Panama Canal review

Material Information

Panama Canal review
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Panama Canal Commission
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Gift of the Panama Canal Museum THE ^/T^a^aJS^ fctVlEV Vol. 4, No. 4 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, NOVEMBER 6, 1953 5 cents Change Of Directors HENRY T DO.N'O' A\, right, discusses business with Wilson Crook who became Acting Community Services Director last week when Mr. Donovan, who had headed the bureau since its organization, was appointed Civil Affairs Director. Mr. Donovan, who succeeded Col. Richardson Selee on the latter's resignation, has been with the Canal organization for 2-1 years. Mr. Crook has 25 years service with the Canal. First Quarters In New Corozal Area Will Be Occupied During Coming Week A new Canal Zone town, still to be officially christened, is coming to life. The first 100 or so residents of the new community at Corozal are expected to occupy the recently completed houses during the coming week. Simultaneous with this event is the opening of the Canal's 1954 fiscal year quarters construction program. A contract was awarded late last month to Isthmian Constructors, Inc., low bidder for the construction of 33 duplex masonry buildings at Diablo Heights. These are all Type 336 houses which are two-story buildings with each apartment containing three bedrooms on the second floor. The completion of the first of the 128 new buildings at Corozal marked the closing phase of the 1953 building program, all other houses in other areas having been completed and occupied. The Corozal program is divided into three zones Zone 1 consists of 77 houses, 98 apartments, of which 33 buildings were to be transferred this week to the Housing Division. These buildings, 37 apartments, were rushed to completion by the contractor, Macco-Panpacific Company, because of an accelerated demolition program in Balboa Flats. These 37 apartments were assigned early last month. The remaining 44 buildings in Zone 1 are scheduled for completion at the rate of 10 to 15 a week during this month with all work in that zone being finished about the first of December. Zone 2 consists of 24 buildings, 36 apartments, which are scheduled for completion by February 18. The remainder, 27 houses with 34 apartments, are in Zone 3 which is slated for completion by April 19. Town To Be Named By Vote The new town is to be named by a popular vote of Pacific side residents. The Pacific Civic Council has been invited to conduct a poll of all U. S.-rate residents in Pacific side communities exclusive of Gamboa. The popular vote is to be conducted during this month and the Governor expects to give the new community a name by December 1 to avoid confusing it with the Army Post of Corozal. Sam Roe, Jr., President of the Pacific Civic Council, announced following receipt of the invitation that the poll will be taken next week simultaneously with the annual election of members to the Council. In many respects the (See page to) THIS MONTH'S FEATURES • Canal To Greet First Monarch — page 3 • Medical Association, Part I — page 5 • Building 69, Where Everyone Goes— page 8 • Gatun, History of a Town — page 10 Hospital Insurance Plans For Employees Are Being Pushed Negotiations are still in progress on plans for health and hospitalization insurance for Panama Canal employees to be paid by payroll deductions. No difficulties are presently foreseen in providing some form of coverage for employees by the two groups now conducting negotiations. The Canal Zone Credit Union has had the matter of hospitalization insurance for U. S.-rate employees under study now for several weeks. A special committee composed of leading local-rate employees has been formed to establish an organization for handling insurance for local-rate employees. It is expected that plans for both groups of employees will have been formulated well in advance of next January 1 when charges for hospital and medical services wil 1 be made for employees. It has been announced that enYployee rates for medical and hospital services will be at approximately the level now in effect for dependents of Canal employees. The medical tariff is being revised and is expected to be ready for publication by the December issue of The Review. Required by Law The discontinuance of free hospital and medical services for employees after December 31, 1953, is required under Section 106 of the Civil Functions Appropriations Act of 1954. Officials of the Credit Union have announced that the organization is prepared to assist in making available hospitalization insurance to U. S.-rate employees by the payroll deduction plan. In this connection the officials have been negotiating with various insurance companies offering this type of coverage. Up to now none of the companies has offered a group insurance plan and only individual policies are presently available. One company submitted a proposal on group insurance but later withdrew it. The Credit Union has announced that it will offer its service to both members and other U. S.-rate employees as a civic project. The service will be offered on a nonprofit basis, with only the added expense in handling the accounts to be recovered. Steering Committee Plans for hospitalization insurance for local-rate employees are being developed by the Non-U. S. Citizen Employees Hospital Insurance Association. A. E. Osborne is Chairman of an 11-man steering committee organizing the association. This group has had several meetings and has also conferred with insurance companies concerning rates. Permanent officers for (See page w)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 "Service Centers" Suggested As Name For C. Z. Clubhouses Talented Quintet A proposal that the Panama Canal Clubhouses be known as Service Centers was presented to Civic Council representatives at their October meeting with ( rovernor J. S. Seybold. The proposal was relayed to the conference from the Community Services office with the comment that the proposed designation would more fittingly describe the services offered by the clubhouse units. Moreover, the recommendation said, questions are frequently asked during Congressional hearings as to why "clubhouses" are furnished for employees and the Canal "clubhouses" are often confused in such circumstances with military service units like Officers Clubs. As usual, the matters brought up before the conference covered a wide range of subjects. Health Problems Brigadier General Don Longfellow Health Director, told the representatives that it has been found possible to keep the Pedro Miguel -dispensary open for the present, at least. He warned that further budgetary cuts would call for a reexamination and reconsideration of this. Both he and Governor Seybold said that attempts to recruit doctors for the Canal Zone health service has been intensified, but without much success to date. As an added inducement, the Governor said, doctors coming to the Canal organization will be given arbitrary assignments to quarters. It is a matter of "prime importance to provide medical care for our people" the Governor told the conference. In answer to a question as to a dispensary for Margarita, the conference was told that this, as well as the situation of the plant at Colon Hospital, will depend on the outcome of talks on hospital consolidation. Commissaries, Clubhouses All of the civic councils have now approved the suggestion that the Margarita and Diablo Heights commissaries open Monday from 1-8 p. m. and close Wednesdays and it is expected that this will be done in the near future, the conferees were told. The Governor reported that the price of half-pint bottles of milk at the Balboa Clubhouse school luncheonette will be reduced 5 cents in price, but only when they are purchased in connection with the special school luncheon. Regarding another school matter, he said that repairs are being made to the walls of the Cristobal school cafeteria. The question of a marquee for the Cristobal commissary is still under study, he said; other representatives then asked about marquees for the Gamboa, Pedro Miguel, and Balboa schools, and these questions will be looked into. An unverified report that unauthorized persons were attending the movies at Cristobal Clubhouse brought an emphatic AUTHORS ALL The five Canal Zone women above and to the right are the authors and illustrator of two children's books published recently. Above, the three authors of "The Pelican Tree and Other Panama Adventures" Jean Bailey, Elizabeth Lamb, and Patricia Markun, watch illustrator Jeanne Beaudry at work. The name of their book, which was published by the North River Press, comes from a tree near the Balboa Yacht Club where pelicans frequently roost. Original drawings for the book and its dust jacket are now on display at the Library Museum. Marguerite Nix of Gatun, right, wrote "What The Little Fairy Saw" from stories she told her children when they were small. It has been published by Pageant Press and is illustrated by cartoonist Al Kilgore. remark from the Governor that he wants contraband stopped. He promised to act at once on verified cases of this or any other sort of contraband. While study is progressing on conversion to 60-cycle current, he told the conferees, it will be possibly six years before the conversion is completed, assuming the continuity of the program. He said that reports that Gatun would be on 60-cycle current next year were not true. What will be done about converting employees' household appliances will be up to the Board of Directors; some decision will be made soon on this question, he added. Range Of Subjects Other questions raised during the conference included: Guarantees on tires bought at the Motor Transportation Division and Storehouses: This is considered impracticable but adjustments will be made on defective tires after individual inspection; A request that the Panama Line sell railroad tickets for use of vacationing employees: Impossible because the Line is operating for the transport of employees between the Canal Zone and the United States and can engage in no outside commercial activities beyond the scope of its own facilities. Connections for automatic washing machines in the new quarters: Quarters built after fiscal year 1952 have these connections. Matters which will be studied included: A complaint that the Motor Transportation Division is not equipped to handle minor repairs over weekends; lack of free parking space for employees of the corrals on both sides of the Zone; transfer of most of the men's wearing apparel stock from Ancon to Balboa Commissary; resumption of the chest X-ray examination program for employees' families; the comparative cost of schooling in the Canal Zone, Alaska, Canada, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, and a question as to how this is supported. Attending the conference were: The Governor, General Longfellow; E. A. Doolan, Personnel Director; Vernal Brown, of the Washington office, as an observer, and Norman Johnson, Employee and Labor Relations Counselor; Elmer Powell, General Committee of Civic Councils; Marion Goodin, Gamboa; Hugh Thomas, Gatun; Sam Roe, AnconBalboa-Diablo; Charles Hammond, Pedro Miguel and John F. Rice, CristobalMargarita.


November 6, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW First Reigning Monarch Will Visit Canal Zone When Britain's young Queen, Elizabeth II, arrives here November 29 she will probably be the first reigning monarch ever to set foot in an official capacity on the Canal Zone. Although Panama Canal files and old records bulge with accounts of actual or projected visits of princes and dukes, former and future kings, presidents and presidents-elect, there are no accounts of any time when a ruling king or queen ever visited the Panama Canal. The only possible exception could be the recent canal transit of Salote Tupou, towering and personable Queen of Tonga, a British protectorate in the southwest Pacific. She transited the Canal last May, as a passenger aboard the S. S. Rangitoto en route to London to attend the coronation of Elizabeth II. At the time Canal oldtimers could not recall any previous occasion when the personal standard of a reigning monarch was flown from the mast of a transiting ship. Father, Uncle Were Here Elizabeth IPs two immediate predecessors on the British tin-one have visited the Canal, but neither after he became king. The present Queen's uncle, Edward VIII, now Duke of Windsor, and the Queen's father, the late George VI, at separate times inspected lock control towers and saw the workings of the Canal. As Prince of Wales, the Duke of Windsor visited the Isthmus twice; his first visit was from March 30 to April 1, 1920, and his second February 5 and 6, 1931. The first visit was official; he was quite literally royally entertained. A contemporary newspaper even published the menu of a banquet given at the Hotel Tivoli by the British Minister, Percy Bennett — it included corbina, chicken, avocado — and on its front page commented especially that the Prince had danced repeatedly with Carolyn Cranberry, daughter of a Panama Canal employee; the writer conceded that she was pretty and a good dancer. The Prince and his party were traveling aboard the cruiser Renown. Its transit was delayed an hour while the Dredging Division dynamited a 50-ton boulder which had rolled onto the floor of the cut. The Renown passed safely over the debris, but gashed its propeller badly. On his next visit, 11 years later, the Prince made Isthmian history, when he flew from France Field to Paitilla airport in a PAA plane, the first royalty to fly across the Isthmus. This visit was unofficial, because of a death in the royal family; the Prince traveled as the Earl of Chester, one of his lesser titles, aboard the S. S. Oropesa. How's The Baby? Then Duke and Duchess of York, the present Queen's parents, were here January 25 and 26, 1927. This time no huge rock impeded passage of the Renown which was piloted as it had been seven years earlier by Capt. Ralph Osborn. From a crow r d at Pedro Miguel locks, a homesick Briton called to the Duchess: "How's the baby?" and she leaned over the cruiser's rail to answer: "Baby's fine." The baby, of course, was the present Queen, then only nine months old who had been left at home in her palace nursery. There was a luncheon for them at Panama's Presidencia and a dinner at the British Legation was followed by a reception for 800 guests; the Star & Herald devoted nearly four columns to listing their names. On March 3, 1947, three other members of the British Royal family were visitors here. They were the Duchess of Gloucester, the present Queen's aunt, with her two small sons, then aged 2 and 5. The Duchess was traveling to England from Australia on the S. S. Rangitiki. In her stay of only a few hours, she QUEEN ELIZABETH II will arrive November 29 aboard the S. S. Gothic from the West Indies. THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF YORK, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, parents of'Queen Elizabeth II, visited the Canal Zone in January 1927. Gov. M. L. Walker was with them when they transited the Canal on the cruiser Renown; among other things he showed them was the control tower at Gatun locks. drove around the Pacific side, both in Panama and the Canal Zone, lunched at the British Legation and reviewed at least two military guards of honor, one of them at Pedro Miguel locks where she reboarded her ship. Danish Royalty Other royalty who have visited the Canal were the present King and Queen of Denmark, then Crown Prince and Princess, who were passengers aboard the MS Canada on March 27, 1939. Although they were traveling unofficially, they were welcomed with a 21-gun salute and were greeted by local dignitaries. Four months later the Crown Prince's 19-yearold brother, Prince Georg transited the Canal, also on the Canada. His visit was considered informal and no official functions were held. Other royal visitors whose names appear in Canal files include Archduke Otto of Austria-Hungary and his brother, who were here in April 1950; Prince Ferdinand of Lichtenstein and his Princess, visitors to the Canal Zone in April 1951; former King Leopold of Belgium and his wife, who were here on a yacht about 18 months ago; and Prince Wilhelm, brother of the King of Sweden, on an unofficial trip last March. Presidential Visits Three Chief Executives of the United States, two presidents-elect, two vice presidents, and innumberable cabinet members, senators, and representatives have visited the Canal Zone, officially and unofficially. Of these the late President William Howard Taft heads the list with the largest number of visits. As Secretary of War he made the first official visit to the Canal Zone in November 1904, only six months after American forces began work. Mrs. Taft was with him on his first trip. They were house guests of the American Minister in Panama and were entertained by officials of the then very young Republic of Panama. For his second visit in November 1905, the train which brought him across the Isthmus, public buildings in the Canal Zone, railroad stations along the line, and some buildings in Panama were gaily decorated. Mr. Taft made two other visits as Secretary of War, in March 1907, and May 1908. In January and February of 1909 he was here as President-elect with a party of civil engineers, and as President he made {See page m


