Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1960
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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This item has the following downloads:


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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES





















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrenov1968pana








6J A .,-AI -_ L




NOVEMBER 1969












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1
44













.. .. ........







\V. P. LEBER, Governor-President

R. S. HAr'TLINE, Lieutenant Governor


PANAMA AL
Aftt


MORGAN E. GOODWIN, Press Officer
Publications Editors
THIEODORE BARRINGTON, TO.MAS A. CUPAS


Editorial Assistants


FRANK A. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTI
Canal Information Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. P. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE T
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should he mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.


Jndex


Panama Golf Club_ _

Pifiatas -_ _

New Lieutenant Governor

Panama's Boat Builders

Anniversaries _..

Canal History __.

Chiriqui Highlands

Modern Medicine __.

Work Down Under ..

Shipping Story, Statistics

Shipping Notes ---


about Our Cover


2 THE PAINTING on the cover of this issue of THE
PANAMA CANAL REVIEW shows an area of 50th Street
6 in Panama City during 1925. Today, this region is

9 part of the Panama Golf Club. The original painting
is the work of Louis Celerier, a retired professor who
----- ------- 10 lives in Longview, Tex. Celerier is French by birth
but is a naturalized citizen of Panama.
. . 12
Beginning on this page is an article about the
13 Panama Golf Club, telling how it started with little
more than a bohio and a cow pasture, as shown on
_____--______ 14 the cover. Enthusiastic love of the game plus imag-
18 nation on the part of a few persons served as vital
ingredients in building it into the beautiful layout
.--- -- 21 it is today.
The Canal Zone's new Lieutenant Governor, Col.
24
Richard Sides Hartline, and his family are introduced
--.--.-------- 27 to our readers in an article on page 9.


THEY'RE NOT JUST


GOLF: A game widely played since
the 15th century, by gentlemen driv-
ing, putting, whacking, or otherwise
devastating a little white ball whose
role is to follow a fixed trajectory
across a course and terminate by
plopping into a small hole in the
center of a green. This sport, of
no mean skill, provides 20th cen-
tury man with three basic needs-
to excel, to expound, and to explode.
-Golfer's Dictionary.
That daffynition failing, it should
be rephrased to more accurately
mirror the game's magnetism: "There
is thinking about playing it, there is
playing it, and then there is thinking
about having played it."
About 50 years ago, a few fellows


were sitting around Panama thinking
about playing it, without much play-
ing. So they began to weigh the
problem. When they decided it
wasn't overwhelming, they set about
to build a golf club. In the words of
John Westman, the proclamation
went something like this:
"When Admiral Johnston, General
Morrow, don Francisco Arias Paredes
and don Raul Espinosa, decided that
the pastures of Las Sabanas could be
transformed into a golf course, the
Duke jumped up on the bandwagon,
threw off a keg of Balboa Best
Brewed, and hollered, FORE!"
Thus was born the Panama Golf
Club, or, as it is known today, the
Club de Golf de Panama. S.A. The


exuberance of the Duke of Balboa
(the late Theodore McGinnis) as he
lent spirit to the commencement was
not a passing thing-except that he
passed it on to the members who fol-
lowed. Their enthusiasm can only be
expressed as passion. They swing,
and putt, and smile-or explode-
with equal equanimity. The difficulty
of exploding with equanimity is a
secret only a gentleman golfer knows.
Golfs affinity to explosions, at the
Panama Golf Club or alny other, is
not recent. In fact, it may have all
started because of an explosion. In
15th century Scotland, the parlia-
ment of King lames II decreed that
" golfe is to be utterly cryed
down, and not to be used-the


NOVEMBER 1968


Panama


EL, FANNIE
. TUtON







sporte interferes with the practise
of archerie-an essential defence of
the realme." But as the end of that
century drew closer to an end, gun-
powder was invented and suddenly
archery declined-so much so that
by the time James IV came along in
1473 he was an avid golfer. Forty
years later, even Mary, Queen of
Scots was teeing off.
The sport thus has a noble back-
ground, and somewhat like the Nobel
Prize, got started more because of
-rather than with-a bang. But not
at the Panama Golf Club. They
were not going to wait around too
long before they could get a game
up-and they did-with one hole, a
bohio, and a cow pasture. They
played on sand greens. They fenced
out cows. They scratched-(chig-
gers). They saw their precious
sand greens washed away every
time it rained. Thev built them back
up. They added others. And-they
played golf.
Besides Westman himself, who
was treasurer of the club for 45
years, there were many mainsprings
in the early club-among them Col.
Jay J. Morrow (later to become
governor of the Canal Zone), Johnny
Putter (the famous journalist Jules
Dubois) and the already-mentioned
Duke of Balboa (manager of the
forerunner to today's Cerveceria
Nacional.) With the spirited imag-
ination and wry humor so character-
istic of golfers, they went ahead im-


.

a ..



.- *.. .
.. ". .. ... ..
*. .. *, .
S.-- -r "
-* "- .* "* .


"""s ". -- .',--." .".
Expert Alberto Sarra (he's the Club pro) and current Panama Golf Club Woman's
champion Fusae Takahashi team up for some twin-putting. Sarra has been
instrumental in further professionalizing the course layout.


It was a sizable problem. But, as
with Col. Morrow directing the re-
pair of sand greens, there always


sweet-for the knowledge of having
built the club from nothing. The
original club site was on what is now


PUTTING AROUND


proving their club until the game be-
came cowless, chiggerless, and a man
could exult or explode at the pure
game itself and not at the vagaries
of nature.
"But not overnight," Westman
adds, "did all this happen." With
a twinkle in his eye, this septuagena-
rian golfer who still plays the game
and plays it well, relates some of
the early club problems with fond
memory, ". although we weren't
so fond of some of the problems we
had. Take the chiggers. Now, you
know what kind of concentration a
good golf shot takes. Can you imag-
ine trying to make a drive when
you're one massive itch? That's how
many chiggers we had!"

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


seemed to be somebody in the mem-
bership with the answer. Chiggers
became the project of Dr. William
M. James.
"He had an effective, if powerful,
solution," Westman says. "Before we
went out to play, we would lather
our bodies with a mixture of sul-
phur and Lifebuoy soap. That kept
the chiggers off-i assure you. They
left right away. But you never knew
if your wife would let you in the
house that night. Doc James' lather
was a little stronger than modem
insect-repellant."
But later, as the course grew
greener and the members' tenacity
began to pay off in other improve-
ments, the playing became twice as


Calle 86-A. The present site, close-
by, covers 155 beautiful acres and
is a course the pros rave about.
The clubhouse was built in 1931,
has been expanded since with a com-
plete pro shop, and ranks with some
of the finest clubs in the world.
Since the early club was built,
and as it later developed into the
present one, there has never been a
lack of incident, nor the good humor
to face problems with grace as well
as courage.
"Col. Morrow was particularly of
this bent," Westman says. "His
humor was extra dry, even for a
golfer. Once, B. C. Poole drove out
(See p. 4)


wool









PUTTING AROUND


(Continued from p. 3)
for a game in a PanCanal govern-
ment car. He parked it right out
front, came in, and got his clubs.
When he walked out, Col. Morrow
was standing next to Poole's car,
dusting off the PanCanal emblem
with a handkerchief. 'You want to
always keep that symbol pretty, B.
C.,' the colonel said. Poole stopped
short, turned back into the club-
house, came back out and drove the
car to his office. He returned 20
minutes later-in his own car."

Westman's Anecdotes
Westman's anecdotes about the
old club are innumerable, but the
best ones he tells are on himself. At
an all-male luncheon held at the end


of a tournament one year honoring
those members who had taken part
in the official preparation for it, he
rose at the table after the others had
listed their various distinctions,
and said:
"I'm delighted that each of you
had a particular role to fill in this
last tourney, but you're probably un-
aware that this year my function was
unique-a distinction not likely ever
to be equaled in this club."
The heads at the table turned,
wondering what the distinction could
be. Westman told them. "I saved
eight of your wives from possible
death by drowning, or panic, at the
party last night."
The heads turned some more.
"Last night," Westman said, "at


about 2:30 a.m., there were screams
coming from the Ladies Room. I
mean-lots of screams. There was
4 inches of water on the floor. I
found the trouble, a stoppage in the
plumbing which I fixed-dressed in
my tuxedo. You're lucky I don't bill
the club for cleaning it." The mem-
bers roared, and thanked Westman
for his nocturnal chivalry.

Best-known Names
The club has had some of the
best-known names in Panama for
president, among them the late Louis
Martinz and Dr. Frank A. Raymond,
and Richard L. Dehlinger-the only
three ever elected to the post twice.
The presidency alternates between
a Panamanian and an "extranjero"


The front entrance to Panama Golf Club-a far cry from the Bohio it was in 1918.


NOVEMBER 1968


;nn '
aim
EFMr--







each year. Current president is
Geoffrey Lee, general manager of
Tabacalera Istmefia which is chief
sponsor of the Panama Open each
year. A native of England but a Pan-
ama resident for 12 years, Lee shoots
in the high 70's. He has only praise
for the evolution of the club from
early begimnings to the modem
facility it is today.
Club Pro Sarra
Part of the continuing improve-
ments have been due in the last 5
years to Club Pro Alberto Sarra,
an Argentinian who came with
plans of only staying a year, and
has remained five.
"He's turned our club from a
good one to a better one-to one the
pros rave about," Lee says. "The only
thing is, I hope we can hold
onto him."
Sarra redesigned several tees,
greens and traps and laid out new
landscaping for some areas. The re-
sults are such that Lee says of him:
"He's a fine golfer, knows the game
intimately, but his first love is build-
ing or improving golf courses. He
does exactly that."
Continuing accomplishment and
loyalty permeate the Panama Golf
Club. For example, there is Mrs.
Norma L. de Crisopulos, accountant
and all-round administrative girl for
26 years. For a long time, she and
Westman just about ran the club,
but now-with a membership of al-
most 600-Norma has two assistants.


La Touche, Another Landmark
Another landmark at the club is
Aubrey La Touche, who has been
with them 40 years. He has been
everything-bartender, waiter, chauf-
feur, and locker room attendant.
"When you want to get it done-see
Aubrey," is the byword. Another
loyal employee is waiter Gooding
McMillan, with 24 years' service.
Current Officers
Current officers are Alfonso Brid,
vice president; Dr. Juan Correa, sec-
retary; and Bob Chandler, treasurer.
President Lee has been on the
14-member board in the past, and
has served in various committee
responsibilities.
The club, celebrating its 50th
Anniversary this year, will host the
1968 Central American Golf Tour-

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


I





Winner and still champ-John Westman, long-time patriarch of the club, holds up
one of its many trophies. Owner of Office Service Co., Westman joined the club
when it was 1-year old in 1919, and served as treasurer for 45 (count' em) years.


nament this month. Teams of eight
from each of the six Central Amer-
ican nations will compete. A busy
week of activity is slated, including
formal flag ceremonies of the par-
ticipating countries, dances, parties,
and of course, a celebration awarding
the prizes.
Probably playing in this tourna-
ment will be Anibal Galindo, pres-
ent club champion, and Jaime de la
Guardia, whom Lee calls the finest


Geoffrey Lee, current president of the
Panama Golf Club, and general man-
ager of Tabacalera Istmneiia, is just
completing a year's term as Club prexy.


player on the Isthmus. Sandy Hinkle
and Roberto DurAn just finished
representing Panama in the Domi-
nican Republic Invitational Tourna-
ment, where they placed third in
a field of 20 countries.

Club's Woman Champ
The club's woman champion is
Fusae Takahashi, 21-year-old daugh-
ter of_ the Japanese Ambassador to
Panama, also a member.

Best of Pros
The best of the pros have played
the Panama course, and Arnold
Palmer played in one of his first
major tournaments here in 1957. The
club has had an Open every year
since 1952, when Sam Snead and
Roberto DeVicenzo competed. Plans
are going ahead for the 1969 tourna-
ment, which is expected to be
played the week before Carnival.
As always, there will be players in
this Open excelling, expounding and
exploding-but then, that is what
good golf is all about-if done with
equal equanimity. At the Panama
Golf Club, a player never loses it.
TBB.


00%L









you Can't I eat Plhatas


- iw


IPT'T" '
'Y :*f4
^ S^
? *^^a~~i


ANYONE WHO has ever been to a
children's birthday party in Latin
America knows how much joy is gen-
erated by a festive-bedecked object
suspended from the ceiling, a bal-
cony, or the branch of a tree on the.
patio. Hidden within the trappings
of this brightly colored creation,
which may look like a bird, an ani-
mal, a fish, or any number of things,
is a treasure chest of surprises. The
treasure chest is called a "pifiata."
In it are many kinds of candy, fruits,
nuts, and even small toys for the
young guests.
Usually made of paper mach6
and filled to the brim with these
goodies, the pifiata holds the promise
of magic for the intent youngsters
who hit at it over and over again
with a lowly broomstick. And, oh,
what excitement and merriment


when it is finally broken by the vio-
lent thrust of a stick-wielding attack-
er, its contents spilling to the floor,
and the frantic scramble for goodies
is on!
The pifiata originated in Italy,
probably in the early 16th century,
when people used to think up home-
type amusements. They played
guessing games, told stories, present-
ed skits, and often played tricks on
a blindfolded player. In one of the
games, a cone-shaped earthenware
pot, containing goodies of the day,
was suspended from the rafters,
swung around a bit, and broken with
a stick. The Italians called it pignat-
ta, from pigna, which means "pine
cone-shaped."
Italian adventurers took the pig-
natta custom to Spain and there it
became pifiata. The Spanish pifiata


was an ordinary clay pot, the "olla"
used for food or water. The rough,
unsightly olla often was camouflaged
by putting figures around it. These
probably were the first efforts to dec-
orate the squatty round pot which
evolved into the myriad of elaborate
pifiatas of today.
The Spaniards gave the pifiata a
religious significance and designated
the first Sunday in Lent as Pifiata
Sunday. The pifiata was broken at a
masquarade ball on that day with
the treats tumbling down on the
masked dancers.
As time went on, the pifiata cus-
tom waned in Spain but became pop-
ular in Latin America. Probably, it
came with the Spanish explorers to
the New World about 400 years ago
-most likely to Mexico first.
Although it has undergone changes


NOVEMBER 1968


. .


~'-''?C








. Unlei you're Strong enough


Guests are warned to give the stick-wielding player ample swinging room as Guillermo Eduardo Bricefio, son of Dr. and Mrs.
Alejandro Bricefio J. of Panama City, takes his turn at breaking the windmill pifiata at his birthday party.


in structure since its humble begin-
ning, the pifiata game has remained
more or less the same. The custom
continues in Spain and Italy and has
spread to man)' other countries, such
as Portugal, British Honduras, sev-
eral South American countries (west
coast), all of Central America, Pan-
ama, Mexico, the United States, and
Canada.
History shows that in Mexico the
pifiata retained its religious conno-
tation, but instead of a Lenten tra-
dition it became, with the passing of
years, a Christmas festivity. The pi-
fiata came to be associated with the
posada, the procession of neighbors
which takes place the nine nights
before Christmas and symbolizes the
Holy Family's struggle to find shel-
ter. The group goes from house to
house and is refused lodging until
it is welcomed at the last house.
Here, the pifiata is broken and every-
body gets a treat.
While often a fun activity for
children, the pifiata also is enjoyed

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


by adults. In areas of northern Italy,
for example, three piiiatas are filled
-one may contain ashes or flour, the
second, water, and the third will
have the goodies. To the delight of
the onlookers, the blindfolded play-
er can only guess which of the three
he should aim for. Guests are warned
to give the broomstick-wielder plenty
of "swinging room."
In another variation of the game,
the entire contents of the pifiata go
to the one who succeeds in breaking
it. In this version, an extra-hard
baked clay pot is probably used.
In Venezuela, a beautifully dec-
orated, bell-shaped pifiata of paper
mach6 or cardboard is filled with
rice and suspended near a doorway.
With a pull of a ribbon, newlyweds
passing through the door are show-
ered by a cascade of rice. The tradi-
tional birthday pifiata in this South
American country is large and very
elegant.
In Costa Rica, the pifiata has re-
tained its colonial simplicity. A clay


pot, brim-filled with goodies, is still
the usual custom at children's par-
ties and only recently have the dec-
orated paper mach6 or cardboard
variety of pifiatas appeared at Costa
Rican parties.
,-The broomstick is missing from
the Cuban pifiata, and the children
pull at gay ribbon streamers attached
to the paper mach6 pifiata which
virtually pours out its contents with
each yank at the streamers.
In Guatemala, as in Mexico, the
pifiata is associated with the posadas,
and in both countries the clay pot
is still the thing. At Christmas time,
a party is not a real party without
a pifiata. Of special interest is the
Judas pifiata which appears in cer-
tain parts of Mexico the day before
Easter. Armed with sturdy sticks, the
Mexicans figuratively, and almost
literally, beat the devil out of Judas.
A most charming surprise is a
pifiata used in Ecuador where two
or three beautifully decorated figures
(See p. 8)







