Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive


University


in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1310pana






PANAMA CANAL


IN THIS ISSUE
Canal Cargoes
Curtain Time
OV Volunteers
Babies, Babies, Babies


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ROBERT J. FLEMING, JR., Governor-President
W. P. LEBER, Lieutenant Governor


JOSEPH CONNOR, Press Officer
Publications Editors
ROBERT D. KERR and JuLio E. BRICENo


FRi.cx- A. BALDwIN Official Panama Canal Publication Edi l
FRANK A. BALDWIN Editorial Assistants
Panama Canal Information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. EUNICE RICHARD, TO BITTEL, and TOmAS A. CUPAS
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z. \
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M. Balboa Heights. C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights. C.Z.


2'


170 Transits


and



2,880,000 k.w.h.


THIS IS THE engineering estimate of the value to the Panama
Canal of 2 extra feet to be added to the storage potential of
Madden Lake by installation of flashboard extensions to the tops
of the four existing drum gates.
If the estimate were reduced to more familiar things by an
ordinary housewife preparing breakfast, it would mean approxi-
mately enough water for 128 billion cups of coffee (without
cream), and 288 million pieces of toast (medium brown).
The bonus of water and electrical energy, part of the program
to further increase Canal capacity, will be gained by raising the
maximum level of Madden Lake from 250 to 252 feet, thus adding
24,564 acre-feet, or 1,070,000,000 cubic feet, to the lake's storage
potential.
The "flashboards," lip extensions expected to do the job, are
reinforced metal sections which will be welded onto the
4,100-foot-long drum gates. The flashboards have been manufac-
tured by the Industrial Division according to plans prepared by
the Engineering Division. Installation is scheduled for the latter
part of May.
The 2-foot increase in the storage capacity of Madden Lake
will give Madden hydroelectric plant enough additional water
to generate 4,000 more kilowatts of firm power for 1 month, or
2,880,000 kilowatt-hours.
Since the water released from Madden Dam pours into Gatun
Lake via the Chagres River, it can be used a second time, either
to put ships through the locks or for electric power. The additional
1,070,000,000 cubic feet, nearly 8 billion gallons, from Madden
will make possible about 170 additional transits or 1,440,000
kilowatt-hours of power generation by the Catun hydroelectric
station.
Although operation of the Catun hydro plant is reduced during
dry season months to conserve water in Gatun Lake, the Madden
hydro plant operates all year. Power from Madden is fur-
nished by 3 hydroelectric generators of 8,000 kilowatt capacity
generating current at 6,900 volts which is stepped up to 44,000
volts for transmission to substations.


Index
Canal Cargoes _____ ______


Cycling to Frontier___
OV Volunteers ---__


---------- 5
6


Curtain Time --- --------
Promotions and Transfers ------
Babies, Babies, Babies__-- -----
Canal History ----------
Anniversaries -----------


Canal Traffic, Transits, Trade


14


Shipping_______________________ 16











ABOUT OUR COVER: It looks like a ship
cruising through a neglected backyard. Actually,
the Johannes Fritzen is transiting the Panama
Canal. That's Mandinga Slough in the fore-
ground, on the west bank of the Canal just south
of Camboa, in the latest project area for widening
of the Canal from 300 to 500 feet. When the
job's finished a picture like this won't be possible,
for all the foreground of the picture will have
been cut away. There's already been substantial
change in appearance. The MNandinga Slough,
former channel of the Obispo River, was filled
in by the French, the river itself later being
diverted into the Mandinga River.
The German flag Johannes Fritzen is a 24,636-
ton ore carrier, 701 feet long and with a beam of
90.2 feet. Built in 1962 in Bremen, she sails out
of Emden, operated by J. Fritzen & Son.


MAY 3, 1963


PANAMA !-B~~ AAL




















The container ship San Juan, a new trader through the Canal, displays
one of the recent developments in cargo handling. Ease of handling and
contents protection are features of such large "packaging."


SHIPS transiting the Panama Canal in
fiscal year 1962 carried enough lumber
to build approximately 183,000 5-room
houses.
They carried enough gasoline to take
all privately-owned cars in the Canal
Zone around the world four times.
Whether tonnages for these and other
major commodities will show upward
or downward trends in the future is a
question no crystal ball can answer.
Reasoned guesstimates are based on
studies of natural resources develop-
ments throughout the world, changes
in ship construction, cargo handling
methods and many completely un-
predictable or unforseeable factors.
Even the weather causes short term
fluctuations.
The result is that predicting proba-
bilities of shifts in cargoes, which may,
prove major factors in sound Canal
program planning, is something less
than an exact science.
For the immediate future, much of
the Canal traffic picture hinges on con-
tinued industrial growth of Japan. Scrap
iron tonnage figures have shown their
sharpest break recently due to the reces-
sion in Japan. Japan's customers for
scrap have been living off inventories
built up earlier as much as possible, and
curtailing current buying.
Coal tonnage also is off. About 95
percent of the coal passing through the
Canal goes to Japan. With a growing
population and restricted acreage,
Japan also has contributed largely to
the steady high level of phosphates
tonnage through the Canal.
Next in importance in possible effect
on cargoes are possible or probable
developments on the west coast of
South America and tapping of reserves
in the western United States.
Recent cargoes figures show mineral
>ils (petroleum) and canned and refrig-


erated products tonnages on an upward
trend. Behind the oils increase have
been the hard winter in the United
States and Japanese fuel oil purchases
from Venezuela. Crude oil and products
cargoes also are up. Part of the oils
increase is attributed to oil firms' shift-
ing of stocks from one coast of the
States to the other to stay within quotas.
Europe's increasing standard of living
is responsible for most of the canned
and refrigerated products gain, bringing
both an increase in demand and in-
crease in ability to pay. These items
no longer are a luxury item there as




No 'Patterns'


In Recessions

PANAMA CANAL transits figures
don't follow any set pattern during
recessions in the United States.
There are many other factors in-
volved. It's a "world" waterway, and
other countries, at the same time,
may not be hard hit on the commodi-
ties which make up the major Canal
transits items.
During the last four United States
recessions:
1949-A transit upturn followed.
1954-Transits leveled off, but
didn't drop.
1958-Transits increased during
the recession.
1961-There was a brief drop,
then an upturn.
During the period 1929-33, a
major depression era, Canal cargo
tonnage was down approximately
45 percent, but tolls dropped only
about 25 percent.


they were for so many \ears after World
War II.
In addition to the drops in scrap iron
and coal cargoes through the Canal,
wheat tonnage also is off, largely due to
use of the.St. Lawrence Seaway to move
western Canada's wheat to world
markets. The long term outlook for
wheat tonnages doesn't point to volume,
because European Common Market
effects also are likely to cut Canal wheat
transits.
The St. Lawrence Seaway route
doesn't meet all needs of the waterway
area on a year round basis, however.
When Great Lakes shipping is ice-
bound, there's an upsurge in Panama
Canal traffic of foreign ores.
For Canal planning and programing
purposes, "short term" refers to a period
of not more than 2 years, and "long
term" is more than 10 years ahead.
In between times are referred to as
"intermediate" periods.
A full review of trends would
require a book. What follows is a mere
sampling.
Crop failures can play a substantial
role in annual Canal cargo tonnage
figures, although large inventories can
curb immediacy of the effect. One
blowdown can take as many as 3 million
banana plants and this can virtually
shut down a port for as much as 9
months until new plantings are in pro-
duction. Crop failures in wheat and
feed grains in Europe can mean a surge
in Canal transits of ships carrying
cargoes with alternate supplies.
Depletion of major ores and similar
resources in some fields often may have
little effect on transits, for the com-
panies involved are forever prospecting
for new veins, often find them in the
same general area to supplement those
playing out. This has been the story on
iron ore in Chile and Peru.
Changes in ways of handling cargo


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






can have major effects, as in develop-
ment of "superships" and large bulk
carriers, sometimes the difference be-
tween profit and loss or bigger profit
and smaller loss. With larger ships, the
same tonnage means fewer transits. Not
many years ago 16,000-ton tankers were
considered to be the largest needed
or advisable for efficient operation.
Tankers now range as high as 132,000
tons.
Shifts in manufacturing emphasis,
with changes in raw materials needs
and power-supply factors, can change
the picture in some commodities
brackets. As a sample, original thinking
of aluminum industry executives was
that plants should be located near con-
sumer centers. Then it changed to the
view that they should be near cheap
water and hydroelectric power supplies.
Now there are indications it is changing
back to the original view, to locate them
near consumer centers. Each such
change, depending on where plants are
located or relocated, can show up in
Canal transits and tonnage figures.
Paradoxically, major hydroelectric
expansion projects do not appear to cut
into fuel cargo figures. This is because
industries are attracted to these areas
with resultant increased raw materials
and consumer goods demands.
Oils, petroleum products, and petro-
chemicals go both ways through the
Canal, with the heavier movement from
east to west. Venezuela is one of the
major suppliers of crude oil for the
west coast of the United States and the
west coast of South America. Oil firms
may "borrow" from each other and
have to meet commitments for repay-
ment of loans, staying within States
quotas, by transferring supplies from
one coast to the other.


Fifty million martinis-or part of the raw materials for 50 million of them. That's the actual
estimated contents of these hundreds of casks of Spanish olives awaiting loading. The ship
is the Charles Lykes of the Lykes Lines, which has 17 ships that are frequent callers at the
Panama Canal. Olives are shipped both ways through the Canal, to the east from the
United States west coast, to the west from Spain.


Different refineries are geared to
different types of crude oil, and it may
be more economical to ship a high
sulphur or low sulphur crude from a
distant point than to modify the re-
finery.
With Cuba out of the picture as a
source of supply for the U.S. sugar
needs, there's been a surge of east coast
imports from other sources, primarily
Australia and Peru. Cuba has annual
commitments to Communist bloc na-
tions of 4,860,000 tons of sugar a
year-and with very poor recent crops
hasn't been able to meet the commit-
ments. But part of the Cuban sugar for
Russia and virtually all of it for main-
land China moves through the Canal.
Florida phosphates, good and cheap,


The Ore Convey, one of the largest self unloader type superships. This picture was taken
from a platform atop the self unloading equipment while the ship was in the upper
chamber of Gatun Locks.


have an established market in Japan.
Florida-Asia phosphates shipments
accounted for 82 percent of the phos-
phates traffic through the Canal in fiscal
1962. There's been an average 15
percent per year increase since World
War 11 in phosphates tonnage.
This picture could change abruptly,
however. There also are phosphate
supplies in Peru, under water off the
west coast of the United States, in the
Middle East, and Africa. Utah and
Montana also have large phosphate
reserves, but it's now too expensive to
move them out.
Technological improvements saving
only pennies per ton can make the
difference between marginal operation
and profitable operation; and costs nor-
mally are highest in development stage
or at the tag end, as richness of ore
veins, for example, thins out.
Until 2 or 3 years ago, the major part
of Canal traffic was from the Pacific to
the Atlantic. Now it's from the Atlantic
to the Pacific.
The most significant long term factor
in possible generation of greater Canal
traffic is the possibility of development
on the west coast of the United States
of a number of integrated steel com-
panies such as exist in the eastern part
of the country today.
There are largely untapped reserves
of coal and iron in the Mountain States.
However, the next change in Canal
cargoes could result from a type of
processing not yet developed for a raw
material that can't be handled profitably
now-to meet a need not yet felt.

4 MAY 3, 1963














k 7 .: =z-. b- I -


..



Paving machinery and crews at work on Inter-American Highway sector
near Told, looking east, the direction in which paving work is progressing.


.-".



^ =2-:. ^ *:' -

Rolling "roof" for freshly poured concrete. It keeps rain
or sun off to protect the material during first stage of
setting. One of these is with each paving machine.


Takers Few,



But Trip



Enjoyable

By CLOIS C. DUFFIE
President, Canal Zone Chapter,
Worldwide Cycle Club
RIDES ALONG sections of the new
Inter-American Highway under con-
struction between David and Santiago,
a brief stay in jail for one of the tourists,
and an almost broken toe were among
highlights and lowlights of the annual
trip of the club to the interior of
Panama.
The first of March, just as the past
5 years, found us busy preparing for
the trip, but alas, only two members
showed up: Gus Nellis, road captain,
and myself. Twenty to thirty had gone
on earlier trips to Guatemala, San Jos6,
and interior towns of the Republic. This
year, however, a lot of members were
in school, some working, others unable
to get leave at the time.
There are about 50 members in the
club throughout the Zone and another
50 cyclists often ride with the club.
Members of the Zone chapter also ride
frequently with the Panama Motorcycle
Club.
About noon on March I, though. it
was apparent that no others would
come. So we headed west with the
familiar cry of "Let's Motor." We
crossed the new $20 million bridge

THE PAN'AMA CANAL REVIEW 5


across the Canal at Balboa and rode
toward La Chorrera, stopping in Capira
long enough to eat the white cheese
and pastelitos for which this little
village is famous.
Following the Inter-American High-
way along the coast of the Gulf of
Panama, we stopped at San Carlos, and
spent some time on the beach under a
bohio out of the hot sun. On to Santa
Clara and Rio Hato, where the road
turns about 20 miles toward the center
of the Isthmus to Penonom6. Near NatA
we saw the huge factory for processing
Maggi tomato products and other
produce. It is surprising to see this
factory there, way out in the middle of
nowhere. Two-wheel carts are a familiar
sight.
A little farther along the road is
another factory where the small candies
known as "estrellitas" are made. The
new highway misses Aguadulce, and
we were familiar with this town, so we
bypassed it and headed for Santiago,
where we spent the night.
I spent part of it in jail because of a
misunderstanding. I guess my Spanish









Clois C. Duffle with natives
in typical scene in the Chiri-
qui Province area near Ca-
fias Gordas, at the Costa
Rica frontier. House is on
right, cooking area on left.


is worse that I thought. The speed limit
had been reduced to 15 m.p.h. due to
a religious festival at Atalaya, but there
were no signs along the road of the
limit. Officials couldn't catch us, so they
called ahead and stopped us with a road
block. I had to stay in jail for a couple
of hours until the proper official arrived,
then was released with a dressing down.
We stayed at the Hotel Santiago,
where air-conditioned rooms with pri-
vate bath are available, or rooms with
just bed for $1. The food was excellent
at the sidewalk restaurant. The happy
feeling we left there with didn't last
long, however, because here began
approximately 122 miles of the worst
road imaginable, through SonA and
Remedios, to the south of the Inter-
American route. It was worse than I had
remembered, with loose gravel, big
rocks, and deep ruts in places.
About 17 miles this side of David we
hit paved road again which goes to
Concepci6n and all the way to the
Costa Rican frontier. Just outside David
we turned up the mountain on a very
(See p. 15)



4or
.

,. : ., .
4 .. "-..,,



















Down the hatch. A young Paraiso girl is ass
taking the oral polio vaccine involves nothing
swallowing a sugar lump. Shown at the Paraiso
left, is Jan Jensen of Balboa, whose mother, M
hilda Jensen, R.N., is the nurse at the Paraiso Cc
Health Center. At right is Maritza Ipina of t
Red Cross and in the background is Mrs. H. Sk
Public Health Nurse in the schools, who help
Paraiso Clinic.


The clinic operated in the Cristobal
Women's Club building in Margarita also
used the services of volunteers for the
paperwork and other details connected
with the program. Shown around the
records table here are Doreen Baas, Bar-
bara Dclvecchio, Mrs. Rosalyn Bernstein,
Dr. Howard C. Pritham, Virginia and Jane
Ferris, and Mrs. Lois Thomas. Another
volunteer, Estelle Davidson, was on duty
before the photograph was taken.


