Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES



















Digitized by the Internet Archive


University


in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/detaiIs/panamacanalrevie136pana







PANAMA CANAL


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IN THIS ISSUE
Oceans at Same Level?
Dry Season Pattern
New Rigging for Pilots
Bridge Maintenance


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JOSEPH CONNOR, Acting Press Officer
PThlicat.innsa Pitor.


ROBERT J. FLEhmI, JR., Governor-President


LEBER, Lieutenant Governor ROBERT D. KERR and Juuo E
F K A. BL Oficial Panama Canal Publication E
F A. BALDWIN onthl Editorial Assistants
mama Canal Information Officer Pubished monthly at Balboe Heihh C.Z. E E R TO, and
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.u.
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subecriptlons, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M. Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Ofices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C.Z.


. BRICENO

OMAs A. CUPAs


8oth Anniversary

A Proclamation
WHEREAS January 16, 1963, marks the eightieth anniversary
of the signing of the Civil Service Act of 1883; and
WHEREAS the Civil Service Act has stood the tests of time
in providing the excellence in civil service which is required for
successful execution of Federal programs and policies which have
deep significance to all Americans and all citizens of the free
world; and
WHEREAS the Act of 1883 has been strengthened by sub-
sequent laws, interpretations, and executive actions to create an
even more effective and highly qualified Federal work force; and
WHEREAS the life of every American is touched directly or
indirectly every day by the services which Federal public servants
perform; and
WHEREAS public esteem for career civil servants is a pre-
requisite for attracting well-qualified citizens to compete for
Government service, a fact which requires greater public
awareness of the value of the merit system, the achievements of
Government workers, and the career opportunities offered in
Federal service:
NOW, THEREFORE, I, JOHN F. KENNEDY, President of
the United States of America, do hereby call upon the people
of the United States to participate in the observance of the
eightieth anniversary of the Civil Service Act during the month
of January 1963.
I also call upon the heads of Federal departments and agencies,
as well as leaders of industry and labor and members of all public-
spirited groups, to arrange appropriate ceremonies in honor of the
public services performed by our able and devoted Federal civil
servants throughout the country.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed.
DONE at the City of Washington this twenty-eighth day of
September in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and
[SEAL] sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States
of America the one hundred and eighty-seventh.

/cn J- anedW7/
By the President:

Acting Secretary of State.


Index
Oceans At Same Level? No!------_______ 3
Bench Marks Vital, Little Known -___----- 5
Dry Season Pattern Varied---___________ 6
New Information Officer-.---..._-------- 7
New "Rigging" for Pilots---___________ 8
Navigation Division Chiefs Changed_______ 10
Bridge Maintenance ------------------- 11
Executive Secretary's Work Broadened_____ -- 12
Anniversaries ------_---------------- 13
Promotions and Transfers-______________ 14
Canal History-----------------------_______ 15
Shipping---____------- ___-__----__ 16

nOT BEAUTY ALOne
PICTURESQUE beauty of the Panama City
waterfront, to many, obscures the practicality of
the scene. On our front cover, aground at low
tide and waiting for the next high tide to put
them afloat again, are three coastal trade craft
in the foreground.
Silhouetted against the horizon are a few of
the scores of shrimp boats which help make
Panama a prime supply source of these succulent
edibles.
Shrimp exports from Panama in 1961 amounted
to more than 9% million pounds, valued at more
than $5.8 million. Peak export year, dollarwise,
was 1957, when the total was near $6.2 million.
Panama's shrimping industry employs more
than 2,200 persons, about 800 aboard more than
160 fishing craft and 1,400 in plants where the
shrimp are beheaded, cleaned, and packed.
Forty-two different concerns operate 3 or more
vessels and 44 operate 1 or 2.


cn Invitation
A CORDIAL INVITATION has been extended
to Canal Zone Gov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., and
Mrs. Fleming, and all Canal Zone residents, to
attend the agricultural and industrial Fair of
San Sebastian in the picturesque town of Ocu
January 19-21.
A contest on use of draft animals in agricul-
ture will be the climax of the program on
Sunday, January 20.


JANUARY 4, 1963


W.P.

Acting Pa


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OCEANS LEVEL?


NO, THE ATLANTIC and Pacific
oceans are NOT level with each other.
Not along the coasts of the Isthmus.
In fact, it's possible that the level of
the Pacific could be nearly 12 feet above
the level of the Atlantic at the same
time.
The difference in level averages only
9.2 inches, however, records of Panama
Canal Chief Hydrographer W. H.
Esslinger show.
Many Isthmians find it important to
keep track of the tides. Bathers want to
know whether they'll find good swim-
ming or mudflats at a certain point.
Fishermen say they affect the catch.
Where marine ways are not available
for hauling out small craft, the practice
is to beach them at high tide, then work
fast to slap on a coat of paint or make
repairs before they're seaborne again
on the next high tide.
Balboa has a regular tide with two
highs and two lows every lunar day,
with an average range from high to low
tide of 12.758 feet and a maximum
range of 22.7 feet.


Cristobal has an irregular tide varying
from two highs and two lows to one high
and one low each lunar day-with all
possible intermediate variations. But the
average range from high to low tide is
only .858 feet and the maximum range
is 3.05 feet.
Why big tides on the Pacific and
small tides on the Atlantic?
The two entrances to the Panama
Canal, by air, are only 40 miles apart.
And aren't the tides caused by forces
of the sun and moon?
Here are the reasons-oversimplified
-as given by Hydrographer T. C.
Henter:
A look at tides in general is needed
to understand their local peculiarities.
At times of new and full moon, tidal
forces of the moon and sun pull the
seas in the same direction. At first and
last quarters, they are approximately at
right angles to each other. When moon
and sun unite their forces, the tidal
range is large. When they are at right
angles, the tidal range is small.
The mass of the sun is far greater


When the tide goes out along Panama City's La Marina, drydocks aren't needed to get
underneath even sizeable craft. They can be brought close inshore at high tide and
there's easy access at low tide.


... Not Along

Isthmus Coasts


than the mass of the moon. But the sun
is many times farther from the earth
than the moon. Hence its tidal effect
is less than half that of the moon.
Relative movement of the earth,
moon and sun, together with the daily
rotation of the earth, cause two primary
classes of tide-producing forces:
(1) Those with a period of about
half a day, called semi-daily forces;
(2) Those having a period of a day,
called daily forces. The semi-daily
forces are the larger, and, consequently,
at most places there are two high and
two low waters each day.
But rise and fall of the actual tide
at any locality, and the times of high
and low water, depend on conformation
of the ocean shore and depth of the
water, as well as on the tide-producing
forces.
The rise and fall of the actual tide is
divided into three types of tides known
as semi-daily, daily, and mixed. The
semi-daily has two high and two low
waters each day, with little difference
(See p. 4)



Lloyd A. Blenman checks tide gage located
in shed at top of ramp to the Taboga
launch landing at Pier 18, Balboa. Note
how loops on gage match loops shown
in Fig. 2 on next page.



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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







+10


+5


0


-5


+10 i_
Midnight Noon Midnight
September 7-MIXED TIDE


-5



0


-5


-10


-n


L I
Midnight Noon Midnight
September 11-DAILY TIDE


+10 --


+5


0



-5


+10
Midnight Noon Midnight
September 15-SEMI-DAILY TIDE


CRISTOBAL TIDES, ATLANTIC ENTRANCE


in morning and afternoon tides. The
daily type has but one high and one low
water in a day and the mixed type has
two high and two low waters in the
same period with considerable differ-
ence between morning and afternoon
tides.
The mixed tide results from a combi-
nation of daily and semi-daily tides.
At Cristobal, the daily tide-producing
force is predominant. The afternoon tide
is considerably larger than the morning
tide, as shown in Figure I.
The daily tide-producing force has
little effect on the actual rise and fall
of tides at Balboa. As shown in Figure 2,
there is very little difference in morning
and afternoon tides. Their rhythm is
characteristic of the semi-daily tidal
forces.
Here a look at the "stationary wave


theory" of the tide is in order.
In a rectangular tank of water, a wave
may be started by raising and then
immediately lowering one end of the
tank. This wave will not be in the form
of an ordinary wave with crest and
trough. Instead, it is an oscillation, or
apparent swashing back and forth (but
with little water movement except up
and down). This type of wave is known
as a stationary wave.
The stationary wave theory is that
the dominant tides in the seven seas
are stationary wave oscillations set up
by the tidal forces of the sun and moon
in parts of the oceans having periods
of oscillations approximately the same
as the period of the tide-producing
forces.
According to H. A. Marmer, of the
Coast and Geodetic Survey, a number


BALBOA TIDES, PACIFIC ENTRANCE


September 8-NEAP TIDE
Midnight Noon Midnight


September I2-MEDIAN TIDE
Midnight Noon Midnight

10



1-5



0



-5



.10


September I6-SPRING TIDE
Midnight Noon Midnight






)


JANUARY 4, 1963


Fig. 1


TIDES
MIXED-Combination of daily and
semi-daily tides.
SPRING-When forces of sun and
moon act in same direction (large
ranges).
DAILY-One high and one low
water per day.
SEMI-DAILY-Usual two high and
two low waters each day.
NEAP-Small range-when forces of
sun and moon act in right angle
directions.
MEDIAN-Mean between spring
and neap tides.


Fig. 2






of puzzling tidal features can be ex-
plained by the stationary wave theory.
At Panama, the Atlantic end of the
Canal opens into the Caribbean Sea,
which is cut off from the open Atlantic
by the girdle of Antillean islands that
mark the limits of the Caribbean. Too,
the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean are
of such length and depth as to have a
period of oscillation of approximately
24 hours. Hence, in this area the daily
tide-producing force is predominant.
The basin comprising the Gulf and
Caribbean is much smaller and much
shallower than the basins of the Atlan-
tic and Pacific oceans. Therefore the
actual tides are smaller.
The Pacific side of the Canal is
situated at the end of an oscillating
system of semi-daily tides and at a con-
siderable distance from the center of the
oscillation. Thus the range of the semi-
daily tide at Balboa is much greater than
the daily tide at Cristobal.
Despite the possible 12-foot differ-
ence in level of the oceans at the same
time, there is no prospect that one
would drain into the other if the Canal
were a sea-level waterway.
In fact, maximum tidal flow current
even at the greatest difference in levels
would be only about 4.5 knots, it is
estimated. Enough to cause transiting
problems for ships in parts of the
channel, but not enough to reduce the
water supply of either ocean.
There are two main reasons for this.
One is the restrictive effect of channel
entrances and channel capacity itself.
The other is that there are tide "rever-
sals"-particularly with non-standard
tides on either side-as soon as highs
or lows are reached. Thus tidal flow
volume and direction, or both, would
be changing almost constantly if the
Canal were a sea-level canal.
Levels of the oceans also vary from
month to month due to effects of wind,
ocean currents, and the cyclic variations
of the heavenly bodies.
Normal dry season prevailing winds
are north to northwest on the Pacific
side and north to northeast on the
Atlantic side. Wind effect on tides is
influenced by land masses and the
number of miles air flow has to "push"
on open water surfaces.
To further complicate things-
There has been an apparent steady
but slight rise in the levels of both
oceans in the last several years. The
"apparent" is stressed because there is
still inconclusive debate in scientific
circles as to whether the ocean levels
are rising or the land masses shrinking
slightly, or a combination of both.


Orlando L. Flye, Jr., supervisor of generation and transmission at the Balboa electric
sub-station, takes a look at the bench mark near the sub-station.


Bench Marks Keep "Trim"


"PBM-45 IS 83 FEET from the west
end of the Electrical Substation, Balboa.
Elevation on pipe cap is 20.440 feet."
That is a sample description of a
bench mark. The letters PBM stand for
"Permanent Bench Mark," the number
45 is its serial number and the elevation
is the height, in feet, above the Precise
Level Datum.
There are more than 250 of these
little-known elevation points distributed
throughout the Canal Zone, according
to the Survey Branch of the Engineering
and Construction Bureau.
They are used in all types of construc-
tion and engineering studies; to lay out
new townsites; to set house funda-
tions at the same elevation; to assure
adequate fall for sewer lines; to estab-
lish the elevation and grade points of
new roads and railroad track and to
check track elevation after reballasting
or other work.
They are used to set pads for big
pieces of machinery and to establish
the elevation of bridge piers. The allow-
able tolerance on the top elevation of
the Thatcher Ferry Bridge piers was
only 1/64 of an inch-roughly the
thickness of a photographic postal card.
The standard precise bench marks
used in the Canal Zone are 18 by 18 by
6-inch concrete slabs with a copper or
brass bolt set in the center forming the
point used for elevation determinations.
The slab is buried about 3 feet in the
ground, with a 4-inch pipe centered
above the bolt and projecting about
18 inches above the ground.


