Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
23584335 ( ALEPH )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1311 pana



















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ROBERT J. FLEMING, JR., Governor-President
DAVID S. PARKER. Lieutenant Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Officer


Official Panama Canal Publication
Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C. Z.


JOSEPH CONNOR, Press Officer
Publications Editors
ROBERT D. KERR and JLIo E. BRICENO
Editorial Assistants
EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and TOMAS A. CUPAS


Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights. C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights. C.Z.


Index


-.










... nd a JVew tCook



ON OUR COVER is a view looking south along a section of the
original right-of-way of the Panama Railroad on the west bank of
the Canal, with a sketch of a locomotive of those days as it would
have looked "coming 'round the bend."
In right foreground of the picture are two 44-cubic-yard
scrapers on approach to a spoil area in the latest project area for
widening of the Canal channel from 300 to 500 feet.
Above is the same view 4 weeks later, by which time the
contractor, Moretti-Harrison, had leveled the hilly jungle terrain
to the left, removing 607,682 cubic yards of earth and rock. Trees
in both pictures identify the area as the same. And note the ship
transiting at left in the above picture.
A dozen years before the French Canal Company had started
operations on the Isthmus (in 1879), the Panama Railroad already
had carried more than 400,000 passengers and transported some
$750 million in coin and 300,000 sacks of mail.


Man of Destiny __.....__. ____________
"El Americano"-Bullfighter ______
Isthmus Industry_____ _____
Pure Water for You..___________
Filling a Gap in Education __-- ___
Canal History, Retirements -----______
Anniversaries -- ________
Promotions and Transfers_--- ____
New Director______ _____
Shipping --- _________


EFFECTIVE with this issue, THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW is being made available to
all employees without charge. The step is
being taken to help keep all employees
informed on Canal programs, projects, and
procedures which affect the employees.
Believing that better understanding today
makes for a better future tomorrow, the
Canal administration thinks all employees
should take advantage of this opportu-
nity to improve their knowledge of the
objectives, goals, and activities of the
organization and other Canal employees.
The policy of providing retirees with a
year's free subscription upon retirement
will be continued, as will the policy of
subscriptions being available to non-
employees of the Canal organization at
$1 per year.
Happy reading!


JUNE 7, 1963






HE LIBERATED lands which now are
nations of more than 40 million people
and more than 2 million square miles.
His dreams for a federation of nations
never materialized, but through the
political ferment of more than a century
has evolved a Pan-American unity of
approach to common problems possibly
more lastingly effective. Differences in
heritage, geography, topography, and
development background might have
proven fatal to a federation.
He, of course, is Sim6n Bolivar. In
his honor and in tribute to his memory,
June 22 is observed as Bolivarian Day.
It was on that day in 1826 that the first
Pan-American Congress, called together
by "The Liberator," met in Panama.
The historic meeting of American
Presidents held in Panama City in 1956
probably had its precedent in the
Panama Congress of 1826.
On the earlier memorable occasion,
the young nations of the WVcstern Hemi-
sphere met for the first time to deliber-
ate on matters of common and vital
interest. In 1956, when the Presidents'
meeting brought to the Isthmus 19
heads of American States, inter-Amer-
ican relationships were established
whose full values still remain to be
appraised from the perspective of
history.
Bolivar liberated the territories now
making up Venezuela, Colombia, Ecua-
dor, Peru, and Bolivia. He broke the
Spanish power in South America and
served as ruler of Venezuela, Colombia,
and Ecuador and dictator of Peru-all
before his death in 1830 at the age
of 47.
His greatest battles each liberated a
country. The course of military cam-
paigns for independence of these lands
led his legions over a route of about
3,000 miles.
Born to the upper class, Bolivar had
only contempt for those who would


"How beautiful it would be if the
Isthmus of Panama were for us like that
of Corinth was to the Greeks. I hope
that some day we have the good fortune
of holding there an august Congress by
representatives of the Republics, King-
doms, and Empires in order to discuss
the interests of peace and war with the
nations of the other three parts of
the world."
(This, from his Letter from Jamaica, in
1815, is the inscription at the base of the
Bolivar statue in the plaza in Panama City
that bears his name. It is located at Fourth
Street and Avenue B, in front of the old
San Francisco Church and near the
National Theatre.)


have made the struggle for indepen-
dence a path to satisfy personal greed.
Greatly impressed by the writings of
Rousseau and Voltaire, he was an elo-
quent spokesman for individual liberty,
an unyielding foe of slavery and oppres-
sion. He freed his own slaves and made
freeing of all slaves a basic point of
the liberation ideals. He shared an


regenerative force of the late 18th and
19th centuries.
Bolivar felt sincerely that any "elite"
should be so only on the basis of merit,
and had no interest, despite his patri-
cian background, in perpetuating priv-
ileges not based on or earned by merit.
This, along with his efforts to prevent
the nations' leaders from profiting per-
sonally from the independence struggle,
.
S.


attitude that was the most powerful
was to alienate some of them from him
and sow the seeds of disunion already
clearly apparent by the time of his
death.
A poet, soldier, and statesman, Boli-
var was a warrior, rather than a strate-
gist. It was not until after 1817, when
he began to emulate Napole6n, that


battles he directed showed any sub-
stantial signs of following studied plans
of attack. Meanwhile, however, to the
dismay of his foes, he proved himself a
master of improvising.
In the battles for liberation, there was
a strange paradox. Spain, by giving aid
to the revolt against England in North
America, had presented to its overseas
colonial subjects in South America the
spectacle of aiding revolt of foreign
colonies. The United States had won
its independence in 1783.
Once called a "powder keg" by a
tutor, in his youth, Bolivar is said to
have retorted, "Be careful, don't come
near me. I might explode." When he
did explode, as leader of the liberation,
3 centuries of Spanish rule were ended.
Bolivar himself declared his heart
was "moulded for liberty and justice."
Destiny played a part, however, by
putting a man such as he in the right
place at the right time, and by taking
his wife from him by death. There has
been speculation that if he had not
suffered this early loss, his tempestuous
strengths might have been calmed into
a quiet life concentrated on home, wife,
and family.
In the coronation of Napole6n, Boli-
var had visions of authoritarian rule for
himself, directed first of all at unifica-
tion, although dreams of personal fame
could not help but play a subordinate
role. Once respected and admired by
Bolivar, in later years Napole6n was to
become to him a "dishonest tyrant."
In Rome, in 1805, surrounded by
reminders of mythical and historic
heroes, great men who made Rome
great, Bolivar took a solemn vow on
Monte Sacro that he would liberate his
country.
Wars for the liberation were to span
14 years and include setbacks with
which military or political astuteness
could not cope. A severe earthquake in


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIE\V


"Z ke *Iiberator






1812, 2 years after the patriots had over-
thrown the Spanish regime in Vene-
zuela, was regarded by many of the
superstitious as a judgment of God
against the First Republic. It was
exploited in favor of the Spanish cause
and marked the start of the physical
and moral collapse of the Republic.
Bolivar's real greatness in his early
years lay in the fact that each defeat-
and there were many-found him ready
to re-examine his ideas, confess mis-
takes, and begin the hazardous course
all over again. He had personal magne-
tism evident in his pen as well as in his
spoken words, to such an extent that he
was a liberator of thoughts and ideas as
well as of nations.
His leadership qualities for many
years kept top officers and troops faith-
ful in spite of understandable distaste
for more battles on searing coastal
plains, in the humid jungle heat of
river valleys, and on the crests of the
towering Andes.
Bolivar sought not only to liberate,
but to instill in the masses a na-
tional conscience and consciousness. He
wished for power and glory to serve the
ideals to which he had dedicated his
life. In his striving toward these goals,
in his early years at war, he was a
gambler while learning strategy, lurch-
ing into headlong sallies rather than
"military" campaign moves. The fact
that there were no static fronts often
was his salvation in his gambles.
The fire of his personality pierced
indifferences of those who were his
associates and several times brought
him back from exile (at least once
self-exile) because he couldn't stand
inactivity.
Bolivar viewed unity as necessary to
stability of liberty, and was convinced
republics could not exist side by side
with states which were the colonial
possessions of monarchies. This was
one conviction which led to his cer-
tainty that there must be a federation
of freed nations.
SA continent, not a country, was the
field of his thinking, his visions, his
leadership. One historian observed, "In
1815, while (South) America was still
under Spanish domination, Bolivar was
not only prophesying the immediate
conflicts, but he envisioned a century's
development of 10 nations."
In attempting to lure the British to
support the patriots' campaigns, he had
proposed that Britain should get the
provinces of Panama and Nicaragua-


and then build canals connecting the
Atlantic and Pacific.
As early as 1819, rivalries between
Venezuela and New Granada, trifling in
nature at the time, pointed to future
danger zones. As distrustful of the
"gentle philosophers of Colombia" as of
the wildest of his fighters, Bolivar
declared they wanted to create repub-
lics like the Greek, the Roman, or the
North American (all with different
backgrounds), and asserted that they
"build a Greek structure on a Gothic
foundation, and they build it at the
edge of a volcano."
Bolivar early chose Panama as the
haven for South American federation,
and events came to the aid of the
patriots. On November 28, 1821, a
representative council met, declared


The memorial medallion issued for the
historic meeting of 19 heads of American
nations in Panama in 1956.



Panama independent, and stated its
desire to unite with Colombia. The
Republic- of Colombia thus gained an
eighth department, and a strategic one,
without force of arms.
In later years, petty rivalries among
subordinate leaders, and betrayals by
them because of their greed for power
or gain, led to virtual anarchy. Flat
disobedience by some left Bolivar and
his forces isolated many times. In spite
of these and other trials, however, he
hoisted the "flag of resurrection, not
insurrection," and if some of his judg-
ments and decisions of later years were
subject to criticism, his goal was not.
Genius that he was, he was not with-
out human and humanizing frailties.
Some were to work against his stature
and aims, but it would have been mirac-


ulous, torn as he was between divided
loyalties, conflicting courses of action,
and discouragements over uprisings, if
he always had been above reproach.
At Potosi, in what was to become
Bolivia, he declared:
"In 15 years of continuous and ter-
rific strife, we have destroyed the edifice
that tyranny erected during 3 centuries
of usurpation and uninterrupted vi-
olence," and he said of the rich silver
veins which were Spain's treasury for
300 years, "this material wealth is as
nothing compared with bearing the
ensign of freedom ."
His eloquence veiled only thinly a
dual purpose: manifestation of the
unity of the people for its effect on
South America as well as on the outside
world.
Bolivar sought voluntary union,
rather than the type imposed by the
Holy Alliance in Europe on small and
defenseless nations. The Congress of
Panama was a failure, admittedly,
because it did not achieve its main
objective of a union of nations. Its im-
portance lay in the fact that it was
conceived well over a century ago and
that there was a definite attempt.
Barriers of geography, race, and na-
tional prejudices separated the new
states. The transition from dependent
colonies could not be made as rapidly
as Bolivar hoped. In the face of internal
troubles, in a proclamation to the people
of Guayaquil urging them to remain
loyal to Greater Colombia, he urged,
"You are not the ones responsible. The
people can never be responsible. The
pernicious and erroneous ideas come
from the leaders; it is they who bring
about the public calamities."
In a moment of despair, Bolivar
pleaded, "I am not God that I can
change men and matters," and later,
"The influence of civilization gives our
people indigestion, so that what should
nourish us, ruins us."
Public opinion at times interpreted
Bolivar's leniency with conspirators as
weakness. It could, with at least equal
validity, be interpreted as sacrificing a
desire for revenge and to be rid of
enemies to the greater goal of pre-
serving the Colombian Republic, which
was threatened with disintegration.
To the day of his untimely death,
hastened by the hardships and sacrifices
of warfare over many years, and re-
peated forced compromises between
vision and practicality, Sim6n Bolivar
bore the marks of destiny in lands of
destiny.

4 JUNE 7, 1963





















J 'f .

Robert Lopez, "El Americano," was
awarded an ear when he appeared in a
bullfight in Mexico.