VOLUNTEERS




HELP




"STAMP OUT POLIO"
ured that
nore than
clinic, at
Irs. Bern- THE FIRST ROUND of the oral vaccine program
community aimed at stamping out polio in the Canal Zone was
he Junior completed with a flourish last month on the Atlantic
ed at the side of the Isthmus as more than 10,000 doses were
administered to bring the total doses of Type I
vaccine administered by the Canal's Health Bureau
to more than 27,000.
The second round, in which Types II and III of
the vaccine will be administered, will be this month.
Pacific-siders will receive their combination doses
Mav 3 and 4, while Atlantic-siders will receive theirs
May 17 and 18.
Health Bureau officials credited much of the
success of the first round to volunteers who worked
in the various clinics-and they are relying on
volunteers for much of this month's second round.
The "honor roll" of organizations which recruited
'I volunteers and otherwise assisted with the first round
included Civic Councils in both the U.S. and Latin
American communities, the Canal Zone Chapter of
the American Red Cross, the Junior Red Cross, Red
Cross Gray Ladies, Girl Scouts of America, Pink
Girls, International Boy Scouts, and the Cristobal
SWomen's Club. There also were many community-
minded individuals who volunteered and served.
S Dr. Sidney B. Clark, Chief of Preventive Medicine
and Quarantine, said the work of the volunteers was
"indispensable" and congratulated them for their
S part in the successful completion of the first round
of vaccine.



Smiling volunteer workers greeted those visiting the Diablo Heights clinic in the Junior
High School gymnasium. At the Identification table, right, is Mrs. Alice Meehan. From
left are Andrea Lynn Sollitto, Maria Livia Harcega, and Evangeline Buenofe. At the
feeding table, in rear of room, are Mrs. Peggy Welch, left, and Mrs. Evelyn Koperski, R.N.






L



















Junior Red Cross Volunteens were on duty at the Santa Cruz gymnasium and at Ancon
when oral polio vaccine was given in connection with the Pacific side program for residents
of the Canal Zone and Canal employees who live in Panama. From left are Margaret
Thorne, Dale Davy, Sidney Dyer, Margarite George, Carl Sainten, Stanicia Jones, Ancelmo
Cummings, Eleanor Millett, Damiin Albeo, Victor Joshua, George Brown, Yolanda Evelyn,
Carol Grazette, and Antonio Cooper. Also on duty, but not present for the photograph,
were: Richard Millett, Silvia Haughton, Lydia Dunn, Marva Savory, and Karl Evelyn.


", -






Mrs. Violet Rhaburn, member of the Santa Cruz Civic Council and active
in Girl Scout work, checks the registration form of a young resident about
to receive her oral polio vaccine.


I


Going through the line at the Balboa oral
polio vaccine clinic is John D. Hollen,
Chief of the Panama Canal Executive
Planning Staff. Mrs. George Pauk, R.N.,
checks his registration form and directs
him to the next table where records were
kept. Immediately behind Mr. Hollen is
Dr. Mary Graham.















In Paraiso, volunteers were recruited to
help with a "grass roots" effort to get the
entire community to take the oral polio
vaccine. Health Bureau officials attributed
this special effort with the "remarkably
high" turnout in that community. The
special effort took the form of volunteers
preparing registration forms for everyone
in the community, then delivering them to
the homes of the families. Working on
registration blanks in this picture are, from
left, Paulina Nieto, Jorge Scott, Ricardo
James, Emilio Singh, Ruth Russell, Marva
Griffith, Elena Springer, and Ricardo
Foster.










4 A

^"1" .


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7
























WIl


Lighting effects have an important place
in the suspense thriller that opens tonight.
"Try this one," says stage manager Dick
Collver, as he hands another light hulh to
Leo Farlow, on ladder. Larry Boutis,
center, is acting as lighting and sound
effects technician.




Curtain



Time


Tickets and money exchange hands rapidly
from opening night nnl through the run of
the play. Leo Farlow, in the ticket hooth,
fills an order for reserved seats as a very
young theater enthusiast looks on.


THE HANDS of the clock point to
curtain time. House lights dim. Here
and there a program rustles.
Then there's a hushed silence as the
curtain rises and another Theatre Guild
audience in the Ancon Theatre is
landed squarely in the middle of a
period, and a social set, that sometimes
may be familiar, perhaps involved in
amusing bric-a-hrac of a porcelain
comedy, maybe entangled in domestic
details of Old Lace charm, or enmeshed
in a Victorian thriller such as is Angel
Street, the Theatre Guild's fifth produc-
tion of the current subscription season
which opens tonight.
This spine-tingler hegan its career in
London under the title of "Gaslight."
The author, Patrick Hamilton, accus-
tomed to feeding shudders to shudder-
loving audiences, attempts here nothing
more serious than to continue this
amiable avocation.
Five characters appear on the stage
in Angel Street and, as the plot unfolds,
everything seems so real, so natural, so
easy. Long hours of hard work went
into accomplishing that impression.
Dozens of Theatre Guild members
and helpful friends make up the unseen
company whose members never come
to the footlights for a bow, but whose


FOR "ANGEL STREET"


work is evidenced in the stage setting,
in the lighting, the properties, the
programs, posters, and myriad details
necessary for the birth of a play.
First comes the serious business of
selection of a play which the Theatre
Guild believes the audience will enjoy.
The Guild determines which plays are
available for amateur production and
which ones the physical plant can
accommodate.
Gene Simpson, director of Angel
Street. who has had a long and dis-
tinguished affiliation with the Theatre
Guild. had seen this play in New York.
A mystery was wanted for the May
presentation, and here was a thriller
that had been a surprise hit on Broad-
way when it was presented there.
Angel Street chosen, dates for tryouts
werr set and widely publicized. Anyone
in the Canal Zone or Panama is wel-
comed and encouraged to try out for a
part or w'olk backstage. One doesn't
have to be a Theatre Guild member to
try out for a part, and new faces, new
talent, and people who enjoy making
new friends and doing creative work
are urged to come to the Ancon


On stage, during tryouts, with director Gene .rr.
making his farewell appearance with the Itre.
and leave the Isthmus as soon as the play elo:..
a kindly detective. Seated on the couch is L.,,
They appear as Mr. and Mrs. Jack NManningh,..
the stage. Standing, center, are Meg Fennel ,..,d


Playhouse on tryout nights.
Dates for rehearsal must be set to
accommodate director and cast, for in
many instances key figures are avail-
able for rehearsals or work backstage
only after the working day is over.
The male lead. John McTaggart, who
plays Jack Manningham in Angel Street,
is a placement and employee manage-
ment relations specialist in the Panama
Canal Personnel Bureau. He made his
acting debut in the Canal Zone in 1957
as Grandpere in the Theatre Guild's
production of The Happy Time, which
also was directed by Gene Simpson. He
appeared in several Theatre Guild pro-
ductions while serving in the U.S. Army


.* ,-.,... fr..ir, kfi i (Ir kfi is Dick Cox, who is
., .1 1... hi lII rO eli Ir..m F mama Canal service
,.-il ,itIl he pl,.. rt.e .le of Sergeant Rough,
Sar rr..... I,.I sr,,.; j r1ld., is John McTaggart.
1.. I. C... L- l 1,r i. -eated at the edge of
I l...Iri. [',r.,,'i ,:l' .,I I r.iles of the two maids.


in the Canal Zone and p
of Toglio in The Naked
which was filmed in Pana
LaVonne Garrison of
appears in the role of Br
ham. This is her third apl
the Theatre Guild.
Richard E. Cox, who is
Street as Sergeant Rou
inspector, is executive as
Panama Canal Supply
made his Isthmian debut
Wilder's Our Town and
in a number of plays incl
day for Lovers, The Little
Out of the Frying Pan,
in the Sun,


II


played the part
and the Dead,
ma in 1957.
Fort Amador
ella Manning-
pearance with

seen in Angel
1 1


Meg Fennel, who is one of the maids,
is in the Post Library at Fort Kobbe and
the other maid is played by Irene
Michaelis, Dredging Division Clerk-
Stenographer.
Dick Collver, a teacher at Balboa
High School, is stage manager and his
wife, Linda, is script assistant. Larry
Boutis of Fort Clayton is lighting and
sound effects technician. Dora Hardy,
a Canal Zone teacher, is in charge of
properties and the art work is directed
by Catsy Taylor Schaffer, a nurse at
Fort Clayton.
While the cast is busy with lines and
situations, the production staff swings
into action. This time they faced the
task of bringing the London of the gas-
light era, complete with sound of Big
Ben in the background, to a Canal Zone
audience of 1963. Ideas are pro-
pounded, the staff challenges each
other's ideas, and then is applied the
test of what those ideas would mean
to the audience in terms of suspense,
humor, and dramatic surprise.
Sets for past productions have been
constructed to depict modern hotel
rooms, a turn-of-the-century living
room, an outdoor patio, a boat deck, an
apartment, and walk-up flat.
Sometimes materials are ordered


MAY 3 THROUGH 11


S1, a poice from the States, but more often than
sistant in the
Division. He not, paint brushes are plied, and prop-
in Thornto erties are borrowed most effectively.
has appeared Working still further behind the
uding A Holl- scenes are the people who compose the
SFoxes, J. B., programs and arrange for their printing,
and A Raisin and those who make the posters. Pic-
and A Raisin r p i r n
tures are taken, publicity written, and
tickets prepared. Even that latter is
tricky, for a careful check has to be
made to ensure that no two people find
rnrl', i ''' themselves sharing a single seat.
Volunteers are enlisted to handle
reservations. Proper make-up must be
procured, and volunteer ushers assigned
for the various performances, in this
case from May 3 through May 11.
Suddenly things that seemed at sixes
and sevens fall into place. It's opening
night. The audience gathers, house
lights dim, and another Theatre Guild
production is launched.
Democracy prevails behind the foot-
lights at the Theatre Guild. Stars and
bit players take bows together, and the
delivery of flowers to the actors on the
stage is discouraged or practically
prohibited. The flowers that are sent to
the theatre are delivered back stage.


Balhoa-37813 is the Theatre Guild tele-
phone number for reservations. Mrs. Tillie
MeTaggart no sooner takes a reservations
nrder and hangs up, than the phone rings
again-with more seat requests.


Every bit of stage business is important.
Pointers are given Meg Fennel (left) by
director Gene Simpson and stage manager
Dick W. Collver.







PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS


EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between March 5 and April 5 (Within-
grade promotions and jobs reclassifica-
tions are not listed):

ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Helen A. Adams, Accounting Technician,
Accounting Division, and Extension
Class Teacher, to Clerk-Stenographer,
Administrative Branch, and Extension
Class Teacher.

CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Frank E. Hirt, Window Clerk to Relief
Supervisor, Cristobal, Postal Division.
Hollis Griffon, Police Private, Police Divi-
sion, and Relief Photographer, Admin-
istrative Branch, to Detective and Relief
Photographer.
Division of Schools
Isolina G. Rivera, Substitute Teacher to
Teacher (Senior High-U.S. Schools).
Edna H. Hollowell, Laura Mh. Tarflinger,
Substitute Teacher to Teacher (Junior
High-U.S. Schools).
Lucile G. Feeney, Evelyn B. Fondren,
Vera C. Phillips, Florence P. Stickney,
Substitute Teacher to Teacher (Elemen-
tary-U.S. Schools).
Joseph E. N. Murray, Laborer (Cleaner)
from Housing Branch, Community
Services Division.

ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Walter R. Weeks, Helper Electronics
Mechanic to Stockman, Electrical Divi-
sion.
Engineering Division
Gale A. O'Connell, Structural Engineer to
Chief, Structural Branch.
James C. Foster, General Engineer to Gen-
eral Engineer (Corrosion Mitigation).
Dredging Division
Clate Riddle, Electrician to Leader Elec-
trician (Lineman).
Juan N. Malverde, Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Laborer (Heavy).
Jorge T. Vasquez, Laborer (Cleaner),
Supply Division, to Laborer.
Horman V. Archibold, Storekeeping Clerk
to Radio Operator.
Jose F. de los Rios, Navigational Aid
Worker to Maintenanceman Distribu-
tion Systems.
Mateo Cubillo, Oiler (Floating Plant) to
Launch Operator.
Irene NM. Michaelis, Clerk-Typist, Em-
ployee Services Branch, Personnel Bu-
reau, to Clerk-Stenographer.
Maintenance Division
Robert C. Herrington, Lead Foreman
(Public Works Road Construction) to
Lead Foreman (Public Works Wharf-
builder).


Waldo B. Gilley, Lead Foreman (Public
Works-Wharfbuilding) to General Fore-
man (Public Works).

HEALTH BUREAU
Coleridge E. Hurley, Clerk from Indus-
trial Division to Gorgas Hospital.

Coco Solo Hospital
Mildred R. Largent, Staff Nurse (Medicine
and Surgery) to Head Nurse (Medicine
and Surgery).
Cyril G. Francis, Hospital Attendant to
Laboratory Helper.
Florence A. Springer, Hospital Attendant
to Nursing Assistant.
Herbert Brown, Counterman, Supply Divi-
sion, to File Clerk.

MARINE BUREAU
Navigation Division
Osborn C. Robinson, Deckhand (Boat-
swain) to Launch Operator.
James C. Warner, Laborer (Heavy) to
Chauffeur.
Gilbert De Touche, Seaman, Launch, to
Seaman.

Industrial Division
Michael J. Burza, Machinist (Marine) to
Lead Foreman Machinist (Marine).
Holand A. Adams, Helper (General) to
Helper Blacksmith (Heavy Fires).
Charles R. Scott, Laborer to Laborer
(Heavy).
Alfred Braithwaite, Laborer to Helper
(General).

Locks Division
Howard NM. Armistead, Electrician to Lock
Operator (Electrician).
Joel W. Donawa, Maintenanceman (Rope
and Wire Cable) to Leader Maintenance-
man (Rope and Wire Cable).
Pedro Tufi6n, Laborer (Heavy), from Main-
tenance Division to Painter (Mainte-
nance).
Karl A. Sinclair, Line Handler to Clerk.
MNatilde BeltrAn, Helper Lock Operator to
Toolroom Attendant.

OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Emily hi. Brooks, Clerk-Typist to Time,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting
Division.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICES BUREAU
Erich L. Reinhardt, Clerk-Typist to Assist-
ant Retail Store Manager, General
Manager's Office.
Supply Division
Charles N. Norris, Accountant, Gorgas
Hospital, to Accountant Assistant.
Jeannine C. Scott, Library Assistant, Canal
Zone Library, to Freight Rate Assistant.
Esme Rochester, Painter (Sign) from Main-
tenancc Division.


Segundo H. Mero, Assistant Baker to
Baker.
Monica O. Marecheau, Counterwoman to
Sales Clerk.
Donald C. Escalona, Utility Worker to
Grocery Attendant.
Nicolas D. Bishop, Utility Worker to
Counterman.
Clement A. Murrell, Pinsetter to Utility
Worker.
Roy Dickens, Waiter to Laborer (Heavy).
Ernest A. Jones, Warehouseman to Clerk.
Community Services Division
Estle H. Davison, Engineman (Hoisting
and Portable), Maintenance Division, to
Leader Engineman (Hoisting and
Portable).
Luis C. Martinez, Painter (Maintenance),
Locks Division, to Laborer.
Jorge Lugardo, Laborer (Cleaner), to
Laborer (Heavy).

TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Alfredo Arosemena, Victor Mh. Castafieda,
Guillermo Cortes, Antonio Martinez,
Claudio D. Prado, Secundino Rangel,
Jose Sosa, Dock Worker to Stevedore.
Napoleon B. Ashby, Edgar Carmichael,
Sylvester Grant, Claudius N. Thompson,
Cargo Marker to Clerk (Checker).
Reuben Panton, Dock Worker to Line
Handler.
Robert NM. Jolliffe, Jr., Laborer Cleaner,
Industrial Division, to Cargo Marker.

OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
Louis G. Archuleta, Structural Engineer,
Engineering Division.
Margaret F. Wiggin, General Claims
Examiner, General Audit Division.
Evelyn W. Brandt, Supervisory Admin-
istrative Services Assistant, Industrial
Division.
Donald C. Pierpoint, Cafeteria Manager,
Supply Division.
Doris NM. Young, Clerk-Stenographer,
Office of the Comptroller.
Jeanene K. Zimmerman, Clerk Typist,
Gorgas Hospital.
Mary L. Parker, Mary A. Williford, Clerk-
Typist, Industrial Division.
Elena Cham, Accounting Clerk, Industrial
Division.
Basil I. Nelson, Accounting Clerk, Ter-
minals Division.
Robert L. Allen, Timekeeper, Terminals
Division.
Robert J. King, Clerk-Typist, Navigation
Division.
Leonard A. Shirley, Clerk, Industrial Divi-
sion.
Nellie G. Cadger, Library Assistant, Canal
Zone Library.

10 MAY 3, 1963








Obstetrical



Record Here



Surveyed

GORGAS HOSPITAL'S obstetrical
cases record for the last decade is as
good as that of large Stateside clinics
on key results, and in most instances
better. Analysis of the three greatest
hazards to pregnant women has been
made in 1,033 cases during the 10-year
period.
Results of the analysis and com-
parison were presented by means of
charts and graphs by Dr. I. J. Strumpf,
Chief of the Obstetrics and Gynecology
Service at Gorgas, at a recent meet-
ing of the Isthmian Medical Society,
attended by 76 doctors.
It was stressed that these results are
due to:
Careful prenatal watchfulness and
instant treatment at the first sign of a
complication; constant attendance by a
nurse and two doctors of every patient,
regardless of creed, color, or rank,
during labor and delivery; use of im-
proved obstetrical and anesthetic tech-
niques; the vigilance and dedication
of the nurses and doctors, and the
availability at all times of expert con-
sultation should a complication or
emergency arise.
Many graphs and charts also were
shown indicating how newer techniques
in surgery and newer concepts of han-
dling many of the diseases of women
which contribute to the stillborn rate
have been used by the Gorgas Hospital
Obstetrical Service, and how many
babies in each instance have been
saved who under other circumstances
would have died.
The present emphasis is on a similar
spectacular improvement in the salvage
of newborn premature infants, and the
prevention of stillbirths.
Maternal safety is now at such a level
that a perfect record is within reach,
and an appeal was voiced that all
women register early at the Prenatal
Clinic, and to have the utmost faith in
their doctors. In this way, it was pointed
out, an already excellent obstetrical
record may be still further improved
to the ultimate goal of "a healthy
mother and a healthy baby" for every
woman who enters the Obstetrical
Service of Gorgas Hospital.


CLASSES START MAY 9


Latin American Schools


Open Officially May 8


THE NEW SCHOOL year for Latin
American Schools of the Canal Zone
will start, officially, May 8, but the
3,855 children enrolled in grades
kindergarten through 12 won't have
their first day of classes until Thursday,
May 9.
New school facilities have been
added and there will be a number of
new teachers on the staffs.
Three special education classrooms
have been added at the Rainbow City
Elementary School. They will provide
space for the educable mentally handi-
capped, areas for remedial reading and
speech therapy, and will release class-
room space in the junior-senior high
school for regular high school classes.
On the first official day of school
May 8, faculty meetings will be held by
principals in the respective buildings to
acquaint both old and new teachers
with policies and procedures. During
the day, teachers will be issued the
necessary textbooks and supplies for
their classes.
Teachers new to the system at Rain-
bow City Junior-Senior High School
are Roberto Acqui-Pinz6n, a university
graduate, who will teach philosophy
and commerce; Felix Figueroa and
Mrs. Gloria Martinez, both of whom
teach Spanish, and Miss Fulvia Esco-
bar, who will teach general science.
At Paraiso Junior-Senior High School,
Pedro Alvarado will teach commerce.
Mr. Figueroa, Mrs. Martinez, Miss
Escobar, and Mr. Alvarado all have
master's degrees.
New elementary teachers, all with
university degrees, are Miss Noris SimD-
son at Santa Cruz School; Misses Olga
Tomlinson and Raquel McPherson,
Torge Jimenez and Julio Luque at Rain-
bow City Elementary School. Shaler
Yearwood will be at Pedro Miguel
Elementary School.
While pupils were enjoying them-
selves and participating in the vacation
program during February, March, and
April, many of their teachers were
studying, to qualify for bachelor and
graduate degrees.
Teachers who completed work
toward degrees at the University of
Panama are: George Richards and Miss
Blandina \aterman of Paraiso Junior-


Senior High School, Samuel Skeete of
Rainbow City Elementary School, Mrs.
Vilma Rovo of Santa Cruz Elementary-
Junior High School, and the Misses
Marva Taylor and Mavis McNichols of
Paraiso Elementary School.
Mrs. Clarice M. Bryan of Rainbow
City Elementary School and Miss Vilma
Best of Paraiso Elementary School
earned degrees at the University of
Nebraska. They will return May 8 after
having been on leave of absence.
Other teachers expected to return at
the beginning of school after leaves are
Leslie Thomas and Saturnin Maug6
of Rainbow City Junior-Senior High
School.
On extended leave and to return after
the opening of school in May are Mrs.
Amy E. C. de Boyce of Paraiso Ele-
mentary School; Audley Webster and
Miss Alva Piper of Rainbow City Junior-
Senior High School, and Daniel Mi-
randa, who is studying in Mexico. All
are to return in June.
Mrs. Jocelyn C. de Blugh of Paraiso
Elementary School will report in
August, and Ellis Fawcett, principal of
Paraiso Junior-Senior High School, and
Miss Julette Carrington, principal of
Pedro Miguel Elementary School, are
expected back in September.
Teachers on scholarships for the
school year 1963-64 are Miss Clara
Wattley, Paraiso Junior-Senior High
School, who is studying in England
on a scholarship granted by the
British Embassy, and Miss Beril Jordan,
Rainbow City Junior-Senior High
School, who is studying in the United
States on a U.S. Information Service
scholarship.
Other teachers who will be away on
leave for study for the entire school
year are: Miss Hilma Watson, Philip
Daniel, and Phillip Henry, Rainbow
City Elementary School; Ernest Wattley
and Luis Diez, Paraiso Junior-Senior
High School; Mrs. Silvia Stoute and
Cleveland Ennis, Rainbow City Junior-
Senior High School; Miss Marta Garvey
and Mrs. Daphne Wedderburn, Pa-
raiso Elementary School; and Franklin
Wynter, Pedro Miguel Elementary
School.
Grafton Conliffe, principal of Santa
Cruz School, will leave in August, for
a year, to complete work on his master's
degree.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








CANAL HISTORY


50 YearJ 4go
FILL MADE IN the swamp east of
Colon to extend the city from E to G
streets, between the lines of Second and
Ninth streets, had settled, requiring
about 17,500 yards more of fill to bring
it to grade. It was planned to extend
macadam to near 16th street, near the
junction with Mount Hope road. This
extension was to make accessible lots
on natural ground, a part of the original
Manzanillo Island, and several feet
above sea level.
A number of 8-inch spherical bombs
and grape shot were dug up by a
suction dredge operating near the inner
end of the slip west of the new Pier 18
at Cristobal. A hand ax of a type used
about 50 years earlier was found in the
same area. Projectiles were encrusted
with a kind of natural concrete, made
up of coral deposits, sand, and shells,
to a thickness of 2 inches.


EMPLOYEES who retired in March,
with their positions at time of retire-
ment and years of Canal service:
McDonald Allen, Truck Driver, Motor
Transportation Division, Pacific Side; 23
years, 9 months, and 7 days.
Mrs. Louise E. Augustus, Laboratory
Helper, Coco Solo Hospital; 35 years,
6 months, 20 days.
Eliseo Avila, Leader Maintenanceman,
Electrical Division, Pacific Side; 33
years, 3 months, 20 days.
Henry J. Clancy, Electrician, Electrical
Division, Atlantic Side; 22 years, 1
month, 19 days.
Ralph L. Hanners, General Foreman
(Grounds), Community Services Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 20 years, 10 months,
26 days.
Joseph Ifill, Laundry Worker (Heavy),
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 25 years,
8 months, 10 days.
Landon N. Gunn, Operator, Dipper
Dredge, Dredging Division, Pacific Side;
31 years, 10 months, 10 days.
Eustace S. Lewis, Guard, Transportation
and Terminals Division, Atlantic Side;
42 years, 1 month, 21 days.
Headley McAdams, Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator, Community Serv-
ices Division, Pacific Side; 40 years, 9
months, 28 days.
Clarence B. Mcllvaine, Conductor, Road
and Conductor, Yard, Railroad Division,
Pacific Side, 32 years, 8 months, 19 days.
Leon Ortiz, Stevedore, Terminals Division,
Atlantic Side; 37 years, 7 months, 20
days.
Miss Ella A. Partons, Staff Nurse, Gorgas
Hospital; 8 years, 5 months, 4 days.


25 year c4go
A BILL providing for optional retire-
ment of employees of the Panama Canal
after 30 years of service or at the age
of 55 was introduced into the U.S.
Congress.
At the same time the Panama Canal
issued a retirement certificate to be
given to employees retiring from serv-
ice. The first certificate, signed by
Gov. C. S. Ridley, was presented to
Genevieve Gage, the first woman em-
ployee to be retired from the Canal
after 30 years of service.
The new Panama Canal tolls system,
which went into effect earlier in the
year, provided a substantial savings
for the Canadian Pacific cruise liner
Empress of Britain, which arrived at
the Canal in May 1938 on a world
cruise. The ship paid nearly $5,000 less
than on a previous transit, since the
new system included a reduction for
large public rooms.


Guillermo T. Perez, Crane Hookman, In-
dustrial Division, Pacific Side; 42 years,
10 months, 21 days.
Jacinto Peters, Guard, Terminals Division,
Atlantic Side; 43 years, 5 months, 9
days.
Eugenio Rangel, Operator, Field Tractor,
Maintenance Division, Pacific Side; 38
years, 6 months, 13 days.
Julian Rodriguez, Assistant Cook, Gorgas
Hospital; 19 years, 5 months, 24 days.
Udham Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 17 years, 12 days.
Miss Ellen M. Tiernan, Head Nurse (Sur-
gical) Gorgas Hospital; 32 years, 8
months.
P. Alton White, Chief, Dredging Division;
38 years, 4 months, 21 days.


10 yearJ a. go
ONE OF THE oldest houses in the
Canal Zone, on Heights Road, formerly
occupied by the Health Director, was
among 16 frame quarters buildings
scheduled for demolition and being
advertised for sale to the highest bidder.
It was one of several moved to Balboa
Heights when the Canal was opened
in 1914.
A total of 30 bushmasters and 2 fer-
de-lance snakes were caught or killed
by men doing clearing work for a tract
of pasture land on the Atlantic side
of the Isthmus. Most of the bush-
masters were found in an area of about
100 acres.

One Year c4go
NATIONAL Commander-in-Chief
Robert E. Hansen, of the Veterans of
Foreign Wars of the United States,
became a member of The Esteemed
Order of Bearers of the Master Key to
the Panama Canal. The VFW com-
mander, on an inspection tour of Isth-
mian posts, was presented a key to the
Locks and a certificate giving him the
grade of Lockmaster.
Release of the monthly report of
the Meteorological and Hydrographic
Branch revealed that a total of 58
seismic disturbances were recorded
on the Balboa Heights seismographs
during March. Six had their point of
origin within 300 miles and two were
felt in the Canal Zone. The epicenter
of one was near the Panama-Costa Rica
border.
Water and electrical conservation
measures slowed the drop in level of
Gatun Lake sufficiently to delay imposi-
tion of draft restriction approximately
a week.


ACCIDENTS


FOR

THIS MONTH

AND

THIS YEAR


I.NCL
AI BAAEI"


T
'62
319
6679


12 MAY 3, 1963


RETIREMENTS


DAYS
MARCH CASES CASES ABSEN
'63 '62 '63 '62 '63
ALL UNITS 261(13) 306 20(7) 10 1328(991)
YEAR TO DATE 771(36) 709 48(9) 34 1 5991993)
() Locks Overhaul Injuries Included In total.








ANNIVERSARIES


(On the basis










el n C. e
lt atic I en Pressman
SPOT TION AND
TER HN %UREAU
Jos h Boyc
A otive Cran
Operator (Small)


of total Federal Service)

EXECUTIVE PLANNING
STAFF
Thatcher A. Clisbee
Capital Program Coordinator
ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Orlander D.
Bindery ar dEi W ker
CIVIL AFFAIR B AU
Salvatore Rinaldo
Contraband Control
Inspector
ENGINE' A
CONSTRUCT ) ETAU
Reginald Lovell
Carpenter
Rupert N. Scott
Painter
Vincent G. St. Louis
Clerk (Work Orders)


HEALTH BUREAU
Angelico Moran
Hospital Attendant
MARINE BUREAU
Wesley A. Cole
Melter
OFFICE OF THE
COMPTROLLER
Hay. aymond
Sup i ry General
Cl im Examiner
SUP Y AND COMMUNITY
ICE BUREAU
os6 Guzmin
C gardener
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Granville V. Brown
Chauffeur
Tomas Marial
Guard


MAGISTRATE COURTS
Rex E. Beck
Clerk of the Court,
Cristobal

ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Tomas Mejia
Laborer (Cleaner)

CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Ralph Dugan, Jr.
Police Private
Ruth F. Morris
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Pearl C. de Chilcott
Senior High Teacher,
Latin American Schools

ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Harry P. DePiper
Chief Engineer, Towboat
Hubert A. Rotenberry
Lead Foreman Painter
William W. Spencer
Leader Electrician
Robert C. Stanley
Power System Dispatcher
Eugene E. Chaudiere
Seaman
Jos6 B. Felipe
Helper (General)
Librado Gonzalez
Seaman
Sidney A. Gordon
Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Plant
Operator
Agapito Hernandez
Winchman
Aniceto Jimenez
Helper (General)

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Hector L. John
Helper Machinist (Marine)
Esteban Justavino
Laborer (Heavy)
Patricio Martinez
Seaman
Dudley J. Miller
Wharfbuilder (Limited)

HEALTH BUREAU
David C. Mcllhenny
Supervisory Hospital
Administrative Officer
Cecil D. Archbold
Physical Therapy Assistant
Martin Barrios
Pharmacy assistant
Kenneth D ~s
Nursing Assistant
(Medicine and rg ry)
Frances H. Drum ond
Nursing Assi nt
(Mledici~andurgery)
Vernon C. IcC
Nursing Assistant
(Medicine an surgery)
Nursin Assistant
(Medicine an Surgery)
Encarnaci6n Valdds
Assistant Cook
Juan J. Vasquez
Hospital Attendant