Topping the pipe is a cast-brass cap
with a projection rising from the center.
The difference in elevation between the
top of the bolt and this projection is
measured and the elevation determina-
tion for ordinary work is referred to this
projection. For precise work the cap is
removed and measurements are made
from the bolt at the bottom of the pipe.
Other bench marks may be bolts or
rivets in lock or spillway walls, culvert
headwalls, abutments, or other "solid"
structures. They may be found at the
tops and bottoms of dams, along locks,
roads and trails, and on bridges, and
culverts.
The first bench marks in the Zone
were established across the Isthmus by
mid-1908 and all were checked in
1924-25 and 1938. Checks sometimes
reveal earth slippages or settlement of
concrete work. Some are removed for
construction work, at which times others
are established nearby.
Some have been lost, through removal
of reference points from which they
could have been located. In recent
years, however, officials in charge of
roadwork and buildings replacement
have regularly notified the Surveys
Branch of removal of signs or structure
changes so that the bench marks can
be cared for properly.
Some of the bench marks are replace-
ments for ones established during
French construction days, with which
the original Panama Canal bench marks
were tied in to establish correct eleva-
tions above sea level clear across the
Isthmus.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


PW0J






THE DRY SEASON


Pattern Duration


Shows Wide
SEASON
Average nOV. DEC. JAn. FEB. mAR. APR. mIY June
Variations Dates
1913-14
WHILE THERE'S a well-known and 191
well-established pattern to the dry 94-
season, its beginning and ending aren't 1915-16
as uniform as faulty memories might 1916-17
lead some to believe. 1917-18
Dry seasons have started as early as 1918-19
mid-November, in 1926, and as late as 1919-20 -
the first of February, in 1956. Average 1920-21
duration, on the basis of 49 years' 1921-22
records: 4 months. 1922-23
The season also has had exceptional 1923-24
ending dates, as early as before mid- 192
April in 1919 and 1960, and as late as 1924-25
past mid-June in 1948. And then there 1925-26
were those dry years 1957 and 1959 1926-27
when there were hardly any rainy 1927-28
seasons at all. 1928-29
Exact starting and ending dates some- 1929-30
times are far from solid, even though 1930-31
almost exact dates are indicated in the 1931-32
chart in the adjoining column. Hydro- 1932-33
graphic Office personnel concede that 1933-34
it's hard to pinpoint one day as starting 1934-35
or ending day, as there often is a 2- or
3-week period during which the dry 1935-36
season start is "hanging fire." 1936-37 -
The formula for establishing the date 1937-38
is not too well defined. For many years 1938-39
the dates of the beginning and ending 1939-40
of the periods when Canal requirements 1940-41
exceeded the inflow of the Gatun Lake 1941-42
drainage basin were used, but that was 1942-43
discarded when the demand for lockage 1943-44
water and hydroelectric power increased 1944-45 -
to the point where it was no longer a 1945-46
suitable criterion.
Then there is the "10-day drouth" 1946-47
method, whereby if there is no 24-hour 1947-48
rain of 1 inch or more for 10 days at 1948-49
any place in the watershed the dry 1949-50
season is determined to have started at 1950-51
the beginning of the 10-day period. 1951-52
Actually, all elements are now con- 1952-53
sidered: wind direction and velocity, 1953-54
both at surface and upper air levels; 1954-55
humidity variation; decline in watershed
runoff; and, of course, the amount, and 1955-56
distribution of rainfall. 1956-57
The purpose of establishing the date 1957-58
is to determine when diesel plants 1958-59
should be started and when the power 1959-60 -
of Gatun hydro station should be 1960-61
(See p. 7) 1961-62









New Information Officer


LONG AND widely-known on the
Isthmus, Frank A. Baldwin this month
succeeds Will Arey as Panama Canal
Information Officer.
Mr. Baldwin, Protocol Officer since
last March, has been with the Canal
organization since 1941, when he took
a position as an accountant. His father,
Floyd H. Baldwin, who retired several
years ago as General Auditor of the
Panama Canal, earlier had served as an
Assistant Comptroller of Panama.
Mr. Arey resigned after 9 years of
service as Information Officer to take a
U.S. Government position in Washing-
ton, D.C. He and his wife, Louise, and
their sons, John and William, returned
to the States last month. William, a
senior in Balboa High School, will
return to the Zone to complete his high
school work. Mrs. Arev is the former
Louise Turner Craft of Hartwell, Ga.
Mr. Baldwin was Chief of Plant
Accounting in the Comptroller's Office
prior to being named Protocol Officer.
He attended grade schools in the Canal
Zone and the Canal Zone Junior College.
He is a graduate of Castle Heights Mili-
tary Academy, Lebanon, Tenn., and the
University of Kentucky, where he re-
ceived his Bachelor of Science degree
in Commerce.
Mr. Baldwin, 42, was born on the
Isthmus. His wife is the former Laura
Garcia de Paredes of Panama. They
have five children: four boys and a girl.
Mr. Baldwin is a major in the Active
Reserve, having enlisted as a private
and been commissioned at the Infan-
try School, Fort Benning, Ga., during
World War II.


Indicative of the high regard in which
Mr. Arey was held were numerous
expressions of regret and best wishes
via both Spanish and English news
media. One noted particularly his
attitude toward the working press,
appreciation of their problems and the
"large reservoir of respect and esteem"
he had earned among newspapermen
in Panama.
In accepting Mr. Arey's resignation,
Governor Fleming said he did so "with
regret."
Mr. Arey served 22 years as Public
Affairs Officer with the U.S. Embassy
in Bogota, Colombia, prior to coming
to Panama as Public Affairs Officer of
the U.S. Embassy in July 1951.
Born in Shelby, N.C., Mr. Arey is
a graduate of the University of North
Carolina. He was President and General
Manager of the Cleveland Times Pub-
lishing Co., commercial printing plant
and publisher of the Cleveland Times in
Shelby, from 1941 to 1948, when he
was appointed to the U.S. Foreign
Service of the Department of State.
He had served as president of the
Public Relations Society of Panama,
vice president of the Panama Rotary
Club and was a charter member of the
Panama-North American Association.
Other affiliations in both Panama and
the Canal Zone included the Panama
Carnival Junta, the Board of Manage-
ment of the Balboa YMCA, Board of
Directors of the Canal Zone Tuber-
culosis Association, and Christian Board
of Education of Balboa Union Church.
As Information Officer, Mr. Baldwin
takes charge of all Panama Canal public
relations activities, including providing


Frank A. Baldwin


and family.


counsel in this field in conduct of the
Canal's overall operations.
As directed by the Governor, the
information officer prepares reports
analyzing public opinion relating to the
Canal and Zone. He directs issuance of
news releases and informational mate-
rials. These include THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW and the weekly SPILL-
WAY, published in both Spanish and
English.
Operation of the Canal Zone Guide
Service and the Las Cruces tour vessel
also are under his direction.


The Areys, with son William, standing; son John, seated, foreground, and a disinteres
dog, Pepe.


ted The Dry Season
(Continued from p. 6)
curtailed to conserve water for lockages.
In 1959-60, it appeared that the dry
season already had started, late in
December, but heavy rainfall New
Year's Day, which even caused flood
conditions in the Chagres River, made
it necessary to change the starting date
to January 3.
The mid-May ending date for the
1958-59 dry season verges on pure
speculation, for both rainfall and runoff
were below normal until October 1959
-the 20th consecutive month of such
I sub-par conditions. And this was in the
wake of a long 1956-57 dry season, with
the entire year 1957 one of the driest
on record.


J


-








New Rig Helps On


Coming in off the Caribbean ahead of a rain squall, the Oswego
Defender and another ship seemed small craft in the wide locks
area and approaches.








I ii




T .


\ I






But rain overtook the 745-foot tanker, above as its 30,486-gross-too
bulk and 101-foot beam were maneuvered into the chamber
with little space to spare.


WHEN A CANAL PILOT says he's "got a stemwinder," he
means he is going aboard one of those really big, broad, newer
tankers and ore ships which has its bridge way aft.
Nobody along the waterfront recalls how the low-riding
behemoths came to be called "stemwinders," but there's a
suspicion the name was coined by some harassed pilot who
found that when he was standing on the bridge he was too
far astern to see how the bow was entering the Locks.
Some 5 or 6 years ago, when the first big stemwinders began
looming up over the Atlantic and Pacific horizons, nobody had
foreseen the problems of putting them through the Canal.
The waterway had handled many longer and some wider
ships than, for example, the Oswego Defender. But the bigger
vessels were passenger liners or warships provided with crow's-
nests or other points of vantage from which assistant pilots
could observe and give signals.
Not only can the senior pilots stationed on a stemwinder's
bridge get only a general view of what is going on up front,
an assistant pilot peering over its stumpy bow cannot see
either side of its hull. And if he looks over the side, he might
not be able to judge the exact course on which the ship
is aimed.
The problem was solved by the design of twin conning-
station or lookout-post rigs placed aft the bow on port and
starboard. Usually they are constructed of short lengths of
aluminum pipe screwed together. Each rig has a platform on
which an assistant pilot may walk back and forth, plus a
canvas cover to give him a little protection from rain or sun.
When the Oswego Defender showed up in Cristobal Harbor,


Thl lovL.oul.pI.I nr mjn r elenlble hie 'L
adiur n Ini Cian l oil-l, u


A














The huge tanker
headed for
Catun Lake was
lifted level .q
with lock walls,
fitting so snugly that
ship and locks
appeared
as a single surface.


I., mjn,
Ii


"Stemwinders"


her two "temporary bridges" already were in place. Marine
Traffic Controllers were expecting her.
As the stemwinder had transited before, Canal officials knew
she was 745 feet long, had a beam of 101 feet, and a gross
of 30,486 tons.
The Liberian flag vessel belongs to Oswego Ore Carriers,
Ltd., of Monrovia. Her local agents are Wilford & McKay, Inc.
She is operated by Marine Transport Lines, Inc., and had put
in at Las Piedras, Venezuela, for her load of 35,361 tons of
crude and diesel oil. She carried a crew of 46, all Spaniards,
including Capt. C. Moragues, who was making his first transit
as master.
Five pilots were put aboard under command of Capt.
Rudolph W. Rubelli, who was to retire and take his last ship
through a few weeks later after 18 years on the reaches.
Rain started as she entered the first chamber. Two assistant
pilots wrapped in raincoats paced the lookout-post rigs some
waterfronters have been wont to call "those birdcages." At one
point, because of the ship's broad beam, she fit so closely
into the 110-foot space between lock walls that pilot and mule
operator could have passed a copy of THE REVIEW across.
The Oswego Defender made a smooth transit in 9 hours
23 minutes. Only 17 days later she delivered her cargo in
Yokohama, Japan. A fast trip, her agent said.
New stemwinders being built today are likely to come out
of the shipyard equipped with deck pipe on which lookout-
posts can be fitted. Their designers often ask Canal engineers
to approve such details, including placement of chocks and
bitts, before the craft leave the drawing boards.


'ard at ractrdj c. hut I I .t' ne( ai
lanl r, i ard oi Ilap,

L .i-. Ip













S% Alvin H. Hassock,
right, clerk
-, Ato the Operations
SSupervisor, and
Clifford B. Bellamy,
far right,
teletype operator,
keep track of
everything on the
locks, before
and after it happens.


Presiding over the manifold details of lifting the Oswego Defender
was Locks Engineer Richard J. Danielsen, Acting Locks
Superintendent.


When she arrived in Cristobal, Watch Supervisor Marine Traffic
Controller Martin Sawyer, right, assigned the tanker as No. 9
transit, notified Gatun she was laden with oil, would require
12 mules. Control House Operator Joseph Elliott turned the
handles that closed the gates, let in the water.


; I








Navigation Division


Has New



Skipper


CAPT. ELI D. RING, USN, became
Chief of the Navigation Division, Cap-
tain of the Port of Balboa and Chairman
of the Board of Local Inspectors last
month when Capt. Claude S. Farmer,
USN, ended a 3-year tour of duty with
the Panama Canal.
Capt. Ernest B. Rainier, previously
senior assistant port captain, was ap-
pointed temporary Port Captain, Cris-
tobal, and member of the Board of
Local Inspectors.
Captain Farmer has returned to the
States, reporting to the Commandant
of the 6th Naval District, Charleston,
S.C., for reassignment with the Navy.
Captain Ring came aboard as Port
Captain, Cristobal, and member of the
Board of Local Inspectors in January
1962. A Navy officer since 1941, he is
a veteran of World War II service in
both the Atlantic and Pacific Theaters
of Operation. He came to the Zone from
duty with the Atlantic fleet, where he
had been Commander of Destroyer
Division 162.


Captain Ring calls Noble, Ill., his
home town and attended Illinois State
Normal University. He joined the Navy
in 1940, completed officer training the
following year at Northwestern Uni-
versity, and after receiving his com-
mission was stationed in the office of
the Chief of Naval Operations, Wash-
ington, D.C. By his own definition, he
likes to play "at" golf.
Captain Rainier, who was a Panama
Canal pilot for 15 years, was promoted
to Assistant Port Captain, Cristobal,
in 1955.
A native of Mathews County, Va.,
he went to sea soon after graduation


tI
Capt. Ernest B. Rainier


from high school and won advance-
ment through the ranks to master in
12 years, all in service with the
Colombian Steamship Co.
After that company was sold in 1938,
he was employed by the Panama Line
and sailed as second officer of the
SS Cristobal, later becoming chief offi-
cer and master before entering Canal
service and joining the PanCanal pilot
force in August 1939. He holds the rank
of commander in the Naval Reserve,
of which he has been a member
since 1931.
The Colombian ship on which he was
master was a new passenger ship and
he says he was always lucky to be


A A
Capt. Eli D. Ring

master of passenger ships. He went to
two maritime schools and three tech-
nical schools between 1926 and 1930
relative to maritime activities and
navigation.
Captain Rainier has been interested
in baseball since his youth and was
president of the Colon Baseball Club
of the former Canal Zone Baseball
League in 1947. He's gone overboard
twice on rescues, once for an injured
seaman and once for the master of a
merchant ship who had fallen overboard
in Cristobal harbor.
Before his departure, Captain Farmer
was presented the award of the Army
Commendation Medal by Governor
Fleming, in recognition of his outstand-
ing performance. The accompanying
citation noted his success in handling
the all-time high volume of ship traffic
with the lowest accident rate in the
Canal's history.
Captain Farmer, born in Chatta-
nooga, Tenn., was graduated from
the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis
in 1938.
During World War II he was com-
mander of a submarine chaser out of
Trinidad and Curacao and on destroyer
escort duty in both the Atlantic and
Pacific, including a Pearl Harbor tour.
He attended the Navy's General Line
School, Newport, R.I., after the war
and later was executive officer at the
Mine Warfare School, Yorktown, Va.
He came to the Canal Zone in 1959
from Charleston, S.C., where he was
commander of Mine Sauadron 8.


