Citation
Panama Canal review

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Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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HAROLD R. PARFITT
Gor ernor-Prcsident

JAMES H. TORMEY
Lieutenant Governor

FRANK A. BALD\IN
Panama Canal Information Officer


PANAMA j. ,CANAL



SUMMER 1978

Official Panama Canal Publicatian


WILLIE K. FRIAR
Editor

Writers
\IC CANEL, FANNIE P. HERNANDEZ,
DOLORES E. SUISNIAN, VicKI BOATWRICHT


Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $2, airmail $4.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.


Canal watchers-those who visit the
locks regularly to take a look at
the passing parade of ships-know
that traffic has taken on a different look.
Even a casual observer must have
noticed the large number of heavily
laden oil tankers passing through
the waterway.

Oil from the North Slope of
Alaska has reached the Canal and in
this issue we are featuring a story on
how the merging of the Alaska pipeline
with the Panama Canal has become
a temporary solution to the problem


Credits: The following individuals and companies
hove contributed to this edition of the REVIEW:
C. Fernie & Co., agents for SOHIO at
the Canal; the Overseas Shipholding Group;
lack Ott, of "The Sohian," the Alyeska
Pipeline Service Co.; Duncon Beardsley,
Vice President, Royal Cruise Line; and
captains and crews of the "Overseas Chicago,"
the "AMaryland," and the "Renown." Special credit
for panoramic views of the Canal Zone and
for layout assistance goes to Mel Kennedy, and to
Kevin Jenkins, who photographed the entire
voyage of the "Overseas Chicago."
Other photographers, whose work is included are
Arthur L. Pollack, Don Coode, and
Alberto Acevedo. Map and graph are by
Carlo MUndez.


In This Issue

of moving the oil to the Gulf and
East Coast ports of the United States.

Along with the tankers, Canal
observers probably have noticed
the increase in the number of cruise
liners. Much new air/sea cruise
business has been generated by
the Panama Canal being in the news
spotlight throughout the past year
as a result of the Treaty negotiations
and this issue contains a collection
of recipes from these luxurious ships.




On The Cover

The Trans Alaska Pipeline, the Over-
scas Chicago entering Miraflores Locks
and the Chicago moving up the Mis-
sissippi River, appear on the front
cover. On the back, the Overscas
Chicago leaves Valdez in Alaska laden
with North Slope oil. Front cover
photos are by Kevin Jenkins. The back
cover was provided by the Overseas
Shipholding Group.


Also in this issue is the story of the
Canal's watercraft, which plays such
a vital role in the movement of
ships through the waterway.
At right: The "Overseas New York,"
which broke the cargo record for
the Panama Canal when she transited in
April with 64,603 long tons of oil,
passes the "Overseas Chicago."



The new treaties governing the
future operation and defense of
the Panama Canal were signed by
the United States and Panama in
a ceremony at OAS headquarters
in Washington on September 7,
1977. They were approved by
Panama in a plebiscite on Oc-
tober 23 of that year and the U.S.
Senate gave its advice and con-
sent to their ratification in March
and April 1978. The new treaties
are scheduled to go into effect
6 months after the exchange of
ratification instruments between
the two governments becomes
effective. Panama would then as-
sume plenary jurisdiction over
what is now the Canal Zone,
although U.S. police and courts
would retain limited authority for
a 30-month transition period.


SUNI iER 1978






The Panama Canal


Oil from the Arctic travels through

the tropics as the Panama Canal and the

Alaska Pipeline merge to move North Slope

oil to U.S. East and Gulf ports
Bv Willie K. Friar


The Alaska Pipeline stretches 800 miles
from Prudlloe Bay on the Aictic
Occan to Valdez, an ice-free port.


Map of North Slope oil route with
ships positioned in Parita Bay.


THERE ARE 1,191,299 BARRELS
of North Slope crude oil in the
Panama Canal at this moment." This
statement from Canal officials on
April 28 announced the movement of
the biggest shipment of Alaskan oil to
transit the Canal at one time.
The oil, equal to the total amount of
fuel consumed in the Canal Zone each


year for the generation of electricity, ,
was aboard the Overseas Alaska, the
Overseas Arctic, and the Overseas New -
York all northbound en route to U.S
Gulf ports. Laden with 64,603 long
tons of oil, the Overseas New York set
an all time high cargo record for the
Canal.
It was on June 20, 1977 that the


SvUMNI1E 1978








9nnection





Alaska oil first entered the pipeline at
Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Ocean. This
marked the completion of the largest
engineering project ever undertaken by
private enterprise.
Crude oil began gushing into the big
pipeline at 300,000 barrels per day. It
required 9.4 million barrels of oil just
to fill it and it was a month before the
first oil emerged from the pipeline at
Valdez Marine Terminal. In the fol-
lowing weeks, the movement of oil
reached 600,000 barrels per day and
gradually was raised to 1.2 million
barrels. It now takes about a week for
a barrel of oil to make the 800-mile
trip from the North Slope through the
pipeline to Valdez.
Construction of the Pipeline
Those acquainted with the problems
involved in the construction of the Pan-
Sama Canal have a special appreciation
for the successful completion of the
I trans-Alaska Pipeline. Few engineers
have ever been faced with such for-
midable complications of climate, ter-
rain and government regulations as
those encountered in the building of
' this pipeline.
Designers, choosing the route for the
pipeline, had to figure the best way to
cross three mountain ranges, how to
cope with problems of potential earth-
quakes, protection of wildlife, perma-
frost, and the heat generated by the
flow of warm oil at temperatures of
130 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit through
pipes erected over frozen ground.
There were streams that crossed the
route on an average of one each mile
and the migration paths of caribou had
to be considered as well as the salmon
spawning streams and the nesting sites
of birds along the routes.
Although oil was discovered at Prud-
hoe in 1968, it was not until April 1974
that construction began on the 358-mile
road between Prudhoe Bav and the
Yukon River. As soon as the road was
completed, the pipeline work began in
earnest with more than 22,000 persons
engaged in the construction work.
A monument to 20th-century tech-
nology, the pipeline construction re-
quired less than half the number of


The "Overseas Joyce," which is almost 103 feet in the beam and 736 feet long.
moves through Gaillard Cut en route from Parita Bay to
the East Coast of the United States with a cargo of Alaska crude oil.


workers required to build the Panama
Canal.
The Alveska Pipeline Service Co.,
which is the firm responsible for the
design, construction and operation of
the pipeline, is owned by eight firms-
Amerada Hess Pipeline Corp., ARCO
Pipe Line Co., SOHIO Pipe Line Co.,
Exxon Pipeline Co., Mobil Alaska Co.,
Phillips Petroleum Co., Union Alaska
Pipeline Co. and BP Pipelines, Inc.
Total cost of the project has been es-
timated at almost $12 billion, of which
S9 billion has been spent on the pipe-


line, and $3 billion developing Prudhoe
Bav and associated facilities.
The pipeline which begins at Prud-
hoe Bav on the Arctic Ocean, stretches
across the largest state in the nation to
the ice-free port of Valdez. Between
Prudhoe Bay and the Brooks Mountain
Range, it crosses miles of treeless
tundra underlain by permafrost where,
for almost 2 months in the winter, th.
sun never appears. Rainfall here is
about the same as in the deserts of
Nevada and Utah.
The line reaches its highest point, the


The "Overseas Chicago" approach hes the Exxon Rcfinery at Baton Rouge, La.
The vessel makes regular shuttle Ilips through the Canal
transporting oil to East and Gulf ports.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW































The lo arrives at Parita Bay aboard
supertiankers and then is discharged ito
smaIllcr resselC ahle to traunsiI the CanalU
Abm.e the "Oterseas Chicago," left,
takes on oil from the "Brntish Renown,"
iwh hi i.s receiving oil from the "Alarylauil."
The "lcnoumn" aui the "Alarylanul"
are s'iuprtaliinkrs aboluti 178 (etr in hearni
andu 1.100 feet Iug. Below left:
Capt. Karl Jassiernll, master of the
"OLrrsI'as Ciiiago" uat/ics us his shiip
is docked alongsil the e "Relnown.'"
Center: Lors Blades, Steni'or Port Officer
of tii National Port Autharity of
PaUlra. checks ldoir Inents tiith
Capt. Fred II. Aldais. Master of /the
"Marylanil." At for right.
Capt. Roger Wothrcock. Staff Captaium
of the "Henown," logs in the amount of
iod taken oun hi thi "Ottrseav Chitago."


4,800-foot Atigun Pass, as it climbs the
Brooks Range. As it moves smith ap-
proaching the Yukon River, it passes
through areas where temperatures range
fioln winter's record minus 80 degrees
lFahrenheit to 90 degrees in summer.
After crossing the Yukon River, the
route passes Fairbanks and then climbs
over the Alaska and Chugach mountain
ranges before arriving at the swet coastal
area at Valdez.
The pipeline is built of 48-inch di-
amiter steel pipe, which is welded to-
gether with over 100,000 welds. Theb
final weld, which was made Mav 30,
1977 about 100 miles south of Prudhue
Bay, tied together two sections of
above-ground pipe. Slightly less than
half the pipe is buried below ground.
The rest is elevated in sections of
varying length, most shorter than 30
miles.
Environmental Safeguards
One of the most sophisticated, fullY
automated pipeline systems in the


world, it is equipped with a computer
which scans the line every 20 seconds
and reports flow, pressure, temperature,
rate of discharge and thousands of other
types of data. The whole operation is
controlled from Valdez and is tied
together by microwave communication
and backed up by earth satellite.
The multiple environmental sate-
guards covering the operations are un-
precedented and inelude 175-cut-oft
valves along the line to minimize anll
possible oil spills.
At Valdez, the uil is stored in 28
enormous steel tanks which hold
510,000 barrels each. Built on bedrock
500 feet above the tidewater, the ter-
minal is safe from most natural disasters
including tidal waves of the type which
engulfed the port at the time of the
1964 earthquake.
It was at 11:02 p.m. Alaska Daylight
Time, Julv 29, 1977 that the first North
Slope oil gushed from the pipeline at
Valdez.


The Role of the Canal
It took another month for the first oil
to reach the Panama Canal. On Au-
gust 31, the Washington Trader tran-
sited the waterway with 39,776 tons of
oil. This milestone, coming 63 years
after the opening of the waterway,
marked the beginning of the vital role
of the Panama Canal in the movement
of North Slope Oil to the East and Gulf
coasts. The immediate solution to the
problem of transporting the oil proved
to be the joining together of two of the
United States' greatest engineering
achievements, the trans-Alaska Pipeline
and the Panama Canal.
The transportation of oil through the
Panama Canal involves two fleets of
U.S. flag ships and two British flag
vessels. The latter are the British
Renown and the British Resolution two
Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs)
of approximately 265,000 deadweight
tons. These ships, which are 1,100 feet
long and 178 feet in beam, are an-


chored 14 miles off Chitre in Parita
Bay, about 65 miles from the Canal.
A number of ships (at last count 28
or 30-it changes olten) one of which is
a tug-barge combination, are engaged
in transit cycles of laden and ballast
voyages between Parita Bay and East
Coast and Gulf ports in the United
States and to Puerto Rico. Supertankers,
too large to transit the Canal, are used
to bring the oil down from Valdez to
Parita Bay. There it is pumped into the
tanks of the British vessels which act
as floating terminals. From them, it is
transferred to smaller tankers able to fit
in the 1,000 by 110 feet dimensions of
the Panama Canal locks.
This type of operation is not unique
to the Alaska oil shipments. The
transfer of oil to smaller vessels is a
frequent operation in places where
harbor facilities cannot accommodate
the supertankers. In fact, most oil im-
ported by the United States is handled
in this manner.
Operating around the clock, the


crews of the British terminal vessels can
receive about 10,500 long tons per hour
and discharge into the Canal shuttle
ships at about 4,500 long tons per
hour. The ships are equipped to take
oil into their storage tanks, to transfer
oil directly from one vessel to the othet
or to perform both operations at the
same time.
Much care is taken to avoid oil pollu-
tion and at Parita Bay nothing is dis-
charged into the sea. The oilv hallast
water removed from the tankers at
Parita Bay is pumped into the empt\
supertankers for transport back to
Valdez where the ballast water is
cleaned in a special treatment facility,
the largest of its kind.
From Alaska to the U.S. Gulf ports.
via the Panama Canal, is a long joumc\
and the oil customer might be im-
pressed to know that from Valdez to
the northemmust port on the U.S. \est
Coast is over 1,000 miles. It is another:
2,000 miles to the Port of Long Beach
in Southern California and over 6,000























I1. .1 11 1,. .* / I \. 1J.I : .1. v *i .l i. ..* I .d I.., J 1 rre-, I i-i "I V '1 i
such as the "Alaska," center, which is pumping oil into the "British Resolution" at
Parita Bay. At right: The "British Renown," sister ship of the "Resolution," (top)
receives oil from the "Maryland." At right: Pononmax tankers transport oil through
the Canal. At far right: Pumping oil at Parita Bay. Below: Prudhoe oil fields.


