Panama Canal review

Material Information

Panama Canal review
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Panama Canal Commission
Creation Date:
April 1954
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
23584335 ( ALEPH )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EVICDOL18_0ZRAUM INGEST_TIME 2011-04-25T22:23:13Z PACKAGE UF00097366_00123


f-7CrJ &Z)<^>3 JW£ Vol. 4, No. 9 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, APRIL 2, 1954 5 cents THE CANAL BUILDER "The plare to see the Colonel at his best was from a certain chair in his private office at Culebra, after eight on Sunday morning. There, at a flat-topped desk, with a freshly-opened tin of cigarettes before him, he sat in most informal state, and every man or woman who had a grievance could come and state it to the Man at the Top. From his decision there was no appeal, except to the President of the United States." — Goethals: Genius of the Panama Canal. A man went down to Panama, Where many a man had died, To slit the sliding mountain* And lift the eternal tide: A man stood up in Panama, And the mountains stood aside. The Power that wrought the tide and peak Wrought mightier the seer; And the One who made the Isthmus He made the engineer. And the good God He made Goethals To cleave the hemisphere. The reek of fevered ages rose From poisoned jungle and strand, Where the crumbling wrecks of failure Lay sunk in the torrid sand — Derelicts of old desperate hopes And venal contraband. Tilla mind glowed white thru the yellow mist And purged the poison-mold, And the wrecks rose up in labor, And the fever's knell was tolled, And the keen mind cut the world-divide Untarnished by world-gold. For a poet wrought in Panama With a continent for his theme, And he wrote with flood and fire To forge a planet's dream, And the derricks rang his dithyrambs And his stanzas roared in steam. But the poet's mind it is not his Alone, but a million men's: Far visions of lonely dreamers Meet there as in a lens, And lightnings, pent by stormy time, Leap through, with flame intense. So through our age three giants loom To vouch man's venturous soul: Amundsen on his ice-peak, And Peary from his Pole. And midway, where the oceans meet, Goethals— beside his goal. Where old Balboa bent his gaze He leads the liners through. And the Horn that tossed Magellan Bellows afar halloo, For where the navies never sailed Steamed Goethals and his crew. So nevermore the tropic routes Need Poleward warp and veer, But on through the Gates of Goethals The steady keels shall steer, Where the tribes of man are led toward peace By the prophet-engineer. —Percy MacKaye


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 2,1954 1858 • GEORGE W. GOETHALS • 1928 The following biographical summary lists in chronological order the principal dates and events in the life of Colonel Goethals with particular emphasis on the Canal construction period: 1858 June 29 Born hi Brooklyn, V Y.. the son "I John and Marie Baron ( ioethals. 187.? 1876 Attended Citj College ol New York. 187() June 12 Entered United States Militai s V idemj on the appointment by I S. Represent itive Samuel S. ( ox 1880 June 12 Graduated No. 1 in hiclass from the Milieu \ Academy and u.icommissioned Second Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. JunetoOctober Assistant Instructor in Practical Astronomy at Milieu \ \e.elciu\ 1880 1882 Student officer in the Engineer School of Application at Willets Point i nov Fori rotten), N. Y. 1882 June 15 Promoted to First Lieutenant. 1882 1884 Served as engineer officer to the Department of Columbia during which time he built his first bridge, a replacement over the Spokane River, which he said 40 vears later was "the hardest job I ever tackled." It was during this service thai he attracted the favorable attention of ('.en. William Tecumseh Sherman. 1884 September -Assigned to dun as assistant to Col. William E. Merrill, who was in charge of Ohio River improvements. This service gave him excellent training for his later work on the Panama Canal for Colonel Merrill was the country's recognized highest authority on the construction ol locks and dams. December 3 -Married Miss Effie Rodman in New Bedford, Mass. 1885-1889 August, 1885— Assigned to duty ai West Point, serving first as Instructor and later as Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering. 1886 March 4— The first son, Georgi Rodman Goethals, was born at Wesl Point. 1889 August — Assigned as assistant engineer for the design and construction of locks and dams on the Cumberland and Tennessee Ri\ ers. 1890 December 14 A second son, Thomas Rodman Goethals, was born ai New Bedford. 1891-1894 January, 1891— Assigned Engineer in charge of Tennessee River improvements. Designed and built the 26-foot lift Riverton Lock, the fust high-lift luck in the United States. 1891 December 14 — Promoted to Captain. 1894-1898 Assistant to the Chief of Engineers. Served under three successive chiefs. Reviewed and reported on specifications for engineering works, contracts, lake surveys, and monej accountings for the Engineer Department at large 1898 May 9 Commissioned Lieutenant Colonel nl Volunteers, U. S. Army. Served undei Maj. Gen. John Ruttei Brooke aChiel Engineei "i the First Army Corps. Served at Camp George II. 1 homas in t ieorgia .u\<\ later in I 'uerto Rii 1 1. October 18— Raised the I nited States flag over the [ntendencia ol San |uan, Puerto Rico. December 15— Appointed In tor in Practical Milieux Engineering at West Point. December 31 — Honorably discharged as Lieutenant Colonel of Volunteers. 1898-1900 Served as Instructor al Wesl Point. 1900-1903 February 7, 1900— Promoted ei Major. Served as Engineer Officer in charge nl fortifications, river and harbor work n Newport, R. I. 1903 -1907 Member of General Staff, Washington, I). C. Among other young i members were Maj. David DuBose Gaillard, for whom Gaillard (in in. nurd, and Capt. John J. Pershing, later to serve as lirst Chairman of the Goethals Memorial Commissii hi. 1904 January 6 Assigned to the permanent personnel of tinWar College. 1905 Appointed Secretary of National ( ii. i-i Defense Board. It was during this service he came into intimate and prolonged contact with Secretary ot War i'atl who was greatly impressed with his abilit \ June 30 Blanket order issued b) Secretary I aft for Major Goethals to serve with Isthmian Canal Commission il his services requested. July 5 Highly recommended by Theodore I'. Shouts. Chairman of the I. C. C. to John F. Stevens, Chief Engineer, for appointment as Assistant Engineer ol I. C. C. November 2 — Arrived in Colon on the Cruiser Columbia with Secretary ol War Taft and party to inspect Canal construction work. He later used the -ingle word "chaotic" to describe conditions on the Isthmus then. 1907 February 18— Called to the White House by President Theodore Roosevelt and told of his selection to be Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission to succeed John F. Stevens, who had submitted his resignation. The interview, which took place at night, was the first meeting of the two Canal greats. March 2— Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. March 4 — Appointed member of the Isthmian Canal Commission. March 14 — Arrived in Colon aboard the old Panama Railroad Company steamer Panama. March 17 — Made his famous maiden speech to Canal workers at a smoker given by the Corozal Club. It was an unfriendly audience and most of the applause went to "Big Smoke" Stevens. March 30— Secretary of War Taft and party of consulting engineers arrived oti the Isthmus to determine suitability of rock for lock foundations. April 1 — Formally succeeded Mr. Stevens as Chairman and Chief Engineer of the new and Third Isthmian Canal Commission. April 3 — Elected President of the Panama Railroad and Steamship Company. September 5 — Received cablegram of congratulations from President Roosevelt for new monthly record of excavation during August. October 4 Experienced Inst serious difficulties with landslides which were to plague him and hinder construction for many years. Two steam shovels and 1,000 feet of railroad track in Cut were covered by 500,000 cubic yards of earth and rock. 1908 January 8 — Placed in complete charge of construction work and government in the Canal Zone by Executive Order signed by President Roosevelt. "Now. I have both feet on the ground and I'll build the Canal," he told the President. 1909 January 29— Secretary of War Taft and commission of seven engineers arrived in Cristobal to inspect Canal work, especially Gatun Dam which had Keen bitterly critized. March — The construction period monthly record ol over 4,000,000 cubic yards of excavation was established. December 3— Promoted to Colonel. 1910 November 14President Taft disembarked in Cristobal from U. S. S. Tennessee for a three-day visit. 1912 August 24— The Panama Canal Act providing for the permanent organization for the operation and maintenance of the Panama Canal was approved by President Wood row Wilson. It was a triumph of Colonel Goethals' long light for his ideaon a permanent organization. January — Disastrous Cucuracha slide occurred which all but filled the new channel. Inspecting the damage with Colonel ( ..nllard, he made the now famous remark: "Hell, dig it out again." 1913 May 18— Waters of the Pacific ( >. ean were let into the new channel by the Mowing of the Corozal Dike. September 26 — Watched with Col. Harry F. Hodges and Edward Schildhauer, Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, the flooding and operation of Gatun Locks. He staved ashore while the tugboat Gatun was locked through. October 10 -Watched the blowing of Gamboa Dike by remote control from the White House in Washingtonby President Wilson. As in most of the big events of the construction period, he took no prominent public part. 1914 January 14 — The craneboat Alex LaValley made the first trip of a steam propelled vessel through the Canal. January 27 — President Wilson issued the Executive Order establishing The Panama Canal. February 4 — President Wilson appointed Colonel Goethals the first Governor of The Panama Canal. March 3 — Presented special medal of National Geographic Society by President Wilson on which was inscribed: "The Cullum Geographical Medal to Maj. Gen. George W. Goethals, builder of the Panama Canal. He fulfilled the ancient dream ol Gomara of a highway between the Atlantic and Pacific and thereby transformed forever the geographic relations of the commercial world." April 1 — Became the first Governor of The Panama Canal. The momentous occasion was not marked by any special ceremony. August 3 — The Panama Railroad steamer Cristobal made a trial run through the Canal with no passengers aboard. August 15 — Watched from ashore the historic trip of the S. S. Ancon through the Canal to open the new waterway to commercial traffic. October 14 — A disastrous slide closed the new Canal just north of Gold Hill. 1915 March 4 — Promoted to Major General and received the thanks of Congress for distinguished service in building the Panama Canal. March 6 — Said farewell to coworkers at the annual dinner of the Society of the Chagres held at the Hotel Tivoli. 1916 September 25 — Sailed from the Isthmus for the last time aboard the United Fruit Company steamer Pastores. October 8 Appointed Chairman of Board to investigate Adamson EightHour Law for railroads. November 16 — Retired from Army at his own request. 1917 January 10 Resigned as Governor of The Panama Canal. January —Established Consulting Engineer firm at 43 Exchange Place, New York City. March 29 — Appointed State Highway Engineer for New Jersey. April to July — Served as General Manager of the Emergency Fleet Corporation. December 18 — Recalled to active duty and appointed Acting Quartermaster General of the Army. 1918 April— Appointed Chief of the Division ol Purchase, Storage, and Traffic, U. S. Army. Appointed member of the War Industries Board. 1919 March — Relieved from active duty with the Army at own request. 1919-1928 President of engineering firm of George W. Goethals and Company, and advisor to the Port of New York Authority. 1928 January 21— Died at 12 East 86th St., New York City.