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 FOR YOUR INTEREST AND £3H£ GUIDANCE it IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION ]£ Safety Equipment And Devices (HOW TO GET THE EMPLOYEE TO USE THEM) In the good old days of 1940, the Panama Canal had disabling injuries resulting in a high average frequency rate of around 90. It was easier then to reduce it from 90 to 15 in 1952, than it will be to reduce it proportionately in the future. One reason for this is the "old math" problem of arithmetical progression. If you were to walk one half the distance to Gamboa the first day, then one half the remaining distance the second day, and so on, theoretically you would never arrive, for there would always be one half the remaining distance left. This analogy somewhat fits the situation in which the Canal Zone GovernmentPanama Canal Company now finds itself. It is difficult now to see any great progress in the reduction of the average frequency rate. In 1940 the mere establishing of a full-time safety program, where there was none before, produced notable results. Now greater effort will be necessary to accomplish only one-tenth the results. Another reason for the substantial reduction in the number of accidents then was the establishment, from time to time, of better management responsibility and participation in safety, and enforcement of safety rules and regulations. Now supervisory interest in safety is good in all bureaus and divisions. Of course, there are some supervisors who think they have been relieved of all safety responsibility with the appointHONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD SEPTEMBER COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU INDUSTRIAL BUREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Industrial 6 Civil Affairs 3 Health 3 Community Services 2 Engineering and Construction 2 Marine Railroad and Terminals Supply and Service Division Award For NO DISABLING INJURIES SEPTEMBER CLUBHOUSE DIVISION ELECTRICAL DIVISION GROUNDS MAINTENANCE DIVISION DIVISION OF SANITATION AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Sani ta tion 8 Electrical 6 Motor Transportation 6 Dredging 5 Grounds Maintenance 5 Hospitalization and Clinics 4 Railroad 4 Clubhouses 3 Maintenance 3 Storehouses 3 Navigation 1 Commissary Locks Terminals ment of safety representatives and inspectors. Selling safety will still be a job with these people. During the past years most of the more evident unsafe conditions and practices have been removed or improved. However, if the average frequency rate is to be lowered, everybody will have to do his part, especially the employee at the bottom. What is the most important thing a worker can do to help lower the frequency rate? The answer is simple. All he has to do is look out for his own safety. This means the observing of such things as safety rules and regulations, using machine guards, grounding electrical tools, and wearing protective clothing. Of all these, the wearing of protective clothing appears to be the most difficult for him. Usually, the common laborer will wear some sort of shoes, shirt, hat, and grab a piece of paper to protect himself from the rain. The difficulty is to persuade him to wear the safety kind, a metal hat to protect his head, goggles to protect his eyes, gloves to protect his hands, safety shoes to protect his feet. Below are some ideas on the solution of the problem to get the workers' support. Management can set an example by: 1. Observing all safety rules, regulations, and signs of the area in which they happen to be working. 2. Wearing the safety equipment and apparel required of the worker while in his work area. 3. Correcting an unsafe procedure or inefficient process rather than ordering the worker to wear protective equipment against a hazard which could be eliminated by proper engineering. 4. Promptly removing an unsafe piece of equipment, where repair or replacement is indicated. 5. Installing safety guards on machinery which has not been properly guarded. 6. Acknowledging the sincerity and good intentions of the worker who makes complaints and suggestions for improving working conditions. 7. Getting the worker to realize that his safety is as much a part of his job as knowing how to do it. 8. Giving each worker the best in personal supervision, with instructions to both new and old employees in safety and job efficiency. 9. Holding frequent staff conferences in which backing is given to their safety engineer or inspector. Safety Personnel can participate by: 1. Promoting group education, posting safety posters, showing films and other visual aids, giving credit where merited, sponsoring workers' safety meetings conducted by the workers themselves. 2. Creating enthusiasm and interest in safety through working directly with the workers and listening to their complaints and suggestions. 3. Building the safety program for and to fit the worker rather than for the safety personnel. 4. Using a more interesting approach other than the usual fright picture of injuries a worker could receive. 5. Showing him how to prevent accidents with greater awareness and safety consciousness. 6. Getting the worker to use safety devices and protective clothing for his own sake rather than trying to enforce obedience 7. Working directly with all supervisors and foremen; helping them to teach safe and efficient procedure to their workers. 8. Making sure you have the best possible solution for their immediate problem. 9. Realizing that the paramount need is for safety and supervisory personnel to understand the worker and be able to work with him. 10. Setting a good example in safety; being patient; taking time to prevail upon, induce and persuade everyone to work safely and prevent accidents. SEPTEMBER 1953 Community Services Bureau Industrial Bureau Engineering and Construction Bureau Civil Affairs Bureau C. Z. Govt.— Panama Canal Co. (This Month) Marine Bureau Supply and Service Bureau Health Bureau C. Z. Govt.— Panama Canal Co. (Best Year) Railroad and Terminals Bureau Number of Disabling Injuries 19 Disabling Injuries per 1,000,000 Man-Hours Worked (Frequency Rate) l 1 10 EO 30 40 a 1 1 tssffla i mm 4 m 6 §PfP 1 8 i"fi*' A-'r.V'vIv^ 8 ™^ I 9 11;; !;:vl 11 13 IS %$&m%$ 20 30 40 50 Man-Hours Worked 2.469,911 LEGEND Amount Better Than Canal Zone Government— Panama Canal Company Best Year Amount Worse Than Canal Zone Government— Panama Canal Company Best Year Accumulative Frequency Rate This Year


November 6, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Many Significant Finds First Presented At Meetings Of Zone Medical Association EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first part of a two-part story on the Medical Association of the Isthmian Canal Zone, whose membership has included some of the most distinguished medical men of the Western Hemisphere. Organized in 1906, when the Canal Zone was a much more isolated spot than it is today and when tropical medicine was in its infancy, it served as a clearing house where its members could discuss their mutual medical problems and give one another a sometimes much-needed boost along paths which were just being explored. Dr. D. F. Reeder, charter member of the oldest Canal Zone professional organization, chuckles over the part he played in one of the many significant finds first presented to the medical world at meetings of the Medical Association of the Isthmian Canal Zone. Recognition of his bit role in the local discovery came at one of the regular meetings held soon after the Association was formed sometime in 1906. Histoplasmosis Discovery Dr. Samuel T. Darling, first official Chief of the Board of Health Laboratory at Ancon — now Gorgas— Hospital, was the speaker for the evening. His subject was histoplasmosis, unknown to the medical world until he discovered it. His first description of the frequently fatal disease, caused by a fungus that attacks the lungs, heart, and other internal organs, was given to local colleagues at that meeting. After reading the paper that has served since that time as the first source of information on the subject, Dr. Darling thanked Dr. Reeder for sending him the first undiagnosed case. Dr. Reeder, at that time barely past his internship at the hospital, says his failure to provide a diagnosis was not looked upon with similar favor by supervisory physicians. But his parents taught him to be an honest boy, he says, and since he didn't know it, he wouldn't call it. Charter Members Dr. Reeder resigned as Chief of Ancon Hospital's Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic in 1916 to join with other physicians in the formation of Panama Hospital where he is still in active practice. He was President of the Medical Association in 1914. Dr. Harry Eno, the one other remaining local charter member, began his internship at Ancon Hospital in October 1905 and remained in the Canal organization as a phvsician until 1915. Since that time he has been in private practice in Colon, and for several years headed the Samaritan Hospital there. Both of the local charter members are living archives of medical history on the Isthmus, site of many significant medical achievements, particularly in the field of public health and the study of tropical medicine. Many pioneering medical works first were made known at meetings of the local association and published in its proceedings, later to be used in other professional journals and explained to scientific gatherings elsewhere. Requests for papers in the Proceedings, which still are being received, have often CHARTER MEMBER of the oldest professional society in the Canal Zone, Dr. D. F. Reeder is shown here perusing an early volume of the Proceedings of the Medical Association of the Isthmian Canal Zone in the Library of Gorgas Memorial Laboratory in Panama City. Papers published in the Proceedings, after presentation to Association members at regular meetings, contain many valuable additions to the advancement of medical knowledge, particularly in the field of public health and the study of tropica! medicine. The one other charter member of the Association on the Isthmus is Dr. Harrv Eno of Colon. outrun the supply. The one complete set on the Isthmus is the personal property of Dr. Herbert C. Clark, Director of Gorgas Memorial Laboratory in Panama City, who keeps them in the library there. The Proceedings were published from 1908 to 1920, when the publication was discontinued as a Canal economy measure, but papers presented at monthly meetings continued to be collected up to 1935. Medical Milestones Several medical milestones in the study of trypanosomiasis, for instance, can be found in the Proceedings and minutes of Isthmian Medical Association meetings. Trypanosomiasis is caused by organisms called trypanosomes which inhabit the blood and tissues of man and animals. One member of the trypanosome family causes the sleeping sickness of Africa. Another causes Chagas' disease of Central and South America, an illness that is often fatai and one on which Isthmian doctors have done notable research. Trypanosomiasis of domestic stock, caused by another trypanosome, was first recognized on the Isthmus in 1909 by Dr. Darling, who described the disease as it occurred in a large lot of mules sent from New Orleans for Canal work. Dr. Darling, described by Dr. Clark as the outstanding scientific man of the old days at Ancon Laboratory, was a pathologist for the Canal and served from 1909 to 1915 as Chief of the Board of Health Laboratory. During that period, he reported in the Proceedings of the local association and other medical journals on 28 different subjects. The Wasserman test for syphilis, at that time very recently developed, was first given wide application by his laboratoi iti 19 iz and his work on malaria and equine trypanosomiasis were of great practical importance, according to Dr. Clark. Dr. Darling was President of the Isthmian Medical Association in 1908 and held the same post in the American Society of Tropical Med(See page IS) REGULAR PLEASURE-AFTER-BUSINESS features of otherwise serious monthly meetings devoted to professional matters are food and drink, being sampled here by three members of the Medical Association of the Isthmian Canal Zone. They are, left to right, Capt. Shirley E. Gage, M. C, surgeon at Fort Clayton Hospital, one of the three feminine members of the Association; Dr. Carl M. Johnson, Health Officer for the Canal in the Panama City Health Office, President of the Association; and Dr. I. J. Strumpf, Chief of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Service at Gorgas Hospital, Vice President. The other two women in the Association are Dr. Grace M. Stuart, Chief of the Anaesthesiology Section at Gorgas Hospital; and Dr. Lidia Sogandares, Obstetrician and Gynecologist in Panama City attached to the staff of Santo Tomas Hospital.


/ THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 Canal Says Regretful Farewell To Oldest Local Rate Workers l'i il'R of the oldtimers who are being retired from the Canal service meet on the front steps of the Administration Building where they haw all worked since 1914. Left to right they are: Prince Wolcott, Robert Atherley, Chesterfield Mayers, and Aubrey Todd. The Canal is saying a regretful farewell to a group of its oldest and most fail hful workers. They are the remnants of the small army of over 45,000 men who were recruited and brought to the Isthmus under contract to help build the Panama Canal. Within the next few months all but a few will be mustered out of service. Most of the offices and field units will be affected by the program of retirement for all local-rate employees over the age of 65. This program was begun in August and is scheduled to be completed by next March. The first group was retired in September and 87 more left the service at the end of October. When the program was begun there were approximately 475 in service above 65 years of age. Of these about 100 had passed the 70-year mark and there were a few who were SO years old or older. Gradual Program When this program is completed it is planned to begin a more gradual retirement program for the men and women in the age group of 62 to 65. There are now about 500 of this age group in service. The retirement of these will be "permissive" and those in good health who have special ability may be retained in service at the option of their supervisors. The retirement of the employees in the older age group was not instituted until after the recess of Congress because of favorable indications that the legislation to increase disability relief payments would be passed. The legislation is a Canal administration measure and Governor Seybold has announced that he will vigorously urge its speedy passage when Congress reconvenes in January. It is regarded as a temporary measure and the Canal administration is asking the enactment of retirement legislation for its non-U. S. citizen workers. This measure provides for compulsory retirement at the age of 62 years and if this is passed, the group of 500 employees above 62 years would be automatically retired upon its passage. All of those being retired during the current program will benefit under any legislation raising the cash relief payments. Majority From Barbados Most of those being retired now over 65 years of age are from Barbados since the great majority of workers who were brought to the Isthmus during the construction period under contract and retained in service were from there. The Canal Record in August 1914, published statistics on the number of contract laborers brought to the Isthmus during the Canal construction period. It showed that a total of 45, 107 were brought under contract to help on the Canal project. Of this number 19,900 were employed in Barbados. Other large groups were: Spain, 8,298; Martinique, 5,542; Guadeloupe, 2,053; Italy, 1,941; Colombia, 1,493; Trinidad, 1,427; Greece, 1,101; St. Kitts-Nevis, 942; and Cuba, 500. Most of the European laborers were repatriated or left the service for construction projects elsewhere in Latin America at the close of the Canal construction period. Many thousands of those from the West Indies also were repatriated. In addition to the 45,000 who were brought under contract for work on the Canal, thousands of others came to the Isthmus at their own expense to get jobs. Notable among this group were men and women from Jamaica. Legal restrictions in some of the British West Indies required the contract recruitment program to be centered mostly in Barbados and the French islands. There are no statistics available now on the number still in service who were brought to the Isthmus under contract. It is notable that the first and last group of contract laborers brought to the Isthmus during the construction period were from Barbados. A total of 404 were employed in 1904 during the first year of construction, and 528 were employed in 1913, the year before the Canal was completed. Four From Building Typical of the employees over 65 years of age who are now being retired are the four whose pictures are published on this page. All four are from Barbados and came to the Isthmus during the early construction period. These are, incidentally, the only four who began work in the Administration Building when it was opened in 1914 and have been continuously employed there since. Two of these oldtimers, Chesterfield Mayers and Prince H. Walcott, both Janitor Foremen, were retired at the end of September. The other two, Aubrey E. Todd, Office Helper in the Administrative Branch, and Robert J. Atherley, Station Messenger on the third floor, retired at the end of October. Another oldtimer at the Administration Building who retired at the end of last month was Josiah Douglas, Messenger on the "Governor's Station" for the past 35 years. He is from Jamaica and came to the Isthmus in 1909. Most of those over 65 who are now being retired have 40 or more years of service with the Canal organization. A few boast of 45 or even 50 years of service, since some were employed by the Panama Railroad or with the French Canal Company when the United States began the Canal work on May 4, 1904. The loss of these oldtimers will be sorely felt in the units where they have spent such a great part of their lives. They go with a fond but regretful "adios" from their associates in the Canal enterprise. Third Annual Firemen's Ball Will Take Place November 7 Final arrangements are being completed for the Canal Zone Firemen's Third Annual Ball, to be given tomorrow evening. Like the past balls, it will take place at El Panama. This year's ball is dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the Republic of Panama. Officials from Panama and the Canal Zone have been invited. Tickets will be available at the door for those who have not already purchased them. A taxi service, at 25 cents a person, will operate between the Civil Affairs Building parking lot and the hotel. The drawing for door prizes, at 10 p. m., will be followed half an hour later by a floor show. Sgt. Edward E. Albin is Chairman of this year's Ball Committee. Other members are: Firemen Kenneth R. Coleman, Fred A. Mohl, and John R. Olsen.


