Panama Canal review

Material Information

Panama Canal review
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Panama Canal Commission
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol


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^"'""JS^'Co"" Mseurn A**&&*$^ ?<}-)azi -(c-a/) s^t^^^L Vol. 7, No. 1 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, AUGUST 3, 1956 5 cents CANAL COMPANY AGREES TO BUY TWO NEW TYPE LOCKS TOWING LOCOMOTIVES FOR TEST PURPOSES A FAMILIAR GRIN— AN UNWANTED RAIN (See pages 2 and 3 for more pictures of the Presidents in the Canal Zone) U. S. Army Photo FOR ZONIANS THE crowning event of the meeting of the Presidents was the trip through the Canal Zone communities on the Paiiflj side by President Eisenhower. A typical tropical downpour started just before the trip and continued until he left the Zone. It failed to dampen the enthusiasm and glow of pride which radiated on all sides from employees of the Panama Canal organization and their families. Accompanying the President on his hour-long drive were Governor Potter, at the President's left, and Lieutenant General William K. Harrison, Jr. Record Enrollment Of 7,000 Expected When Zone Schools Reopen Next Month An expected 15 percent increase in junior high school enrollments and a five p3rcent increase in senior high school students will bring the total enrollment in the United States schools in the Canal Zone to a record 7,000 when they reopen next month. This figure includes kindergarten and junior college projected enrollments. Canal Zone school officials have an uncanny knack of predicting the total enrollment of schools year after year, and many times miss the final figures by only two or three. Their estimates are far more than educated guesses, being based on studies over a period of many weeks covering various Zone communities. United States schools on the Zone will reopen Friday, September 7, for the 195657 term. Many new teachers, alterations, and improvements to several school buildings, and a few changes in school districting are on schedule for the new term. The expected enrollment figures are: Kindergartens, 600; elementary schools, 4,055; junior high schools, 961; senior high schools, 1,199; and the Canal Zone Junior College, 185. These figures represent only a slight change from the actual enrollments last year for the kindergarten and elementary schools, but with higher enrollments in secondary schools. The teaching staff of the elementary schools will remain the same, numerically, as that of last year. Five additional teachers are to be employed for secondary schools. Up to last month 17 new teachers had been employed in the United States. It has been requested that applications be made at the office of the Superintendent of Schools. Applicants for elementary or junior high school teaching positions should have bachelor degrees and professional certification, or its equivalent in education credits, while applicants for high school work require master degrees. Painting, soundproofing, (See page 18) Negotiations have been completed between the Panama Canal Company and R. G. LeTourneau, Inc., of Longview, Tex., for the purchase of two experimental Locks towing locomotives of radically different design and operating features from those now in use. The purchase of the two locomotives for test purposes was approved by the Board of Directors at the July meeting. They will be used as test equipment at Gatun Locks to determine their performance in the handling of vessels of all categories in comparison with towing locomotives now in use. If the equipment proves satisfactory in all respects it is planned to purchase a total of 27 units to replace the 67 towing locomotives now in service. The LeTourneau locomotives are designed to furnish sufficient power and maneuverability to require only two machines in assisting a ship of average size in the Canal locks. Four would be required for larger vessels. All locomotives would operate. on the center wall and none would be required on the side walls. Generally, six towing locomotives, three on each lock wall, are now used in the lockage of an averagesized vessel, with a maximum of ten ordinarily being required for the larger vessels. Proposals for the replacement of the Canal towing locomotives were opened last March, with proposals being received from three heavy-equipment manufacturing firms in the United States. Other firms offering proposals were International General Electric Company and the Sandy Hill Iron & Brass Works. The Canal Company had invited proposals for the replacement of the towing locomotives by 57 units of the same general design as those now in use; an unspecified number of the type in service but with modifications proposed by the manufacturer; or towing devices of any nature to be designed by the manufacturer to meet the functional requirements for handling ships of all sizes in the Locks. Only LeTourneau submitted a proposal for the latter type (See page 20) DIRECTORY SUPPLEMENT The cover of The Panama Canal Reviews annual Canal organization directory supplement is the reproduction of one of Joseph Pennell's lithographs. It shows the construction of Pedro Miguel Locks and the erection of the gates. Mr. Pennell was one of the foremost artists of his day. He visited the Canal Zone early in 1912 and completed a series of more than 20 lithographs of the Canal construction and general scenes on the Isthmus.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 AND, THANK YOU, ^^T^* A "thank you" letter which will stir the emotion of every person who has a part in the operation of the Panama Canal is quoted below in its entirety: July S3, 1956 Dear Governor Potter: I am always, a little appalled at the burden that I know is put on the facilities of any place such as the Canal Zone when a party the size of ours arrives. But you, and the members of your staff, have been more than kind to us, and I know I speak for everyone with me when I express our sincere thanks for your fine cooperation, efficiency, and helpfulness. From my own observations, and from the comments of my associates, I want also to congratulate you on the high morale and spirit of the people with whom we have had contact. Additionally, I must add that I was tremendously impressed with the many changes and improvements that have been made in the physical appearance of the Zone since my last visit here. Again my gratitude and warm regard, Sincerely, (signed) DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER The President's letter was read at the Governor's July conference with Civic Council representatives and the original copy circulated to members of the Governor's staff. In a special memorandum accompanying President Eisenhower's letter, Governor Potter called special attention to the mention of the ability of the Canal organization to accept any workload efficiently and creditably and the continual improvement in the physical appearance of the Canal Zone. "I am pleased," Governor Potter said, "that these two elements were obvious to the President in such a short trip, and I can assure you that during the entire time of his one-hour ride through the Zone he expressed admiration many times on not only the appearance of the Zone but the spirit of the people who make the Canal possible." A tropical downpour which unfortunately occurred during a one-hour ride through the Canal Zone by President Eisenhower between 3 and 4 o'clock on Monday, July 23, the last day of his visit to the Isthmus, failed to dampen the spirits of the thousands who lined the streets. The President, accompanied by Governor Potter and Lt. Gen. William K. Harrison, made the trip in the famous bubble-top car, trailed by two bus-loads of newspaper, radio, and photographic representatives. Entering the Zone at Frangipani Street the entourage passed Gorgas Hospital, the Administration Building, Balboa, Fort Amador, and Albrook Air Force Base. The infectious grin known to millions was in evidence for every man, woman, and child in sighting distance. President Eisenhower's trip" through the Canal Zone communities climaxed a week of historic and exciting events for Isthmian residents. Never before in the history of the world has such a meeting as that of the Presidents of the American Republics taken place; never before in the history of the Panama Canal has its operations been viewed by so many distinguished visitors in such a brief time. Time and space limitations preclude


Augusf 3, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW MR. PRESIDENTS the presentation in this issue of The Review of a complete picture story of the visit of all the Presidents and OAS Ambassadors to Miraflores Locks. In all, eight Presidents, an Assistant President, and five Ambassadors visited the Locks. These were in addition to the Canal Zone tour by President Eisenhower and the departure from Balboa by ship of President Anastasio Somoza of Nicaragua. Each of the Chief Executives and Ambassadors were personally greeted upon their arrival at Miraflores Locks by Governor Potter, Lt. Gov. H. W. Schull, Jr., Capt. Warner S. Rodimon, Marine Director, and other Canal officials. Men and women of the Canal organization who speak Spanish and who know the workings of the Canal were assigned to each party during their visit. A special spectators' stand was erected at the incline of the east lock wall and provided an excellent view of the ships as they were being locked through. Later, most of the visitors were escorted through the control house. On these two pages are pictures of the visits by six of the American Presidents and U. S. Presidential Assistant Sherman C. Adams. On the opposite page, top to bottom: An explanation of how the knobs and other gadgets on the control-panel work is being given to President Fulgencio Batista of Cuba, (center) by Lt. Gov. Schull (hand on gauge). The distinguished appearing President, Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra, of Ecuador (with glasses), is standing in. front at the Governor's right. Shown in the back row between the Governor and President Ibarra is the Canal's interpreter, William O'Sullivan. He was also specially delegated to accompany the Haitian visitors since he speaks French. President Carlos Ibanez del Campo, of Chile, posed with members of his party in the control house at Miraflores. He is standing in the center next to Governor Potter. Presidential Assistant Adams (pointing), was enchanted by the working of the Locks. On the lock-gate with him, left to right, are Miss Mary Caffrey, Secretary to Press Secretary James C. Haggerty; Mrs. Ann C. Whitman, Secretary to President Eisenhower; Captain Rodimon; Panamanian Ambassador to the U. S., J. J. Vallarino; and Maj. David H. Smith, Military Assistant to the Governor. This page, from top down: Two Presidents chat with Governor Potter in the spectators stand. Center is President Ruiz Cortines of Mexico and President Alberto Zubiria of Uruguay. "Here is how the thing works," Governor Potter seems to be telling President Juscelino Kubitschek, of Brazil, second from left, who is intently following what the Governor is saying. President Kubitschek spent the longest time of any President at the Locks. Gen. Hector Bienvenido Trujillo, of the Dominican Republic, is shown second from left with hand on rail watching a Canal transit. At the right is Frank Wilder, of the Internal Security Branch, who gave an explanation in Spanish of the Canal and its operation to all visitors.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 Canal Zone Postal Service To Be Increased, Improved An increased and improved postal service for the Canal Zone public will be inaugurated about August 15 by the extension of office hours, additional postal money-order service, and other changes. One of the principal changes will be the transfer of the Financial Unit from the Civil Affairs Building to the Balboa Post Office. Coincidental with this change will be a considerable extension of servicehours at Balboa. The Ancon general delivery service is to be consolidated with that service at Balboa. The personnel reassignments in connection with this change will make possible continuous service from 8 a. m. to 5 p. m. from Monday through Friday. The new hours for postal money order and postal savings sales at Balboa will be from 9 a. m. to 5:30 p. m. from Monday through Saturday. Service six days a week will also be provided at Balboa for stamps, registry, parcel mailing, and delivery, and registry and insured delivery. Hours for this service will be from 8 a. m. to 5:30 p. m. The service hours at the Balboa Heights branch post office will be changed to 9 a. m. to 2 p. m., and 3 to 4:30 p. m., on five days a week. At present morning service does not begin until 11:30 a. m. Also, money order service will be resumed at Balboa Heights in the morning. Arrangements have been made to provide noon-hour service at Cristobal Post Office on week-days. Money, stamp, and other similar services will be offered from 9 a. m. to noon and from 1 to 5 p. m. on Saturdays. Money order service will be reestablished at the branch post offices at Fort Amador and Albrook Air Force Base. In announcing the extensive revision of postal service, it was stated that the additional service is made possible by operating efficiencies resulting from the adopting of the revised money order procedures on July 1. The new method of issuing money orders has greatly facilitated the work in post offices and has speeded up this service. Architects And Engineers To Be Registered In Zone Regulations governing the practice of architects and professional engineers in the Canal Zone have been issued by Gov. W. E. Potter. Legislation permitting the establishment of regulations pertaining to the registration of architects and engineers was passed by Congress and approved by the President early last month. The legislation had been urged both by the Canal Administration and the architects and engineers on the Isthmus. The regulations issued by Governor Potter provide for the establishment of a Board of Registration and specify the duties and terms of office of the members of the Board. The Board will be composed of two architects and three engineers — civil, electrical, and mechanical and will be appointed by the Governor. The lengthy regulations have been printed and copies may be obtained upon request by architects and engineers at the Administrative Branch offices at Balboa Heights. Registration will not be required for Driver's Canal Service Spans 35 Years In Auto Development JUAN BATISTA BRUNEL P. One of the first cars Juan Batista Brunei P. ever drove for the Canal organization, 'way back before the first war," was a Model T Ford sideseater truck with a pair of kerosene carriage-lamps mounted just below its vertical windshield. For years he has carried a picture of old No. 203 in a wallet in his pocket. The old car was a far cry from the shiny streamlined sedan in which he made his last trip last month as driver for the Housing and Grounds Division. Although he was on the rolls of the Motor Transportation Division for close to 35 years, he was assigned throughout that entire period to what used to be the Quartermaster's Office and is now the Housing and Grounds Division. He cannot even guess the number of miles he has traveled, running official errands and carrying his boss to look at houses and offices and shops on the Pacific side of the Canal Zone. He marks his years by the men he drove. His first permanent passenger was Single Drive For Funds Gains Momentum In Zone Prospects for a single fund-raising drive every year in the Canal Zone now appear bright. Most of the organizations which annually seek financial aid to carry on their work have unanimously approved the plan and it has been given the unqualified support of Gov. W. E. Potter. At the monthly conference last week with Civic Council representatives, the plan for a unified drive in the civilian communities was discussed and approval was voted. It was pointed out that a Presidential directive requires Federal agencies to adopt a single fund-raising drive or, at the most, three a year. U. S. Government employees, but they may so register, provided they qualify. Generally, licenses will be issued for private practice upon proper evidence of qualification, character, education, and experience to the Board of Registration. Licenses will be issued only to citizens of the United States and Panama. B. C. Poole, District Quartermaster from 190S to 1937, and his last was Jack C. Randall, Chief of the Housing and Grounds Division. Born in the Province of Bocas del Toro when Panama was still part of Colombia, Mr. Brunei came to live in Panama City when he was only six. He remembers Colombian troops garrisoned in Chiriqui, the old prison on French Plaza, and in what is now the National Theater. Remembers 1,000-day War During the "1,000-Day War," which preceded the Panama revolution, he was pressed into quasi-military service himself, although he was "still in short pants" as he puts it. His particular job was carrying food to his father who was fighting near Empire. Not infrequently he had to hide in the bush to keep his supplies from being seized, and he remembers with pride that one of his companions-in-hiding was a famed woman patriot, known as "La Negra Liboria." Local historians say that La Negra Liboria was a "full-blooded negress, tall of stature and heavily built. She believed in God but swore by Dr. Belisario Porras, her commander-in-chief in the 1900-02 civil war. Almost invariably dressed in trousers, she held the rank of major and is reputed to have led her contingent in the battles of La Negra Vieja and La Arena, in addition to other actions of lesser importance." When Mr. Brunei was in his teens, he was put to work in a Panama City garage where he learned automobile mechanics and how to drive. His training proved to be a veritable life saver when his father died and he found himself the man of the family. He proved to be such a good driver that he was sent, immediately after he went to work for the "corral," to the "division which wanted the best drivers." At the time he began driving for the District Quartermaster's office, Fort Amador was being built by the Canal's forces and a trip to Amador was generally a daily event. In those days, there was not a single house between Balboa Road and Fort Amador, and Amador Road was a long bare highway along the bay. Drove for Governor Burgess His job kept him busy daytimes and, sometimes, after hours, but when he had any spare time he served as a private chauffeur in the evenings. One of his steady customers, he remembers, was Gov. Harry Burgess. For several years he drove the Burgesses in their private car to evening parties and receptions. Governor Burgess was the only Canal Zone Chief Executive for whom he ever drove in a private capacity, but a good many of the Governors have ridden in his official car at one time or another. Now that he is retired, he isn't quite sure what he will do. After 35 busy years he doesn't think much of sitting around doing nothing and hopes to find something to do. He doesn't expect to change his recreational pattern, though. Every possible Saturday for years he has driven his family out of town for a picnic. Between times he listens to his radio. Classical music is his favorite and he has a running, if friendly, feud with his step-daughter, a cha-cha-cha fan, regarding their music preferences.


