j :r.=-. .,-i.;n r'r.:. t.]- : n ..: : I lr; : L::lllu : r .:

'lI..nj pjr .,.]r ; l. ( a,., .

I r.. r r.,: i:... : I t b ? I U Ji ar 11 Ji : ... .:. : i [ .:.r ir i .. r.

a4.i,-r. ,i n.] A*:ri i i ad ..? j r r '-r 1 I L ". T'4'r. C. r.: l- r. j in i



















































Figure 4-5 Interior of Test Cell Showing --:.: ...u: .
Sealed in Rubber Membrane










Table 4-3 Correlation of Basic Functions to Test Cell Construction
Features


I .ur : E


: j,-; [ru. EI )' .: I ,ur


pr' -n r.r 3 .,


ji: pi a*:.I. r. .. t -3 E r f i .:r. a,,'i, r .:n r n.j.4
r,.r ur .T,. r...LT.. t:r* 1 I r rE n. i r. -r i rt r-
r.-.: I] LU. D- 1 .1 u, -l.v LO. prf -r 1 [ I E i r i Zr a1, .


3 '. i .j r '-, 1)1 Lin- . i f i.,jr 4-II li .1 .. ia [ r i *.r; ;,.jr



.' r3[1i:. i ; r1'': i i" -.r, I',i''T1 [1 1 ,] : u' ;r.;r
L ,ii'i -:,: : l l i ; : [ rn rr.l.T i [. : j. 1 ir ar,: -

.] iL i r.:r r 1 :.. :-. r. .rir r .: i .:n -r
I . i r r r .


i .lur [- r:;


LI .r v I i rijur 4 i i i ..:.nr. : ] r,:. L.',S |jrA : :.jr
[ri r iu.; ,T.) r r u ., l ;ur ir -i I i L-r 1


Lr i W r.r Hi.:' r r in: r.r....r, rh ip :r. i : :E[ .. I .. .;
r'i.] i,I. r.:,i 3I t, r. r r : L i': Ir i jr 4- l
11ip l I .*I"' a r-r' p,, tl A th I ).jl'- [.


, -U,.- r i .: i.n


L' Lir I 1 1f i .i r 4- I 1" :.,,r, : ,.:.l L1. i
.'l [ rj u. rcr, . l, j .1 ..I
i ;.Ily pr; .r. :.:ur.-1
- I Tr.- : :.r. [rar iT.i r 34 i1 I.*.. i ..1- A r.
*A. ['r I jl i i ir.; rr r. 3. ] I3 I.3 I;



li 3 r.rjL.- r T.T. rjr.i : u; rj.=, :urr..lu'. [Cr,-
: .: I;,:r, ( pr.:.;i, i Iul, ; i1- tr: :Ljr, r L r. ri, r

. [,,: ,.' 1 i n- ] T,1 r r.)] r ]..;: .,:, I E r q,,':.;.,'.
".L irI : .s: irii: r [ i iD i[ 3 'I j E i l .il.
r l : r ..r'i In 1 .:.i ] .;.; r. r i.; i [ .
.31 .i l I: p..Lii'r: '.] 1:. .Ti rr.rjr I, r n I
.; i E: ] i" r.:, ,l i, i r. r .. . a.t ,n.
:lr- ..i r.I :i r j i.i :- r n ].;.n .









begins and 2) provide a constant backpressure after loading begins.

Each of these functions relates to the system's ability to measure

stress and maintain stress.

The backpressure may be adjusted to any pressure desired by

adjusting regulator RI or by turning the winch (Figure 4-6) to adjust

the height of the mercury pot, depending on the pressure source in

use. The maximum backpressure available is 100 psi using regulator

R1 and 111 psi using the mercury backpressure system. A tandem pot

arrangement (Figure 4-1) was necessary to achieve the 111 psi

capability on the mercury backpressure system. The Doric allows the

backpressure to be read to the nearest .01 psi, as measured by the

Srn otec frsIJur? transducer.



4 .. .:'l- I '. : :1 ;L I I 1 *J 1i 1E,. .- I 1 E l.T ,



..ir3 .1 r.. .:.cm.;:i r rv i r i .j ... i : 1 -:-II 1 -. p ],c tre
1-.1] 4 r: i,:, L,..-J t i jI .3.:, ,'j r. .: -- Lh, 1 :. ,'liT 1_ : I

r,,j.1L ,^ l r I:, i f:,:.:.,T,,,.lir. [n." *- n.' n j '-. ,:t.ll V., ,r l :L l i ,: i ,.i I .1a





.i r :. in : r : ; 1 ....: ..] ;. r ] l 4 .

L r : r' r. K an r i i a La



F: i. -' r: l *I> I.-.:r. :.n; .; 9 ...: r..1.1 ... a .T iiI jI a L u *i

ir ..1 .11.11 1 ..r. -,. i i r -l "... i 'C r4 .,r .a L li l i .11 i.





















K -


F i. 1 -r'e r- IInr .r r 43] ju: r.ri n. r. :ur. -- r-. . ; :





















II


Figure 4-7 Vertical E r',. : 1%; -i:.p i: ..!.:.nr. ''T i'. ; I










4. 3.4 L5-tr.cr i r i.i uil .Ub j ,I,. I L L.A I

Tr..: L -I1 h 1 i Tpi, a 'U' -.:.' j.r. pirtil, i, 1 l i r.r. Tj,.:r urj.

L,:',,r r.inTn ; r.t rr ., C:, a 5 TiT ijf" ;r ..- .er l 'jr'., 4-T 1. i.lrri.-

r,r r..:n :. t r.- 1.1 i .:.:.r.r,.::rA .3 r.u r.r e .:.1l : p:''p :r.,,r,bcr iJ l. r.

. 3i I rC -."- .,Iil.- .) 1 l. lir .;.jpp.r r.ubl, i'rl E r..; .:. [L. Er-

Li3E r3I Ir- I: Appi 1 :I i n ..jUbi l. I LLA, I ; ;r.wr. hi 1. i f jur. 4-1.

hr: L. r.,i -- [I .,; i'. p ,,-Ir. [Er I ri,. l ,Er. jird.

iTni j r.- [icr< ;. l, :.D ri-iEi [h. T,,r.:.r, .- i r. r., 'I, r.E -

r :,r.;rn r .:,r .J- l .: r. rr .:.tr :.:T Il f...r *..j.1 c- li lcr

.r -ii .)j ,:t Lil i., j I np-.: 1 i 1 : I r h .T.-'r :ujry 1.,, ] ill ,.

r Ilt 1.1 : E it Li: U li ll.: r. r r, [ le.. 1,, irt. i lr.,ril

reiiLjr n irn i.pl ..] ..-.i3 E .I rie : i ir j ar E.-l r. -.: :.. rr. :.r.

,Lfnl .r .-I ,. i r r.. h.. ] hi .].:. .:.r r i.. r r... :.r Tr.-.

*- .-:,iJILi.:ril Tr,.. r? r cri r ui-; [11- L i:. i : i i.1 i.] ,r lp ii-.I

rI' ' i n ] ; i -i I -1 i .' r.C ,r .i r .j: r l u ,,i .: ) ,: ,u : ] r .:.




*) rif Lr o i .:i i.:i.. f l ..-Ir. riirr i [ *. l un. n. Th.a r

I. li3 Lit [r *:L r *..r .r -r; r mr..,,, r i 1 .1. irj (. j 3 T1 T hr I, I rr

T13 -il1 E.r .:-1. .T ] r ] f ra U I"i riT ri- iT : .r,: I' in j 1 i 'n

rin.. i iL, il r i r.cr ai : s. ii ,:I 1 t ir. inl. r ir. .- in ] .

Ir r .. : ; L ri l p.:l' n"r, r I.' .l rC n.3 .3 i r,:- r re ,3i.t .



4 ..i L Lcri Etr .:: i :p 1 1 iAji i 1 -:, I L .i

Ti ri. m i r .:..irp.).'-,r, LI ar r r L A 3r4 r.', ir'f:iir ri..:. : r..]

T'.r i> r -; l:. i fj x prr Er 3 -r.1 .Ji :,-r i.3 r. i L.:riC : .103 1 J

Tr s.1 S u: r iu.: n : E jr ( r. 1 ri n i jur. - .1 3 II r.n, r.-r. .tc.: C .-.3 I


















































































j T L I .. I









TJE/708 pressure transducer has a capacity of 150 psi. During the

first hour of each load increment, the lateral pressure is adjusted

using regulator R2 since frequent and rapid adjustments are required

(Figure 4-1). At other times, the mercury pot system serves as the

-our.:.e r lIteril cpre--urJe ,: :u i r t lii t, to maintain

pr--,ur: -ENi iiLI fliu: Ltuilt.e C,-.r luirj p'r'os of time (Figure

J-Ij. oiocrn :.re :ur ;.:..jar.:-: ire .:u.o'r .::r.E] r-. ire LSNS, and hence to

rie- Lr--r .:. ii. ,.i t. .. in.:n-Ou.i. d.. .Ii T,-tr.r ri)liflow pressure



Tr.: L A' fuli lll: tU- i i;.: f .1ti.:.ri o .t ip lying, maintaining,

i i] i-i;uri'..) :I[r- :.

Th,: i.eriii iT.r ;" TO, L- i i. j, r.., r.*. i,', pressure necessary by

i.]3iu:'T.1.t -.tjulaI :.r o .,r b, r. rn int tr. e air,.:rn I:igure 4-9) to adjust

in. ..il r.r. .rt tr.r..- ,i.r.:ur; put, i.i. .-linj) .)n tr. pressure source in

us' Tn.- ,, icu,, i,.-rI n l.r ';:Jrf r, i ti i 'i ; '.DO psi using

r.e ul a r i ,a..] liil 1"i u:Ir,,) tr.E. e.T r-.ur, pot :,stem. The Doric

IIo.-: r.-n i ir.ril pre..ure r.C. L! r.-i ] L to r..rest .01 psi, as

,n iiure.] r. t.e n i r.ri .: r. :::jr i-r .ci, ],.:.-r.



4. .6 P..re r r 'r l 4.ur.. irer iut: x.r ii i.1. I

r or.- T .i.:.r o.: p,,r,.,i; Cr r.ri .. i'. ..i n:.:.,.c Model TJE/741

11t :rer,Cn ii c.r-.- Ar- Ecrin.jAuc r ir.j] i L'',r't.: Model 420

Tri,-.iu.:er i.].icitor ,I:,T ir. F.. jur-e I-i. Trie ~ensotec Model TJE/741

.]itf -r..-nti i pre :jre tr .:.lu.:,r hi, i .:i i.c-: lt .f 50 psi. This

uti n.3uC.mr *Tiei,.r.; the or .:'a.r.: Jirreren,.: Lec -en the pore water

ure-n ure i t rr c-.LtO,.T, of trie s pe:..Tr, ar,] i r.e applied lateral

































4--























Figure 4-9 Winch for Adjusting La .:r I r -:: C*C.i,.: ,...r. ,. ...-
(LSAS)





43



stress. Subtracting the DTD value and the RTD2 values from RTD

I. l i [,I .::. o.:re pr.:'ur vrr. l fi r r .-f r r. li r B.i: lu.:. r I|

L.: .r..: ten l r: r.;j .j U ir r r-, Su ., Z.l n ; Ir. . r n- u .-

. i Ti: L, r Y, i i.:. r.JJ[ i.r', '. 1.A 3 r.r. L I r.L ) T.L l [i.:.ri .:.r ..

i n:.' -: t 1. 11 i ,l l ,l T,B r pJ, i r l.:. ir :0L, I Lr i rn. .

.iur' -1'.' l.:.n" i '1 i r r.-' c tr .,;.r ,j .:.r: urc.] r, [1'r 'J J ..-

,:,:.r.:.:.i ..:,,TSR L r ., L- Tr.. ir f r.-': r.l l r' ri:.l.: r : r..: ir g- body

ir. [rp .-rn i r :, r r.. .r. tI.:..r,pr. ii r.;,' Lr,-ii. .: ,r T.:..r.r,-:d

ri .I: i i 'or C ,:lir v.: .l.I L it L r. .. i r:.-~-i ; n r i r.- I C

imirl,-. LE. h r- e. : I ,r -.. .,h :, i .: :.rr : i.:..: .

ir-, Pi .: tri L r i b u :L 7.;3 r i.-.: ; r., I re' S r .:. r .:. :r En.



7ir i ,).I r c l i ... r.,- li r I', r 1 ;.r- i:ur. U, I ., ri ] L, r



ri, ,t .- .5, :r, : ilu ,:r' r trr T.- i[ ,: l .;ri.. r '.i,. I r rl r. ,

4.A., 5?iur.m- :... : n r :u-: L,. I *'i1.

S n; .-lC. -i : r. i E : )r Ji. T. | r :,.:,r, E.ur ; ..l nri,- ,t i r.j Ir ,, r ,. r

1 ,:s..: er. i ln r i.r .: p ir .: r r.n L, r .: l 1 1 i .:.r.i r dr. iOn r 'i

i rir-.?u .3 *J i M. a *:*1.'p 1. 3r, ,l 0 p ri..* lj rnr ; (1 i.1ur -r I Tir.2

:r :' i- w- i 1 r-= :. r r .- r .jrzL ar ,L.1 i j i n r.] ..L'[ 1r rf.:.r she

"ir k rl i r lrl Ik 1 l. 1 Ti; -L i w1 .- i, -i..r. 4-11 ;--Is: I

0;iOS -u? :1r Uri, : 1Ti r..r I cEr. r, i Ir.., ..-., r f l .w b.r t. I'.T lrk

I L rM p S.:'S r. r It .Of .:....pp r nr.. r ...r :l l i o io Eu rin.-.. .irk

I iClli 'i: ni i.*')i ci ; S. r. : er C.i r .J r :. i l ,I :.w

[uDi i.r '..lp.per Lubir .. IS: 11.j I I .1.] 3 .r.. O i I uI LO i a rfi...w's



















































Figure 4-10 Pore Pressure Measurement Subsystem i il i.:r..,,
Sensotec Model TJE/741 Jifferential ir: uj'. Tri],j;..,
(Center) and Sensotec Model TJE/708 r '::'. T'.r:.u:.=r
(Left and Right)

















































F r'.- 4-11 Volume Change Measurement Subsystem (VCMS)










aosorption/evaporation characteristics, a topic which will be

discussed in detail later in this report.

The function of the VCMS is to drain water. In addition, the

VCMS provides a check on the LSNS since the water expelled from the

specimen should equal the vertical change in specimen height times

the specimen area for the Ko-condition.

The divisions on the VCMS are .05 inches and may be estimated to

the nearest .01 inch. Therefore, the change in volume may be

calculated to the nearest .00018 in3 and .00016 in3 for the Mark II

and Mark III systems, respectively.



4.3.8 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS)

The three components of the TCS are the temperature control

r.B. -an Omen. th-rmin:t3t. ind in Arvin port.abl electric heater.

Tn,: L .c .;- r ,aur- :.:.rr.r i r,.;..:..Tl. E,.)ui ': J- l. .:." r ir.r j.,:r,;.l .:ir i,..;r -

'.**,,: :[ir:,r ' c.Sri ll": i t rn p..' rI', ': ,-. *'l j r. ri, ,



.,*ij ]"- r.r,.- r'.j.T,. Tr,- jr,.-. a tr,. r,7 :." r,;. L r ., '. :.. r. r.:., ans

T .- ,'C [ r ,.t- .' r. r..3] I. l ..u,*'. : 4-l' wri.-'r r.r,-

r-.T'i. Jr' [ r' ''. ".:.i Li I,.' r.rn, r, .: : ir .:.1, t.r, Lti.-r',T : T, r r. r " ,:.r -r,.

:I. Lr' : r [ r l l' l. u -. 1[4 1 r' ; i: r -.n r, ...i Tr,-i .-r [1r,..