November 6, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW .jg.-i.MfcJ. Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly at BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE Printed by the Printing Plant Mount Hope, Canal Zone John S. Seybold, Governor-President H. 0. Paxson, Lieutenant Governor E. C. Lombard, Executive Secretary J. Rufus Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny Editorial Assistant SUBSCRIPTIONS— $1.00 a year SINGLE COPIES— 5 cents each On sale at all Panama Canal Clubhouses, Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publication date. SINGLE COPIES BY MAIL-lOcentseach BACK COPIES— 10 cents each On sale when available, from the Vault Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building, Balboa Heights. Postal money orders should be made payable to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Company, and mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z. Zone Days Were Happiest, Writes Retired Employee "When I receive a long official envelope from the Governor's Office, I am always hoping that it is a summons to come back to work, but I guess it is too late to hope for that any more," a retired Canal employee wrote recently. The writer was Edwin A. Hovey, now of North Anson, Me. Mr. Hovey retired from the Dredging Division in 1938 after almost 21 years service with the Dredging and Marine Divisions. He said he had answered the questionnaire sent to a number of retired employees by Booz, Allen and Hamilton, consultants engaged in a compensation study, and added: "I am very glad to do this as I fully realize that action that Congress takes on this report will not only affect you folks that are now employed on the Zone, but us retired personnel as well. "As you know we were granted a temporary raise in annuity about a year ago and this report to Congress will decide whether or not the raise will be made permanent or perhaps take it away from us. In which event we of the retired list are going to find it very difficult to maintain the standard of living that we have been used to, as our annuity dollar will only buy 52 cents worth • >f living today. "I did not by any means state so in my il 'Stionnaire, but the happiest and best l.i .of my wife and myself were spent on the Canal Zone and we have never been really satisfied and contented since we left there as it always seemed like our home. "When I receive a long official envelope from the Governor's Office, I am always hoping that it is a summons to come back to work, but I guess it is too late to hope for that any more. "Should there be any of my old associates left on the Canal Zone, I would like to • xpress my best wishes to them. "Very respectfully, Edwin A. Hovey." OF CURRENT INTEREST They Sponsor The ROTC WEARING uniforms in their school colors, the sponsors of the two high school ROTC units line up for The Review camera. In the blue and gold of Cristobal are, upper row, left to right: Mercedes Peterson, Mary Louise Allen, Barbara Hickey, and Kathryn Dignam. Balboa's red and white is worn by, lower row, left to right: Alice Paxson, Ann Mulligan, Josie DiBella, ,.i d Constance Glassburn. Miss Allen and Miss Mulligan are battalion sponsors; the others sponsor companies. The period between late December and early April is expected to be the biggest tourist season for the Canal Zone and Panama since 19.?, according to figures compiled by the Railroad Division. Late last month, 33 reservations had been made for special trains to handle transIsthmian tourist trips between l>ecember 24 and April 3. The train trips will be broken, either north or southbound, to permit the tourists to transit a portion of the Canal through the Cut. The itinerary for passengers from each ship is laid out by its tour agent. On four dates there will be tourist trains run for two ships. These will be December 29 when the Patricia and the Flandre will both be in port; February 8, for the Mauretania and the Italia (formerly the Kungsholm); February 16, for the Nieuw Amsterdam and the lie de France; and February 29, for the Empress of Scotland and the Ocean Monarch. The Patricia will make five trips to the Isthmus; and the Slella Polaris, Nieuw Amsterdam, Mauretania, and Empress of Scot/and are scheduled for three each. old Cristobal coaling plant which was demolished some time ago. another 2,400 ton.-, a put aboard the S. S. Hwasun. This was scrap assembled by the Storehouse Division from various Canal units. Friday night is a better night to shop, according to residents of Cocoli. This fact was discovered recently through a poll taken among the housewives of the West Bank community. The majority of the voters favored Friday rather than Thursday as the most convenient shopping night. As a result the Commissary Division has announced a change in the business hours of its retail store there. Effective tonight the Cocoli commissary will be open Friday from 1 to 8 p. m., instead of on Thursday evening. The annual visiting day for parents of students in the Canal Zone schools will be a feature of American Education Week, to be observed this year between November 8-14, in both colored and white schools. Parents of secondary school students will visit their children's schools on Thursday, November 12; visiting day in the elementary schools will be Friday, November 13. There will be no visiting day at the Paraiso schools, as parents in that town had an opportunity to see their children in class sessions at the time the school was dedicated. A date for visiting day in the new South Margarita school is uncertain, at this writing, and may be deferred until the formal dedication of the building. Colon Hospital has a new doctor. He is Dr. Leo M. Rettinger, formerly District Director of Public Health in Saipan, Mariana Islands, who arrived here during October and is now on the medical staff of the Colon Hospital. Saipan gave Dr. Rettinger a good idea of the climate of Panama and also a great deal of experience in dealing with tropical diseases. He was stationed there from July 1951 to 1953 and during that time was head of the medical activities of the Saipan district and in charge of the Saipan Hospital administering to both the Civil Service personnel and the native population. Born in New York City, Dr. Rettinger was graduated from City College of New York and took his medical degree from the Chicago Medical School. He was an intern in the Methodist Hospital in Gary, Ind. and later entered private practice in Houston, Tex. During the war he served with the Army Medical Corps and was stationed in England, France, Belgium, and Germany. The largest shipments of scrap to leave Canal Zone ports in well over a year were loaded aboard ships at Canal docks during last month. In two shipments a total ol 5,600 tons were loaded here for Japan. The larger of the two loads was 3,200 tons, put aboard the S. S. Alcyone Hope. The bulk of this shipment came from the Capt. John Andrews, Jr., new Port Captain for Cristobal, arrived last week from New Orleans to assume his duties here. He replaced Capt. William S. Parsons, who has been assigned to Captain Andrews' former post as Director of Naval Reserves and Director of Training on the Staff of the Commandant of the 8th Naval District.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 GREAT TREES cast their shade over Building GO which almost everyone calls the Central Labor Office. The Local-Rate Records Branch is also housed there. Most Canal Zone Workers Have Business Sooner Or Later At Balb oa's Building 69 Municipal Engineering Division and went to work at 24 cents an hour. A couple of years later he had trouble with his wife and came to the Central Labor Office with his problems. He was given some commonsense advice which helped patch things up for a while. Then his wife had trouble with Juan. She complained to the CLO that he was not giving her enough commissary books to provide for her and the children, who, by then, numbered nine. Juan was called in and talked to and a schedule set up which required him to give a certain percentage of his wages to his family. Eventually his domestic difficulties adjusted themselves. He continued as a laborer, was given a succession of salary increases until he eventually was earning 55 cents an hour. His Service Ends Recently he became ill and a physical check disclosed a heart condition. His case went before the Disability Relief Board which recommended— and the Governor approved— that he be put on disability relief. Meantime the Local-Rate Records Branch had been searching out his former service in their 7,000 volumes of old payroll records, some of them written in copper-plate and yellowed with age. The check verified his claim that he had six years of previous service. That, with his 14 years of continuous service, established the disability pension he would draw. Searching out old service is usually not as easy as it was in the case of Juan del Pueblo. Until 1929 there were no central complete personnel records kept for localrate workers. CLO people estimate that a thorough check for an old employee would take one CLO employee about 10 working days; as it is, the search is divided among a number of people. Conducted Tour A walk through the first floor of Building 69 gives a fair idea of what goes on there; the second floor is filing space and the conference rooms. Charles E. Barter, who has been with the Personnel Bureau since 1938, is at the Roosevelt Avenue door. He serves as receptionist, takes all incoming telephone calls and routes visitors and callers to the proper desks. The west front corner of the building is occupied by the Disability Relief Section where its head, C. A. Schecker, and his assistants, Mrs. Barbara H. Matthews and Goldbourne M. Jackman, are handy to the old people whose service is ending. At present they are in the middle of a program begun in mid-August which will retire 477 local-rate employees — over the age of 65 — within a five-month period. The east front of the building is occupied by A. L. Wright, Local-Rate Records Chief, and his staff. Mr. Wright, a bachelor, has "green fingers" and is responsible for Building 69's verdant appearance. He started the vines which now cover it from two sprigs from the old Baptist parsonage and begged, borrowed, and even stole from friends and acquaintances the plants which fill the pots hanging from the building's eaves. A Georgian, he worked in Guatemala and Costa Rica for United Fruit and in Sooner or later -and it's usually sooner — everyone who works in the Canal Zone has some business at Building 69 on banyan-bordered Roosevelt Avenue in Balboa. Built in 1939 to house the Designing Engineer's force (Third Lock studies and special defense projects), it is now headquarters of the Personnel Bureau's LocalRate Employment and Records Branches; it is generally known as the Cen .a! Labor Office. Training conferences are held in rooms on its second floor. Early in his employment processing every new employee of the Canal organization and potential local-rate employees of any Government agency in the Canal Zone visit the vine-covered two-story frame building where the music of practising school bands mingles with the roar of airplanes and the shuttling of railroad engines. All new U. S.-rate employees of the Canal are photographed and fingerprinted at Building 69. In most cases U. S.-rate employees of other agencies are fingerprinted at their own personnel offices but photographed at Building 69 where records of their employment are filed. There are now some 100,000 of these "control cards" for past and present employees on file. The process is somewhat different for the local-rate employee. He does not apply for work at any government agency until he has an eligibility card from the CLO — a card given him after he satisfies qualifications as to age, physical condition, citizenship status, and police record. Only then is he free to seek work, whereever it may be, in the Canal Zone. For the Canal Zone local-rate employee, Building 69 serves as an employment and termination office, a place where his records are kept, a complaints bureau, and a court of domestic relations. One Man's Record Take an imaginary local-rate employee, Juan del Pueblo. This is what his experience might have been: He had once worked for the Canal but had resigned and taken up farming in the Interior. In December 1939, when there were more jobs than people to fill the jobs, Juan del Pueblo decided to go back to work in the Canal Zone. He applied to the Central Labor Office which had been established that month "to centralize the induction and control of labor employed and seeking employment with The Panama Canal and other government agencies on the Isthmus of Panama," as an official report of that day phrases it. At that time the CLO was in the old police station, opposite the Balboa elementary school. He presented his cedula showing that he was a Panamanian citizen and was given a physical examination. A check showed a clear police record. A bi-lingual interviewer talked with him and classified him as a laborer. He was given an eligibility card to seek work, with a number which later became his I. C. number. Meantime a file was set up on him, one of the 750,000 or so in the local-rate records files. This contained information on his birth date, marital status, the number of his dependents, his previous employment record, and a letter of recommendation he happened to have from a former boss. He was then 45 years old. Juan deljPueblo found a job with the KENNETH F. BROWN, 76, is Building Oil's oldest employee. Hecamefrom Jamaica in I906and has been with Personnel since 1917.