April 2, 1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW GOETHALS MEM ORIAL DEDICAT ION CEREMONY The dedication ceremony of the Goethals Memorial in Balboa will open at 5 o'clock Wednesday afternoon. The formal program, which follows, will be preceded by a half-hour concert by the joint bands of the Balboa and Cristobal High Schools. "Stars and Stripes Forever" Joint Balboa-Cristobal High School Band Invocation Rev. Alexander H. Shaw, Pastor, Balboa Union Church Introductory Remarks Brigadier General J. S. Seybold, Governor, Canal Zone; President, Panama Canal Company Presentation of Awards to Canal Zone Schools Essay Contest Winners Hon. Maurice H. Thatcher, Member, Isthmian Canal Commission "American Ode" La Boca Alumni Glee Club, under direction of Miss Emily E. Butcher Presentation of Memorial Monument Hon. Richard H. Whitehead, Member, Goethals Memorial Commission Unveiling of Memorial Monument Colonel George R. Goethals and Dr. Thomas R. Goethals, sons of Major General Goethals Dedicatory Prayer The Right Rev. Reginald Heber Gooden, Bishop of Diocese of Panama Canal Zone Address Hon. Alexander Wiley, United States Senator, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Himno National de la Republica de Panama Joint Balboa-Cristobal High School Band National Anthem of the United States of America Joint Balboa-Cristobal High School Band Benediction Rev. Joseph F. Konen, C. M. SENATOR ALEXANDER WILEY Senator Alexander Wiley, principal speaker at the dedication of the Goethals Memorial, is well-known in the Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama, having spent several days here in December 1949. He has served as Senator from his home State of Wisconsin continuously since 1938. He now is Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and is the ranking Republican member of the Judiciary Committee. Recognized as one of the most forceful orators of the United States Senate, he has been a leader for many years in the nation's program of international cooperation. During the many years while the late Senator Arthur Vandenberg was the ranking Republican member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Wiley vigorously supported the bipartisan foreign policy. Since succeeding to the Chairmanship of the important Foreign Relations Committee, he has made notable contributions to advancing further the cause of amity between nations. He has made many significant speeches on this area of American foreign policy and is regarded as the outstanding leader in the promotion of better international understanding. The Senator refers to himself as a "small town banker, businessman, lawyer, and operator of a dairy farm for 31 years" in the biographical notes of the Congressional Directory. He was born in Chippewa Falls, Wis., on May 26, 1884, the son of parents who came to the United States from Norway. He was graduated from the University of Wisconsin law school and began law practice in his home town in 1907. He had taken no leading part in national politics until his election to the Senate on the Republican ticket 16 years ago. Since that time he has taken part in some of the most important national and international conferences of the past decade. Among these have been the Interparliamentary Union Conference in Oslo, Norway, in 1939; the British Empire Parliamentary Conference in Bermuda in 1946 and head of the U. S. delegation to that conference in 1948; the Japanese Peace Conference in San Francisco in 1951 ; the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, France, in 1951; and the Interparliamentary Union (See page 7) The monument of "heroic size" authorized by Congress in August 1935 was completed just 18 years later. It is located at the foot of the Administration Building steps in Balboa facing the Prado. It was designed by Shaw, Metz & Dolio, a Chicago architectural and engineering firm, with the Panama architectural firm of Mendez & Sander, as associate architects. The monument was erected by Constructora Martinz, S. A., of Panama, and was completed in August 1953. The monument is symbolic in its concept. The 56-foot high shaft of Vermont marble represents the Continental Divide and the basins on either sids represent the Panama Canal Locks with water pouring from them to join, symbolically, the waters of Gatun Lake with the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The shaft rises from a circular reflecting pool 65 feet in diameter.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 2, 1954 Mrs. EFFIE RODMAN GOETHALS Like the wife of many a famous man, Mrs. Effie Rodman Goethals rarely shared the sp >tlight of public attention with her husband. Her home, her husband, and her children were her main interests. However, she shared quietly with him momentous occasions of his eventful life. < >f these, perhaps nunc was thrilling than the night of February is, 1907, whan Colonel Goethals (then Major) received the unexpected call to the Whit.' House to be told of his selection to head the Canal work. According to Bishop's Goetkds: Genius of the Panama Canal, Maj. and Mrs. Goethals were entertaining Colonel Fieberger, an old West Point friend, when the call came. Relating the incident and the surprise of all three, Bishop says: "At this point Mrs. Goethals probably hurried him straight upstairs to put on his full-dress uniform, though neither she nor Colonel Fieberger has the faintest recollection as to whether or not he wore it to the White House that night. All they can remember is the agony of impatience with which they awaited his return." Both Colonel and Mrs. Goethals avoided, whenever possible, public attention. No project ever attracted greater attention than the Canal construction and thousands of pictures were taken of the work and the men in charge. Despite this, there are few in existence in which the man responsible for the Canal project appears and only one or two of Mrs. M [S. i ii (ETHALS as she is remembered by many oldtimers. This picture was taken about 1912. Goethals in the Canal's extensive photographic files. She is well remembered by those who lived on the Isthmus during that ten-year period of her life, but principally for her quiet devotion to her home and family. Although she never sought social prominence, she probably entertained more public celebrities during her life on the Isthmus than anyone, for there was a constant stream of visitors to see the "big ditch" being dug. Many of these stayed or were entertained at the Goethals home at Culebra. Mrs. Goethals was born April 4, 1858, in New Bedford, Mass., the daughter of Capt. and Mrs. Thomas R. Rodman. During her girlhood days she came to know well something of military life, for her father served during the Civil War as a captain in the Union Army Infantry. Much of her girlhood days were spent on the island of Martha's Vineyard off the south shore of Cape Cod where she was to live in later life. She was visiting her brother, Lt. Samuel Rodman, at Vancouver Barracks in the Washington Territory, when she met her future husband. They were married December 4, 1884, at the Grace Episcopal Church in New Bedford. Colonel Goethals became enthusiastic about Vineyard Haven as a homesite when he went there with Mrs. Goethals for the first time in the summer of 1889. Four years later he bought a lot there and built a substantial New England type frame house which still stands. They first occupied the house in 1894 and it continued to be their home during the remainder of their lives. It was the only place where Colonel Goethals ever voted although he lived there a comparatively little time because of his Army assignments and later his work in New York. Following his death, Mrs. Goethals returned to make Vineyard Haven her home until her death at Wellesley, Mass., on December 31, 1941. Grandsons Of Canal Builder Visit Zone Among the most interested visitors ever to come to the Canal Zone were four grandsons of Colonel Goethals who spent several days here during the 1940's. George R. Goethals II, whose father was also one of the oldtimers of the Canal construction era, and Thomas Goethals, Jr., whose father is a doctor in Boston, Mass., were here in July 1940. The other two grandsons, Henry and Peter, both sons of Dr. Goethals, spent several days here in July 1947. On both occasions the visitors were THOMAS GOETHALS. Jr.. left, and George II. Goethals, II, posed in front of the disk used by their grandfather at Culebra during a visit to the Canal Zone in 19-iO. The desk is still in use in the office of the Executive Secretary. given a royal welcome by employees who had worked for their illustrious grandfather more than a quarter of a century earlier. They were all four given a round of visits to the many sites in the Canal Zone made famous during the Canal construction. George and Thomas were students at college at the time of their visit. They were here while Maj. Gen. Glen E. Edgerton was Governor. General Edgerton was a classmate of George R. Goethals, son of the. Canal builder, at the Military Academy and both were assigned to duty with the Isthmian Canal Commission soon after their graduation. Given Royal Welcome Aside from visiting all of the principal sights in Panama and the Canal Zone, George and Thomas were entertained by the Sons and Daughters of Old Timers Society which had been formed shortly before the 25th anniversary of the opening of the Canal. Both of the other grandsons were World War II veterans when they visited the Isthmus. Henrv, then 24, had served as a Captain in the Army, and Peter, then 21, had served as an electrician's mate in the Navy. The elder of the two had just completed his university training at Harvard while Peter was still a student there. They also were given an opportunity to see the Canal from every angle. One of the highlights of their visit was a trip through the Canal. Another was a call at the office of Gov. Joseph C. Mehaffey where they were shown the architect's sketches of the proposed memorial to their grandfather which was then scheduled to be erected on the Cristobal mole. The oldest of the grandsons remembered their grandfather from boyhood days when the family home was in Martha's Vineyard, Mass. It was a trip of a lifetime for them as none of the grandsons had ever had an opportunity to visit the Canal and see the engineering wonder which their grandfather built. PETER R., left, and Henry W., sons of Dr. Thomas Goethals, visited the Isthmus for several days in 1947. The portrait of Colonel Goethals was painted by former ( lovernor Jay J. Morrow, is on permanent display at the Administration Building.


April 2,1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW "Young George" And "Tom" Are Oldtimers Col. George R. Goethals, elder son of the Canal builder, and his brother, Dr. Thomas R. Goethals, of Boston, were well known to thousands of oldtimers of the Canal construction period. Of the two, Colonel Goethals who now lives in Las Cruces, N. Mex., perhaps is the better known by oldtimers because of his service with the Isthmian Canal Commission. Dr. Goethals was still a young boy |when his father iwas assigned to the Canal work. He resided here during the construction period and accompanied him on the trip to the States when he left the Isthmus for the last time in September 1916. Colonel Goethals, known on the Isthmus as "Young George," was one of three young lieutenants of the Corps of Engineers assigned to the I. C. C. in 1908 soon after graduation from the Military Academy. The other two were to become equally well known for their connection with the Canal enterprise. They were Lt. Glen E. Edgerton who later became Engineer of Maintenance and Governor, and Lt. James G. Steese. The latter served several years during the construction period. He returned in 1941 as a colonel in the Corps of Engineers and stayed until after the close of the war during which time he served in several different top executive positions. Friendship And Canal Interests The three were close friends at the Military Academy and their friendship, as well as their great interest in the Canal, has continued to this day. They were the first of several young officers to be assigned to duty with the Isthmian Canal Commission during the construction period. The program was initiated by Colonel Goethals after he became Chairman and Chief Engineer with the objective of giving the young officers a working knowledge of the project for later reassignments in more responsible positions. Generally, the young officers were assigned for brief periods on different phases of the work such as the relocation of the Panama Railroad, Gatun Dam, the locks construction, and Culebra Cut excavation. Young George served as a transitman from 1908 until 1909. He returned to Isthmian service in 1910 as assistant engineer. He was made assistant engineer in charge of fortifications in 1912, in which position he was directly responsible to his father, and served until 1914. Visited Zone Three Times He has revisited the Isthmus on three occasions since. He and General Steese visited the Zone for a short time in 1915 and he returned again for a few days in 1924. On his third visit he had the opportunity to see his old friends of West Point and Canal construction days as General Edgerton was then Governor, and General Steese who, a short time before, had been recalled to active duty and was then assigned as Administrative Assistant to the Engineer of Maintenance. Colonel Goethals also had just been recalled to active duty and was then serving as District Engineer in Buffalo, N. Y. During the first World War he served in France with the First and Third Armies and later as commanding officer THESE TWO REMARKABLE photographs of father and son were taken about 25 years apart. In the upper picture Colonel Goethals is shown at the Miraflores Dam Spillway just before it was completed. The lower picture of his son, Col. George R. Goethals, was taken during a visit here in 1941. It was suggested by the late George W. Green, then Municipal Engineer, who remembered the picture of the Canal builder as being one in the Canal's photographic files. of the 316th Engineers and Division Engineer of the 91st Division. He retired from the Army in 1919 and became Vice President of the George W. Goethals and Company, construction engineers and industrial managers, in New York City. He has made his home in New Mexico for the past several years. During his 1941 visit to the Canal Zone he had the opportunity of renewing acquaintances with many old friends, revisiting the familiar spots, and seeing some of the big jobs, including the Third Locks project, which were then in progress. Visited Culebra Ruins He spent one entire day visiting the scenes familiar to him 25 years earlier. He was accompanied on his round of sight-seeing by Maj. Gen. (then Colonel) W. D. Styer, Assistant Engineer of Maintenance, and two old friends of Canal construction days, the late George W. Green, Municipal Engineer, and L. B. Moore, formerly Supply and Service Director. Among the sites in which he showed most interest were the ruins of Culebra. It was during that day when the picture of him on this page was taken at Miraflores Spillway where his father had been photographed more than 25 years earlier. One of the high spots of that visit was an informal party given in his honor by Canal officials and oldtimers of the construction period, most of whom were still in service. Approximately 100 guests attended the party and the extensive change which has taken place in the personnel of the Canal organization in the 13 years which have elapsed is evidenced by the fact that only four of those attending are now in active service. As this edition of The Canal Review went to press, it was expected that both "Young George" and "Tom" would be present to unveil the monument to their father and to participate in the weeklong program attending the dedication ceremonies. On this visit, they will again have an opportunity to revisit the scenes so familiar to them and to renew acquaintance with employees of the Canal Construction era attending the ceremonies. Again a very warm welcome is being planned for their return by those few who are left who remember them as a young boy and as a young lieutenant of the Corps of Engineers.