"El Americano"

"OLE!" shouted with spirit may never
reverberate from the staid Balboa Post
Office walls. Nor may a bull ever come
charging through the doors. But an
honest-to-goodness bullfighter DOES
work there.
The bullfighter is Canal Zone-born
Robert Lopez, known in bullfight circles
as "El Americano." He also is known as
"el novillero norteamericano," which
means that while he is recognized as a
professional bullfighter, he is not yet a
full matador. The matador title comes
when a novillero has built up his name.
Robert Lopez is a second generation
Panama Canal employee, his father
being a former Motor Transportation
Division employee, now retired. Robert
is a graduate of Balboa High School,
class of 1956, and spent 4 years in the
Air Force.
He started taking bullfighting lessons
while a sophomore, and continued
through his junior and senior years.
Every day, after school, he'd go to the
Macarena bullfight ring in Panama City
for a bullfighting lesson from a Spanish
gypsy, Gitanillo Salom6n Vargas.
First he had to learn all the passes.
Then came the beginning of actual work
with small bull calves.
A high point in his career came last
April, when he appeared in a Mexican
bullfight ring and was awarded an ear.
He has appeared in bullfights in the
interior of Panama this year, first in
Anton in January, and then in Oc6 in
February. In an encounter with a bull
at the Ocu Fair he was gored. Six
stitches were required to close the
wound. But a mere goring didn't deter
Robert, the Canal Zone bullfighter. He


"El Natural"-the bullfighter passes the red cloth in front of the bull. The cloth is hung
from a heavy stick. In his right hand, the bullfighter holds a weighty sword.


spent March and April in Mexico, where
he scored a triumph at Jungapeo, and
then toured the Provinces, where five
fights were scheduled.
He received only $20 to $30 a bull-
fight. Top bullfighters, he said, receive
from 80,000 to 100,000 pesos which,
at 12.50 to the dollar, is a goodly
amount, but not yet a princely sum con-
sidering the risk to the man involved.
As in most fields, competition in
Mexico is keen. Right now, in Mexico
City, he says there are about 1,000
bullfighters.
Aside from the danger-and he


He Takes Turns

pointed out that a fighting bull is faster
than a race horse for the first 100-feet
and more maneuverable than a polo
pony-there are expenses involved.
Topping all others is the cost of the
bullfighter's outfit, heavily hand em-
boidered with gold and silver threads.
The price starts at $300 and goes up.
Robert purchased his second-hand, but
in good shape, for one-third that price.
He explained traditional phases of a
bullfight, starting with the cape work or
veronicas-the passing of the cape in


front of the bull's body. Then comes
the work of the picador, who places the
lances designed to release the strength
in the bull's neck muscles. The bande-
rillas can be placed by the matador
himself, or his assistants. Robert prefers
not to do this. Then comes the fina de
muleta, with the bullfighter using a red
cloth suspended from a heavy stick to
fight and tire the hull until it is ready
for the kill.
Legs in good shape, fast reflexes, and
strong arms and legs are requisites for
a bullfighter.
"Scared?" "Certainly. Manolete ad-
mitted he was scared, and now bull-
fighters aren't afraid to admit the truth,"
he says.
Bullfighters belong to a union, too.
His is La Uni6n de Matadores y
Novilleros.
In fact, says Robert Lopez, everyone
connected with the bullfight ring in
Mexico belongs to some union or other.
He hopes to be able to appear in the
Panama City bullfight ring, and in the
meantime continues practicing.


In Bull Ring


Another view of "El Natural" as the bull swings into action.


T
l


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





'~ ''
r
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f ;-~:Y;~~*U"IIC~.~'~'-I
~ ~9?7~~ jll


This is the Cemento Panama plant at Quebrancha, about 2% miles east of Buena Vista on the Trans-Isthmian Highway. The company
has added three kilns (upper left) and several silos (right) where the finished product is stored. The two buildings in the foreground house
plants for making Fibrolit and Panalit.


Isthmus

Industry:


CEmEnTO PAnAmA


An example of the clean-lined architecture possible with modem concrete design. Horizontal
planes for shade create shadow patterns which change hourly as angles of the sun's rays
change, and provide protection from rains without making it necessary to close windows
except when winds are high. Porch floors, ceilings and other overhangs serve as sun breakers.


Tbese filters are used to help dry the
cement in its pasty stage as it is being
processed. They remove humidity to speed
up the drying and cooking process of the
half-finished product as it goes to the kiln.


-,a _. ",






BUILDINGS designed primarily for
the tropics and other warm climates
have been spreading rapidly in recent
years into even the colder areas of the
temperate zones with increasing use of
concrete for industrial and commercial
buildings and homes.
Adaptability of concrete, concrete
block, and allied products to varied
designs, and relatively maintenance-
free construction, have been important
factors in Cemento Panama becoming
one of the Republic's largest suppliers
in Panama's biggest industry: con-
struction. The Republic's construc-
tion industry dollar volume has totaled
approximately $150 million during the
past 15 years.
Cemento Panama has had a direct
and forceful impact on the Republic's
economic health, adding more than
$34 million to the nation's economy
since it came on the industrial scene.
The firm was founded July 1, 1943,
and the first bags of cement came out
of the plant in 1945. Since then it has
sold 28 million bags of cement in
Panama and exported 62 million. The
company's annual payroll now is
approximately $750,000.
Its beginnings were beset by many
problems, not the least of them that of
getting enough capital together. This
was solved by the late ex-President of
the Republic Augusto S. Boyd, whose
son, Augusto S. (Sammy) Boyd, now
is president of the board of directors
of Cemento Panama. Another hurdle
for the infant company was obtaining
machinery, for in those years of World
War II, needs of the far-flung military
efforts took top priority.
The idea of founding Cemento
PanamA came from former President of
the Republic Ricardo Adolfo de la
Guardia, who felt that since Panama
had the natural resources for manufac-


Dramatic domes such as these, and other geometric patterns, are meeting increasing favor
for homes, commercial and industrial buildings, with varied exterior designs leading to
novel and fresh approaches to interior design and decoration.


ture of the portland type of cement, it
should not have to be imported into
the country.
High quality of the cement produced
by the company has been attested by
American Standard Testing Materials,
the Society of Engineers and Archi-
tects, the University of Panama, and
the Panama Canal. It regularly has
tested well above minimum specifica-


tions for various types, and the firm also
can manufacture high quality special
types of cement to meet special
requirements.
In 1961, Panalit, a plant for manufac-
ture of asbestos cement, was started.
It produces roofing and ceiling materials
and ornamental structural divisions.
A new kiln placed in operation late
(See p. 15)


Calcified stone is graded with the help of a crane, which deposits it in separate storage
pits and bins.


Augusto S. Boyd
President, Board of Directors
Cemento Panama













1J


I..3%



Spraying or aeration of the water removes most of the tastes and odors from dissolved
gases, replacing them with oxygen, eliminating the flat taste.


PURE




WATER




For




YOU


After alum is mixed with the water, it passes through these settling basins. Color, turbidity,
bacteria, and other impurities attach themselves to the sticky, gelatinous particles formed
by the alum. Most of these particles settle to the bottom of the tanks.

The 20 filter beds shown here are the final mechanical step in purification of the water,
removing the last of the foreign matter and discharging pure water into a well beneath
the plant.


Purified water is pumped to reservoirs such as those at right in the picture above. Part of
Panama City is visible at left. There are 14 reservoir sites on the Pacific side. Three of these
sites having seven reservoirs are the source of water for Panama City. Republic of Panama
consumers now take 74 percent of the Canal Zone purified water production.


"IS THE DRINKING water safe?"
This is one of the questions asked most
frequently by first-time visitors to the
Isthmus.
"Of course it's safe," is the invariable
reply. "You may drink the water in the
Canal Zone and neighboring Panama
City and Colon without fear."
Casualness of the reply-and the fact
that the same reply can't be given in
many countries-emphasizes one of the
tremendous benefits to Panama from
the Canal Zone and the Panama Canal.
The water purification plants and
distribution systems installed at each
end of the Canal by the United States
at the start of its 1904 construction
effort are responsible for one of the
finest, safest water systems in this part
of the hemisphere.
The benefits are enjoyed not only by
the Canal Zone community, but also by
residents in the Republic's two biggest



At left,
Henry Tooke,
Miraflores water
plant superintendent,
checks one of the
gages which
regulates the rate of
introduction of
alum into the
water. Identical
equipment is used
to regulate the flow
of fluoride, added
to all water leaving
the plant, which
reduces dental
decay in children's
teeth.


cities, Panama and Colon, and their
suburbs.
The water distribution system has im-
proved health, immeasurably strength-
ened fire defenses, and brought many
other benefits to the Isthmus, including
elimination of such tropical banes as
,vater-borne typhoid, cholera, and
dysentery.
In the lifetimes of many who read
this, water had to be stored in cisterns
in Panama City and Colon. Often it
had to be brought from some distance
and purchased, because of scarcity of
good wells and springs, especially
during the dry season.
The United States spent $10,600,000
during Canal construction days to
install a then modern water system
designed to take care of foreseeable
future needs. At the time, Panama City
had a population estimated at 18,000,
and Colon's was 5,000. Today, the


) (CL I C lION
(LttEC 1 'N







Robert Malone, water system control man,
with a model of the sand filter beds. Water
enters from the settling basins on the top
of a 30-inchb layer of graded Cbame sand,
which is supported by graded rock. Any
remaining impurities are strained out as
the water passes through the sand.


At right,
Arcadio Matamoros,
laboratory
attendant, prepares
samples for tests
of the water. Tests
are made as the
water enters
the plant, as it passes
through the
treatment processes,
and on samples
taken frnm
various points in
the distribution
system. Chemical,
physical.
and bacteriological
tests are made.


I I -


-i


jil l,/;i






An aerial view of the
Miraflores water plant.
The aeration spray is
visible at right, the set-
tling basins are the center
pools, and filter beds are
in the building at left.

-r ^







population of burgeoning Panama and
its environs is above 300,000, and that
of Colon and its suburbs is in the
neighborhood of 70,000.
Naturally, the original distribution
system did not prove adequate to serve
modern Panama City. The Canal has
improved and expanded the system
within the Zone at considerable expense,
solely to meet Panama City's soaring
needs, which have tripled in the past
20 years.
In recent years, the Panama Canal
organization has spent more than $1
million on major projects primarily to
provide for Panama's increased con-
sumption of purified water. A major
project was $700,000 in 1962 for a
30-inch water main from the Mira-
flores filtration plant to the Los Rios
pump station to meet the increasing
demand of Panama City and its
suburbs.
Other recent major expenditures for
the benefit of Panama include $200,000
for a 16-inch line from the Engineer's
Hill reservoir to the Panama boundary.
A pump station also was added at Los
Rios and a 16-inch line extended from
Ancon high service reservoir to the
Frangipani Street border crossing.
Another $72,000 was spent to increase
facilities at the Miraflores purification
plant.
At the request of the Panama Govern-
ment, the Canal organization early this


year let the contract for laying 14,000
feet of 12-inch pipe to deliver fresh,
purified water to the now small Atlantic-
side communities of Cativa, Puerto
Pil6n, Sabanitas, and Villa Lomar in
the suburban area of Colon Province.
The pipe will carry as much as 1/
million gallons of purified water daily
from the Mount Hope purification plant
and pumped at 130 pounds pressure
to a point on the border designated by
Panama. Low bidder on the project
was a Panama contractor, High &
Weatherly, with the firm to be paid
$110,658 to lay the pipe.
Total capital investment in the Canal
water system, including facilities solely
for Panama consumption, will amount
to $15 million with completion of work
under contract. This does not include
any part of the cost of Gatun Dam
which assists by conveniently forming
a large reservoir from which the raw
water can be drawn.
Present capacity of the Miraflores
plant for delivering purified water is
36 million gallons daily. The Mount
Hope plant's capacity is 15 million
gallons daily.
In February this yjer.., -; niIllhIon
Alliance for Progress lo.in to t\prnd
Panama City's water Lailitin .'.'v.
formalized between Pr-sidcn.t roloito
F. Chiari and U.S. Amb.asi.sor loicph
Farland. At the timc of dih formal
signing of the doc-incnts it .is


A 30-inch main to meet increasing demands of Panama City and
its suburbs.

-V r^!!
7 I'M~ C~


announced that expansion of the system
is to be completed in 1967.
A few figures illustrate the increase
in Panama's use of water purified in
the Canal Zone: In 1934, 34 percent
of the water production went to the
Republic. In 1952 the proportion was
50-50, and in 1962 Panama took 72
percent of the water. For the first
9 months of the 1963 fiscal year, the
figure was 74 percent.
In terms of gallons, Panama City
used 2,433 million gallons in 1942,
4,337 million in 1952, and 7,367 million
in 1962.
Water from the Miraflores purifica-
tion plant on the Pacific side is pumped
to Panama City via seven reservoirs at
three sites-Chorrillo Hill, Ancon High
Service, and Engineer's Hill. Colon's
water is purified at the Mount Hope
filtration plant and pumped through the
Mount Hope reservoir.
To operate the complex water purifi-
cation and distribution system, the
Panama Canal organization employed
110 persons last year. Cost of operating
the water system includes salaries,
chemicals, laboratory analysis, opera-
tioni an.d maintr i;n ne ol piirifi.ation
plants, pinni]piung sLt tillus., pipt iinns.
int.Aki,, and rcser\Oirs
lchihnr .ill\%. Panarni.i p.is nothing
fo, th h i..i" v atr from tlhe Chiiagrrl
Th, c(harg. to tohe RFlpuibl. is for purif.-
i S 1.5'


Bet" een 3.S(( and 5.500 pounds of alum are required dailh Lump
alum in these .acks is dissolved in concrete lanls and put into the
afterr as a liquid solution.









In Education:









BRIDGING




A GAP


Busy fingers fly as Sheltered Workshop group works on a variety of projects.


CALABASH AND woven twine hand-
bags, drawn burlap barbecue table-
cloths, block printed Indianhead table
mats, plaster and shell favors or paper-
weights, and clay flower holders,
arranged in the display cases at the
Civil Affairs Building, Ancon, last
month attracted visitors' immediate
attention.
Nearly everyone stopped for a
closer look at the handicrafts, which
were labelled "Products of Sheltered
Workshop of the Canal Zone Special
Education Program."
In June the Sheltered Workshop,
under the Canal Zone Special Educa-
tion Program, will complete its fouth
year of occupational therapy service
for young people who have reached
their capacity of academic under-
standing in the Canal Zone Special
Education Program. Graduated to the
Sheltered Workshop, they are taught
manual skills and occupational work
habits so they may be better equipped
to bridge the gap between formal
schooling and simple jobs.
The occupational therapy teacher is
Mrs. Jean A. Karch of the Canal Zone
Division of Schools and her "Sheltered
Workshop" is part of the Canal Zone
schools' special education program.


