Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1969
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text














UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/detaiIs/panamacanalrenov1970pana

















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TIE
W. P. Leber A Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer
Governor-President ,: ) Publicotions Editors
R. S. Hartline Louis R. Granger, Tom6s A. Cupas
Lieutenant Governor Writers
Frank A. Baldwin Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hern-ndez,
Ponama Canal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication Jose T. Tufi6n, Willie K. Friar, and Luis C. Noli
Review articles may be reprinted without Further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Subscriptions: $1 a year, airmail $2 a year; back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each. Published quarterly.
Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heig'ts, C.Z. Drinted at the Printing Plant, La Boca C Z.


Contents


Our


Covers


University of Panama 3
The Republic's main intel-
lectual pillar prepares for
the future.
Cement Yacht 7
Curing in a shed at Diablo
is a 50-foot ketch made of
chicken wire, steel rods and
cement.
Shipping Statistics 9
Demise of the White Suit 12
Once a part of the Isthmian
landscape, the white suit
has gone the way of the
dodo bird. Or has it?
Contadora Island 16
This once sleepy jewel in
Panama Bay may soon be
on every island hopping
tourist's itinerary.
Maritime Sketchpad 20
John Morton gives an art-
ist's-eye view of Panama
Canal scenes.
The Montuno Hat 22
In the dawn's early light
the deft fingers of mountain
women create real Panama
hats.
Culinary Capers 24
Exploring the adventures of
Italian cuisine aboard the
MV Donizetti.
Language Bank 27
The Translating Unit takes
care of the many language
requirements of the Canal.
Anniversaries 29
History 31


0


'~, \" ~-~4 e~k-i--
~.\ -"'-U
A ~ -.,-


RISING MAJESTICALLY near the
University of Panama's Library and
Administration Building, the statue of
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, the mas-
ter of Spanish literature, appears to be
the illuminating spirit guiding the future
of Panama's leading educational institu-
tion. It typifies the theme of the school,
"toward the light". A portion of the in-
scription at the base of the monument
is translated:
To Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
Beacon for all people united by the
Eternal bond of the Castilian language
Homage front Panama to the author of
Don Quixote de la Mancha. ...
The statue was sculptured in Spain
by Julio GonzAlez Pola and paid for by
a public subscription mostly from Pan-
amanian students. It was dedicated in
January 1923 and was first located at
Plaza Porras, formerly named Plaza
Cervantes, in front of the Spanish Em-
bassy. In October 1947 it was moved
to its present site as the cornerstone for
the new university.
On the left are Don Quixote on his
horse Rocinante, and Sancho Panza, the
leading figures in Cervantes' most pop-
ular literary accomplishment.
The back cover shows night classes
in progress at the busy law building
which was dedicated last month. The
structure is considered by many Isth-
mian residents as one of the most attrac-
tive modern buildings in Panama. The
architect, Jos6 C. Villamil of Panama
City, says the architecture was influ-
enced by the renaissance style while
the tall arched columns are of the
Byzantine period.
Both photographs were taken by
Kevin J. Jenkins, a photographer with
the Panama Canal Graphic Branch of
the Administrative Services Division.

2 NOVEMBER 1970


Q
~.72
zj/

i









































By Luis C. Noli
AS A MICROCOSM of the nation it
serves, the University of Panama is
throbbing with the pains of growth. But
the campus atmosphere now is one of
orderly urgency instead of turmoil.
The urgency is more than justified.
Within a decade the university must be
ready to accommodate an estimated
25,000 students-more than 4 times its
present enrollment-if it is to fulfill its
part in full as the main forge for devel-
opment of the nation's human resources.
Its awareness of that mission is ex-
pressed in a recent official document
outlining the university's plans for the
future:
"Panama is aware that the greatest
scarcity in the process of growth lies in
the skilled human resources needed to
analyze problems, to generate ideas
toward creative solutions and to imple-
ment efficiently the programs drawn up.
"The University of Panama is under-
going an intensive overall revision to
adapt it to the new requirements and to
correct the systems which have been
the source of the friction that has pre-
vented maximizing its academic out-
put and, hence, its contribution to the
development and the growth of the
nation.


At the present time, the Universit\
of Panama is fully capable of imple-
menting a program of institutional im-
provement as proposed and to increase
the production of the highly skilled
professionals that our times demand."
Campus Closed
The "intensive overall revision" began
in December 1968 when the campus
was closed by the Provisional Govern-
ment Junta. In an official communique,
the Junta said its action was taken be-
cause of ". a constant succession of
strikes over the most trifling reasons; an
abundance of political meetings which
result in the frequent suspension of
classes; the existence of antagonistic
student groups which maintain a per-
manent climate of disturbance; the use
of the walls of costly buildings for rude
insults and disrespect to authorities; the
lack of a true cultural concern; gross
and aggressively disorderly acts devoid
of academic loftiness; the pressures
exerted by students upon faculty mem-
bers through a campaign of affronts,
threats and accusations; the large num-
ber of 'professional students' who for
years have moved from one department
to another without deciding to take up
a career seriously ."


A board of regents named by the
Junta prepared a new set of campus
rules-many of them based on student
and faculty recommendations of long
standing. Among them: the fencing in
of the entire campus and the creation
of a 60-man security corps charged with
protecting university property, looking
after order and providing transport,
traffic, and guidance services to students
and visitors.
Campus Regulation
The university reopened July 14,
1969. The radical change in the atmos-
phere was reflected immediately in the
enrollment. From approximately 11,000
students in attendance prior to the
closing, enrollment dropped to half that
figure. The main reason: Enforcement
of a campus regulation barring students
with an academic index below 1.00
(C average).
Besides fostering a climate of dedi-
cation to study, the new regulations also
did away with a large measure of the
control that students had exercised over
campus affairs. Students, however, con-
tinue to participate in the Advisory,
Academic and University Councils and
on the Faculty Boards.
The university reopened under a


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW











I


Rector Edwin Fabrega of the University of Panama.


new team of administrators-Architect
Edwin Fabrega (Master of City Plan-
ning, University of California), Rector;
Dr. Jer6nimo 6. Averza (Doctor of In-
dustrial Pharmacy, Central University v
of Madrid), Academic Vice Rector;
Ram6n I. Ramirez, Jr. (Business Admin-
istration, Canal Zone College), Admin-
istrative Vice Rector; Mrs. Clara Cecilia
Navarro Riba (Master of Social Service,
Howard University), Director of Student
Affairs.
Nine Faculties
Since its reopening 16 months ago,
the university has graduated 781 stu-
dents. Its nine faculties are: Public Ad-
ministration and Commerce, Agronomy,
Architecture, Natural Sciences and
Pharmacy, Odontology, Philosophy,
Letters and Education, Engineering,
Medicine, and Law.
Speaking at the first commencement
exercise held since the reopening of the
campus, Rector Fabrega said:
"We have completed 1 year of work.
One year replete with problems and
satisfactions. In the course of it, the
efforts, the aspirations, the failures, and
the successes of the university family
have been seen and lived in the light of
the national expectation over the fate
of the country's biggest hope: the Uni-
versitv of Panama. Six months to get it
going and six months to undertake the
fundamental reforms which will assure
better times for students and for the
country. Already what this house of
learning will be in the future is taking
shape in giant strides in the light of the


The University of Panama Chorus, composed of 75 students, performs under the direction of Prof. Luis Vergara. The repertory consists
of classical and popular music including works by Panamanian composers.


NOVEMBER 1970









I,
I'-


4,'
* ***"


Cultural activities at the university include
interesting and varied programs presented
bN the Department of the Performing Arts
directed by Profesora Aurea Torrijos de
Horta. Above: a scene from "Tartufo" by
Moliere, is presented in the university's
Mini-Theater which has a capacity of 65
persons. Director of the Drama Depart-
ment is Prof. Roberto McKay. At right:
Students perform in the ballet "West" in
the Central Auditorium under the direc-
tion of Armando Villamil. The University
Ballet has a repertory of 25 ballets.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5


r~
~2


.. ..... ....


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Oft
"mi. I






role it must fulfill as a higher center of
learning and formation of the citizens
to whom we are to hand down a
more experienced and more mature
nation "
What is this shape of the future?
Planning For 1980
The university has just announced a
$13 million program of expansion and
improvements geared to the year 1980.
It has applied to the Inter-American
Development Bank for a $7.6 million
loan for the program, the balance to be
provided by the Panama Government.
"In coordination with the Presidential
Office of Planning and Administration,"
the loan application document sets
forth, "There has been structured an
Investment Program for the University
of Panama to be carried out during the
next 5 years (1970-75). This program
includes the improvement of the
academic and administrative systems,
the formation and perfecting of faculty
and research personnel, equipment, and
educational construction.
"This project is all the more impor-
tant because the United Nations has
issued a resolution proclaiming the 70's
as the decade of education. If this pro-
ject is approved, the University of Pan-
ama will be able to carry forward
dynamically its institutional improve-
ment so that it will be prepared and
equipped to meet the demand for its
services in the next 10 earss"
The program is based on a detailed
study by the university's Planning De-
partment that encompasses all aspects
of the university's expected growth.
Some of the predictions:
Demand For Graduates
--Between 1971 and 1980, there
will be a demand in the country for
approximately 22,000 university-trained
professionals such as architects and en-
gineers, chemists and pharmacists,
agronomists and veterinarians, physi-
cians and dentists, nurses, teachers,
managers and administrators, auditors
and accountants, and executive secre-
taries.
--The University of Panama will
graduate about 14,000 of the profes-
sionals needed in the next decade; with
graduates of the privately endowed
University of Santa Maria La Antigua
(the only other university in the coun-
try) and of foreign universities, the
number will increase to 17,000.
--The present 80-acre main campus
-University City-in El Cangrejo sec-
tion of Panama City is expected to
suffice until 1980. Beyond that year, the
1,555-acre campus at Tocumen, near


the International Airport, where only
an Agricultural Research Center is in
operation now, will have to be devel-
oped to handle future enrollment.
--By 1980, the university will have
a student population of 23,280 at its
main campus and at the Tocumen site
and an additional 2,400 at regional uni-
versity centers in David, Chiriqui Pro-
vince, and Santiago, Veraguas Province.
Requirements
--The expected increase in enroll-
ment will require a faculty of 1,438
members and 1,007 administrative per-
sonnel (as compared with 581 and 454
respectively, at present).
The major projects in the expansion
program include:
--Improvement of the academic and
administrative systems through a revi-
sion by consultants, at a cost of
$250,000.
--Scholarships for post-graduate
training of faculty members and re-
searchers, $850,000.
--Acquisition of scientific labora-
tory equipment and bibliographic mate-
rial, $1.2 million.
--New buildings and facilities for
the faculty of Agronomy (at the Tocu-
men site), the faculties of Engineering
and of Natural Sciences and Pharmacy,
Architecture, Public Administration and
Commerce, a new Central Library, a
Student Center, and a Cultural and
Audiovisual Center, $8.5 million.
--Improvement of grounds and util-
ities at both the University City and
the Tocumen site, $1.8 million.
The figures on the present size of
the University of Panama provide a
dramatic commentary on its growth


Ir

1


.JL.
ALjljL~


.I



Dr. Arturo Morgan Morales, secretary gen-
eral of the University of Panama, left, and
Rector Fibrega discuss university affairs
outside the Library and Administration
Building.

during the 35 years since it was founded
during the presidential administration
of the late Dr. Harmodio Arias. For the
first 15 years, the university had no
campus of its own-it operated in the
National Institute buildings. When it
moved to its present campus in 1950,
it had four buildings and an enrollment
of exactly 1,688 students. Today, 15
buildings stand on the campus and total
enrollment reached a peak of 11,000 in
the 1968-69 academic vear. Since 1935,
it has graduated 6,677 professionals.
In the words of Rector Fabrega, the
University of Panama remains the
nation's "main moral and intellectual
pillar."


Students in the School of Medicine at the university listen attentively to a lecture.


NOVEMBER 1970


F' -F--I-i-'-Raft '







To Sea


In


Cement

And



Chicken IWire


"There is nothing-absolutely
nothing-half so much worth
doing as simply messing about
in boats. In or out of 'em,
it doesn't matter."

KENNETH GRAHAME

"The Wind in the Willows"


Clyde Jennings and his son Dale, upper
right photo, work on the cockpit
of the 50-foot cement boat in a shed
near the Diablo Spinning Club. Above,
Jennings gives special attention to
the cement work near the rudder.
He is framed in the area where
the propeller will be located.


By Eunice Richard
MAN HAS sailed the seven seas in
everything from reed boats and balsa
rafts to huge steel-hulled tankers. But
tell a novice in the boating world that
you have a cement boat and he might
say you're the type to buy the Brooklyn
Bridge. Or at least he would refuse a
ride in a cement craft "certain" to head
like a cement block to Davev Jones'
Locker.
Curing in a shed near the Diablo
Spinning Club, however, is the hull of
a 50-foot ketch constructed with a com-
bination of chicken wire, reinforcing
rods and-cement.
Clyde Jennings, a machinist employed
in the Panama Canal Locks Division, is
building-with lots of help from his
family and friends-a two-masted,
cement-hulled ketch that he expects to
carry him and his wife to those faraway
places everyone wants to visit.
The method he is using is not new
but has caught on only recently in
the United States after being used suc-
cessfully in most of Europe, including
Russia, and as far away as Australia and
New Zealand.
New Zealand
In fact, the boat being built by
Jennings and family was designed espe-
cially for him by a New Zealand naval
architect.
While at present the ketch resembles
a large boat with a cement overcoat,
looks are deceiving. The hull, composed
of tight layers of chicken wire through
which the wet cement was squeezed,
is flexible and well built. The method
produced a thin shell-like skin which


will become stronger as the ketch takes
to the water. Cement keeps curing in
water, Jennings pointed out. And used
in this manner on this size boat, it is
lighter than either steel or wood.
The cement job was done in one day
by a group of 13 Panamanians who
worked without stopping for 8 hours
until the job was completed. The men
labored side by side with Jennings and
his friends and relatives.
The No. 2 cement for the hull was
furnished free of charge by Cemento
Panama. S.A. which shut down its nor-
mal cement manufacturing operation
during the time it took to produce the
special fine grade cement. The sand
used to mix with the cement was No. 4
blast, so fine it's almost a powder.
Skeleton
Work on the hull of the ketch began
about 3 years ago and it took Jennings
and his family most of that time lacing
together 13/4 tons of reinforcing rod and
14 miles of 3-foot-wide chicken wire
which forms the skeleton of the boat.
Dozens of visitors, ranging from dip-
lomats to sailors who just didn't believe
in a cement boat, have come by to
inspect the work being done by Jen-
nings and his family. There have been
so many, in fact, that the guest book
set up 2 years ago is almost full.
While the hull is curing, Jennings
and his wife work on the interior of
the the ketch which will have room to
sleep nine persons, have wall-to-wall
carpeting, air conditioning and other
comforts. In deference to Mrs. Jen-
ning's preference for hot baths, her
husband has converted the gunwale


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



























Expert Panamanian plastermen work with
ballet precision applying cement to the hull
of the ketch.

pipe into a storage tank that will pro-
duce hot water through solar energy.
The Jennings' family predict that the
boat will be launched, from in front of
the shed where it is being built, in about
2 months. It will then be taken to the
Pedro Miguel Boat Club where work
will continue on fitting out the interior


The most tedious and painstaking part of
the job is tying the thousands of wires into
the mesh base.

and installing a 43-horsepower engine.
The cement boat idea has been
kicked around for a long time-ever
since the 1840's. One skiff, built in
Holland in 1887, still is afloat and sea-
worthy. Big ships were built of concrete
during both world wars but they were
clumsy and not very successful.


The method being used by Jennings
and which is popular in Europe was
devised by Pier Luigi Nervi, an Italian
architect who began experimenting in
the 1940's on sandwiching multiple lay-
ers of fine steel mesh compressed into a
mat in a thin shell of dense waterproof
cement. He built some boats to prove it
could be done. The new material is
unlike traditional reinforced concrete,
because it is flexible, incredibly strong
and comes in a thin sheet that can be
formed into complex curves. Nervi
called the process ferrocemento.
Nervi said, "The material created did
not behave like regular concrete but
presented all the mechanical character-
istics of a homogenous material. Exper-
iments proved it would withstand
great strains without formation of
cracks in the cement mortar as a result
of subdivision of the reinforcement."
Nervi went on to make impact tests
which showed that the cement hull was
not only tough and durable, but lighter
than a wooden hull of the same size,
and cost approximately 40 percent less.
Many refinements have been made
in the ferrocement boat construction,
but Nervi had kindled the flame and
the cement boat was on its way.


.A.F.
A'R "


The family dog appears worried over the
prospects of sailing around in a cement
boat as Dale and Mr. and Mrs. Jennings
look over the plans.


Boatbuilder Jennings, in the background on the ladder, works with his friends and
Panamanian plastermen on the day the cement was spread over the hull. It took approx-
imately 3 years of lacing together reinforcing rod and chicken wire to get to this part of
the job which took a mere 8 hours with the help of 13 workmen.


NOVEMBER 1970






CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS


Nationality

Belgian_---__._
British ______--
Chilean _-----__
Chinese (Nat'l.)_
Colombian --
Cuban------
Cypriot __----_-
Danish_ ------
Ecuadorean ---
Finnish --------
French---
German -------
Greek --
Honduran ---
Indian ------
Israeli---
Italian-----
Japanese -----
Liberian .-_-_-
Mexican_ ----
Netherlands --.
Nicaraguan ---
Norwegian ----
Panamanian---
Peruvian -----.
Philippine _----
Singaporean ----
South Korean --
Soviet-- --_
Spanish ----.-
Swedish ------
United States--
Yugoslavian -__
All Others ---
Total __


No. of
transits
25
405
35
37
52
23
58
132
12
18
56
263
137
40
13
22
62
339
393
21
129
19
302
205
36
27
10
15
23
12
109
358
22
48
3,458


1971
Tons of
cargo
38,416
3,628,714
295,696
335,777
151,727
230,130
422,516
563,074
22,583
158,299
240,259
1,176,643
1,922,212
21,531
281,489
178,981
394,256
3,277,046
6,706,792
156,887
680,437
37,851
4,194,065
1,099,107
246,045
250,604
53,582
136,169
119,087
21,331
828,729
2,265,800
353,441
338,903
30,828,179


First Quarter, Fiscal Year


No. of
transits
34
382
30
34
50
14
18
103
17
21
68
283
148
34
6
22
73
286
407
36
131
8
316
197
57
30
3
18
44
10
121
404
11
40
3,456


First Quarter, Fiscal Year


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)

Transits 'Tolls (In thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1971 1970 Transits 1971 1970 Tolls
1961-65 1961-65
July -------- 1,174 1,137 960 8,118 7,787 4,929
August----------- 1,176 1,186 949 8,221 8,135 4,920
September--_------ 1,108 1,133 908 7,979 7,870 4,697
October __._... 1,089 946 7,771 4,838
November------ 1,060 922 7,401 4,748
December ------ 1,155 946 8,058 4,955
January ------- 1,088 903 7,503 4,635
February ---- 1,080 868 7,479 4,506
March------------ 1,223 1,014 8,350 5,325
April -------- 1,179 966 8,229 5,067
May--------- 1,170 999 7,963 5,232
June------------ 1,158 954 8,108 5,013
Totals for
fiscal year .-_ 13,658 11,335 1 94,654 58,865
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
First Quarter, Fiscal Year
Trade Routes-(Large commercial vessels, Avg. No.
300 net tons or over) 1971 1970 Transits
1961-65
United States Intercoastal _______-------------77 126 116
East coast United States and South America ---------- 284 336 590
East coast United States and Central America --- 169 140 124
East coast United States and Far East_ --------- 883 861 566
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia ---.. 111 120 87
Europe and West Coast of U.S./Canada _---------- 228 252 215
Europe and South America _--- ---- 330 325 303
Europe and Australasia---- ------------------------ 122 87 85
All other routes ------------ ------------- 1,254 1,209 731
Total traffic _------- 3,458 3,456 2,817


Cruise



Season
L^'


1970 I 1961-65
Tons of Avg. No.! Avg. tons
cargo transits of cargo
96,577 12 37,985
3,164,552 310 2,047,775
185,105 31 212,446
204,307 20 141,456
137,161 64 107,839
153,243 1 3,747
162,670
433,310 78 359,386
23,537 12 14,195
116,344 6 21,478
235,373 35 198,935
1,125,141 278 849,505
1,758,401 164 1,612,077
19,315 49 37,823
193,329 -- ----
124,613 14 60,334
413,585 51 300,464
2,588,664 221 1,266,483
6,504,273 225 2,186,987
227,048 7 16,402
740,686 147 701,987
17,028 15 25,293
3,796,419 347 2,520,866
1,052,139 112 468,194
280,477 30 145,532
169,279 15 58,712
14,705 N.A. N.A.
131,804 1 9,315
279,942 2 16,602
81,287 3 17,148
794,287 91 529,290
2,105,116 439 2,623,810
142,393 3 19,379
355,303 34 158,614
27,827,413 2,817 16,770,059


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


IN THE rush rush world of jumbo jets
and space exploration, the luxury cruise
ship carrying a load of happy passengers
sailing at a leisurely pace through sun
drenched southern seas, could be a
scene from an old movie.
But as an indication of continued
affluence, especially on the part of the
senior citizen, winter cruises are becom-
ing more popular than ever and winter
travelers apparently are becoming in-
creasingly aware of the joys of living at
sea under luxurious conditions at not
much more expense than staying at a
southern resort.
Several thousand of these travelers
will be visiting the Panama Canal during
the 1970-71 winter cruise months. In
fact, about 1,300 of them took a good
look at Panama and the Panama Canal
in September as passengers aboard the
P & O Orient Line ship Canberra, one of
the world's largest passenger liners and
the largest to transit the Panama Canal.
While the Canberra makes cruises all
vear around, her arrival in September
could be said to mark the beginning of
the annual cruise season for which
schedules have been issued by the
various shipping agents.
San Bias Islands
The list, which is always tentative,
includes a number of cruise vessels
familiar to the Panama Canal and a few
new ships which will visit only Cristo-
bal and the San Bias Islands on Carib-
bean cruises out of New York or pass
through the Canal on more extended
voyages. Most of them come here from
New York and stop on the way at Port
Everglades, Fla. Some of them are from
the U.S. West Coast.
December, January, and February are
the big months of the winter cruise sea-
son but several ships arrived in October.
They included the Kungsholm of the
Swedish Line, the Bergensfjord of the
Norwegian America Line and the






Statendam of the Holland America Line.
All three passed southbound through the
Canal. The first two were on South
American cruises and the Statendam
was on her way to the U.S. West Coast
and the Pacific.
The Italian Line Galileo Galilei also
went through the Canal in October on
her way around the world, followed by
the Marconi of the same line making a
similar cruise.
The 15-day pre-Christmas shopping
cruises offered by Princess Cruises from
the West Coast will be made by the
Princess Carla late in November and
early in December. It will include visits
to Mexico and South and Central Amer-
ica before going through the Canal to
Florida. Her return trip to Los Angeles
will take her into Mazatlan in Mexico.