November 6, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW PANAMA LINE SKIPPERS Capt, CHARLES L. FOLEY, S. S. Panama ''/'it/ */ilV> Capt. WILLIAM J. STEFFENS, S. S. Ancon Capt, F. DeF. GORMAN, S. S. Cristobal THE APPOINTMENT of Capt, Charles L. Foley, left, as skipper of the Panama Line's S. S. Panama last month completed a turnover of Panama Line masters which began in July a year ago. Captain Foley has been with the Panama Line since 1947 and has served aboard both the Ancon and Cristobal, in addition to his present command. He succeeds Capt. J. W. Kirchner, who has retired. Captain Steffens, center, has been in command of the Ancon for the past 15 months, ever since the retirement of Capt. David Swinson. A graduate of the New York State Nautical School, he has been in the employ of the Panama Line since 1926. Captain Gorman became skipper of the Cristobal last March when the ship's former master, Capt, Erik J. Eriksen, was appointed Panama Line agent in Haiti. Captain Gorman, like Captain Steffens, is a graduate of the New Y'ork State Nautical School; he has been with the Panama Line since 1936. Cristobal for Pan American Airways before he joined the Personnel Bureau in 1931. Home-Made Lift He is especially proud of a home-made "dumbwaiter," which links Building 69's two floors. Built at a cost of $11 it has saved thousands of hours of labor time. This dumbwaiter, a contraption made of a correspondence basket and a rope or two, hauls files to the second floor file room which is in charge of Mrs. Perpetua B. Hackett; her assistants are Mrs. Marjorie L. Neckar and Mrs. Hua W. Rigby. Behind Mr. Wright's desk is the mail center, in direct charge of George V. Daniels, where hundreds of pieces of correspondence are handled each week; the correspondence desk, where Mrs. Lois Johnson works; the organization desk in charge of Mrs. Marguerite Maphis assisted by Mrs. Jean J. Jacobson, where position records are checked and service dates for quarters established; and the bank of control card files. Across the room is the identification section headed by Mrs. Leila J. Gibbs assisted by Mrs. Helen P. Hunsicker, where Adrian B. Howell, who has been with Personnel for 11 years, laminates identification cards and photo badges. He seals them into their plastic covering in an ingenious machine which puts them under 15,000 pounds of pressure and bakes them for five minutes. They are later cut into the various shapes used here and an eyelet, for handy pinning-on, inserted. Old Payroll Section The next section, where the volumes of old payrolls are kept, is the particular bailiwick of Kenneth F. Brown who came to the Canal Zone from Jamaica in 1906 as a waiter and has been with Personnel since 1917. Now 76 years old, he is due to be retired next March. Also working in this section are John Henry, Fitz H. Howell, Harold F. Gibbs, and Worden V. Moore. The base, or back, of the L-shaped building is headquarters of the Localrate Employment Branch of which Charles H. Crawford is head. Born in South Carolina he still has traces of a Southern accent, although he lived in Chile for 13 years. He joined the Personnel Bureau in 1939 and from 1941 to 1945 spent a great part of his time ranging from Salvador to Colombia, recruiting contract workers during the war-boom years. Because he is nearest Building 69's back door and because it's his job, Mr. Crawford draws some rather peculiar visitors from time to time. More than once he has discovered that a caller has wandered away from an institution for the insane and not infrequently his visitors, with good-sized chips on their shoulders, have smelled strongly of marihuana. Across the back of the building are the desks of interviewers like T. L. Edghill and L. 0. Clarke, who talk to some 1,500 people every month. The file section, which is the province of J. A. Eastmond MRS. BARBARA MATTHEWS has been with Personnel since 1936. She works in the Disability Relief Section at Building 69. and where violent domino games rage during the noon hour, is in the end of this wing. W. A. Gaskin is in charge of the photographic section which, last year, took photographs of 13,969 people. Cristobal Office building 69's Atlantic side counterpart is Building 1029 — the Cristobal Labor Office. There Clarence H. Browne, whose Canal service dates back to 1937, and his one U. S.-rate and two local-rate employees perform all the duties done by the Central Labor Office in Balboa and, in addition, handle U. S.-rate employees of the Canal organization. At the end of last June, 28,238 men and women were working in the Canal Zone for the Canal, Army, Navy, Air Force, contractors and other government agencies, 800 more than at the end of the previous fiscal year. Record cards on all of them were on file in Building 69. Heavy as this load is, Building 69 has seen busier days. When the Central Labor Office and the Local-Rate Personnel Records branches joined forces in Building 69 on New Year's Day, 1941, employment in the Canal Zone was almost triple last year's figure. Far Flung Recruiting Workers had to be recruited and CLO teams worked in Costa Rica, Salvador, Colombia, and Jamaica, finding bellhops, blacksmiths, brakemen, carpenters, chauffeurs, cooks, dock workers, gardeners, mechanical helpers, bakers, butchers, jackhammer operators, seamen, waiters — in short, men who could fill just about any semi-skilled position. In these war years over 22,000 contract workers were brought to the Canal Zone and all but four or five of them have long since been repatriated. With their varied activities, the people who work at Building 69 have their hands full right now. To be sure, there are far fewer of them than there were 10 years ago, but they have no desire to go back to the hectic days of 1941-45.


10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 Your Town = Gat tin l lATUN'S TRIPLE FLIGHT of locks. ( were once hillti xtending one and one-sixth miles, raises or lowers transiting ships 85 feet. ps dot the surface of the lake beyond the upper end of the locks. Islands which Anyone revisiting the Canal Zone today, after an absence of 40 years, would have considerable trouble orienting himself in the town of Gatun. Its topography has been more changed and the town itself has undergone more metamorphoses than almost any other section of the Canal Zone. The name El Gatun, for village and river, appears on maps of Panama's colonial days. It may be derived from "gato," for cat, referring to the feline, smooth-running river; or it may come from "gatunero" or sailer of smuggled meat, since Gatun was known as a plac • where stolen cattle were brought for sale to travellers. Sir Henry Morgan and his men bivouacked close to Gatun, near what is now known as Navy Island, after sacking the old city of Panama nearly 300 years ago. During colonial times and until the beginning of this century, Gatun was located on the west bank of the Chagres, about where the office and machine buildings of Gatun Dam now stand. In the mid-1800's it was described as a sleepy village of 40 or 50 cane huts, on the edge of a broad savannah. On a hill overlooking the river were ruins of an old Spanish fort. The gold rush of 1849 and the beginning of construction of the railroad a year later woke Gatun with a jolt. Travellers, on their way upriver from Chagres, paid 25 cents each for eggs and $2 a night for a hammock, exorbitant prices for those days. When work began on the railroad, ships carried machinery, provisions, and part of the railroad force up the Chagres to Gatun. From Gatun they worked their way back through the swamp toward the railroad's Atlantic terminus on Manzanillo Island, now Cristobal-Colon. A month after the railroad ran its first work train, on October 1, 1851, as far as Gatun, a "norther" forced two passengerjammed ships into Limon Bay. The thousand California-bound gold hunters, unable to land at Chagres and start their journey up river from there, demanded passage on the railroad. They paid 50 cents a mile and $3 per 100 pounds of baggage for the 7-mile train ride. As the railroad tracks stretched further toward the Pacific, Gatun became just a railroad station and a river produce landing. Beside the tracks which ran on the east bank of the Chagres were a large, two-story house, a cluster of smaller buildings, and "suitable outbuildings" around a flourishing garden. L.LARGEN i police station; TS are a Gatun man-and-wife team. Sergeant Largent is Mrs. Largent is the nurse in charge of the Gatun first aid in charge of station. But about 1880 the French Canal Company forces reached Panama. Almost overnight, thousands of prefabricated buildings were unloaded from ship after ship. Warehouses, quarters, and machine shops went up in Gatun and along the railroad line. By 18S1 Gatun, rechristened Cite de Lesseps, had become the largest town in what is now the Canal Zone. After the French virtually abandoned work on the canal, Gatun lapsed into the quiet of its pre-boom days. American forces began work in 1904 but Congress did not authorize a lock-tvpe canal until 1906. French engineers and the first U. S. Isthmian Canal Commission had planned to dam the Chagres at Bohio, about 17 miles from Colon. It was John" F. Stevens, the Canal's second Chief Engineer, who advocated harnessing the Chagres at Gatun. "Why not make the Chagres the servant instead of the master of the situation?" he asked. Engineers quarrelled with his selection of Gatun as the dam and lock site and declared that the rock foundation was not suitable. Stevens held firm, and declared: "If Nature had intended triple locks there she could not have arranged matters better." But it was not until the then Secretary of War, William H. Taft, brought a group of engineers to the Canal Zone — they pronounced the location satisfactory— that the furor died down and work could be started. Tent City While the family and bachelor quarters and labor barracks to house the lock and dam forces were being built, the workers and some of' their families were sheltered in about 150 tents of varied shapes and sizes which stood in more or less orderly rows alongside the railroad tracks. The Labor and Quarters Department objected roundly. Jackson Smith, its head, predicted: "On account of its being a tent city, the men will not remain there after their first pay day;" and his assistant, Lt. R. E. Wood, now Chairman of the Board of Sears, Roebuck, added: "Gatun is going to be what Mount Hope and Comacho have proven to be — a sinkhole for men." The town was built under difficulties.


November 6, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11 MISS RUTH CROZIER, Gatun School Principal Before any houses could go up, a 16-foot plank road had to be laid from the railroad tracks to the foot of a steep hill and all material had to be carted over the road and up the hill. Despite the difficulties, 97 buildings had been erected by June 1907 and work had started on a commissary in a hollow opposite the present police station. Sibert's Hill A year later Lt. Col. William L. Sibert established the headquarters of the Atlantic Division at Gatun. The building was on high land just north of the present railroad station and close to the bridge over which Bolivar Highway now crosses the tracks. A metal hitching post to which Colonel Sibert tied his horse is still in place there, a metal plaque in its base. From the porch of the wind-swept office building, oldtimers recall, there was a splendid view of Limon Bay and the harbors of Cristobal and Colon, the dredges at work in the approach channel, the locks under construction in the valley below, and beyond them the dam which was beginning to take shape. For his residence, Colonel Sibert chose a hilltop east of the village on the road then being built from Gatun to Cristobal. Subsequent revampings of the town have leveled it off. In the meantime rapid progress on the locks and dam meant that the railroad, which ran close beside the Chagres, had to be relocated on spoil taken out years before by the French. The river had already been diverted. Moved To New Town In April 190S, the old native village and its 600 inhabitants were moved to zM ^ MISS PEARLINE CARTER, Chagres School Principal "New Town," which was located just about where the third locks excavation was dug over 30 years later. As it was rebuilt, New Town had over 110 building's including a church and its parsonage, and about 25 stores. Gatun was beginning to assume the look of a town. The railroad was moved from what is now the west side of the locks to its present location; the present station was begun in 1909. The same year work was started on a new two-story commissary at track level, north of the railroad station with the entrance at the bridge level. In 1909 a $25,000 clubhouse was built on a knoll next to the present dispensary. There were schools, a two-story hotel — its front lawn bore the letters "Q. M. D." (for Quartermaster Department) in foliage plants — a post office and telephone exchange near the present intersection of Bolivar Highway and San Lorenzo Street. There was a two-story lodge hall, which also served as a church, opposite the present dispensary, and bachelor quarters, one of which was located where Sibert Lodge now stands. The dispensary was on the location of the present Gatun school. A row of big quarters— which housed the families of such people as Maj. Chester Harding, who was in charge of locks construction and was later the Canal's second governor, William Gerig, who headed the dam forces, and other officialsstood opposite the location of the present clubhouse. Stilson's Pond Downhill, behind the present clubhouse was Stilson's Pond, at one time the reservoir for Gatun. It was named for Joseph H. Stilson, a "down Easter" from Maine; his father, Charles, had come to Panama in 1863 to work for the Panama Railroad. During the dry seasons, he and his family lived in a big house, built by the French Canal Company near the old village, about where the center chambers of the locks are now. Miss Louise Stilson of Colon, and two of her brothers, William and Joseph H. Stilson, Jr., until recently ticket agent for the Panama Line, were born in Gatun. Mr. Stilson, Sr., was in the hardware and lumber business in Colon. When work began on the dam, the Stilsons moved to another large house, later destroyed by fire, on a high point of land near the present railroad. Stilson's Pond, on old pasture land, came into being when Gatun Lake was formed. When the Third Locks excavation was going on about 1940, the pond was filled with its spoil. A few of old-time Gatun 's street names have survived all of the town's changes. There are still Lighthouse and Schoolhouse Roads, for instance. Telephone Road, also known as Skunk Hollow, is now San Lorenzo Street; Front Street is Bolivar Highway; Santa Rita Place was once known as Hogan's Alley or Incubator Row. Fun and Games Life was simple in early Gatun, but people had fun. There was a woman's club, with Mrs. Chester Harding as its 1908 president. The men could belong to such organizations as the Inca Tribe of the Improved Order of Red Men which gave a ball and banquet on Thanksgiving Eve, 1907, with children in Indian costume attending. The Gatun Dancing E. L. ROADES, Gatun Commissary Manager Club met regularly, and occasionally a touring company like the Edith HarrisScott Company gave performances at the clubhouse. Men with outdoor bents, like Charles E. Thomas, played baseball on a diamond between the end of the lock wall and the present station, in an area long since under water. Or they could hunt tigers and red mountain lions across the Chagres as Charles H. Bath, now of Margarita, did frequently. On hot Sundays it was possible to borrow an engine and railroad car to ride to the beach at Chagres. By March 1913, the population of Gatun was 8,887. Nine months later it had dropped to 5,943. The dam and spillway were finished, the locks were operating, and only clean-up work remained. An official estimate of that time gave the future population of Gatun as 160 American employees and their families. Housing Replaced Except for the introduction of Army troops into Gatun during World War I and some talk a few years later of abandoning the whole town, nothing much happened to Gatun until 1928, when new quarters were built for 164 local-rate families. In 1932, plans to replace most of Gatun 's old housing were approved and grading for the $1,250,000 project began January 31, 1934. Buildings came down right and left. Even the old police station was demolished. Its officers set up temporary headquarters in a small frame cottage but transferred their prisoners to the sturdier jail at Cristobal. Hardly had the new town been finished when Gatun went through another of its recurrent upheavals. The Third Locks LT. DAVID B. MARSHALL, Fire Station Commander


