Citation
Panama Canal review

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Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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-UN -E-. LIBR!S
VEFISITYtSIT of -FLORIDA




















Digitized by the Internet Archive


University


in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrewin 1978pana















PANAMA .iCANA

WINTER 1978


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HAROLD R. PARFITT
Governor-President
JAMES H. TORMEY
Lieutenant Governor

FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Officer


PANAMA ? .., CANAL



WINTER 1978

Official Panama Canal Publication


WILLIE K. FRIAR
Editor

Writers
Vic CANEL, FANNIE P. HERNANDEZ,
DOLORES E. SUISMAN, VICKI BOATWRIGHT


Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $2, airmail $4.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.


V VISITORS TO THE PANAMA
Canal cannot help but be im-
pressed with the constant hum of activ-
ity that surrounds the waterway. The
Canal never sleeps. Ships transit day
and night, requiring the presence of a
qualified workforce both to operate the
waterway and to maintain it.
This edition of the PANAMA CANAL
REVIEW salutes those thousands of em-
ployees directly involved in the task of
maintaining the Canal. Their jobs range
in scope from changing a lightbulb in a
lighted buoy to designing plans for
an improved locomotive turntable. But
each task is essential to providing
smooth and continuous service to Canal
customers.
Equally important to the operation of
the Canal is the preservation of the Ga-
tun Lake watershed. Current problems
resulting from deforestation of the
watershed are examined in this issue,


In This Issue


and the accompanying aerial photo-
graphs provide graphic evidence of
their existence.
A Christmas issue would not be
complete without stories reminding us
of the delights of this season of the year.
A tale about toys will bring back nos-
talgic remembrances of days gone by for
some readers, while others will relish
the recipes for a Christmas dinner that
feature delicacies available locally. The
issue is rounded out with a story on
Stevens Circle, a meeting place for
Canal Zone people at any time of
the year.
Special thanks go to Mel Kennedy
of the Panama Canal Graphics Branch
for designing the cover and for his pro-
fessional guidance in the selection of


many of the photographs that appear
in this edition of the REVIEW. Other
photographers whose work is included
are Arthur L. Pollack, Don Goode,
Kevin Jenkins, and Alberto Acevedo,
all of the Graphics Branch; and Ron
Jakaitis of the Dredging Division.



On The Cover

T HE DEWATERED CHAMBER
at Gatun Locks featured on the
front cover is the scene of locks over-
haul. The back cover shows the same
chamber alive with the activity of ves-
sels in transit. Inside the front cover,
passengers on the deck of a transiting
cruise ship get an opportunity to see
the floating crane Hercules lift a giant
miter gate off its pintles for transfer to
a drvdock for overhaul.


WINTERR 1978









Maiaintaining the Waterway:


Dedicated Workforce



Key To Canal's Success

By Vicki Boatwright


T HE PANAMA CANAL CEL-
ebrated its 64th birthday in Au-
gust. By that age most employees of
the Canal organization have retired,
begun to take life at a slower pace.
But the works of man's genius are
meant to outlive man himself, and the
Panama Canal is no exception. It is
today, as in 1914, a viable, efficient
structure still essential to the flow of
world commerce.
The fact that this is so is a tribute
to two groups of people: first, to the
designers of the Canal whose foresight
in planning the construction of the


waterway paved the way for its adapta-
tion to meeting present day needs. Its
simple, functional design has lent itself
to improvements in both the physical
structure of the Canal and the tech-
niques used in maintaining it. The
widening and deepening of the chan-
nel to accommodate increased traffic
and larger vessels, the bank lighting
through Gaillard Cut which allows
round the-clock operation, and the de-
velopment of engineering techniques
for overhauling valves without dewater-
ing the locks chambers are a few of the
changes that were possible within the


framework of the original plan for the
waterway.
Second, it is a tribute to those who
through the years and to the present
keep the waterway in top running con-
dition. To these people, the Panama
Canal is a living organism, worthy of
their respect and relying upon their
skills and their dedication for its con-
tinued existence.
It is to this group of people, the em-
ployees who perform the thousands of
jobs necessary to keeping the Panama
Canal open year round to ship traffic
that this story is dedicated.


Chamber work: A caisson holds back the flow of water as Maintenance Division employees break out the old concrete locks sill.
The sill will be restored while the miter gates are out for'overhaul.


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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




































A better way: Left, the pouring of molten, are raised at one time on a platform, a
babbitt into the hollow quoin bearing platd r and faster way to accomplish the task.
the juncture at which the miter gate meelow: A brand new 900-pound pintle ball,
the lock wall, was once accomplished b which the miter gate rotates, is eased
lifting workmen in a basket and lowering ,
cmtainers of babbitt to them. Today th
workmen and a container carrying enough re the chamber is flooded and the gates
of the 6.50 F metal to complete the whohrfcd bock into position.


WINTER 1978 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Keeping the waterway in shape is a
multi-million dollar a year business. It
involves the combined efforts of every
operating division within the Canal
organization. The scope of the work is
staggering. It encompasses such di-
verse activities as the maintenance and
repair of the physical structure of the
locks; the continuous dredging of chan-
nels, harbors, anchorages and piers; the
surveillance of the stability of the banks
of the Canal; the maintenance of a sys-
tem of aids to navigation; the treatment
of aquatic vegetation encroaching in the
channels; and the maintenance of the
dams and spillways that control the
level of the lakes.
Engineers, mechanics, machinists,
electricians, riggers, heavy equipment
operators, carpenters, painters, marine
traffic schedulers and control house
operators are but a few of the people
involved in the maintenance of the
Canal. Some of what they do is schedul-
ed work, planned and budgeted for well
in advance. Concurrent with that work
are tasks that must be tackled because
a need has arisen or an emergency has
occurred. The workforce of the Panama
Canal is capable of handling it all.

Locks Overhaul Is

Planned Maintenance

Perhaps the most visible example of
planned maintenance done to the water-
way is the annual locks overhaul.
Scheduled 7 years in advance, the work
is accomplished during the dry season
months of January through April. Dur-
ing overhaul, the manpower and equip-
ment of many divisions are deployed to
get the job done in the allotted amount
of time. The workforces of the Locks,
Industrial, Dredging, Engineering and
Maintenance Divisions and Marine
Traffic Control are among those that
work in concert to see that the overhaul
is completed without disruption of
Canal service.
One of the most dramatic tasks per-
formed during overhaul is the restora-
tion of the giant miter gates. Each pair
of the 44 pairs of operating miter gates
in the Panama Canal-88 gates leaves-
is scheduled for a thorough overhaul on
a 2.5 to 30 year cycle. The gate and its
components are removed, inspected and
reconditioned and the gate is returned
to service in top working condition.
For many years miter gates were
overhauled in place, requiring long lane
outages while the work was done. Then
in 1965 a new method was developed
which involved lifting the gates off their


pintles, or pivots, and floating them to
drydock for repair. This method requires
that the lane be out of service for only
2 days, 1 day to remove the gates and
I to return them to position.
Each gate leaf is 65 feet 7 inches
wide and 7 feet thick. They range in
height, depending on their location,
from 47 feet 4 inches to 82 feet and
in gross weight from 440 to 770 tons.
The Dredging Division's giant crane
Hercules is the only piece of Canal
equipment able to move the gates to a
horizontal position.
But the lifting capacity of the Hercu-
les is only 250 tons. In order to raise
even the lightest gate, the gate must
first be made buoyant. Air is pumped
into the flotation chambers built into
each gate-again, an act of foresight in
the original design-and the chamber is
flooded. Locks locomotives steady the
crane as it tilts the gate leaf to free it
from the yolk at the top and lift it
off the pintle ball nn the floor of
the chamber,
Once the gates are in the drydock,
the real work begins. The pintle casting,
which serves as the pivot point for
the leaf, is removed and shipped to
the Industrial Division headquarters in
Mount Hope to be overhauled. Then the
bearing plates, which form a perfect
water-tight seal between the leaves and
the side of the chamber and between
leaves themselves, are blasted off and
the lead alloy behind them, called bab-
bitt, is removed. New bearing plates
precisely aligned within 5'1000 of an
inch tolerance are installed, and the
space behind them is filled with molten
babbitt heated to a temperature of 650
degrees.
At the same time that the major com-
ponents of the gate are being worked
on, scraping and painting crews do their
job on the entire surface of the leaf.
Workmen also go inside the gates to
clean out any silt and debris that may
have accumulated there.
When the drvdock work is completed
and has been inspected and passed by
locks overhaul engineers, the giant
leaves are filled with air and floated
hack to their place in one of the sets
of locks.
But before the gates can be replaced
much work must be done within the
chamber. In order for work crews to
have full access to the locks walls, the
chamber floor and the concrete sills
against which the closed gate leaves
rest, the chamber is dewatered for a
period of 96 hours. Engineers plan the
work hour by hour, and each operation
must be coordinated with the greatest
precision so that every step is com-







































Explosive ditching at Velasquez spoil
dump on the west bank of the Canal:
Above, an aerial view of the 260 acres of
drainage ditches dug with dynamite;
at left, Dredging Division blasting
crew sets the charges in 500 foot strings;
lower left, the red flag is down, fire
in the hole; bottom right, a ditch created
without machinery.


WINTER 1978






pleted on target. At the same time,
Marine Traffic controllers schedule re-
lay lockages to prevent a large backlog
of ships.
With the gate removed, work crews
have access to the hollow quoin plates,
the area where the gate meets the locks
wall; to the pintle ball and its assembly
on which the lower end of the gate
pivots; and to the yoke which supports
the upper end. Each of these is re-
worked and restored to fit the exact
specifications of the newly overhauled
gates. In addition, with the chamber
drained the concrete gate sill can be
inspected and, if necessary, repaired.
At every step of the way the engineers
must monitor and check the work to
insure that when the gates are replaced
every component will align properly.
The maintenance of the miter gates
is only one phase of a locks overhaul
and only one example of scheduled
maintenance. But like the dozens of
other projects accomplished yearly, it
demands the combined effort of many
divisions of the Panama Canal Company
to see the work successfully completed.

Innovation the Key
To Today's Problems

While our forefathers designed for
the future, problems have arisen since
1914 that they could not have been ex-
pected to anticipate. These problems
require an innovative response on the
part of those whose job it is today
to operate and maintain the waterway.
Such a response was rendered this year
by Canal employees on the problem of
diminishing space for dredging spoil.
The regular removal of the accumu-
lation of silt and debris from Canal
channels in order to maintain them at
a navigable depth is a continuous job.
After more than 60 years of such dredg-
ing, the space set aside for spoil dis-
posal was filled almost to capacity.
Without the possibility of developing
new sites, the solution rested in making
more space in the areas that already
exist.
But the question of how to accomplish
that was a difficult one. The nature of
the spoil material itself was a limiting
factor. Dredging spoil is composed of
a small percentage of small rock that
settles out and dries quickly. The largest
portion is a fine textured silt with a
high degree of water retention. This
material may hold its water content for
years, preventing the silt from consoli-
dating to a smaller volume. Added to
that is the effect of the hot tropic sun
which acts on the surface of the depo-


sited silt to form a crust which serves
to contain the water content beneath
it by preventing further evaporation.
What was needed was a system of
drainage ditches that would remove
the contained water and allow the fine
silt to consolidate.
The nature of the spoil, however,
made it impossible to use excavation
machinery for this purpose. The dry
crust would give way and the machin-
ery sink into the slushy material below.
Dredging Division employees came
up with a plan to create the drainage
ditches by using small dynamite charges
set at close intervals. After surveying
the spoil dump areas to determine the
best pattern for the drainage ditches,
tests were done to determine the proper
spacing and depths at which the charges
should be placed. After some trial and
error-that resulted in a few broken
windows-the blasting crew settled into
a routine.
In just 3 weeks of work at the Velas-
quez dump area, located on the west
bank of the Canal adjacent to Rodman
Naval Station, 21,000 linear feet of
ditches were dug with dynamite at a
cost of just one dollar per foot. Conven-
tional methods, if they had been fea-
sible, would have taken several months
and cost many times more.
But the real measure of success of
the project was the immediate increase
in drainage of water from the spoil area,
which allows for additional amounts of
dredging spoil to be deposited there.
With one success behind them, the
crews moved on to accomplish the same
feat at the spoil dump area on Telfer's
Island on the Atlantic side.