miles tu Gulf Coast ports.
Close to 600,000 barrels a day of
North Slope crude are being delivered
to West Coast refineries and shipments
through the Panama Canal have aver-
aged 234,298 barrels a day through the
first 7 months of FY 1978.
Because of the draft restrictions of
the Canal, tankers larger than 50,000
deadweight tons normally cannot transit
the waterway when fully loaded and
most vessels over 90,000 deadweight
tons cannot transit even with partial
loads. But tankers able to fit in the
Canal averaged 2.5 transit a day during
April on the oil shuttle.
Under Federal law, domestic oil can
be moved between two U.S. ports only
by ships that are owned and manned
by Americans. The movement of the
oil through the Canal has proved very
advantageous to owners of U.S. flag
ships.
It has also been a great, though
probably temporary, benefit financially
to the Panama Canal. Several measures
have been suggested to effect a long
term solution to the disposition of the
West Coast oil surplus. Sohiu has pro-
posed a 1,000 mile pipeline system
running from Long Beach, Calif. to
Midland, Tex. This would involve
reversing the flow in an existing
800-mile natural gas pipeline and con-
verting it to an oil carrier, a relatively
simple and inexpensive operation. This
would then be connected to about 200
miles of new pipeline. At Midland, the


i\.rr- ,l ,.,,;] i:i,, .lr,r-l I i r.'l, .hi,' *.,il


most of the surplus oil at current levels.
It could be completed in 14 to 24
months if the necessary permits could
be obtained. However, the project has
run into serious opposition from the
California Air Resources Board, which
is concerned about further air pollution
in the area. The Board contends that
the emissions resulting from the un-
loading of oil tankers in the harbor and
escaping from the storage tanks would
violate both state and Federal air
quality standards.
Other pipeline possibilities are being
considered including a trans Guatemala
and a trans Panama line. Another pos-
sible alternative is to ship the oil in
VLCCs around Cape Horn. However,
at this time, there are enough U.S. flag


. rdi, r .i 3 i l. J. [ h 'l h .:. ..
d *.dar 1... f.J l r.7d 1,til[ ...r. j ih..cr ,lr.r ih

From October 1977 through April 30,
S315 Alaska oil tankers transited the
Canal carrying 6,849,077 long tons of
oil and paying $8,419,291 in tolls.
During the same period, tankers car-
rying Alaskan crude oil paid an average
toll of $29,880 laden and $23,515 in
ballast. During the month of April
alone, 74 North Slope oil carriers tran-
- sited and the daily average could re-
main close to 2.5 until some alternative
-to use of the Canal is found.
In the meantime, Northville Indus-
tries, a New Jersey company, is going
, ahead with construction of a permanent
storage tank facility at Puerto Armue-
-, lies in Panama. Sohio has a contract
with Northville to use the on-shore
facility through July 1, 1980.


406.2


















APR


SUMMER 1978


AVERAGE DAILY S IENTS
OF NORTH SLOP i1DE OIL
THROUGH THE PA! 'A CANAL
FY-193'8
thousands of ,b'iJls 313.4

S 248.7


181.4 177.6

126.2






OCT NOV DEC FEB MAR








Typical of the tankers carrying oil through the Panama Canal to Gulf and East Coast ports
is the "Overseas Chicago," a U.S. flag ship. With a beam of 105.9 feet and a
length of 861.8 feet, the "Chicago" can take full advantage of the 110 feet by
1,000 feet dimnnsions of the Canal locks. The "Chicago" makes regular trips through
the Canal and recently transited with 62,141 long tons of oil en route to
the Exxon Refinery in Baton Rouge.


The "Ocerseas Chicago" takes on oil from the "British Renown" in Parita Bay.


The pumping of oil and ballast is carefully monitored aboard the "British Renown."


The heavily laden tanker moves through Gaillard Cut. Below: A Canal pilot gives instructions
oi Ilt ra-u i, h ai I'l. JIll ul''ro."l,' Cao n Lr cl.s


10 SUMMER 1978



















As the ship moves across the Caribbean, complex electronic equipment
provides constant communication with the outside world.


Activity in all ca


Breakfast is vrevared in the modern stainless steel kitchen. Meals are served cafeteria sttul


Tlh lauIk~r f)il*L i p hu. A116alISIPPI .n roul,: IL Ili, Exxon Refinery at Bviwm riou'vg,, Ahomn btJlo.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Watercraft Fleet




Keeps Canal Afloat




By Vicki Boatwright


T HE ORIGINAL NAME OF A
little workboat with bright red
aM\\ings that residents of Camboa are
accustomed to seeing chugging up and
do\\n the Chagres River is lost in his-
tors, but its usefulness goes on. No\w
the hyacinth 11. this craft was built in
1882 and w\as the property of the Com-
pagnie Universelle du Canal Interocia-
nii(ue. \\'hen Lt. Mark Brooke signed
the receipt for the assets of the French
in earl\ 1904, the little craft became
the property of the Isthmian Canal
Commission. Its amazing continuance
in service is due to its special talent: it
is the onl\ Company powerboat that
e.in pass nuider the Camboa Bridge at
high water, and as such it is invaluable
in hyacinth control work.


While the Hyacinth 11 is the oldest
member of the Panama Canal fleet, it is
but one of many different types of spe-
cialized watercraft in the service of the
Canal organization today. The powerful
tugs that assist ships in transit; the
floating dredges that clear the channels
of rocks and mud; the might cranes
that offload cargo and salvage sunken
vessels; and the myriad of launches
that transport members of the Canal
workforce to their dut'y stations all play
an essential role in keeping the Canal
operating at peak efficiency the Year
round.
Though none can compete with the
Hyacinth II in age, two members of the
present fleet date back to the opening
das\s of the Canal. The crane Hercules.
the onl\ piece of equipment capable of


lilting the huge locks miter gates, was
built in Germany and put into service
in 1914. The dipper dredge Cascadas,
now the backup for the new Rialto M.
Christensen, was built by the Bucvrus
Co. and commissioned in 1915. Over
its 63-year career it has participated in
some of the most dramatic of Canal
projects, such as the widening of the
8.3-mile Gaillard Cut from 300 to 500
feet.
Not all the watercraft presently in
use were acquired off the Isthmus. The
craneboat Atlas and the diesel-electrie
tug Arraijan, built in 1934 and 1936
respectively, were the handicraft of the
Balboa Mechanical Division. This vear
the Industrial Division, successor to the
Mechanical Division, assisted in the in-
stallation of a new crane that gives the


An aJeriaL vitew of the Dredging Diviision in CGaihoa, home of the Canal organization's largest tL'atel-lruft.





Atlas a lifting capacity of 75 tons. The
new crane, which replaces a main crane
and a smaller one that was located on
the bow, is invaluable to the seagoing
Atlas in its job of maintaining naviga-
tional aids, which includes the changing
of buovs.
Some of the largest and most impor-
tant floating craft used in Canal main-
tenance have no means of self-propul-
sion. The Hercules, the derrick barge
Goliath, the suction dredge Mindi, the
dipper dredge Rialto AM. Christensen,
the drill barge Thor, plus a multitude
of dump scows and barges, all must
rely on tug-power to get them to and
from a worksite. Of the Canal organiza-
tion's 17 large tugboats, one is used
almost exclusively for moving dead
tows.
The versatile Goliath has a clamshell
bucket for dredging, can operate a pile
driver, and has a crane with a lifting
capacity of 80 tons which can be used
to load and unload ships. In April of
this year, the Goliath was essential in
the removal of the softnose at Pedro
Miguel after it collapsed and sank as a
result of being struck by a transiting
ship. The Goliath's next project will be
the replacing of 700 dolosse, the
giant concrete jacks that interlock to
form the armour of the breakwater at
Cristobal.
The Mindi, the Canal's only suction
dredge, is capable of removing from
the Canal bottom large quantities of
fine silt material that cannot be handled
efficiently by the dipper dredges. Since
its acquisition by the Canal organiza-
tion in 1942, the Mindi has been in-
volved in dredging approaches, harbors
and piers on both the Atlantic and Pa-
cific sides, as well as working in Gail-
lard Cut. One of the unique jobs per-
formed by the Mindi was when the suc-
tion dredge was modified and used to
pump the cargo of rice and cotton out
of the vessel Sian Yung after it sank in
the Cut off Paraiso.
The Mindi's last large project, before
being sent to the Industrial Division for
repowering and overhaul, was the com-
pletion of the suction dredging phase
of the widening of Gamboa Reach. The
repowering of the Mindi will convert it
from steam to diesel electric. In addi-
tion, a ladder pump will be installed.
Because it will be mounted close to the
cutterhead, or suction point, it will in-
crease dredging efficiency at greater
depths.
The dipper dredges rely on the drill
barge Thor, equipped with four drill


The "Hyacinth II," a remnant of French construction days, will soon be replaced by
two modern workboats from Holland after nearly 100 years of Canal service.


towers for underwater drilling and
blasting operations, to break apart solid
material in the Canal that would other-
wise be too hard or too large for their
bucket capacity. The Thor has been en-
gaged since 1970 in channel deepening
in Gaillard Cut, as well as being in-
volved in two major construction proj-
ects, the widening of Gamboa Reach
and of Mamei Curve north of Gamboa.
The real workhorses of the Canal
fleet are the tugs, whose major function
it is to assist ships in transiting and in
docking and undocking. Operating out
of Cristobal and Balboa harbors and
out of the Dredging Division in Gam-
boa, the tugs at Balboa alone put in,
in 1 month's time, 2,789 hours assisting
ships. The tugs vary in strength from
1,000 to 3,000 horsepower. Depending
on the size of the vessel they are as-
sisting, at times two tugs may be
needed to see one ship safely through
the locks, as was the case with the
Queen Elizabeth 2, earlier this year.
Besides having in its fleet some of
the oldest watercraft afloat, the Panama
Canal can also boast some of the most
modern. The dipper dredge Rialto M.
Christensen, built in 1977 in Hakodate,
Japan at a cost of $6 million, is one of
the largest dredges of its kind in the
world. Its bucket has a capacity of
15 cubic yards and can dredge 60 feet
below the water surface.
The same year the Canal organiza-
tion also acquired the omnidirectional
tugs M. L. Walker and H. Burgess,
named after the fourth and fifth gov-


ernors of the Canal Zone. These sisters
feature a pair of propulsion units which
can be rotated 360 degrees, enabling
the tugs to thrust all 2,400 horsepower
of their diesel engines in any horizontal
direction. The tugs are the first of their
kind in the Western Hemisphere and
were built especially for work in the
Panama Canal.
Presently on order from Holland
are two specially designed workboats
known as Multi-Cat and Mini-Cat,
which feature a heavy duty steel hull
construction and are equipped with a
special push bow. The boats are
capable of handling a whole range of
tough demands put upon them by the
Dredging Division, such as breaking
apart suction dredge pipeline and
pushing small barges and floats. Their
engines have an internal fresh water
cooling system, a distinct improvement
over the external water intake systems
that were subject to damage by the
aquatic vegetation that infests Canal
waters.
The Panama Canal fleet is indeed
varied, ranging from rowboats to
floating cranes. But each has a spe-
cialized task to perform, whether it be
to respond to a slide or accident in the
Canal channel or to keep the Canal
Zone free from malaria by spraying
insecticide on backwater mosquito
breeding grounds. The stories and pic-
tures that follow are representative of
the many floating craft that keep the
Panama Canal continuously open to
world shipping.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










































Three tugs are needed to assist the "Queen Elizabeth 2" into port at Cristobal. Assisting transiting vessels
is the major activity of the 16 tugs at Cristobal and Balboa harbors.


Two of the Canals "workhorses" are locked through with a transiting vessel to be available for work at the other end
of the locks. The 8-year-old "Mehaffey" is one of the largest, a 3,000 horsepower diesel tug.


SUMMER 1978


_ __




































The "H. Burgess" and its sister the "AM. V. Walker" are the Canars first omnidirectional tugs, capable of thrusting their power in
any horizontal direction. The tugs are named after the fourth and fifth governors of the Canal Zone.


All of the Canal's tugs are equipped for firefighting, having the ability to generate foam from large capacity tanks
as well as carrying dry chemicals and being able to pump water directly from the Canal.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









































Put to work as a survey boat, the "Papagallo" uses a sonar
depth finder to locate obstructions in Canal waters.


Personnel launches are used to transport boarding parties,
deckhands and pilots out to transiting ships, but
getting there is only half the fun. Next is the long
climb up the Jacob's ladder.


The long, narrow hull of the pilot's launch is built to withstand the rough waters of the outer anchorages.


SUMMER 197S


_ ~

























Oil containment boom is deployed from a motorized fiberglass
catamaran after a major oil spill in Balboa piers.

F-IWqWWwq- dmn 7


With the additional current provided by an outboard motor,
water hyacinths are herded through culverts under Gaillard
Highway to a pond for harvesting.


A motorboat is essential in the spraying and fogging of Canat
backwaters to keep the mosquito population under control.


A panga is used for the cleanup job, as boatmen pick up
oil-soaked polyurethane foam and deposit it in a drum.