Pinatas

(Continued from p. 7)
are hung together for the fiesta. One
or two contain the usual goodies.
The other, when shattered, liberates
live birds! Imagine the children's
shouts of glee at the flutter of wings
Another lovely pifiata custom for
a young lady's 15th birthday party
is a basket-shaped pifiata filled with
roses.
In Panama, the pifiata is always
found at children's parties and fre-
quently at baby showers and fare-
wells, and just about any fiesta.
Starting about 20 years ago, the pa-
pier mach6 and bag version of the
pifiata began to replace the "olla de
barro." Several pifiata makers, work-
ing in their homes or at their places
of business, are presently supplying
at least five or six specialty shops in
Panama City with beautifully execut-
ed pifiatas in a variety of shapes and
color combinations ranging from
elaborate airplanes and rabbits to a
simple decorated paper bag. Should
a particular shaped pifiata not be
readily available, expert hands will
create the appropriate one for the
season or the occasion.
In recent years, United States
tourists in Panama have discovered
the gay and delightful pifiatas and
have taken them home. Panama
shops are proud of filling pifiata or-
ders for customers as far away as
Ohio and New York City and cities
in South America. It has been found
that the attractive pifiata, filled with
small gifts, goodies of all kinds and
gag gifts, is an excellent way to get
a party on its way or to spread good
cheer during the holidays.
A pifiata provides fun and gives
the participants an opportunity to
break something-at times, a most
satisfying experience. Because of the
unlimited range of shape, color, and
content, the pifiata may be adapted
to almost any festive occasion.
Perhaps the easiest way to make
a pifiata is the balloon and paper
mach6 method: blow up a big bal-
loon and tie a knot at the neck. Hang
it up and cover the balloon with
four of five layers of paper machb.
After this has dried, let the air out
of the balloon and remove it. Cut a
hole at the top big enough to receive


Jeffrey Morgan, broomstick in hand, looks on as his little friends scramble for the
lollipops that have just spilled from the pifiata at his birthday party. Jeffrey is the
son of Mr. and Mrs. Richard Morgan of Los Rios.


the candy and small gifts. Tie a criss-
cross of heavy twine around the pi-
fiata, gathering the long ends of the
twine at the top. Put more paper
mache over this, and when it is dry
decorate it with brightly colored
crepe paper.
For those who know how to work
with paper mach6, it is the ideal
method for making pifiata animals
and figures. There are no rules and
no color specifications. Imagination
has no limit, and the resulting pifiata
is so beautiful that the guests are

111W .


often sorry to break it. A paper
mach6 pifiata is much harder to break
than the earthenware pots. This
provides opportunities for more tries
at spilling the treasure chest inside.
Another method for making a pi-
fiata is by using a large, strong paper
bag and cardboard, and anything
that can be sewed, stapled or glued
to it to give it shape and make it
sturdy. The bag, when decorated
with crepe paper, can be converted
(See p. 26)


Cardboard, glue, crepe paper, and deft hands at work making the fun-giving pifiata.
Mrs. Araceli Diaz also makes party favors seen on shelf at right.


NOVEMBEn 1968








New Lt. Gov.



Arrives at



Crucial Time


AT NOON on October 11, Col.
Richard Sides Hartline, serving as
Acting Governor of the Canal Zone
for the first time since his arrival
8 days earlier, attended a military
ceremony at Old Panama at which
command of the Panama National
Guard changed hands.
At midnight, he was in conference
with Washington by telephone, re-
porting on the military coup which
brought about a change of govern-
ment in the Republic. The events
posed high-level decisions by the
United States, with the Canal Zone
suddenly becoming a temporary ref-
uge for the principal figures of the
ousted regime.
It was a swift introduction for the
new Lieutenant Governor to the oft-
times unusual responsibilities of his
new post in a unique area-the
Canal Zone.
He and his family had just settled
in their new home at Balboa Heights.
For Mrs. Hartline it had meant a
change-over from suburban living in
the Washington, D.C., area; for Colo-
nel Hartline, the change-over was
from duty in Vietnam.
A tall professional soldier engineer,
Colonel Hartline has been on the
move ever since he was graduated
from the U.S. Military Academy at
West Point in 1945. He has served
in the Philippines, Okinawa, Ger-
many, Korea and Vietnam. He was
born in Goshen, N.Y.
Mrs. Hartline, the former Harriet
Dicke, was born in Salt Lake City,
Utah, but lived most of her youth
in Allentown, Pa., and Boston, Mass.
She met her husband while he was
studying for his master's degree in
civil engineering at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.
Their son Douglas, who soon will
be 17, was born in Albuquerque,

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Lt. Gov. and Mrs. Richard Sides Hartline, with their daughter, Nancy. For Mrs.
Hartline and their children, Nancy and Douglas, this is the first time they have
made their home in the tropics.


N. Mex., and their daughter Nancy,
12, arrived when the Hartlines were
stationed on Okinawa.
The family has a wide variety of
interests. Colonel Hartline, who
played football and lacrosse when
he was at West Point, now favors
handball. He promptly found other
handball enthusiasts on the Isthmus
and had a game lined up soon after
his arrival.
Mrs. Hartline modestly describes
herself as an average housewife and
mother. She is a self-taught seam-
stress and an enthusiastic gardener,
but her deepest interest is in
painting, a hobby she took up in
Germany.
Son Douglas has an overpowering
enthusiasm for football. A star mem-
ber of the football team at Annandale
High School, near Washington, he
will join his parents on the Isthmus


after the stateside football season is
over. He will be a senior at Balboa
High School.
Daughter Nancy already is en-
rolled in the seventh grade at
Curundu Junior High. Okinawa-
born, Nancy is in line as the second
member of a Canal Zone Lieutenant
Governor's family to obtain a U.S.
citizenship certificate here.
Another member of the Hartline
family is to be residing soon at the
Lieutenant Governor's house at Bal-
boa Heights. He is Mrs. Hartline's
father, Henry Dicke, a lively 87-year-
old retired corporation executive
and engineer. He also has traveled
extensively in Iran as a consultant.
This is the first time that the
entire Hartline family will be to-
gether outside the temperate zone.
Their first reaction: Love at first sight
with the Isthmian landscape.








Boatbuilders of Panama


"OS BARCOS pesqueiros da INA-
PE foram fabricados pelos estaleiros
DECO MARINE S.A.-do Panama.
A Deco d indtistria de muito res-
peto. Seu know-how e da melhor
importacao."
That was from "O Cruzeiro," the
mass circulation Brazilian magazine,
and translates: "INAPE's fishing
boats were built by the DECO MA-
RINE S.A. shipyards-in Panama.
Deco is a highly respected industry.
Its know-how is of the highest
importance."


In all of Central America, there
is nothing that equals Deco Marine.
Started 8 years ago as a ship re-
pair facility, it has expanded in the
last 2 years into a full-fledged ship-
yard specializing in fishing vessels-
and its reputation is now known
throughout the hemisphere.
"O Cruzeiro's" tribute to Deco's
know-how is a good example of how
this has been achieved. When Bra-
zil's fishing industry asked for designs
for its growing fleet of shrimp trawl-
ers, Deco Marine's plans were chosen


FISHING VESSELS FOR BRAZIL-At Deco Marine shipyard in Panama City,
Panamanian craftsmen trained in the shipyard are building three fishing boats for
a Brazilian company.


in competition with 37 others from
Latin American, European and
United States bidders. Deco's know-
how was the key.

Unique Chill Tanks
A unique feature of the Deco-built
fishing vessels is the chill tanks for
storing the catch while the boat is at
sea. Deco has patented a glass-fiber
tank so well insulated that even in
the case of compressor failure the
water temperature in the tank loses
only 1 to 2 degrees in 5 days. Every
boat being built by Deco for Brazil's
INAPE-Industria Nacional de Pes-
ca-will carry 10 of these tanks, each
with a capacity of 2,200 pounds.
Another feature of Deco-built boats
is that they can be converted from
shrimp trawlers into purse-seiners
in just 2 days.
The three vessels now being
constructed in the Deco shipyard
for Brazil are scheduled for delivery
in early 1969. Eventually, Deco may
build as many as 30 boats for INAPE,
ranging from 76- to 100-footers at
an average cost of $100,000 each.
Already, Deco is eyeing boat
building contracts in El Salvador,
Ecuador, Venezuela and possibly
Nicaragua.
10-Acre Site
The Deco shipyard covers 10 acres
in San Francisco de la Caleta, a sub-
urban section of Panama City. It is
located on the only spot along the
entire Pacific coast of the Isthmus
that has a rock-bottom basin and a
natural rock-bottom channel to sea.
Texas-Born Contractor
The choice of the site for the
shipyard is typical of the way Joseph
M. "Mike" Byrne does things. A
Texas-born contractor who came to
the Isthmus 30 years ago, he was
in the paint business for years until
his interest switched to fishing ves-
sels. This occurred in about 1960
when shrimp fishing became the fast-
est growing industry in Panama.
Like many others, Byrne was aware
that there were no haul-out facilities
for the mushrooming shrimping fleet.
Boats had to be careened on the


NOVEMBER 1968








beaches for repairs; laying a keel or
replacing a shaft or a propeller were
next to impossible.
Finding the 10-acre site was the
first break for Byrne. Buying the land
from the various owners was a com-
plicated process, but Deco finally
became the sole title-holder to the
10 acres.
A Modest Beginning
Operations began on a modest
scale, limited to repairs of small
boats-one at a time. The original
work force numbered seven men.
One 80-ton cradle was all that was
available for drvdocking vessels.
Deco's expansion started when
Byrne brought into his organization
A. J. "Tony" Ghiloni, a graduate
naval architect from California with
40 years' experience in the design and
construction of fishing vessels. Ghil-
oni had operated his own shipyard in
Puntarenas, Costa Rica, before com-
ing to Panama to work for a shrimp-
ing firm. When the latter went out
of business, Ghiloni joined Deco.
It was the use of fiber-glass in the


manufacture of chill tanks, vents,
stacks, and sinks that started Deco's
reputation growing. These Deco-
made installations proved so superior
to those made of galvanized iron
that as word of them spread among
the fishing companies, orders poured
in-and Deco's reputation grew.
Deco Builds and Repairs
So did its customers. Deco Marine
provides repair and maintenance
services for U.S. Armed Forces sea-
going craft and for tuna clippers and
yachts. It also builds sand and
oil barges, ferry boats, launches,
and unsinkable fiber-glass lifeboats.
About 2 years ago, the Panama Re-
finery contracted with Deco Marine
for the maintenance of all its vessels.
This required substantial expansion
of the shipyard facilities which in
turn led to shipbuilding operations.
It was typical of Deco that the
first steel-hulled shrimp trawlers it
turned out for local companies were
better than any other operating in
these latitudes. Their biggest feature
was a marked increase in efficiency
-the Deco boats could fish at 100


fathoms in comparison with the 35
fathoms that was the maximum foi
the small wooden trawlers then in
use. This was achieved by increasing
the length from 50-60 feet to 76
feet and up, installing more power-
ful engines, hydraulic winches, and
enough cable to shrimp at a depth
of 100 fathoms.
In the past 2 years, Deco Marine
has turned out about 25 fishing ves-
sels. And its spectacular growth
seems to have no limit in the fore-
seeable future.
More Than 40 Boats a Year
Deco now is equipping to build
40-50 vessels a year and-more im-
portant-has the business to reach
that capacity. It has cut construction
time from 13 months to 5. It can
handle 15 vessels simultaneously for
repairs and can accommodate boats
of up to 1,200 displacement tons.
Its work force numbers 200 men at
present-all of them Panamanians
trained in the shipyard by a "revolv-
ing school" system. When full capac-
ity is reached, the work force will
be more than doubled to 500 men.
The shipyard has become self-
sufficient with its own foundry, pro-
peller repair and balancing shop,
diesel engine overhaul shop, wood
mill, and machine shop. Plans are
underway to enlarge and length-
en the larger haul-outs. Safety-a
watchword at Deco-is being in-
creased by an addition to the break-
water protecting the drydocking
operations.


4- ^

Z^i '*//,


TONY AND MIKE-A. J. "Tony" Ghiloni, left, and Joseph Nh. "Mike" Byrn
the top men at Deco Marine. Ghiloni, a graduate naval architect, directs shipbu
and repair operations. Byrne founded Deco Marine and has made it the li
operation of its kind in Panama.


S High Caliber Work
The high caliber of shipwork
done by Deco is indicated by the
fact that its vessels are certified by
." the American Bureau of Shipping:
the efficiency of its work force by
the absence of a single major acci-
dent since the shipyard was estab-
lished; the growth of its operations
by the fact that Deco is now a $2
million facility.
At the age of retirement, Mike
g Byrne speaks with youthful enthusi-
S asm of bigger things to come at
Deco, his creation.
e are "I love action," is his simple
ildmig explanation. "And this is where the
action is."


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









ANNIVERSARIES

(On the basis of total Federal Service)


MARINE BUREAU
John A. Redway
Launch Dispatcher
Hubert A. Thompson
Clerk
Norman A. Bennett
Helper Electrician
Alvin A. Bracey
Seaman
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Pedro Urriola
Lead Foreman (Materials Handling)
Telfield D. Landers
Truck Driver
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
S EB
Emanue l re
Ba I
Mic a a t
A I en c Cle

Superv untm ance
Clerk
Azariah C. Coke
Clerk-Typist
Victoriano Ortega
Laborer (Heavy)
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Winfield Ford
Cargo Classification Specialist
Jos6 Arias
Leader Core-Drilling
Eric T. Nevers
Truck Driver
Sidney I. Brooks
Paver
Harris Campbell
Asphalt or Cement Worker


PERSONNEL BUREAU
James A. Yates
Supervisory Personnel Staffing and
Employee Relations Specialist
MARINE BUREAU
Thomas J. Ebdon, Jr.
Supervisory General Engineer
Leroy Griffiths
Cargo Classification Specialist
John Stephens
Motor Launch Operator
Eric A. Greene
Oiler-Floating Plant
Victor M. Luscap
Time and Leave Clerk
Wilfred E. Rawlins
Seaman
John B. Willis


Lock Operator (Operating Engineer-
Hoisting Equipment)
Cristopher L. Lynch
Helper Lock Operator
George Palmer
Linehandler
Irvin F. Headley
Oiler
Bernardo Frio
Oiler
Albert S. Hunter
Motor Launch Operator
Ervin A. Rolli
Guard Supervisor
Edward J. Friedrich
Chief Foreman Machinist (Marine)
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Henry L. Davis
Maintenanceman-Rope and Wire
Cable
Wilfred A. Melise
Guard
Ruben E. Douglas
School Bus Driver
W. W. Wellington

George A. Grimes
Chauffeur
Charles E. Chase
Leader Liquid Fuels Whar
Santos Estrada
Stevedore
Gilbert G. Wilson
Automotive Mecha
Fender)
Arthur A. Lewis
Truck Driver
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Lilias I. Hurley
Cargo Classification Specialist
John F. Manning
Program Manager (General Manager)
Walter G. Thorne
Field Tractor Operator
Kenneth T. Bowen
Truck Driver
Violet L. Cave
Sales Store Checker
Prince Bennett
Meat Cutter
Harry A. Dockery
Distribution Facilities Officer
Ulpiano Marmolejo
Cemetery Worker
LAzaro Martinez
Garbage Collector
Thomas H. Riley
Truck Driver
Fitzgerald White
Warehouseman


Sibert F. R. Haynes
Supervisory Supply Clerk
Wilfred A. Richards
Leader Crane Hookman
Herman A. Reid
Assistant Baker
Linton G. Roberts
Clerk
C. L. Brathwaite
Laborer (Heavy)
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
William H. Egger
Central Office Repairman
Lothen E. Boyd
Cement Finisher
Harold J. Charles
Hot Water Tank Repairman
William H. Fergus
Oiler-Floating Plant-Boom
Norton B. Stephenson
Administrative Assistant
Antenor J. de la Rosa
Leader Blaster
Clarence G. Wilson
Painter
Irvin C. Boyce
Station Light Serviceman

er ( at Plant)
C J. Br ne
upervisY neral Engineer
L el L. gh
ad F m (Facilities and
u. e Repair)
es s les

John E. Ridge, Jr.
Water System Operator
David Murrain
Pipelayer
Clyde E. Boxill
Painter
Ira G. Barber
Seaman
Eriberto Pascual
Seaman
Jose Alzamora
Leader Painter
Frederick D. Wade
Seaman
Cardinal E. Husband
Painter
Arthur A. Nedrick
Laborer
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
George Carrington
Swimming Pool Operator
Joseph S. Corrigan
Customs Inspector
Cleveland D. Ennis
Teacher (Senior High L.A. Schools)
(See p. 13)


NOVEMBER 1968









INANAL HISTORY


50 |yearJ 4go
IN OCTOBER 1918, an executive
order requiring the licensing of all
motor vehicle operators in the
Canal Zone was issued by President
Woodrow Wilson. The Canal Zone
Executive Secretary was empowered
to appoint examiners at Balboa and
Cristobal who would be responsible
for examining applicants for li-
censes, and make recommendations
to the Executive Secretary as to the
fitness of each applicant to operate
motor vehicles over the streets and
roads of the Canal Zone. This order
repealed earlier Isthmian Canal
Commission ordinances regarding
the same subject, which had been in
effect up to that time.