MARINE BUREAU
Richard W. Abell
General Foreman
(Lock Operations) *
F. G. Berwanger
Leader Lock Operator
(Machinist)
Leon S. Fishbough
Leader Lock Operator
(Machinist)
Theodore W. A. Krzys
Machinist


William W. Morris
Towing Locomotive
Operator
Gust E. Rosene
Machinist (Marine)
James W. Watson
Master, Towboat
Carl A. Yarbro
Lock Operator (Engineman-
Hoisting and Portable)
Benigno Alvarez
Helper Lock Operator
Tombs G. Amador
Maintenanceman
Clifford A. Anthony

Naunh)jo
Deckhan
Frank L. Bro.
MIotor Laun h captain
Antonio Can es



Norman Lindo
Deckhand
Manuel Mero
Seaman
Mateo Molina
Deckhand
Maximo Molina
Helper Lock Operator
Samuel S. Morgan
Deckhand
Ernesto Perez
Helper Lock Operator
Oscar .T. Phillips
Carpenter
Baltazar Romero
Deckhand


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Joyce B. Bevington
Supervisory Clerical
Assistant (Typing)
Hamner C. Cook
Accounting Clerk
Teofila Badillo
Utility Worker
Carlos Coto
Utility Worker
Doris Daniels
Clerk
Aquilino de la Cruz
Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Maybell Maud Forbes
Cook, Short Order
Abraham W. Forcheney
Rounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Victoriano G6ndola
Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Alvin G. Gunter
Laborer (Cleaner)
Hannah A. Jackman
Storekeeping Clerk
Maria D. Nurse
Maid
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Evelyn R. Condon
Accounting Technician
Robert W. Parker
Leader Liquid Fuels
Wharfman
Milton E. Stone
Supervisory Cargo
Checking Assistant
Adolphus E. Johnson
Helper Automotive
Machinist
Aston L. Morris
Cargo Checker
Gilberto Ortega
Truck Driver
Ronald F. Payne
Truck Driver






TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
1963 1962 Transits
19S -SS
United States intercoastal ------------------ 70 109 146
East coast of United States and South America ____ 535 620 445
East coast of United States and Central America 111 86 129
East coast of United States and Far East--_ ---- 462 571 261
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia ___- 63 59 48
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada_____ 268 259 193
Europe and South America ____________-__ 305 292 123
Europe and Australasia ---------_-_----- ____ 108 116 95
All other routes--_-----------_-____- ________ 679 626 333
Total traffic 2,601 2,738 1,773

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal Years)
Transit Gross Tolls
Monras (In thousands of dollars)
Month --------- ----------
Avg. No. Average
1963 1962 Transits 1963 1962 Tolls
19SI-5S 1951-SS
July 1962 -------- 978 931 557 $4,980 $4,776 $2,432
August- - 950 934 554 4,926 4,749 2,403
September- - 909 892 570 4,617 4,523 2,431
October- _- --882 935 607 4,411 4,646 2,559
November- -- -- 924 891 568 4,684 4,443 2,361
December --- 947 938 599 4,983 4,870 2,545
January 1963- --- 769 917 580 3,871 4,735 2,444
February -- 841 841 559 4,313 4,388 2,349
March---------- 991 980 632 5,084 5,098 2,657
April 608 2,588
May----- 629 2,672
June--- -_ -- 599 2,528
Total for
9 months- 8,191 8,259 5,226 $41,869 $42,228 $22,181
Fiscal year___ 11,149 7,062 1$57,290 $29,969
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
1963 1962 i 1951-55
Nationality --; ------ -------- ---- ----------
Nationality Number Tons Number Tons Average Average
of of of of number tons
transit cargo transits cargo transits of cargo
Belgian_ __ 11 37,806 8 36,904 2 2,716
British & Can.__ 332 1,846,957 321 2,142,557 323 1,936,872
Chilean - 22 146,225 31 211,833 17 85,011
Chinese ------ 17 107,747 17 122,842 6 54,599
Colombian- 48 66,540 68 115,419 35 37,708
Danish ----. 73 380,561 79 475,923 57 224,852
French .--. 26 131,587 30 189,191 35 163,469
German------ 245 746,900 279 853,112 54 109,721
Greek ----- 172 1,452,448 178 1,898,953 29 253,278
Honduran .-- 51 23,686 14 32,431 97 130,876
Israeli-___--- 18 42,947 21 68,793
Italian- -___- 36 198,678 49 336,226 32 182,089
Japanese ------ 188 1,079,996 198 1,085,122 69 470,531
Lebanon __- 10 83,234 5 44,161 .
Liberian -.. _- 200 1,715,665 204 1,815,592 48 300,445
Netherlands 187 770,299 144 812,867 30 151,379
Nicaraguan _. 13 20,059 3 3,120 6 6,551
Norwegian 356 2,690,695 378 2,833,448 203 833,741
Panamanian -_- 100 414,403 87 443,530 116 665,039
Peruvian ------ 15 58,151 30 116,573 4 9,135
Philippine 14 52,072 14 45,786 5 33,662
Swedish-_ _98 545,096 80 415,508 46 198,424
United States 338 1,820,862 459 2,694,950 498 3,088,092
All others- -- 31 171,534 41 160,354 61 125,202
Total ---- ,601 14,604,148 2.738 16,955,195 1,773 9,063,392


Last Cruise Ship
THE SWEDISH America Line cruise
ship Kungsholm, which passed north-
bound through the Canal April 13, was
the last of the big cruise liners to visit
Canal waters during this winter season.
The well-known cruise ship was on the
last leg of its voyage home from a cruise
to the South Pacific, Australia, Japan,
and Hawaii which started January 17
from New York.
The Kungsholm has been using the
Canal since she was first built 10 years
ago and is noted for her luxurious
accommodations and good food. During
the summer, the shin is used on the
North Atlantic run to Europe.

Around the World
ANOTHER BIG passenger ship making
the northbound transit in April was the
Nederland Line vessel Oranje, which
arrived from Australia and New Zea-
land April 15 and docked in Balboa
with 811 passengers. The ship was on
her way back to Europe after a trip
around the world, a voyage she makes
regularly every 80 days.
After sailing from Cristobal April 16,
the Oranje was scheduled to stop in
Port Everglades, Fla. and New York
before continuing on to Southampton
and Amsterdam.
The Royal Rotterdam Lloyd vessel
Willem Ruys, which operates jointly
with the Oranie on the round-the-world
service, is to arrive in Balboa May 4
and will also stop at Port Everglades
and New York on the voyage home to
Europe. Both ships are represented
at the Canal by C. B. Fenton & Co.

Alumina-Sugar Carriers
TWO "JUMBOIZED" and converted
bulk cargo carriers started traveling
through the Canal recently with cargoes
of alumina from Corpus Christi on the
west-bound voyage and with raw sugar
from Hawaii on the east-bound trip.
The service was started in April with
the SS Inger, which transited south-
bound with a load of alumina from
Corpus Christi to the Columbia River
in Oregon. The second is the SS Walter
Rice, which will arrive here in May
with a similar cargo.
Both ships were "jumboized" by the
Todd Shipyard Corp. for the Reynolds
Metals Co. of Richmond, Va. Formerly
523-foot T-2 tankers, they were length-
ened to 626 feet, and their payloads
increased in the process by nearly
25 percent.
On the return trip to gulf ports, the
vessels will pick up raw sugar under
a freight contract with California and
Hawaiian Sugar Refining Corp.

14 MAY 3, 1963






CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERN

Third Quarter, Fiscal Year


Commercial vessels:
Ocean-going____ _--- ______
Small *0________________-
Total commercial -_--_____
U.S. Government vessels: **
Ocean-going -
Small - --------- --
Total Government _----. .
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment ---------------


Atlantic
to
Pacific

1,337
63
1,400

34
14
48
1,448


1963
Pacific
to Total
Atlantic


1,264
38
1,302

30
22
52

1,354


SVessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1,
ships transited free.


2,601
101
2,702

64
36
100

2,802


1962

Total


2,738
128
2,866

51
58
109
2,975


1951, Government-


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CA
Pacific to Atlantic

(All cargo figures in long tons)

Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
Commodity A
1963 1962 A
19
Ores, various __-----_ -------------- 1,563,792 1,751,313
Lumber -- ------------------ 988,427 1,022,575
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)--- 350,657 403,833
Wheat-----_ _-------------------- --- 352,651 433,134
Sugar _____________ 416,310 445,890
Canned food products- - ---------- 235,009 220,450
Nitrate of soda-_ ----- _- --------- 181,503 250,131
Barley - - -_ 169,378 318,567
Bananas-- - - ------- 274,884 271,676
Metals, various __ -----------------_ 268,530 342,049
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) - - - - - 282,339 269,045
Fishmeal _______________________ 323,443 -
Cotton, raw --------------------_____________________ 103,738 72,429
Iron and steel manufactures ----------- 219,518 141,215
Pulpwood ------------ - 119,956 123,407
All others-__ -- - - -1,571,945 1,659,616
Total --_ ---------------- 7,422,080 7,725,330 4


Atlantic to Pacific

Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1
Commodity
1963 1962 Av
19
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)___ 2,222,273 2,463,840
Coal and coke ------------------_ 1,242,702 1,600,782
Iron and steel manufactures ----------- 245,565 423,511
Phosphates - - 500,545 479,224
Sugar_------- _______ ____ __ 68,669 415,026
Soybeans -___________ 404,302 332,670
Metal, scrap----------------------- 344,815 470,155
Sulfur____________________ 80,242 74,441
Corn ____ ______________ 245,419 654,753
Fertilizers, unclassified- ------- 80,824 136,338
Ores, various--- - - 228,610 213,629
Machinery______________ ----------------------- 91,926 99,105
Cotton, raw ___-------------- 80,572 110,949
Chemicals, unclassified --------------- 119,797 148,796
Automobiles and parts -______ 78,422 74,688
All others ____ -_------ 1,147,385 1,531,958 1
Total _----- -- ----- ----_---- 7,182,068 9.229,865 4


ENT Cycling to Border
(Continued from p. 5)
g N good black top road to Boquete, one of
Transits or favorite places in Panama. It is more
'''1-ss than 3,000 feet high there and it gets
l ery cold. It felt wonderful after the
hot lowlands. Here we stayed at the
-- Pensi6n Virginia, which is a European-
1,773 style small hotel with reasonable prices
284 and very good food. While there, we
2,057 visited the coffee plantations.
_..... We inspected the new luxury hotel,
Los Rios, built between the forks of a
151 beautiful, cool mountain stream. The
71 dining room and bar look out over the
222 water. Next day found us back down
,2 the mountain and on to Concepci6n,
29 where we stayed at the Caribe Hotel
operated for $1 each. The meals (comida co-
rriente) were 50 cents, very good food
and plenty of it.
Next day we rode up 45 miles to
NAL Volcin and Cerro Punta. The road was
terrible and the rain and 6,000 feet
altitude and cold wind almost drove us
back. Fifteen miles back down the
mountain we stopped at Volcin for the
1963 night. From here we rode about 25 miles
average to Cafias Gordas on the Costa Rican
)51-55 side of the border. We did not go on,
961,032 as this is not the main customs station.
868,628 Back down the hills and headed for
249,439 home, while in David we met the
508,144 gringos" in charge of the paving con-
304,637 struction crews. They asked us if we
360,514 would like to go by the new route 60
58,964 miles as compared to 108 miles of very
192,445 bad road to Santiago. Of course, we
162,399 jumped at the chance. We found about
163,265 20 miles of the new route paved and
2 pavers at work there. Where the
55958 cement still was soft we rode alongside
60,502
48,257 the highway, then back on the new
681,354 road surface farther ahead where it
909342 had cured.
Each paver progresses about 800 feet
a day. Only a 2-lane project, work is
slowed by the fact that supply trucks
can't pass each other along sections
1963 where the pavers are at work, which
means only 1-lane traffic for supplies.
5erage The only discouraging thing was that
some of the business places and restau-
968,731 rants have two prices, one for the
676,946 local people and one for visitors.
195,587 I was the only casualty of the trip.
101,508 There were hundreds of dogs along our
134,079 route, and the animals aren't used to
16,632
82,173 traffic, either autos or motorcycles. I had
19,077 kicked so many dogs out of the way of
34,616 the motorcycle that I had a nightmare
27,416 about it in SonA, kicked the wall in my
72,754
66,290 sleep so hard I almost broke my big toe.
41,822 We had a wonderful time and can't
70,660 wait to go again. And we actually found
,113,667 it cheaper on the road than staving
,042,171 at home.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









PPI


EFFECTS AND aftereffects of the
long, costly longshoremen's strike in the
United States speckled the first quarter
1963 pattern of Panama Canal transits,
tolls, and cargoes. Although the strike
ended January 25, cargo movements in
many east and gulf coast ports still were
snarled weeks later.
Large numbers of freighters, rail cars,
and trucks were piled up in coastal
harbors and handling costs mounted
rapidly because of the congestion.
Record numbers of waterfront workers
were on the job in many ports, with still
not enough longshoremen available to
meet demands. As late as mid-March
it appeared that it would be several
more weeks before "normal" operations
were restored at some points.
Capsulized, the effects on the Pan-
ama Canal were:
January-Traffic fell to about the
1958 level.
February-There was some post-
strike recovery, to a level about equal
to last year.
March-Transits tied the previous
high month of May 1961, and marked
recovery in tolls income pushed the
figure to $5,241,310, compared with
$5,200,903 for the same month last
year.
The 1,030 March transits included
991 commercial ships, second highest
month for this category, and 31 Govern-
ment ships, about double the March
1962 level for this bracket. No single
day's traffic, however, matched the 60
ships which arrived for transit last
November 5, highest figure since World
War I1, during the Cuban crisis.
Cargo tonnage moving through the
Canal in March was below the level
for the same month in 1962.
At the close of the third quarter, it
appeared that actual tonnage for fiscal
year 1963 would end up at about the
1961 level of 63.7 million long tons.
General cargo ships have been carry-
ing less cargo per Panama Canal net
ton capacity. This drop has been
evident since 1959. Contributing signi-
ficantly to this has been a downward
trend in Japanese business and cargoes
after a peak in June 1961. Japan tight-
ened currency controls in mid-1961,
eased them starting in October 1962.
It is anticipated that the rate of growth
of Japanese industrial production will
return to its 1960-61 rate in 1963.
A cargo tonnage upturn was shown


TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN MARCH
1963 1962
Commercial. .............. 991 980
U.S. Government ........... 31 15
Free. .................... 8 10
Total. ............. 1,030 1,005
TOLLS *
Commercial.... $5,085,705 $5,099,974
U.S. Government 155,605 100,929
Total.... $5,241,310 $5,200,903
CARGO*
Commercial.... 5,609,988 6,200,254
U.S. Government 113,717 87,543
Free.......... 51,038 39,824
Total.... 5,774,743 6,327,621
"Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
Cargo figures are in long tons.