The airboat "Santa Sierra" glides into weed-infested waters to
spray herbicide on the floating vegetation that if left
untreated would overrun the Canal.


t


A fast, lightweight craft is what's needed to change light
bulbs on buoys close to shore.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIE\V


__ I





















T IS GETTING DARK AND A
drizzling raun falls as a ship caunti-
ously appriacluds the entrance to the
locks. The ideckliands lean over the l owl
railing, their ey's scanning the water.
They split two in'n in a rowboat com-
img towards the ship.
Thei rowboat trails a messenger line
that is being led out by line handlers
oil thl locks wall.
As tlii rowoilat ntars thle ship. shouts
of islictricion are exchanged. At tlie pre-
cisi' ninerit thli deckhands tirow a
weiglhtedl heaving line; it ;ics iot from
tli lihw olf lli ship across tlI r' niboat
and splasl'hes into tlhie wati'r, [lie boat-
nin the stit'in grasps the line. knots
it tI the messenger line with practiced


speed, and casts the joined lines off.
Tihe rowIoat scurries out of the way
lif the oncoming ship and quickly makes
its way back to the locks wall. The
deckhands on the ship haul in the line
which linehandlers have connected to
a stecl locomotive cable. Only seconds
have elapsed, but the ship is now safely
joined to the first of the tnwing loco-
inlti\es that will guide it through the
locks,
The activity just described could
have occurred in 1914 as easily as to-
lay ltcause the procedure for getting
the Mliessenger line out to a ship is as
old as the Canal itself. Today the row-
boats are made of fiberglass instead of
w'ood aind l th manila rope lines have


been replaced by high-strength syn-
thetic line.
The rowboats, still referred to by
many as "pangas" despite their official
title of "fiberglass workboats," are
among the smallest vessels that aid in
putting ships through the Canal, The
job of the boatmen that man them is
one of the most dangerous and is per-
formed 24 hours a day, 365 days a year
in all kinds of weather. Over the years,
many Marine Directors and at least one
Governor of the Canal Zone have sought
to find a safer and speedier way to get
the job done.
Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor of
the Canal Zone from 1962 to 1967.
was convinced that there had to be at


1/w Ihb begins ia/hell a ship cines into vict, ..


Little


least a more modern way. In one of his
memos written on personal stationery,
and wryly referred to as "snowflakes"
by their recipients, the Governor in-
sisted:
"Every time I visit the locks and see
the archaic method we have of getting
the lines from the mule to the ships,
I cringe. Other people around here
have made the same remark to me that
this certainly seems to be an anachro-
nism .... It seem to me it should be
possible to find a simpler and more
effective method without going into an
elaborate Rube Goldberg device."
The Governor's memo closed with a
suggestion that a crossbow he used to
shoot the line from the ship to the wall.














Boats


The order went out to "find a better
way." E. C. Abbott, the first civilian
Port Captain at Balboa, jokingly com-
mented to the Chief of the Navigation
Division: "The Governor remarks about
this system being archaic but seems to
think the crossbow that went nut with
Robin flood would he more modern."
Notices were posted on bulletin
boards throughout the various units of
the Marine Bureau and an article ap-
peared on the front page of the SPILL-
WAY asking for ideas and suggestions
of ways to improve on the "row and
throw" method.
A total of 22 suggestions were re-
ceived, ranging from variations on the


crossbow idea to the lowering of a mes-
senger line onto the ship by means of
a gantry crane. One person suggested
replacing the rowboats with a saucer-
type boat with 360 degree drive, lle
was told to submit plans for such a craft
and it wnild le tried out. Nothing more
was heard from hiim,
All of the ideas were, in fact, either
impractical or ton dangerous, with a net
result that the campaign to find a re-
placement for the rnwboats was even-
tually abandoned. The records do ant
show Cnovrnor Fleming's reaction to
the matter; but one e ri Director,
recognizing the value of the rowlhiots,
remarked, "A machete is also archaic,
but it works,"


and ends when the last messenger line is aboard.


Per forr Biig Job




In Panotta Canal

MMER 197THEPANAA CANAL REVIE 19
s18 SUMMER N 197S .E THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19






























Workmen are dwarfed by the huge hook of the "Hercules"
as they loop one of four cables that will enable the crane to raise
the 160-ton structural steel ladder from the dredge "Mindi" The 250-ton capacity crane "Hercules" is
at the Industrial Division in Mount Hope. The "Hercules" and the Canal's only piece of floating equipment
its sister the "Ajax" were built in Duisburg, Germany at capable of lifting the 700-ton locks miter gate
the start of World War I. Tradition has it that at the request off its pintles for overhaul. The buoyant gate
of the U.S. Department of War, hostilities were delayed is raised into a horizontal position in
for 3 days to allow the floating cranes to pass through the full locks chamber and floated to a
the British blockade and proceed to the Panama Canal. drydock for maintenance.


Two Canal giants in a tandem tow, the floating cranes "Hercules," left, and "Goliath" are pushed to a worksite in
Caillard Cut by the tug "San Pablo."


-20 SUMMER 1978


~__ __























The suction dredge "Mindi" sucks up the continuous accumulation of silt in Balboa harbor capable of restricting
the draft of vessels and pumps it outside of the channel.


It's the "graveyard shift" for the drill barge "Thor," as it performs drilling and blasting operations during channel
deepening tests this year at Gold Hill.


In addition to her duties in construction dredging, the venerable "Cascadas" responds to emergencies. Here the dipper dredge
works to free a fully laden oil tanker that ran aground in the Canal.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









































An anchor barge positions one of the huge steel pontoons used in an attempt to raise the Colombian cargo ship "Tairona"
after it sank in 44 feet of water at the entrance to Cristobal harbor.


One of the largest dipper dredges in the world, the "Rialto M. Christensen" dredges alongside Santa Cruz Island at Camboa as
part of a Canal widening project. The dredge's 15-cubic yard bucket empties
into a scowe which will he pushed by tug to a dump site.


SUMMER 1978


Y --lrr~ni~L~~II







































A familiar sight to Canal employees, the SS "Cristobal" unloads cargo on the Atlantic side piers. Originally one of three passenger
ships of the Panama Line that transported employees on home leace, the "Cristobal" is now used mainly to carry
supplies from New Orleans to the Canal Zone.


The ever-popular tourist launch "Las Cruces" serves Panama Canal "oldtimers" and newcomers alike on its regular
Saturday afternoon outing. Following page: The view of the Chagres River from the Gamboa Golf Club is a panorama
of unsurpassed beauty and a favorite scene for Isthmian residents.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


_ ~~_~ll~____j~













L'~sl~c


aJ


0.%












Cruising Cuisine



By Fannie P. Hernandez


W ORLD INTEREST IN THE
Panlama Canal generated lby the
treaty negotiations between the United
States a1nd Pan una has created a sen-
timiental curiosity in the public reminlis-
cent of tile davs following the opening
of the Canal when passenger ships
brought to the Isthnus the first starry-
eyed visitors to see the engineering
wonder.
Publicity on the Canal has prompted
niany of those inspired by the emo-
tionally-packed issue to come and have
a look for themselves. People who until
nowv have not given a second thought
to the Canal suddenly realize it's there
and must be seen. Others need only a
slight nudge to fulfill the dream of a
lifetime.


San Francisco
(.


Whatever the reason, more and more
visitors are coming to the Canal these
days. Thev come bv land, by air and
the nmore fortunate, by sea, aboard the
luxury passenger ships. Smaller cruise
vessels and shorter cruises, new fares
and a mvriad of attractions have opened
the cruise experience, formerly the ex-
clusive pleasure of the very rich, to the
less-affluent younger passenger. Cruise
planners too have taken advantage of
the world-wide focus on the Panama
Canal and are offering more cruises that
include the Canal transit. As a result,
Canal devotees arc filling the cruise
ships to capacity.
Another important factor figuring in
the growth of cruising is the advent of
the air sea package cruise in which the
steamship company subsidizes the cost
(f fl''ir' the ii'l -Inder to *11d from the

A'.iel t l .e. .III I .i. rh o 1 i l. t l, IIFr, i ihp
A. l. H.il', l iu : |i I', Ii-. I l lp tl,, tra -l
lte..d the C .Ii.I II thI: p r t l:. li.( llth -
are thie P ,- O L[_Ine,' C il., rrt ill.1

,_, 1 ,1';il ['rP i,( ...o ,iid Sllli ['rf ,,,
5.nl L lra. i' Sl..ll .. ,i Pnt i L..l ntl.,l .
5i, i'to A.,1 i ll,, i, r ,. SouiII .Al. r, l, li I ~. i

lair i .'l. R.,, I \ i.ii Lk le ,_,., il
\'il,m i, sl,, R ,'1l 'll 'ili g S. ind R,_,ial


Viking Star; Royal Cruise Line's Golden
Odyssey; Norwegian America Line's
Vistafijord and Sagafijord; Holland
America's Rotterdam, Statendam and
Veendam; Flag Ship Cruises's Kungs-
holm; Costa Line's Eugenio C; Hapagl-
loyd's Europa; Black Sea Shipping's
Maxim Gorky; Baltic Shipping's Mik-
hail Lermontov; Carras Cruises' Danae
and Cunard's QE2.
Sitmar's spring cruises, offering free
air fare to and from the ship, featured
four 14-night cruises through the Canal.
On the April 22 and May 6 sailings
between Fort Lauderdale and Acapul-
co, the Fairwind presented "Broadway
at Sea" with Peter Duchin and his
orchestra and a repertory group per-
forming special renditions of favorite
Broadway shows. On the May 6 and
4May 2n ':iilni,' from San Juan to Los
\IL:I,- the Forsc. t I li.-ii.l Blob Cros-
hI. .ii h ,i Il:...ar .inid special guests
L.I, l 11 Isiui .' i 1i1 H >:l:ll Forrest. Sit-
I.I1I C ,iII e i .n .u.ii-c. .ili ) departed
Ii. M i\ 27 aind lunre 10 and sailings
dr,: .'.ll iidulid lior Siph rinLi' r 2 and 16.
r'P.-:'l >:i' 'l n III\ ol ih l -ce jialings visit
(he li-, t poi t. In, IIh C.,ribl:ean and
h-,: I the ill .-.I tranr itirii the Panama

R. ,,v l \ il.kui o Liiir'' three .i- rer ships,
IIi ihi L 'i.Iur.e i.t rhl-ir Trad s-Canal/


1-anzanillo
,Napulco
Acaluda San Sal'ador

I4 i ll' il III r. a' .l 1 ri ii 5 l r, 1 l,'u 1N





Mexico/Caribbean cruises scheduled
throughout most of the year, offer more
Canal transits than any other line. Ports
of call for the Roval Viking's Trans-
Canal cruises include Caribbean islands
and resorts of Mexico. Other cruises
have slightly varied routes and include
such ports as Cartagena. Montego Bay,
Port-au-Prince, Nassau, Curacao, San
Juan, St. Thomas, Acapulco, Puerto
Vallarta and Mazatlan. Fly/cruise com-
binations are available and passengers
may also cruise round-trip from either
coast of the United States.
The Golden Odyssey, the Greek flag
ship of the Royal Cruise Line, has had
a major role in fulfilling clients' interest
in the Canal hy increasing its promo-
tional material and adjusting its itinera-
ries to accommodate the demand for
Canal transits. The beautiful vessel that
has the look of a giant private vacht
has made 8 trans-Canal cruises this year
and 10 cruises are scheduled for next
year. The 10-day Panama Canal air/
sea cruise includes round-trip air trans-
portation from Los Angeles to Aruba
where passengers board the ship, visits
to Cartagena, Colombia, Acajutla, El
Salvador and Acapulco, Mexico and
docking at Balboa on all trips whether
eastbound or westbound.
Frequent visitors to the Canal are
the three Princess Cruise vessels Prin-
cess Sun, Island Princess and Pacific
Princess, which make 14-day trans-
Canal cruises back-to-back every other


week throughout winter, spring and
fall. Passengers embark at Los Ange-
les, the ship sails to Acapulco and docks
at Balboa. Following the Canal tran-
sit, the main highlight of the cruise, the
Princess liner cruises the Caribbean and
ends the cruise at San Juan, from where
passengers are flown back to Los An-
geles free. At San Juan, another group
of passengers flown down from Los An-
geles, boards the ship for the Carib-
bean cruise. After a stop at Cristobal,
the vessel transits the Canal and then
sails to Acapulco, Cabo San Lucas and
on to Los Angeles. These beautiful
ships feature a glassed-in area around
the swimming pool which is ideal for
viewing a transit from all sides.
This summer and fall, four Prudential
cruises around South America will make
special northbound stops at Balboa so
passengers can meet one of the line's
cargoliners here for a 40-day cruise
that includes both the Panama Canal
transit and the Strait of Magellan.
Twelve Latin American ports will be
visited before returning to Balboa. Tran-
siting every 2 weeks, the U.S. Flag
Prudential Santas are among the most
frequent users of the Canal.
Visiting the Canal for the first time,
the Mardi Gras, formerly sailing out of
New Orleans to the Bahamas, recently
offered a 14-day and a 17-dav trans-
Canal cruise; the southbound Silver
Screen Cruise with June Allyson and
Margaret O'Brien, and the northbound
Silver Chalice Cruise featuring wine


seminars by the well-known wine col-
umnist Robert Lawrence Balzer of the
Los Angeles Times Home Magazine and
Holiday Magazine. The Mardi Gras
also called at St. Thomas, St. Maarten,
Caracas, Curacao and Acapulco. The
cruise included free jet flights between
Acapulco and Miami and Los Angeles
and Miami.
Also on her first transit of the Canal,
the U.S. built SS Universe sailed from
Port Everglades June 24 for a 23-day
cruise calling at three ports in Mexico,
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Venezuela,
Curacao, two ports in Colombia, the
San Blas Islands, the Canal Zone, Costa
Rica and El Salvador.
In this age of disappearing luxury,
the tradition of fine cuisine is still up-
held on passenger liners where cruising
is more than being caressed by the sea,
shipboard entertainment and sight-
seeing. Food and dining in leisurely
elegance is indeed an important part of
a cruise.
The Management of several cruise
lines has provided recipes for a sam-
pling of dishes typical of cruise ship
cuisine for REVIEW readers to enjoy
while dreaming of dining at sea.
The largest passenger cruise ship in
service and the largest passenger ship
to transit the Canal, the QE2 docked
at Balboa for the first time on her third
transit of the Canal last January.
Dining aboard the QE2, possibly the
most exquisite occasion on any pas-
senger liner afloat, can in itself be an


Kolokithi is Greek for zucchini. It is usually boiled,
deep fried or stuffed with ground meat. Here it is the basic
ingredient for a delicious nut bread,
a perfect accompaniment for coffee or tea.