Dedication Required
In Times of Crisis

It is perhaps in times of emergency
that the Canal workforce has most
effectively demonstrated its dedication
to keeping the waterway open to its
customers.
In 1970, a herculean effort was
mounted to raise the rice and cotton-
laden cargo vessel Sian Yung after it
struck the west bank of Gaillard Cut
and sank. It took 2 years of continuous
labor before the ship could be raised.
by means of cofferdams which floated
it to the surface, and towed out to sea
for disposal.
Slides, as recent as the 1974 disaster
at East Culebra Reach in Gaillard Cut,
have required immediate response and
round-the-clock effort on the part of
Canal employees to clear the channel
and return it to full service. Indeed,


Dredging Division painters maintain the
lighthouse at Isla Grande, a primary
landfall for ships approaching the Canal
from the north. Built by the French
in 1893, the steel structure traces its
structural lineage to the Eiffel tower,
which opened in 1889 at an exhibition
in Paris.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


















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Replacing the softnose at Gatun Locks: Left, at the Maintenance Division shed, employees
prepare the wooden form that will hold the concrete for the precast softnose unit.
A steel strongback that will check the pressure of the bulging concrete is examined
to insure a proper fit, then bolted into place. Center: At high tide the Dredging
Division's craneboat "Atlas" lifts the 62-ton unit, one of four pieces of the completed
softnose, from Dock 8 to transport it to Gatun. Above: An aerial view of the
unit being bolted to the centerwall at Gatun Locks while being supported
by the derrick barge "Goliath."


since 1914, slides account for 54 mil-
lion cubic yards of earth and rock that
have been removed from the channel
by the Canal's dredging forces.
This year the emergency was not in
the channel, but at the locks themselves.
In April the transiting oil tanker Over-
seas Ohio hit and sank the approach
wall nose rendering, knnwn as the "soft-
nose," at Pedro Miguel Locks. The
wooden approach wall fendering at Ga-
tun had heen similarly destroyed just
3 months before.
The function of the softnoses is to
protect ships from the damage they
would incur if they hit the solid concrete
centerwall. Without the sofnoses, extra
tugs were needed to guide ships safely
into and out of the locks, and traffic was
slowed as cautious pilots maneuvered
past the approach walls. To complicate
matters even further, there was already


a backlog of ships due to a time nf
particularly heavy ship traffic.
Although both the softnoses had been
damaged previously and plans were be-
ing formulated for their eventual re-
placement, the situation of having the
units at each end of Gatun Lake out of
commission at the same time meant
that action had to he taken immediately.
A limit of 6 weeks was set in which two
new units were to be fabricated and
installed at Pedro Miguel and Catun.
The job of constructing the four-
piece, precast concrete softnose units
was done at the Maintenance Division
in Balboa by crews working 12 hours a
day, 7 days a week. Concrete slabs
which would allow for the level con-
struction of the units were cast on the
floor of the division's Building 10. Huge
wooden forms reinforced with steel into


\\INTER 1978 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


ikk.


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~I ~ :E


Above: A Locks Division employee descends 8 feet into a 6-foot lateral culvert
in the chamber floor to inspect for cracks in the concrete. Below: The mighty miter
gates at rest in Balboa Drydock, where they undergo a complete overhaul
in a 2-month period. Right, a gate gets a touchup.


which the concrete was to be poured
were built on location by division car-
penters. After the poured concrete had
set, the forms were stripped away and
the rubber fendering put into place on
the concrete units.
Three cranes were needed to pick up
each of the major pieces of the units,
which weighed approximately 62 tons
apiece. The first unit was carried by
tractor trailer to the east wing wall of
Pedro Miguel Locks, where it was
placed in position to be loaded aboard
the derrick barge Goliath.
The second softnose unit was carried
by tractor trailer from Building 10 to
the dock in Balboa, where the crane-
boat Atlas lifted the four pieces off the
dock at high tide for transport to Gatun.
At Pedro Miguel, and later at Gatun,
the Goliath was used to suspend each
of the pieces of the softnose unit as
they were bolted into place on the cen-
terwall. The entire job was completed
within the scheduled time and the locks
returned to full service with only tem-
porary lane outages of a few days.
Once again Canal employees demon-
strated their willingness and proved
their ability to meet an emergency head
on by working long, grueling hours in
order to keep the waterway operating
at peak efficiency.


12 WINTER 1978






















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From Teddy Bears



to Star Wars




Toys


tell a tale


"When I was a beggarly boy
and lived in a cellar damp,
I had not a friend nor a toy,
But I had Aladdin's lamp."
-IAMNES RUSSELL LOW\ELL


T WO EMPTY BOTTLES, TIED
together at the neck, are pulled
through the dirt by a small, harefoot
boy.
Anyone who has ever lived in a
sugar-producing country, where cane is
transported to the mill in "carrctas"
drawn bv a team of oxen, knows the
little boy is pretending the bottles are
his beasts of burden and that he is haul-
ing the product of the dav's work from
the fields.
Where toys are not available, or
simply beyond the means of the parents,
children find a sway. Dolls carved out
of wood or fashioned from rags or
empty sacks; old tires or barrel hoops
to roll, broomsticks to serve as spirited
steeds, or discarded spools to he used
for wheels nn homemade carts.
Children's imagination, stimulated
by their environment, by the events
rounds them. by movies, comic books


or TV, is not unlike Aladdin's lamp in
its ability to conjure up a world of
fantasy.
From the earliest times youngsters
have entertained themselves through
play-acting and make believe, casting
themselves or their dolls in the role of
famous personages of fiction or real life.
And props need never be a problem.
With a little ingenuity, a paper or card-
board crown makes the child a king, a
dishtowel tied about the neck turns him
into Superman and a simple black mask
into the Lone Ranger.
But there have always been adults
to devise more sophisticated toys, to
capitalize on children's fantasies and
stimulate their natural inclination to
imitate their elders and their activities.
Dolls of every description, miniature
furniture, china tea sets, cooking uten-
sils and stoves have traditionally been
provided for the entertainment of little
girls, nn the long-established theory
that they must inevitably grow up and
assume the role of housewives.
Boys have always been encouraged
to play with manly things. Building
locks, erector sets, tool kits and chem-
istry sets, and to participate in physical
games to develop athletic prowess.
Since the struggle against segrega-
tion of the sexes has succeeded, promo-


Above left: Kenneth Martin's gleeful reaction shows that Teddy Bears remain
as popular today as in the days of Teddy Roosevelt for whom they are named.
Center: A "Spillway" story asking readers to bring in their antique bears produced
a number of venerable ones. Some of the oldest are shown here. Their ages and owners
are left to right: More than 60 years. Susan Onilin; at least 40 years. Sue Follett;
and more than 50 years. Pat Mercier Aboce right: Tony Alres holds a 40-year-old
hear brought in by Winter Collins.


tion of playthings is no longer aimed
specifically at boys or girls and adver-
tising frequently shows girls playing
with toys formerly considered strictly
for boys.
Trends in toys are strongly influenced
by depressions, wars and technological
breakthroughs. After the Panama Canal
started operations in 1914 and up until
the time the United States entered
World War I in 1917, toys sold in the
Canal Zone commissaries were of the
traditional, peacetime variety, unless
you consider lead soldiers, cowboys and
indians as bellicose. But there were no
toy pistols, rifles or machine guns.
In those days the commissaries sold
toys only for a few weeks before Christ-
mas at a temporary location. And since
buyers placed their Christmas tov or-
ders during February and March-as
they still do today-the first warlike toys
didn't appear on commissary shelves
until 1919, more than a year after the
armistice was signed.
Before the war, a great many of the
toys imported for Canal Zone worker's
children were German made-hand-
somely crafted wooden figures and
heavy, cast iron cars, trucks and trains.
But the supply was cut off at the out-
break of hostilities in Europe.
In 1916, the commissary increased
its toy order from the usual $10,000 to
$20,000 "to avoid customer complaints
about scarcity." That year, a special toy
section was set up at the Oil House,
near the Balboa substation. The facility
went into operation at 8 a.m. on No-
vember 20. To accommodate shoppers,
the Panama Railroad provided a 3-day
shuttle service with 10 round trips a


day between Panama and the Oil House
with stops at the Tivoli, Bishop's Hal-
low and Balboa Heights. The fare was
10 cents each way.
Entry of the United States into the
war brought a period of austerity to the
Canal Zone as efforts were directed at
more patriotic concerns than exchang-
ing Christmas gifts. The mood was
reflected in a memo in which the Sup-
ply Department General Manager ad-
vised store managers that Christmas
orders would be cut sharply "in line
with a recommendation from the Coun-
0il of National Defense that useless
,iving at Christmas time be discouraged
ind that money ordinarily wasted on
)resents of doubtful utility be saved
nd invested in Thrift Stamps and War
savings Stamps."
Conceding that "there are times
I hen gift-giving is desirable if not ab-
Alutely necessary" the manager's memo
ent on to suggest a few practical
:hristmas gifts such as silk neckties,
imisoles, chemises and ladies' silk
loomers.
Commissaries also offered another
ay for Canal Zone people to do their
it for the war effort. "Comfort Christ-
ias Boxes could be purchased for about
1.00 as gifts for U.S. or allied troops,
'ackaged and ready for mailing."
But whoever decided on the contents
,f the gift packages must have assumed
hat all our troops were addicted to
smoking. There were two kinds of
igarettes-Fatima and King Bee, plus
tin of Prince Albert Tobacco, cigaret-
e paper and matches. This was counter-
'alanced, however, hv a tube of tooth


paste, a tooth brush and a package of
chewing gum.
But even during the war, Canal em-
ployees were able to buy imported
Christmas trees at their commissaries.
In 1917 a small tree sold for 60 cents,
a medium tree for 90 cents and a large
one for $1.90.
Since the 1920's, Supply Division
buyers have gone to New York each
year to inspect the new offerings and


HE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


By Vie Canel


WINTER 1978






































Above: The latest design in Barbie
dolls is admired by Michelle Martin.
At left: A doll, popular during the
American Civil War, is displayed
along with a doll, doll heads and
dishes from Canal construction
days which were dug up by bottle
collectors. All are from the collection
of Camille Van Hoose.
Below: Deanne Chance holds other
antique dolls from this collection.


place the Christmas order for the Pan-
ama Canal commissaries.
At the "Toy Center of the World,"
on New York's Fifth Avenue, the latest
novelties of the toy industry are dis-
played and demonstrated by manufac-
Lirer's representatives in floor after floor
of showrooms.
One of the early buyers, L. \V.
McIlvaine, reported after attending the
1929 Toy Fair for a 3-week period that
he visited more than 400 permanent
and temporary exhibits then housed in
three New York hotels. He was most
impressed with the novel airplane
model kits and predicted they would
sell well in the Canal Zone. Just 2 years
earlier, Charles A. Lindbergh had made
his famous solo flight across the Atlan-
tic and aviation was the coming thing.
Not all the items he bought were suc-
cessful, however. In November 1930.
just before the Christmas toys were to
go on sale, there was a terse memo to
all store managers instructing them to
return "sling shots with a parachute at-
tachment" and that "under no circum-
stances are they to be permitted to go
on sale." The recall was apparently for
safety reasons.
The depression saw a slackening off
in the toy business. Mcllvaine reported
after his 1932 trip to the Toy Fair that
there were fewer bnvers "because of
the depression." The economic slump
also brought a reduction in the per
diem allowed the Panama Canal buyers
while on the New York assignment-
from $6 to $5 a day.
The evolution of the tov industry,
which today is a multibillion dollar

16 VINTER 1978


business in the United States, has paral-
leled advances in technology. During
the latter part of the 19th century. par-
ticularly in Europe, many toys were
in small shops by skilled craftsmen who
actually made exquisitely detailed scale
models of furniture and other items
they produced for the adult world.
In the early 1900's and through
the 1920's the U.S. toy industry pro-
duced a great deal of ingenious action
toys. The 1902 Sears catalogue offered
a "wind-up automobile with imitation
rubber tires for 17 cents." For 29 cents
you could get a "Balky Mule" which,
when wound up, would move forward
about 3 feet and then apparently at
the command of the driver" who pulled
the reins just at the right time, would
kick and start backward. Another item
advertised in the same catalogue was
a "Bear Bank" which consisted of the
figure of an indian aiming a rifle at a
grizzly. When a coin was placed on the
barrel of the rifle and a lever was pulled,
the coin shot into the bear.
The 1927 Sears catalogue is replete
vith mechanical toys-a car that "goes
n every direction, bucks and rears up,"
I windup airplane that flvs around a
lylon and even a toy labeled "Panama
Pile Driver." It featured a little man in
a two-wheel cart that went up and down
Steep track to work the hammer
with the help of marbles to serve as a
counterbalance.
Aside from the general trend toward
more sophisticated toys, which has
broughtt the industry from its infancy
nto the space age, as exemplified by an
extensive line of spinoffs from the hit

I'HE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17


movie "Star Wars," every few years toy-
makers hit upon an item that really
catches on.
One is the yo-yo, which has enjoyed
brief periods of popularity in modern
times, though it is said to date back to
the French Revolution. It was then
called "emigrette" after the emigrants
who left France in 1789.
The hula hoop, which took the
United States by storm in the 1950's
and quickly became popular through-
out the world, is now beginning to make
a comeback.
But perhaps the prize for the most
long-lasting popularity would go to the
"Barbie" doll which also made its ap-
pearance in the 1950's and was quickly
followed by a series of companion dolls.
As any parent who ever bought a Bar-
bie knows, that is only the beginning.
Keeping her and her friends dressed in
style and providing them with the in-
numerable accessories the manufacturer
so thoughtfully makes available, is a
continuing investment. There is even a
poodle to go with a glamorized version
of Barbie, called Fashion Queen Barbie.
The poodle, of course, has its own ac-
cessories-a collar and chain, corduroy
jacket and even a net tutu.
Dolls that "talk" when you pull a


string have been around for some time.
Mattel's most erudite talking doll, a
number called Charmin Chatty, comes
with 5 records and 10 sides and a
repertoire of 120 different phrases. The
doll is available in costumes of differ-
ent lands and there are records in
French, German, Italian, Spanish, Rus-
sian, Japanese and English-with a
British accent, if you prefer.
The age of electronics has ushered
in a whole new line of playthings for
children and adults-tennis, football
and other games which are played on
a television screen. Latest thing on the
market is a computerized football game
in which players try to outguess the
previously programmed game strategy.
Manv of the new electronic toys,
pocket computers and other sophisti-
cated items were included in this year's
commissary Christmas sale-the last
before the facilities cease operations on
October 1, 1979. But a good portion of
the half million dollar order was for
traditional toys-a large variety of dolls
and stuffed animals for the preschool
trade. Disney characters and the peren-
nial favorite, the Teddy Bear, which
took its name from the 26th president
of the United States and came into
being just about the time the Canal
construction was getting started.