JANUARY 4, 1963


rIM











Ar


7,4 NC
*.AN 0111


Gleam in early morning sun isn't everlasting.


MAINTENANCE



NEXT BRIDGE TO CROSS


PUTTING UP the Thatcher Ferry
Bridge cost $20 million.
Keeping it up may cost around
$200,000 a year.
The maintenance cost figure isn't
solid yet, because there's been no final
decision on several points, but the
experimental crew of 13 men on full-
time maintenance work is thought to
be a minimum.
Paint alone will be a substantial cost
item. The first complete paint job for
the new bridge linking the Americas
required 15,000 gallons of primer and
final coat paint. Another 3,000 gallons
is on hand for touch-up work.
Still undecided is whether to schedule
continuous painting or patch painting,
with a big crew put on for a complete


paint job every several years, dep
on need.
Painting needs estimates are av
on such major bridges only in
climates, so the guide on what r
ments will be for the new bridge
the Canal will have to be estal
by regular inspections to determine
much heat, humidity, and salt a
will cause variance.
The inspection schedule for tl
bridge is still in development st
The initial experimental crew
on full-time maintenance work
made up of a lead foreman in chi
4 maintenance painters, 4 str
ironworkers, and 4 helpers. Ad
may be necessary later. It is b
unlikely it would be possible to
this force.


Safety Factor:


Big Margin

3a For Big Blows





DESIGNED strength of Thatcher Ferry
Bridge puts its sturdiness in high winds
far above any known velocities ever
recorded here.
And its type of construction, combi-
nation cantilever-tied arch, is such that
there are no appreciable "sway" prob-
S lems, such as exist with suspension type
Bridges.
The bridge here has built-in strength
to survive winds of up to 70 m.p.h.
The highest gust (short duration)
ending velocity ever recorded on this side of
the Isthmus was 56 m.p.h. during a
ailable storm in 1943.
other Suspension bridges such as San Fran-
equire- cisco's Golden Gate Bridge sway as
across much as several feet in high winds. The
listed Golden Gate Bridge has the world's
ir here longest single span: 4,200 feet.


ie new
age.
of 13
will be
large of
uctural
editions
believed
reduce
<^^^ r ^^ .,,,,


Heigh-Ho, Heigh-Ho, it's off to work we go .


No matter where, or how high, painting for
protection must continue regularly.







EXECUTIVE SECRETARY


Activities of Office



Have Broader Scope


Paul M. Runnestrand


A MARKED CHANGE has been made
during recent months in the administra-
tive structure of the Office of the Execu-
tive Secretary. Its activities, under the
administration of Governor Fleming,
have gained wider scope.
At the head of this nerve center in
the administrative structure of the Pan-
ama Canal is a Minnesota attorney who
has been with the Canal more than
20 years: Paul M. Runnestrand.
Mr. Runnestrand was a legal editor
of the West Publishing Co. of St. Paul,
Minn., before joining the Canal organ-
ization in 1941. He was born in Litch-
field, Minn., and received his law degree
from the University of Minnesota in
1938.
He is a member of the bar of the
Supreme Court of the United States,
the Supreme Court of the State of Min-
nesota, the United States District Court
in the Canal Zone, and the United States
Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, New
Orleans.
Associate Attorney in the Office of
the General Counsel of the Canal until
1948, Mr. Runnestrand then was pro-
moted to Assistant General Counsel. In
1953 he was transferred to the Wash-
ington, D.C., office of the Canal organ-


ization as Attorney and Assistant to the
Secretary of the Panama Canal.
He returned to the Isthmus in Octo-
ber 1955 as Special Assistant to Canal
Zone Cov. J. S. Seybold. He became
Executive Secretary of the Canal Zone
and Executive Assistant to the President
of the Panama Canal March 1, 1956.
The Executive Secretary is the prin-
cipal adviser, liaison officer, and official
representative of the Office of the
Governor-President on policy matters
concerning the Government of the
Republic of Panama, the U.S. Embassy,
other diplomatic and consular missions,
and commercial and non-commercial
interests in the Republic and the Canal
Zone.
These may include religious, wel-
fare, charitable, educational, recrea-
tional, scientific, fraternal, and social
organizations.
The Executive Secretary also super-
vises policies and regulations con-
cerning eligibility of individuals and
organizations to engage in business
activities in the Canal Zone, to make
purchases in the Zone, or to reside or
remain here.
He also represents the Office of the
Governor in policy matters concerning
laws which govern foreign corporations,
including insurance companies, and the
securities sales law.
In addition to his other functions, the
Executive Secretary performs consular
and related duties prescribed by law or
regulations, including issuance of im-
migration visas; and he is custodian of
the Seal of the Canal Zone Government.
He provides, in addition, administra-
tive supervision of the Magistrates
Courts of Balboa and Cristobal.
As Executive Assistant to the Presi-
dent of the Panama Canal, Mr. Run-
nestrand performs special duties
assigned him by the President.
As required by particular cases, he
takes direct action; serves as staff
adviser and participates in the formula-
tion of policies, or acts as liaison officer


or staff representative in the coordina-
tion or supervision of administrative or
policy matters.
By direction of the President, he
initiates, coordinates and reviews pro-
grams, reports, correspondence and
other assignments involving the presen-
tation of information to committees or
members of Congress, the Board of
Directors and others in matters that
require the attention of the Office of
the President.
Offices of the Executive Secretary
are on the second floor of the Admin-
istration Building, Balboa Heights. Per-
sonnel in these offices provide an Execu-
tive Secretariat for the Office of the
Governor.
Responsibilities include supervision
of administrative procedures between
the Office of the Governor and other
offices and units as well as general
supervision of the Administrative
Branch and assuring compliance within
the organization with all regulations
and directives relating to administrative
practices.
In performing and supervising per-
formance of these varied duties, Mr.
Runnestrand is aided by the Adminis-
trative Assistant, F. C. Dunsmoor, who
is Administrative Assistant to the Gov-
ernor and also serves as Deputy Execu-
tive Secretary. He is authorized, among
other functions, to perform the duties
of "Consular Officer," as well as attest
such acts, as representative of the
Executive Secretary, as are required to
be performed under the Seal of the
Canal Zone Government.
Other members of the staff of the
Office of the Executive Secretary, added
in recent months to handle the new and
additional responsibilities which Gov-
ernor Fleming has assigned the office,
are: J. Patrick Conley, Assistant Execu-
tive Secretary; Robert S. Jeffrey, Staff
Assistant; Sylvester D. Callender, Coor-
dinator of relations with Latin American
communities; and Walter M. Mikulich,
Special Services Officer.

12 JANUARY 4, 1963








ANNIVERSARIES

(On the basis of total Federal Service)


CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
ENGINEERING AND
Louis Cox


MARINE BUREAU
rd L. Sampsell
foreman Locks
pnNJ House
o ard
inc ? Espatcher
PLI AD COMMUNITY
SE V E BUREAU


Nathan Fleckner Clerk
Administrative Assistant


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Karl D. Glass
Police Technician
Lyle B. Morau
Police Sergeant
Fred E. Mounts
Police Private
Ethlin L. Fawcett
Elementary Teacher, Latin
American Schools
Elouise Games
Elementary Teacher, Latin
American Schools
Luke C. Palumbo
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Mary B. Turbyfill
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Angel Franco
Fireman, Floating Plant
Allan L. Bodden
Oiler
Nicolas Ortiz
Boiler Tender
Leonard E. Case
Marine Machinist
Ricardo Rodriguez
Seaman
Gladstone S. Fowles
Clerk Typist
Marco T. Molinares
Leader Heavy Laborer
Te6filo Urriola
Debris Control Winchman
MAximo Cabezas
Surveying Aid
Emilio Mayorga
Carpenter
Juan Aguilar
Heavy Laborer
HEALTH BUREAU
Louis Fink
Veterinarian, Public Health
Mildred R. Largent
Staff Nurse, Medicine and
Surgery
Ruth R. Beck
Clerk
Herbert W. Dena
Hospital Attendant
Mauricio Rivas
Messenger
Manuel de J. Cortes
Cook


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Martin Reyes
Laundry Checker
Jorge Martinez
Exterminator
Emigdio Carvajal
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
and Surgery
Angel Lino
Stockman
Roland J. Jarvis
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
and Surgery
Alfonso A. Moore
Nursing Assistant, Operating
Room
MARINE BUREAU


Towing Locomotive
Operator
Antonio Vallejo
Helper Lock Operator
Herbert V. Hutchison
Deckhand Boatswain
John E. Hotz
Guard Supervisor
Manuel Fuentes
Maintenanceman (Rope and
Wire Cable)
Cyril Holt
Seaman
Clifford O. Blake
Maintenanceman
Antonio Jimenez
Helper Lock Operator
OFFICE
OF THE COMPTROLLER
Juan A. Cedefio
Bookkeeping Machine
Operation Supervisor


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Cordelia E. Smart
Sales Section Head
Rupert Hylton
Cook
Middle M Morrison
Laborer Cleaner
Jose J. Niiio
Ice Cream Maker
W. J. Sinclair
Baker
Cayetano Hernmndez
Laborer Cleaner
Lolita Wade
Clerk Typist
Amilia J. Pinder
Sales Checker, Food Service
Clifford E. Thomas
Crane Hookman
Josephine Charles
Sales Section Head
Alejandro Martinez
Cemetery Worker
Marcos Avila
Leader Laborer Cleaner
Josa D. Altamar
Garbage Collector
Bertene E. Smith
Grocery Worker
Luisa B. Seyrus
Retail Store Sales Checker
Victoria C. de Rojas
Clerk Typist
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Cristobal A. Buddle
Guard
Manuel Salvador
Helper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman
William D. McArthur
Leader Liquid Fuels
Wharfman
Percival A. Samuels
Timekeeper (Typing)
Kenneth A. Thompson
Leader Automotive Machinist
Hugh H. Harrison
Carpenter, Maintenance
Merlin B. Yocum
Supervisory Cargo Officer
Jose M. Testa
Laborer
Percival Griffith
Stockman








PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS

November 5 through December 5


EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between November 5 and
December 5 are listed here. Within-
grade promotions and job reclassifica-
tions are not listed:
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Peter J. Barr, Guard, Locks Division, to
Fire Protection Inspector, Fire Division.
Police Division
Braxton W. Treadwell, Police Sergeant to
Police Lieutenant.
John F. Gilbert, Jr., Police Private to
Police Sergeant.
Division of Schools
Martha M. Browder, Mary E. Ellwood,
Substitute Teacher to Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher.
Betty M. Martin, Substitute Teacher to
Librarian-Teacher.
Era L. Greene, Substitute Teacher and
Visiting Teacher to Kindergarten Assist-
ant.
Florence C. Cobham, Substitute Teacher
to Elementary Teacher, Latin American
Schools.
Hartford Livingston, Laborer Cleaner to
Heavy Laborer.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Frank H. Lerchen, Supervisory Mainte-
nance Engineer (Maintenance Engineer)
to Supervisory General Engineer (De-
signing Engineer).
Electrical Division
Kazimierz Bazan, Electrician to Senior
Operator (Generating Station).
Ernest M. Reinhold, Jr., Central Office
Repairman to Lead Foreman Central
Office Repairman.
John J. McLaughlin, Marine Machinist, In-
dustrial Division, to Shift Engineer
(Mechanical).
Thomas W. Petersen, Cable Splicer to
Leader Electrician (Lineman).
William W. Good, Window Clerk, Postal
Division, to Radio Mechanic.
Florencio J. Guerrero, Maintenanceman to
Launch Operator.
Dredging Division
Arnold S. Hudgins, Electrician, Towboat,
Salvage, to Lead Foreman Electrician.
Harry J. Harrison, Second Mate Pipeline
Dredge to Leverman, Pipeline Dredge.
Julius Cheney, Leader Electrician (Line-
man) to Electrician, Towboat, Salvage.
Lefard A. Bennett, Seaman to Launch
Operator.
Clifford H. Standard, Fireman (Floating
Plant) to Watertender (Floating Plant).
Leland Truick, Counterman, Supply Divi-
sion, to Messenger.
Maintenance Division
Carl J. Browne, Supervisory Maintenance
Engineer to Supervisory Maintenance
Engineer (Maintenance Engineer).
Howard W. Osborn, Maintenance Engineer
to Supervisory Sanitary Engineer (Chief,
Water and Laboratories Branch).
Alexander C. McCatty, Joseph C. Stair,
Maintenanceman to Carpenter.
Diego Sierra, Helper Carpenter, Industrial
Division, to Carpenter.