1 ..,i ; rr r. r : ,:, ir .1.,, .- .. ; :, 1 'r.:., i-1.-.] .:.r r,-.- ,.. .

r ,- r.. ri.r. .r r .- .; n.r. r, Irij 5 .:prr rrr. r T, c. iur.:

1 :Lr*:; jnr. r-,.:-r rijr.- .-; : ir,' :.j r.r.. s rr.c- .:an Crr ..r .: i :


























- w -


F 4 r I: T r r.r~r n * 31 ,,. tC-.17fmi i controll



































Figure 4-13 Temperature Control Subsystem(TCS)--Omega Thermostat


Vdk"







































































III ur. .4 T,.iC, ?r I T.jjr ; ...I. r, rr IT r. .:,r
t I TX i r r









chamber, tubing, and water to expand or contract. Moreover, sealed

systems act as thermometers. Hence, all tests were conducted in the

temperature control room.

The divisions on the Omega thermostat are 1F and may be

estimated to the nearest .1'F.



4.4 Soil Testing Procedures



This section presents a synopsis of how to test a soil in the UF

Ko-consolidometer. Again, Manziona (1985) should be consulted for

step-by-step details. The test is conducted in these five phases:

1) Prepare the specimen. This entails trimming, measuring, and

weighing the specimen before placement in the test cell.

21 Backpressure the specimen. The specimen is placed under a





[.:.r.:iil.,l r. :* *. 1 C. C I ]1 t.; r, i-. n.i ni [- .ri.l

r n.. .j 'li ., ri .: :[C I IJ l r k ,' .-,:.nNu.: ,] [.k

inrjijr r.rv,: v:i.:- ,,T nr, 1 .l l "] .,iT.r ] ?r:,rr- L.r...: ,1.in) wi r.





i,.:r.:r.-r ,, .*., I. .n.3 rr Th: n -.:.:.r. r, L u,'I i:





Slii.* C.:..li::i,.2,2 r: r. IiosIr.I 4 ifr *,:.,.3 ir..r ,T,,*r,[.L L.,. cr,:,e [,










ni,- [ in.:r.iT r i EPL 4,i d. ,u 1 1E i r[,n T,Li' il r I .Li. l I:-El

r...ur: r.:.r k% ilinl hrl, ,-J ..:.jr i.,r" rio? :i].'li r .

1 ** t rri E ..,; ir Tr n .. :.; T n I ,i )lo ..El :1i[ juri, r Erie

: Wn: r.t .r [.:r h 'I r.r ;: LU r I.:.r .T n i frliuT, [ 4 j 3 .

Llur U % lr : thu.r Ir1 : tEfr l :r. r '. i . ])'j: ;-: 7 i riLn inr

h.r P. -.:.r E i ti. onr. : ir.i i.: a Lc -3 r [ .'i r i'r.l:ur. i.r.:..T.4 [ r

L I . f Ti, r.:'n, : r. i: r i an1 L .rip .r i ,u r. :ir

tr. ;, ruEri Ir Tin! r] r,.] iE rr3.1 r.L inE r. .i *u u 4 i,

r-..4 -J r.our:.




.rilO i [ r,- : I .r i. I- ; .] in .r) i i ;-r. 1 .-1 L.O ,rTi,,.

S 1' riu L, de L :*' lhi *-r. p. iC t..

rI r.n..u n r r.2r4I i n [.:,.) tr., pi r i Ai llic.-I h*-i *i ) i *] irn.

.jn.3-?rSL in3 .1n3 r .31 1 in 1ri. i lr i to i *rlin.CH .















CHAPTER 5
COMPUTATIONS AND RESULTS



5.1 Introduction



This chapter reviews the data gathering/reduction process and

presents the test results. Section 5.2 discusses the observed

data. Section 5.3 explains how new information was developed by

reducing the observed data. Finally, Section 5.4 offers the test

results.

The data and results presented in this chapter are for six K -


., I 5-1 'i i tLr :.: riVI .l. r.n CJ . tri",, li *r. -[i. t. .r; .u.'r. rr:r


;r .' r..:.l r i i rri.. .p t"- rF :. t [. f-r f .,[ T,: i ,.L ih. t

r. :I f,' fr'uT ir,, kr,.wr. .,', rir. .. ij ',.:.'.ljur.I ] r i r,,: i - r,.:

I'.',Tni iri.].i" ,)r ',"^. i, r,.- n I in r.- : [.. 1l r'rj ur (: .r.- r *,. .: i l.,:.A i ,.- ,

: :'-n l ., i ir. r.r r i- 'l i jr n. r.:.: .luri: *i : : : 1





3 n U *,: r. Ki rIJ ir.





n-4 ". (,1 j3 .. ."I- jr" ur ni. n.i

.-'_i ,.-.1. .l'-. .,',nii. 11 ,'r i, ,ri',ni ,.i F. j t .- ; l j r.- ], ...' r, ..jr'1,:,!. a n,1 .s ri: 3









3iJ r., 1 :riTiir,..i r. h.: i E .-r r.) -Lr TI. uI n. -: IT... i I I,3 ; Lcr

3n] nj] n i r. r, .:r, r Tri a ;jr'., r r. i W i L .,- nr 3'r.;- .1)UL .T1 L :1 n

li [j[ o i T.l :r. T [- r Tri :pr :irET.-n bi: I1r., ] rl I r., r..' r ;L .ul 9

u I r i etti r. Ei r Di l n.: Tn-. "i : i ..I ir ; 'l ]: j Er 1,n

13r j-)r IT i., L r i l.




,. .. Juring T, ;T,

ri r ni jul r. n.5 -,: E.h i lE n ,E lij f..1 :A 1 1 Irf.5rr.i i[ .ji

,r. rno[.]. Wr.i . .3 ar 3 r i nl .;rair, .?r L ri.: urc r ri, r.r i

r. ;n r*.., Ci kr-. ; n r. ., 7 T.. *I i rt r. r. *I.. l, ir.j Dur, r. t i. l,

,ThIric ii.- [er I l.'- j i j1A3 rE.l n), .r,.] [:,Ti-nr' rr, I r ..l jr -. .jf

i':; .ur' j :r-.r .i Mt |TB : r Titi fi 11 si a z. ] i3 1 n Cpr..r 4'




'. i ,, ..], ;. ] U 'l Lj



* . I .- -r : U

U e in. .h D ,-r.,- ] li IT. r 1 ..-l p. r O Ji i.] rin i nt O

t- lidt, Irli 1Il ..); .] r i ;), inr l, nr. L.L! i u ni < i3t7. T i 1:-

:ompuTEle i; :r,..dn irn f jur'. '- .




;. .;' Liur rinj Te'L

I tfn..ir h I, e Ti Li E B 'r'....,1 D.1 3 r'. 1 Ulur' in] r, :r[ r.] [t.

reclu. d ;r- t1 l iti. u.i ; .7. i. rL c''TinE .] rL -.; ; p.;..

.r: sure, fTr'iJE p-.Sr E pr.3:.r .p I, i.. ii 7r -i-:. Li r, ii:i

e .:T: .. [s r I' , u , ,r.:rn Lj n:. .: rT. i'l r. ,int n.l] ., I1

riLtio. After'r :.ai.:ulitin] rn.I. uija.: r.or k an1 a.i.] ritE.j,












SYMBOLS: w
W
d
H
Gs
A
V

Ws
Vs
Hs
eo
Y
Yzw,


= water content
= weight of specimen
= diameter of specimen
= initial height of specimen
= specific gravity of solids
= area of specimen
= volume of specimen
= weight of solids
= volume of solids
= height of solids
= initial void ratio
= total unit weight
= unit weight of water


E. C', -:, -. I .1 I





: w I ii ,


,* i j~ir.: ".'' I r, r r r.-.r ;. E.l, j [ t ,.,,-, r t ."r.r T L r L., 3









correlations such as aged K. values as a percentage of the pre-aging

Ko value and void ratio as a percentage of initial void ratio may be

found. Figure 5-2 shows the data reduction sequence.



i5. T5r. results s



Tr': : .:r.ir., pre.-,i; r.rii :i.-:.:n data and test results for the

:i
;,.r ,i,.u:I, .ii:u:'.'.. ilbi- l -1 -ir.:.v.ides information regarding the

.,-eu inr .:r.-..ui.:. Tirli- -. .:r.r.:::rizes the specimens tested.

,gujr..: '-; ,n.]i *-l "iT,. rr. ber. .ior of Ko with aging time for

CLr' i lJJ,' .J "p :.r:nj. r. ..r:'.i -i.;. Figures 5-5 through 5-10 are

p'- -..i ii)rim.; f:.r Ln, ;i ,i : ,E rk:] with Schmertmann's

u r ti r.J [i ,. Lr.,.,ry n.:.u T.- L ;. i iure 2-1). Figures 5-11 through

-i ir, .--i,:,) :L .i.3 : rri..:,iqg ir..- graphical solution for the

,-t.. .rr,.: l. A.i',.'l.-.:; thnr.j.) r. F include tables and raw plots for

i:t: A trr.,uri f, r.-;-.:ti ,-i.,. ibl-is 5-3 and 5-4 summarize the

i.,r) r-r, LI.:.r. pr- ;-,, e. in 'i :-. : :li.ri and Appendices A through F.

('.c.-n0i' H r pe;;n[ :.,r,.I. :aicuI~ia .:. r. showing step-by-step

:o,,p u r o.,.-. a r.i .r.ror r i tic.:. i, i3.L e 5-4. These tables should

l.r.jj.1i Eri r,..j.,r Cri -,., r-r.ir.in - ror the discussion of results in

*.~r.iur r,.









SYMBOLS: H
H
s
e
0
3
DTD

BP
DR

1

a
u


3
K
0


= initial height of specimen
= height of solids
= initial void ratio
= chamber pressure
= differential pressure between the chamber and the
pore pressure at the bottom of the specimen
= backpressure
= dial reading
= vertical stress
= average pore pressure
= vertical effective stress
= lateral effective stress
= lateral stress ratio for one-dimensional strain


AH = change in height
e = void ratio





*J.- EbL' l: LI U, 1: Lh,







? -,i




", -
i I .



*j


,:1.].jr' '-. ,:t.r n r h..]u.:;1:,,, .:,t r ,j ',r II., T : : 'r." L:i ..


















o LP I 1 tl r *. ii rJ :4

L Ei., ill I FE JIA H . i

L !'IJ i i i 4IA *. .i i&

ruisij i i 7 1 K* i il A4 :.

E juj.w ii A .I AL 1 .7 .A

F riu iiI 1- *.L ai i. 1146 ii


T itI- i-1 *:r..: r ]. ui jr f l-i









Table 5-2 Specimen Data


Test A B C D E F
Units Soil + EPKW EPKW EPKW NOVW NOVW NOVW


w % 37.22 40.43 43.64 20.97 20.97 20.97


W g 182.42 173.87 170.58 172.35 173.71 184.19


d cm 7.600 7.617 7.736 7.683 7.747 7.722
in 2.992 2.999 3.046 3.025 3.050 3.040


H cm 2.226 2.245 2.197 2.041 2.098 2.229
in 0.876 0.884 0.865 0.804 0.826 0.878


Gs 2.59 2.59 2.59 2.65 2.65 2.65


A cm2 45.359 45.573 47.003 46.361 47.136 46.827
1- -., "..i.4 -..j' i L'J ,. \ .- ':'





Luu. S... L 11. Jr. I '" .- 1. i' .' -



j. l ,I ; '4 4.j, 4 ,J. .i : .'. I











I. .,.',., ',. j i. '."[".' I ''J') U .. ' j. "."J





59








a










: '"



















~ <"




1






60











II
Lt






+




I-









0)
S +F-i












-
















I 50




'.1































K - -




































I.

















1~





I - -. -
-.7.-.,































V




66







0




0

\ -.1 -
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44 -- '44 to 44 to 44 to
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l. 1.i .,I J, I L. r1.1,.i., i,.if :- E JLTS



I. 1 rt.' iu,: T.I.)r



i-rn .r..'r ",ilu : Er.,,- ;: r al j ,ited in the previous

.:r.~,r.e n] r.n.- ,-r .-,,rnjn;. .:.r tr,; O.f" ,-.: .n:.:..i dometer during the

ri::;;. ..:- .rn:. .. .-,. i r r i= ...: r:, tie K,-behavior and

,.ir.E r LI. tr.'. .,r,. .j, l :, pI.'-, 3 in .- : i :,. L.2. Section 6.4

- ,iI. L: nr., pr' .:,r'mrn.: ui r.n- f ... -,:,r. : i..)l neter in light of the

,:r'r.r i .- r i1. i,, *. r;;., r I. .- :r.,-, .', i liresses questions

:.'n i .-'-.] t, r.r.. JF r r r :n r.- ,] in,-. i i..- arise in a critical

r, i., or r.ni.: u., F .i ll,, .:- ,r." .) :.,,r.-arizes these

I E:'jj ; i :, .

Pr i...r r, ru ner :: :ilr.:, :..T, .: iTn-:ir on Test F seem

i.r.:..ri1.: ,i... g F iuTr.r e '.-1., F i ur I Table 5-3 and Table

4- ihe r.i..Er i: l la, r c,. -.E: Te:r. F re:u are inconsistent

., in TE:t;: 1. an] C. rTn .:.D.i.j: qjui: r ,. ; nr Perusal of the

p.-.i -;e .*iT =rr] I :..rr.r, r.. r.: I ;.- .; .:- r,.:, procedural or equipment

ii :ienr.:i :. I .r. f....-r, ,.nre ; r ,' '.:' E ,:i. : indicate no sample

1i jurr,, rn: .ujrir. : r. 'Tin). 1i .r, r.r.. I- ,)re-aging friction

nile ae] l ,r.* e :r.,.e: .,h ..0:,.1 r Li 16-' .: Zr- the sample may have

D-Cir a .r.,r fjl. Con:. ,~J rel, tn., TE r. F re i cs were not used in

J- L-r.lir.ir.j .1. .:rnr -.:- i r.i.::. J.: ..r Lr. .:1 ::, Test F results are









important to this study because they allow the evaluation of the

quantitative prediction theory for the Apcq = 0 case.



6.2 Ko-Behavior During Secondary Compression Aging



6.2.1 Discussion

As previously noted in Section 1.2, this study sought to answer

hnow Ko behaves during secondary aging in one-dimensional compression

for NC fine-grained soils. Figure 5-3, Figure 5-4, and Table 5-3

summarize the information gathered during this project to answer that

question.

Ko-values for the EPKW specimens decreased an average of 3U.08%

over a nominal 15-day aging period. Ko-values for the NOVW specimens

decreased an average of 37.43% over the same period.



J 'IT ,, ll .' _" i : i lu.' I ,. i '_" l l. '. '*I l' r I T 3 rl


I., .,' , ; [ ; : ,.,*i".. : r , r '. .,: .J r,, 4l t j .'r ,.












,' ., ,a .J *:' 1 l ',, ,,,' ,': ', Itr' l: '" L ,' ,,-I 'P" i I i, ,,
..'Q I










I.i L3[ i .I r., -r: U. r E r _I L r -


:,r' : l. l.l r. 4-E. r : r-.; ;li r AT.-nr :" Li.

T; *.] : ,'j l in r ;, r. :, ,. -. j. .: 1 ., r' rrnr, : r*ij. .En [l..i [ni .;.r

r.rj ..I l i : .]-r i. .] r.*.,.,, in i::ln'i' .3 E ".r-' ; i r, Vi:.r,._ :l : [ ] 1.:1 Ir.i


1 i l r.. : .:.t c in.:re. i: ;- Li ,.r ,,. r rh- r.: r j "t- : r .,r r :.. a .

i i l r - [i W )r, ,-j l- i 2 r y:r. .:n : ) .. :3 tr, :E 1 r, iFi.j r -

.- i, L:ir rii i .pr*i:.r-; a,-] : i r i..Ei a-ir .ri..: Er r, :. E jL.