THE PANAMA.CANAL REVIEW April 2, 1954 Plans For Memorial 25 Years In Making More than quarter century of effort on the part of several thousands of individuals of low and high rank made possible the 56-foot shaft of marble in Balboa which honors one of America's great men. The many years which elapsed between making and fulfillment of plans are not indicative of lack of enthusiasm or dissenting voices. Circumstances of a world nature -the disastrous depression of the early 1930's and World War II— were the principal delaying factors. It is a significant eulogy to Colonel ( toethals that the monument to perpetuate his memory at the site of his great work is largely the result of efforts of the men and women with whom he was associated in building the Panama Canal. Their efforts, however, were greatly assisted by many who did not participate in the Canal work, and others never closely associated with the Canal builder who also recognized his great contribution to world progress. Movement Started In 1928 The movement to erect a memorial in the Canal Zone to Colonel Goethals was formally inaugurated in May 1928, at the annual meetings of the various Panama Canal Societies in the United States. Since then the project has lain dormant for long periods for one reason or another but it was never permitted to die. It is noteworthy that all ten Panama Canal Governors since Colonel Goethals actively participated in the promotion of plans. To this distinguished list can be added the names of many American leaders. Heading such a list might well be Chief Justice William Howard Taft under whose administration as Secretary of War and later President the Canal project was begun and largely completed. Other names include all four Presidents of the United States who have served since 1928, members of both Houses of Congress, all surviving members of the Isthmian Canal Commission, and Canal construction employees of all ranks. Memorial Committee Took Lead Throughout most of the 25 years in the planning stage, the Goethals Memorial Committee formed by the Canal Societies in 1928 took the leading role. Membership in the original committee was almost completely changed as the years rolled by and today there are only a few still living to see the completed memorial. Two of these, Gen. Robert E. Wood and R. H. Whitehead, are members of the Goethals Memorial Commission, appointed by the President to build the memorial. The Goethals Memorial Committee was not composed entirely of former Canal workers. Among the nationally-known names listed were Chief Justice Taft, Gerald Swope, Kermit Roosevelt, Daniel and Harry F. Guggenheim, William Loeb, Adolph S. Ochs, William Randolph Hearst, Generals John J. Pershing, Douglas MacArthur, Peyton C. March, Edgar Jadwin, and James G. Harbord, George W. Wickersham, Congressman Swagar Sherley, John J. Fitzgerald, and Col. John Callan O'Laughlin. Famous Canal names on the list included former Governors, Chester Harding and Jay J. Morrow, Adm. H. H. Rousseau, Sidney B. (Sse page u> Ten Goethals Memorial Commission Members Were Actively Connected With Panama Canal GEN. JOHN J. PERSHING First Chairman of the Memorial Commission RALPH BUDD Chairman of the Commission IMCIIVKD H. WHITEHEAD Brigadier General ROBERT E. W OOD (Ret.) fjyf the 15 men who have served as members of the Goethals Memorial Commission since it was first appointed in June 1936, 10 have been actively connected with the Canal enterprise. In addition to the six Canal Governors, four members served during the construction period. They were Ralph Budd, now Chairman of the Commission, Gen. Robert E. Wood, Richard H. Whitehead, and W. K. Jackson. The other five members were Gen. John J. Pershing, first Chairman; former Senators Morris Sheppard of Texas, and Chan Gurney of South Dakota; former U. S. Representative Swagar Sherley of Kentucky, and Col. John Callan O'Laughlin. Of these, only Mr. Gurney, now a member of the Civil Aeronautics Board, is presently a member. Of the men who have served on the Goethals Memorial Commission none took a more prominent part in working for a memorial to Colonel Goethals than Colonel O'Laughlin, who was never connected with the Canal project. His interest, aside from the desire to see the work of a great American properly commemorated, was largely personal. He was for many years editor and publisher of the Army and Navy Journal. His association with Colonel Goethals began during the first World War when he served as aide to Colonel (MajorGeneral) Goethals when the latter was acting Quartermaster General. Colonel O'Laughlin was one of the first members of the Goethals Memorial Committee, formed by the Panama Canal Societies in 1929, to plan a suitable memorial. He later succeeded former Gov. Jay J. Morrow as Chairman of that Committee and continued to serve in that position until his death. When the first Memorial Commission was appointed in 1936 by President Roosevelt, he was made Vice Chairman. Because of the long illness of General Pershing, he was the nominal head of the Commission for several years. Only two members of the Commission, Generals Wood and Schley, have served continuously since 1936. All four of the Canal "oldtimers" who have served on the Commission became nationally prominent in the business world after their return to the United States. Mr. Budd, the present Chairman, is one of the leading railway executives of the country. He served three years, 1906 to 1909, as Chief Engineer of (See page !S>


April 2,1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW ,UeL Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly at BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE I. C. C. Member Here To Attend Dedication Printed by the Printing Plant Mount Hope, Canal Zone John S. Seybold, Governor-President H. 0. Paxson, Lieutenant Governor William G. Arey, Jr. Director of Public Relations J. Rufus Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny Editorial Assistant SUBSCRIPTION— $1.00 a year SINGLE COPIES— 5 cents each On sale at all Panama Canal Clubhouses, Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publication date. SINGLE COPIES BY MAIL— 10 cents each BACK COPIES— 10 cents each On sale when available, from the Vault Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building, Balboa Heights. MAURICE H. THATCHER Postal money orders should be made payable to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Company, and mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z. Attending the Goethals Memorial Dedication ceremonies this week is one of the central figures of the Canal construction period and one of the most enthusiastic "alumni" of the Canal organization. He is Maurice H. Thatcher, member of the Isthmian Canal Commission from 1910 to 1913 and head of the Civil Administration in the Canal Zone during that period. Mr. Thatcher is as well known and famous in Panama as in the Canal Zone as Thatcher Highway and Ferry, the link to the Interior of the Republic, is named in his honor. He was author of the legislation authorizing the highway and ferry. He has followed news of the Isthmus with intense interest since leaving the Canal Zone over 40 years ago to return to his native State of Kentucky and become United States Representative from the Fifth Congressional District. His lively interest in Isthmian affairs was recently demonstrated when he participated in the formal opening of the "Fifty Years of Friendship" exhibit in the Library of Congress. Mr. Thatcher, the only living member of the Isthmian Canal Commission, has made his home in Washington, D. C, for many years. He is a poet of note and has written many poems relating to the Panama Canal and the men and women who work for it. Goelhals Memorial Dedication Ceremony (Continued from page 3) Conference in Bern, Switzerland, in 1952. Senator Wiley was appointed a member of the United States delegation to the seventh session of the United Nations Assembly by President Truman. His appointment was a continuation of two major U. S. policies — bipartisanship in foreign policy, and Congressional representation at international conferences. Among the many international projects which have received Senator Wiley's support, both on the Senate floor and in public address, have been the Point Four Program, Reciprocal Trade Agreements, the North Atlantic Treaty, the Marshall Plan, and the Mutual Security Act providing military and economic aid to countries opposing Communism. Isthmian Canal Commission At Culebra In 1910 THIS PICTURE IS one of the last ever taken of the Isthmian Canal Commission. It was taken at Culebra in August 1910. Left to right are: Lt. Col. W. L. Sibert, Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Secretary, Maurice H. Thatcher, Rear Adm. H. H. Rousseau, Colonel Goethals, Lt. Col. David D. Gaillard, Lt. Col. Harry F. Hodges, and Col. William C. Gorgas. There was only one other change in the Commission after this picture was taken. Mr. Thatcher, the only living member of the I. C. C, resigned in August 1913 and Richard L. Metcalfe was appointed to succeed him. Both Mr. Thatcher and Colonel Hodges were appointees to the Commission after the third I. C. C. took office April 1, 1907, with Colonel Goethals as Chairman. Colonel Hodges succeeded Jackson Smith in September 1908, and Mr. Thatcher was appointed in April 1910 to replace Jo. C. S. Blackburn. The last meeting of the Isthmian Canal Commission was held March 27, 1914, just four days before the permanent Canal organization came into being. It was attended by all members with the exception of Colonel Gorgas. The principal business of the meeting, the 165th, was the reading of the Executive Order for the permanent organization, after which the Commission adjourned sine die.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 2,1954 Oldtimers Well Remember The Yellow Peril The last time that Samuel Grier and Prince George Green saw Colonel Goethals on the Isthmus was a sunny day in September 1916. As tnotorman and flagman, respectively, of the Colonel's motorcar, the famed "Yellow Peril," they had taken him from Balboa Heights to Cristobal to sail aboard the United Fruit liner Pastores. The "Old Man," as they both still call him, shook hands with them and said goodbye before he went aboard the ship. As the Pastores pulled away from its pier, Mr. Crier gave three short blasts on the Yellow Peril's whistle. From the deck, the Old Man waved and then disappeared. A few minutes later the Yellow Peril was answered — three short blasts from the whistle of the Pastores. As the crew of the Yellow Peril for several years, the two men knew the Colonel as well, probably, as anyone of his official family. They had ridden with him day after day from one side of the Canal Zone to the other; they had seen the Old Man in good humor and bad; they had heard him express his rather frank opinion of people and things — "too many figureheads around here," he said one day; and they had a great respect for him. Today, almost 40 years later, they still think him about the finest gentleman either of them ever knew and both use the word "wonderful" to describe him. "Yellow Peril" Chanties Americans made jokes about the Yellow Peril and West Indians sang chanties about it, but everyone kept a weather eye cocked for it and its passenger. Bought in 1908 from the Stover Motor Car Company of Freeport, 111., at a cost of $4,S00, the Yellow Peril was the fourth of the Canal's motorcars. Despite its assignment to the Canal's No. 1 man, it bore the designation of No. 4 for many years. The Yellow Peril was an affectionate nickname soon attached to the motorcar when it became the official inspection car. Its original color was a pumpkin yelloworange, same as the railroad passenger coaches of the construction days. It still THE "YELLOW PERIL" and its Number One passenger. The motorcar still bore No. 4 when this picture was taken in the Panama Railroad yards in 1913 during a visit of Secretary of War and Mrs. Lindley Garrison. Samuel Grier, motorman of the "Yellow Peril," is at the far left. Colonel Goethals is standing between Secretary and Mrs. Garrison. Others in the picture were visitors from Washington who accompanied the Secretary of War on his trip to the Canal Zone. wore its yellow coat when it was retired although other cars were a much less interesting dull grey-green. White linen slipcovers protected the upholstery, which in 1914 was blue broadcloth. Mr. Grier, who has been retired for almost nine years, but who is here visiting his son, recalls that it was he who suggested to the Colonel that the car be renumbered and made No. 1, as befitting the car of the Canal's head man. The suggestion was adopted and the car was No. 1 until it was honorably retired from service in 1935, but Mr. Crier still ruefully remembers the mess of red tape in which he became entangled because of the change. Unwittingly, he had failed, it seems, to consult the "property people." Colonel Goethals' first motorman for the Yellow Peril was W. P. Smallwood, who bore the high-sounding designation, as Mr. Grier did later, of Inspector of Motor Cars. SAMUEL GRIER. formerly Superintendent of the Motor Transportation Division, stands beside a relic of the "Yellow Peril" now in the Canal Zone Museum. It is the old bell from the French dredge Alexandre LaValley, which was mounted on Motor Car Xo. 1 when it was being used by Colonel Goethals. Mr. Grier retired in 1945 and has since made his home in Florida. PRINCE GEORGE GREEX is believed to he the only person still in service whose work during the Canal construction brought him in almost daily contact with Colonel Goethals. He was flagman for several years on the famous "Yellow Peril." He is now employed as maintenance man at the Balboa Roundhouse. This picture was posed on the steps of one "f the later and more modern motorcars. A classic memorandum in the files with the Smallwood signature, says: "I have to report that Motorcar No. 1 struck a horse on the afternoon of the 29th inst. [this was in September 1911] while running between Las Cascadas and Empire. The damage to the car was practically nil." The damage to the horse was not mentioned. Lived On The Job Mr. Grier who had been a machinist at Gorgona Shops and who had done autotive machine work in the States before he came to the Isthmus in 1906, became the Yellow Peril's motorman in 1912. Between them they have many memories of their days on the Yellow Peril, They "lived on the job," they say, although the work was usually confined to daytimes except for an occasional nighttime emergency call. The Goethals had little social life calling for the Yellow Peril at night. Just about every morning, before the Canal was finished, they would have the motorcar waiting at the Culebra railroad station. The Old Man would be aboard in time for them to get going ahead of the regular morning passenger train. On a typical morning, they might head for Pedro Miguel. There the Colonel would leave the Yellow Peril, and, umbrella in hand, walk along the construction line to Corozal. Walked Length Of Cut The motorman and flagman would follow in the motorcar, trying to keep the Old Man in sight and anticipate where he might want to be picked up. Other mornings he might ride as far as Pedro Miguel and then head north, walking the length of the Cut to Gamboa. Familiar as they became with his thinking, they were not always able to interpret some of his wishes. Once, Mr. Grier remembers, the Colonel said he would be going to Margarita after lunch. The motorman didn't know where Margarita was nor that the Colonel was going