12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 project which had been under consideration to ince about 1930 finally becami On August 11, 9, Congress authorized the immediate construction of the third locks. [gland Between Locks latun this meant the building of a new triple ilk tiamber L,200 feet ide. They were to lie lee;.' Hi half a mile east of the original flight, (latun was to become an i n the two sets of locks and was m for some of the greatest. boom days of its up-and-down history. An official of the force to be required set a (leak of over 9,000 workers by 1943. In January 1941, the contracting firm of Wunderlich & Okes signed a contract for the ( latun excavation. Construction men in ived in. In the bottom of the third locks cut, now a great, gaping hole, giant shovels dumped their loads into dozens of trucks which raced about on the right-hand side of the imaginary highways below, and then, when they reached the tup, switched over to the left-hand drive and sedate speed limits of those days. From an observation platform, which still stands at the end of High Street, anyone could watch the ordered turmoil below. A few months after Pearl Harbor, Samuel Rosoff of New York, won the $45,705,000 contract to build the new Gatun Locks. Wunderlich & Okes completed their contract in May 1943, but the Rosoff contract was canceled. Shipping had been diverted to the war areas, cement and steel were all but unobtainable and there was military difference of opinion on the strategic value of the third locks. War Days With the war, the physical appearance of Gatun changed. Solid 26-foot fences of corrugated metal surrounded the lock area. Barrage balloons were anchored overhead. Buildings or part of buildings which might be fire hazards and, burning, light the vital locks target, were torn down. Air raid shelters were built and air raid drills held. Like all other Canal towns, lights were out by 11 p. m., there were no street lights, and cars drove with blacked-out headlights. As the war receded into the Pacific and danger to the Isthmus abated, Gatun and the rest of the Canal Zone — went back to its normal way of life. On March 31, 1944, just 35 years after its first clubhouse was built, Gatun's present clubhouse was inaugurated formally. It was called the "newest and most complete of any in the clubhouse system." About 40 Zonians who had lived in Gatun in 1910 were invited to the dedication. Some of them — Lawrence Adler, Roy Dwelle, Reed E. Hopkins, Sr., and Charles E. Thomas— are still on the Isthmus. Gatun Today Today Gatun is a town of about 2,160 people. Its U. S.-rate commissary and clubhouse and post office are under one roof. The local-rate commissary and clubhouse are also combined, physically. There are two churches in Gatun proper, several in the local-rate section of towm which is generally known as Chagres. Gatun has an active Little Theater group and its residents think that it has more hobbyists than any area of like size. The grind of the power saw is a familiar sound. Camera enthusiasts, shell, coin, and stamp collectors, dog fanciers, and icthyMRS. EVA REED, Gatun Clubhouse Manager ( JLIFFORD GREEN, Chagres Commissary Manager 111 I III 1 MARTIN S. SAWYER, Postmaster ologists abound. Several well-known local artists have lived there or still do. One Gatun woman is the author of a book of children's fairy tales. Fishermen come from near and far to its Tarpon Club, beside the Gatun spillway where there is some of the best fishing in the world. Its town barbecues are famous. They are good, old-fashioned affairs where the men dig a deep pit, and work all night turning a beef or a pig over red-hot coals to the proper degree of rich, brown crispness. There are often community picnics or dinners at the Block House, another (latun institution, and its active Civic Council always arranges festivities for Christmas, Hallowe'en, and Fourth of July. The Christmas decorations which are an annual feature on the locks have inspired the townspeople to similar, if less elaborate, efforts and a drive through Gatun during the holiday season is well worthwhile. Carl Nix, who works at the Gatun Hydroelectric plant, is president of the Gatun Civic Council. Although he is a transplanted Pacific sider, he now considers Gatun the best place in the Canal Zone. "It's the friendliest town on the Isthmus," he says. "It doesn't make any difference whether you've been there ten days or ten years. You're part of Gatun." Ten Years Ago In October 5 Selective Service was about to reach its long arm to the Canal Zone for the first time in World War II. Late in October came the official announcement that all U. S. male citizens abroad, including the Canal Zone, would be required to register for the draft, provided thev were between the ages of 18 and 44." Prior to this time Zonians registered when they went to the United States on leave; no local machinery had been set up to handle local registrations. Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox visited the Canal Zone briefly for the third time since he had been appointed to the Cabinet post. He ivas on his amy back to Washington after a quick inspection of U. S. Naval Forces in Europe and the Mediterranean area. In Washington, after a long legal battle, the Court of Claims awarded to Louis Townsley, retired master of the dredge Las Cruces, over $5,000 in back overtime pay. The award covered the period from March 1914 to August 1939. Seventy-one similar suits were pending for men whose employment had been similar to Mr. Townsley's. From Balboa Heights came word that the application of the Court's decision was under study. OSMOND N. DUVERNEY, Chagres Clubhouse Manager Less than four weeks after the National War Fund drive opened in the Canal Zone, its $80,000 goal was over-subscribed. The drive provided funds for 17 agencies, one of them the United Services Organizations. National War Fund Sunday was observed; Girl Scouts helped the drive through calendar sales.


November 6, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 Many Significant Finds First Presented At Meetings Of Zone Medical Association (Continued fram pageo) icine in the year 1924-1925. He was killed in an automobile accident in 1925. Animal Reservoirs Several years after Dr. Darling's discovery of trypanosomiasis in horses and mules, Dr. Clark and Dr. L. H. Dunn demonstrated that cattle, hogs, sheep, and goats also are infected with the same trypanosome although they act only as a reservoir for the parasite. Although considerable experimental work was done on the Isthmus and elsewhere the methods of transmission of trypanosomiasis of horses and mules remained a mystery until 1932 when Dr. Clark and other scientists at Gorgas Memorial Laboratory discovered that the vampire bat is the carrier. The sole diet of vampire bats is blood and, although they have been known to bite human beings on very rare occasions, they ordinarily live on the blood of animals. They pick up the trypanosomes of diseased cattle in the process of feeding, which they do by clipping the hair from a small area, biting the clipped, bared skin, and lapping up the oozing blood much as a cat drinks milk. In about half such cases the bat dies from the trypanosome infection within a month but before he dies, may spread the disease to other animals on which he feeds. In the remaining cases the bat lives but may become a chronic carrier. Mouse-Like Bats Local vampire bats, Dr. Clark says, are not the huge creatures they are painted in horror stories. Both in size and color they look very much like a mouse. The maximum wing spread is about 12 inches. In the rare cases known to him in which bats have bitten people in this area the bites were not serious and there were no ill effects. The trypanosomiasis of horses and mules cannot be transmitted to man. The contribution of Dr. Clark to the study of trypanosomiasis is only one of many achievements which have won for him world wide recognition and many top medical honors in the field of tropical medicine. He has been in charge of Gorgas Memorial Laboratory since it was established in 1929. He first came to the Isthmus in 1909 as a pathologist on the first permanent staff of the Board of Health Laboratory and remained there until 1922 except for two years in France during World War I. He was in the medical department of United Fruit Company from 1922 to 1929. He was President of the Medical Association of the Isthmian Canal Zone in 1917 and was President of the American Society of Tropical Medicine for the year 1936-1937. A new pathogenic form of trypanosomiasis was reported in Panama in 1940 by Dr. Carl M. Johnson, at that time Assistant Director and Protozoologist at Gorgas Memorial Laboratory. He is now Health Officer in Panama City for the Canal Health Bureau, and President of the Medical Association. Significant chapters also have been written by members of the Association in the history of the study of Chagas' disease, caused by another trypanosome that commonly invades the heart muscles TURKEYS for Thanksgiving are as traditional as the last Thursday in November. Today's tender turkeys, though, are a far cry — or would it be a gobble? from the rangy birds which our Pilgrim forefathers shot out of the trees near Plymouth. To meet the Canal Zone demand for the Thanksgiving table, the Commissary Division will be receiving next week 21 ,000 pounds of tender toms and young hen turkeys. They will range from seven to 26 pounds and will be either the dressed birds or the eviscerated variety which require almost no work lo ready them for the oven. More torkeys will be along before Christmas time. Stuffing goes with turkey just as applesauce goes with pork. Again this year Prepared the commissaries will have the Stuffing famous Pepperidge Farms stuffing, at about 33 cents for an 8-ounce bag, enough to stuff a 10-12 pound bird. CRANBERRIES, from Atlantic coast cranberry bogs, will be coming along, either fresh or in canned sauce, to go with the main dish. Other fresh produce which the commissaries will provide includes lettuce and celery, big Idaho baking potatoes or juicy golden sweet potatoes,rosy apples, California or Florida oranges and clusters of grapes. For a Thanksgiving menu, the commissary people venture to suggest Suggestions something like this, every item For available in the retail stores: Thanksgiving Oyster or shrimp cocktail, made from the fresh oysters or frozen shrimp tails,onion soup, from the Lipton's Soup Mix which is new in the grocery sections,roast turkey with Pepperidge Farm stuffing; sweet or while potatoes, creamed onions,a salad of your choosing,and, for dessert, pumpkin pie, either purchased from the Bakery counter or made from the ready-prepared pumpkin pie mix,or Mrs. Mason's Rum and Brandy Fruit Cake, about 65 cents for a one-pound box or $1.35 for a two-pound tin, in the grocery sections, or individual ice-cream molds, available on order in the shape of a roast turkey, at 14 cents each. TEENAGERS are never filled up, so mothers might do well to stock up for between meals nibbling, on some of the English biscuit sweet cookies to us Americans — which are again in the grocery sections. Both Huntley & Palmer and Peak Frean assortments are available at prices from about 70 to 95 cents, depending on size. The gaily decorated tins in which they are packed are handy for a number of uses, once the biscuits are gone. For turkey roasting, the commissaries are stocked with six covered aluminum Roasters roasters, oblong, oval or round, And ranging from $2.15 to $7.50 in Skewers price. The biggest will accommodate a 16-22-pound bird. A round, three-quart pyrex roaster, at about $1.30 and a medium sized enamel roasler, at about $2.45, are also on hand. A card of skewers, one long and three short, "for the well-dressed turkey" it says, and to fasten up the places where the stuffing went in, is available in hardware sections at 12 cents a card. CARVING SETS, to use at Thanksgiving and all the year round, are also available in the hardware sections. Three pieces, they range in price up to $22.95. The top price is for an especially handsome set with silver handles. Hardwood nut or snack bowls, 6, 9, and 1 3 inches in diameter sell for 60 cents to $2.75. Filled with fruit and nuts, the big bowl would make a handsome centerpiece. Due soon in the hardware sections are Westinghouse roaster ovens. Helps Finished with two coats of For baked-on enamel they have a Housewives glass look-in" panel on top and are fine for a Thanksgiving turkey, a big roast or a whole meal, $41.50. A Sunbeam automatic cooker and deep fryer, at $28.50, eases preparation of any meal,and people who have used them for everything from cocktails to cakes are lyrical over Waring Blendors. They sell for $34.75. CANDLES enhance the beauty of any dinner table. The commissaries have 10-inch candles, in the shape of ears of corn, at 20 cents each; or a tree trunk candle, also 10 inches tall, for 79 cents. Short, fat candles, shaped and colored like a turkey gobbler, are 10 cents each. Then there are sets of six wax candle holders, two turkeys, two pumpkins, and two pilgrim hats, each with its orange colored candle, at 72 cents a box. The ladies of the family, from the sub-teens to grandmother, can find new To Wear dresses for Thanksgiving and To Dinner the holiday season coming into the stores now. Many of them are one of a kind. The collection features several with the new princesse lines. Many are sequin-trimmed. OUR PILGRIM FATHERS would probably have frowned on square dancing, but it's pretty sure that there will be square dances in the Canal Zone during the Thanksgiving weekend. The commissary shoe sections now have square-dance boots for girls — they say true square dancers "wouldn't be caught dead without them" in medium widths, sizes 3j to 9, in rust, oxblood, and burgundy. An adjustment strap crosses the waffleembossed quarter. Speaking of shoes, the commissaries have a new safety shoe as handsome as To Wear any dress shoe, for the head of Any Time the family. A blucher oxford, it has a new type plastic counter in the heel, a woven vamp, and shoe people say, though it can't be seen, a steel safety toe. Selling for $8.65 it is available in C, D, and E widths, sizes 6 to 11, in Cristobal and Balboa Commissaries. Men's baseball shoes, in sizes 6 to 12, at $6.50 a pair, are also on hand in Cristobal and Balboa commissaries. They are made by the Hyde Athletic Shoe Company. And Dad or his older sons should be interested in another new number: a two-eyelet Chukka, featured by many smart slores. Made of full-grain calf, it is smooth inside with the suede appearing skin on the outside and features a cellular crepe sole. In a good-looking golden shade, it comes in sizes 5 to 12, in D width only, and is priced al $7.50. It is available at Balboa, Cristobal, Tivoli, La Boca, Camp Bierd, and Rainbow City commissaries. causing severe fever and pain and some mental confusion. Dr. Johnson contracted a near-fatal case of the disease when he was studying it in 1950. Notable early work on Chagas' disease was done locally by Dr. Dunn, former entomologist at the Board of Health Laboratory. Dr. Raymond Kelser, former associate member of the Association, devised, while he was on the Isthmus, a serological test for detecting the presence of the trypanosome that causes Chagas' disease, a procedure that is used widely throughout Central and South America. Dr. Kelser was the veterinary member of the Army Medical Research Board that was transferred from the Philippine Islands to the Canal Zone about 1935 and functioned on the Isthmus for about six years. Following his retirement from the Army as a Brigadier General, Dr. Kelser was Dean of the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He was widely known for his work in veterinary bacteriology and author of a well known text book on the subject.


