Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text

PAGE 1

Gift of the Panama Canal Museum ^^ PANAMA /T^^McB CANAL, cjCj^j-:i]L^'(3) BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, NOVEMBER 4, 1955 VoL 6, No. 4 5 cents Five Members Of Canal Subcommittee CANAL PAYROLL Scheduled To Arrive Here December 1 TO BE UNIFIED Five members of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee are scheduled to arrive in the Canal Zone December 1 for a 10-day visit during which hearings will be held on various Canal matters. The five Congressmen are members of the Subcommittee on Panama Canal Affairs of the Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee. The group will be headed by Rep. Edward A. Garmatz, Democrat, of Maryland, Chairman of the Subcommittee. The other four members are Representatives T. James Tumulty, Democrat of New Jersey; Francis E. Dom, Republican of New York; William K. Van Pelt, Republican of Wisconsin; and James A. Byrne, Democrat of Pennsylvania. All five members of the House will be accompanied by their wives. Also accompanying the group will be Bernard Zineke, Counsel of the Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, and Mrs. Zineke, and Mrs. Frances Still, Chief Clerk of the Committee. The visit of the House group was announced near the close of the last session of Congress by Mr. Garmatz. The Committee will consider legislation pending in Congress during their visit to the Canal Zone. Sailing November 25 The legislative group is scheduled to sail from New York November 25 aboard the Panama liner Ancan, arriving here December I. They will return 10 days later, sailing December 10 on the Panama. The Subcommittee Chairman has announced that formal hearings have been tentatively scheduled on Monday and Tuesday after the Committee's arrival. These will be held in the Board Room of the Administration Building. The first day will be devoted to hearings on the Railroad and the group will spend its second day on legislative problems. The remainder of the stay in the Canal Zone will be devoted to making a study of Canal installations and operations. Four members of the subcommittee have made previous visits to the Canal Zone; Representative Tumulty is the only Congressional newcomer of the group. Representative Garmatz, subcommittee chairman, and Mr. Zineke, its Counsel, were here together last November. At the time the Congressman was making studies of Canal operations in his capacity as a committee member. A native of Baltimore, he represents Maryland's Third Congressional District, one of two covering the city of Baltimore. He has been a member of Congress since 1947. U. S. REPRESENTATIVE Edward A. Garmatz Chairman of the Panama Canal Subcommittee of the Merchant Marine and P'isheries Committee, will head a group of Congressmen due here in December. Two Civic Councils Hold Elect ions No vember 8 The first step toward an overall election day in the Canal Zone to coincide with election day in the United States— will take place next Tuesday when Zonians go to polling places in their respective communities to elect representatives to the Civic Councils representing Cristobal-Margarita and Gatun. Provisions of the constitutions of the Pacific and Garaboa Civic Councils prevent the residents of the communities represented by those groups from participating in the November 8 elections. Council members said, however, that an amendment to the constitutions to provide for November elections will be presented to Civic Council constituents at their next election. Local-rate Civic Councils will continue with their prescribed election dates this year but are expected to take the necessary action so that next fall their representatives will also be chosen at a general election day. The idea of a single date for a Canal Zone Election Day has been considered for some time. It was suggested some months ago to Council Representatives by Governor J. S. Seybold at one of his Shirtsleeve Conferences. NEXT JANUARY A unified payroll system for the Canal organization, as announced last month by Governor Seybold, will become fully effective at the end of next January. The first pay checks under the new system will be delivered in February. With the adoption of a unified payroll, salary checks will be delivered to all employees the same day by units of the organization. The present U. S.-rate pay period will be used as the basis for all employees and timekeeping procedures will be adapted to that schedule. Because of the size of the organization and the workload involved, it will be necessary to stagger the paydays. The exact schedule for the paydays will be announced later. The unification of the two payrolls will require a change for hourly employees (mostly employees on the piers) who are now paid weekly. The change for this group to a two-week pay period, coinciding with the present U. S.-rate pay periods, will be made in December. Administration Policy The consolidation of the payrolls into a single system is a part of the Canal administration policy of eliminating any practice which may seem to differentiate conditions of employment opportunity, enunciated last month by Governor Seybold in an address at the dedicatory ceremonies of the new Paraiso Civic Center. An important phase of this policy, he said, is the centralization of employments and the standardization of employment conditions for both U. S.citizen and non-U. S. citizen groups. Most of the units of the Employment and Utilization Division of the Personnel Bureau have now been moved to the Central Labor Office on Roosevelt Avenue in Balboa. This move permits the consolidation of all work pertaining to employments, processing, placement, transfers and promotions, record keeping, and Civil Service procediu-es. The Cristobal office of the Personnel Bureau has handled all emplojonents through the single office since it was opened, although further consolidation of records and procedures will be accomplished coincidental with the changes made on the Pacific side. The adoption of the unified payroll system early next year will necessitate several transitional changes which wOl affect principally the pay {See page is)

PAGE 2

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 4, 1955 Commendations Outnumber Recommendations In Evaluation Of Cristobal High School (Following is the second in a series of four articles reviewing reports on Balboa and Cristobal High Schools and the Canal Zone Junior College as prepared by Visiting Committees representing the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools which were here in February and March 1Q54 for the purpose of evaluating the three schools for accreditation.) Commendations literally outnumber recommendations for the Cristobal High School in the written report from the Visiting Committee of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools which emphasizes that "the basic preparation given in this high school is sound for students in college preparatory and vocational work." In reference to the overall curriculum, the exhaustive examination conducted at Cristobal brings forth the conclusion that "the members of the evaluating committee would like to commend the varied and extensive program of studies, especially noticeable for a school of rather lunited enrollment." The report adds that "there is a wide participation in many extracurricular activities with a larger percentage of the students taking part than is often the case." In each of those vital phases of the evaluation process which involve the determination whether a school's operations and accomplishments are in conformity with its purpose Cristobal High scored favorably. It is noted that the philosophy of the school accepts the fact that the school does not constitute the entire educational life of the child; that the faculty recognizes the necessity of the home, the church, and the Civil Government sharing the responsibility with the school in attempting to meet the educational needs of youth. Getting dowTi to specifics, the report provides these insights, among others, into the school's operation as seen from a professional and objective viewpoint: Staff and Administration— A well qualified and competent staff with high morale, excellent community relations and an excellent pupil-teacher relationship. Although the citizens in the Zone have less direct connection with the operation of the school than is commonly found in the States, the Government of the Zone has succeeded in analyzing the needs of youth in the Zone quite well and has a lively and intelligent interest in the welfare of the pupils in the school. High Mental Ability Student Body — The mental ability of the students of the Cristobal High School is higher than that found in the average high school in the United States, probably due to the careful screening which parents receive before they come to live in the Zone. Approximately 46 percent of the graduates of Cristobal High School attend institutions of higher learning. School Plant— The school is designed for a tropical climate and the aesthetic quality of the setting is an inspiration to good study. This locality, including the school building, is slated to be transferred to the Republic of Panama and will have to be replaced by a suitable building in another locality. We express a hope that as much care be given to planning the new building as was given to the planning of this present building. Throughout the report, which will be one of several factors under consideration by the Middle States Association next month in determining whether Cristobal High School should be accredited, stress is given to the need for more extensive audio-visual aids and for facilities for wider use of such materials. In practically every one of 17 divisions of the report which give consideration to individual subjects of study, ranging from mathematics to physical education, there is set forth a strong recommendation that additional attention be given to the utilization of audio-visual aids. The most emphatically presented recommendation is in behalf of art, a course not included in the curriculum this year. The lengthy statement on this subject advises "it is evident that it is necessary to justify art in the Cristobal High School's curriculum. Take art out of the luxury category ... it contributes as much to the needs of the adolescent in preparation for adulthood as, for example, music." The only division of the school curriculum to bear the scrutiny of the Committee and to come through without a single recommendation for improvement is the Reserve Officers Training Corps. One of the commendations for this activity states that "the Army R. 0. T. C. staff at this school is excellent; well qualified in the work in which they are instructing, they have had not only educational preparation, but the experience which is so essential to instruction in this field." In this instance the report commends the "exceptionally large number and amount of visual and audio aids available and in use." A high commendation is given the English language program of study and the English teachers. Along with the commendation is a recommendation that the school not admit foreign students to English 9, 10, 11, and 12 without a demonstrated knowledge (Se page i) D — Program of Studies D I -D 1 6 Subject Fields I. Organization II. Nature of Offerings III. Physical Facilities I\'-A. Instructional Staff IV-B. Instructional Activities IV-C. Instructional Materials IV-D. Methods of Evaluation.. V. Outcomes E — Pupil Activity Program F — Library Services G — Guidance Services H~School Plant I — School Stafif and Administration oor Fair GiMxi 1 2 ,? \"er> Good 4 E.xce 5 Ill 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . III 1 1 llllllllll III lil^HIIIIII 1 1 1 1 1 ^\ III! ^^^^^^^^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^^^^^^^

PAGE 3

November 4, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Suez Canal Company To Give Panama Canal Bust Of De Lesseps Viscount FERDINAND de LESSEPS A bronze bust of Viscount Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, whose name is permanently linked with the early history of the Panama Canal, will be formally presented to the Panama Canal Company on November 23 by the Board of Directors of the Suez Canal Company. The presentation ceremonies will be held in the Administration Building; the bust will be placed in the rotunda to become a part of the permanent statuary of the Canal Zone. The presentation marking the 150th anniversary of de Lesseps' birth on November 19, 1805, will be a feature of a world-wide observance of the Ferdinand de Lesseps Sesquicentennial Celebration. Participating in the ceremony at Balboa Heights will be a group of officials of the Suez Canal Company, the French Embassy in Panama, and the Comite France-Amerique of France and Panama. Gov. John S. Seybold will accept the bust on behalf of the Panama Canal Company. Following the presentation, the official party will visit Miraflores Locks and make a trip through Gaillard Cut. The party will then be guests at a buffet luncheon at the Tivoli Guest House. The bronze bust will be mounted on a pedestal of striped Brocadillo marble with a verde antique base. The pedestal is three feet, nine inches in height, and one and a half feet square. Mounted on the pedestal just below the bust of the Suez Canal builder will be a bronze tablet, six by twelve inches, on which is inscribed the name and tribute to the man whose memory is being honored. The placing of the bronze bust of de Lesseps in the Canal Administration Building will take place just 75 years after he visited the Isthmus of Panama to inaugurate the work of building the Panama Canal. It was under his leadership that the International Congress met in Paris in May 1879 to decide on a canal route through the Isthmus joining (See page 1-5) Blood Bank For Canal Zone Will Be Established Soon Plans have been completed for the establishment of a Canal Zone blood bank as soon as it can be determined if public interest is sufficient to provide volunteers to donate blood and to administer the program. The plans have been developed by the Canal Zone chapter of the American Red Cross in cooperation with the Health Bureau. Responsibility for collecting, processing and distributing blood will be assumed by the Health Bureau, while the Red Cross will conduct a campaign for volunteer donors as well as volunteers to assist in recruitment and record keeping. It is planned to confine the campaign to residents of the Canal Zone, and the Armed Forces have been invited to participate. In a recent letter to Lt. Gen. W. K. Harrison, Commander-in-Chief of the Caribbean Command, Carl J. Browne, Chairman of the Red Cross chapter, outlined the proposed program and invited the cooperation of the components under his command. Would Provide Ample Supply The proposed plan would make available an ample supply of fresh blood to meet the requirements of the two Canal Zone hospitals and the mercy missions, plus a small reserve for emergencies. With a large list of volunteer donors the blood bank could be replenished at frequent intervals by calling donors on a rotating basis. At present, Gorgas Hospital maintains a blood bank but recipients are required to replenish the bank, with the amount of blood used, by volunteer donations from their families or friends, or to pay $25 a pint which is used to buy blood from professional donors if necessar>\ No bank is maintained at Coco Solo Hospital but a list of volunteer donors is maintained and they are called when transfusions are required. The necessary equipment for the maintenance of a blood bank at Coco Solo Hospital is on order and one will be established there in the near future. Gorgas Hospital maintains a supply of about 75 pints of blood at all times. The hospital uses about 150 to 175 pints a month, including the supply which is issued for mercy missions in the air-sea rescue operations. The establishment of a Canal Zone blood bank is consistent with the National Blood Program in the Office of Defense Mobilization. This was established by Executive Order of the President in December 1951, and the American Red Cross was designated as the coordinating agency for blood collection for the Department of Defense and the Federal Civil Defense Administration. The Red Cross has been instrumental in the establishment of blood banks throughout the United States on a volunteer basis; these are available both for military and civilian personnel. Similar To U. S. Although not directly a part of the National Blood program, the Canal Zone program for volunteer donors and for the maintenance of the Canal Zone blood bank will be conducted along the lines adopted by the American Red Cross in the United States. The same general limitations on volunteer donors will be adopted in the Canal Zone program as those for the national program. In general, these are: Any person between the ages of 18 and 59 may give blood if he or she weighs 110 pounds or more. Parental consent is required of persons from 18 to 21 years of age. While the primary objective in the campaign will be to secure an adequate number of volunteer donors, the Canal Zone chapter of the Red Cross is interested now in obtaining volunteer workers to administer the program. These volunteers are needed to assist in the clerical work and record keeping required during the drive for volunteer donors and later in administering the program. Volunteer nurses will also be required to assist at the two hospitals when the blood banks are replenished. Volunteer Workers Needed Volunteers for this type of work have been requested to communicate with Mrs. Thelma Monagan, Chairman of the Volunteer Services, or at the Red Cross offices in Ancon or Cristobal. Volunteer workers may communicate with Mrs. Monagan by telephoning Curundu 6194, or writing to Box 322, Balboa Heights. Volunteers on the Atlantic side have been requested to write Box 5045, Cristobal, or call personally at the Red Cross office on Roosevelt Avenue in Old Cristobal. The campaign for volunteer blood donors will be conducted throughout the Canal Zone, including the military establishments, during the coming few weeks. Pledge cards will be (See page 4) I Am A Volunteer For The CANAL ZONE BLOOD BANK Your Mailing Address Office Phone Blood type Home Phone (If known) PLEASE TYPEWRITE OR PRINT