Approximately 192 children this year
received instruction under the special
education program for the orthope-
dically and mentally handicapped. Ages
of pupils range from 6 to 21 years.
This past year, four afternoons a
week, five girls have participated in the
"Sheltered Workshop" program, meet-
ing for instruction at the old Diablo
Post Office building where this work-
shop, the only one of its kind on the
Isthmus, is located. Two of the girls
are charter students, members of the
first class taught in the "Sheltered
Workshop."
Seated at a long table, the girls are
each engaged in a separate project. One
may be embroidering a dish towel,
another doing drawn work on a table-
cloth, others working on melted crayon
drawings, or with raffia-type materials.
Native materials are used as much
as possible. For instance, Panama cala-
bashes, supplied by the father of one
of the pupils from a finca in the interior
of Panama, are the base of unusual
handbags turned out by the class.
The calabash handbag's construction
is as unusual as the material used. First,
part of the calabash is removed, then
holes are drilled and woven hemp
attached.


Clay and Panama polished stones
are turned into pendants by the girls,
and plaster is combined with seashells
for favors, paperweights, and candle
holders.
The girls used a Thatcher Ferry
Bridge motif for some of their block
printed materials. Lowly burlap was
transformed by drawn-work into an
attractive barbecue cloth, and plain
dish towels were perked up with color-
ful embroidery, as fingers were trained
to increased skill.
The Sheltered Workshop is self-
sustaining through the sale of the
workers' products. This year's sale was
held at the Fort Clayton Elementary
Library Room and was a sell-out, as
it has been in past years. Demand for
Sheltered Workshop articles has ex-
ceeded the supply, right from the start
4 years ago.
Profits from the sales of handicraft
items become commissions to the
workers, according to points for accom-
plishment they have earned during
the year. Profits also are invested in
more materials for projects during the
following school year.
Making change, and budgeting
money, is a weekly drill period for those
attending the Workshop. And the pupils
there are learning skills that will help
them hold jobs and earn in the future.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










50 year c,4go
MORE THAN 99 percent of the entire
quantity of concrete to be placed in
the locks had been laid at the close of
work on May 10, it was announced,
the amount in place being 4,449,373
cubic yards.
At Portobelo on May 14-15, 10.65
inches of rain fell during a 24-hour
period. This 24-hour record had been
exceeded only once during the period
of records. The record rain, also at
Portobelo, was 10.86 inches of rain in
24 hours December 28-29, 1909.
The east end of the dike separating
the ocean channel from the only section
at the Pacific end of the Canal remain-
ing to be dredged was dynamited
May 18. The blast, one of the largest
ever shot off in connection with Canal
work, consisted of 32,750 pounds of
60 percent dynamite, planted in 120
holes, some of them drilled to a depth
of 70 feet.

25 year c4go
TWO SENATORS urged establishment
of a U.S. Government radio station to
counteract broadcasts of propaganda
from Germany and Italy beamed to
Latin America.
Site preparation and foundation work
was started for the new $34,000 Ancon
Sub-Police Station, to be erected at
the junction of Ancon Boulevard and
Portobelo Street.
The U.S. House of Representatives
was reminded by a California legislator
that there had been no denial of charges
that German and Japanese agents were
active in the Canal Zone and Central
and South America.


-ACCIDENT!

FOR

THIS MONTH

AND

THIS YEAR


APRIL

ALL UNITS


CA


YEAR TO DATE 996(36)


10 iear a4go
THE FIRST town organization to be
established for Civil Defense among
the civilian communities in the Canal
Zone was accomplished at a meeting in
the Santa Cruz Clubhouse.
A heavy spilling of water over
Madden Dam was continued for 2 days
to lower the Lake level about 12 feet
to permit some overhaul work on the
drum gates at Madden Dam. The
amount of water released raised Gatun
Lake level more than a foot and brought
a rise in the Chagres River of about
10 feet for some distance below
Madden Dam.
Wind velocity in gusts up to 35 miles
an hour was recorded May 26 when the
Pacific side was struck by a damaging
storm. Small craft were blown from
their moorings or dragging anchor and
Thatcher Ferry service was suspended
for several hours.

One year a4go
A NEW REGULATION becoming
effective carries a fine of not more than
$100 or a sentence of 30 days in jail,
or both, for littering any Zone highway
or street.
A 70-foot steel beam became the con-
necting link joining the two sections of
Thatcher Ferry Bridge when it was
placed in position and bolted into
place temporarily May 16 while tugs
tooted and Canal and bridge workmen
cheered.
The Marine Bureau's two new 53-
foot launches, the U.S. Ray and U.S.
Sailfish, arrived in Cristobal after a
1,100-mile voyage across the open
Caribbean from Fort Lauderdale, Fla.


DAYS
SES CASES ABSENT
'62 '63 '62 '63 '62
208 19 6 203 266
917 67(9) 40 1802(998) 6945
() Locks Overhaul Injuries Included In total.


CANAL HISTORY


JUNE 7, 1963


RETIREMENTS

EMPLOYEES who retired in April are
listed below, with positions, and years
of Canal service:
Wallace C. Bain, Supervisory Merchan-
dise Management Officer, Supply Divi-
sion, Pacific Side; 37 years, 4 months,
2 days.
Fred J. Busch, Conductor Road and Yard,
Railroad Division, Atlantic Side; 19
years, 1 day.
Celestino Cales, Roofer, Maintenance Divi-
sion, Pacific Side; 26 years, 7 months,
29 days.
Mrs. Hamner C. Cook, Assistant Retail
Store Manager, Supply Retail Store
Branch, Pacific Side; 20 years, 13 days.
Theodore A. Daisley, Warehouseman,
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 19 years,
10 months, 25 days.
Faustino de la Lastra, Laborer, Community
Service Division, Pacific Side; 15 years,
7 months, 3 days.
Arcadio Escudero, Gardener, Community
Services Division, Pacific Side; 22 years,
3 months, 27 days.
Mrs. Leonora W. Fearon, Sales Checker,
Supply Division, Atlantic Side; 20 years,
3 months, 24 days.
Edgar H. Freeman, Medical Technician,
Gorgas Hospital; 18 years, 2 months,
1 day.
Archie W. French, Lock Operator (Iron-
worker-Welder), Locks Division, Pacific
Side; 36 years, 6 months.
Reed E. Hopkins, Jr., Firefighter, Fire
Division; 25 years, 3 months, 24 days.
Blabon D. Humphrey, Fire Sergeant, Fire
Division, Atlantic Side; 25 years, 3
months, 29 days.
Rene J. Isidore, Painter, Industrial Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 36 years, 8 months,
18 days.
Ram6n G. Madrigal, Hospital Attendant,
Gorgas Hospital; 20 years, 4 months,
15 days.
Mrs. Amelia Paddy, Maid, Community
Services Division, Atlantic Side; 21
years, 4 months, 2 days.
Wallace W. Priester, Admeasurer, Naviga-
tion Division, Pacific Side; 20 years,
4 months, 20 days.
Salvatore Rinaldo, Contraband Control
Inspector, Customs Division, Atlantic
Side; 26 years, 5 months, 24 days.
Natalio F. Rivas, Laborer (Cleaner), Main-
tenance Division, Pacific Side; 23 years,
19 days.
Cornelius Samuels, Helper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman, Terminals Division, Pacific
Side; 23 years, 1 month, 9 days.
Alejandro Santizo, Helper Lock Operator,
Locks Division, Pacific Side; 23 years,
10 months, 4 days.
David J. Sewell, Chauffeur, Coco Solo
Hospital; 39 years, 5 months, 29 days.
Joseph F. Shea, Engineman (Hoisting and
Portable), Maintenance Division, Pacific
Side; 30 years, 8 months, 11 days.
Harman Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 32 years, 3 months,
7 days.
Jonathan F. Smith, Oiler, Miraflores Locks;
38 years, 6 months, 17 days.
Camilo A. Velez, Helper Electrician, Elec-
trical Division, Pacific Side; 33 years,
11 months, 23 days.








ANNIVERSARIES

(On the basis of total Federal Service)


ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Arthur F. Jones
Mate, Dipper Dredge
Raimundo RBera
Oiler (Flo t)

MARINE B
William A. Kirton
Maintenanceman
F6lix Vilarr
Helper Loc er


OFFICE OF THE
COMPTROLLER
Howard E. Turner
Digital Computer Systems
alyst
lea A. Connor
q o ting Technician
Clinto EGeorge
Acc ng Clerk
SUPP Y AD COMMUNITY
E ICE BUREAU
e Adams
rvisory Storage Officer


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
George W. Coleman
Fire Sergeant
Joe Stabler
Fire Sergeant
Mack B. Hicks
Police Private
Lilybel Kariger
Recreation Specialist (Sports)
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Howard E. Munro
Chief, Power Systems
Dispatcher, Balboa
Substation
Leslie D. Wood
Lead Foreman (Marine
Electrical)
Edward O. Pike
Leverman, Pipeline
Dredge
Alcides Asprilla
Leader Seaman
Ricardo A. GonzAlez
Maintenanceman
Agustin Santana
Seaman
HEALTH BUREAU
Alfred R. Graham
Staff Nurse (Medicine and
Surgery)
Melinda Brown
Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry)
Phoebe De Costa
Nursing Assistant (Medicine
and Surgery)
Toribio Dominguez
Hospital Food Service
Worker
Alfredo W. Vilches
File Clerk
Felicia Worrell
Nursing Assistant (Medicine
and Surgery)
MARINE BUREAU
Gilbert F. Lee
Towing Locomotive Operator
W. W. Richardson
Leader Lock Operator
(Iron-Worker Welder)

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Patricio Blackman
Supervisory Clerk
Thomas A. Brathwaite
Helper Lock Operator
Harold S. Gaskin
Helper Lock Operator
Horace L. Morgan
Helper Lock Operator
Eric G. Weeks
Helper Lock Operator
Rupert Wynter
Helper Lock Operator
C. A. Licorish
Seaman
Angel G. Morales
Oiler
Sidney Morris
Launch Dispatcher
Marcos T. Ord6fiez
faintenanceman d
S ire Cabl


Re a N. I1
ch e tor
E ardW. m
eckhand
ro M. fi6n
La ch Seama

OFFICE OF THE
COMPTROLLER
Iris V. Walters
Card Punch Operator

SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Erwin F. Ramsey
Leader Engineman (Hoisting
and Portable)
Marcos A. Argiielles
Guard
Beryl Elaine Carson
Stock Control Clerk
Walter A. Clarke
Warehouseman


Charles A. Davidson
Cemetery Worker
John Francis
Laborer Cleaner
Jos6 Inez Garcia
Laborer
Doris Goldson
Utility Worker
Florencio G6mez
Laborer
Antonio N. Lewis
Stockman
Feliciano Marin
Utility Worker
Otilia P6rez
Sales Clerk
Angel Manuel Rauda
Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Carmen A. Richards
Sales Clerk
Fitz R. Scantlebury
Lead Foreman (Grounds)
Victor M. Vega
Utility Worker
Violet Williams
Sales Clerk
Priscilla Yard
Sales Clerk
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Frederick J. Wainio
Administrative Services
Officer
Arthur E. Critchlow
Leader Carpenter
Frank Gittens
Helper Carman (Wood
and Steel)
Frederick A. Lawrence
Truck Driver
Leon D. McNally
Helper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman
Granville R. Moore
Automotive Mechanic
Juan F. Romero
Linehandler
Ithran T. Stewart
Cargo Checker
Antonio F. Vivies
Stevedore








PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS


EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between April 5 and May 5 (within-
grade promotions and job reclassifica-
tions are not listed):
PANAMA CANAL INFORMATION
OFFICE
Francisco C. Azcirraga, Canal Zone Guide
to Canal Zone Guide (Interpreter), Canal
Zone Guide Service.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Joseph B. Clemmons, Jr., Administrative
Officer (Assistant to Civil Affairs Direc-
tor) to Administrative Officer, (Assistant
Director, Civil Affairs Bureau).
Frances D. Jones, Clerk-Typist to Clerical
Assistant (Stenography), Police Division.
Rupert E. Ifill, Guard, Industrial Division,
to Distribution Clerk, Substitute, Postal
Division.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Amos R. Swalm, Lead Foreman (Public
Works Road Construction), Maintenance
Division, to Construction Inspector
(General), Contract and Inspection Divi-
sion.
Electrical Division
Henry V. Ross, Inspector (Hospital Medical
Equipment), Gorgas Hospital, to Electri-
cian.
Edostido Andrades, Florencio J. Guerrero,
Maintenanceman to Leader Mainte-
nanceman.
Doroteo Guerrero, Palancaman to Main-
tenanceman.
Dagoberto Illueca, Laborer (Heavy) to
Helper Electrician.
Dredging Division
James B. Bennett, Electrician to Leader
Electrician (Lineman).
Hector Geart, Benjamin Parada, Seaman to
Painter.
Ralph Rowland, Laborer (Heavy) to Clerk.
Cirilo J. Alexander, Messenger to Store-
keeping Clerk.
Andrew A. Burgess, Laborer (Cleaner),
Community Services Division, to Helper
Engineman (Hoisting and Portable).
Maintenance Division
Lloyd S. McConnell, Leader Joiner to
Lead Foreman Joiner.
Richard E. Parker, Automotive Machinist,
Motor Transportation Division, to En-
gineman (Hoisting and Portable).
Eustorio Morales, Oiler to Boiler Tender.
Gilberto Budil, Helper Roofer to Truck
Driver.
Rudolph V. lyrie, Laborer (Heavy to
Helper Refrigeration and Air Condition-
ing Mechanic.
Domingo Gonzalez, Laborer to Field Trac-
tor Operator.
Stephen C. Pirre, Laborer (Heavy) to
Quarryman.
Pablo Lasso, Laborer (Heavy) to Helper
Machinist (Maintenance).