Center above: Toys made by patients at the Canal Zane Mental Health Clinic in 1920
reflect the style of cars as well as the type of toys popular at that time.
Above: Wooden toys from many lanuds include marching guards from Denmark.
nutcrackers from Germany; a balancing man from Brazil; handcarved toys with moveable
parts from Russia; and a colorfully clad merchant from Egypt.






















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..P-.- --' J V- It, Dr- ig'e C i -jJ. j
in Camboa Reach. The excavation.
which is evident on the two small
islands to the right of the channel.
is the initial work toward complete
removal of the islands to widen and
realign the Marnei Curve, a major
Canal improvement project.
Darki patches seen on each side
of the channel are growths of the
submerged aquatic plant hydrilla.
The light green area in the lower
left corner is an infestation of the
floating water plant pistia. En-
croachment of this pest plant on






f r. r i i i-i ih.~: I: il. l



ti,, .. ... H,.. ri l Illl~li tv.L
J J..pirf, CJi Icpr



Ir. 'b, T'.4,I rr\ rm th

P n Ct. r.. (....i~.. .. It-w V,:i. ra f,:
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Minted Fresh Fruit Western Coleslaw


Festive fare


for family and


friends at



Christmas


By Vannie Jones

T HE CHRISTMAS SEASON DIN-
ner table provides a splendid op-
portunity for expressing affection and
hospitality. Making holiday meals pleas-
ing and festive occasions is a rewarding
experience whether the objects of your
affection are family members or friends
coming in for a holiday party.
Why not let the spirit of caring and
sharing permeate your kitchen and
dining room this season? You can start
by converting "tedious kitchen chores"


into joyful "labors of love." Try min-
gling your chopping, sifting, stirring
and measuring with pleasant thoughts
of those who will be sitting at your
table. Consider the tastes of every guests
(even little Susie and Johnnie) and
plan something to delight each one. As
you prepare your dinner table, antic-
ipate the warm fellowship to be shared
with loved ones when your meal is
finally served.
During such busy days, it is unlikely
that you will want to undertake a gour-
met dinner, hut by choosing recipes

20 WINTER 1978


that are family favorites and simple
"do ahead" dishes, holiday meals can
be leisurely and fun for all who partic-
ipate in them. Using some of the many
delicious local food items can make
your Christmas in the tropics even more
excitingly different.
Some of the recipes appearing on
these pages are old family favorites,
others are very special because they
come from friends who enjoy sharing
good things.
BEST WISHES FOR HAPPY HOLI-
DAY DINING .


Cut favorite fresh fruits into bite-sized
pieces. Melan, pineapple, papaya, oranges,
apples, grapes, strawberries, etc.
Place an bed of fresh lettuce.
Top with Minted Lime Dressing (below):
3 Tablespoons mint jelly (commercial ap-
ple-mint jelly will do)
2 Tablespoons honey
Grated peel and juice of I lime
Juice of 1 lemon
Mix ingredients together and chill.
Pour over fruit just before serving.
(If you have a shelf free in your
freezer, put these servings into freezer
for about 5 minutes before serving.)

Lobster Imperial (with Rice)
3 Pounds cooked lobster (chopped into bite-
sized pieces)
Sauce:
1M Cup minced onion-Sauteed in 1 stick
margarine or butter until tender
I Cup minced green pepper
5 Tablespoons flour-Stir into onion/pep-
per mixture
3 Cups chicken bauillon-Stir into onian/
pepper mixture
I to 2 cups milk-Add gradually until sauce
is medium thick
1 Teaspoon salt
Dash of pepper
I Teaspoon Worcestershire or Soy Sauce
1 Chopped hard bailed egg
Add and stir together.
Place 3 cups cooked rice in casse-
role. Add lobster. Cover with sauce.
Before baking sprinkle on seasoned
bread crumbs, grated parmesan cheese
and dot generously with butter.
Heat in oven until hot all the way
through-about 30 minute at 350.
Serves 8.

Corn-Cheese Casserole
Margarine
3 Cups (about 6 ears) fresh-cut corn
2 Tablespoons finely chopped onion
! Teaspoon salt
a Teaspoon pepper
1 Cup shredded Swiss cheese
!2 Cup evaporated milk or half-and-half
Dot bottom of shallow 1-quart bak-
ing dish with 1 tablespoons margarine.
Combine next 4 ingredients with cup
shredded cheese and pour into baking
dish. Top with remaining cheese, then
dot with 1% tablespoons margarine.
Drizzle with evaporated milk. Bake in
preheated 350 F. oven 25 minutes, or
until corn is tender. Makes 6 servings.


1 Medium head cahbage, shredded
2 Onions-Sliced thin and placed in layers
between cabbage
% Cup sugar-Sprinkle on tap
1 Tablespoon salt
% Cup salad ail
1 Teaspoon dry mustard
1 Teaspoon celery seed
1 Cup vinegar
Stir while cooking to a rolling boil.
Pour dressing over cabbage and
cover. Do not stir. Put in refrigerator
to cool at least 4 hours before serving.

Cranberry Relish Salad
1 Medium thin-skinned orange
1 Medium apple
2 Cups fresh or frozen cranberries
18 Cups sugar
1 Package (3 ounces) orange or lemon
flavar gelatin
2 Envelopes unflavared gelatin
Grated rind and juice of 1 lemon
Spiced Mandarin-orange wedge (optional)
Cut orange and apple in eighths and
remove seeds. Force with cranberries
through fine blade of food chopper.
Add sugar, mix well and refrigerate a
few hours, stirring occasionally to dis-
solve sugar. Prepare orange gelatin
according to package directions. Soften
unflavored gelatin in one cup cold
water. Put over low heat, stirring until
dissolved. Add to orange gelatin with
lemon rind and juice. Chill until slightly
thickened. Fold in cranberry mixture,
mix well and pour into 6-cup ring mold.
Chill until firm. Unmold and fill center
with orange wedges, if desired. Makes
10 to 12 servings.
Spiced landarin-orange wedges:
Drain syrup from one can (11 ounces)
mandarin-orange wedges. Put in sauce-
pan with 2 tablespoons sugar, dash of
ginger and 12 whole cloves. Simmer.
uncovered, until reduced one half. Cool
and pour over orange wedges. Chill
overnight. Makes about one cup.
NOTE: Recipe can he doubled.




Seashells, driftwood and tropical flowers
were used to create an imaginative
centerpiece for this holiday dinner table.
Recipes for all the dishes appear
on this page.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW












































Gifts from the

kitchen: to enjoy

on the spot or

to send home

with friends



Cream Cheese Pie
2 Cups graham cracker crumbs
'3 Cup sugar
12 Cup melted butter
C Cup chopped nuts
M.ix together and press into bottom of
8 x 10-inch pan or large pie plate
!' Ounce cream cheese (softened)


2 Eggs 1 Large bag orange slices candy chopped
! Cup sugar and sprinkled with a bit of flour
1 Teaspoon vanilla 2 Cups chopped nuts
, Cup evaporated milk 1 Teaspoon vanilla
Blend together and put in crust. Bake 1 Can coconut (optional)
at 375' for 20 minutes. Bake in greased and floured loaf pans
Optional topping: Strawberry or cher- at 275 for 21/ to 3 hours.
ry pie filling. Mix sour cream and dream
whip for decoration.
New Orleans Pecan Pralines


Orange Slice-Date Nut Cake
2 Cups sugar
1 Cup margarine
Cream together
4 Eggs
Add and mix well (one at a time)
2 Boxes dates, chopped
1 Cups buttermilk
Put in bowl together, mix with fork
4 Cups flour
1 Teaspoon soda
1 Teaspoon salt
Add to sugar-butter mixture, along
with dates and orange slices


3 Cups sugar
1 Cup buttermilk
3 Tablespoon white corn syrup
1 Teaspoon baking soda
3 Teaspoon salt
Combine in large pan. Cook without
stirring to 1500 on candy thermometer.
Add / stick butter, stir, then cook on
medium heat to soft ball stage, on candy
thermometer (2360). Remove from heat,
add 1 teaspoon vanilla. Beat with spoon
until it just begins to thicken. Add 2 to
3 cups broken pecans. Drop by tea-
spoonsful onto wax paper.


WINTER 1978


0.. 1















































Shrimp Toasts (Ya Do Shi)
1 Pound minced uncooked shrimp
'2 Cup finely chopped onion
1 Tablespoon minced green pepper
1 Egg slightly beaten
1 Tablespoon cornstarch
1 Teaspoon salt
32 Teaspoon sugar
4 Teaspoon pepper
Mix together and spread on bread
squares with fork. Press down so it does
not come off during frying.
Trim crusts from loaf of "heavy"
bread. Cut slices in 4 squares. Allow to
"dry out" but not get "hard."
After shrimp mixture is on bread,
sprinkle bread crumbs on top, then fry
(shrimp down first) in hot oil (1-2 min-
utes). Then turn and fry bread side
down. Remove to paper towels and
gently pat tops with paper towel to
remove excess oil.
(Freeze or store in refrigerator. Re-
heat in 325 oven 15-20 minutes just
before serving.)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23












Stevens Circle


is the town



Square


By Dolores E. Suisman
TO A CANAL OLDTIMER, IT'S
just the little park in front of the
clubhouse. To a Canal history buff, it's
a tribute to John F. Stevens. To every-
one else, Canal Zone residents and tour-
ists alike, it's a colorful mini bazar of
local arts and crafts.
Officially, it's called Stevens Circle,
in honer of the outstanding engineer
and able administrator who is credited
with getting the Canal construction pro-
ject on the right track.
But it's not really a circle anymore.
And it's not square. though over the
years it has been called Town Square.
along with such other names as Club-
house Plaza, Balboa Park, Balboa Cir-
cle and Balboa Traffic Circle.
The little park between the post office
and the commissary has seen its share
of history. As far as anyone can re-
member, it has existed from the time
the townsite of Balboa came into being
as permanent headquarters for the
Canal organization in 1912.
It was there before they built the
original Balboa Clubhouse which was
torn down in 1973 to make way for the
modern cafeteria that now faces the
circle. A long-retired schoolteacher
sharing her bench and her memories
with a stranger said at the time: "I sat
right here and watched them put up
that clubhouse, and nosw I'm sitting
heres watching them tear it down."
Aside from its benches, the original
little park was as different from the
Stevens Circle nf today as the old
wooden clubhouse building (moved in
1914 from the construction-day town-


A monument to John F. Sterens stands
in the middle of the Circle and in the
background is the Bolboo Post Offce.






























site of Empire) was from its con-
crete-and-glass, air-conditioned modem
counterpart.
At the heart of Balboa townsite, on
the 1913 plans, was a square Clubhouse
Plaza. And, sure enough, the park
shown in a photograph of the 1919
Fourth of July celebration was square.
By 1939, the park had definitely
changed its image. It was now a cir-
cle, and according to one source, there
were "four beautiful trees in the park
across the street from the Balboa Club-
house that people sit under when the
weather permits." The same writer, ob-
jecting that "the young men about town
carry the benches and place them wher-
ever they desire especially around the
flagpole," suggested that "concrete seats
be built around each tree and also the
flagpole."
Perhaps his suggestion was taken, for
by the 1960's there were not only flag-
pole and mahogany trees, hut also con-
crete benches, concrete planters, and
paved walks.







Many of the handicrafts of Panarma
are on sale at Stevens' Circle but the
colorful molas made by the Cunas
and the green, amber, and blue bottles,
some of which date hack to Gold Rush
days or earlier, are among the
most popular items.