Lahanodolmados-stu fed cabbage leaves flavored with
cinnamon and lemon for the authentic Greek touch.
(Chandris Line)


SUMMEn 1978


_ _II C





unforgettable adventure. On her last
winter cruise, the "Great Pacific Cruise,"
her larder included two tons of caviar
and 33,750 pounds of lobster; her wine
cellar stocked 35,000 bottles of cham-
pagne and other wines. Considered the
epitome of life's gastronomic experience,
the choices of food offered on the Queen
are seemingly infinite. After early tea,
coffee and scones on deck, breakfast
possibilities include a choice of seven
juices and fresh fruits; 11 kinds of hot
and cold cereal; eggs prepared every
imaginable way; 2 kinds each of ba-
con, ham and sausage; broiled toma-
toes; French onion soup; kippered her-
ring; poached finnan haddie; cold ham,
chicken, beef and turkey; grilled lamb
chops and saut6ed potatoes; and an
endless variety of breads and jellies and
jams. Needless to say, a listing of the
lunch and dinner offerings would bog-
gle the mind.
Be it on the Mediterranean, the
Mexican Riviera or the 10-day Panama
Canal air/sea cruise, dining aboard the
Golden Odyssey, the newest cruise ship
to transit the Canal, is a memorable,
mouth-watering event. From the superb
cuisine of this magnificent ship and the
chef's collection of favorite Greek re-
cipes enjoy Tyropites, golden, crisp
cheese pastries, and Kolokithi Nut
Bread, a delicious nut bread made with
zucchini (kolokithi in Greek).
Tyropites
(Savory Cheese Triangles)
1 8-oz. package cream cheese
3 lb. feta cheese, crumbled
2 eggs, slightly beaten
1 tbs. all purpose flour
pinch of salt, if desired
1 tsp. ground nutmeg
3 lb. plus 3 tbs. butter or margarine,
melted
1 lb. commercial filo pastry sheets, cut in
thirds (3 x 11 inches)
In a bowl, combine cheese, eggs,
flour, salt (omit salt if feta is very salty),
nutmeg and 3 tablespoons butter. Cover
bowl. Chill several hours or overnight.
Take out of refrigerator 1 hour before
using.
Pile up filo, cover with waxed paper
and damp towel. Take 1 sheet. Keep
rest covered. Butter filo, using pastry
brush and lb. butter or margarine,
melted and warm. Put 1 tsp. filling
1 inch from end nearest you. Fold filo
back over filling so bottom edge meets
left edge, making a right angle. Keep
folding back at right angles to make
triangular shape with each sheet of
filo. Repeat this procedure. Place on
baking sheets and keep covered until
all are ready to bake. Bake at 3500 for


Passengers aboard the "Royal Viking Sky" watch operations as their ship transits.
Royal Viking Line's three sister ships offer more Canal transits than any other line.


20-25 minutes or until golden and crisp,
turning once. Serve hot. Makes about
60 triangles (21 inches).
Kolokithi Nut Bread
2 cups sugar
3 eggs well beaten
1 ctp oil
1 tsp. soda
1 tsp. salt
1 tsp. cinnamon


tsp. baking powder
3 cups allpurpose flour
1 cup finely chopped nuts
2 cups grated kolokithia (do not peel)

Mix sugar and eggs. Add all re-
maining ingredients. Bake in two large
or three small loaf pans. Bake at 350
for 40-50 minutes. Allow to cool on
rack before slicing. This bread freezes
beautifully.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Hors d'oeuvres at cocktail time on the "Golden Odyssey" may include
these golden, crisp cheese-filled pastries called tyropites.


~ _~~ ~



































On her third visit to the waterway, the "QE2" transited the Canal and docked
for the first time at the port of Balboa.


The SS "Rotterdam" approaches
Pedro Miguel.


All recipes were prepared and table
settings arranged by Noreen Singer.


Deliciously aromatic, French Onion Soup Gratinee is served The finest aged Dutch Gouda is used to prepare
for breakfast everyday on the "QE2." this Cheese Fondue.


30 SUM.MER 1978





The French chef on the QE2 offers
his recipe for French onion soup:
French Onion Soup Gratinee
4 large onions
1 tbs. flour
22I oz butter
2 pints beef stock or bouillon
salt and pepper
grated Gruyere cheese
breaded croutons
Place the onions, finely sliced, in pan
together with butter, stir and cook over
a gentle heat until the onions are gol-
den brown. Add flour, continue to stir
until flour is well blended with butter
and onions. Continue to cook for about
3 minutes, then gradually stir in the
beef stock, blending with the rest. Add
salt and pepper, cover the pan and cook
gently for 20 minutes. When ready to
serve, pour bowls and top with slices of
bread rolls or rounds of French bread
previously fried in butter. Sprinkle lib-
erally with grated Gruynre cheese and
place in a hot oven or under the grill
to brown the cheese. Serve at once.
The Rotterdam, the Dutch flag ship
of the Holland America Line, stopped
at the Canal in February on the first
leg of her around-the-world cruise. The
Line's Statendam and Veendam also
transit the Canal once a year on world
cruises. Food aboard these ships may
be described as deliciously exotic and
international. One of the many special
features which can be found on a Hol-
land America cruise is a demonstration


on the art of making Dutch Cheese
Fondue. Following is the recipe which
serves four to six:
1 lb. Dutch Gouda Cheese
coarselyy grated)
1 tbs. cornstarch
2 cups dry white wine
1 medium sized garlic clove peeled and
bruised with the flat of a knife
2 tbs. Kirsch liqueur
"i tsp. grated nutmeg
1, tsp. salt
freshly ground black pepper
1 large loaf of French or Italian bread cut
into 1-inch cubes including the crust.
Toss the cheese and cornstarch to-
gether in a large bowl. Pour the wine
into a two-quart fondue dish, drop in
the garlic and bring to a boil over high
heat. Let the wine boil for 1 or 2 min-
utes, then remove the garlic. Lower the
heat so that the wine barely simmers.
Stir constantly with a table fork while
adding the cheese mixture a handful
at a time, letting each handful melt
before adding another. When the fon-
due is creamy and smooth, stir in the
Kirsch and season to taste.
Place the fondue dish over an alcohol
or gas table burner, regulating the heat
so that the fondue barely simmers. Tra-
ditionally, each diner spears a cube of
bread on a fork, swirls the bread about
in the fondue until thoroughly coated,
then eats it immediately.
A preference of passengers on the
Holland America cruises (especially re-
peat passengers) is Dutch Pea Soup.


Here it is:
Ertwensoep (Pea Soup)
2 cups split peas
1 cup whole green peas
10 cups (21' quarts) water
3 onions, finely chopped
2 lecks, finely chopped
3 ribs of celery with leaves, finely chopped
32 lb. smoked bacon, unsliced
1 large ham hock
1 whole smoked sausage ring
freshly ground pepper
1. Soak both types of peas overnight
in just enough water to cover them.
2. Next day, drain the peas, then
place them in 2 quarts of water in
a large pot with all of the other ingre-
dients except the sausage. Bring to a
boil.
3. Turn heat down and let entire
mixture simmer for 11/ hours, stirring
often. If soup becomes thick, thin by
gradually adding small amounts of
water.
4. Add sausage and continue sim-
mering for 15 more minutes. Pepper to
taste.
5. Remove bacon, ham and sausage.
Slice and serve on pumpernickel bread.
6-8 large servings. In Holland, this dish
is usually served as a main dish.
One of the favorite desserts served
on board the Holland America cruise
ships is Bananas Martinique made this
way:
Ingredients required:
6 ripe bananas
1 orange
3 tbs. butter


g ;l


A favorite dessert, Bananas Martinique, is served with
great flair on the SS "Statendami."


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Ertwensoep, a hearty Dutch pea soup is a favorite
of passengers on the Holland America Line.








PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL

(in long tons)

Atlantic to Pacific


Commodity
Petroleum and products ---- ______
Corn__ -.. __..---------_ .._____
Coal and coke-
Soybeans
Phosphate
Sorghum --
Wheat .------ --- ---------..______
Manufactures of iron and steel--- _______
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals --___---------
Ores, various -__--__----_____________
Metal, scrap ----------___ -_________----
Fertilizers, unclassified________ _____
Sugar----------_----____
Ammonium compounds-____ ________
Caustic soda --______________ --
All other__________________
Total..--------___----


6 Months
FY 1978
5,098.725
4,479,041
4,129,163
2,883,453
2,219,164
1,490,771
1,332,006
997,099
899,075
759,013
751,867
716,011
554,090
319.537
272,937
4,602,976
31,504,928


6 Months
FY1977
4,685,008
5,106,107
6,313,559
2,533,962
1,851,283
1,678,256
1,012,240
371,966
796,940
725,739
622,921
531,567
315,996
197,181
287,317
7,236,762
34,266,804


Pacific to Atlantic


Commodity
Petroleum and products---------------------
Manufactures of iron and steel_ ------
Ores, various_______ ---- ------
Lumber and products -- --------
Sugar--------
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) .----
Bananas----------____
Woodpulp ---------------
Metals, various __-------- ----___--
Coal and coke ---------- ----
Autos, trucks, and accessories ----- ______
Wheat ----_---- ------- ---
Sulfur __________________________________
Paper and products ------_-----------__---
Molasses_____________ __--
All other ----
Total


6 Months
FY 1978
10,102,124
4,108,986
2,478,799
2,432.983
1,469,290
873,976
843,718
768,143
704,462
630.473
579,526
554,930
464,671
425,595
422,384
5,615,525
32,475,585


6 Months
FY 1977
7,059,814
3,663,019
2,550,014
2,214,203
1,377,129
903,975
787,302
870,209
667,134
176,096
399,042
453,706
511,113
284,710
334,546
5,015,308
27,267,320


CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT


Commercial:
Oceangoing-
Small I ----
Total_ .
U.S. Government:
Oceangoing.. -_____
Small 1 ----.-___.
Total-...--. _


6 Months FY 1978
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total
----- 3,070 2,984 6,054
----- 218 109 327
-- --_-- 3.288 3,093 6,381


----_--__ 24 21
------_ __61 43
_----__ 85 64


45
104
149


6
Months
FY
1977
5,843
378
6,221

43
122
165


Grand Total ----------------__ __ __ 3,373 3,157 6,530 6,386

1 Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, or under 500 displacement tons.
Statistics compiled by the Executive Planning Staff.


3, cup sugar
% cup apricot sauce
1 cup rum
3, cup toasted almonds
In a large chafing dish, melt the but-
ter and add sugar. Cook until sugar
caramelizes or becomes light brown.
Squeeze the juice from the orange into
the pan and continue heating. Add the
apricot sauce, and when hot add the
rum. Peel and slice the bananas length-
wise. Add the bananas to the hot sauce,
and cook them for a few minutes on
each side.
Sprinkle a few more drops of rum
over sauce and flame rum with a match.
When the flames die down, place ba-
nanas on dessert plates and sprinkle
toasted almonds over them. Serves 6.
oApricot sauce may be made by using 1/3 cup
apricot jam and thinning it down with % cup
apricot juice or orange juice. Heat until jam
becomes a smooth sauce.
From the Italian chef on the Island
Princess where dining is a favorite pas-
time, here is a duck recipe for a gala
dinner:

Duck A La Rouennaise
1 4-5 pound duck
2 shallots-finely minced
2/3 cup red wine
K cup melted butter
pinch-nutmeg, basil, marjoram
Clean duck and salt and pepper in-
side and out. Combine other above in-
gredients and pour over duck. Roast
for approximately 1 hour at 4250 in a
preheated oven. (Duck should be nicely
browned but rare inside.) Baste occa-
sionally during roasting time.
While duck is roasting-prepare the
following sauce:
1 1/3 cups red wine
i' tsp. shallots-finely minced
1,i cups meat gravy
Duck liver-passed through a sieve
(uncooked)
5 cup butter
li' ounce cognac
1 leaf thyme (or equivalent in crumbled
thyme)
1 leaf bay laurel
Combine wine, shallots and spices in
a sauce pan. Bring to boil and cook to
reduce in quantity to 2/3 original vol-
ume Add meat gravy and let boil a
couple of minutes longer. Reduce heat
and simmer. Add duck liver, gravy and
remaining ingredients. Heat thoroughly.
While sauce is heating-take duck
from oven and let sit for 10 minutes.
Remove from fat and drippings and
carve into serving pieces, being sure
to retain juices and blood rendered dur-
ing carving. Carving juices should then
be added to the simmering sauce.