25 s ear c4go
JASCHA HEIFETZ, world-renowned
violinist, arrived on the Isthmus
to present a series of concerts
throughout the Canal Zone. Heifetz
had completed a concert tour in Pan-
ama 2 years previously, but returned
as part of a program to present name
entertainment to the military person-
nel stationed in the Canal Zone.
Lieutenant General George H.
Brett, Commanding General, Carib-
bean Defense Command, announced
November 2 a relaxation of censor-
ship bans for military personnel in
the area. Servicemen would now be
allowed to inform the folks back
home of their exact location in the
Caribbean, which was expected to
improve morale, as danger of attack
on the Canal waned.
The Atlantic Side War Bond Com-
mittee, headed by Arnold Bruckner
and coordinated by Ernest C. Cot-
ton, received the congratulations of
Canal Zone Governor Glen E. Edger-
ton for having tallied $1,535,503
in war bond sales from October 1942
through October 1943. This was the
first year that the War Bond Commit-
tee had been in operation on the
Atlantic side.
U.S.-citizen workers of the Canal
Zone were instructed to register for

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


. .


HOW IT WAS THEN-This is 1914 excavation for Balboa Terminals, Drydock No. 1.


the Selective Service in the fall of
1943. Canal Zone Executive Secre-
tary Frank H. Wang was named
Chief Registrar for this initial selec-
tive service registration.

10 yearS c4go
PAT QUINN, member of a well-
known Canal Zone family, was ap-
pearing in a Broadway play by Max-
well Anderson, "The Golden Six."
A graduate of Balboa High School,
Miss Quinn had been attending a
dramatics art college in New York
City when selected for the show.
Theodore Roosevelt Centennial
Week celebrations were climaxed by
a pageant, "The Ordeal of Mr.
Stevens, or Teddy Roosevelt Visits
the Isthmus," in which many res-
idents of Panama and the Canal Zone
took part. The event was held at the
Tivoli Hotel. Among the many guests
attending from the United States,
besides former construction day
workers, were the Honorable Maurice
H. Thatcher, sole surviving member
of the Isthmian Canal Commission,
and Mrs. Richard Derby, one of
President Roosevelt's three surviving
children.


One Year A4go
THE DIVISION of Preventive Med-
icine was completing preparations
for putting its new Mobile X-Ray
Unit into operation. The unit was to
be used to examine employees and
dependents at townsites and jobsites
throughout the Canal Zone for pos-
sible lung disease, on a rotating
basis. In this manner, the greatest
number of persons would be reached
for early detection of health prob-
lems and employees and their fam-
ilies would be benefited by its
inception.


ANNIVERSARIES
(Continued from p. 12)
HEALTH BUREAU
John Lewis
Medical Technician General
Cecil B. Walker
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and
Surgery)
William C. Allen
Medical Aid (Ambulances)
Wellington G. Myles
Leader Cook
Harold J. Morrison
Leader Hospital Food Service
Worker
Marcos A. Mufioz
Leader Laborer (Heavy Pest Control)









Highlands of Chiriqui...



Where Nature Unfolds


c..c
~5 -;.
A.X I' ''
A ~-m ~" '~


--+ -,lI- E" .
*jC^^**^- ".. '"^^ w*. ^ ff.r 1

.:


You almost have the Alps next door to you, if you live in Panama. Above is Curt
Hemmerling's chalet in Bambito, a "suburb" of Cerro Punta, where the elevation
is high enough to make you appreciate blankets at night.

Below is one of the rivers that lull you to sleep if you stay at the Dos Rios in Boquete.
The bridge in this photo cuts across the rear of the hotel, and beyond it, upriver
slightly, guests can see where two rivers channel into one.


V- a
'7* U
i ... _
pr. --^-


YOU GET INTO your automobile at
S o'clock in the morning, when the
tropical sun and humidity already
permeate the air. You drive through
the city amid its early-morning bustle
and noises-horns, vendors' babble
-and all the varying sounds of a
metropolis awake for another day of
activity. Gears grind, tires squeal,
and traffic cops' tempers rise faster
than the sun. You start and stop, veer
and wind, and eventually find your-
self on the outskirts of town, heaving
a sigh of relief. The city is wonderful,
but-intense as always.
Then, as you start to travel west-
ward on the winding Inter-American
Highway, the city retreats behind the
car and the countryside unfolds in
what yon imagine will be an endless
series of rolling hills, studded with
the sensuous vegetation of the trop-
ics. After all, this is Panama-land
of huge, tropical game fish, of intense
sunlight filtered through thick hazes
of humidity and swaying palmeras
that might have inspired the cumbia.
so closely do they mimic its rhythms.
This is the tropics; the very rain here
is a musical instrument.
But, if you travel far enough, and
not very far at that, you will find
yourself in a few hours climbing-
climbing farther and faster than )yo
realize, because the hills are gently
curved and rise subtly-ascending to
an elevation of 3,800 feet. As you
get about midway to that elevation,
you notice the countryside undergo
a change-the trees grow straighter,
truckloads of vegetable-produce and
other cool-climate crops pass by
you, and the tightness in your ears
suddenly tells you Panama is more
than the tropics.


Then, one final turn around the
midsection of a mountain, and the
gentle proof is unfolded to you like
the flower it is-Boquete-a little
town which marks the memory for-
ever. It opens up at the curve like
S a petal and though it were a deadly


NOVEMBER 1968




































Boquete-a valley of bouquets, where there are more flowers than blades of grass, where the pace of life is determined by
nature's slow and easy tide of seasons.


jungle flower you would risk its
embrace.
But no worry of that. Rather,
Boquete has more subtle weapons.
You spend a few days there in one
of its small hotels or pensions, sleep-
ing to the natural narcotic of its
musical streams (they are every-
where), eating as though you had
a new stomach (and eating well and
inexpensively), and wondering-what
happened to the tropics?
But-there is more. Boquete is just
nature's elegant introduction. Be-
\ond it, on the other side and farther
up the mountain, an encore awaits
you. Ascending a road which now
is no longer quite gentle and where
the word "town" loses meaning, you
enter a mountain forest almost pri-
meval in its beauty, cut through by
a single main road and studded with
a house here and there-or a Swiss
chalet-and other unlikely sights ap-
pear, such as miniature cattle drives.
an occasional vegetable farm, and a
"town" that resembles the one-street
community of the Old American
West.
This is Cerro Punta, an extinct vol-
canic crater and lakebed which rises
and falls across a 10-mile stretch and


is a cool 6,300 feet above sea level.
Slightly down the mountain from the
rolling surface of Cerro Punta whose
rich, black topsoil is 20-feet deep in
some places, are the "communities"
(usually of one or two houses, cabins
or chalets) of Bambito, El VolcAn
and the llanos. The combination of
these areas, only a short drive from
Boquete or David, is like the inner-
most depths of a primitive forest.
Few tourists are in evidence.
The local people are friendly, vig-
orous, and the pioneers among them
literally brought on their backs to the
area much of whatever is there. They)
could switch to mules only after a
road was built. The road opened the
way for new people and enabled the
beginning of the tiny community of
Cerro Punta itself, but the original
majesty of the land is virtually un-
changed from what it has been for
centuries-an untouched region of
sheer-faced mountains and valleys
that spin round and round in a dizzy
series of sights. The streams of Bo-
quete lull, those around Cerro Punta
roar; they are near-rivers whose rap-
ids crash upon gigantic rocks and
fling a challenge at the fishermen
who would dare cross. Not many do.


Thus, in a mere 7 hours, over a
brief 300 miles, a non-tropical wil-
derness is reached-from palmeras to
Panama pines, from tropical oity to
cool high-country-in less than a day.
The mean temperature is now 65,
instead of 85, and in the evening two
blankets feel good as the thermom-
eter sinks to a chilling 500. The
place is still Panama, but the cum-
bia's sensual beat now seems far off in
the tropical distance; at Cerro Punta
one imagines Strauss in the wind,
and the thunder of the streams could
have been written by Beethoven.
But mountains moving men is
rarely as impressive as the reverse.
At Boquete-Cerro Punta, men have
challenged a few. Around Boquete.
coffee grows straight up the side of a
mountain-or at least at so sharp an
incline your neck hurts as you tilt
your head back trying to see the peak
of the planted rows. Flowers, all
kinds of flowers, appear in strangely
wonderful places-on the faces of
concave hills, between rocks in
streams, and along the sidewalks of
the most humble residence. In Cerro
Punta, the dirt roads endlessly twist
the imagination in what it must have
(See p. 16)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
























I












The man of many legends-true ones-Glenn Lewis of Cerro Punta, of surveying for Lindbergh, of cutting through the brush
on foot in the 1920's, who came up to die-in 1938. His Oklahoma wife, Virginia, used to be a Peace Corps worker at Boquete.



Chiriqui Highlands


(Continued from p. 15)
been like to cut through this maze
the first time-when they even had
to turn the pack animals back, the
bush was so thick.
The men who helped uncover this
paradise are varied. The first of them
number less than a dozen, and those
who followed now represent, per
capital, the broadest cross-section of
national origins found in all of Pan-
ama. Boquete, for example, has 31
ethnic groups in its population of
13,000, with 50 percent of these first
generation. They include Ecuadorian
and Egyptian, Cuban and Canadian,
German and Jew, Eastern and Vest-
ern European, American, and of
course-Panamanian, besides many
others. Apart from native-born res-
idents, most of the other ethnic
groups have become Panamanian
citizens.


At sparsely settled Cerro Punta,
there also are Indians. When Glenn
Lewis, Curt Hemmerling and a hand-
ful of others came to the area in the
1920's, the only inhabitants were four
Indian families. During that decade
and the one following, other new-
comers arrived, and the names Shan-
non, Martinz, and others were added
to the list of patriarchs. They know
the area to the square inch, and their
love for it is wedded to a tacit pride
in having overcome it.
They are old people, these patri-
archs-chronologically. Some of them
even came up to Cerro Punta to die-
30 years ago. They're still working at
it. Such "deaths" may be another 30
years in coming. Glenn Lewis, for
example, was told by his doctor in
1938 to retire and enjoy his ". .6
months to live." He had stomach
trouble, arthritis, and was smoking
three packs of cigarettes a day. I


asked him when he had his last
physical:
"That was my last, when I was
told to retire," he said. "So I went
up to the States and traveled 50,000
miles looking for a good place to
cave in. I had been to Cerro Punta
in 1924. After all that travel in the
States, I couldn't find a prettier place.
So I came back, built a home, and
'died' here."
He's still dying-at 75-smoking
the same three packs of cigarettes a
day, keeping his own hydroelectric
power plant in running order (which
he brought in on foot in 1938), run-
ning his own ham radio, and helping
"newcomers" John and Henryetta
\Vinklosky "feel set" (they started
in Cerro Punta in 1947 and are mere
youngsters in their sixties).
Lewis' reputation as a good neigh-
bor is outweighed only by his well-
found fame in many fields-sur-


NOVEMBER 1968







veyor, photographer-newsman, and
pilot. In 1924, he came to the Isth-
mus as a surveyor for the U.S. Army.
His job was to fly World War I "bom-
bers" (bi-wing paper kites) over
Panama and decide where landing
fields should be built for Charles
Lindbergh's newly planned Central
American airmail service. Lewis
found he couldn't see enough by air,
so he took to the ground. He cut his
way on foot from David to Cerro
Punta (50 miles), thence to Chiriqui
Lagoon, and finally, to the Costa
Rican Border (70 miles in all). He
had pack animals with him at first,
but turned them back when they
delayed his progress. The trip took
him 32 days. He got his surveys.
In the course of this task, he flew
with and photographed Lucky Lindy
many times, and the latter's first Cen-
tral American airmail service was
based on Lewis' surveys. Besides his
work there, Lewis was intrigued by
Cerro Punta, so in 1932 he bought
100 acres and built a fishing camp.
At the time, he owned Servicio Lewis
in Panama City, and along with do-
ing photographic publicity for the
Army and Navy, he was movie-news
representative in Panama for MGM,
Fox, and Pathe of New York and
Paris. He additionally made the first
educational films of the Panama
Canal for Eastman-Kodak, and took
many reptile pictures for Raymond
Ditmar's famous books on herpetol-
ogy. He also has filmed alligator
hunts, jaguar forays, and at the Ca-
nal in 1923, took the only photo-
graph ever shot of combined com-
ponents of the U.S. Atlantic and Pa-
cific naval fleets, which were in Pan-
ama Bay at the time for maneuvers.
This was with the old-style photo-
graphic equipment, but Lewis had
his enormous picture printed and
sold in 3 weeks, using 15,000 feet of
paper. His net: $7,000.
Besides these accomplishments
when he was "young," Lewis laid
down a few more after he "retired"
in 1938-one of them building a mile-
long airfield at Cerro Punta in 1955.
His other activities, besides traveling,
are endless. He hunts, fishes (his
251-inch, 54-pound trout is still
the record in the area), and drives
back and forth to Panama frequently.
His first wife died a few years ago,
and he is now married to the former
Virginia Lewis, whom he met when


John and Henryetta Winklosky, both recent retirees from Panama Canal, indicate
by their expression how they like Cerro Punta.


she was doing Peace Corps work in
Boquete. She's from Oklahoma, and
they recently celebrated their second
wedding anniversary.
Trout fishing in Cerro Punta is
without par; they can still be taken
two on a line. (Again, the Lewis
touch; he flew the first trout eggs into
Cerro Punta on ice from the States.)
Hunting includes bandtail pigeons
and tapir, and for those willing to
go farther back in the bush-puma,
ocelot, jaguar, and deer. As to farm-
ing, crops in Cerro Punta are non-
tropical; all temperate zone crops
which do not require frost will thrive
there, and they are cash crops.
Besides pioneers Lewis, Matt
Shannon and the late Louis Martinz
(whose horse-breeding ranch is still
a landmark in the area), there is Curt
Hemmerling, who lives in Bambito,
one of the "suburbs" of Cerro Punta
which is a whole 3 miles down the
road-consisting of one house, his.
It's a Swiss chalet replete with the
many-peaked roof, the little windows
and the cozy rooms of its Alpine
counterparts. Even cool weather


goes with it; only the snow is missing.
Archeologist Hemmerling came to
the mountains in 1924 to do dig-
gings. He is a former Assistant Direc-
tor of Panama's Museo Nacional,
and most of the early archeology of
Panama was done by him. Thousands
of his finds are on display at Pan-
ama's museum and at institutions in
other countries. He also raises coffee
-14,000 trees- and is a great teller
of tales of Cerro Punta. Over a late-
evening glass of wine in front of the
fireplace, he will fuel your imagina-
tion with his memory.
There are other old people at
Cerro Punta, and they're proud of
the word. Their youthful spirit scorns
the euphemism, senior citizen. They
may not have found the Fountain of
Youth, but mountains have proved
more healing than the waters of the
old legend. Spirit abounds in Cerro
Punta. The faces, the voices, the
friendliness, reflect the natural un-
spoiled splendor of the rivers and
streams, the lush valleys, and the
overpowering mountains whose
(See p. 26)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


iir"o








Jelpintg Vkem Walk,



c4nd eeive T lrouAt



I'odern Aedical Practice


IT TOOK 11 major operations to
enable Jorge G. to walk. After a
bed-ridden infancy, he now has the
opportunity to grow up into a use-
ful citizen. And little Moyra M., who
was born with the bladder outside
the abdomen, now has a chance to
grow up, able to achieve mother-
hood. The dark menace of hopeless-
ness in their lives has given way to
the brightness of promise.
Jorge and Moyra are among the
many beneficiaries of the Panama
Canal Health Bureau's teaching pro-
gram which is an integral part of the
training curriculum for intern and
resident physicians-in effect at Gor-
gas and Coco Solo Hospitals for
many decades now. Generally un-
known to the public, the program has
resulted in case after case of out-
standing medical assistance to men,
women, and children in Panama.
When 10-year-old Jorge came to
Gorgas Hospital in mid-1966, he was
doomed to the life of a helpless crip-
ple. The rheumatoid arthritis he had
developed at one and one-half years
of age severely contracted and stiff-
ened his knees, hips, and feet. He
could not bend his right arm and he
had contractures of the wrists and
fingers. No doctor had seen him for
7 years, and by the time he was
brought to the Orthopedic Service of
Gorgas he was completely bedridden.
Intermittently, for nearly 2 years,
Jorge underwent operations on his
feet, knees, hips, right elbow, and
right leg-11 operations in all. When
he was discharged not too long ago,
he was walking-with braces, yes,
but able to move by himself. Today,
he walks five blocks every morning
to school. While he probably will re-
quire some type of mechanical aid
the rest of his life, he is walking
alone-a vast improvement over the


I!