I_ I _






























It was in 1962 that the circle acquired
its commemorative status. The little
park underwent a complete facelift in
preparation for the dedication cere-
monies that would officially name it in
honor of John F. Stevens.
Decorative lighting was installed,
and the middle of the park was raised
and walled with brick. There officials
unveiled with due pomp and ceremony,
a gleaming white three-sided memorial
bearing Goethal's tribute to the hard-
driving, gifted engineer who preceded
him: "The Canal is his monument."
One can imagine Stevens accepting
the memorial that bears his name. But
what would he make of the county fair
atmosphere that has changed Stevens
Circle from a proper little park into an
artsy-crafty miniature version of Paris'
Montmartre?
It's hard to say just when the artists,
jewelry makers, metal workers, leather
workers, and artisans of all sorts de-
cided the park was an ideal place to
display and sell their wares.
First, non-profit organizations-the
G,-m and Mineral Society and Canal
ZIi- Bottle Collectors Association-
heldl their annual bazaar there. Scouts,
bonters for school ball teams, and
SchIirch groups held bake sales.
Thl-rn came people with plants, home-
made macram6 items, cookbooks-even
Itlt-r, if puppies or kittens-to set up
tI.i,lki. and attract shoppers wending
thier .. av from post office to commissary
:ind back.
It wasn't long before the non-profit
organizations were joined by merchants
of all types and Stevens Circle became
n riotous confusion of Cuna indian mo-
las, Colombian wall hangings, Costa

THE PANAMA CANAL. REVIEW 27


Rican rocking chairs, Mexican silver,
and even native birds and monkeys.
Early in 1977, Stevens Circle was
back on the drawing board-that of a
traffic engineer, this time-and the park
became neither a true circle nor a
square but a circle with three arms.
Vhile construction was in progress,
selling was not allowed. At that time,
it was decided to issue peddlers' licenses
only to artists or craftsmen who would
sell what they made.
Space was parceled out in the 125-
foot-in-diameter park-72 square feet of
ground or table space or 12 feet of wall
space per "peddler." Some semblance
of order was restored, and with brows-
ing room available again, the circle be-
came a popular stop for shoppers look-
ing for an unusual or last minute gift.
One wanders past and around the
great variety of handicrafts. Wrought
iron plant stands, leather sandals, gifig-
ham beach hats, belts with silver
buckles, leather dice cups, flower pots,
soapstone animals, purses, pillows,
carved-out coins, molas, bateas, oil rub-
bings, and jewelry of every kind-coral,
jade, tiger eve or bone pins, bracelets,
necklaces, charms and rings.
One begins to wonder who these
handicraft "peddlers" are.
Only two other people were selling
in the circle in 1973, when Ken Myers
moved his artwork from the commis-
sar steps to the park. One was a Cuna
indian, he remembers.
Now the Cuna make up the largest
contingent of the circle's merchants.
One, Alberto Andreve, savs he sells 50
or more molas a month. But he quickly
adds that it takes a woman back on


the San Bias islands 3 months to make
each one.
Fulvia Rodriguez, who is not a Cuna
but the daughter of missionary parents,
grew up on the island of Alligandi and
learned the art of making molas. Now
she sits in the park stitching special or-
ders. A recent one carried the legend
"Don Balboa High School" and an
outline of the school.
An Ecuadorian, Jos6 Antonio Tiban,
travels each Sunday to market places
in the interior, seeking out the soap-
stone figures, clay flower pots and other
native crafts that he and his daughter
sell in the circle.
Probably the best-known peddlers
are Ken Myers and Chrisse Harawaka.
As Stevens Circle oldtimers, thev hold
seven-day-a-week licenses. Their fellow-
peddlers are allowed space only 2 days
a week.
Ken studied art and jewelry-making
at Canal Zone College before attempt-
ing the oil rubbings that have become
so popular. To make these exotic art
works, Myers stretches a piece of cloth
over sculptured stones from Panama,
Guatemala and Mexico, and daubs oil
paint gently over the surface until the
high spots mark the cloth. He likens
the technique to putting a piece of
paper over a quarter and pencil-shading
until the image of the coin appears.
Steven Circle won't hold Ken much
longer. After an exhibition in Panama,
he plans to go to art school in Califor-
nia and then perhaps fulfill his dream:
to create a wall-sized oil rubbing.
Even those who don't know her name
recognize the little blond in the straw
hat who sits in the place of honor at
the foot of the Prado.












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WINTERR 1978


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'------~~------- -





























Chrisse Harawaka already had her
art degree when she arrived in Pan-
ama from Delaware for a vacation that
included a side trip to the San Bias
Islands. On that trip to the islands she
met the Canal Zone boy she would re-
turn to marry a year later. She and her
husband, an Army employee, have lived
in Panama ever since. Both learned the
"lost wax" process from former Canal
Zone resident and huaca expert Neville
Harte.
Chrisse makes the huacas herself.
She also designs and makes necklaces.
Today, Chrisse and Kent set out their
displays on what was a great sea of
mud when John F. Stevens left the
Isthmus in 1907. As hard as it would
be for these young, vital artists to en-
vision the starkness of the Canal Zone
Stevens knew, it surely would be more
difficult for the Canal builder to under-
tlinrd ihe carnival atmosphere of that
part of the Zone dedicated to him. But
then again, in his day it was mostly hard
work and there were very few amen-
ities other than those provided at the
clubhouses run by the YMCA.
Few of the shoppers and probably
fewer of the peddlers one sees at the
circle today fully realize the merits of
the man for whom it was named. It
was dedicated in his honor on October
13, 1962, which coincidentally was a
S:turd.i\ and is now the dav the ped-
ller ltrrn out en masse.
\\hen he resigned as chief engineer
of the Canal construction project in
1907 he-and everyone else-was full
convinced that the success of the under-
taking was assured.
Ten thousand people turned out to
eive him the biggest send-off the Canal
Zone had ever witnessed.


At left: This sketch of Stevens' Circle,
by Mai. Jerry Fields, of the U.S. Army,
is among the many works of art
available at the Circle.
At top: Particularly popular with nostalgia
minded local shoppers are plaques and
pen sets fashioned by Steve Bolt from
Panama Railroad rails and spikes.
Above: Unique necklaces created from
shells, coins, shark's teeth and other
native materials are offered by
several peddlers.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




























-
-h ~.(

1
~ ;r .
.5v.
-~ r


V16I
Il e



.W. 6.i
c' ~s'4

-12







Preservation of



Watershed


Vital to



Canal Operations

By W'illie K. Friar

F EW PEOPLE VIEWING THE
blue Preen waters of Gat-in Lake
,or Madden Lake ,ire asare that Gutun
In not iIst I com enient part of the
valterma\ across the Isthmus or that
ladderi is not merely a readily\ acce- .
sille recreation area
Actually CGaturn and] Madden Lake'.
are lital parts of the operation of the
Panama Canal The waterr for lockages.
hydroelectric po.,er, and for the water
systems of the Canal Zone and the ci.
ties of Panama and Colorn i supplied b\
runoff from the C.atin Lake v atershed
with Madder and Gaturi Lakes sen -
ini as storage and flood control facili -
ties
Most of this watershed of 1.259


1qiuare nmils on shich the maintenance"
and the purity of the lakes depend lies
in the Republic of Panama
At present, the conserx aton of forest
resources and the protection of the
watershed are se\erelv hindered bh the
rapid ard alarming population group th
in the marginal urban areas of the cities
of Panamia and Colon. the mo ement of
unskilled labor from the interior to the
-ities. the high rate of unemplo% merit
.Ind c.nntrilr al ,piralin. irflationr. Co(o -
,t.-iiit Iiu riiin during the dc- season to
prepare land for small agncgiltuiral
efforts or for pasture land has decimated
rniich of the forest tirhin the C,atun
Lake %Uaterhed As soon as the trees are
rem.n- ed. the tropical solls. which h slip.
port the piingle tros th. qmickl\ dn out
fron, e\posiisre ti(( the intense sun and
are .erv sijsceptil'le to 'heet. iull\ .inid
landslide erosion
iMo-t of the vwesterri parts of the
Republic of Panama have been e\tenr
siel\ deforested while the forest areas
of the Canal Zone. in companson. re-
main relati\el\ undisturbed due to the
restrictions or. accesss Iby the uiiblic ti
the Canal Zone watershed and militant
areas From a helicopter. the Canal
Zone appearN a, a. carefiill\ consened
island of forest i, the midst of .a en-
cr.ill\ cleared country side.
Nevertheless such aIctin.tie t, i mle'
. uttin slashh-ard -burrn agriculture. arnd
tree poaching for lumber remain a
conrstarnt problem in the Canal Zone


Although fires hate little effect on the
iintouched tropical forest 'here no cut-
ting has beer, permitted, the edges of the
inrIgle ire uiliner.ibl-' to repeated burr.
ing, during the dr\ nmi.rirh .h and the
forest gradually\ retreats until inl\ jan -
grass ar d i their unrde.ir.hble crase,
ciinliniue to $i(o'. Thi, process c.in lii
,,h,-r'ed b\ .rin\%ne dr. in: through
the Madder Forest Preser e As so.iii
.is ine leaves the protected area. there
are onl\ say grass and large patches of
expoi"ed briCht red si.il % ith Irenr- if4
( nitinued erosion
The tropical forest. once invaded and
destro-ed. does not recoer as man\
people believe A dense nirigle .ro',A th
does beiin immediately. bt it is orl\
cnirbbv, stunted egietatiron and not the
same aj; the -.ld forest .' ith the largR
sturdy branches a.n.] the lish gror '.th of
lea \es and bromeliad.;. Lhich are typical
of 'en old trees Actuall\. the process
of regroup Lh iN so slo,' that. fi.r all prac-
tical piirpones once the iangle forest iN
destroyed it is abandoned perm.inentlh
i\ the native animals and birds
The value of the forested areas of th,
Canal Zone cannot be overestimated

.At h'It tatornt. itsc.ne rtith
p/h.t...*Tra.,rTi si thli r. at.rfull- I. Jiad.
t- hn ir.ar tlra at pass.i through
the. Madder Fore it Pr. s.rt

B.low' The. terdaut tropical Jorcit car,
h s* i iclos-ip from thi hllhua'j uhich
ruts throne gh Madd.n For.-

flft.k$ 1 Y


THE PA.AMs CANAL REVIE\.'







































From a helicopter, erosion caused by slash-and-burn agricultural methods is readily apparent as in this section of Madden Forest.
Below: Corn grows in an area of Madden Forest which has been cleared by subsistence farmers who burned the trees.


WINTER 1978








OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS BY NATIONALITY


Nationality
British__ _.---.- ____-.-----
Chilean -----------------
Chinese, Nationalist-----
Colombian------- ___
Cuban__ ______. ____________
Danish .-____-----
Ecuadorian-- --_--_--- __
French ------_---- ----
German, West __ ________
Greek .--------_______
Italian --_ ----
Japanese ----_____--_______-
Liberian______ ____ _
Netherlands ---__ _-------_
Norwegian -----__
Panamanian----------------
Peruvian -----_-- ---_______-
Polish --- _--... -__
Singaporean__________
South Korean ________
Soviet ____ -- __ _
Spanish ---__---_--_______-- ---
Swedish --- ------__---.
United States------ -----____
Yugoslavian ---.--- __-_
All other---- --- __
Total- ___---


9 Months FY 1978
Long
No. of Tons
Tronsits Cargo
805 7,385,602
132 1,318,082
85 1,103,220
124 850,727
72 448,808
208 1,893,867
142 1,183,656
92 842,382
420 2,988,774
977 12,862,124
197 1,247,373
663 5,804,809
1,359 21,407,777
132 946,056
384 5,431,095
711 5,529,674
160 1,553,176
64 407,885
115 1,157,144
77 873,521
183 1,053,420
82 166,648
193 1,871,157
1,187 17,401,015
100 833,531
690 6,025,050
9,354 102,586,573


9 Months FY 1977
Long
No. of Tons
Transits Cargo
820 7,210,800
149 1,131,478
84 1,110,885
128 242,049
50 238,747
233 1,864,664
134 1,196,378
106 830,280
434 2,935,295
873 13,240,105
162 859,377
681 7,050,725
1,395 22,650,180
171 1,079,236
450 6,706,404
829 5,975,905
136 1,504,925
58 445,752
78 763,414
46 272,023
150 984,519
64 204,028
199 1,947,451
759 6,358,610
75 589,925
658 5,197,508
8,922 92,590,663


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS
OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES


Trade route


East Coast United States-Asia -- ---------- ___
East Coast United States-West Coast South America _______-
Europe-West Coast South America----- ----
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America --_---
Europe-West Coast United States/Canada -------------
South American Intercoastal___ ______________
U.S. Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii) ---- _
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania__ --- --------
Europe-Oceania -------------- _____
East Coast Canada-Asia- ____--- ___- ____
All other-__- __---------------------
Total___---------------__---


9
Months
FY
1978
2,093
953
840
868
697
306
340
255
221
216
2,565
9,354


9
Months
FY
1977
2,055
782
852
438
661
328
305
226
317
205
2,753
8,922


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY MONTHS
Tolls (In thousands
Tronsits of dollars)l


Month
October --- ----------_--_ --
Novembcr ------------------
December -----------.---
January -------
February ----------
March__----------
April ------ ---
May -------------
June-------------------
Total_-------


FY 1978 FY 1977 FY 1978


976
968
943
983
916
1,057
1,060
1,048
971
8,922


$14,995
14,280
14,848
14,433
14,199
17,022
16,960
18,176
17,130
$142,043


1,028
947
1,002
1,000
942
1,135
1,067
1,142
1,091
9,354


FY 1977
$11,488
12,777
13,887
13,818
12,978
14,064
14,947
14,601
13,456
$122,016


1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.
Statistics compiled by Executive Planning Staff.


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
9 Months
1978 1977
TRANSITS (Oceangoing)
Commercial _-----_.. 9,354 8,922
U.S. Government --..-- 70 63
Free ----------------_ 4 10
Total_--___ 9,428 8,995
TOLLS1
Commercial $142,087,840 $122,061,026
U.S. Govern-
ment .__. 653,236 606,975
Total $142,741,076 $122,668,001
CARGO2 (Oceangoing)
Commercial_ 102,586,573 92,590,663
U.S. Govern-
ment___. 237,262 169,444
Free----- ----------
Total 102,823,835 92,760,107
lIncludes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
2Cargo figures are in long tons.
Statistics compiled by Executive Plan-
ning Staff.