August 3, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Importance Of Salk Inoculation Program Highlighted By Polio Outbreak This Year LITTLE MONICA WILSON, the first polio patient to he admitted to Gorgas Hospital this year, tests out one of the two new rocking beds recently installed for the treatment of patients. Alongside the bed are Nurse Charlotte McCue and Dr. James R. West. The importance of the Salk vaccine program as a protection against poliomyelitis has been poignantly demonstrated in the Canal Zone during the past few weeks. In many respects the polio epidemic this year has been the most severe and extensive ever experienced. The outbreak occurred after two years in which relatively few cases were hospitalized and no deaths occurred as a result of the disease. While the number of Canal Zone residents admitted to the hospital up to July 25 was still under the 15 admitted during the 1952 epidemic, there were more polio patients admitted within the two-month period than in any similar period of recent years. Thirteen Canal Zone residents have been admitted this year, with a total of 26 local cases treated there. The outbreak in 1952 was one of the most severe on record. There were 12 Canal Zone patients admitted to the hospital in 1953, nine in 1954, and only four in 1955. There have been three deaths from polio this year, also one of the highest totals of recent years. No Immunized Patients There has not been a single polio patient admitted this year who has had the full treatment of three inoculations with Salk vaccine, and only two had received single vaccinations before being stricken. While health officials do not conclude from this that Salk vaccine is a guarantee of immunity, the statistics generally folbw the pattern where the vaccine has been tested on a far broader scale. For this reason, Col. Charles 0. Bruce has urged that all those eligible— children from six months up to 21 years of age, and pregnant women — begin Salk vaccinations immediately or to complete the series of three treatments if inoculations have been started. There is no charge for the inoculations which may be given at the various medical clinics during regular office hours. There has been a noticeable increase in the number of eligibles beginning treatment since the polio outbreak, Colonel Bruce said, but others should not delay beginning in view of the extent and severity of the epidemic this year. All Young Children The polio outbreak has differed widely from those of previous years in respect to age groups. All but two of the patients have been children of six years of age or under. There have been no adult cases and only one boy, 10 years old, has been treated. In past years, individuals of all age groups were stricken. The epidemic differs from those of previous years also in that it has occurred much earlier than ever before. In previous years the greatest number of cases were tabulated during the latter part of the year, generally in October or later, with only occasional cases from January to August. Gorgas Hospital last month received and installed two new pieces of equipment for the treatment of polio patients. These are two rocking-beds of the type used in several of the large {See page 9) Civil Defense Alert Is Rescheduled In Zone For August 13 Plans for the Isthmus-wide Civil Defense test on Monday, August 13, will be intensified during the coming week to make it fully effective in all Canal Zone communities. The test had been originally scheduled for July 20, the date on which the nationwide practice of Civil Defense units took place in the United States, Alaska, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii. It was postponed in the Canal Zone and Panama because of the OAS meeting and the meeting of the presidents held during that week. Planning for the exercise was resumed by the joint Civil Defense Committee, composed of members from the Canal organization, the Armed Forces, and the Republic of Panama, in the week following the OAS and Presidents' meeting. The same time of day 10 o'clock in the morning is scheduled for the simulated nuclear burst over Gatun Locks, and the standards originally set by the Federal Civil Defense Administration will be used. These provide for an imaginary explosion of a nuclear weapon of 100 kilotons, or 1,000 tons of TNT, in the form of a guided missile fired from a submarine off the Atlantic coast. The exercise is designed to train the Civil Defense personnel and educate the general public in the measures to be taken in event of such an attack or any major disaster in this area. Since the attack is to take place here without warning, the TAKE COVER signal will sound the alarm. In most places in the United States the ALERT signal was sounded first since the imaginary attacks came from a few minutes to several hours after warning was received. The TAKE COVER signal is a threeminute oscillating sound on the sirens. The ALERT signal, which will be sounded ten minute later, is a steady threeminute blast of the sirens. For the purpose of the forthcoming test, the ALERT signal will be the close of the test for the general public. For Civil Defense units, however, it will be a mobilization signal. Units of the Canal Zone Civil Defense to be mobilized include the Main and Alternate Control Center staffs, Control Point staffs, and the Volunteer Corps, including Section Wardens, First-Aid Corps, and the Child Care Centers. All vehicular traffic, except such emergency vehicles as police, fire, and hospital equipment, will be brought to a complete halt during the 10-minute alert. The control of traffic in civilian communities of the Zone will be by the Canal Zone Police, and that in military reservations by the appropriate Armed Forces authorities. Gov. W. E. Potter has approved the complete plans for the Civil Defense exercise, designated as Operation Alert 1956, and every Canal Zone resident is expected to cooperate fully. Employees at work will take cover in designated areas in their building; pedestrians and others in the open will seek the nearest and best available cover; and residents at home will go to the safest structural area in their houses.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE /.rail'. i-i — IN f ACCIDENT PREVENTION What MORE can be done to prevent accidents! When an employee has reached the point where he thinks everything possible is being done to prevent accidents then the possibilities are he is now sleeping on the job ready for a rude awakening. The question is how can he be brought back to the land of the living, for literally when in a safety black-out like this, he may never know what hit him. Well, below are a few things which can HONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD JUNE SUPPLY AND EMPLOYEE SERVICE BUREAU HEALTH BUREAU CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Civil Affairs 5 Health 5 Supply and Employee Service(4mos.) 2 Engineering and Construction 1 Transportation and Terminals 1 Marine Division Award For NO DISABLING INJURIES JUNE COMMISSARY DIVISION HOSPITALS AND CLINICS MAINTENANCE DIVISION SERVICE CENTER DIVISION HOUSING AND GROUNDS DIVISION DREDGING DIVISION INDUSTRIAL DIVISION RAILROAD DIVISION MOTOR TRANSPORTATION DIVISION STOREHOUSE DIVISION AIDS TO NAVIGATION SANITATION DIVISION AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Aids to Navigation 6 Motor Transportation 6 Sanitation 6 Service Center 6 Storehouses 6 Commissary 5 Hospitals and Clinics 5 Industrial 5 Railroad 5 Dredging 4 Electrical 4 Maintenance 4 Navigation 2 Housing and Grounds (4 mos.) 2 Terminals 1 Locks be done daily to remind an individual that he must not quit thinking about his own safety. When a worker has to wear a safety hat it is a constant reminder that something may fall on him. Even though nothing ever does, he can never be sure and for that reason keeps on wearing it. Besides, a safety hat shows that he is thinking about his own safety. Safety hats are not intended to stop a ton of falling bricks, but it cm save the skull from one falling brick, as a mechanic found out when a 1-pound 2-ounce socketwrench dropped 20 feet from an overhead scaffolding. An engineer who says he only wore an aluminum safety hat to keep the sun off his balding head, found out it would also stop a good-size rock. Now he is superstitious about not wearing one. It may be unlucky to be without your safety helmet. Safety shoes are another reminder of on-the-job safety. We don't all need safety shoes all the time but it often happens that the very time we don't wear them something happens, as a mechanic learned when a manhole cover fell on his toes. An employee in the Commissary Division is thankful he had his on when a loaded seven-ton industrial truck ran over his foot. It may never happen again but both employees can never be sure. Be superstitious -wear your safety shoes every day. We may not be thinking about safety all the time, for a lot of the time we are thinking about money and 'how to get it. Put the two kinds of thinking together and we have an Incentive Award. If you have an idea about now to prevent an accident it may be worth some money. Put it on paper and drop it in the "Suggestion Box," or get an "Incentive Award or "Unsafe Report" form from your boss. Do not be afraid that someone will laugh at your idea, or the boss will not welcome the suggestion, or that somebody has already thought of it first. It may take several ideas for a good one to come up. In the prevention of accidents the "borrowing" of safety ideas from others is approved. In fact if our safety ideas are not copied and used, they usually are no good. There may be and probably are others who have thought of your safety idea but have done nothing about it. If you put in your suggestion now and it pays off, maybe next time the other fellow will get on the ball and do something besides talk. No matter whose idea it is, it may save you from having an accident. In the prevention of accidents, it is tough to decide how much money, if any, is saved. You may not receive anything for your suggestion, but remember that direct costs for injuries in your unit during 1955 were equivalent to $377.50 for each disabling injury. If you can prevent just one you have saved not only the Canal Zone Government-Panama Canal Company money, but you have saved one of your fellowworkers a lot of misery, money, and probably his life. Don't forget also, it may have been your own life that was involved. If you have a safety idea, see that you make the suggestion now. If you can't write, ask your boss or safety inspector to help you. Talk it over with them anyway. They may be able to take out the bugs and make it really pay off for everybody. JUST OUT The latest thing is the miniature cocktail: One drink and in a miniature out. IT'S A STRANGE WORLD Sometimes a man who is too sec red to visit his dentist will still race a locomotive to a crossing. JUNE 1956 Supply and Employee Service Bureau Health Bureau Civil Affairs Bureau C. Z. Govl.-Panama Canal Co. (This Month) Transportation and Terminals Bureau Engineering and Construction Bureau Marine Bureau C. Z. Govt.-Panama Canal Co. ( Last 3-Year Av.) Disabling Injuries per 1,000,000 Man-Hours Worked (Frequency Rale) O 10 20 30 2 1 1 1 J 1 a i wsg i 2 i 3 i l' []['] 4 ^r i 11 i i Number of Disabling Injuries 10 20 30 Man-Hours Worked 2,229,389 O 5 LEGEND I I Amount Better Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3Year Average I I Amount Worse Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3Year Average RftjBgKjfrl Accumulative Frequency Rate This Year