in Canal records for February, but it
is still too early to determine whether
this is a valid encouraging sign or
merely a temporary condition.
Tanker transits appear to be leveling
off after having peaked in August 1962
at their highest postwar point. The
surge was due in large part to the severe
winter and increased Japanese fuel oil
purchases from Venezuela. Crude oil,
fuel oil, and petroleum products move-
ments generally have been up in recent
months.
Iron ore movements are drifting


downward, as are coal and coke, scrap
and wheat movements, while phos-
phates continue a slow but steady
growth.
Europe to west coast South America
traffic is heading upward again after its
first postwar pause in 1962. Traffic from
Europe to the west coast of the United
States and Canada has turned up again
after having reached a low in the
middle of fiscal year 1962.
Beef and sugar shipments are leading
a rise in business between the east coast
of the United States and Canada and
Australia. Meat shipments to United
States-Canadian markets may go to
about 280,000 tons during the coming
fiscal year, compared with only 97,000
in 1959. Sugar shipments, it is indi-
cated, may go to about 270,000 tons,
compared with only 70,000 for fiscal
year 1962 and virtually none for the
previous 3 years.
Offsetting these trends, however, is
an almost certain loss to the Canal of
about 500,000 tons of sugar business
bound for Japan. The Japanese sugar
industry is switching purchases of sugar
from Cuba to South Asia and elsewhere.
A report from Japan states that of the
1.2 million to 1.35 million metric tons
of sugar needed by that country in
1963, contracts with non-Cuban sources
now cover more than 1.1 million tons.
For the last several years, more than a
third of Japan's sugar came from Cuba,
and through the Canal.
I 00
N
U
1000 M
8
E
900 R
O
F
800
T
R
-- 700 A
N
S
600
T
S
0


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
MONTHS


SH


N


G




Full Text

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBR AR IES

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smothers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1310pana

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PANAMA \CANAL IN THIS ISSUE Canal Cargoes Curtain Time OV Volunteers Babies, Babies, Babies ),OOR ID,4 SOuIAL SCIENCES 4'MM qr ., -----1v~ *1*

PAGE 8

PANAMA _AL JOSEPH CONNOR, Press Officer SoE J F L NG, JF emnr-lPes ient 4 Publications Editors W. I. LEBER, Lieutern at Gonvernur ROBERT D. KERR and Jruo E. BRICENO FRANK A. BALDIN Official Panama Canal Publication Editorial Assistants Panama Canal Information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. EuNlcE RiCHARD, TOBi BITTs, d TomAs A. CUPAs Printed at the Printing Plant, Moueant Hope, C. Z. RcisTn iri n OA .C'~ On s le at all Panama C an A eric center Retail Store, and the Tiv Ali Guest ll us' for 10 day after publication date at 5 cents each. Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each. Postal mney arder, made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M. Balboa heights. C.Z. Editorial Office, ari located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C.Z. 170 Transits Index Canal Cargoes__--------3 -and Cycling to Frontier 5 ""ON' Volunteers --_-6 konnnn288 Curtain Time_ -_ 8 Promotions and Transfers 10 Babies, Babies, Babies I1 THIS IS THE engineering estimate of the value to the Panama Canal History -12 Canal of 2 extra feet to be added to the storage potential of maddenn Lake by installation of flashboard extensions to the tops Anniversaries 13 of the four existing drum gates. If the estimate were reduced to more familiar things by an Canal Traffic, Transits, Trade 14 ordinary house-wife preparing breakfast, it would mean approxiShippig 16 mnately enough water for 128 billion cups of coffee (without cream), and 288 million pieces of toast (medium brown). The honus of water and electrical energy, part of the program to further increase Canal capacity, will be gained by raising the maximum level of Madden Lake from 250 to 252 feet, thus adding 24,564 acre-feet, or 1,070,000,000 cubic feet, to the lake's storage potential. The "flashboards," lip extensions expected to do the job, are reinforced metal sections which will be welded onto the 4,100-foot-long drum gates. The flashboards have been manufactured by the Industrial Division according to plans prepared by the Engineering Division. Installation is scheduled for the latter part of May. ABOUT OUR COVER: It looks like a ship The 2-foot increase in the storage capacity of Madden Lake cruising through a neglected backyard. Actually, will give Madden hydroelectric plant enough additional water the Johannes Frit:en is transiting the Panama to generate 4,000 more kilowatts of firm power for I month, or Canal. That's Mandinga Slough in the fore2,880,000 kilowatt-hours. ground, on the west bank of the Canal just south Since the water released from Madden Dam pours into Gatun of Gamboa, in the latest project area for widening Lake via the Chagres River, it can be used a second time, either of the Canal from 300 to 500 feet. When the to put ships through the locks or for electric power. The additional job's finished a picture like this won't be possible, 1.070.000,000 cubic feet, nearly 8 billion gallons, from Madden for all the foreground of the picture will have x ill make possible about 170 additional transits or 1,440,000 been cut awx'ay. There's already been substantial kilowx att-hours of powx'er generation by the Catun hydroelectric change in appearance. The Mandinga Slough, station. former channel of the Obispo River, vas filled Although operation of the Catun hydro plant is reduced during in by the French, the river itself later being drsasoo months to consere w ater in Gatun Lake, the Madden diverted into the Mandinga River. h'dro plant operates all year. Power from Madden is furThe German flag Johannes Fritzen is a 24,636ii hI d h' 3 ha dro< I etrit generators of 8,000 kilowatt capacity ton ore carrier, 701 feet long and with a beam of i ,rating current it 6,900 volts xhiel is stepped up to 44.000 90.2 feet. Built in 1962 in Bremen, she sails out olts for transmussion to substations. of Emden, operated by J. Fritzen & Son. 2 MAY 3, 1963

PAGE 9

The container ship San Juan, a new trader through the Canal, displays one of the recent developments in cargo handling. Ease of handling and contents protection are features of such large "packaging." SHIPS transiting the Panama Canal in erated products tonnages on an upward they were for so many years after World fiscal 'ear 1962 carried enough lumber trend. Behind the oils increase have War II. to build approximately 183,000 5-room been the hard winter in the United In addition to the drops in scrap iron houses. States and Japanese fuel oil purchases and coal cargoes through the Canal, They carried enough gasoline to take from Venezuela. Crude oil and products wheat tonnage also is off, largely due to all privately-owned cars in the Canal cargoes also are up. Part of the oils use of theSt. Lawrence Seaway to move Zone around the world four times. increase is attributed to oil firms' shiftwestern Canada's wheat to world Whether tonnages for these and other ing of stocks from one coast of the markets. The long term outlook for major commodities will show upward States to the other to stay within quotas. wheat tonnages doesn't point to volume, or downward trends in the future is a Europe's increasing standard of living because European Common Market question no crystal ball can answer. is responsible for most of the canned effects also are likely to cut Canal wheat Reasoned guesstimates are based on and refrigerated products gain, bringing transits. studies of natural resources developboth an increase in demand and inThe St. Lawrence Seaway route ments throughout the world, changes crease in ability to pay. These items doesn't meet all needs of the waterway in ship construction, cargo handling no longer are a luxury item there as area on a year round basis, however. methods and many completely unWhen Great Lakes shipping is icepredictable or unforseeable factors. bound, there's an upsurge in Panama Even the weather causes short term / Canal traffic of foreign ores. fluctuations. For Canal planning and programing The result is that predicting probaoa Iter ns purposes, "short term" refers to a period bilities of shifts in cargoes, which may of not more than 2 years, and "long prove major factors in sound Canal D term" is more than 10 years ahead. program planning, is something less In recession s In between times are referred to as than an exact science. intermediate" periods. For the immediate future, much of PANAMA CANAL transits figures A full review of trends would the Canal traffic picture hinges on condon't follow any set pattern during require a book. What follows is a mere tinted industrial growth of Japan. Scrap recessions in the United States. samplingt iron tonnage figures have shown their There are many other factors inCrop failures can play a substantial sharpest break recently due to the recesvolved. It's a "world" waterway, and figures although large inventories can sion in Japan. Japan's customers for other countries, at the same time, curb immedia v of the effect. One scrap have been living off inventories may not be hard hit on the commodiblowdown can take as many as 3 million built up earlier as much as possible, and ties which make up the major Canal banana plants and this can virtually curtailing current buying. transits items. shot down a port for as much as 9 Coal tonnage also is off. About 95 During the last four United States shut dn a p antongs are as r percent of the coal passing through the recessions: .on. Crepantin wre in Canal goes to Japan. With a growing 1949-A transits upturn followed. diction. Crop failures in wheat and population and restricted acreage, 1954-Transits leveled off, but feed grains in Europe can mean a surge Japan also has contributed largely to didn't drop. in Canal traiisits of ships carrying the steady high level of phosphates 1958-Transits increased during Depletion of major ores and similar tonnage through the Canal. the recession. sources in some fields often ma have 1961-There was a brief drop. resore nsm ilsotnmvhv Next in importance in possible effect then a r. little effect on transits, for the' comon cargoes are possible or probable the d an 29-tun. pansies involved are forever prospecting developments on the west coast of During the period 1929-33, a panew veins, often find there o the South America and tapping of reserves major depression era, Canal cargo same general area to supplement those in the western United States. tonnage was down approximately >amneral Tras sueent toe 45 percent, but tolls dropped only story on Recent cargoes figures show mineral b5 25 percent. iron ore in Chile and Peru. -)ils (petroleum) and canned and refrigChanges in ways of handling cargo THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 3

PAGE 10

V,4 can have major effects, as in development of "superships" and large bulk carriers, sometimes the difference between profit and loss or bigger profit and smaller loss. With larger ships, the same tonnage means fewer transits. Not manx years ago 16,000-ton tankers were -! considered to be the largest needed or advisable for efficient operation. Tankers now range as high as 132,000 tois. Shifts in manufacturing emphasis, with changes in raw materials needs Land power-supply factors, can change the picture in some commodities brackets. As a sample, original thinking of aluminum industry executives was that plants should be located near consumer centers. Then it changed to the view that thev should be near cheap water and hydroelectric power supplies. w Now there are indications it is changing Fifty million martinis-or part of the raw materials for 50 million of them. That's the actual back to the original view, to locate them estimated contents of these hundreds of casks of Spanish olives awaiting loading. The ship near consumer centers. Each such is the Charles Lykes of the Lykes Lines, which has 17 ships that are frequent callers at the Panama Canal. Olives are shipped both ways through the Canal, to the east from the change, depending on where plants are United States west coast, to the west from Spain. located or relocated, can show up in Canal transits and tonnage figures. Different refineries are geared to have an established market in Japan. Paradoxically, major hydroelectric different types of crude oil, and it may Florida-Asia phosphates shipments expansion projects do not appear to cut be more economical to ship a high accounted for 82 percent of the phosinto fuel cargo figures. This is because sulphur or low sulphur crude from a phates traffic through the Canal in fiscal industries are attracted to these areas distant point than to modify the re1962. There's been an average 15 with resultant increased raw materials finery. percent per year increase since World and consumer goods demands. With Cuba out of the picture as a War 11 in phosphates tonnage. Oils, petroleum products, and petrosource of supply' for the U.S. sugar This picture could change abruptly, chemicals go both ways through the needs, there's been a surge of east coast however. There also are phosphate Canal, with the heavier movement from imports from other sources, primarily supplies in Peru, under water off the east to west. Venezuela is one of the Australia and Peru. Cuba has annual west coast of the United States, in the major suppliers of crude oil for the commitments to Communist bloc naMiddle East, and Africa. Utah and west coast of the United States and the tions of 4,860,000 tons of sugar a Montana also have large phosphate west coast of South America. Oil firms year-and with very poor recent crops reserves, but it's now too expensive to may "borrow" from each other and hasn't been able to meet the commitmove them out. have to meet commitments for repayments. But part of the Cuban sugar for Technological improvements saving ment of loans, staying within States Russia and virtually all of it for mainonly pennies per ton can make the quotas, by transferring supplies from land China moves through the Canal. difference between marginal operation one coast to the other. Florida phosphates, good and cheap, and profitable operation; and costs normally are highest in development stage The Ore Convey, one of the largest self unloader type superships. This picture was taken or at the tag end, as richness of ore from a platform atop the self unloading equipment while the ship was in the upper veins, for example, thins out. chamber of Gatun Locks. Until 2 or 3 years ago, the major part of Canal traffic was from the Pacifie to the Atlantic. Now it's from the Atlantic -to the Pacific. The most significant long term factor -in possible generation of greater Canal traffic is the possibility of development on the west coast of the United States of a number of integrated steel companies such as exist in the eastern part of the country today. There are largely untapped reserves of coal and iron in the Mountain States. However, the next change in Canal cargoes could result from a type of processing not yet developed for a raw -.material that can't be handled profitably now-to meet a need not vet felt. 4 MAY 3, 1963

PAGE 11

"C 4 Rolling "roof" for freshly poured concrete. It keps rain Paving machinery and crews at work on Inter-American Highway sector or sun off to protect the material during first stage of near Told, looking east, the direction in which paving work is progressing. setting. One of these is with each paving machine, across the Canal at Balboa and rode is worst that I thought. The speed limit FTWtoward La Chorrera, stopping in Capira had been reduced to 15 m.p.h. due to long enough to eat the white cheese a religious festival at Atalaya, but there and pastelitos for which this little were no signs along the road of the village is famous. limit. Officials couldn't catch us, so they Following the Inter-American Highcalled ahead and stopped us with a road way along the coast of the Gulf of block, I had to staN in jail for a couple Panama, we stopped at San Carlos. and of hours until the proper Iici arrived, spent some time on the beach under a then was released with a dress, ing down. bohio out of the hot sun. On to Santa We stayed at the Hote1 Santiago, Clara ard Rio Hato, where the road where air-conditioned rooms with priturns about 20 miles toward the center vate bath are available, or rooms with of the Isthmus to Penonom6. Near Nat.i just bed for $1. The food was excellent we sawv the huge factory for processing at the sidewalk restaurant. The happy By CLOIS C. DUFFIE Maggi tomato products and other feeling we left there with didn't last President, Canal Zone Chapter, produce. It is surprising to see this long, however, because here began Worldwide Cycle Club factory there, way out in the middle of approximately 122 miles of the' worst nowhere. Two-wheel carts are a familar road imaginable, through Soni aiid RIDES ALONG sections of the new sight. Remedios, to the south of the InterInter-American Highway under conA little farther along the road is American route. It was vorse than I had struction between David and Santiago, another factory where the small candies rem bered, with loose gravel, big a brief stay in jail for one of the tourists, known as "estrellitas" are made. The rocks, and deep ruts in places. and an almost broken toe were among new highway misses Aguadulce, and About 17 miles this side of David we highlights and lowlights of the annual we were familiar with this town, so we hit paved road again which goes to trip of the club to the interior of bypassed it and headed for Santiago, Concepci6n and all the way to the Panama. xw here we spent the night. Costa Rican frontier. Just outside David The first of March, just as the past I spent part of it in jail because of a wxe turned up the mountain on a very 5 years, found us busy preparing for misunderstanding. I guess my Spanish (See p. 15) the trip, but alas, only two members showed up: Gus Nellis, road captain, and myself. Twenty to thirty had gone on earlier trips to Guatemala, San Jos6, and interior towns of the Republic. This year, however, a lot of members were in school, some working, others unable to get leave at the time. There are about 50 members in the club throughout the Zone and another 50 evelists often ride with the club. Clois C. Duffle with natives Members of the Zone chapter also ride in typical scene in the Chirifrequently with the Panama Motorcycle qui Province area near CaClub. fias Cordas, at the Costa About noon on March 1, though. it Rica frontier. House is on was apparent that no others would come. So we headed west with the right, cooking area on left. familiar crv of "Let's Motor." We crossed the new $20 million bridge THnE PANAMA CANAL REvIEW 5