It is the most extensive, readily accesi-
ble humid forest available for ecological
study in all of Central America, in ad-
dition to protecting the watershed of
the Canal. The continued preservation
of the forest and the watershed are such
important elements of the environment
that they have been made a part of the
new treaty between the United States
and the Republic of Panama.
However, despite careful patroling
of the forested areas in the Zone, dur-
ing the past few years a significant in-
crease of forest degradation and slash-
and-bur type agriculture activities
have been observed along the common
Canal Zone/Republic of Panama border
and throughout the watershed. Most of
the encroachment and deforestation
presently occurring in this area is done
by small groups of subsistence farmers,
most of whom are engaged in growing
corn and rice. They live near the Canal
Zone border or have settled inside the
boundary and are cutting down the
trees and burning vegetation to clear
land for farming.
The trees and various types of natural
vegetation, which give the tropical
landscape its originality, have a chance
to survive on the Isthmus only in pre-
serves and protected areas inside the
Canal Zone, such as Pipeline Road,
Madden Forest, and Ancon Hill.
The successful establishment of a
working relationship for bilateral par-
ticipation and action to protect the
Canal watershed is of great importance
to the Government of Panama since
most of the forested areas within the
present Canal Zone will in the future be
under its control. Most of the forested
areas will become a part of any resource
conservation program established by
Panama in its long term development


TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


IN










PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL

(in long tons)

Atlantic to Pacific


Conltodity
Petroleum and products ----------
Corn _-- -- ---
Coal and coke---------- --
Soybeans------------- -------- ----- --
Phosphate ----- --- ----
Wheat -------- ----
Sorghum ---- -------------
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals -- -----
.Manufactures of iron and steel ---
Metal, scrap-----------------
Fertilizers, unclassified----------------------
Ores, various
Sugar------------------------------------
Ammonium compounds __---------------------
Caustic soda _---------------------------
All other- ---- ----
Total ------


9 Months
FY 1978
8,598,879
7,222,263
6,092,295
4,559,001
3,347,458
2,321,257
1,888,129
1,462,784
1,422,356
1,345,369
1,019,713
1,019,124
868,769
495,031
422,528
7,117,785
49,202,741


9 Months
FY 1977
11,220,342
7,958,544
9,675,469
3,588,894
2,838,691
1,727,837
1,988,742
1,208,324
559,519
922,848
832,756
1,020,296
418,004
341,408
392,547
7,198,956
51,893,177


Pacific to Atlantic


9 Months
Commodity FY 1978
Petroleum and products ------ 19,966,480
Manufactures of iron and steel --------- 5,525,362
Lumber and products -------- 3,819,331
Ores, various---------------------- ---- 3,582,732
Sugar__ ___--------------- 1,966,913
Coal and coke ----------------- -- -- 1,468,033
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas)_ ----- 1,411,546
Bananas__-------- --_- ------------ 1,247,952
Wood pulp ---------------- 1,240,677
Metals, various__-------------- 1,012,545
Wheat -------------- 880,221
Autos, trucks, and accessories ----- ---------- 862,773
Sulfur --------------------------------------- 839,190
Molasses ----------------- 571,182
Paper and paper products------------- 546,360
All other ----- ------- 8,442,535
Total _----------- -------- 53,383,832


9 Months
FY 1977
6,183,897
5,849,969
3,710,125
4,225,445
2,040,818
362,264
1,408,297
1,190,348
1,387,604
1,049,831
579,637
643,507
959,229
474,829
449,203
10,182,483
40,697,486


CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT


Commercial:
Oceangoing _
Small'--- -----_
Total --
U.S. Government:
Oceangoing -----
Smalll _-------
Total ----
Grand Total--_


9 Months FY 1978
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total
4,731 4,623 9,354
382 219 601
5,113 4,842 9,955


37 33
77 62
114 95


70
139
209


9
Months
FY
1977
8,922
616
9,538


63
221
284


----- 5,227 4,937 10,164 9,822


strategy to protect the qualih of the
natural environment..

A plan of action has beer set up to
eliminate slash-and-burn type .icrlciil-
ture during the next 12 rr.,riths. The
implementation of this plan 'A.%ild
establish basic guidelines ,hic:h the
Government of Panama wil! be able to
continue when these forest iarea. :come
under its control after the ne'.% treat\
between the United States and Pa.inrrm
goes into effect. With the finaricial as-
sistance, technical training ;an i.nstitli-
tional buildup that the proposed U.S
AID (Agency for International De el-
opment) watershed managerrentri pr...
ject is to provide Panama's Renr,-:aIlle
Natural Resources Conservatio:n A genic
(RENARE), the Government :of Pn-
ama will be able to play a stronri, role
in conserving natural resources

A biological crossroads of North ind
South America containing plants arnd
animals from both continents. Panama
is considered by some scientists to be
the most biologically diverse i:,ountrv in
the world for its size. Here one :ian
find within a small easily iac.es-sible
area, an enormous variety of plant.
bird, and animal life; but c,:nserv.jtli.:
of this unique environment is becoming
a more and more difficult problem as
man's impact on the limited natural
forest resources becomes increasingly
stronger.

The areas that have been the most
adversely affected by slash-and-bur
agriculture are the Chiva-Chiva area,
Madden Forest Preserve, the norithe': st
bank of the Canal along Pipelnc Road
(well-known as a bird and animal sanc-
tuary), and the west bank of the Canal.

Plans for the future include increased
aerial and ground surveillance, and
strengthened communication with the
Government of Panama. Also planned is
an increased joint educational campaign
using the Panama radio, television and
news media to stress the importance of
preservation of the natural resources of
the Isthmus.


Christmas on the Isthmus means colorful
molas with holiday motifs made by
the Cuna Indians. The one at right, an
intricately stitched horn of plenty,
is one of the favorite designs.


1 Vessels under 300 net tons. Panama Canal measurement, or under 500 displacement tons.
Statistics compiled b,) the Executive Planning Staff.


WINTER 1978
































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- Due Returned Due


Returned


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Full Text

PAGE 3

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrewin1978pana

PAGE 7

PANAMA gMflCANAl fcW WINTER 1978 B frf. it J. /S7 m **M*^'

PAGE 10

HAROLD R. PARFITT Governor-President JAMES H. TORMEY Lieutenant Governor FRANK A. BALDWIN Panama Canal Information Officer ^ PANAMA CTJra CANAL g kcvftV WINTER 1978 Official Panama Canal Publication WILLIE K. FRIAR Editor Writers Vic Canel, Fannie P. Hernandez, Dolores E. Suisman, Vicki Boatwricht Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $2, airmail S4 For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. VISITORS TO THE PANAMA Canal cannot help but be impressed with the constant hum of activity that surrounds the waterway. The Canal never sleeps. Ships transit dav and night, requiring the presence of a qualified workforce both to operate the waterway and to maintain it. This edition of the Panama Canal Review salutes those thousands of employees directly involved in the task of maintaining the Canal. Their jobs range in scope from changing a lightbulb in a lighted buoy to designing plans for an improved locomotive turntable. But each task is essential to providing smooth and continuous service to Canal customers. Equally important to the operation of the Canal is the preservation of the Gatun Lake watershed. Current problems resulting from deforestation of the watershed are examined in this issue. In This Issue and the accompanying aerial photographs provide graphic evidence of their existence. A Christmas issue would not be complete without stories reminding us of the delights of this season of the vear. A tale about toys will bring back nostalgic remembrances of davs gone bv for some readers, while others will relish the recipes for a Christmas dinner that feature delicacies available locally. The issue is rounded out with a storv on Stevens Circle, a meeting place for Canal Zone people at anv time of the year. Special thanks go to Mel Kennedy of the Panama Canal Craphics Branch for designing the cover and for his professional guidance in the selection of many of the photographs that appear in this edition of the Review. Other photographers whose work is included are Arthur L. Pollack, Don Goode, Kevin Jenkins, and Alberto Acevedo, all of the Graphics Branch; and Ron Jakaitis of the Dredging Division. On The Cover n^HE DE WATERED CHAMBER *at Gatun Locks featured on the front cover is the scene of locks overhaul. The back cover shows the same chamber alive with the activity of vessels in transit. Inside the front cover, passengers on the deck of a transiting cruise ship get an opportunity to see the floating crane Hercules lift a giant miter gate off its pintles for transfer to a drvdock for overhaul. Winter 1978

PAGE 11

Maintaining the Waterway: Dedicated Workforce Key To Canal's Success THE PANAMA CANAL CELebrated its 64th birthday in August. By that age most employees of the Canal organization have retired, begun to take life at a slower pace. But the works of man's genius are meant to outlive man himself, and the Panama Canal is no exception. It is today, as in 1914, a viable, efficient structure still essential to the flow of world commerce. The fact that this is so is a tribute to two groups of people: first, to the designers of the Canal whose foresight in planning the construction of the waterway paved the way for its adaptation to meeting present day needs. Its simple, functional design has lent itself to improvements in both the physical structure of the Canal and the techniques used in maintaining it. The widening and deepening of the channel to accommodate increased traffic and larger vessels, the bank lighting through Gaillard Cut which allows round the-clock operation, and the development of engineering techniques for overhauling valves without dewatering the locks chambers are a few of the changes that were possible within the By Vicki Boatwright framework of the original plan for the waterway. Second, it is a tribute to those who through the years and to the present keep the waterway in top running condition. To these people, the Panama Canal is a living organism, worthy of their respect and relying upon their skills and their dedication for its continued existence. It is to this group of people, the employees who perform the thousands of jobs necessary to keeping the Panama Canal open year round to ship traffic that this storv is dedicated. Chamber work: A caisson holds hack the flow of water as Maintenance Division employees break out the old concrete locks sill. The sill will be restored while the miter gates are out for'overhaul. The Panama Canal Beview

PAGE 13

A better way: Left, tlie pouring of molteb are raised at one time on a platform, a babbitt into tlie hollow quoin bearing platl-r and faster way to accomplish the task. the juncture at which the miter gate meeif 0W: A brand new 900-pound pintle ball, the loch wall, was once accomplished / which fhe mUeT u rome ^ {s eQsed lifting workmen in a basket and lowering , ,, , , , , 7 ... i7 ,no place, one of the last lobs to be done containers of babbitt to them. Today f/if r ' workmen and a container carrying enougf rC the c}iamher flooded and the gates of the 650F metal to complete the whohM> d back into position. ) Keeping the waterway in shape is a multi-million dollar a year business. It involves the combined efforts of every operating division within the Canal organization. The scope of the work is staggering. It encompasses such diverse activities as the maintenance and repair of the physical structure of the locks; the continuous dredging of channels, harbors, anchorages and piers; the surveillance of the stability of the banks of the Canal; the maintenance of a system of aids to navigation; the treatment of aquatic vegetation encroaching in the channels; and the maintenance of the dams and spillways that control the level of the lakes. Engineers, mechanics, machinists, electricians, riggers, heavy equipment operators, carpenters, painters, marine traffic schedulers and control house operators are but a few of the people involved in the maintenance of the Canal. Some of what they do is scheduled work, planned and budgeted for well in advance. Concurrent with that work are tasks that must be tackled because a need has arisen or an emergency has occurred. The workforce of the Panama Canal is capable of handling it all. Locks Overhaul Is Planned Maintenance Perhaps the most visible example of planned maintenance done to the waterway is the annual locks overhaul. Scheduled 7 years in advance, the work is accomplished during the dry season months of January through April. During overhaul, the manpower and equipment of many divisions are deployed to get the job done in the allotted amount of time. The workforces of the Locks, Industrial, Dredging, Engineering and Maintenance Divisions and Marine Traffic Control are among those that work in concert to see that the overhaul is completed without disruption of Canal service. One of the most dramatic tasks performed during overhaul is the restoration of the giant miter gates. Each pair of the 44 pairs of operating miter gates in the Panama Canal-88 gates leavesis scheduled for a thorough overhaul on a 25 to 30 year cycle. The gate and its components are removed, inspected and reconditioned and the gate is returned to service in top working condition. For many years miter gates were overhauled in place, requiring long lane outages while the work was done. Then in 196-5 a new method was developed which involved lifting the gates off their pintles, or pivots, and floating them to drydock for repair. This method requires that the lane be out of service for only 2 days, 1 day to remove the gates and 1 to return them to position. Each gate leaf is 65 feet 7 inches wide and 7 feet thick. They range in height, depending on their location, from 47 feet 4 inches to 82 feet and in gross weight from 440 to 770 tons. The Dredging Division's giant crane Hercules is the only piece of Canal equipment able to move the gates to a horizontal position. But the lifting capacity of the Hercules is only 250 tons. In order to raise even the lightest gate, the gate must first be made buoyant. Air is pumped into the flotation chambers built into each gate— again, an act of foresight in the original design— and the chamber is flooded. Locks locomotives steady the crane as it tilts the gate leaf to free it from the yolk at the top and lift it off the pintle ball on the floor of the chamber. Once the gates are in the drydock, the real work begins. The pintle casting, which serves as the pivot point for the leaf, is removed and shipped to the Industrial Division headquarters in Mount Hope to be overhauled. Then the bearing plates, which form a perfect water-tight seal between the leaves and the side of the chamber and between leaves themselves, are blasted off and the lead alloy behind them, called babbitt, is removed. New bearing plates precisely aligned within 5 1000 of an inch tolerance are installed, and the space behind them is filled with molten babbitt heated to a temperature of 650 degrees. At the same time that the major components of the gate are being worked on, scraping and painting crews do their job on the entire surface of the leaf. Workmen also go inside the gates to clean out any silt and debris that may have accumulated there. When the drvdock work is completed and has been inspected and passed by locks overhaul engineers, the giant leaves are filled with air and floated hack to their place in one of the sets of locks. But before the gates can be replaced much work must be done within the chamber. In order for work crews to have full access to the locks walls, the chamber floor and the concrete sills against which the closed gate leaves rest, the chamber is dewatered for a period of 96 hours. Engineers plan the work hour by hour, and each operation must be coordinated with the greatest precision so that every step is comWinteb 1978 I he Panama Canal Review