August 3, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly At BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE Printed by the Printing Plant Mount Hope, Canal Zone W. E. Potter, Governor-President H. W. Schitll, Jr. Lieutenant Governor William G. Arey, Jr. Public Information Officer J. Rufus Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny Assistant Editor SUBSCRIPTIONSINGLE COPIESSI. 00 a year -5 cents each On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publication date. SINGLE COPIES BY MAIL— 10 cents each BACK COPIES — 10 cents each On sale, when available, from the Vault Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building, Balboa Heights. Postal money orders should be made payable to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Company, and mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z. Leaves Isthmus LEONARD M. BROCKMAN, who has held mure jobs than almost any other Canal employee, left late last month for Huntsville, Ala., where he will be Manpower and Industrial Relations Adviser at Redstone Arsenal. Mr. Brcckman entered Canal service in February 1949 with the Industrial Division. He became Assistant Personnel Director in July 1950. He has held the position of Programs Coordinator for the past several months. While many of his jobs were directly related to his Canal position, Mr. Brockman gave much of his outside time to community, civic, and church work. Among his most important jobs held recently were those of Executive Chairman of the Canal Zone Cancer Committee; Chairman of the Community Chest Board of Directors; President of the Canal Zone Tuberculosis Board; Head of the Crusade for Freedom; and the Governor's representative for the American Legion baseball program. He has also been an active worker in Scout work, particularly Boys State and Girls State programs. All these and his work at St. Luke's Episcopal Cathedral were in addition to his many direct jobs with the Canal organization as Programs Coordinator. NOMINATED LAST MONTH as Panama Canal candidates for Rockefeller Public Service Awards were Mrs. Margaret Murphy, Supervisory Position Classifier in the Wage and Classification Division, and Carl J. Browne, Superintendent of the Balboa field office of the Maintenance Division. Nominations for this high honor are made by agencies throughout the Federal Government from among civilian employees. Recipients get from six to nine months of study in their chosen field. Both received high recommendations by Gov. W. E. Potter who made the nominations. A boon to employees who prefer stationwagons or light-truck equipment to passenger cars for their personal use was the announcement last month that employee freight rates will be effective on the Panama Line for this equipment. The lower tariff rate, when shipped on wheels and unboxed, will cover employees' automobiles, pick-up trucks, carryalls, station wagons, and light cargo vehicles which are rated not over three-quarters of a ton by the manufacturer. In recent years more and more employees have been using such automotive equipment, since many own homes in the interior. Many with young children also prefer station wagons to passenger cars for their regular transportation. The employee freight rates will apply on all this equipment to and from New York if it is for personal use only. In connection with the shipment of cars on the Panama Line, it was announced that all cars shipped for New York from the Canal Zone must be thoroughly washed, especially the undersides, before they can be accepted for shipment. The new rule is required by a recent Department of Agriculture quarantine regulation. is required annually and they must be licensed and wear tags. The licenses are good for one year beginning in August. Graduation exercises were held late last month for two large groups of craftsmen in the course of the Theory of Mechanical Refrigeration, one of a series sponsored by Locals 811 and 699 of the International Association of Machinists. The series was proposed by the Industrial Training Committee to meet anticipated needs of the Panama Canal Company in these fields. The course material was prepared by the Apprentice School staff and taught by Willard E. Percy, Assistant Industrial Training Coordinator. There are five courses in the series: Elements of thermodynamics, theory of mechanical refrigeration, theory of air conditioning, theory of internal combustion engines, and theory of steam engines. Twenty-two men qualified for certificates on the Atlantic side, having completed the prerequisite course. On the Pacific side, 16 received certificates and 15 received letters entitling them to certificates when they complete the course on thermodynamics. The Canal's Washington Office was moved last month from 101 Indiana Avenue to 425 Thirteenth Street, NW. The move was made after a reassignment of space by the General Services Administration. The offices on Indiana Avenue have been used by the Washington Office for about four years when it was moved from the building adjacent to the old Ford Theater on Tenth Street where it had been since the Canal construction v\as begun. The dog population of the Canal Zone declined slightly last year according to comparative figures announced by the License Section last week after the annual antirabies vaccination and licensing program was completed. The 1955 count showed 342 canine residents on the Atlantic side and 525 on the Pacific side for a total of 867. Figures this year were 334 on the Atlantic side and 495 on the Pacific side for a total of 829. The inoculation of all dogs against rabies One of the Balboa landmarks, the Balboa Stadium, is slated to have its appearance changed radically soon. Bids are to be opened this month for demolishing the concrete grandstand and replacing it with bleacher-type seats to accommodate 1,500 spectators. The dressing room facilities will be expanded and a new aluminum roof will replace the existing roof. Two new steel-frame bleacher stands will be built along the third-base line of the baseball diamond. The bids are to be opened August 13, but work will not be started until late November after the football season is ended. The Gamboa Dental Clinic was reopened last month on a three-day a week basis — Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. The clinic, in charge of Dr. Jaime A. Diaz, is open on a continuous basis from 9 a. m. to 6 p. m. on these days.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS June 75 thro Employees who were promoted or transferred between June 15 and July 15 are liste I below. Within-grade promotions are not listed. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Mrs. Marie T. Lindh, from Clerical Assistant to Correspondence Clerk. Wilma Hidalgo, from Clerk-Stenographer to Stenographer. Edwin C. Jones, from Records Analyst to File Supervisor, Communications and Records Section. Walter J. Allen, from File Supervisor to Mail and File Supervisor, Communications and Records Section. Fred E. Wells, Steamship Ticket Agent; Lloyd W. Peterson, Transportation Assistant; Mrs. Barbara M. Hutchings, Transportation Clerk (Typing), from Steamship Ticket Office to Administrative Branch. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Robert H. Beecher, from Day School Principal to Senior High School Teacher, Division of Schools. Ellis L. Fawcett, from Principal, Paraiso School, to Assistant Principal, Occupational High School. Carl W. Hoffmeyer, from Cost Examiner, Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff, to Distribution and Window Clerk, Postal Division. Robert J. Thompson, Jr., from Machinist, Locks Overhaul, to Policeman, Police Division. Horace V. Parker, from Senior High School Teacher to Junior High School Teacher, Division of Schools. Philip L. Dade, from Customs Inspector, Customs Division, to Chief, Civil Defense Unit. Wdliam G. Dolan, from Chief, Civil Defense, to Fire Drillmaster, Fire Division. William H. Casswell and William E. Jones, from District Fire Chief to Battalion Commander, Fire Division. Ernest L. Cotton, Albert J. Mathon, Perc F. Graham, and John A. Taber, from Fire Lieutenant to Fire Captain, Fire Division. Carleton F. Hallett, Kenneth R. Coleman, and Starford L. Churchill, from Fire Sergeant to Fire Lieutenant, Fire Division. Joseph W. Coffin, Jr., from Fireman Driver-Operator to Fire Sergeant, Fire Division. Richard B. Simpson, Joseph E. Dolan, John R. Olsen, John F. Rice, Thomas N. Stewart, James P. McGloin, and Marion F. Green, from Firemen to Fire Sergeants, Fire Division. Calmer A. Batalden, from Supervisor to Senior High School Teacher. Mrs. Mary H. Rowan, from Substitute Teacher to Junior High School Teacher. Mrs. Margaret Ward and Walter Mikulich from Senior High School Teacher to Junior High School Teacher. Louis Dedeaux, from Elementary School Teacher to Junior High School Teacher. Mrs. Pauline Long, from Kindergarten Assistant to Elementary School Teacher. Francis A. Castles, from Senior High School Assistant Principal to Junior High School Principal, Division of Schools. OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Joseph J. Wood, from Systems Accountant, Accounting Policies and Procedures Staff, to Supervisory Auditor, Internal Audit Branch. Noel C. Farnsworth, from Assistant to Chief, Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff, to General Engineer, Accounting Division. Paul C. Coleman, Electrical Engineer, from Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff to Accounting Division. Mrs. Jessie W. Degenaar, from ClerkTypist, Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff, to Accounting Clerk, Accounting Division. Mrs. Maria I. Dawson, from Clerk-Typist to Cleik-Stenographer, General Audit Division. Mrs. Eleanor A. Connor, from Bookkeeping Machine Operator, General Ledger and Processing Branch, to Accounting Clerk, Agents Accounts Branch. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Franklin K. Ben, from Civil Engineering Draftsman to Architectural Engineering ugh July 75 Draftsman, Engineering Division. Azael J. Benavides, from Civil Engineering Draftsman to Electrical Engineering Draftsman, Engineering Division. Ruth B. Krziza, from Clerk-Stenographer to Clerk (Stenography), Maintenance Division. Abe L. Lincoln, from Towing Locomotive Operator, Pacific Locks, to Rotary Drill Foreman, Dredging Division. Patrick H. Boggs, from Fireman DriverOperator, Fire Division, to Pump Operator, Pipeline Suction Dredge, Dredging Division. James A. Fraser, Jr., from Towing Locomotive Operator, Locks Division, to Cablesplicer Apprentice, Electrical Division. Milton Davis, from General Foreman to Lead Foreman HI, Armature Shop, Electrical Division. OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT Mrs. Elizabeth M. Higgins, Secretary, from Office of the Governor-President, to Office of the President. HEALTH BUREAU Mrs. Sara S. Keegan, from Accounting Clerk to Supervisory Accounting Clerk, Gorgas Hospital. Doris R. Kintigh, from Clerk (Typist) to General Examiner (Typist), Office of the Health Director. Maj. Carlos G. Llanes, from Chief, Radiology Service, Coco Solo Hospital, to Assistant Chief, Radiology Service, Gorgas Hospital. Lt. Col. Clarence B. Hewitt, from Chief, Urology Section, to Chief, General Surgical Section, Gorgas Hospital. Mrs. Norma C. Belland, from Clerk-Typist to Medical Records Clerk, Coco Solo Hospital. Harold W. Griffin, from Clerk to File Supervisor, Gorgas Hospital. Mrs. Exier J. Hopkins, from Supervisory Accounting Clerk to Supervisory Accounting Assistant, Gorgas Hospital. Grace Belden, from Clerk-Typist to Clerk (Typing), Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Charles H. Glines, Dr. John E. Woods, Dr. Dean T. Collins, and Dr. Robert A. Chapman, from Intern to Resident, Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Howard C. Pritham, from Medical Officer, Atlantic Medical Clinics, to Medical Officer ( Public Health), Division of Preventive Medicine and Quarantine. Mrs. Lillie W. Wood, from Staff Dietician to Head Dietician, Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Stephen J. Plant, from Intern, Gorgas Hospital, to Medical Officer, Coco Solo Hospital. Mrs. Beverly C. Differ, from Clerk-Typist to Clerk (Typing), Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Wallace M. Snyder, Medical Officer, from Internal Medicine to General Medicine and Surgery, Coco Solo Hospital. Dr. Temistocles Malo, from Resident, Gorgas Hospital, to Medical Officer, Atlantic Medical Clinics. Dr. William T. Bailey, from Medical Officer to Hospital Resident, Gorgas Hospital. Mrs. Mildred Frensley, from Accounting Clerk to Supervisory Storekeeping Clerk, Coco Solo Hospital. Fred Workman, from Clerk to Funeral Director, Coco Solo Hospital. Dr. Richard S. Ostenso, Medical Officer, from General Medicine and Surgery, to Ear, Nose, and Throat Service. MARINE BUREAU William J. Nail, Jack Simon, Robert L. Wertz, Arthur French, and John J. Gallagher, Jr., Towing Locomotive Operator, from Locks Overhaul to Pacific Locks. Herman H. Keepers, from Electrical Foreman to Lead Electrical Maintenance Foreman, Navigational Aids, Aids to Navigation Section. Robert A. Hanson, Towing Locomotive Operator, from Locks Overhaul to Atlantic Locks. Kenneth M. Edwards and Julius F. Hatchett, from Wireman Foreman to Lockmaster, Pacific Locks. Charles J. Sorrell, from Wireman Foreman to Control House Operator, Pacific Locks. Spencer C. Lincoln and Frank J. Asperi, from Wireman to Wireman Foreman, Pacific Locks. William S. McKee, from Machinist to Machinist Foreman, Pacific Locks. Wade V. Carter and Robert E. Budreau, from Fireman, Fire Division, to Towing Locomotive Operator, Pacific Locks. Arthur C. Cherry, Towboat Master, from Dredging Division to Navigation Division. Theodore L. Bailey, from Towboat Master to Pilot-in-Training, Navigation Division. Charles R. McGimsey III, from Guard, to Towing Locomotive Operator, Pacific Locks. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Bernard Dorfman, from Supervisory Freight Traffic Officer to Local Agent, Railroad Division. Mrs. Carmen H. Massot, from Freight Traffic Clerk (Typist), to Clerical Assistant (Claims Investigator), Railroad Division. Vicente Alfaro, from Clerical Assistant (Claims Investigator), to SupervisoryFreight Traffic Specialist, Railroad Division. AUGUST SAILINGS From Cristobal Cristobal August 4 Ancon August 11 Panama.. August 18 Cristobal August 25 From New York Ancon ...August 2 Panama .. August 9 Cristobal August 16 Ancon August 23 Panama.. .August 30 (Northbound and southbound, the ship are in Haiti on Mondays.) ANNIVERSARIES (Editor's Note: The years listed in the Anniversaries column are for total U. S. Government service. Consequently, the name of a comparative newcomer to the Canal organization may appear in the 15-, 20-, or 25-year list.) Leading the list of Canal employees who celebrated important anniversaries in U. S. Government service last month is Emmett Zemer who rounded out 43 years of continuous Canal service on July 10. He has more Panama Canal service than all but four other men and only Arthur Morgan of the Dredging Division is ahead of him in continuous Canal service. Mr. Zemer, a native of Meridian, Miss., started his service in the Canal Zone at the construction-day town of Gorgona, being first_ employed in the Commissary there. He is now employed as Safety Inspector in the Supply and Employee Sen-ice Bureau. Most of his service has been with units of what is now the Supply and Employee Service Bureau. He worked for 25 years in the District Quartermaster (now Housing and Grounds) Division. He has also worked in several retail commissary stores and in the hotels. He is well known for his interest and support of community activities and for several years sparked the Independence Day celebrations on the Pacific side. 40 YEARS Leonidas H. Morales, Claims Investigator in the Terminals Division in Cristobal, also entered the Canal service during the latter part of the construction period. Although his service is not continuou. it has all been with the same unit which was formerly designated the Receiving and Forwarding Agency. Born in Panama City, Mr. Moiales entered the Canal service as a checking clerk in February 1913. He has been promoted through various positions in the Terminals Division and was made Claims Investigator three years ago. 35 YEARS Nearly half of Paul F. Karst's Government service was with post offices in the United States. He had worked for 17 years as postal clerk and carrier in St. Petersburg, Fla., and Bellingham, Wash., before coming to the Canal Zone in December 1939. He was born in Defiance, Ohio, and is a Navy