SUMMEn 1978







OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS BY NATIONALITY


Nationality
British -
Chilean --___- _---------
Chinese. Nat'l.------- -------
Colombian. -----.---------------
Cuban __________----------
Cypriot---__----- --------
Danish _________------__
Ecuadorian _--.--_ ___- --
French_ -----------__ --------
German, West ----------------
Greek ___________---- ----__-
Italian--__________------
Japanese-_____--- __-~__--_---
Liberian_____ __--_-___--
Mexican_______-__-_-
Netherlands--------------
Norwegian ------ __- --
Panamanian ------ _
Peruvian_____ ~___________
Polish ---_--_._ ----
Singaporean ----------
South Korean -_---
Soviet ___-__-----
Spanish _____-- ___--
Swedish-___ ___------
United States_ ------
Yugoslavian ----__----
All other ----- ___--
Total___--------------_


6 Months FY 1978
Long
No. of Tons
Transits Cargo
514 4,536,526
88 953,677
49 574,120
89 610,207
47 282,098
43 196,581
125 1,083,985
94 837,387
60 523,910
273 1,956,465
650 8,576,443
126 745,095
459 3,996,490
925 14,529,111
40 318,065
90 639,332
249 3,345,559
491 3,692,341
101 887,753
42 250,360
79 858,632
43 410,208
111 685,339
53 124,064
131 1,199,120
643 8,430,847
67 508,552
372 3,228,246
6,054 63,980,513


6 Months FY 1977
~- -^^---^^ ---
Long
No. of Tons
Transits Cargo
532 4,725,067
60 860,788
98 778,636
87 163,211
38 165,808
40 144,838
148 1,147,284
84 797,579
73 564,481
296 2,039,153
553 8,540,138
106 599,082
465 4,830,019
889 14,922,188
17 126,172
109 624,832
303 4,629,096
546 4,007,402
81 836,632
38 325,413
48 483,674
31 199,698
97 699,104
40 168,416
134 1,390,894
539 4,275,067
49 391,290
342 3,098,162
5,843 61,534,124


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS
OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES


Trode route
East Coast United States-Asia-----------------------
East Coast United States-West Coast South America .._--
Europe-West Coast South America--- --- ___
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America _____
Europe-West Coast United States/Canada-------------
South American Intercoastal____------------- ----
U.S. Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii) --------
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania---- ---------
Europe-Oceania--____ ------------------
East Coast Canada-Asia ----------- __
All other__ ------------------
Total ------------


6
Months
FY
1978
1,400
615
543
485
473
207
185
172
145
143
1,686
6,054


6
Months
FY
1977
1,333
498
539
269
434
222
221
155
203
139
1,830
5,843


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY MONTHS
Tolls (In thousands
Transits of dollars)l
Month FY 1978 FY 1977 FY 1978 FY 1977
October ----------------------------1,028 976 $14,995 $11,488
November ----_____________________ 947 968 14,280 12,777
December ------- -------------1,002 943 14,848 13,887
January----- --- ------------__ 1,000 983 14,433 13,818
February -------- -------------- 942 916 14,199 12,978
March -------------------- 1,135 1,057 17,022 14,064
Total--_---- ----------- 6,054 5,843 $89,777 $79,012
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.
Statistics compiled by Executive Planning Staff.


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
6 Months
1978 1977
TRANSITS (Oceangoing)
Commercial---------- 6,054 5,843
U.S. Government-__ 45 43
Free _------------ 3 8
Total-- ----. 6,102 5,894
TOLLS1
Commercial_ $89,799,541 $79,040,771
U.S. Govern-
ment ..__ 421,734 382,418
Total _. $90,221,275 $79,423,189
CARGO2 (Oceangoing)
Commercial_ 63,980,513 61,534,124
U.S. Govern-
ment ... 131,771 96,937
Free ..- _
Total__ 64,112,284 61,631,061
llncludes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
2Cargo figures are in long tons.
Statistics compiled by Executive Plan-
ning Staff.


Place carved duck in casserole (or
individual serving dishes) pour sauce
over the duck. Dot top of duck with
additional butter and return to oven-
3500 for 20 minutes. Serve immediately.
From the Chandris Line's cruise ves-
sels Australis and Britanis which also
feature Greek dishes on their visits to
the Canal, here is a recipe for stuffed
cabbage leaves:
Lahanodolmados-Stuffed Cabbage
Leaves
2 medium cabbages (outer leaves only)
1 lb. ground meat
2 onions, chopped
3 tbs. butter
salt and pepper
2 tbs. tomato paste
cinnamon
1 cup boiling water
quarter cup raw rice
boiling water
lemon slices
Parboil cabbage leaves about 5 min-
utes being careful not to tear them.
Drain in a colander. Brown ground beef
and chopped onions in 2 tablespoons of
the butter. Add salt and pepper, half
the tomato paste and cinnamon. Add
water and rice. Simmer until rice is par-
tially done. Stuff cabbage leaves by re-
moving heavy center of cabbage leaf
and cut each leaf in two. Place one
rounded tablespoon of meat mixture
near cut end of leaf. Fold over. Fold
edges in towards center and roll up
lightly. Cover bottom of greased cas-
serole with cabbage leaves. Place rolls
in layers, and add remaining tomato
paste, diluted in enough boiling water
to cover. Dot with remaining butter.
Cover and simmer for 2 hours or
until done. Serve with lemon slices.
(6 servings).


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33



















Panoramic Views
of the
CANAL ZONE

A view of the Pacific side as seen from
the west bank of the Panama Canal.
An Atlantic side scene photographed from
atop the Mount Hope water tower.






































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Full Text

PAGE 3

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1978pana

PAGE 8

HAROLD R. PARFITT Col ."rnor-Prcsident JAMES H. TORMEV Lieutenant Governor FRANK A. BALDWIN Panama Canal Information Officer SUMMER 1978 Official Panama Canal Publication WILLIE K. FRIAR Editor Writers Vic Canel, Fannie P. Hernandez, Dolores E. Suisman, Vicki Boatwright Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $2, airmail $4. For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Canal watchers— those who visit the locks regularly to take a look at the passing parade of ships— know that traffic has taken on a different look. Even a casual observer must have noticed the large number of heavily laden oil tankers passing through the waterway. Oil from the North Slope of Alaska has reached the Canal and in this issue we are featuring a story on how the merging of the Alaska pipeline with the Panama Canal has become a temporary solution to the problem Credits: The following individuals and companies have contributed to this edition of the Review: C. Fernie ir Co., agents for SOHIO at the Canal; the Overseas Shipholding Group; Jack Ott, of "The Sohian," the Alyeska Pipeline Service Co.; Duncan Beardsley, Vice President, Royal Cruise Line; and captains and crews of the "Overseas Chicago," the "Maryland," and the "Renown." Special credit for panoramic views of the Canal Zone and for layout assistance goes to Mel Kennedy, and to Kevin Jenkins, who photographed the entire I oyage of the "Overseas Chicago." Other photographers, whose work is included are Arthur L. Pollack, Don Goode, and Alberto Acevedo. Map and graph are by Carlos Mendez. In This Issue of moving the oil to the Gulf and East Coast ports of the United States. Along with the tankers, Canal observers probably have noticed the increase in the number of cruise liners. Much new air/sea cruise business has been generated by the Panama Canal being in the news spotlight throughout the past year as a result of the Treaty negotiations and this issue contains a collection of recipes from these luxurious ships. On The Cover The Trans Alaska Pipeline, the Overseas Chicago entering Miraflores Locks and the Chicago moving up the Mississippi River, appear on the front cover. On the back, the Overseas Chicago leaves Valdez in Alaska laden with North Slope oil. Front cover photos are by Kevin Jenkins. The back cover was provided by the Overseas Shipholding Group. Also in this issue is the story of the Canal's watercraft, which plays such a vital role in the movement of ships through the waterway. At right: Tlie "Overseas New York," which broke the cargo record for the Panama Canal when she transited in April with 64,603 long tons of oil, passes the "Overseas Chicago." The new treaties governing the future operation and defense of the Panama Canal were signed bv the United States and Panama in a ceremony at OAS headquarters in Washington on September 7, 1977. They were approved by Panama in a plebiscite on October 23 of that year and the U.S. Senate gave its advice and consent to their ratification in March and April 1978. The new treaties are scheduled to go into effect 6 months after the exchange of ratification instruments between the two governments becomes effective. Panama would then assume plenary jurisdiction over what is now the Canal Zone, although U.S. police and courts would retain limited authority for a 30-month transition period. Summer 1978

PAGE 9

.••': -*•••L i^nlwmiiiiiiiipiiwiMiiii'i

PAGE 10

The Panama Canal Oil from the Arctic travels through the tropics as the Panama Canal and the Alaska Pipeline merge to move North Slope oil to U.S. East and Gulf ports Bv Willie K. Friar The Aluska Pipeline stretches 800 miles from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Ocean tu Valdez, tin ice-free port. Map of North Slope oil route with sfiips positioned in Parita Bay. THERE ARE 1,191,299 BARRELS of North Slope crude oil in the Panama Canal at this moment." This statement from Canal officials on April 28 announced the movement of the biggest shipment of Alaskan oil to transit the Canal at one time. The oil, equal to the total amount of fuel consumed in the Canal Zone each vear for the generation of electricity, was aboard the Overseas Alaska, the Overseas Arctic, and the Overseas New York all northbound en route to U.S Gulf ports. Laden with 64,603 long tons of oil, the Overseas New York set an all time high cargo record for the Canal. It was on June 20, 1977 that the Summeii 1978

PAGE 11

onnection Alaska oil first entered the pipeline at Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Ocean. This marked the completion of the largest engineering project ever undertaken by private enterprise. Crude oil began gushing into the big pipeline at 300,000 barrels per day. It required 9.4 million barrels of oil just to fill it and it was a month before the first oil emerged from the pipeline at Valdez Marine Terminal. In the following weeks, the movement of oil reached 600,000 barrels per day and gradually was raised to 1.2 million barrels. It now takes about a week for a barrel of oil to make the 800-mile trip from the North Slope through the pipeline to Valdez. Construction of the Pipeline Those acquainted with the problems involved in the construction of the Panama Canal have a special appreciation for the successful completion of the trans-Alaska Pipeline. Few engineers have ever been faced with such formidable complications of climate, terrain and government regulations as those encountered in the building of this pipeline. Designers, choosing the route for the pipeline, had to figure the best way to cross three mountain ranges, how to cope with problems of potential earthquakes, protection of wildlife, permafrost, and the heat generated bv the flow of warm oil at temperatures of 130 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit through pipes erected over frozen ground. There were streams that crossed the route on an average of one each mile and the migration paths of caribou had to be considered as well as the salmon spawning streams and the nesting sites of birds along the routes. Although oil was discovered at Prudhoe in 1968, it was not until April 1974 that construction began on the 358-mile road between Prudhoe Bay and the Yukon Biver. As soon as the road was completed, the pipeline work began in earnest with more than 22,000 persons engaged in the construction work. A monument to 20th-century technology, the pipeline construction required less than half the number of The Panama Canal Beview 5 The "Overseas Joyce," which is almost 103 feet in the beam and 736 feet long, moves through Caillard Cut en route from Parita Bay to the East Coast of the United States with a cargo of Alaska crude oil. workers required to build the Panama Canal. The Alveska Pipeline Service Co., which is the firm responsible for the design, construction and operation of the pipeline, is owned by eight firms— Amerada Hess Pipeline Corp., ABCO Pipe Line Co., SOHIO Pipe Line Co., Exxon Pipeline Co., Mobil Alaska Co., Phillips Petroleum Co., Union Alaska Pipeline Co. and BP Pipelines, Inc. Total cost of the project has been estimated at almost $12 billion, of which S9 billion has been spent on the pipeline, and $3 billion developing Prudhoe Bay and associated facilities. The pipeline which begins at Prudhoe Bav on the Arctic Ocean, stretches across the largest state in the nation to the ice-free port of Valdez. Between Prudhoe Bav and the Brooks Mountain Bangc, it crosses miles of treeless tundra underlain bv permafrost where, for almost 2 months in the winter, the sun never appears. Rainfall here is about the same as in the deserts of Nevada and Utah. The line reaches its highest point, the The "Overseas Chicago" approaches the Exxon Refinery at Baton Rouge, La. The vessel makes regular shuttle trips through the Canal transporting oil to East and Gulf poits.