In December
Other ships due in Canal waters dur-
ing December are the Meteor, enroute
from Acapulco, Mexico to Cartagena,
Colombia, the Bergensfford returning
from South America, and the Sagafjord
and Federico C on Caribbean Cruises
stopping at Cristobal. The German
Atlantic liner Hanseatic visits Cristobal
on a West Indies cruise 2 days before
Christmas.
The Sagafjord and the Gripsholm are
scheduled to transit the Canal in Jan-
uary, the former enroute to Los Angeles
and the latter to South America. Also
during January the Hanseatic, Kungs-
holm, Oceanic, and Federico C are on
Caribbean cruises stopping at Cristobal.
The Paquet Lines flagship Renais-
sance will make a 44-day cruise around
South America from Port Everglades
and is scheduled to transit the Canal for
the first time January 19. This will be
the first time that the 4-year-old luxury
liner has ever been slated for a long
cruise. The French Line will handle it.
The France, the world's largest ocean
liner, will make a cruise to the West
Indies and South America but will not
visit Cristobal this year.
Cruise liners in February are the
German Atlantic Line Hamburg on two
Caribbean cruises, the Stella Oceanis on
her third cruise to the West Indies,
which stops at the San Bias Islands; the
Bergensfjord, Federico C, the Oceanic,
and the Empress of Canada.

Cruise Customers
P & O line ships which use the Canal
frequently are listed among the cruise
customers this winter with the Oriana
scheduled for a 2-week cruise in Decem-
ber from San Francisco to Puerto
Vallarta. Acapulco and Panama. Two


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic


Commodity


Ores, various__________ _______-------------
Sugar___________________________________
Iron and steel plates, sheets
and coils__ _____ _________
Boards and planks -----------___-__-
Petroleum and products -______________
Fishmeal________________________________
Metals, various ________________
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)______ _______
Pulpwood________________________________
Petroleum coke__________________________
Bananas ________________________________
Plywood and veneers___________ __________
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous___
Canned food products ______. ______________
Iron and steel wire, bars and rods _____________
All others_________
Total____ _________ _________


First Quarter, Fiscal Year


1 1971 1970


1,756,893
1,037,297

882,534
805,124
451,421
415,693
414,207

284,373
264,291
256,134
244,898
235,875

231,601
169,504
167,819
2,870,668
10,488,332


1,214,546
735,529

689,053
748,327
534,979
288,192
369,575

291,200
278,237
242,136
303,068
260,527

371,343
170,259
174,657
3,053,499
9.725.127


Atlantic to Pacific


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
282,514
693,908
N.A.
N.A.
490,599
N.A.
274,741
196,404
130,271
N.A.
274,753
N.A.

N.A.
253,387
N.A.
4,746,854
73.43431


First Quarter, Fisca
Commodity 1971 1970
1971 1970
Coal and coke __-____________-_ 6,196,084 4,837,780
Petroleum and products___________ 3,278,060 3,826,069
Corn------------------------------------ 1,403,203 1,199,726
Metal, scrap----------------------------- 1,071,096 932,041
Soybeans__---_______-_---__--_______ 980,282 548,990
Phosphates ---------------- ___------- 935,160 963,716
Sorghum ------___--___--__---- ____-- __ 799,917 653,914
Sugar__---------------------------------- 735,502 506,271
Ores, various---------__-___- -----____ 701,474 517,309
Wheat -- _- ____________--- ------. 315,007 122,496
Fertilizers, unclassified--__________________-- 268,579 163,660
Chemicals, unclassified-__________ 260,488 227,763
Paper and paper products..-------------------_____________ 237,077 225,808
Iron and steel manufactures, miscellaneous..-- 170,612 128,736
Autos, trucks, accessories, and parts----------- 145,675 155,868
All others --------------------_----------- 2,841,631 3,092,139
Total ---_ __ _--________- ____- 20,339,847 18,102,286


l Year
5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
1,521,383
2,848,139
299,197
812,008
279,937
497,992
N.A.
367,986
70,671
179,668
103,381
161,332
108,532
N.A.
72,861
2,103,541
9,426,628


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

First Quarter, Fiscal Year


1971
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total
Pacific Atlantic


1970

Total


Avg. No.
Transits
1961-65

Total


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing __- ______ __ 1,767 1,691 3,458 3,456 2,817
Small I __--________________.. ---63 57 120 118 146
Total Commercial -_ __- _______ 1,830 1,748 3,578 3,574 2,963
U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing _------------------- 95 81 176 374 57
Small _____________________--------------------------- 11 19 30 17 38
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment ____ ___ ___ _1 1,936 1,848 3,784 3,965 3,058


1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951,
transited free.


Government-operated ships


NOVEMBER 1970







3-week cruises follow, adding four
Caribbean ports to the other three stops
in January and February.
Also offered by P & 0 between now
and the fall of 1971 are several round-
the-world cruises, four Pacific cruises
and a number to the Caribbean through
the Panama Canal.
Matson Lines will enter the Mediter-
ranean for the first time next spring
when the luxury ship SS Monterey em-
barks on a 56-day voyage from the U.S.
West Coast. The 20,000-ton liner will
sail April 16 from San Francisco on a
cruise from the Pacific through the
Panama Canal to the Aegean, the
Caribbean, the Atlantic and the Medi-
terranean and back.
Popular passenger ships running
through the Canal all year on a regular
basis are the Shaw Savil liners operating
between the United Kingdom and Aus-
tralia and the Prudential Grace ships
from New York to the West Coast of
South America and the ever popular
Italian Line vessels that travel between
Genoa in Italy to Valparaiso in Chile,
passing through the Canal at least once
a month.
Another round-the-world service to
become popular in recent years is oper-
ated by the Chandres Lines that pur-
chased the SS President Roosevelt and
the Matson Navigation Co. vessel
Lurline. A. J. Chandres announced that
the Lurline would be renamed the Bri-
tanis and will operate on the round-the-
world service via Australia and New
Zealand joining the Australis and Ellinis
which come through the Canal reg-
ularlv. Chandres said that the Lurline
would be taken to Greece to be com-
pletely renovated before being returned
to service. The Lurline is the fourth ship
in the Matson Line fleet to bear that
name. It will be given to another ship of
the Matson line after she is sold.-E.R.

New Container Service
TWO European ship operators whose
ships now use the Panama Canal on a
regular basis have started a new joint
service between the North American
west coast and Europe. The service is
to become an all-containership operation
within a year.
The companies involved are the
London-based Blue Star Line Ltd.,
represented at the Panama Canal bv
Payne and Wardlaw. and the East Asia-
tic Co. Ltd., of Copenhagen, whose
agent at the Canal is C. B. Fenton
& Co.
The new joint operation, to be
known as Scanstar, involves six vessels


each from the two companies. The
conventional cargo liners are to be
replaced beginning next June with four
big cellular containerships now under
construction.
The four new ships ordered to replace
the conventional tonnage now in oper-
ation will be 22-knot ships, each with a
capacity of 900, 20-foot boxes. Nakskov
Skibsvacrt of Denmark is building two
of the vessels and Bremer Vulkan yard
in West Germany is building the other
two. They are to be delivered next June.
Port of call for the initial operation
will include Vancouver, Seattle, Port-
land, San Francisco, and Los Angeles
on the west coast and Dublin, Glas-



PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST 3 MONTHS
OF FISCAL YEAR 1971
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1971 1970
Commercial 3,458 3,456
U.S. Government 176 374
Free 27 26
TotaL 3,661 3,856


TOLLS *
Commercial $24,326,354
U.S. Government 1,105,536
Total $25,431,890
CARGO**
Commercial- 30,830,271
U.S. Government 847,480
Free 43,067
Total 31,720,818


$23,800,368
2,075,253
$25,875,621

27,828,948
1,400,274
34,753
29,263,975


gow, Liverpool, London, Rotterdam,
Le Havre, Goteborg, and Copenhagen
in Europe.
The Blue Star presently operates a
service between Australia through the
Panama Canal and the United States
east coast and is a member of the Asso-
ciated Container Transport consortium
which engages in containership oper-
ations between Australia and Europe.
East Asiatic has long been a major
carrier in the West Coast-European
trade.
Announcement of the new operation
is the latest development in a drastic
shakeup of the traditional west coast-
European cargo liner services, the
JOURNAL OF COMMERCE said.
Recently, Fred Olsen Interocean
Line, a carrier on the route for 56 years,
announced it would quit the route in
October. Johnson Line, a Swedish
company and a long-time general
cargo operator on the route, is currently
changing over its fleet to containerships
and is placing six big, fast cellular
vessels in the trade.
The United States Lines also an-
nounced the beginning of a container-
ship service from the east coast to the
U.S. west coast and the Far East using
eight containerships of the Lancer Class
previously on the North Atlantic run.
This is a departure for the United
States Line, which abandoned govern-
ment subsidies to be able to start the
new service.


*Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
small.
0 Cargo figures are in long tons.


1,300

1,200

1,100

1,000

900

800

700

600


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV


DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY

MONTHS


TIlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


0*91















Where Have All


By Willie K. Friar
THE INMMACULATE white suit, which
was as much a part of the tropical land-
scape during the Construction Days of
the Panama Canal as the pith helmet,
the slow-moving ceiling fan, and wicker
furniture, has gone the way of the
dodo bird.
The only white outfits seen around
the Canal Zone these days are the mod-
stvle bell-bottom types being worn by
a few of the younger men, but until early
1960, every well dressed man in the
Canal Zone had at least one white suit
in his closet ready for special occasions.
For many it was everyday wear.
With the advent of air conditioning
and the handsome tropical weight ma-
terials in all varieties of color, the vener-
able white suit disappeared from the


I-i:.al scene. Tropical weight suits could
I,,it have been welcomed more any place
Ih in in the warm, humid climate of the
C-mal Zone. The new materials won im-
nIiliate popularity with the sweltering
ni.n, but some turned out to be so thin
Illi.t the men discovered, to their dismay,
hll.t when they wore light colored tro-
pl,..ils, the length of their underwear
'..I becoming a topic of discussion.
Sack Suits
This was not a problem with the fab-
Si,._. used in the early clays of the Canal
\-. I.en duck, linen, and flour sacks were
rth- main materials used. Flour sack
smils generally were only for everyday
v.. ir and were not a laughing matter
.*\,ept occasionally when the sacks
...ere not bleached well enough and
the Cold Medal Flour label was leg-
ible. A retired employee reported that
a Governor of that period appeared
at his office one morning with traces
of the label clearly visible across
the seat of his trousers. The Gold
i Medal motto, which was printed
ir, the sacks, was "Eventually, why
li.-.t now\."
Many of the men had two or three of
thi.se flour sack suits for work and
several who wore them described them
as "practical and attractive." There were
clothes trees and hangers in all the offi-
ces of the Administration Building and,
usually because of the heat, the men
removed their coats and hung them up.
With this careful treatment they could
wear the coats several days without
laundering, but since the trousers were
washed more often, it was not uncom-
mon to see a man wearing very white
bleached trousers and a jacket that
appeared slightly "tattletale grey" in
comparison.
Stand Alone
The flour sacking was very sturdy and
stood up well under many bleachings.
Laundresses applying for work were
selected on the basis of how well they
"could do a white suit." This meant
much boiling, bleaching and starching.


With all the emphasis on starch it was
small wonder that men frequently found
that their underwear and handkerchiefs
had been starched also. Often the trou-
sers were stiff enough to literally stand
alone and some maintained that they
acted as a sort of flue which allowed
the air to circulate and produce a
cooling effect.
Others of the Construction Day era
reported that the suits were actually
very hot, and prickly heat, especially
around the neck, made them so mis-
erable that the minute they got home,
they ripped off the detachable starched
collar followed immediately by the vest
and coat. Strange as it seems, men of
the era often wore vests even in the
tropical heat.
In the 1920's most of the flour sack
suits were made in the mattress factory
of the old Quartermaster Department
near the Balboa Railroad Station.
The factory made not only mattresses
but all kinds of items. The tailors there \
apparently were wizards at turning
flour sacks into, not only suits, but bunk
bottoms, waiter's coats, butcher's aprons,
pajamas for the patients at Ancon Hos-
pital, golf knickers, covers for chairs,
and even hats and caps.
Just In Case
The 100-pound sacks, which they
used, arrived on the Isthmus filled with
flour for the bakery. They were sold,
after being washed and bleached by the
Ancon Laundry, for 25 cents each and
three sacks were usually enough for a
white suit. The total cost of a tailored
suit was around $12. Tailors were in-
structed to put the label side of the sack
inside the garment just in case the
bleaching had not been well done.
Styles in suits varied. There were
double breasted and single breasted,
both with wide lapels, and then there
was the type, worn by Col. George \V.
Goethals and a few others, which fea-
tured a high stiff collar of the mandarin
or military uniform type. Goethals' suits
were of linen and reported to be made
by a tailor in the Construction Day town


NOVEMBER 1970















The White Suits Gone?


of Culebra. He never wore his Army uni-
form, only the white suit, which was
immaculate at all times. A number of
men insisted that to stay spotless and
unwrinkled in the tropical heat one
had to change suits at least three times
a day.
Government officials from the United
States often brought along white suits
for wear on the Isthmus. On his visit in
1906, President Theodore Roosevelt was
photographed wearing a white suit as he
took a train ride through the muddy
construction area and climbed aboard a
steam shovel.
President William Howard Taft, also
bowing to the local fashion, decided to
forego wearing the frock coat for which
he was so well known and appeared
resplendent in a voluminous white suit.
All In White
Society reports of the olden days told
of dances at the Tivoli and Washington
hotels where both men and women were
dressed in white. One man, writing in
1922 said. "The Tivoli Club held its
regular dance last night. I hung around
the sidelines a half hour or so, met a fe\\
people I knew and watched the per-
formance. To me there is no dance so


pretty as this, so clean and fresh-look-
ing-an impression due I suppose to
the white clothing worn by men and
women.
The white suit gradually replaced the
striped trousers and the cutaway coat
for the most formal occasions, and in
1934 Gov. J. L. Schley in a memoran-
dum on protocol reiterated that, "The
white suit is the official full dress for the
Canal Zone and has been so recognized
in Panama for 20 years or more and that,
consequently when the officials of the
Canal Zone attend formal functions in
Panama for which full dress is pre-
scribed, the proper dress for them to
wear is the white suit."
In 1936, when Panama's President
Elect Dem6stenes Arosemena, after a
lengthy conference, okayed white linen
suits with black ties as the "official dress
for members of the National Assembly
at the inauguration," one man was so
grateful that he wrote a letter to the
editor of a local newspaper.
He said, "Dr. Arosemena, you have
endeared yourself to countless officials
who had, I know, been dreading the
day when they should have been obliged
to appear in morning coat, heavy striped
trousers. shiny black shoes. Ascot tie,


high collar, and top hat to stand for no
short space of time."
Over the years, the white suit became
something of a status symbol. In many
offices on the Isthmus, "the boss" wore
a white suit. One young man,
seeking a job, noted this. When
he was asked what he could
do, file, type, or operate other
office equipment, he smiled,
and said proudly, "I can do
none of those things but I
can wear a white suit."
The suits were often re-
ferred to as "come-to-
Jesus suits" because they
were the standard cos-
tume for baptism at
many of the local
churches.
In 1929, the firs:
ready-made suits ap-
peared in the Canal
Zone commissaries.
At that time, one


A LOOK AT OLD PHOTOGRAPH ALBUMS shows the popularity of the white suit from Construction
Days until 1960 when the fashion began to disappear from the tropical scene. At left from top to bottom:
Ceremonial occasions usually meant the wearing of white suits as evidenced by the large number at the
dedication of the plaque at the foot of the stairs at Gorgas Hospital. The suits came in a variety of styles
including knickers worn here by Gov. M. L. Walker. The Duke and Duchess of York (later Queen Eliza-
beth and King George VI) visit the Lock Control House at Gatun Locks escorted by Governor Walker in
white pith helmet. The pith helmet was often worn with white suits as well as with white uniforms by
the military. Immaculately dressed in white, Gov. Harry Burgess goes on an inspection trip on a railroad
motor car. At right, top to bottom: Pres. Theodore Roosevelt climbs aboard a steam shovel to view Canal
work during Construction Days. White was as popular with the ladies as with the men and Col. and
Mrs. D. D. Gaillard present a lovely scene as they have tea at their home in the old Construction
Day town of Culebra. Another tranquil Canal Zone scene shows Col. and Mrs. J. F. Stevens oul
for a carriage ride. Gov. Jay Morrow, left, poses with AFL Pres. Samuel Gompers and party on the
steps of the Administration Building during Gompers' visit to the Isthmus. Gov. W. E. Potter and
the former Gov. Glen E. Edgerton inspect work at bottom of Miraflorcs Locks during overhaul.
Governor Potter was the last Canal Zone governor to wear the white suit regularly.


TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






-. -. .a .
.at '' ,
S4EF SAC .SUITS *'



.* .

just slightly more than what he had to
pay for a bathing suit which cost him
$5.35 for "a good quality wool" shoulder
to knee style.
He could finish out his outfit with a
$2.75 white broadcloth shirt with or
without collar; white cotton "drawers"
and undershirt at 85 cents each; white
leather belt for $1.20 or if he preferred,
white suspenders for 75 cents; and four-
in-hand tie from $1 to $2. Some wore
black and some wore white shoes with
this outfit, topping it off with a white
pith helmet.
Advertisement
By 1933, ready-made suits were being
produced in the Republic of Panama
and the problem of shrinkage was being
solved. One establishment published the
following advertisement which bears
the marks of a rather laborious transla-
tion from the Spanish.
"One of the guarantees of the work
being done by our shop is that the cloth-
ings will not shrink. When the goods are
received from the exterior to be manu-
factured into clothes they are put


through a trying process which consists
in leaving them 24 hours in a deposit of
boiling water.
"Afterwards the clothing are put in
the washing machine; then are sent to
the drying department and finally ironed
and polished.
"There are three large tables provided
with electrical cutting machines. At once
the clothing are measured and modeled
according to size and styles. There are
machines that cut 500 suits of three
different sizes at one time. Afterwards
the materials are carried to the confec-
tioning shops where a swarm of workers
are busy laboring. This new section is
furnished with the most modern mate-
rials that can be found anywhere.
Fierce Stitch
"The highest efficiency is found in the
machines designed to make special
work. Machines to make buttonholes,
machines to make hems, machines to
make pants pockets, machines to sew
on buttons, etc. Even a machine called
Maiquina de Puntada Fiera or the ma-
chine of a 'fierce' stitch which executes
a very delicate stitch whose mark cannot
be seen on the other side of the cloth."
The factory reported that they were
able to produce from 100 to 200 suits
a day.
By 1960, the white suit had almost
disappeared from the local scene. Gov.
William E. Potter was the last Canal
Zone Governor to wear the white suit
regularly. They were phased out of the


commissary in the early 1960's with the
leftovers going on sale for $2.95.
The tradition of the white suit in the
tropics has ended. Perhaps the man re-
sponsible for it is the most influential of
all fashion molders today-the scientist.
Fashions are often the result of
work in the laboratory where modern
fabrics with special new qualities are
developed.
For many \years, the search was on for
a fabric to be worn in the tropics which
would be cool, lightweight, not easy to
wrinkle (as fabrics usually do in hot,
humid weather) and which would hold
a crease.
The Old Days
Now with the synthetic fabrics, the
blends of acetates and cotton and cotton
treated to be wrinkle resistant, the prob-
lems have been solved and the days of
the boiling, bleaching, starching, and
ironing are over.
Still, hanging in many Canal Zone
closets, among the flashy, brightly col-
ored new garments, one is apt to spot
an old white suit, carefully preserved
just in case the style should make a
comeback.
So far, the only step in that direction
has been a smattering of white suits
with bell-bottom trousers, but who can
say, with all the radical changes in men's
fashions and the return of sideburns and
styles of by-gone days, the old white
suit may try a comeback to the tropical
scene.


A 100-pound flour sack of the type used in making white
suits in years gone by is displayed by Canal Zone College
Queen Darlene Daly. The sack is a part of the Canal Zone
Museum's collection of Construction Day memorabilia.


NOVEMBER 1970


ANOTHER NEW
SUIT. MR-JONES?


*1







Presidents Wore


Pres. Theodore Roosevelt inspecting Canal work from train.


Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt with Panama Pres. Harmodio Arias.


Them.04





NLi
4

I


Pres. William Howard Taft with Col. George \V. Goethals.


Pres. Nixon (while Vice President) with Mrs. Nixon.


Will They Return?


9
I
,, .
.. -, ,-
*K, ~ ~ ~ .., -- ^ """" _^ ^- 'Bf r -" \


With one of the few ceiling
fans remaining on the
Isthmus turning slowly
overhead, John Hibben,
wearing white bell-
bottomed trousers and
double-breasted jacket,
looks over a picture of
President Taft and
Col. Goethals dressed
in the style of
Construction Days. John
is a student at the
Canal Zone College.
At right: A well preserved
white suit hangs in the
closet among the
vari-colored ones just
in case the style should
make a comeback to the
Isthmian scene.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


...~dC J6-~


a-i









-. I





c4 jewel A omong the

MWr- .