April 2, 1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW there by train, so he failed to be where he was supposed to when he was supposed to. "I was waiting at Culebra," he recalls, "when one of the motor car operators came running out of the station to tell me that the Old Man called and wanted to know where his car was. When told I was at Culebra waiting for him, he sounded like he was awfully mad and said to tell me to get over to Colon as soon as I could. When I reached the Colon station, I expected to find the Colonel boiling over, but he wasn't. He said: 'Well, don't let it worry you. It was my own fault. I should have been more explicit. Forget it.' Used Goethals' Raincoat One of the flagman's most vivid recollections is of one day when they were caught in a sudden downpour. He had no raincoat, but the Old Man did and insisted that the flagman use it. Even after the rain stopped, he had to keep the coat on because the Colonel said, "I told you to put that thing on. Do you want to get sick?" He also remembers that he fell between two motor cars once as they were moving at 45 miles an hour on the track. He landed between the rails and the cars passed safely over him, but one ankle was broken. Ordered into the hospital, he appealed to the Colonel who let him go home to recuperate, an almost unheard-of thing in those days. Reprimands In Private If the Old Man was going to "bawl somebody out," they say, "he took him to one side and really let him have it. But nobody else heard what either of them had to say." "He was a real judge" his old flagman added. "He scarcely ever gave anyone any wrong." And Mr. Grier, on his part, said: "In the closing days of the construction, men were being laid off in large numbers. The Colonel said to me: 'It just breaks my heart to have to lay off so many good men. I don't believe there ever was a job as big as the Panama Canal with so many loyal and hard-working men as we have here.' After the end of the construction period, the motorcars were brought to Balboa. The Governor retained his car, by then permanently No. 1, and others were used for track inspection or for the "Toonerville Trolley" run between Paraiso and Panama. Mr. Grier became first a foreman and then a general foreman in what was then known as the Animal and Motor Transportation Division. He was made its Superintendent in 1935. He has been retired since 1945, and now makes his home in Florida, where he tinkers with old clocks and has made three grandfather's clocks, one for each of his children. Mr. Green is still working. From the old motorcars he moved to the Balboa Roundhouse where he is a maintenance man, spending his working hours in and out and under and on top of the railroad's motorcars, locomotives, and track bicycles. After work he reads, mostly mysteries, and thinks about the old days and the Old Man. Pictorial History Of Canal Construction Is Told In Art By Pennell And Van Ingen ONE OF THE famous Van Ingen murals in the rotunda of the Administration Building. This panel shows the construction of the locks gates. Some form of pictorial presentation of the work of building a canal to link two oceans was a special interest of Colonel Goethals. In at least one case he had to carry his arguments to the Secretary of War. Today the work of two outstanding artists supplements the thousands of photographs taken during the construction of the Panama Canal. And it is typical of "the Colonel" that he himself appears in only a handful of the many photographs taken and in none of the drawings. The two artists who benefitted from Colonel Goethal's sponsorship — and whose works today benefit those who see them— were W. B. Van Ingen, a muralist, and Joseph Pennell, whose medium was etching and lithography. Van Ingen 's murals of the Canal Construction decorate the rotunda of the Administration Building at Balboa Heights; copies of the Pennell lithographs hang in the Board Room of the Building, in the Governor's office, and in various other rooms at Balboa Heights. Murals Cost $25,000 The Van Ingen murals — four panels and a frieze— cover about 950 square feet and cost approximately $25,000. Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrison questioned the advisability of spending so much money for the murals and pointed out: "As everything else on the Isthmus is secondary to the operation of the Canal as an instrument of commerce, it might seem contradictory for us to spend so large a sum of money in a mere matter of decoration," he wrote. Colonel Goethals pointed out that the site for the Administration Building, where the murals were to be placed, and the general plans of the building had been submitted to the Commission of Fine Arts and that the Administration Building could be considered as the Capitol of the Canal Zone. He was successful in his arguments and in March 1914, Van Ingen who had done murals in the Congressional Library in Washington and the Philadelphia Mint was given the commission for the Canal paintings. Most of the work was reproduced from sketches made by Van Ingen during the construction period. The paintings were done in the United States and brought here for mounting. Four Panels And Frieze The four panels show Gaillard Cut at Gold Hill; the construction of Gatun Spillway; construction of a lock gate; and work on one of the Miraflores lock chambers. The frieze is a panorama of operations in the Cut. Pennell came to the Canal Zone during the 1912 dry season. His drawings were to be used in Century Magazine and The Illustrated London News. His visit was arranged through Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Secretary of the Isthmian Canal Commission, and his book is dedicated to Bishop. Colonel Goethals was not in the Canal Zone at the time and Pennell's failure to meet "the genius who controlled the organization, who governed as despot, who was loved, feared, and respected by everyone on the Isthmus," was his one regret, according to Mrs. Pennell's biography of her husband. Pennell Drawings Available Copies of his book, Pictures of the Panama Canal, are in the Canal Zone Library. The book contains 28 drawings, which cover Canal construction and Canal scenes of that day, from Atlantic to Pacific. EDITOR'S NOTE: Photographic reproductions of the Pennell lithographs may be ordered through the Library of Congress. Prints, 1 6 by 20 inches, on mat paper, cost $2 each if the negatives are available, or $3.25 if a negative must be made. Orders, by numbers obtained from the book, "Pictures of the Panama Canal," may be addressed to the Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.


MONUMENTS There is but a single monument in the Canal Zone which bears the name of Colonel George Washington Goethals. There are many monuments in the ten-mile wide strip of land and water across the Isthmus of Panama which bear not his name but his indelible imprint as an engineering and administrative genius. Some of these are visible. Others are intangible. Nevertheless, these are monuments to one of America's THIS VIEW of the Cut shows the deepest excavated section between Gold and Contractors Hills in June 1913. The railway tracks and steam shovels were removed soon after this picture was taken and the new channel was inundated by the waters penned up by the Gamboa dike. great men. Of these, none is greater than the Canal organization. Nowhere in the world is there an organization of its size with its complexities of operations. Despite this, there are none, great or small, which can boast a prouder record of achievement in years of peace and war. The esprit de corps which was instilled into the men and women who worked under Colonel Goethals in building the Canal — the spirit which, like the job itself, was one of the wonders of its day — has lived long since "the Colonel" left. Intangible also are the monuments of love and respect in the hearts of the THE CANAL was nearly ready to open in 1913 when disastrous slides began. This shows dredges working at the toe of the big slide from both sides late in October after water was let into the Cut. An attempt to blast some of the material out with dynamite was a failure. tens of thousands of men and women of many nationalities. They caught a vision of the grandeur of their handiwork under his leadership. Intangible also are the benefits of Goethals' genius to mankind by the joining of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Measured in commercial terms alone, these add up to more than 250,000 ships and more than 850,000,000 tons of cargo which have moved through the Canal since the old Panama Railroad steamship Ancon, itself a veteran of the construction period, opened the way for this colossal flood of maritime commerce THIS HOPELESS looking maze of steel and concrete was turned into the smoothly operating set of locks at Gatun within about a year. This view of the upper locks was taken July 2, 1912. They were given their test run on September 26, 1913, when the tug Gatun was locked through. by its historic trip on August 15, 1914. On these two pages are pictured a few of the impressive monuments to Colonel Goethals— as they looked when they were being built and as they look today. They are among the many which might have been selected, all of which tell the same story of a great leader and an inspired organization. THE CUT : Known then as Culebra, today as Gaillard, for Colonel David DuBose Gaillard, who had charge of the work there and who died while it was in progress. Here was the eight-mile strip where a thousand dirt trains whistled daily to CONSTRUCTION OF the massive Gatun dam and spillway was at its height when this picture was taken in August 1912. A force of approximately 2,000 men was engaged on this phase of the Canal work and some 100 trainloads of earth and rock were dumped daily for the earth dam.