PAGE 4

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Novembei 4, 1955 Company Income Statement A net income of $581,134 (tentative) was reported for the past fiscal year by the Panama Canal Company, according to financial statements issued during the past week by Gov. John S. Seybold, President of the Company. The net income figure for the past fiscal year corresponds to a net income of $4,160,010 in the previous fiscal year. The substantia] decrease was attributed principally to lower gross revenues from tolls and other sources and to the increased interest rate on the Government's investment and employee benefits granted by Congress. The favorable balance was shown last year although a deficit of $244,700 had been budgeted. The financial statements showed the Canal Company paid the U. S. Treasury $9,043,766 in interest, the latter an increase of approximately $200,000 over the previous fiscal year. The release of net income in tentative figures is necessitated by the fact that the final determination has yet to be made, as required by the Company's Federal charter, on the capital values of properties acquired at the time of the Company's reorganization on July 1, 1951. The condensed income statement for the fiscal year 1955 is shown below: Condensed Income Statement Year Ended June 30, 1955 canal and allied maritime operations Revenue: Tolls from commercial vessels $33,918,993 Tolls credits from U. S.-Government vessels 1, 217,-536 Other revenue 9,195,027 $it,: 1,556 Operating Expenses: Direct expenses and supporting services $18,661,733 Depreciation on canal and allied maritime facilities, exclusive of depreciation or amortization of channel, harbors, treaty rights, and similar costs 2,383,405* 21,045,138 Net Operating Income, Canal and Allied Maritime Operations $23,286,418 sales of supporting services Sales to employees and others $39,485,846 Cost of goods sold and other direct expenses. 37,412,812 Net operating income, sales of supporting services 2,073,034 Total Net Operating Income_-_..,--$25,359,452 general corporate expense Net cost of Canal Zone Government $9,779,271 Intel I'st payable to U. S. Treasury (tentative) 9,043,766 Administrative and other general expenses 5,955,281 $24,778,318 Net Income, as Tentatively St.\ted $581,134 *Exclu.sive of depreciation on service and general facilities amoiintini; to $2,552,977 which is included in the costs of the activities served. Blood Bank For Canal Zone Will Be Established Soon Commendations Outnumber Recommendations (Continued from page 3) distributed throughout the Canal organization and these may be filled out and mailed to the Red Cross Offices at Balboa Heights or Cristobal. The Panama Canal Review carries on page 3 a coupon which may be clipped and mailed to the Red Cross oflSces. The processing of these applications will require some time, depending upon the number of volunteer workers to assist in this task. Some information will be required in addition to that appearing on the volunteer pledge cards or in the coupon carried in this issue of THE Review. The Red Cross will communicate with volunteer donors for this information as soon as possible after receipt of the pledges. If you desire to cooperate in this program to establish a Canal Zone blood bank, please fill out and clip the coupon on page 3, mailing it to: RED CROSS, Box 322, Balboa Heights, or Box 5045, Cristobal. (Continued from page 2) of English sufficient to understand the class discussions, directions, and assignments. "These classes are designed to teach advanced English to students who had had eight years previous study in the language." One highlight of the report is the commendation that "the Industrial Arts program is being conducted admirably. Enthusiasm for their work is apparent in both students and teachers." Similarly, "the ease and informality of student^teacher relations" in mathematics and the high percent of the student body (aj)pr()xiniately 66 percent) enrolled in mathematics courses is singled out, as is music which earns the comment that "this is a well balanced small high school music department doing an excellent job. It is gratifying to notacher guidance. The report also proposes a greater variety of assemblies and an increase in the number of issues of the school publication. So fared Cristobal High School in one phase of the 1955 accreditation test. How well Balboa High and the Canal Zone Junior College scored individually will be discussed in the next two issues of The Panama Canal Review.

PAGE 5

November 4, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW PICTURES OF THE MONTH OCTOBER was an eventful month in the Canal Zone; a few of its happenings are shown in the photographs on this page. Speaking at the formal dedication of the new Paraiso Civic Center, Governor J. S. Seybold, above, took the occasion to outline some of the administration's policies affecting local rate employees. These included a repetition of his earlier statements un housing in the Canal Zone and the adoption of a unified payroll system. After the ceremony in the Paraiso Theater, the crowd of several himdred moved to the Civic Center next doer where Ellis Fawcett, Civil Council President, cut a large cake made especially for the opening of the Paraiso luncheonette. Top right: P. S. Thornton, General Manager of the Service Center Division, and Wilson H. Crook, Community Services Director, together with a group of pleased Paraisanos watch the first slice cut from the commemorative cake. The theater was filled to capacity during the Governor's speech and was again packed during the evening when free movies were shown to end the day's celebration. Earlier in October, the Canal Zone had observed Fire Prevention Week. In the center photograph, a fireman dangles from the 75-foot e.xtension ladder to the delight and awe of pupils in Ancon Elementary school. During the week the school children were given simple hints on fire prevention, and had a chance to swarm over fire equipment as well as to gape at Sparky, the Fire Dog, who was called by the children in the Latin American schools. Sparky, El Perro Bombcro. During the month, the Canal Zone received a distinguished visitor. President Jose Figueres of Costa Rica. During an official visit to Panama, President Figueres asked to see how the Panama Canal Locks work, and was escorted one day to the Miraflores Control Tower. .'\t the bottom, right. President Figueres, flanked by Mrs. Figueres and Major David H. Smith, Military Assistant to the Governor, listen to Emmett O. Kiernan, Control House Operator, as he explains all about rising stem valves.

PAGE 6

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 4, 1955 FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION VDUi. JLL Cac SAKirS MONUMENT Did you realize that the Panama Canal itself stands as one of the greatest monuments ever created by man for a Safety Program? Stop to think about it for a moment. What is a Safety Program? It is a program designed to protect man against injury from human, mechanical, and natural dangers. Its records show the number of man hours lost on the job. If those records show a high figure for lost man hours, the job cost goes up. If the records show an extremely high figure, the job cost is going to be so high that the job cannot be finished. That is what happened to the Panama Canal idea when it first came into being. There were just too many lost man hours and the job failed. Perhaps there were good safety measures to protect the HONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD SEPTEMBER COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Community Services 5 Supply 3 Engineering and Construction 3 Health 3 Transportation and Terminals 1 Civil Affairs 1 Marine Division Award For NO DISABLING INJURIES SEPTEMBER NAVIGATION DIVISION SERVICE CENTER DIVISION ELECTRICAL DIVISION INDUSTRIAL DIVISION GROUNDS MAINTENANCE DIVISION STOREHOUSES DIVISION SANITATION DIVISION HOUSING DIVISION AIDS TO NAVIGATION AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Aids to Navigation 8 Housing 8 Sanitation 8 Maintenance 7 Electrical 6 Grounds Maintenance 6 Industrial 6 Motor Transportation 6 Service Center. 6 Storehouses 6 Railroad 5 Dredging 4 Commissary 3 Hospitalization and Clinics 3 Locks. 1 Terminals 1 Navigation-,----,,, 1 workers from human and mechanical dangers but the element of nature, cruel and untamed in a jungle wilderness was too much to cope with in its natural state and the project was abandoned. However, the dream remained in the hearts of men. And man is an amazing creature. He not only fights to protect himself against human and mechanical failure but he even battles nature itself. So man designed a Safety Program to protect himself against nature. He fought and won against the heat and damp. He fought the battle of malaria and yellow fever. He fought against jungle and swamp and he conquered them all. We remember those men today: Walter Reed, Goethals, and Gorgas. We see their living monument to a Safety Program in the Panama Canal. Yes, the battle against nature was won for you. And so perhaps you say to yourself, "there are no new worlds to conquer." Don't belittle your part in the Safety Program today just because the glamour of being a great doctor who conquers yellow fever is no longer a part of that program. A human life is still the most valuable thing in the world. And there are things you can do to save lives or to save a man's ability to earn a living. Don't miss an opportunity. You may not have a monument built for you on this earth if you prevent an accident, but you will have the satisfaction of knowing that you or a fellow worker have a lifetime of earning power ahead of you. Don't look for worlds to conquer — look for the little things — the slippery spot on the floor, the protruding nail, the loose rung in the ladder. Don't be safety-conscious just for yourself. Don't be satisfied to say, "I'll be careful because I know the floor is slippery, or the nail is protruding, or there is a loose rung to be stepped over." You know about them so you won't get hurt. But perhaps the man who follows you doesn't know about them and so he is injured. Who is to blame? He or you? Never take if for granted that because you know a machine must be handled in a certain way that the next man to use it will know that too. Perhaps you can handle a machine without a guard on it and not get hurt but it is possible that the next man is not so clever or so careful as you are. Don't leave Safety to chance. Taking chances causes accidents. Wipe up the slippery floor! Bend down the protruding nail! Get the loose rung fixed! Don't just skip over it. It may be regrettable but nevertheless it is a fact. We don't live in a glamorous world, today. We live in a practical one. Be practical — be careful — and do it for the other man too. Let us make the monument created by those early giants a monument to be honored today the world over as a living symbol of a fine Safety Record. DID YOU KNOW. . That the eagle is one of the world's oldest national symbols, having been used by the Mesopotamian city of Legash some 5,000 years ago? When the "eagle screams," it's pay-day for millions of workers. You'll always have a better chance of being around to pick up that pay check if safe habits and attitudes are your constant partners oa the job. SEPTEMBER 1955 Communil; Services Bureau Supply Bureau Heallh Bureau Civil Affairs Bureau Engineering and Conslruclion Bureau C. Z. Govl.-Panama Canal Co. ( This Month) Marine Bureau C. I. Govl.-Panama Canal Co.( Last 3Year Av.) Transportation and Terminals Bureau Number of Disabling Injuries 19 Disabling Injuries per 1,000,000 Man-Hours Worked ( Frequency Rale) Man-Hours Worked 2,222,689 LEGEND I Amount Better Than Canal ^jne Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3-Vear Average J Amount Worse Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3-Year Average Accumulative Frequency Rate This Year