August 3, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW veteran of the first World War. He has served as postal clerk and as postmaster of Pedro Miguel and Coco Solo before being promoted last December to Branch Superintendent in the Postal Division. 30 YEARS Four employees celebrated their 30th service anniversary last month, two of whom are in the postal service. All four have continuous service and two have continuous Canal service. They are Earl F. Unruh, Director of Posts; Carmi E. Clough, Distribution and Window Clerk at Albrook Post Office; Lee R. Beil, Chief of the Madden Hydroelectric Station; and Mrs. Lillian F. Fair, Commissary' Supervisor. Mr. Unruh has broken Canal service, having served with the U. S. Navy during World War II. He was born in Hillsboro, Kan., and was first employed in September 1931. All of his service in the Canal Zone has been in the Postal Division. He served several years as Postal Inspector before his appointment as Postmaster in Ancon where he was on duty when promoted to head the Postal Division in 1955. Mr. Clough, the other postal employee to complete 30 years of Government service in July came to the Canal Zone in July 1951. He is a native of Argyle, N. Y. Mr. Beit's home town is Northampton, Pa. He came to the Isthmus in 1926 when he was employed in the Electrical Division as switchboard operatoi. Mrs. Farr, born in Newark, N. J., joined the Canal organization in July 1926 as a saleswoman in the Commissary Division. She is well known to Pacific side shoppers and presently is on duty at the Balboa store. 25 YEARS Five of the eight emplovees observing their silver anniversary in service have unbroken service records. They are Victor M. Briceflo, Miss Marie Brauer, Raymond R. Will, Curtis H. George, and Mrs. Marie B. McNeff. The three with broken service in the 25-year category are Howard J. Shearer, John A. Morales II, and Kenneth W. Anderson. Mr. Briceflo, a native of Panama City, was employed on the first day of July 1931. He is one of many Panamanians who are giaduates of apprentice training with Canal units. All of his service has been in the Industrial Division where he is now employed as Boilermaker Layerout. Miss Brauer, Head Nurse at Gorgas Hospital, is better known to her friends at "Dixie." Her native home is Richmond, Va., and all of her service has been at Gorgas. Mr. Will was born in Astoria, N. Y. He started work as a stockman in the Commissary Division, transferring to the Marine Division as clock foreman in 1942. He was promoted to Harbormaster in Cristobal in August 1949 and has held that position since. Mr. George's Canal service dates back to 1941 when he was employed as a marine wireman in the Electrical Division. His native home is Allentown, Pa. He is presently employed as an Interior Electrical Lead Foreman. Only 12 of Mr. Shearer's 25 years of Government service have been with the Canal. A native of Ithaca, N. Y., he entered service as a fireman. He later worked for about two years as time inspector and transferred to the Motor Transportation Division in 1946. He is now employed as Timekeeper with that division. Mrs. McNeff, Director of Nurses at Corozal Hospital, was born in Grand Rapids, Mich. She had several years of Government service before her employment as a nurse at Gorgas Hospital in 1936, where she was employed until her transfer to Corozal in 1952. She was promoted to her present position the year following her transfer. Another native of Panama City, Mr. Morales, celebrated an important anniversary last month. He is a Navy veteran of World War II. He has had continuous service since his return to the Canal in January 1946. All of his service since that time has been in the Office of the Comptroller where he is now employed as Accountant. Mr. Anderson, Supervisory Supply Clerk in the Maintenance Division, was born in Alameda, Calif. His Canal service has been broken on several occasions and he has worked with several different divisions. He has been continuously employed in the Maintenance Division since 1948. 20 YEARS None of the 12 employees completing two decades of service last month has an unbroken service record with the Canal organization. Several, however, had their service interrupted to serve with the military forces during the war. The 20-year employees, their home towns, and positions are: Roger L. Chisolm, DeKalb. Miss., Canal Zone Policeman; Robert A. Duvall, Waterloo, Iowa, Supervisory Supply Assistant in the Storehouse Division; Estle H. Davison, Fuller, Kan., Pump Plant Operator in the Maintenance Division; Nick M. Elich, Salt Lake City, Utah, Lead Foreman in the Maintenance Division Quarry; Gordon M. Frick, Peru, Ind., Assistant to the Personnel Director; Carl E. Hall, Idaho, Lead Foreman and Equipment Operator and Repairman, Maintenance Division; Fred H. Lee, David, Panama, Distribution and Window Clerk in the Postal Division; Miss Margaret R. Peterson, Wisconsin, Accounting Clerk in the Industrial Division; Robert Ridge, Ancon, C. Z., Steam Engineer, Marine Bunkering in the Terminals Division; Roy L. Rinehart, Colorado, Rigger in the Industrial Division; James G. F. Trimble, Brooklyn, N. Y., Lock Operator (Wireman) at the Pacific Locks; and Frank Wagner, New York City, Lock Operator (Machinist) at the Pacific Locks. 15 YEARS July of 15 years ago was a popular month for employees entering Canal service and 14 of the 30 employees who reached this plateau in their Government service started work in July 1941 and have continuous Canal service. The 14 with continuous service are: Mrs. Rosalie A. Demers, Accounting Clerk, Office of the Comptroller; Charles A. Garcia, Personnel Assistant, Personnel Bureau; Vincent J. Huber, Dry Goods Supply Officer, Commissary Division ; Horace F. Jenner, Commissary Supervisor; Miss Doris R. Kintigh, Examiner, Health Bureau; John D. Mitchusson, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic, Maintenance Division; Mrs. Helen Minor, Time, Leave, and Payroll Supervisor, Payroll Branch; Ralph A. Nelson, Steam Engineer and Marine Bunkering and Liquid Fuels Gauger, Terminals Division; William J. Nickisher, Gas Plant Operator, Industrial Division; Isabel P. Reeves, Supervisory Cargo Clerk, Terminals Division; Howard E. Robison, Lock Operator (Machinist), Pacific Locks; John J. Ryan, Commissary Supervisor; John F. Stephenson, Quarantine Inspector, Navigation Division; and Charles E. Thompson, Lead Dairy Foreman, Mindi Dairy. The 16 employees celebrating their 15th anniversary whose service is not continuous are: Howard G. Anderson, Lead Foreman, Atlantic Locks; William F. Aleman, Clerk, Gorgas Hospital; Dante J. Cicchelli, Shipfitter and Loftsman, Industrial Division; James C. Drawbaugh, Adding Machine Repairman, Industrial Division; Miss Clifford H. Ewing, Staff Nurse, Coco Solo Hospital; Robert G. Forsythe, Lock Operator (Machinist), Atlantic Locks; G. P. Gramlich, Jr., Lock Operator (Machinist), Pacific Locks; Robert J. Hansen, Towing Locomotive Operator, Pacific Locks; Albert M. Jenkins, Chief of Plant Accounting Branch; Mrs. Florence W. LaClair, Clerk, Maintenance Division; Sidney W. Peterson, Panama Canal Pilot; John M. Purvis, Jr., Chief of Press Section, Printing Plant; Wallace E. Rushing, Lock Operator (Wireman), Atlantic Locks; Philip L. Steers, Jr., Comptroller, Panama Canal Company; and Robert L. Wertz, Towing Locomotive Operator, Pacific Locks. WINS FELLOWSHIP RETIREMENTS For the first time in more than 20 years a calendar month passed with not a single employee retiring from the Canal service. The number of employees retiring each month has varied widely over the past fewyears but there has been no month up unti July when none retired for age, disability, or voluntarily. Sometimes the list has mounted as high as 20 to 30 in a single month. The rate of retirements was exceptionally high soon after the close of World War II, when many employees who entered service during the Canal construction period reached mandatory retirement age. The average number retiring monthly has dropped during the past few years. MISS NIDIA AVILA, teacher at Paraiso High Schocl, has been granted a year's leave of absence beginning this month to study at Clark University in Worcester, Mass., under a scholarship awarded under the United States Information Service in Panama. She is the first school teacher in the Latin American schools of the Canal Zone to be awarded a fellowship under this program. Commissary In Paraiso Nearly Ready To Open Construction of the new Paraiso Commissary is nearing completion and will be ready for use within the next few weeks. The new store is built along the lines of supermarkets in the States with openfront construction, designed for added customer convenience. It is a one-story masonry structure adjoining the Service Center which was opened several months ago. The two form the first community center in the Canal Zone under one roof planned for customer convenience. The front part of the building will be devoted to the large sales area. Also on the main floor will be located an office, a receiving and stock room, refrigeration rooms, space for cashiers, and a loading platform. A partial basement will house a machine and locker room. The building is being constructed under contract by Isthmian Constructors, Inc., at a cost of approximately $105,000. The completion date for the work of the contractors is August 17. After the building is completed the equipment will be installed. The date for the formal opening of the new community center unit will be announced later. 60-Cycle Equipment The refrigeration and other electrical equipment will be operated on 60-cycle current. Arrangements have been made by the Power Conversion Project office for the temporary installation of a frequency changer which will be used until the power conversion of the Central Area is completed. Importance Of Salk Inoculation Program (Continued from page 5) polio treatment centers in the United States. These beds are used primarily for patients whose respiratory organs are affected but not so severely that they require treatment in an iron lung. The beds are pivoted in the center and rock gently to and fro, consistent with the rate of respiration, which aids in relieving labored breathing.