' 14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS NOVEMBER SAILINGS September 15 through October 15 Employe! ted or transferred b nbei I 5 and < li ire 1 i below Regradings ,uu\ withingrade pi omi il ions are not listed. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Mrs. Martha E. Richard, from Clerk typist, Personnel Records Division, to \cu> Writer, Press Suction. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Mrs. Minnie E. Brennan, from Kindergarten Assistant to Elementary School teacher, Schools I liv ision. Mrs. Margaret M. Ward, from Substitute Teachei to High School Teacher, Schools I Kvision. Mrs. Iris E. Wilson, from Substitute Teacher to Elementarj School Teacher, Schools 1 > i \ ision. Henry B. DeVoll, from Guard, Locks Division, to Postal Clerk, Posfal, Customs, and Immigration Division. James L. Collins, Jr., from Guard, Locks Division, to Policeman, Police I >i\ ision. Harriet K. Serger, from Elementary School leacher to Substitute Teacher, Schools I >i\ ision. COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU John W. Hare, from Realt\ Assistant to Land Inspei tor, Office of Director. Sidney Temple, from Clerk-Typist to Housing Management Aid, Housing I )i\ ision. Paul T. Roth, from General Supply Clerk to Housing Management Aid, Housing I Hvision. OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER Ralph K. Skinner, from Accountant, General Accounts Branch, to Voucher Examining Supervisor, Claims Branch. Mrs. Grace E. MacVittie, from Clerk, Industrial Division, to Clerk-Stenographer, Claim Brani h. Mrs. Ruth K. Peterson, Clerk-Stenographer, from Claims Branch to Comptroller's Office. Jack A. Muller, from Electrical Engineer, Electrical Division, to Valuation Engineer, Plant Inventory o\\ Appraisal Staff. Daniel J. Slater, from Construction Cost Analysl to Engineer (Estimates) Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff. Mrs. Alice H. Roche, from Accounting Clerk, Agents Accounts Branch, to Voucher Examiner, Claims Branch. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Thomas S. McKibbon, from Superv isorj ("oust ruction Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division, to Electrical Engineer, Engineering 1 livision. Hubert A. Rotenberry, from Painter. Industrial Division, to Painter Leader. Maintenance I Hvision. Chester R. Boltz, from Wireman to Distribution Foreman, Electrical Division. Walter R. Malone, from General Foreman, Excavators and Tractors, to Chiel Operator, Floating Crane, Dredging Division. Charles S. Joyner, from Ferrj Ramp Operator, Ferry Service, to (in. ml SuperI >redging I >i\ ision. George K. Reichel, from Steam Engineer, Floating Crane, to Engineer, Pipeline Suction Dredge, Dredging Division. John R. Hammond, Jr., from Mechanical Engineer to Supervisory Mechanical Engineer, Engineering Division. Lee R. Beil, from Chief, Diesel Generation Station, to Chief, Hydro Generation Statii hi. Elei i rical I >iv ision. Ralph H. Graham, from Power Dispatcher to Chief, Diesel < lenerating Sen Electrical 1 livision. Mrs. Mildred II. Morrill, from ClerkTypist, Locks Division, to Clerk-Stenogi aphei Elei 1 1 ii al I >iv ision. Ralph L. Sell, from Planing Mill Hand, Industrial Division, to Carpenter Leader, ntenance 1 >iv ision. Kenneth K. Marcy, from Planing Mill Industrial Division, to Quarters Maintenance Leader, Maintenance I >i\ ision. Starford 1.. Churchill, Jr., from Apprentice Machinist to Machinist, Dredging I )iv ision. James F. Ahearn, from Construction Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division, to Plumber, Maintenance Division. Gerald A. Doyle, Jr., from Construction Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division, to Architect. Engineering Division. HEALTH BUREAU Ralph A. Sylvestre, from Hospital Administrative Assistant to Hospital Administrat i\ e I Hticer. Mrs. Helen S. Rovics, from General Storekeeper to Property and Supply Clerk, ( iorgas I lospital. Louis L. Seldon, Electrician, from Aids lo Navigation Section to Gorgas Hospital. Mrs. Martha L. Lerchen, from Clerk, Industrial Division, to Clerk-Typist, Gorgas I lospital. MARINE BUREAU Charles 0Peters, Jr., from Ferry Ramp Operator, Ferry Service, to Assistant Foreman, Atlantic Locks. Ollen P. Strickland, from Shipjoiner to Planing Mill Hand, Industrial Division. Everett White, from Ferry Ramp Operator, Ferry Service, to Guard, Locks I livision. Gilbert F. Lee, from Guard Supervisor, Industrial Division, to Guard, Locks I livision. J. Ernest Tigert, from Guard to Guard Supervisor, Industrial Division. Herbert K. Peterson, from Planner and Estimator to Chief, Planning Section, Industrial Division. Hubert D. Clayton, Jr.; George E. White; Robin L. Erixon, from Probationary Pilot to Qualified Pilot. Navigation I )|\ ision. James E. Lovelady, from Policeman, Police Division, to Guard, Locks Division. John M. Stuart, Christian J. Gundersen, from Pilot-in-Training to Probationary Pilot, Navigation Division. Lawrence W. Jenkins, from Guard to Guard Supervisor, Locks Division. Linvvood R. Moist, Sr., from Guard Supervisor to Assistant Chief, Locks Security Branch. Paul D. Barnard, from Lock Operator Leader Wireman to Lockmaster, Pacific Locks. Joseph T. Cope, from Lock Operator Wireman to Lock Operator Wireman Leader, Pacific Locks. Mrs. Gertrude M. Roberts, Clerk Typist, from Division ol Storehouses to Locks I livision. Archie W. French, from Combination Welder, Maintenance Division, to Lock Operator Welder, Pacific Locks. John W. Forrest, from Machinist to Machinist Leader. Industrial Division. Edwin C. Mcllvaine, from Freight Traffic Clerk, Terminals Division, to Fiscal Accounting Clerk, Industrial Division. PERSONNEL BUREAU Nancy C. Fuller, Clerk-Typist, from Gorgas Hospital to Personnel Records I livision. RAILROAD AND TERMINALS BUREAU Mrs. Ethel J. Roof, from Mail and File Clerk, Terminals Division, to Clerk-Typist, Railroad I >iv ision. James W. Grey, from Supervisory Storekeeper to Supervisory Traffic Clerk, Terminals I >iv ision. Joseph A. Corrigan, from Supervisory Traffic Clerk to Supervisory Freight Traffic ( Ifficei I erminals 1 liv ision. Henry G. Apfel, from Utility Operator, Maintenance I >iv ision, to danger and Criblender Foreman, Terminals Division. SUPPLY AND SERVICE BUREAU Herbert F. Taake, from Electrician to Plant Electrician, Commissary Division. Desmond S. Doig, from Storekeeper (Shipping) io Storekeeper (Receiving), Commissar) I >iv ision. Robert G. Richardson, from Storekeeper (Shipping) to Foreman (Shipping), Commissai j I livisii m. James J. Reccia, from Storekeeper (Receiving) to Storekeeper (Shipping), Commissary I livision. From Cristobal Cristobal November 6 Ancon] November 14 Panama^ November 21 Cristobal November 27 From New York .4 neon November 5 I'amima-. .November 10 Cristobal November 17 Anion November 24 tLeaves Cristobal Saturday. Arrives New York Friday. Leaves New York Thursday because of holiday. (Northbound the ships are in Haiti from 7 a. m. to noon Sunday; southbound the Haiti stop is Saturday, from 7 a. m. to 4 p. m.) OCTOBER RETIREMENTS Retirement certificates were presented the end of October to the following employees who are listed alphabetically, together with their birth places, titles, length of service, and future addresses. Julius O. Barnes, West Virginia; Chief, Payroll Branch; 28 years, 4 months, 15 days; Ridgeley, W. Va. Albert W. Harber, New York; Ferry Ramp Operator, Balboa; 15 years and 10 davs; address uncertain. Robert Harvey, Virginia; Wood and Steel Carman, Railroad and Terminals Bureau; 16 years, 7 months, 7 days; Tigard, Oreg. Earl W. Hoverter, Pennsylvania; Shipping Foreman and Storekeeper, Commissary Division; ,?0 years, 1 day; Gardners, Pa. Merrill Patten, Maine, Administrative Assistant, Engineering Division; 17 years, 9 months, 29 days; Canal Zone. ANNIVERSARIES Employees who observed important anniversaries during the month of October are listed alphabetically below. The number of years includes all Government service, with the Canal or other agencies. Those with continuous service with the Canal are indicated with (*). 45 YEARS Lancen L. Phillips, Chauffeur, Motor Transportation (Governor's car). 30 YEARS William F. Bartholomew, Senior Chief Engineer, Craneboat Alias, Dredging I livision. Robert H. Hicks, Voucher Examiner, Claims Division. *Earl W. Hoverter, Foreman, Shipping and Storekeeper, Commissary Division. Leroy B. Magnuson, Budget Analyst, Management Staff. Henry E. May, Superintendent, Storehouses Division. Bernard W. Mclntyre, Locomotive Engineer, Railroad Division. *Carl R. Newhard, General Foreman, Telephones (Northern District), Communications Branch. R. Andres Rios, Dispensary Aide, Gorgas Hospital. 25 YEARS 'Edmund T. Bleakley, Foreman, Pipe Line Suction Dredge, Dredging Division. Lewis R. Cox, Guard Supervisor, Dredging I liv ision. *Ruth C. Crozier, Principal, Gat tin School. *Walter H. Hebert, Admeasurer, Balboa, Navigation Division. *Dorothy C. Kern, Teacher, Cristobal Elementary School. Rufus M. Lovelady, Position Classifier, Personnel Bureau. Victor L. Sanger, Tractor-Bulldozer Operator, Maintenance Division. *Edith H. Stoll, Clerk-Stenographer, Commissary Division. *Adrian W. Webb, Lock Operator. Leader, Pacific Locks. 20 YEARS Preston G. Gau, Supervisor, Tabulating Machine. Operations, Comptroller's Office. Thelma R. Godwin, Teacher, Cristobal


November 6, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 FIRST COROZAL QUARTERS TO BE OCCUPIED NEXT WEEK LAYOUT (if the Corozal housing area is shown in this aerial photograph. The houses at tr upper left will be occupied next week (Continued from page t) new town at Corozal embodies a new concept in town planning for civilian communities. The accompanying aerial photograph taken late last month shows the unusual arrangement in street layout. The area is encircled by a broad street, one side of which parallels Gaillard Highway. The principal residential areas are served by circular or dead-end streets to eliminate dangerous intersections. Variety Of House Types The new town is also unique in the types of buildings. It has the greatest variety in types of houses of any of the large quarters construction projects initiated under the long-range quarters replacement program. They include both masonry and composite houses. Forty of the buildings are duplex quarters and of these, 14 are one-story houses. Of special interest to employees are the new two-story masonry duplex buildings. These are new types containing three and four bedrooms to an apartment on the second floor. Both types are of the same general floor plan with the bedrooms located on the second floor and the ground Elementary School. Joseph P. Hawthorne, Lock Operator, Atlantic Locks. Frank H. Lerchen, Maintenance Engineer, Maintenance Division. Roy W. Perkins, Assistant Foreman, Marine Bunkering, Terminals Division. Frank J. Stewart, Heavy Truck Driver, Special, Motor Transportation Division. Semon Theriot, Lock Operator, Atlantic Locks. 15 YEARS Emily E. Butcher, Music Supervisor, Colored Schools. *John R. Campbell, Chief Towboat Engineer, Dredging Division. Edward J. Friedrich, Planner and Estimator, Industrial Division. *William S., Lock Operator, Pacific Locks. Fred R. Middleton, Control Investigator, Control Branch. Ruby Easter Radel, Nurse, Gorgas Hospital. G. C. Rodriguez, Guard, Atlantic Locks. Ervin A. Rolli, Guard, Atlantic Locks. Harmon Smith, Wireman, Electrical Division. Elmer E. Stern, Senior Carpenter, Aids to Navigation Section. Robert J. Straus, Lock Operator, Pacific Locks. Fred R. Trout, Electric Welder, Industrial Division. Bennett J. Williams, Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Payroll Branch. THIRTV-THKKE of th at Corozal wil two-family, three bedroom houses like this one be built at Diablo Heights this year floor being devoted to living space with carports for each apartment at the front of the building. The first of these buildings, the fourbedroom apartments, were completed on Empire Street in Balboa this year. The first of the three-bedroom apartment buildings were assigned in the first group at Corozal. There are 19 of the threebedroom duplexes being built there and seven of the four-bedroom duplexes. Many Two-Story Duplexes Because of the large number of the Type 336 buildings (three-bedroom apartments) being built at Corozal and to be built in the 1954 program, a picture of a recently completed building of this type is shown above. Floor plans of the four-bedroom apartments, Type 339, were published in the January 1953 issue of The Canal Review. In addition to the 33 buildings of this type at Diablo Heights which are to be built this fiscal year, a large number of Type 336 and Type 339 houses will be built in Balboa Flats. A total of 98 family units are planned for construction there this fiscal year. Invitations for bids for the quarters construction in Balboa and for the nine houses to be built at Gatun are to be advertised next month. La Boca, Camp Bierd Start Saturday Morning Matinees Saturday morning matinee performances were inaugurated last week by the Clubhouse Division at the La Boca theater. Similar matinees will begin tomorrow at the Camp Bierd theater. Show time is 10 a. m. The matinees were requested by the Rainbow City Civic Council which felt that there should be daytime entertainment for children since some of them are not permitted to go out at night without adult escort. The Saturday morning programs will be designed to appeal especially to the juvenile audiences. The feature pictures for the first three Saturdays, in order of showing, are: "Hawk of Wild River," Beauty Doth Varnish Age The venerable Hotel Washington is having its face lilted — In fact it is hoped that the painters can put a little sparkle in the old girl. Not that she isn't a handsome old lady, but for some time she has lacked that "come-hither-look" which is standard among all the younger and more modern inns. Painters, under the direction of J. S. Christopher of the Maintenance Division, went to work in the hotel during October and the work of repainting all the public rooms and corridors has been progressing rapidly. The private rooms and suites are being painted as they become empty. The floor of the ballroom is being refinished and the beautiful ceilings of the hotel are being touched up. Work should be compjeted early in November. "Roaring Frontier," and "Terror Trail." In addition, there will be chapters from the exciting serial, "Captain Video."