.r 31 .l _.]. fr,.:, l ,i .' jr ';-j' [ :iu-r. *-l [rr,- I u [nor

i 3E r. 1 [n.- I. r.-:I i l3 .i rr, l ,, i -. ...r l,.:r. :.r .r,- [r ;

1. rnE ,.. ., r Er,.? ;-4 p.:.r E ji r 3 r.. i r, .. rr..] r : .- .
.r :r, .i jlr.r l i .11 irr : E- i. l : r n. Li n. v : -




re j ir'e.3 i, r :., r 3 . .:,n .:.44u ri :.r. ., : : j i. a ] .]: .. r' a.r .

Ti3 l.; 4 i,,.I iaLE a [:,] ir. ", .p, r,] i I i[r,:r [rin ;r, ,, .In-,

. ia.aI '.ni J- r i...] .n.. r ir ,-i r.; .ar ..:nr s ;.. ] a l :,T, -] a r, LL

rliE u :l 3, ; L i: . .:t.. r i V; r al Er.,- .1r :..a: I r" i .]

]*I i. jfl .3 i: '.E 1 ,, i ir-i J r, 3:' E.. r r -E iar L. 1r,,

I n a l(31 Iii i .3.1 t(r,. I 'l .. p u-. ].-ir *r.-- ;T ij I l.:.,. 3 .

j ,. Cl 1 c i : ar: .:. 1.:. i-lr l I r E i 1 .n . L j

]3 i r, ul t I I.V . U: 3, h3 i j i. Tn :. ; ,- :r 3.r ;[r : ..,, ; E ,,.r

In .n .l r 4 ,1 j i.r i, i .. r. 5,.. E ; E L r. n- i ji rE..- [ .. r.r

ail ; r i i iF.; i rr fr 1 .; r. (.(..r r r.r.r i 'I, [ r 3I.n. .:1.- 1 -1 : T: 1 j








theory and thus the assumptions underlying the quantitative theory

formula.

The next step was to examine the capability of the derived

mathematical expression to accurately predict the q-pc effect. As

shown in Figure 2-1, the magnitude of the q-p. effect may be obtained

graphically from an a-log Oi plot. For purposes of evaluation,

values computed from Schmertmann's expression were compared to those

obtained graphically from Figures 5-11 through 5-16. These values

for APcq were then divided by the consolidation pressure po to

compute the percentage of additional load which could be carried due

to the q-pc effect. Table 5-4 summarizes the q-pc effect

calculations.

To achieve a common basis for comparison, the author defined the

end of the q-pc effect as the first departure from the post-aging

slope S4 and the first departure from a straight line through the

small load void ratios for the mathematical and graphical techniques,

respectively. Clearly, the entire aging effect is not destroyed

until the stress path returns to tne original Ko-line and some

analysts may include points beyond the first deparr,,. ., rr,. .-..

effect. This caveat should aid the reader in foll)..r. rrn.- ul..r' :

analysis.

Schmertmann's quantitative theory predictions i. ,:'r..:11 :t d

graphical values by an average of 14.97: for the tr, ....E. i' 4: r.

The average value for APcq/Po for EPKW was 9.00% a-5. ;..:.;; ,j:..Ij ui:

mathematical and graphical procedures, respectively .

Average mathematical and graphical Ap /p vaiej: r:,, i.i.,.

based on Tests D and E, were 11.84% an ...'. :. r':,.... :r,. .









mentioned in Section 6.1, Test F was analyzed to determine if the

,..h nertminn '.'prci .n ) 3f '.,lid when t Ip .. i known to be zero.

T . : r,-. nn r .rr ; .4 r. i .. a l ..j r.1 r. L.*r .j .. l J 0.,r.

.rn -.. -rr .;:r. ri,: r,-.. r ].: tr -u ; J.

irn r t, r.:.. : r- :; ] L : :'' : j4u ri : t r.

.',r.:..:.-],j ;; :r,', . I '-. r r. r', .. jTr,,r ,i r. :., l rh '- ] j: r ai' .

F ,.j* ':, ii r r.:.,j~a r, A ,- .1, r, -] r,,-, [r,- .., :l:. f ., jr,. -11




r r r, 1 .1 3Ir J Lr j




Tr,: l- :.r [n. :r r. ; l ; r. [ n. n ] T.:.r J1. i L., A I

I'E irl -, r ... ;: r.r :, li, l. ) r.. : rr ...r 2,ir. [ Il- r i :- , r r.cr

irti: 4 fr ,r.i:. : i ; :. ;...:.r r.., :.11 trl .:r.i :.r.-....r. t- ,

rin. [ru .r j Ti i.:.r ; ur .-r i, i, p.. r,,,.: r air. r. rT tL i = r.. :.r ,

r.r rn t -. -r r u C jJ nin t 4i Li 4 h r-..r i 3,.- r. i :.r-

r,. r.r .] ..r: h I :r l .: i l ,Ca I Lr'...:. r.r. : - h:. r. ,', i :

.:7f 1 .4.':& ...r L r n.] :. :.r .i j .' ... r ;r I; i.. r.i, r,: r ,.' : r'

,Lu aj. r .x rr-, V. I K, E,'"- E.




1 i i pF I.. r. r. i'. : r r:rTj.....- E .r






*j;:n,. r 1 LIur i. rr,.- i iEI ; m ir. 1 I -.:. I .J..|TI L:i

,r I.:.ri 1 : 3, .. r, r j n .: c u r .1 -: a .; r 1 .] ir '. i r, -. 4 I , : : r i .:.n

m, r i , r. ri Ec.:, j[ .:.i : r-.T: ,...:r 1 :-,.; ) .. r r t :, Tijr... 4. r,-

iT j :jr ] ni n n r I .. LI r. : ,- 3 l r, a I .: :.lu 1 ., I

rr'l : L n n c n r'j : r.a l.t .:.r n.- r. ..:. I r., :r, Iil i ). ,..l ,









Section 6.5, the performance of the other six subsystems is measured

qualitatively as functional or dysfunctional. Each of these six were

functional throughout the testing program.

Volume Change Measurement Subsystem (VCMS). The function of the

VCMS is to drain water. Moreover, the VCMS provides a check on the

mercury manometer since the water expelled from the specimen should

equal the vertical change in specimen height times the specimen area

for the Ko-condition. The primary function of draining water was

easily achieved. However, an extensive investigation was necessary

when the agreement between the mercury manometer and the VCMS began

deviating after primary consolidation in each test due to water loss

in the VCMS.

The first step was to insure water was not "backing up" into the

specimen during aging. If this occurred, the constant volume



J 1 I,, :: L ,_ a'T r r.r':r :, yr I [':.' l 1..:: *.i .'1.'- r, 1


















,:..l. i n . l [| *'.i i' E ''I .' ari .. j, ;r' i r i [1-1 r t.'..F ;C









cri .,\r.-r i.:.': r :.:.jn r. iru:1. in r.4 c :.r:. n.,iperature effects on the

v,..1 :., nr. 1 i gi i .

i T.ir. 3 ir..) .. :K j:.,' i.e ik in.i r.-mperature as possible

';, : rr, n. :r.,.n-., T 'ri I .... r.. .:-r-elated phenomena--

i,)yr,.,rt .:.. ,-.i] L,-:.rp hinr. in ir, rE :.7.,'r. to prevent evaporation and

a...r bt',:.-,. ir. .:,I' .:.j.-r : pal : .] n r.,ri of the water in the small

rOrj L[ r.] .j i..r. r.ubr r.. pi.:..: ., n :.'pper tubing where

i .:,.:l i* i- :oIr i rr,:: .r rr..rt: trn.: ,.il continued to lose water.

i, ip .. i -.ri:: ..,T ist: ., -r. : *:.:.rulucted at various

c .: i :: ur--: r.: .- i: . r i.:: i.: b i, tions for each VCMS.

+.:.:,-.r. Er' Ari, .:.,,':i:rTr.t r ,eI irnr r in lata was that the volume

j:; rn i.tr,-si 3 I. n .*:n :A .:.c ,u.riT. u/ent on the system,

r4y1,r j ii ; A if I|r.; ::,rn .

iF,-uI Er.. r-:T r.:r. .-3.. L,.:-, ntr ]ita to Or. David E. Clark,

pr.jf:;:..- r. n r. i f u uin r -erE *,:..t iuLe'-iils Science and Engineering

:'l :1c..T.; 1if i 'ri tn r.ir ir.T.,r.nL i -: ;,;itivity of materials and

r. ;.r..p r ,-; r .j i- j :: ir i= rk ,,u i- Erne following statements

*,j- ..:. ,- i,,] E r 1I.:. -: i r. A, . 1.

II .:,:,rpci:r. n] .j ....' ri.n ].:i .*.'.: r through nylon tubing.

Ir.. 1- r i.-.:..r i.r. ri. ,,--r,f r i;rc. is a function of humidity

irE., [rn .-r'Ti ., .ili ..,f r.n, ..1 -;ri l,

i n tr.-, Ir .-.:r.. : . .:l..r-.e i. : is consistent with

] .;:r.- ,: I rb.a.T.,.i Ic E] u Lri n- I i..ratory air conditioner

[.inr.. u- ] -m:.r- "; rr,: :.Tr .: r..-r ,r.)gresses.










3) The trend of increased volume loss is also consistent with

increased permeability of the lines resulting from age and

environmental interaction.

4) Some of the water lost may be absorbed by hydrated products

formed inside the copper tubing due to basic nature of the

water expelled from the EPKW specimens.

To sum up, the VCMS still performs its basic function of

draining water. The secondary function of providing a check for the

mercury manometer is achieved until the end of primary consolida-

tion. At this point, the absorption/evaporation of water through the

nylon tubing, masked by large volumes during primary consolidation,

bir, ,-'r..r T, i, -, .l Ir,," .,::' .31.:. 1: r. ] [r,, .r ., -



I I. [.r i l] :.r rr, ,: ;r..



T ,i',[.., r' ., ,i ,:,I .r': E j, .(r. T iT .ri : -i n : r : ,-. T:. 1"
11.']. [ir r l, I: jr. ,Lri, L. "v-r .,'1," j 1I. ; l llT I r '-; I J lIn 'T : h,1










(,Cr i.u,..i r" rr,,^ ,', i,-, T ,i ..i ':.-1. I :',.*,. rhi 1 ,,.1: r Eur.; ,. Ti| l., ,-,
L' :I ll l r T I,) i l 'r r.: 'l r,- T' I: ,I r, i -'J i





83





7, il. : -i T ,-.-r .r, .ur- ,'.i.;r.:l .u :r m (TCS) Data



in, r. : - B C E F


.. ;r-I T:, ..-r, f 5.' 80.1 80.1 80.1 80.1 80.1

1, 1 TouiT 1.1 l, .:I i .A
:iI r; l I.;..EI,;ur 1.2 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.6



1;.4 ar,3 1.= er ar, -. 3 01,1"

.-, ....1 :.r,;.-r~ url I i.. 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1


,.. : rj.]' TeT, r..; : i.5 1.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1









6.4.2 Summary

The UF Ko-consolidometer performed each primary function for

which it was designed. A water loss in the VCMS due to

absorption/evaporation in the nylon tubing prevented the secondary

function of mercury manometer checks beyond primary consolidation.

This water loss did not compromise the Ko-condition or the validity

of the tests. The TCS was successful in maintaining a constant

temperature for each test.



6.5 Questions/Answers Regarding Results



6.5.1 Discussion

This section addresses three questions considered by the UF

research team and likely to arise in a critical review of this study.

1) QUESTION: Is the test cell piston subject to horizontal

eccentricity whicn would reduce the vertical stress felt by

the specimen and thus alter Ko?

S'l;EP" Fir-t th. UF V .-psnc1idromTter t (elt cell 's

lji r.i-. r.j (,r.,:'l.1.]- h.rT:.1nr*i ,-,ir rra.ir .:.r. En:



..- ..i r- n r. ...: : E,





.' 3 ',. .*.rl .ir 11: *:. .J.u r.:r:3 r. ) r. .;u r.r l:. i I, 3 i

rj: rr5 n .r : .].:.i.-r. l '-s ); .L ;5r7.' 3 5 : IEl ] )ju irJ L,.

r r r. j i,-r 5 iuj ll.:, rin.3 l.:..l ] -ihri-. : f r.; ;.j r. 1











r.:.r .:.- r. 1 l., ] :;, i I [rE r, ] r'.] rhA j ;3 Z ) t[,:.i- r L .; r,

r -ri r. Li'l al, r.h. .r : i I.:. 1 '-. :. r / r. T ',1 L.

:i; r, :...- : C. 3a r ? -p,:'r.. r r r. I d E .:. I I: 1.: -;r .r. : .:.r

*.ui La .II, I r1 i I !i p i C.:. A r:.. ] .n .> ; r L l.ri r. r. :r

C-:- LE A E I ... l I i p E .1 .- U r r : 1 i- -" r L

n],,l l i.T 1al -.- ).


.) ,J.U :I 'J : 1C ; m r. h 1 t 1:, il s ro Ill C- I r .)r Il:

7.- : ,ur. ,7i. r . r i i : Cr I ;r r.:-,. r I. i :, ~. r I..: r .: j r.

or nLi .1: Cu y

.lI El1: r. Il I rrl i lu r.i n .:..Ij i r..:. u. .. i. r. Aj

r 3n r' if-.r Ei I V L L I; ? 1 : r* I .. :, J :I 'i .

*r.-l .'1 i 'I C ula 1. 'J1j *. E. r.1, a i l'I, [1.r.. ir. I

,' r ai'a r.- i.; Ir ]i. r r I ar.:r. 3..r L- L- rT .i ] r. r.:. ci. *..t

ii i 1.C 1 r 1 1 3 I 1 1 |,i. t i >1 'l r .

3' r: 5 r n ilt .:.r : ,) 1 I4 : .. r t. r.

L r. 1 ]I Ch a -:r3 L- j3 :ri. 'l rr l ;r, '.C :ras .; i :

(.i r.c.r. *a... i.-.m4r4C. ar : *. riL I* ii ;ri. ,: .:.i ., (.i ], rC T...

a.rc: i i r vt n.1 r +.*t l i r.11 .i :;.i'ir r.. 'Ur: r,, it r.

-"iCi ; 1*:-,: ] Cr.:A : L.ar*i G la Ia c.J 1ca fr.:..Ti. .j r: i.,

.]Jil V ..1I j .C:-uill r : l 1 .:.:.r": Lira t Cr ..:.]- r:.i '.- .: l ir.

l['r-L.C J I *:| i-i. -.. i i I .1 ,a.j: r,-i Ic..-. s :: .iC

l. : a l n a 3ri. r. r C r ..: : i l .- : a.i.r, .: ir. a C : .. .
.I.rl- r-.Lj r ; r.. :r rE: rLl r..