TO GREATNESS help create a bedlam of sound from drill rigs and steam shovels, of shouted commands and dynamite blasts. It was an awe-inspiring sight which thrilled thousands of visitors to the Isthmus while the Canal was being built. It was an unforgettable experience for them whether they rode the rubber-neck trains or in the "Yellow Peril" with Colonel Goethals. It was in this short stretch where more than 100,000,000 cubic yards of earth ONE OF the most majestic sights on the Isthmus is the transit of one of the powerful United States aircraft carriers. One of the larger carriers practically fills the locks and is not dwarfed in the Cut. This is a view of the Philippine Sea in the Cut during a recent transit. and rock were blasted out and hauled away to build Balboa and Fort Amador. It was in this few miles where the most heart-breaking part of the whole task had to be done — where the great slides occurred, pouring some 25,000,000 cubic yards of material back into the newlydug channel. It is a majestic sight today when hundreds of ships pass monthly between Gold and Contractors Hill. GATUN DAM: The vital key to th e high-level lock canal. It was one of the most controversial phases of the Canal construction. It was then the largest THE FINEST of modern luxury liners today look natural in the Canal Locks. Here is the Swedish liner Kungsholm on a winter cruise en route through the Canal earlier this year. In the west chamber of Pedro Miguel Locks are the mother shrimp boat Pacific Reefer and the banana boat Adriana. earth dam ever constructed and many capable engineers doubted the stability of such a structure. The 23,000,000 cubic yards of material which went into its building blend so perfectly with the natural terrain that it is scarcely recognizable as a man-made piece of work. THE LOCKS: In construction or in operation, no part of the Panama Canal has the fascination to spectators of Gatun, Pedro Miguel, or Miraflores Locks. They were of a proportion never before conceived. Their design and construction were among the masterpieces of the big job. For nearly 40 years they have CONTRAST THE picture at the right with the view of Gatun Locks taken in 1912 on the opposite page. The operation of the locks is a commonplace event for the average Isthmian resident but it is an impressive sight for thousands of tourists every year. operated smoothly and efficiently with no material modification of the essential features shown on the original blueprints. THE BUILDING: One of the best known structures in the Canal Zone which stands as a monument to Colonel Goethals is the Administration Building. It stands on a spur of Ancon Hill on the site selected by him. He was cognizant of every detail of its design and construction. The view shown on this page shows it much as it looked when it was completed and first occupied 40 years ago except for the landscaping and more modern touch of many cars clustered around it. A RECENT aerial view of the Administration Building. The site, once known as Lone Tree Hill, was selected by Colonel Goethals. Most persons mistake this as the front of the building because it is the entrance most used. The front faces Balboa Prado and the new Goethals Memorial.


12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 2, 1954 urt Of Low, Middle, And High Justice (Editor's Note: Without doubt one of the most remarkable facets of the Panama Canal construction story was the Sunday morning "court" at Culebra when Colonel Goethals gave every employee an opportunity to air grievances or views. Most astute observers attribute to this a great part of the success of the undertaking. Many legendary stories are told of these Sunday morning conferences, some of which have undoubtedly grown greatly with retelling. Because of the importance and intensely human aspect of the Culebra "court" the following descriptive article is quoted in full. It was written by Arthur Bullard, one of the topflight writers of his day, who wrote under the pen name Albert Edwards. He visited the Canal Zone during the height of the construction work and wrote many articles of the work. The one below first appeared in THE OUTLOOK magazine. It was later republished in the book, "Panama, The Canal, The Country, and the People.") The most remarkable part of Colonel Goethal's routine is his Sunday Court of Low, Middle, and High Justice. Even as the Caliphs of Bagdad sat in the city gate to hear the plaints of their people, so, in his very modern setting — principally maps and blue prints— the Colonel holds sessions every Sunday morning. I had the good fortune to be admitted one Sunday morning to the audience chamber. The first callers were a negro couple from Jamaica. They had a difference of opinion as to the ownership of 35 dollars which the wife had earned by washing. Colonel Goethals listened gravely until the fact was established that she had earned it, then ordered the man to return it. He started to protest something about a husband's property rights under the English law. "All right," the Colonel said, decisively. "Say the word, and I'll depart you. You can get all the English law you want in Jamaica." The husband decided to pay and stay. Spanish Laborer Claim Adjusted Then came a Spanish laborer who had been maimed in an accident, The Colonel called in his chief clerk and told him to help the unfortunate man prepare his claim, "See that the papers are drawn correctly and have them pushed through." A man came in who had just bean thrown out of the service for brutality to the men under him. This action was the result of an investigation before a special committee. The man sought reinstatement. The Colonel read over the papers in the case, and when he spoke his language was vigorous: "If you have any new evidence, I will instruct the committee to reopen your case. But as long as this report stands against you, you will get no mercy from this office. If the men had broken your head with a crowbar, I would have stood for them. We don't need slave-drivers on this job." Then a committee from the Machinists' Union wanted an interpretation on some new shop rules. A nurse wanted a longer vacation than the regulations allow. A man and his wife were dissatisfied with their quarters. A superof steam-shovels who had two or "high records for monthly exca\ons" t > h credit came in to ask idvice about applying for another job under the Panama Government, The end of the Canal work is approaching, and the far-sighted man was beginning to look into the future. "Of course I can't advise you," the Colonel said. "You know I would hate to see you go. But if you decide that it is wise, come in and see me. I may be able to give you some introductions which will help you." (There is another man who will want to vote for Goethals for President in 1916!) Then a man came in to see if he could get some informal information on a contract which is soon to be let. His exit was hurried. No Higher Appeal An American negro introduced some humor. He was convinced that his services were of more value than his foreman felt they were. The Colonel preferred to accept the foreman's judgment in the matter. The dissatisfied one pompously announced that he was the best blacksmith's helper on the Isthmus and he intended to appeal from this decision. The Colonel's eyes twinkled. "To whom are you going to appeal?" he asked. For the fact is that the verdicts rendered in these summary Sunday sessions will not be revised before the Day of Judgment. The procession kept up till noon — pathos, patience-trying foolishness, occasional humor. "Once in a while," the Colonel said, "something turns up which is really important for me to know. And, anyway, they feel better after they have seen me, even if I cannot help them. They feel that they got a fair chance to state their troubles. They are less likely to be breeding discontent in the quarters. But it is a strain." One sees the Colonel at his best in these Sunday morning hours. You see the immensely varied nature of the things and issues which are his concern. Engineering in the technical sense seems almost the least of them. There is the great human problem of keeping this working force in good order, of caring for the welfare and contentment of this community of exiles — exiled to what was once the most unhealthy jungle in the world. And he sits there, week after week, the paternal authority to which all may come with their unofficial troubles. English, French, American negroes, Spanish and Italian peasants, coolies from India, with all the complications which come from their varied languages and customs — Mrs. Blank, whose husband drinks too much; diamond-drill operator No. 10, who has an abscess of the liver and wants a word of encouragement before he goes to Ancon Hospital for the operation. It is as remarkable a sight as I have ever seen to watch him at it. He is a good listener until he is quite sure he has got to the nubbin of the matter, and then, like a flash, the decision is made and given. And I think there are very few indeed who go away thinking that they have been denied justice. But, as he said, it must be a strain. This routine of Colonel Goethals is followed week by week, year after year. It is broken only by occasional trips to Washington. And every one knows that the political end of the job is more wearing than the regular grind. He has not had a real vacation since he took up this job of ours. The Two Bosses At Culebra PRESIDENT WILLIAM H. TAFT and Colonel Goethals on the steps at the Culebra residence in November 1910. This was the second visit of a United States President to see progress of the Canal work.


April 2, 1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 Ten Goethals Memorial Commission Members Were Actively Connected With Canal New York Bridge Named For Colonel Goethals (Continued from page 6) the Panama Railroad. It was one of the busiest and most critical periods of the railroad's history because of its almost complete relocation and the tremendous amount of traffic during the Canal construction. General Wood served most of the construction period and was named Chief Quartermaster in May 1913. His extensive experience in running the Commissary Division proved valuable in later years when he rose to be president and then Chairman of the Board of Sears Roebuck and Company. His Canal service dated from April 1905, until May 1915. Mr. Whitehead is one of the Canal oldtimers who has never lost his interest in the Isthmus. He is the author of the book, Our Faith Moved Mountains. He was employed as a testing engineer in August 1912, when the locks were being built. He was appointed as Assistant Superintendent and later Superintendent of the Pacific Locks after the Canal was completed. He left the service in 1916 and later became President of the New Haven Clock Company. Mr. Jackson, who was appointed to the Memorial Commission in 1947, was an attorney and served during the construction period as Assistant Attorney of the Isthmian Canal Commission. After leaving the Isthmus he became General Counsel for the United Fruit Company and was serving in that capacity when appointed to the Commission. I ONE OF AMERICA'S important industrial waterways, the Arthur Kill between New Jersey and Staten Island, is spanned by a bridge named in honor of the famous Canal builder. The Goethals Bridge, which was opened to traffic in June 1928, was named in honor of Colonel Goethals by a resolution passed unanimously by the Port of New York Authority Commission less than three months after his death and only a short time before the bridge was completed. Colonel Goethals served for about nine years as advisor and the first consulting engineer of the Port of New York Authority when he returned to civilian life after the end of the first World War. The Goethals Bridge, pictured above, furnishes a highway span over the Arthur Kill between Elizabeth, N. J., and Howland Hook on Staten Island. It clears the busy Arthur Kill by 135 feet, affording uninterrupted passage to more than 2,000 ships a year using the waterway. The bridge also is a busy traffic artery and last year more than 2,S00,000 vehicles used it as a convenient outlet for through traffic between Brooklyn and New Jersey. It is a cantilever structure, similar in design to the Outerbridge Crossing which also spans the Arthur Kill. It was built at a cost of seven million dollars and is more than a mile and a half long. The bridge is 55 feet wide and provides a 42-foot highway. Visitors Inspect Gamboa Dike Before 1913 Blast ONE OF THE biggest events of the entire construction period was the blowing up of the Gamboa dike on October 10, 1913. It attracted international attention for it marked the beginning of the end of the construction period. The picture above is one of the rare photographs in the Canal files taken shortly before the event. It shows the dike shortly before the big blast was set off by President Woodrow Wilson from the White House through a complicated telegraph and cable relay to the Isthmus. This view is rare because it is one of the very few pictures showing Mrs. Goethals while on the Isthmus. It also shows Nicholas Longworth, veteran Ohio Congressman, and his wife, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, whose father, the famous "Teddy" Roosevelt, was largely responsible for the building of the Canal. Mrs. Goethals is third from the left in the picture and the Longwortlis are standing next to Colonel Goethals at the extreme right. The others in the picture are not identified. The Ohio legislator served in Congress from 1903 until 1913 and again from 1915 until his death in 1931. He was speaker of the House for the last six of those years. At the time this picture was taken he was not in Congress, having lost his seat in the national Democratic victory in 1912 w-hen President Wilson was elected. He and Mrs. Longworth were personal friends of the Goethals family. The Gamboa dike was blown by a heavy charge of dynamite sunk in 400 four-inch holes drilled into the dam across the Chagres River. Drill rigs were still working when this picture was taken and the galvanized iron pipes into which the dynamite was loaded may be seen along the dike. The actual blast failed to be as spectacular as w'as expected and a half hour after the dam was broken a cayuco went through the opening. Hundreds of spectators lined the banks to watch the blast, among them being Colonel Goethals. He declined, however, to have his picture taken that day by a States news photographer who had been assigned to cover the big event.