PAGE 13

<:^& r*te< 7**$ The oil arrives at Parita Bat/ aboard supertankers and then is discharged into smaller vessels able to transit the Canal. Above: the "Overseas Chicago," left, takes on oil from the "British Renown." which is receiving oil from the "Man/land. The "Renown" and the "Manjlarut" arc supertankers about 178 feet in beam and 1,100 feet long. Below kit: Capt, Karl Jaskierntj, master of the "Oierseas Chicago" tiatches as his ship is docked alongside the "Rctiown," Center: Luis Blades, Senior Port Officer of the National Port Authority of Panama, cheeks dot uments with Capt. Fred II Adams, Master of the "Mart/land." At far right: Capt. Roger Woodcock, Staff Captain of the "Renown," logs in the amount of oil taken on hi/ the "Overseas Chicago.' 4,800-foot Atigun Pass, as it climbs the* Brooks Range. As it moves south approaching the Yukon River, it passes through areas where temperatures range from winter's record minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit to 90 degrees in summer. After crossing the Yukon River, the mute passes Fairbanks and then climbs over the Alaska and Chugach mountain ranges before arriving at the wet coastal area at Valdez. The pipeline is built of 48-inch diameter steel pipe which is welded together with over 100,000 welds. The final weld, which was made May 30, 1977 about 100 miles south of Prudhnc Bav, tied together two sections of above-ground pipe. Slightly less than half the pipe is buried below ground. The rest is elevated in sections of van ing length, most shorter than 30 miles, Environmental Safeguards One of the most sophisticated, fullv automated pipeline systems in the world, it is equipped with a computer which scans the line everv 20 seconds and reports flow, pressure, temperature, rate of discharge and thousands of other types of data. The whole operation is controlled from Valdez and is tied together bv microwave communication and backed up bv earth satellite. The multiple environmental safeguards covering the operations are unprecedented and include 175-cut-ofl valves along the line to minimize any possible oil spills. At Valdez, the oil is stored in 28 enormous steel tanks which hold 510,000 barrels each. Built on bedrock 500 feet above the tidewater, the terminal is safe from most natural disasters including tidal waves of the type which engulfed the port at the time of the 1964 earthquake. It was at 11:02 p.m. Alaska Davlighl Time, July 29, 1977 that the first North Slope oil gushed from the pipeline at Valdez. The Role of the Canal It took another month for the first oil to reach the Panama Canal. On August 31, the Washington Trader transited the waterway with 39,776 tons of oil. This milestone, coming 63 vears alter the opening of the waterway, marked the beginning of the vital role of the Panama Canal in the movement of North Slope Oil to the East and Gulf coasts. The immediate solution to the problem of transporting the oil proved to be the joining together of two of the United States' greatest engineering achievements, the trans-Alaska Pipeline and the Panama Canal. The transportation of oil through the Panama Canal involves two fleets of U.S. flag ships and two British flag vessels. The latter are the British Renown and the Britisii Resolution two Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs) of approximated 265,000 deadweight tons. These ships, which are 1,100 feet long and 178 feet in beam, are anchored 14 miles off Chitre in Parita Bav, about 65 miles from the Canal. A number of ships (at last count 28 or 30— it changes otten) one of which is a tug-barge combination, are engaged in transit cvcles of laden and ballast voyages between Parita Bav and Last Coast and Gulf ports in the United States and to Puerto Rico. Supertankers, too large to transit the Canal, are used to bring the oil down from Valdez to Parita Bav. There it is pumped into the tanks of the British vessels which act as floating terminals. From them, it is transferred to smaller tankers able to fit in the 1,000 bv 110 feet dimensions of the Panama Canal locks. This type of operation is not unique to the Alaska oil shipments. The transfer of oil to smaller vessels is a frequent operation in places where harbor facilities cannot accommodate the supertankers. In fact, most oil imported bv the United States is handled in this manner. Operating around the clock, the crews of the British terminal vessels can receive about 10,500 long tons per hour and discharge into the Canal shuttle ships at about 4,500 long tons per hour. The ships are equipped to take oil into their storage tanks, to transfer oil directlv from one vessel to the othei or to perform both operations at the same time. Much care is taken to avoid oil pollution and at Parita Bav nothing is discharged into the sea. The oilv ballast water removed from the tankers at Parita Bav is pumped into the empt\ supertankers for transport back to Valdez where the ballast water is cleaned in a special treatment facility, the largest of its kind. From Alaska to the U.S. Gulf ports, via the Panama Canal, is a long journc\ and the oil customer might be impressed to know that from Valdez u> the northernmost port on the U.S. West Coast is over 1,000 miles. It is another 2,000 miles to the Port of Long Beach in Southern California and over 6,000

PAGE 15

Above: At the port of Valdez in Alaska, oil is stored for transfer to supertankers, such as the "Alaska," center, which is pumping oil into tfie "British Resolution" at Parita Bay. At right: The "British Renown," sister ship of the "Resolution," (top) receives oil from the "Maryland." At right: Panamax tankers transport oil through the Canal. At far right: Pumping oil at Parita Bay. Below: Prudhoe oil fields. miles to Gulf Coast ports. Close to 600,000 barrels a day or North Slope crude are being delivered to West Coast refineries and shipments through the Panama Canal have averaged 234,298 barrels a dav through the first 7 months of FY 1978. Because of the draft restrictions of the Canal, tankers larger than 50,000 deadweight tons normally cannot transit the waterway when fully loaded and most vessels over 90,000 deadweight tons cannot transit even with partial loads. But tankers able to fit in the Canal averaged 2.5 transits a day during April on the oil shuttle. Under Federal law, domestic oil can be moved between two U.S. ports onlv by ships that are owned and manned bv Americans. The movement of the oil through the Canal has proved verv advantageous to owners of U.S. flag ships. It has also been a great, though probably temporary, benefit financially to the Panama Canal. Several measures have been suggested to effect a long term solution to the disposition of the West Coast oil surplus. Sohio has proposed a 1,000 mile pipeline system running from Long Beach, Calif, to Midland, Tex. This would involve reversing the flow in an existing 800-mite natural gas pipeline and converting it to an oil carrier, a relatively simple and inexpensive operation. This would then be connected to about 200 miles of new pipeline. At Midland, the system would connect with existing oil lines into the Midwest. This project would have sufficient capacity to handle most of the surplus oil at current levels. It could be completed in 14 to 24 months if the necessary permits could be obtained. However, the project has run into serious opposition from the California Air Resources Board, which is concerned about further air pollution in the area. The Board contends that the emissions resulting from the unloading of oil tankers in the harbor and escaping from the storage tanks would violate both state and Federal air quality standards. Other pipeline possibilities are being considered including a trans Guatemala and a trans Panama line. Another possible alternative is to ship the oil in VLCCs around Cape Horn. However, at this time, there are enough U.S. flag -. tankers available to make the high cost Panama route feasible on a short-term basis. From October 1977 through April 30, 315 Alaska oil tankers transited the Canal carrying 6,849,077 long tons of oil and paying $8,419,291 in tolls. During the same period, tankers carrying Alaskan crude oil paid an average toll of $29,880 laden and $23,515 in ballast. During the month of April alone, 74 North Slope oil carriers transited and the daily average could remain close to 2.5 until some alternative to use of the Canal is found. In the meantime, Northville Industries, a New Jersey company, is going ahead with construction of a permanent storage tank facility at Puerto Armuelles in Panama. Sohio has a contract with Northville to use the on-shore facility through July 1, 1980. AVERAGE DAILY STENTS OF NORTH SLOP&f^E OIL THROUGH THE PAlM-A CANAL FY-193'8 L thousands of brIs 406.2 181.4 177.6

PAGE 16

Typical of the tankers carrying oil through the Panama Canal to Gulf and East Coast ports is the "Overseas Chicago," a U.S. flag ship. With a beam of 105.9 feet and a length of N61.8 feet, the "Chicago" can take full advantage of the 110 feet by 1,000 feet dimensions of the Canal locks. The "Chicago" makes regular trips through the Canal and recently transited with 62,141 long tons of oil en route to the Exxon Refinery in Baton Rouge. The "Overseas Chicago" takes on oil from the "British Renown" in Parita Bay. The pumping of oil and ballast is carefully monitored aboard the "British Renown.' Tin heat ily ladt n tanker moves through Gaillard ( on his ruilio us the ship approaches Gatun Locks. Below: A Canal pilot gives instruction 10 Summer 197S

PAGE 17

As the ship moves across the Caribbean, complex electronic equipment provides constant communication with the outside world. Activity in all cargo holds can be observed quickly on this highly automated control board. I W I Breakfast is prepared in the modern stainless steel kitchen. Meals are served cafeteria style. The tanker moves up the Mississippi en route to the Exxon Refinery at Baton Rouge, shown belo 88& '•• •• *•-•••• ••...."., .v*;, .'.A. The Panama Canal Review 11

PAGE 18

Watercraft Fleet Keeps Canal Afloat By Vicki Boatvvright THE ORIGINAL NAME OF A little workboat with bright red awnings that residents of Camboa are accustomed to seeing chugging up and down tile Chagres River is lost in histoid but its usefulness goes on. Now the Hyacinth II, this craft was built in 1882 and was the property of the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interoceaniquc. When Lt. Mark Brooke signed the receipt for the assets of the French in early 1904. the little craft became the property of the Isthmian Canal Commission. Its amazing continuance in service is due to its special talent: it is [he only Company powerboat that can pass under the Camboa Bridge at high water, and as such it is invaluable in hvacinth control work. While the Hyacinth 11 is the oldest member of the Panama Canal fleet, it is but one of manv different tvpes of specialized watercraft in the service of the Canal organization todav. The powerful tugs that assist ships in transit; the floating dredges that clear the channels of rocks and mud; the mightv cranes that offload cargo and salvage sunken vessels; and the myriad of launches that transport members of the Canal workforce to their dutv stations all plav an essential role in keeping the Canal operating at peak efficiency the vear round. Though none can compete with the Hyacinth H in age, two members of the present fleet date back to the opening days of the Canal. The crane Hercules, the only piece of equipment capable of lifting the huge locks miter gates, was built in Cermanv and put into service in 1914. The dipper dredge Cascadas, now the backup for the new Rialto M. Christensen, was built by the Bucvrus Co. and commissioned in 1915. Over its 63-vear career it has participated in some of the most dramatic of Canal projects, such as the widening of the 8.3-mile Gaillard Cut from 300 to 500 feet. Not all the watercraft presently in use were acquired off the Isthmus. The craneboat Atlas and the diesel-electrie tug Arraijan, built in 1934 and 1936 respectively, were the handicraft of the Balboa Mechanical Division. This vear the Industrial Division, successor to the Mechanical Division, assisted in the installation of a new crane that gives the An aerial view of the Dredging Division in Gainhou. home of the Canal organization's largest watereraft.

PAGE 19

Atlas a lifting capacity of 75 tons. The new crane, which replaces a main crane and a smaller one that was located on the bow, is invaluable to the seagoing Atlas in its job of maintaining navigational aids, which includes the changing of buoys. Some of the largest and most important floating craft used in Canal maintenance have no means of self-propulsion. The Hercules, the derrick barge Goliath, the suction dredge Mindi, the dipper dredge Rialto M. Christensen, the drill barge Thor, plus a multitude of dump scows and barges, all must relv on tug-power to get them to and from a worksite. Of the Canal organization's 17 large tugboats, one is used almost exclusively for moving dead tows. The versatile Goliath has a clamshell bucket for dredging, can operate a pile driver, and has a crane with a lifting capacity of 80 tons which can be used to load and unload ships. In April of this vear, the Goliath was essential in the removal of the softnose at Pedro Miguel after it collapsed and sank as a result of being struck by a transiting ship. The Goliath's next project will be the replacing of 700 dolosse, the giant concrete jacks that interlock to form the armour of the breakwater at Cristobal. The Mindi, the Canal's only suction dredge, is capable of removing from the Canal bottom large quantities of fine silt material that cannot be handled efficiently bv the dipper dredges. Since its acquisition by the Canal organization in 1942, the Mindi has been involved in dredging approaches, harbors and piers on both the Atlantic and Pacific sides, as well as working in Gaillard Cut. One of the unique jobs performed bv the Mindi was when the suction dredge was modified and used to pump the cargo of rice and cotton out of the vessel Sian Yung after it sank in the Cut off Paraiso. The Mindi's last large project, before being sent to the Industrial Division for repowering and overhaul, was the completion of the suction dredging phase of the widening of Gamboa Reach. The repowering of the Mindi will convert it from steam to diesel electric. In addition, a ladder pump will be installed. Because it will be mounted close to the cutterhead, or suction point, it will increase dredging efficiency at greater depths. The dipper dredges rely on the drill barge Thor, equipped with four drill The "Hyacinth II," a remnant of French construction days, will soon be replaced by two modern workboats from Holland after nearly 100 years of Canal service. towers for underwater drilling and blasting operations, to break apart solid material in the Canal that would otherwise be too hard or too large for their bucket capacity. The Thor has been engaged since 1970 in channel deepening in Gaillard Cut, as well as being involved in two major construction projects, the widening of Gamboa Reach and of Mamei Curve north of Gamboa. The real workhorses of the Canal fleet are the tugs, whose major function it is to assist ships in transiting and in docking and undocking. Operating out of Cristobal and Balboa harbors and out of the Dredging Division in Gamboa, the tugs at Balboa alone put in, in 1 month's time, 2,789 hours assisting ships. The tugs vary in strength from 1,000 to 3,000 horsepower. Depending on the size of the vessel they are assisting, at times two tugs may be needed to see one ship safely through the locks, as was the case with the Queen Elizabeth 2, earlier this year. Besides having in its fleet some of the oldest watercraft afloat, the Panama Canal can also boast some of the most modern. The dipper dredge Rialto M. Christensen, built in 1977 in Hakodate, Japan at a cost of $6 million, is one of the largest dredges of its kind in the world. Its bucket has a capacity of 15 cubic vards and can dredge 60 feet below the water surface. The same year the Canal organization also acquired the omnidirectional tugs M. L. Walker and H. Burgess, named after the fourth and fifth governors of the Canal Zone. These sisters feature a pair of propulsion units which can be rotated 360 degrees, enabling the tugs to thrust all 2,400 horsepower of their diesel engines in any horizontal direction. The tugs are the first of their kind in the Western Hemisphere and were built especially for work in the Panama Canal. Presentlv on order from Holland are two specially designed workboats known as Multi-Cat and Mini-Cat, which feature a heavy duty steel hull construction and are equipped with a special push bow. The boats are capable of handling a whole range of tough demands put upon them by the Dredging Division, such as breaking apart suction dredge pipeline and pushing small barges and floats. Their engines have an internal fresh water cooling system, a distinct improvement over the external water intake systems that were subject to damage by the aquatic vegetation that infests Canal waters. The Panama Canal fleet is indeed varied, ranging from rowboats to floating cranes. But each has a specialized task to perform, whether it be to respond to a slide or accident in the Canal channel or to keep the Canal Zone free from malaria by spraying insecticide on backwater mosquito breeding grounds. The stories and pictures that follow are representative of the many floating craft that keep the Panama Canal continuously open to world shipping. The Panama Canal Review 13