Table 6-2 Investigation of Eccentricity Effects in Test Cell



Horizontal Vertical Load to Eccentricity Horiz. Load
Load, g Move Piston, g Eccentrici Vert.Load @ Horiz.Load=o


0 1611.2 (Piston Weight) 0

70.6 1611.2 4.38

170.6 1611.2 10.59

270.6 1611.2 16.79

370.6 1611.2 23.00

470.6 1611.2 29.21

570.6 1611.2 35.41

1811.9 1611.2 112.46













C i i i r i* ;[ n rjf. r.l.r 1, l,1




.Jr i c '. n i i ..:. I r



II iLa 1 a
Lt t (., r ; :.j,.: [ ". : . .





r..)r. Ct i *t : r. iTi. I r.,. f,



cr' r 1 1 3 ,.. r. i .n'


Iii 4st *-.. II






.3 *.:l) 11.1] Ij*



- r. ,~.*I




.Jr~




I).-- K'. 'A




Full Text

PAGE 1

K -BEHAVIOR OF NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED FINE-GRAINED SOILS DURING ONE-DIMENSIONAL SECONDARY COMPRESSION AGING AND THE QUANTITATIVE PREDICTION OF THE QUASI-PRECONSOLIDATION EFFECT 8Y RANDALL WAYNE BROWN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1985

PAGE 2

This dissertation is dedicated to the Lord Jesus Christ in grateful acknowledgment of His boundless blessings and His fulfilled promise: "Commit thy way unto the Lord; trust also in Him; and He shall bring it to pass." (Psalm 37:5) This dissertation is also dedicated to my greatest blessings, Brenda and Matthew, in loving appreciation for their unselfish sacrifice, constant support, and endless love.

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS As mignt be expected for an effort so broad in scope and time, the author has many people to recognize and thank. The author expresses nis sincere appreciation to 1) The National Science Foundation for its sponsorship of the research; 2) The Air Force Engineering Services Center (AFESC) for additional fiscal support; 3) Colonel Robert Boyer and Dr. Paul Thompson of AFESC for arranging the support and providing needed encouragement; 4) Dr. Jonn L. Davidson for his guidance and service as committee chairman ana principal investigator; 5) Dr. John H. Schmertmann for his guidance and service as project consultant and co-principal investigator; 6) Dr. Frank C. Townsend for his instruction on laboratory techniques and equipment and nis service on the supervisory committee; 7) Dr. James H. Schaub for providing additional funding for the research, service on the author's committee, and valuable direction in developing the format for this report; 8) Dr. Kennit L. Hall for his willingness to add committee service to a long list of commitments;

PAGE 4

9) Professor William W. Coons for his valuable counsel and service on the committee; 10) Charles W. Manzione, the author's research partner and friend, for technical contributions, long hours, and encouragement; 11) James Pool, Shau Lei, and John Gill for their dedication as workers and friends; 12) Bill Studstill, Danny Richardson, Bill Whitehead, Karen Purser, Anita Hyde, and Pat Rossi gnol who each played a significant role in securing project logistics; 13) Dr. David Bloomquist for taking the time to teach the autnor about electronic and pressure systems; 14) Ms. Cindy Zimmerman and Ms. Lynne Par ten for their assistance in preparing this manuscript; 15) Dr. George Boulton for his valuable advice and unwavering friendship throughout the author's graduate studies; 16) Each family member and friend who offered a word of encouragement and a prayer in the author's behalf. Without the contributions of these people, this study would not have been completed.

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGORES viii ABSTRACT x CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Problem Statement 1 1 . 2 Purpose and Scope 2 1.3 Project History 3 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 Qualitative Theories for the QuasiPreconsolidation Effect 6 2.3 Quantitative Prediction of the QuasiPreconsolidation Effect 8 2.4 Concurrent Research on the Quasi -Preconsol idation Effect and iC-Behavior During Secondary Compression Aging 10 3 MATERIALS 16 3.1 Introduction 16 3.2 Edgar Plastic Kaolinite 17 3.3 Novaculite 21 4 EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES 24 4.1 Introduction 24 4.2 System Concept Selection 24 4.3 Individual Subsystems 28 4.4 Soil Testing Procedures 50

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COMPUTATIONS AND RESULTS 52 5.1 Introduction 52 5.2 Observed Data 52 5.3 Reduced Data 53 5.4 Test Results 55 DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY OF RESULTS 75 6.1 Introduction 75 6.2 K -Behavior During Secondary compression Aging 76 6.3 Quantitative Prediction of the q-p c Effect 77 6.4 Equipment Performance Evaluation 79 6.5 Questions/Answers Regarding Results 84 6 . 6 Summary 90 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 93 7.1 Conclusions 93 7.2 Recommendations 94 APPENDICES A TEST A B TEST B C TEST C D TEST D E TEST E F TEST F TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS 95 TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS 100 TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS 105 TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS Ill TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS 117 TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS 122 G EPKW AND NOVW: RESULTS OF CONVENTIONAL OEDOMETER TESTS 129 H SAMPLE q-p c EFFECT CALCULATIONS 133 BIBLIOGRAPHY 135 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 138

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LIST OF TABLES Taole fi^e 4-1 3asic Functions, Design Parameters, and Performance Specifications for the uF ,< -Consolidometer 26 4-2 Functional Analysis of Alternative K Q -Con soli dome ters 27 4-3 Correlation of 3asic Functions to Test Cell Construction Features 35 5-1 Schedule of Tests 57 5-2 Specimen Data 58 5-3 Summary of K Q and e Information 73 5-4 Summary of q-p„ Effect Calculations 74 6-1 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS) Data 33 6-2 Investigation of Eccentricity Effects in Test Cell 86 5-3 Piston Friction Data 37 6-4 Parametric Study of Piston Friction Using a "Typical" Point from Test D $9 6-5 Operation of the Lateral Strain Null Subsystem (LSNS) or Mercury Manometer 91 A-l Test A: Values for t, K Q , p', q, and K Q in % 95 A-2 Test A: Values for °[, e, e in %, a '^ and u 96 3-1 Test 3: Values for t, K Q , p', q, and K Q in % 100 8-2 Test 8: Values for a [, e, e in %, ff g and u 101 C-l Test C: Values for t, i< , p', q, and K Q in % i05 C-2 Test C: Values for a [, e, e in %, ^ ana u 107 vii

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0-1 D-2 E-l E-2 F-l F-2 G-l G-2 Test D Test Test E Test E Test F Test F Values for o\ Values for t, K Q , p', q, and K Q in %. Ill e in %, CT 3 and u 113 117 and u 113 Values for t, K Q , p', q, and K Q in % 122 Values for <*[, e , e in %, ^3 and u 124 EPKW and NOVW: Conventional Oedometer Test Specimen Da ta 129 EPKW and NOVW: Values for °[, e, and e in % for Conventional Oedometer Tests , 130

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2-1 Effective Stress Path (ESP) before, during, and after the q-p c effect (Schmertmann, 1981, p. 479) 11 3-1 Vac-Aire Ceramic Extruder 19 3-2 Cutting Ring, Wire Saw, and Trimmed EPKW Specimen 20 3-3 NOVW Specimen and Mold 23 4-1 Schematic of UF K Q -Consolidometer Mark II/Mark III Systems 29 4-2 UF K -Consoli dome ter Mark II Control Board 30 4-3 UF K -Consoli dome ter Mark III Control Board 31 4-4 The UF K Q -Consol i dome ter Test Cell 32 4-5 Interior of Test Cell Showing Specimen and Porous Discs Sealed in Rubber Membrane 34 4-6 Winch for Adjusting Backpressure/De-airing Subsystem (3PDS) 37 4-7 Vertical Stress Application Subsystem (YSAS) 38 4-8 Lateral Strain Null Subsystem (LSNS) 40 4-9 Winch for Adjusting Lateral Stress Application Subsystem (LSAS) 42 4-10 Pore Pressure Measurement Subsystem (PPMS) Components: Sensotec Model TJE/741 Differential Pressure Transducer (Center) and Sensotec Model TJE/708 Pressure Transducers (Left and Right) 44 4-11 Volume Change Measurement Subsystem (YCMS) 45 4-12 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS)— Temperature Control Room 47 ix

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4-13 4-14 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-3 5-9 5-10 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS) — Omega Thermostat 48 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS)— Arvin Portable El ec tr i c Hea ter 49 Chart for Reduction of "Before Test" Data, Chart for Reduction of "During Test" Data, Tests A, B and C: K n as a % of Pre-Aging K_ with Time (Test A = o; Test B Test C Tests D, E and F: K Q as a % of Pre-Aging K Q with Time (Test D = o; Test E = +; Test F = x) Test A: p'-q Diagram with Schmertmann Quantitative Theory Notation 61 Test B: p'-q Diagram with Schmertmann Quantitative Theory Notation , 62 Test C: p'-q Diagram with Schmertmann Quantitative Theory Notation 63 Test 0: p'-q Diagram with Schmertmann Quantitative Theory Notation , .64 Test E: p'-q Diagram with Schmertmann Quantitative Theory Notation , 65 Test F: p'-q Diagram with Schmertmann Quantitative Theory Notation 66 5-11

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3-1 Test B: K Q with Aging Time 102 3-2 Test B: p'-q Diagram 103 8-3 Test B: e-log a\ Plot 104 C-l TestC: K Q with Aging Time 103 C-2 Test C: p'-q Diagram 109 C-3 TestC: e-log o\ Plot HO D-l Test D: K Q with Aging Time 114 0-2 Test D: p'-q Diagram 115 D-3 Test D: e-log aj Plot 116 E-l Test E: K Q with Aging Time 119 E-2 Test E: p'-q Diagram 120 E-3 Test E: e-log aj_ Plot 121 F-l Test F: K Q wi th Aging Time 126 F-2 Test F: p'-q Diagram 127 F-3 Test F: e-log aj Plot 128 G-l EPKW: e-log o| Plot for Conventional Oedometer Test 131 G-2 N0VW: e-log a| Plot for Conventional Oedometer Test 132

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy K -BEHAVIOR OF NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED FINE-GRAINED SOILS DURING ONE-DIMENSIONAL SECONDARY COMPRESSION AGING AND THE QUANTITATIVE PREDICTION OF THE QUASI-PRECONSOLIDATION EFFECT BY RANDALL WAYNE BROWN August 1985 Chairman: Dr. John L. Davidson Major Department: Civil Engineering No consensus and little experimental evidence exist in the geotechnical engineering community regarding K Q -behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils during one-dimensional secondary compression aging and the origin and magnitude of the quasi preconsolidation effect. After reviewing several concepts, a control volume triaxial-type test cell with support systems was developed. This equipment allows the maintenance and measurement of the K Q -condition during consolidation. Design considerations, development history, and performance parameters for the system are provided. Six normally consolidated fine-grained specimens, three Edgar Plastic Kaolinite and three Agsco novaculite, were allowed to age a minimum of 14 days under a 2 tsf vertical stress while the

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K -condi tion was maintained and measured. The specimens were loaded in small increments following aging to determine if the quasipreconsolidation effect had developed. Results show K decreases during secondary aging in onedimensional compression for normally consolidated fine-grained soils. Moreover, the quasi-preconsolidation effect develops in both cohesive and cohesionless fine-grained soils. This suggests the quasi-preconsolidation effect develops due to increased friction rather than bonding as previously proposed. Finally, results indicate the existing theory for predicting the magnitude of the quasi-preconsolidation effect needs further refinement.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem Statement Since the introduction of Karl Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory in 1923, geotechnical engineers have investigated phenomena which cause deviations from predictions based on his theory. In recent years, geotechnical researchers have offered the quasi-preconsolidation (q-p c ) phenomenon as an explanation for predicted settlements exceeding actual settlements in soils. Although the existence of the q-p c effect is generally acknowledged, no such agreement exists regarding its origin. Currently, bond-increase and soil friction-increase phenomena contend for recognition as the cause of the q-p c effect. This lack of understanding regarding the q-p c effect has prevented its practical use in settlement calculations. Over the past 40 months, the University of Florida (UF), under the direct sponsorship of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and ancillary sponsorship by the Air Force Engineering and Services Center (AFESC), studied the behavior of normally consolidated (NC) fine-grained soils during secondary compression aging, in general,

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and the subsequent inferences regarding the q-p c effect, in particular. This paper discusses that study and its findings. 1.2 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this study was to provide answers to the following questions: 1) For a normally consolidated fine-grained soil, does K = o\/o{ increase, decrease, or remain constant during secondary aging in one-dimensional compression? 2) Is the existing quantitative theory for predicting the q-p c effect (Schmertmann, 1981) accurate in light of the answer to question 1? The research team established two specific objectives enroute to answering the questions above: 1) design and build a laboratory device to measure lateral soil pressures (and hence K ) during one-dimensional consolidation, and 2) subject a variety of fine-grained soils to one-dimensional normal consolidation then to at least 14 days of secondary aging to determine changes in K Q with time. Due to the disproportionate amount of time required to achieve the first objective, the research team focused on establishing a credible data base for two soils to present in this report.

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1.3 Project History As alluded to earlier, development of a K Q -consol idometer and execution of the accompanying test program was a time-consuming and expensive proposition. This section provides the prospective researcher an idea of potential problems and documents the contributions of the author's fellow UF researchers. In March 1982, NSF provided Dr. John L. Davidson and Dr. John H. Schmertmann a grant (CEE-8116906) to study the behavior of NC finegrained soils during secondary aging and to evaluate Dr. Schmertmann' s quantitative theory for the q-p c effect. Under their direction and in consultation with Dr. Frank Townsend, W. David Stoutamire designed a K Q -consol idometer test cell and control system. Following Stoutamire' s graduation in December 1982, graduate student Paul Sze began the first validation tests on the new equipment. During his tenure, the problem of temperature sensitivity was solved via construction of a styrofoam control room with thermostat. However, Sze's tests indicated unreasonaoly low K Q values and no explanation was found at that time. At Sze's departure in December 1983, the author became the student investigator aided by master's student Michael Stefadouros. Stefadouros continued refinement of the K Q -consol idometer while the author prepared the IDS testing program, part of the original scope of the project. Stefadouros made progress in achieving reasonable K Q values by streamlining the system's design to eliminate excess and worn tubing where volume changes can occur. The Mark II control

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board, built by Stefadouros in June 1984, reflected this simpler design. However, a new problem arose—a loss of water from the Volume Change Measurement Subsystem apparently unrelated to the consolidation process. In July 1984, the author and undergraduate assistant James Pool began a concerted effort to improve the equipment's performance and the project's productivity by building a mercury backpressure subsystem for each test cell and by continuing development of the Mark II testing equipment. On August 16, 1984, the research team met at the author's request to review the progress, discuss the problems, and chart the course of the project. The research team decided to 1) request an extension to the project's deadline to allow more time for equipment development and testing, 2) abandon the IDS test phase of the project in light of dwindling time, money, and manpower resources, and 3) test only two soils due to tnese limited resources. Specifically, equipment development primarily dealt with the problems of low K Q values and the unexplained water loss. Since August 16, 1984, the author and master's student Charles Manzione, aided by student assistant Shau Lei, further iterated the process of equipment refinement and soil testing. This final iteration included completion of the Mark II testing equipment, replacement of the Mark I control board, and a series of tests on two fine-grained soils. This report presents the results of the refinement/testing process, the dividend on an investment of approximately 60 man-months and $82,000 of combined NSF, AFESC, and UF funds.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.1 Introduction The research team conducted two separate literature reviews during the project, each corresponding to a specific objective defined in Chapter 1. Stoutamire (1982) made an extensive survey of the laboratory techniques for determining K during one-dimensional consolidation before designing the UF i< -con soli dome ter equipment. The author provides a synopsis of those findings in Chapter 4. The second literature review focused on previous and concurrent work on the q-p c effect. Specifically, this literature survey addressed three questions: 1) What is the q-p c effect and what theories have been offered to explain it? 2) What quantitative theories for predicting the q-p c effect exist and on what assumptions are these theories based? 3) What concurrent research is being done on the q-p c effect and the behavior of K Q during secondary compression aging? This chapter reports the answers to these questions.