"J9landJ o( Pearls"


-ii


4-


L.zr -


I. -~~*


NOVEMBER 1970


~ ---


"X
^c


A". &








By Louis R. Granger
LUSTERED OFF the south
coast of Panama lie a group
I of more than 100 islands that
during the next decade are ex-
pected to give a bit of com-
petition to the sun and fun
islands of the Caribbean.
Well-known to the boating and fish-
ing crowd of Panama and the Canal
Zone, the Pearl Island Archipelago in
the Gulf of Panama is stepping into the
limelight thanks to a group of Panama
businessmen and the Panama Govern-
ment, all bent on putting the island
jewels on every island hopping tourist's
itinerary.
Gabriel Lewis, president of the Pearl
Island Development Corp., is the lead-
ing force behind the project and this
month will officially open Contadora
Island to tourism.
Already more than S1 million has been
spent to develop the island into a luxury
resort, and approximately $800,000
more will go into the construction of a
50-room modern hotel and 16 two-bed-
room cottages to be ready in January
1972. Now available are 10, two-bed-
room, centrally air-conditioned trailers;
a restaurant and cocktail lounge: and a
small rental store for sporting goods and
the usual beach and water necessities.
13 Beaches
Although the island is only 2 miles
long and % of a mile wide, it has 13
beaches and plenty of room for privacy.
An airfield nearly 3,000 feet long serves
the island, and the corporation owns
three twin-engine planes for shuttle
service from Paitilla Airport. The fee is
$10 per person round trip, but property
owners are given a discount.
It's a 15-minute trip by air and
approximately 1 to 2 hours by power-
boat. The island lies at the northern end
of the archipelago approximately 35
miles from Panama City. There are nu-
merous anchorages for deep-draft vessels
and the island has a gas diesel fueling
pier.
Once the island gets into full swing,
Contadora will be a paradise for the out-
door types, as well as for the naturalist.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Peterson who
operated a sailing school at Fort Lauder-
dale, Fla., are resident managers of the
operation and offer skindiving and sail-
ing classes. Natives from the surround-
ing islands will conduct pearl diving
expeditions for the more adventuresome
visitors. Pearling was a lucrative busi-
ness around the Pearl Islands until the


With many tropical beaches
and jungle trails, Contadora
Island officially opens for
tourism this month. On
opposite page pretty Karen
Hughes, a visitor from
Iowa, writes her favorite
island's name in the sand,
and strolls along the beach
in the photo below.
In left photo, Gabriel Lewis,
right, developer, chats
with Frank Morrice whose
company holds the
exclusive sales rights
to island property.
Below is a trail leading
through untouched jungle.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



















- 1 -K ?





A paradise for beachcombers and skindivers, the Pearl Island Archipelago gives up
treasures from its past to sharp-eyed visitors. Here Mr. and Mrs. Lewis display some of
the items found among the islands. Clustered in the foreground and in photo helow are
pearls found just off Contadora this year.


1930's when apparently a combination
of over-fishing and disease decimated
the beds.
But pearl oysters may be making a
comeback. Lewis has collected nearly
100 pearls of various sizes off Contadora
in 10 feet of water at low tide. (Pacific
tides average approximately 14 feet.)
Golf Course
Tennis courts, a 9-hole golf course,
and volleyball courts will be added to
round out the sporting activities.
Lewis has preserved much of the
island forest of guayacan trees, thorn)
cedars, oaks, and typical island growth.
and has let it he known that a good way
not to be invited back to the island is to
kill one of the black iguanas that inhabit
the island. This species grows to about
5 feet and like the rest of the family are
harmless to humans.
Indian pottery and 19th Century
bottles have been found on Contadora
during the construction and clearing.
And on a nearby island Lewis found two
large diving helmets abandoned or lost
by pearl divers.
Lewis plans to retain the natural
beauty of the island and not crowd any
of the residents or visitors. Actually'
there is no need to pack Contadora with
people. He owns seven other islands in
the archipelago which he plans even-


tually to develop. "It all depends on hoxw
well the public accepts Contadora,"
he said.
Part of the island has been subdivided
for homesites and additional building
sites will be set aside after the hotel is
completed. "The reaction has been fan-
tastic," said Lewis. "Already the entire
subdivided section has been sold."
If Lewis' own reaction to Contadora
when he first saw it is any indication of
how others will feel, then the island is
bound to be a favorite.
Like a Dream
Just 2 years ago in November Lewis
was fishing alone in a small boat when
he had engine trouble. He put into Con-
tadora for help. "I found the island to
be like a dream," he said. After repairing
the engine, Lewis returned to Panama
City. "Immediately I started asking
questions and found that it was owned
by the Pinel family who had been in
the pearl business years before." For-
tunately, the owners were willing to sell.
Lewis set-up a 5-year program and in
February 1969 the first bulldozer started
to clear an area for the airstrip. Since
then a work force of about 70 men has
been kept busy. The Panama National
Guard provided some heavv equipment
to widen the runway.
During the next dry season the airfield


and all the roads including one that
circles the island will be blacktopped.
That project is expected to be finished
in February 1971 along with a water
system supplied by three artesian wells.
and an electrical plant with three gen-
erators supplying 1,000 kw. Comunica-
ciones, S.A., will install SO telephone
lines for island communications and 6
lines to Panama City by March 1971,
Lewis said.
No Crazy Ideas
Original building sites sold for $6 a
square meter for waterfront lots and $4
for inland property. The only building
restriction is that plans be approved by
the management and that the houses
"fit in" with the community. "No crazy
ideas," Lewis said. Lot owners, he ex-
plained, can purchase two-bedroom, air-
conditioned mobile homes from the Pan-
ama Tourist Bureau for nothing down
and $128 a month for 8 years. Trailer
lots, however, must be landscaped.
To Lewis, the archipelago will be-
come the next major tourist area. "These
islands will be booming soon. The Gov-
ernment is backing their development
and is giving a lot of cooperation.
There's a great potential here.
"Panama has an excellent opportunity
to develop a strong tourist industry. \e
have what everybody wants-sun, good
beaches, some of the best fishing in the
world, and clean, clear water," he said.
Sales Rights
Lewis is not alone in this venture.
Frank Morrice 1II, a partner of Ford,
Sosa, Morrice, S.A., insurance and real
estate, has the exclusive sales rights to
island property. And like Lewis, Mor-
rice first went to Contadora for a reason
other than business.
"I heard about the island and went
there to see about buying a lot. 1 fell in
love with it right away," he said. Lewis
and Morrice became good friends and
Lewis offered him the sales part of the
business.
Lewis is a family man, the father of
five boys and one daughter, and has a
close relationship with his business
associates. He is general manager of the
successful family-owned enterprise of
Corrugado Panama, S.A., which manu-
factures banana packing boxes.
He has the easygoing manner of a
man who is sure of himself and knows
exactly where he is going.
Morrice feels much the same \way
about the future of the Pearl Islands as
Lewis, but admits that it takes someone
like Lewis to make it work. "Gabriel is
the pioneer; he's the Robinson Crusoe
of the Pearl Islands."


NOVEMBER 1970






LITTLE IS KNOWN and less is re-
corded of the Pearl Islands except that
they were once the center of important
and lucrative pearl fishing, an industry
which to various degrees continued for
more than 400 years.
The first known written reference to
the islands occurs in a letter to the King
of Spain from Vasco Nifiez de Balboa,
dated January 20, 1513. Balboa had not
discovered the Pacific Ocean-that was
to be in September-but had heard many
stories from the Indians about the great
"South Sea" that stretched to the horizon
from across the Isthmus of Panama.
He told the King: "The Indians state
there is another ocean 3 days journey
from here they' say the other ocean
is very suitable for canoe traveling as it
is always calm I believe there are
many islands in that sea they tell me
that there are pearls in abundance of
great size, and that the native chiefs
possess baskets filled with them, as do
even common Indian men and women."
Since then these islands with their
graceful white sand beaches, craggy
cliffs, good natural harbors, and a wide
and abundant variety of wildlife have
led unruffled lives while their tropical
cousins in the Caribbean were groomed
for the tourist trade.
Sun and Rum
As the Caribbean islands boomed with
pleasure seekers by the hundreds of
thousands soaking up the sun and rum,
the "Islands of Pearls," as Balboa called
them, patiently waited for the limelight.
From 1901 until 1968, when Gabriel
Lewis, president of the Pearl Island
Development Corp., bought Contadora
Island, it was owned by the Pinel family
who used the island for its pearl fishing
fleet. The Pinel's bought it from great-
grandchildren of Felix Moreno who took
title to the island and several others in
the late 18th Century. Moreno's daugh-
ter inherited it on his death in 1836
when the island was called San Fran-
cisco de Asis de Contadora.
Jose Pinel of Panama City, who is en-
gaged in the real estate business, was
a child during the pearl fishing days of
his family. He said Contadora and
several other islands had fresh water
necessary for the fleet. Pinel believes
that Contadora may have been the
island that was used as the counting-
house for pearls and mother-of-pearl
shell during the Spanish occupation. The
Spanish word contador means counter;
accountant; or auditor, and contadu-
ria is translated as accountant's office,
accountancy, and auditorship.
The Pinel family remained in the
pearling business-both for mother-of-


pearl and pearls-until 1931 when the
demand for mother-of-pearl diminished.
Most of it was sent to Germany while the
pearls were sold mainly in Paris, Lon-
don, and a few other European capitals.
Only a few pearls were ever sold in the
United States, Pinel said.
Pearl Fishing
Although the Colombian Government
had established conservation practices
on pearl fishing prior to the turn of the
century (Panama became independent
from Colombia in 1903), the production
of pearl oysters diminished markedly in
the 1930's.
According to Dr. Paul S. Galtsoff of
the U.S. Department of the Interior,
Fish and Wildlife Service, who con-
ducted a survey of the pearl oyster
resources of Panama in 1950, the years
of forced inactivity from 1939 through
1943 had no beneficial effect on the
oyster population.
"In 1944-45, when the fishery was
officially resumed, the divers found the
pearl oysters extremely scarce. They) also
reported seeing, on several formerly
productive grounds, many dead or dying
ovsters," said Dr. Galtsoff.
There are no records available of the
number of pearls and their value taken
irom Panama Bay during the Spanish
occupation, but it probably was con-
siderable. Modern-day records on pearls
and mother-of-pearl shells were not
maintained until 1908, and even then
the records were only sketchy.
According to the Panama Bureau of
Statistics and Census, the best year was
1924 when pearls and shell valued at
857,524 were taken from the bay. The
last year of record keeping was 1938
when it was reported that only 3 carats
of pearls valued at $275 were collected.
But the year before, 339 carats with a
value of $10,818 were taken.


//





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At top of page is an aerial photograph of'
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U.S. Navy Hydrographic Ofice chart

At top of page is an aerial photograph of
Contadora Island taken earlier this wear
It shows the runway, half a dozen beaches
and some of the roads. A 50-room hotel
and 16 modern cottages will be con-
structed near the beach at right center. The
U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office chart shows
some of the northern islands in the archi-
pelago including Isla Contadora, below
Isla Pacheca and to the right of Isla Sabo-
ga. The islands are approximately 35 miles
from Panama City.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





Pa"Wn"


Cad4


S"4"


In the mind's eye of people tcho love ships and their ways,
all vessels, whether they be ancient rust buckets or elegant
luxury liners, create scenes of far away places and a longing to
stand at the rail of a stout ship. Visitors to the Panama Canal
are no different as they watch vessels head to the four corners of the
earth. Amateur artist John B. Morton, an auditor with the
General Audit Division, has recorded with pen and ink some
scenes along the waterway. Sketch "A" (below) shows the
Swedish American Line cruise ship MS Kungsholm tied up
at Balboa. On the opposite page, sketch "B" is
of a merchant ship moving through Gaillard Cut during widening
operations. A "mule" which guides the vessels through the
locks by means of heavy steel cables is shown in sketch "C"
and the tug Gulf Raider when she was leading ships into
Canal waters is "D." The mighty aircraft carrier
U.S.S. Constellation, sketch "E," completes the Panama Canal
Sketchpad. The Constellation is too large to transit the
Canal and even had to wait for low tide before she could sail
under the Thatcher Ferry Bridge to moor at Balboa.


A
















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By Jose T. Tufi6n
RICH OR poor, young or old, no man
or woman of Panama's interior is ever
caught without a "montuno" hat-well,
hardly ever. For the distinctive native
hat is as much a part of the national
attire as the well-known "montuno" out-
fit is for men and the now internationally
famous "pollera" is for women.
Except that sex makes no difference
in the use of the hat.
At first glance, there is nothing out of
the ordinary in the appearance of Pan-
ama's "montuno" hat. The crown is of
normal size, about 6 inches high, and


Nimble fingers at work, Victoria Domin-
guez of La Pintada prepares the fibers for
the miniature montuno hats which are given
as souvenirs in Panama City.


raised or flat depending on the locality
where it is made. The wide brim is
circular.
But the fiber and the weaving are
unique.
The raw material is the shoot of a
palm tree that grows wild in the high
mountains of Cocld and Veraguas Pro-
vinces, in an area some 100 miles west
of Panama City. In Panama it is known
as "bellota," elsewhere in Latin Amcr-
ica as "bombonaje" or "jipijapa." Inci-
dentally, it is the same fiber that is used
in Ecuador to make the once-famous
"Panama" hats.
Descendants
In the Cocle and Veraguas mountains
of central Panama live the "cholos"-
descendants of the fiery Indians and the
proud Spaniards. It is their women who
have preserved the art of hat weaving
from generation to generation.


A farmer at the San Sebastian Fair at
Oe6 proudly wears his "Sunday best" mon-
tuno hat which is woven of white fiber.
For everyday he wears a montuno hat of
rougher fiber.


A traveler hiking the winding moun-
tain trails of El Cope and El Harino,
above Penonom6, is apt to come upon
the glow of rustic lanterns burning in
the homes of the "cholos" before day-
break. The women are weaving the finer
"montuno" hats. For the work must be
done between 4 and 8 in the morn-
ing-when the moisture in the air is
highest to render the fiber softer and
more pliable. The rest of the day, the
materials have to be kept wrapped in
damp cloth.
The painstaking weaving takes many
early morning hours, but when the hat
is finished, it is a real piece of native art.
The strands are obtained by splicing
the "bellota" shoot with a needle. Then
the fibers are left out in the damp morn-
ing air to acquire the required consis-
tency before being wrapped in damp
cloth for storing. Using head shaped
wooden blocks, the women patiently
interweave as manv as 15 strands of
fiber to fashion a hat.
Two Styles
There are two distinct styles of "mon-
tuno" hats. One is the "ocuefo," named
for the region of Oc6 where it is most
popular. The "ocuefio" hat is woven
of white fiber, except for a 1-centi-
meter wide black strip around the edge
of the brim The other is the "pin-
tao" (a corruption of "pintado" or spot-
ted) hat, its name deriving from the
"pintas" or designs obtained from inter-
weaving white and black fiber strands.
Each design is up to the weaver's
imagination; hence, the variety is almost
limitless. Look at a collection of "pintao"
hats and vou will wonder at the artistic

22 NOVEMBER 1970






touch of these women from the moun-
tains of Panama. The designs-some in
concentric circles, others in spirals,
in squares, cross-shaped or simply in
dots-evidence a sense of refinement and
exquisite care. The crown of the "pin-
tao" hat is flat instead of raised as in the
"ocuefio" style.
Regardless of the color, all the fiber
that goes into a "montuno" hat comes
from the same ballott" palm. The
black strands have been dyed with a
special clay that is a zealously guarded
secret of the "cholos." The jet black
color imparted to the fiber is indelible.
Hat Bands
No matter its style, the "montuno"
hat is usually adorned with a delicately
woven cord of black or multi-colored
thread or wood that serves as a band.
The weaving of the cord is another home
craft transmitted from generation to
generation among the women of Pan-
ama's countryside, particularly in the
area of Ocii. It involves an ingenious
technique: pins are stuck around the
hole at one end of an ordinary spool of
sewing thread-one pin for each of the
colors in the finished cord. The colored
strands then are interwoven around the
pins and the finished cord emerges
through the other end of the spool. In
Oc6 the weaving of cords for use as
"montuno" hatbands is a pastime for
most women-from the richest matron to
the humblest girl.
When should one wear an "ocueio"
or a "pintao" hat?
Mrs. Dora P6rez de Zirate, an author-
ity on Panamanian folklore, explains
the difference, from a woman's stand-
point.
"The 'campesina' in Oc6 or Veraguas
prefers her hat plain, rounded, with no
special adornment or particular shape
to the brim. She wears this hat with her
daily attire and also, when she pleases,
with her lace 'pollera'. The people
of Herrera Province the Province of
Los Santos and of the rest of the coun-
try wear the 'pintao' hat only with
their 'pollera montuna' (the common
'pollera'); the headdress is different
when a lace 'pollera' is worn ."
The Important Thing
And what about the men? They have
an everyday, working hat of a rougher
nature, and for holidays and festive
occasions wear similar hats but these
are better made. Regardless of the style,
the important thing is to wear a "mon-
tuno" hat. Why?
Writer Roman B. Reyes put it this
way:

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23


"The 'montuno' hat is indispensable
to dance the 'tamborito.' It is an emblem
of masculine enthusiasm and of court-
ing, a prerequisite for his gestures of
tribute and admiration to the woman
who shares with him the pleasure of
native dancing."
Panama's "montuno" hat industry is
very old. No one really knows when it
began. Knowledgeable persons such as
Elias Vega, an expert hatter in Peno-
nome, say it goes back to pre-Columbian
times.
A distinguished American educator
played an important part in an interest-
ing chapter of the history of the native
hat industry in Panama. He was Fede-
rico E. Libby, who was employed by
the Panama government in 1914 as
Inspector General of Education. He
spoke Spanish fluently, having worked
in Puerto Rico for a long time. Libby
was convinced that the rural school had
to be adapted to the environment of the
students in order to train them in useful
crafts. When Libby heard of the hat
industry in the Cocld highlands, at La
Pintada and Oc6, he brought an expert
hatter from Ecuador, Francisco Lara,
and established a school in Penonome to
teach the weaving of Panama hats.
Hatters School
Few persons realize it, but Panama
hats made in the Penonome Hatters
School were sold in the United States
and in Germany and were worn by
members of Panama's most prominent
families.
Graduates from this school, which
operated for 20 years, spread through-
out central Panama, mainly in Cocl6 and
Herrera Provinces, resulting in a marked
growth of the native hat industry.


A Panamanian beauty wears a "pintao"
hat distinguished by the black fiber.

Thus, an American left the imprint
of his work on the "montuno" hat craft
of Panama.
In recent years, the Panama Govern-
ment and the United Nations, through
SENAPI (National Service of Crafts-
manship and Small Industries), have
boosted the industry. In La Pintada,
SENAPI has established small shops for
fiber weaving where expert instructors
teach residents the secrets of working
with materials from native plants. There
are many learners and both the quality
and the variety of the articles are
increasing.
Still, the most authentic "montuno"
hats-and the finest-are those woven in
the glow of rustic lanterns by the skilled
fingers of "cholas" in the highlands,
between 4 and 8 every morning.


I 1 L.




A wedding in Ocui. All the guests and the bridegroom wear the "ocuefio" or white montuno
hats. The bride is attired in a white pollera wedding dress and wears gold combs in her
hair which are family heirlooms. The flags are used to add gayety to the occasion.







CULINARY CAPERS

ABOARD THE DONIZETTI








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By Fannie P. Hernandez


L w


A genial Neopolitan, chef Giuseppe Pana-
riello prepares gourmet fare in the galley
of the "Donizetti." Each dish becomes a
culinary masterpiece.


CULINARY CAPERS goes to sea to
explore adventures in Italian cuisine
aboard the Italian Line's MV Donizetti,
which with her two sister ships, the
Verdi and the Rossini, makes regular
calls at the Panama Canal on her Medi-
terranean to west coast of South America
voyages.
Arriving at the Canal on June 26,
1963, the Donizetti was the first of three
vessels put into service to replace the
Marco Polo, the Americo Vespucci, and
the Antoniotto Usodimare, which for 15
years had called at the Canal. The Verdi
and the Rossini were put into service a
short time later, and the three vessels,
each making six voyages a year, are at
this time the only passenger ships on
the route. They transit the Canal 36
times a year. Italian Line ships have
been using the Canal since it opened
for business and there has been an
Italian Line office at Cristobal since
1916.
Originating their runs at Genoa, on
the west coast of Italy, the vessels
carry a myriad of manufactured goods
ranging from objects d'art, fine laces
and delicate Murano glas, to type-
writers, scooters, marble, wines, and
machinery for heavy industry. Unload-
ing their cargoes at South America's
ports, their emptied holds are filled
mainly with Chilean copper, Peruvian
cotton, Ecuadorean cacao, and Colom-
hian coffee, destined for Europe.


The gleaming white ships of modern
design are alike, except for minor differ-
ences in interior decor. With a capacity
of 550 passengers and a crew of 250,
they give special attention to the trav-
elers and also provide equipment for
carrying cargo, mail, and passengers
autos. Although not comparable with
the big luxury superliners such as the
Michelangelo and the Raffaello, which
the Italian Line operates on cruises to
the Caribbean and on the Europe to
New York route, the ships are com-
pletely air conditioned with comfortable
staterooms, swimming pools, lounges,
bars, libraries, and restaurants for the
150 first class and 400 tourist passen-
gers. They are especially popular with
South American travelers.
In keeping with the traditional excel-
lence of Italian cooking, the cuisine
aboard the sister ships combines the
wholesome simplicity of regional dishes
with superb international fare. The
menus include a seemingly endless num-
ber of Italian specialties, regional dishes,
and typical dishes of South America
and Europe.
Not France
Mealtime aboard the Donizetti is a
reminder that Italy is the mother of Con-
tinental European cooking, not France
whose fame came much later. (It was
Catherine de' Medici, the 14-year-old
bride of the young man who later


NOVEMBER 1970






became Henry II, who in 1533 took to
France an entourage of Florentine chefs
and the refinements of cooking and din-
ing of 16th century Italy, introducing
good table manners, the elegance of fine
napery, and the use of the fork.)
Breakfast is not an important meal in
Italy and no great fuss is involved. The
day's first meal consists of juice, black
coffee, milk, eggs, sweet rolls, butter,
and marmalade.
Each a Masterpiece
But lunch and dinner are another
story. Each dish is a masterpiece. A
typical luncheon (colazione) and din-
ner (pranzo) aboard the Donizetti starts
with a choice of four juices, antipasto
(hors d'oeuvres) which mav include very
thin slices of proscuitto and salami, an-
chovies, marinated mushrooms, and arti-
choke hearts, both green and black
olives, fish, radishes, fennel, green and
red peppers, Bellevue eggs, chicken sal-
ad, and sardines, accompanied by a dry
white wine. Then comes a choice of
three soups. The antipasto and soup are
supposed to open the appetite for the
pasta dish that comes next. It may be
ravioli, spaghetti, or any pasta dish or
rice. Three varieties of eggs are followed
by two fish dishes. Then comes the
"piatto straniere," the foreign dish,
which may be a typical dish of South
America or Spain.
Next on the menu is the specialty of
the day, such as ham croquettes, spring
chicken, or roast beef, followed by three
meat specialties from the grill. Two
vegetables and four kinds of potatoes
also are offered. A cold buffet, consisting
of six choices of meat and fowl and an
equal number of salads and sauces, is
provided, and in the European tradition.
a wide selection of cheeses and fruit.
fresh, dried, or cooked. Various desserts,
ice creams and beverages put a final
note to a gastronomical experience not
easily forgotten.
Genial Neopolitan
Ciuseppe Panariello, the chef on the
Donizetti, is a genial Neopolitan, and
has contributed to Culinary Capers a
number of recipes for regional dishes
from the Ligurian region along the
northwest coast of Italy. For luncheon
he selected Lasagne alla Portofino, a
noodle dish with a green sauce of garlic
and basil called Pesto alla Genovesc:
Caciucco alla Ligure, a squid stew; and
for dessert, Sacripantina, layered cake
generously flavored with an Italian cor-
dial called Strega. The recipes are for
six persons.