PAGE 7

November 4, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Official Panama Canal C^ompany Publication Published Monthly at BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE Printed by Ihe Prinling Plant Mount Hope, Canal Zone John S. Seybold, Governor-President H. W. ScHin.L, Jr. Lieutenant Governor William G. Arey, Jr. Public Information Officer J. RuFUS Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny Assistant Editor SUBSCRIPTION— $1.00 a year SINGLE COPIES— S cents each On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publication date. SINGLE COPIES BY M AIL-10 cents each BACK COPIES — 10 cents each On sale, when available, from the Vault Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building, Balboa Heights. Postal money orders should be made payable to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Company, and mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z. Retires CIL\RLES F. HIXZ. senior Postmaster in the Postal Division, ended 32 years of postal work, 30 years of which was in the Canal Zone, when he retired last month. He had worked as a postal clerk in Milwaukee, his birthplace and his future home, before he came here in 1924 with the .\rmy. Most of his postal service has been on the Pacific side. He was postmaster at Balboa Heights when he retired but he has also been in the post offices at Ancon and Fort Clayton. Mrs. Hinz is one of the most accomplished linguists on the Isthmus. She speaks English, .Spanish, French, Dutch, and some Portuguese and Italian in addition to Papamiento, the language of her native Curacao. OF CURRENT INTEREST CHECKS ranging from $10 to $2.5 each, and totaling $120, were presented last month to six Company-Government employees who had submitted suggestions accepted by the Incentive .\wards Committee. Five of the award winners are shown above with Henry L. Donovan, far right. Chairman of the Incentive Awards Committee. The award winners are, left to right: George Brathwaite, Clerk with the Division of Storehouses who suggested the elimination of typed specifications on Stock Protection and History cards; Cecil F. Haynes, also a Clerk in the Division of Storehouses who suggested a change in design in Section B, where he works; Mrs. Ruby L. Willa, Accounting Clerk in the Office of the General Manager of the Commissary Division, whose suggestion concerned parking at the Margarita Post Office and Commissary; George D. Gregory, Chief Foreman of the Dredging Division Shops, who suggested that barge sheathing be cut diagonally; and Mrs. Bernice E. Stephensen, Chief Clerk in the Northern District of the Motor Transportation Division, whc suggested an improvement in the system of distributing local-rate identification-privilege cards. Not present when this photograph was taken was Charles K. Cross, of the Records Management Section of the Administrative Branch, who suggested a change in handling drawings and cartographic records. Approximately 113 buildings and more than 76 apartments are scheduled for exterior and interior painting under the first large group-maintenance paint project to be advertised for bids by the Panama Canal Company since the last dry season. Included in the group of apartments are 48 located in Pedro Miguel which are scheduled for assignment to personnel of the U. S. Air Force. Listed for exterior painting are 15 houses in Gamboa, 22 houses in Paraiso, 19 houses in Gatun, 12 houses in Margarita, one house in San Cruz, and 44 in Rainbow City. On the list for interior painting are four buildings and three apartments in Mindi, 14 buildings and 25 apartments in Rainbow City, three rooms in the Cristobal Administration Building, several rooms in the Sanitation Building in Ancon, and the toilet and locker rooms in Section B of Gorgas Hospital. Bids on the project will be opened at 10 a. m., November 7, in the Balboa Heights Administration Building. People who have relatives and friends overseas, which means almost any place except the United States, should get their Christmas packages in the mail pretty soon now. In their annual "mail your Christmas packages early" request, the Canal Zone Postal Division emphasized that November 15 is the last date on which packages and letters can be sent overseas with any assurance that they will arrive before Christmas. Airmail letters and packages however, can be sent overseas as late as December 15. Ordinary Christmas mail being sent anywhere in the L'nited States should leave the Canal Zone anytime from December 1 to 10 and airmail can be sent out as late as December 18. A list of boat schedules will be announced by the Postal Division later. Applications for the 1956 Canal Zone vehicle license plates will be made available this week-end; applications will be accepted by the Canal Zone License Section in the Civil Afifairs Building any time after Monday, November 7, it has been announced by the Canal Zone License Section. The forms can be obtained at the License Section, at all police stations, Commissary and Post Exchange gasoline stations, as well as the office of the License Examiner in Cristobal. The annual drawing of low license plate nimibers will be held at 8:30 a. m. November 18 in the License Section oflSce under the direction of Michael Zombory, Chief of the License Section, and Civic Council representatives. The low numbers will be drawn from the applications received by the License Section up to the close of business, Thursday, November 17. Each applicant for a personal automobile registration must enclose with the application his current registration card and a fee of S5 in the self-addressed envelope provided for the purpose. The envelope should be securely sealed and the return address enclosed. Remittance should be made by check or money order payable to the Treasurer of the Panama Canal Company. Currency should not be mailed, the License Section advised. A public auction, or "old hoss sale," of unclaimed freight will be held at 9 a. m. November 26 in Building 42 of Section I of the Storehouse Division. The items, which represent an accumulation of freight refused or left unclaimed on the Panama Canal piers for many months, include such things as toys, angel hair, and a shipment of Christmas cards, in addition to hundreds of other miscellaneous items. An inspection of the collection can be made by interested parties November 22, 23, and 25, from 7 a. m. until 4 p. m., in Building 42, where they will be on display.

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 4, 1955 Suez Canal, 86 Years Old This Month, One Of World's Most Strategic Waterways The Suez Canal, a 100-mile sea-level channel joining the Mediterranean and Red Seas, is one of the most strategic waterways in the world. Constructed in the 10-year period between 1859 and 1869 it made accessible a vastly shortened trade route from industrialized Europe to the Far East. Opened in a period when sailing ships were still a mainstay of world merchant fleets, the Suez Canal was buOt to accommodate vessels of only a few thousand tons with a maximum draught of less than 22 feet. The channel has been widened repeatedly, deepened, and improved; today it can accommodate the largest ocean liners of a draught up to 35 feet. Traffic through the Suez has risen phenomenally during recent years. In the calendar year 1954 there were more than 13,000 transits. Until recent years ships using the waterway were principally of European registry. British, Norwegian, French, and Italian flag vessels made up more than half the traffic in 1954, although the number of ships flying the flags of the United States, Panama, and Liberia have greatly increased since the close of World War "ll. Two Anniversaries Two anniversaries of great significance in the history of the Suez Canal occur in the month of November. This month marks the S6th anniversary of the official opening of the Canal, which took place November 17 to 20, 1869. The other anniversary is that of the birth of Count Ferdinand M. de Lesseps. He was bom November 19, 1805, and this year, the 150th anniversary of his birth, will be the occasion of a world-wide observance. On the Isthmus, where he exerted great influence on the course of history, special ceremonies are being planned. These are described elsewhere in this issue. As in the case of most great enterprises of the same general nature, there are many parallels and dissimilitudes between the Suez and Panama Canals. These are interwoven in the history of the two waterways and are to be found in their physical characteristics and operations. THE SUEZ CANAL BUILDER, Count Ferdinaiul de Lesseps is memorialized by this statue at tlie harbor of Port Said. Since Panama Canal employees are well acquainted with the waterway joining the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, a better understanding of Suez can be gained by listing some of the likes and unlikes of the two projects. Activating Genius Such a list might well be headed by Count de Lesseps, activating genius of both projects. De Lesseps visualized both Canals as international channels of commerce which would benefit all mankind. In the names of both companies he organized was included the word "universelle." It was this idea of universality which he followed in promoting both enterprises. In both instances he "allocated" blocks of stock to the major maritime nations so that they might share the benefits. The idea succeeded at Suez but failed at Panama. The dissimilarities of De Lesseps' experiences at Suez and Panama are both striking and tragic. At Suez he won world renown for his success. At Panama he was vilified for his failure. He overcame problems of terrain, labor supply, health conditions, and climate at one spot but they contributed to his defeat at the other. Interoceanic Canals The Panama and Suez are the only two canals in the world which can be called interoceanic. The Panama Canal is a direct Imk between the Atlantic and Pacific while the Suez provides a water connection between the RIediterrean and Red Seas and thence to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, respectively. Perhaps the greatest contrast between the two canals is in the terrain through which they are cut. The Isthmus of Suez is a relatively flat land with some areas below sea level and none more than about 50 feet higher than sea level. The Panama Canal is cut through a mountainous region with the highest point 312 feet above sea level. A striking similarity of the two waterways is the fact that both run north and south to connect seas which lie to the east and west. One of the great oddities in comparison of the two Canals is the fact that the original plans for both were changed. Suez was first planned as a lock canal but became a sea-level waterway. Original plans for the Panama Canal called for a sea-level channel but it became the world's greatest lock canal. Other fact sheet comparisons: SUEZ PANAMA Opened Nov. 17, 1869 Aug. 15, 1914 Construction cost 8148,500,000 $380,000,000 Excavation at completion (cubic yards) 97,000,000 284,500,000 Minimum channel width (feet) 197 300 ^ *"^ ;1 THIS NEW BY-P .\SS channel is nearly seven miles long and provides for two-way traffic at a point about one-third of the way between the Mediterranean and the Gulf of Suez. The new channel was a part of the latest of seven major improvement projects of the Suez which have been made since it was opened to traffic. A total of 15,650,000 cubic yards of material were dredged to complete the channel, which was opened in 1951.

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November 4, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW U JMIX ATI.NG THE VIEW of the harbor at Port Said at the MeditCTranean end of the Canal is the building housing the Suez Canal Company's principal offices. Minimum depth ((cvi i 41 42 Normal transit time 15 hours 8 hours Rates' of Toils SO. 97 ton vessels laden So. go 0.445 ton vessels in ballast 0.72 Number of transits, ocean-going ships 13,215* 8,584** Annual cargo tonnage 96,881,000* 39,085,000** Calender year 1954 'Fiscal year 1954 Like Panama, the Isthmus of Suez was at one time under water as evidenced by sea fossils along the highest points of land on each canal route. The history of the two lands is buri?d in the geological ages and the history of canals cut through the Isthmus of Suez is of such antiquity that there are no wTittsn records of the beginning. First Canals Efforts to cut a passage for vessels between the Mediterrean and Red Seas began with the dawn of historj', perhaps soon after man learned to build and paddle, canoes. The first successful waterway was completed between 1800 and 1200 B. C. Fragments of history pieced together indicate that it was a rambling passage connecting the Nile with the Red Sea, large enough to accommodate war vessels of the Pharoahs as well as small trading craft. 0\-er the centuries it was silted up by shifting sands or filled at the whims of temperamental monarchs and re-dug by ambitious Persian, Roman, Arab, and Turk rulers. It was last reopened in the middle of the Seventh Century and remained in service for about 1.50 years. It was finally refilled^by the Abbasid Caliph to prevent supplies from being shipped to Medina which had revolted against his rule, and because of his fear of attracting outsiders into the Islamic World. Napoleon's Support The modern idea for a Suez Canal seems to have been bom at about the same time as that for a canal through the Isthmus of Panama. Navigators were just beginning to learn of the shape and scope of the world and were seeking shortened water routes to the Far East. The idea for a Suez Canal was born after Vasco de Gama made his trip arotmd the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 and thus established a new water route to Europe. It was not until the time of Napoleon that thoughts of a Suez Canal were strong enough to induce actual surveys. After personally inspecting the route and remains of the Canal of the Ancients in 1798, Napoleon directed a survey of the Isthmus. From then until 18.54, when De Lesseps obtained concessionary rights from Mohammed Said, Viceroy of Egypt, the idea of joining the two great bodies of water by waterway was alive in the minds and hopes of world maritime leaders. The Suez Canal Company (La Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez) was formed in 1858 and work on the Canal was begun in April 1859. Although it was estimated the channel could be dug in six years, slightly over 10 years were needed for its completion. Dredging Experts De Lesseps employed some of the most eminent engineers of France to assist in the great task. Although excavation was begun with picks and baskets these implements were soon replaced with modem excavating and dredging equipment, some of which were invented for the job. Among the engineers assembled to dig the Suez was one whose name became well-knowTi on the Isthmus of Panama — Alexandre Lavalley. He and Borel, another French engineer, were in charge of dredging operations and at one time 60 dredges were in simultaneous operation. It was Lavalley who hit upon the idea of flooding certain sections of the Canal route and dredging the channel through these depressions — a mode of operations recommended for the Panama Canal when plans for it,were first discussed. Lavalley served on the International Congress convened in Paris in 1879 to consider the Panama Canal. His name became well-known to contemporary Panama Canal employees by the big dredge Laralley which was in Panama Canal service for 65 years. It was built for the French and was part of the equipment bought by the United States. After ser\ ice throughout the construction period it became the first self-propelled vessel to make a complete transit of the Canal. It was later converted into a quarterboat for Dredging Division employees and was sold only a year ago. The successful completion of the Suez was hailed as one of the fabulous engineering feats of the Nineteenth Century just as the completion of the Panama Canal was called the engineering miracle of the Twentieth Century. Difference In Terrain Largely because of the terrain the engineering problems in building the Suez Canal were minor compared with those of Panama. The Isthmus of Suez is actually what most visitors expect but fail to find when they \'isit the Canal Zone — a relatively flat land. Cutting a ship channel through the Isthmus was not, however, without many engmeering problems of a formidable nature especially with the excavating and hauling equipment then available. One of the great problems at both Suez and Panama was water. At Suez it was getting fresh water, while engineers building the Panama Canal fretted over controling the over-abundant supply. The problem at Suez was solved by digging a fresh water canal from the Nile to bring drinking water to the Isthmus and later laying conduits to Port Said. Disease also was a problem at both places — at Suez it was cholera and at Panama it was malaria and yellow fever. Both Have Lakes An outstanding physical characteristic common to both canals is a great lake forming a part of the channel. Both are artificial lakes and both were considered in their day engineering achievements of no small proportions. The Great and Small Bitter Lakes of Suez required five months to fill and were brought to the maximum level only a few weeks before the Canal was opened. The official opening of (See page is) THE IT.\LIA.\ LINER Asia passes a palm-fringed section of the Suez Canal in transit of the 100-mile sea-level waterway.