14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 2, 1954 Plans For Me morial 25 Ye ars In Making Independence Day CHstobal -1911 .Continuedfrom pag:<: Williamson, Joseph Rucklin Bishop, Judge Frank Fueille, Thomas II. Rossbottom, A. L. Flint. Admirals Hugh Hodman and Hutch 1. Conr, Hartley Roue, George M. Wells, and many others. Morrow Headed Committee The Executive Committee, of which ( reneral Morrow was Chairman, was composed of men who had been closely associated with Colonel Goethals and the Panama Canal. Thev were: Admiral Rousseau and Mr. Williamson, I. C. C. members; Judge Fueille, former Counsel of the I. C. C; Admiral Cone, formerly Marine Superintendent; Mr. Wickersham, former Attorney General of the United States; Congressman Fitzgerald, former Chairman of the House Appropriations Committee; Mr. Wells, Superintendent of Building Construction during the ci instruction period; Mr. Flint, then Chief of the Washington Office; and Wilbur N. Winters, construction era employee, who served as Secretary. The first legislation for a memorial to Colonel Goethals was introduced in Congress in December 1928 at the invitation of the Memorial Committee. The legislative history thereafter was long and involved. Statue First Proposed The first bills to be introduced differed from the final legislation passed and approved by the President on August 24, 1935. The original legislation proposed a "suitable statue of heroic size" and authorized an expenditure of $100,000. It also provided that the design and location of the statue be submitted to the Fine Arts Commission for advisory assistance. No action was taken that year and the legislation was reintroduced the following year in the 71st Congress. However, the monumental business crash had occurred and the authorized expenditure was cut to $50,000. This passed the Senate but the House failed to act on the bill. It was introduced again in the 72d Congress hut no action was taken because of the depression. Legislation was again introduced in Congress in 1935 identical to the original bills. Later that session a new bill was introduced in which the amount of money authorized was cut to $75,000. This was passed but in the final draft the section requiring the submission of plans to the Fine Arts Commission was eliminated, and provision was made for a monument instead of a statue. It authorized the President to appoint a Commission to proceed with plans for the Memorial. No appropriation, however, was made by Congress. F. D. R. Showed Great Interest Later that year when President Roosevelt visited the Canal Zone he evinced great interest in the Memorial and asked Governor Schley to recommend possible sites. Th" litter suggested the Cristobal mole and the spur of Sosa Hill, known as Low Sosa. It was not until June of the following year that President Roosevelt appointed the Goethals Memorial Commission with ( ieneral Pershing as Chairman. Members were Colonel O'Laughlin, Vice Chairman, Senator Morris Sheppard, U. S. Representatives Si iuyler Otis Bland and Swager Sherley, Governor Schley, and General Wood. Of these, only General "I HAVE SAID that in this new era of American progress, the workers on the Panama Canal are the advance guard. They hold that position because of the world-wide importance of their task, and because of the region in which they are carrying it to its successful completion. They are cutting a highway of commerce through what was a plague spot of the world, and, in doing so, they are showing the world how to rid itself of all plague spots." — Colonel Goethals in an Independence Day address, 1911, at Cristobal. Schley and General Wood are still members. At the suggestion of General Pershing, the Philadelphia architect, Dr. Paul P. Cret, was selected to submit designs. He spent three weeks on the Isthmus early in 1937 examining sites and doing other investigations. He recommended the Cristobal mole for the location and one of his sketches for the memorial was later approved by the Commission and President Roosevelt. More Money Requested After much consideration, however, the Commission decided that a memorial of the type and size desired could not be built for $75,000 and recommended the authorized expenditure be increased to $160,000. The final design was not approved, however, until early in 1939 and an appropriation of the full amount was not passed until May of that year. Later that year, because of the outbreak of World War II, the Memorial Commission's recommendation that the project be suspended until peace returned was accepted. The project was revived in 1947 and in response to a request by Colonel O'Laughlin as Vice Chairman. President Truman appointed Senator Chan Gurney, then Chairman of the Senate Armed Forces Committee, and W. K. Jackson, formerly Assistant Attorney of the Isthmian Canal Commission, to fill the vacancies caused by the deaths of Senator Sheppard and Congressman Sherley. The Cret plans for a shaft on the Cristobal mole were then reviewed in detail by the Commission and it was determined that the original appropriation would not be sufficient to cover the cost of the memorial as planned. Subsequently Senator Gurney and Congressman Bland, then Chairman of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, introduced legislation to increase the appropriation to $300,000, but the increase was never voted. More Changes Of Commission The next three years saw further changes in the Commission and additional delays as a result of post war conditions. Former Governor Joseph C. Mehaffey was appointed a member of the Commission in March 1948 and took an active interest in pushing the plans to completion until the end of his term the following May. In August 1951, President Truman appointed Gov. F. K. Newcomer to the Commission to succeed General Mehaffey. Ralph Budd, Chief Engineer of the Panama Railroad during the construction period, and Mr. Whitehead, formerly Superintendent of the Pacific Locks, were appointed at the same time to fill vacancies caused by the deaths of General Pershing and Colonel O'Laughlin. Mr. Budd was unanimously elected Chairman of the Commission at a meeting held in October 1951. The project gained new life during the following months and at a meeting of the Commission in Washington on February 4, 1952, plans and former actions were reviewed. Mr. Budd presented at that meeting the drawing of a tentative design for a memorial prepared by Alfred Shaw, of the Chicago architectural firm of Shaw, Metz, and Dolio, for a reinforced concrete shaft 150 feet high and 40 by 10 feet. The Commission unanimously approved a motion for the Chairman to proceed with the Shaw design and to work with Governor Newcomer on a final design and contract. Architect Visits Zone Mr. Shaw visited the Canal Zone early in March of last year at which time serious consideration was given, for the first time, to the location of the Memorial on the Prado in Balboa. Mr Shaw then presented a report and tentative design for a monument to be placed in the circle in front of Balboa F^lementary School. This was approved by the Commission at a meeting on April 4, 1952. The plans were then presented to President Truman a few days later by General Schley and Mr. Gurney, and the President gave his approval. Governor Seybold was appointed a member of the Commission iSee page IB)


ApriP2,1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 Monniche Recalls First Emergency Dam Tests TOLLEF B. MONNICHE, now SO, on a Pedro Miguel Locks recent visit to the emergency dam at which he designed. Tollef B. Monniche, whose name engineers speak with considerable respect, still believes there were two high points in the years when he helped to build the Panama Canal. One was in May 1913, when the first of the great emergency dams which he had designed and whose construction he had supervised was closed for the first time. He was pretty sure that the great dam, two and a half times heavier than any drawbridge ever built before to swing on a single pivot, would work, but it was with considerable relief that he saw the dam swing out over the end of the east chamber at Gatun Locks. The other high moment was not long before the Canal was opened for traffic. The dam at the east side of Gatun Locks was swung into place and tested against a full head of water. It was as near as final test as could be made of the dams, which were designed to stop the flow of water through the lock chambers should one of the gates fail. The dam was swung into a closed position, the emergency gates lowered and wedged, the intermediate gates of the upper chamber were closed and water was admitted to the full upper section to the level of the gate. The upper guard and operating gates were then opened and the chamber was emptied through the culvert. It made a head of water of 45 feet on the upstream side of the dam. The dam, of course, held. Never Used For Emergency The six emergency dams, which cost over $2,250,000, required 12,000 tons of material and took over four years to design and erect, have never had to be used for such an emergency as that for which they were designed, but they have been used from time to time as spillways. Although Mr. Monniche worked under the supervision of Col. Harry F. Hodges, he frequently saw and worked with Colonel Goethals. "He was a wonderful executive," the bridge designer says today. "Under him the esprit de corps was something which had to be seen to be believed. Probably one of the best things about the Colonel was that he gave a man a job and undivided responsibility to do it. If he made good, fine, he got credit for it; if he didn't, well— there was a boat out every . week." Norwegian-born, Mr. Monniche was educated in Norway and in Germany. He had worked for the American Bridge Company, among others, before he joined the designing staff of the Isthmian Canal Commission in 1908. For a while he was in Washington but came to the Canal Zone when the entire group of designing engineers was transferred to the Canal Zone. Helped Build Cristobal Piers After the Canal was completed, Mr. Monniche worked under Adm. Harry Rousseau on the Cristobal docks. He helped to complete Cristobal's Piers 8, 9, and 10, and then designed and began work on Piers 6 and 7. He is just about as proud of his work on the piers as he is of his emergency dams, but not quite. Mrs. Monniche ruefully comments that the dams were — and are — his first love. Since he left the Canal organization in 1917, the Monniches have been living in Boquete where they have a 365hectare coffee finca. Some of his engineering genius has gone into the design of machinery and equipment for coffee picking, which has made the work a lot easier and faster. Now almost 80, he is still a master of design. After a recent visit to the locks and a technical conversation with him, one present-day Canal engineer put it this way: "He has something there. I'm not sure I followed it all, but he knows what he's talking about." President Roosevelt Visits Zone MORE THAN FORTY-FIVE years ago, a President of the United States took the unprecedented step of leaving the country. The visit was to the Canal Zone. Rain drenched the presidential party for three days but President Theodore Roosevelt covered the Canal Zone from end to end, stopping at every town "along the line" and at every major project to see how things were going. "It is without precedent for a President to leave the United States, but this is a work without precedent," President Theodore Roosevelt told the men who were building the Panama Canal. "You are doing the biggest thing of this kind that has ever been done." Plans for the President's visit in November 1906 began as early as June of that year, as soon as it was definite that the visit would be made. All during the summer, Isthmian Canal officials conferred among themselves and with representatives of the new Republic of Panama, and, by mid-September, had a tentative schedule mapped out. A major problem was a place of lodging for the Presidential party. The Tivoli Hotel was under construction, with its completion date well beyond the week in November when the President was expected. Finally it was determined that at least one wing "could be furnished and otherwise fitted up in such a manner to afford appropriate and adequate facilities for the party's comfort and welfare." and the alternate offer of an official house for the Roosevelt party was declined.