PAGE 12

VOLUNTEERS t ~HELP "STAMP OUT POLIO" Down the hatch. A young Paraiso girl is assured that taking the oral polio vaccine involves nothing more than swallowing a sugar lump. Shown at the Paraiso clinic, at left, is Jan Jensen of Balboa, whose mother, Mrs. BernTHE FIRST ROUND of the oral vaccine program hilda Jensen, R.N., is the nurse at the Paraiso Community aimed at stamping out polio in the Canal Zone was Health Centcr. At right is Maritza Ipina of the Junior completed with a flourish last month on the Atlantic Red Cross and in the background is Mrs. H. Skeie, R.N., .o Public Health Nurse in the schools, who helped at the side of the Isthmus as more than 10,000 doses were Paraiso Clinic. administered to bring the total doses of Type I vaccine administered bv the Canal's Health Bureau to more than 27,000. The second round, in which Types II and III of the vaccine will be administered, will be this month. Pacific-siders will receive their combination doses lay 3 and 4, while Atlantic-siders will receive theirs May 17 and 18. Health Bureau officials credited much of the success of the first round to volunteers who worked in the various clinics-and they are relying on volunteers for much of this month's second round. The "honor roll" of organizations which recruited volunteers and otherwise assisted with the first round included Civic Councils in both the U.S. and Latin American communities, the Canal Zone Chapter of the American Red Cross, the Junior Red Cross, Red Cross Gray Ladies, Girl Scouts of America, Pink Girls, International Boy Scouts, and the Cristobal Women's Club. There also were many community4 minded individuals who volunteered and served. Dr. Sidney B. Clark, Chief of Preventive 'Medicine and Quarantine, said the work of the volunteers was "indispensable" and congratulated them for their part in the successful completion of the first round of vaccine. The clinic operated in the Cristobal Smiling volunteer workers greeted those visiting the Diablo Heights clinic in the Junior Women's Club building in Margarita also High School gymnasium. At the Identification table, right, is Mrs. Alice Meehan. From used the services of volunteers for the left are Andrea Lynn Sollitto, Maria Livia Harcega, and Evangeline Buenofe. At the paperwork and other details connected feeding table, in rear of room, are Mrs. Peggy Welch, left, and Mrs. Evelyn Koperski, R.N. with the program. Shown around the records table here are Doreen Baas, Barbara Dclvecchio, Mrs. Rosalyn Bernstein, Dr. Howard C. Pritham, Virginia and Jane Ferris, and Mrs. Lois Thomas. Another volunteer, Estelle Davidson, was on duty before the photograph was taken. IDENTI[ICAION P

PAGE 13

AI Junior Red Cross Volunteens were on duty at the Santa Cruz gymnasium and at Ancon when oral polio vaccine was given in connection with the Pacific side program for residents of the Canal Zone and Canal employees who live in Panama. From left are Margaret Thorne, Dale Davy, Sidney Dyer, Miargarite George, Carl Sainten, Stanicia Jones, Ancelmo Cummings, Eleanor Millett, Damiin Albeo, Victor Joshua, George Brown, Yolanda Evelyn, Going through the line at the Balboa oral Carol Grazette, and Antonio Cooper. Also on duty, but not present for the photograph, polio vaccine clinic is John D. Hollen, were: Richard Millett, Silvia Haughton, Lydia Dunn, Marva Savory, and Karl Evelyn. Chief of the Panama Canal Executive Planning Staff. Mrs. George Pauk, R.N., checks his registration form and directs him to the next table where records were kept. Immediately behind Mr. Hollen is Dr. Mary Graham. In Paraiso, volunteers were recruited to help with a "grass roots" effort to get the entire community to take the oral polio vaccine. Health Bureau officials attributed this special effort with the "remarkably high" turnout in that community. The special effort took the form of volunteers preparing registration forms for everyone in the community, then delivering them to the homes of the families. Working on Mrs. Violet Rhaburn, member of the Santa Cruz Civic Council and active registratin blanks in ts picotu, Ric fdo in Girl Scout work, checks the registration form of a young resident about James, Emilio Singh, Ruth Russell, iarva to receive her oral polio vaccie. Griffith, Elena Springer, and Ricardo Foster. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7

PAGE 15

THE HANDS of the clock point to Meg Fennel, who is one of the maids, A. curtain time. House lights dim. Here Lls in the Post Library at Fort Kobbe and and there a program rustles. the other maid is played by Irene Then there's a hushed silence as the s edging Divisio curtain rises and another Theatre Guild iStenographer.e audience in the Ancon Theatre is p er, a teacher at Balboa landed squarely in the middle of a High School, is stage manager and his period, and a social set, that sometimes wife, Linda, is script assistant, Larry may be familiar, perhaps involved in -Boutis of Fort Clavton is lighting and amusing bric-a-brac of a porcelain sound effects technician. Dora Hard% comedy, maybe entangled in domestic 5a Canal Zone teacher, is in charged details f Old1 Lace charm, or enmeshed properties and the art work is directed in a Victorian thriller such as is A de by Catsy Taylor Schaffer, a nuise at Street, the Theatre Guild's fifth producFort Clayton. tion of the current subscription season While the cast is busy with lines and uhih opens tonight. situations, the production staff swings a This spme-tmgler began its career in into action. This time ther factd the -Lodon ien r the title of 'Gaslight." -task of bringing the London of the gasb h ths. Patric atlririlton, recuslight era, complete with sound of Big to , ding shuddrs to shuddrBen in the background, to a Canal Zone ,nohu lair ts"insi st audience of 1963. Ideas are promor i t] o t to co'ntiue this pounded, the staff challenges each ir i L1 other's ideas, and then is applied the Lighting effects have an important place tiir, a e i aple ir on the st On stage, during tryouts, with director Gene Sim second from left. At far left is Dick Cox, who is test of what those ideas would mean Leading lady LaVonne Garrison appears in the suspense thriller that opensS tonight. min i S t l. is thi plot unfolds making his farewell appearance with the Thea d1d, for he will retire from Panama Canal service to the audience in terms of suspense, in the role of a seared little Victorian wife "Try this one, says stage manager Dick ig .h ss s, Yi J, so natural, so and Irave the Isthmus as soon as the play closes. gel Street he plays the role of Sergeant Rough, humor, and dramatic surprise. n Angel Street. Len Fasnie, on an iyer Larry Bout ig hours of hard work u t a kindly detective. Seated on the conch is LaVa Garrison and standing, at right, is John McTaggart. Sets for past productions hare been rener, isFarog addr. dLrrysigth i They appear as Me. and Mrs Jark anninham. tt assistant Linda Colever is seated at the edge center, is acting as lighting and sound f, mpi nshin thi at impression. the stage. Standing, center, are Meg Fenne e F l and Loomis, prospets for the roles of the two maids. effects techncan. os of The strc Guil assrnbers rooms, a turn-of-the-century living and hIpfuli friends make up the nos en room, ,an outdoor patio, a boat deck, ar Cpin, Whme mrmhri reec come Plavhouse on tryout nights. in the Canal Zone and played the part apartment, and wialk-up flat. to tlst fothghts, fr a bso, but sho Dates foe rehearsal mst ie set to of Toglio in The Naked an'd the Dead, Sometimes materials are ordered C ta in RUaccornmodate director and east, for in which was filmed in Panama in 1957. m nsances ke figures are availLaVornne Garrison of Fort Amador FOR "ANGEL STREET" able' for rersals 'or strk backstage appears in the role of Bella ManningMAY 3 THROUGH 11 a oni aftee thi working day is over ham. This is her third appearance with Th 'Ih mali load, John 'i.cTaggait. wh the Theatre Guild. plays Jaick annirgham in Angel Str i Richard E. Cor, who is seen in Ange svik is :vide.nced in the stage setting is a plai inent ard e mployer cmana, Sliest as Sergeant Rough, a polite feom thi States, bat more often than im rhi hghting the piopeities the rnnt relations specialist in the Panama speetor, is executive assistant in the preoisris piersis, arid iniriad d tails ('anal Personne l Bureau. He made hi Pa nama Canal Supply Division. He rot, paint brother are plied, and prop-' Tickets and money exchange hands rapidly ass sears a Ir is hr th of a plas acting debeot in the C anal Zone in 19? miade his Isthmian debut in Thornton rt g still further behind the from opening night ems through the run of irs ti, ti serious buier f a Geandpee in the Theatre Giuld's \X ilder's Our Torn arnd has appeared sn orin the play. Leo Farlow, in the ticket hooth, sis Iar, i, a pes a whih tlt Ths atir pi"idution of lire Hfappy Tims si his. r number of plays including A Holiscenes arc Ike people who compose the fills an order for reserved seats as a very ( Ia I.s h, s tI adis ce sldi r ro l as shire ted be Gino Simpsoan. He de for Lovers, The Little Foxes, J. B., programs ane arrange for skir printing young theater enthusiast looks on. It. t. srll hr isk % i rpard it) is ral theatre Guild p (t sf the Frying Pan, and A Raisin and those who make the posters. ieavarrhlr ls i tmrter sissi aiii dnti i s s hilc sein g in the US. At s 11ie Stn, sures are taken, publicity written, and Balboa-378 is the Theatre Guild tele'errs, sli P 1 tie ii p ei 14 tickets prepared. Even that latter is phone number for reservations. Mrs. Tillie iii ih the ph, s il plat ,ar tricks, for a careful check has to be MeTaggart no sooner takes a reservations accouni e nrder and hangs up, than the phone rings eSinpsorn direro i to gl Menbers of the cast apply their make-up.lte Gon hair is being arranged by script assistant made to ensure that no two people find again-with more seat requests. Ira h id a loeg and di,Linda Colter while the leading mar i and Linda Loomis apply make-up. themselves sharing a single seat. s k with the'olunteers are enlisted to handle n1i reservations. Proper make-up must b( Every bit of stage business is important. rproerred, and waeteer askers assigned Pointers are given Meg Fennel (left) by pit t m u se a thr\ll fsr the various performoances, in this director Gene Simpson and stage manager prniats and h aer w as Busaulease freo Iar 3 through Nar 11. Dick W. Coltver. rha h i a rcet there. Suddenly things that weemcd at sixes A ogc hccft coop n, dfo th rut and( sevens fall into Phlce, It's opening \reeasmiey helis i l s night. The audience gathers, hous n i tire (ansh it errblights dim, and another Theatn Guild in thc Canal /on or, Paan is vel production is launched. san e e
PAGE 16

PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS ELPLOYEES promoted or transferred Waldo B. Gilley, Lead Foreman (Public Segundo H. Niero, Assistant Baker to betw een March 5 and April 5 (WithinWorks-Wharfbuilding) to General ForeBaker. grade promotions and jobs reclassificaman (Public Works). Monica 0. Marecheau, Counterwoman to Sales Clerk. tons are not listed): HEALTH BUREAU Donald C. Escalona, Utility Worker to ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Coleridge E. Hurley, Clerk from IndusGrocery Attendant. trial Division to Gorgas Hospital. Nicolss D. Bishop, Utility Worker to Helen A. Adams, Accounting Technician, Counterman. Accounting Division, and Extension Coco Solo Hospital Class Teacher, to Clerk-Stenographer, Clement A. Murrell, Pinsetter to Utility Administrative Branch, and Extension Mildred R. Largent, Staff Nurse (Medicine Worker. Class Teacher. and Surgrv) to Head Nurse (ieine Roy Dickens, Waiter to Laborer (Heavy), and Surger Ernest A. Jones. Warehouseman to Clerk. Cyril G. Francis, Hospital Attendant to CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Laboratory Helper. Community Services Division Frank E. Hirt, Window Clerk to Relief Florence A. Springer, Hospital Attendant Estle H. Davison, Engineman (Hoisting Supervisor, Cristobal, Postal Division. to Nursing Assistant. and Portable), Maintenance Division, to Hollis Griffon, Police Private, Police DiviHerbert Brown, Counterman, Supply DiviLeader Engineman (Hoisting and sion, and Relief Photographer, Adminsion, to File Clerk. Portable). istrative Branch, to Detective and Relief Luis C. Martinez, Painter (Maintenance), Photographer. MARINE BUREAU Locks Division, to Laborer. Division of Schools Navigation Division Jorge Lugardo, Laborer (Cleaner), to Isolina G. Rivera, Substitute Teacher to Osborn C. Robinson, Deckhand (BoatLaborer (Heavy). Teacher (Senior High-U.S. Schools). swain) to Launch Operator. TRANSPORTATION AND Edna H. Hollowell, Laura MJ. Tarflinger, James C. Warner, Laborer (Heavy) to Substitute Teacher to Teacher (Junior Chauffeur. TERMINALS BUREAU High-U.S. Schools). Gilbert De Touche, Seaman, Launch, to Alfredo Arosemena, Victor MJ. Castafeda, Lucile G. Feeney, Evelyn B. Fondren, Seaman. Guillermo Cort6s, Antonio Martinez, Vera C. Phillips, Florence P. Stickney, Claudio D. Prado, Secundino Rangel, Substitute Teacher to Teacher (ElemenIndustrial Division Jos6 Sosa, Dock Worker to Stevedore. tary-U.S. Schools). Michael J. Burza, Machinist (Marine) to Napoleon B. Ashby, Edgar Carmichael, Joseph E. N. Murray, Laborer (Cleaner) Lead Foreman Machinist (Marine). Sylvester Grant, Claudius N. Thompson, from Housing Branch, Community Holand A. Adams, Helper (General) to Cargo Marker to Clerk (Checker). Services Division. Helper Blacksmith (Heavy Fires). Reuben Panton, Dock Xorker to Line Charles R. Scott, Laborer to Laborer Handler. ENGUNERING A CONSTRUCTIONr(Heavy). Robert NI. Jolliffe, Jr., Laborer Cleaner, BUREAU Alfred Braithwaite, Laborer to Helper Industrial Division, to Cargo Marker. Walter R. Weeks, Helper Electronics (General). Mechanic to Stockman, Electrical DiviLocks Division OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not sion. Howard M. Armistead, Electrician to Lock involve changes of title: Engineering Division Operator (Electrician). Louis C. Archuleta, Structural Engineer, Gale A. O'Connell, Structural Engineer to Joel W. Donawa, Nlaintenanceman (Rope Engineering Division. Chief, Structural Branch. and Wire Cable) to Leader MaintenanceMargaret F. Wiggin, General Claims James C. Foster, General Engineer to Genman (Rope and Wire Cable). Examiner, General Audit Division. eral Engineer (Corrosion Mitigation). Pedro Tufi6n, Laborer (Heavy), from Maintenance Division to Painter (MainteEvelyn W. Brandt, Supervisory AdminDredging Division nance). istrative Services Assistant, Industrial Clate Riddle, Electrician to Leader ElecKarl A. Sinclair, Line Handler to Clerk. Division. trician (Lineman). Miatilde BeltrAn, Helper Lock Operator to Donald C. Pierpoint, Cafeteria Manager, Juan N. Nalverde, Dock Worker, TerToolroom Attendant. Supply Division. minals Division, to Laborer (Heavy). Doris NJ. Young, Clerk-Stenographer, Jorge T. Vhsquez, Laborer (Cleaner), OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Office of the Comptroller. Supply Division, to Laborer. Emily NI. Brooks, Clerk-Typist to Time, Jeanene K. Zimmerman, Clerk Typist, Horman V. Archibold, Storekeeping Clerk Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting Gorgas Hospital. to Radio Operator. Division. Mary L. Parker, Mary A. Williford, ClerkJos6 F. de los Rios, Navigational Aid SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY Typist, Industrial Division. Worker to NIaintenanceman DistribuSERVICES BUREAU Elena Chain, Accounting Clerk, Industrial tion Systems. Division. Mateo Cubillo, Oiler (Floating Plant) to Erich L. Reinhardt, Clerk-Typist to AssistBasil I. Nelson, Accounting Clerk, TerLaunch Operator. ant Retail Store Manager, General minals Division. Irene MJ. Michaelis, Clerk-Typist, EmManager's Office. Robert L. Allen, Timekeeper, Terminals ployee Services Branch, Personnel BuSupply Division Division. reau, to Clerk-Stenographer. Charles N. Norris, Accountant, Gorgas Robert J. King, Clerk-Typist, Navigation Maintenance Division Hospital, to Accountant Assistant. Division. Robert C. Herrington, Lead Foreman Jeannine C. Scott, Library Assistant, Canal Leonard A. Shirley, Clerk, Industrial Divi(Public Works Road Construction) to Zone Library, to Freight Rate Assistant. sion. Lead Foreman (Public Works WharfEsme Rochester, Painter (Sign) from MainNellie G. Cadger, Library Assistant, Canal builder). tenancy Division. Zone Library. 10 MAY 3, 1963