Victoriano Almengor, Asphalt or Cement
Worker to Cement Finisher.
Andres Diaz, Helper Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Mechanic to Oiler.
HEALTH BUREAU
Maria L. Keller, Staff Nurse (Medicine and
Surgery), Gorgas Hospital, to Public
Health Nurse, Division of Preventive
Medicine and Quarantine.
Horace Reid, Clerk, Industrial Division, to
Clerk-Typist, Division of Preventive
Medicine and Quarantine.
Eduardo V. Lindsay, Laborer Cleaner,
Terminals Division, to Nursing Assistant
(Psychiatry), Corozal Hospital.
Gorgas Hospital
Dr. Francis X. Schloeder, Jr., Medical
Officer (General Medicine and Surgery),
to Medical Officer (General Internal
Medicine).
Helen S. Plumer, Stock Control Clerk to
General Supply Clerk (Medical).
Wanda L. Boriotti, Staff Nurse to Staff
Nurse (Medicine and Surgery).
Cecile C. Didier, Clerk-Typist to General
Supply Clerk (Medical).
Louis E. Sprauve, Nursing Assistant (Psy-
chiatry), Corozal Hospital, to Medical
Technician (General).
Coco Solo Hospital
Alberto J. Howell, Hospital Attendant to
Storekeeping Clerk.
Cyril E. Hewitt, Counter Attendant, Sup-
ply Division, to Food Service Worker.
MARINE BUREAU
Navigation Division
Emley M. Henter, Clerk-Stenographer,
from Police Division.
Heliodoro C. Thachar, Laborer (Cleaner)
to Seaman.
Vincent Blackman, Laborer (Heavy), from
Division of Schools.
Industrial Division
Jean G. Dockery, Clerk-Typist to Clerk-
Stenographer.
M. Lucille Behre, Stock Control Clerk to
Accounts Maintenance Clerk.
Ernest V. Baptiste, Warehouseman to Stock
Control Clerk.
Leonard A. Shirley, Messenger, Adminis-
trative Branch, to Clerk.
Wendell H. Reid, Laborer (Cleaner), Divi-
sion of Schools, to Helper Machinist.
Locks Division
Gilbert H. Davis, Leader Lock Operator
(Iron-Worker Welder) to Lead Foreman
Lock Operator (Iron-Worker Welder).
Joseph M. Bateman, Teddy A. Marti, Lock
Operator (Machinist) to Leader Lock
Operator (Machinist).
Elbert L. Hughes, Leverman, Pipeline
Dredge, Dredging Division, to Lock
Operator (Engineman-Hoisting and
Portable).
Howard M. Armistead, Armature Winder,
Electrical Division, to Electrician.
George K. Hudgins, Jr., Marion E. Taake,
Guard to Towing Locomotive Operator.
William H. Peart, Helper Lock Operator
to Carpenter (Maintenance).
Santiago Evans, Line Handler to Carpenter
(Maintenance).
Alphonso L. Brandford Warehouseman,
Supply Division, to Toolroom Attendant.


Alfredo Graham, Line Handler to Boatman.
Manuel Linan, Luis E. Rodriguez, Line
Handler to Helper Lock Operator.
Victor E. Waite, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Line Handler.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Ferne E. Levee, Clerk-Stenographer to
General Claims Examiner, General Audit
Division.
Ashton Brooks, Jesius N. Barahona, Paul
D. Vergara, Amoldo A. Young, Office
Machine Operator to Bookkeeping Ma-
chine Operator.
Accounting Policies and Procedures Staff
Maenner B. Huff, Digital Computer Sys-
tems Analyst to Supervisory Systems
Accountant.
Julian M. Mountain, Systems Accountant
to Supervisory Systems Accountant.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Supply Division
Donald C. Pierpoint, Service Center Super-
visor to Service Center Manager.
Olianda A. De Alvarado, Accounts Main-
tenance Clerk to Accounting Clerk.
Sidney O. Ford, Warehouseman to Store-
keeping Clerk.
Myrtle S. Anglin, Sales Checker (Retail
Store) to Clerk.
Roy Waterman, Warehouseman to High
Lift Truck Operator (Cold Storage).
Levy Beckford, Sales Clerk to Sales Section
Head.
Ronald G. Bushell, Utility Worker to
Leader Laborer.
Alfonso Elliott, Utility Worker to Clerk.
Robinson Caraquitos, Harold G. Fergus,
Utility Worker to Counterman.
Roberto N. Hall, Package Boy to Utility
Worker.
Alfred D. Jackman, Package Boy to Lab-
orer (Heavy).
Gwendolyn Oddman, Car Hop to Counter
Woman.
Herman Johnson, Henry H. Phillips, Pin-
setter to Utility Worker and Pinsetter.
Nicolas D. Bishop, Noel A. Jones, Pin-
setter to Utility Worker.
Community Servicees Division
Richard S. Brogie, Accounting Assistant to
Housing Project Assistant (Assistant
Manager, Cristobal Housing Office).
Mariela G. Quir6s, Clerk-Typist, Terminals
Division, to Clerk-Stenographer.
Serapio De Los Rios, Victoriano Ortega,
Jose Santamaria, Laborer to Grounds
Maintenance Equipment Operator.
Francisco Barrios, Juan G6mez, Dock
Worker. Terminals Division, to Laborer.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Ricardo M. Martinez, Truck Driver, Supply
Division, to Chauffeur, Motor Transpor-
tation Division.
Terminals Division
Helen L. Meisinger, Cargo Claims Assistant
to Supervisory Accounting Technician.
Elbert F. Ridge, Leader Liquid Fuels
Wharfman to Liquid Fuels Dispatcher.
Arnaldo H. Davis, Ram6n S. Pinto, Line
Handler to Leader Line Handler.


JANUARY 4, 1963






Juan De Le6n, Arquimedes Mosquera,
Julio Osorio, Tereso Perez, Alejandro
Romero, Dock Worker to Stevedore.
Cromwell A. Panton, Bertram O. Bryce,
Line Handler, from Locks Division.
Elvan W. Lim, Line Handler to Water
Service Man.
Onofre Coronado, Railroad Trackman to
Helper Liquid Fuels Wharfman.
Alfred Davidson, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Cargo Marker.
Alphonso Bell, Messenger to Clerk.
Pablo GalvAn, Heavy Laborer, Locks Divi-
sion, to Dock Worker.
Railroad Division
George J. Herring, Road Conductor and
Yard Conductor tor Yardmaster.
Jose M. Testa, Laborer to Heavy Laborer.

OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title follow:
Chester E. Pearson, Hospital Administra-
tive Officer (Assistant Director, Gorgas
Hospital).
Fredrick J. Wainio, Administrative Service
Officer, Terminals Division.
George H. Logan, Management Techni-
cian, Administrative Branch.
Donald S. Hounschell, Assistant Dairy
Manufacturing Technologist, Supply Di-
vision.
Harry A. Carlson, Thomas P. Belford,
Construction Inspector (General), Con-
tract and Inspection Division.
Barbara D. Peterson, Clerk-Stenographer,
General Audit Division.
Constance C. Nelson, Clerk-Stenographer,
Navigation Division.
Patricia M. Flores, Clerk-Stenographer,
Industrial Division.
Efrain I. Herrera, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Accounting Division.
Emilio H. Archer, Clerk, Navigation Divi-
sion.
Maria A. C. De Horna, Stock Control Clerk,
Gorgas Hospital.
James A. Dowlin, William H. Lovell, Book-
keeping Machine Operator, Accounting
Division.
Ruby M. Jones, Sales Clerk, Supply Divi-
sion.
Hugh L. Reid, Clerk, Industrial Division.


EMPLOYEES who retired in Novem-
ber, with their positions at time of
retirement and years of Canal service:
Damley Barrow, Stevedore, Terminals Di-
vision; 33 years, 2 months, 3 days.
Robert A. Berry, Machinist, Locks Divi-
sion; 15 years, 1 month, 25 days.
Mrs. Eileen G. Brady, Head Nurse (Psy-
chiatry), Corozal Hospital; 18 years,
4 months, 17 days.
Santo V. Casella, Towing Locomotive
Operator, Locks Division; 21 years,
28 days.
Samuel T. Crichlow, carpenter, Main-
tenance Division; 31 years, 1 month,
7 days.
James C. Garth, Cargo Clerk, Terminals
Division; 26 years, 8 days.


50 year lcdgo
PLANS FOR ILLUMINATION of the
new Panama Canal were being made.
According to the CANAL RECORD, ex-
haustive studies of the illumination of
the Locks had been completed in order
that a distribution of light best suited
to all of the conditions might be
achieved.
A few concrete lampposts had been
erected on the walls of the upper Locks
at Gatun and a pair of bracket arms for
trial were being cast at the Gatun
concrete yard. Some concern was felt
over the shading of illumination from
the eyes of approaching pilots, permit-
ting thereby an unhampered vision of
all range and signal lights.
Lighting at Culebra Cut, on the other
hand, would be nonexistent except for
the system of beacons on either side
of the bank. Otherwise, the journey
through the Cut was to be made in the
dark, except for such light as was given
by the moon and stars.
Slides in Culebra Cut continued to
plague the Canal workers. On the after-
noon of January 16, the Cucaracha slide,
on the east bank of the Canal, again
renewed its activity and by the morning
of the 17th the moving mass of material
had covered all tracks in the Canal
except one next to the west bank. The
movement carried material a greater
distance across the Canal than in any
other case except the original movement
of the same slide in 1907.
On the night of January 19, the rock
bluff on the east bank of the Canal south
of Gold Hill broke away at a distance
of several hundred feet and moved into
the Canal, entirely covering all tracks
to the east of the center line.


Mrs. Melba M. Heintz, Accounting Clerk,
Supply Division; 17 years, 6 months,
7 days.
Martin G. Herrera, Ramp Operator, Navi-
gation Division; 35 years, 11 months,
15 days.
James B. Ricketts, Seaman, Navigation Di-
vision; 34 years, 7 months, 23 days.
Reyes Rodriguez, Surveying Aid, Engineer-
ing Division; 34 years, 10 months,
26 days.
Harry H. Stultz, Seaman, Navigation Divi-
sion; 25 years, 2 months, 9 days.
Kenneth W. Vinton, Instructor, Schools
Division; 31 years, 11 months, 16 days.
Alexander Weir, Helper Lock Operator,
Locks Division; 49 years, 1 month,
7 days.


25 years Cgo
A PLAN BY which tolls through the
Panama Canal would be reduced on
U.S.-flag ships on the inter-coastal run
was dealt a blow when Senator Bennet
Champ Clark, Chairman of the Senate
Inter-Oceanic Canal Committee, re-
vealed there was opposition from both
the State and War Departments.
The reduction was planned in order
to induce the Panama Pacific Lines to
retain their luxury liners on the New
York, Panama Canal-California run.
Panama merchants, meanwhile, said
that their greatest problem was the
withdrawal of the tourist ships from the
inter-coastal run.
In Washington, President Roosevelt
proclaimed the need for the greatest
U.S. Navy in history-a Navy capable
of defending simultaneously both the
Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United
States in view of the possibility that
the Panama Canal might be destroyed
or its operation paralyzed in time of war.

10 yearS c4go
STUDIES IN connection with the pro-
posed conversion of the Panama Canal
electrical power system from 25- to
60-cycle current were announced by
President Truman. President Truman
also told Congress that the present toll
rates of the Panama Canal were provid-
ing sufficient revenue for operation of
the Canal.
New rental rates on Panama Canal
quarters became effective. The schedule
was based on the recommendations of
the Rent Panel which were accepted by
the Board of Directors. Increases ranged
from 53 cents to $4.84 a week.

One year g4o
GOVERNOR W. A. CARTER left the
Isthmus for his new post as senior engi-
neer adviser of the Inter-American
Development Bank in Washington, D.C.
Prior to his departure he was honored
at a public ceremony of tribute which
was organized by a group of Panama-
nian citizens. The tribute included a
program of Panamanian folklore, danc-
ing, and presentation of a medal from
the Panamanian people.
Earlier in the month, the appoint-
ment by President Kennedy of Maj.
Gen. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., to succeed
General Carter as Governor of the Canal
Zone, was announced in Washington.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


CANAL HISTORY


RETIREMENTS










SH I


PPI


New Grace Liner Due
THE NEW $17 million Grace Line
passenger-cargo ship Santa Magdalena,
which was launched last February, will
arrive in Cristobal February 6 on her
maiden voyage from New York to
Guayaquil, Ecuador. Panama Agencies
announced that the new vessel will
leave New York February 1 and
probably will dock in Cristobal.
The Santa Magdalena, the first of a
series of new replacement vessels to be
placed by Grace Line on the South
American west coast run, is capable
of accommodating 120 passengers and
can carry 175 standard 20-foot con-
tainers or truck trailer vans with a total
capacity of 188,600 cubic feet. Banana
conveyers, installed as part of the ship's
standard equipment, will load at the
rate of 2,400 stems an hour.


"Gulfoba" Going Great
NORTHBOUND AND THEN south-
bound, merrily does the Gulfoba, a Gulf
Petroleum, S.A. tanker, transit the Pan-
ama Canal-in 1 day and out the next-
only to be back again in a wink.
The sea-going twin-screw tanker,
which has a capacity of about 6,000
barrels of oil, has been engaged in
carrying oil from the Refineria Panama
on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus to
the Pacific side. When on the Pacific
side, the Gulfoba docks at Pier 4,
Balboa.
The Gulfoba started its heavy traffic
business in November, completing 16
Canal transits that month.
All employees on the Panama Canal
lock walls are on first name basis with
everyone on the Gulfoba, but the tanker


TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN NOVEMBER
1962 1961
Commercial. ............. 924 891
U.S. Government ......... 38 15
Free .................... 7 4
Total .............. 969 910
TOLLS
Commercial.... $4,685,585 $4,444,586
U.S. Government 213,824 77,727
Total.... $4,899,409 $4,522,312
CARGO"
Commercial.... 5,177,751 5,232,796
U.S. Government 110,207 99,216
Free.......... 51,027 31,534
Total.... 5,338,985 5,363,546
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
" Cargo figures are in long tons.


still uses a pilot and locomotives, just
as does a vessel making a transit for
the first time.
Captain of the Gulfoba is George
Murphy Hayes of Grand Cayman
Island.