HEALTH BUREAU
Division of Preventive Medicine and
Quarantine
Elizabeth M. Kosan, Staff Nurse (Medicine
and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital, to Public
Health Nurse.
Theophilus C. Omeaire, Carpenter, Main-
tenance Division, to Laborer (Cleaner).
Gorgas Hospital
Jimmy R. Givens, Administrative Services
Assistant, Office of the Director, to
Accountant.
Sara S. Keegan, Accounts Maintenance
Clerk to Voucher Examiner.
Miriam A. Wall, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse
(Pediatrics).
Martha C. Hester, Staff Nurse to Staff
Nurse (Medicine and Surgery).
Isaac O. Edwards, Nursing Assistant (Med-
icine and Surgery) to Nursing Assistant
(Operating Room).
Yolanda Diaz, Clerk-Typist, Division of
Preventive Medicine and Quarantine, to
Clerk.
David L. Matthews, Food Service Worker
to Hospital Food Service Vorker.
Thomas A. Barrett, Vincent H. King,
Clifford Pierre, Gerald N. Mapp, Henry
Johnson, Azariah Brown, James S.
Yard, Walter Sandiford, Henry G.
Weeks, Miaximo Acosta, Reuben R.
Rhaburn, Chauffeur to Medical Aid
(Ambulance).
Coco Solo Hospital
Doris T. Acheson, Staff Nurse (Obstetrics)
to Staff Nurse (Operating Room).
Marcia E. Jones, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse
(Medicine and Surgery).
Ila G. Foster, Sales Clerk, Supply Division,
to Nursing Assistant (Medicine and
Surgery).
Zetta R. Stamp, Seamstress (Production) to
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Sur-
gery).
Alberto J. Howell, Storekeeping Clerk to
Medical Aid.
Jose Norville, Pantryman to Pantry Worker
(Special Diets).
Atanaiildo Henriquez, Lesep L. Barrett,
Hubert E. Yard, Hubert M. James,
Sydney O. White, Chauffeur to Medical
Aid (Ambulance).
MARINE BUREAU
Navigation Division
Keith E. Lippincott, Engineer, Dipper
Dredge, Dredging Division, to Chief
Engineer, Towboat.
Wallace 0. Stendahl, First Assistant Engi-
neer, Pipeline Dredge, Dredging Divi-
sion, to Chief Engineer, Towboat.
Industrial Division
Rodolfo T. Smith, Apprentice (Shipwright)
to Shipwright.
Joseph U. Williams, File Clerk, Dredging
Division, to Guard.
Eniest V. Baptiste, Stock Control Clerk to
Storekeeping Clerk.
Rudolph E. Huggian, Linehandler to
Helper Machinist.
Oliver F. R. Ifil, Carpenter, Maintenance
Division, to Helper Shipwright.
Woodrow L. Gordon, Helper Machinist to
Toolroom Attendant.


Locks Division
William M. Johnson, Eduardo Mufioz,
Nathaniel F. Whitfield, Painter (Main-
tenance) to Painter.
Alfredo Coco, Lawrence D. Duncan,
Helper Lock Operator to Oiler.
Clarence A. Lambert, Linehandler to
Timekeeper.
Antonio Burgos, Adolfo Cruz, Linehandler
to Helper Lock Operator.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Supply Division
Raymond P. Laverty, Jr., Merchandise
Management Officer (Housewares) to
General Supply Officer.
Cleveland Roberts, Storekeeping Clerk to
Restaurant Manager.
Oswald A. Ebanks, Cook to Leader Cook.
Jorge A. Hinds, Sales Checker to Guest
House Clerk.
Arthur B. Boyd, Washman to Leader,
Extractor and Tumblerman.
Valtosal Hudson, Pantryman to Cook.
Theodore NM. Griffiths, Utility Worker to
Pantryman.
Gladstone N. Lewis, Leader Presser (Flat-
work) to Leader Marker and Sorter.
Clibice Boyce, Josephine L. Orville, Emily
NM. Thomas, Presser (Garment) to Presser
(Shirts).
Arturo Aguirre, Laborer (Cleaner) to Laun-
dry Worker (Heavy).
Community Services Division
Gifford Holmes, Clerk to Accounts Main-
tenance Clerk.
Eligio Castillo, Laborer to Grounds Main-
tenance Equipment Operator.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Terminals Division
Irvin E. Krapfl, Lead Foreman (Fuel Oper-
ations) to General Foreman (Fuel Oper-
ations).
Agustin Cedefio, Winchman to Leader
Stevedore (Ship).
Bertram O. Bryce, Linehandler to Steve-
dore.
Jacinto G6mez, Juan Samaniego, Pedro
Solis, Daniel Villanueva, Dock Worker
to Stevedore.
Edward Stewart, Laborer (Cleaner), Sup-
ply Division, to Cargo Marker.
Motor Transportation Division
Eleuterio GAlvez, Truck Driver to Guard.
Clive Ibarra, Service Station Attendant to
Truck Driver.
Carl R. Cumberbatch, Laborer, Supply
Division, to Truck Driver.
OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
Truman H. Hoenke, Supervisory Gen-
eral Engineer (Superintendent, Pacific
Branch), Locks Division.
William A. Van Siclen, Jr., Super-
visory General Engineer (Superinten-
dent, Atlantic Branch), Locks Division.
Harvey E. Beall, Admeasurer, Navigation
Division.
Rex E. Beck, Constable, Magistrate Courts.
Thomas J. Dwyer, Admeasurer, Naviga-
tion Division.

14 JUNE 7, 1963






Promotions and Transfers
(Continued from p. 14)
William S. Hinkle, Geologist (Engineer-
ing), Engineering Division.
Rolanda M. Dahlhoff, Clerk-Typist, Ac-
counting Division.
Marta E. Lavergne, Clerk-Stenographer,
Office of the Director, Engineering and
Construction Bureau.
Silvia Blackwood, Geraldine L. Watson,
Antolino De Leon, Geraldine G. Smoll,
Samuel Moore, Margarito Wilson, James
N. Dawson, Vicencio Quintero, Vin-
cent Gordon, Constantine Braithwaite,
Marion D. Stephens, Olivia M. De Hall,
Gwendolyn L. Hanley, Doris V. Lyons,
Maria T. Louis, Alicia M. Pomare, Fe-
lipa De AlemAn, Verona A. Clarke, El-
frida Patton, Nursing Assistant (Med-
icinc and Surgery).
Oliver L. Bailey, Joseph B. Gordon, John
C. Hoy, Narciso Olayvar, Filer Clerk,
Office of General Manager, Supply
Division.



Isthmus Industry
(Continued from p. 7)
last year is expected to double present
production capacity. One of the largest
ever installed in Central America and
Panama, it is 400 feet long and 11 feet
in diameter-large enough to hold more
than 200 automobiles.
The new kiln, with the two others
previously in operation, can jointly
supply all of Panama's cement require-
ments for the next 20 years, on the basis
of projected expansion of demand.
The most recent venture of Cemento
PanamA is its Fibrolit plant, which
manufactures pressed cement and wood
fiber planks and blocks for use in inte-
rior and exterior walls. It also can be
used as acoustic material and for roof
sheathing. Known in the international
market as fiberdyne, it costs less than
cement blocks, lumber, and other types
of construction materials.
For the first time in Panama,
Cemento PanamA will distribute 10 per-
cent of its profits among all its workers.
This gives every worker a direct stake
in the company's successful operation.
Employment now averages 274 versus
only 100 in 1950. And the employees
have nearly 1,600 dependents.
At Christmas, the firm has an annual
Christmas party for all employees and
their families. More than 1,500 workers
and their families, including company
executives and technicians, attended
the last one. Presents such as television
sets, stoves, bicycles, sewing machines,
and other gifts were distributed.
Cemento PanamA also provides
schools, churches, playing fields, and
similar community benefits for its em-
ployees, and offers annual scholarships
to outstanding students.


Pure Water
(Continued from p. 10)
cation, storage, and delivery. The rate
is calculated to cover these costs and
is below that charged United States
agencies on the Canal Zone and well
below rates charged for similar services
in the States.
When the United States turned the
water and sewer facilities it had con-
structed in Colon and Panama City over
to the Panamanian Government in
1946, the transfer agreement governed
the fixing of rates until 1954. Under the
1954 agreement, it was agreed that the
Panama Canal would charge Panama
only 8.7 cents for each 100 cubic feet
of purified water delivered to Panama
City and only 8.3 cents for that
delivered to Colon, regardless of the
price charged ultimate consumers by
Panama. A hundred cubic feet is 750
gallons.
In 1956, to cover the increased cost
for water delivered to Panama City's
expanding suburbs, the charge was
increased 2 mills to 8.9 cents per 100
cubic feet for the suburbs only.
Under a directive of President
Eisenhower in 1960, a new rate struc-
ture resulted in a flat 7.5 cents per
100 cubic feet for the first 100,000 units
of 100 cubic feet and 7 cents per unit
of 100 cubic feet for all water furnished
over 100,000 units each month. This
rate applies to Colon, Panama City, and
suburbs. It was accepted by the Pan-
amanian Government in an exchange of
notes for period starting July 1, 1960.
Panama in turn, through IDAAN
(National Water and Sewage Admin-
istration), sells the water to consumers
at a rate fixed by IDAAN. (The Panama
Canal charge to IDAAN of 7.5 cents
per 100 cubic feet equals 10 cents per
1,000 gallons; 7 cents per 100 cubic
feet equals 9.3 cents per 1,000 gallons.)
The pure water from the Canal Zone
treatment plants also is very soft, having
a hardness index only about half that
of the softened water in many cities in
the States which have municipal
softening plants.
Consequently, consumers here bene-
fit from major savings in soap, don't
have the expense of home softening
equipment, or problems of deposits on
the insides of pipes and boilers. There's
also less abrasive action on clothes, since
fibers are freer of insoluble and gummy
compounds such as are left by washing
with hard water, and the fibers stay
clean longer.
Another quality of the water can't
be measured in any way except the
"homing" instincts of thousands who
have tasted the water of the Chagres:
"He who drinks it always returns."


Edwin M. Martin


New Director

NEWLY-APPOINTED to the Board of
Directors of the Panama Canal, Edwin
M. Martin, Assistant Secretary of State
for Inter-American Affairs, will attend
his first meeting as a member of the
board in July.
With the State Department since
1945, Mr. Martin was a representative
to the August 1961 meeting of the
Inter-American Economic and Social
Council at Punta del Este, Uruguay,
and with the U.S. delegation to the
Inter-American Bank meeting in Brazil,
serving as Assistant Secretary of State
for Economic Affairs during this time.
Mr. Martin entered Government
service in 1935, first with the Central
Statistical Board, later with the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, War Production
Board, and Office of Strategic Services.
With the Department of State, he
was Chief of the Division of Japanese
and Korean Economic Affairs and then
had economic, trade policy and mutual
security post assignments, followed by
work with the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization and European Regional
Organizations as deputy chief of the
U.S. Mission.
He was the Secretary of State's prin-
cipal adviser and coordinator for the
U.S. delegation at the meeting of the
joint United States-Japan Committee on
Trade and Economic Affairs at Hakone,
Japan, late in 1961.
A native of Dayton, Ohio, Mr. Martin
received his bachelor of arts degree
from Northwestern University and did
graduate work there in political science.
His legal residence is Piqua, Ohio. His
wife is the former Margaret Milburn
of Baltimore. They have a daughter,
Mrs. Pedro A. Sanjuan, and a son,
Edwin M., Jr.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









SH


PPI


New Name, Same Game
AN OLD Panama Canal customer is
running through the Panama Canal
these days in disguise. She is the bulk
rice carrier SS Sello Rojo, which started
service between the U.S. west coast and
Puerto Rico a few years ago as the
Marine Rice Queen. The 10,500 dead-
weight ton liberty ship was sold recently
by the Marine Transport Lines to the
Bulk Food Carriers, Inc., of Delaware
and renamed.
The ship is continuing to carry bulk
rice for the California Rice Growers
Association with Wilford McKay as
agents at the Canal. The sale price is
reported at $1 million. The ship is
capable of unloading 650 tons of bulk
rice an hour and of making a turn-
around voyage between Stockton and
Puerto Rico every 40 days.