PAGE 17

CLASSES START MAY 9 Obstetrical Latin American Schools Record Here Open Officially May 8 Surveyed THE NEW SCHOOL year for Latin Senior High School, Samuel Skeete of American Schools of the Canal Zone Rainbow City Elementary School, Mrs. will start, officially, May 8, but the Vilnia Royo of Santa Cruz. ElementaryGORGAS HOSPITAL'S obstetrical 3,855 children enrolled in grades Junior High School, and the Misses cases record for the last decade is as kindergarten through 12 won't have Marva Taylor and Mavis McNichols of good as that of large Stateside clinics their first day of classes until Thursday, Paraiso Elementary School. on key results, and in most instances May 9. Mrs. Clarice N\. Bryan of Rainbow better. Analysis of the three greatest New school facilities have been City Elementary School and Miss Vilma hazards to pregnant women has been added and there will be a number of Best of Paraiso Elementary School made in ,033 cases during the 10-yearon earned degrees at the University of mad in1,03 drin th 10yea teachers onthe staffs. Nebraska. They will return NMay 8'after period. Three special education classrooms asa Ten wnlaretof abs8 fte Results of the analysis and comhave been added at the Rainbow City 'ing been on leave of absence. parison were presented by means of Elementary School. They will provide the tennichers eho te to return at charts and graphs by Dr. I. J. Strumpf, space for the educable mentally handieinnTofs a ftr lasa Chief of the Obstetrics and Cynecology capped, areas for remedial reading and of Rainbow Citn Junior-Senior Hig(h Service at Corgas, at a recent meetspeech therapy, and will release classSchool. ing of the Isthmian Medical Society, room space in the junior-senior high On extended leave and to return after attended by 76 doctors, school for regular high school classes. the opening of school in May are Mrs. It was stressed that these results are On the first official day of school Amy E. C. de Boyce of Paraiso Eledue to: May 8, faculty meetings will be held by meitarv School; A'udley Webster and Careful prenatal watchfulness and principals in the respective buildings to Miss Alva Piper of Rainbow City Juniorinstant treatment at the first sign of a acquaint both old and new teachers Senior High School, and Daniel Micomplication; constant attendance by a with policies and procedures. During randa, who is studying in Mexico. All nurse and two doctors of every patient, the day, teachers will be issued the are to return in June. regardless of creed, color, or rank, necessary textbooks and supplies for Mrs. Jocelyn C. de Blugh of Paraiso during labor and delivery; use of imtheir classes. Elementary School will report in proved obstetrical and anestetic techTeachers new to the system at RainAugust, and Ellis Fawcett, principal of of the nurses and doctors, and the bow City Junior-Senior' High School Paraiso Junior-Senior High School, and availability et alln e d o f r on -t are Roberto Acqui-Pinz6n, a university Miss Julette Carrington, principal of sulainty shou a omsfpliaton -graduate, who will teach philosophy Pedro Miguel Elementary School, are emergncy aris, pand commerce; F6lix Figueroa and expected back in September. emermacher onse eMagny gapse anMrs. Gloria Martinez, both of whom Teachers on scholarships for the Many graphs and charts also were .school ear 1963-64 are Miss Clara shown indicating how newer techniques teach Spanish, and Miss Fulvia Escoiso Junior-Senior High in surgery and newer concepts of hanbar, who will teach general science al, PaEngland dling many of the diseases of women At Paraiso Junior-Senior High School, oo a ho isstin in Ega on a scholarship granted by the which contribute to the stillborn rate Pedro Alvarado will teach commerce. British Embassy, and Miss Beril Tordan, have been used by the Gorgas Hospital Mr. Figueroa, Mrs. Martinez, Miss Rainbow City Junior-Senior High Obstetrical Service, and how many Escobar, and Mr. Alvarado all have School, who is studying in the United babies in each instance have been master's degrees. States on a U.S. Information Service saved who under other circumstances New elementary teachers, all with scholarship. would have died. university degrees, are Miss Noris SimoOther teachers who will be away on The present emphasis is on a similar son at Santa Cruz School; Misses Olga leave for study for the entire school spectacular improvement in the salvage Tomlinson and Raquel McPherson, year are: Miss Hilma Watson, Philip of newborn premature infants, and the Torge Jim6nez and Julio Luque at RainDaniel, and Phillip Henry, Rainbow prevention of stillbirths. bow City Elementary School. Shaler City Elementary School; Ernest Vattley Maternal safty is now at such a level Yearwood will be at Pedro Miguel and Luis Diez, Paraiso Junior-Senior that a perfect record is within reach, Elementary School. High School; Mrs. Silvia Stoute and and an appeal was voiced that all While pupils were enjoying themCleveland Ennis, Rainbow City Juniorwomen register early at the Prenatal selves and participating in the vacation Senior High School; Miss Marta Garvey Clinic, and to have the utmost faith in program during February, March, and and Mrs. Daphne Wedderburn, Patheir doctors. In this way, it was pointed April, many of their teachers were raiso Elementary School; arid Franklin out, an already excellent obstetrical studying, to qualify for bachelor and Wy-xnter, Pedro Miguel Elementary record may be still further improved graduate degrees. School. to the ultimate goal of "a healthy Teachers who completed work Grafton Conliffe, principal of Santa mother and a healthy baby" for every toward degrees at the University of Cruz School, will leave in August, for woman who enters the Obstetrical Panama are: George Richards and Miss a year, to complete work on his master's Service of Corgas Hospital. Blandina Waterman of Paraiso Juniordegree. TrE PANAMA CANAL REvIEw 11

PAGE 18

CANAL HISTORY 50 Year olgo 25 Yeari olgo 10 Yearl ago FILL MADE IN the swamp east of A BILL providing for optional retireONE OF THE oldest houses in the Colon to extend the city from E to G ment of employees of the Panama Canal Canal Zone, on Heights Road, formerly streets, between the lines of Second and after 30 years of service or at the age occupied by the Health Director, was Ninth streets, had settled, requiring of 55 was introduced into the U.S. among 16 frame quarters buildings about 17,500 yards more of fill to bring Congress. scheduled for demolition and being it to grade. It was planned to extend At the same time the Panama Canal advertised for sale to the highest bidder. macadam to near 16th street, near the issued a retirement certificate to be It was one of several moved to Balboa junction with Mount Hope road. This given to employees retiring from servHeights when the Canal was opened extension was to make accessible lots ice. The first certificate, signed by in 1914. in natural g a part of the orinl Gov. C. S. Ridley, was presented to A total of 30 bushmasters and 2 ferMnnll ground, aart terale Genevieve Gage, the first woman emde-lance snakes were caught or killed Manzanillo Island, and several feet ployee to be retired from the Canal by men doing clearing work for a tract Ab nube r of 8-ichafter 30 years of service. of pasture land on the Atlantic side A number of 8-inch spherical bombs The new Panama Canal tolls system, of the Isthmus. Most of the bushandhich went into effect earlier in the masters were found in an area of about suction dredge operating near the inner year, provided a substantial savings 100 acres. end of the slip west of the new Pier 18 for the Canadian Pacific cruise liner at Cristobal. A hand ax of a type used Empress of Britain, which arrived at One near Algo about 50 years earlier was found in the the Canal in May 1938 on a world NATIONAL Commander-in-Chief same area. Projectiles were encrusted cruise. The ship paid nearly $5,000 less Rbr .hneo h eeaso with a kind of natural concrete, made than on a previous transit, since the Foreign Wars of the United States, up of coral deposits, sand, and shells, new system included a reduction for becai a member of The Esteemed to a thickness of 2 inches. large public rooms Order of Bearers of the Master Key to the Panama Canal. The VFW commander, on an inspection tour of Isthmian posts, was presented a key to the RETIREM ENTS Locks and a certificate giving him the grade of Lockmaster. EMPLOYEES who retired in March, Guillermo T. P6rez, Crane Hookman, InRelease of the monthly report of with their positions at time of retiredustrial Division, Pacific Side; 42 years, the Meteorological and Hydrographic meant and years of Canal service: 10 months, 21 days. Branch revealed that a total of 58 Jacinto Peters, Guard, Terminals Division, seismic disturbances were recorded McDonald Allen, Truck Driver, Motor Atlantic Side; 43 years, 5 months, 9 Transportation Division, Pacific Side; 23 days. on the Balboa Heights seismographs years, 9 months, and 7 days. Eugenio Rangel, Operator, Field Tractor, during March. Six had their point of Mrs. Louise E. Augustus, Laboratory Maintenance Division, Pacific Side; 38 origin within 300 miles and two were Helper, Coco Solo Hospital; 35 years, years, 6 months, 13 days. felt in the Canal Zone. The epicenter 6 months, 20 days. JuliAn Rodriguez, Assistant Cook, Gorgas of one was near the Panama-Costa Rica Eliseo Avila, Leader Maintenanceman, Hospital; 19 years, 5 months, 24 days. Electrical Division, Pacific Side; 33 Udham Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Diviborder. years, 3 months, 20 days. sion, Atlantic Side; 17 years, 12 days. Water and electrical conservation Henry J. Clancy, Electrician, Electrical Miss Ellen N1. Tiernan, Head Nurse (Surmeasures slowed the drop in level of Division, Atlantic Side; 22 years, 1 gical) Gorgas Hospital; 32 years, 8 Gatun Lake sufficiently to delay imposimonth, 19 days. months. Ralph L. Hanners, General Foreman P. Alton White, Chief, Dredging Division; tion of draft restriction approximately (Grounds), Community Services Divi38 years, 4 months, 21 days. a week. sion, Atlantic Side; 20 years, 10 months, 26 days. Joseph Ifill, Laundry Worker (Heavy), Supply Division, Pacific Side; 25 years, 8 months, 10 days. ACCIDENT; Landon N. Gunn, Operator, Dipper Dredge, Dredging Division, Pacific Side; FOR 31 years, 10 months, 10 days. Eustace S. Lewis, Guard, Transportation THIS MONTH and Terminals Division, Atlantic Side; QUIET 42 years, 1 month, 21 days. AND (FIRST AID HOSPITAL .A B Headley McAdams, Grounds Maintenance ZONE Equipment Operator, Community ServTHIS YEAR ices Division, Pacific Side; 40 years, 9 months, 28 days. Clarence B. McIlvaine, Conductor, Road DAYS and Conductor, Yard, Railroad Division, MARCH CASES CASES ABSENT Pacific Side, 32 years, 8 months, 19 days. Leon Ortiz, Stevedore, Terminals Division, '63 '62 '63 '62 '63 '62 Atlantic Side; 37 years, 7 months, 20 ALL UNITS 261(13) 306 20(7) 10 1328(991) 319 days. Miss Ella A. Partons. Staff Nurse, Gorgas YEAR TO DATE 771(36) 709 48(9) 34 1599,999) 6679 Hospital; 8 years, 5 months, 4 days. ( ) Locks Overhaul injuries included in total. 12 MAY 3, 1963

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ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) EXECUTIVE PLANNING HEALTH BUREAU STAFF Angelico Morin Thatcher A. Clisbee Hospital Attendant Capital Program Coordinator MARINE BUREAU Wesley A. Cole ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Melter Orlander D. OFFICE OF THE ISTR I C Bindery a W ker OMPTROLLER el -n C *l' e atic I en Pressman CIVIL AFFAIR B AU Harp .aymond SPO T TION AND Salvatore Rinaldo Cl im Examiner Contraband Control TER IIN UREAU Inspector SUP Y AND COMMUNITY Jos h .Boyc S VICE BUREAU A otive Cran ENGIN A osd .Guzman Operator (Small) CONSTRU AU gardener Reginald Lovell TRANSPORTATION AND Carpenter TERMINALS BUREAU Rupert N. Scott Granville V. Brown Painter Chauffeur Vincent G. St. Louis Tomas Marial Clerk (Work Orders) Guard MAGISTRATE COURTS Hector L. John William W. Morris SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY Rex E. Beck Helper Machinist (M\arine) Towing Locomotive SERVICE BUREAU Clerk of the Court, Esteban Justavino Operator Joyce B. Bevington Cristobal Laborer (Heavy) Gust E. Rosene Supervisory Clerical Patricio Martinez Machinist (Marine) Assistant (Typing) ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Seaman James W. Watson Hamner C. Cook Dudley J. Miller b Accounting Clerk TomAs Mejia Wharfbuilder (Limited) Master, Towboat Teofila Badillo Laborer (Cleaner) Carl A. Yarbro Utility Worker Lock Operator (EnginemanCarlos Coto CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU HEALTH BUREAU Hoisting and Portable) Utility Worker Doris Daniels Ralph Dugan, Jr. David C. McIlhenny Benigno Alvarez Clerk Police Private Supervisory Hospital Helper Lock Operator Aquilino de la Cruz Ruth F. Morris Administrative Officer Tomis G. Amador Grounds Maintenance Elementary and Secondary Cecil D. Archbold Maintenanceman Equipment Operator School Teacher Physical Therapy Assistant Clifford A. Anthony Myl, auForbes School Teacheron Cook, Short Order Pearl C. de Chilcott Martin Barrios c -Abraham W. Forcheney Senior High Teacher, Pharmacy ssistant Grounds Maintenance Latin American Schools Kenneth D s Deckhujo Equipment Operator Nursing Assistant an Victoriano G6ndola ENGINEERING AND (Medicine and rg ry) Frank L. Bros Grounds Maintenance CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Frances H. Drum ond Motor Laun h aptain Equipment Operator Nursing Assi ant Antonio Can es ab C lner Harry P. DePiper (Medici an urgery) Deckhan Laborer (C eaner) Chief Engineer, Towboat VroC.cCan mn enaHannah A. Jackman ChefEniner Twbat Vernon C. JcC uan m6n etona Storekeeping Clerk Hubert A. Rotenberry Nursing Assistant etrekep. N r k Lea Foema Pante launch) Maria D. Nurse Lead Foreman Painter medicinee and Surgery) Maid William AV. Spencer Encarnaci6n Vald6s Norman Lindo Leader Electrician Assistant Cook Deckhand TRANSPORTATION AND Robert C. Stanley Juan J. Visquez Manuel Mero TERMINALS BUREAU Power System Dispatcher Hospital Attendant Seaman Evelyn R. Condon Eugene E. Chaudiere aAccounting Technician enMateo Mona Robert W. Parker Jos6 B. Felipe MARINE BUREAU Deckhand Leader Liquid Fuels Helper (General) Richard W. Abell Mximo Molina Sone Librado Gonzilez General Foreman Helper Lock Operator Supervisory Cargo Seaman (Lock Operations) Samuel S. Morgan Checking Assistant Sidney A. Gordon F. G. Berwanger Deckhand Adolphus E. Johnson Refrigeration and Air Leader Lock Operator Ernesto P6rez HelperhAutomotive Conditioning Plant (Machinist) Helper Lock Operator Machinist Operator Leon S. Fishbough Aston L. Morris Agapito Hernindez Leader Lock Operator Osar .T. Phillips Gilberto Ortegaer Winchman (Machinist) Carpenter Truck Driver Aniceto Jim6nez Theodore W. A. Krzys Baltazar Romero Ronald F. Payne Helper (General) Machinist Deckhand Truck Driver THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13