Lasagne alla Portofino
2S cups flour
4 eggs
% teaspoon salt
Sift flour and salt into a large bowl.
Make a well in the center of the flour
and add one egg at a time, mixing well
after each addition. Turn out onto a
lightly floured board and knead until
smooth. Roll out into a thin sheet and
cut into 2 inch squares. Let set.

Pesto alla Genovese
2 cups fresh basil leaves
2 cloves garlic
1 cup pine nuts
1 cup grated Parmesan cheese
1 cup olive oil
Put all ingredients into a blender,
adding oil little by little until sauce has
the consistency of thick cream. Makes
about two cups.
While lasagne sets, cook I pound of
fresh, tender string beans and boil
1 pound of potatoes. Slice the potatoes
into 4-inch slices. Keep warm.
Cook lasagne by dropping into boil-
ing salted water (about 8 quarts). Cook
rapidly, uncovered for 10 to 15 minutes
or until tender. Add 1 tablespoon oil
to boiling water to prevent lasagne from
sticking together. Drain.
Place lasagne in a deep serving dish
and mix with string beans and potatoes
Pour pesto over all and serve.


Caciucco alla Ligure
(Squid stew Ligurian style)
1 lb. squid, cut up
2 onions, chopped
1 carrot
2 celery stalks
% cup olive oil
1 bay leaf
cup dry white wine
1 clove garlic
cup parsley
I lb. can cut up tomatoes
I lb. Swiss chard leaves
1 cup water
pepper to taste
Cut vegetables julienne style and fry
in olive oil with the onion and squid,
cooking until well blended. Add the
wine, and when it is absorbed, add gar-
lic and parsley which have been ground
in a mortar. Add the tomatoes and cook
about 10 minutes over medium heat.
Add water and Swiss chard leaves which
have been cut julienne style. Add pep-
per and cook approximately 40 minutes.

Sacripantina

6 eggs
1 cup sugar
1 cup flour
teaspoon salt
1 lb. butter
2 cups powdered sugar
2 ounces chocolate
Beat eggs and add sugar, mix well.


ITALIA


Three of the "Donizetti's" stewards are obviously pleased with the display of deserts
served daily aboard the Italian Line's passenger ships.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


VLC












ITALY


otllhe of Co0litoe4al EiroPean 0ooKiig


Gradually add flour which has been
sifted with salt. Beat until smooth. Pour
into a buttered and lightly floured cake
or torte pan. Bake in a preheated mod-
erate oven (350) for 20 minutes or until
cake springs back to touch.
Make a butter cream with the butter
and sugar. Beat until fluffy and divide
the cream and add 2 ounces unsweet-
ened chocolate (melted) to half the
cream.
When cake cools, cut into three
layers. Place first layer in a 2 quart
bowl, sprinkle with Strega (a sweet,
perfumed, golden-yellow after-dinner
cordial made in Italy.) Then spread but-
ter cream filling over the cake. Place
second layer in the bowl and repeat,
sprinkling with Strega and the choco-
late cream. Add the third layer fitting
it into the bowl and sprinkle with more
Strega. Let set for several hours and
turn bowl into a serving dish.
For dinner the chef provided more
regional recipes from Genoa: Minestrone
alla Genovese, a hearty vegetable soup
always made with fresh vegetables;
(Minestrone comes from the Latin "to
hand out" and was a staple in the old
days when monks kept a pot always on
the fire, ready to feed a hungry traveler
who may be stopping by); a recipe for
Cima alla Genovese, veal and egg
stuffed veal loaf to be served cold;
and Crostata alla Genovese.

Minestrone alla Genovese

Make a good meat stock with beef
and cracked bones. One pound of bones
and two pounds of meat, plus 1% table-
spoons salt, first boiled and then sim-
mered in 2 quarts of water for about
2 hours, makes a substantial'base for
this soup. (Be sure to remove the scum
when making the stock).
lb. cabbage
3 lb. Swiss chard
l Ib. string beans
a lb. pens
9 lb. potatoes
% lb. zucchini (Italian squash)
2 tablespoons pesto


Cut up all vegetables the size of peas
(except one of two potatoes, depending
on size, which are mashed later to
thicken soup). Cook in stock about
% hour. Add pound macaroni which
has been parboiled in salted water. Cook
until all vegetables and macaroni are
tender. Add 2 tablespoons pesto, the
green sauce mentioned earlier, and cook
a few minutes longer. Serve with Italian
bread.

Cima alla Genovese

Have butcher bone a three pound veal
breast and make a pocket in it. Stuff
with the following:
1 lb. ham or mortadella, cubed
1 lb. veal, cubed
6 eggs, well beaten
cup grated Parmesan cheese
1 cup cooked peas
1 finely chopped onion
Is teaspoon nutmeg
pinch of marjoram
Fry onion in a little oil, add ham,
veal, and cook a few minutes. Add eggs
and other ingredients and fill pocket
with the mixture. Sew the edge with
strong doubled white thread. Place the
stuffed veal breast on a clean cloth and
roll tightly in the cloth. Tie the ends
with string and twice around like a
package. Put it in a pot of salted water
and boil for /4 hour. Remove from the
water and roll with the hands to remove
any water. Place a weight on the loaf
to press out any remaining water. When
cool, remove from the cloth. Cut in
slices and serve cold.


Cima alla Genovese
(Cold veal loaf)


Crostata alla Genovese
23 cups sifted flour
% cup butter
% cup sugar
Sift flour and sugar into a bowl. Cut
in butter and make a dough. Roll out
and line a torte mold leaving enough
pastry dough to make strips for top of
pie. Fill with a one pound of peach or
apricot marmalade. Make a lattice
design on top of crostata with the strips
of crust and brush with egg yolk. Bake
in a moderate oven for 30 minutes or
until golden in color.


ALMUERZO
ENTREMESES: Jam6n crudo de Parma, Salchich6n Hin-
garo, Jam6n cocido Emiliano, Alcachofas Romanas,
Mantequilla, Huevos rellenos Cardinal, Tomate a la
Nicoise, Niervos de ternera a la Veneciana, Jurel en
aceite, Aceitunas negras.
FARINACEOS: Spaghetti, salsa Napolitana, Arroz blanco.
HUEVDS: Tortilla con hongos, Revueltos a la Espaiiola,
Al plato "Rotomago".
PESCADOS: Ombrina al horno, Filetes de mostela a la
Ingles.
PLATO DEL DIA: Cotechino Negroni con lentsias, Cro-
quetas de jam6n con Madera.
A LA PARRILLA: Codornices de vina sobre tostada,
Entercosta a la Frances, Chuletas de cerdo con
manzanas.
LEGUMBRES: Broculis al natural, Macedonia de legum-
bres.
BUFFET FRIO: Costillas de cerdo con salsa manzanas,
Gelatina gastron6mica, Lomo de buey, Pichones en
escabeche, Pate de higado, Pecho de ternera relle-
no, Genovos.
ENSALADAS: Mixta, Lechuga, Tomate, Remolachas.
QUESOS: Brie, Emmenthal, Stracchino, Bel Paese, Cre-
mini, Caciotta.
POSTRES: Tarta Sublime, Embutidos Venecianos, Cube-
letti Genoveses, Pasteleria surtida.
HELADOS: Copa Fantasia, Crema vanilla, Sorbete de
durazno.
FRUTAS EN COMPOTA: Ouraznos, Peras.
FRUTAS FRESCAS: Pifa, Peras, Naranjas, Papaya, San-
dia, Mel6n.
BEBIDAS: Caf6 Italiano, Leche fresca, Sanka, Nescafi,
Hag, Ti Ceyl6n, Manzanilla, Menta, Boldo, Tilo.


The menus of Italian Line ships would
make Henry the Eighth jump for joy.
Printed in both Italian and Spanish, this
luncheon includes all the usual items plus
ham croquettes in Madeira wine, grilled
quail on toast, fried marinated dove and
stuffed veal breast.

26 NOVEMBER 1970







Unraveli


A SMALL staff of multilingual experts
lO has the task of keeping the Panama
n Canal from becoming a "Tower of
Babel." Maintaining communications
between peoples of many lands with
different and often exotic languages is
the job of the Translating Unit of the
Administrative Services Division.
The responsibility is often monumen-
tal considering that the international
waterway draws ships and people from
virtually every maritime nation of the
world to the Isthmus of Panama.
A recent incident involving a Turkish
seaman who was near death is an ex-
ample of the type of language problem
that can occur. The seaman had suf-
fered a ruptured appendix and was
taken off his ship and moved to Gorgas
Hospital. Telling him of the gravity of
"'- his condition and that he needed an
operation was the job of the Transla-
ting Unit which provided the names of
five persons on the Pacific side of the
Isthmus who spoke Turkish.
Iages One by one, they were called and
messages left when none of them could
be reached directly. By the time the
last call was completed, however, sev-
eral had responded and within the hour
the others had shown up at Gorgas
Hospital, willing to come to the aid of
their countryman.
Uncommon Languages
One of the demands made of the unit
is to maintain a current list of persons
who speak uncommon or out-of-the-
way languages such as Russian, Polish,
Finnish, Yiddish, Turkish, Korean,
Japanese and Chinese, making it a
veritable language bank.
The importance and growth of the
unit has been closely related to the
new and increased requirements to meet
language differences in the normal oper-
ation and maintenance of the waterway.
S The personnel that staffs the office
could very well be referred to as walk-
ing foreign language encyclopedias. As
interpreters or translators of an endless
W. number of official documents, training
manuals, safety rules, legal papers and
routine correspondence, and as dispens-
ers of medical, scientific, mechanical and
engineering terminology, thev are ex-
pected to translate not only what is said
but what is meant, conveying the exact
idea and mood of the original writer.
Canal's official First Translator
years, Enrique The late Jos6 de Lavandeyra, who
years ago, still
he Translating came to the Canal during construction
illivan, present days as an accountant, was the Canal's
F. Courchaine, first translator. A Brazilian who became
a U.S. citizen, Lavandevra had lived in


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


France and was fluent in six languages.
When his linguistic talents were discov-
ered, he was assigned to the Corres-
pondence Bureau of the Executive
Department where he remained until
his death in 1916.
Lavandeyra was succeeded by Enri-
que A. Lapeira, a Colombian who had
been working for the Canal since 1904
as a file clerk for the Panama Railroad
at Cristobal. In 1915, when the Canal
offices were consolidated in the Ad-
ministration Building, Lapeira came
along with the Panama Railroad files.
Shortly after the move, the position of
translator was offered to him.
No Alternative
Lapeira, 82, recalls that when the
executive secretary called him to his
office and asked him if he would like to
be the Canal's official translator, he re-
plied, "Yes of course, thank you, sir,"
and in his nervous elation he barely
heard the secretary when he added that
he was also required to know French.
He was half-way to the door when sud-
denly he realized that he had accepted
-and did not know French. The full im-
pact of his predicament hit him a heavy
blow. What should he do? He closed
the door knowing that he had no alter-
native but to learn French. He did. In
3 months.
Within a few years he had not only
mastered French but also Italian and in
spite of his failing eyesight, he makes
it a point to read in the two languages
everyday.
Lapeira later became a U.S. citizen
and was for more than 33 ears the
Canal's official translator. He occupied
a few square feet of space in the second
floor balcony of the Administration
Building in the rear of the General
Services Branch. His duties also in-
cluded direct contact, by telephone and
in person, with officials and diplomats
in the Republic of Panama as English
was not widely spoken in Panama at
that time nor was Spanish commonly
heard in the Canal Zone. Lapeira retired
in 1950 and lives with his wife in
Panama City. Before retiring, however.
he trained a young man who today
heads an expanded Panama Canal
Translating Unit.
Varied Volume
William O'Sullivan, fluent in seven
languages, and a staff of five multilin-
gual translators have the responsibility
of rendering from one language into
another a varied volume of written (and
oral) communications involved in the
everyday transactions of Canal business.


The LangL


I
Having been the Panama
translator for more than 33
A. Lapeira, who retired 20
enjoys an occasional visit to t
Unit. At left is William O'Su
head of the unit, and Aurora
translator.







































Translators Olga J. Stanziola, left, Marcia B. de Ortega, (seated at desk), Aurora F. Cour-
chaine (standing) and Sofia de Magall6n, right, who take care of French, Italian, Portuguese
and Spanish, are also bilingual stenographers.


A typical day's workload of transla-
tions may include one or two legal doc-
uments, two or three letters for the
Canal Zone Governor, an official note
from the Panama Ministry of Foreign
Relations, various letters to Spanish
speaking employees, and work on the
Governor's special project "Putting Into
Spanish All That Is Needed To Know"
including specific chapters of the Per-
sonnel Manual and the Canal Zone
Code and other regulations.
Serving as an information bureau
on languages, the translators also
answer consultations over the tele-
phone. Among these are calls received
from the Ministry of Foreign Relations,
the Protocol Office, and Immigration
Office of Panama, U.S. Government
agencies in this area, and, of course,
other Canal units.
Inquiry Boards
From time to time they are called
upon to serve as interpreters at inquiry
boards of ship accidents, in court,
hospitals, police stations and also to
serve as bilingual reporters as well as
translators at special events requir-


ing bilingual exchange of information.
The four women translator-interpre-
ters, Marcia B. de Ortega (the unit's
administrator), Sofia de Magall6n, Olga
Stanziola, and Aurora Courchaine also
are bilingual stenographers and among
them they handle French, Italian, Por-
tuguese, and Spanish translations. Henry
Gornell translates Spanish and German
while O'Sullivan may take care of trans-
lating or interpreting in French, Span-
ish, Italian, Portuguese, Malayan, and
Tagalog.
All Subjects
Working as a team they translate,
edit, type, and proofread the workload
distributed to each translator according
to his or her qualifications. Each mem-
ber of the staff is assigned a responsibil-
ity: one takes care of assignments
dealing with medicine and chemistry,
the other handles legal translations, an-
other's specialty is me6hanical-technical
terminology, and others handle the edit-
ing and final proofreading of all mate-
rials. This last task requires considerable
familiarity and knowledge with all
subject matters to enable them to


v "%


NOVEMBER 1970


polish and improve on their translations.
As bilinguality is becoming more and
more a part of the Canal's policy, the
language experts must spend many
hours researching various subjects to
familiarize themselves with technical
terms and vocabulary of the different
workshops in the marine and mainten-
ance areas and other Canal units in
order to arrive at accurate translations
of such subjects as the plumbing code,
firefighting regulations, training man-
uals which are used in various jobs,
forms, publications and even signs.
They are required to read trade jour-
nals and texts, scientific papers and
magazines which are usually a more
reliable source of terminology than dic-
tionaries as terms may change with
newer techniques. As a result of this
constant research, translators are well
informed on many subjects.
Heading The List
To help them with difficult transla-
tions they have at their disposal a
number of selected dictionaries, ency-
clopedias, scientific guides and other
material, with the Real Academia Espa-
nola dictionary heading their list of
references.
Among the references, the Medical
Dictionary in Spanish is one of their
prized possessions as this book is vir-
tually unobtainable. Their copy was
ordered from Argentina. And, since
legal terminology follows close behind
in difficulty insofar as interpretation
goes, the office has copies of Ballan-
tine's and Black's Law Dictionaries
which enable the translators to arrive
at accurate usage of legal words
and phrases.
As the requests for information range
from the most complicated to the most
outlandish, the translators make it a
point to have on hand material ranging
from the Catholic Version of the Holy
Bible, the King James Version, Dictio-
nary of Thoughts and Refranero Espa-
fiol, to books on Panamefiismos (slang),
etiquette, grammar, lexicons, a book on
the proper syllabication for poetry and
verse, a thesaurus, synonyms and anto-
nyms, a secretary's handbook, and of
course, the various technical diction-
aries in several languages of nautical,
mechanical, chemistry, engineering, and
business terms.
In the course of an 8-hour day, the
translators may use technical terms and
specialized language of doctors, law-
vers, seamen, mechanics, chemists, car-
penters, or firemen and collectively
average approximately 325 pages of
written translations a month.-F.P.H.







ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


MARINE BUREAU
Cyril Fairclough
Leader Wire Cable Worker
Lincoln B. Boyce
Marine Traffic Clerk
Henry Clayton
Painter
Frank A. Brown
Seaman
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Edgar W. Best
Time and Leave Clerk
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Solomon H. DaCsta
Warehouse n
Charles L. et
Main
Edwin N.
Lab n
Adolfo Bedo
Garbage
Randolph J. ryant
Chief Foreman (Harbor)
Harold E. Graham
Spectacle Lens Surfacer (Limited)
Clifton H. L6pez
Teller
Wilfred V. Bartley
Clerk
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Kenneth George
Painter
Juan B. Martinez
Time and Leave Clerk
Oscar A. Sealey
Surveying Aid


PERSONNEL BUREAU
Thomas L. Edghill
Staffing Clerk
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
Bertram L. McLean
Leader Cylinder Pressman (Large)
Ruby A. Wynter
Bindery Worker
Frank Thompson
Messenger
George I. Griffith
Mail Clerk
MARINE BUREAU
David S. Taylor
Deckhand Trainer
Jos6 D. Waitoto
Painter (Maintenance)
Evaristo Melendez
Painter (Maintenance)
Ardenon C. Franklin
Painter (Maintenance)
Joseph D. Powlett
Maintenanceman
Robert W. King
General Foreman (Lock Operations)


Woodrow W. Rowland
Lead Foreman (Locks Operations)
E. S. Reynolds, Jr.
Leader Lock Operator (Machinist)
Silvestre SAnchez B.
Lead Foreman (Operations-Lock Vall)
Victor Hardy
Crane Hookman (Heavy)
Noel S. Daly
Seaman (Launch)
Hernandez B. Corpus
Seaman (Launch)
Fitzhubert Rose
Leader Linehandler
(Deckhand Boatswain)
Arthur M. Hiland
Towing Locomotive Operator Locks)
Lino Herrera
Linehandler
Wilfred A. Campbell
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Lionel E. Mortimer
Leader Linehandler
(Deckhand Boatswain)
Andrew J. Gagliano
Chief Engineer, Towboat
Angel Pelicot
Boatman (Locks)
Fermin Alegria
Motor Launch Operator
Victorino Garcia
Helper Lock Operator
Lino Coco
Helper Lock Operator
Robert T. Tweedy
Lock Operator (Operating Engi r-
Hoisting Equipment)
Florentino Pedroza
Oiler
Woodrow Spradlin
Marine Traffic Controller
Edward N. Belland
Supervisory Admeasurer
Sergio I. Pefialoza
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Wilfred A. Anderson
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Cecil Redman
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Ezra Cohen S.
Linehandler (Deckhand)
William E. Grant
Leader Linehandler
(Deckhand Boatswain)
Levi A. Lewis
Leader Linehandler
(Deckhand Boatswain)
George Daley
Leader Seaman
Joseph Carew
Seaman
Ernest H. Webster
Motor Launch Operator
Charles E. Fowler
Towing Locomotive Operator (Locks)
G. de la Torre
Helper Lock Operator
Nicomedes Murillo
Helper Lock Operator
TomAs Correa
Oiler


Reginald Foulen
Boilermaker (Maintenance)
Joseph Wallace
Machine Operator
William W. Fitzsimmons
Leader Machinist (Marine)
Joseph M. Hunt
Supervisory Marine Traffic Controller
George L. Holder
Clerk Typist
Cleveland A. King
File Clerk
George S. Ricketts
Clerk
Alvin Hall
Clerk
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Leopold Lester
Supervisory Cargo Checker
Pascual A. Medrano
Winchman
Cayetano Carrasco
Laborer (Heavy)
Arthur N. Smith
Chauffeur
Jorge L. Espinosa
Truckdriver
Cephas Daniels
s Driver
A .zelie
I Hevy)
FI mjn' Ca eron
choolb er
.ne T mas




S rudrer
Garfield Brown
Leader High Lift Truck Operator
David M. Wallen
Leader Liquid Fuels Wharfman
Abraham H. Ambulo
Helper Welder
Adolphus L. Jordan
Stevedore
James S. Lewis
Cargo Checker
Marton C. Davis
Guard
Roy R. Wilferd
Road Conductor
Henry G. Ledgerwood
Materials Handling Equipment
Repairman
Charles Simon
Freight Rate Assistant
Ignacio Rodriguez
Clerk (Checker)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Narciso OlAvvar
File Clerk
Lorenza Newton B.
Accounting Clerk
Ruth Rennie
Teller


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Carmen L. Hassocks
Time and Leave Clerk
Kerner E. Frauenheim
Assistant Guesthouse Manager
Bart J. Elich
Merchandise Management Officer
(General)
Robert L. Austin
Supervisory Procurement Agent
Dorothy A. Bellamy
Sales Store Clerk
Mabel G. Farley
Sales Store Checker
Maria Mh. Headley
Sales Store Checker
Jeanne Modestin
Supervisory Sales Store Clerk
Miriam A. Riney
Marker and Sorter
Lawrence R. Baptiste
Leader Meat Cutter
Gwendolyn Goring
Pantrywoman
Icibel H. Forbes
Counterwoman
C. S. Cadienhead
Food Service Worker
Alfredo Castillo
Meat Cutter
Gladston N. Lewis
Leader Marker and Sorter
Edith A. Thorne
Stockman
Pedro L. Lara
Garbage Collector
Ivan K. Wade
Laborer (Cleaner)
Canute A. Rodney
Laborer (Cleaner)
Marcelino Maclao
Laborer
Edna 1. Flemmings
Sales Store Checker
Mary K. Ferguson
Sales Store Clerk
Harold D. Spencer
Inventory Management Specialist
Ida E. Lynch
Supply Clerk
Louise A. Johnson
Supply Clerk
Edward B. Webster
Housing Project Manager
Marie L. Beresford
Service Center Supervisor
Carlos A. Smith
Supervisory Clerk-Typist
Avis B. Ramirez
Clerk
T. E. Russell
Food Service Worker
Cecilia W. Brathwaite
Food Service Worker
Gertrude E. Cardona
Meat Cutter
Fitz H. Taite
Leader Cook
A. B. Castillero
Leader Baker
Maria C. Iturrado
Marker and Sorter
Iris E. King
Marker and Sorter
St. Marie L. LaFleur
Warehouseman


Modesto Diaz
Scrap Materials Sorter
Huxley Drakes
Laborer (Cleaner)
Ezequiel Fernndez
Gardener
Victor Morris
Laborer (Heavy)
Levi Smith
Laborer (Heavy)
Viola C. Lewis
Supervisory Sales Store Clerk
Iris M. Simmons
Sales Store Clerk
Joseph H. White
Supply Management Officer
Gladis H. Thorpe
Teller
Myrtle S. Anglin
Clerk
Bervl G. George
Clerk
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
John A. Buckley
Guard
Ambrose V. Foote
Helper Electrician
Sergio Salazar
Helper Plumber
Ralph C. Thornme
Carpenter
r c W'WAN&el Lan s