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Three tugs are needed to assist the "Queen Elizabeth 2" into port at Cristobal. Assisting transiting vessels is the major activity of the 16 tugs at Cristobal and Balboa harbors. Two of the Canal's "workfwrses" are locked through with a transiting vessel to be available for work at the other end
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The "H. Burgess" and its sister the "M. V. Walker" are the Canals first omnidirectional tugs, capable of thrusting their power in any horizontal direction. The tugs are named after the fourth and fifth governors of the Canal Zone. All of the Canal's tugs are equipped for firefighting, having the ability to generate foam from large capacity tanks as well as carrying dry chemicals and being able to pump water directly from the Canal. The Panama Canal Review 15

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Put to work as a survey boat, the "Papagallo" uses a sonur depth finder to locate obstructions in Canal waters. Personnel launches are used to transport boarding parties, deckhands and pilots out to transiting ships, but getting there is only half the fun. Next is the long climb up the Jacob's ladder. The long, narrow hull of the pilot's launch is built to withstand the rough waters of the outer anchorages. 16 Summer 1978

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Oil containment boom is deployed from a motorized fiberglass catamaran after a major oil spill in Balboa piers. A panga is used for the cleanup job, as boatmen pick up oil-soaked polyurethane foam and deposit it in a drum. With the additional current provided by an outboard motor, water hyacinths are herded through culverts under Gaillard Highway to a pond for harvesting. The airboat "Santa Sierra" glides into weed-infested waters to spray herbicide on the floating vegetation that if left untreated would overrun the Canal. A motorboat is essential in the spraying and fogging of Canal backwaters to keep the mosquito population under control. A fast, lightweight craft is wltat's needed to change light bulbs on buoys close to shore. The Panama Canal Review 17

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i^ lN -•i-U mmiNC vi I l is GETTING DARK AND A drizzling rain falls as a ship cautiously approaches the entrance to the locks. Tindeckhands lean over the bow railing, their eves scanning the water. They spot two men in a rowboal i om ing towards tinship. The rowboal trails a messenger line that is being fed oul Inlinehandlers nil till' locks wall. As thi' rowboal nears tinship, shouts ol instruction anexchanged. At tinprecise i lent the deckhands throw a weighted heaving line; it ans out from ill,bow ol ilio slup across the rowlio.it ami splashes Into tile water. The lioatman in the stem grasps the line, knots it to the messenger line with practiced speed, anil casts the joined lines off. The rowboat scurries out of the way of the oncoming ship and quickly makes its way back to the locks wall. The deckhands on the ship haul in the line which linehandlers have connected to a steel locomotive cable. Only seconds have elapsed, but the ship is now safely joined to the first of the towing loCOmotives that will guide it through the locks. The activity just described could have occurred in 1914 as easily as toil. i\ because the procedure for getting the messenger line out to a ship is as old as the Canal itself. Today the rowboats anmade of fiberglass instead of wood anil tin inanila rope lines have been replaced by high-strength synthetic line. The rowboats. still referred to by many as "pangas" despite their official title of "fiberglass workboats," are among the smallest vessels that aid in putting ships through the Canal. The job of the boatmen that man them is one of the most dangerous and is performed 24 hours a day, 365 davs a year in all kinds of weather. Over the years, many Marine Directors and at least one Governor of the Canal Zone have sought to find a safer and speedier way to get the job done. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor of the Canal Zone from 1962 to 1967, was convinced that there had to be at Tht jut' hi^iii.', u Inn c/ ship comet Into iic --' Tleast a more modern way. In one of his memos written on personal stationery, and wryly referred to as "snow-flakes" by their recipients, the Governor insisted: "Every time I visit the locks and see the archaic method we have of getting the lines from the mule to the ships, I cringe. . Other people around here have made the same remark to me that this certainly seems to be an anachronism. . It seem to me it should be possible to find a simpler and more effective method without going into an elaborate Rube Goldberg device." The Governor's memo closed with a suggestion that a crossbow be used to shoot the line from the ship to the wall. -. Little Rkvboats PerfornlBig Job In Panoiia Canal Summer 19TH : The Panama Canal Review The order went out to "find a better way." E. G. Abbott, the first civilian Port Captain at Balboa, jokingly commented to the Chief of the Navigation Division: "The Governor remarks about this system being archaic but seems to think the crossbow that went out with Robin Hood would be more modern." Notices were posted on bulletin boards throughout the various units of the Marine Bureau and an article appeared orr the front page of the Spillway asking for ideas and suggestions of ways to improve on the "row and throw" method. A total of 22 suggestions were received, ranging from variations on the crossbow idea to the lowering of a messenger line onto the ship by means of a gantry crane. One person suggested replacing the rowboats with a saucertype boat with 3RD degree drive. He was told to submit plans for such a craft and it would be tried out. Nothing more was heard from him. All of the ideas were, in fact, either impractical or too dangerous, with a net result that the campaign to find a replacement for the rowboats was eventually abandoned. The records do not show Governor Fleming's reaction to the matter; but one Marine Director, recognizing the value of the rowboats, remarked, "A machete is also archaic. but it works." and ends when the last messenger line is aboard.

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Workmen are dwarfed by the huge hook of the "Hercules" as they loop one of four cables that will enable the crane to raise the 160-ton structural steel ladder from the dredge "Mindf at the Industrial Division in Mount Hope. The "Hercules" and its sister the "Ajax" were built in Duisburg, Germany at the start of World War I. Tradition has it tliat at the request of the U.S. Department of War. hostilities were delayed for 3 days to allow the floating cranes to pass through the British blockade and proceed to the Panama Canal. The 250-ton capacity crane "Hercules" is the Canal's only piece of floating equipment capable of lifting the 700-ton locks miter gate off its pintles for overhaul. The buoyant gate is raised into a horizontal position in the full locks cliamber and floated to a drydock for maintenance. Two Canal giants in a tandem tow, the floating cranes "Hercules,' C.aillard Cut by the tug "San Pablo." left, and "Goliath" are pushed to a worksite in 20 Summer 1978

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The suction dredge "Mindi' sucks up the continuous accumulation of silt in Balboa harbor capable of restricting the draft of vessels and pumps it outside of the channel.

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ft 1 } H

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A familiar sight to Canal employees, the SS "CristohaT' unloads cargo on the Atlantic side piers. Originally one of three passenger ships of the Panama Line that transported employees on home leave, the "Cristobal" is now used mainly to carry supplies from New Orleans to the Canal Zone. The ever-popidar tourist launch "Las Cruces" serves Panama Canal "oldtimers" and newcomers alike on its regular Saturday afternoon outing. Following page: The view of the Chagres River from the Gamboa Golf Club is a panorama of unsurpassed beauty and a favorite scene for Isthmian residents. The Panama Canal Review 23

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Cruising Cuisine By Fannie P. Hernandez WORLD INTEREST IN THE Panama Canal generated by the treaty negotiations between the United States and Pan una has created a sentimental curiositv in the public reminiscent of the davs following the opening of the Canal when passenger ships brought to the Isthmus the first starryeved visitors to see the engineering wonder. Publicity on the Canal has prompted manv of those inspired by the emotionally-packed issue to come and have a look for themselves. People who until now have not given a second thought to the Canal suddenly realize it's there and must be seen. Others need only a slight nudge to fulfill the dream of a lifetime. • San Francisco Whatever the reason, more and more visitors are coming to the Canal these davs. Thev come bv land, by air and the more fortunate, by sea, aboard the luxury passenger ships. Smaller cruise vessels and shorter cruises, new fares and a mvriad of attractions have opened the cruise experience, formerly the exclusive pleasure of the very rich, to the less-affluent younger passenger. Cruise planners too have taken advantage of the world-wide focus on the Panama Canal and are offering more cruises that include the Canal transit. As a result, Canal devotees are filling the cruise ships to capacity. Another important factor figuring in the growth of cruising is the advent of the air sea package cruise in which the steamship company subsidizes the cost of frying the passenger to and from the port of embarkation. Several cruise lines offer free airfare to and from the ship. Among the passenger ships that transited the Canal in the past few months are the P. & O. Lines' Canberra and Oriana; Princess Cruises' Pacific Princess, Island Princess and Sun Princess; Sun Line's Stella Solaris; Prudential's Santa Magdalena, Santa Mercedes and Santa Mariana; Sitmar's Fairsea and Fairwind; Royal Viking Line's Royal Viking Sky, Royal Viking Sea and Royal Cabo San Lucas Puerto Vallarta • K Manzanillo^^ m ^. Acapulco Acajutla/San Salvador Typical of the air/sea cruise is this voyage of the "Golden Odyssey," which runs a regular schedule of cruises throughout the dry season. • Aruba Viking Star; Royal Cruise Line's Golden Odyssey; Norwegian America Line's Vistafijord and Sagafijord; Holland America's Rotterdam, Statendam and Veendam; Flag Ship Cruises's Rungsholm; Costa Line's Eugenio C; Hapagllovd's Europa; Black Sea Shipping's Maxim Corky; Baltic Shipping's Mikhail Lermontov; Carras Cruises' Danae and Cunard's QE2. Sitmar's spring cruises, offering free air fare to and from the ship, featured four 14-night cruises through the Canal. On the April 22 and May 6 sailings between Fort Lauderdale and Acapulco, the Fairwind presented "Broadway at Sea" with Peter Duchin and his orchestra and a repertory group performing special renditions of favorite Broadway shows. On the May 6 and May 20 sailings from San Juan to Los Angeles, the Fairsea featured Bob Crosby and his Bobcats and special guests Edgar Bergen and Helen Forrest. Sitmar Caribbean cruises also departed on May 27 and June 10 and sailings are scheduled for September 2 and 16. Passengers on any of these sailings visit the best ports in the Caribbean and have the thrill of transiting the Panama Canal. Royal Viking Line's three sister ships, in the course of their Trans-Canal/ Cartagena, Colombia Balboa/Panama City SOUTH AMERICA

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Mexico/Caribbean cruises scheduled throughout most of the vear, offer more Canal transits than any other line. Ports ot call for the Royal Viking's TransCanal cruises include Caribbean islands and resorts of Mexico. Other cruises have slightlv varied routes and include such ports as Cartagena. Montego Bay, Port-au-Prince, Nassau, Curacao, San Juan, St. Thomas, Acapulco, Puerto Vallarta and Mazatlan. Fly /cruise combinations are available and passengers may also cruise round-trip from either coast of the United States. The Golden Odyssey, the Creek flag ship of the Royal Cruise Line, has had a major role in fulfilling clients' interest in the Canal by increasing its promotional material and adjusting its itineraries to accommodate the demand for Canal transits. The beautiful vessel that has the look of a giant private yacht has made 8 trans-Canal cruises this year and 10 cruises are scheduled for next year. The 10-day Panama Canal air/ sea cruise includes round-trip air transportation from Los Angeles to Aruba where passengers board the ship, visits to Cartagena, Colombia, Acajutla, El Salvador and Acapulco, Mexico and docking at Balboa on all trips whether eastbound or westbound. Frequent visitors to the Canal are the three Princess Cruise vessels Princess Sun, Island Princess and Pacific Princess, which make 14-day transCanal cruises back-to-back every other week throughout winter, spring and fall. Passengers embark at Los Angeles, the ship sails to Acapulco and docks at Balboa. Following the Canal transit, the main highlight of the cruise, the Princess liner cruises the Caribbean and ends the cruise at San Juan, from where passengers are flown back to Los Angeles free. At San Juan, another group of passengers flown down from Los Angeles, boards the ship for the Caribbean cruise. After a stop at Cristobal, the vessel transits the Canal and then sails to Acapulco, Cabo San Lucas and on to Los Angeles. These beautiful ships feature a glassed-in area around the swimming pool which is ideal for viewing a transit from all sides. This summer and fall, four Prudential cruises around South America will make special northbound stops at Balboa so passengers can meet one of the line's cargoliners here for a 40-day cruise that includes both the Panama Canal transit and the Strait of Magellan. Twelve Latin American ports will be visited before returning to Balboa. Transiting every 2 weeks, the U.S. Flag Prudential Santas are among the most frequent users of the Canal. Visiting the Canal for the first time, the Mardi Gras, formerly sailing out of New Orleans to the Bahamas, recently offered a 14-day and a 17-day transCanal cruise; the southbound Silver Screen Cruise with June Allvson and Margaret O'Brien, and the northbound Silver Chalice Cruise featuring wine seminars by the well-known wine columnist Robert Lawrence Balzer of the Los Angeles Times Home Magazine and Holiday Magazine. The Mardi Gras also called at St. Thomas, St. Maarten, Caracas, Curacao and Acapulco. The cruise included free jet flights between Acapulco and Miami and Los Angeles and Miami. Also on her first transit of the Canal, the U.S. built SS Universe sailed from Port Everglades June 24 for a 23-day cruise calling at three ports in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Venezuela, Curacao, two ports in Colombia, the San Bias Islands, the Canal Zone, Costa Rica and El Salvador. In this age of disappearing luxury, the tradition of fine cuisine is still upheld on passenger liners where cruising is more than being caressed by the sea, shipboard entertainment and sightseeing. Food and dining in leisurely elegance is indeed an important part of a cruise. The Management of several cruise lines has provided recipes for a sampling of dishes typical of cruise ship cuisine for Review readers to enjoy while dreaming of dining at sea. The largest passenger cruise ship in service and the largest passenger ship to transit the Canal, the QE2 docked at Balboa for the first time on her third transit of the Canal last January. Dining aboard the QE2, possibly the most exquisite occasion on any passenger liner afloat, can in itself be an Kolokitlii is (track fur zucchini. It is usually boiled, deep fried or stuffed with ground meat. Here it is the basic ingredient for a delicious nut bread, a perfect accompaniment for coffee or tea. Lahanodolmados-stufjed cabbage leaves flavored with cinnamon and lemon for the authentic Greek touch. (Chandris Line) 28 Summeh 1978