10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 ABOVE: Six members of the Panama Railroad Company's Board of Directors met in February 1951 at Balboa Heights to consider problems of the Panama Canal incorporation. They and other members became Directors of the Panama Canal Company in July 1951. Left to right are T. Coleman Andrews, Maj. Gen. Julian L. Schley, Lt. Gen. R. A. Wheeler, Gov. F. K. Newcomer, and W. R. Pfizer. Others meeting with the committee were Arnold Bruckner, Comptroller (standing), Robert E. Maxwell, and Lt. Gov. H. D. Vogel. Canal Organization And Its Workers Vitally Affected By Postwar Changes The post-war decade has wrought a profound change in the Panama Canal organization and in the lives of the many thousands of employees who have been a part of it during that time. Many of the changes have been abrupt and affected operations and employees on a wide scale. Others, even fundamental in nature, have been so gradual as to pass almost unnoticed. Future historians may well call the postwar decade the years of change, just as the 1904 14 period is now labeled the construction period. In this issue of The Review some of the highlights of Canal traffic during the first ten full years of operation since the close of World War II are briefly charted. As a corollary to the Canal traffic story, some of the other events which affect people here are noted in a reminiscent rather than a historical fashion. Events of the past tan years are still too close for appraisal in any broad aspect. While not uniformally true, employees in many instances were disturbed during this critical peiiod more by the fact of a change than in its effect. And, since changes beget rumors, it is understandable that the latter far outran the former in most periods. On at least two occasions in recent years dates were actually set by rumor and became firmly fixed in the minds of most employees on which "momentous changes" were to be made. The fact that both dates came and went with no untoward occurrences did little in scotching more rumors. The ten-year period from July 1, 1946, to June 30, 1956, covered the full administration of two governors, approximately half of another, and the beginning of a fourth. Within that relatively brief period the Canal organization has been drastically reorganized; the force has been nearly cut in half; new towns have appeared and old ones disappeared; the top administrative personnel has been completely changed; and office assignments have been shifted within buildings and from building to building. Employees now live in far better homes than they did ten years ago; they have free home-leave travel; their salaries, on the average, are far higher; and they work five instead of five and a half days a week. United States citizen employees, however, pay much higher rent than in 1946 and pay income taxes, to ABOVE: The Board of Directors met at Balboa Heights in September 1952 when an increase in rents was authorized which caused a storm of protests. Seated, left to right are Matthew Robinson, Edward D. McKim, Gov. J. S. Seybold, Under Secretary of the Army Karl R. Bendetsen, W. R. Pfizer, General Schley, and Lt. Gen. Lewis A. Pick. Standing are John A. Martyn, left, and T. Coleman Andrews. Only two members of either of these groups, General Schley and Mr. Martyn, are still members of the Board. mention only two of the disturbing setbacks in their affairs. By and large, the only things which have remained unchanged have been the Canal itself, the Canal Zone terrain, and the permanent office buildings. At the end of June 1946, less than a year after the last gun was fired in the Pacific, the Canal organization was in a state of flux because of force reductions and a general shrinkage of operations. There were then 24,650 employees, of which 5,400 were on the U. S.-rate rolls. The force today is 13,400 with 3,600 being employed on the U. S.-rate rolls. This is a drastic reduction for an organization of the size of the Company-Government, even though spread out over a ten-year period. The decrease during the 1947-50 period when the total force dropped 5,000 to 19,600 employees was THIS IS HOW San Juan Place in Ancon looked in September 1950. This was the start of the $25,000,000 quarters replacement program, although a few experimental houses had been built in Diablo Heights. a continuation of the reduction of the wartime force and was accomplished by force reductions on a major scale. Since 1950 the additional decrease of approximately 6,000 has been principally by attrition with no large-scale force reductions at one time. The reductions from 1947 to 1950 affected all major units of the organization but those hardest hit were the Industrial, Commissary, and Storehouse Divisions, the Health Bureau and the Panama Railroad. It was these service units which had swelled to as much as four times their peacetime size during the war years. The gross revenue of the Mechanical (Industrial) Division, for example, dropped from $17,000,000 in 1944 to $6,000,000 in 1947. Gov. Joseph C. Mehaffey was approximately midway of his term when the fiscal year 1947 began and most of his attention during that time was devoted to postwar problems of considerable magnitude. One of these affecting employees was the return of the Panama Line ships from wartime service and their refitting for passenger trade. The first postwar voyage of the SS Panama was made in September 1946, while the SS Cristobal returned to service the following February, and the SS Ancon in June 1947. By this time, however, the number of employees who had deferred their vacations because of the war was so great that it became necessary to hold drawings for places on the northbound sailings. Three of the major problems which were foremost in the Canal administration at that time were the Isthmian


August 3, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11 Canal Studies of 1947; the housing replacement program; and employment conditions, particularly those for localrate employees. Many of the changes which came in later years resulted from long-range studies undertaken during the latter part of the war and just after the war's close. The first experimental housing at Diablo Heights was built in 1946-47, being the forerunner of the housing replacement program which was approved three years later by the Bureau of the Budget. An event of Governor Mehaffey's administration, largely as a result of longrange studies on labor and employment problems in the Canal Zone, was the adoption of a standard wage pattern for local-rate employees which has been basic since that time. Gov. F. K. Newcomer took office in May 1948, and his administration was fraught with many changes; in fact, practically all thosewhich have so vitally affected the Canal organization and its employees. The four changes which have had the most far-reaching effects were: Income tax, the housing replacement program, the reorganization of July 1950, and the incorporation of Canal operations. Without belaboring the point, the last-named was by far the most important in its overall effects. The reorganization of 1950, now almost forgotten in the welter of important events since, was the first major realignment of functions since the operating organization was established in 1914. It involved not only the shifting of some of the major units but a redesignation of many. The organization at the time consisted of five major departments, Executive, Operation and Maintenance, Supply, Accounting, and Health, plus the Panama Railroad Company. These were changed to ten principal bureaus. Most of the personnel changes resulting from the reorganization was in the top personnel and the change to the new operating set-up was accomplished with little disturbance to the rank and file employee. The most disturbing factor of the 194852 period so far as employees were concerned individually was the application of income-tax payments by Government employees in the Canal Zone. The legislation was approved in September and required income-tax payments retroactively to the first of that year. The retroactive feature caused almost as much dismay as the application of the income tax. The Canal administration joined forces with labor and other employment groups in securing the elimination of the retroactive feature. The application of income-tax provisions in the Zone caused a wave of resignations which did not subside for some two years. The housing replacement program began in the fiscal year 1949 but actually did not get into full swing until the following year after the Bureau of the Budget had approved an overall and long-range building program originallv estimated to cost $70,000,000. The housing problem had long been an aggravating one as most of the houses were built during the Canal construction period and replacements had not kept pace with obsolescence. Many changes in plans were required during the program and when finally Top Personnel Ten Years Ago Helped In Canal Construction muni HB^M 1 THIS PICTURE OF Governor Joseph C. Mehaffey and his staff was taken just ten years ago. Only one is still employed. He is Paul A. Bentz, then and now General Counsel. Left to right, front row: F. H. Wang, Executive Secretary; Brig. Gen. F. K. Newcomer, Engineer of Maintenance; Governor Mehaffey; Commodore Stewart A. Manahan, Marine Superintendent; and his successor, Capt. H. H. McLean. Second row: John G. Claybourn, Superintendent, Dredging Division; Arnold Bruckner, Comptroller; L. W. Lewis, Chief Quartermaster; Col. James G. Steese, Assistant to the Governor; Capt. W. F. Christmas, USN, Superintendent, Mechanical Division; Col. James H. Stratton, Supervising Engieer, Special Engineering Division; and Col. Richardson Selee, Assistant Engineer of Maintenance. Back row: A. L. Prather, General Manager, Panama Railroad; Mr. Bentz; Seymour Paul, Director of Personnel; and Brig. Gen. H. C. Dooling, Chief Health Officer. Not present when this picture was taken was Ernst A. Erbe, Special Assistant to the Governor. One of the most striking features of the Panama Canal organization during the past decade has been the almost complete turnover of the top administrative personnel. This change occurred within a few years after the close of the war and actually marked the end of an era in the Canal's history. Up until that time top positions except those held by service personnel had been occupied, almost without exception, by men with construction-day experience. Of a list of more than 100 names in an official directory of The Panama Railroad Company published in 1947, there are only ten still in service and all of these entered the service well after the close of the construction period. The ten listed in that directory of officials who are still employed are Paul A. Bentz, E. M. Browder, Jr., R. B. Ely, G. O. Kellar, W. R. Lindsay, J. E. Heady, E. N. Stokes, P. S. Thornton, and W. M. Whitman, all of whom entered the service well after the Canal was completed. Mostly Old Timers Of the other 90-odd listed, they were, with few exceptions, men who had entered the Canal service while the waterway was being built and continued when the permanent organization was formed. Most of these men retired within five years after the close of the war. This passing of the old guard has been even more pronounced in the past five years and today there are barely a dozen in service who began their Canal careers before August 1914. completed, the total cost was approximately $25,000,000. The full effects of the Panama Canal Company Incorporation Act did not show until after the close of Governor Newcomer's administration, and many of the changes in organization and personnel of the past four years were results of the change to a corporate form for the Canal organization. Many occurrences of the 1948-52 period which are all but forgotten now were events of importance then and directly affected the welfare and working conditions of employees. A few of these were: Adoption of the five-day work week with employees being given the opportunity to vote on work hours. The terms "Cold" and "Silver" were discarded. Transfer of the Industrial Division to Cristobal. Moving the Panama Railroad headquarters from Balboa to Cristobal. The biweekly pay plan and payment by check instead of voucher were adopted. The return to civilian control of the Canal Zone. Liberalized leave privileges for local-rate employees were granted. Cash replaced coupons for Commissary purchases. The now-familiar "shirtsleeve conferences" were initiated. La Boca Junior College was opened. The tract of land which is now Los Rios was transferred from the Army back to the Canal. The town of Cocoli was (See page 19)