PAGE 14

Explosive ditching at Velasquez spoil dump on the west bank of the Canal: Above, an aerial view of the 260 acres of drainage ditches dug with dynamite; at left, Dredging Division blasting crew sets the charges in 500 foot strings; lower left, the red flag is down, fire in the hole; bottom right, a ditch created without machinery. *> ^^^^^^RJT ^^BB

PAGE 15

pleted on target. At the same time, Marine Traffic controllers schedule relay lockages to prevent a large backlog of ships. With the gate removed, work crews have access to the hollow quoin plates, the area where the gate meets the locks wall; to the pintle ball and its assembly on which the lower end of the gate pivots; and to the yoke which supports the upper end. Each of these is reworked and restored to fit the exact specifications of the newly overhauled gates. In addition, with the chamber drained the concrete gate sill can be inspected and, if necessary, repaired. At every step of the way the engineers must monitor and check the work to insure that when the gates are replaced every component will align properly. The maintenance of the miter gates is only one phase of a locks overhaul and only one example of scheduled maintenance. But like the dozens of other projects accomplished yearly, it demands the combined effort of many divisions of the Panama Canal Companv to see the work sucessfullv completed. Innovation the Key To Today's Problems While our forefathers designed for the future, problems have arisen since 1914 that they could not have been expected to anticipate. These problems require an innovative response on the part of those whose job it is todav to operate and maintain the waterway. Such a response was rendered this year by Canal employees on the problem of diminishing space for dredging spoil. The regular removal of the accumulation of silt and debris from Canal channels in order to maintain them at a navigable depth is a continuous job. After more than 60 years of such dredging, the space set aside for spoil disposal was filled almost to capacity. Without the possibility of developing new sites, the solution rested in making more space in the areas that already exist. But the question of how to accomplish that was a difficult one. The nature of the spoil material itself was a limiting factor. Dredging spoil is composed of a small percentage of small rock that settles out and dries quickly. The largest portion is a fine textured silt with a high degree of water retention. This material may hold its water content for years, preventing the silt from consolidating to a smaller volume. Added to that is the effect of the hot tropic sun which acts on the surface of the deposited silt to form a crust which serves to contain the water content beneath it by preventing further evaporation. What was needed was a system of drainage ditches that would remove the contained water and allow the fine silt to consolidate. The nature of the spoil, however, made it impossible to use excavation machinery for this purpose. The dry crust would give wav and the machinery sink into the slushy material below. Dredging Division employees came up with a plan to create the drainage ditches by using small dynamite charges set at close intervals. After surveying the spoil dump areas to determine the best pattern for the drainage ditches, tests were done to determine the proper spacing and depths at which the charges should be placed. After some trial and error— that resulted in a few broken windows— the blasting crew settled into a routine. In just 3 weeks of work at the Velasquez dump area, located on the west bank of the Canal adjacent to Rodman Naval Station, 21,000 linear feet of ditches were dug with dynamite at a cost of just one dollar per foot. Conventional methods, if they had been feasible, would have taken several months and cost many times more. But the real measure of success of the project was the immediate increase in drainage of water from the spoil area, which allows for additional amounts of dredging spoil to be deposited there. With one success behind them, the crews moved on to accomplish the same feat at the spoil dump area on Telfer's Island on the Atlantic side. Dedication Required In Times of Crisis It is perhaps in times of emergency that the Canal workforce has most effectively demonstrated its dedication to keeping the waterway open to its customers. In 1970, a herculean effort was mounted to raise the rice and cottonladen cargo vessel Sian Yung after it struck the west bank of Gaillard Cut and sank. It took 2 years of continuous labor before the ship could be raised, by means of cofferdams which floated it to the surface, and towed out to sea for disposal. Slides, as recent as the 1974 disaster at East Culebra Reach in Gaillard Cut, have required immediate response and 'round-the-clock effort on the part of Canal employees to clear the channel and return it to full service. Indeed. Dredging Division painters maintain the lighthouse at Isla Grande, a primary landfall for ships approaching the Canal from the north. Built by the French in 1893, the steel structure traces its structural lineage to the Eiffel tower, which opened in 1889 at an exhibition in Paris. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 17

Replacing the soft nose at Gatun Locks: Left, at the Maintenance Division shed, employees prepare the wooden form that wiU hold the concrete for the precast softnose unit. A steel strongback that will check the pressure of tfie bulging concrete is examined to insure a proper fit, then bolted into place. Center: At high tide the Dredging Division's craneboat "Atlas" lifts the 62-ton unit, one of four pieces of t)ie completed softnose, from Dock 8 to transport it to Gatun. Above: An aerial view of the unit being bolted to the centerwall at Gatun Locks while being supported by the derrick barge "Goliath." since 1914, slides account for 54 million cubic yards of earth and rock that have been removed from the channel by the Canal's dredging forces. This year the emergency was not in the channel, but at the locks themselves. In April the transiting oil tanker Overseas Ohio hit and sank the approach wall nose tendering, known as the "softnose," at Pedro Miguel Locks. The wooden approach wall tendering at Gatun had been similarly destroyed just 3 months before. The function of the softnoses is to protect ships from the damage they would incur if they hit the solid concrete centerwall. Without the sofnoses, extra tugs were needed to guide ships safely into and out of the locks, and traffic was slowed as cautious pilots maneuvered past the approach walls. To complicate matters even further, there was already a backlog of ships due to a time of particularly heavy ship traffic. Although both the softnoses had been damaged previously and plans were being formulated for their eventual replacement, the situation of having the units at each end of Gatun Lake out of commission at the same time meant that action had to be taken immediately. A limit of 6 weeks was set in which two new units were to be fabricated and installed at Pedro Miguel and Gatun. The job of constructing the fourpiece, precast concrete softnose units was done at the Maintenance Division in Balboa by crews working 12 hours a day, 7 days a week. Concrete slabs which would allow for the level construction of the units were cast on the floor of the division's Building 10. Huge wooden forms reinforced with steel into 10 Winter 1978 The Panama Canal Review 11

PAGE 18

Above: A Locks Division employee descends 8 feet into a 6-foot lateral culvert in the chamber floor to inspect for cracks in the concrete. Below: The mighty miter gates at rest in Balboa Drydock. where they undergo a complete overhaid in a 2-month period. Right, a gate gets a touchup. which the concrete was to be poured were built on location bv division carpenters. After the poured concrete had set, the forms were stripped away and the rubber fendering put into place on the concrete units. Three cranes were needed to pick up each of the major pieces of the units, which weighed approximately 62 tons apiece. The first unit was carried by tractor trailer to the east wing wall of Pedro Miguel Locks, where it was placed in position to be loaded aboard the derrick barge Goliath. The second softnose unit was carried by tractor trailer from Building 10 to the dock in Balboa, where the craneboat Atlas lifted the four pieces off the dock at high tide for transport to Gatun. At Pedro Miguel, and later at Gatun, the Goliath was used to suspend each of the pieces of the softnose unit as they were bolted into place on the centerwall. The entire job was completed within the scheduled time and the locks returned to full service with only temporary lane outages of a few days. Once again Canal employees demonstrated their willingness and proved their ability to meet an emergency herd on bv working long, grueling hours in order to keep the waterway operating at peak efficiency. 12 Winter 1978

PAGE 19

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"When I teas a beggarly boy and lived in a cellar damp, i had not a friend nor a toy, But I had Aladdin's lamp." —Tames Russell Lowell TWO EMPTY BOTTLES, TIED together at the neck, are pulled through the dirt by a small, barefoot boy. Anyone who has ever lived in a sugar-producing country, where cane is transported to the mill in "carretas' drawn by a team of oxen, knows the little boy is pretending the bottles are Ins beasts of burden and that he is hauling the product of the day's work from the fields. Where toys are not available, or simply beyond the means of the parents, children find a way. Dolls carved out of wood or fashioned from rags or empty sacks; old tires or barrel hoops to roll, broomsticks to serve as spirited steeds, or discarded spools to be used for wheels on homemade carts. Children's imagination, stimulated bv their environment, bv the events arounds them, bv movies, comic books or TV, is not unlike Aladdin's lamp in its ability to conjure up a world of fantasy. From the earliest times youngsters have entertained themselves through play-acting and make believe, casting themselves or their dolls in the role of famous personages of fiction or real life. And props need never be a problem. With a little ingenuity, a paper or cardboard crown makes the child a king, a dishtowel tied about the neck turns him into Superman and a simple black mask into the Lone Ranger. But there have alwavs been adults to devise more sophisticated toys, to capitalize on children's fantasies and stimulate their natural inclination to imitate their elders and their activities. Dolls of everv description, miniature furniture, china tea sets, cooking utensils and stoves have traditionally been provided for the entertainment of little girls, on the long-established theorv that thev must inevitably grow up and assume the role of housewives. Bovs have alwavs been encouraged to play with manlv things. Building blocks, erector sets, tool kits and chemistry sets, and to participate in physical games to develop athletic prowess. Since the struggle against segregation of the sexes has succeeded, promoAbove left; Kenneth Martin's gleeful reaction shows thai Teddy Bears remain as popular today as in the days of Teddy Roosevelt for whom they are named. Center: A "Spillway" story asking readers to bring in their antique bears produced a number of venerable ones. Some of the oldest are shown here. Their ages and owners are left to right: More than 60 years, Susan Om/tn; at least 40 years. Sue Follett; and more than 50 years, Pat Mercier. Above right: Tony Alves holds a 40-year-old hear brought in by Winter Collins. tion of playthings is no longer aimed specifically at boys or girls and advertising frequently shows girls playing with toys formerly considered strictly for boys. Trends in toys are strongly influenced bv depressions, wars and technological breakthroughs. After the Panama Canal started operations in 1914 and up until the time the United States entered World War I in 1917, toys sold in the Canal Zone commissaries were of the traditional, peacetime variety, unless vou consider lead soldiers, cowboys and indians as bellicose. But there were no toy pistols, rifles or machine guns. In those days the commissaries sold toys only for a few weeks before Christmas at a temporary location. And since buyers placed their Christmas tov orders during February and March— as thev still do today— the first warlike toys didn't appear on commissary shelves until 1919. more than a year after the armistice was signed. Before the war, a great manv of the toys imported for Canal Zone worker's children were German made— handsomely crafted wooden figures and heaw, cast iron cars, trucks and trains. But the supplv was cut off at the outbreak of hostilities in Europe. In 1916, the commissary increased its toy order from the usual $10,000 to $20,000 "to avoid customer complaints about scarcity." That year, a special toy section was set up at the Oil House, near the Balboa substation. The facility went into operation at 8 a.m. on November 20. To accommodate shoppers, the Panama Railroad provided a 3-dav shuttle service with 10 round trips a day between Panama and the Oil House with stops at the Tivoli, Bishop's Hallow and Balboa Heights. The fare was 10 cents each way. Entry of the United States into the war brought a period of austerity to the Canal Zone as efforts were directed at more patriotic concerns than exchanging Christmas gifts. The mood was reflected in a memo in which the Supply Department General Manager advised store managers that Christmas uders would be cut sharply "in line vith a recommendation from the Council of National Defense that useless giving at Christmas time be discouraged ud that money ordinarily wasted on resents of doubtful utility be saved nd invested in Thrift Stamps and War avings Stamps." Conceding that "there are times hen gift-giving is desirable if not abilutely necessary" the manager's memo ent on to suggest a few practical hristmas gifts such as silk neckties, tmisoles, chemises and ladies* silk ioomers. Commissaries also offered another ay for Canal Zone people to do their it for the war effort. "Comfort Christ:as Boxes could be purchased for about 1.00 as gifts for U.S. or allied troops, ackaged and ready for mailing." But whoever decided on the contents I the gift packages must have assumed iat all our troops were addicted to noking. There were two kinds of garettes— Fatima and King Bee, plus tin of Prince Albert Tobacco, cigaretpaper and matches. This was counterbalanced, however, bv a tube of tooth paste, a tooth brush and a package of chewing gum. But even during the war, Canal employees were able to buy imported Christmas trees at their commissaries. In 1917 a small tree sold for 60 cents, a medium tree for 90 cents and a large one for $1.90. Since the 1920's, Supplv Division buyers have gone to New York each year to inspect the new offerings and From Teddy Bears to Star Wars Toys tell a tale By Vic Canel 14 Winter 1978 he Panama Canal Review 13

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^-sea LOW HANGING CLOUDS, lush tropical growth and ships moving through placid waters create a scene of serene beauty, but to the trained observer this is more than a pretty picture. This aerial view of the Panama Canal above Gamboa Reach looking northwest has many graphic examples of the maintenance and improvement works so indispensable to the operation of the waterway. A few hundred feet to the north I of the smaller of the two transiting vessels, one can see a tug pushing barges loaded with dredged material out to disposal areas. The muddy water, bottom center of the photo, was caused by the operation of the Dredge Cascadas I in Gamboa Reach. The excavation, vhich is evident on the two small islands to the right of the channel, is the initial work toward complete removal of the islands to widen and realign the Mamei Curve, a major Canal improvement project. Dark patches seen on each side of the channel are growths of the submerged aquatic plant hydrilla. The light green area in the lower left corner is an infestation of the floating water plant pistia. Encroachment of this pest plant on ] the shipping channel is being prevented here by a floating log boom which bellies out toward the channel between the two islands in the left comer. If plants such as this and the floating water hyacinth were allowed to infest the channel, thev could be sucked into the water intakes of ships and cause serious problems. In the past 2 vears the Panama Canal Company has intensified its efforts to eliminate aquatic weeds. One of the constant maintenance problems in the Canal is keeping the tropical vegetation from inundating navigational aids. Near the lower right of the photo, one can see the brush cut away from the Canal side of a lighthouse to permit the pilots to see the light which guides ships through Gamboa Reach on the east sailing range.