Speed Demon
ONE OF THE fastest freighters afloat
came southbound through the Canal
December 11 on her way from New
York to the Far East. She is the Pioneer
Moon, an American Challenger Class
vessel which holds the trans-Atlantic
speed record for cargo class ships. She
made the run from Bishop's Rock off
England to Ambrose Light, recently, at
an average speed of 24 knots.
The Pioneer Moon will make regular
trips through the Canal for the United
States Line with general cargo from


Tanker's transit timetable like shuttle service.







- 'v a a -

... ... ... .. ..... ... .. ..... Aa i __


New York to the Far East and return.
The first in the line's $380-million long
range cargo ship replacement program,
the Pioneer Moon was launched in
Newport News, Va., in April by Mrs.
Clarence D. Martin, Jr., wife of the
Under Secretary of Commerce. Mr.
Martin also is a member of the Panama
Canal Board of Directors.

Shipping Agent Retires
ERNEST S. BAKER, manager of
Norton, Lilly & Co. in Balboa and dean
of the shipping agents in the Canal
Zone, retires from his position with the
company in January after more than
37 years of service. Mr. Baker, who has
been with Norton, Lilly since 1925, will
make his home in Panama after his
retirement. His wife was a former
teacher with the Canal Zone Division of
Schools.
JOSEPH NOONAN, also a veteran
employee of Norton, Lilly, who has
been manager in Cristobal, will take
over as manager of Norton, Lilly on the
Isthmus. The Balboa office of the
agency will be headed by Colin Lawson,
former assistant manager of C. B.
Fenton & Co. Other changes in the com-
pany staff are the appointment of Lloyd
Alberga as assistant manager in the
Cristobal office and of Archibald Irvine,
former chief engineer on the cable ship
All America, as boarding officer in
Cristobal for Norton, Lilly.

Space Ship Part Transits
THE PANAMA CANAL took a part in
the space program recently when a sec-
tion of NASA's huge Saturn was carried
through the waterway as deck cargo
aboard the freighter Smith Builder. The
big missile section, which resembled
somewhat a giant thimble, was manu-
factured at the Douglas Aircraft Co.
plant in Santa Monica and was being
taken on a 41-foot transporter to the
launch and test sites in Huntsville, Ala.
The part was the S-IV upper stage of
the Nation's largest space vehicle and
is scheduled for unmanned earth orbital
missions this year. The Smith Builder
picked up the part in Los Angeles,
Calif., and was taking it to New Orleans.


JANUARY 4, 1963


N


G




Full Text

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie136pana

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P ANAMA r(M?Hl CANA L "111 SL /£ IN THIS ISSUE Oceans at Same Level? Dry Season Pattern New Rigging (or Pilots Bridge Maintenance ff k\ \*. SCtN c ^ jji ; ^ Jri.i t ?> V f • ./* Vol. 1 3, No. 6

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Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor-President W. P. Leber, Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Acting Panama Canal Information Officer ^P ANAMA W§g} ,C^ N AJ_ g Official Panama Canal Publication Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, CZ. Joseph Connor, Acting Press Officer Publications Editors Robert D. Kerr and Julio E. Briceno Editorial Assistants Eunice Richard, Tobi Bittel, and Tomas A. Cupas On aale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each. Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each. Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights. C.Z. Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. 8oth Anniversary A Proclamation WHEREAS January 16, 1963, marks the eightieth anniversary of the signing of the Civil Service Act of 1883; and WHEREAS the Civil Service Act has stood the tests of time in providing the excellence in civil service which is required for successful execution of Federal programs and policies which have deep significance to all Americans and all citizens of the free world; and WHEREAS the Act of 1883 has been strengthened by subsequent laws, interpretations, and executive actions to create an even more effective and highly qualified Federal work force; and WHEREAS the life of every American is touched directly or indirectly every day by the services which Federal public servants perform; and WHEREAS public esteem for career civil servants is a prerequisite for attracting well-qualified citizens to compete for Government service, a fact which requires greater public awareness of the value of the merit system, the achievements of Government workers, and the career opportunities offered in Federal service: NOW, THEREFORE, I, JOHN F. KENNEDY, President of the United States of America, do hereby call upon the people of the United States to participate in the observance of the eightieth anniversary of the Civil Service Act during the month of January 1963. I also call upon the heads of Federal departments and agencies, as well as leaders of industry and labor and members of all publicspirited groups, to arrange appropriate ceremonies in honor of the public services performed by our able and devoted Federal civil servants throughout the country. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed. DONE at the City of Washington this twenty-eighth day of September in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and [seal] sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and eighty-seventh. By the President: Acting Secretary of State. JSpaw cr. Cffennedu. Index Oceans At Same Level? No! 3 Bench Marks Vital, Little Known 5 Dry Season Partem Varied 6 New Information Officer 7 New "Rigging" for Pilots 8 Navigation Division Chiefs Changed 10 Bridge Maintenance 11 Executive Secretary's Work Broadened 12 Anniversaries 13 Promotions and Transfers 14 Canal History 15 Shipping 16 nOT BSflUTY ALOn€ PICTURESQUE beauty of the Panama City waterfront, to many, obscures the practicality of the scene. On our front cover, aground at low tide and waiting for the next high tide to put them afloat again, are three coastal trade craft in the foreground. Silhouetted against the horizon are a few of the scores of shrimp boats which help make Panama a prime supply source of these succulent edibles. Shrimp exports from Panama in 1961 amounted to more than 9% million pounds, valued at more than $5.8 million. Peak export year, dollarwise, was 1957, when the total was near $6.2 million. Panama's shrimping industry employs more than 2,200 persons, about 800 aboard more than 160 fishing craft and 1,400 in plants where the shrimp are beheaded, cleaned, and packed. Forty-two different concerns operate 3 or more vessels and 44 operate 1 or 2. o4n Sanitation A CORDIAL INVITATION has been extended to Canal Zone Gov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., and Mrs. Fleming, and all Canal Zone residents, to attend the agricultural and industrial Fat of San Sebastian in the picturesque town of Ocu January 19-21. A contest on use of draft animals in agriculture will be the climax of the program on Sunday, January 20. January 4, 1963

PAGE 9

OCEANS LEVEL? . Not Along Isthmus Coasts NO, THE ATLANTIC and Pacific oceans are NOT level with each other. Not along the coasts of the Isthmus. In fact, it's possible that the level of the Pacific could be nearly 12 feet above the level of the Adantic at the same time. The difference in level averages only 9.2 inches, however, records of Panama Canal Chief Hydrographer W. H. Esslinger show. Many Isthmians find it important to keep track of the tides. Bathers want to know whether they'll find good swimming or mudflats at a certain point Fishermen say they affect the catch. Where marine ways are not available for hauling out small craft, the practice is to beach them at high tide, then work fast to slap on a coat of paint or make repairs before they're seaborne again on the next high tide. Balboa has a regular tide with two highs and two lows every lunar day, with an average range from high to low tide of 12.758 feet and a maximum range of 22.7 feet. Cristobal has an irregular tide varying from two highs and two lows to one high and one low each lunar day— with all possible intermediate variations. But the average range from high to low tide is only .858 feet and the maximum range is 3.05 feet. Why big tides on the Pacific and small tides on the Adantic? The two entrances to the Panama Canal, by air, are only 40 miles apart. And aren't the tides caused by forces of the sun and moon? Here are the reasons— oversimplified —as given by Hydrographer T. C. Henter: A look at tides in general is needed to understand their local peculiarities. At times of new and full moon, tidal forces of the moon and sun pull the seas in the same direction. At first and last quarters, they are approximately at right angles to each other. When moon and sun unite their forces, the tidal range is large. When they are at right angles, the tidal range is small. The mass of the sun is far greater than the mass of the moon. But the sun is many times farther from the earth than the moon. Hence its tidal effect is less than half that of the moon. Relative movement of the earth, moon and sun, together with the daily rotation of the earth, cause two primary classes of tide-producing forces: (1) Those with a period of about half a day, called semi-daily forces; (2) Those having a period of a day, called daily forces. The semi-daily forces are the larger, and, consequently, at most places there are two high and two low waters each day. But rise and fall of the actual tide at any locality, and the times of high and low water, depend on conformation of the ocean shore and depth of the water, as well as on the tide-producing forces. The rise and fall of the actual tide is divided into three types of tides known as semi-daily, daily, and mixed. The semi-daily has two high and two low waters each day, with littie difference (See p. 4) When the tide goes out along Panama City's La Marina, drydocks aren't needed to get underneath even sizeable craft. They can be brought close inshore at high tide and there's easy access at low tide. Lloyd A. Blenman checks tide gage located in shed at top of ramp to the Taboga launch landing at Pier 18, Balboa. Note how loops on gage match loops shown in Fig. 2 on next page. The Panama Canal Review

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+10 +5 -5 +10 Midnight September 7Noon Midnight -MIXED TIDE + 10 n -5 +10 +5 Midnight Noon Midnight September 11-DAILY TIDE +10 Midnight Noon Midnight September 15-SEMI-DAILY TIDE CRISTOBAL TIDES, ATLANTIC ENTRANCE Fig. 1 in morning and afternoon tides. The daily type has but one high and one low water in a day and the mixed type has two high and two low waters in the same period with considerable difference between morning and afternoon tides. The mixed tide results from a combination of daily and semi-daily tides. At Cristobal, the daily tide-producing force is predominant. The afternoon tide is considerably larger than the morning tide, as shown in Figure 1. The daily tide-producing force has little effect on the actual rise and fall of tides at Balboa. As shown in Figure 2, there is very little difference in morning and afternoon tides. Their rhythm is characteristic of the semi-daily tidal forces. Here a look at the "stationary wave theory" of the tide is in order. In a rectangular tank of water, a wave may be started by raising and then immediately lowering one end of the tank. This wave will not be in the form of an ordinary wave with crest and trough. Instead, it is an oscillation, or apparent swashing back and forth (but with little water movement except up and down) This type of wave is known as a stationary wave. The stationary wave theory is that the dominant tides in the seven seas are stationary wave oscillations set up by the tidal forces of the sun and moon in parts of the oceans having periods of oscillations approximately the same as the period of the tide-producing forces. According to H. A. Manner, of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, a number TIDES MIXED— Combination of daily and semi-daily tides. SPRING-When forces of sun and moon act in same direction (large ranges). DAILY— One high and one low water per day. SEMI-DALLY-Usual two high and two low waters each day. NEAP— Small range— when forces of sun and moon act in right angle directions. MEDIAN— Mean between spring and neap tides. BALBOA TIDES, PACIFIC ENTRANCE Fig. 2 September 8-NEAP TIDE Midnight Noon Midnight September 12-MEDIAN TIDE Midnight Noon Midnight September 16-SPRING TIDE Midnight Noon Midnight + 10 +10 +10 + 10 +10 Januaby 4, 1963

PAGE 11

of puzzling tidal features can be explained by the stationary wave theory. At Panama, the Atlantic end of the Canal opens into the Caribbean Sea, which is cut off from the open Atlantic by the girdle of Antillean islands that mark the limits of the Caribbean. Too, the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean are of such length and depth as to have a period of oscillation of approximately 24 hours. Hence, in this area the daily tide-producing force is predominant. The basin comprising the Gulf and Caribbean is much smaller and much shallower than the basins of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Therefore the actual tides are smaller. The Pacific side of the Canal is situated at the end of an oscillating system of semi-daily tides and at a considerable distance from the center of the oscillation. Thus the range of the semidaily tide at Balboa is much greater than the daily tide at Cristobal. Despite the possible 12-foot difference in level of the oceans at the same time, there is no prospect that one would drain into the other if the Canal were a sea-level waterway. In fact, maximum tidal flow current even at the greatest difference in levels would be only about 4.5 knots, it is estimated. Enough to cause transiting problems for ships in parts of the channel, but not enough to reduce the water supply of either ocean. There are two main reasons for this. One is the restrictive effect of channel entrances and channel capacity itself. The other is that there are tide "reversals"— particularly with non-standard tides on either side— as soon as highs or lows are reached. Thus tidal flow volume and direction, or both, would be changing almost constantly if the Canal were a sea-level canal. Levels of the oceans also vary from month to month due to effects of wind, ocean currents, and the cyclic variations of the heavenly bodies. Normal dry season prevailing winds are north to northwest on the Pacific side and north to northeast on the Atlantic side. Wind effect on tides is influenced by land masses and the number of miles air flow has to "push" on open water surfaces. To further complicate thingsThere has been an apparent steady but slight rise in the levels of both oceans in the last several years. The "apparent" is stressed because there is still inconclusive debate in scientific circles as to whether the ocean levels are rising or the land masses shrinking slightly, or a combination of both. £ Orlando L. Flye, Jr., supervisor of generation and transmission at the Balboa electric sub-station, takes a look at the bench mark near the sub-station. Bench Marks Keep "Trim" "PBM-45 IS 83 FEET from the west end of the Electrical Substation, Balboa. Elevation on pipe cap is 20.440 feet." That is a sample description of a bench mark. The letters PBM stand for "Permanent Bench Mark," the number 45 is its serial number and the elevation is the height, in feet, above the Precise Level Datum. There are more than 250 of these little-known elevation points distributed throughout the Canal Zone, according to the Survey Branch of the Engineering and Construction Bureau. They are used in all types of construction and engineering studies; to lay out new townsites; to set house fundations at the same elevation; to assure adequate fall for sewer lines; to establish the elevation and grade points of new roads and railroad track and to check track elevation after reballasting or other work. They are used to set pads for big pieces of machinery and to establish the elevation of bridge piers. The allowable tolerance on the top elevation of the Thatcher Ferry Bridge piers was only 1/64 of an inch— roughly the thickness of a photographic postal card. The standard precise bench marks used in the Canal Zone are 18 by 18 by 6-inch concrete slabs with a copper or brass bolt set in the center forming the point used for elevation determinations. The slab is buried about 3 feet in the ground, with a 4-inch pipe centered above the bolt and projecting about 18 inches above the ground. Topping the pipe is a cast-brass cap with a projection rising from the center. The difference in elevation between the top of the bolt and this projection is measured and the elevation determination for ordinary work is referred to this projection. For precise work the cap is removed and measurements are made from the bolt at the bottom of the pipe. Other bench marks may be bolts or rivets in lock or spillway walls, culvert headwalls, abutments, or other "solid" structures. They may be found at the tops and bottoms of dams, along locks, roads and trails, and on bridges, and culverts. The first bench marks in the Zone were established across the Isthmus by mid1908 and all were checked in 1924-25 and 1938. Checks sometimes reveal earth slippages or settlement of concrete work. Some are removed for construction work, at which times others are established nearby. Some have been lost, through removal of reference points from which they could have been located. In recent years, however, officials in charge of roadwork and buildings replacement have regularly notified the Surveys Branch of removal of signs or structure changes so that the bench marks can be cared for properly. Some of the bench marks are replacements for ones established during French construction days, with which the original Panama Canal bench marks were tied in to establish correct elevations above sea level clear across the Isthmus. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 12