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2.2 gualitative Theories for the Quasi-Preconsolidation Lffect 2.2.1 General The q-p c effect may be defined as the capability of an "aged" soil (a soil left under a constant effective stress over time) to carry "additional load without undergoing significant settlements" (Bjerrum, 1972, p. 18). Since the first observance of this phenomenon by Casagrande (1936), researchers have assumed the q-p c effect existed only in cohesive soils and have predicated their qualitative theories for the q-p c effect on this assumption. Qualitative theories based on this assumption all share the idea that temporary bonds are formed within the soil as the soil ages. However, no single explanation emerged as to how and why these bonds were formed. Schmertmann (1981) further stirred the controversy by suggesting the q-p c effect was the result of frictional and not bonding behavior within the soil and thus the q-p c effect also could exist in cohesionless soils. Schmertmann 1 s theory likely will receive new interest and scrutiny upon publication of this study. The following section presents both bond and friction theories. 2.2.2 Qualitative Theories Bond theories . Terzaghi (1941) postulated the first Dond theory when he said nignly viscous, adsorbed pore water was displaced over time and a rigid, solid bond gradually developed between clay particles. Tjong-Kie Tan (1957) also believed rigid bonds develop between mutually-connected plate-shape clay particles. Lambe (1960)

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suggested cementation bonds develop over time as chemical weathering occurs in the presence of ferric oxides. Bjerrum and Wu (1960) also indicated chemical weathering may cause cementation bonds to develop over time. Bjerrum (1967) further noted that iron compounds created cementation between particles in Labrador quick clays exhibiting the q-p c effect. Moreover, Bjerrum purported the q-p c effect to be the result of increased bond strength as calcium Ca ++ , magnesium Mg ++ , aluminum Al +++ , ferrous Fe ++ , ferric Fe +++ , or potassium K + ions replaced sodium Na + ions during chemical weathering. To date, the most comprehensive examination of the q-p c effect in clays has been performed at Purdue University. Between 1955 and 1973, five separate studies were completed in an attempt to characterize and explain the q-p c effect. The Purdue theory, as reported by Leonards and Altschaeffl (1964) and reiterated by Davidsor fol lows: during a period of time when a clay is subjected to constant applied stresses, water molecules become orientated in the vicinity of the edge-to-face contact points. Particles slowly displace or creep into "the most efficient arrangement possible from the standpoint of bond strength." . . . The mineral skeleton can now sustain pressure increments with very little deformation until sliding of particles is again initiated at the quasi-preconsolidation pressure. (Davidson, 1973, p. 26] Friction theory . As noted earlier, Schmertmann' s 1981 qualitative theory for the q-p c effect was a radical departure from the previous 40 years of attributing the effect to bonding. Schmertmann hypothesizes the following behavior:

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a clay can and will slowly readjust its fabric under drained conditions, such as during long periods of time at constant stress. The more easily dispersed (moved) particles . . . yield by particle-to-particle slippages to those . . . with more rigidity and which probably also have more strength and more resistance to dispersion. . . . With time the soil becomes stronger and stiffer as a result of the yield-transfer of applied shear to those stiffer and stronger aggregates. (Schmertmann, 1981, p. 477) 2.2.3 Summary Until 1981, the q-p c effect was considered a phenomenon which only occurred in cohesive soils and resulted from stronger oonds being formed in the soil over time. No explanation as to how these bonds form has been universally accepted. In 1981, Schmertmann presented a new qualitative explanation of the q-p c effect. His theory attributes the q-p c effect to an increase of particle friction within the soil fabric and thus maintains the q-p c effect can exist in all soils. An examination of the test data on the cohesionless soil used in this study should dispel one of these theories. 2.3 Quantitative Prediction of the Quasi-Preconsol idation Effect 2.3.1 General Apparently, the uncertainty which exists over the cause of the q-p c effect has precluded attempts to predict its magnitude. Indeed, Schmertmann (1981) is the only researcher to publish a quantitative tneory for the q-p effect. The following section discusses tne

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assumptions on which this theory was based and presents the formula for the q-p c effect. 2.3.2 Quantitative Theory The underlying assumption to Schmer tmann * s quantitative theory is his soil friction-increase theory, as explained in Section 2.2.2. Specifically, Schmertrnann assumed an effective stress path (ESP in Figure 2-1) based on this behavior and derived a formula to quantify the q-p c effect. The ESP from point to point 2 represents the phase where normal consolidation occurs. The ESP from point 2 to point 3 represents the aging phase where the soil friction-increase phenomenon is assumed to occur. The direction of the ESP from point 2 to point 3 is based on the assumption that K Q decreases during the aging phase. After this aging, the soil is subjected to vertical stress increases under the K Q -condition to test for the q-p. effect. This effect reaches its maximum when the ES? reaches point 4. "After reaching point 4, the additional volume and shear strains associated with further increasing effective stresses gradually destroy the special fabric dispersion effects that increased ' [and decreased K Q j during the 2-3 aging, and the ESP eventually returns to the initial K Q -line at some point 5" (Schmertrnann, 1981, p. 479). From tnis stress path, Schmertrnann derived the following expression for the q-p_ effect: 2U-A q )(S 4 -S 2 ) Ap cq = P o Ll-(l-2Aq)S 4 Jll+S 2 )

PAGE 23

10 where Ap cq = the magnitude of the q-p c effect; p = a] = the normal consolidation pressure; S 2 = the slope of the initial K Q -line; S 4 = the slope of the K Q -line after the q-p c effect; and, A q = the net effect of the pore pressure parameter A over the entire 2-4 ESP of the q-p c process. 2.3.3 Summary Schmertmann (1981) has published the only theory to predict the magnitude of the q-p c effect. Schmertmann assumed a stress path based on his qualitative soil friction -in crease theory and derived a formula to express the q-p c effect. Data from this research will be important in evaluating his assumptions and theory. 2.4 Concurrent Research on the Quasi-Preconsolidation Effect and K -Behavior During Secondary Compression Aging 2.4.1 General During the past 40 months, the research team strove to keep abreast of concurrent research on the q-p c effect and K Q -behavior during secondary compression aging. This effort was expedited by the publication of Schmertmann ' s technical note which posed the question: "Will K Q = o'^/a^ of a normally consolidated cohesive soil increase or decrease during secondary aging in one-dimensional compression?" (Schmertmann, 1983, p. 121). In this note, Schmertmann explained he had assumed K Q decreased while developing his quantitative theory for the q-p_ effect for his

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11 -LINE AFTER q0( . EFFECT (SLOPE=S a ) INITIAL < -LINE (SL0PE=S 2 ) Figure 2-1 Effective Stress Path (tSP) before, during, and after the q-p c effect (Modified after Schmertmann, 1981, p. 479)

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12 1981 paper and that a "prominent reviewer" challenged this assumption. This challenge prompted Schmertmann to poll 40 geotechnical engineers, renowned for their work in soil consolidation, for their opinions. As reported in the technical note, his survey indicated there was no consensus of opinion regarding K -behavior during secondary aging. Responses published subsequent to Schmertmann 's technical note revealed a broad interest and several research efforts toward answering the K Q -behavior question. However, these research efforts did not address the application of this answer to the development of qualitative and quantitative theories for the q-p c effect. Section 2.4.2 offers the information presently available on concurrent research efforts. 2.4.2 Concurrent Research Kavazanjian and Mitche for MC saturated clays and decrease for 0C saturated clays. This suggestion was based on "limited, though fairly conclusive" triaxial cell data for two clays (undisturbed San Francisco Bay Mud and compacted kaolinite) and on a theoretical analysis using the SinghMitchell three -para meter creep equation. In a June 1984 telephone conversation with the author, Dr. Kavazanjian said he was seeking to expand his data base by further i< -tests using a modified triaxial apparatus (Borja, 1984; Hsieh, 1984) and would welcome "further exchange on tnis topic." To date, representative soil samples have

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13 been excnanged between the Stanford and UF researcn teams but no comparative tests have been completed. Soydemir (1984) also concluded K Q increases with aging for NC cohesive soils. Soydemir based his answer on a mathematical analysis of two viscoelastic models, the Kelvin and the Maxwell. Of importance to note, Soydemir' s answer is based on an assumption of viscoelasticity and no experimental evidence. McRoberts (1984) argues that "K will remain the same with aging because secondary compression occurs because of a gradual transition from macropore to micropore dominated drainage" (Schmertmann, 1984, p. 673). Again, McRoberts' argument is no more concrete than Soydemir 's because he assumes a behavior and offers no direct experimental evidence to support his assumption. Magaraj (1984) and Allam and Sridharan (1984) agree with Schmertmann's contention that K Q will decrease during aging. Moreover, they agree with Schmertmann's assumption that "changes in clay structure during aging that produce an increase in clay modulus and strength . . . would produce a decrease in K Q when strain rate continues to decrease during the aging" (Schmertmann, 1984, p. 673). Discussions appearing in foreign geotechnical journals depicted the same confusion over the answer to Schmertmann's question as in American journals. For example, Japanese researchers Hanzawa (1983) and Yasuhara (1983) offered experimental data suggesting the constancy of K with aging. However, Yasuhara (1984) presents experimental evidence to suggest K decreases with aging. Yasuhara and lie (1984) emphasize the variation of K during one-dimensional

PAGE 27

14 consolidation is very sensitive to methods and devices used to measure it. In the Jamiolkowski et al . (1985) cited test results on undisturbed Panigaglia clay using a square oedometer with a flush pressure transducer at Studio Geotechnico Italiano of Milan and on two organic silty clays using the MIT Lateral Stress Oedometer as evidence that K is constant during secondary compression aging. Moreover, those researchers say Kavazanjian and Mitchell's views "either do not apply to all cohesive soils or are premature" (Jamiolkowski et al., 1985, p. 33). 2.4.3 Summary The UF research team, aided by published responses to Schmertmann's 1983 technical note, gathered information regarding concurrent research efforts on the q-p c effect and K Q -behavior during secondary compression aging. From this effort, the UF researchers learned 1) many opinions, though most unsubstantiated with experimental evidence, exist regarding K Q -behavior during aging; 2) current research efforts, excluding the UF effort, do not address the application of K Q -behavior to the development of qualitative and quantitative theories for the q-p c effect; and

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15 3) results of K Q -behavior studies seem very sensitive to the methods and equipment employed. In other words, the questions which prompted this study (reference Section 1.2) were not answered in concurrent research efforts.

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS 3.1 Introduction The three criteria for selecting the soils to be tested were 1) Was a large quantity of the material readily available for the preparation of duplicate specimens as dictated by the extended and iterative nature of the project? 2) Was some previous information on the soil's behavior available as a guide for separating equipment and procedural deficiencies from actual soil behavior during the developmental phase? 3) Was the soil either a cohesive, fine-grained or a cohesionless, fine-grained material as required by the scope of the study? The cohesive, fine-grained material or clay selected was kaolinite from the Feldspar Corpora tion-EPK Clay Oivision in Edgar, Florida. The cohesionless, fine-grained material or silt selected was novaculite from the Agsco Corporation in Wheeling, Illinois. The following sections discuss the general properties and preparation procedures for each of these materials. 15

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17 3.2 Edgar Plastic Kaolinite 3.2.1 General Properties Edgar Plastic Kaolinite was a particularly attractive choice since it was available in large quantities at no cost due to the generosity of Hugh Cannon, general manager of the EPK Division of Feldspar Corporation. Moreover, this material had been used frequently in instruction and research at the University of Florida including some of Or. S.chmertmann' s earlier work. Hence, several sources could be tapped regarding its general properties and preparation. From a combination of supplier's data, laboratory data, and historical data, the properties of Edgar Plastic Kaolinite may be listed as Specific gravity of solids, G s = 2.59 Liquid Limit, LL = 54. 2% Plastic Limit, PL = 29.2% Plasticity Index, PI = LL-Pl = 25.02 Particles less than 2 U = 58.52 Activity, Pi/Particles less than 2 y = 0.43 Unified Soil Classification = CH 3.2.2 Specimen Preparation This section presents an overview of Edgar Plastic Kaolinite preparation procedures. A detailed account, complete with

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18 step-by-step instructions and photographs, is presented in a companion report by Manzione (1985). Edgar Plastic Kaolinite is received in dry, powdered form. This powder is mixed with distilled water to a predetermined water content of 40£ and then cured overnight. Next, the mixture is circulated through a Vac-Aire ceramic extruder (Figure 3-1) while under vacuum to achieve thorough mixing and de-airing. At the end of the fourth pass through the extruder, the specimen is cut, rolled in waxed paper, and dipped in warm wax three times to prevent moisture loss by evaporation. The UF research team also found wrapping the specimen in cellophane after waxing an effective deterrent to evaporation. The specimens, designated EPKW, are stored in a steel cabinet in the temperature control room until needed. Immediately prior to the start of a test, the cellophane and waxed paper are carefully removed and the specimen is placed in the cutting ring and trimmed to the proper size using a wire saw (Figure 3-2). The trimmed specimen is weigned and measured and water content determinations made from the cuttings. The specimen is now prepared for insertion into the test cell. The Vac-Airs ceramic extruder allowed the research team -to produce a large number of specimens with a high degree of saturation and similar structure throughout the project. The average degree of saturation for the extruded specimens used in Tests A, 8, and C was 92. IS.

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19 Figure 3-1 Yac-Aire Ceramic Extruder

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2U Figure 3-2 Cutting Ring, Wire Saw, and Trimmed EPKW Specimen

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21 3.3 Novacul ite 3.3.1 General Properties Novaculite is not a soil in the traditional sense of the word. Rather, novaculite is an industrial abrasive created by grinding very hard, dense, even-textured, silica-bearing rock into fine particles. Novaculite is used in the manufacturing of glass and whetstones. One hundred pounds of novaculite were purchased from Agsco Corporation for use as the cohesionless, fine-grained material in this research. Although some work with novaculite was done at UF in the late 1950 's and early 1960's, little was published and laboratory notes from that era were sketchy. Consequently, the bulk of information on novaculite and its preparation was found through the manufacturer and experimentation. The properties of Agsco novaculite include Specific gravity of solids, G s = 2.65 Plasticity index, PI = (nonplastic) Particles less than #200 sieve (74u) = 98.12% Unified Soil Classification = ML Hardness = Moh's Scale 7 3.3.2 Specimen Preparation This section summarizes the procedures for preparing novaculite specimens. Again, Manzione (1985) addresses the intracacies of "how to" in his report.

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22 Novaculite is also received in dry, powdered form. Fellow researchers should use extreme caution when handling this material in powdered form because exposure can result in silicosis and eye irritation. Thus protected by dust masks and goggles, researchers mix the powder with distilled water to a predetermined water content of 33.58%. This water content is significant because the material is easily handled as a paste which can be spooned into a specimen mold. Water contents above or oelow this point make the material difficult to handle. The paste is spooned into the mold in three lifts with the mold moved across a glass plate 10 times after each lift. The material is allowed to cure overnight in the mold. Immediately before the test, the mold is gently removed and the specimen is weighed and measured before insertion into the test cell (Figure 3-3). Curing drops the water content to 20.97% and creates a solid specimen with which to work. The procedures described above were developed to fill the knowledge void regarding novaculite specimens, this development included a misguided attempt at producing novaculite specimens using tne ceramic extruder. Jespite this minor setDack, the final procedures successfully produced a large quantity of uniform specimens, designated NOVW. The cured specimens had an average degree of saturation of 69.5% at insertion. Complete saturation of the NOVW specimens was easily achieved at low oackpressures as discussed in Section 4.4.