S r .Senn n



Able Seaman
Walter M. Trasavage
Shift Engineer (Mechanical)
Rogelio A. Pacheco
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Antonio A. Aguirre A.
Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom)
Theophilus L. Bowen
Leader Seaman
Jos6 L. Cedeiio
Seaman
Louis Bryan
Laborer (Cleaner)
Delmas A. Swafford
General Foreman (Cablesplicing and
Electrical Distribution)
Lascelle F. Williams
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Camilo Rodriguez B.
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Catalino L6pez
Electrician (Lineman)
Braulio Perez
Electrician (Lineman)
Reginald A. Muir
Electrician (Lineman)
Lloyd K. Wheatley
Helper Central Office Repairman
Enrique Cruz
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Ruben D. Gibson
Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom)


George H. McFarlane
Motor Launch Operator
Victor De Le6n
Leader Rock Crushing Plant Operator
Felipe Ortiz
Blaster
Harold A. Walker
Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Plant Operator
V. de la Cruz C.
Oiler
Howard T. Tettenburn
Pipefitter
Benito Sanchez C.
Winchman
Zacarias Salazar
Laborer (Heavy)
Charles W. McClean
Laborer
Arcadio Diaz
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Bertram G. Coley
Helper Electrician
Cuthbert L. Wharton
Helper Electrician
Russell T. Wise
Supervisory Safety Inspector
Rubelio D. Quintero
Supervisory Electrical Engineer
(General)
Emiliano Mufioz P.
Surveying Aid
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Albert E. Goguen
Police Private
Reinaldo Archbold
Clerk
Dorcas W. Gregory
Teacher (Elementary U.S. Schools)
Percival B. Scott
Firefighter
Robert J. Balcer
Assistant Foreman, Mailing Division
Richard J. Tomford
Police Private
Frederick A. Mohl
Fire Lieutenant
HEALTH BUREAU
Elvina W. Lansiquot
Clerk-Dictating Machine Transcriber
Frank R. West
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery)
Rhoda J. de Tully
Nursing Assistant
William H. Myrie
Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry)
Anita Guy
Medical Aid (Sterile Supplies)
Viola Blaizes
Pantrywoman
Wilhelmina G. Brown
Formula Room Attendant
Isabella L. Wright
Pantry Worker (Special Diets)
Emanuel Blaisdell
Food Service Worker (Heavy)
Joseph N. Reid
Leader Cook
Mildred Kopf
Supervisory Physical Therapist
Matthew M. Walcott
Hospital Food Service Worker
Adolphus Phillips
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery)

30 NOVEMBER 1970








HISTORIC MOMENTS

50 Years Ago
Cni JOHN .1 PE IRSHI\C. ienr.-rl ,_,f i ,. 2

ir.i....- it Cr(: ',,Lcd n-l die Arnm t[:,ni ,' "" ': -t- T
I1' u m W -I '\\',i 1.
. n, It,. ,d :Cmr d ir, Im ii r M ,.i nn I Hi, 2.
l ,t td-, tA '. It| I l-S I. ,.o l-,r ,-i .,[il I
i p,.-t it ,- nr lit.i. l Str ,i hl m ,ri t, but
h, i, ,rn,.c d t,, fill ,full ,:.,:,l s hJl, ; R ii"
H, tr:,. ],.-, ,r,n td e C:,n:,l fr,:,,, CG atur, '. ',1



L,_-,,. Pe.id ,, M.,,.,L .i Hittrn d r-. .y *.-'1
r'.ep ,:, b' i ,, t.i:,- :r, C.' en,-"'iI "'Y I
,,f th : A.r ,,r, :,I |sd,n,us,- ,,l,.are ,, ail. ,.I,,
,t,.- ,.,hilddrcr ,:, A n,.,:, :,ri,,] B :,lb, :..o : -
,.',_-,,_"l. rr. ..-.. _I i,,rle ,:._ the An. ^ 1 .
r,.,.-,,t .\ r.-o.L Or.lcr. ,,l,| ._-.' th.- M ,t,.. W_ J ^ ^ l,




r,,tr P:,r,:,rn:, City k i !ll ".


lin i dgr'din hi:4ie dh r c-ii-Thin~d S in ig

NIba A ther \\'inirn:in r.' l




lin. 4. 1 11 Lcricd rl. Eh il.n. l Ht
liie ..~.!~;n lt~ir\ .llj~. r .. iii tie C(rinii






ELINIIATrION OF THE m 25 rltrint
li i,.re rit I-n-,, n tie t i pc.riit. 4 r
.1 nt. r i i i r in I u unte .t ikn
dnh.b Id nu \ id\0 fiirw In rhe-h

NIr n G~*en 4 W i ci~in C Gc.ile.4 dt id






h'J. 4?ni.I P i.4 1 r ll lninc .ini] i. En ii, H



A anniversaries


l t' D Erl-tki
Ed iit n ti .i .11ii I t.


Central Avenue at J Street in Panama City is crowded with revelers during carnival in 1920.


Sales of sugar in the Canal Zone
commissaries were restricted to 1 pound
per person because of a sugar shortage
in Panama. Canal Zone residents, mean-
while, crowded the sales store to buy
fresh fruit and vegetables, the first to
arrive from the United States in several
months. It was announced that the
shortages of meat and other foods would
ease soon.

10 Years Ago
THE FIRST GENERAL revision since
1954 of the regulations governing the
assignment, occupancy, and rental of
employees' living quarters was approved
by the Governor of the Canal Zone in
May 1960. Housing regulations stated
for the first time that residence in the
Canal Zone was not mandatory for em-
ployees of the Canal organization except
for those who had been specifically di-
rected by the Governor to live within
the Zone.

Governor W. E. Potter left the Canal
Zone in May 1960 and was succeeded
b\ Governor William Arnold Carter,
who arrived in July. Governor Carter,
departing from past procedure, took the
oath of office as governor of the Canal
Zone in a simple ceremony administered
by U.S. District Judge Guthrie F. Crowe
at Balboa Heights.
0 0 *
One of the final phases in the instal-
lation of the Canal Zone modern micro-


wave communications system was being
completed in July I960, with the con-
struction of a 10-foot dish antenna on
top of the Balboa Heights Administra-
tion Building. Similar dish reflectors
were installed on top of the communi-
cations buildings at Gatun and Cristobal.

Two white gloved Canal Zone police-
men hoisted the flags of the United
States and Panama side by side in the
Zone on September 21, 1960, imple-
menting a decision announced by the
then President Dwight D. Eisenhower
at the White House 4 days earlier. The
flags were raised on twin, 40-foot flag-
poles at a special plaza in Shaler Tri-
angle near the Tivoli Guest House.

One Year Ago
THE SS CRISTOBAL went aground on
the banks of the Mississippi River last
August as a result of hurricane Camille
which struck New Orleans. The ship
returned to the Louisiana port and
remained there until repairs could
be made. None of the passengers was
injured.

The last blast of the Panama Canal
Gaillard Cut widening project was fired
on November 20, 1969, marking the end
of the Oman Construction Co. contract
for widening the 3-mile Bas Obispo-Las
Cascadas Reaches from 300 to 500 feet.


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES nl

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrenov1970pana

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W. p. Leber Governor-President R. S. Harlline Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer Publications Editors Louis R. Granger, Tomas A. Cupas Writers Eunice Ricfiard, Fannie P. Hernandez, Jose T. Tuiion, Willie K. Friar, and Luis C. Noli Review articles may be reprinted without Furltter clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. Subscriptions: $1 a year, airmail S2 a year; back copies (.regular mail), 25 cents each. Published quarterly. Make posfol money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. "Printed ol the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Contents University of Panama 3 The Republic's main intellectual pillar prepares for the future. Cement Yacht 7 Curing, in a shed at Diablo is a 50-foot ketch made of chicken icire, steel rods and cement. Shipping Statistics 9 Demise of the White Suit 12 Once a part of the Isthmian landscape, the white suit has gone the icay of the dodo bird. Or has it? Contadora Island 16 This once sleepij jewel in Panama Bay may soon be on every island hopping tourist's itinerary. Maritime Sketchpad 20 John Morton gives an artist's-eye view of Panama Canal scenes. The Montuno Hat 22 In the dawn's early light the deft fingers of mountain women create real Panama hats. Culinary Capers 24 Exploring the adventures of Italian cuisine aboard the MV Donizetti. Language Bank 27 The Translating Unit takes care of the many language requirements of the Canal. Anniversaries 29 History 31 3 Mk... ^ Our Covers RISING MAJESTICALLY near the L'niversit\' of Panama's Library and Administration Building, the statue of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, the master of Spanish Hterature, appears to be the illuminating spirit guiding the future of Panama's leading educational institution. It tv-pifies the theme of the school, "toward the light". A portion of the inscription at the base of the monument is translated: To Miguel de Cervantes Saacedra Beacon for all people united bij the Eternal boml of the Ca-stilian language Homage from Panama to the author of Don Quixote de la Mancha. . The statue was sculptured in Spain by Julio Gonzalez Pola and paid for by a public subscription mostly from Panamanian students. It was dedicated in January 1923 and was first located at Plaza Porras, formerly named Plaza Cervantes, in front of the Spanish Embassy. In October 1947 it was moved to its present site as the cornerstone for the new university. On the left are Don Quixote on his horse Rocinante, and Sancho Panza, the leading figures in Cervantes' most popular literary accomphshment. The back cover shows night classes in progress at the busy law building which was dedicated last month. The structure is considered by many Isthmian residents as one of the most attractive modern buildings in Panama. The architect, Jose C. Villamil of Panama City, says the architecture was influenced by the renaissance style while the tall arched columns are of the Byzantine period. Both photographs were taken by Kevin J. Jenkins, a photographer with the Panama Canal Graphic Branch of the Administrative Services Division. 2 November 1970

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lllllillllll t|||;| iiiiilKllllUJI X-i tf mm -1 -rVT -^ ^ By Luis C. Noli AS A MICROCOSM of the nation it serves, the University of Panama is throbbing with the pains of grovNth. But the campus atmosphere now is one of order!)urgency instead of turmoil. The urgency is more than justified. Within a decade the university must be ready to accommodate an estimated 25,000 students— more than 4 times its present enrollment— if it is to fulfill its part in full as the main forge for development of the nation's human resources. Its awareness of that mission is expressed in a recent official document outlining the university's plans for the future: "Panama is aware that the greatest scarcity in the process of growth lies in the skilled human resources needed to analyze problems, to generate ideas toward creative solutions and to implement efficienth' the programs drawn up. "The Universitv of Panama is undergoing an intensive overall revision to adapt it to the new requirements and to correct the s\'stems which have been the source of the friction that has prevented maximizing its academic output and, hence, its contribution to the development and the growth of the nation. At the present time, the University of Panama is fullv capable of implementing a program of institutional improvement as proposed and to increase the production of the highly skilled professionals that our times demand." Campus Closed The "intensive overall revision" began in December 1968 when the campus was closed b\the Provisional Government Junta. In an official communique, the Junta said its action was taken because of ". . a constant succession of strikes over the most trifling reasons; an abundance of political meetings which result in the frequent suspension of classes; the existence of antagonistic student groups which maintain a permanent climate of disturbance; the use of the walls of costlv buOdings for rude insults and disrespect to authorities; ihe lack of a true cultural concern; gross and aggressively disorderly acts devoid of academic loftiness; the pressures exerted by students upon facult\' members through a campaign of affronts, threats and accusations; the large number of 'professional students' who for \'ears have moved from one department to another without deciding to take up a career seriously. . ." A board of regents named bv the Junta prepared a new set of campus rules— many of them based on student and faculty recommendations of long standing. Among them: the fencing in of the entire campus and the creation cf a 60-man security corps charged with protecting university property, looking after order and providing transport, traffic, and guidance services to students and visitors. Campus Regulation The universit\' reopened July 14, 1969. The radical change in the atmosphere was reflected immediately in the enrollment. From approximately 11,000 students in attendance prior to the closing, enrollment dropped to half that figure. The main reason: Enforcement of a campus regulation barring students with an academic index below 1.00 (C average). Besides fostering a climate of dedication to study, the new regulations also did avvav with a large measure of the control that students had exercised over campus affairs. Students, however, continue to participate in the Advisor}-. Academic and University Councils and on the Faculty Boards. The universit\' reopened under a The Panama Canal Review

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Rector Edwin Fabrega of the University of Panama. new team of administrators— Architect Edwin Fabrega (Master of City Planning, University of California), Rector; Dr. Jeronimo O. Averza (Doctor of Industiial Pharmacy, Central Universit^• of Madrid), Academic Vice Rector; Ramon I. Ramirez, Jr. (Business Administration, Canal Zone College), Administrative \'ice Rector; Mrs. Clara Cecilia Navarro Riba (Master of Social Service, Howard University), Director of Student Affairs. Nine Faculties Since its reopening 16 months ago, the university has graduated 781 students. Its nine faculties are: Public Administration and Commerce, Agronomy, Architecture, Natural Sciences and Pharmacy, Odontolog)', Philosophy, Letters and Education, Engineering, Medicine, and Law. Speaking at the first commencement exercise held since the reopening of the campus, Rector Fabrega said: "We have completed 1 year of work. One vear replete with problems and satisfactions. In the course of it, the efforts, the aspirations, the failures, and the successes of the university family have been seen and lived in the light of the national expectation over the fate of the country's biggest hope: the Universit\' of Panama. Six months to get it going and six months to undertake the fundamental reforms which will assure better times for students and for the country. Already what this house of learning will be in the future is taking shape in giant strides in the light of the The University of Panama Chorus, composed of 75 students, performs under the direction of Prof. Luis \'ergara. The repertory consists of classical and popular music including works by Panamanian composers. November 1970

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"^: 7^ \J 'M /^^ Cultural activities at the university include interesting and varied programs presented by the Department of the Performing Arts directed by Profesora Aurea Torrijos de Horta. Above: a scene from "Tartufo" by Moliere, is presented in the university's Mini-Theater which has a capacity of 65 persons. Director of the Drama Department is Prof. Roberto McKay. At right: Students perform in the ballet "West" in the Central Auditorium under the direction of Armando Villamil. The University Ballet has a repertory of 25 ballets. '' ^ U l^\ 1 7 ^1 The Panama Canal Review

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role it must fulfill as a higher center of learning and formation of the citizens to whom we are to hand dov\'n a more experienced and more mature nation. . ." What is this shape of the future? Planning For 1980 The universitv has just announced a $13 million program of expansion and improvements geared to the year 1980. It has applied to the Inter-American Development Bank for a $7.6 million loan for the program, the balance to be provided b\' the Panama Government. "In coordination with the Presidential Office of Planning and Administration," the loan application document sets forth, "There has been structured an Investment Program for the Universitv of Panama to be carried out during the next 5 vears (1970-7.5). This program . includes the improvement of the academic and administrative svstems, the formation and perfecting of faculty and research personnel, equipment, and educational construction. "This project is all the more important because the United Nations has issued a resolution proclaiming the 70's as the decade of education. If this project is approved, the University of Panama will be able to carrv forward dynamically its institutional improvement so that it will be prepared and equipped to meet the demand for its services in the next 10 vears." The program is based on a detailed studv bv the universitv's Planning Department that encompasses all aspects of the universitv's expected growth. Some of the predictions: Demand For Graduates — Between 1971 and 1980, there will be a demand in the countrv for approximately 22,000 universitv-trained professionals such as architects and engineers, chemists and pharmacists, agronomists and veterinarians, phvsicians and dentists, nurses, teachers, managers and administrators, auditors and accountants, and executive secretaries. — The University of Panama will graduate about 14,000 of the professionals needed in the next decade; with graduates of the privatelv endowed University of Santa Maria La Antigua (the onlv other universitv in the country) and of foreign universities, the number will increase to 17,000— The present 80-acre main campus —University Citv— in El Cangrejo section of Panama Citv is expected to suffice until 1980. Bevond that vear, the 1,555-acre campus at Tocumen, near the International Airport, where onh' an Agricultural Research Center is in operation now, will have to be developed to handle future enrollment. — By 1980, the university will have a student population of 23,280 at its main campus and at the Tocumen site and an additional 2,400 at regional universitv centers in David, Chiriqui Province, and Santiago, Veraguas Province. Requirements — The expected increase in enrollment will require a faculty of 1,438 members and 1,007 administrative personnel (as compared with 581 and 454 respectively, at present). The major projects in the expansion program include: — Improvement of the academic and administrative svstems through a revision bv consultants, at a cost of $250,000. — Scholarships for post-graduate training of facultv members and researchers, $850,000. — Acquisition of scientific laboratorv equipment and bibliographic material, $1.2 million. — New buildings and facilities for the facultv of Agronomv (at the Tocumen site), the faculties of Engineering and of Natural Sciences and Pharmacy, Architecture, Public Administration and Commerce, a new Central Library, a Student Center, and a Cultural and Audiovisual Center, $8.5 million. — Improvement of grounds and utilities at both the Universitv City and the Tocumen site, $1.8 million. The figures on the present size of the Universitv of Panama provide a dramatic commentary on its gro\vth K^^istess; Dr. Arturo Morgan Morales, secretary general of the University of Panama, left, and Rector Fabrega discuss university affairs outside the Library and Administration Building. during the 35 years since it was founded during the presidential administration of the late Dr. Harmodio Arias. For the first 15 years, the university had no campus of its own— it operated in the National Institute buildings. When it moved to its present campus in 1950, it had four buildings and an enrollment of exactly 1,688 students. Today, 15 buildings stand on the campus and total enrollment reached a peak of 11,000 in the 1968-69 academic vear. Since 1935, it has graduated 6,677 professionals. In the words of Rector Fabrega, the Universitv of Panama remains the nation's "main moral and intellectual pillar." Students in the School of Medicine at the university listen attentively to a lecture. 6 November 1970

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To Sea CBment Hnd Chicken Wire "There is nothing— absolutely nothing— half so much worth doing as simply messing about in boats. ... In or out of em, it doesn't matter." Kenneth Grahame "The Wind in the Willows" Clyde Jennings and his son Dale, upper right photo, work on the cockpit of the 50-foot cement boat in a shed near the Diablo Spinning Club. Above, Jennings gives special attention to the cement work near the rudder. He is framed in the area where the propeller will be located. By Eunice Richard MAN HAS sailed the seven seas in everything from reed boats and balsa rafts to huge steel-hulled tankers. But tell a novice in the boating world that you have a cement boat and he might say \ou're the t\ pe to buv the Brooklvn Bridge. Or at least he would refuse a ride in a cement craft "certain" to head like a cement block to Davev Jones' Locker. Curing in a shed near the Diablo Spinning Club, however, is the hull of a .50-foot ketch constructed with a combination of chicken wire, reinforcing rods and— cement. Clyde Jennings, a machinist emploved in the Panama Canal Locks Division, is building— with lots of help from his family and friends— a two-masted, cement-hulled ketch that he expects to carry him and his wife to those farawav places evervone wants to visit. The method he is using is not new but has caught on onlv recently in the United States after being used successfully in most of Europe, including Russia, and as far away as Australia and New Zealand. New Zealand In fact, the boat being built bv Jennings and familv was designed especially for him by a New Zealand naval architect. While at present the ketch resembles a large boat with a cement overcoat, looks are deceiving. The hull, composed of tight lavers of chicken wire through which the wet cement was squeezed, is flexible and well built. The method produced a thin shell-like skin which will become stronger as the ketch takes to the water. Cement keeps curing in water, Jennings pointed out. And used in this manner on this size boat, it is lighter than either steel or wood. The cement job was done in one dav by a group of 13 Panamanians who worked without stopping for 8 hours until the job was completed. The men labored side b\side with Jennings and his friends and relatives. The No. 2 cement for the hull was furnished free of charge bv Cemento Panama. S.A. which shut down its normal cement manufacturing operation during the time it took to produce the special fine grade cement. The sand used to mix with the cement was No. 4 blast, so fine it's almost a powder. Skeleton Work on the hull of the ketch began about 3 vears ago and it took Jennings and his family most of that time lacing together 1% tons of reinforcing rod and IVi miles of 3-footwide chicken wire which forms the skeleton of the boat. Dozens of visitors, ranging from diplomats to sailors who just didn't believe in a cement boat, have come bv to inspect the work being done bv Jennings and his familv. There have been so manv, in fact, that the guest book set up 2 years ago is almost full. While the hull is curing, Jennings and his wife work on the interior of the the ketch which will have room to sleep nine persons, have wall-to-wall carpeting, air conditioning and other comforts. In deference to Mrs. Jenning's preference for hot baths, her husband has converted the gunwale The Panama Canal Review

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Expert Panamanian plastermen work with ballet precision applying cement to the hull of the ketch. pipe into a storage tank that will produce hot water through solar energy. The Jennings' family predict that the boat will be launched, from in front of the shed where it is being built, in about 2 months. It will then be taken to the Pedro Miguel Boat Club where work will continue on fitting out the interior r H The most tedious and painstaking part of the job is tying the thousands of wires into the mesh base. and installing a 43-horsepower engine. The cement boat idea has been kicked around for a long time— ever since the 1840's. One skiff, built in Holland in 1887, still is afloat and seaworthv. Big ships were built of concrete during both world wars but thev were clumsy and not very successful. The method being used by Jennings and which is popular in Europe was devised bv Pier Luigi Nervi, an Italian architect who began experimenting in the 1940's on sandwiching multiple layers of fine steel mesh compressed into a mat in a thin shell of dense waterproof cement. He built some boats to prove it could be done. The new material is unlike traditional reinforced concrete, because it is flexible, incrediblv strong and comes in a thin sheet that can be formed into complex curves. Nervi called the process ferrocemento. Nervi said, "The material created did not behave like regular concrete but presented all the mechanical characteristics of a homogenous material. Experiments proved it would withstand great strains without formation of cracks in the cement mortar as a result of subdivision of the reinforcement." Nervi went on to make impact tests which showed that the cement hull was not onlv tough and durable, but lighter than a wooden hull of the same size, and cost approximately 40 percent less. Manv refinements have been made in the ferrocement boat construction, but Nervi had kindled the flame and the cement boat was on its way. ^ The family dog appears worried over the prospects of sailing around in a cement boat as Dale and Mr. and Mrs. Jennings look over the plans. Boatbuilder Jennings, in the background on the ladder, works with his friends and Panamanian plastermen on the day the cement was spread over the hull. It took approximately .3 years of lacing together reinforcing rod and chicken wire to get to this part of the job which took a mere 8 hours with the help of 13 workmen. 8 November 1970