Two Launches Built
THE MANTA and the Mola (below)
are two 50-foot passenger launches of
wooden construction which were built
entirely at the Gamboa Launch Repair
Facility Shed by Industrial Division
forces. Work on them began from
scratch last March and the final trials
after the engines were installed were
held early in May.
The formal transfer and acceptance
by the Navigation Division took place
in Gamboa in the presence of Marine
Division officials with Capt. Eli D. Ring
taking acceptance of the Manta for
Balboa and Capt. Ernest B. Rainier
taking the Alola for Cristobal.
Before the two launches left for their
respective home ports, the men who
built them were given a complimentary
cruise on Gatun Lake. For most of
them, it was the first time that they had
ridden aboard the sleek new craft since
they had been put into actual operation.


TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN APRIL


Commercial...
U.S. Govemmer r
Free.........
Total...
TOLLS
Commercial... $ .76.315
U.S. Government '493.315
Total... $1.%61.630
C\RCO*"
Commercial... 5.37'-.025
U.S. Covemmeni 75.511
Free.......... 23.562
Total... 5.4s1.125


I .i%
4 2


,4701


-4:63.'5 35
102.910
$50661 45

6.103.611
11S.7S}
16.(3'9-
6.26S.49l3


*Includes tolls on all %-;-:Ik .-.r.. e ,n.- i nll
-Cargo figures are I:ni :r.



4 .
\ i l
|





Italian Line's New Ships
BEGINNING this month. th,: Italian
Line is replacing the 1 .ti00-t.in Ital\
to South Amcrica passenger ':-sscls
Marco Polo, .Amigrr \'ci,,icv.i. aild
Antoniotto Uscdwniarc i th tihe I'3.000-
ton sisterships D.rni:t:o. \'ar,. and
Rossini. The D.oiiicrtti \. ill op:n th,:
new service whi,:n she sadils frn. G:noa
June 10. She \.ill arril. in Cwis-
tobal June 26 aft'r nmakinrg callss at
Naples, Cannes. Barce:lona. Tncnrtlc.
La Guaira, Curato.i. and CartaeLi,.I.
Following her transit throirilh rhl
Canal, the ship ''.ill c to Buena'' : ntura.
Guayaquil, Callai, Ariac. Antof.iac.ta.
and Valparaiso Folliim ing thii D...r,:i


in this s'r' t, ill b,- thi: \'_erdi in jiil\
anid ihi riisl i i n Dec-(:mbr.
The i thr'e: ships. fiirmn,:rl\ on the
Ital\ to A',stralia route for Llo\d Tries-
tino. ha.,: been refittl:,I to offr niore
cortfortablc staterooms and public
rooms iand arc c:omplret,:l air condi-
tiion:l- The:\ hat\,: accomm.lodatjon for
16S pass,'ng'rs in firsl i:l.ss .nnd -146
in itoursis class
Final trips through th,: C.inal \.~ire
inadi: in Ma\ b\ th,- Ant.nii,,tt.i Us.idi-
miarn and i:arh i-m Jun.: b\ th.: Mtari.,
rP.I'.. Th .: .Ami'rlr ..'. \'ri ci.'icl \.l11 cI ,n-
tilnuL: Ir th.: cr\ ite until No\,cnmb':r

New Japanese Liner
ONE (O THE lancest Japan.:s.: pas-
srncrr lin,:rs built in Japan sine': the
\..ir \.ill arrir\e back at the Canal
Jun,: 1l on the second Il:g of her n,.iid,:n
o\iace- bet\..-ccii Japan and tie ,cast
cost of South ..rncriita The' ship is thie
1MS Sokl'a ,I Mnr. th,: Os'aka Shosen
Kaisha Lin,:'s n':\.'e-t and largI:st pas-
smnec:r ship. which \.as desicn':d to
dlispla\ trad': '\hliits i and is easll\
con'. rted into 1a spa.nioi s pavsseiin:r
lin.:r
Illiirr
Or, h,:r nialdcn i ,)\aiC: ,. .hich took
h,:I (hi'.ouih th.: C.inal for th.: First time
on April] 26 th:i ship '\as in th': role
of a paiss,:ne:r ship. \,ithi acconmmd'a-
t'irns for 152 in (abin i. las an.d 500 itI
third class -':(OInOi\ accomnodatior.
Th,: rriodl:irl 12.ilii-totn shit is comn-
plet':l\ air Ironditioneid and h,:r cncincs
iar: loc. d aft
On h hr run froni th- F.ir East. thi:
SaIbro aliari calls at Kobe. lHonolulu.
S.n FrIancis(c i. and LoI- .incelI-s A.ft.:r
loa.inc th,: Carnal. shi goes-s to Cur.ac-ao.
La rCaira. Iio dc .lan,:iro. Saintois. a.id
B':Hi,')S Airls Bo\d Brothris, ag':nts
fo:,. h. ship hvr:. said that shhe .,nid
do.-k at Crislib.il on h11l:r i':tull trip
to J-p.iii, FOLIr ,iith.r O S K. pass'-n',:r-
,:ac o ships .ulso arr in s5r\ it: o',:r
this rolut.i .


: .' &.'5 i -.
J*4 d Z

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Full Text

PAGE 2

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

PAGE 3

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1311pana

PAGE 7

\ HfeWdft CANA L <\ I \ 4> *&>< 7 ct/ai (//a J\ig,ltt'OfAAJay,

PAGE 8

Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor-President David S. Parker. Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer i^£l. Official Panama Canal Publication Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z. Joseph Connor, Press Officer Publications Editors Robert D. Kerr and Julio E. Briceno Editorial Assistants Eunice Richard, ToBiBnrEL.and TomasA. Cupas Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees. Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each. Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights. C.Z. Index . cAnd a JSew J^pok ON OUR COVER is a view looking south along a section of the original right-of-way of the Panama Railroad on the west bank of the Canal, with a sketch of a locomotive of those days as it would have looked "coming 'round the bend." In right foreground of the picture are two 44-cubic-yard scrapers on approach to a spoil area in the latest project area for widening of the Canal channel from 300 to 500 feet. Above is the same view 4 weeks later, by which time the contractor, Moretti-Harrison, had leveled the hilly jungle terrain to the left, removing 607,682 cubic yards of earth and rock. Trees in both pictures identify the area as the same. And note the ship transiting at left in the above picture. A dozen years before the French Canal Company had started operations on the Isthmus (in 1879), the Panama Railroad already had carried more than 400,000 passengers and transported some $750 million in coin and 300,000 sacks of mail. Man of Destiny 3 "EI Americano"— Bullfighter 5 Isthmus Industry 6 Pure Water for You 8 Filling a Gap in Education 11 Canal History, Retirements 12 Anniversaries 13 Promotions and Transfers 14 New Director 15 Shipping 16 EFFECTIVE with this issue, The Panama Canal. Review is being made available to all employees without charge. The step is being taken to help keep all employees informed on Canal programs, projects, and procedures which affect the employees. Believing that better understanding today makes for a better future tomorrow, the Canal administration thinks all employees should take advantage of this opportunity to improve their knowledge of the objectives, goals, and activities of the organization and other Canal employees. The policy of providing retirees with a year's free subscription upon retirement will be continued, as will the policy of subscriptions being available to nonemployees of the Canal organization at $1 per year. Happy reading! June 7, 1963

PAGE 9

HE LIBERATED lands which now are nations of more than 40 million people and more than 2 million square miles. His dreams for a federation of nations never materialized, but through the political ferment of more than a century has evolved a Pan-American unity of approach to common problems possibly more lastingly effective. Differences in heritage, geography, topography, and development background might have proven fatal to a federation. He, of course, is Simon Bolivar. In his honor and in tribute to his memory, June 22 is observed as Bolivarian Day. It was on that day in 1826 that the first Pan-American Congress, called together by "The Liberator," met in Panama. The historic meeting of American Presidents held in Panama City in 1956 probablv had its precedent in the Panama Congress of 1826. On the earlier memorable occasion, the young nations of the Western Hemisphere met for the first time to deliberate on matters of common and vital interest. In 1956, when the Presidents' meeting brought to the Isthmus 19 heads of American States, inter-American relationships were established whose full values still remain to be appraised from the perspective of history. Bolivar liberated the territories now making up Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. He broke the Spanish power in South America and served as ruler of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador and dictator of Peru— all before his death in 1830 at the age of 47. His greatest battles each liberated a country. The course of military campaigns for independence of these lands led his legions over a route of about 3,000 miles. Born to the upper class, Bolivar had only contempt for those who would "Hotv beautiful it would be if the Isthmus of Panama were for us like that of Corinth was to the Greeks. I hope that some day we have the good fortune of holding there an august Congress by representatives of the Republics, Kingdoms, and Empires in order to discuss the interests of peace and war with the nations of the other three parts of the world." (This, from his Letter from Jamaica, in 1815, is the inscription at the base of the Bolivar statue in the plaza in Panama City that bears his name. It is located at Fourth Street and Avenue B, in front of the old San Francisco Church and near the National Theatre.) have made the struggle for independence a path to satisfy personal greed. Greatly impressed by the writings of Rousseau and Voltaire, he was an eloquent spokesman for individual liberty, an unyielding foe of slavery and oppression. He freed his own slaves and made freeing of all slaves a basic point of the liberation ideals. He shared an attitude that was the most powerful was to alienate some of them from him and sow the seeds of disunion already clearly apparent by the time of his death. A poet, soldier, and statesman, Bolivar was a warrior, rather than a strategist. It was not until after 1817, when he began to emulate Napoleon, that a vhe Jljiberator yy regenerative force of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Bolivar felt sincerely that any "elite" should be so only on the basis of merit, and had no interest, despite his patrician background, in perpetuating privileges not based on or earned by merit. This, along with his efforts to prevent the nations' leaders from profiting personally from the independence struggle, battles he directed showed any substantial signs of following studied plans of attack. Meanwhile, however, to the dismay of his foes, he proved himself a master of improvising. In the battles for liberation, there was a strange paradox. Spain, by giving aid to the revolt against England in North America, had presented to its overseas colonial subjects in South America the spectacle of aiding revolt of foreign colonies. The United States had won its independence in 1783. Once called a "powder keg" by a tutor, in his youth, Bolivar is said to have retorted, "Be careful, don't come near me. I might explode." When he did explode, as leader of the liberation, 3 centuries of Spanish rule were ended. Bolivar himself declared his heart was "moulded for liberty and justice." Destiny played a part, however, by putting a man such as he in the right place at the right time, and by taking his wife from him by death. There has been speculation that if he had not suffered this early loss, his tempestuous strengths might have been calmed into a quiet life concentrated on home, wife, and family. In the coronation of Napoleon, Bolivar had visions of authoritarian rule for himself, directed first of all at unification, although dreams of personal fame could not help but play a subordinate role. Once respected and admired by Bolivar, in later years Napoleon was to become to him a "dishonest tyrant." In Rome, in 1805, surrounded by reminders of mythical and historic heroes, great men who made Rome great, Bolivar took a solemn vow on Monte Sacro that he would liberate his country. Wars for the liberation were to span 14 years and include setbacks with which military or political astuteness could not cope. A severe earthquake in The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 10