12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 Third Of Canal's Commercial Traffic Pours Through During Postwar Decade In the 42 years since the Panama Canal was opened to traffic on August 15, 1914, a flood of 253,000 ships of all categories have used the time-and-mile-saving water way. Of this total, 189,000 have been ocean-going commercial vessels. A substantial part of these impressive totals have been added by the traffic since the close of World War II. Of the 189,000 commercial transits, 64,000, or more than one third, have been made in the postwar decade. The Panama Canal has long been recognized as a ready barometer of world economic conditions and its reading on world economy has been steadily upward since the last gun was fired in the Pacific, reflecting the upturn of world trade and the remarkable restoration of business in war-torn areas. During the past year new records in commercial traffic were set. While this level of traffic is still well below the Canal's potential capacity, the volume of trade and the size of vessels using the waterway have reached such proportions that a continued increase at the pace of the past ten years would soon tax its present capacity. Important Milestones Noted The rate of increase in commercial shipping is significantly highlighted by two milestones in the Canal's history. In October 1939, 25 years after the waterway was opened, the 100,000th transit was made. Despite the intervention of World War II when commercial shipping dropped to an all-time low, the 150,000th transit was made 12 years later in April 1951. The 200,000th transit will be made about December 1957 at the present level of traffic, less than seven years after the 150,000th transit. One of the most significant trends in the postwar traffic has been the increasing number of large tankers and ore carriers using the Canal. The average size of tankers has increased over 1,100 tons within the past seven years. In 1929 the average size of tankers using the Canal THE PARADE OF supertankers through the Canal began in 1951 and has steadily increased since. They are nearly three times the average size of tankers transiting the Canal in 1949. This one transited in November 1951 carrying 155,000 barrels of oil from San Pedro to Bergen, Norway. It is the Norwegian tanker Dalfonn. was 5,366 net tons, Panama Canal measurement. This figure increased by nearly 1,000 to 6,324 in 1949, 20 years later, and last year's average was 7,463 net tons, with transits by tankers of over 15,000 tons being frequent. There has been a similar increase, although not so pronounced, in the size of ore carriers using the Canal. Last May the SS Ore. Prince, the largest cargo vessel ever to use the Canal, transited on a run from Peru to Baltimore. One of the principal features in the movement of commodities through the Canal since the war ended has been the increased trade to South America. The development of banana plantations in Ecuador and the ore mining of Chile and Peru have been major factors in this over-all increase. Former Customers Return The revival of both Japanese and GerIRON ORE FROM Peru is now an important component in the commodities shipped from the Pacific to the Atlantic. This shows the ore carrier Pampyra taking the first shipment through the Canal from San Juan, Peru, to Morrisville, Pa. The shipments started in May 1953. man shipping has been featured in the Canal's postwar statistics. The first ship flying the Japanese flag after the end of the war transited the Canal in November 1950. The first big German vessel to transit after the war was in July 1950. Since that time the number of German and Japanese ships in Canal traffic have increased to several hundred a year and both have substantially regained their pre-war position in the world's maritime commerce. The flow of world trade through the Panama Canal is an unceasing spectacle for the interested observer and the postwar decade has reflected the panorama of a world recovering quickly from the most devastating war in all history. Below are listed, year by year, some of the highlights of the Canal's operation during this most important decade in its 42-year history. 1947 Commercial transits 4,260 Tolls-free 1,265 Tolls $17,534,000 Canal traffic in the fiscal year 1947 dropped 33 percent below the previous year's figures, despite a substantial increase in commercial transits. The number of transits by Government ships dropped from 5,554 in 1946 to 1,265 in 1947. The slow recovery of the intercoastal trade, which had been particularly high immediately before the war, was noteworthy and the cargo tonnage moved over this route in 1947 was only 44 percent of that in 1939. There was, however, a noticeable upturn in commercial traffic indicating a rapid economic recovery in some areas after the close of the war. 1948 Commercial transits 4,678 Tolls-free 1,079 Tolls $20,017,000 The net tonnage of vessels using the Canal was 13 percent higher in 1948 than in the previous year, principally because of the release of the larger cargo vessels


August 3, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 MILLIONS $ 40 30 PANAMA CANAL TOLLS F.Y. I9I5-I957 20 10 — — __ — __ ___ — — — Ml GOVERNMENT M in r n COMMERCIAL m flUI flu r 1915 '20 '25 '30 '35 '40 '45 '50 '55 ALTHOUGH TOLLS CREDITS have been received for U. S. Government shipping only since July 1951, the above chart shows the amount collected on commercial shipping since the Canal was opened, the computed amount which Government ships would have paid from 1915 to 1951, and the amount of tolls credits during the past five years. by the Government for commercial service. The increase in number of transits was only 9.8 percent. Cargo movements over the United States intercoastal route remained low but a substantial rise was noted in the shipment of goods over the route between Europe and Pacific ports. There was a notable increase in the cargo tonnage moved from the Pacific to Atlantic destinations. 1949 Commercial transits. .. Tolls-free 4,793 1,293 Tolls $20,618,000 Although Canal traffic was considerably curtailed by the longshoremen's strike in the United States during the early part of the year, total traffic showed a substantial increase over 1948. Pacific to Atlantic cargo shipments were approximately the same for the two years, but cargo tonnage from the Atlantic to the Pacific gained 14.1 percent. The most notable gain was in trade from eastern United States to Asia with a 40 percent increase. This important gain was the direct result of heavy shipments of coal to Japan which have continued high since 1949. 1950 Commercial transits 5,448 Tolls-free 1,016 Tolls $24,512,000 A heavy volume of mineral oil moved from California to the eastern seaboard of the United States was one of the dominant factors leading to the increase in Canal traffic during the year. The net vessel tonnage in this trade was 19 percent higher than the previous fiscal year. The oil shipments brought the intercoastal trade back to a level approaching the pre-war years. Most trade routes through the Canal showed slight gains, with the most substantial being over the route between Europe and South America which rose 10 percent. 1951 Commercial transits 5,593 Tolls-free 1,045 Tolls... $23,959,000 Trade between the east coast of the United States and Asia rose to second place among the trade routes, with the volume of traffic preponderantly from east to west. While the United States intercoastal route continued to be ranked first, the volume of cargo was much below the previous year because of the cessation of oil shipments from California. The most notable increase in trade for the year was a 32 percent gain in tonnage figures in the trade route between Europe and the west coast of the United States and Canada. 1952 Commercial transits 6,524 U. S. Government 774 Tolls $30,409,000 This was the first year in the Canal's operations that charges for U. S.-Government vessels on a tolls-credit basis were made, the revenues from this source amounting to $3,384,000. Commercial traffic reached a new high level, exceeding figures set in 1929 and 1938. Coal shipments to Asia moving through the Canal increased by one million tons and heavy banana shipments from Ecuador to trie United States began. Shipments of wheat and lumber from the Pacific to the Atlantic featured the year's statistics. Also, it was estimated that the tanker tonnage increased by 1,500,000 that year because of the cessation of mineral oil shipments from Iran. 1953 Commercial transits 7,410 U. S. Government 1,064 Tolls $37,530,000 The continued rise in world economic conditions and the movement of Government ships through the Canal because of the Korean War aided in setting new records in Panama Canal statistics. All except two of the principal trade routes through the Canal showed increased cargo shipments and the volume (See page 17 THE END OF an era in Canal operations occurred during the postwar decade. It was the closing of coal bunkering operations in Cristobal. This shows the last ship to bunker coal there, in December 1952. It is the Spanish cargo vessel Arraiz. Smoke from coal burners was a common sight in Canal waters for nearly 30 years after it was opened.


14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 COMMODITY MOVEMENTS ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC THOUSAND OF TONS J TOTAL COMMODITIES L F YI929 1933 1947 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 55 56 1929 1938 1947 46 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 IRON AND STEEL MFGRS THOUSAND OF TONS 2 500 1500 1929 '938 1947 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 55 56 | SOYBEANS AND PRODUCTS | THOUSAND OF TONS 1000 / J\J_ -.-_/ 1929 1938 1947 46 49 SO 51 52 S3 34 55 56 | 5ULPHUR~| THOUSAND OF TONS 800 600 200 r 1929 1938 1947 46 49 50 SI 52 S3 54 53 36 CEMENT THOUSAND OF TONS ./ : 1 1929 1936 1947 46 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 COAL AND COKE THOUSAND OF TONS 4000 1929 1938 1947 46 49 SO Si 52 S3 54 55 56 AND J5 | PHOSPHATES 1 n \ 1 1929 1938 1947 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 33 56 SUGAR THOUSAND OF TONS 000 800 ) \ / / / \ — 200 1 m 1929 1938 1947 46 49 SO 51 52 53 54 53 56 [PAPER AND PAPER PRODUCTS | THOUSAND OF TONS 800 400 200 1929 1936 1947 48 49 50 51 52 S3 54 55 56 | AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS 1 THOUS' 1000 800 600 400 200 NO OF TONS 7 ^ Fl n t — / \ s v 1929 1936 1947 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 1957 TO BRING BILLIONTH TON MARK IN CARGO The Panama Canal will celebrate its 42d birthday as an interoceanic waterway on August 15. Between that date and the 43d anniversary the one-billionth ton of cargo will be shipped through the Canal. At the end of the fiscal year 1956 total commodity shipments aggregated 977,000,000 long tons and comprised every conceivable staple and luxury item used by mankind. During the Canal's 42 years of operating history two devastating world wars have been fought and a worldwide depression occurred which dropped economic standards to the lowest point of this century. These, plus disturbed international relations, have disrupted normal world trade for half of the time since the waterway was opened in August 1914. The phenomenal resurgence of world commerce since the close of World War II is illustrated in the tonnage of commodities shipped through the Canal in the postwar decade. Over 345,000,000 tons of cargo, more than one-third of the grand total in 42 years, have been moved through the Canal since June 30, 1946. The charts on these pages give a graphic history of this growth. They show the ten leading commodities shipped from Atlantic to Pacific and from Pacific to Atlantic and the eight great trade routes over which the bulk of this freight has moved during the past ten years. The outstanding feature of the two commodity charts is the tremendous growth which has occurred in the postwar period in the Atlantic to Pacific trade. Less than 10,000,000 tons of cargo were moved from the Atlantic to Pacific destinations in either the fiscal years 1929 and 1938, the two peak years in Canal operations before the outbreak of World War II. This level was exceeded in 1951 and for the past three fiscal years the average tonnage has been more than double that of the two pre-war years shown on the chart. The tonnage of the ten commodities shown on the Atlantic to Pacific chart in the past fiscal year totaled 14,700,000 tons and accounted for more than twothirds of all tonnage moved in that direction. Of these ten, the shipments of only the manufacturers of iron and steel, and cement have failed to reach the levels of 1929 and 1938. Before the war iron and steel manufactured products represented the principal commodity in the Atlanticto-Pacific trade. A striking example of the shifting of world trade as portrayed year after year in Panama Canal traffic is the movement of mineral oil before and since the war where the trend has been practically reversed. Mineral oil shipments constituted one of the leading commodities shipped from the Pacific to the Atlantic before the war. Although tonnage rose in 1950 because of a heavy movement of oil from California to the east coast of the United States, the average tonnage in the post-


August 3, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 war era has been about one-fifth of the peak reached during the late 1920's. The development of new oil fields in South America has been a principal factor in the reversal in the (low of oil through the Canal. Less than 1,000,000 tons of oil was shipped through the Canal from the Atlantic in either 1929 or 1938, while shipments in most years since the war's close have totaled double that amount and have averaged five times that much during the past three years. A similar trend has been shown in the shipment of sugar. The amount of sugar shipped from the Atlantic to the Pacific is presently more than four times that of pre-war years, while the tonnage moved in the opposite direction has been consistently lower than the 1938 figures. The movement of coal and coke, principally to Japan, since the close of the war has been one of the outstanding changes in Canal statistics in comparing commodity shipments with pre-war years. This trade was negligible before the war. Heavy shipments began in 1949 and since 1951 have been well above 2,000,000 tons annually. A commodity new in the group of leaders in the Atlantic-to-Pacific list since the war is that of soybeans and soybean products. Shipment of these products began in substantial quantities in 1948 and have shown a steady growth since, totaling 800,000 tons last year. Other commodities which have shown similar increases have been phosphates, sugar, and ammonium compounds. The amount of cargo shipped through the Canal from Pacific areas to Atlanticdestinations has shown a steady but less phenomenal rise since the war than commodity movements in the opposite direction. It was not until the fiscal year 1954 that the tonnage in this direction reached the 1929 level. During the past three years the amount of goods has been approximately equal in tonnage in both directions, with shipments in the past fiscal year being substantially higher in the Pacific to Atlantic trade than in the opposite direction. The ten commodities listed on the Pacific to Atlantic chart represent nearly 90 percent of the total commodity shipments in this direction moved in the past fiscal year with an aggregate of over 18,000,000 tons. The development of the new mining areas in Chile and Peru, and particularly the iron ore mines in Peru, was primarily responsible for the great increase in ore tonnage moved through the Canal from the Pacific. Ore shipments have been heavier than those of 1929 or 1938 in every year since the war closed and in both 1954 and 1956 fiscal years they exceeded 5,000,000 tons, approximately two and-a-half times the pre-war level. Another factor in the growth of cargo tonnage from the Pacific since the war has been the shipment of bananas. These come from Central America and the comparatively new plantations in Ecuador. The chart showing traffic movement over the eight principal trade routes portrays a story of the revival of trade or the development of new commerce in various parts of the world. The failure of the United States intercoastal route to regain its pre-war trade isone of the most striking features of the chart. There has been only one year since the close of the war, 1950, in which the tonnage of vessels over this route has COMMODITY MOVEMENTS PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC FY 1929 1918 1947 48 49 SO SI 52 53 54 55 56 SAND ONS MINERAL OILS n .':. : : >: I / \ ll / / \ 1 / X / 1 FY 1929 IS36 194 7 4B 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Y 1929 1935 1947 48 49 50 31 52 53 54 55 56 SUGAR ] SAND OF TOMS | WHEAT I I \ FY 1929 1939 1947 4* 49 50 51 52 53 54 53 56 THOUSAND OF TONS THOUSAND OF TONS 3000 FY 1929 1938 1947 48 49 50 51 32 53 54 55 56 THOUSAND OF TONS NITRATE OF SODA | FY. 1929 1938 1947 48 49 SO Si 62 53 34 55 56 BANANAS ITHOUSAND OF TONS 2000 1500 IO00 500 -— FY 1929 1938 1947 48 49 50 Si 52 5S 54 55 56 METALS, VARIOUS THOU SAND Of TO NS THOU 1000 800 600 400 200 SAND OF TON S s F Y 1929 1938 1947 48 49 50 5l 52 53 54 55 56 000 800 600 400 200 Cvl 1938 1947 48 49 So SI 32 53 S4 5S 56 REFRIGERATED FOODS F Y 1929 1938 1947 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56