Walking again-even with crutches-is
a milestone for this lad. The Health
Bureau's Teaching-Case Program put
him on his feet again.

helpless condition in which he was
admitted to Gorgas.
Little Moyra's case came to the
attention of doctors the minute she
was born. She came into the world


in a Panama City hospital, doomed
to die before reaching adolescence,
for she was born with her urinary
bladder outside the abdomen, with-
out urethra and vagina, her pelvis
with no frontal bones. She had to
grow a few months before medical
science could do anything for her.
She was admitted to Corgas Hospi-
tal when she was 8 months old.
Though her case was primarily of
interest to the Urology Service, lit-
tle Moyra also was seen by pedia-
tricians and orthopedists. The former
evaluated her congenital defects and
the latter performed reconstructive
surgery to correct the lack of fusion
of her pelvic bones.
Two weeks after her admission,
urologists began the process of plas-
tic reconstruction of her defective or
missing organs. After a five and one-
half hour operation, her reconstruct-
ed bladder was in its natural position
under the frontal bones of the pelvis.
After 11 weeks in a body cast, Moyra
went back to the operating room for
the final reconstructive surgery. After
three major operations, little Movra
has gone home a normal "dry" baby
-the spectre of death before adoles-
cence banished.
These two cases, among the most
dramatic of recent "teaching cases"
in Gorgas Hospital, illustrate the
philosophy behind the Health Bu-
reau's program. One of the basic cri-
teria for admission of a "teaching
case" is the patient's inability to
pay, since the entire treatment is
provided absolutely free. Charity?
In a sense, yes. But the program
goes beyond charity-for-charity's-
sake. A second criterion is the non-
availability to the patient of treat-
ment in Panama. Finally-and this is
what sets the program apart from


NOVEMBER 1968







mere charity-the caSe must have
teaching value from the medical
standpoint. This is of exceptional im-
portance, for the normal patient load
in Gorgas and Coco Solo Hospitals
does not always supply all the various
pathological and clinical conditions
required for the residency training
program. Through this program,
physicians-both staff and in train-
ing-apply diagnostic and therapeutic
techniques which they will use later
in their care of other patients.
Thus, Jorge was accepted because
his rheumatoid arthritis is rare among
children, and Moyra because her con-
genital abnormality of the urinary
bladder occurs about once in every
30,000 deliveries and was of the
most severe type.
Community Benefit
Implicit in the program is the dis-
tinct benefit to the communities to
which the hospitals provide care,
because the opportunity to minister
to unusual and severe cases and par-
ticipate in such an outstanding train-


ing program stimulates physicians to
join local medical staffs. This in-
evitably leads to higher professional
standards and a better grade of med-
ical practice. A stateside physician,
for example, has little opportunity
nowadays to treat a case of tubercu-
losis of the spine. At this writing, sev-
eral such cases in varying degrees of
severity, have been treated in the
Orthopedic Service in Gorgas, all re-
quiring removal of diseased body
tissue at the vertebrae and spinal
fusions. Three of the cases, inciden-
tally, were Guaymi Indian girls.
Treatment of such cases, even if in-
frequently found in future practice,
provides the involved physicians
with such detailed knowledge of
spinal anatomy and makes them so
familiar with these particular tech-
niques of surgery that they can
apply them with great benefit to
other conditions affecting the same
part of the anatomy. Thus, the direct
benefit to the three Guaymi Indian
girls will later prove of value to


AND SHE'LL BE NORMAL-This tiny lass was born with major congenital birth
defects, which the Teaching-Case Program corrected. Without such treatment, she
either would not have lived or would have survived with tremendous handicaps.


other patients with diverse conditions
of the spine requiring surgery and
fusion.
As is to be expected, there is a
much more active training program
at Gorgas than at Coco Colo Hospi-
tal. But the requirements are the
same for teaching-cases. The pro-
gram has made Gorgas a teaching
hospital the equal of any in the
United States, and has thus helped
to make available on the Isthmus
medical care comparable to that
practiced in the most outstanding
centers in the United States

Valuable Teaching Cases
It is important to understand that
a teaching program has been in
existence at Gorgas Hospital for at
least 40 years. It started when in-
terns were first recruited for service
at Gorgas Hospital and then was
gradually enlarged to include resi-
dents in training. The bulk of the
teaching cases comes from among
patients-United States and Pana-
manian citzens-who are eligible for
care and medical facilities in the
Canal Zone. It is only the unusual
cases, those which are difficult to
diagnose or which present problems
in treatment, that come from Pan-
ama. Through the program, these
patients are helped and at the same
time the clinical experience of the
physicians in training in enlarged.

Massive Goiter Removed
Mrs. Eduarda R. came to Gorgas
Hospital with a massive goiter, her
thyroid gland enormously distended.
The normal dimensions of the gland
are about two and one-half inches in
diameter. The weight of the massive
growth caused her to stoop and she
could hardly swallow or breathe. The
case was taken to the Nuclear Med-
icine Section, but the goiter was far
too advanced for treatment with ra-
dioactive iodine. It took 6 months of
inpatient and outpatient treatment
to bring Mrs. R's health back in
balance for surgery. When the goiter
was finally removed, it was found to
be the largest ever taken out at Gor-
gas Hospital in the memory of vet-
eran physicians, and of a size rarely
(See p. 20)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









Helping Them Walk, Live


(Continued from p. 19)
recorded in medical textbooks. Mrs.
R. has recovered.
Plastic surgery of cleft lips-a con-
genital defect-is not an easy job,
particularly if the palate also is in-
volved. Under the teaching pro-
gram, several cases of this type have
been successfully treated, most of
them in San Bias Indian babies. This
condition is only occasionally en-
countered in a population the size
of that in the Zone. The opportunity
to see and treat these additional cases
will make physicians in Canal Zone
hospitals more adept in their treat-
ment of future patients.
Snake-Bite Victim
Snake-bite incidents are always of
interest to the medical profession.
One such case was that of Rengifo
A., an Indian boy about 12 years old.
He was bitten by a fer-de-lance below
the right knee while farming in the
Madden Lake area. Neighbors ap-
plied a very tight grass tourniquet on
his leg. It took hours to get him to
the hospital, and during that period
the tourniquet was not loosened. By
the time he was admitted, gangrene
had set in. Young Rengifo recovered
from the effects of the venom, but
his leg had to be amputated where
the tourniquet had been placed. At
the end of his treatment, which
lasted 170 days, Rengifo walked out
of the hospital with an artificial leg.
Not all of the patients treated
under the resident training program
start out as "teaching cases." Eduar-
do B., 7 years old, the corneas of
whose eyes had been badly scarred
by an infection, was "adopted" by
the men of a U.S. Army company
who raised funds to send him to Gor-
gas. The first corneal transplant-a
surgery not frequent in Gorgas be-
cause of the lack of an eye bank
-proved unsuccessful. By that time,
funds raised by the troops had been
exhausted, so Eduardo was taken on
as a "teaching case." He has since had
a corneal transplant of the left eye
and a cataract extraction and has im-
proved, but still is under treatment
in the Ophthalmology Service.


Teaching Cases Are Varied
The variety of teaching cases is
such that every service of the hos-
pitals has them at one time or
another. When 8-year-old Luis E.,
from Escobal, Colon Province, was
operated on for the removal of bone
fragments pressing on a nerve, caus-
ing facial paralysis, it was only the
second time that such surgery was
performed in the Eye, Ear, Nose
and Throat Service of Gorgas. The
boy had suffered a skull fracture sev-
eral months earlier in a fall on a
wharf. The pieces of bone pressing
on the facial nerve paralyzed the
right side of his face. He couldn't
close his right eye-not even when
sleeping. It is only in the very re-
cent past that surgery of this type,
in this area, has become feasible.
Luis, still reporting for observation
once every 3 months, has now re-
covered 95 percent of his facial
functions.

Born Without Thumbs
Miriam P., now a teenager, was
born without thumbs and without the
radius bone in both arms. As a result
she could not grasp objects. Ortho-
pedic surgeons reconstructed the in-
dex finger in each hand into a thumb,
which involved moving the digit
from one position to the other. They
also fused the wrist bones. Miriam,
whose treatment has taken about
4 years, now can grasp objects with
her three fingers and thumb in each
hand.
These cases are but a few of the
many which show dramatically what
medicine can do for people today,
as well as the benefits for all involved
in the teaching program. A more
complete list of cases of outstanding
medical assistance under the pro-
gram in Gorgas Hospital alone
would include patients who recov-
ered from massive obstructive-dis-
tention of both kidneys, intersex
problems, clubfoot deformities, frac-
tures, wounds, post-polio complica-
tions, skin diseases-and many more.
They Come from Near and Far
The teaching case patients come
to the hospitals in diverse ways.


Sometimes the hospital's doctors dis-
cover them; sometimes they are re-
ferred by doctors in Panama who are
familiar with the teaching program
in the Canal Zone, or by missionary
doctors visiting remote areas in
the Republic; sometimes they are
brought in by their employers in the
Canal Zone.
Participants in the Health Bureau
teaching program are the interns and
resident physicians, under the guid-
ance and supervision of board-
certified specialists on the hospital
staffs. Depending on the specialty in
which they are training, residents
will spend anywhere from 2 to 4
years at Gorgas. At the end of train-
ing, they are board-qualified and
must pass an examination for board
certification, which is official rec-
ognition of their rank as specialists.
Far Reaching' Benefits
The growth of the teaching case
program in the Canal Zone hospitals
over the past 10 years bespeaks its
value. The benefits have been far-
ranging-for medical staffs, patients,
and communities. It is a program of
enormous impact on the health status
of the chronically and severely ill,
both in Panama and in the Zone.
For the patients from Panama, it
means care not normally available
to them for various reasons. To Zone
patients, it means new and improved
techniques which their physicians
would not ordinarily have learned in
their conventional care of patients.
To physicians, it means the opportu-
nity to see and treat diseases of a
type and severity they would per-
haps not see in a lifetime of prac-
tice. There is far more than the
broadening of their field of inter-
est and practice. Direct benefit to the
Canal Zone communities has been
through improvement of the quality
of medical care by providing train-
ing opportunities to interns and
residents and stimulation to staff
physicians.
Though conceived primarily for
its scientific value, the program has
happily developed into a people-to-
people project which has won last-
ing, and nicest of all, healthy friends.


NOVEMBER 1968

































GREASING JOB-Francisco Wason, oiler (kneeling) greases
sheave on the rising stem valve roller train chain. Leslie C.
McIntosh, oiler (standing) greases guide rollers on rising
stem crosshead.


A LITTLE-KNOWN underground
world exists "down under" that has
nothing to do with Australia or a
resistance movement. Those below
in this case are the men who work
down under the Panama Canal locks,
and who walk the labyrinths that
form a vital network thousands of
feet long under the locks' surfaces.
The operations of the locks fall
naturally into three parts-the con-
trol houses above ground level, the
operations on the ground that involve
the lock walls, and those down under.
The number of men assigned to duty
under locks varies. During an over-
haul period, some 950 extra em-
ployees may be hired, about 700 by
the Locks Division and some 250 by"
Maintenance. After the chambers
are drained, these men descend to
begin the actual overhaul which
involves maintenance and repairs.
But during the normal workweeks
it's a pretty quiet world down under.
About 20 maintenance men-paint-
ers, oilers, craftsmen and helpers-
usually work at each lock during the

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


day. On the night shift, six men who
handle service calls are assigned at
each lock. And there may be an oc-
casional boa or opossum down there,
but of course they're not on the
duty roster.
The lock operator leader, me-
chanical, and his counterpart, the
lock operator leader, electrical, have
the most responsible positions. Form-
erly, the leader, mechanical, was
"senior tunnel man" and the tunnel
still is his domain. But whatever the
title, the job entails quite a bit of
exercise, especially leg work.
Usually, the lock operator, me-
chanical, "goes for a walk" first thing
in the morning. He walks the length
of the tunnel on the first lockage and
checks to see that all machines are
operating properly. Since the lock
chamber is 1,050 feet and the tun-
nels extend another 300 feet at
either end of the chamber, it's a good
constitutional. All the locks have
essentially the same dimensions.
On duty at Miraflores Locks is
Oliver G. Paterson of Los Rios, lead-


er lock operator, who is the senior
in this position on the Pacific side
of the Isthmus. His U.S. Government
service dates to 1939.
At Pedro Miguel, the supervisor
of leader locks operators in main-
tenance work, Joe Young, has service
that dates from 1941. Leader lock
operator Creg Cramlich's service also
goes back to that year. A close sec-
ond in length of service is Ray F.
Hesch, also a leader lock operator,
whose service dates to 1942.
The dean of leader lock operator
machinists at Gatun Locks is Daniel
A. Lawson, whose service dates
to 1936.
Their underground duty stations
are compact. There's a desk, clip-
boards that hold inspection schedules
for the start of each shift, and hand-
tools for small repairs, filing, or
small assembly operations.
The leader lock operator, electri-
cal, has duties similar to those of his
colleague, except that in his case the
work involves the intricate electrical
(See p. 22)


DOWN






UNDER






THE


S















rL>


'N





4


CENTER WALL TUNNEL, looking north, shows the long, long walk ahead of the tunnel workers. Lubricating boxes
are mounted on either side. Just beyond the lubricating boxes are the guards for the miter gate bullwheels.



They Work Down, Down Under


(Continued from p. 21)
equipment in the tunnels. At some
points, the machines and electrical
equipment are half a mile away from
the control house.
Each tunnel is divided horizontally
into three stories-the lower for
drainage, the middle for wiring and
the top as a passageway with bays
into which the machinery to operate
the locks is set. There are huge cast
steel bullwheels more than 19 feet
across, weighing 35,000 pounds and
mounted horizontally on a large cen-
ter pin. These open and close the
lock gates through a connecting arm.
In the next bay is the tiny 40-horse-
power motor which is able to oper-
ate the wheels, and in turn the gates,
through sharp gear reductions.
A 40-horsepower motor also is
used to operate the miter gate and
the rising stem valves.


The original machinery, installed
54 years ago by Panama Canal con-
struction workers, is still in use today.
For over half a century the original
rising stem valves have been in oper-
ation, the wheels have been turning,
the chain has been extended across
the locks chambers and then re-
cessed, and the little motors have
been doing the work. Only the motors
have undergone a slight change.
Once a 25-horsepower motor was
used, as a predecessor to the
40-horsepower motor.
Along the passageways down
under, there are the transformer
rooms at intervals, and in the center
-walls are float wells to determine
the depth of the water in each lock
chamber for the gages in the control
house.
Machinery for the chain fender, a
safety device to prevent a ship from


striking the miter gates, requires
periodic lubrication and is in a pit
approximately 70 feet deep. Stairs
go down most of the way, with the
last 20 feet traveled down a ladder.
The chain stretches across the lock
chamber and is worked by a hydrau-
lically operated system of cylinders
controlled remotely from the tower.
A lighted red indicator on the wall
shows when the chain is up. When
the chain is down, the indicator is
recessed in the wall. There are slots
in the side wall and bottom of the
lock chamber, and when a vessel is
transiting, the chain falls into its
grooves in the lock floor and out of
the wav. The intricacy of the oper-
ation is spelled out in a diagram
sketch on one side of the tunnel wall.
Most of the work underground is
at a level of about 8 feet, although
the rising stem lubricators weekly


NOVEMBER 1968







go down into a pit about 20 feet
below the tunnel surface. Another
weekly lubrication operation is the
care for the miter gate moving-
machinery. The lubrication crew, a
leader, and five or six men provide
lubrication for all the machinery,
check to see that everything is as it
should be, and call attention to
anything that might be wrong.
Periodic inspections are made of
electricity and water lines and the
sump pumps in the lower tunnel.
A hole, about 3 feet by 4 feet,
gives access to the shaft for the lower
under-tunnel, below the floor of the
locks chambers. At first glance, it
looks like the black hole of Calcutta.
Over half a century ago, the men
assigned to do the inspections in that
under-tunnel area made the descent
by a ladder set flush against one wall.
Over the years, an improvement to
the operation was made, and the
inspectors rode down to the under-
tunnel area in a "bosun's chair," a
board rigged on a line, kind of a
close relative to a child's swing.
The newest development, which
is just being installed, consists of a
wire cage or man-hoist, in which a
man stands as he is lowered down.
The underground world of the
Panama Canal also has an emergency
pump and sprinkler system in case


of fire, primarily for protection of the
miter gates in event of a floating fire,
and for protection of control house
personnel.
A little-known role of the under-
ground locks area is that it is also a
shelter area. Civil defense emergency
rations and drinking water are stored
in each tunnel and are checked
periodically.
All the locks machinery is activa-
ted from the control tower. Before
any maintenance, service is per-
formed, the control tower is advised
as to exactly what part of the
machinery is to be out of operation.
The accident rate in the under-
ground area is extremely low, due
to implementation of good safety
regulations. After the control tower
has been notified what machinery is
to be out of operation and worked on,
the machinery in question is tagged
at two locations. Each employee
responsible has a lock with his own
key to the equipment on which he
is working. Leaders have four locks
mastered to their own personal keys,
and a tag with the workman's name
is placed on the machine and the
equipment locked to prevent its
being turned on while work is
underway.
Although all the locks are essen-
tially the same, the men who work


at Miraflores and Gatun Locks also
have bridge maintenance responsi-
bilities. At Miraflores, the swing
bridge is maintained so that it can be
operated in an emergency. The
bridge itself is operated from the
bridge control house, but there is
intercommunication with the locks.
At Gatun, maintenance work is done
on the vehicular bridge, which is
operated from the control house.
Life down under has its moments
of excitement, too, wholly apart
from the locks operation and yet
linked to it. The White Rabbit of
Alice's Wonderland may not be
found in the tunnels, but once in a
while the men come across snakes,
mostly boas, especially at the begin-
ning of the rainy season. The snakes
are washed down-river during the
heavy rains, and when the lock gates
are open, they slither up on the gate
arms and then inside. While most of
the snakes found in the lock tunnels
are boas, a number of fer-de-lance
have made locks' tunnel visits, too.
Opossums have found their way
inside the lock tunnels, and a few
times sloths have crawled up over
the fence and into the tunnel, where
they curled up like raggedy balls
until they were found and evicted.
You see, there is plenty of variety
"down under."


i .... .. .