1812, 2 years after the patriots had overthrown the Spanish regime in Venezuela, was regarded by many of the superstitious as a judgment of God against the First Republic. It was exploited in favor of the Spanish cause and marked the start of the physical and moral collapse of the Republic. Bolivar's real greatness in his early years lay in the fact that each defeat— and there were many— found him ready to re-examine his ideas, confess mistakes, and begin the hazardous course all over again. He had personal magnetism evident in his pen as well as in his spoken words, to such an extent that he was a liberator of thoughts and ideas as well as of nations. His leadership qualities for many years kept top officers and troops faithful in spite of understandable distaste for more battles on searing coastal plains, in the humid jungle heat of river valleys, and on the crests of the towering Andes. Bolivar sought not only to liberate, but to instill in the masses a national conscience and consciousness. He wished for power and glory to serve the ideals to which he had dedicated his life. In his striving toward these goals, in his early years at war, he was a gambler while learning strategy, lurching into headlong sallies rather than "military" campaign moves. The fact that there were no static fronts often was his salvation in his gambles. The fire of his personality pierced indifferences of those who were his associates and several times brought him back from exile (at least once self-exile) because he couldn't stand inactivity. Bolivar viewed unity as necessary to stability of liberty, and was convinced republics could not exist side by side with states which were the colonial possessions of monarchies. This was one conviction which led to his certainty that there must be a federation of freed nations. A continent, not a country, was the field of his thinking, his visions, his leadership. One historian observed, "In 1815, while (South) America was still under Spanish domination, Bolivar was not only prophesying the immediate conflicts, but he envisioned a century's development of 10 nations." In attempting to lure the British to support the patriots' campaigns, he had proposed that Britain should get the provinces of Panama and Nicaragua— and then build canals connecting the Atlantic and Pacific. As early as 1819, rivalries between Venezuela and New Granada, trifling in nature at the time, pointed to future danger zones. As distrustful of the "gentle philosophers of Colombia" as of the wildest of his fighters, Bolivar declared they wanted to create republics like the Greek, the Roman, or the North American (all with different backgrounds), and asserted that they "build a Greek structure on a Gothic foundation, and they build it at the edge of a volcano." Bolivar early chose Panama as the haven for South American federation, and events came to the aid of the patriots. On November 28, 1821, a representative council met, declared The memorial medallion issued for the historic meeting of 19 heads of American nations in Panama in 1956. Panama independent, and stated its desire to unite with Colombia. The Republic of Colombia thus gained an eighth department, and a strategic one, without force of arms. In later years, petty rivalries among subordinate leaders, and betrayals by them because of their greed for power or gain, led to virtual anarchy. Flat disobedience by some left Bolivar and his forces isolated many times. In spite of these and other trials, however, he hoisted the "flag of resurrection, not insurrection," and if some of his judgments and decisions of later years were subject to criticism, his goal was not. Genius that he was, he was not without human and humanizing frailties. Some were to work against his stature and aims, but it would have been miraculous, torn as he was between divided loyalties, conflicting courses of action, and discouragements over uprisings, if he always had been above reproach. At Potosi, in what was to become Bolivia, he declared: "In 15 years of continuous and terrific strife, we have destroyed the edifice that tyranny erected during 3 centuries of usurpation and uninterrupted violence," and he said of the rich silver veins which were Spain's treasury for 300 years, "this material wealth is as nothing compared with bearing the ensign of freedom . ." His eloquence veiled only thinly a dual purpose: manifestation of the unity of the people for its effect on South America as well as on the outside world. Bolivar sought voluntary union, rather than the type imposed by the Holy Alliance in Europe on small and defenseless nations. The Congress of Panama was a failure, admittedly, because it did not achieve its main objective of a union of nations. Its importance lay in the fact that it was conceived well over a century ago and that there was a definite attempt. Barriers of geography, race, and national prejudices separated the new states. The transition from dependent colonies could not be made as rapidly as Bolivar hoped. In the face of internal troubles, in a proclamation to the people of Guayaquil urging them to remain loyal to Greater Colombia, he urged, "You are not the ones responsible. The people can never be responsible. The pernicious and erroneous ideas come from the leaders; it is they who bring about the public calamities." In a moment of despair, Bolivar pleaded, "I am not God that I can change men and matters," and later, "The influence of civilization gives our people indigestion, so that what should nourish us, ruins us." Public opinion at times interpreted Bolivar's leniency with conspirators as weakness. It could, with at least equal validity, be interpreted as sacrificing a desire for revenge and to be rid of enemies to the greater goal of preserving the Colombian Republic, which was threatened with disintegration. To the day of his untimely death, hastened by the hardships and sacrifices of warfare over many years, and repeated forced compromises between vision and practicality, Simon Bolivar bore the marks of destiny in lands of destiny. June 7, 1963

PAGE 11

>%*v *** I m M Robert Lopez, "El Americano," was awarded an ear when he appeared in a bullfight in Mexico. a El Americano 1 1 "OLE!" shouted with spirit may never reverberate from the staid Balboa Post Office walls. Nor may a bull ever come charging through the doors. But an honest-to-goodness bullfighter DOES work there. The bullfighter is Canal Zone-born Robert Lopez, known in bullfight circles as "El Americano." He also is known as "el novillero norteamericano," which means that while he is recognized as a professional bullfighter, he is not yet a full matador. The matador title comes when a novillero has built up his name. Robert Lopez is a second generation Panama Canal employee, his father being a former Motor Transportation Division employee, now retired. Robert is a graduate of Balboa High School, class of 1956, and spent 4 years in the Air Force. He started taking bullfighting lessons while a sophomore, and continued through his junior and senior years. Every day, after school, he'd go to the Macarena bullfight ring in Panama City for a bullfighting lesson from a Spanish gypsy, Gitanillo Salomon Vargas. First he had to learn all the passes. Then came the beginning of actual work with small bull calves. A high point in his career came last April, when he appeared in a Mexican bullfight ring and was awarded an ear. He has appeared in bullfights in the interior of Panama this year, first in Anton in January, and then in Ocii in February. In an encounter with a bull at the Ocii Fair he was gored. Six stitches were required to close the wound. But a mere goring didn't deter Robert, the Canal Zone bullfighter. He The Panama Canal Review 5 "El Natural"— the bullfighter passes the red cloth in front of the bull. The cloth is hung from a heavy stick. In his right hand, the bullfighter holds a weighty sword. spent March and April in Mexico, where he scored a triumph at Jungapeo, and then toured the Provinces, where five fights were scheduled. He received only $20 to $30 a bullfight. Top bullfighters, he said, receive from 80,000 to 100,000 pesos which, at 12.50 to the dollar, is a goodly amount, but not yet a princely sum considering the risk to the man involved. As in most fields, competition in Mexico is keen. Right now, in Mexico City, he says there are about 1,000 bullfighters. Aside from the danger— and he He Takes Turns pointed out that a fighting bull is faster than a race horse for the first 100-feet and more maneuverable than a polo pony— there are expenses involved. Topping all others is the cost of the bullfighter's outfit, heavily hand emboidered with gold and silver threads. The price starts at $300 and goes up. Robert purchased his second-hand, but in good shape, for one-third that price. He explained traditional phases of a bullfight, starting with the cape work or veronicas— the passing of the cape in front of the bull's body. Then comes the work of the picador, who places the lances designed to release the strength in the bull's neck muscles. The banderillas can be placed by the matador himself, or his assistants. Robert prefers not to do this. Then comes the fina de muleta, with the bullfighter using a red cloth suspended from a heavy stick to fight and tire the bull until it is ready for the kill. Legs in good shape, fast reflexes, and strong arms and legs are requisites for a bullfighter. "Scared?" "Certainly. Manolete admitted he was scared, and now bullfighters aren't afraid to admit the truth," he says. Bullfighters belong to a union, too. His is La Union de Matadores y Novilleros. In fact, says Robert Lopez, everyone connected with the bullfight ring in Mexico belongs to some union or other. He hopes to be able to appear in the Panama City bullfight ring, and in the meantime continues practicing. In Bull Ring Another view of "El Natural" as the bull swings into action.

PAGE 12

This is the Cemento Panama plant at Quebrancha, about 2V 2 miles east of Buena Vista on the Trans-Isthmian Highway. The company has added three kilns (upper left) and several silos (right) where the finished product is stored. The two buildings in the foreground house plants for making Fibrolit and Panalit. Isthmus Industry: cemerno PArmmfi These filters are used to help dry the cement in its pasty stage as it is being processed. They remove humidity to speed up the drying and cooking process of the half-finished product as it goes to the kiln. An example of the clean-lined architecture possible with modern concrete design. Horizontal planes for shade create shadow patterns which change hourly as angles of the sun's rays change, and provide protection from rains without making it necessary to close windows except when winds are high. Porch floors, ceilings and other overhangs serve as sun breakers. ft '.' £ ffii 1111 'Hill }}-'" "" "" "W 111! III T' 14U

PAGE 13

BUILDINGS designed primarily for the tropics and other warm climates have been spreading rapidly in recent years into even the colder areas of the temperate zones with increasing use of concrete for industrial and commercial buildings and homes. Adaptability of concrete, concrete block, and allied products to varied designs, and relatively maintenancefree construction, have been important factors in Cemento Panama becoming one of the Republic's largest suppliers in Panama's biggest industry: construction. The Republic's construction industry dollar volume has totaled approximately $150 million during the past 15 years. Cemento Panama has had a direct and forceful impact on the Republic's economic health, adding more than $34 million to the nation's economy since it came on the industrial scene. The firm was founded July 1, 1943, and the first bags of cement came out of the plant in 1945. Since then it has sold 28 million bags of cement in Panama and exported 6Y2 million. The company's annual payroll now is approximately $750,000. Its beginnings were beset by many problems, not the least of them that of getting enough capital together. This was solved by the late ex-President of the Republic Augusto S. Boyd, whose son, Augusto S. (Sammy) Boyd, now is president of the board of directors of Cemento Panama. Another hurdle for the infant company was obtaining machinery, for in those years of World War II, needs of the far-flung military efforts took top priority. The idea of founding Cemento Panama came from former President of the Republic Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia, who felt that since Panama had the natural resources for manufacAugusto S. Boyd President, Board of Directors Cemento Panama Dramatic domes such as these, and other geometric patterns, are meeting increasing favor for homes, commercial and industrial buildings, with varied exterior designs leading to novel and fresh approaches to interior design and decoration. ture of the pordand type of cement, it should not have to be imported into the country. High quality of the cement produced by the company has been attested by American Standard Testing Materials, the Society of Engineers and Architects, the University of Panama, and the Panama Canal. It regularly has tested well above minimum specifications for various types, and the firm also can manufacture high quality special types of cement to meet special requirements. In 1961, Panalit, a plant for manufacture of asbestos cement, was started. It produces roofing and ceiling materials and ornamental structural divisions. A new kiln placed in operation late (See p. 15) Calcified stone is graded with the help of a crane, which deposits it in separate storage pits and bins.

PAGE 15

mull Spraying or aeration of the water removes most of the tastes and odors from dissolved gases, replacing them with oxygen, eliminating the flat taste. Illlfl PURE heil&fliiadinBE WATER For YOU After alum is mixed with the water, it passes through these settling basins. Color, turbidity, bacteria, and other impurities attach themselves to the sticky, gelatinous particles formed by the alum. Most of these particles settle to the bottom of the tanks. The 20 filter beds shown here are the final mechanical step in purification of the water, removing the last of the foreign matter and discharging pure water into a well beneath the plant. Purified water is pumped to reservoirs such as those at right in the picture above. Part of Panama City is visible at left. There are 14 reservoir sites on the Pacific side. Three of these sites having seven reservoirs are the source of water for Panama City. Republic of Panama consumers now take 74 percent of the Canal Zone purified water production. "IS THE DRINKING water safe?" This is one of the questions asked most frequently by first-time visitors to the Isthmus. "Of course it's safe," is the invariable reply. "You may drink the water in the Canal Zone and neighboring Panama City and Colon without fear." Casualness of the reply— and the fact that the same reply can't be given in many countries— emphasizes one of the tremendous benefits to Panama from the Canal Zone and the Panama Canal. The water purification plants and distribution systems installed at each end of the Canal by the United States at the start of its 1904 construction effort are responsible for one of the finest, safest water systems in this part of the hemisphere. The benefits are enjoyed not only by the Canal Zone community, but also by residents in the Republic's two biggest At left, Henry Tooke, Miraflores water plant superintendent, checks one of the gages which regulates the rate of introduction of alum into the water. Identical equipment is used to regulate the flow of fluoride, added to all water leaving the plant, which reduces dental decay in children's teeth. cities, Panama and Colon, and their suburbs. The water distribution system has improved health, immeasurably strengthened fire defenses, and brought many other benefits to the Isthmus, including elimination of such tropical banes as .vater-borne typhoid, cholera, and dysentery. In the lifetimes of many who read this, water had to be stored in cisterns in Panama City and Colon. Often it had to be brought from some distance and purchased, because of scarcity of good wells and springs, especially during the dry season. The United' States spent $10,600,000 during Canal construction days to install a then modern water system designed to take care of forseeable future needs. At the time, Panama City had a population estimated at 18,000, and Colon's was 5,000. Today, the At right, Arcadio Matamoros, laboratory attendant, prepares samples for tests of the water. Tests are made as the water enters the plant, as it passes through the treatment processes, and on samples taken from various points in the distribution system. Chemical, physical, and bacteriological tests are made. Robert Malone, water system control man, with a model of the sand filter beds. Water enters from the settling basins on the top of a 30-inch layer of graded Chame sand, which is supported by graded rock. Any remaining impurities are strained out as the water passes through the sand.