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

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Statendam of the Holland America Line. All three passed southbound through the Canal. The first two were on South American cruises and the Statendam was on her way to the U.S. West Coast and the Pacific. The Italian Line Galileo Galilei also went through the Canal in October on her way around the world, followed bv the Marconi of the same line making a similar cruise. The 15-day pre-Christmas shopping cruises offered by Princess Cruises from the West Coast will be made by the Princess Carla late in November and early in December. It will include visits to Mexico and South and Central America before going through the Canal to Florida. Her return trip to Los Angeles will take her into Mazatlan in Mexico. In December Other ships due in Canal waters during December are the Meteor, enroute from Acapulco, Mexico to Cartagena, Colombia, the Bergensfjord returning from South America, and the Sagafjord and Federico C on Caribbean Cruises stopping at Cristobal. The German Atlantic liner Hanseatic visits Cristobal on a West Indies cruise 2 da\s before Christmas. The Sagafjord and the Gripsholm are scheduled to transit the Canal in Januar\', the former enroute to Los Angeles and the latter to South America. Also during January the Hanseatic, Kungsholm. Oceanic, and Federico C are on Caribbean cruises stopping at Cristobal. The Paquet Lines flagship Renaissance will make a 44-day cruise around South America from Port Everglades and is scheduled to transit the Canal for the first time January 19. This will be the first time that the 4-year-old luxurv liner has ever been slated for a long cruise. The French Line will handle it. The France, the world's largest ocean liner, will make a cruise to the West Indies and South America but will not visit Cristobal this year. Cruise liners in February are the German Atlantic Line Hamburg on two Caribbean cruises, the Stello Oceanis on her third cruise to the West Indies, which stops at the San Bias Islands; the Bergensfjord, Federico C, the Oceanic, and the Empress of Canada. Cruise Customers P & O line ships which use the Canal frequently are listed among the cruise customers this winter with the Oriana scheduled for a 2-week cruise in December from San Francisco to Puerto Vallarta, Acapulco and Panama. Two PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (AU cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic Commodity Ores, various Sugar Iron and steel plates, sheets and coils Boards and planks Petroleum and products Fishmeal Metals, various Food in refrigeration ( excluding bananas) Pulpwood Petroleum coke Bananas Plywood and veneers Iron and steel manufactures, miscellaneous Canned food products Iron and steel wire, bars and rods. All others Total 10,488,332 First Quarter, Fiscal Year 1971 .,756,893 .,037,297 882,534 805,124 451,421 415,693 414,207 284,373 264,291 256,134 244,898 235,875 231,601 169,504 167,819 1,870,668 1970 1,214,546 735,529 689,053 748,327 534,979 288,192 369,575 291,200 278,237 242,136 303,068 260,527 371,343 170,259 174,657 3,053,499 9,725,127 5-Yr. Avg. 1961-65 282,514 693,908 N.A. N.A. 490,599 N.A. 274,741 196,404 130,271 N.A. 274,753 N.A. N.A. 253,387 N.A. 4,746,854 7,343,431 Atlantic to Pacific Commodity Coal and coke Petroleum and products Corn Metal, scrap Soybeans Phosphates Sorghum Sugar Ores, various Wheat FertUizers, unclassified Chemicals, unclassified Paper and paper products Iron and steel manufactures, miscellaneous. Autos, trucks, accessories, and parts All others Total 20,339,847 First Quarter, Fiscal Year 1971 6,196,084 3,278,060 1,403,203 1,071,096 980,282 935,160 799,917 735,502 701,474 315,007 268,579 260,488 237,077 170,612 145,675 2,841,631 1970 4,837,780 3,826,069 1,199,726 932,041 548,990 963,716 653,914 506,271 517,309 122,496 163,660 227,763 225,808 128,736 155,868 3,092,139 18,102,286 5-Yr. Avg. 1961-65 1,521,383 2,848,139 299,197 812,008 279,937 497,992 N.A. 367,986 70,671 179,668 103,381 161,332 108,532 N.A. 72,861 2,103,541 9,426,628 CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

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3-\veek cruises follow, adding four Caribbean ports to the other three stops in January and Februar\'. Also offered by P & O between now and the fall of 1971 are several roundthe-world ciTjises, four Pacific cruises and a number to the Caribbean through the Panama Canal. Matson Lines will enter the Mediterranean for the first time next spring when the luxur)' ship SS Monterey embarks on a 56-day voyage from the U.S. West Coast. The 20,000-ton liner will sail April 16 from San Francisco on a cruise from the Pacific through the Panama Canal to the Aegean, the Caribbean, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and back. Popular passenger ships running through the Canal all year on a regular basis are the Shaw Savil liners operating between the United Kingdom and Australia and the Prudential Grace ships from New York to the West Coast of South America and the ever popular Italian Line vessels that travel between Genoa in Italv to Valparaiso in Chile, passing through the Canal at least once a month. Another round-the-world service to become popular in recent years is operated by the Chandres Lines that purchased the SS President Roosevelt and the Matson Navigation Co. vessel Ltirlinc. A. J. Chandres announced that the Lurline would be renamed the Britank and will operate on the round-theworld service via Australia and New Zealand joining the Australia and EUini'; which come through the Canal regularK. Chandres said that the Lurline would be taken to Greece to be completelv reno\ated before being retimied to service. The Lurline is the fourth ship in the Matson Line fleet to bear that name. It will be given to another ship of the Matson line after she is sold.— E.R. New Container Service TWO European ship operators whose ships now use the Panama Canal on a regular basis have started a new joint service between the North American west coast and Europe. The service is to become an all-containership operation within a vear. The companies involved are the London-based Blue Star Line Ltd.. represented at the Panama Canal by Payne and Wardlaw. and the East Asiatic Co. Ltd.. of Copenhagen, whose agent at the Canal is C. B. Fenton & Co. The new joint operation, to be known as Scanstar, involves six vessels each from the hvo companies. The conventional cargo liners are to be replaced beginning next June with four big cellular containerships now under construction. The four new ships ordered to replace the conventional tonnage now in operation will be 22-knot ships, each with a capacity of 900, 20-foot boxes. Nakskov Skibsvaert of Denmark is building two of the vessels and Bremer Vulkan yard in West Germany is building the other tw o. They are to be delivered next June. Port of call for the initial operation will include Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, and Los Angeles on the west coast and Dublin. GlasPANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC STATISTICS FOR FIRST 3 MONTHS OF FISCAL YEAR 1971 TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels) 1971 1970 Commercial 3,458 3,4o6 U.S. Government 176 374 Free 27 26 TotaL 3,661 3,856 TOLLS • CommerciaL--$24,.326,.354 .$23,800,.368 U.S. Governments^ 1,105,.536 2,075,253 Total $2.5,431,890 $25,875,621 CARGO"" Commercial 30,830,27 1 27,828,948 U.S. Governments 847,480 1,400,274 Free 4.3,067 .34,753 go\\-, Liverpool, London, Rotterdam, Le Havre, Goteborg, and Copenhagen in Europe. The Blue Star presently operates a service between Australia through the Panama Canal and the United States east coast and is a member of the Associated Container Transport consortium which engages in containership operations between Australia and Europe. East Asiatic has long been a major earner in the West Coast-European trade. Announcement of the new operation is the latest development in a drastic shakeup of the traditional west coastEuropean cargo liner services, the Journal of Commerce said. Recently, Fred Olsen Interocean Line, a carrier on the route for .56 years, announced it would quit the route in October. Johnson Line, a Swedish company and a long-time general cargo operator on the route, is currently changing over its fleet to containerships and is placing six big, fast cellular vessels in the trade. The United States Lines also announced the beginning of a containership service from the east coast to the U.S. west coast and the Far East using eight containerships of the Lancer Class previously on the North Atlantic nm. This is a departure for the United States Line, which abandoned government .subsidies to be able to start the new service. TotaL 31,720,818 29,263,975 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and small. *" Cargo figures are in long tons. 1,300 U

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By Willie K. Friar THE IMMACULATE white suit, which was as much a part of the tropical landscape during the Construction Days of the Panama Canal as the pith helmet, the sIow-mo\ing ceiling fan, and wicker furniture, has gone the way of the dodo bird. The onl\' white outfits seen around the Canal Zone these davs are the modst\le bell-bottom tvpes being worn by a few of the younger men, but until early 1960, every well dressed man in the Canal Zone had at least one white suit in his closet ready for special occasions. For manv it was everyday wear. With the advent of air conditioning and the handsome tropical weight materials in all varieties of color, the venerable white suit disappeared from the Where Have All local scene. Tropical weight suits could not have been welcomed more any place than in the warm, humid climate of the Canal Zone. The new materials won immediate popularity with the sweltering men, but some turned out to be so thin that the men discovered, to their dismay, that when they wore light colored tropicals, the length of their underwear was becoming a topic of discussion. Sack Suits This was not a problem with the fabrics used in the early days of the Canal when duck, linen, and flour sacks were the main materials used. Flour sack suits generally were only for ever\'day wear and were not a laughing matter except occasionalK' when the sacks were not bleached well enough and the Gold Medal Flour label was legible. A retired emplo\ ee reported that a Governor of that period appeared at his office one morning with traces of the label clearh' visible across the seat of his trousers. The Gold Medal motto, which was printed on the sacks, was "Eventually, why not now." Many of the men had two or three of these flour sack suits for work and several who wore them described them as "practical and attractive." There were clothes trees and hangers in all the offices of the Administration Building and, usuall)' because of the heat, the men removed their coats and hung them up. With this careful treatment they could wear the coats several days without laundering, but since the trousers were washed more often, it was not uncommon to see a man wearing ver\' white bleached trousers and a jacket that appeared slightly "tattletale grey" in comparison. Stand Alone The flour sacking was very sturdy and stood up well under many bleachings. Laundresses applying for work were selected on the basis of how well they "could do a white suit." This meant much boiling, bleaching and starching. With all the emphasis on starch it was small wonder that men frequenth' found that their underwear and handkerchiefs had been starched also. Often the trousers were stiff enough to literally stand alone and some maintained that the\ acted as a sort of flue which allowed the air to circulate and produce a cooling eff^ect. Others of the Construction Day era reported that the suits were actually very hot, and prickly heat, especially around the neck, made them so miserable that the minute they got home, they ripped off the detachable starched collar followed immediately by the vest and coat. Strange as it seems, men of the era often wore vests even in the tropical heat. In the 1920's most of the flour sack suits were made in the mattress factory of the old Quartermaster Department near the Balboa Railroad Station. The factory made not only mattresses but all kinds of items. The tailors there apparently were wizards at turning flour sacks into, not onK' suits, but bunk bottoms, waiter's coats, butcher's aprons, pajamas for the patients at Ancon Hospital, golf knickers, covers for chairs, and even hats and caps. Just In Case The 100-pound sacks, which they used, arri\ed on the Isthmus filled with flour for the bakery. They were sold, after being washed and bleached by the Ancon Laundry, for 25 cents each and three sacks were usually enough for a white suit. The total cost of a tailored suit was around $12. Tailors were instructed to put the label side of the sack inside the garment just in case the bleaching had not been well done. Stvles in suits varied. There were double breasted and single breasted, both with wide lapels, and then there was the tvpe, worn by Col. George W. Goethals and a few others, which featured a high stiff collar of the mandarin or militar\uniform t\pe. Goethals' suits were of linen and reported to be made bv a tailor in the Construction Day town \ 12 November 1970

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The White Suits Qone ? of Culebra. He never wore his Army uniform, onl\ the \\hite suit, which was immaculate at all times. A number of men insisted that to stav spotless and unwTinkled in the tropical heat one had to change suits at least three times a dav. Government officials from the United States often brought along white suits for wear on the Isthmus. On his visit in 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt was photographed wearing a white suit as he took a train ride through the muddy construction area and climbed aboard a steam shovel. President William Howard Taft, also bowing to the local fashion, decided to forego wearing the frock coat for which he was so well kno\\n and appeared resplendent in a voluminous white suit. All In White Societ\ reports of the olden dav s told of dances at the Tivoli and Washington hotels uhere both men and women were dressed in white. One man. writing in 1922 said, "The Tivoli Club held" its regular dance last night. I hung around the sidelines a half hour or so, met a few people I knew and watched the performance. To me there is no dance so prettv as this, so clean and fresh-looking—an impression due I suppose to the white clothing worn by men and women." The white suit gradually replaced the striped trousers and the cutaway coat for the most formal occasions, and in 19.34 Gov. J. L. Schley in a memorandum on protocol reiterated that, "The white suit is the official full dress for the Canal Zone and has been so recognized in Panama for 20 vears or more and that, consequently when the officials of the Canal Zone attend formal functions in Panama for which full dress is prescribed, the proper dress for them to wear is the white suit." In 19.36, when Panama's President Elect Demostenes Arosemena, after a lengthv conference, okaved white linen suits with black ties as the "official dress for members of the National AssembK at the inauguration," one man was so grateful that he wrote a letter to the editor of a local newspaper. He said, "Dr. Arosemena, you have endeared \ourself to countless officials who had, I know, been dreading the dav when the\ should have been obliged to appear in morning coat, heavv striped trousers, shinv black shoes. Ascot tie. high collar, and top hat to stand for short space of time." Over the vears, the white suit b something of a status symbol. In offices on the Isthmus, "the boss" a white suit. One young man, seeking a job, noted this. \\'hen he was asked what he could do, file, t)'pe, or operate other office equipment, he smiled and said proudly, "I can do none of those things but I can wear a white suit." The suits were often referred to as "come-toJesus suits" because they were the standard costume for baptism at many of the local churches. In 1929, the first ready-made suits appeared in the Canal Zone commissaries At that time, one could buy a white duck suit for $8.9.5 or a linen one for .$12.95. .\ man could get a suit for A LOOK AT OLD PHOTOGRAPH ALBUMS shows the popularity of the white suit from Construction Days until 1960 when the fashion began to disappear from the tropical scene. At left from top to bottom: Ceremonial occasions usually meant the wearing of white suits as evidenced by the large number at the dedication of the plaque at the foot of the stairs at Gorgas Hospital. The suits came in a variety of stales including knickers worn here by Gov. NL L. Walker. The Duke and Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth and King George VI) visit the Lock Control House at Gatun Locks escorted by Governor Walker in white pith helmet. The pith helmet was often worn with white suits as well as with white uniforms by the military. Immaculately dressed in white, Gov. Harr\' Burgess goes on an inspection trip on a railroad motor car. At right, top to bottom: Pres. Theodore Roosevelt climbs aboard a steam shovel to view Canal work during Construction Days. White was as popular with the ladies as with the men and Col. and Mrs. D. D. Gaillard present a lovely scene as they have tea at their home in the old Construction Day town of Culebra. Another tranquil Canal Zone scene shows Col. and Mrs. J. F. Stevens out for a carriage ride. Gov. Jay Morrow, left, poses with AFL Pres. Samuel Gompers and party on the steps of the Administration Building during Gompers' \isit to the Isthmus. Gov. W. E. Potter and the former Gov. Glen E. Edgerton inspect work at bottom of Miraflores Locks during overhaul. Governor Potter was the last Canal Zone governor to wear the white suit regularly. The P.^.nama Canal Review 13

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FLOVR SACK SUITS just slightly more than what he had to pay for a bathing suit which cost him $5.35 for "a good quality wool" shoulder to knee style. He could finish out his outfit with a §2.7.5 white broadcloth shirt with or without collar; white cotton "drawers" and undershirt at 85 cents each; white leather belt for $1.20 or if he preferred, white suspenders for 75 cents; and fourin-hand tie from $1 to $2. Some wore black and some wore white shoes with this outfit, topping it off with a white pith helmet. Advertisement By 1933, ready-made suits were being produced in the Republic of Panama and the problem of shrinkage was being solved. One establishment published the following advertisement which bears the marks of a rather laborious tran.slation from the Spanish. "One of the guarantees of the work being done by our shop is that the clothings will not shrink. When the goods are received from the exterior to be manufactured into clothes they are put through a trying process which consists in leaving them 24 hours in a deposit of boiling water. "Afterwards the clothings are put in the washing machine; then are sent to the drying department and finally ironed and polished. "There are three large tables provided with electrical cutting machines. At once the clothings are measured and modeled according to size and styles. There are machines that cut .500 suits of three different sizes at one time. Afterwards the materials are carried to the confectioning shops where a swarm of workers are busy laboring. This new section is furnished with the most modern materials that can be found an\\vhere. Fierce Stitch "The highest efficiency is found in the machines designed to make special work. Machines to make buttonholes, machines to make hems, machines to make pants pockets, machines to sew on buttons, etc. Even a machine called Maquina de Puntada Fiera or the machine of a 'fierce' stitch which executes a \ery delicate stitch whose mark cannot be seen on the other side of the cloth." The factory reported that they were able to produce from 100 to 200 suits a day. By 1960, the white suit had almost disappeared from the local scene. Gov. William E. Potter was the last Canal Zone Go\ernor to wear the white suit legularly. They were phased out of the commissary in the earlv 1960's with the | leftovers going on sale for 82.95. < The tradition of the white suit in the tropics has ended. Perhaps the man responsible for it is the most influential of all fashion molders today— the scientist. Fashions are often the result of work in the laboratory where modern fabrics with special new qualities are developed. For many years, the search was on for a fabric to be worn in the tropics which would be cool, light\veight, not easy to wrinkle (as fabrics usuall\do in hot, humid weather) and which would hold The Old Days Now with the S)nthetic fabrics, the blends of acetates and cotton and cotton treated to be vvTinkle resistant, the problems have been sohed and the da\s of the boiling, bleaching, starching, and ironing are over. Still, hanging in many Canal Zone closets, among the flashv, brightlv colored new garments, one is apt to spot an old white suit, carefullv preserved just in case the style should make a comeback. So far, the only step in that direction has been a smattering of white suits with bell-bottom trousers, but who can say, with all the radical changes in men's fashions and the return of sideburns and st)les of by-gone days, the old white suit may try a comeback to the tropical scene. A 100-pound flour sack of the type used in making white suits in years gone by is displayed by Canal Zone College Queen Darlene Daly. The sack is a part of the Canal Zone Museum's collection of Construction Day memorabilia. A^HOTHER NEW MR. JONES? 14 November 1970

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Presidents Wore Them < < Pres. Theodore Roosevelt inspecting Canal work from train. Pres. Williatn Howard Taft with Col. George W. Goetluils. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt with Panama Pres. Hamiodio Arias. Pres. Nixon (while Vice President) with Mrs. Sixon. They Return? With one of the few ceiling fans remaining on the Isthmus turning slowly overhead, John Hibben, wearing white bellbottomed trousers and double-breasted jacket, looks over a picture of President Taft and Col. Goethals dressed in the style of Construction Days. John is a student at the Canal Zone College. At right: A well preserved white suit hangs in the closet among the vari-colored ones just in case the style should make a comeback to the Isthmian scene. The Panama Canal Review 15

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cA fewel cAntong. the ^^S^landd o/ Pearls yy 16 November 1970

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By Louis R. Granger BLUSTERED OFF the south coast of Panama he a group of more than 100 islands that during the next decade are expected to give a bit of competition to the sun and fun islands of the Caribbean. Well-known to the boating and fishing crowd of Panama and the Canal Zone, the Pearl Island Archipelago in the Gulf of Panama is stepping into the limelight thanks to a group of Panama businessmen and the Panama Government, all bent on putting the island jewels on every island hopping tourist's itinerary. Gabriel Lewis, president of the Pearl Island Development Corp., is the leading force behind the project and this month will officiallv open Contadora Island to tourism. Already more than SI million has besn spent to develop the island into a luxur\ resort, and approxiniately $800,000 more will go into the construction of a .50-room modern hotel and 16 two-bedroom cottages to be ready in January 1972. Now available are 10, two-bedroom, centrally air-conditioned trailers; a restaurant and cocktail lounge: and a small rental store for sporting goods and the usual beach and water necessities. 13 Beaches Although the island is only 2 miles long and % of a mile wide, it has 13 beaches and plenty of room for privacy. An airfield nearly 3,000 feet long serves the island, and the corporation owns three twin-engine planes for shuttle service from Paitilla Airport. The fee is $10 per person round trip, but property owners are given a discount. It's a 15-minute trip by air and approximately 1 to 2 hours by powerboat. The island lies at the northern end of the archipelago approximately 35 miles from Panama City. There are numerous anchorages for deep-draft vessels and the island has a gas diesel fueling pier. Once the island gets into full swing, Contadora will be a paradise for the outdoor types, as well as for the naturalist. Mr. and Mrs. Robert Peterson who operated a sailing school at Fort Lauderdale, Fla., are resident managers of the operation and offer skindiving and sailing classes. Natives from the surrounding islands will conduct pearl diving expeditions for the more adventuresome visitors. Pearling was a lucrative business around the Pearl Islands until the With many tropical beaches and jungle trails, Contadora Island officially opens for tourism this month. On opposite page pretty Karen Hughes, a visitor from Iowa, writes her favorite island's name in the sand, and strolls along the beach in the photo below. In left photo, Gabriel Lewis, right, developer, chats with Frank Morrice whose company holds the exclusive sales rights to island property. Below is a trail leading through untouched jungle. The Panama Canal Review 17