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Festive fare for family and friends at Christmas By Vannie Jones THE CHRISTMAS SEASON DINner table provides a splendid opportunity for expressing affection and hospitality. Making holiday meals pleasing and festive occasions is a rewarding experience whether the objects of your affection are family members or friends coming in for a holiday party. Why not let the spirit of caring and sharing permeate your kitchen and dining room this season? You can start by converting "tedious kitchen chores" into joyful "labors of love." Try mingling your chopping, sifting, stirring and measuring with pleasant thoughts of those who will be sitting at your table. Consider the tastes of every guests (even little Susie and Johnnie) and plan something to delight each one. As you prepare your dinner table, anticipate the warm fellowship to be shared with loved ones when your meal is finally served. During such busy days, it is unliketv that you will want to undertake a gourmet dinner, but bv choosing recipes that are family favorites and simple 'do ahead" dishes, holiday meals can be leisurely and fun for all who participate in them. Using some of the many delicious local food items can make vour Christmas in the tropics even more excitingly different. Some of the recipes appearing on these pages are old family favorites, others are very special because they come from friends who enjov sharing good things. BEST WISHES FOR HAPPY HOLIDAY DINING . Minted Fresh Fruit Cut favorite fresh fruits into bite-sized pieces. Melon, pineapple, papaya, oranges, apples, grapes, strawberries, etc. Place on bed of fresh lettuce. Top with Minted Lime Dressing (below); 3 Tablespoons mint jelly (commercial apple-mint jelly will do) 2 Tablespoons honey Grated peel and juice of 1 lime Juice of 1 lemon Mix ingredients together and chill. Pour over fruit just before serving. (If you have a shelf free in your freezer, put these servings into freezer for about 5 minutes before serving. ) Lobster Imperial (with Rice) 3 Pounds cooked lobster (chopped into bitesized pieces) Sauce: J/2 Cup minced onion— Sauteed in 1 stick margarine or butter until tender 1 Cup minced green pepper 5 Tablespoons flour— Stir into onion/pepper mixture 3 Cups chicken bouillon— Stir into onion/ pepper mixture 1 to 2 cups milk— Add gradually until sauce is medium thick 1 Teaspoon salt Dash of pepper 1 Teaspoon Worcestershire or Soy Sauce 1 Chopped liard boiled egg Add and stir together. Place 3 cups cooked rice in casserole. Add lobster. Cover with sauce. Before baking sprinkle on seasoned bread crumbs, grated parmesan cheese and dot generously with butter. Heat in oven until hot all the way through— about 30 minute at 350. Serves 8. Corn-Cheese Casserole Margarine 3 Cups (about 6 ears) fresh-cut corn 2 Tablespoons finely chopped onion % Teaspoon salt fj Teaspoon pepper 1 Cup shredded Swiss cheese Ys Cup evaporated milk or half-and-half Dot bottom of shallow IVfe-quart baking dish with Vk tablespoons margarine. Combine next 4 ingredients with \z cup shredded cheese and pour into baking dish. Top with remaining cheese, then dot with 1 Vz tablespoons margarine. Drizzle with evaporated milk. Bake in preheated 350 F. oven 25 minutes, or until com is tender. Makes 6 servings. Western Coleslaw / Medium head cabbage, shredded 2 Onions— Sliced thin and placed in layers between cabbage % Cup sugar— Sprinkle on top I Tablespoon salt % Cup salad oil 1 Teaspoon dry mustard 1 Teaspoon celery seed 1 Cup vinegar Stir while cooking to a rolling boil. Pour dressing over cabbage and cover. Do not stir. Put in refrigerator to cool at least 4 hours before serving. Cranberry Relish Salad 1 Medium thin-skinned orange 1 Medium apple 2 Cups fresh or frozen cranberries Hi Cups sugar 1 Package (3 ounces) orange or lemon flavor gelatin 2 Envelopes unfavored gelatin Crated rind and juice of 1 lemon Spiced Mandarin-orange wedge (optional) Cut orange and apple in eighths and remove seeds. Force with cranberries through fine blade of food chopper. Add sugar, mix well and refrigerate a few hours, stirring occasionally to dissolve sugar. Prepare orange gelatin according to package directions. Soften unflavored gelatin in one cup cold water. Put over low heat, stirring until dissolved. Add to orange gelatin with lemon rind and juice. Chill until slightly thickened. Fold in cranberry mixture, mix well and pour into 6-cup ring mold. Chill until firm. Unmold and fill center with orange wedges, if desired. Makes 10 to 12 servings. Spiced Mandarin-orange xcedges: Drain svrup from one can (11 ounces) mandarin-orange wedges. Put in saucepan with 2 tablespoons sugar, dash of ginger and 12 whole cloves. Simmer, uncovered, until reduced one half. Cool and pour over orange wedges. Chill overnight. Makes about one cup. Note: Recipe can be doubled. Seashells, driftwood and tropical flowers were used to create an imaginative centerpiece for this holiday dinner table. Recipes for all the dishes appear on this page. 20 Winter 1978 The Panama Canal Review 21

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Gifts from the kitchen: to enjoy on the spot or to send home with friends Cream Cheese Pie 2 Cups graham cracker crumbs % Cup sugar ii Cup melted butter 'i Cup chopped nuts Mix together and press into bottom of 8 x 10-inch pan or large pie plate Knee cream cheese (softened) 2 Eggs % Cup sugar 1 Teaspoon vanilla 'A Cup evaporated milk Blend together and put in crust. Bake at 375 for 20 minutes. Optional topping: Strawberry or cherry pie filling. Mix sour cream and dream whip for decoration. Orange Slice-Date Nut Cake 2 Cups sugar 1 Cup margarine Cream together 4 Eggs Add and mix well (one at a time) 2 Boxes dates, chopped l'i Cups buttermilk Put in bowl together, mix with fork 4 Cups flour 1 Teaspoon soda 1 Teaspoon salt Add to sugar-butter mixture, along with dates and orange slices 1 Large bag orange slices candy chopped and sprinkled with a bit of flour 2 Cups chopped nuts 1 Teaspoon vanilla 1 Can coconut (optional) Bake in greased and floured loaf pans at 275 for 2M> to 3 hours. New Orleans Pecan Pralines 3 Cups sugar 1 Cup buttermilk 3 Tablespoon white corn syrup 1 Teaspoon baking soda % Teaspoon salt Combine in large pan. Cook without stirring to 150 on candv thermometer. Add V 2 stick butter, stir, then cook on medium heat to soft ball stage, on candv thermometer (236). Remove from heat, add 1 teaspoon vanilla. Beat with spoon until it just begins to thicken. Add 2 to 3 cups broken pecans. Drop bv teaspoonsful onto wax paper. 22 Winter 1978

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Shrimp Toasts (Ya Do Shi) 1 Pound minced uncooked shrimp !i Cup finehj chopped onion 1 Tablespoon minced green pepper 1 Egg slightly beaten 1 Tablespoon cornstarch 1 Teaspoon salt /2 Teaspoon sugar 'A Teaspoon pepper Mix together and spread on bread squares with fork. Press down so it does not come off during frying. Trim crusts from loaf of "heavy" bread. Cut slices in 4 squares. Allow to "dry out" but not get "hard." After shrimp mixture is on bread, sprinkle bread crumbs on top, then fry (shrimp down first) in hot oil ( 1-2 minutes). Then turn and fry bread side down. Remove to paper towels and gently pat tops with paper towel to remove excess oil. (Freeze or store in refrigerator. Reheat in 325 oven 15-20 minutes just before serving. ) The Panama Canal Review 23

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Stevens Circle is the town Square By Dolores E. Suisman TO A CANAL OLDTIMER. IT'S just the little park in front of the clubhouse. To a Canal historv buff, it's a tribute to John F. Stevens. To everyone else, Canal Zone residents and tourists alike, it's a colorful mini bazar of local arts and crafts. Officially, it's called Stevens Circle, in honor of the outstanding engineer and able administrator who is credited with getting the Canal construction project on the right track. But it's not really a circle anymore. And it's not square, though over the years it has been called Town Square, along with such other names as Clubhouse Plaza, Balboa Park, Balboa Circle and Balboa Traffic Circle. The little park between the post office and the commissary has seen its share of history. As far as anyone can remember, it has existed from the time the townsite of Balboa came into being as permanent headquarters for the Canal organization in 1912. It was there before they built the original Balboa Clubhouse which was torn down in 1973 to make way for the modern cafeteria that now faces the circle. A long-retired schoolteacher sharing her bench and her memories with a stranger said at the time: "I sat right here and watched them put up that clubhouse, and now I'm sitting here watching them tear it down." Aside from its benches, the original little park was as different from the Stevens Circle of today as the old wooden clubhouse building (moved in 1914 from the construction-day townA monument to John F. Stevens stands in the middle of the Circle and in the background is the Balboa Post Office.

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It was in 1962 that the circle acquired its commemorative status. The little park underwent a complete facelift in preparation for the dedication ceremonies that would officially name it in honor of John F. Stevens. Decorative lighting was installed, and the middle of the park was raised and walled with brick. There officials unveiled with due pomp and ceremony, a gleaming white three-sided memorial bearing Goethal's tribute to the harddriving, gifted engineer who preceded him: "The Canal is his monument." One can imagine Stevens accepting the memorial that bears his name. But what would he make of the county fair atmosphere that has changed Stevens Circle from a proper little park into an artsv-crafty miniature version of Paris' Montmartre? It's hard to say just when the artists, jewelrv makers, metal workers, leather workers, and artisans of all sorts decided the park was an ideal place to displav and sell their wares. First, non-profit organizations— the Gem and Mineral Society and Canal Zone Bottle Collectors Associationheld their annual bazaar there. Scouts, boosters for school ball teams, and church groups held bake sales. Then came people with plants, homemade macrame items, cookbooks— even litters of puppies or kittens— to set up tables and attract shoppers wending their wav from post office to commissary and back. It wasn't long before the non-profit organizations were joined by merchants of all types and Stevens Circle became a riotous confusion of Cuna indian molas, Colombian wall hangings, Costa Rican rocking chairs, Mexican silver, and even native birds and monkeys. Early in 1977, Stevens Circle was back on the drawing board— that of a traffic engineer, this time— and the parkbecame neither a true circle nor a square but a circle with three arms. While construction was in progress, selling was not allowed. At that time, it was decided to issue peddlers' licenses onlv to artists or craftsmen who would sell what they made. Space was parceled out in the 125foot-in-diameter park— 72 square feet of ground or table space or 12 feet of wall space per "peddler." Some semblance of order was restored, and with browsing room available again, the circle became a popular stop for shoppers looking for an unusual or last minute gift. One wanders past and around the great variety of handicrafts. Wrought iron plant stands, leather sandals, gingham beach hats, belts with silver buckles, leather dice cups, flower pots, soapstone animals, purses, pillows, carved-out coins, molas, bateas, oil rubbings, and jewelrv of everv kind— coral, jade, tiger eye or bone pins, bracelets, necklaces, charms and rings. One begins to wonder who these handicraft "peddlers" are. Onlv two other people were selling in the circle in 1973, when Ken Myers moved his artwork from the commissary steps to the park. One was a Cuna indian, he remembers. Now the Cuna make up the largest contingent of the circle's merchants. One, Alberto Andreve, savs he sells 50 or more molas a month. But he quickly adds that it takes a woman back on the San Bias islands 3 months to make each one. Fulvia Rodriguez, who is not a Cuna but the daughter of missionary parents, grew up on the island of Alligandi and learned the art of making molas. Now she sits in the park stitching special orders. A recent one carried the legend "Don — Balboa High School" and an outline of the school. An Ecuadorian, Jose Antonio Tiban, travels each Sunday to market places in the interior, seeking out the soapstone figures, clay flower pots and other native crafts that he and his daughter sell in the circle. Probably the best-known peddlers are Ken Myers and Chrisse Harawaka. As Stevens Circle oldtimers, they hold seven-day-a-week licenses. Their fellowpeddlers are alloted space only 2 days a week. Ken studied art and jewelry-making at Canal Zone College before attempting the oil rubbings that have become so popular. To make these exotic art works, Myers stretches a piece of cloth over sculptured stones from Panama, Guatemala and Mexico, and daubs oil paint gentlv over the surface until the high spots mark the cloth. He likens the technique to putting a piece of paper over a quarter and pencil-shading until the image of the coin appears. Steven Circle won't hold Ken much longer. After an exhibition in Panama, he plans to go to art school in California and then perhaps fulfill his dream: to create a wall-sized oil rubbing. Even those who don't know her name recognize the little blond in the straw hat who sits in the place of honor at the foot of the Prado. The Panama Canal Review