THE DRY SEASON Pattern Shows Wide Variations WHILE THERE'S a well-known and well-established pattern to the dry season, its beginning and ending aren't as uniform as faulty memories might lead some to believe. Dry seasons have started as early as mid-November, in 1926, and as late as the first of February, in 1956. Average duration, on the basis of 49 years' records: 4Vz months. The season also has had exceptional ending dates, as early as before midApril in 1919 and 1960, and as late as past mid-June in 1948. And then there were those dry years 1957 and 1959 when there were hardly any rainy seasons at all. Exact starting and ending dates sometimes are far from solid, even though almost exact dates are indicated in the chart in the adjoining column. Hydrographic Office personnel concede that it's hard to pinpoint one day as starting or ending day, as there often is a 2or 3-week period during which the dry season start is "hanging fire." The formula for establishing the date is not too well defined. For many years the dates of the beginning and ending of the periods when Canal requirements exceeded the inflow of the Gatun Lake drainage basin were used, but that was discarded when the demand for lockage water and hydroelectric power increased to the point where it was no longer a suitable criterion. Then there is the "10-day drouth" method, whereby if there is no 24-hour rain of 1 inch or more for 10 days at any place in the watershed the dry season is determined to have started at the beginning of the 10-day period. Actually, all elements are now considered: wind direction and velocity, both at surface and upper air levels; humidity variation; decline in watershed runoff; and, of course, the amount, and distribution of rainfall. The purpose of establishing the date is to determine when diesel plants should be started and when the power of Gatun hydro station should be (See p. 7) Duration SEASON Average IIOV. D€C. JAI1. f€B. fTlflR. APR. fTlflY June Dates

PAGE 13

New Information Officer LONG AND widely-known on the Isthmus, Frank A. Baldwin this month succeeds Will Arey as Panama Canal Information Officer. Mr. Baldwin, Protocol Officer since last March, has been with the Canal organization since 1941, when he took a position as an accountant. His father, Floyd H. Baldwin, who retired several years ago as General Auditor of the Panama Canal, earlier had served as an Assistant Comptroller of Panama. Mr. Arey resigned after 9 years of service as Information Officer to take a U.S. Government position in Washington, D.C. He and his wife, Louise, and their sons, John and William, returned to the States last month. William, a senior in Balboa High School, will return to the Zone to complete his high school work. Mrs. Arev is the former Louise Turner Craft of Hartwell, Ga. Mr. Baldwin was Chief of Plant Accounting in the Comptroller's Office prior to being named Protocol Officer. He attended grade schools in the Canal Zone and the Canal Zone Junior College. He is a graduate of Castle Heights Military Academy, Lebanon, Tenn., and the University of Kentucky, where he received his Bachelor of Science degree in Commerce. Mr. Baldwin, 42, was born on the Isthmus. His wife is the former Laura Garcia de Paredes of Panama. They have five children: four boys and a girl. Mr. Baldwin is a major in the Active Reserve, having enlisted as a private and been commissioned at the Infantry School, Fort Benning, Ga., during World War II. Indicative of the high regard in which Mr. Arey was held were numerous expressions of regret and best wishes via both Spanish and English news media. One noted particularly his attitude toward the working press, appreciation of their problems and the "large reservoir of respect and esteem" he had earned among newspapermen in Panama. In accepting Mr. Arey's resignation, Governor Fleming said he did so "with regret." Mr. Arey served 2Y2 years as Public Affairs Officer with the U.S. Embassy in Bogota, Colombia, prior to coming to Panama as Public Affairs Officer of the U.S. Embassy in July 1951. Born in Shelby, N.C., Mr. Arey is a graduate of the University of North Carolina. He was President and General Manager of the Cleveland Times Publishing Co., commercial printing plant and publisher of the Cleveland Times in Shelby, from 1941 to 1948, when he was appointed to the U.S. Foreign Service of the Department of State. He had served as president of the Public Relations Society of Panama, vice president of the Panama Rotary Club and was a charter member of the Panama-North American Association. Other affiliations in both Panama and the Canal Zone included the Panama Carnival Junta, the Board of Management of the Balboa YMCA, Board of Directors of the Canal Zone Tuberculosis Association, and Christian Board of Education of Balboa Union Church. As Information Officer, Mr. Baldwin takes charge of all Panama Canal public relations activities, including providing The Areys, with son William, standing; son John, seated, foreground, and a disinterested dog, Pepe. Frank A. Baldwin and family. counsel in this field in conduct of the Canal's overall operations. As directed by the Governor, the information officer prepares reports analyzing public opinion relating to the Canal and Zone. He directs issuance of news releases and informational materials. These include The Panama Canal Review and the weekly Spillway, published in both Spanish and English. Operation of the Canal Zone Guide Service and the Las Cruces tour vessel also are under his direction. The Dry Season (Continued from p. 6) curtailed to conserve water for lockages. In 1959-60, it appeared that the dry season already had started, late in December, but heavy rainfall New Year's Day, which even caused flood conditions in the Chagres River, made it necessary to change the starting date to January 3. The mid-May ending date for the 1958-59 dry season verges on pure speculation, for both rainfall and runoff were below normal until October 1959 —the 20th consecutive month of such sub-par conditions. And this was in the wake of a long 1956-57 dry season, with the entire year 1957 one of the driest on record.

PAGE 15

/ 111" \ Coming in off the Caribbean ahead of a rain squall, the Oswego Defender and another ship seemed small craft in the wide locks area and approaches. But rain overtook the 745-foot tanker, above as its 30,486gross-ton bulk and 101-foot beam were maneuvered into the chamber with little space to spare. New Rig Helps Qn "Stem winders // WHEN A CANAL PILOT says he's "got a stemwinder," he means he is going aboard one of those really big, broad, newer tankers and ore ships which has its bridge way aft. Nobody along the waterfront recalls how the low-riding behemoths came to be called "stemwinders," but there's a suspicion the name was coined by some harassed pilot who found that when he was standing on the bridge he was too far astem to see how the bow was entering the Locks. Some 5 or 6 years ago, when the first big stemwinders began looming up over the Atlantic and Pacific horizons, nobody had foreseen the problems of putting them through the Canal. The waterway had handled many longer and some wider ships than, for example, the Oswego Defender. But the bigger vessels were passenger liners or warships provided with crow'snests or other points of vantage from which assistant pilots could observe and give signals. Not only can the senior pilots stationed on a stemwinder's bridge get only a general view of what is going on up front, an assistant pilot peering over its stumpy bow cannot see either side of its hull. And if he looks over the side, he might not be able to judge the exact course on which the ship is aimed. The problem was solved by the design of twin conningstation or lookout-post rigs placed aft the bow on port and starboard. Usually they are constructed of short lengths of aluminum pipe screwed together. Each rig has a platform on which an assistant pilot may walk back and forth, plus a canvas cover to give him a little protection from rain or sun. When the Oswego Defender snowed up in Cristobal Harbor, her two "temporary bridges" already were in place. Marine Traffic Controllers were expecting her. As the stemwinder had transited before, Canal officials knew she was 745 feet long, had a beam of 101 feet, and a gross of 30,486 tons. The Liberian flag vessel belongs to Oswego Ore Carriers, Ltd., of Monrovia. Her local agents are Wilford & McKay, Inc. She is operated by Marine Transport Lines, Inc., and had put in at Las Piedras, Venezuela, for her load of 35,361 tons of crude and diesel oil. She carried a crew of 46, all Spaniards, including Capt. C. Moragues, who was making his first transit as master. Five pilots were put aboard under command of Capt. Rudolph W. Rubelli, who was to retire and take his last ship through a few weeks later after 18 years on the reaches. Rain started as she entered the first chamber. Two assistant pilots wrapped in raincoats paced the lookout-post rigs some waterfronters have been wont to call "those birdcages." At one point, because of the ship's broad beam, she fit so closely into the 110-foot space between lock walls that pilot and mule operator could have passed a copy of The Review across. The Oswego Defender made a smooth transit in 9 hours 23 minutes. Only 17 days later she delivered her cargo in Yokohama, Japan. A fast trip, her agent said. New stemwinders being built today are likely to come out of the shipyard equipped with deck pipe on which lookoutposts can be fitted. Their designers often ask Canal engineers to approve such details, including placement of chocks and bitts, before the craft leave the drawing boards. This lookout-post rig may resemble the sta|for a steward at racetrack, but it's a necessary adjunct for Canal pilots' uattn many tankers and ore ships. The huge tanker headed for Catun Lake was lifted level with lock walls, fitting so snugly that ship and locks appeared as a single surface. Alvin H. Hassock, right, clerk to the Operations Supervisor, and Clifford B. Bellamy, far right, teletype operator, keep track of everything on the locks, before and after it happens. Presiding over the manifold details of lifting the Oswego Defender was Locks Engineer Richard J. Danielsen, Acting Locks Superintendent. When she arrived in Cristobal, Watch Supervisor Marine Traffic Controller Martin Sawyer, right, assigned the tanker as No. 9 transit, notified Gatun she was laden with oil, would require 12 mules. . Control House Operator Joseph Elliott turned the handles that closed the gates, let in the water.

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Navigation Division Has New Skipper CAPT. ELI D. RING, USN, became Chief of the Navigation Division, Captain of the Port of Balboa and Chairman of the Board of Local Inspectors last month when Capt. Claude S. Farmer, USN, ended a 3-year tour of dutv with the Panama Canal. Capt. Ernest B. Rainier, previously senior assistant port captain, was appointed temporary Port Captain, Cristobal, and member of the Board of Local Inspectors. Captain Farmer has returned to the States, reporting to the Commandant of the 6th Naval District, Charleston, S.C., for reassignment with the Navy. Captain Ring came aboard as Port Captain, Cristobal, and member of the Board of Local Inspectors in January 1962. A Navy officer since 1941, he is a veteran of World War II service in both the Atlantic and Pacific Theaters of Operation. He came to the Zone from duty with the Atlantic fleet, where he had been Commander of Destroyer Division 162. Captain Ring calls Noble, 111., his home town and attended Illinois State Normal University. He joined the Navy in 1940, completed officer training the following year at Northwestern University, and after receiving his commission was stationed in the office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C. By his own definition, he likes to play "at" golf. Captain Rainier, who was a Panama Canal pilot for 15 years, was promoted to Assistant Port Captain, Cristobal, in 1955. A native of Mathews County, Va., he went to sea soon after graduation Capt. Claude S. Fanner Capt. Ernest B. Rainier from high school and won advancement through the ranks to master in 12 years, all in service with the Colombian Steamship Co. After that company was sold in 1938, he was employed by the Panama Line and sailed as second officer of the SS Cristobal, later becoming chief officer and master before entering Canal service and joining the PanCanal pilot force in August 1939. He holds the rank of commander in the Naval Reserve, of which he has been a member since 1931. The Colombian ship on which he was master was a new passenger ship and he says he was always lucky to be Capt. Eli D. Ring master of passenger ships. He went to two maritime schools and three technical schools between 1926 and 1930 relative to maritime activities and navigation. Captain Rainier has been interested in baseball since his youth and was president of the Colon Baseball Club of the former Canal Zone Baseball League in 1947. He's gone overboard twice on rescues, once for an injured seaman and once for the master of a merchant ship who had fallen overboard in Cristobal harbor. Before his departure, Captain Farmer was presented the award of the Army Commendation Medal by Governor Fleming, in recognition of his outstanding performance. The accompanying citation noted his success in handling the all-time high volume of ship traffic with the lowest accident rate in the Canal's history. Captain Farmer, born in Chattanooga, Tenn., was graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1938. During World War II he was commander of a submarine chaser out of Trinidad and Curacao and on destroyer escort duty in both the Atlantic and Pacific, including a Pearl Harbor tour. He attended the Navy's General Line School, Newport, R.I., after the war and later was executive officer at the Mine Warfare School, Yorktown, Va. He came to the Canal Zone in 1959 from Charleston, S.C., where he was commander of Mine Sauadron 8. 10 January 4, 1963