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--Jgaey A paradise for beachcombers and skindivers, the Pearl Island Archipelago gives up treasures from its past to sharp-eyed visitors. Here Mr. and Mrs. Lewis display some of the items found among the islands. Clustered in the foreground and in photo below are pearls found just off Contadora this vear. 1930's when apparently a combination of over-fishing and disease decimated the beds. But peail oysters mav be making a comeback. Lewis has collected nearly 100 pearls of various sizes off Contadora in 10 feet of water at low tide. (Pacific tides average approximatclv 14 feet.) Golf Course Tennis courts, a 9-hole golf course, and volleyball courts will be added to round out the sporting activities. Lewis has preserved much of the island forest of guaxacan trees, thorn\ cedars, oaks, and typical island growth, and has let it be know n that a good way not to be invited back to the island is to kill one of the black iguanas that inhabit the island. This species grows to about 5 feet and like the rest of the familv are harmless to humans. Indian pottery and 19th Centurv bottles have been found on Contadora during the construction and clearing. And on a nearby island Lewis found two large diving helmets abandoned or lost by pearl divers. Lewis plans to retain the natural beaut)' of the island and not crowd any of the residents or visitors. Actually there is no need to pack Contadora with people. He owns seven other islands in the archipelago which he plans eventually to develop. "It all depends on how well the public accepts Contadora," he said. Part of the island has been subdi\ided for homesites and additional building sites will be set aside after the hotel is completed. "The reaction has been fantastic," said Lewis. "Alreadxthe entire subdivided section has been sold." If Lewis' own reaction to Contadora when he first saw it is anv indication of how others will feel, then the island is bound to be a fa\orite. Like a Dream Just 2 years ago in November Lewis was fishing alone in a small boat when he had engine trouble. He put into Contadora for help. "I found the island to be like a dream," he said. After repairing the engine, Lewis returned to Panama City. "Immediatelv I started asking questions and found that it was owned by the Pinel family who had been in the pearl business years before." Fortunately, the owners were willing to sell. Lewis set-up a 5-year program and in February' 1969 the first bulldozer started to clear an area for the airstrip. Since then a work force of about 70 men has been kept busy. The Panama National Guard provided some heavv equipment to widen the runway. During the next drv season the airfield and all the roads including one that circles the island will be blacktopped. That project is expected to be finished in Februarv 1971 along with a water system supplied bv three artesian wells, and an electrical plant with three generators supplying 1,000 kw. Comunicaciones, S.A., will install 80 telephone lines for island communications and 6 lines to Panama Citv bv March 1971, Lewis said. No Crazy Ideas Original building sites sold for S6 a sfjuare meter for waterfront lots and $4 for inland propert}'. The only building restriction is that plans be approved by the management and that the houses "fit in" with the communit\'. "No crazy ideas," Lewis said. Lot owners, he explained, can purchase two-bedroom, airconditioned mobile homes from the Panama Tourist Bureau for nothing down and $128 a month for 8 years. Trailer lots, however, must be landscaped. To Lewis, the archipelago will become the next major tourist area. "These islands will be booming soon. The Government is backing their development and is giving a lot of cooperation. There's a great potential here. "Panama has an excellent opportunity to develop a strong tourist industry. We ha\'e what e\erybod\' wants— sun, good beaches, some of the best fishing in the world, and clean, clear water," he said. Sales Rights Lewis is not alone in this venture. Frank Morrice III, a partner of Ford, Sosa, Morrice, S.A., insurance and real estate, has the exclusive sales rights to island property. And like Lewis, Morrice first went to Contadora for a reason other than business. "I heard about the island and went there to see about buying a lot. I fell in love with it right awav," he said. Lewis and Morrice became good friends and Lewis offered him the sales part of the business. Lewis is a family man, the father of five boys and one daughter, and has a close relationship with his business associates. He is general manager of the successful familv-owned enterprise of Corrugado Panama, S.A.. which manufactures banana packing boxes. He has the easygoing manner of a man who is sure of himself and knows exactlv where he is going. Morrice feels much the same way about the future of the Pearl Islands as Lewis, but admits that it takes someone like Lewis to make it work. "Gabriel is the pioneer; he's the Robinson Crusoe of the Pearl Islands." 18 November 1970

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LITTLE IS KNOWN and less is recorded of the Pearl Islands except that they were once the center of important and lucrative pearl fishing, an industry which to various degrees continued for more than 400 \ears. The first known written reference to the islands occurs in a letter to the King of Spain from V'asco Nunez de Balboa, dated January 20, 1513. Balboa had not discovered the Pacific Ocean— that was to be in September— but had heard many stories from the Indians about the great "South Sea" that stretched to the horizon from across the Isthmus of Panama. He told the King: "The Indians state there is another ocean 3 days journey from here . they say the other ocean is ver\ suitable for canoe tra\eling as it is alwavs calm ... I belie\e there are manv islands in that sea . they tell me that there are pearls in abundance of great size, and that the native chiefs possess baskets filled with them, as do even common Indian men and women." Since then these islands with their graceful white sand beaches, craggy cliffs, good natural harbors, and a wide and abundant variety of wildlife have led unruflfled lives while their tropical cousins in the Caribbean were groomed for the tourist trade. Sun and Rum As the Caribbean islands boomed with pleasure seekers by the hundreds of thousands soaking up the sun and rum, the "Islands of Pearls," as Balboa called them, patiently waited for the limelight. From 1901 until 1968, when Gabriel Lewis, president of the Pearl Island Development Corp., bought Contadora Island, it was owiied by the Pinel family who used the island for its pearl fishing fleet. The Pinel's bought it from greatgrandchildren of Felix Moreno who took title to the island and several others in the late 18th Century. Moreno's daughter inherited it on his death in 1836 when the island was called San Francisco de Asis de Contadora. Jose Pinel of Panama City, who is engaged in the real estate business, was a child during the pearl fishing days of his family. He said Contadora and several other islands had fresh water necessary for the fleet. Pinel believes that Contadora may have been the island that was used as the countinghouse for pearls and mother-of-pearl shell during the Spanish occupation. The Spanish word contador means counter; accountant; or auditor, and contaduria is translated as accountant's office, accountancy, and auditorship. The Pinel family remained in the pearling business— both for mother-ofpearl and pearls— until 1931 when the demand for mother-of-pearl diminished. Most of it was sent to Germany while the pearls were sold mainly in Paris, London, and a few other European capitals. Onh" a few pearls were ever sold in the United States, Pinel said. Pearl Fishing Although the Colombian Government had established conservation practices on pearl fishing prior to the turn of the century (Panama became independent from Colombia in 1903), the production of pearl oysters diminished markedly in the 1930's. According to Dr. Paul S. Galtsoff of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, who conducted a survey of the pearl oyster resources of Panama in 19.50, the years of forced inactivity from 1939 through 194.3 had no beneficial effect on the oyster population. "In 1944-45, when the fishery was officially resumed, the divers found the pearl oysters extremely scarce. They also reported seeing, on several formerly productive grounds, many dead or dying oysters," said Dr. Galtsoff. There are no records available of the number of pearls and their value taken from Panama Bay during the Spanish occupation, but it probably was considerable. Modern-day records on pearls and mother-of-pearl shells were not maintained until 1908, and even then the records were only sketch)'. According to the Panama Bureau of Statistics and Census, the best year was 1924 when pearls and shell valued at $57,524 were taken from the bay. The last \ear of record keeping was 1938 when it was reported that only 3 carats of pearls valued at $275 were collected. But the year before, 339 carats with a value of $10,818 were taken. • • a, a,, v.. . ,• • At top of page is an aerial photograph of Contadora Island taken earlier this year. It shows the runway, half a dozen beaches and some of the roads. A 50-room hotel and 16 modem cottages will be constructed near the beach at right center. The U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office chart shows some of the northern islands in the archipelago including Isia Contadora, below Isia Pacheca and to the right of Isla Saboga. The islands are approximately 35 miles from Panama City. The Panama Canal Review 19

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Panama Coital $ltetcli|uui In the mind's eye of people who love ships and their ways, all vessels, whether they be ancient rust buckets or elegant luxury liners, create scenes of far away places and a longing to stand at the rail of a stout ship. Visitors to the Panama Canal are no different as they watch vessels head to the four corners of the earth. Amateur artist John B. Morton, an auditor with the General Audit Division, has recorded with pen and ink some scenes along the waterway. Sketch "A" (below) sJwws the Swedish American Line cruise ship MS Kungsholm tied up at Balboa. On the opposite page, sketch "B" is of a merchant ship moving through Gaillard Cut during widening operatiorus. A "nmle" which guides the vessels through the locks by means of heavy steel cables is shown in sketch "C" and the tug Gulf Raider tvhen she was leading .ships into Canal waters is "D." The mighty aircraft carrier U.S.S. Constellation, sketch "E," completes the Panama Canal Sketchpad. The Constellation is too large to transit the Canal and even had to wait for low tide before she could sail under the Thatcher Ferry Bridge to moor at Balboa.

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rite KEAL hrnxm Wat By Jose T. Tunon RICH OR poor, young or old, no man or woman of Panama's interior is ever caught without a "montuno" hat— well, hardly ever. For the distinctive native hat is as much a part of the national attire as the well-known "montuno" outfit is for men and the now internationally famous "pollera" is for women. Except that se.x makes no difference in the use of the hat. At first glance, there is nothing out of the ordinary in the appearance of Panama's "montuno" hat. The crown is of normal size, about 6 inches high, and raised or flat depending on the localitv where it is made. The wide brim is circular. But the fiber and the weaving are unique. The raw material is the shoot of a palm tree that grows wild in the high mountains of Code and Veraguas Provinces, in an area some 100 miles west of Panama City. In Panama it is known as "bellota," elsewhere in Latin America as "bombonaje" or "jipijapa." IncidentalK', it is the same fiber that is used in Ecuador to make the once-famous "Panama" hats. Descendants In the Code and \'eraguas mountains of central Panama live the "cholos"— descendants of the fiery Indians and the proud Spaniards. It is their women who ha\e preserved the art of hat weaving from generation to generation. ^N^r Nimble fingers at work, Victoria Dominguez of La Pintada prepares the fibers for the miniature montuno hats which are given as souvenirs in Panama City. A farmer at the San Sebastian Fair at Ocii proudly wears his "Sunday best" montuno hat which is woven of white fiber. For everyday he wears a montuno hat of rougher fiber. A traveler hiking the winding mountain trails of El Cope and El Harino, above Penonome, is apt to come upon the glow of rustic lanterns burning in the homes of the "cholos" before daybreak. The women arc weaving the finer "montuno" hats. For the work must be done between 4 and 8 in the morning— when the moisture in the air is highest to render the fiber softer and more pliable. The rest of the day, the materials have to be kept wrapped in damp doth. The painstaking weaving takes many early morning hours, but when the hat is finished, it is a real piece of native art. The strands are obtained by splicing the "bellota" shoot with a needle. Then the fibers are left out in the damp morning air to acquire the required consistencv before being wrapped in damp cloth for storing. Using head shaped wooden blocks, the women patientK' interweave as many as 1.5 strands of fiber to fashion a hat. Two Styles There are two distinct styles of "montuno" hats. One is the "ocueno," named for the region of Ocii where it is most popular. The "ocuefio" hat is woven of white fiber, except for a 1 -centimeter wide black strip around the edge of the brim. The other is the "pintao" (a corruption of "pintado" or spotted) hat, its name deri\ing from the "pintas" or designs obtained from interweaving white and black fiber strands Each design is up to the weaver's imagination; hence, the variety is almost limitless. Look at a collection of "pintao" hats and vou will wonder at the artistic 22 November 1970

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touch of these women from the mountains of Panama. The designs— some in concentric circles, others in spirals, in squares, cross-shaped or simply in dots— evidence a sense of refinement and exquisite care. The crown of the "pintao" hat is flat instead of raised as in the "ocuefio" style. Regardless of the color, all the fiber that goes into a "montuno" hat comes from the same "ballota" palm. The black strands have been dyed with a special clay that is a zealously guarded secret of the "cholos." The jet black color imparted to the fiber is indelible. Hat Bands No matter its style, the "montuno" hat is usually adorned with a delicately woven cord of black or multi-colored thread or wood that sei-ves as a band. The weaving of the cord is another home craft transmitted from generation to generation among the women of Panama's countryside, particularly in the area of Ocu. It involves an ingenious technique: pins are stuck around the hole at one end of an ordinary spool of sewing thread— one pin for each of the colors in the finished cord. The colored strands then are interwoven around the pins and the finished cord emerges through the other end of the spool. In Ocu the weaving of cords for use as "montuno" hatbands is a pastime for most women— from the richest matron to the humblest girl. When should one wear an "ocueiio" or a "pintao" hat? Mrs. Dora Perez de Zarate, an authority on Panamanian folklore, explains the difference, from a woman's standpoint. "The 'campesina' in Ocu or Veraguas prefers her hat plain, rounded, with no special adornment or particular shape to the brim. She wears this hat with her daily attire and also, when she pleases, with her lace 'pollera'. . The people of HeiTcra Province . the Province of Los Santos and of the rest of the countrv . wear the 'pintao' hat onlv with their 'pollera montuna' (the common 'pollera'); the headdress is different when a lace 'pollera' is worn. . ." The Important Thing And what about the men? They have an everyday, working hat of a rougher nature, and for holidays and festive occasions wear similar hats but these are better made. Regardless of the style, the important thing is to wear a "montuno" hat. Why? Writer Roman B. Reyes put it this way: "The 'montuno' hat is indispensable to dance the 'tamborito.' It is an emblem of masculine enthusiasm and of courting, a prerequisite for his gestures of tribute and admiration to the woman who shares with him the pleasure of native dancing." Panama's "montuno" hat industry is very old. No one really knows when it began. Knowledgeable persons such as Elias Vega, an expert hatter in Penonome, say it goes back to pre-Columbian times. A distinguished American educator played an important part in an interesting chapter of the history of the native hat industry in Panama. He was Federico E. Libby, who was employed by the Panama government in 1914 as Inspector General of Education. He spoke Spanish fluently, having worked in Puerto Rico for a long time. Libby was convinced that the rural school had to be adapted to the environment of the students in order to train them in useful crafts. When Libby heard of the hat industry in the Code highlands, at La Pintada and Ocu, he brought an expert hatter from Ecuador, Francisco Lara, and established a school in Penonome to teach the weaving of Panama hats. Hatters School Few persons realize it, but Panama hats made in the Penonome Hatters School were sold in the United States and in Germany and were worn by members of Panama's most prominent families. Graduates from this school, which operated for 20 years, spread throughout central Panama, mainly in Code and Herrera Provinces, resulting in a marked growth of the native hat industry. A Panamanian beauty wears a "pintao" hat distinguished by the black fiber. Thus, an American left the imprint of his work on the "montuno" hat craft of Panama. In recent years, the Panama Government and the United Nations, through SENAPI (National Service of Craftsmanship and Small Industries), have boosted the industry. In La Pintada, SENAPI has established small shops for fiber weaving where expert instructors teach residents the secrets of working with materials from native plants. There are many learners and both the quality and the variety of the articles are increasing. Still, the most authentic "montuno" hats— and the finest— are those woven in the glow of rustic lanterns by the skilled fingers of "cholas" in the highlands, between 4 and 8 every morning. A wedding in Ocu. All the guests and the bridegroom wear the "ocueiio" or white montuno hats. The bride is attired in a white pollera wedding dress and wears gold combs in her hair which are family heirlooms. The flags are used to add gayety to the occasion. The Panama Canal Review 23

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CULINARY CAPERS ABOARD THE DONIZETTI By Fannie P. Hernandez A genial Neopolitan, chef Giuseppe Panariello prepares gourmet fare in the galley of the "Donizetti." Each dish becomes a culinary masterpiece. CULINARY CAPERS goes to sea to explore adventures in Italian cuisine aboard the Italian Line's MV Donizetti, which with her two sister ships, the Verdi and the Rossini, makes regular calls at the Panama Canal on her Mediterranean to west coast of South America voyages. Arriving at the Canal on June 26, 1963, the Donizetti was the first of three vessels put into service to replace the Marco Polo, the Americo Vespucci, and the Antoniotto Usodimare, which for 15 years had called at the Canal. The Verdi and the Rossini were put into service a short time later, and the three vessels, each making si.x voyages a year, are at this time the only passenger ships on the route. They transit the Canal 36 times a year. Italian Line ships have been using the Canal since it opened for business and there has been an Italian Line office at Cristobal since 1916. Originating their runs at Genoa, on the west coast of Italv, the vessels carry a m\riad of manufactured goods ranging from objects d'art, fine laces and delicate Murano glas, to typewriters, scooters, marble, wines, and machinery for heavy industry. Unloading their cargoes at South America's ports, their emptied holds are filled mainly with Chilean copper, Peruvian cotton, Ecuadorean cacao, and Colombian coffee, destined for Europe. The gleaming white ships of modem design are alike, except for minor differences in interior decor. With a capacity of 550 passengers and a crew of 250, they give special attention to the travelers and also provide equipment for carrying cargo, mail, and passengers' autos. Although not comparable with the big luxury superliners such as the Michelangelo and the Raffaello, which the Italian Line operates on cruises to the Caribbean and on the Europe to New York route, the ships are completely air conditioned with comfortable staterooms, swimming pools, lounges, bars, libraries, and restaurants for the 150 first class and 400 tourist passengers. They are especially popular with South American travelers. In keeping with the traditional excellence of Italian cooking, the cuisine aboard the sister ships combines the wholesome simplicity of regional dishes with superb international fare. The menus include a seemingly endless number of Italian specialties, regional dishes, and typical dishes of South America and Europe. Not France Mealtime aboard the Donizetti is a reminder that Italy is the mother of Continental European cooking, not France whose fame came much later. ( It was Catherine de' Medici, the 14-year-old bride of the young man who later 24 November 1970

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became Henry II, who in 1533 took to France an entourage of Florentine chefs and the refinements of cooking and dining of 16th century Italy, introducing good table manners, the elegance of fine napery, and the use of the fork.) Breakfast is not an important meal in Ital\' and no great fuss is involved. Tlie dav's first meal consists of juice, black coffee, milk, eggs, sweet rolls, butter, and marmalade. Each a Masterpiece But lunch and dinner are another story. Each dish is a masterpiece. A tN'pical luncheon (colazione) and dinner (pranzo) aboard the Don iietti starts with a choice of four juices, antipasto (hors d'oeuvres) which mav include verv thin slices of proscuitto and salami, anchovies, marinated mushrooms, and artichoke hearts, both green and black olives, fish, radishes, fennel, green and red peppers, Belle\Tie eggs, chicken salad, and sardines, accompanied bv a dr\' white wine. Then comes a choice of three soups. The antipasto and soup are supposed to open the appetite for the pasta dish that comes next. It niav be ravioli, spaghetti, or any pasta dish or rice. Three varieties of eggs are followed by two fish dishes. Then comes the "piatto straniere," the foreign dish, which mav be a tvpical dish of South America or Spain. Next on the menu is the specialty of the dav, such as ham croquettes, spring chicken, or roast beef, followed bv three meat specialties from the grill. Two vegetables and four kinds of potatoes also are offered. A cold buffet, consisting of six choices of meat and fowl and an equal number of salads and sauces, is provided, and in the European tradition, a wide selection of cheeses and fruit, fresh, dried, or cooked. Various desserts, ice creams and beverages put a final note to a gastronomical experience not easilv forgotten. Genial Neopolitan Giuseppe Panariello, the chef on the Donizetti, is a genial Neopolitan, and has contributed to Culinary Capers a number of recipes for regional dishes from the Ligurian region along the northwest coast of Italy. For luncheon he selected Lasagne alia Portofino, a noodle dish with a green sauce of garlic and basil called Pesto alia Genovcsc: Caciucco alia Ligure, a squid stew; and for dessert. Sacripantina, lavered cake generouslv flavored with an Italian cordial called Strega. The recipes are for six persons. Lasagne alia Portofino 2I4 cups fiotir 4 eggs % teaspoon salt Sift flour and salt into a large bowl. Make a well in the center of the flour and add one egg at a time, mixing well after each addition. Turn out onto a lightlv floured board and knead until smooth. Roll out into a thin sheet and cut into 2 inch squares. Let set. Pesto alia Genovese 2 cups fresh basil leaves 2 cloves garlic 1 cup pine nuts 1 cup grated Parmesan cheese 1 cup olive oil Put all ingredients into a blender, adding oil little bv little until sauce has the consistenc\' of thick cream. Makes about two cups. While lasagne sets, cook 1 pound of fresh, tender string beans and boil 1 pound of potatoes. Slice the potatoes into V4-inch slices. Keep warm. Cook lasagne by dropping into boiling salted water (about 8 quarts). Cook rapidlv, uncovered for 10 to 1.5 minutes or until tender. Add 1 tablespoon oil to boiling \\'ater to prevent lasagne from sticking together. Drain. Place lasagne in a deep serving dish and mix with string beans and potatoes Pompesto over all and sei-ve. Caciucco alia Ligure (Squid stew Ligurian style) 1 lb. squid, cut up 2 onions, chopped 1 carrot 2 celery stalks % cup olive oil 1 bay leaf a cup dry white wine 1 clove garlic li cup parsley 1 lb. can cut up tomatoes 1 lb. Swiss chard leaves 1 cup water pepper to taste Cut vegetables julienne st\le and frv in olive oil with the onion and squid, cooking until well blended. Add the wine, and when it is absorbed, add garlic and parslev which have been ground in a mortar. Add the tomatoes and cook about 10 minutes over medium heat. Add w ater and Swiss chard leaves which have been cut julienne stvle. Add pepper and cook approximateh40 minutes. Sacripantina 6 eggs 1 cup sugar 1 cup flour ',4 teaspoon salt 1 lb. butter 2 cups powdered sugar 2 ounces chocolate Beat eggs and add sugar, mix well. ITALIA Three of the "Donizetti's" stewards are obviously pleased with the display of deserts served daily aboard the Italian Line's passenger ships. The Panama Canal Review 25