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unforgettable adventure. On her last winter cruise, the "Great Pacific Cruise," her larder included two tons of caviar and 33,750 pounds of lobster; her wine cellar stocked 35,000 bottles of champagne and other wines. Considered the epitome of life's gastronomic experience, the choices of food offered on the Queen are seemingly infinite. After early tea, coffee and scones on deck, breakfast possibilities include a choice of seven juices and fresh fruits; 11 kinds of hot and cold cereal; eggs prepared every imaginable way; 2 kinds each of bacon, ham and sausage; broiled tomatoes; French onion soup; kippered herring; poached finnan haddie; cold ham, chicken, beef and turkey; grilled lamb chops and sauteed potatoes; and an endless variety of breads and jellies and jams. Needless to say, a listing of the lunch and dinner offerings would boggle the mind. Be it on the Mediterranean, the Mexican Riviera or the 10-day Panama Canal air/sea cruise, dining aboard the Golden Odyssey, the newest cruise ship to transit the Canal, is a memorable, mouth-watering event. From the superb cuisine of this magnificent ship and the chef's collection of favorite Greek recipes enjoy Tyropites, golden, crisp cheese pastries, and Kolokithi Nut Bread, a delicious nut bread made with zucchini (kolokithi in Greek). Tyropites (Savory Cheese Triangles) 1 8-oz. package cream cheese /2 lb. feta cheese, crumbled 2 eggs, slightly beaten 1 tbs. all purpose flour pinch of salt, if desired 1 tsp. ground nutmeg % lb. plus 3 tbs. butter or margarine, melted 1 lb. commercial fllo pastry sheets, cut in thirds (3x11 inches) In a bowl, combine cheese, eggs, flour, salt (omit salt if feta is very salty) nutmeg and 3 tablespoons butter. Cover bowl. Chill several hours or overnight. Take out of refrigerator 1 hour before using. Pile up filo, cover with waxed paper and damp towel. Take 1 sheet. Keep rest covered. Butter filo, using pastry brush and % lb. butter or margarine, melted and warm. Put 1 tsp. filling 1 inch from end nearest you. Fold filo back over filling so bottom edge meets left edge, making a right angle. Keep folding back at right angles to make triangular shape with each sheet of filo. Repeat this procedure. Place on baking sheets and keep covered until all are ready to bake. Bake at 350 for Passengers aboard the "Royal Viking Sky" watch operations as their ship transits. Royal Viking Line's three sister ships offer more Canal transits than any other line. 20-25 minutes or until golden and crisp, turning once. Serve hot. Makes about 60 triangles (2V2 inches). Kolokithi Nut Bread 2 cups sugar 3 eggs well beaten 1 nip oil 1 tsp. soda 1 tsp. salt 1 tsp. cinnamon 'A tsp. baking powder 3 cups allpurpose flour 1 cup finely chopped nuts 2 cups grated kolokithia (do not peel) Mix sugar and eggs. Add all remaining ingredients. Bake in two large or three small loaf pans. Bake at 350 for 40-50 minutes. Allow to cool on rack before slicing. This bread freezes beautifully. Hors d'oeuvres at cocktail time on the "Golden Odyssey" may include these golden, crisp cheese-filled pastries called tyropites. The Panama Canal Review 29

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On her third visit to the waterway, the "QE2" transited the Canal and docked for the first time at the port of Balboa. The SS "Rotterdam" approaches Pedro Miguel. All recipes were prepared and table settings arranged by Noreen Singer. Deliciously aromatic, French Onion Soup Gratinee is served for breakfast everyday on the "QF.2." The finest aged Dutch Gouda is used to prepare this Cheese Fondue. 30 Summer 1978

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The French chef on the QE2 offers his recipe for French onion soup: French Onion Soup Gratinee 4 large onions 1 tbs. flour 2% oz butter 2 pints beef stock or bouillon salt and pepper grated Gruyere cheese breaded croutons Place the onions, finely sliced, in pan together with butter, stir and cook over a gentle heat until the onions are golden brown. Add flour, continue to stir until flour is well blended with butter and onions. Continue to cook for about 3 minutes, then gradually stir in the beef stock, blending with the rest. Add salt and pepper, cover the pan and cook gently for 20 minutes. When ready to serve, pour bowls and top with slices of bread rolls or rounds of French bread previously fried in butter. Sprinkle liberally with grated Gruyere cheese and place in a hot oven or under the grill to brown the cheese. Serve at once. The Rotterdam, the Dutch flag ship of the Holland America Line, stopped at the Canal in February on the first leg of her around-the-world cruise. The Line's Statendam and Veendam also transit the Canal once a year on world cruises. Food aboard these ships may be described as deliciously exotic and international. One of the many special features which can be found on a Holland America cruise is a demonstration on the art of making Dutch Cheese Fondue. Following is the recipe which serves four to six: 1 lb. Dutch Gouda Cheese (coursely grated) 1 tbs. cornstarch 2 cups dry white wine 1 medium sized garlic clove peeled and bruised with the flat of a knife 2 tbs. Kirsch liqueur 'a tsp. grated nutmeg !s tsp. salt freshly ground black pepper 1 large loaf of French or Italian bread cut into 1-inch cubes including the crust. Toss the cheese and cornstarch together in a large bowl. Pour the wine into a two-quart fondue dish, drop in the garlic and bring to a boil over high heat. Let the wine boil for 1 or 2 minutes, then remove the garlic. Lower the heat so that the wine barely simmers. Stir constantly with a table fork while adding the cheese mixture a handful at a time, letting each handful melt before adding another. When the fondue is creamy and smooth, stir in the Kirsch and season to taste. Place the fondue dish over an alcohol or gas table burner, regulating the heat so that the fondue barely simmers. Traditionally, each diner spears a cube of bread on a fork, swirls the bread about in the fondue until thoroughly coated, then eats it immediately. A preference of passengers on the Holland America cruises (especially repeat passengers) is Dutch Pea Soup. Here it is: Ertwensoep (Pea Soup) 2 cups split peas 1 cup whole green peas 10 cups (2'i quarts) water 3 onions, finely chopped 2 leeks, finely chopped 3 ribs of celery with leaves, finely chopped H lb. smoked bacon, unsliced 1 large ham hock 1 whole smoked sausage ring freshly ground pepper 1. Soak both types of peas overnight in just enough water to cover them. 2. Next day, drain the peas, then place them in 2Y2 quarts of water in a large pot with all of the other ingredients except the sausage. Bring to a boil. 3. Turn heat down and let entire mixture simmer for IV2 hours, stirring often. If soup becomes thick, thin by gradually adding small amounts of water. 4. Add sausage and continue simmering for 15 more minutes. Pepper to taste. 5. Remove bacon, ham and sausage. Slice and serve on pumpernickel bread. 6-8 large servings. In Holland, this dish is usually served as a main dish. One of the favorite desserts served on board the Holland America cruise ships is Bananas Martinique made this way: Ingredients required: 6 ripe bananas 1 orange 3 tbs. butter A favorite dessert, Bananas Martinique, is served with great flair on the SS "Statendam." Ertwensoep, a hearty Dutch pea soup is a favorite irf passengers on the Holland America Line. The Panama Canal Review 31

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PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (in long tons) Atlantic to Pacific 6 Months 6 Months Commodity FY 1978 FY 1977 Petroleum and products 5,098.725 4,685,008 Corn 4,479,041 5,106,107 Coal and coke 4,129,163 6,313,559 Soybeans 2,883,453 2,533,962 Phosphate 2,219,164 1,851,283 Sorghum 1,490,771 1,678,256 Wheat 1,332,006 1,012,240 Manufactures of iron and steel 997,099 371,966 Chemicals and petroleum chemicals 899,075 796,940 Ores, various 759,013 725,739 Metal, scrap 751,867 622,921 Fertilizers, unclassified 716,011 531,567 Sugar 554,090 315,996 Ammonium compounds 319,537 197,181 Caustic soda 272,937 287,317 All other 4,602,976 7,236,762 Total 31,504,928 34,266,804 Pacific to Atlantic 6 Months 6 Months Commodity FY 1978 FY 1977 Petroleum and products 10,102,124 7,059,814 Manufactures of iron and steel 4,108,986 3,663,019 Ores, various 2,478,799 2,550,014 Lumber and products 2,432,983 2,214,203 Sugar 1,469,290 1,377,129 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 873,976 903,975 Bananas 843,718 787,302 Woodpulp 768,143 870,209 Metals, various 704,462 667,134 Coal and coke 630,473 176,096 Autos, trucks, and accessories 579,526 399,042 Wheat 554,930 453,706 Sulfur 464,671 511,113 Paper and products 425,595 284,710 Molasses 422 384 334,546 All other 5,615,525 5,015,308 Total 32,475,585 27,267,320 CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT 6 Months FY 1978 6 Atlantic Pacific Months . to to FY Commercial: Pacific Atlantic Total 1977 Oceangoing 3,070 2,984 6,054 5,843 Small 1 218 109 327 378 Total 3,288 3,093 6,381 6,221 U.S. Covemment: Oceangoing 24 21 45 43 Small i__ 61 _43 104 122 TotaL.. 85 64 149 165 Grand Total 3,373 3,157 6,530 6,38 6 1 Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, or under 500 displacement tons. Statistics compiled by the Executive Planning Staff. u cup sugar % cup apricot sauce 1 cup rum )'* cup toasted almonds In a large chafing dish, melt the butter and add sugar. Cook until sugar caramelizes or becomes light brown. Squeeze the juice from the orange into the pan and continue heating. Add the apricot sauce, and when hot add the rum. Peel and slice the bananas lengthwise. Add the bananas to the hot sauce, and cook them for a few minutes on each side. Sprinkle a few more drops of rum over sauce and flame rum with a match. When the flames die down, place bananas on dessert plates and sprinkle toasted almonds over them. Serves 6. Apricot sauce may be made by using 1/3 cup apricot jam and thinning it down with Y* cup apricot juice or orange juice. Heat until jam becomes a smooth sauce. From the Italian chef on the Island Princess where dining is a favorite pastime, here is a duck recipe for a gala dinner: Duck A La Rouennaise 1 4-5 pound duck 2 shallots— finely minced 2/3 cup red wine Yi cup melted butter pinch— nutmeg, basil, marjoram Clean duck and salt and pepper inside and out. Combine other above ingredients and pour over duck. Roast for approximately 1 hour at 425 in a preheated oven. ( Duck should be nicely browned but rare inside.) Baste occasionally during roasting time. While duck is roasting— prepare the following sauce: 1 1/3 cups red wine '2 tsp. shallots— finely minced IK cups meat gravy Duck liver— passed through a sieve (uncooked) Ji cup butter Us ounce cognac 1 leaf thyme (or equivalent in crumbled thyme) 1 leaf bay laurel Combine wine, shallots and spices in a sauce pan. Bring to boil and cook to reduce in quantity to 2/3 original volume Add meat gravy and let boil a couple of minutes longer. Reduce heat and simmer. Add duck liver, gravy and remaining ingredients. Heat thoroughly. While sauce is heating— take duck from oven and let sit for 10 minutes. Remove from fat and drippings and carve into serving pieces, being sure to retain juices and blood rendered during carving. Carving juices should then be added to the simmering sauce. 32 Summer 1978

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OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL

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Panoramic Views of the (ML ZONE A view of the Pacific side as seen from the west bank of the Panama Canal. An Atlantic side scene photographed from atop the Mount Hope water tower.

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