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*c! Gleam in early morning sun isn't everlasting. MAINTENANCE NEXT BRIDGE TO CROSS PUTTING UP the Thatcher Ferry Bridge cost $20 million. Keeping it up may cost around $200,000 a year. The maintenance cost figure isn't solid yet, because there's been no final decision on several points, but the experimental crew of 13 men on fulltime maintenance work is thought to be a minimum. Paint alone will be a substantial cost item. The first complete paint job for the new bridge linking the Americas required 15,000 gallons of primer and final coat paint. Another 3,000 gallons is on hand for touch-up work. Still undecided is whether to schedule continuous painting or patch painting, with a big crew put on for a complete paint job every several years, depending on need. Painting needs estimates are available on such major bridges only in other climates, so the guide on what requirements will be for the new bridge across the Canal will have to be established by regular inspections to determine how much heat, humidity, and salt air here will cause variance. The inspection schedule for the new bridge is still in development stage. The initial experimental crew of 13 on full-time maintenance work will be made up of a lead foreman in charge of 4 maintenance painters, 4 structural ironworkers, and 4 helpers. Additions may be necessary later. It is believed unlikely it would be possible to reduce this force. Heigh-Ho, Heigh-Ho, it's off to work we go Safety Factor: Big Margin For Big Blows DESIGNED strength of Thatcher Ferry Bridge puts its sturdiness in high winds far above any known velocities ever recorded here. And its type of construction, combination cantilever-tied arch, is such that there are no appreciable "sway" problems, such as exist with suspension type bridges. The bridge here has built-in strength to survive winds of up to 70 m.p.h. The highest gust (short duration) velocity ever recorded on this side of the Isthmus was 56 m.p.h. during a storm in 1943. Suspension bridges such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge sway as much as several feet in high winds. The Golden Gate Bridge has the world's longest single span: 4,200 feet. No matter where, or how high, painting for protection must continue regularly.

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EXECUTIVE SECRETARY Paul M. Runnestrand A MARKED CHANGE has been made during recent months in the administrative structure of the Office of the Executive Secretary. Its activities, under the administration of Governor Fleming, have gained wider scope. At the head of this nerve center in the administrative structure of the Panama Canal is a Minnesota attorney who has been with the Canal more than 20 years: Paul M. Runnestrand. Mr. Runnestrand was a legal editor of the West Publishing Co. of St. Paul, Minn., before joining the Canal organization in 1941. He was bom in Litchfield, Minn., and received his law degree from the University of Minnesota in 1938. He is a member of the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of the State of Minnesota, the United States District Court in the Canal Zone, and the United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, New Orleans. Associate Attorney in the Office of the General Counsel of the Canal until 1948, Mr. Runnestrand then was promoted to Assistant General Counsel. In 1953 he was transferred to the Washington, D.C., office of the Canal organActivities of Office Have Broader Scope ization as Attorney and Assistant to the Secretary of the Panama Canal. He returned to the Isthmus in October 1955 as Special Assistant to Canal Zone Gov. J. S. Seybold. He became Executive Secretary of the Canal Zone and Executive Assistant to the President of the Panama Canal March 1, 1956. The Executive Secretary is the principal adviser, liaison officer, and official representative of the Office of the Governor-President on policy matters concerning the Government of the Republic of Panama, the U.S. Embassy, other diplomatic and consular missions, and commercial and non-commercial interests in the Republic and the Canal Zone. These may include religious, welfare, charitable, educational, recreational, scientific, fraternal, and social organizations. The Executive Secretary also supervises policies and regulations concerning eligibility of individuals and organizations to engage in business activities in the Canal Zone, to make purchases in the Zone, or to reside or remain here. He also represents the Office of the Governor in policy matters concerning laws which govern foreign corporations, including insurance companies, and the securities sales law. In addition to his other functions, the Executive Secretary performs consular and related duties prescribed by law or regulations, including issuance of immigration visas; and he is custodian of the Seal of the Canal Zone Government. He provides, in addition, administrative supervision of the Magistrates Courts of Balboa and Cristobal. As Executive Assistant to the President of the Panama Canal, Mr. Runnestrand performs special duties assigned him by the President. As required by particular cases, he takes direct action; serves as staff adviser and participates in the formulation of policies, or acts as liaison officer or staff representative in the coordination or supervision of administrative or policy matters. By direction of the President, he initiates, coordinates and reviews programs, reports, correspondence and other assignments involving the presentation of information to committees or members of Congress, the Board of Directors and others in matters that require the attention of the Office of the President. Offices of the Executive Secretary are on the second floor of the Administration Building, Balboa Heights. Personnel in these offices provide an Executive Secretariat for the Office of the Governor. Responsibilities include supervision of administrative procedures between the Office of the Governor and other offices and units as well as general supervision of the Administrative Branch and assuring compliance within the organization with all regulations and directives relating to administrative practices. In performing and supervising performance of these varied duties, Mr. Runnestrand is aided by the Administrative Assistant, F. G. Dunsmoor, who is Administrative Assistant to the Governor and also serves as Deputy Executive Secretary. He is authorized, among other functions, to perform the duties of "Consular Officer," as well as attest such acts, as representative of the Executive Secretary, as are required to be performed under the Seal of the Canal Zone Government. Other members of the staff of the Office of the Executive Secretary, added in recent months to handle the new and additional responsibilities which Governor Fleming has assigned the office, are: J. Patrick Conley, Assistant Executive Secretary; Robert S. Jeffrey, Staff Assistant; Sylvester D. Callender, Coordinator of relations with Latin American communities; and Walter M. Mikulich, Special Services Officer. 12 January 4, 1963

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ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) CONSTRUCTION BUREAU ENGINEERING AND Louis Cox Leaderl Tran Earl O. Dl Supervisory Engineer Adriano Botello Seaman Pedro Fenij Work PERSi Nathan Fleckner Administrative Assistant MARINE BUREAU Howar d L. Sampsell ^oreman, Locks House ard patcher D COMMUNITY E BUREAU CrVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Karl D. Glass Police Technician Lyle B. Morau Police Sergeant Fred E. Mounts Police Private Ethlin L. Fawcett Elementary Teacher, Latin American Schools Elouise Games Elementary Teacher, Latin American Schools Luke C. Palumbo Elementary and Secondary School Teacher Mary B. TurbyfiU Elementary and Secondary School Teacher ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Angel Franco Fireman, Floating Plant Allan L. Bodden Oiler Nicolas Ortiz Boiler Tender Leonard E. Case Marine Machinist Ricardo Rodriguez Seaman Gladstone S. Fowles Clerk Typist Marco T. Molinares Leader Heavy Laborer Teofilo Urriola Debris Control Winchman Maximo Cabezas Surveying Aid Emilio Mayorga Carpenter Juan Aguilar Heavy Laborer HEALTH BUREAU Louis Fink Veterinarian, Public Health Mildred R. Largent Staff Nurse, Medicine and Surgery Ruth R. Beck Clerk Herbert W. Dena Hospital Attendant Mauricio Rivas Messenger Manuel de J. Cortes Cook Martin Reyes Laundry Checker Jorge Martinez Exterminator Emigdio Carvajal Nursing Assistant, Medicine and Surgery Angel Lino Stockman Roland J. Jarvis Nursing Assistant, Medicine and Surgery Alfonso A. Moore Nursing Assistant, Operating Room MARINE BUREAU Juan B. Cianca Deckhand Clarence Cadogan Chauffeur Joseph A. Janko Guard Supervisor James H. Hagan General Fore and Undaflcing avagi Icha ne, ve ado I Cement? Thomas A\ ienter} R. CostS Towing Locomotive Operator Antonio Vallejo Helper Lock Operator Herbert V. Hutchison Deckhand Boatswain John E. Hotz Guard Supervisor Manuel Fuentes Maintenanceman (Rope and Wire Cable) Cyril Holt Seaman Clifford O. Blake Maintenanceman Antonio Jimenez Helper Lock Operator OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Juan A. Cedeno Bookkeeping Machine Operation Supervisor SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Cordelia E. Smart Sales Section Head Rupert Hylton Cook Middle M Morrison Laborer Cleaner Jose J. Nino Ice Cream Maker W. J. Sinclair Baker Cayetano Hernandez Laborer Cleaner Lolita Wade Clerk Typist Amilia J. Pinder Sales Checker, Food Service Clifford E. Thomas Crane Hookman Josephine Charles Sales Section Head Alejandro Martinez Cemetery Worker Marcos Avila Leader Laborer Cleaner Jose D. Altamar Garbage Collector Bertene E. Smith Grocery Worker Luisa B. Seyrus Retail Store Sales Checker Victoria C. de Rojas Clerk Typist TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Cristobal A. Buddie Guard Manuel Salvador Helper Liquid Fuels Wharfman William D. McArthur Leader Liquid Fuels Wharfman Percival A. Samuels Timekeeper (Typing) Kenneth A. Thompson Leader Automotive Machinist Hugh H. Harrison Carpenter, Maintenance Merlin B. Yocum Supervisory Cargo Officer Jose M. Testa Laborer Percival Griffith Stockman The Panama Canal Review 13

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PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS November 5 through December 5 EMPLOYEES who were promoted or transferred between November 5 and December 5 are listed here. Withingrade promotions and job reclassifications are not listed: CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Peter J. Barr, Guard, Locks Division, to Fire Protection Inspector, Fire Division. Police Division Braxton W. Treadwell, Police Sergeant to Police Lieutenant. John F. Gilbert, Jr., Police Private to Police Sergeant. Division of Schools Martha M. Browder, Mary E. Ellwood, Substitute Teacher to Elementary and Secondary School Teacher. Betty M. Martin, Substitute Teacher to Librarian-Teacher. Era L. Greene, Substitute Teacher and Visiting Teacher to Kindergarten Assistant. Florence G. Cobham, Substitute Teacher to Elementary Teacher, Latin American Schools. Hartford Livingston, Laborer Cleaner to Heavy Laborer. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Frank H. Lerchen, Supervisory Maintenance Engineer (Maintenance Engineer) to Supervisory General Engineer (Designing Engineer). Electrical Division Kazimierz Bazan, Electrician to Senior Operator (Generating Station). Emest M. Reinhold, Jr., Central Office Repairman to Lead Foreman Central Office Repairman. John J. McLaughlin, Marine Machinist, Industrial Division, to Shift Engineer (Mechanical). Thomas W. Petersen, Cable Splicer to Leader Electrician (Lineman). William W. Good, Window Clerk, Postal Division, to Radio Mechanic. Florencio J. Guerrero, Maintenanceman to Launch Operator. Dredging Division Arnold S. Hudgins, Electrician, Towboat, Salvage, to Lead Foreman Electrician. Harry J. Harrison, Second Mate Pipeline Dredge to Leverman, Pipeline Dredge. Julius Cheney, Leader Electrician (Lineman) to Electrician, Towboat, Salvage. Lefard A. Bennett, Seaman to Launch Operator. Clifford H. Standard, Fireman (Floating Plant) to Watertender (Floating Plant). Leland Truick, Counterman, Supply Division, to Messenger. Maintenance Division Carl J. Browne, Supervisory Maintenance Engineer to Supervisory Maintenance Engineer (Maintenance Engineer). Howard W. Osbom, Maintenance Engineer to Supervisory Sanitary Engineer (Chief, Water and Laboratories Branch). Alexander C. McCatty, Joseph C. Stair, Maintenanceman to Carpenter. Diego Sierra, Helper Carpenter, Industrial Division, to Carpenter. Victoriano Almengor, Asphalt or Cement Worker to Cement Finisher. Andres Diaz, Helper Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic to Oiler. HEALTH BUREAU Maria L. Keller, Staff Nurse (Medicine and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital, to Public Health Nurse, Division of Preventive Medicine and Quarantine. Horace Reid, Clerk, Industrial Division, to Clerk-Typist, Division of Preventive Medicine and Quarantine. Eduardo V. Lindsay, Laborer Cleaner, Terminals Division, to Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry), Corozal Hospital. Gorgas Hospital Dr. Francis X. Schloeder, Jr., Medical Officer (General Medicine and Surgery), to Medical Officer (General Internal Medicine). Helen S. Plumer, Stock Control Clerk to General Supply Clerk (Medical). Wanda L. Boriotti, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse (Medicine and Surgery). Cecile G. Didier, Clerk-Typist to General Supply Clerk (Medical). Louis E. Sprauve, Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry), Corozal Hospital, to Medical Technician (General). Coco Solo Hospital Alberto J. Howell, Hospital Attendant to Storekeeping Clerk. Cyril E. Hewitt, Counter Attendant, Supply Division, to Food Service Worker. MARINE BUREAU Navigation Division Emley M. Henter, Clerk-Stenographer, from Police Division. Heliodoro C. Thachar, Laborer (Cleaner) to Seaman. Vincent Blackmail, Laborer (Heavy), from Division of Schools. Industrial Division Jean G. Dockery, Clerk-Typist to ClerkStenographer. M. Lucille Behre, Stock Control Clerk to Accounts Maintenance Clerk. Emest V. Baptiste, Warehouseman to Stock Control Clerk. Leonard A. Shirley, Messenger, Administrative Branch, to Clerk. Wendell H. Reid, Laborer (Cleaner), Division of Schools, to Helper Machinist. Locks Division Gilbert H. Davis, Leader Lock Operator (Iron-Worker Welder) to Lead Foreman Lock Operator (IronWorker Welder). Joseph M. Bateman, Teddy A. Marti, Lock Operator (Machinist) to Leader Lock Operator (Machinist). Elbert L. Hughes, Leverman, Pipeline Dredge, Dredging Division, to Lock Operator (Engineman-Hoisting and Portable). Howard M. Armistead, Armature Winder, Electrical Division, to Electrician. George K. Hudgins, Jr., Marion E. Taake, Guard to Towing Locomotive Operator. William H. Peart, Helper Lock Operator to Carpenter (Maintenance). Santiago Evans, Line Handler to Carpenter (Maintenance). Alphonso L. Brandford Warehouseman, Supply Division, to Toolroom Attendant. Alfredo Graham, Line Handler to Boatman. Manuel Linan, Luis E. Rodriguez, Line Handler to Helper Lock Operator. Victor E. Waite, Utility Worker, Supply Division, to Line Handler. OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Feme E. Levee, Clerk-Stenographer to General Claims Examiner, General Audit Division. Ashton Brooks, Jesus N. Barahona, Paul D. Vergara, Amoldo A. Young, Office Machine Operator to Bookkeeping Machine Operator. Accounting Policies and Procedures Staff Maenner B. Huff, Digital Computer Systems Analyst to Supervisory Systems Accountant. Julian M. Mountain, Systems Accountant to Supervisory Systems Accountant. SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Supply Division Donald C. Pierpoint, Service Center Supervisor to Service Center Manager. Olianda A. De Alvarado, Accounts Maintenance Clerk to Accounting Clerk. Sidney O. Ford, Warehouseman to Storekeeping Clerk. Myrtle S. Anglin, Sales Checker (Retail Store) to Clerk. Roy Waterman, Warehouseman to High Lift Truck Operator (Cold Storage). Levy Beckford, Sales Clerk to Sales Section Head. Ronald G. Bushell, Utility Worker to Leader Laborer. Alfonso Elliott, Utility Worker to Clerk. Robinson Caraquitos, Harold G. Fergus, Utility Worker to Counterman. Roberto N. Hall, Package Boy to Utility Worker. Alfred D. Jackman, Package Boy to Laborer (Heavy). Gwendolyn Oddman, Car Hop to Counter Woman. Herman Johnson, Henry H. Phillips, Pinsetter to Utility Worker and Pinsetter. Nicolas D. Bishop, Noel A. Jones, Pinsetter to Utility Worker. Community Servicees Division Richard S. Brogie, Accounting Assistant to Housing Project Assistant (Assistant Manager, Cristobal Housing Office). Mariela G. Quiros, Clerk-Typist, Terminals Division, to Clerk-Stenographer. Serapio De Los Rios, Victoriano Ortega, Jose Santamaria, Laborer to Grounds Maintenance Equipment Operator. Francisco Barrios, Juan Gomez, Dock Worker. Terminals Division, to Laborer. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Ricardo M. Martinez, Truck Driver, Supply Division, to Chauffeur, Motor Transportation Division. Terminals Division Helen L. Meisinger, Cargo Claims Assistant to Supervisory Accounting Technician. Elbert F. Ridge, Leader Liquid Fuels Wharfman to Liquid Fuels Dispatcher. Arnaldo H. Davis, Ramon S. Pinto, Line Handler to Leader Line Handler. 14 January 4, 1963