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10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 4, 1955 YOUR TOWN PARAISn IS still the graceful undulating valley descrik-'l a century ago; the section in the foreground is Beverly Hills, with Dogpatch just below. From Beverly Hills to the lower end of Paraiso near the ball park is just a little less than a mile. Paraiso isn't quite like the mythical phoenix which had the ability to resurrect itself, and quite frequently, too, from its own ashes. Paraiso was never reduced to ashes but it has had more incarnations than any community in the Canal Zone. In the days of the buccaneers, it was a stop on the "dry-season trail" between the Atlantic and Pacific; early Canal Zone fable had it that Sir Henry Morgan first saw Old Panama from a hilltop near Paraiso. Whether he did or not is important only to historians, but the tower at the old city can be seen plainly on a clear day from the crest of the hill across Gaillard Highway from Paraiso. And in the past hundred years, Paraiso has been: A station on the Panama Railroad; the headquarters of a chantier, or working section, for the French Canal Company; an American construction day town; Dredging Division headquarters; a colored community; an Army camp; and, today, the largest local-rate town south of the Canal Zone's continental divide. Beautiful Paradise During the 1850's, when surveyors and engineers were laying out the railroad line, they found a pass which led into what Otis, a few years later, described as "the beautiful undulating valley of Paraiso, or Paradise, surrounded by high conical hills where Nature in wierd profusion seems to have expended her choicest wealth." The railroad tracks were laid in a 40-foot deep cut; slides brought on by heavy rains once covered them with 20 feet of earth and rock, and weeks of work went into clearing the rails again. Paraiso itself, eight miles from Panama City, was the first Pacific coast stop after the trains had passed "The Summit." During the mid-nineteenth century, it was little more than a native settlement, although a fine natural spring gave it more importance than most way stops. Toward the end of the 1800's, Paraiso became important for the first time. It was a key spot in all the French Canal plans and was repeatedly selected as a site for one or more of the locks. When the first French Company began work in 1882, Paraiso was the southernmost spot where dry excavation was carried on. Years went on, the French encountered troubles, but the work at Paraiso continued. In 1888 the Star & Herald reported that "large and heavy trains of Decauville dumping cars" were hauling load after load "out of the work and up a steep incline." Work had been started to relocate the railroad clear of the cut and a bridge was being built on which the railroad would cross the Canal. Eventually, the French construction became little more than a token effort and its force dwindled away; at the turn of the century Paraiso's population was about 800, living in "125 frame houses and 100 huts." When the United States bought the rights and properties of the French Company in 1904, some of the Paraiso buildings were still usable. Among them was a 10-room office building, a two-story affair with five rooms on each floor. When carpenters and painters began to ELLIS L. FAWt'ETT President, Paraiso Civic Council recondition it, they found in one room records of the French Company, letter presses (small machines used for copying letters), a safe, and maps of Paraiso and Pedro Miguel. Another French building which became American quarters was a two-room mission hi;use which, when the Americans came, still had its church bell o\er the door. The French Company had had small machine shops at Paraisc. These the American forces enlarged by moving seme buildings from Culebra and adding a shed where locomotives were hostlcd. Light repairs were done at the Paraiso shops to all kinds of equipment at the southern end of the Canal Zone; heavier repairs were made at Gorgona or Empire. In 1908, when the Canal work was reorganized, the Paraiso shops were abandoned, the 265 men who had worked there were distributed to Empire and Gorgona or elsewhere, the buildings themselves were used for storehouses for material for Pedro Miguel locks, and Paraiso became more or less a residential community for the locks forces or for the railroad engineers who worked out of Pedro Miguel. Construction Days A good many Isthmians still remember Paraiso in those early days. J. J. McGuigan, once chief clerk of the Sanitary Service of the Canal Zone and much more recently District Attorney for the Canal Zone, lived in Paraiso from 1906 to 1908 when it was headquarters for the Chief Sanitary Inspector, J. A. LePrince. In 1906, he recalls, Paraiso's railroad station was on the west side of the Canal excavation. A passenger from Paraiso had to make his way down one bank, across the almost inevitably muddy flat which lat^r became the bottom of the Canal, and up another steep embankment. Most people stayed home or took a train at Pedro Miguel station. Mrs. Dorothy Hamlin of the Accounting Division was only a small girl when she and her family, the Charles Magnusons, moved to Paraiso in 1910. She remembers getting off the train at Pedro Miguel and boarding a "brake" for the ride to Paraiso. The conveyance was drawn by two mules and driven by an old colored man named Dixon. For years he and his mule team were Paraiso's taxi. As in all Canal towns, the size and quality of quarters depended on the salary of the family head; locomotive engineers, who drew good salaries, were the aristocracy of Paraiso and lived in the town's better houses. Bernard McIntyre, now the Panama Railroad's senior engineer, was the son of one of Paraiso's elite. Slides and Socials Construction-day Paraiso lay right on the edge of the Canal excavation. B]very once in a while the unstable banks slid into the cut, houses and offices were hurri(>dly vacated and their occupants moved t(; safer spots farther from the edge. In 1908 slides necessitated the removal of a great block of the "native" quarters. The commissary and post office were close to the excavation; the two-story lodge hall used on Sundays for church services and the rest of the week for social or fraternal activities were farther inland. There was a hotelwhich today

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November 4, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11 P A R A I S O would be called a bachelor mess, a 16-bed hospitil, one of the half dozen bandstands in th.> Canal Zone, and a public market which handled fresh vegetables and fruits to supplement the commissary's supply. Paraiso's social life was pretty well self-contained. It had a Woman's Club, orga'ii^ed in 19J7; its original president was Mrs. J. C. Barnett, one of the first women to nuke her home in the Canal Zone. A D.incing Club held practice sessions every Monday night and dances on Saturday; there were chapters of the Eagles, Kangaroos, Red Men, and Sojourners at Paraiso. A unique organization was the Texas Whist Club, whose members wjre mirri^'d couples who had purchased prop'rtv ii southern Te.xas with the idea of making their eventual homes there. Paraiso has played host to two Presidents. Early one morning in November 1906, a construction train shunted down through the Cut to Paraiso, bearing President Theodore Roosevelt— the first President to leave the United States during his term of office. Accordmg to Mr. McGuigan, "Teddy made one of his short, forceful talks to the workers gathered there, complimenting them for being on the job notwithstanding the heavy rain that was falling and the muddy ground underfoot." Paraiso's second Presidential guest was President William H. Taft who gave an address at Paraiso in 1910 when he was on his fifth visit to the Isthmus. Canal Crossing During the construction period the railroad crossed the canal channel at Paraiso on a 500-foot wooden trestle. As construction progressed this was replaced by another bridge closer to the locks. After the Canal was finished and the railroad located entirely on the east side of the Canal, a pontoon bridge, whose base was built at Mount Hope and towed through the Canal to Paraiso where the superstructure was erected, provided access to the west bank. Before the idea of a pontoon bridge was adopted, a tunnel under the Canal at Paraiso had been considered, and the idea discarded because of the cost. In July 1913, Paraiso was selected for headquarters of the Dredging Division, Miss M.\RIE V. BRAUER Nurse, Paraiso First Aid Station the organization which succeeded the Sixth Division of the construction period. The old machine shop was refitted to replace the shops at either end of the Canal where the dredges had been repaired up to that time. From this base at Paraiso, dredges worked day and night during the period soon after the Canal was opened when slides repeatedly blocked and eventually closed the waterway for a nine-month stretch. About the time the Dredging Division moved into Paraiso, one of the town's oldest activities moved out. This was the Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, which had set up operations in 1905 on the west bank of the Canal opposite Paraiso. It had been started by W. N. Seitz, who operated it mainly as a soda water factory until it was sold to the Panama CocaCola Company. The Paraiso site had been chosen because of its proximity to the Paraiso springs which shared with the springs on Taboga Island the reputation of being the purest water in this part of Panama. These same springs had for years supplied drinking water for Corozal and other construction day towns. A special train each day hauled dozens of demi.\OLA.\ A. BIS.SELL Postmaster in Paraiso's post office R. G. ROWE Manager, Paraiso Commissary C. C. GITTEXS Acting Manager. Paraiso Luncheonette Johns of Paraiso water to the towns along the line. "Silver" Town By 1918 the danger from slides had abated and the Dredging Division's force was reduced. That year, Paraiso's American families were moved to Pedro Miguel and their old quarters, together with the one-time hotel and other buildings were converted to homes for "silver" families. For the next decade or so, Paraiso was an undistinguished, run-of-the-mill, Canal settlement. The quarters were grouped in little subdivisions known as Jamaica Town, Hamilton Hill, and Spanish Town. The Paraiso school, however, was outstanding. For years its principal was the Rev. D. A. Osborne, known far and wide as "Teacher Osborne." His son, Alfred E. Osborne, is today Supervisor of Instruction for the Canal Zone's Latin American Schools. The building itself was the first modem school in Pacific side colored communities; its school garden was the pride of the town; and the quality of its teaching was borne out by the number of Paraiso students who went on to the Normal School to become Canal Zone teachers. During the latter part of the 1930's, headquarters of the Dredging Division moved to Gamboa and Paraiso went out of existence entirely as a Canal Zone community. In November 1939, just a year after the Canal abandoned it, Paraiso became a military post. Camp Paraiso Troops of the Fifth Infantry moved in, built barracks and quarters, a movie theater, and a post exchange. Bayonets bristled in the "beautiful undulating valley of Paradise." For a while, the Army postal locator unit was at Camp Paraiso. Close beside Paraiso what was known as a killer net stretched to a hilltop across the Canal to trap uinvarj' dive bombers. But as war mo\ed farther from the Canal Zone Paraiso's forces began to dwindle and in 1943 it was closed as a military camp. The following year Paraiso again became a Canal Zone town although for a time the Army retained a few buildings at the upper edge of the old camp. Quarters built by the Army were remodeled into family residences and barracks became

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12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 4, 1955 Your Town Paraiso CANAL ZONE CLERGY PARAISO 50 years ago lay close along the excavation for the Canal. From timr ti tinn-, as the banks crumbled, buildings had to be moved out of danger. In the middleground, toward thu right. is the Lodge Hall with the bandstand close by; the commissary and postoffice were on the edge of the excavation on the right, but out of sight here. bachelor quarters. The Army theater and post exchange became a clubhouse, the commissary was reopened, and a newschool, now the Junior High School, was built for the elementary grades. Modern Paraiso Today Paraiso is one of the most modern of the Canal Zone's communities. Its elementary school, for two years an Isthmian showpiece, is now overshadowed by the new Civic Center which was formally opened last month. Aside from being the first building designed as a civic center — it houses a first-aid station, post office, a luncheonette, and a meeting room, it is also the first canal building through whose roof trees grow on purpose. Future plans for Paraiso call for a new commissary adjacent to the civic center, and a new high school will open there next year. Last fall's census gave Paraiso's population as 3,008, just about that of the construction period. Paraiso families live, for the most part, in modem, concrete, two-family houses, the first of which were occupied in February 19.53. Paraisanos have their own names for the various parts of their town. Lakeview is near the Canal; Spanish Town along Giillard Highway; Ghost Town, naturally, close to the cemetery — where the graves of two French engineers are evidences of days gone by; Beverly Hills is the "heights" of Paraiso; and Dogpatch lies in the little depression just below Beverly Hills. Dogpatch, incidentally, belies its comic strip name. It is one of the neatest and besWandscaped sections of Paraiso and its residents take special pride in their outdoor Christmas decorations. Paraiso' school enrollment — childrenwise — is 818; its elementary school is the second largest of those in the local-rate towns. But Paraiso's elders also go to school. Two groups are taking night classes in Spanish, under the sponsorship of the Civic Council, one of Paraiso's most active organizations. Suez Canal, 86 Years Old This Month {Continued from page 9) the Suez Canal was one of the gala international events of the Nineteenth Century. A convoy of 55 ships, flying the colors of 12 nations, made the initial transit. It was headed by the French Imperial yacht Aigle with the Empress Eugenie aboard. The great improvements made in ships and in the Suez Canal during the past 85 years is reflected in the transit time when the waterway was opened and the time now. The average transit time in 1870 was 48 hours; today ships make the trip from Port Said to Suez in 15 hours or less. Bypass Channel Three times as much money has been spent in improving and enlarging the channel as the original cost. The most recent improvement and one which will aid greatly in the dispatching and handling of the large number of vessels is a seven-mile bypass channel about 30 miles inland from Port Said. The new bypass channel was completed as a part of the Seventh Improvement Program of the Suez Canal Company. Two other such bypass channels are being constructed under the Eighth Improvement Program undertaken since the Canal was opened. The system of handling ships in convoy through the Suez was adopted in 1949, with convoys leaving each terminal daily. This method obviates the necessity of having ships tie up along the banks when meeting in sections other than the lake region. The development of world trade and specific trade areas has been reflected in traflSc situations of the Suez in its 85 years of operation. Trade Routes At the beginning the Canal facilitated the exchange of goods between the highly industrialized areas in Europe with the nations of Asia which were still predominantly agricultural or even in the pastoral stage. Consequently, the movement of commodities was primarily finished and semi-finished products from Europe in return for shipments of raw materials and foodstuffs. This type of cargo remained an essential feature of the traffic up to World War II, which radically upset the world map of international and intercontinental trade rout(^s. Before the first World War, grains, oil seeds, and ores accounted for the bulk of commodities moving northward (from Asia to the Elmer 0. Nelson, who is Pastor of the Church of the Nazarene in Ancon, is, at 30, probably the youngest clergyman now heading a Canal Zone congregation. And the church which he heads here, organized two years ago in August, is probally the youngest in the Canal Zone, although its parent body is many years old. When young Elmer Nelson was growing up in Velva, N. D., he had no idea of making the ministry his career ard planned, as much as a youngster does, that some day he'd probably be a farmer. It wasn't until he went into the Army during Wcild War II — he served in the South Pacif c with the 27th Division and saw combat in Okinawa — that he became interested in the church. And it wasn't until he had been out of the service for three years that he felt that his future lay in the ministry. By that time he was married, to a girl who was also a native North Dakotan. Thelirv. KLMKR (). NELSON Mrs. Nelson accompanied him to California when he entered the Pasadena Nazarene College and Daniel, 6, and Deborah, 3, were born before their father graduated from the theological school in 1952. His first pastorate was in Denhoff, N.D., about 65 miles from his home town. Then came a year of youth work, as Young People's President for the Church of the Nazarene in North Dakota. Meanwhile the Nelsons had asked f(ir foreign service and their hopes were fulfilled when they were assigned to the Canal Zone last May. The minister of a growing congregation has little time for hobbies but when he has a spare minute, Mr. Nelson enjoys photography. He has already accumulated a fair collection of colored slides of Lsthmian scenes, and hopes to get a great many more in the four years of his Isthmian tour. Atlantic) with oil being an insignificant part of the total cargo. With the continued growth of industry in nations bordering the Atlantic and the development of oil resources in the Middle East, the movement of petroleum and its by-products has increased in staggering proportions. In 1954 almost 57,000,000 tons of petroleum and its derivatives were shipped ndrthliound out of the total of 74,.'i(ll),(IO() tons of all commodities. The preponderance of commodity shipments through the Suez {See page li)