I, ... .... .










.......




GO!-James E. Farrell begins the descent to the cross-under area beneath the locks' floors. Center, flush to the wall, is the
ladder the first locks' workers used. The bosun's chair, in which Farrell sits, is due to be replaced in the near future by a wire
cage or man hoist, in which a man stands as he is lowered.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
First quarter, fiscal year-

Commodity 1969 1968 5-Yr. Avg.
Commodity 1969 1968 191
1961-65

Ores, various ________ 1,231,354 1,037,172 282,514
Iron and steel, plates, sheets, and coils __- 820,697 156,297 N.A.
Boards and planks ._--_-_ 806,677 150,127 N.A.
Sugar .. 741,682 832,038 693,908
Fishmeal e-- ------------------ 414,055 360,526 N.A.
Metals, various .------- __------ 329,865 354,308 274,741
Iron and steel manufactures, misc._--- 315,711 580,635 N.A.
Bananas_ --_ --- 296,801 319,838 274,753
Pulpwood --- -----_ 282,618 238,167 130,271
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas) --- -------- 274,150 300,276 196,404
Plywood and veneers -----------_---- 208,441 121,409 N.A.
Canned food products ------------ 179,491 210,355 253,387
Potash------------------- ---------- 158,284 115,546 130,271
Petroleum and products------------- 150,126 618,861 490,599
Coffee ------------------------ 148,325 105,582 109,537
All others ------- ------------ 2,469,938 2,990,402 4,507,046
Total 8,828,215 8,491,539 7,343,431

Atlantic to Pacific

First quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity 1969 1968 5-Yr. Avg.
________________________19_9 19681961-65
1961-65
Petroleum and products --------____ 4,199,180 3,594,632 2,848,139
Coal and coke ----- 3,544,096 2,504,584 1,521,383
Phosphates ---------------_--- 1,225,062 931,022 497,992
Corn --.------------------------- 736,428 607,078 299,197
Metal, scrap ---- -------------- 704,733 1,260,135 812,008
Sorghum ___---------_ 556,250 365,211 N.A.
Wheat__ __ ____--- 506,225 296,723 179,668
Soybeans --- _- ------------ 486,988 554,388 279,937
Ores, various ------------ 397,495 431,630 70,671
Metal, iron ------ -------------- 373,884 969,036 48,694
Sugar ---------------_ -_-- 262,432 297,063 367,986
Paper and paper products ---------- 227,536 167,788 108,532
Chemicals, unclassified .. --- 161,048 252,706 161,332
Rice --------------- ------- 149,353 85,376 28,632
Cotton, raw _---------------- 145,004 97,441 79,961
All others ---------------------- 2,730,438 2,493,467 2,122,496
Total ----- ---------------- 16,406,152 14,908,280 9,426,628


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or
over) segregated into eight main trade routes.
First quarter, fiscal year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
trade routes 1969 1968 Transits
1961-65
United States Intercoasta-----------_ -- ------- 102 99 116
East coast United States and South America -- 411 392 590
East coast United States and Central America -- 177 159 124
East coast United States and Far East-- 821 730 566
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia_ 117 103 87
Europe and West coast United States/Canada___ 232 227 215
Europe and South America_ __ 312 361 303
Europe and Australasia --------------- 91 115 85
All other routes----------------__ 1,083 1,130 731
Total traffic _-_- ---__-_-- 3,346 3,316 2,817


New Queen


To Arrive


In February


A NEW QUEEN of the seas, the
Cunard Line's $75-million Queen Eli-
zabeth II-biggest ship capable of
passing through the Panama and
Suez Canals for worldwide cruising-
will make her maiden voyage next
year and soon after visit the Panama
Canal. Her first voyage will be from
Southampton to New York in Jan-
uary, and she'll arrive on the Isthmus
February 24.
Hailed as the safest ship on the
seas, the Queen Elizabeth II is a dual
purpose liner. Six months a year she
will ply the North Atlantic between
England and the United States; the
other half of the year she'll be a cruise
ship from America's West Coast sail-
ing to Pacific ports. Because of this
double duty, she's much smaller than
her predecessors. The Queen Eliza-
beth II's gross tonnage is 58,000,
compared to the Queen Mary's
81,237 and the Queen Elizabeth's
82,997. Overall length of the new
liner is 963 feet; her beam, 105 feet.
The Queen Elizabeth II can boast
many unique features, including
drive-on, drive-off facilities for 80
cars; all restaurants on upper public
room decks; 75 percent of passenger
cabins with a view of the sea; pri-
vate bath facilities in every passen-
ger room, more open deck space than
any other liner, and bow thrusters to
facilitate berthing when tugs are not
available.
Basically, the Queen Elizabeth II
will be a ship without classes as
known among the world's present
great liners. The vessel will have just
one deck of public rooms reserved
for passengers who pay a premium
fare.
The ship is mainly built of non-
combustible materials. Her safety
standards are claimed to be in ad-
vance of all current regulations.
Pacific-Ford, S.A. is agent for the
vessel in Panama.


NOVEMBER 1968









CRUISE


SEASON


THE 1968-1969 cruise season, start-
ing this month, will bring the Hol-
land-American luxury liner, SS
Statendam, to the Isthmus on five
"festival cruises." The vessel transit-
ed the Panama Canal last month
on what was to have been the first
of two Caribbean Festival cruises,
one this year and the other in 1969.
The cruises proved so popular, how-
ever, that additional Caribbean Fes-
tival cruises are scheduled for No-
vember 14, January 9, February 8,
and March 11.
The SS Statendam, whose local
agent is Pacific-Ford, S.A. on these
cruises, sails from Los Angeles and
anchors in seven Caribbean ports as
well as several Mexican and South
American harbors. The Festival
cruises will bring the SS Statendam
on 10 trips through PanCanal. Each
cruise is for 25 days and covers
9,300 miles.
The Southern Cross will transit the
Canal November 6 and again Decem-
ber 18, according to Pacific-Ford.
The Akaroa will transit December 4,
and Christmas Eve will see the
Northern Star in Balboa for a transit
on Christmas Day. A New Year's Eve
arrival will be the Stella Oceanis,
which will dock in Cristobal and sail
New Year's Day.
C. B. Fenton & Co., Inc. had its
1968-1969 cruise vessel schedule
inaugurated last month with the ar-
rivals of the Bergensfjord and the
Kungsholm at Canal ports.
On November 3, Panama's Inde-
pendence Day, the Sagafjord arrived
in Cristobal for immediate transit.
The vessel berthed in Balboa from
mid-afternoon until 1 a.m. the fol-
lowing day.
The Federico C, also represented
by Fenton, will make a series of calls
at Cristobal starting December 30.
Federico C will sail from Port Ever-
glades, Fla., cruise through the Ca-
ribbean and then dock at Cristobal
for about 10 hours. The ship will
come back to Cristobal for half-day
visits January 13 and 27, February
(See p. 27)

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

I First quarter, fiscal year-


Nationality


Belgian __-. -
British ----
Chilean_______
Chinese (Nat'l.)
Colombian .__
Cuban_ -----
Danish --___-
Ecuadorean__
French-____-
German, West_
Greek_ __---
Honduran ___-
Indian--____--
Israeli _------
Irish -----_
Italian --____
Japanese _---
Liberian ____-
Mexican ---
Netherlands -
Nicaraguan --
Norwegian -_
Panamanian__
Peruvian ---_
Philippine-___
South Korean_
Soviet ----
Swedish-----
Swiss------.
United States_
All Others----
Total---


1969
No. of Tons of
transits cargo
32 41,347
358 3,041,454
30 196,193
34 269,534
49 131,801
13 135,797
111 672,463
10 13,772
63 297,870
307 1,139,646
118 1,330,420
56 32,019
10 138,413
29 177,936
12 65,973
60 414,611
263 2,303,735
385 5,733,048
38 143,895
113 516,715
14 29,467
346 3,648,181
151 665,703
40 181,874
27 149,850
12 81,617
23 158,922
132 920,907
13 4,340
427 2,194,535
70 402,329
3,346 25,234,367


No. of
transits
28
359
29
25
61
9
122
34
57
331
100
46
12
33
4
69
252
376
17
92
20
410
116
38
23
5
18
107
23
430
70

3,316


1968 1961-65
Tons of Avg. No. Avg. tons
cargo transits of cargo
70,367 12 37,985
2,966,604 310 2,047,775
161,043 31 212,446
200,338 20 141,456
104,221 64 107,839
95,641 1 3,747
581,532 78 359,38(
32,174 12 14,195
279,679 35 198,935
1,335,386 278 849,50,
1,090,789 164 1,612,077
24,091 49 37,823
141,676
147,991 14 60,33'
6,836 1 7,79,
538,727 51 300,464
1,754,164 221 1,266,48;
4,740,073 225 2,186,98'
42,846 7 16,40;
376,851 147 701,98'
32,594 15 25,29;
4,166,718 347 2,520,861
576,246 112 468,19,
158,897 30 145,53:
100,058 15 58,71
10,821 1 9,31J
111,120 2 16,60;
787,315 91 529,291
36,266 10 20,41
2,211,600 439 2,623,81
517,155 35 188,40
23,399,819 2,817 16,770,05!


4
9







3
7
2
7
3





6
4





2
2
5
2
0
3




0

1
2

5




7


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

First quarter, fiscal year-
Avg. No.
1969 1968 Transits
1961-65
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic
Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing --------- 1,668 1,678 3,346 3,317 2,817
Small ------------------- 77 58 135 170 146
Total commercial _-_- 1,745 1,736 3,481 3,487 2,963
U.S. Government vessels: **
Oceangoing ------------ 225 156 381 350 57
Small *---------------- 22 18 40 36 38
Total, commercial and U.S.
Government--- ------ 1,992 1,910 3,902 3,873 3,058
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.










Refreshing Chiriqui Highlands


(Continued from p. 17)
11,000-foot peaks rise no higher than
the spirit of the people who call them
home. Along with those already men-
tioned, there are the Leonard Butzes,
both in their 80's, and the broth-
ers Gutierrez-one of whom came to
die at Cerro Punta of tuberculosis
20 years ago. They farm broad
stretches of land-themselves. And
there is the "old" barber who walks
up 3 miles each week to cut John
Winklosky's hair-on a road with 40
percent grades. Winklosky and his
wife Henryetta are recent retirees
from PanCanal.
There are youngsters in the area
now-40-year-old Tommy Carruth,
for example, who provided the initial
impetus for this story. When I told
him over coffee one afternoon we
were looking for story ideas, he said:
"You know, there's kind of a pretty
place up in the Interior you might




Pifiatas

(Continued from p. 8)
into a clown, an animal face or any
number of figures.
An empty gallon ice cream con-
tainer or a hatbox is an excellent base
for a pifiata. Dress it up with crepe
paper and add features to make an
animal face, a bird, a flower or a fruit.
The paper bag and cardboard pifia-
tas are safer than the pottery pifiata
and will not hurt anyone when
broken.
Make a pifiata by any method.
Hang it up, being sure the rope is
strung through a hook on a pulley so
it can be raised up and down and
moved about. This way, the master
of ceremonies can move the pifiata
out of the path of the whooshing
broomstick.
Now watch the fun as the blind-
folded child or adult flails at the
empty air. He gets three tries and
the game goes on until a guest gives
the pifiata a good whack and breaks
it, spilling out the goodies.
The party is launched


be interested in. Everybody goes up
there to die-and lives for 30 years."
Carruth has mountain fever, too. A
building contractor in Panama City,
he gets up to his Cerro Punta retreat
as often as possible.
The ease of enjoying Boquete-
Cerro Punta advantages for merely
a weekend-and a weekend only
whets the appetite-may tax your
credibility. You can stay in Boquete,
after a short 6-hour drive from
Panama City, for less than $20 a
night for two, with private bath
and including all meals. The food is
well-prepared, and varied, and the
streams that lull you to sleep near
the hotels Panamonte, Dos Rios and
the quaint Pensi6n Marilos cost noth-
ing extra. Most rates remain un-
changed from one time of the year
to the other. The entire year is the
season. If you stay at the Marilos,
you will meet its engaging host,
Gregory Chuljak, Austrian-turned-
Yugoslav-turned Panamanian, a man
whose 65 years cross several coun-
tries, careers, and turns of fortune.
You'll feel fortunate to have known
him.
As you go over to the other side
of the mountain-range toward Cerro
Punta, you can stop at the Dos Rios'
sister hotel, of the same name in
El Volcan. Farther up toward Cerro
Punta itself, there is Curt Hem-
merling's chalet, which he has


supplemented with comfortable lodg-
ing and excellent cooking-at out-
rageously low rates.
The drive from Panama City itself
is smooth, fast, and only the varied
landscape will delay you as you stop
for pictures. Otherwise, the trip is
rapid. Beyond Rio Hato, about 75
miles out from Panama City on the
Inter-American Highway, the road is
new all the way to David and feels
like it. From David, it is only a short
drive to either Boquete or Cerro
Punta.
But by no means accept this
verbal imitation as even a partial mir-
ror of such a journey. It is yours as
it was mine, for the easy taking. It
will take you away-to the cool,
primitive forests you dream of, to the
meadows, to the brooks and rivers,
and to the mountains-the mountains
that make you suddenly stand still
and stare up, way up high.
As mother nature re-unfolds her-
self to you, a masculine touch is
evident in her stroke; perhaps there
is another-older-Patriarch in Cerro
Punta.
Theodore Barrington





/^ '
,I4fk
0 9-T-%


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)


Month

July---
August -.....
September ---
October ----
November -_--
December ---
January ------
February ----.
March --------
April______------
May--------
June----------
Totals for
fiscal year


Transits


1969

1,122
1,109
1,115


1968

1,177
1,117
1,023
1,048
1,041
1,100
1,094
1,055
1,132
1,132
1,168
1,112
13,199


Avg. No.
Transits
1961-65
960
949
908
946
922
946
903
868
1,014
966
999
954
11,335


* Before deduction of any operating expenses.


Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)


1969

7,089
7,362
7,473


1968

7,400
6,751
6,370
6,754
6,672
7,133
6,916
6,686
7,027
7,300
7,493
7,405
83,907


Average
Tolls
1961-65
4,929
4,920
4,697
4,838
4,748
4,955
4,635
4,506
5,325
5,067
5,232
5,013
58.865


NOVEMBER 1968


II-


* Before deduction of any operating expenses.









qm)


(Continued from p. 25)
10 and 24, March 10 and 24, and
April 7 and 21.
The Bcrgensfjord, due in Cris-
tobal in late January, will transit the
Panama Canal and dock in Balboa.
The Oceanic, on Fenton's winter
cruise schedule, will visit Cristobal
January 25 and again February 12.

Steady Customer
LLOYD TRIESTINO, one of Italy's
most" important shipping lines, con-
tinues as a Panama Canal customer
after the first two transits by its lux-
ury ships earlier this year. The first
to transit was the Guglielmo Mar-
coni, a 27,900-ton passenger liner
which arrived in Balboa February
23, transiting northbound. The Gali-
leo Galilei, a sister ship, went through
the Canal October 29, and will tran-
sit again, northbound, on March 16
and August 6, 1969.
The Guglielmo Marconi will be in
Canal waters again November 11,
1969, and will transit northbound.
Because of the closing of the Suez
Canal, these ships are now circling
the world. Both are 701.59 feet long,
with a beam of 93.80 feet. Each can
accommodate 1,629 first- and tourist-
class passengers. With a speed of 24
knots, they are among the fastest


pp


ships transiting the Canal. Both were
put in service in 1963.
Holland-American Line announced
that the company will invest 4 million
dollars this fall in refurbishing the
line's three big vessels-SS Rotter-
dam, SS Nieuw Amsterdam, and SS
Statendam, all of which are Panama
Canal customers.