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23 'igure 3-3 NOVW Specimen and Mold

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CHAPTER 4 EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES 4.1 Introduction This chapter examines the design and operation of the UF K Q consolidometer. Section 4.2 summarizes the initial design process. Section 4.3 reviews the individual subsystems which comprise the final system design, section 4.4 synopsizes the soil testing procedures. Chapter 4 is not intended to be a handbook for the construction and operation of a K -consolidometer. Such details are available in the aforementioned companion report by Manzione (1985). Rather, this chapter explains the evolution of tne UF K Q con soli dome ter design and soil test procedures. 4.2 System Concept Selection As previously noted in Section 1.3, the research team spent the majority of 1982 developing an initial design for the UF K Q consolidometer. S-coutamire (1982) excellently recounts this initial design process. This process involved four steps: 1) defining the required basic functions of the system, 2) converting the functions into design parameters and performance specifications, 3) generating a list of alternatives to fulfill the parameters and specifications, 24

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25 and 4) developing a workable design of the alternative selected in Step 3. In Step 1, the research team identified the basic functions as 1J prevent strain, 2) apply stress, 3) measure stress, 4) drain water, 5) maintain stress, and 6) minimize friction. Step 2 required translating these functions into design parameters and performance specifications. Table 4-1 lists each function with its associated desiderata. In Step 3, Stoutamire generated a list of alternatives to satisfy the design requirements based on his review of technical literature, manufacturer's catalogs, and references on fabrication materials. In consultation with the remainder of the research team, Stoutamire subjectively rated each alternative according to its ability to meet tne functional requirements. Each system received a score from 1 to 5, the larger value representing a better ability to satisfy the functional requirement. Table 4-2 presents the results of the evaluation. Step 4 involved generating a detailed design for the selected controlled-volume triaxial cell concept. Specifics of the current UF K -consolidometer system are provided in Section 4.3 and Manzione (1985). However, an overview of how the system functions as a whole seems appropriate before examining the individual subsystems. After the specimen is placed in the test cell, the specimen is backpressured to achieve saturation. When the specimen and system are fully saturated, vertical stress is applied incrementally to the specimen. Each vertical stress increment causes the specimen to try

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2b Table 4-1 Basic Functions, Design Parameters, and Performance Basic Function Design Parameters and Performance Specifications Prevent Strain Apply Stress Measure Stress Drain Water Maintain Stress Reduce Friction 10*10"° in/in lateral strain tolerance 0-111 psi variable lateral stress capability ±0.1 psi lateral stress sensitivity ±0.1 psi pore pressure sensitivity 222 psi pore pressure capacity Drainage without disturbance to the specimen or other functions ±0.1 psi stress tolerance over 30 days Reduce or eliminate skin friction on the specimen without interference with other functions

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11 Table 4-2 Functional Analysis of Alternative ,K -Consolidometers Function Prevent Apply Measure Maintain Minimize System Strain Stress Stress Stress Friction Total 1. Semirigid Confining Ring

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28 to strain laterally (bulge) as indicated on the mercury manometer. Lateral stress is applied until the manometer indicates the specimen is neither bulging nor compressing laterally, the K Q -condition. Following application of the last vertical stress increment and the ensuing dissipation of pore pressures, the lateral stress is regulated at frequent intervals to keep the specimen at the KQcondition for at least 14 days. The lateral stress required and pore pressure measurements are recorded at every interval. Three versions of the UF K Q -consolidometer system were built during the project. The original system, Mark I, was dismantled for parts in December 1984 after a nistory of inadequate performance. The Mark II system, which began operations in September 1984, performed well and featured a simpler, streamlined construction. Salvaging some Mark I parts, the Mark III system was built after the Mark II design to double soil testing capability. Mark III has also performed well. Figure 4-1 offers a schematic of the Mark I I /Mark III systems. Figures 4-2 and 4-3 show the Mark II and Mark III control boards, respectively. Section 4.3 reviews the construction, function, and performance capability of the subsystems which comprise the UF K -consolidometer Mark I I /Mark III systems. 4.3 Individual Subsystems 4.3.1 The Test Cell The test cell was constructed to achieve the six basic functions at the least cost. The cell (Figure 4-4) was macnined from stock

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29 0i&E

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30 Figure 4-2 UF K Q -Con sol i dome ter Mark II Control Board

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31 Figure 4-3 UF K Q -Con soli dome ter Mark III Control Board

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32 ^^^^^

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33 aluminum plate ana pipe. Cell joints are sealed with standard stock 0-rings and brass tube fittings allow sample drainage and pressure application. The 3.00 inch-diameter piston was machined from stainless steel. Vertical load is transmitted to the piston via a 0.5 inch-diameter steel rod press fitted into the piston. The steel rod rides in two Thomson stainless steel linear ball bushings. The cell is constructed to handle a soil specimen 3.00 inches in diameter and 0.75 inches high placed between two stainless steel porous discs and surrounded by a rubber membrane (Figure 4-5). Table 4-3 explains how the construction features cited above relate to fulfilling the basic functions of the system. 4.3.2 Backpressure/De-airing Subsystem (BPPS) The major components of the BPDS (Figure 4-1) are the pressure source, the air/water interface tank Tl, and a Sensotec Model TJE/708 pressure transducer wired to a Doric Model 420 Transducer Indicator UT02 in Figure 4-1). The Sensotec Model TJE/703 pressure transducer nas a capacity of 150 psi . These components are connected to each other and to the test cell via .25 inch-outside diameter Mylaflow pressure tubing. The pressure source employed varies according to need. The specimen is brought to the desired backpressure using regulator Rl from the air compressor then switched to the mercury backpressure system which provides a more stable backpressure over long periods of time. The functions of the 3P0S are 1) dissolve pockets of air in the specimen and system to achieve a saturated specimen before loading

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34 Figure 4-5 Interior of Test Cell Showing Specimen and Porous Discs Sealed in Rubber Membrane

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35 TaDle 4-3 Correlation of Basic Functions to Test Cell Construction Features Function Construction Feature Prevent Strain Displacement of water in cell chamber changes mercury manometer level indicating lateral stress needs to be adjusted to prevent lateral strain. Apply Stress 1) 2) Line 2Y2 (Figure 4-1) allows lateral pressure to be decreased or increased in the chamber to maintain the K Q -conditi on. Vertical stress is transmitted via the stainless steel piston from the 0.5 inchdiameter rod in contact with the oedometer loading frame. Measure Stress Drain Water Line 2V2 (Figure 4-1) is connected to the pressure transducer RTD for the measurement of lateral stress. Water drains through the top stainless steel disc and the top platten into Line 2V1 (Figure 4-1) displacing water in the small buret. Maintain Stress 1) 2) Line 2Y2 (Figure 4-1) is connected to an adjustable mercury pot system, noted as a steady pressure source. The piston transmits a dead load placed on an oedometer loading frame; the dead load is constant. Reduce Friction 1) 3) A rubber membrane is used to surround tne specimen to preclude side friction and shear stresses. The 0.5 inch-diameter rod rides in two Tnomson stainless teel linear ball bushings to minimize friction and load eccentricity. The piston is polished to a mirror finish and coated lightly with a mixture of silicon and glycerine to minimize friction.

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36 begins and 2) provide a constant backpressure after loading begins. Each of these functions relates to the system's ability to measure stress and maintain stress. The backpressure may be adjusted to any pressure desired by adjusting regulator Rl or by turning the wincn (Figure 4-6) to adjust the height of the mercury pot, depending on the pressure source in use. The maximum backpressure available is 100 psi using regulator Rl and 111 psi using the mercury backpressure system. A tandem pot arrangement (Figure 4-1) was necessary to achieve the 111 psi capability on the mercury backpressure system. The Doric allows the backpressure to be read to the nearest .01 psi, as measured by the Sensotec pressure transducer. 4.3.3 Vertical Stress Application Subsystem (VSAS) The VSAS consists of a modified Soil test Model C-221 oedometer and a Soil test Model LC-3 dial gage (Figure 4-7). The oedometer is modified to accommodate the 8-inch high test cell by replacing the standard 3 inch threaded rods with 16 inch rods. The dial gage is attached to the top frame to measure vertical deflections. The functions of the VSAS are 1) apply vertical stress and 2) measure vertical deformation. The oedometer has a load capacity of 16 tons per square foot or 220 psi. Vertical deflections can be read on the dial gage to the nearest .0001 inch and estimated to the nearest .00001 inch.

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37 Figure 4-6 Winch for Adjusting Backpressure/De-ain'ng Subsystem

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33 Figure 4-7 Vertical Stress Application Subsystem (VSAS)

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39 4.3.4 Lateral Strain Null Subsystem (LSNS) The LSNS is simply a "U" column partially filled with mercury, sometimes referred to as a mercury manometer (figure 4-8). One branch of the "U" is connected to the test cell's top chamber outlet via .25 inch-outside diameter copper tubing and the other to the Lateral Stress Application Subsystem (LSAS) as shown in Figure 4-1. The LSNS helps the system prevent strain, apply stress, and measure stress. By observing the mercury level in the "U," the researcher can detect movement of cell water caused by lateral straining of the soil. Specifically, if the mercury level in the right side of the "U" is above the pretest level, the lateral pressure being applied exceeds that necessary for the K Q -condition. Conversely, if the level is below, more pressure is needed for the K Q -condi tion. The researcher uses the LSNS as a guide for applying stress and as an indicator that true K -values may be computed from measured stresses. The LSNS scale may be read to the nearest .01 inch. The diameter of the mercury manometer is .0197 in (.5 mm). Thus, the manometer can detect volumetric strains as small as ± .6*10" 6 in 3 /in 3 and lateral strains as small as ± 5*10"° in/in, using .75 and 3 inches as the specimen height and diameter, respectively. 4.3.5 Lateral Stress Application Subsystem (LSAS) The major components of the LSAS are the pressure source and a Sensotec Model TJE/708 pressure transducer wired to a Doric Model 420 Transducer Indicator (RTD in Figure 4-1). Recall, the Sensotec Model

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40 Figure 4-8 Lateral Strain Null Subsystem (LSNS)

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41 TJE/708 pressure transducer has a capacity of 150 psi. During the first hour of each load increment, the lateral pressure is adjusted using regulator R2 since frequent and rapid adjustments are required (Figure 4-1). At other times, the mercury pot system serves as the source of lateral pressure because of its ability to maintain pressure with little fluctuation over long periods of time (Figure 4-1). 3oth pressure sources are connected to the LSNS, and hence to the test cell, with .25 inch-outside diameter Nylaflow pressure tubing. The LSAS fulfills the basic functions of applying, maintaining, and measuring stress. The lateral stress may be adjusted to any pressure necessary by adjusting Regulator R2 or by turning the wincn (Figure 4-9) to adjust the height of the mercury pot, depending on the pressure source in use. The maximum lateral pressure available is 100 psi using regulator R2 and 111 psi using the mercury pot system. The Doric allows the lateral pressure to be read to the nearest .01 psi, as measured by the Sensotec pressure transducer. 4.3.6 Pore Pressure Measurement Subsystem (PPMS) The major component of the PPMS is a Sensotec Model TJE/741 differential pressure transducer wired to a Doric Model 420 Transducer Indicator (DTD in Figure 4-1). The Sensotec Model TJE/741 differential pressure transducer has a capacity of 50 psi. This transducer measures the pressure difference between the pore water pressure at the bottom of the specimen and the applied lateral

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42 Figure 4-9 Winch for Adjusting Lateral Stress Application Subsystem (LSAS)

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43 stress. Subtracting the DTD value and the RTD2 values from RTD yields the excess pore pressure. The differential transducer is connected to the bottom of the specimen with .25 inch-outside diameter Nylaflow tubing and to the LSNS with a combination of .25 inch-outside diameter Nylaflow and copper tubing. Figure 4-10 shows all three transducers used in the UF K Q consolidometer system. The differential transducer is the large body in the center of the photograph. All three transducers are mounted at an elevation coincident with the specimen's centerline to eliminate the need for elevation corrections. The PPMS contributes to the "measure stress" function of the system. The Doric allows the differential pressure to be read to the nearest .01 psi, as measured by the differential transducer. 4.3.7 Volume Change Measurement Subsystem (VCMS) The VCMS consists of a small bore Duret connected to the top specimen drainage port of the test cell via a combination of .25 inch-outside diameter copper and Nylaflow tubing (Figure 4-1). The cross-sectional area of the burets are .018 in 2 and .016 in 2 for the Mark II and Mark III systems, respectively. Figure 4-11 shows a close-up of the small buret with the large overflow buret. The Mark II VCMS employs 6 ft of copper and 5 ft of Nylaflow tubing. The Mark III VCMS has approximately 4.5 ft of copper and i.6 ft of Nylaflow tubing. Copper tubing was installed where possible due to Nylaflow' s

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44 Figure 4-10 Pore Pressure Measurement Subsystem (PPMS) Components: Sensotec Model TJE/741 Differential Pressure Transducer (Center) and Sensotec Model TJE/708 Pressure Transducers (Left and Right)

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45 Figure 4-11 Volume Change Measurement Subsystem (VCMS)

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46 aosorption/evaporation characteristics, a topic which will be discussed in detail later in this report. The function of the VCMS is to drain water. In addition, the VCMS provides a check on the LSNS since the water expelled from the specimen should equal the vertical change in specimen height times the specimen area for the K Q -condition. The divisions on the VCMS are .05 inches and may be estimated to the nearest .01 inch. Therefore, the change in volume may be calculated to the nearest .00018 in 3 and .00016 in 3 for the Mark II and Mark III systems, respectively. 4.3.8 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS) The three components of the TCS are the temperature control room, an Omega tnermostat, and an Arvin portable electric heater. The temperature control room (Figure 4-12) is constructed of .5 inchthick styrofoam panels sealed with polyethylene and duct tape. Plexiglass windows allow cursory equipment checks and light from outside the room. The Omega thermostat may be set for any temperature between 75°F and 125°F (Figure 4-13). When the temperature drops below that desired, the thermostat turns on tne electric heater (Figure 4-14) to raise the room temperature. Fortunately, temperatures were not prone to rise above the desired level; therefore no cooling element was provided for the TCS. The function of tne TCS is to maintain a constant temperature. A constant temperature is necessary so the system can achieve its six basic functions. Specifically, temperature variations will cause the

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47 Figure 4-12 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS)— Temperature Control Room

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43 Figure 4-13 Temperature Control Subsystem(TCS)— Omega Thermostat

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49 Figure 4-14 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS)--Arvin Portable Electric Heater

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50 chamber, tubing, and water to expand or contract. Moreover, sealed systems act as thermometers. Hence, all tests were conducted in the temperature control room. The divisions on the Omega thermostat are 1°F and may be estimated to the nearest .1°F. 4.4 Soil Testing Procedures This section presents a synopsis of how to test a soil in the UF K -consolidometer. Again, Manzione (1985) should be consulted for step-by-step details. The test is conducted in these five phases: 1) Prepare the specimen. This entails trimming, measuring, and weighing the specimen before placement in the test cell. 2) Backpressure the specimen. The specimen is placed under a constant backpressure to dissolve air pockets in the specimen and system so full saturation can be achieved. Backpressure typically takes 3 days and 1 day for kaolinite and novaculite, respectively. B-value checks are conducted to insure the specimen is fully saturated before proceeding with the next step. 3) Load the specimen. Vertical stress is applied in three increments of .5, 1, and 2 tsf. The K Q -condition is maintained by adjusting the lateral stress as indicated by the mercury manometer (LSNS). The excess pore pressure is allowed to dissipate following each load increment before the

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51 next increment is applied. Dissipation typically takes 18-24 hours for kaolinite and .5-4 hours for novaculite. 4) Age the specimen. The specimen is allowed to sit under the constant vertical stress of 2 tsf for a minimum of 14 days. During this time, the lateral stress is adjusted to maintain the K Q -condition as indicated by the mercury manometer (LSNS). Deformation, stress, drainage, and temperature of the specimen are monitored at frequent intervals, usually every 2-4 hours. 5) Load the specimen. Finally, the K Q -condition is maintained while the specimen is loaded in small increments to determine the magnitude of the q-p c effect. Although broad in scope, the previous discussion should aid in understanding the data and analysis to follow.