16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 THE CANAL ZONE twice welcomed the then Prince of Wales, later Edward VIII and now Duke of Windsor. This photograph was taken at the Balboa Heights Administration Building in 1931. In the foreground, left to right are: Prince George; the Prince of Wales; Capt. Clark Woodward, then Marine Superintendent; and ('apt. Maurenus Peterson, who was then in charge of the Balboa Police district. First Reigning Monarch Will Visit Canal Zone [Continued from page S) two official visits, in November 1910 and December 1912. Old Porch Is Best Just before he arrived in 1912, Col. George Goethals sent the President a messagt asking him to stay at the Goethals house in Culebra. "Culebra is cooler, offers better protection, greater privacy, more quiet, is more centrally located, and the old porch is still the best place on the Isthmus," he wrote. President Theodore Roosevelt made only one visit to the Canal Zone, in November 1906, but he was the first president to leave the United States while in office. The Hotel Tivoli was rushed to completion for his visit and elaborate plans were made for his entertainment, but these were cut down by the President who said he wanted to see the work on the Canal and confer with the men in charge. The Canal Zone was so little prepared at that time for an official visit that the 21-gun salute on his arrival was given with guns and ammunition borrowed from Panama. He spent most of his visit touring the length of the canal, in the pouring rain, and left much-encouraged workers behind when he returned to the United States. F. D. R. Was Last The last U. S. Presidential visit to the l Zone was that of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in February 1940. It was his fourth as President. The war in Europe had begun and this presidential visit, unlike the three which had preceded it, was a whirlwind one, devoted to an inspection of the Canal's defenses. President Roosevelt arrived aboard miser Tuscaloosa, left the ship at Gatun Locks, and made a swift drive through the Atlantic side military posts before he boarded a special train for Clayton where he lunched at the Officers' Club before he rejoined the Tuscaloosa at Miraflores Locks. The Tuscaloosa put out to sea, but returned nine days later. This time the President drove around the Pacific side, and took Panama's President back aboard the cruiser for the Canal transit. At Gatun a single file of soldiers lined the west and center walls of the entire length of the three steps of the locks, as a guard of honor. On his three previous visits, July 11, 1934, October 16, 1935, and August 5, 1938, President Roosevelt had traveled aboard the cruiser Houston. Many Oldtimers Expected To Come For Dedication Of Goethals Monument Indications that a large number of retired employees plan to visit the Canal Zone early next year for the dedication of the Goethals Memorial have already been seen at Balboa Heights. Details of the program and the date on which the dedication will take place should be completed soon; they will be announced in the next issue of The Panama Canal Review. A special reduced round-trip minimum rate on the Panama Line of $120, plus 15 percent U. S. tax— with an additional charge for deluxe accomodations-will be granted to retired employees and their wives who worked on the construction of the Panama Canal betw?en 1907 and 1917. The reduced rate will be applicable on one southbound sailing only. Return passage must be taken not later than two sailings after arrival in the Canal Zone. Oldtimers interested in making the trip should write the Panama Line, 24 State Street, New York City, or the Administrative Branch, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. The greatest depth of excavation by the French on the Canal axis at Culebra was 161 feet. OUR OUT-OF-DOORS A bowl of oranges and apples, bananas and grapes, with shelled nuts spilling over the side is traditional in many homes as a cmterpiece for a Thanksgiving dinner table. This year why not try an arrangement made from native fruits and vegetables? One of the bateas native wooden trays — makes an ideal container. The fruit can be arranged on a base of multi-colored Tropical Almond (Terniinalia catapa) leaves which seem to take on autumn hues especially for the occasion. Almost any fruit stand can supply an assortment of fruits such as bananas, oranges, pineapples, papayas, tomatoes, etc. With a little more effort one can secure malay apples, mangosteens, tropical almonds, bigmae, Governor's plums, and many others. Palm nuts, which grow in great clusters, are usually available and add color for several days. Additional color can come with the addition of deep purple eggplant and red or bright green peppers. The unopened pear-shaped flowers of a bunch of bananas, while not so easily come by, add interest Have you noticed the blossoming Mayo (Vochysia fenaginea) trees on the wooded hillsides all over the Canal Zone? Their panicles -pyramidal, loosely branched clusters of flusters— in showy, rusty yellow are conspicuous against the background of green leaves and brown trunks. The trees on which the flowers are borne are large and in North America are known only in Panama. The unusual thing about them this year is that they are flowering in October instead of May, as their local nameMayo— implies. CAUTION: Many people have inadvertently used the Commissary insecticide containing chlordane on their plants with drastic and dire results. The Commissary insecticide is prepared with a light oil base and is highly effective for the use for which it was prepared: the control of such household pests as cockroaches, ants, silverfish, moths, spiders, etc. Its oil base, however; makes it unsuitable for garden use. If you want to use chlordane solution around your plants, to fend off leaf-cutting ants and other plant pests, be sure to have the water-soluble variety. This is available from the Grounds Maintenance Division. Hospiial Insurance Plans Are Being Pushed (Continued from page l) the local-rate group will be sjlected after plans have been more fully developed. The organization of the hospital insurance association is being done in cooperation with the Civic Councils now being formed in the various local-rate communities although the two groups will be independent. The authorization of payroll deductions for the payment of hospital and medical insurance for employees and their families was announced several weeks ago by the Canal administration. However, it was stated at that time that this could be done only if some responsible employee organization would act as intermediary in handling the accounts.


November 6, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17 STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939. TRAFFIC AND TOLLS FOR FIRST QUARTER HIGHER THAN FOR SIMILAR PERIOD OF LAST FISCAL YEAR Traffic and tolls for commercial shipping were both up for the first quarter of the present fiscal year as compared to the similar period last year. Commercial transits for the quarter totaled 1,890, against 1,677 for the similar period last year; tolls for this year's first quarter were $8,186,000 compared to $7,267,000 for the first quarter of the last fiscal year. Several of the main trade routes — U. S. Intercoastal, U. S. East Coast to Central America, U. S. East Coast to the Far East, and Europe to the South American West Coast — showed increases compared to the similar period last year. Four major trade routes — U. S. East Coast to South America, U. S. East Coast to Australasia, Europe and the U. S. West Coast, and Europe to Australasia — showed drops in number. North, South Total Same The number of U. S. government vessels, both large and small, was higher during the first quarter of the present fiscal year than last year, and while there were more large commercial ships bound from the Atlantic to the Pacific than in the opposite direction, the total number of ships was exactly the same in each direction. For the first quarter this year 1,347 ships were southbound and 1,347 northbound through the Canal— a coincidence seldom seen in shipping statistics. Mineral oils continued to hold the number one spot in the list of commodities shipped from Atlantic to Pacific, as they had done a year ago. Second place this past quarter was occupied by iron and steel manufactures; a year ago this place was held by coal and coke shipments. Third place in southbound commodities this past quarter was held by phosphates, which, last year, had been No. 9. Ores, Lumber Change In the first two spots on northbound commodities, ores and lumber switched places. This year ores occupied the first place; last year they had been in the number 2 spot. Lumber which had headed the list last year dropped to sscond place this year. Banana shipments northbound dropped this quarter, compared to last year, but shipments of other fresh fruit were more this year than last. By national registry, U. S.-flag vessels were again highest this year, with 536 U. S. ships transiting compared to 491 during the first quarter of last year. German, Japanese Increase British shipping, although still in the number two spot, was down slightly from last year— 311 for the first quarter of the present year compared to 320 for the past year. Norwegian vessels, third again this year, were also off slightly, dropping from 220 last year to 214 for the quarter just concluded. Nationalities which showed increases in the number of transiting ships included: Chilean, Colombian, Danish, Ecuadorian, French, Greek, Italian, Liberian, TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the number of transits of large commercial vessels (300 net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: First Quarter, Fiscal Year 1954 1953 1938 156 137 349 342 399 97 115 94 19 307 237 217 41 50 49 156 185 194 124 89 137 77 88 44 572 398 300 1,890 1,677 1,406 Principal commodities shipped through the Canal (All figures in thousands of long tons) Figures in parentheses in 1938 and 1953 columns indicate relative positions in those years ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC Commodity Mineral oils Coal and coke Manufactures of iron and steel Phosphates-Paper and paper products Sugar Sulphur Soybeans and products Cement Machinery Raw cotton Automobiles Fertilizers, unclassified Wheat Barley All others Total First Quarter, Fiscal Years 1954 1,262.844 922,164 425,326 175.104 102.950 99,247 93,189 82,204 75,543 66,211 62 .212 60,868 26,896 3.488 687 1,079,568 4,538.501 1953 1,163,425 (1) 516,854 (2) 274,890 (3) 55,353 (9) 49,057 (14) 1 (i4, 562 (4) 96,727 (5) 50,611 (12) 50,127 (13) 73,746 (6) 53,342 (11) 54.918 (10) 47.014 (15) 72,968 (7) 69,427 (8) 907,609 3,700,720 1938 178,635 (3) 47,077 (14) 646,493 (1) 111.416 (6) 132,018 (5) 3,207 (31) 83.729 (7) 900 (—) 50,559 (11) 46,081 (10) 23,877 (13) 62.666 (9) 8,641 (41) 343 (— ) 153 (— ) 1,593,214 2,989,009 PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC Commodity First Quarter, Fiscal Years 1954 1953 1938 1,186,261 771 ,330 723,665 438.4')') 336,936 160,547 154,824 148,730 115,142 70,009 66,805 45,781 63,435 27.504 27,262 559,552 664.636 (2) 729.116 (1) 469,586 (3) 352.484 (5) 354.023 (4) 245.783 (6) 200.373 (7) 178,182 (8) 172,682 (9) 58,554 (13) 54,840 (15) 93,237 (10) 66,006 (11) 56,310 (14) 58,675 (12) 592,520 541.685 (3) 877,574 (2) Wheat -40,873 (7) 439.129 (4) 306.650 (6) Nitrate ---222,756 (5) 173,726 (8) 8,670(29) Refrigerated food products (except fresh fruit) 45,205 (10) 37,173 (In) Fresh fruit (except bananas) 26,622 (9) 978,129 (1) 35,092 (IS) Iron and steel manufacturers 5.966 (— ) 52.039 (12) All others 861.813 Total _ 4,896,282 4,347,013 4,653,102 Dutch, and Swedish. Two of the greatest increases were shown in German shipping, 84 this past quarter compared to 24 last year, and Japanese, 95 for the past quarter compared to 58 a year ago.