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An aerial view of the Miraflores water plant. The aeration spray is visible at right, the settling basins are the center pools, and filter beds are in the building at left. population of burgeoning Panama and its environs is above 300,000, and that of Colon and its suburbs is in the neighborhood of 70,000. Naturally, the original distribution system did not prove adequate to serve modern Panama City. The Canal has improved and expanded the system within the Zone at considerable expense, solely to meet Panama City's soaring needs, which have tripled in the past 20 years. In recent years, the Panama Canal organization has spent more than $1 million on major projects primarily to provide for Panama's increased consumption of purified water. A major project was $700,000 in 1962 for a 30-inch water main from the Miraflores filtration plant to the Los Rios pump station to meet the increasing demand of Panama City and its suburbs. Other recent major expenditures for the benefit of Panama include $200,000 for a 16-inch line from the Engineer's Hill reservoir to the Panama boundary. A pump station also was added at Los Rios and a 16-inch line extended from Ancon high service reservoir to the Frangipani Street border crossing. Another $72,000 was spent to increase facilities at the Miraflores purification plant. At the request of the Panama Government, the Canal organization early this year let the contract for laying 14,000 feet of 12-inch pipe to deliver fresh, purified water to the now small Atlanticside communities of Cativa, Puerto Pilon, Sabanitas, and Villa Lomar in the suburban area of Colon Province. The pipe will carry as much as lVi million gallons of purified water daily from the Mount Hope purification plant and pumped at 130 pounds pressure to a point on the border designated by Panama. Low bidder on the project was a Panama contractor, High & Weatherly, with the firm to be paid $110,658 to lay the pipe. Total capital investment in the Canal water system, including facilities solely for Panama consumption, will amount to $15 million with completion of work under contract. This does not include any part of the cost of Gatun Dam which assists by conveniently forming a large reservoir from which the raw water can be drawn. Present capacity of the Miraflores plant for delivering purified water is 36 million gallons dailv. The Mount Hope plant's capacity is 15 million gallons daily. In February this year, a $6 million Alliance for Progress loan to expand Panama City's water facilities was formalized between President Roberto F. Chiari and U.S. Ambassador Joseph Farland. At the time of the formal signing of the documents, it was announced that expansion of the system is to be completed in 1967. A few figures illustrate the increase in Panama's use of water purified in the Canal Zone: In 1934, 34 percent of the water production went to the Republic. In 1952 the proportion was 50-50, and in 1962 Panama took 72 percent of the water. For the first 9 months of the 1963 fiscal year, the figure was 74 percent. In terms of gallons, Panama City used 2,433 million gallons in 1942, 4,337 million in 1952, and 7,367 million in 1962. Water from the Miraflores purification plant on the Pacific side is pumped to Panama City via seven reservoirs at three sites— Chorrillo Hill, Ancon High Service, and Engineer's Hill. Colon's water is purified at the Mount Hope filtration plant and pumped through the Mount Hope reservoir. To operate the complex water purification and distribution system, the Panama Canal organization employed 110 persons last year. Cost of operating the water system includes salaries, chemicals, laboratory analysis, operation and maintenance of purification plants, pumping stations, pipelines, intakes, and reservoirs. Technically, Panama pays nothing for the raw water from the Chagres. The charge to the Republic is for purifi(See p. 15) A 30-inch main to meet increasing demands of Panama City and its suburbs. Between 3,800 and 5,500 pounds of alum are required daily. Lump alum in these sacks is dissolved in concrete tanks and put into the water as a liquid solution. ^J^V

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In Education: BRIDGING A GAP Busy fingers fly as Sheltered Workshop group works on a variety of projects. CALABASH AND woven twine handbags, drawn burlap barbecue tablecloths, block printed Indianhead table mats, plaster and shell favors or paperweights, and clay flower holders, arranged in the display cases at the Civil Affairs Building, Ancon, last month attracted visitors' immediate attention. Nearly everyone stopped for a closer look at the handicrafts, which were labelled "Products of Sheltered Workshop of the Canal Zone Special Education Program." In June the Sheltered Workshop, under the Canal Zone Special Education Program, will complete its fouth year of occupational therapy service for young people who have reached their capacity of academic understanding in the Canal Zone Special Education Program. Graduated to the Sheltered Workshop, they are taught manual skills and occupational work habits so they may be better equipped to bridge the gap between formal schooling and simple jobs. The occupational therapy teacher is Mrs. Jean A. Karch of the Canal Zone Division of Schools and her "Sheltered Workshop" is part of the Canal Zone schools' special education program. Approximately 192 children this year received instruction under the special education program for the orthopedically and mentally handicapped. Ages of pupils range from 6 to 21 years. This past year, four afternoons a week, five girls have participated in the "Sheltered Workshop" program, meeting for instruction at the old Diablo Post Office building where this workshop, the only one of its kind on the Isthmus, is located. Two of the girls are charter students, members of the first class taught in the "Sheltered Workshop." Seated at a long table, the girls are each engaged in a separate project. One may be embroidering a dish towel, another doing drawn work on a tablecloth, others working on melted crayon drawings, or with raffia-type materials. Native materials are used as much as possible. For instance, Panama calabashes, supplied by the father of one of the pupils from a finca in the interior of Panama, are the base of unusual handbags turned out by the class. The calabash handbag's construction is as unusual as the material used. First, part of the calabash is removed, then holes are drilled and woven hemp attached. Clay and Panama polished stones are turned into pendants by the girls, and plaster is combined with seashells for favors, paperweights, and candle holders. The girls used a Thatcher Ferry Bridge motif for some of their block printed materials. Lowly burlap was transformed by drawn-work into an attractive barbecue cloth, and plain dish towels were perked up with colorful embroidery, as fingers were trained to increased skill. The Sheltered Workshop is selfsustaining through the sale of the workers' products. This year's sale was held at the Fort Clayton Elementary Librarv Room and was a sell-out, as it has been in past years. Demand for Sheltered Workshop articles has exceeded the supply, right from the start 4 years ago. Profits from the sales of handicraft items become commissions to the workers, according to points for accomplishment they have earned during the year. Profits also are invested in more materials for projects during the following school year. Making change, and budgeting money, is a weekly drill period for those attending the Workshop. And the pupils there are learning skills that will help them hold jobs and earn in the future. The Panama Canal Review 11

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CANAL HISTORY retirements 50 yearJ cAgo MORE THAN 99 percent of the entire quantity of concrete to be placed in the locks had been laid at the close of work on May 10, it was announced, the amount in place being 4,449,373 cubic yards. At Portobelo on May 14-15, 10.65 inches of rain fell during a 24-hour period. This 24-hour record had been exceeded only once during the period of records. The record rain, also at Portobelo, was 10.86 inches of rain in 24 hours December 28-29, 1909. The east end of the dike separating the ocean channel from the only section at the Pacific end of the Canal remaining to be dredged was dynamited May 18. The blast, one of the largest ever shot off in connection with Canal work, consisted of 32,750 pounds of 60 percent dynamite, planted in 120 holes, some of them drilled to a depth of 70 feet. 25 yearJ c4go TWO SENATORS urged establishment of a U.S. Government radio station to counteract broadcasts of propaganda from Germany and Italy beamed to Latin America. Site preparation and foundation work was started for the new $34,000 Ancon Sub-Police Station, to be erected at the junction of Ancon Boulevard and Portobelo Street. The U.S. House of Representatives was reminded by a California legislator that there had been no denial of charges that German and Japanese agents were active in the Canal Zone and Central and South America. 10 y[eard cAgo i — ACCIDENTSFOR THIS MONTH AND THIS YEAR APRIL ALL UNITS YEAR TO DATE THE FIRST town organization to be established for Civil Defense among the civilian communities in the Canal Zone was accomplished at a meeting in the Santa Cruz Clubhouse. A heavy spilling of water over Madden Dam was continued for 2 days to lower the Lake level about 12 feet to permit some overhaul work on the drum gates at Madden Dam. The amount of water released raised Gatun Lake level more than a foot and brought a rise in the Chagres River of about 10 feet for some distance below Madden Dam. Wind velocity in gusts up to 35 miles an hour was recorded May 26 when the Pacific side was struck by a damaging storm. Small craft were blown from their moorings or dragging anchor and Thatcher Ferry service was suspended for several hours. One year c4g,o A NEW REGULATION becoming effective carries a fine of not more than $100 or a sentence of 30 days in jail, or both, for littering any Zone highway or street. A 70-foot steel beam became the connecting link joining the two sections of Thatcher Ferry Bridge when it was placed in position and bolted into place temporarily May 16 while tugs tooted and Canal and bridge workmen cheered. The Marine Bureau's two new 53foot launches, the U.S. Ray and U.S. Sailfish, arrived in Cristobal after a 1,100-mile voyage across the open Caribbean from Fort Lauderdale, Fla. FIRST AID! CASES •63 '62 225 208 996(36) 917 AulET"k hospital! ^ZONE^

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ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Arthur F. Jones Mate, Dip per Dredge Raimundo R Oiler (Flo; MARINE B William A. Kirton Maintenanceman Felix Villain Helper Loc OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Howard E. Turner Digital Computer Systems alyst leanbtA. Connor ousting Technician Clintrfc EVGeorge Accojin^ng Clerk D COMMUNITY ICE BUREAU ;rt/l. Adams ervisory Storage Officer CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU George W. Coleman Fire Sergeant Joe Stabler Fire Sergeant Mack B. Hicks Police Private Lilybel Kariger Recreation Specialist (Sports) ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Howard E. Munro Chief, Power Systems Dispatcher, Balboa Substation Leslie D. Wood Lead Foreman (Marine Electrical) Edward O. Pike Leverman, Pipeline Dredge Alcides Asprilla Leader Seaman Ricardo A. Gonzalez Maintenanceman Agustin Santana Seaman HEALTH BUREAU Alfred R. Graham Staff Nurse (Medicine and Surgery) Melinda Brown Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry) Phoebe De Costa Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery) Toribio Dominguez Hospital Food Service Worker Alfredo W. Vilches File Clerk Felicia Worrell Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery) MARINE BUREAU Gilbert F. Lee Towing Locomotive Operator W. W. Richardson Leader Lock Operator (Iron-Worker Welder) Patricio Blackman Supervisory Clerk Thomas A. Brathwaite Helper Lock Operator Harold S. Gaskin Helper Lock Operator Horace L. Morgan Helper Lock Operator Eric G. Weekes Helper Lock Operator Rupert Wynter Helper Lock Operator C. A. Licorish Seaman Angel G. Morales Oiler Sidney Morris Launch Dispatcher Marcos T. Ordonez aintenanceman. ire CabL harp* n N ch W khand ro M. ch OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Iris V. Walters Card Punch Operator SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Erwin F. Ramsey Leader Engineman (Hoisting and Portable) Marcos A. Argiielles Guard Beryl Elaine Carson Stock Control Clerk Walter A. Clarke Warehouseman Charles A. Davidson Cemetery Worker John Francis Laborer Cleaner Jose Inez Garcia Laborer Doris Goldson Utility Worker Florencio Gomez Laborer Antonio N. Lewis Stockman Feliciano Marin Utility Worker Otilia Perez Sales Clerk Angel Manuel Rauda Grounds Maintenance Equipment Operator Carmen A. Richards Sales Clerk Fitz R. Scantlebury Lead Foreman (Grounds) Victor M. Vega Utility Worker Violet Williams Sales Clerk Priscilla Yard Sales Clerk TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Frederick J. Wainio Administrative Services Officer Arthur E. Critchlow Leader Carpenter Frank Gittens Helper Carman (Wood and Steel) Frederick A. Lawrence Truck Driver Leon D. McNally Helper Liquid Fuels Wharfman Granville R. Moore Automotive Mechanic Juan F. Romero Linehandler Ithran T. Stewart Cargo Checker Antonio F. Vivies Stevedore The Panama Canal Review 13