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1969
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1969 1968
Commercial 3,346 3,317
U.S. Government--_-- 381 350
Free --------- 19 27


Total-

Commercial _
U.S. Govern-


3,746 3,694
TOLLS*
$21,932,274 $20,531,957


ment -- 2,426,073 2,284,978
Total --_$24,358,347 $22,816,935
CARGO**
Commercial 25,236,502 23,403,346
U.S. Govern-
ment ---- 2,312,423 2,331,434
Free--- 38,041 138,268
Total. 27,586,966 25,873,048
o Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons on all
vessels, oceangoing and small.


1200 N
U
1100 M
B
1000 E
R
900 0
F
800 T


7C

60


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
MONTHS


N


G


"The investment underscores Hol-
land-America's confidence in the
growth of steamship travel, partic-
ularly in the field of cruising," said
John H. Reurs, General Manager.
Each of the "big three" will un-
dergo a general facelifting.
In addition, the following improve-
ments will be made aboard the Rot-
terdam: 50 new cabins will be added,
a new lido restaurant and outdoor
terrace will be built on the Prom-
enade Deck, the outdoor swimming
pool reshaped, 650 new deck chairs,
music piped to all cabins, new wall-
to-wall carpeting in cabins and cor-
ridors, and considerable new hotel
equipment.
New wall-to-wall carpeting will
also be installed in the dining rooms,
cabins and corridors of the Nieuw
Amsterdam and Statendam.
All three ships are represented at
the Panama Canal by Pacific Steam
Navigation Co.

Wallenius Expands
GUSTAV E. HULANDER, man-
ager of Victram Shipping Corp..
Miami, general agents for Vallenius
Caribbean Lines, has announced a
new trailer service between Miami
and Aruba and Curacao in the Dutch
West Indies. This service comple-
ments one which was started earlier.
this year to Panama.
Victram is also general agerft for
the Blue Ribbon Line, serving the
Dominican Republic, the Windward
and Leeward Islands, Barbados, and
Trinidad. Trades Routes, Inc. is the
agent for these lines in New York.


R Huge Tankers Ordered
0 A A $16.4 MILLION order for the
N construction of two 61,440-ton tank-
0 S ers has been awarded to Bethlehem
T Steel Corp. by the Maritime Overseas
S Corp. The ships, 734 feet long, will
0 be assigned to Ocean Tankships
Corp. and the Intercontinental Bulk-
tank Corp.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


1968

1969










(AVERAGE 1951 -1955)




Full Text

PAGE 2

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

PAGE 4

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrenov1968pana

PAGE 7

NOVEMBER 1968 t X

PAGE 8

\Y P. Leber, Governor-President R. S. Hahtmne, Lieutenant Governor A=S ^I J^^fel Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer Publications Ed itors Theodore Barrington, Tom as A. Cupas Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer Editorial Assistants Eunice Richard, Tobi Bittel, Fannie P. Hernandez, and Jose T. Tunon Official Panama Canal Publication Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees. Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each. Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should he mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. 3ndex Panama Golf Club 2 Piriatas 6 New Lieutenant Governor 9 Panama's Boat Builders 10 Anniversaries 12 Canal History 13 Chiriqui Highlands 14 Modern Medicine 18 Work Down Under 21 Shipping Story, Statistics 24 Shipping Notes 27 c4bout Our Cover THE PAINTING on the cover of this issue of The Panama Canal Review shows an area of 50th Street in Panama City during 1925. Today, this region is part of the Panama Golf Club. The original painting is the work of Louis Celerier, a retired professor who lives in Longview, Tex. Celerier is French by birth but is a naturalized citizen of Panama. Begining on this page is an article about the Panama Golf Club, telling how it started with little more than a bohio and a cow pasture, as shown on the cover. Enthusiastic love of the game plus imagination on the part of a few persons served as vital ingredients in building it into the beautiful layout it is today. The Canal Zone's new Lieutenant Governor, Col. Richard Sides Hartline, and his family are introduced to our readers in an article on page 9. THEY'RE NOT JUST GOLF: A game widely played since the 15th century, by gentlemen driving, putting, whacking, or otherwise devastating a little white ball whose role is to follow a fixed trajectory across a course and terminate by plopping into a small hole in the center of a green. This sport, of no mean skill, provides 20th century man with three basic needs— to excel, to expound, and to explode. —Golfer's Dictionary. That daffynition failing, it should be rephrased to more accurately mirror the game's magnetism: "There is thinking about playing it, there is playing it, and then there is thinking about having played it." About 50 years ago, a few fellows were sitting around Panama thinking about playing it, without much playing. So they began to weigh the problem. When they decided it wasn't overwhelming, they set about to build a golf club. In the words of John Westman, the proclamation went something like this: "When Admiral Johnston, General Morrow, don Francisco Arias Paredes and don Raul Espinosa, decided that the pastures of Las Sabanas could be transformed into a golf course, the Duke jumped up on the bandwagon, threw off a keg of Balboa Best Brewed, and hollered, FORE!" Thus was bom the Panama Golf Club, or, as it is known today, the Club de Golf de Panama, S.A. The exuberance of the Duke of Balboa (the late Theodore McGinnis) as he lent spirit to the commencement was not a passing thing— except that he passed it on to the members who followed. Their enthusiasm can only be expressed as passion. They swing, and putt, and smile— or explode— with equal equanimity. The difficulty of exploding with equanimity is a secret only a gentleman golfer knows. Golfs affinity to explosions, at the Panama Golf Club or any other, is not recent. In fact, it may have all started because of an explosion. In 15th century Scotland, the parliament of King James II decreed that "... golfe is to be utterly cryed downe, and not to be used— the November 1968

PAGE 9

sporte interferes with the practise of archerie— an essential defence of the realme." But as the end of that century drew closer to an end, gunpowder was invented and suddenly archery declined— so much so that by the time James IV came along in 1473 he was an avid golfer. Forty years later, even Mary, Queen of Scots was teeing off. The sport thus has a noble background, and somewhat like the Nobel Prize, got started more because of —rather than with— a bang. But not at the Panama Golf Club. They were not going to wait around too long before they could get a game up— and they did— with one hole, a bohio, and a cow pasture. They played on sand greens. They fenced out cows. They scratched— (chiggers). They saw their precious sand greens washed away every time it rained. They built them back up. They added others. And— they played golf. Besides Westman himself, who was treasurer of the club for 45 years, there were many mainsprings in the early club— among them Col. Jay J. Morrow (later to become governor of the Canal Zone), Johnny Putter (the famous journalist Jules Dubois) and the already-mentioned Duke of Balboa (manager of the forerunner to today's Cerveceria Nacional.) With the spirited imagination and wrv humor so characteristic of golfers, thev went ahead im+**kk Expert Alberto Sarra (he's the Club pro) and current Panama Golf Club Woman's champion Fusae Takahashi team up for some twin-putting. Sarra has been instrumental in further professionalizing the course layout. It was a sizable problem. But, as with Col. Morrow directing the repair of sand greens, there always sweet— for the knowledge of having built the club from nothing. The original club site was on what is now PUTTING AROUND proving their club until the game became cowless, chiggerless, and a man could exult or explode at the pure game itself and not at the vagaries of nature. "But not overnight," Westman adds, "did all this happen." With a twinkle in his eye, this septuagenarian golfer who still plays the game and plavs it well, relates some of the early club problems with fond memory, ". . although we weren't so fond of some of the problems we had. Take the chiggers. Now, you know what kind of concentration a good golf shot takes. Can you imagine trying to make a drive when vou're one massive itch? That's how many chiggers we had!" seemed to be somebody in the membership with the answer. Chiggers became the project of Dr. William M. James. "He had an effective, if powerful, solution," Westman says. "Before we went out to play, we would lather our bodies with a mixture of sulphur and Lifebuoy soap. That kept the chiggers off— I assure you. They left right away. But you never knew if your wife would let you in the house that night. Doc James' lather was a little stronger than modern insect-repellant." But later, as the course grew greener and the members' tenacitybegan to pay off in other improvements, the playing became twice as Calle 86-A. The present site, closeby, covers 155 beautiful acres and is a course the pros rave about. The clubhouse was built in 1931, has been expanded since with a complete pro shop, and ranks with some of the finest clubs in the world. Since the early club was built, and as it later developed into the present one, there has never been a lack of incident, nor the good humor to face problems with grace as well as courage. "Col. Morrow was particularly of this bent," Westman says. "His humor was extra dry, even for a golfer. Once, B. C. Poole drove out (See p. 4) The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 10

PUTTING AROUND (Continued from p. 3) for a game in a PanCanal government car. He parked it right out front, came in, and got his clubs. When he walked out, Col. Morrow was standing next to Poole's car, dusting off the PanCanal emblem with a handkerchief. 'You want to always keep that symbol pretty, B. C.,' the colonel said. Poole stopped short, turned back into the clubhouse, came back out and drove the car to his office. He returned 20 minutes later— in his own car." Westman's Anecdotes Westman's anecdotes about the old club are innumerable, but the best ones he tells are on himself. At an all-male luncheon held at the end of a tournament one year honoring those members who had taken part in the official preparation for it, he rose at the table after the others had listed their various distinctions, and said: "I'm delighted that each of you had a particular role to fill in this last tourney, but you're probably unaware that this year my function was unique— a distinction not likely ever to be equaled in this club." The heads at the table turned, wondering what the distinction could be. Westman told them. "I saved eight of your wives from possible death by drowning, or panic, at the party last night." The heads turned some more. "Last night," Westman said, "at about 2:30 a.m., there were screams coming from the Ladies Room. I mean— lots of screams. There was 4 inches of water on the floor. I found the trouble, a stoppage in the plumbing which I fixed— dressed in my tuxedo. You're lucky I don't bill the club for cleaning it." The members roared, and thanked Westman for his nocturnal chivalry. Best-known Names The club has had some of the best-known names in Panama for president, among them the late Louis Martinz and Dr. Frank A. Raymond, and Richard L. Dehlinger— the only three ever elected to the post twice. The presidency alternates between a Panamanian and an "extranjero" The front entrance to Panama Golf Club— a far cry from the Bohio it was in 1918. 4 November 1968

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each year. Current president is Geoffrey Lee, general manager of Tabacalera Istmena which is chief sponsor of the Panama Open each year. A native of England but a Panama resident for 12 years, Lee shoots in the high 70's. He has only praise for the evolution of the club from early beginnings to the modern facility it is today. Club Pro Sarra Part of the continuing improvements have been due in the last 5 years to Club Pro Alberto Sarra, an Argentinian who came with plans of only staying a year, and has remained five. "He's turned our club from a good one to a better one— to one the pros rave about," Lee says. "The only thing is, 1 hope we can hold onto him." Sarra redesigned several tees, greens and traps and laid out new landscaping for some areas. The results are such that Lee says of him: "He's a fine golfer, knows the game intimately, but his first love is building or improving golf courses. He does exactly that." Continuing accomplishment and loyalty permeate the Panama Golf Club. For example, there is Mrs. Norma L. de Crisopulos, accountant and all-round administrative girl for 26 years. For a long time, she and Westman just about ran the club, but now— with a membership of almost 600— Norma has two assistants. La Touche, Another Landmark Another landmark at the club is Aubrey La Touche, who has been with them 40 years. He has been everything— bartender, waiter, chauffeur, and locker room attendant. "When you want to get it done— see Aubrey," is the byword. Another loyal employee is waiter Gooding McMillan, with 24 years' service. Current Officers Current officers are Alfonso Brid, vice president; Dr. Juan Correa, secretary; and Bob Chandler, treasurer. President Lee has been on the 14-member board in the past, and has served in vaiious committee responsibilities. The club, celebrating its 50th Anniversary this year, will host the 1968 Central American Golf TourWinner and still champ— John Westman, long-time patriarch of the club, holds up one of its many trophies. Owner of Office Service Co., Westman joined the club when it was 1-year old in 1919, and served as treasurer for 45 (count' em) years. nament this month. Teams of eight from each of the six Central American nations will compete. A busy week of activity is slated, including formal flag ceremonies of the participating countries, dances, parties, and of course, a celebration awarding the prizes. Probably playing in this tournament will be Anibal Galindo, present club champion, and Jaime de la Guardia, whom Lee calls the finest Geoffrey Lee, current president of the Panama Golf Club, and general manager of Tabacalera Istmena, is just completing a year's term as Club prexy. player on the Isthmus. Sandy Hinkle and Roberto Duran just finished representing Panama in the Dominican Republic Invitational Tournament, where they placed third in a field of 20 countries. Club's Woman Champ The club's woman champion is Fusae Takahashi, 21-year-old daughter of. the Japanese Ambassador to Panama, also a member. Best of Pros The best of the pros have played the Panama course, and Arnold Palmer played in one of his first major tournaments here in 1957. The club has had an Open every year since 1952, when Sam Snead and Roberto DeVicenzo competed. Plans are going ahead for the 1969 tournament, which is expected to be played the week before Carnival. As always, there will be players in this Open excelling, expounding and exploding— but then, that is what good golf is all about— if done with equal equanimity. At the Panama Golf Club, a player never loses it. TBB. The Panama Canal Review

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y[ou Can t (Eeat PihataA £* ANYONE WHO has ever been to a children's birthday party in Latin America knows how much joy is generated by a festive-bedecked object suspended from the ceiling, a balcony, or the branch of a tree on the patio. Hidden within the trappings of this brightly colored creation, which may look like a bird, an animal, a fish, or any number of things, is a treasure chest of surprises. The treasure chest is called a "pinata." In it are many kinds of candy, fruits, nuts, and even small toys for the young guests. Usually made of papier mache and filled to the brim with these goodies, the pinata holds the promise of magic for the intent youngsters who hit at it over and over again with a lowly broomstick. And, oh, what excitement and merriment I when it is finally broken by the violent thrust of a stick-wielding attacker, its contents spilling to the floor, and the frantic scramble for goodies is on! The pinata originated in Italy, probably in the early 16th century, when people used to think up hometype amusements. They played guessing games, told stories, presented skits, and often played tricks on a blindfolded player. In one of the games, a cone-shaped earthenware pot, containing goodies of the day, was suspended from the rafters, swung around a bit, and broken with a stick. The Italians called it pignatta, from pigna, which means "pine cone-shaped." Italian adventurers took the pignatta custom to Spain and there it became pinata. The Spanish pinata was an ordinary clay pot, the "olla" used for food or water. The rough, unsightly olla often was camouflaged bv putting figures around it. These probably were the first efforts to decorate the squatty round pot which evolved into the myriad of elaborate pinatas of today. The Spaniards gave the pinata a religious significance and designated the first Sunday in Lent as Pinata Sunday. The pinata was broken at a masquarade ball on that day with the treats tumbling down on the masked dancers. As rime went on, the pinata custom waned in Spain but became popular in Latin America. Probably, it came with the Spanish explorers to the New World about 400 vears ago —most likely to Mexico first. Although it has undergone changes 6 November 1968

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LLnleJJ you re Strong, Cnough Guests are warned to give the stick-wielding player ample swinging room as Guillermo Eduardo Bricefio, son of Dr. and Mrs. Alejandro Briceno J. of Panama City, takes his turn at breaking the windmill pinata at his birthday party. in structure since its humble beginning, the pinata game has remained more or less the same. The custom continues in Spain and Italy and has spread to many other countries, such as Portugal, British Honduras, several South American countries (west coast), all of Central America, Panama, Mexico, the United States, and Canada. History shows that in Mexico the pinata retained its religious connotation, but instead of a Lenten tradition it became, with the passing of years, a Christmas festivity. The pinata came to be associated with the posada, the procession of neighbors which takes place the nine nights before Christmas and symbolizes the Holy Family's struggle to find shelter. The group goes from house to house and is refused lodging until it is welcomed at the last house. Here, the pinata is broken and everybody gets a treat. While often a fun activity for children, the pinata also is enjoyed by adults. In areas of northern Italy, for example, three pinatas are filled —one may contain ashes or flour, the second, water, and the third will have the goodies. To the delight of the onlookers, the blindfolded player can only guess which of the three he should aim for. Guests are warned to give the broomstick-wielder plenty of "swinging room." In another variation of the game, the entire contents of the pinata go to the one who succeeds in breaking it. In this version, an extra-hard baked clay pot is probably used. In Venezuela, a beautifully decorated, bell-shaped pinata of papier mache or cardboard is filled with rice and suspended near a doorway. With a pull of a ribbon, newlyweds passing through the door are showered bv a cascade of rice. The traditional birthday pinata in this South American country is large and very elegant. In Costa Rica, the pinata has retained its colonial simplicity. A clay pot, brim-filled with goodies, is still the usual custom at children's parties and only recently have the decorated papier mache or cardboard variety of pinatas appeared at Costa Rican parties. >-The broomstick is missing from the Cuban pinata, and the children pull at gay ribbon streamers attached to the papier mache pinata which virtually pours out its contents with each yank at the streamers. In Guatemala, as in Mexico, the pinata is associated with the posadas, and in both countries the clay pot is still the thing. At Christmas time, a party is not a real party without a pinata. Of special interest is the Judas pinata which appears in certain parts of Mexico the day before Easter. Armed with sturdy sticks, the Mexicans figuratively, and almost literally, beat the devil out of Judas. A most charming surprise is a pinata used in Ecuador where two or three beautifully decorated figures (See p. 8) The Panama Canal Review