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November 4, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 Community Representatives Cover Range Of Subjects At Latest Commissary Forum Although the agenda on last month's Commissary Forum was to be concerned primarily with drygoods and hardware, the subjects actually covered in the October 6 meeting at Balboa Heights ranged over practically all classes of merchandise carried in the Canal Commissaries and extended to a discussion of Commissary service as well. The meeting was attended by representatives of conuinmity groups from both sides of the Canal Zone and of the Commissary Division. A special representative was Joseph B. McHugh of the Canal Company's Procurement Office in New York. F. R. Johnson, Supply Director, conducted the forum. Those attending the meeting agreed that the previous forums had been helpful to the customers and also said they felt that some improvement in the Commissaries has resulted from suggestions and discussions at previous conferences. Stock Suggestions As usual at Commissary Forums, a number of requests were received for new merchandise or for additional ranges in stock already carried. And a number of suggestions were made, and questions asked, on Commissary procedures. Requests for items concerning merchandise included: Shoes for sub-teenage girls; girls' dresses in "chubby sizes;" men's shoes with built-in arch supports; white lingerie and hose for nurses; a better stock of dresses suitable for office wear; a more varied size range in men's suits and khaki trousers; better grade shower curtains; ordinary electric irons; a greater variety of frozen foods; a larger assortment of men's wear in dacron and orlon; women's hose in shades to wear with black or navy blue; a greater variety of table lamps and several new grocery items. Regarding Commissary service, the employee representatives suggested more emphasis on training of employees in the retail stores' shoe sections. They also questioned whether orders for replacement merchandise are being placed on the basis of merchandise sold or merchandise requested. Some time was devoted to a discussion of the length of time required by the various Commissaries to obtain, from the Commissary warehouses, specially requested items. Other Suggestions Several of the customer representatives suggested the need for improvement in the special-cuts meat section at the Balboa Commissary; among these was a suggestion that remodeling, to provide more working space, might solve many of the section's problems. Another suggestion, from Mrs. Vera Bolek of the American Legion Auxiliary, was that Commissary hours on Saturdays might be from 8 a. m. to 4 p. m., without a noon hour break; she felt that these hours would be more satisfactory than present hours, especially to those who are employed and who concentrate most of their shopping on weekends. Other suggestions include price marking and packaging of such items as lettuce, cabbage, and carrots so that buyers need not wait in line at the vegetable section to have such items weighed and priced. and more careful handling in the vegetable sections of easily bruised fruits. During the forum Mr. Johnson and B. J. Elich, Assistant to the Supply Director, gave a brief resume of the Commissary Division's training program. This includes a shoppers' service for evaluating sales clerk performance and an incentive pay program. Mr. Johnson reported on the potato situation and said that as soon as they are in season supplies of the Maine Russet potatoes will again be available in the retail stores. He also asked for customer reaction to an idea that fresh produce in season might be flown to the Canal Zone from the States. The cost would be somewhat higher than that of present stock, but reduced spoilage should partly offset the price increase. The general reaction of the forum to the suggestion was that customers would be glad of the opportunity to purchase fresher fruits and vegetables, even at somewhat higher prices. Those attending the meeting were: Mrs. M. K. Morgan, W. H. Esslinger, Pacific Civic Council: G. K. Shear, Cristobal-Margarita Civic Council; Mrs. C. V. Scheidegg, Gatun Civic Council; Richard Jenks, United States Citizens Association; Mrs. Walter Wagner, Mrs. C. L. Coate, Central Labor Union; Herschel Gandy, American Federation of Government F^mployees; Mrs. H. J. Quinlan, Balboa Women's Club; Mrs. Helen Daniels, Isthmian Nurses' A.ssociation; Mrs. Vera Bolek, Emblem Club and American Legion Auxiliary; Mrs. Patricia George, American Legion Auxiliary; I^. M. Brockman, Personnel Bureau. The Supply Bureau and the Commissary Division were represented by Mr. Johnson, Mr. Elich, Mr. McHugh," R. L. Sullivan, General Manager of the Commissary Division, V. J. Huber, head of the Drygoods Branch, and C. P. Shay, Assistant Chief, Retail Stores Branch. VISIONS OF SUGAR PLUMS— o say nothing of turkey and dressing — will dance through the heads of most of the small fry on the Isthmus for the next two months. They will dance through the head of the lady of the house too, whose job it will be to produce holiday food to go with the Thanksgiving and Christmas celebrations — and she, like the Commissary Division, has probably been making plans far in advance. To meet the holiday demands, for instance, the Commissary has ordered nearly 90,000 pounds of eviscerated turkeys — Gobblers and that is a lot of turkey. They for are due to arrive in two shipGobbling ments, one early next week and the other about the first of December. The Commissary people believe that this will be plenty of turkey for everyone and furthermore they have been ordered in sizes suitable for everyone — meaning they will run from seven to nine pounds for the small birds up to as high as 26 pounds for the turkeys destined for large families. THE BELTSVILLE TURKEYS, which aren't much larger than a good sized capon, will also be available at a slightly higher price per pound but are fine for the small party or for the hostess who doesn't care to eat cold turkey for at least a week. Swanson also puts out a small, five to seven pound, turkey complete with dressing — which means there si nothing to do but put the bird in the oven. At this time of the year and sometimes even earlier, the Christmas fruit cake is concocted with great ceremony in the famEasier ily kitchen. Once this was a Fruitcakes long and tedious business, but modern housewives, including those in the Canal Zone, con now whip up a fruit cake with a minimum of effort. The Commissaries will hove on sale soon nineounce jars of mixed fruit chopped in the proper sized hunks ready to be thrown into the fruit cake batter. They will sell at 35 cents a jar and one jar is sufficient for a one-pound fruit cake. Prepared fruit cokes also will be sold at Commissary retail stores this month. They have been ordered from several different firms with prices ranging from 58 cents to a dollar a pound. OTHER TRADITIONAL DESSERTS include mince and pumpkin pie for Thanksgiving and English plum pudding for Christmas. The ingredients for the mince pies will be sold by the jar. The pumpkin pie mix in tins is a regular item in the Commissary stock. Imported plum puddings, the Grocery Department has promised, will arrive here in plenty of time for Christmas. They are put up in one-pound tins and need only to be warmed and ssrved with the family's favorite sauce. With the Thanksgiving turkey goes dressing and most good cooks are as fussy over their particular recipes as a Southern Filling for planter is over his mint juleps. Fowls The Commissaries will be able to supply the ingredients demanded by the housewives. These will include imported chestnuts and fresh select chilled oysters from New York. The Commissary stores already hove these in stock and more will arrive for the holiday season. Hard candies for Christmas are a "must" and again this year the Commissary has ordered a supply of hard candy Candy and in five-pound jars due to arrive Chocolates early in November. The jars, by the way, are practically antproof and are wonderful to use later in the kitchen. Chocolates in boxes ore available most of the time in the Commissary stores. They arrive fresh each week from the States and are placed on sale immediately. Holiday chocolates in special boxes and tins have also been ordered and will be available as soon as they arrive. FRESH CRANBERRIES for the traditional cranberry sauce have been ordered in onepound boxes and will arrive 10 days before Thanksgiving. About the same time the Commissary Division expects a shipment of fresh fruits including oranges, grapes, apples, and pears. For the traditional Thanksgiving nut bowl, there will be an ample supply of prepackaged mixed nuts. Other types can be bought by the pound in all retail stores. OLD FASHIONED CANDELIGHT seems to be as much a part of Christmas as the Christmas tree and the glitter of tinsel. Holiday candles in all shapes and sizes, some of them almost too pretty to burn, will be available soon in all stores. They will include candles shaped like turkeys and ears of corn for Thanksgiving; and like snowballs, evergreen trees, and Santa Clous for Christmas. As in other years, there will be the traditional bayberry candles, large column candles in Christmas colors, and an ample stock of the regular red and green table candles.