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ITALY ol Conlii Gradually add flour which has been sifted with salt. Beat until smooth. Pour into a buttered and Hghth' floured cake or torte pan. Bake in a preheated moderate oven (350) for 20 minutes or until cake springs back to touch. Make a butter cream with the butter and sugar. Beat until fluffy and divide the cream and add 2 ounces unsweetened chocolate (melted) to half the cream. \Vhen cake cools, cut into three layers. Place first la\er in a 2 quart bowl, sprinkle with Strega (a sweet, perfumed, golden-vellovv after-dinner cordial made in Italy.) Then spread butter cream filling over the cake. Place second layer in the bowl and repeat, spiinkling with Strega and the chocolate cream. Add the third layer fitting it into the bowl and sprinkle with more Strega. Let set for several hours and turn bowl into a serving dish. For dinner the chef provided more regional recipes from Genoa: Minestrone alia Genovese, a heartv vegetable soup always made with fresh vegetables; (Minestrone comes from the Latin "to hand out" and was a staple in the old days when monks kept a pot alwavs on the fire, ready to feed a hungrv traveler who mav be stopping bv); a recipe for Cima alia Genovese, veal and egg stuffed veal loaf to be served cold; and Crostata alia Genovese. Minestrone alia Genovese Make a good meat stock with beef and cracked bones. One pound of bones and two pounds of meat, plus 1% tablespoons salt, first boiled and then simmered in 2 quarts of water for about 2 hours, makes a substantial base for this soup. (Be sure to remove the scum when making the stock). a lb. cabbage a lb. Swiss chard a lb. string beans S lb. peas a lb. potatoes J.' lb. zucchini (Italian squash) 2 tablespoons pe.no Cut up all vegetables the size of peas (except one of two potatoes, depending on size, which are mashed later to thicken soup). Cook in stock about % hour. Add 2 pound macaroni which has been parboiled in salted water. Cook until all vegetables and macaroni are tender. Add 2 tablespoons pesto, the green sauce mentioned earlier, and cook a few minutes longer. Serv-e with Italian bread. Cima alia Genovese Have butcher bone a three pound veal breast and make a pocket in it. Stuff with the following: 1 lb. ham or mortadella, cubed 1 lb. veal, cubed 6 eggs, well beaten % cup grated Parmesan cheese 1 cup cooked peas 1 finely chopped onion % teaspoon nutmeg pinch of marjoram Fr\' onion in a little oil, add ham, veal, and cook a few minutes. Add eggs and other ingredients and fill pocket with the mixture. Sew the edge with strong doubled white thread. Place the stuffed veal breast on a clean cloth and roll tightly in the cloth. Tie the ends v\-ith string and twice around like a package. Put it in a pot of salted water and boil for % hour. Remove from the water and roll with the hands to remove any water. Place a weight on the loaf to press out anv remaining water. When cool, remove from the cloth. Cut in slices and serve cold. Cima alia Genovese (Cdd veal loaf) Crostata alia Genovese 2/8 cups sifted flour a cup butter % cup sugar Sift flour and sugar into a bowl. Cut in butter and make a dough. Roll out and line a torte mold leaving enough pastPvdough to make strips for top of pie. Fill with a one pound of peach or apricot marmalade. Make a lattice design on top of crostata with the strips of crust and brush with egg volk. Bake in a moderate oven for 30 minutes or imtil golden in color. ALMUERZO ENTREMESES: Jam(5n crudo de Parma, SalchichiSn Hungaro, Jam6n cocido Emiliano, Alcachofas Romanas, Mantequilla, Hitsvos rellenos Cardinal, Tomate a la Nicoise, Niervos de ternera a la Veneciana, Jurel en aceite, Aceitunas negras. FARINACEOS: Spaghetti, salsa Napolitana, Arroz bianco. HUEVOS: Tortilla con hongos, Revueltos a la EspaSola, Al plato "Rotomago". PESCADOS: Ombrina al homo, Filetes de mostela a la Ingles. PLATO DEL DIA: Cotechino Negroni con lentsjas, Croquetas de jamon con Madera. A LA PARRILLA: Codornices de viiia sobre tostada, Entercosta a la Frances, Chuletas de cerdo con manzanas. LEGUMBRES: Broculis al natural, Macedonia de legumbres. BUFFET FRIO: Costillas de cerdo con salsa manzanas, Gelatina gastronbmica. Lomo de buey, Pichones en escabeche, Pate de higado, Pecho de ternera relleno. Genoves. ENSALADAS: Mixta, Lechuga, Tomate, Remolachas. aUESOS: Brie, Emmenthal, Stracchino, Bel Paese, Cremini, Caciotta. POSTRES: Tarta Sublime, Embutidos Venecianos, Cubeletti Genoveses, Pastelsria surtida. HELADOS: Copa Fantasia, Crema vainilla, Sorbete de durazno. FRUTAS EN COMPOTA: Duraznos, Peras. FRUTAS FRESCAS: Piria, Peras, Naranjas, Papaya, Sandia, Melon. BEBIDAS: Cafe Italiano, Leche fresca, Sanki, Nescafe, Hag, Te Ceyl6n, Manzanilla, Menta, Soldo, Tilo. The menus of Italian Line ships would make Henry the Eighth jump for joy. Printed in both Italian and Spanish, this luncheon includes all the usual items plus ham croquettes in Madeira wine, grilled quail on toast, fried marinated dove and stuffed veal breast. 26 November 1970

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Unraveling The Languages Having been the Panama Canal's official translator for more than 33 years, Enrique A. Lapeira, who retired 20 years ago, still enjoys an occasional visit to the Translating Unit. At left is William O'SuUivan, present head of the unit, and Aurora F. Courchaine, translator. A SMALL staff of multilingual experts has the task of keeping the Panama Canal from becoming a "Tower of Babel." Maintaining communications between peoples of many lands with different and often exotic languages is the job of the Translating Unit of the Administrative Services Division. The responsibility is often monumental considering that the international waterwav draws ships and people from virtually ever\' maritime nation of the world to the Isthmus of Panama. A recent incident involving a Turkish seaman who was near death is an example of the type of language problem that can occur. The seaman had suffered a ruptured appendix and was taken off his ship and moved to Gorgas Hospital. Telling him of the gravity of his condition and that he needed an operation was the job of the Translating Unit which pro\'ided the names of five persons on the Pacific side of the Isthmus who spoke Turkish. One bv one, they were called and messages left when none of them could be reached directly. Bv the time the last call was completed, however, several had responded and within the hour the others had shov^Ti up at Gorgas Hospital, willing to come to the aid of their countryman. Uncommon Languages One of the demands made of the unit is to maintain a current list of persons who speak uncommon or out-of-theway languages such as Russian, Polish, Finnish, Yiddish, Turkish, Korean, Japanese and Chinese, making it a veritable language bank. The importance and growth of the unit has been closely related to the new and increased requirements to meet language differences in the normal operation and maintenance of the waterway. The personnel that staffs the office could very well be referred to as walking foreign language encyclopedias. As interpreters or translators of an endless number of official documents, training manuals, safety rules, legal papers and routine correspondence, and as dispensers of medical, scientific, mechanical and engineering terminology, thev are expected to translate not only what is said but what is meant, conveying the exact idea and mood of the original writer. First Translator The late Jose de Lavandeyra, who came to the Canal during construction days as an accountant, was the Canal's first translator. A Brazilian who became a U.S. citizen, Lavandevra had lived in France and was fluent in six languages. When his linguistic talents were discovered, he was assigned to the Correspondence Bureau of the Executive Department where he remained until his death in 1916. Lavandeyra was succeeded by Enrique A. Lapeira, a Colombian who had been working for the Canal since 1904 as a file clerk for the Panama Railroad at Cristobal. In 1915, when the Canal offices were consolidated in the Administration Building, Lapeira came along with the Panama Railroad files. Shortly after the move, the position of translator was offered to him. No Alternative Lapeira, 82, recalls that when the executive secretary called him to his office and asked him if he would like to be the Canal's official translator, he replied, "Yes of course, thank you, sir," and in his nervous elation he barely heard the secretary when he added that he was also required to know French. He was half-way to the door \\'hen suddenh' he realized that he had accepted —and did not know French. The full impact of his predicament hit him a heavy blow. What should he do? He closed the door knowing that he had no alternative but to learn French. He did. In .3 months. Within a few years he had not only mastered French but also Italian and in spite of his failing eyesight, he makes it a point to read in the two languages eyer\da%'. Lapeira later became a U.S. citizen and was for more than 33 years the Canal's official translator. He occupied a few square feet of space in the second floor balcony of the Administration Building in the rear of the General Services Branch. His duties also included direct contact, by telephone and in person, with oflBcials and diplomats in the Republic of Panama as English was not widely spoken in Panama at that time nor was Spanish commonK' heard in the Canal Zone. Lapeira retired in 19.50 and lives with his wife in Panama City. Before retiring, however, he trained a voung man who toda\ heads an expanded Panama Canal Translating Unit. Varied Volume William O'Sullivan, fluent in seven languages, and a staff of five multilingual translators have the responsibility of rendering from one language into another a varied volume of written (and oral) communications involved in the everyday transactions of Canal business. The Panama Ca.val Review

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Translators Olga J. Stanziola, left, Marcia B. de Ortega, (seated at desk), Aurora F. Courchaine (standing) and Sofia de Magallon, right, who take care of French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish, are also bilingual stenographers. A t\pical dav's workload of translations mav include one or two legal documents, two or three letters for the Canal Zone Governor, an official note from the Panama Ministry of Foreign Relations, various letters to Spanish speaking employees, and work on the Governor's special project "Putting Into Spanish All That Is Needed To Know" including specific chapters of the Personnel Manual and the Canal Zone Code and other regulations. Serving as an information bureau on languages, the translators also answer consultations over the telephone. Among these are calls received from the Ministry of Foreign Relations, the Protocol Office, and Immigration Office of Panama, U.S. Government agencies in this area, and, of course, other Canal units. Inquiry Boards From time to time they are called upon to serve as interpreters at inquin boards of ship accidents, in court, hospitals, police stations and also to serve as bilingual reporters as well as translators at special events requiring bilingual exchange of information. The four women translator-interpreters, Marcia B. de Ortega (the unit's administrator), Sofia de Magallon, Olga Stanziola, and Aurora Courchaine also are bilingual stenographers and among them they handle French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish translations. Henry Cornell translates Spanish and German while O'Sullivan may take care of translating or interpreting in French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Malayan, and Tagalog. All Subjects Working as a team they translate, edit, type, and proofread the workload distributed to each translator according o to his or her qualifications. Each member of the staff is assigned a responsibility: one takes care of assignments dealing with medicine and chemistry, the other handles legal translations, another's specialty is mechanical-technical terminology, and others handle the editing and final proofreading of all materials. This last task requires considerable familiarity and knowledge with all subject matters to enable them to polish and improve on their translations. As bilinguality is becoming more and more a part of the Canal's policy, the language experts must spend many hours researching various subjects to familiarize themselves with technical terms and vocabulary of the different workshops in the marine and maintenance areas and other Canal units in order to arrive at accurate translations of such subjects as the plumbing code, firefighting regulations, training manuals which are used in various jobs, forms, publications and even signs. They are required to read trade journals and texts, scientific papers and magazines which are usually a more reliable source of terminology than dictionaries as terms mav change with newer techniques. As a result of this constant research, translators are well informed on many subjects. Heading The List To help them with difficult translations they have at their disposal a number of selected dictionaries, encyclopedias, scientific guides and other material, with the Real Academia Espaiiola dictionary heading their list of references. Among the references, the Medical Dictionary in Spanish is one of their prized possessions as this book is virtually unobtainable. Their copy was ordered from Argentina. And, since legal terminology follows close behind in difficult}' insofar as interpretation goes, the office has copies of Ballantine's and Black's Law Dictionaries which enable the translators to arrive at accurate usage of legal words and phrases. As the requests for information range from the most complicated to the most outlandish, the translators make it a point to have on hand material ranging from the Catholic Version of the Holv Bible, the King James Version, Dictionary of Thoughts and Refranero Espafiol, to books on Panameiiismos (slang), etiquette, grammar, lexicons, a book on the proper syllabication for poetry and verse, a thesaurus, synonyms and antonyms, a secretary's handbook, and of course, the various technical dictionaries in several languages of nautical, mechanical, chemistrs', engineering, and business terms. In the course of an 8-hour day, the translators may use technical terms and specialized language of doctors, lawyers, seamen, mechanics, chemists, carpenters, or firemen and collectively average approximately 325 pages of written translations a month.— F.P.H. 28 November 1970

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ANNIVERSARIES MARINE BUREAU Cyril Fairclough Leader Wire Cable Worker Lincoln B. Boyce Marine Traffic Clerk Henry Clayton Painter Frank A. Brown Seaman TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Edgar W. Best Time and Leave Clerk SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Solomon H. DaC Warehouses Charles L. Haylet? MaintenaDceiii.ud Edwin N. Ellis Labo i^r (Gl ^ Adolfo BedoJ] Garbage Randolph J. Bryant Chief Foreman (Harbor) Harold E. Graham Spectacle Lens Surfacer (Limited) Clifton H. Lopez Teller Wilfred V. Bartley Clerk ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Kenneth George Painter Juan B. Martinez Time and Lea\'e Clerk Oscar A. Sealey Surveying Aid PERSONNEL BUREAU Thomas L. Edghill Staffing Clerk ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION Bertram L. McLean Leader Cylinder Pressman (Large) Ruby A. Wynter Bindery Worker Frank Thompson Messenger George I. Griffith Mail Clerk MARINE BUREAU David S. Taylor Deckhand Trainer Jose D. Waitoto Painter (Maintenance) Evaristo Mel^ndez Painter (Maintenance) Ardenon C. Franklin Painter (Maintenance) Joseph D. Powlett Maintenanceman Robert W. King General Foreman (Lock Operations) (On the basis of total Federal Service) Woodrow W. Rowland Lead Foreman (Locks Operations) E. S. Reynolds, Jr. Leader Lock Operator (Machinist) Silvestre Sanchez B. Lead Foreman (Operations— Lock Wall) Victor Hardy Crane Hookman (Heavy) Noel S. Daly Seaman (Launch) Hernandez B. Corpus Seaman (Launch) Fitzhubert Rose Leader Linehandler (Deckhand Boatswain) Arthur M. Hiland Towing Locomotive Operator Locks) Lino Herrera Linehandler WUfred A. Campbell Linehandler (Deckhand) Lionel E. Mortimer Leader Linehandler (Deckhand Boatswain) Andrew J. Gagliano Chief Engineer, Towboat Angel Pelicot Boatman (Locks) Fermin Alegria Motor Launch Operator Victorino Garcia Helper Lock Operator Lino Coco Helper Lock Operator Robert T. Tweedy Lock Operator (Operating En Hoisting Equipment) Florentino Pedroza Oiler Woodrow Spradlin Marine Traffic Controlle? Edward N. Belland Supervisory Admeasurer Sergio M. Penaloza Linehandler (Deckhand) Wilfred A. Anderson Linehandler (Deckhand) Cecil Redman Linehandler (Deckhand) Ezra Cohen S. Linehandler (Deckhand) William E. Grant Leader Linehandler (Deckhand Boatswain) Levi A. Lewis Leader Linehandler (Deckhand Boatswain) George Daley Leader Seaman Joseph Carew Seaman Ernest H. Webster Motor Launch Operator Charles E. Fowler Towing Locomotive Operator (Locks) G. de la Torre Helper Lock Operator Nicomedes Murillo Helper Lock Operator Tomas Correa Oiler Reginald Foulen Boilermaker (Maintenance) Joseph Wallace Machine Operator William W. Fitzsimmons Leader Machinist (Marine) Joseph M. Hunt Supervisory Marine Traffic Controller George L. Holder Clerk Typist Cleveland A. King File Clerk George S. Ricketts Clerk Alvin Hall Clerk TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Leopold Lester Super\isory Cargo Checker Fascual A. Medrano Winchman Cayetano Carrasco Laborer (Heavy) Arthur N. Smith Chauffeur Jorge L. Espinosa Truckdriver Cephas Daniels Driver Heavy) Layne er Garfield Brown Leader High Lift Truck Operator David M. Wallen Leader Liquid Fuels WTiarfman Abraham H. Ambulo Helper Welder Adolphus L. Jordan Stevedore James S. Lewis Cargo Checker Marton C. Davis Guard Roy R. Wilferd Road Conductor Henry G. Ledgerwood Materials Handling Equipment Repairman Charles Simon Freight Rate Assistant Ignacio Rodriguez Clerk (Checker) SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Narciso Olavvar File Clerk Lorenza Newton B. Accounting Clerk Ruth Rennie Teller The Panama Canal Review 29

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Carmen L. Hassocks Time and Leave Clerk Kemer E. Frauenheim Assistant Guesthouse Manager Bart J. Elich Merchandise Management Officer (General) Robert L. Austin Supervisory Procurement Agent Dorothy A. Bellamy Sales Store Clerk Mabel G. Farley Sales Store Checker Maria M. Headley Sales Store Checker Jeanne Modestin Supervisory Sales Store Clerk Miriam A. Riney Marker and Sorter Lawrence R. Baptiste Leader Meat Cutter Gwendolyn Goring Pantrywoman Icibel H. Forbes Counterwoman C. S. Cadienhead Food Service Worker Alfredo Castillo Meat Cutter Gladston N. Lewis Leader Marker and Sorter Edith A. Thome Stockman Pedro L. Lara Garbage Collector Ivan K. Wade Laborer (Cleaner) Canute A. Rodney Laborer (Cleaner) Marcelino Maclao Laborer Edna L Flemmings Sales Store Checker Mary K. Ferguson Sales Store Clerk Harold D. Spencer Inventory Management Specialist Ida E. Lynch Supply Clerk Louise A. Johnson Supply Clerk Edward B. Webster Housing Project Manager Marie L. Beresford Service Center Supervisor Carlos A. Smith Supervisory Clerk-Tvpist Avis B. Ramirez Clerk T. E. Russell Food Service Worker Cecilia W. Brathwaite Food Service Worker Gertrude E. Cardona Meat Cutter Fitz H. Taite Leader Cook A. B. Casbllero Leader Baker Maria C. Iturrado Marker and Sorter Iris E. King Marker and Sorter St. Marie L. LaFleur Warehouseman Modesto Diaz Scrap Materials Sorter Huxley Drakes Laborer (Cleaner) Ezequiel Fernandez Gardener Victor Morris Laborer (Heavy) Levi Smith Laborer (Heavy) Viola C. Lewis Supervisory Sales Store Clerk Iris M. Simmons Sales Store Clerk Joseph H. White Supply Management Officer Gladis H. Thorpe Teller Myrtle S. Anglin Clerk Bervl G. George Clerk ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU John A. Buckley Guard Ambrose V. Foote Helper Electrician Sergio Salazar Helper Plumber Ralph C. Thome Carpenter Archel**t£vans -r^— Seaman. Luis P. Charles, Jr. Seaman Joseph E. I Seaman! Oscar A. Brev JLoader Seaman R<*ust&j^ Griffin %!^der Seamaa Jam^'P^^Mfhsiff Able Seaman Walter M. Trasavage Shift Engineer (Mechanical) Rogelio A. Pacheco Oiler (Floating Plant) Antonio A. Aguirre A. Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom) Theophilus L. Bowen Leader Seaman Jose L. Gedefio Seaman Louis Bryan Laborer (Cleaner) Delmas A. Swafford General Foreman (Cablesplicing and Electrical Distribution) Lascelle F. Williams Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems) Camilo Rodriguez B. Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems) Catalino Lopez Electrician (Lineman) Braulio Perez Electrician (Lineman) Reginald A. Muir Electrician (Lineman) Lloyd K. Wheafley Helper Central Office Repairman Enrique Cruz Oiler (Floating Plant) Ruben D. Gibson Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom) George H. McFarlane Motor Launch Operator Victor De Leon Leader Rock Crushing Plant Operator Felipe Ortiz Blaster Harold A. Walker Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Plant Operator V. de la Cruz C. Oiler Howard T. Tettenbum Pipefitter Benito Sanchez C. Winchman Zacarias Salazar Laborer (Heavy) Charles W. McClean Laborer Arcadio Diaz Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems) Bertram G. Coley Helper Electrician Cuthbert L. Wharton Helper Electrician Russell T. Wise Supervisory Safety Inspector Rubelio D. Quintero Supervisory Electrical Engineer (General) Emiliano Muiioz P. Surveying Aid CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Albert E. Goguen Police Private Reinaldo Archbold Clerk Dorcas W. Gregory Teacher (Elementary U.S. Schools) Percival B. Scott Firefighter Robert J. Balcer Assistant Foreman, Mailing Division Richard J. Tomford Police Private Frederick A. Mohl Fire Lieutenant HEALTH BUREAU Ehina W. Lansiquot Clerk-Dictating Machine Transcriber Frank R. West Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery) Rhoda J. de Tully Nursing Assistant William H. Myrie Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry) Anita Guy Medical Aid (Sterile Supplies) Viola Blaizes Pantrywoman Wilhelmina G. Brown Fomiula Room Attendant Isabella L. Wright Pantry Worker (Special Diets) Emanuel Blaisdell Food Service Worker (Heavy) Joseph N. Reid Leader Cook Mildred Kopf Supervisory Physical Therapist Matthew M. Walcott Hospital Food Servic-e Worker Adolphus Phillips Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery) 30 November 1970

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HISTORIC MOMENTS 50 Years Ago Gen. JOHN J. PERSHING, general of the U.S. Anny during World War I, arrived at Cristobal on the Army transport Northern Pacific on April 29, 1920, and remained here until May 4. His visit to the Isthmus was primarily to inspect the military establishment, but he managed to fill a full social schedule. He traveled on the Canal from Gatun Locks to Pedro Miguel; attended a reception bv the Commanding General of the Armv on the Isthmus; addressed the children of the Ancon and Balboa schools; reviewed a parade of the Ancient Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine; received hundreds of Americans at a public reception in the Administration Building at Balboa Heights; was a guest at a dinner given b\the President of Panama; and made a visit to a ranch near Panama City. o o o Rebuilding of the original SS Cristobal of the Panama Railroad Steamship line was completed bv the Mechanical Division 50 vears ago. The ship sailed for New York carrving 10,08.5 tons of cargo. Among the improvements were a new smoking room, social hall, and dining room finished throughout in light mahogany from Panama. o o e Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas died July 4, 1920, in London, England. He was chief sanitar\' officer with the Canal from 1904 to 1914. On July 8, 1920, the Go\emor of the Canal Zone named the road through what was then Ancon Hospital in his honor. f 25 Years Ago ELIMINATION OF THE 25 percent differential from the salaries of U.S.citizen emplovees in the Canal Zone who were not hired in the United States, pushed the news of \\'orld War II off the front pages of the local papers. Strong protests against the plan were expressed by Canal Zone labor unions and employees of the Canal and Panama Railroad. ft Anniversaries (Continued from preceding page) Stephen S. Moore Xiirsing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery) Mar.'e D. Edelen Clinical N'urse Eugenio Beaiiville Recreation Assistant Central Avenue at J Street in Panama City is crowded with revelers during carnival in 1920. Sales of sugar in the Canal Zone commissaries were restricted to 1 pound per person because of a sugar shortage in Panama. Canal Zone residents, meanwhile, crowded the sales store to buy fresh fruit and vegetables, the first to arrive from the United States in several months. It was announced that the shortages of meat and other foods would ease soon. 10 Years Ago THE FIRST GENERAL revision since 1954 of the regulations governing the assignment, occupancv, and rental of emplo\ees' living quarters was approved hv the Governor of the Canal Zone in May 1960. Housing regulations stated for the first time that residence in the Canal Zone was not mandatory for emplo>ees of the Canal organization except for those who had been specifically directed by the Governor to live within the Zone. e o o Governor W. E. Potter left the Canal Zone in May 1960 and was succeeded bv Governor William Arnold Carter, who arrived in Julw Governor Carter, departing from past procedure, took the oath of office as governor of the Canal Zone in a simple ceremony administered by U.S. District Judge Guthrie F. Crowe at Balboa Heights. One of the final phases in the installation of the Canal Zone modem microwave communications system was being completed in Jul)1960, with the construction of a 10-foot dish antenna on top of the Balboa Heights Administration Building. SimOar dish reflectors were installed on top of the communications buildings at Gatun and Cristobal. e o o Two white gloved Canal Zone policemen hoisted the flags of the United States and Panama side by side in the Zone on September 21, 1960, implementing a decision announced by the then President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the White House 4 days eai'lier. The flags were raised on twin, 40-foot flagpoles at a special plaza in Shaler Triangle near the Tivoli Guest House. One Year Ago THE SS CRISTOBAL went aground on the banks of the Mississippi River last August as a result of hurricane Camille which struck New Orleans. The ship retmned to the Louisiana port and remained there until repairs could be made. None of the passengers was injured. o o e The last blast of the Panama Canal Gaillard Cut widening project was fired on November 20, 1969, marking the end of the Oman Construction Co. contract for widening the 3-mile Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas Reaches from 300 to 500 feet. The Panama Canal Review I 31

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