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TRAFFIC MOV EMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES Last Cruise Ship Ihe following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net THE SWEDISH America Line cruise tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: ship Kungsholmn, which passed northThird Quarter, iscal Year bound through the Canal April 13, was Avg. No, the last of the big cruise liners to visit 1963 1L362 Transits Canal waters during this winter season. 1 ----5-The well-known cruise ship was on the I nite d States intercoastal------------------------70 -109 146 last ieg of its voyage home from a cruise Last coast of United States and South America ----_--535 620 445 East coast of United States and Central America -_ 111 86 129 to the South Pacific, Australia, Japan, EIst coast of United States and Far East ---------462 571 261 and Hawaii which started January 17 United States Canada east coast and Australasia -63 59 48 from New York. Europe and west coast of United States/Canada 268 259 193 The Kngisholm has been using the Euro; cand South America -------------305 292 123 Suropc and Aistralasia --------------------108 116 95 Canal since she was first built 10 years All other routes ---------------------------679 626 333 ago and is noted for her luxurious trfic ---21 2 1 accommodations and good food. During Tatri_,_the summer, the shin is used on the MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS North Atlantic run to Europe. Vessels of 300 tons net or over Around the World (Fiscal Years) -------.-ANOTHER BIG passenger ship making Transits Gross Tolls the northbound transit in April was the Month (in thousands of dollars) Nederland Line vessel Oranje, which Avg No Average arrived from Australia and New Zea1963 962 rst 1963 1962 sS land April 15 and docked in Balboa July 1962, 4 with 811 passengers. The ship was on July 962 -978 931 557 $4,980 $4,776 $2,432Euoeatrari August---------950 934 554 4,926 4,749 2,403 her way, back to Europe after a trip September --------909 892 570 4,617 4,523 2,431 around the vorld, a voyage she makes October-----) -882 935 607 4,411 4,646 2,559 regularly ever 80 days. November --------924 891 568 4,684 4,443 2,361 Aftcr sailing from Cristobal April 16 December -----917 938 599 4,983 4,870 2,545 s f January 1963-----769 917 580 3,871 4,735 2,444 the Oranjc was scheduled to stop in February --811 841 559 4,313 4,388 2,349 Port Everglades, Fla. and New York March ---991 980 632 5,084 5,098 2,657 before coiitinuing on to Southampton April--608 2,588 and Amsterdam. \Ma-629 2 672 d t June -599 2,528 The Royal Rotterdam Lloyd vessel Total for ~ Willem Ruys, which operates jointly 9 months--8,191 8,259 5,226 $41,869 42,228 $22,181 with the Oranfe on the round-the-world service, is to arrive in Balboa May 4 Fiscal yea-r11,149 a7y062 p$57,290 $29,969 and will also stop at Port Everglades i forc deduction of any-operating expenses. and Nw York on the voyage home to CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY Europe. Both ships are represented -i--at the Canal by C. B. Fenton & Co. Third Quarter, Fiscal Iear 1963 1963 1962 1951-55 Alumina-Sugar Carriers Nationlity .W JMOZD n ovre Number Tos Number Tons Average Average TWO "JUMBOIZED" and converted of of of of number tons bulk cargo carriers started traveling transits cargo transits cargo transits of cargo through the Canal recently with cargoes Belgian -11 7,806 8 36,904 2 2,716 of alumina from Corpus Christi on the British & Can._ 332 1,846,957 321 2,142,557 323 1,936,572 west-bound voyage and with raw sugar Chilean ----22 146,225 31 211,833 17 85,011 from Hawaii on the east-bound trip. Chinese ------17 107,747 17 122,842 6 54,599 h, ..i Colombian ----48 66,540 68 115,419 35 37,708 Ihe service was started i April with Danish------73 380,561 79 475,923 57 224,852 the SS Inger, which transited southFrench ----26 131,587 30 189 191 35 163,469 bound with a load of alumina from German ---------245 746,900 279 853 112 54 109,721 Corpus Christi to the Columbia River Greek -------172 1 452,448 178 1,898,953 29 253,278 O Llondurain --51 23,686 14 32,431 97 130,76 ir .Thi sxcill a s hee SS altr Israeli-_18 42,947 21 68793 Ricc, which will arrive here in May Italian -------36 198,678 49 336,226 32 182,089 with a similar cargo. Japanese -----188 1,079,996 198 1,085,122 69 470,531 Both ships were "jumboized" by the Lebanon ----10 83 234 5 44,161 Liberian ------200 1,715,665 204 1,815,592 48 300 445 Todd Shipyard Corp. for the Reynolds Netherlands -.187 770,299 144 812,867 30 151,379 Metals Co. of Richmond, Va. Formerly Nicaraguan ----13 20,059 3 3,120 6 6,551 523-foot T-2 tankers, they were lengthNorwegian ----356 2,690,695 378 2,833,448 203 833,741 ened to 626 feet, and their payloads Panamanian ---100 414,403 87 443,530 116 665,039 .' Peruvian ------15 58 151 30 116,573 4 9,135 increased i the process by nearly Philippine --14 52,072 14 45,786 5 33,662 25 percent. Swedish ------98 545,096 80 415,508 46 198,424 On the return trip to gulf ports, the United States --338 1,820,862 459 2,694,950 498 3,088,092 vessels will pick up raw sugar under All others -----31 171,534 41 160,354 61 125,202 .f .w a freight contract with Califormia and Total -2,601 14,604,148 2,738 16,955,195 1,773 9,063,392 Haxvaiian Sugar Refining Corp. 14 MAY 3, 1963

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CANAL TRANSIT -COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT Cycling to Border SThird Quartet Fiatcal lear(Continucd from p. 5) ...Third Quarter, Ficg ood black top road to Bo(lucte, one of 1963 1962 TrAns s on favorite places in Panama. It is more -"-S-I'S~ _-L than 3,000 feet high there and it gets Atlantic Pacific Try cold. It felt wonderful after the to to Tol Tta Tta Pacific Atlantic hi hot lowands. H(ere we stayed at the Commercial vessels.:-Pension Virginia, which is a EuropeanOcean-going ----------------1,337 1,264 2,601 2,738 1,773 style small hotel with reasonable prices Small ---_ -----.-_ -----63 38 101 128 284 and verv good food. While there, we Total commercial ----------_ 1,400 1,302 2,702 2,866 2,057 visited the coffee plantations. We inspected the new luxury hotel, U.S. Government vessels: Los Rios. built betw een the forks of a Ocean-going---------------34 30 64 51 151 beautiful, cool mountain stream. The Small -------------------14 22 36 58 71 dining room and bar look out over the Total Government ------------04 52 100 109 222 water. Next day found us back down Total commercial and U.S. Goyvthe mountain ind on to Conce >i6n, ernment-__-_ _ 1,448 1 1,354 2,802 2,975 2,279 ,here Ve staved at the 'aiibt Hotel Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. for we Tye al he Ho**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Covernment-operat d for SI each. The meals (comida coships transited free. rriente) were 50 cents, very good food and plenty of it. Next aV wC rode up 45 miles to PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL Volcano aind Cerro Punta. The road was Pacific to Atlantic terrible and the rain and 6,000 feet altitude and cold wind almost drove us (All cargo figures in long tons) back. Fifteen miles back down the mountain we stopped at Volcin for the Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963 night. From here we rode about 25 miles Commodity Average to Cafias Cordas on the Costa Rican 1963 1962 1951-55 side of the order. We did not go on, Ores, various -------------------1,563,792 1,751,313 961,032 as this is not the main customs station. Lumber ------------------------988,427 1,022,575 868,628 Back down the hills and headed for Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)-.350,657 403,833 249,439 home, while in David we met the Wheat -------------------------352,651 433,134 508,144 "gringos" in charge of the having conSugar -----------------------416,310 445,890 233,804 g )nCanned food products ---------------235,009 220,450 304,637 struction crews. They asked us if we Nitrate of soda -------------------181,503 250,131 360,514 would like to go by the nev route 60 Barley ---_ -----_ -------------169,378 318,567 58,964 miles as compared to 108 miles of \cry Bananas ------------------------274,884 271,676 192,445 had road to Santiago. Of course, we Metals, various ---_-------------------268,530 342,049 162,399 Food products in refrigeration (except fresh jumped at the chance. We found about fruit) -----------------------282,339 269,045 163,265 20 miles of the nexx route paved and Fishmeal ---------_ -----_ ----323,443 --2 pavers at work there. Where the Cotton, raw ---------------------103,738 72,429 55,958 cement still was soft we rode alongside Iron and steel manufactures -------------219,518 141,215 60,502 7 Pulpwood ----------------------119,956 123,407 48,257 the highway, then back on the new All others --_ ------------------1,571,945 1,659,616 681,354 road surface farther ahead where it ---_ '__2 had cured. Total---------------------7,422,080 7,725,330 4,909,342 Each paver progresses about 800 feet a day. Only a 2-lane project, work is slowed by the fact that supply trucks can t pass each other along sections Third Quarter, Fiscal ear 1963 where the pavers are at work, which Commodity --means only 1-lane traffic for supplies. 1963 1962 Av51-55 The only discouraging thing was that .1951-5 some of the business places and restanPetroleum and products (excludes asphalt)2,222,273 2,463,840 968,731 rants have two prices, one for the Coal and coke ----------------------1,242,702 1,600,782 676,946 local people and one for visitors. Iron and steel manufactures -----------245,565 423,511 420,153 Phosphates ----------------------500,545 479,224 195,587 I was the only casualty of the trip. Sugar _ ------_ --------_ _ --68,669 415,026 101,508 There were hundreds of dogs along our Soybeans --_ -----_ _ ----------404,302 332,670 134,079 Metal, scrap ----------------------------344,815 470,155 16,632 route, and the animals aren't used to Sulfur --_ ---80,242 74,441 82,173 traffic, either autos or motorcycles. I had Corn__ ----u_-_-----_i-_d_--------245,419 654,753 19,077 kicked so many dogs out of the way of Fertilizers, unclassified --------------80,824 136,338 34,616 the motorcycle that I had a nightmare Ores, various -------------_ -------228,610 213,629 27,416 about it iiSomi, kicked the wvail in mx Machinery ----------------------------91,926 99,105 72,754 Cotton, raw -----80,572 110,949 66,290 sleep so hard I almost broke my big toe. Chemicals, unclassified --------------119,797 148,796 41,822 We had a wonderful time and can't Automobiles and parts -----78,422 74,688 70,660 wait to go again. And we actually found All others._._._._.__._._ .1,147,385 1,531,958 1,113,667 it .a n c f it cheaper on the road than stayiig Total -------------------7,182,068 9,229,865 4,042,171 at homc. THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15

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S H l''1N14 EFFE(TS AND aftereffects of the TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING downward, as are coal and coke, scrap long, costly longshoremen's strike in the VESSELS IN MARCH and wheat movements, while phosUnited States speckled the first quarter 196 196 phates continue a slow but steady 1963 pattern of Panama Canal transits, Commercial.91 980 growth. tolls, and cargoes. Although the strike Europe to west coast South America ended January 25, cargo movements in U.S. Government .31 15 trafficis heading upward again after its manyeast and gulf coast ports still were Free I .8 10 first postwar pause in 1962. Traffic from snared weeks later. Europe to the west coast of the United Large numbers of freighters, rail cars, Total. 1,030 1,005 E pe to the v as te Uni States and Canada has turned up again and trucks were piled up in coastal TOLLS after having reached a low in the harbors and handling costs mounted Commercial .$5,085,705 $5,099,974 middle of fiscal year 1962. rapidly because of the congestion. U.S. Government 155,605 100,929 Beef and sugar shipments are leading Record numbers of waterfront workers a rise in business between the east coast were on the job in many ports, with still Total. $5,241,310 $5,200,903 of the United States and Canada and not enough longshoremen available to CARCOOO Australia. Meat shipments to United meet demands. As late as mid-March it appeared that it would be several Commercial ..5,609,988 6,200,254 States-Canadian markets may go to ppre that it o l bseral about 280.000 tons during the coming more weeks before normal" operations U.S. Government 113,717 87,543 fiscal year, compared with only 97,000 were restored at some points. Free .51,038 39,824 in 1959. Sugar shipments, it is indiCapsulized, the effects on the Panama Canal were: Total. 5,774,743 6,327,621 cated, may go to about 270,000 tons, January-Traffic fell to about the .Includes tolls on all vessels. ocean-going and small compared ith only 70,000 for fiscal 1958 level. Cargo figures are in long tons. year 1962 and virtually none for the previous 3 ye-ars. Februarv-There was some postP strike recovery, to a level about equal in Canal records for February, but it Offsetting these trends, however, is to last year. is still too early to determine whether an almost certain loss to the Canal of March-Transits tied the previous this is a valid encouraging sign or about 500,000 tons of sugar business high month of May 1961, and marked merely a temporary condition. bound for Japan. The Japanese sugar recovery m tolls income pushed the Tanker transits appear to be leveling industry is switching purchases of sugar figure to $5,241,310, compared with off after having peaked in August 1962 from Cuba to South Asia and elsewhere. $5,200,903 for the same month last at their highest postwar point. The A report from Japan states that of the year. surge was due in large part to the severe 1.2 million to 1.35 million metric tons The 1,030 March transits included winter and increased Japanese fuel oil of sugar needed by that country in 991 commercial ships, second highest purchases from Venezuela. Crude oil, 1963, contracts with non-Cuban sources month for this category, and 31 Governfuel oil, and petroleum products movenow cover more than 1.1 million tons. ment ships, about double the March ments generally have been up in recent For the last several years, more than a 1962 level for this bracket. No single months. third of Japan's sugar came from Cuba, dav's traffic, however, matched the 60 Iron ore movements are drifting and through the Canal. ships which arrived for transit last 1 100 November 5, highest figure since \'orld War II, during the Cuban crisis. N Cargo tonnage moving through the U Canal in March was below the level 1963 ------------1000 M for the same month in 1962. 8 At the close of the third quarter. it --62 E appeared that actual tonnage for fiscal 2 -0 y-ear 1963 would end up at about the 0 1961 level of 63.7 million long tons. F General cargo ships have been carry--800 ing less cargo per Panama Canal iet T ton capacity. This drop has been R evident since 1959. Contributing signi700 A ficantly to this has been a dowN nward N trend in Japan 'se business and cargoes S after a peak in June 1961. Japan tight-(AVERAGE 1951-1955)----600 ened currency controls in mid-1961, T as d them starting in October 1962: S It is anticipated that the rate of growth ______ 0 of ipanese industrial production will JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN return to its 1960-61 rate in 1963. A cargo tonnage upturn was shown MONTHS

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4

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Date Due Due Returned Due Returned t~ _ _ _ _ _

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 04820 4829