16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES 260OO 27000 2tOOO 25000 24000 2 3000 22000 2I0O0 20000 | P.C. NET VESSEL TONNAGE -ALL ROUTES / / / — ^ / — F V. I929 1938 1947 46 49 50 51 52 S3 54 55 56 UNITED STATES INTERCOASTAL THOUSAMD OF TONS 9000 F Y 1929 1938 1947 46 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 EUROPE-WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA THOUSAND Or TONS : : : : — EUROPE-WEST COAST US/CANADA THOUSAND OF TONS 6000 5000 / v 3000 / \ / / -~-~ / FY l29 '938 1947 46 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 5* EUROPEAUSTRALASIA THOUSAND OF TONS FY 1929 1936)947 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 EAST COAST US-WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA/MEXICO THOUSAND OF TONS 20OO / \ / : P71 F. Y. 1929 1938 1947 46 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 5* EAST COAST US/ CANADA-ASIA 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 F Y. \N0 OF TON5 m / "" 3000 y 25O0 2000 1500 | I 1JJ FY 1929 1938 1947 46 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 EAST COAST US/ CANADA AUSTRALASIA THOUSAND OF TONS 1000 ; >> F Y. 1929 1936 1947 46 49 50 51 52 5) 54 55 56 1929 1938 1947 46 49 SO 51 52 S3 54 55 56 EAST COAST US/WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA THOUSAND OF TONS / / 1 / 1979 1936 194? 41 i9 51 S2 SI M 55 56 equaled the 1938 level and in none has it approached the high level of 1929. In contrast to this trend, however, most other of the major trade routes have shown a consistent and substantial growth since the war and all but one, that between Europe and the west coast of the United States and Canada, have failed to reach the pre-war levels. The economic progress of South America is illustrated by the increase in tonnage figures over two main trade routes serving that area. For the past three years the tonnage has averaged nearly three times that of 1929 or 1938 on the route between the east coast of the United States and South America, while tonnage figures on the route between South America and Europe have shown a consistent gain since the war and are now well above the pre-war level. The trade between Asia and the United States and Canada has shown a phenomenal growth since the war. The total net tonnage of vessels moving through the Canal over this trade route has averaged nearly 7,000,000 tons for the past three years, as compared with approximately 1,800,000 tons in 1929 and 3,750,000 tons in 1938. The relatively high figures in 1938 were due to the heavy shipments of scrap iron to Japan immediately before the war. This trade route ranked fifth in 1929 and third in 1950 has been the leading route, in vessel tonnage, for the past six years. Year in and year out since the Canal was opened to traffic in 1914 the flag of the United States has led all other nationalities in the Canal ship traffic, with that of Great Britain in second place. Little less than phenomenal since the close of World War II has been the recovery of the maritime trade of Japan and Germany. Both of these major maritime nations held a commanding position in number of ships and amount of cargo in the Canal's ship nationality list before the war. Much of the shipping passing through the Canal under the Japanese flag is for the east coast of South America. It was not until five years after the war ended that the first German vessels transited the Canal, there being four in the fiscal year 1951. Last year the German flag held third rank with 509 ships. There were 40 ships flying the Japanese flag in the Canal's 1951 traffic, and this number increased to 476 last year, making Japan fifth on the nationality list and just below Liberia. More cargo was carried on Japanese flag vessels last year, however, than on those flying the Liberian flag. The following tabulations shows the number of ships of the ten leading nationalities in Canal traffic last year, and the number of ships of each in transit in 1938 and in 1951: 1938 1951 1956 United States 1,780 2,203 2,102 Great Britain 1,281 1,004 1,142 Norway 667 513 985 Germany — 357 4 509 Liberia.-23 496 Japan 300 40 47b Panama.. 182 220 431 Honduras 22 346 423 Denmark. 223 191 337 Colombia ---75 232 It is to be noted that while some nationalities have more ships in transit, the amount of cargo carried might be less than that of some other nationality. Last year, for example, there were 232 ships flying the Colombia flag, but the amount of cargo carried was exceeded by the ships of several other nations.


August 3, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17 STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939. COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BREAKS ALL FORMER RECORDS A complete new set of records for commercial traffic through the Panama Canal was established during the past fiscal year. It was the fifth consecutive year in which a new record in the number of ocean-going commercial transits was written into the statistical books. Because of the continued decrease in the number of U. S. Government vessels using the Canal, the 1956 figures failed to top previous records in total number of transits, total tolls, and number of ocean-going vessels in transits for one year. The previous record in total tolls, $37,530,327, was set in the fiscal year 1953, while the record in ocean-going transits, 8,584, for both commercial and Government ships, was recorded in 1954. Substantial gains were made in the amount of cargo shipped over all of the main trade routes through the Canal last year, with the biggest increase, percentagewise, on the route between the east coast of South America and the west coast of the United States and Canada. The cargo shipments on this route jumped from 481,000 tons in fiscal year 1955 to 1,460,000 tons last year. The amount of cargo shipped over the route between the east coast of the United States and Canada and the Far East increased by more than 1,250,000 tons last year over the previous year. Again in the past fiscal year, this route held first rank in importance which had gained for the first time in the fiscal year 1955. While the United States, Great Britain, and Norway continued to hold first, second, and third places, respectively, in the nationality of ships using the Canal, Panama dropped from fourth place in 1955 to seventh place in last year's list. It was replaced in fourth place by German flag ships, with Japan and Liberia being in fifth and sixth places. Ore shipments from the Pacific to the Atlantic continued the substantial increase shown for the past few years on the commodity list, and exceeded five million long tons last year. The most spectacular gains in commodity shipments last year over the previous year were barley and wood pulp. Both of these commodities exceeded a million long tons last year as compared with less than 400 thousand tons each the year before. In the commodity movements from the Atlantic to the Pacific last year, mineral oils showed the biggest gain and continued to rank first. Shipments last year totaled over five million tons, and exceeded the previous year's figures by over 800,000 tons. te i SHIPS and SHIPPING ci^L Transits By Ocean-Going Vessels In June 1956 1955 Commercial 674 653 U. S. Government .... 21 31 Total 695 684 Tolls* Commercial $3,013,659 $2,811,652 U. S. Government. 70,817 149,631 Total.. ^$3,084,476 $2,961,283 "Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small. THIRD OF CANAL'S COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC POURS THROUGH DURING POSTWAR DECADE MANY STRANGE CRAFT have transited the Canal in its 42 years of operating history but none has provided a more spectacular sight than the three big floating drydocks which were careened by the Mechanical Division during 1949 and 1950 and towed from Balboa to Cristobal. One of these is shown as it towered above Miraflores Locks. All three transits were made without incident. (Continued from page IS) of both tanker and dry-cargo traffic was well ahead of the previous year. The United States intercoastal route showed a 22 percent gain, while the vessel tonnage on many routes classified under the miscellaneous heading was half again as high as the previous fiscal year. 1954 Commercial transits 7,784 U. S. Government. 800 Tolls$37,191,000 The record number of transits by ocean-going vessels, commercial and U. S. Government, set an all-time high in the Canal history which has not since been surpassed. Important gains were made in tonnage of coal, phosphates, scrapmetal, soybeans, and corn. An important expansion of the refrigerated service for the transportation of bananas from Ecuador to Europe was one of the important trade developments of the year. This added substantially to the increase in commodity shipments over the trade route between Europe and South America. This trade route has shown a consistent and phenomenal growth in the postwar decade. 1955 Commercial transits 7,997 U. S. Government. 296 Tolls $35,137,000 The total number of ocean-going transits declined from the high level of the. two previous fiscal years when the number of U. S.-Government ships using the Canal declined sharply after the close of the Korean hostilities. This was largely offset, however, by the substantial increase in commercial traffic which set a new high record. The volume of shipping between Europe and South America continued an upswing and this trade route ranked fifth for the year. Commodity shipments showing substantial gains on this route included bananas, copper, metal, iron ore, sugar, and sulphur. The record cargo movements for the year over all routes was largely the result of increased commodity shipments from the Pacific to the Atlantic. 1956 Commercial transits 8,809 U. S. Government. 266 Tolls $37,451,000 Most former Canal records were broken during the year, although the total number of transits by ocean-going ships failed to top the 1954 record. The year's traffic was featured by a continued increase in the number of supertankers and large ore carriers moving through the Canal. A feature of the year was the shipment of 4,045,416 tons of cargo through the waterway in May, this being the first time in the Canal's history that commodity shipments aggregated over 4,000,000 tons. The heavy movement of mineral oils, and especially from the west coast of the United States to the eastern seaboard, was particularly significant in the traffic statistics.


18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 Record Enrollment Of 7,000 Expected When Schools Reopen Next Month (Continued from page 1) and construction of covered passageways and busloading platforms are among the improvements being made during the school vacation season. Many Improvements Planned Interiors are being painted at the Canal Zone Junior College, Ancon kindergarten, Diablo Heights school, and both men's and women's college dormitories. Sound proofing is being done at Balboa Junior High School, and the Diablo Heights and North Margarita Elementary schools. Additional covered passageways and bus-loading platforms are being constructed at Balboa High School, Balboa Junior High School, and the Junior College. The Ancon gymnasium is being remodelled to provide new and improved office, storage, and dressing-room space. A full-time physician is expected to join the school staff this year. A few changes in school districting are planned. Fort Davis first-graders will attend South Margarita instead of Gatun. France Field grades 1-6 will attend North instead of South Margarita, and grades 5 and 6 from Coco Solito will attend Cristobal elementary instead of North Margarita, on the Atlantic side. Pacific side changes include the fourth-graders from Albrook Air Force Base, who will attend at Balboa instead of Fort Kobbe, and grades kindergarten-6 from Curundu Heights, who will attend at Diablo Heights this year instead of Balboa. New Teachers Already Hired The list of new high school teachers employed up to last month, their home towns, the colleges from which they were graduated, and their assignments follows: Margaret Clayton, of Perkinston, Miss. Mississippi Southern; Cristobal High School; physical education. Max Ackerman, of Chiloco, Okla; Southwest Texas State Teachers College; Balboa junior high school; English. Luis Fattorosi, of Perth Amboy, N. J.; Rutgers; Cristobal high school; English and business. William Garber, of Covington, Va.; Lynchburg College; Cristobal junior high school; mathematics. James Hunt, of Bemidji, Minn.; Bemidji Teachers College; Cristobal junior high school; mathematics. James Kiskin, of Lorain, Ohio; University of West Virginia; Balboa junior high school. Milton Poland, of New Britain, Conn.; Northeastern University; Balboa junior high school. Loring White, of Sidney, Neb.; University of Connecticut; Balboa junior high school; English. New teachers for assignment to elementary grades, their home towns and colleges, include: Betty Thomas, of Brazil, Ind.; Indiana State; Dora Hardy, of Cleveland, Ohio, Miami (Ohio); Dorothy Helmkamp, of Denver, Colorado University; Joan Grunert, of Lisbon Center, Me., Farminton State Teachers College; Mary Brennan, of New Bedford, Mass., Fitchburg Teachers College; Evelyn Home, of Birmingham, Mich., Michigan State; Raymond Fanning, of Baltic, Conn., Willimantic Teacher College; Sam Queen, of Waynesville, N. C, Western Carolina; and Earl Sharick, of Lacon, 111., Illinois State Normal University. CANAL TRANSITS — COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT Fiscal Year 1956 1955 1938 Atlantic to Pacific Pacific to Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial vessels: 4,133 450 4,076 446 8,209 896 7,997 1,149 5,524 *Sma!l 931 Total commercial -. 4,583 4,522 9,105 9,146 f., 155 **U. S. Government vessels, oceangoing ... _160 127 106 210 266 337 296 318 441 *Small Total commercial and U. S. Government -4,870 4,838 9,708 9,760 6,896 'Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. **\'essels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited free. TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the cargo shipments in thousands of long tons, segregated into eight main trade routes: Fiscal Year 1956 1955 1938 6,276 6,192 1,460 9,651 1,280 5,616 3,160 2,271 9,213 5,978 5,971 481 8,393 1,274 5,094 2,527 2,328 8,600 6,395 2,652 East Coast South America and West Coast U.S. /Canada 161 4,912 992 4,237 2,974 1.251 3,812 Total traffic -— 45,119 40,646 27,386 Principal commodities shipped through the Canal (All figures in long tons) ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC Commodity Fiscal Year 1956 1955 1938 5,137 3,549 1,478 1,167 1,301 936 1,425 742 618 1,875 1,083 1,421 315 288 290 2,208 4,087 3,747 1,387 1,271 1,221 939 1,281 789 551 1,981 387 349 280 222 236 3,499 2,127 2,851 Wheat 706 Nitrate 1,401 991 53 1,487 698 Refrigerated food products (except fresh fruit) 335 2,875 237 314 175 13 127 3,307 Total 23,833 22,227 17,697 PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC Commodity Fiscal Year 1956 1955 1938 5,130 2,131 463 498 1,257 433 469 746 289 787 301 317 271 244 2,996 4,954 4,305 1,792 295 23 1,043 377 463 557 300 520 285 187 233 213 3,274 4,552 907 1,859 71 999 328 423 297 3 154 57 168 104 109 238 Coal and coke 137 All others ___ ._ 3,835 Total 21,286 18,419 9,689