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14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 4, 1955 PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS ANNIVERSARIES September 15 through October 15 Employees who were promoted or transferred between September 15 and October 15 are listed below. Within-grade promotions are not listed. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Mrs. Nelma L. Rommel, from File Clerk to Mail Clerk, Records Section. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Robert A. Engelke, from Motorcycle Officer and Policeman to Motorcycle Ofificer, Policeman, and Detective, Police Division. Herman W. Lynn, Howard J. Toland, from Policeman to Policeman and Detective, Police Division. John T. Glancy, from Chief, Customs and Immigration Service (Cristobal), to Chief Inspector (Cristobal), Customs Division. OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Richard W. Coy, Edward J. Lucas, Ernest A. Bishop, .Accountant to Auditor, Internal Audit Staff. Norman J. Tewes, from .Auditor to Supervisor.Auditor, Internal Audit Staff. J. Patrick Conley, from Claims Examiner (Supervisor) to Assistant Chief, Claims Branch. COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU Mrs. Sarah B. Rothwell, from Accounting Clerk to Supply Clerk (Genera(), Housing Division. Richard S. Brogie, from Clerk to Accounting Clerk, Housing Division. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Mrs. Gail A. Ward, from Clerk-Typist to Clerk (Typist), Electrical Division. Ocus S. Kleinfelder, Contracting Officer, from Contract and Inspection Division to Engineering Division. Mrs. Lila M. Arosemena, Clerk-Typist, from Contract and Inspection Division to Engineering Division. Frank R. Turman, Jr., from Foreman Crater and Packer to Lead Foreman, Crater and Packer, Maintenance Division. Victor D. Young, from Operator-Foreman Electrician, Power Branch, to Supervisory Electrical Inspector, Power Conversion Project. Charles F. Magee, from Super\ising Construction Inspector, Contractors Hill, to Mate, Pipeline Suction Dredge, Dredging Division. Phra A. Ashby, from Maintenance Mechanic Leader, Corozal Hospital, to Hospital Maintenance Foreman, Maintenance Division. Carlos M. Badiola, from Construction Engineer (General), Contractors Hill, to General Engineer (Surveying and Cartographic), Surveys Branch. Mrs. A. Elizabeth Lester, Clerk-Typist, from Communications Branch to Electrical Division. Joaquin N. Ponce, from Engineering NOVEMBER SAILINGS From Cristobal Crislohiil November 4 A neon November 1 2 Panama November 1 Cristobal November 26 From New York A neon November .? Panama November 1 Cristobal November 1 7 A neon f November 25 Because of the .Armistice Day holiday, Cristobal leaves one day early, arriving New York November 10. t Because of Thanksgiving Day, Aneon sails Friday instead of Thursday, arriving in Cristobal, December 1. (Southbound the Haiti stop is normally from 7 a. m. to 4 p. m. Monday; northbound the ships are also in Port-au-Prince Monday from about 1 to 6 p. m. This month, because of holidays, the northbound Cristobal, out of Cristobal November 4, will be in Haiti Sunday, November 6, and the Aneon, southbound from New York November 25, will be in Haiti Tuesday, November 29.) Draftsman (General) to Engineering Draftsman (Electrical), Engineering Division. HEALTH BUREAU Maj. Walter H. Goggans, Medical Officer, from Gorgas to Coco .Solo Hospital. Mrs. Evelyn S. Slowick, from Staff Nurse, Coco Solo Hospital, to Head Nurse, Atlantic Medical Clinics. Dr. Jaime L. Barraza, from Hospital Resident, Gorgas Hospital, to Medical Officer (Ophthalmology), Coco Solo Hospital. Dr. Evelyn K. Barraza, Medical Officer (Ear. Nose, and Throat), from Gorgas to Coco Sc.lo Hospital. Mrs. BobbieH.Freschi, Staff Nurse, from Gorga?. Hospital to Coco Solo Hospital. Dr. Glendy G. Sadler, from Hospital Resident, Gorgas Hospital, to Assistant to Chief, Pathologic, Anatomy and Clinical Pathology .Section, Board of Health Laboratory. Dr. David Senzer, District Physician, from Pedro Miguel to Gamboa. Dr. William E. Prier, from Hospital Resident to Medical Officer, Orthopedics, Gorgas Hospital. C. Louise Zug, Mrs. Evelyn R. Koperski, Staff Nurse, from Gorgas to Coco Solo Hospital. MARINE BUREAU Fred E. Whipple, from Foreman, Aids to Navigation Section, to Lead Foreman, Navigational .Aids. Mrs. Helen C. Light, from Typist, Commissary Division, to Accounting Clerk, Industrial Division. Charles W. Garden, from Locomotive Machinist, Railroad Division, to Lock Operator ( Machinist), Pacific Locks. Frank R. Costanzo, from Guard, Locks Security Branch, to Towing Locomotive Operator. Locks Overhaul. Charles M. Swisher, from Apprentice Pipefitter to Pipefitter, Industrial Division. Eviyn W. Brandt, from Postal Clerk, Postal Division, to Supervisory Administrative Assistant, Industrial Di\ision. Charles W. Brown, from Supervisory Storekeeper (General) to Supervisory Clerk (Typist), Pacific Locks. SUPPLY BUREAU Mrs. Elizabeth Z. Beall, from ClerkStenographer to Clerk-Typist, Division of Storehouses. Richard J. Koperski, from Storekeeper (General), Division of Storehouses, to Procurement Officer, Commissary Division. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Arthur B. Rigby, from Road and Yard Conductor to Road and \i\rA Locomotive Engineer, Railroad DivisioTi. RETIREMENTS Retirement certificates were presented the end of October to the following employees who are listed alphabetically, together with their birthplaces, titles, length of Canal service, and futiu'e addresses: Howard C. Anderson, Virginia; Leadingman, Navigation Div'ision; 14 years, 9 months, 29 days; address undecided. Daisy D. Fortner, Wisconsin; Elementary School Teacher, Pedro Miguel; 24 years, 6 months, 14 days; Galesville, Wis. Charles F. Hinz, Wisconsin; Postmaster, Balboa Heights; 30 years, 8 months, 22 days; Milwaukee, Wis. Mrs. Laura C. McLintock, Pennsylvania; Clerk-Stenographer, Contract and Inspection Division; 17 years, 5 months, 15 davs; Canal Zone. Frank R. Molther, New York; General Engineer, Plant Inventory and .Appraisal Staff; 20 years, 2 months, 28 days; Panama. Allan B. Parker, Maine; Chief Towboat Engineer, Ferry Service; 15 years, 6 days; El \'olcan, Panama. J. Milton Reed, Iowa; Chief Towboat Engineer, Navigation Division; 14 years, 1 month, 13 days; Bellingham, Wash. J. Barnabe Robles, California; .Signalman CarnKui, Railroad Division; 31 years, 8 months, 6 days; Richmond, Va. OTTO L. SAVOLD Along about the time that Otto L. Savold, now Postmaster at Cristobal, got his first razor, he got his first joli: Car clerk and baggage man at the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad's station in Oakes, N. D. Trains carry mail and mail needs post offices so it was a logical step from the railroad job to one in the Oakes post office. Ever since then he has been in postal work; last month he completed 40 years of government service, continuous with post offices except for a brief time during World War I when he was in the Infantry at Camp Lewis, Wash. Mr. Savold came to the Isthmus 29 years ago to work with the Canal Zone Posts. His first Canal Zone position was at Cristobal. Then came Aneon, Cristobal again, Balboa Heights, Cristobal for the third time, Aneon, and finally back to Cristobal where he has been postmaster since 1954. Outside of the office he has two hobbies: Wirehair terriers and gardening. "Biff," the current vvireh.air is the latest of a long line. He is currently boarding at the Corozal kennel while his master is on leave in the United States. As far as gardening is concerned, Mr. Savold is no rank amateur. At his place in Santa Clara he has done a lot of e.xperimental work, trying to develop a better line of avocados, grapefruit, and the like. His latest venture is attempting to adajn to Panama a tropical cherry native to Puerto Rico. 35 YEARS Harry H. Corn, another post office oldtimer, is second man on this month's list of anniversaries. Born in Kansas, he came here in 1932 but had worked in post offices in the United States for some years before that. For almost 10 years he was postmaster at Pedro Miguel and then was transferred to Aneon. He is now clerk-in-charge of the Mail Handling Unit at Balboa. He is a small-boat enthusiast and has made a number of long trips on craft considerably smaller than the Queen Elizabeth, or the Cristobal, for that matter. 30 YEARS Two of October's 30-year employees are teachers who came to the Canal Zone on the same date — October 1, 1925 — and who today are both teaching in the Balboa elementary school. Thev' are Miss Alida Drew, whose hometown was .Ardock, \. 1)., and Miss Mary Grace McDonald who was born in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, not Michigan. Miss Drew teaches first grade and Miss Mcdonald third, at Balboa. Other 30-year employees, whose Canal service has been continuou.s, are: Edward E. Eder, .Sujiply Officer in the Wholesale I lardware Section of the Connnissary Division, who buys the electric irons and pots and pans and such items that Zonians need in their homes; Zera K. Esler, postal clerk in the Mail Handling Unit at Balboa who comes from Lansing, Mich., and who has never worked for any other Canal unit except the Postal Divi.sion; and George A. Sausel, l.ockmaster at Mirafiores who does more w.ilking evervday beside transiting

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November 4, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 shijis tli.ui he ever did as a boy in La Cross, Wis. Two other Zonians completed 30 years of Government service in October. They are Mrs. Marione Campbell, who has spent most of her Canal career with the Health Bureau and a good part of it in the Panama Health Office, but is now a Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk in the Payroll Branch; and John Hallo, postal clerk with the Balboa Post Office, all of whose service has been with the Postal Division, and who is now a postal clerk at the Balboa Post Office. 25 YEARS All three of October's tiuarter-of-a-century employees are connected in one way or another with the Sc' ools Division and all have unbroken service with the Canal organization. They are: Roger C. Hackett, Dean of the Canal Zone Junior College and a native of Marion, Ky.; G. C. Lockridge, who was born in Iowa and is nosv head of the School's Physical Education and .\thletic activities; and Kenneth W. Vinton, .Science Instructor at the Junior College whose trips to the Galapagos Islands and prowess with local boa constrictors have entertained many audiences, both here and in the United States. 20 YEARS Three of the employees who completed 20 years of Government .service in October have unbroken service with the Canal organization. They are: Annie L. Allnut, Dental Hygienist at the Pacific clinics; Robert B. Harrison, whose title is Pneumatic Tools and Magnetos Electrician with the Electrical Division; and Beauford J. Hartley, General Operator with the Grounds Maintenance Division. Those with broken service are: Ralph E. Blevins, Pumping Plant Operator with the Maintenance Division; L. t). Bowman, Jr., a Marine Traffic Controller at Cristobal; Edmimd C. Fishbough, who is Balboa Police District's senior traffic officer and whose title is Motorcycle Sergeant; Jennie G. Johannes, a Head Nurse at Gorgas Hospital; and Mrs. Ora Virginia Stich, Gorgas Hospital Librarian. Miss Johannes, whose father was Chief of the Canal Zone Police for many years, and Mrs. Stich, whose father — for whom she was named — came to the Canal Zone in 1906, are native Zonians. 15 YEARS Of the 15 employees who passed the 15year mark in Government service last month all but two have continuous service with the Canal organization, although in several cases their Canal employment was preceded by serxice with other Government units. Those with unbroken Canal service are: Paul E. Ackerman, Wireman, Electrical Division; Henry E. Argue, Sergeant, Cristobal Police District; Edward N. Belland, Admeasurer, Navigation Division; Arnold R. Bjomeby, Policeman, Balboa Police District; Charles J. Connor, Foreman, Pipeline Suction Dredge, Dredging Division; Richard F. Daniel, Pumping Plant Operator, Maintenance Division; Olive E. Hardie, Staff Nurse, Gorgas Hospital: Edward W. Isaac, Contraband Control Investigator; Mrs. Mildred Kopf, Physiotherapy .Supervisor, ("lOrgas Hospital; George J. Moreno, Personnel Assistant, Central Labor Office; Fred F. Schwartz, Control House Operator, Gatun Locks; Elsie N. Smith, Voucher E.xaminer, Agents Accounts Branch; J. M. Vandergnft. Control House Operator, Gatun Locks. The 15-year employees whose service is broken are Howard W. Blaney, Postal Clerk, Mail Handling Unit; and Rubelio D. Quintero, Supervisory Electrical Engineer, Engineering Division. New Canal Zone Family B.\LBO,\'S new Magistrate, .John L. lAmiiig. airiml last iiMiith from his formtr home in Omaha to assume his duties in the Canal Zone. He is shown here with Mrs. Deming and their three sons. William, 6, is seated between his mother and father. Standing are Dennis, 9, and .John, 13. ** Operation Homefront'* Begins Weeklong Program Next Sunday "Operation Homefront," a concerted educational program urging every family in the Canal Zone to take several basic civil defense survival steps, opens Sunday and will continue throughout the week. The campaign is a part of Operation Home Front Week being sponsored throughout Region III of the Federal Civic Defense Administration, of which the Canal Zone is a part. This region covers the seven southeastern States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The local campaign will have five main objectives, which are: L Learn public action signals 2. Join the Warden Service 3. First Aid training 4. Provision of home first aid kits 5. Grandma's Pantry the stock and maintenance of a three-day supply of canned and non-perishable foods for emergency use. In connection with "Operation Homefront" in the Zone, a one-reel documentary color film of the atomic test in Nevada earlier this year will be shown on the Panama Canal Theater circuit. The picture, "Survival City" will be shown this weekend at the Balboa Theater and will make the circuit of other Zone theaters with the feature picture, "Violent Saturday," starring Victor Mature and Stephen McNally. The documentary is a powerful and spectacular picture of the atomic explosion and its effects in the test town set up for that purpose. Suez Canal, 86 Years Old This Month Suez Canal Company To Give Pana ma Canal Bus t Of De Lesseps (Continued from page S) North and South America. Because of his outstanding success in the construction of the Suez Canal which had been opened just 10 years before, his influence at the International Congress had great weight. He became President of the first French Canal Company, or Compagnie Universelledu Canal Interoceanique, which was organized after the Congress met and had bought the Wyse concessions for the Panama Canal granted the year before by Colombia. Count de Lesseps visited the Isthmus late in 1879 to inaugurate the great work. One ceremony was held at the mouth of the Rio Grande River on January 1, 1880, and a second was held near the continental dinde on the canal route on January 10. Both ceremonies were gala affairs and attracted wide attention. Today, however, it is difficult to relate with any degree of accuracy the success of the two ceremonies because of the conflicting stories arising from prejudices about the Panama Canal project. De Lesseps spent si.x weeks on the Isthmus durmg which he and his party visited various sites of the proposed work and the technical commission accompanying his party made an inspection of the (Conlimedfrom page 12) is northbound, from the East to the West. While this has been a feature of the traffic pattern throughout this century, the difference has been far more pronounced in recent years as more and more oil has poured through the Canal to feed the industries of the West. And, in 1954, the amount of goods shipped northbound, 74,.500,000 tons, more than tripled that of commodity shipments southbound, aggregating 22,730.000 tons. Both the Suez and Panama Canals are great international utilities serving the maritime world on a basis of equality for all. De Lesseps' ideal of "neutrality and freedom for all" was spelled out in the Act of Concession of the Suez Canal. The principle was confirmed by the International Convention of Constantinople in 1888 and is still in force today. The Suez Canal, unlike the Panama Canal, is operated under a concession which has a time limit of 99 years. Editors Note: This is the first of a series of articles which will appear in The P.\NAMA Ca.v.^l Review on great canals of the world. route and prepared a formal report on the gigantic task. While the company's project was doomed to fail, the passing decades have added luster to De Lesseps' name and his imaginative genius in initiating a project which was not completed until 3.5 years after he took it out of the talking stage.