18 f THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 Bulk Of Scandinavian Shipping Through Panama Canal Is Represented By Veteran Canal Zone Shipping Agency CAPT. CHARLES B. FENTON some years, he came to the Canal Zone to attend to the vessels of the New Zealand Shipping Company and those ships owned by the P. & 0. Company. World War I had been raging for two years; he inherited the important task of husbanding many of the transports carrying New Zealand troops and more particularly, the hospital ships carrying sick and wounded home from the Western Front. Zonians Helped "It was more or less a labor of love,' Captain Fenton told The Review, "but it must never be forgotten that I had the selfless and generous support of the entire population of the Canal Zone. "The United States had not entered the war up to that time, but there was nothing to compare with the grand manner in which the Canal Zone people let themselves go in the way of entertainment and care given to those New Zealanders. The bulk of Scandinavian shipping which uses the Panama Canal is represented by C. B. Fenton & Company, one of the veteran Canal Zone shipping agencies. Established here in 1916, the agency handles between 40 and 50 ships a month and claims several distinctions. It represents the largest Danish shipowner, A. P. Moller of Copenhagen; the largest Swedish shipping firm, Messrs. Axel Brostom of Gothenburg; and the largest Norwegian company, Messrs. Wilh. Wilhelmsen of Oslo. In addition, Fenton & Company represents three state-owned lines, the Argentine State Line, the Chilean Line, and Petroleos Mexicanos, which is owned by the Mexican Government. The agency was the first on the Isthmus to introduce Panama ports of call to its principals. Together with Hilmer Lundbeck of the Swedish American Line, it arranged for the first Kungsholm, now the Italia, to make a call at the San Bias Islands about 16 years ago. This call at the home of the colorful little people of Panama's Caribbean coast proved to be a great tourist attraction; subsequently Mr. Lundbeck was decorated by the Panama Government as appreciation for the innovation. Last year the Stella Polaris, small but luxurious cruise ship of the Clipper Line of Malmo, put into the historic port of Portobelo, the only cruise ship ever to call there. Seafearing Head Fenton & Company was organized by ia still headed by Capt. Charles r Fenton, who was born in New Zealand and whose seafaring career d when he was only 11 years old. .: 21, he had been seven around the world under sail; in his seafaring life he has been almost to the North Pole and well below the Antarctic circle. As a boy he had sailed, as a guest, aboard the missionary ship Southern Cross out of New Zealand' to the South Seas, and well remembers breakfasting with PvObert Louis Stevenson at Guadalcanal. In 1916, by then a ship master for HEADING the Fenton staff are: D. C. Langman, left, in charge of passenger service; Gilbert Morland, the agency's General Manager; and Colin Lawson, in charge of boarding operations. "The roads to the Locks in those days were quite indifferent and automobiles were scarce, but crowds collected at the Locks with much enthusiasm and passed on board all kinds of goods and produce. I wonder how many of those kind and generous people are still here. If they should happen to read this, I should like them to know that New Zealand has never forgotten their overwhelming kindness." Early Transits A number of the lines which Fenton & Company now represent are closely linked with the early days of the Panama Canal. Four months after the Canal was opened, the Chilean Line began a regular service from Valparaiso to Cristobal. A Chilean Line ship, the Limari, made the first night lockage of the Canal on December 16, 1914. Another long-time user of the Canal is the Blue Funnel Line— it is known more formally as Alfred Holt & Co.— which began regular service through the Canal in 1915 between Great Britain and the Pacific Northwest coast. The Wilhelmsen Line ships were using the Canal as early as July 1915. One of its vessels, the Torsdal, was on a regular service from the west coast of South America to Archangel in Russia. The run took it from about 20 degrees south of the equator to well above the Arctic circle. Today, the ships represented by Fenton & Company operate through the Canal on runs all over the globe; in one month there may be such varied nationalities as Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Chilean, Dutch, Mexican, Panamanian, German, British, and Canadian vessels carrying such diverse cargoes as gasoline, Diesel oil, automobiles, milk, coal, grain, paper, chemicals, bananas, and sugar. Casualties Of War Many of the ships are comparatively new; their predecessors in the Canal service were sunk during the last war. A Fenton ship, the Blue Funnel Line's Cyclops, was the first ship to be sunk in American waters in World War II. Her last port of call had been Cristobal. She went down off Halifax in January 1941, with a loss of about 90 lives. Fenton & Company's experiences during the war years were varied and some of them still cannot be told. One of the most dramatic of the tellable tales concerns a ship which had a HEADQUARTERS tor C. B. Fenton & Co. is its building on Roosevelt Avenue in Cristobal, near the entrance to the piers


November 6, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19 KUNGSHOLM is a name well-known on the Canal Zone waterfront. This is an artist's conception of the new Kungsholm which is due here early in February on her first visit to the Canal Zone. The largest Swedish luxury liner and the largest ship ever built in Holland, she will make her maiden transAtlantic voyage to New York late this month. The new Kungsholm— her predecessor in name is now the Italia of the Home Lines— grosses 20,000 tons, is 600 feet overall, has nine decks, a passenger capacity of about S00, a movie theater and swimming pools, and is air conditioned. Master of the new Kungsholm will be Capt. John Norlander, now skipper of the MS Stockholm. Chinese crew. The crewmen had not been happy before they reached the Canal Zone and the final blow came when they were not permitted to go ashore here. They openly threatened not only to mutiny but also to kill all of their officers. Forty men from a Canadian-Scottish regiment were flown to the Isthmus. When the well-armed soldiers boarded the ship in Cristobal, trouble subsided and the ship was able to go peacefully on its way. Representatives of the agency have been called upon to furnish a favorite poem to be read at a funeral, or to patch up a feud between women passengers, or to provide live sheep and goats for a crew's food, and to do a hundred and one out-of-the-ordinary things. As representatives of the insurance firms they represent, they have been involved in everything from accidents to murders. Bought Building In 1950 Fenton & Company's first offices were in the Cristobal Masonic Temple. In 1950 the firm bought its present office, a large building with Greek-pillared portico. It had once been occupied by the German firm of Hapag-Lloyd. Part of the first floor space is leased to the National City Bank. The large apartment on the second floor is the home of Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Morland, their two sons and four daughters. Mrs. Morland is the daughter of the late Capt. W. W. Woodhull, a Canal pilot. Mr. Morland who is general manager of the company, came to the Isthmus 25 years ago from England where, like a number of other local shipping men, he had worked for the White Star Line. Commercial shipping interests at the Panama Canal are on call 24 hours a day. He recalls the time when a member of his boarding staff phoned him one Tuesday night and said, "If you are concerned about the 40-hour week, I have just completed mine." Mr. Morland is an ardent baseball fan, although some 24 years ago at Balboa he walked out of the first baseball game he ever saw because he did not understand what was going on. Eventually his interest was so great that he became President and General Manager of the Cristobal team which broke all Isthmian records by winning the pennant for six successive years. He is also a keen golfer and is presently serving his second term as President of the Brazos Brook Country Club. Staff Of Twelve Fenton's Cristobal office has a staff of 12, seven of whom are Panamanians. Colin Lawson, who holds a Chief Officer's ticket— making Fenton & Company the only agency having both a licensed Master and Chief Officer on its staff— is in charge of boarding operations. He is well known on both sides of the Isthmus. D. C. Langman, who came to the Isthmus from England five years ago, heads the agency's passenger service. Arne Hauge, a citizen of Norway, is Manager of Fenton & Company's office at Balboa. He has been here since 1947 and was recently appointed Norwegian Consul in Balboa. At present the staff of Fenton & Company is making big plans for the reception of their newest and biggest ship, the Swedish American Line's new Kungsholm. Still to make her maiden voyage, the 20,000-ton ship with passenger space for about 800, is due to sail for the Canal Zone from New York next February 6 on a 55-day cruise around South America. MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over By fiscal years Month Transits Tolls (In thousands of 1954 1953 lollars) 1954 1953 1938 1938 July 638 529 457 $2,817 $2,343 *.i,030 640 533 505 2,778 2,288 2,195 612 615 444 2,591 2,636 1,936 673 461 2,910 1,981 620 435 2,611 1,893 626 439 2,679 1,845' 632 444 2,690 1,838 616 436 2,597 1,787 March 678 506 2,884 2,016 ApriL. 628 487 2,733 1,961 May ______________ 650 465 2,861 1,887 610 445 2,686 1,801 Totals for first 3 months of 1,890 1,677 1,406 s$8,186 $7,267 $6,161 CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U S. GOVERNMENT First Quarter, Fiscal Years 1954 1953 1938 Atlantic to Pacific Pacific to Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial Vessels: Ocean-going _ 934 956 1,890 1.677 1,406 Small 152 159 311 324 211 1,086 1,115 2,201 2,011 1,617 **U. S. Government vessels Ocean-going.. 181 178 359 206 Small 80 54 134 106 Government Total commercial and U. S. 1,347 1,347 2,694 2,313 *\'essels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. **Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited free.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2( 3 1262 08545 6506 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW November 6, 1953 Like Father, Like Son i COL. RICHARDSON SI. I, I E, far right, who helped to start the Canal Zone High School ROTC program, talked over ROTC affairs just before his departure last month with two past and two present cadrts. J. B. Smith, Electrical Engineer, left, and Roy Reece, Assistant Electrical Engineer, served in the ROTC at Rose Polytechnic Institute where Colonel Selee was ROTC instructor 25 years ago. Their sons, Paul Smith, second from left, and .lames Reece, are now ROTC cadets at Balboa High School where Paul is Battalion Commander. Canal's "Miscellaneous" Cargo Is Varied And Often Surprising It will probably be a long time before any cargo going through the Panama Canal has the public appeal of three Australian platypuses and their platypusary which transited several years ago. Possibly the fact that 10,000 five earthworms were flown to the Canal Zone to supplement the food supply of the amazing little animals — the whole process being attended by a flurry of publicity — had something to do with the interest the animals caused. But each month there are hundreds of items, lumped under the heading of "Miscellaneous" in cold statistics, anyone of which stirs the imagination and makes one long for more details. Since the Panama Canal is only a passageway for these items, many of the questions will be forever unanswered. How many pigs, for instance, made up the "two tons of live pigs" which were listed as deck cargo on the information sheet of a vessel enroute from New Orleans to the West Coast of South America? What ship needed the eight-ton anchor carried as deck load on another ship out of a British port to Vancouver? What About Honey? Did the listing "Bees-honey" for the 117 tons of cargo on a ship going from Guatemala to Bremen mean there were both bees and honey or that the cargo was bees' honey only? If the first, how did the crew get along with the bees and if the second, what other sort of honey is there? And does the fact that in one month there were three shipments of honey going through the Canal from the west coast of Central America mean that Nicaraguan and Guatemalan bees are busier at that time of the year than any other? What were the three tons of "personal effects'* carried as sole cargo on a ship from Honduras to Venezuela? What was destined to go into the empty bottles, a shipload of which went thi'ough the Canal from New York to Buenaventura? Who in California was going to use the 14,526 tons of "natural gas" carried by a ship from Houston? Other unusual cargoes carried through the Canal this same month included many other thought-provoking items. Milk And Marble There was "milk," from Jacksonville to Los Angeles, "canned milk" from Rotterdam to Valparaiso, and "powdered milk" from Auckland to London. Three different ships, all from various European ports headed for Chile, carried locomotives, and one had a pullman car aboard. Two ships carried yachts as deck cargo and another had on her deck a "five-ton boat." There were 23 tons of marble from New York to Los Angeles, and 18 tons of poles from Mobile to Honolulu. A ship from Ipswich carried China clay to Vancouver. Quebracho, for medicines or dyeing, was the cargo on a vessel going between Montevideo and Japan. But one of the most interesting cargoes of all was that listed for a ship running between Buenaventura and New York. It carried coffee — which is not unusual — and ox blood! Local Rate Meal Allowance Is Increased To 75 Cents Seamen deckhands and other local-rate employees in the Terminals Division have had their meal allowance increased from 50 to 75 cents; this rate is now being paid to all local-rate employees on local travel assignments. Normally the deckhands are given meals on board ship, but if the ship does not serve meals the deckhands are issued a "Receipt for Meals" which provides for a box lunch. The request for the increase in meal allowance for the deckhands, to equalize the treatment of those on local travel assignments, was made by representatives of CIO Local 900. New Assignment Policy For Panama Line Ships Effective Next Month A new assignment policy for employees traveling on Panama Line ships will go into effect early next month. Instead of the three-week notification now being made, employees will be told that they are assigned space on sailings six weeks before the departure date. This should give more time for them to obtain aii', rail, and hotel reservations in the United States, order new cars, rent quarters or arrange for their children to leave school, when school is in session. Initial deposits to cover transportation costs will be made four weeks in advance of the sailing date, under the new policy. This payment will confirm the assignments to space on the ships; assignments not confirmed by payment of the deposit would be considered as canceled. Forty Years Ago In October Newspapers on the Isthmus and all over the United States hailed the mingling of the waters of two oceans as Gamboa dike was dynamited. Actually, the dike had held back the waters of the Chagres River from the excavation in Culebra, now Gaillard, Cut. All dry excavation in the Cut had been completed the previous month. The 600,000 cubic yards of material in the Cut still to be removed would be taken out by dredges. The dynamite charges buried in the dike were fired by President Woodrow Wilson who, from the White House, pressed a lever ichich transmitted electrical impulses by land telegraph and submarine cable to the Canal Zone. The factual Canal Record reported that the blast opened a 125-foot section of the dike, "through which water from Gatun Lake flowed in sufficient volume to complete the filling of Culebra Cut from the dike to Cucaracha slide. The shot ivas not a large one, as compared with some of the previous blasts in connection with Canal work, but it did perfect execution." Hundreds of spectators were brought to the scene by special train from Panama and by extra coaches on the regular southbound train. The remainder of the dike was dynamited a week later. The formation of Miraflores Lake began October 1, when a timber bulkhead was placed across the drainage culvert in the Miraflores spillway dam. This was the final diversion of the Rio Grande and its tributaries, the Pedro Miguel, Caimitillo, Cameron, Cocoli, and Dominica Rivers. Officials estimated that with normal rainfall the lake would be raised to its normal operating level of 55 feet above sea level by December 4. The Canal Zone was really up to date. The Canal Record reported on October 1 that "Edison's invention, the kinetophone nr talking moving picture machine, will be at the Corozal Clubhouse Friday night this week." 1 rt s i / .. t . 1