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CHAPTER 5 COMPUTATIONS AND RESULTS 5.1 Introduction This chapter reviews the data gathering/reduction process and presents the test results. Section 5.2 discusses the observed data. Section 5.3 explains how new information was developed by reducing the observed data. Finally, Section 5.4 offers the test results. The data and results presented in this chapter are for six K Q consolidation tests conducted between September 28, 1984, and April 19, 1985. As prescribed by the principal investigators, each test presented herein is a "perfect" test. A "perfect" test is defined as a test free from any known equipment or procedural deficiencies. The remainder of time in the final testing phase, the period cited above, was spent developing the final design and procedures discussed earlier so "perfect" tests could be achieved. 5.2 Observed Data 5.2.1 Before Test Before each test, the specimen was trimmed, measured, and weighed. Specimen trimmings were weighed, oven dried, and weighed 52

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53 again to determine the water content of the specimen. The diameter and height were each measured 3 times to the nearest .001 cm using a Mitutoyo micrometer. The specimen was weighed to the nearest .01 g using a Mettler balance. The specific gravity of solids was known for both materials. 5.2.2 During Test Throughout the K Q -consolidation test, 10 pieces of information are noted. The data are date, time, chamoer pressure, differential pressure, backpressure, small buret level, large buret level, manometer level, dial gage reading, and temperature. The degree of accuracy for these measurements was discussed in Chapter 4. 5.3 Reduced Data 5.3.1 Before Test Using the observed data, the volume, volume of solids, height of solids, initial void ratio, area, and total unit weight may be computed as shown in Figure 5-1. 5.3.2 During Test Knowing the data observed before and during the test and the reduced pretest data, values may be determined for excess pore pressure, average pore pressure, lateral effective stress, vertical effective stress, K , p', q', change in specimen height, and void ratio. After calculating the values for K and void ratio,

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54 SYMBOLS: w = water content weight of specimen diameter of specimen initial height of specimen specific gravity of solids area of specimen volume of specimen weight of solids volume of solids height of solids e = initial void ratio Y = total unit weight Y w = unit weight of water OBSERVED: W, d, H, G c COMPUTED:

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55 correlations such as aged K Q values as a percentage of the pre-aging K Q value and void ratio as a percentage of initial void ratio may be found. Figure 5-2 shows the data reduction sequence. 5.4 Test Results This section presents the specimen data and test results for the six ^-consolidation tests run using the equipment and procedures previously discussed. Table 5-1 provides information regarding the testing schedule. Table 5-2 characterizes the specimens tested. Figures 5-3 and 5-4 examine the behavior of K Q with aging time for EPKW and NOVW specimens, respectively. Figures 5-5 through 5-10 are p'-q diagrams for the six tests marked with Schmertmann's quantitative theory notation (see Figure 2-1). Figures 5-11 through 5-15 are e-log a| plots reflecting the graphical solution for the q-p c effect. Appendices A through F include tables and raw plots for Tests A through F, respectively. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 summarize the information presented in this section and Appendices A through F. Appendix H presents sample calculations showing step-by-step computation of the information in Table 5-4. These tables should provide the reader an easy reference for the discussion of results in Chapter 6.

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56 SYMBOLS: H H s e o a 3 DTD 3P OR = initial height of specimen = height of sol ids = initial void ratio = chamber pressure = differential pressure between the chamber and the pore pressure at the bottom of the specimen = backpressure = dial reading = vertical stress = average pore pressure = vertical effective stress = lateral effective stress = lateral stress ratio for one -dimensional strain = change in height = void ratio KNOWN: H , e , a, s' o' 1 OBSERVED: a DTD, BP, OR COMPUTED: EXCESS PWP = a -DTD-BP u = -j (EXCESS PWP) + BP 1 " "1 K o = °3 /a i p' = (°[+°' 3 )/2 AH = H-ADR e = e Q -(AH/H < Figure 5-2 Chart for Reduction of "During Test" Data

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57 Table 5-1 Schedule of Tests Test

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53 Table 5-2 Specimen Data

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59 S 8 8 5 0* DNI0V-3ad JO X V SV OM

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60 O OX DNIDV-38d dO Z V SV OX

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61

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52

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53

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64

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65

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69

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70 i ' ; ] i ' 1 ! — 'anvy qioa

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71 ^1 11111/ i i -, i i i i j "oi ivy aroA

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72

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73 3 uj o •1en OJ en u E c en c en s— o en c — c -ren 1 -e•1O Q o oo 0) ' — 1 en u s_ o i
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74 >,
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CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY OF RESULTS 6.1 Introduction Chapter 6 evaluates the test results presented in the previous chapter and the performance of the UF ,< -consolidometer during the tests. Sections 6.2 and 6.3 offer answers to the K Q -behavior and quantitative theory questions posed in Section 1.2. Section 6.4 examines the performance of the UF K Q -con soli dome ter in light of the criteria defined in Chapter 4. Section 6.5 addresses questions considered by the UF research team and likely to arise in a critical review of this study. Finally, Section 6.6 summarizes these dicussions. Prior to further discussions, some comments on Test F seem appropriate. Noting Figure 5-10, Figure 5-16, Table 5-3 and Table 5-4, the reader easily determines Test F results are inconsistent with Tests and E. The obvious question is why. Perusal of the specimen data and laboratory notes suggest no procedural or equipment deficiencies. Moreover, the laboratory notes indicate no sample disturbance during testing. However, the low pre-aging friction angle and large changes in void ratio indicate the sample may have been disturbed. Consequently, the Test F results were not used in determining NOVW characteristics. Nevertheless, Test F results are 75

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76 important to this study because they allow the evaluation of the quantitative prediction theory for the Ap CC| = case. 6.2 K Q -Behavior During Secondary Compression Aging 6.2.1 Discussion As previously noted in Section 1.2, this study sought to answer how K behaves during secondary aging in one-dimensional compression for NC fine-grained soils. Figure 5-3, Figure 5-4, and Table 5-3 summarize the information gathered during this project to answer that question. K Q -values for the EPKW specimens decreased an average of 3D. 08% over a nominal 15-day aging period. K Q -values for the NOVW specimens decreased an average of 37. 432 over the same period. Friction angle values (*) were calculated using pre-aging and post-aging K Q -values in Jaky's Equation [ = arcsin(l-K ) J. The average pre-aging 4> values were 23.75° and 40.90° for EPKW ana NOVW, respectively. Due to the decrease in K Q , corresponding friction angle values increased during aging. Both EPKW and NOVW averaged an increase in of 10.8°. 6.2.2 Summary For each of the six tests on NC fine-grained soil, K Q decreased during secondary aging in one-dimensional compression. The average magnitude of decrease was 30.08% and 37.43% for EPKW and NOVW, respectively.

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77 6.3 Quantitative Prediction of the q-p r Effect 6.3.1 Discussion The second question this study examined was the accuracy of the assumptions and predictions of the existing quantitative theory for predicting the q-p c effect (Schmertmann, 1981). As discussed in Section 2.3, Schmertmann' s quantitative theory formula was derived from an assumed stress path predicated on his soil friction-increase theory. If the stress paths for the six tests (Figures 5-5 through 5-10) match the assumed stress path (Figure 2-1), then his assumptions and soil friction-increase theory would be validated. From studying Figures 5-5 through 5-10, the author suggests the six tests validate the initial 2-3 portion of the stress path. However, the 3-4 portion of the path occurred at a somewhat lower slope than Schmertmann 's A=0 line. In most tests, the 3-4 portion was almost along the S 4 line. Therefore, the slope A q required in the prediction equation was calculated as described in Table 5-4 and illustrated in Appendix H, rather than using the equation derived by Schmertmann which was based on the assumed ESP discussed in Section 2.3.2. Moreover, with the previously noted exception of Test F, the NOVW specimens do not readily return to the initial K Q -line, as do the EPKW specimens, under the small loads applied. This occurrence indicates the aging effect is more difficult to destroy in the NOVW. The shape of the stress paths and the need for additional loading to destroy the aging effect in the material of greater friction support the soil friction-increase

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73 theory and thus the assumptions underlying the quantitative theory formula. The next step was to examine the capability of the derived mathematical expression to accurately predict the q-p c effect. As shown in Figure 2-1, the magnitude of the q-p c effect may be obtained graphically from an e-log a[ plot. For purposes of evaluation, values computed from Schrnertmann' s expression were compared to those obtained graphically from Figures 5-11 through 5-16. These values for Ap were then divided by the consolidation pressure p Q to compute the percentage of additional load which could be carried due to the q-p c effect. Table 5-4 summarizes the q-p~ effect calculations. To achieve a common basis for comparison, the author defined the end of the q-p c effect as the first departure from the post-aging slope S 4 and the first departure from a straignt line through the small load void ratios for the mathematical and graphical techniques, respectively. Clearly, the entire aging effect is not destroyed until the stress path returns to the original K Q -line and some analysts may include points beyond the first departure in the q-p c effect. This caveat should aid the reader in following the author's analysis. Schrnertmann' s quantitative theory predictions underpredicted graphical values by an average of 14.97:6 for the three EPKW tests. The average value for Ap cq /p Q for EPKW was 9.00% and 23.97% using the mathematical and graphical procedures, respectively. Average mathematical and graphical Ap_ /p values for NOVW, based on Tests D and E, were 11.842 and 20.25%, respectively. As

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79 mentioned in Section 6.1, Test F was analyzed to determine if the Schmertmann expression was valid when Ap cq /p was known to be zero. The Schmercmann expression is general enough to predict Ap cq = when the q-p c effect has been destroyed. The differences expressed aDove are a consequence of the procedures chosen to define the number 4 points on the p'-q diagrams, Figures 5-5 through 5-10, and on the e-log a[ plots, Figures 5-11 through 5-16. 5.3.2 Summary The shape of the stress paths and the need for additional loading to destroy the aging effect in the material of greater particle friction, NOVW, support the soil friction-increase theory and thus the assumptions underlying Schmertmann' s quantitative theory for the q-p c effect. Schmertmann ' s quantitative theory predictions underpredicted graphical values from the e-log a[ plots by an average of 14.97X for EPKW and 8.41* for NOVW. 3otn prediction methods are subject to the analyst's judgment. 5.4 Equipment Performance Evaluation 6.4.1 Discussion General . During the six tests, the L)F i< Q -con sol i dome ter performea well each function described in Chapter 4. This section examines the t«vo subsystems whose level of performance may be measured in numerical terms based on test data. Excluding the friction characteristics of the test cell which will be discussed in

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30 Section 6.5, the performance of the other six subsystems is measured qualitatively as functional or dysfunctional. Each of these six were functional throughout the testing program. Volume Change Measurement Subsystem (VCMS) . The function of the VCMS is to drain water. Moreover, the VCMS provides a check on the mercury manometer since the water expelled from the specimen should equal the vertical change in specimen heignt times the specimen area for the K Q -condition. The primary function of draining water was easily achieved. However, an extensive investigation was necessary when the agreement between the mercury manometer and the VCMS began deviating after primary consolidation in each test due to water loss in the VCMS. The first step was to insure water was not "backing up" into the specimen during aging. If this occurred, the constant volume necessary to maintain the K Q -condition would be compromised. Sealing off the chamber from the rest of the system (both by valve and removal), the research team found the water loss still continued, thus eliminating "backing up" as the source of loss. Step 2 was to insure water was not being lost through leakage. Both the Mark II and Mark III systems were charged with freon at 80 psi pressure and checked for leaks. Mo leaks were found in either VCMS. Pursuant to the co-principal investigator's suggestion that temperature could contribute to water loss, the research team installed a new heater in the temperature control room. Although this reduced the maximum temperature variation from ±Z°F to ±0.3°F,

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81 the water losses continued. Therefore, temperature effects on the VCMS seemed negligible. Eliminating "back up," leakage, and temperature as possible causes, the investigation turned to time-related phenomenaevaporation and absorption. In an attempt to prevent evaporation and absorption, an oil cover was placed on top of the water in the small buret and nylon tubing was replaced with copper tubing where possible. Despite these efforts, the VCMS continued to lose water. In Step 5, a series of tests were conducted at various backpressures to develop water loss calibrations for each VCMS. However, the only consistent trend in the data was that the volume loss rate increased with each subsequent event on the system, regardless of pressure. Finally, the research team took the data to Or. David E. Clark, a professor in the UF Department of Materials Science and Engineering and a specialist in the environmental sensitivity of materials and the properties of glass. Dr. Clark made the following statements concerning water loss in the VCMS: 1) Absorption and evaporation ao occur through nylon tubing. The rate of absorption/evaporation is a function of humidity and the permeability of the material. 2) The trend of increased volume loss is consistent with decreased humidity due to the laboratory air conditioner being used more as the semester progresses.

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32 3) The trend of increased volume loss is also consistent with increased permeability of the lines resulting from age and environmental interaction. 4) Some of the water lost may be absorbed by hydrated products formed inside the copper tubing due to basic nature of the water expelled from the EPKW specimens. To sum up, the VCMS still performs its basic function of draining water. The secondary function of providing a check for the mercury manometer is achieved until the end of primary consolidation. At this point, the absorption/evaporation of water through the nylon tubing, masked by large volumes during primary consolidation, appears as a drop in the VCMS. These losses do not affect the maintenance of the K Q -condi f or the validity of the test. Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS) . The function of the TCS is to maintain a constant temperature. As mentioned in the preceding discussion, the capability of the TCS was improved by replacing the former heat source with the Arvin portable electric heater, previously discussed and shown in Figure 4-14. This equipment was installed during Test 6. Consequently, the mean temperature variations for Tests A and B are greater than those for Tests C through F as shown in Table 6-1. in sum, the temperature information provided in Table 6-1 reveals the TCS successfully maintained a constant temperature.

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83 Table 6-1 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS) Data Units Test + A Desired Temperature °F 83.5 80.1 80.1 80.1 80.1 80.1 Maximum Deviation Above Desired Temperature °F 1.2 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.6 Maximum Deviation 8elow Desired Temperature °F 3.6 3.8 0.1 1.1 0.1 0.1 Mean Deviation Above Desired Temperature °F 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 O.i Mean Deviation Below Desired Temperature °F 0.6 1.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

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84 6.4.2 Summary The UF ;< -consoli dome ter performed each primary function for wnicn it was designed. A water loss in the VCMS due to absorption/evaporation in the nylon tubing prevented the secondary function of mercury manometer checks beyond primary consolidation. This water loss did not compromise the K Q -condition or the validity of the tests. The TCS was successful in maintaining a constant temperature for each test. 6.5 Questions/Answers Regarding Results 6.5.1 Discussion This section addresses three questions considered by the UF research team and likely to arise in a critical review of this study. 1) QUESTION: Is the test cell piston subject to horizontal eccentricity whicn would reduce the vertical stress felt by the specimen and thus alter K Q ? ANSWER: First, the UF K Q -conso" designed to preclude horizontal eccentricity on the piston, as discussea in Section 4.3.1, load is transmitted to the piston via a press-fitted rod which rides in two Thomson stainless steel linear ball bushings. Two sets of oushings were used to eliminate eccentricity. Second, an experiment was conducted to insure the ball bushings were doing their job. A string was tied around the rod, run over a pulley, and loaded with weignts to put a

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85 horizontal load on the rod and thus the piston. At each horizontal load, the vertical load necessary to make the piston move was measured. Apparently the ball bushings work quite well, since the piston moved under its own weight for potential eccentricities up to 112%, there the experiment ended (Table 6-2). 2) QUESTION: Since the test cell has no load cell for the measurement of vertical stress, how reliable are the results of this study? ANSWER: Clearly, this question would not be posed if funds nad been available to equip the test cells with load cells when constructed. Using observation, calibration, and parametric studies, the research team determined the role of piston friction in altering the vertical stress. If piston friction was building with time, logic dictates the dial readings should reflect the change in piston movement. For example, if the piston stopped, then the dial readings would remain constant. Moreover, if the piston stopped then started again after overcoming friction, dial readings would reflect a constant period followed by an abrupt change. Instead, the dial readings show a consistent decrease in height of the specimen, characteristic of secondary compression. Table 6-3 gives the piston friction data for tne Mark Ii and Mark III test cells. The cells were filled with