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Pinatas (Continued from p. 7) are hung together for the fiesta. One or two contain the usual goodies. The other, when shattered, liberates live birds! Imagine the children's shouts of glee at the flutter of wings! Another lovely pinata custom for a young lady's 15th birthday party is a basket-shaped pinata filled with roses. In Panama, the pinata is always found at children's parties and frequently at baby showers and farewells, and just about any fiesta. Starting about 20 years ago, the papier mache and bag version of the pinata began to replace the "olla de barro." Several pinata makers, working in their homes or at their places of business, are presently supplying at least five or six specialtv shops in Panama City with beautifullv executed pinatas in a varietv of shapes and color combinations ranging from elaborate airplanes and rabbits to a simple decorated paper bag. Should a particular shaped pinata not be readily available, expert hands will create the appropriate one for the season or the occasion. In recent years, United States tourists in Panama have discovered the gay and delightful pinatas and have taken them home. Panama shops are proud of filling pinata orders for customers as far awav as Ohio and New York Citv and cities in South America. It has been found that the attractive pinata, filled with small gifts, goodies of all kinds and gag gifts, is an excellent wav to get a party on its way or to spread good cheer during the holidays. A pinata provides fun and gives the participants an opportunitv to break something— at times, a most satisfying experience. Because of the unlimited range of shape, color, and content, the pinata mav be adapted to almost any festive occasion. Perhaps the easiest way to make a pinata is the balloon and papier mache method: blow up a big balloon and tie a knot at the neck. Hang it up and cover the balloon with four of five layers of papier mache. After this has dried, let the air out of the balloon and remove it. Cut a hole at the top big enough to receive f /,V -_ ~ t Jeffrey Morgan, broomstick in hand, looks on as his little friends scramble for the lollipops that have just spilled from the pinata at his birthday party. Jeffrey is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Richard Morgan of Los Rios. the candy and small gifts. Tie a crisscross of heavy twine around the pinata, gathering the long ends of the twine at the top. Put more papier mache over this, and when it is drv decorate it with brightlv colored crepe paper. For those who know how to work with papier mache, it is the ideal method for making pinata animals and figures. There are no rules and no color specifications. Imagination has no limit, and the resulting pinata is so beautiful that the guests are often sorry to break it. A papier mache pinata is much harder to break than the earthenware pots. This provides opportunities for more tries at spilling the treasure chest inside. Another method for making a pinata is bv using a large, strong paper bag and cardboard, and anvthing that can be sewed, stapled or glued to it to give it shape and make it sturdy. The bag, when decorated with crepe paper, can be converted (See p. 26) Cardboard, glue, crepe paper, and deft hands at work making the fun-giving pinata. Mrs. Araceli Diaz also makes party favors seen on shelf at right. November 1968

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New Lt Gov. Arrives at Crucial Ti ime AT NOON on October 11, Col. Richard Sides Hartline, serving as Acting Governor of the Canal Zone for the first time since his arrival 8 days earlier, attended a military ceremony at Old Panama at which command of the Panama National Guard changed hands. At midnight, he was in conference with Washington by telephone, reporting on the military coup which brought about a change of government in the Republic. The events posed high-level decisions by the United States, with the Canal Zone suddenly becoming a temporary refuge for the principal figures of the ousted regime. It was a swift introduction for the new Lieutenant Governor to the ofttimes unusual responsibilities of his new post in a unique area— the Canal Zone. He and his family had just settled in their new home at Balboa Heights. For Mrs. Hartline it had meant a change-over from suburban living in the Washington, D.C., area; for Colonel Hartline, the change-over was from duty in Vietnam. A tall professional soldier engineer, Colonel Hartline has been on the move ever since he was graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1945. He has served in the Philippines, Okinawa, Germany, Korea and Vietnam. He was born in Goshen, N.Y. Mrs. Hartline, the former Harriet Dicke, was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, but lived most of her youth in Allentown, Pa., and Boston, Mass. She met her husband while he was studying for his master's degree in civil engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Their son Douglas, who soon will be 17, was born in Albuquerque, Lt. Gov. and Mrs. Richard Sides Hartline, with their daughter, Nancy. For Mrs. Hartline and their children, Nancy and Douglas, this is the first time they have made their home in the tropics. N. Mex., and their daughter Nancy, 12, arrived when the Hardines were stationed on Okinawa. The family has a wide variety of interests. Colonel Hartline, who played football and lacrosse when he was at West Point, now favors handball. He promptly found other handball enthusiasts on the Isthmus and had a game lined up soon after his arrival. Mrs. Hartline modestly describes herself as an average housewife and mother. She is a self-taught seamstress and an enthusiastic gardener, but her deepest interest is in painting, a hobby she took up in Germany. Son Douglas has an overpowering enthusiasm for football. A star member of the football team at Annandale High School, near Washington, he will join his parents on the Isthmus after the stateside football season is over. He will be a senior at Balboa High School. Daughter Nancy already is enrolled in the seventh grade at Curundu Junior High. Okinawaborn, Nancy is in line as the second member of a Canal Zone Lieutenant Governor's family to obtain a U.S. citizenship certificate here. Another member of the Hartline family is to be residing soon at the Lieutenant Governor's house at Balboa Heights. He is Mrs. Hartline's father, Henry Dicke, a lively 87 -yearold retired corporation executive and engineer. He also has traveled extensively in Iran as a consultant. This is the first time that the entire Hartline family will be together outside the temperate zone. Their first reaction: Love at first sight with the Isthmian landscape. The Panama Canal Review 9

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Boatbuilders of Panama "OS BARCOS pesqueiros da INAPE foram fabricados pelos estaleiros DECO MARINE S.A.-do Panama. A Deco e industria de muito respeto. Seu know-how e da melhor importacao." That was from "O Cruzeiro," the mass circulation Brazilian magazine, and translates: "INAPE's fishing boats were built by the DECO MARINE S.A. shipyards-in Panama. Deco is a highly respected industry. Its know-how is of the highest importance." In all of Central America, there is nothing that equals Deco Marine. Started 8 years ago as a ship repair facility, it has expanded in the last 2 years into a full-fledged shipyard specializing in fishing vesselsand its reputation is now known throughout the hemisphere. "O Cruzeiro's" tribute to Deco's know-how is a good example of how this has been achieved. When Brazil's fishing industry asked for designs for its growing fleet of shrimp trawlers, Deco Marine's plans were chosen FISHING VESSELS FOR BRAZIL-At Deco Marine shipyard in Panama City Panaman.an craftsmen trained in the shipyard are building three fishing boat Tfa a Brazilian company. in competition with 37 others from Latin American, European and United States bidders. Deco's knowhow was the key. Unique Chill Tanks A unique feature of the Deco-built fishing vessels is the chill tanks for storing the catch while the boat is at sea. Deco has patented a glass-fiber tank so well insulated that even in the case of compressor failure the water temperature in the tank loses only 1 to 2 degrees in 5 days. Every boat being built by Deco for Brazil's INAPE-Industria Nacional de Pesca-will carry 10 of these tanks, each with a capacity of 2,200 pounds. Another feature of Deco-built boats is that they can be converted from shrimp trawlers into purse— seiners in just 2 days. The three vessels now being constructed in the Deco shipyard for Brazil are scheduled for delivery in early 1969. Eventually, Deco may build as many as 30 boats for INAPE, ranging from 76to 100-footers at an average cost of $100,000 each. Already, Deco is eyeing boat building contracts in El Salvador, Ecuador, Venezuela and possibly Nicaragua. 10Acre Site The Deco shipyard covers 10 acres in San Francisco de la Caleta, a suburban section of Panama City. It is located on the only spot along the entire Pacific coast of the Isthmus that has a rock-bottom basin and a natural rock-bottom channel to sea. Texas-Born Contractor The choice of the site for the shipyard is typical of the way Joseph M. "Mike" Byrne does things. A Texas-born contractor who came to the Isthmus 30 years ago, he was in the paint business for years until his interest switched to fishing vessels. This occurred in about 1960 when shrimp fishing became the fastest growing industry in Panama. Like many others, Byrne was aware that there were no haul-out facilities for the mushrooming shrimping fleet. Boats had to be careened on the November 1968

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beaches for repairs; laying a keel or replacing a shaft or a propeller were next to impossible. Finding the 10-acre site was the first break for Bvrne. Buying the land from the various owners was a complicated process, but Deco finally became the sole title-holder to the 10 acres. A Modest Beginning Operations began on a modest scale, limited to repairs of small boats— one at a time. The original work force numbered seven men. One 80-ton cradle was all that was available for drydocking vessels. Deco's expansion started when Bvrne brought into his organization A. J. "Tony" Ghiloni, a graduate naval architect from California with 40 years' experience in the design and construction of fishing vessels. Ghiloni had operated his own shipyard in Puntarenas, Costa Bica, before coming to Panama to work for a shrimping firm. When the latter went out of business, Ghiloni joined Deco. It was the use of fiber-glass in the manufacture of chill tanks, vents, stacks, and sinks that started Deco's reputation growing. These Decomade installations proved so superior to those made of galvanized iron that as word of them spread among the fishing companies, orders poured in— and Deco's reputation grew. Deco Builds and Repairs So did its customers. Deco Marine provides repair and maintenance services for U.S. Armed Forces seagoing craft and for tuna clippers and yachts. It also builds sand and oil barges, ferry boats, launches, and unsinkable fiber-glass lifeboats. About 2 vears ago, the Panama Refinerv contracted with Deco Marine for the maintenance of all its vessels. This required substantial expansion of the shipyard facilities which in turn led to shipbuilding operations. It was typical of Deco that the first steel-hulled shrimp trawlers it turned out for local companies were better than any other operating in these latitudes. Their biggest feature was a marked increase in efficiency —the Deco boats could fish at 100 TONY AND MIKE-A. J. "Tony" Ghiloni, left, and Joseph M. "Mike" Byrne are the top men at Deco Marine. Ghiloni, a graduate naval architect, directs shipbuilding and repair operations. Byrne founded Deco Marine and has made it the largest operation of its kind in Panama. fathoms in comparison with the 35 fathoms that was the maximum for the small wooden trawlers then in use. This was achieved by increasing the length from .50-60 feet to 76 feet and up, installing more powerful engines, hydraulic winches, and enough cable to shrimp at a depth of 100 fathoms. In the past 2 years, Deco Marine has turned out about 25 fishing vessels. And its spectacular growth seems to have no limit in the foreseeable future. More Than 40 Boats a Year Deco now is equipping to build 40-50 vessels a year and— more important—has the business to reach that capacity. It has cut construction time from 13 months to 5. It can handle 15 vessels simultaneously for repairs and can accommodate boats of up to 1,200 displacement tons. Its work force numbers 200 men at present— all of them Panamanians trained in the shipyard by a "revolving school" svstem. When full capacity is reached, the work force will be more than doubled to 500 men. The shipyard has become selfsufficient with its own foundry, propeller repair and balancing shop, diesel engine overhaul shop, wood mill, and machine shop. Plans are underway to enlarge and lengthen the larger haul-outs. Safety— a watchword at Deco— is being increased by an addition to the breakwater protecting the drydocking operations. High Caliber Work The high caliber of shipwork done bv Deco is indicated by the fact that its vessels are certified by the American Bureau of Shipping: the efficiency of its work force by the absence of a single major accident since the shipyard was established; the growth of its operations bv the fact that Deco is now a $2 million facility. At the age of retirement, Mike Byrne speaks with youthful enthusiasm of bigger things to come at Deco, his creation. "I love action," is his simple explanation. "And this is where the action is." The Panama Canal Review 11

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ANNIVERSARIES^ (On the basis of total Federal Service) MARINE BUREAU John A. Redway Launch Dispatcher Hubert A. Thompson Clerk Norman A. Bennett Helper Electrician Alvin A. Bracey Seaman TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Pedro Urriola Lead Foreman (Materials Handling) Telfield D. Landers Truck Driver SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SE/f|CE Emanue^ Ba, Mic A Arthur L. Superv Clerk Azariah C. Coke Clerk-Typist Victoriano Ortega Laborer (Heavy) ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Winfield Ford Cargo Classification Specialist Jose Arias Leader Core-Drilling Eric T. Nevers Truck Driver Sidney I. Brooks Paver Harris Campbell Asphalt or Cement Worker ance PERSONNEL BUREAU James A. Yates Supervisory Personnel Staffing and Employee Relations Specialist MARINE BUREAU Thomas J. Ebdon, Jr. Supervisory General Engineer Leroy Griffiths Cargo Classification Specialist John Stephens Motor Launch Operator Eric A. Greene Oiler-Floating Plant Victor M. Luscap Time and Leave Clerk Wilfred E. Rawlins Seaman John B. Willis Lock Operator (Operating EngineerHoisting Equipment) Cristopher L. Lynch Helper Lock Operator George Palmer Linehandler Irvin F. Headley Oiler Bernardo Frio Oiler Albert S. Hunter Motor Launch Operator Ervin A. Rolli Guard Supervisor Edward J. Friedrich Chief Foreman Machinist (Marine) TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Henry L. Davis Maintenanceman-Rope and Wire Cable Wilfred A. Melise Guard Ruben E. Douglas School Bus Driver W. W. Wellington Stevedore George A. Grimes Chauffeur Charles E. Chase Leader Liquid Fuels Wha Santos Estrada Stevedore Gilbert G. Wilson Automotive Mecha Fender) Arthur A. Lewis Truck Driver SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Lilias I. Hurley Cargo Classification Specialist John F. Manning Program Manager (General Manager) Walter G. Thorne Field Tractor Operator Kenneth T. Bowen Truck Driver Violet L. Cave Sales Store Checker Prince Bennett Meat Cutter Harry A. Dockery Distribution Facilities Officer Ulpiano Marmolejo Cemetery Worker Lazaro Martinez Garbage Collector Thomas H. Riley Truck Driver Fitzgerald White Warehouseman Sibert F. R. Haynes Supervisory Supply Clerk Wilfred A. Richards Leader Crane Hookman Herman A. Reid Assistant Baker Linton G. Roberts Clerk C. L. Brathwaite Laborer (Heavy) ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU William H. Egger Central Office Repairman Lothen E. Boyd Cement Finisher Harold J. Charles Hot Water Tank Repairman William H. Fergus Oiler-Floating Plant-Boom Norton B. Stephenson Administrative Assistant Antenor J. de la Rosa Leader Blaster Clarence G. Wilson Painter Irvin C. Boyce Ration Light Serviceman Plant) neral Engineer (Facilities and Repair) John E. Ridge, Jr. Water System Operator David Murrain Pipelayer Clyde E. Boxill Painter Ira G. Barber Seaman Eriberto Pascual Seaman Jose Alzamora Leader Painter Frederick D. Wade Seaman Cardinal E. Husband Painter Arthur A. Nedrick Laborer CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU George Carrington Swimming Pool Operator Joseph S. Corrigan Customs Inspector Cleveland D. Ennis Teacher (Senior High L.A. Schools) (See p. 13) 12 November 1968

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CANAL HISTORY 50 yearJ c4ao IN OCTOBER 1918, an executive order requiring the licensing of all motor vehicle operators in the Canal Zone was issued by President Woodrow Wilson. The Canal Zone Executive Secretary was empowered to appoint examiners at Balboa and Cristobal who would be responsible for examining applicants for licenses, and make recommendations to the Executive Secretary as to the fitness of each applicant to operate motor vehicles over the streets and roads of the Canal Zone. This order repealed earlier Isthmian Canal Commission ordinances regarding the same subject, which had been in effect up to that time. 25 yieaM c4ao J ASCHA HEIFETZ, world-renowned violinist, arrived on the Isthmus to present a series of concerts throughout the Canal Zone. Heifetz had completed a concert tour in Panama 2 vears previouslv, but returned as part of a program to present name entertainment to the military personnel stationed in the Canal Zone. Lieutenant General George H. Brett, Commanding General, Caribbean Defense Command, announced November 2 a relaxation of censorship bans for military personnel in the area. Servicemen would now be allowed to inform the folks back home of their exact location in the Caribbean, which was expected to improve morale, as danger of attack on the Canal waned. The Atlantic Side War Bond Committee, headed bv Arnold Bruckner and coordinated bv Ernest C. Cotton, received the congratulations of Canal Zone Governor Glen E. Edgerton for having tallied $1,535,503 in war bond sales from October 1942 through October 1943. This was the first year that the War Bond Committee had been in operation on the Atlantic side. U.S. -citizen workers of the Canal Zone were instructed to register for "-•_ j HOW IT WAS THEN-This is 1914 excavation for Balboa Terminals, Drydock No. 1. the Selective Service in the fall of 1943. Canal Zone Executive Secretary Frank H. Wang was named Chief Registrar for this initial selective service registration. 10 yearJ c4g.o PAT QUINN, member of a wellknown Canal Zone family, was appearing in a Broadway play by Maxwell Anderson, "The Golden Six." A graduate of Balboa High School, Miss Quinn had been attending a dramatics art college in New York City when selected for the show. Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Week celebrations were climaxed by a pageant, "The Ordeal of Mr. Stevens, or Teddv Roosevelt Visits the Isthmus," in which many residents of Panama and the Canal Zone took part. The event was held at the Tivoli Hotel. Among the many guests attending from the United States, besides former construction day workers, were the Honorable Maurice H. Thatcher, sole surviving member of the Isthmian Canal Commission, and Mrs. Richard Derby, one of President Roosevelt's three surviving children. One year trfao THE DIVISION of Preventive Medicine was completing preparations for putting its new Mobile X-Ray Unit into operation. The unit was to be used to examine emplovees and dependents at townsites and jobsites throughout the Canal Zone for possible lung disease, on a rotating basis. In this manner, the greatest number of persons would be reached for early detection of health problems and employees and their families would be benefited by its inception. ANNIVERSARIES (Continued from p. 12) HEALTH BUREAU John Lewis Medical Technician General Cecil B. Walker Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery') William C. Allen Medical Aid (Ambulances) Wellington G. Myles Leader Cook Harold J. Morrison Leader Hospital Food Service Worker Marcos A. Munoz Leader Laborer (Heavy Pest Control) The Panama Canal Review 13