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16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 4, 1955 Canal Zone Youngsters Enjoy Full-Time Athletic Program SUPERVISED PLAY brings out dozens of children evei-y Saturday morning at the schools where athletic programs are held. Here Mrs. Mary L. Brophy, far left, puts a group at Diablo Heights through their paces. Mrs. Brophy is on the Physical Education and Athletics Staff of the Division of Schools. A full-time athletic and supervised play program, with emphasis on good sportsmanship and muscular control rather than on competitive sports, is in full swing this year in Canal Zone elementary schools. It is a program which is being conducted under the supervision of qualified instructors both during the recess periods and out-of-school hours and is so arranged that super\ised |)lay is i.>r(i\ided at most of the schools for limited ])crio(ls before and afti'r school, during the lunch hour, and, in some places, on Saturday mornings. The program is not entirely new to the Canal Zone schools. It is a reinstatement of a plan sponsored several years ago in the lower grades which was curtailed becuusc (if budget limitations. Athletics for the younger children does not include competitive sports, it was emphasized by the Schools Division. Games for the children in grades one to three include rhythm games, relay races, stunts, and gymnastics. The older pupils in grades foiuto si.x may take part in track and field, volleyball, touch football, and Softball to name a few of the activities. Swimming instruction is available to all children from kindergarten on up. All sports with the exception of football, are open to both boys and girls. This year physical education instructors instead of classroom teachers conduct the play activities held during the school recL'SS periods. In order that the pupils in the larger elementary schools can each get a chance to participate in the games, the recess periods have been staggered and the children divided into groups small enough to be organized into working units by the athletic instructors. Before and After The program has not been limited to the recess periods, however. Athletic instructors are on hand at most of the schools by 7:30 in the morning and take a hand in organizing prc-school games. Some are also on duty during the noon hours and again after school until four o'clock. In schools where there are gymnasium and playground facilities, instructors are on duty Saturday mornings. Participation in sports outside of the actual school hours is on a voluntary basis. At the Balboa elementary school, for instance, qualified instructors organize games at 7:30 a. m. and remain on duty straight throughout the day until 4 p. m. They are also are available Saturdays frorn 8:30 to 11:30 a.m. Other school schedules are as follows: Ancon Gymnasium — 8 a. m. to 4 p. m. on weekdays and from 8 a. m. to 12 noon, Saturdays. Gamboa Gymnasium and Playground; 8:15 a. m. to 1 p. m. and from 2 p. m. to 5:15 p. m. on weekdays, and from 9 a. m. to 12 noon, Saturdays. Gamboa Gymnasium and Playground; 8:15 a. m. to 1 p. m. and from 2 p. ni. to 5:15 p. m. on weekdays, and from 9 a. m. to 12 noon, Saturdays. Gatun— 9 a. m. to 12:30 p. m. and from 2 p. m. to 5 p. m. on weekdays, and from 9 a. m. to 12 noon, Saturdays. Margarita Gymnasium and Playground — 8 a. m. to 12 noon and from 2 p. m. to 5 p. m. on weekdays, and from 8:30 a. m. until 12 noon, Saturdays. Cristobal Elementary School Playground — 8:30 a. m. to 11 a. m. on weekdays only. Cocoli— 7:30 a. m. to 11 a. m. from 12 noon to 1 p. m., and from 2 p. m. to 4 p. m. on weekdays only. Fort Kobbe— 7:30 a. m. to 1:30 p. m., weekdays only. South Margarita— 8:30 a. m. to 1 1 a. m., weekdays only. Diablo Heights— 8 a. m. to 11 a. m. and from 2 p. m. to 5 p. m. weekdays, and from 8:30 a. m. to 1 1 :30 a. m., Saturdays. Teachers Added In order to take care of the many children enrolled in the Canal Zone U. S. schools, several physical education teachers have been added to the schools staff. Some were employed in the United States and several were hired locally. A few were transferred from other departments in the Canal organization. Each school works out its own athletic program and selects the games and sports best suited for the children in accordance with the facilities provided in that particular location. G. C. Lockridge, Director of Physical Education and Athletics, is in charge of this program. With two months of the new school term gone, everyone connected with the revised athletic program is pleased with the successful way it is being conducted. Domestic Equipment Survey Starts Soon At Diablo Heights The survey of frequency-sensitive equipment requiring conversion or replacement in the Power Conversion Project is scheduled to start in Liable Heights this month and be completed in time for the survey teams to move into the Ancon-Balboa district early next year. The survey was being completed this week in Los Rics. The work has already been completed in all Atlantic side communities and in Gamboa, Summit, and Paraiso on the Pacific side. Bids for one of the major contracts in the power-conversion program -the conversion of frequency-sensitive equipment in the Atlantic area — are to be opened November 29. An addendum to the Atlantic area conversion has been issued changing the opening date for the bid and containing changes to the lists of Company-Government equipment to be converted. These changes are being made to provide prospective bidders with a more up-to-date list of items requiring conversion. In connection with the survey of domestic equipment, owners have again been urged to notify the Engineering and Construction Bureau of any new electrical equipment bought and any changes made in their frequency-sensitive equipment subsequent to the survey. Should Check Lists Residents are furnished with a list of their equipment after the survey teams visit the homes and these should be checked immediately and any errors or omission reported promptly. Also, the owner of any equipment requiring conversion which was not surveyed during the regular survey in any community should report that fact in writing to the Engineering and Construction Director at Balboa Heights. It is particularly important for all Atlantic side residents to report all changes in their frequency-sensitive equipment and the addition of any such equipment not already surveyed and inventoried. Only frequency-sensitive equipment inventoried, or reported in writing by the owner subsequent to the survey, will be converted or exchanged free of charge. People on the Atlantic side whose equipment has not been surveyed because of having moved into the area recently, having been on vacation during the survey, or for any other reason, have been requested to notify the Engineering and Construction Bureau immediately in writing so that their e(|uipment can be surveyed and listed \>rwr to con\'ersion. Have you made your gift to the COMMUNITY CHEST?

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November 4, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17 STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC For the purposf of comparison bi'tweon pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for the fiscal year I93 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939. Heavy Oil Shipments Largely Responsible For Traffic Increase ContiniR'd heavy shipments of niiaeral oils over the United States intercoastal route during the first three months of this fiscal year were principally responsible for the high level of traffic. Shipments of mineral oils through the Canal from the Pacific to the Atlantic in the first quarter of this fiscal year totaled I,272,()()() tons, being near an all-time peak. This amount was approximately five times the tonnage in the first quarter of the last fiscal year. The heavy movement of crude oils from California ports began early this calendar year and has continued to increase since that time. Transits, Tolls Up There were 2,089 transits by oceangoing commercial vessels in the first three months of this fiscal year, as compared with 1,952 in the comparable period of the fiscal year 1954. The number of U. S. Government ocean-going vessels in transit declined from 88 in the first quarter of the past fiscal year to 67 this year. Tolls on commercial shipping for the first three months of this year totaled $9,280,000, averaging more than $3,000,0)0 monthly for the first time in any quarter-year of the Canal's history. The amount of tolls for the past quarter ewesded tolls in the comparable period of the previous fiscal year by more than $1,250,000. While the principal increase in Canal traffic for the first quarter of the 1956 fiscal year resulted from the tanker trade on the intercoastal route, substantial increases were shown on the routes between the east coast of the United States and Far East, and between Europe and South America, in comparison with figures for the first quarter of 1955 fiscal year. Trade Routes There were 317 transits in the first three months of this fiscal year between the east coast of the United States and the Far East, as compared with 288 in the comparable period of the previous fiscal year. Similar comparative figures were 184 this year and 162 last year over the route between Europe and South America. The movement of shipping between the east coast of the United States and South America declined from 502 last year to 483 this year, while the only other route to show a loss was between Europe and Australasia, with 95 in the first quarter of last year and 84 this year. Commodities The list of commodities shipped through the Canal from the Pacific to Atlantic this year is headed by mineral oils, ores, and lumber. The amount of ore shipped in this direction was less than that in the first quarter of last fiscal year, but mineral oils and lumber shipments showed an increase. Other commodity shipments showing increases were {See page so) FLYIN'G the Japanese flag, two former United States destroyer escort vessels were southbound through the Canal last month, en route from Norfolk to Yokosuka, Japan, via San Diego. The ships, shown here in Pedro Miguel locks, are the Asahi, formerly Destroyer Escort 168, and the Hatsuhi, formerly Destroyer Escort 169. They are believed to be the first Japanese men-of-war to transit the Panama Canal since the end of World War II. Both ships carry a crew of about 160, arc 306 feet overall, and have a displacement nf 1 ,74(1 gross tons. Kaneji Takane was listed as the captain of the AsdhI and 'l'aday(.shi Sugiyama of the Halsuhi. CANAL TRANSITS— COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT First Quarter, Fiscal Years 1956 1955 1938 Atlantic to Pacific Pacific to Atlantic Total Total Total Cummercial Vessels: 1,069 1,020 2,089 1,952 1,406 *Small ... 131 130 261 319 211 Total commercial 1,200 1,150 2,350 2,271 1,617 **U. S. Go\eniment vessels, oceaii25 42 67 88 *Small 46 24 70 76 Total commercial and U. S. Govern men t 1,271 1,216 2,487 2,435 *\'essels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. **\'essels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July ships transited free. 1, 1951, Government-operated TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table show-, the numlicr uf transits of large, commercial \esscls (300 net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: First Quarter, Fiscal Years 1956 1955 1938 United States Intercoastal ._ ... 236 149 349 East Coast of U. S. and -South America ... ___ 483 502 97 East Coast of U. S. and Central America 146 142 19 East Coast of U. S. and Far East 317 288 217 U. S. /Canada East Coast and .Australasia 55 49 49 Europe and West Coast of U. S. /Canada 182 172 194 Europe and South .America 184 162 137 Europe and .Australasia _. 84 95 44 402 393 300 Total Traffic 2,089 1,952 1,406