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36 Table 6-2 investigation of Eccentricity Effects in Test Cell Horizontal Vertical Load to Eccentr icitv = Horiz. Load — Load, g Move Piston, g eccentricity vert.Load @ Honz.Load=0

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87 Table 6-3 Piston Friction Data Units Mark II Test Cell Mark III Test Cell Simulated

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88 water, placed in their respective oeaometer, and pressurized to simulate operational backpressures. After balancing the load arm to counteract uplift, the weight necessary to move the piston was measured. Knowing the loading arm ratio and the cross-sectional area of the piston, this load was converted into a pressure expression for piston friction. Finally, piston friction is expressed as a percentage of the total vertical stress necessary to establish a consolidation pressure of 25.63 psi at the simulated backpressure. This table shows the piston friction is negligible. Table 6-4 offers a parametric study of piston friction using a "typical" point from Test 0. The parametric study confirms i< is sensitive to piston friction. However, the study also reveals high percentages of piston friction would be required to compute K Q values that remain constant or increase from the start of aging, given the a 3 value. In conclusion, implementing a load cell is the ultimate answer to monitoring the vertical stress and piston friction. However, observation, calibration, and parametric studies indicate the total vertical stress remains constant and free from piston friction effects throughout the test. QUESTION: How accurately was the operator able to maintain tne K -condi tion using the mercury manometer? ANSWER: The UF i( Q -consol idometer was monitored every 2 to 4 hours for the duration of the test. Adjustments were made in small increments, as indicated by the manometer, to

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TaDle 6-4 Parametric Study of Piston Friction Using a "Typica Point from Test D Data: Aging time = 7.917 days deduction in K tfj = 42.47 psi Since Start of Aging = 33.33% u = 16.16 psi a 3 = 22.97 psi K Q at Start of Aging = .366 % Decrease Due

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90 maintain the K Q -condition. TaDle 6-5 gives the mean for readings above and below the K Q -level for each test. These aata suggest an experienced operator can successfully maintain the K Q -condition using the mercury manometer as an indicator of lateral strain. 5.5.2 Summary The UF K.-consolidometer test cell exhibited no horizontal o eccentricity of the piston when tested. Moreover, piston friction appeared negligible based on observation and calibration of both test cells. Test data suggest an experienced operator can successfully maintain the K Q -condition using the mercury manometer as an indicator of lateral strain. 6.6 Summary This chapter addressed a broad range of issues regarding the test results and equipment performance. The statements below summarize the discussions on these issues. 1) K Q decreased an average of 30.08% and 37.43% for normally consolidated EPKW and NOVW specimens, respectively, during secondary aging in one-dimensional compression. 2) Both EPKW and NOVW specimens exhibited the q-p c effect. Schmertmann' s quantitative theory predictions for the q-p c effect underpredicted graphical values by an average of 14.97% for EPKW and 8.41% for NOVW.

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91 Table 6-5 Operation of the Lateral Strain Null Subsystem (LSNS) or Mercury Manometer Units Test Mean Deviation psi 0.13 0.09 0.03 0.05 0.10 0.03 Mean Deviation psi 0.18 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.03

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92 J) The UF K -consolidometer performed each primary function for which it was designed. The only problem area was the water loss from the VCMS after primary consolidation. This loss, due to absorption/evaporation in the nylon tubing, prevented checks on the mercury manometer after primary consolidation but did not compromise the K Q -condition or the validity of the tests. 4) Eccentricity and friction in the piston do not appear to be factors in the OF K Q -consolidometer test cells. Performance data suggest an experienced operator can successfully maintain the K -condi tion us indicator of lateral strain.

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CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7.1 Conclusions Analysis of the test results and equipment performance for the six K Q -consolidation tests on NC fine-grained soils appears to justify the following conclusions. i) K decreases during secondary aging in one-dimensional compression for NC fine-grained soils. 2) The q-p c effect develops in both cohesive and cohesionless fine-grained soils. Moreover, greater loads are required to destroy the aging effect in the cohesionless soil. Both occurrences suggest the q-p c effect develops aue to increased friction rather than bonding. 3) Schmertmann ' s quantitative theory predictions for the q-p„ effect underpredict graphical values by an average of 14.97% for EPKW and 8.412 for NOYW. This agreement is reasonable considering the subjective aspects of both tecnniques. 4) The UF i< -consol idometers are capable of maintaining and accurately measuring cne K Q -condition when operated oy experienced people using the prescribed techniques. 93

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94 7.2 Recommendations The author offers the following suggestions for furthering this research. 1) Pursue current UF plans to implement a load cell into the test cell. This action would eliminate the need for piston friction calibration. 2) Expand the data base. More tests on EPKW and NOVW should be run to provide additional evidence for the previously stated conclusions. Moreover, tests should be run on other MC finegrained soils to verify the findings. 3) Invite other researchers to UF to review the equipment and test specimens of their choice. Based on the diversity of opinion found during the literature review, the author thinks this may be the only way to settle the arguments surrounding K -behavior and the origins of the q-p c effect.

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APPENDIX A TEST A: TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS Table A-l Test A:

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96 Table A-2 Test A: Values for oe in %, U3, and u a i

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97

PAGE 111

93

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99 ' i ' ! !

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APPENDIX B TEST 8: TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS Table B-l Test B:

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Table 8-2 Test 3: Values for a[, e, e in %, a'^, and 101 °i

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102

PAGE 116

103

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104 COO!*) a *oi ivy 0I0A

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APPENDIX C TEST C: TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS Table C-l Test C: Aging Time K p' q K Q as % of t (days) (psi) (psi) Pre-Aging K

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106 TaDle C-l — continued.

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107 Table C-2 Test C: Values for
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108

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109

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110 I coot*) a onva qioa

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APPENDIX D TEST 0: TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS Table D-l Test D: Values

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Table l)-1— continued. 112 Aging Time t (days) P (psi) q (psi) K as % of Pre-Aging K 233

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113 Table 0-2

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114 5

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115

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116 ,! i i i — (00!*) a 'OliVd OIOA

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APPENDIX E TEST E: TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS Table E-l Test E:

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113 TaDle E-2 Test E: Values for a{, e, e in 4. and u a i

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119

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120

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121 cao i*) a "oi ivy niDA

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APPENDIX F TEST F: TABULATED RESULTS AND RAW PLOTS Table F-l Test F:

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123 Taole F-l~continued.

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124 TaDle F-2

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125 Taole F-2--continued.

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126

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127

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128 1 i I I I I I i I I i 1 j

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APPENDIX G EPKW AND NOVW: RESULTS OF CONVENTIONAL OEOOMETER TESTS Table G-l EPKW and NOVW: Conventional Oedometer Test Specimen Data Units Soil EPKW NOVW w

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130 Table G-2 EPKW and HOVW: Values for cr£, e, and e in % for Conventional Oedorneter Tests Soil EPKW NOVW a i

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131 /

PAGE 145

132 / \

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APPENDIX H This appendix provides a step-by-step guide for calculating the information in Table 5-4. Calculations shown are for Test A. r i p = o{ = a 1 u = 86.31 60.63 = 25.63 psi ; a-, = total vertical stress known from oedometer calibration; u = backpressure reading before placement of final load since excess pore water pressure from previous load has dissipated. (2) Slope of Initia' (1-K @ point 2)/(l+K @ point 2) = (l-.457)/(l+.457) .373 (3) Slope of K Q -Line After q-p c Effect, S 4 S 4 = (1-K (3 point 4)/(l+K. @ point 4) = (l-.282)/(l+.282) = .560 (4) Net Effect of A over the entire 2-4 ESP of the q-p c Process, A c -— — -q q 2(q 4 -q 2 ) 2(10.20 7.00) '™* (5) Magnitude of q-p c Effect from Schmertmann' s Theory, Ap Ap =p 2tl-A q )(S 4 -S 2 ) a2563 2 (l-.588)(.560-.373) cq °[1-(1-2A )S 4 ](1+S 2 ) [l-{l-2(.588)}.560](l+.373] = 2.62 psi 133

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134 (6) Magnitude of q-p c Effect from e-log a { Plot, AP cq AP cq = ia[ at the end of the q-p c effect)-(p =a]_) = 32.42 25.53 = 6.79 psi The end of the q-p c effect is defined as the first departure from a straight line through the small load void ratios. The numerical value for a[ is determined by interpolating between points with known a[ values. a{ at the end of the q-p c effect = 31.26 + .8(32.71 31.26) = 32.42 psi (7) Predicted Increase in Load Capacity Due to q-p c Effect, Ap cq theory /p o % increase = ^ theory * 100 l&gL * 100 = 10.22% p n 25.63 psi (3) Graphically-Determined Increase in Load Capacity Due to q-p c Effect, AP cq plot /p % increase ^£^121 * 100 = ||2|^£|1, * 100 = 26.49% (9) Quantitative Theory Prediction vs. Graphical Solution Difference = % Increase (Theory) % Increase (Graphical) = 10.22 25.49 = 16.27*

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BI3LI0GRAPHY AT 1am, Mehter M., and A. Sridharan, Discussion of "A Simple Question About Consolidation," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering , American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 110, No. 5, May, 1984, pp. 671-672. Bjerrum, Laurits, "Engineering Geology of Norwegian NormallyConsolidated Marine Clays as Related to Settlements of Buildings," Geo technique , The Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 17, No. 2, June, 1967, pp. 31-118. Bjerrum, Laurits, "Embankments on Soft Ground," Proceedings of the Specialty Conference on Performance of Earth and Earth-Supported Structures , American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 2, June, 1972, pp. 1-55. Bjerrum, Laurits, and T.H. Wu, "Fundamental Shear Strength Properties of the Li 1 la Edet Clay," Geo technique , The Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 10, No. 3, September, 1960, pp. 101-109. Borja, Ronaldo I., Finite Element Analysis of the Time-Dependent Behavior of Soft Clays , Ph.D. Dissertation , Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California, April, 1984. Casagrande, Arthur, "The Determination of the Pre-Consol idation Load and Its Practical Significance," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering , Vol. 1, 1936, pp. 60-64. Davidson, John L., The Effect of Quasi-Preconsol idation on Compression of Clay Soils , Ph.D. Dissertation, Civil Engineering Department, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, August, 1973. Davidson, John L., "A Quasi-Preconsol idation Clay Model," Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering , Vol. 1, 1977, pp. 75-79. Hanzawa, Hideo, "Undrained Strength Characteristics of Normally Consolidated Aged Clay," Soils and Foundations , The Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 3, September, 1933, pp. 39-49. 135

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136 Hsieh, Hsii-Sheng, An Automated Triaxial Device for Measuring the AtRest Earth Pre ssUfTToTfficient , tngineer's inesis, Civil Engineering D epartment, Stanford University, Stanford, California, August, 1984. Jamiolkowski, M., C.C. Ladd, J.T. Germaine and R. Lance 11 otto. " New Developments in Field and Laboratory Testing of Soils. Pre Print of State-o f-the-Art Paper for Eleventh Inter national ConTerence on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering , 1985, pp. iU-Jd. Kavazanjian, Edward, Jr., and James K. Mitchell, "Time Dependence of Lateral Earth Pressure," Journal of Geo technical Engineering., American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. iiu. No. 4, Kp> i I , 1984, pp. 530-533. Lambe, T. William, "A Mechanistic Picture of Shear Strength in Clay," Proceedin gs of the ASCE Research Conf erence on Shear Strength of Conesive Soils , American Society or Civil Engineers, i960, pp. 555-58U. Leonards, G.A., and A.G. Altschaeffl, "Compressibility of ^W," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division , American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 90, Ho. SM5, ^eptemDer, 1964, pp. 133-155. Manzione, Charles W., Construction and Operatio n of the University of Flor ida K n -Consol idometer , Master of Engineering Report, Civil Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, August, 1985. McRoberts, Ed, Discussion of "A Simple Question About Consolidation," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering , American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 110, No. 5, May, 1984, pp. 667-oo9. Nagaraj, T.S., Discussion of "A Simple Question About Consolidation," J ournal of Geotechnical Engineering , American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 110, No. 5, May, 1984, pp. 6o5667. Scnmertmann, John H., "A General Time-Related Soil Friction Increase Phenomenon," La boratory Shear Strength of Soil , A^TMSTP 740, R.N. Yong and F.C. Townsend, Eds., American Society tor Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1981, pp. 45o-484. Scnmertmann, John H., "A Simple Question About Consolidation," journal of Geotechnical Engineering , American Society of uvil Engineers, Vol. 109, Mo. 1, January, 1983, pp. 119-122. Scnmertmann, John H., Closure of "A Simple Question About Consolidation," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering , American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 11-J, no. 5, May, 1984, p. 573.

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137 Soydemir, Cetin, Discussion of "A Simple Question About Consol iaa cion," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering , American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 110, No. 5, May, .i.984, pc 669671. Stoutamire, M.O., The Design and Construction of a K -Consol i dome ter to Measure Lateral Stresses , Engineer's Thesis, Civil Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, December, 1982. Tan, Tjong-Kie, "Structure Mechanics of Clays," Academia Sinica , Institute of Civil Engineering and Architecture-Harbin (China), June, 1957. Terzaghi, Karl, "Undisturbed Clay Samples and Undisturbed Clays," Journal , Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 23, No. 3, July, 1941, pp. 211-231. Yasuhara, Kazuya, "Secondary Compression of Soft Clay in Consolidation and Shear Tests," Proceedings of Symposium on Recent Development in Laboratory and Field Tests and Analyses in Geotechnical Problems , Asian Institute of Technology, 1983, pp. 1-7. Yasuhara, Kazuya, "Does K Q Change During Secondary Compression?," Pre-Print for Annual Meeting of Kyushu 3ranch of JSCE, Part III, 1984" Yasuhara, Kazuya, and Syunji Ue, Closure of "Increase in Undrained Strength Due to Secondary Compression," Soils and Foundations , The Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 3, September, 1984, pp. 115-119.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Randall Wayne Brown was born June 15, 1956, in Blakely, Georgia. His family moved to Dothan, Alabama, in 1957. He attended public schools in Dothan and graduated from Dothan High School in 1974. He entered Auburn University in 1974 and became active in several organizations including Chi Epsilon, Scabbard and Blade, Air Force ROTC, and the student chapter of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), serving the latter as President during his senior year. He graduated in June 1973 with the Bachelor of Civil Engineering degree, an Air Force commission, and the Distinguished Military Graduate designation. While awaiting his first active duty assignment, he worked for the City Engineer in Dothan. In September 1978, he moved to Kirtland AFB in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to begin a three-year tour as a geotechnical engineer at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL). While at AFWL, he was involved primarily with soil dynamics problems associated with the design and basing of the MX-missile. In August 1981, Brown moved to Gainesville to attend the University of Florida under the Air Force Institute of Technology Civilian Institution (AFIT/CI) Program. He received the Master of Engineering degree with a concentration in construction engineering 138

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139 in December 1982. He entered the doctoral specialization in geotechnical engineering in January 1983. 3rown is an Associate Member of ASCE and recently completed a term on the Aerospace Division Awards and Publications Committee. Professional registration is the next goal in Brown's engineering career. Captain Brown is married to the former Brenda Jean Watford of Dothan. They have a 21-month old son, Matthew. The Browns are active in Highland Missionary Baptist Church in Gainesville. They enjoy sports and travel.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. \lA John L. Davidson, Chairman Associate Professor of Civil Engineering I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. t*' //J^fU^^ James H. Schaub Professor of Civil Engineering I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Frank C. Townsend Professor of Civil Engi neer in<

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Kermit L. Hall Professor of History This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Engineering and to the Graduate School, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August 1985 IJuJbj' Qj. fo^U^Cj Dean, College of Engineering Dean, Graduate School


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