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28 Winter 1978

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Chrisse Harawaka already had her art degree when she arrived in Panama from Delaware for a vacation that included a side trip to the San Bias Islands. On that trip to the islands she met the Canal Zone boy she would return to marry a year later. She and her husband, an Army employee, have lived in Panama ever since. Both learned the "lost wax" process from former Canal Zone resident and huaca expert Neville Harte. Chrisse makes the huacas herself. She also designs and makes necklaces. Today, Chrisse and Kent set out their displays on what was a great sea of mud when John F. Stevens left the Isthmus in 1907. As hard as it would be for these young, vital artists to envision the starkness of the Canal Zone Stevens knew, it surelv would be more difficult for the Canal builder to understand the carnival atmosphere of that part of the Zone dedicated to him. But then again, in his day it was mostlv hard work and there were very few amenities other than those provided at the clubhouses run by the YMCA. Few of the shoppers and probably fewer of the peddlers one sees at the circle today fully realize the merits of the man for whom it was named. It was dedicated in his honor on October 13, 1962, which coincidental^ was a Saturday and is now the day the peddlers turn out en masse. When he resigned as chief engineer of the Canal construction project in 1907 he— and everyone else— was fully convinced that the success of the undertaking was assured. Ten thousand people turned out to give him the biggest send-off the Canal Zone had ever witnessed. At left: This sketch of Stevens' Circle, by Maj. Jerry Fields, of the U.S. Army, is among the many works of art available at the Circle. At top: Particularly popular with nostalgia minded local shoppers are plaques and pen sets fashioned by Steve Bolt from Panama Railroad rails and spikes. Above: Unique necklaces created from sliells, coins, shark's teeth and other native materials are offered by several peddlers. The Panama Canal Review 29

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Preservation of Watershed Vital to Canal Operations By Willie K. Friar FEW PEOPLE VIEWING THE blue green waters of Gatun Lake or Madden Lake are aware that Gatun is not just a convenient part of the waterway across the Isthmus or that Madden is not merely a readily accessible recreation area. Actually Gatun and Madden Lakes are vital parts of the operation of the Panama Canal. The water for lockages, hydroelectric power, and for the water svstems of the Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon is supplied by runoff from the Gatun Lake watershed with Madden and Gatun Lakes serving as storage and flood control facili ties. Most of this watershed of 1,259 square miles on which the maintenance and the purity of the lakes depend lies in the Republic of Panama. At present, the conservation of forest resources and the protection of the watershed are severely hindered by the rapid and alarming population growth in the marginal urban areas of the cities of Panama and Colon; the movement of unskilled labor from the interior to the cities; the high rate of unemployment and continual spiraling inflation. Constant burnings during the dry season to prepare land for small agricultural efforts or for pasture land has decimated much of the forest within the Gatun Lake watershed. As soon as the trees are removed, the tropical soils, which support the jungle growth, quicklv drv out from exposure to the intense sun and are very susceptible to sheet, gullv and landslide erosion. Most of the western parts of the Republic of Panama have been extensively deforested while the forest areas of the Canal Zone, in comparison, remain relatively undisturbed due to the restrictions on access bv the public to the Canal Zone watershed and militarv areas. From a helicopter, the Canal Zone appears as a carefullv conserved island of forest in the midst of a generally cleared countryside. Nevertheless such activities as timber cutting, slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree poaching for lumber remain a constant problem in the Canal Zone. Although fires have little effect on the untouched tropical forest where no cutting has been permitted, the edges of the jungle are vulnerable to repeated burnings during the dry months and the forest gradually retreats until only sawgrass and other undesirable grasses continue to grow. This process can be observed by anyone driving through the Madden Forest Preserve. As soon as one leaves the protected area, there are onlv sawgrass and large patches of exposed bright red soil with signs of continued erosion. The tropical forest, once invaded and destroyed, does not recover as many people believe. A dense jungle growth does begin immediately, but it is only scrubby, stunted vegetation and not the same as the old forest with the large sturdy branches and the lush growth of leaves and bromeliads, which are typical of very old trees. Actually, the process of regrowth is so slow that, for all practical purposes, once the jungle forest is destroyed it is abandoned permanently bv the native animals and birds. The value of the forested areas of the Canal Zone cannot be overestimated. At left: A favorite scene with photographers is the waterfall beside the highway that passes through the Madden Forest Preserve. Below: The verdant tropical forest can be seen close-up from the highway which cuts through Madden Forest. The Panama Canal Review 31

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From a helicopter, erosion caused by slash-and-burn agricultural methods is readily apparent as in this section of Madden Forest. Below: Corn grows in an area of Madden Forest which has been cleared by subsistence farmers who burned the trees.

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OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS BY NATIONALITY 9 Months FY 1978 9 Months FY 1977 Long Long No. of Tons No. of Tons Nationality Transits Cargo Transits Cargo British 805 7,385,602 820 7,210,800 Chilean 132 1,318,082 149 1,131,478 Chinese, Nationalist 85 1,103,220 84 1,110,885 Colombian 124 850,727 128 242,049 Cuban 72 448,808 50 238,747 Danish 208 1,893,867 233 1,864,664 Ecuadorian 142 1,183,656 134 1,196,378 French 92 842,382 106 830,280 German, West 420 2,988,774 434 2,935,295 Greek 977 12,862,124 873 13,240,105 Italian 197 1,247,373 162 859,377 Japanese 663 5,804,809 681 7,050,725 Liberian 1,359 21,407,777 1,395 22,650,180 Netherlands 132 946,056 171 1,079,236 Norwegian 384 5,431,095 450 6,706,404 Panamanian 711 5,529,674 829 5,975,905 Peruvian 160 1,553,176 136 1,504,925 Polish 64 407,885 58 445,752 Singaporean 115 1,157,144 78 763,414 South Korean 77 873,521 46 272,023 Soviet 183 1,053,420 150 984,519 Spanish 82 166,648 64 204,028 Swedish 193 1,871,157 199 1,947,451 United States 1,187 17,401,015 759 6,358,610 Yugoslavian 100 833,531 75 589,925 All other 690 6,025,050 658 5,197,508 Total 9,354 102,586,573 8,922 92,590,663 OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES 9 9 Months Months FY FY Trade route 1978 1977 East Coast United States-Asia 2,093 2,055 East Coast United StatesWest Coast South America 953 782 Europe— West Coast South America 840 852 East Coast United StatesWest Coast Central America 868 438 Europe-West Coast United States/Canada 697 661 South American Intercoastal 306 328 U.S. Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii) 340 305 East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania 255 226 Europe— Oceania 221 317 East Coast Canada— Asia 216 205 All other 2,565 2,753 Total 9,354 8,922 OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY MONTHS Tolls (In thousands Transits of dollars)! Month FY 1978 FY 1977 FY 1978 FY 1977 October 1,028 976 $14,995 $11,488 November 947 968 14,280 12,777 December 1,002 943 14,848 13,887 January 1,000 983 14,433 13,818 February 942 916 14,199 12,978 March 1,135 1,057 17,022 14,064 April 1,067 1,060 16,960 14,947 May 1,142 1,048 18,176 14,601 June 1,091 971 17,130 13,456 Total 9,354 8,922 $142,043 $122,016 1 Before deduction of any operating expenses. Statistics compiled by Executive Planning Staff. PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC 9 Months 1978 1977 TRANSITS (Oceangoing) Commercial 9,354 8,922 U.S. Government 70 63 Free 4 10 Total 9,428 8,995 TOLLS1 Commercial. $142,087,840 $122,061,026 U.S. Government 653,236 606,975 Total $142,741,076 $122,668,001 CARG02 (Oceangoing) Commercial. 102,586,573 92,590,663 U.S. Government 237,262 169,444 Free Total 102,823,835 92,760,107 1 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and small. 2Cargo figures are in long tons. Statistics compiled by Executive Planning Staff. It is the most extensive, readily accesible humid forest available for ecological study in all of Central America, in addition to protecting the watershed of the Canal. The continued preservation of the forest and the watershed are such important elements of the environment that they have been made a part of the new treaty between the United States and the Republic of Panama. However, despite careful patroling of the forested areas in the Zone, during the past few years a significant increase of forest degradation and slashand-burn type agriculture activities have been observed along the common Canal Zone /Republic of Panama border and throughout the watershed. Most of the encroachment and deforestation presently occuring in this area is done by small groups of subsistence farmers, most of whom are engaged in growing corn and rice. They live near the Canal Zone border or have settled inside the boundary and are cutting down the trees and burning vegetation to clear land for farming. The trees and various types of natural vegetation, which give the tropical landscape its originality, have a chance to survive on the Isthmus only in preserves and protected areas inside the Canal Zone, such as Pipeline Road. Madden Forest, and Ancon Hill. The successful establishment of a working relationship for bilateral participation and action to protect the Canal watershed is of great importance to the Government of Panama since most of the forested areas within the present Canal Zone will in the future be under its control. Most of the forested areas will become a part of any resource conservation program established bv Panama in its long term development The Panama Canal Review 33

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PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (in long tons) Atlantic to Pacific 9 Months 9 Months Commodity FY 1978 FY 1977 Petroleum and products 8,598,879 11,220,342 Com 7,222,263 7,958,544 Coal and coke 6,092,295 9,675,469 Soybeans 4,559,001 3,588,894 Phosphate 3,347,458 2,838,691 Wheat 2,321,257 1,727,837 Sorghum __ 1,888,129 1,988,742 Chemicals and petroleum chemicals 1,462,784 1,208,324 Manufactures of iron and steel 1,422,356 559,519 Metal, scrap 1,345,369 922,848 Fertilizers, unclassified 1,019,713 832,756 Ores, various 1,019,124 1,020,296 Sugar 868,769 418,004 Ammonium compounds 495,031 341,408 Caustic soda 422,528 392,547 AUother7,117,785 7,198,956 Total 49,202,741 51,893,177 Pacific to Atlantic 9 Months 9 Months Commodity FY 1978 FY 1977 Petroleum and products 19,966,480 6,183,897 Manufactures of iron and steel 5,525,362 5,849,969 Lumber and products 3,819,331 3,710,125 Ores, various 3,582,732 4,225,445 Sugar 1,966,913 2,040,818 Coal and coke 1,468,033 362,264 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 1,411,546 1,408,297 Bananas 1,247,952 1,190,348 Wood pulp 1,240,677 1,387,604 Metals, various 1,012,545 1,049,831 Wheat 880,221 579,637 Autos, trucks, and accessories 862,773 643,507 Sulfur 839,190 959,229 Molasses 571,182 474,829 Paper and paper products 546,360 449,203 All other 8,442,535 10,182,483 Total 53,383,832 40,697,486 CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT 9 Months FY 1978 9 Atlantic Pacific Months to to FY Commercial: Pacific Atlantic Total 1977 Oceangoing 4,731 4,623 9,354 8,922 Small'__ 382 219 601 616 Total 5,113 4,842 9,955 9,538 U.S. Government: Oceangoing 37 33 70 63 Small 1 77 62 139 221 Total 114 95 209 284 Grand Total 5,227 4,937 1 0,164 9,822 1 Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, or under 500 displacement tons. Statisti-. s compiled b\ the Executive Planning Staff. strategy to protect the quality of the natural environment. A plan of action has been set up to eliminate slash-and-burn type agriculture during the next 12 months. The implementation of this plan would establish basic guidelines which the Government of Panama will be able to continue when these forest areas come under its control after the new treaty between the United States and Panama goes into effect. With the financial assistance, technical training and institutional buildup that the proposed U.S. AID (Agency for International Development) watershed management project is to provide Panama's Renewable Natural Resources Conservation Agency (RENARE), the Government of Panama will be able to play a strong role in conserving natural resources. A biological crossroads of North and South America containing plants and animals from both continents, Panama is considered by some scientists to be the most biologically diverse country in the world for its size. Here one can find within a small easily accessible area, an enormous variety of plant, bird, and animal life; but conservation of this unique environment is becoming a more and more difficult problem as man's impact on the limited natural forest resources becomes increasingly stronger. The areas that have been the most adversely affected by slash-and-burn agriculture are the Chiva-Chiva area, Madden Forest Preserve, the northeast bank of the Canal along Pipeline Road (well-known as a bird and animal sanctuary), and the west bank of the Canal. Plans for the future include increased aerial and ground surveillance, and strengthened communication with the Government of Panama. Also planned is an increased joint educational campaign using the Panama radio, television and news media to stress the importance of preservation of the natural resources of the Isthmus. Christmas on the Isthmus means colorful molas with holiday motifs made by the Cuna Indians. The one at right, an intricately stitched horn of plenty, is one of the favorite designs. 34 Winter 1978

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