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PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred between April 5 and May 5 (withingrade promotions and job reclassifications are not listed) : PANAMA CANAL INFORMATION OFFICE Francisco C. Azcarraga, Canal Zone Guide to Canal Zone Guide (Interpreter), Canal Zone Guide Service. CTVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Joseph B. Clemmons, Jr., Administrative Officer (Assistant to Givil Affairs Director) to Administrative Officer, (Assistant Director, Civil Affairs Bureau). Frances D. Jones, Clerk-Typist to Clerical Assistant (Stenography), Police Division. Rupert E. Ifill, Guard, Industrial Division, to Distribution Clerk, Substitute, Postal Division. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Amos R. Swalm, Lead Foreman (Public Works Road Construction), Maintenance Division, to Construction Inspector (General), Contract and Inspection Division. Electrical Division Henry V. Ross, Inspector (Hospital Medical Equipment), Gorgas Hospital, to Electrician. Edostido Andrades, Florencio J. Guerrero, Maintenanceman to Leader Maintenanceman. Doroteo Guerrero, Palancaman to Maintenanceman. Dagoberto Illueca, Laborer (Heavy) to Helper Electrician. Dredging Division James B. Bennett, Electrician to Leader Electrician (Lineman). Hector Geart, Benjamin Parada, Seaman to Painter. Ralph Rowland, Laborer (Heavy) to Clerk. Cirilo J. Alexander, Messenger to Storekeeping Clerk. Andrew A. Burgess, Laborer (Cleaner), Community Services Division, to Helper Engineman (Hoisting and Portable). Maintenance Division Lloyd S. McConnell, Leader Joiner to Lead Foreman Joiner. Richard E. Parker, Automotive Machinist, Motor Transportation Division, to Engineman (Hoisting and Portable). Eustorio Morales, Oiler to Boiler Tender. Gilberto Budil, Helper Roofer to Truck Driver. Rudolph V. Myrie, Laborer (Heavy to Helper Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic. Domingo Gonzalez, Laborer to Field Tractor Operator. Stephen C. Pirre, Laborer (Heavy) to Quarryman. Pablo Lasso, Laborer (Heavy) to Helper Machinist (Maintenance). HEALTH BUREAU Division of Preventive Medicine and Quarantine Elizabeth M. Kosan, Staff Nurse (Medicine and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital, to Public Health Nurse. Theophilus C. Omeaire, Carpenter, Maintenance Division, to Laborer (Cleaner). Gorgas Hospital Jimmy R. Givens, Administrative Services Assistant, Office of the Director, to Accountant. Sara S. Keegan, Accounts Maintenance Clerk to Voucher Examiner. Miriam A. Wall, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse (Pediatrics). Martha C. Hester, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse (Medicine and Surgery). Isaac O. Edwards, Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery) to Nursing Assistant (Operating Room). Yolanda Diaz, Clerk-Typist, Division of Preventive Medicine and Quarantine, to Clerk. David L. Matthews, Food Service Worker to Hospital Food Service Worker. Thomas A. Barrett, Vincent H. King, Clifford Pierre, Gerald N. Mapp, Henry Johnson, Azariah Brown, James S. Yard. Walter Sandiford, Henry G. Weeks, Maximo Acosta, Reuben R. Rhaburn, Chauffeur to Medical Aid (Ambulance). Coco Solo Hospital Doris T. Acheson, Staff Nurse (Obstetrics) to Staff Nurse (Operating Room). Marcia E. Jones, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse (Medicine and Surgery). Ila G. Foster, Sales Clerk, Supply Division, to Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery). Zetta R. Stamp, Seamstress (Production) to Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery). Alberto J. Howell, Storekeeping Clerk to Medical Aid. Jose Norville, Pantryman to Pantry Worker (Special Diets). Atanajildo Henriquez, Lesep L. Barrett, Hubert E. Yard, Hubert M. James, Sydney O. White, Chauffeur to Medical Aid (Ambulance). MARINE BUREAU Navigation Division Keith E. Lippincott, Engineer, Dipper Dredge, Dredging Division, to Chief Engineer, Towboat. Wallace O. Stendahl, First Assistant Engineer, Pipeline Dredge, Dredging Division, to Chief Engineer, Towboat. Industrial Division Rodolfo T. Smith, Apprentice (Shipwright) to Shipwright. Joseph U. Williams, File Clerk, Dredging Division, to Guard. Ernest V. Baptiste, Stock Control Clerk to Storekeeping Clerk. Rudolph E. Huggian, Linehandler to Helper Machinist. Oliver F. R. Ifil, Carpenter, Maintenance Division, to Helper Shipwright. Woodrow L. Gordon, Helper Machinist to Toolroom Attendant. Locks Division William M. Johnson, Eduardo Mufioz, Nathaniel F. Whitfield, Painter (Maintenance) to Painter. Alfredo Coco, Lawrence D. Duncan, Helper Lock Operator to Oiler. Clarence A. Lambert, Linehandler to Timekeeper. Antonio Burgos, Adolfo Cruz, Linehandler to Helper Lock Operator. SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Supply Division Raymond P. Laverty, Jr., Merchandise Management Officer (Housewares) to General Supply Officer. Cleveland Roberts, Storekeeping Clerk to Restaurant Manager. Oswald A. Ebanks, Cook to Leader Cook. Jorge A. Hinds, Sales Checker to Guest House Clerk. Arthur B. Boyd, Washman to Leader, Extractor and Tumblerman. Valtosal Hudson, Pantryman to Cook. Theodore M. Griffiths, Utility Worker to Pantryman. Gladstone N. Lewis, Leader Presser (Flatwork) to Leader Marker and Sorter. Clibice Boyce, Josephine L. Orville, Emily M. Thomas, Presser (Garment) to Presser (Shirts). Arturo Aguirre, Laborer (Cleaner) to Laundry Worker (Heavy). Community Services Division Gifford Holmes, Clerk to Accounts Maintenance Clerk. Eligio Castillo, Laborer to Grounds Maintenance Equipment Operator. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Terminals Division Irvin E. Krapfl, Lead Foreman (Fuel Operations) to General Foreman (Fuel Operations). Agustin Cedeno, Winchman to Leader Stevedore (Ship). Bertram O. Bryce, Linehandler to Stevedore. Jacinto Gomez, Juan Samaniego, Pedro Soli's, Daniel Villanueva, Dock Worker to Stevedore. Edward Stewart, Laborer (Cleaner), Supply Division, to Cargo Marker. Motor Transportation Division Eleuterio Galvez, Truck Driver to Guard. Clive Ibarra, Service Station Attendant to Truck Driver. Carl R. Cumberbatch, Laborer, Supply Division, to Truck Driver. OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not involve changes of title: Truman H. Hoenke, Supervisory General Engineer (Superintendent, Pacific Branch), Locks Division. William A. Van Siclen, Jr., Supervisory General Engineer (Superintendent, Atlantic Branch), Locks Division. Harvey E. Beall, Admeasurer, Navigation Division. Rex E. Beck, Constable, Magistrate Courts. Thomas J. Dwyer, Admeasurer, Navigation Division. 14 June 7, 1963

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Promotions and Transfers (Continued from p. 14) William S. Hinkle, Geologist (Engineering), Engineering Division. Rolanda M. Dahlhoff, Clerk-Typist, Accounting Division. Marta E. Lavergne, Clerk-Stenographer, Office of the Director, Engineering and Construction Bureau. Silvia Blackwood, Geraldine L. Watson, Antolino De Leon, Geraldine G. Smoll, Samuel Moore, Margarito Wilson, James N. Dawson, Vicencio Quintero, Vincent Gordon, Constantine Braithwaite, Marion D. Stephens, Olivia M. De Hall, Gwendolyn L. Hanley, Doris V. Lyons, Maria T. Louis, Alicia M. Pomare, Felipa De Aleman, Verona A. Clarke, EIfrida Patton, Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery). Oliver L. Bailey, Joseph B. Gordon, John C. Hoy, Narciso Olayvar, Filer Clerk, Office of General Manager, Supply Division. Isthmus Industry (Continued from p. 7) last year is expected to double present production capacity. One of the largest ever installed in Central America and Panama, it is 400 feet long and 11 feet in diameter— large enough to hold more than 200 automobiles. The new kiln, with the two others previously in operation, can jointly supply all of Panama's cement requirements for the next 20 years, on the basis of projected expansion of demand. The most recent venture of Cemento Panama is its Fibrolit plant, which manufactures pressed cement and wood fiber planks and blocks for use in interior and exterior walls. It also can be used as acoustic material and for roof sheathing. Known in the international market as fiberdyne, it costs less than cement blocks, lumber, and other types of construction materials. For the first time in Panama, Cemento Panama will distribute 10 percent of its profits among all its workers. This gives every worker a direct stake in the company's successful operation. Employment now averages 274 versus only 100 in 1950. And the employees have nearly 1,600 dependents. At Christmas, the firm has an annual Christmas party for all employees and their families. More than 1,500 workers and their families, including company executives and technicians, attended the last one. Presents such as television sets, stoves, bicycles, sewing machines, and other gifts were distributed. Cemento Panama also provides schools, churches, playing fields, and similar community benefits for its employees, and offers annual scholarships to outstanding students. Pure Water (Continued from p. 10) cation, storage, and delivery. The rate is calculated to cover these costs and is below that charged United States agencies on the Canal Zone and well below rates charged for similar services in the States. When the United States turned the water and sewer facilities it had constructed in Colon and Panama City over to the Panamanian Government in 1946, the transfer agreement governed the fixing of rates until 1954. Under the 1954 agreement, it was agreed that the Panama Canal would charge Panama only 8.7 cents for each 100 cubic feet of purified water delivered to Panama City and only 8.3 cents for that delivered to Colon, regardless of the price charged ultimate consumers by Panama. A hundred cubic feet is 750 gallons. In 1956, to cover the increased cost for water delivered to Panama City's expanding suburbs, the charge was increased 2 mills to 8.9 cents per 100 cubic feet for the suburbs only. Under a directive of President Eisenhower in 1960, a new rate structure resulted in a flat 7.5 cents per 100 cubic feet for the first 100,000 units of 100 cubic feet and 7 cents per unit of 100 cubic feet for all water furnished over 100,000 units each month. This rate applies to Colon, Panama City, and suburbs. It was accepted by the Panamanian Government in an exchange of notes for period starting July 1, 1960. Panama in turn, through IDAAN (National Water and Sewage Administration), sells the water to consumers at a rate fixed by IDAAN. (The Panama Canal charge to IDAAN of 7.5 cents per 100 cubic feet equals 10 cents per 1,000 gallons; 7 cents per 100 cubic feet equals 9.3 cents per 1,000 gallons.) The pure water from the Canal Zone treatment plants also is very soft, having a hardness index only about half that of the softened water in many cities in the States which have municipal softening plants. Consequently, consumers here benefit from major savings in soap, don't have the expense of home softening equipment, or problems of deposits on the insides of pipes and boilers. There's also less abrasive action on clothes, since fibers are freer of insoluble and gummy compounds such as are left by washing with hard water, and the fibers stay clean longer. Another quality of the water can't be measured in any way except the "homing" instincts of thousands who have tasted the water of the Chagres: "He who drinks it always returns." Edwin M. Martin New Director NEWLY-APPOINTED to the Board of Directors of the Panama Canal, Edwin M. Martin, Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, will attend his first meeting as a member of the board in July. With the State Department since 1945, Mr. Martin was a representative to the August 1961 meeting of the Inter-American Economic and Social Council at Punta del Este, Uruguay, and with the U.S. delegation to the Inter-American Bank meeting in Brazil, serving as Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs during this time. Mr. Martin entered Government service in 1935, first with the Central Statistical Board, later with the Bureau of Labor Statistics, War Production Board, and Office of Strategic Services. With the Department of State, he was Chief of the Division of Japanese and Korean Economic Affairs and then had economic, trade policy and mutual security post assignments, followed by work with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations as deputy chief of the U.S. Mission. He was the Secretary of State's principal adviser and coordinator for the U.S. delegation at the meeting of the joint United States-Japan Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs at Hakone, Japan, late in 1961. A native of Dayton, Ohio, Mr. Martin received his bachelor of arts degree from Northwestern University and did graduate work there in political science. His legal residence is Piqua, Ohio. His wife is the former Margaret Milburn of Baltimore. They have a daughter, Mrs. Pedro A. Sanjuan, and a son, Edwin M., Jr. The Panama Canal Review 15

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SHIPPING New Name, Same Game AN OLD Panama Canal customer is running through the Panama Canal these days in disguise. She is the bulk rice carrier SS Sello Rojo, which started service between the U.S. west coast and Puerto Rico a few years ago as the Marine Rice Queen. The 10,500 deadweight ton liberty ship was sold recently by the Marine Transport Lines to the Bulk Food Carriers, Inc., of Delaware and renamed. The ship is continuing to carry bulk rice for the California Rice Growers Association with Wilford McKay as agents at the Canal. The sale price is reported at $1 million. The ship is capable of unloading 650 tons of bulk rice an hour and of making a turnaround voyage between Stockton and Puerto Rico every 40 days. Two Launches Built THE MANTA and the Mola (below) are two 50-foot passenger launches of wooden construction which were built entirely at the Gamboa Launch Repair Facility Shed by Industrial Division forces. Work on them began from scratch last March and the final trials after the engines were installed were held early in May. The formal transfer and acceptance by the Navigation Division took place in Gamboa in the presence of Marine Division officials with Capt. Eli D. Ring taking acceptance of the Manta for Balboa and Capt. Ernest B. Rainier taking the Mola for Cristobal. Before the two launches left for their respective home ports, the men who built them were given a complimentary cruise on Gatun Lake. For most of them, it was the first time that they had ridden aboard the sleek new craft since they had been put into actual operation. TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING VESSELS IN APRIL 1963 1962 Commercial 919 942 U.S. Government 22 19 Free 7 9 Total 948 970 TOLLS • Commercial $4,762,315 $4,963,535 U.S. Government 99,315 102,910 Total $4,861,630 $5,066,445 CARGO" • Commercial 5,379,025 6,103,611 U.S. Government 78,541 118,783 Free 23,562 46,099 Total 5,481,128 6,268,493 'Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small. "Cargo figures are in long tons. Italian Line's New Ships BEGINNING this month, the Italian Line is replacing the 10,000-ton Italy to South America passenger vessels Marco Polo, Amerigo Vespucci, and Antoniotto Usodimare with the 13,000ton sisterships Donizetti, Verdi, and Rossini. The Donizetti will open the new service when she sails from Genoa June 10. She will arrive in Cristobal June 26 after making calls at Naples, Cannes, Barcelona, Teneriffe, La Guaira, Curacao, and Cartagena. Following her transit through the Canal, the ship will go to Buenaventura, Guayaquil, Callao, Arica, Antofagasta, and Valparaiso. Following the Donizetti Ikhfat in this service will be the Verdi in July and the Rossini in December. The three ships, formerly on the Italy to Australia route for Lloyd Triestino, have been refitted to offer more comfortable staterooms and public rooms and are completely air conditioned. They have accommodations for 168 passengers in first class and 446 in tourist class. Final trips through the Canal were made in May by the Antoniotto Usodimare and early in June by the Marco Polo. The Amerigo Vespucci will continue in the service until November. New Japanese Liner ONE OF THE largest Japanese passenger liners built in Japan since the war will arrive back at the Canal June 10 on the second leg of her maiden voyage between Japan and the east coast of South America. The ship is the MS Sakura Maru, the Osaka Shosen Kaisha Line's newest and largest passenger ship, which was designed to display trade exhibits and is easily converted into a spacious passenger liner. On her maiden voyage which took her through the Canal for the first time on April 26, the ship was in the role of a passenger ship, with accommodations for 152 in cabin class and 800 in third class economy accommodations. The modern 12,000-ton ship is completely air conditioned and her engines are located aft. On her run from the Far East, the Sakura Maru calls at Kobe, Honolulu, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. After leaving the Canal, she goes to Curacao, La Guaira, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, and Buenos Aires. Boyd Brothers, agents for the ship here, said that she would dock at Cristobal on her return trip to Japan. Four other O.S.K. passengercargo ships also are in service over this route. zM&M^t

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