August 3, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19 Canal Organization Vitally Affected By Postwar Changes MANY OLD LANDMARKS like the Ancon Theater fell by the wayside during the past 10 years. The building, used for many years as a clubhouse, was demolished early in 1952. The main part of the building was first erected in Pedro Miguel and moved to Ancon in 1913. It had been extensively remodeled two or three times. (Con'irfied from page 11) transferred to the Navy. Draft Boards were established in the Canal Zone. These and a host of other events made the administration of Governor Newcomer one of the most significant in the Canal's history. The most widespread change in the top administrative officers of the Canal organization since the Isthmian Canal Commission was changed in 1907 occurred in May 1952 and within a short time thereafter. For the first time in the history of the permanent operating organization new men were appointed as Governor and Lieutenant Governor at the same time. From the time Governor Goethals left the organization 35 years before, the Governor had been succeeded by the second in command (Engineer of Maintenance and later Lieutenant Governor). The change in this long-established policy came when Gov. J. S. Seybold was appointed to succeed Governor Newcomer and Col. H. 0. Paxson was appointed as Lieutenant Governor, succeeding Col. Herbert D. Vogel. Occurring at this same period was the retirement or reassignment of a substantial number of top administrative officers. These included the Health, Marine, and Finance Directors, and several officials of lesser rank. The four-year administration of Governor Seybold was filled with changes and events which made the Canal organization the top headline news of local newspapers more than in any period since the Canal was completed. Many of the changes resulted from the adoption of the corporate form of operation. An extensive review of Governor Seybold's administration was contained in the May issue of The Review and will not be repeated here. Briefly, some of the highlights of his four-year term of office were: Plans to increase the capacity of the Canal; Contractors Hill project; 60-cycle conversion program; completion of quarters program; consolidation of hospitals; increase in rents; study on fringe benefits; consolidation of Canal units as work level dropped; adoption of Spanish language in Latin American schools; and plans for replacement of Locks towing locomotives. While all of these were of great news interest and affected employees in many instances, undoubtedly the most farreaching event which occurred during Governor Seybold's administration was the conclusion of the new U. S.-Panama Treaty. While this was not his direct responsibility, its affects will be more farreaching than many occurrences which captured headlines. As the administration of Gov. W. E. Potter begins, additional changes and adjustments are in the offing. These will be the result of treaty commitments with one of the principal changes becoming effective at the end of the year when commissary purchase and free entry privileges will be restricted to only U. S. -citizen employees and non-U. S. -citizen employees living in the Canal Zone. This change will necessitate a further substantial force reduction that will require adjustments in all major units which are expected to continue for several months following. Although these changes are still to come, they will be of far less magnitude than many that have occurred in the past decade. And, aside from these, there are no indications that the coming ten years will be so turbulent as the ten which Canal employees have just experienced. The Canal's working force at present is substantially at the same level numerically as it was in 1938, which means, in fact, that it is well below that level from the man-hour standpoint. This is true because the 40-hour work week has been adopted throughout the organization since 1938 and leave privileges for local-rate employees, more than two-thirds of the total force, have been inaugurated. The history of the Panama Canal has been replete with turbulence and debate and no prognostication is here made that its future will not have its share. However, The Panama Canal Review offers one of its rare editorial opinions: The next ten years will not be nearly so rough as the postwar decade now ending. Canal Commercial Traffic by Nationality of Vessels Fiscal Years Nationality 1956 1955 1938 Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo 3 1 8,661 1 15 10 1,145 60 38 198 31 8,908 35,191 6,897,789 323,734 289,543 261,249 212,055 British 1,142 75 36 232 26 7,299,912 452,731 271,169 293,191 171,869 1,281 9 2 6,417,016 28,787 13,113 Colombian. Costa Rican 2 223 337 66 1,154,339 79,985 323 57 1,014,334 79,164 865,235 Ecuadorean 2 1 105 357 94 22 5 4,695 4,021 567,288 Finnish 22 112 509 114 423 109,888 683,920 1,500,863 1,031,982 372,424 9 132 375 121 428 44,750 585,123 1,002,372 1,013,875 384,890 1,518,593 525,351 Honduran 8,478 24,411 2 126 476 17 20,200 756,773 3,516,810 77,477 3 160 464 4 28,950 907,359 3,103,396 13,551 Italian 52 300 153,417 1,877,502 Korean (South) 3 4,900 496 8 140 53 985 431 31 24 2 2 48 163 4,252,066 27,624 778,152 82,720 4,954,149 1,959,097 165,367 144,368 384 6 139 50 904 551 18 17 2,637,568 19,499 736,668 60,509 4,162,091 2,712,127 49,702 88,056 Netherlands 285 749,642 Norwegian Panamanian 667 182 5 3 3,433,571 415,561 7,151 Philippine Portuguese 8,441 1,927 197,814 816,059 1 32 207 5 4 2,102 2 3,478 132,264 829,519 37,235 9,250 12,949,146 3,016 5 2 119 10,419 Spanish ._. 15,280 Swedish. 763,049 United States. __ 2,102 2 2 1 13,909,995 9,498 8,851 9,161 1,780 9,892,619 4 14 3,971 73,413 Yugoslavian 1 9,940 Total 8,209 45,119,042 7,997 40,646,301 5,524 27,385,924


20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 3, 1956 CANAL COMPANY AGREES TO BUY TWO NEW TYPE LOCKS TOWING LOCOMOTIVES FOR TEST PURPOSES (Continued from page 1) equipment. Bidders were also asked to submit proposals for furnishing two test locomotives. The General Electric Company entered offers ranging from $7,238,000 to $9,866,000 for 57 locomotives, and three locomotive cranes, being the lowest of the two received for equipment of existing design. LeTourneau's was $4,982,400 for 30 units including three cranes of the new design, a sufficient number to handle the towing requirements at all three Locks. The decision to replace all of the towing locomotives now in use was reached after extensive engineering studies by the Company and consultants on relative costs of replacement or rebuilding and conversion of the present equipment for 60-cycle use. Many of the locomotives now in use have been in service since 1914 and most of the equipment has reached such a state of obsolescence and wear that it would require complete rebuilding aside from the cost of converting all units for 60-cycle current. The design of the LeTourneau locomotives was developed after considerable first-hand study of the towing problems by R. G. LeTourneau, president of the firm, and other officials of the company who visited the Canal Zone several times prior to the submission of their proposal. The contract for the new-type towing equipment provides for delivery and installation of the test units within 14 months after the formal contract is approved and signed by Gov. W. E. Potter. Negotiations for the purchase of the two test units have been conducted for the Canal Company by Col. Hugh M. Arnold, contracting officer, and for LeTourneau by R. L. LeTourneau, J. S. Scruggs, and C. T. Peterson. Colonel Arnold has been assisted in the analysis of the bids by various officials of the Marine Bureau, and particularly the Locks Division, and personnel of the Engineering Division cf THE NEW locomotives will present an unusual appearance. They will be built to operate on the existing towing locomotive tracks. POSITION OF fender car is shown when a ship would be in Miraflores Locks with an extremely lowtide. The test locomotives are to be used at Gatun. the Engineering and Construction Bureau. The three LeTourneau representatives came to the Isthmus last week for the negotiations. Aside from their strange appearance in comparison with other towing locomotives, the LeTourneau devices represent one of the few basic changes which have been made in the operating equipment of the Panama Canal as conceived and designed by its builders almost a half century ago. The other notable change has been the elimination of the emergency dams, three of which have already been removed. These have never been used for the purpose for which they were constructed. Except for minor alterations, the other operating equipment is unchanged in design from that installed when the waterway was opened. The LeTourneau locomotives will be built to operate on the existing tracks of the center lock walls. With only two locomotives in use, each would have tow lines fore and aft to the vessel in tow. Thus, each locomotive would provide towing and braking power. With the towing power entirely on one side of a ship, the vessel would be spaced or held off the lock wall by a pneumatictired fender suspended from each locomotive and controlled by the towing locomotive operator. Each fender-car will be equipped with twelve rim-mounted, 24ply pneumatic tires, 18 x 25, with three ori an axle. Six of the wheels will bear against the ships and six will ride the lock wall. The tires will be mounted horizontally with the locks walls, permitting them to roll forward as the ship in tow is moved. The fender cars will be raised or lowered by electric motors in the towing locomotives. They will be suspended below the lock wall and can be lowered to a depth of 43 feet below the wall to permit contact by ships of all sizes and at all stages of water level in the lock. Some minor modifications will be required on the lock walls for the operation of the fender. Also, the repair sheds at the locks will require alterations to permit passage of the new-type locomotives. The new locomotives will be equipped with line booms of light-weight tubing, approximately 75 feet in length. These are entirely new features and are designed to pass one or both manila messenger lines from the towing locomotives to the ship. It is expected that this will eliminate the present system of using rowboats for passing the connecting lines from the lock walls to the vessels upon their approach. The operation of these whip booms will be controlled by the operator in the locomotive cab. The LeTourneau locomotives will not only provide a wholly different scheme for the towing of vessels through the Canal Locks but they will differ radically in appearance from those in service. The dimensions of the locomotives will be 36 feet in length, 14 feet in width, and 13 feet in height to the top of the operator's cab. The weight of each locomotive will be approximately 110,000 pounds and they will have a top speed of around nine miles per hour. The operator's cab will be fully enclosed and will be located on top of the locomotive platform at one end. Tinted safety-glass windows will be provided on all sides except that opposite the lock, with the window on the lock-side being equipped with a power-driven wiper. The cab windows will be arranged to be lowered or raised and the cabs will be insulated against heat and equipped with 10inch electric fans for use when the windows are closed. The locomotives will be given their unusual appearance by the fender masts and whip booms. The over-all height of the fender car and mast will be 46 feet. The mast on which the fender is raised or lowered will be a lattice-type steel structure. Since the test locomotives are to be in use before the power conversion at the Locks is scheduled, they will be equipped with diesel engines to drive the power generators in the locomotives. After the conversion to 60-cycle current, these engines, if found to be satisfactory, will be replaced with electric motors for operation of the locomotives. w = 00" cn" •hi OS THIS CLOSE UP shows how the fender assemblies will be raised and lowered and how the big tires on the fender cars will hold a ship off the lock wall. The overall height of the car and mast will be 46 feet.