16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 2, 1954 "ew Canal Construction Veterans Left Within the next few years there will not be a single employee on the active rolls who can say "I helped build the Panama Canal." Must numerous of those still in service who came to the Isthmus before the S. S. Ancon made its historic trip through the Canal on August 15, 1914, are the remnants of the many thousands of employees from the West Indies. No accurate statistics were ever compiled on the total number employed during the Canal construction period but over 30,000 were hired under contract from the West Indian islands. Concurrently with the bringing of this large labor supply under contract, there was a big immigration from the West Indies and a continuous movement of population back and forth to the Canal Zone throughout the construction era. It is estimated that as many came to the Isthmus voluntarily seeking work as were hired by contract. Many Veteran Employees Retire Up until the start of World War II, when the Canal force was greatly expanded, these construction-day employees formed the main body of the localrate force. The percentage has rapidly decreased over the past 15 years and the number of oldtimers has been greatly reduced during the past few months by the accelerated retirement of all those 65 years of age or older. The problem of obtaining a sufficient number of men for the Canal construction work was one which plagued all three Chief Engineers of the Isthmian Canal Commission. Even as late as 1909, two years after Colonel Goethals became Chairman and Chief Engineer, it was necessary to import that year over 3,500 employees under contract. During the first two years of construction practically all of the unskilled labor force was imported from the West Indies. The recruitment of laborers in Europe began in 1906 after 500 Spanish laborers employed on railroad work in Cuba were brought to the Isthmus. Following this, more than 11,000 were employed by recruiting agents in Spain, Italy, and Greece. Recruitment In West Indies Special recruiting agents were stationed in the West Indies from 1904 to 1908, but all had been withdrawn from permanent assignments by 1909. However, it was necessary during later years of the construction period to send agents on recruiting trips to the Islands for additional men needed. Throughout the time Colonel Goethals was in charge of the work and while he was Governor of The Panama Canal he gave particular attention to the welfare and happiness of the employees. He provided means for all employees from the highest to the lowest to voice any complaint which they might have with the assurance of having them adjusted promptly. He listened personally to thousands of complaints and no one was more patient in such matters. He usually set aside his Sunday mornings for employees to have a personal interview with him if they felt aggrieved over something or wished to adjust even personal differences. No matter whether these complaints came from his top supervisors or pick-andshovel men, they were patiently heard. When complaints appeared justified they were thoroughly investigated and the necessary steps taken for adjustment. Fair And Equal Treatment This quality of fair and equal treatment for all won for Colonel Goethals a place of lasting endearment in the hearts of those who worked for him. This was true alike of the American employee and the man who came from the West Indies. Of the many high tributes to "The Colonel" none is more revealing than a letter in the Canal files to him expressing the gratitude and best wishes of West Indian employees. It was written in June 1915, when there were insistent rumors that Colonel Goethals was soon to leave the Isthmus. Because of the unique tribute to a A FAMILIAR SCENE during much of the Canal construction period was the mustering of laborers after the arrival of a ship with contract workers from the West Indies. This shows a scene at Gorgona where the men are being, what is now termed as "processed," before being assigned to their jobs. Most of the employees hired by contract in the West Indies came from Barbados. great man, the letter is reprinted here in full. It was signed by James Leonard, Preston Boyer, William Rice, John Tomlinson, S. R. Forde, Benjamin Blackman, John Peters, and M. G. Blackett, "in behalf of all the colored employees of The Panama Canal." The letter follows: "Having heard that it is your intention to relinquish your position as Governor of The Panama Canal, we, the undersigned on behalf of the colored employees of The Panama Canal, take the liberty to express our appreciation and gratitude for all you have done for us collectively, and also to let you know how sincerely we regret your expected departure. "Those of us who have been on the work practically from the beginning of your administration as Chairman and Chief Engineer, recall with gratitude the interest you have always evinced in your colored employees; how you have persisted in giving us employment despite the severe criticism that has confronted you; how you have given us a hearing on all questions, and adjusted our troubles when necessary (this alone speaks volumes), for there is nothing so valuable to man as 'free speech' and this we have received at the hand of your able administration. "These facts have caused us to arrive at the conclusion that you believe in the 'brotherhood of man.' Be assured that every rung you took hold of in your climb to the top, we were always wishing you to take hold of the next higher, knowing that the higher you went so much higher would we have a sympathizer and friend, if we be permitted to term you. "Again we express our regret, wishing you and yours continued prosperity. Governor Goethals, we (as aliens) will surely miss you, but we hope that your successor will follow your footsteps." Plans For Memorial 25 Years In Making (Continued from page 14) on June 3 of 1952 and he was later appointed contracting officer. The Panama firm of Mendez and Sander was employed as Associate Architects in June and formal contracts for the work were awarded in August 1952 to Constructora Martinz, S. A., of Panama, and the Vermont Marble Co. Memorial Site Changed Since that time there was one further change in the plans for the Goethals Memorial. Because of the hazard to low flying aircraft, the location of the Memorial was changed to the plot of ground immediately in front of the Administration Building steps. Delivery of the marble was made early in January 1953 and the work was initiated a few weeks later. The Memorial was completed, except for final landscaping, last August. The final inspection was made and the Memorial was formally accepted last September at a brief ceremony. Participating were Col. Craig Smyser, Panama Canal Engineering and Construction Director, representing Governor Seybold; James C. Wright, representing the contracting firm of Constructora Martinz, S. A., and Harold W. Sander, member of the associate architectural firm.


April 2, 1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17 The Panama Canal Honor Roll Of the many grave problems faced in the building of the Panama Canal none was of greater importance than that of obtaining and keeping a force to do the job. Into this were woven a hundred complexities, of which climate, food, housing, recreation, and health conditions were among the most important. All three Chief Engineers of the Isthmian Canal Commission devoted much of their attention to the important problem of assembling and keeping the tens of thousands of workers in many varied fields of endeavor upon which success of the great venture would stand or fall. Their efforts in recruiting employees from the United States were greatly hampered by unfavorable publicity during the early part of the construction period when "yellow jack," malaria, and other tropical diseases were rampant. This bad publicity had a lasting effect although it was greatly offset during the latter part of the construction period. Many Added Inducements Many added inducements were made to attract men of the highest type to the Isthmus from the United States and to keep them here after they arrived. Despite these inducements the rate of turnover in the force was exceptionally high during most of the construction period. The total number of employments and reemployments during the Canal construction was approximately 40,000, although the force at no time exceeded 7,000. Soon after Colonel Goethals became Vincent G. Raymond Florence E. Williams Charles P. Morgan Adrien M. Bouche George H. Cassell Gregor Gramlicb Chairman and Chief Engineer he recommended that a special medal be designed and presented to all American employees who completed two years of continuous service. The suggestion followed a statement made by President Theodore Roosevelt on his trip to the Isthmus in 1906 that he would favor the issuance of such a medal. It was a fortuitous suggestion and proved to be one of the inducements which led many an old timer to resist a sudden impulse to tell his boss abruptly "I quit," a common occurrence in those days. Letter From "Teddy" Roosevelt In the Panama Canal files today there is enclosed a yellowing letter dated December 23, 1907, written on White House stationery from President Roosevelt to Colonel Goethals, which reads: "In accordance with your suggestion I direct that the Commission prepare orders for giving medals to all citizens of the United States who have served on the Isthmus for two years and who have rendered satisfactory service. When you have perfected the details of the scheme please submit it to me, so that I may get a thoroughly good artist to design the medals." Employees who completed two years of additional service were given bars to go with the medals. According to the record, there were issued 7,391 Roosevelt medals; 3,883 first bars indicating four years of continuous service; 1,865 second bars, six years; 636 third bars, eight years; and 41 fourth bars, ten years. Of the more than 7,000 employees to receive the highly prized Roosevelt medals, only 12, whose pictures appear on this page, were in service on March 31, the 40th anniversary of the date when the Isthmian Canal Commission ceased to exist. 1906 *Vincent G. Raymond — December 16 1907 *Florence E. Williams— March 1 1908 *Charles P. Morgan— October 26 1909 *Adrien M. Bouche— July 2 1910 *George H. Cassell — January 20 *Raymond B. Ward — June 13 *Raymond A. Koperski — June 27 1911 *Lea K. Dugan — June 6 *GEORGE N. ENGELKE— September 5 *Bernard W. Mclntyre— September 28 *Gregor Gramlich — October 14 1912 Samuel J. Deavours — March 1 Thomas J. Breheny — November 1 *Edward W. Schnake — November 26 George C. Orr — December 5 ARTHUR MORGAN— December 16 1913 Bernard J. McDaid— February 19 David W. Ellis— June 11 Edward P. Walsh— July 1 EMMETT ZEMER— July 10 William V. Brugge — December 17 1914 Clarendon Sealy— March 6 The publication of the Canal's Honor Roll of men and women who began their Canal careers under the Isthmian Canal Commission was initiated in the first issue of the Canal Review in May 1950. The rapid decrease of the list is indicated in th • fact that the first in 1950 contained 106 names. Honor Roll Is Depleted Two of those whose names are contained on this year's list, Vincent G. Raymond and George H. Cassell, were retired at the end of March, and several others will reach retirement age during the coming year. Publication of the Honor Roll is normally made in the May issue of the Review in commemoration of the date of May 4, 1904, when the Canal properties and rights were transferred to the United States. Its publication this year was moved forward one month to coincide with the dedication of the Goethals Memorial and the 40th anniversary of the date when Colonel Goethals became the first Governor of The Panama Canal. The obs?rvance of the 50th anniversary of the famous ceremony in which the transfer was made will occur on May 4 of this year. There are no longer any employees who came to the Isthmus from the United States in that first year of the construction period in active service although there are a few who still reside on the Isthmus and in the United States. In the accompanying list the names of the Roosevelt Medal holders are indicated by the asterisk. The three names in capital letters indicate continuous service with the Canal. mm Raymond A. Koperski Lea K. Dugan George N. Engelke Bernard W. Mclntyre l Raymond B. Ward Edward W. Schnake


18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 2, 1954 FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION Of It iS/r — EMPLOYEE SAFETY INDOCTRINATION An article in the National Safety Council's News Letter says: "There is no such thing as good shop or job operation, if it is accomplished with an unsatisfactory it. i\ record. This holds true no matter what the production quantity and quality figures may be." Industry has found out that one weak spot is in the indoctrination of the new employee. This is where we all are apt tu be somewhat remiss. Every job should have a workable procedure established for teaching every new employe? his job and how to do it safely. It should also have a program in safety indoctrination of present employees who have been transferred or promoted to new jobs. From those companies which have been HONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD FEBRUARY HEALTH BUREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Community Services 1 Health 1 Engineering and Construction Civil Affairs Marine Supply and Service Transportation and Terminals Division Award For NO DISABLING INJURIES FEBRUARY HOSPITALIZATION AND CLINICS CLUBHOUSE DIVISION ELECTRICAL DIVISION RAILROAD DIVISION AIDS TO NAVIGATION DIVISION OF SANITATION successful in conducting employee safety indoctrination procedures, there have been selected certain fundamental steps which seem particularly effective, and which may be of interest to our supervisory and safety personnel. 1. Operating instructions specific to the individual bureaus and division should be established with safety emphasized. The solicitation of safety suggestions will be found helpful in developing safe working procedures. 2. The new employee, at the time of hiring, should be given a brief background of the Company's interest in safe operations and its intention to carry through all safety plans. 3. He should be impressed with the fact that his close cooperation is essential in order to achieve a safe working place for himself and his fellow workers. He should also be told that any deliberate infraction of safety rules or repeated disregard of common-sense safe practices on his part will not be tolerated. 4. The employee should be personally introduced to his foreman and fellow workers by those directly in charge of operations. 5. The employee's immediate supervisor should review the operation in necessary preliminary detail, carefully discussing the various safe operating requirements. He should also show the employee how his safe operation ties in with the other units as a whole, in order to round out the employee's understanding that his observance of safe practices is essential to the safe operation of the whole. 6. In the course of job instruction th3 safety procedures should be covered not as a separate and distinct theme, but as an integral part of the job instruction. 7. In giving instructions to the beginner everything must make sense to the employee. He should not only be told and shown what to do, but also why it should be done in the specified way. 8. It is the supervisor's responsibility to see that the new employee is outfitted with the personal protective items required for the job and that he receives instructions on their use, cleaning, and care. 9. Sometime later, after the employee has begun to see things more clearly, he should be introduced to the unit's safety organization and accident prevention program. It should be explained how the safety organization functions and how he is to report an accident in case he has one. He should understand his responsibility in promoting safety and his rights if he does get into an accident. 10. A follow-up is important to see if the new employee has learned everything taught him, and that he has not developed dangerous short cuts, and invented dangerous procedures. 11. A supervisor must never condone an unsafe practice on the part of any of his employees. Accidents occur because a supervisor permits unsafe acts again and again until the unsafe practice becomes a habit, and wins favor because of supervisory indifference. Repetition finally meets with special circumstances which result in an accident. 12. New supervisors should start out by observing all safety rules; by looking for unsafe conditions which should be corrected at once, or proposals made for corrections as soon as possible. They should always practice safety themselves. WVARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR FEBRUARY 1954 Health Bureau Community Services Bureau Civil Affairs Bureau C. Z. Govt.-Pan. Can. Co ( Last 3-Year Aver.) Engineering and Construction Bureau Supply and Service Bureau Marine Bureau C. Z. Govt.-Pan. Can. Co. ( This Month) Transportation and Terminals Bureau Disabling Injuries per 1,000,000 Man-Hours Worked ( Frequency Rate) Aids to Navigation 2 Clubhouse 2 Sanitation 2 Electrical 1 Grounds Maintenance 1 Hospitalization and Clinics 1 M otor Transports tion 1 Railroad 1 Storehouses 1 Commissary..Number of Disabling Injuries 47 Dredging Industrial Locks Maintenance Navigation ^___^ Terminals f: : :-:v.yfl Accumulative Frequency Rate This Year : : : ::: x-:--.••• • '*•:: :•:••:•: :TT:-:v ':':':'::-': : : x: ::-;:,: \ r -'-y. ;<:<: ^SZW Man-Hours Worked 2,205,108 LEGEND I Amount Better Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3Year Average I Amount Worse Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3Year Average