PAGE 18

18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Historic Canal Barge Starts New Life As Coastal Carrier November 4, 1955 BARGE No. 20, which waa sold last month after nearly a half century of Canal service, is shown here on the right just after she and two other barges arrived in Balboa after a 17,500-mile trip from Cristobal, via the Straits of Magellan. The photograph was taken in 1912. A Magellan of the Canal's floating equipment was sold last month after nearly 50 years of honorable Canal service. Barge No. 20, which once made the trip from Cristobal to Balboa via the Straits of Magellan, is being put into condition by its new owners, Luis Eduardo Barrera and Cesar Torrientes, to haul cargo between Panama and the Darien. The barge dates back to about 1908. For several years it carried sand and crushed rock from the Nombre de Dios sand pits and the Portobelo quarry to Gatun where the sand and rock eventually became part of the Atlantic Locks. About 1912, three old French clapets which were used in a similar service on the Pacific side had to be replaced. Barge No. 20 and two sister craft were selected as the replacements. The Canal, of course, had not then been flooded. Moving three steel barges, each about 160 feet long, across the Isthmus of Panama meant that they would have to be taken apart and shipped Supervisors Learning Simplification Of Work Forty-nine Company-Government employees in supervisory positions are midway through a seven-week course to learn how to make the work of their units easier. The course, which is being conducted by James G. E. Maguire of the Executive Planning Staff, is known as a study of work simplification and is described as a "common-sense step-by-step method of analyzing jobs so that the methods by which they are done can l>c improved and simplified by the supcrvisdrs themselves." The 49 emph^yees taking the course are divided into four groups, three of which meet on the Pacific side and one on the Atlantic side of the Canal Zone. The first meeting was held October IS and the la.st will take place November 30. This is the first of a series of work simplification courses which will be given to CompanyGovernment supervisors. by rail. It was finally decided that the most feasible method would be to tow the barges around the tip of South America. On February 11, 1912, the tug Reliance, a 134-foot craft designed for deep-water work, left Cristobal with the barges in tow. Tug and tow were manned by a crew of 34, under the command of R. C. Thompson, master of the Reliance. During the first three days out of Cristobal they ran into heavy weather which kept the decks awash. At times the towing machine at the stern of the tug was submerged while the prow of the vessel was in the air. After several days of this battering by waves and wind, the Reliance and her triple tow put into Savanilla Bay, not far from Portobelo, for repairs. Good weather, fortunately, followed. Canal Payroll To Be Unified Next January (Continued {rum page 1) periods and paydays of local-rate employees and the paydays for a large number of U. S.-rate employees. To implement the system, on January 29 a one-week pay period will be established for all local-rate employees paid biweekly for the week of January 22-29. Pay checks for these employees will be issued covering one week only, less any deductions. After that date the pay periods for the two groups will coincide. The first combined pay period for all employees will begin January 29 and end February 11. The delivery of pay checks by units of the organization will begin the following week. With this change fully effective, all employees of the Company-Government will be carried on the same roll within their organization regardless of citizenship or rate of pay. For example, all employees of the Dredging Division will be carried on a common roll and will be paid on the same day, although their payday may not coincide with that of the Maintenance Division whose employees will also be paid at one time. The new pay schedule will be announced well in advance. Once established, all employees will be paid every 14 days and on the same day of the week for each pay period. The only difference will be that many employees now paid on Mondays or Tuesdays may be paid on another day of the week. The 1,100-mile run from Para to Pernambuco in Brazil, for instance, took only nine days and five hours. Other than difficulties with their supplies of coal and water, the Reliance and her tow made the rest of the trip without incident. Finally, after a voyage of 126 days during 86 of which the tug and the barges were actually under way the craft reached Balboa. It was the first time that a tow of this sort had ever made a voyage of such length. MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over By Hscal years Month Transits (111 tho Tolls usands of dollars) 1956 1955 1938 1956 1955 1938 July 727 640 457 $3,247 $2,646 $2,030 -Xiigust-, .. 676 652 505 2,980 2,752 2,195 September 686 660 444 3,053 2,756 1,936 October 683 461 2,831 1,981 November 636 435 2,630 1,893 December ,_. 676 439 2,853 1,845 January 668 444 2,832 1,838 February 637 436 506 2,721 1,787 March 709 3,014 2,016 April.. 685 487 2,938 1,961 May 698 465 3,072 1,887 June 653 445 2,804 1,801 Totals for first 3 months of fiscal year 2,089 1,952 1,406 $9,280 $8,154 $6,161 Totals for fiscal year 7,997 5,524 $33,849 $23,170

PAGE 19

November 4, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19 Ten Firms Invited To Submit Proposals For Towing "Mules" Invitations for proposals for the replacement of the Canal towing locomotives were issued last month to 10 large heavy-equipment manufacturing firms in the United States. A four-month period will be given the manufacturers for a study and preparation of their proposals, with the opening date set for 10 o'clock in the morning of February 10, 1956. After an analysis of the proposals has been made, the one considered best will form the basis for a negotiated fixed-price contract. The award of the contract will be made within 90 days after the opening of proposals. The firms invited to submit proposals include the General Electric Company, R. G. LeToumeau, Inc., Westinghouse Corporation, Hyster Company, American Locomotive Company, Baldwin-LimaHamilton Corporation, Bucyrus-Erie Co., Allis Chalmers Manufacturing Company, General Motors Corporation, and General Dynamics Corporation. The invitation for proposals provides that prospective bidders may enter offers for: Towing locomotives of the same general design of those now in use for which the Panama Canal will provide designs; or for new-type towing locomotives of the manufacturer's design and specifications. New-type towing devices will also be considered. The new towing locomotives will have added towing capacity and will be speedier than those now in use, permitting a reduction in the number required from 67 to 57. The design and specifications prepared by the Canal Company provide for the operation of the locomotives by direct current with little or no change in the existing towing track system. The replacement of the Locks towing locomotives will be the biggest single replacement order for Canal equipment placed since the waterway was opened. Most of the 67 towing locomotives now in use have been in service for 40 or more years. Forty were originally built by the General Electric Company before the Canal was opened. Of the other 27 in service, 16 were built by the General Electric Company from 1916 to 1924, and 14 by the Mechanical and Locks Divisions at later dates. The invitations for proposals submitted to the manufacturers contain detailed information as to the locomotives, type of service, weather and other conditions of operations, and the size and types of ships to be handled. The booklet also contains a group of selected pictm-es showing ships of various types in the Canal Locks. CLIP THIS EMERGENCY SERVICE CALLS Plumbing Refrigeration Repairs Repairs Day Night Day Night Ancon [ f Balboa i 9_9Q(w 9_9^Qq Diablo Heights. ^*' -i -5ci 2-1522 2-3iaS Pedro Miguel. __ I Gamboa 6-360 6-256 1 Gatun.. (3-2151 3-2151 ( Cristobal or or ^3-2644 3-1583 Margarita [3-2152 3-2152 Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels First Quarter, Fiscal Years 1956 1955 1938 Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo 1 6 1 298 17 7 51 16 96 19 3,331 British 253 17 10 62 6 96 13 1,625,637 109,443 59,517 67,476 48,473 277,578 14,767 1,672,060 79,100 60,338 67,811 110,248 256,192 22,458 292 2 2 1,667,795 10,096 13,113 Danish. 55 254,567 2 4,695 4 32 100 43 94 26,041 189,908 255,436 369,198 103,270 French 31 76 38 93 132,318 197,864 295,542 96,711 28 91 31 9 2 146,788 German . 450,641 Greek 181,941 Honduran 2,926 11,176 1 48 121 65 3 34 10 217 138 2 3 10,050 249,423 740,027 422,401 10,981 173,509 11,579 918,113 688,177 Italian 3.^ 113 98 217,094 792,263 782,465 13 75 39,933 522,490 Netherlands Nicaraguan Norwegian Panamanian 30 9 251 111 8 7 1 13 49 634 2 157,913 14,191 1,120,682 481,679 59,398 41,445 60 217,168 155 54 855,770 155,169 Philippine Portuguese 16,888 55,391 234,771 4,405,318 8,851 14 63 483 57,196 220,438 2,795,410 2 31 495 2 5 15,280 206,645 I'nited States 2,860,814 1,953 23,151 Total 2,089 11,518,205 1,952 9,308.165 1,406 7,642,111 Principal commodities shipped through the Canal (All figures in thousands of long tons) ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC First Quarter, Fiscal Years Commodity 1956 1955 1938 1,208,981 893,731 491,615 273,237 185,054 144,495 118,358 115,069 98,642 69,448 67,079 66,067 65,526 61,317 60,796 1,125,697 913,440 822,963 420,748 263,102 101,038 21,076 106,431 91,488 8,871 49,839 63,579 99,846 86,520 58,585 63,668 1,053,184 178,635 47,077 646,493 111,416 3,207 900 83,729 132,018 Corn -33,360 42,072 62,666 Wheat 343 50,559 534 27,985 1,568,015 Total -5,045,112 4,224,378 2,989,009 PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC Commodity Mineraloils Ores, various Lumber Sugar Canned food products Barley Wheat Bananas Nitrate Metals, various -Refrigerated food products (except fresh fruit) Copra Coffee Cotton Iron and steel manufactures All others Total First Quarter, Fiscal Years 1956 6,473,093 1955 1,272,407 211,324 990,513 1,138,763 981,476 731,866 545,825 425,528 323,200 302,252 275,901 75,545 248,463 332,709 244.137 204,288 207,629 288,459 197,836 195,312 118,035 112,557 81,706 61,376 73,515 59,681 56,233 45,849 55,300 24,273 800,917 874,005 5,083,787 1938 978,129 541,685 877,574 439,129 306,650 53,158 40,873 8,670 222,756 173,726 45,205 35,092 37,173 37,071 5,966 850,245 4,653,102

PAGE 20

so THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 4, 1955 Flag Day Celebrated Today in Panama As National Holidays Are Continued Few Zonians need to be told that yesterday their friends on the other side of Fourth of July Avenue celebrated the 52d anniversary of the date when Panama ceased to be a Department of the Republic of Colombia and became a republic in its own right. But not all Zonians know that although November 3 is the only Panamanian holiday observed in the Canal Zone— it has been a holiday ever since there was a Canal Zone — Panama's celebration actually covers a four-day period. The national holidays begin on November 2 and extend through November 5. Later in the month the Republic will celebrate two other national anniversaries. Last Wednesday, November 2, was observed as Memorial Day in Panama. It is All Souls Day and was selected by the young Republic years ago as the day on which to honor those who gave their lives when the Republic was born. As the years have passed, November 2 has become a general day of remembrance for the dead. The graves of relatives and friends are decorated that day, just as are those of the Republic's founders or of national leaders. The graves of Panamanians who are buried in Canal Zone cemeteries are also decorated on November 2 and the day is observed much as Zonians from the United States celebrate May 30 as Memorial Day. Independence Day Yesterday, November 3, was the anniversary of the Independence of Panama. Traditionally, Independence Day always begins with dianas, or salutes, blown by buglers throughout the city long before the sun is up. Most impressive of the November 3 events is the mass salute to the flag by thousands of students gathered in Cathedral Plaza. This is always followed by a Solemn Mass in the Cathedral and iiy a number of other patriotic and athletic events. For several years the day has ended with a fireworks display from the National Stadium or some other central location. Today is Panama's Flag Day, and means the same thing to the people of the Republic as June 14 does to the people of the United States. It commemorates the day when Panama's two-starred, red, white, and blue emblem made its first public appearance. The flag was designed by the late Dr. Manuel E. Amador, whose father was Panama's first president; it was made by Sra. Maria Emilia de la Ossa de Prescott whose husband for many years has headed Panama's communications system. She is a niece by marriage of the first Panamanian president. The original flag is kept at her home in Panama City. Today's big event is the annual Flag Day parade. Students from all of Panama City's public and private schools march through the streets and rivalry is keen between the various scholastic drum and bugle corps. Tomorrow is Colon Day and much of the day's celebration will take place in that city. November 5 commemorates the date on which Colombian troops withdrew from Colon in 1903 and the city became part of the new Republic. Panama has two other important anniversaries this month, although neither is observed as a holiday in the Canal Zone. The first is on November 10 and is known as the Primer Grito or First Cry. It is the anniversary of the day when, in 1821, a group of Panamanians met in the little town of Los Santos to advocate the independence of the Isthmus from Spain. The second is on November 28. It was the date, also in 1821, when Panama declared itself independent of Spain and voluntarily sought inclusion in the Republic of Gran Colombia. Observed Since 1904 November 3 has been observed as a holiday in the Canal Zone since 1904. On September 2 of that year the Isthmian Canal Commission, acting under authorization of the President of the United States, designated the days and dates which would be holidays in the Canal Zone. Among these was November 3. The same provision later became part of the Canal Zone Code. The first proclamation of November 3 as a holiday in the Canal Zone was issued by Gov. George W. Davis on October 28, 1904. j^.i SHIPS >ND SH IPPING .J ^t Transits by Ocean-Going Vessels in September 1055 l"5/, Commercial 686 660 U. S. Government 24 2i Total 710 68,1 Tolls* Commercial $3,057,606 $2,761 ,07.? U. S. Government -149,310 99,899 Tola! $3,206,916 $2,860,972 *Incliides tolls cm all vessel^, ocean-going aiid small. Heavy Oil Shipments Largely Responsible For Traffic Increase (Continued from page 17) bat ley, bananas, copra, coffee, sugar, and canned food. The three leading commodities moved through the Canal in the first quarter of this fiscal year from the Atlantic to the Pacific were mineral oils, coal and coke, and manufactures of steel and iron. All three showed gains over figures for the first quarter of the previous fiscal year. Other commodities which showed substantial gains were soybeans and soybean products, corn, ores, sugar, sulphur, paper and paper products, phosphates, and ammonium compounds. Easter Island Expedition EASTER ISLAND, off the Chilfan coast, was the destination of Thor Heyerdahl of Kun Tiki fame and his 341-ton motorship, Christian Bjelland, when the Heyerdahl Expedition transited the Canal last month. Aboard the vessel were a number of scientists who will seek evidence to support the belief that the island was populated from the Americas. They will examine the famed, hu^e Easter Island statues and drill thniunh rock to determine various facts in the history of the South Pacific island. Krom Piaster Island, the i'\pedition will go to Pitcairn Island and some of the I'Vench islands in the Pacific. They will return to the Isthmus in ,Iuly of next year. The Christian Ujelland is a former fishing vessel, capable of fair •jpeed. Members of the expedition expected to reach y.:isU'.r Island 10 days after leaving Balboa, The M'.s.sel measures \!H feet overall and carries a crew of 14. Master of the ship is Capt. Arne HarNinack,


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