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Juan De Leon, Arquimedes Mosquera, Julio Osorio, Tereso Perez, Alejandro Romero, Dock Worker to Stevedore. Cromwell A. Panton, Bertram O. Bryce, Line Handler, from Locks Division. Elvan W. Lim, Line Handler to Water Service Man. Onofre Coronado, Railroad Trackman to Helper Liquid Fuels Wharfman. Alfred Davidson, Utility Worker, Supply Division, to Cargo Marker. Alphonso Bell, Messenger to Clerk. Pablo Galvan, Heavy Laborer, Locks Division, to Dock Worker. Railroad Division George J. Herring, Road Conductor and Yard Conductor to Yardmaster. Jose M. Testa, Laborer to Heavy Laborer. OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not involve changes of title follow: Chester E. Pearson, Hospital Administrative Officer (Assistant Director, Gorgas Hospital). Fredrick J. Wainio, Administrative Service Officer, Terminals Division. George H. Logan, Management Technician, Administrative Branch. Donald S. Hounschell, Assistant Dairy Manufacturing Technologist, Supply Division. Harry A. Carlson, Thomas P. Belford, Construction Inspector (General), Contract and Inspection Division. Barbara D. Peterson, Clerk-Stenographer, General Audit Division. Constance C. Nelson, Clerk-Stenographer, Navigation Division. Patricia M. Flores, Clerk-Stenographer, Industrial Division. Efrain I. Herrera, Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting Division. Emilio H. Archer, Clerk, Navigation Division. Maria A. C. De Horna, Stock Control Clerk, Gorgas Hospital. James A. Dowlin, William H. Lovell, Bookkeeping Machine Operator, Accounting Division. Ruby M. Jones, Sales Clerk, Supply Division. Hugh L. Reid, Clerk, Industrial Division. CANAL HISTORY 50 y[earJ avao PLANS FOR ILLUMINATION of the new Panama Canal were being made. According to the Canal Record, exhaustive studies of the illumination of the Locks had been completed in order that a distribution of light best suited to all of the conditions might be achieved. A few concrete lampposts had been erected on the walls of the upper Locks at Gatun and a pair of bracket arms for trial were being cast at the Gatun concrete yard. Some concern was felt over the shading of illumination from the eyes of approaching pilots, permitting thereby an unhampered vision of all range and signal lights. Lighting at Culebra Cut, on the other hand, would be nonexistent except for the system of beacons on either side of the bank. Otherwise, the journey through the Cut was to be made in the dark, except for such light as was given by the moon and stars. Slides in Culebra Cut continued to plague the Canal workers. On the afternoon of January 16, the Cucaracha slide, on the east bank of the Canal, again renewed its activity and by the morning of the 17th the moving mass of material had covered all tracks in the Canal except one next to the west bank. The movement carried material a greater distance across the Canal than in any other case except the original movement of the same slide in 1907. On the night of January 19, the rock bluff on the east bank of the Canal south of Gold Hill broke away at a distance of several hundred feet and moved into the Canal, entirely covering all tracks to the east of the center line. RETIREMENTS EMPLOYEES who retired in November, with their positions at time of retirement and years of Canal service: Darnley Barrow, Stevedore, Terminals Division; 33 years, 2 months, 3 days. Robert A. Berry, Machinist, Locks Division; 15 years, 1 month, 25 days. Mrs. Eileen G. Brady, Head Nurse (Psychiatry), Corozal Hospital; 18 years, 4 months, 17 days. Santo V. Casella, Towing Locomotive Operator, Locks Division; 21 years, 28 days. Samuel T. Crichlow, carpenter, Maintenance Division; 31 years, 1 month, 7 days. James C. Garth, Cargo Clerk, Terminals Division; 26 years, 8 days. Mrs. Melba M. Heintz, Accounting Clerk, Supply Division; 17 years, 6 months, 7 days. Martin G. Herrera, Ramp Operator, Navigation Division; 35 years, 11 months, 15 days. James B. Ricketts, Seaman, Navigation Division; 34 years, 7 months, 23 days. Reyes Rodriguez, Surveying Aid, Engineering Division; 34 years, 10 months, 26 days. Harry H. Stultz, Seaman, Navigation Division; 25 years, 2 months, 9 days. Kenneth W. Vinton, Instructor, Schools Division; 31 years, 11 months, 16 days. Alexander Weir, Helper Lock Operator, Locks Division; 49 years, 1 month, 7 days. 25 U earJ fao A PLAN BY which tolls through the Panama Canal would be reduced on U.S. -flag ships on the inter-coastal run was dealt a blow when Senator Bennet Champ Clark, Chairman of the Senate Inter-Oceanic Canal Committee, revealed there was opposition from both the State and War Departments. The reduction was planned in order to induce the Panama Pacific Lines to retain their luxury liners on the New York, Panama Canal-California run. Panama merchants, meanwhile, said that their greatest problem was the withdrawal of the tourist ships from the inter-coastal run. In Washington, President Roosevelt proclaimed the need for the greatest U.S. Navy in history— a Navy capable of defending simultaneously both the Adantic and Pacific coasts of the United States in view of the possibility that the Panama Canal might be destroyed or its operation paralyzed in time of war. io U 'earJ *9 STUDIES IN connection with the proposed conversion of the Panama Canal electrical power system from 25to 60-cycle current were announced by President Truman. President Truman also told Congress that the present toll rates of the Panama Canal were providing sufficient revenue for operation of the Canal. New rental rates on Panama Canal quarters became effective. The schedule was based on the recommendations of the Rent Panel which were accepted by the Board of Directors. Increases ranged from 53 cents to $4.84 a week. One year c4ao GOVERNOR W. A. CARTER left the Isthmus for his new post as senior engineer adviser of the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington, D.C. Prior to his departure he was honored at a public ceremony of tribute which was organized by a group of Panamanian citizens. The tribute included a program of Panamanian folklore, dancing, and presentation of a medal from the Panamanian people. Earlier in the month, the appointment by President Kennedy of Maj. Gen. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., to succeed General Carter as Governor of the Canal Zone, was announced in Washington. The Panama Canal Review 15

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SHIPPING New Grace Liner Due THE NEW $17 million Grace Line passenger-cargo ship Santa Magdalena, which was launched last February, will arrive in Cristobal February 6 on her maiden voyage from New York to Guayaquil, Ecuador. Panama Agencies announced that the new vessel will leave New York February 1 and probably will dock in Cristobal. The Santa Magdalena, the first of a series of new replacement vessels to be placed by Grace Line on the South American west coast run, is capable of accommodating 120 passengers and can carry 175 standard 20-foot containers or truck trailer vans with a total capacity of 188,600 cubic feet. Banana conveyers, installed as part of the ship's standard equipment, will load at the rate of 2,400 stems an hour. "Gulf oba" Going Great NORTHBOUND AND THEN southbound, merrily does the Gulfoba, a Gulf Petroleum, S.A. tanker, transit the Panama Canal— in 1 day and out the nextonly to be back again in a wink. The sea-going twin-screw tanker, which has a capacity of about 6,000 barrels of oil, has been engaged in carrying oil from the Refineria Panama on the Adantic side of the Isthmus to the Pacific side. When on the Pacific side, the Gulfoba docks at Pier 4, Balboa. The Gulfoba started its heavy traffic business in November, completing 16 Canal transits that month. All employees on the Panama Canal lock walls are on first name basis with everyone on the Gulfoba, but the tanker TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING VESSELS IN NOVEMBER mi mi Commercial 924 891 U.S. Government 38 15 Free 7 4 Total 969 910 TOLLS • Commercial $4,685,585 $4,444,586 U.S. Government 213,824 77,727 Total $4,899,409 $4,522,312 CARGO 00 Commercial 5,177,751 5,232,796 U.S. Government 110,207 99,216 Free 51,027 31,534 Total.... 5,338,985 5,363,546 'Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small •' Cargo figures are in long tons. still uses a pilot and locomotives, just as does a vessel making a transit for the first time. Captain of the Gulfoba is George Murphy Hayes of Grand Cayman Island. Speed Demon ONE OF THE fastest freighters afloat came southbound through the Canal December 11 on her way from New York to the Far East. She is the Pioneer Moon, an American Challenger Class vessel which holds the trans-Atlantic speed record for cargo class ships. She made the run from Bishop's Rock off England to Ambrose Light, recently, at an average speed of 24 knots. The Pioneer Moon will make regular trips through the Canal for the United States Line with general cargo from Tanker's transit timetable like shuttle service. New York to the Far East and return. The first in the line's $380 -million long range cargo ship replacement program, the Pioneer Moon was launched in Newport News, Va., in April by Mrs. Clarence D. Martin, Jr., wife of the Under Secretary of Commerce. Mr. Martin also is a member of the Panama Canal Board of Directors. Shipping Agent Retires ERNEST S. BAKER, manager of Norton, Lilly & Co. in Balboa and dean of the shipping agents in the Canal Zone, retires from his position with the company in January after more than 37 years of service. Mr. Baker, who has been with Norton, Lilly since 1925, will make his home in Panama after his retirement. His wife was a former teacher with the Canal Zone Division of Schools. JOSEPH NOONAN, also a veteran employee of Norton, Lilly, who has been manager in Cristobal, will take over as manager of Norton, Lilly on the Isthmus. The Balboa office of the agency will be headed by Colin Lawson, former assistant manager of C. B. Fenton & Co. Other changes in the company staff are the appointment of Lloyd Alberga as assistant manager in the Cristobal office and of Archibald Irvine, former chief engineer on the cable ship All America, as boarding officer in Cristobal for Norton, Lilly. Space Ship Part Transits THE PANAMA CANAL took a part in the space program recently when a section of NASA's huge Saturn was carried through the waterway as deck cargo aboard the freighter Smith Builder. The big missile section, which resembled somewhat a giant thimble, was manufactured at the Douglas Aircraft Co. plant in Santa Monica and was being taken on a 41 -foot transporter to the launch and test sites in Huntsville, Ala. The part was the S-IV upper stage of the Nation's largest space vehicle and is scheduled for unmanned earth orbital missions this year. The Smith Builder picked up the part in Los Angeles, Calif., and was taking it to New Orleans. 16 January 4, 1963

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