April 2, 1954 THE PANAMA CANAL'REVIEW 19 PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS RETIREMENTS IN MARCH February 15 through March 15 Employees who were promoted or transferred between February 15 and March 15 are listed below. Regradings and withingrade promotions are not listed. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Walter Oliver, from High School Teacher to Academic Department Head, Division of Schools. Roger E. Hamor, from Fireman to Fire Sergeant, Fireff)ivision. Kenneth T. Daly, from Fire Sergeant to Fire Lieutenant. Henry E. Sellner, from Cash Accounting Clerk, Commissary Division, to Fireman, Fire Division. Mrs. Elvera S. Juilfs, from Substitute Teacher to Clerk-Stenographer, Division of Schools. Fred E. Perra, Henry C. DeRaps, from Policeman and Detective to Police Sergeant. Beverly C. Y. Chan, from Library Assistant to Librarian, Library. Mrs. Jacqueline M. Conn, from Substitute Teacher to Kindergarten Assistant, Division of Schools. Mrs. Mercedes A. Smith, from Substitute Teacher to High School Teacher, Division of Schools. Mrs. Marjorie M. French, from Substitute Teacher to Elementarj Teacher, Division of Schools. Linda C. Appin, Clerk-Stenographer, from Division of Schools to Police Division. Hollis Griffon, Virgil G. Camby, from Policeman to Policeman and Detective, Police Division. COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU George J. Marceau, from Clubhouse Manager, Margarita, to Supervisor, Northern District and Clubhouse Manager, Margarita. OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER Malcolm R. Wheeler, from Accountant, Cost Accounts Branch, to Auditor, Internal Audit Staff. John R. DeGrummond, Jr., from Accountant to Fiscal Accountant, Agents Accounts Branch. William F. Browne, from Transportation Rate Auditing Clerk to Accountant, Agents Accounts Branch. Mrs. Esther T. McKinney, from ClerkTypist, Costs Accounts Branch, to Accounting Clerk, Agents Accounts Branch. Mrs. Anna Jackson, Mrs. Catherine B. Moehle, Card Punch Operator, from Accounting Division to Payroll Branch. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU John E. Short, from Senior Powerhouse Operator to Powerhouse Operator Dispatcher, Electrical Division. Donald E. MacLean, from Powerhouse Operator to Senior Powerhouse Operator, Electrical Division. Fred L. Watson, from Batching Plant Foreman to Repair Shop Foreman, Maintenance Division. Winters A. Hope, from Hydrographic Engineer (Dredging) to Hydrographic Engineer, Engineering Division. Manuel Quintero R., f r0 m Civil Engineering Draftsman, Engineering Division, to General Construction Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division. Mirt Bender, from Special Combination Welder, Maintenance Division, to Pumping Plant Operator, Water and Laboratories Branch. Ralph E. Waugh, from Wireman to Electronics Mechanic, Electrical Division. Donald B. Tribe, from Chemist (Compliance Analysis) to Chemist, Water and Laboratories Branch. Macon W. Foscue, from Electrical Engineer to Supervisory Electrical Engineer, Electrical Division. Richard J. Mahoney, from General Construction Inspector to Supervisory Construction Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division. Anthony J. Catanzaro, from Machinist to Motorboat Maintenance Mechanic. Dredging Division. William C. Jordan, from Motorboat Maintenance Mechanic to Air Compressor Operator, Barge, Dredging Division. Robert F. Dunn, from Air Compressor Operator, Barge, to Steam Engineer, Locomotive Crane, Dredging Division. HEALTH BUREAU Dr. Eric R. Osterberg, from Medical Officer. Hospitalization and Clinics, to Medical Officer, Panama and Colon. MARINE BUREAU Charles D. Cheek, from Electric Weld. er, Industrial Division, to Towing Locomotive Operator, Atlantic Locks. Gilbert F. Lee, Kenneth G. Taylor, from Guard to Towing Locomotive Operator, Atlantic Locks. Daniel A. Marsicano, from Pump Operator, Dredging Division, to Towing Locomotive Operator, Pacific Locks. William J. Baldwin, from Policeman, Police Division, to Towing Locomotive Operator, Atlantic Lucks. Roger H. Swain, from Probationarv to Qualified Pilot, Navigation Division. Kenneth L. Bivin, from Pilot-inTraining to Probationarv Pilot, Navigation Division. Oscar M. Sogandares, from Signalman. Navigation Division, to Ferry Ramps Maintenance Repairman, Ferrv Service. Frederick C. Rose, from Ferry Ramps Maintenance Repairman to Chief Towboat Engineer, Navigation Division. PERSONNEL BUREAU Mrs. Marguerite Y. Budreau, from Appointment Clerk to Supervisory Appointment Clerk, Personnel Records Division. Mrs. Betty O. Boyer, from ClerkTypist, Employment and Utilization I >iv ision, to Clerk-Stenographer, Personnel Records Division. SUPPLY BUREAU John F. Manning, from Superintendent, Abattoir and Cold Storage Plant to Wholesale Groceries Manager, Commissary Division. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Mrs. Shirley C. Jones, from ClerkTypist to Storekeeper (General), Motor Transportation Division. Frank P. McLaughlin, Jr., from Gauger and Cribtender Foreman to Cribtender Foreman and Steam Engineer, Terminals Division. Mrs. Frances B. Orvis, from Superv isorv Accounting Clerk, Printing Plant, to ClerkI ypist. Motor Transportation Division. Harold L. Conrad, from Signalman. Navigation Division, to Gauger and Cribtender Foreman, Terminals Division. ANNIVERSARIES Employees who observed important anniversaries during the month of March are listed alphabetically below. The number of years includes all Government service with the Canal or other agencies. Those with continuous service with, the Canal are indicated with (*). 40 YEARS Thomas E. Bougan, Chief, Retail Stores Branch, Commissary Division. 35 YEARS Martin Nickel, Pipefitter and Sheetmetal Worker, Leadingman Special, Industrial Division. *Mal T. Pappendick, Abattoir Foreman, Commissary Division. 30 YEARS Walter T. McClure, Mailing Foreman, Postal, Customs, and Immigration Division. 25 YEARS *Arzie N. Beauchamp, Mechanical Engineer, Engineering Division. *William R. Calcutt, Pilot, Navigation Division. *Harold E. Chambers, Locomotive Engineer, Railroad Division. Katharine I. Clark, High School Teacher, Division of Schools. Roscoe M. Collins, Dock Foreman, Navigation Division. William H. Rinke, Lock Operator, Machinist Leader, Locks Division. *Otis W. Ryan, Commissary Manager, Commissary Division. Albert H. Shockey, Mechanical SuperRetirement certificates were presented the end of March to the following employees who are listed alphabetically, together with their birth places, titles, length of service, and future addresses. Herman H. Burkle, West Virginia; Riveter and Tank 'Tester, Industrial Division; 23 years, 6 months, 22 days; Sacramento, Calif. George H. Cassell, New York; Assistant Chief, Housing Division, and Manager, Balboa Housing Office; 41 years, 8 months, 26 days; California. George H. Byrne, New Jersey; Wireman, Electrical Division; 37 years, 9 months, 19 days; East Orange, N. J. Matthew Dey, New Jersey. Cable Splicer, Electrical Division; 12 years, 1 month, 10 days; address uncertain Bessie M. Dugan, Head Nurse, Gorgas Hospital; 19 years, 11 months, 28 days; address uncertain. Robert W. Erickson, Wisconsin, Assistant to Superintendent, Northern District. Motor Transportation Division; 34 years, 5 months, 24da\s; Hudson, Wis. Catharine W. Fisher, California; Telephone Operator, Communications Branch; 6 years, 1 month, 11 days; Panama. Bernard J. McDaid, New York; Materials Inspector, Division of Storehouses; 27 years, 6 months, 2 days; Colon for present. James C. MacAulay, Scotland; Blacksmith, Industrial Division; 13 years, 3 months, 12 days; Canal Zone for present. Alice W. Patten, Maine; Accountant, Cost Accounts Branch; 111 years, 6 months, 18 days; Ellsworth, Me. Vincent G. Raymond, New York; Machinist Leadingman Special, Industrial Division; 34 years. 5 months, 22 days; address uncertain. Earl E. Trout, Indiana, Safety Inspector, Office of Director, Supply Bureau; 27 years, 1 month, 27 days; address uncertain. John W. Whittredge, Texas; Steam Locomotive Crane Operator; Dredging Division; 17 years, 2 months, 12 days; Fayetteville, Ark. Robert M. Wilford, Kentucky; Assistant to Master of Transportation, Railroad Division; 26 years, 6 months, 6 days; address uncertain. v isor, Locks 1 Jivision. 20 YEARS Ethel G. Cooper, Property and Supplv Clerk, Dredging Division. Roger L. Deakins, Electrician and Operator Foreman, Electrical Division. *Bessie M. Dugan, Head Nurse, Gorgas Hospital. William C. Grimes, Auditor, Office of the Comptroller. Frank D. Harris, Chief, Aids to Navigation Section, Marine Bureau. Joseph J. Lukacs, Filtration Plant Operator, Maintenance Division. Gustave A. Moller, Hcav v Special Truck Driver, Motor 'Transportation Division. Albert F. Pate, Control House Operator, Locks Division. *Otis M. Ramey, Yard Foreman, Railroad Division. Glenn W. Redmond, Shipfitter, Industrial Division. 15 YEARS *John T. Barrett, Jr., Pilot, Navigat ii mi Division. Carlton S. Bell, Policeman, Police Division. Robert C. Calvitt, Plumber, Maintenance Divi-n hi. Alfred N. Hval, Diesel OperatorMachinist, Electrical Division. •James J. Latimer, Policeman, Police I livision. Florence E. Mallett, Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Payroll Branch. *Salvatore F. Mauro, Wireman, Industrial Division. *Fred Muller, Pipefitter, Industrial I division. *Ralph H. Otten, General Architect, Engineering Division. John S. Pettingill, General Department Head, Physical Education and Recreation Branch. *Edward K. Wilburn, Towboat Master, Dredging Division.