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Highlands of Chiriqui . Where Nature Unfolds You almost have the Alps next door to you, if you live in Panama. Above is Curt Hemmerling's chalet in Bambito, a "suburb" of Cerro Punta, where the elevation is high enough to make you appreciate blankets at night. Below is one of the rivers that lull you to sleep if you stay at the Dos Rios in Boquete. The bridge in this photo cuts across the rear of the hotel, and beyond it, upriver slightly, guests can see where two rivers channel into one. YOU GET INTO your automobile at 8 o'clock in the morning, when the tropical sun and humidity already permeate the air. You drive through the city amid its early-morning bustle and noises-horns, vendors' babble —and all the varying sounds of a metropolis awake for another day of activity. Gears grind, tires squeal, and traffic cops' tempers rise faster than the sun. You start and stop, veer and wind, and eventually find yourself on the outskirts of town, heaving a sigh of relief. The city is wonderful, but— intense as always. Then, as you start to travel westward on the winding Inter-American Highway, the city retreats behind the car and the countryside unfolds in what you imagine will be an endless series of rolling hills, studded with the sensuous vegetation of the tropics. After all, this is Panama-land of huge, tropical game fish, of intense sunlight filtered through thick hazes of humidity and swaying palmeras that might have inspired the cumbia. so closely do they mimic its rhythms. This is the tropics; the very rain here is a musical instrument. But, if you travel far enough, and not very far at that, you will find yourself in a few hours climbingclimbing farther and faster than you realize, because the hills are gentlv curved and rise subtly— ascending to an elevation of 3,800 feet. As you get about midway to that elevation, you notice the countryside undergo a change— the trees grow straighter, truckloads of vegetable-produce and other cool-climate crops pass b\ you, and the tightness in your ears suddenly tells you Panama is more than the tropics. Then, one final turn around the midsection of a mountain, and the gentle proof is unfolded to you like the flower it is— Boquete— a little town which marks the memory forever. It opens up at the curve like a petal and though it were a deadly November 1968

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:*&fe'.rw-. I** in^^ ^ftSfc^ Boquete-a valley of bouquets, where there are more flowers than blades of grass, where the pace of life is determined by nature's slow and easy tide of seasons. jungle flower you would risk its embrace. But no worry of that. Rather, Boquete has more subtle weapons. You spend a few days there in one of its small hotels or pensiones, sleeping to the natural narcotic of its musical streams (they are everywhere), eating as though you had a new stomach ( and eating well and inexpensivelv), and wondering— what happened to the tropics? But— there is more. Boquete is just nature's elegant introduction. Bevond it, on the other side and farther up the mountain, an encore awaits you. Ascending a road which now is no longer quite gentle and where the word "town" loses meaning, you enter a mountain forest almost primeval in its beaut\', cut through by a single main road and studded with a house here and there— or a Swiss chalet— and other unlikely sights appear, such as miniature cattle drives, an occasional vegetable farm, and a "town" that resembles the one-street communitv of the Old American West. This is Cerro Punta, an extinct volcanic crater and lakebed which rises and falls across a 10-mile stretch and is a cool 6,300 feet above sea level. Slightlv down the mountain from the rolling surface of Cerro Punta whose rich, black topsoil is 20-feet deep in some places, are the "communities" ( usually of one or two houses, cabins or chalets) of Bambito, El Volcan and the llanos. The combination of these areas, onlv a short drive from Boquete or David, is like the innermost depths of a primitive forest. Few tourists are in evidence. The local people are friendly, vigorous, and the pioneers among them literallv brought on their backs to the area much of whatever is there. They could switch to mules only after a road was built. The road opened the way for new people and enabled the beginning of the tiny community of Cerro Punta itself, but the original majesty of the land is virtually unchanged from what it has been for centuries— an untouched region of sheer-faced mountains and valleys that spin round and round in a dizzy series of sights. The streams of Boquete lull, those around Cerro Punta roar; thev are near-rivers whose rapids crash upon gigantic rocks and fling a challenge at the fishermen who would dare cross. Not manv do. Thus, in a mere 7 hours, over a brief 300 miles, a non-tropical wilderness is reached— from palmeras to Panama pines, from tropical oity to cool high-country— in less than a day. The mean temperature is now 65, instead of 85, and in the evening two blankets feel good as the thermometer sinks to a chilling 50. The place is still Panama, but the cumbia's sensual beat now seems far off in the tropical distance; at Cerro Punta one imagines Strauss in the wind, and the thunder of the streams could have been written by Beethoven. But mountains moving men is rarely as impressive as the reverse. At Boquete-Cerro Punta, men have challenged a few. Around Boquete, coffee grows straight up the side of a mountain— or at least at so sharp an incline your neck hurts as you tilt your head back trying to see the peak of the planted rows. Flowers, all kinds of flowers, appear in strangely wonderful places— on the faces of concave hills, between rocks in streams, and along the sidewalks of the most humble residence. In Cerro Punta, the dirt roads endlessly twist the imagination in what it must have (See p. 16) The Panama Canal Review 15

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L hC f^ a it "EKi lege ds true ones-Glenn Lewis of Cerro Punta, of surveying for Lindbergh, of cutting through the brush on foot .n the 1920s, who came up to die-in 1938. His Oklahoma wife, Virginia, used to be a Peace Corps wXr at BooTte Chiriqui Highlands (Continued from p. 15) been like to cut through this maze the first time— when they even had to turn the pack animals back, the bush was so thick. The men who helped uncover this paradise are varied. The first of them number less than a dozen, and those who followed now represent, per capita, the broadest cross-section of national origins found in all of Panama. Boquete, for example, has 31 ethnic groups in its population of 13,000, with 50 percent of these first generation. They include Ecuadorian and Egyptian, Cuban and Canadian, German and Jew, Eastern and Westem European, American, and of course-Panamanian, besides many others. Apart from native-born residents, most of the other ethnic groups have become Panamanian citizens. At sparsely settled Cerro Punta, there also are Indians. When Glenn Lewis, Curt Hemmerling and a handful of others came to the area in the 1920's, the only inhabitants were four Indian families. During that decade and the one following, other newcomers arrived, and the names Shannon, Martinz, and others were added to the list of patriarchs. They know the area to the square inch, and their love for it is wedded to a tacit pride in having overcome it. They are old people, these patriarchs-chronologically. Some of them even came up to Cerro Punta to die— 30 years ago. They're still working at it. Such "deaths" may be another 30 years in coming. Glenn Lewis, for example, was told by his doctor in 1938 to retire and enjoy his ". .6 months to live." He had stomach trouble, arthritis, and was smoking three packs of cigarettes a day. I asked him when he had his last physical: "That was my last, when I was told to retire," he said. "So I went up to the States and traveled 50,000 miles looking for a good place to cave in. I had been to Cerro Punta in 1924. After all that travel in the States, I couldn't find a prettier place. So I came back, built a home, and 'died' here." He's still dying-at 75-smoking the same three packs of cigarettes a day, keeping his own hydroelectric power plant in running order (which he brought in on foot in 1938), running his own ham radio, and helping "newcomers" John and Henryetta Winklosky "feel set" (they started in Cerro Punta in 1947 and are mere youngsters in their sixties). Lewis' reputation as a good neighbor is outweighed only by his wellfound fame in many fields— sur16 November 1968

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veyor, photographer-newsman, and pilot. In 1924, he came to the Isthmus as a surveyor for the U.S. Army. His job was to fly World War I "bombers" (bi-wing paper kites) over Panama and decide where landing fields should be built for Charles Lindbergh's newly planned Central American airmail service. Lewis found he couldn't see enough by air, so he took to the ground. He cut his way on foot from David to Cerro Punta ( 50 miles ) thence to Chiriqui Lagoon, and finally, to the Costa Rican Border (70 miles in all). He had pack animals with him at first, but turned them back when they delayed his progress. The trip took him 32 days. He got his surveys. In the course of this task, he flew with and photographed Lucky Lindy many times, and the latter's first Central American airmail service was based on Lewis' surveys. Besides his work there, Lewis was intrigued by Cerro Punta, so in 1932 he bought 100 acres and built a fishing camp. At the time, he owned Servicio Lewis in Panama City, and along with doing photographic publicity for the Army and Navy, he was movie-news representative in Panama for MGM, Fox, and Pathe of New York and Paris. He additionally made the first educational films of the Panama Canal for Eastman-Kodak, and took many reptile pictures for Raymond Ditmar's famous books on herpetology. He also has filmed alligator hunts, jaguar forays, and at the Canal in 1923, took the only photograph ever shot of combined components of the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific naval fleets, which were in Panama Bay at the time for maneuvers. This was with the old-style photographic equipment, but Lewis had his enormous picture printed and sold in 3 weeks, using 15,000 feet of paper. His net: $7,000. Besides these accomplishments when he was "young," Lewis laid down a few more after he "retired" in 1938— one of them building a milelong airfield at Cerro Punta in 1955. His other activities, besides traveling, are endless. He hunts, fishes (his 25V2-inch, 5Y4-pound trout is still the record in the area), and drives back and forth to Panama frequently. His first wife died a few years ago, and he is now married to the former Virginia Lewis, whom he met when John and Henryetta Winklosky, both recent retirees from Panama Canal, indicate by their expression how they like Cerro Punta. she was doing Peace Corps work in Boquete. She's from Oklahoma, and they recently celebrated their second wedding anniversary. Trout fishing in Cerro Punta is without par; they can still be taken two on a line. (Again, the Lewis touch; he flew the first trout eggs into Cerro Punta on ice from the States.) Hunting includes bandtail pigeons and tapir, and for those willing to go farther back in the bush— puma, ocelot, jaguar, and deer. As to farming, crops in Cerro Punta are nontropical; all temperate zone crops which do not require frost will thrive there, and they are cash crops. Besides pioneers Lewis, Matt Shannon and the late Louis Martinz (whose horse-breeding ranch is still a landmark in the area), there is Curt Hemmerling, who lives in Bambito, one of the "suburbs" of Cerro Punta which is a whole 3 miles down the road— consisting of one house, his. It's a Swiss chalet replete with the many-peaked roof, the little windows and the cozy rooms of its Alpine counterparts. Even cool weather goes with it; only the snow is missing. Archeologist Hemmerling came to the mountains in 1924 to do diggings. He is a former Assistant Director of Panama's Museo Nacional, and most of the early archeology of Panama was done by him. Thousands of his finds are on display at Panama's museum and at institutions in other countries. He also raises coffee -14,000 trees— and is a great teller of tales of Cerro Punta. Over a lateevening glass of wine in front of the fireplace, he will fuel your imagination with his memory. There are other old people at Cerro Punta, and they're proud of the word. Their youthful spirit scorns the euphemism, senior citizen. They may not have found the Fountain of Youth, but mountains have proved more healing than the waters of the old legend. Spirit abounds in Cerro Punta. The faces, the voices, the friendliness, reflect the natural unspoiled splendor of the rivers and streams, the lush valleys, and the overpowering mountains whose (See p. 26) The Panama Canal Review 17

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Jfelplng vhem li)alk y c4na aQive vhroug,h M,oaem yfiealcal Practice IT TOOK 11 major operations to enable Jorge G. to walk. After a bed-ridden infancy, he now has the opportunity to grow up into a useful citizen. And little Moyra M., who was born with the bladder outside the abdomen, now has a chance to grow up, able to achieve motherhood. The dark menace of hopelessness in their lives has given way to the brightness of promise. Jorge and Moyra are among the many beneficiaries of the Panama Canal Health Bureau's teaching program which is an integral part of the training curriculum for intern and resident physicians— in effect at Gorgas and Coco Solo Hospitals for many decades now. Generally unknown to the public, the program has resulted in case after case of outstanding medical assistance to men, women, and children in Panama. When 10-year-old Jorge came to Gorgas Hospital in mid1966, he was doomed to the life of a helpless cripple. The rheumatoid arthritis he had developed at one and one-half vears of age severely contracted and stiffened his knees, hips, and feet. He could not bend his right arm and he had contractures of the wrists and fingers. No doctor had seen him for 7 years, and by the time he was brought to the Orthopedic Service of Gorgas he was completely bedridden. Intermittently, for nearly 2 vears, Jorge underwent operations on his feet, knees, hips, right elbow, and right leg— 11 operations in all. When he was discharged not too long ago, he was walking— with braces, yes, but able to move by himself. Today, he walks five blocks every morning to school. While he probablv will require some type of mechanical aid the rest of his life, he is walking alone— a vast improvement over the Walking again— even with crutches— is a milestone for this lad. The Health Bureau's Teaching-Case Program put him on his feet again. helpless condition in which he was admitted to Gorgas. Little Moyra's case came to the attention of doctors the minute she was born. She came into the world in a Panama City hospital, doomed to die before reaching adolescence, for she was bom with her urinary bladder outside the abdomen, without urethra and vagina, her pelvis with no frontal bones. She had to grow a few months before medical science could do anything for her. She was admitted to Gorgas Hospital when she was 8 months old. Though her case was primarily of interest to the Urologv Service, little Moyra also was seen bv pediatricians and orthopedists. The former evaluated her congenital defects and the latter performed reconstructive surgery to correct the lack of fusion of her pelvic bones. Two weeks after her admission, urologists began the process of plastic reconstruction of her defective or missing organs. After a five and onehalf hour operation, her reconstructed bladder was in its natural position under the frontal bones of the pelvis. After 1 1 weeks in a body cast, Moyra went back to the operating room for the final reconstructive surgery. After three major operations, little Movra has gone home a normal "dry" baby -the spectre of death before adolescence banished. These two cases, among the most dramatic of recent "teaching cases" in Gorgas Hospital, illustrate the philosophy behind the Health Bureau's program. One of the basic criteria for admission of a "teaching case" is the patient's inability to pay, since the entire treatment is provided absolutely free. Charity? In a sense, yes. But the program goes beyond charity-for-charity'ssake. A second criterion is the nonavailability to the patient of treatment in Panama. Finally— and this is what sets the program apart from 18 November 1968

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mere charitv— the caSe must have teaching value from the medical standpoint. This is of exceptional importance, for the normal patient load in Gorgas and Coco Solo Hospitals does not always supply all the various pathological and clinical conditions required for the residency training program. Through this program, physicians— both staff and in training—apply diagnostic and therapeutic techniques which thev will use later in their care of other patients. Thus, Jorge was accepted because his rheumatoid arthritis is rare among children, and Moyra because her congenital abnormality of the urinary bladder occurs about once in every 30,000 deliveries and was of the most severe type. Community Benefit Implicit in the program is the distinct benefit to the communities to which the hospitals provide care, because the opportunity to minister to unusual and severe cases and participate in such an outstanding training program stimulates physicians to join local medical staffs. This inevitably leads to higher professional standards and a better grade of medical practice. A stateside physician, for example, has little opportunity nowadays to treat a case of tuberculosis of the spine. At this writing, several such cases in varying degrees of severity, have been treated in the Orthopedic Service in Gorgas, all requiring removal of diseased body tissue at the vertebrae and spinal fusions. Three of the cases, incidentally, were Guaymi Indian girls. Treatment of such cases, even if infrequently found in future practice, provides the involved physicians with such detailed knowledge of spinal anatomy and makes them so familiar with these particular techniques of surgery that they can apply them with great benefit to other conditions affecting the same part of the anatomy. Thus, the direct benefit to the three Guaymi Indian girls will later prove of value to AND SHE'LL BE NORMAL— This tiny lass was born with major congenital birth defects, which the Teaching-Case Program corrected. Without such treatment, she either would not have lived or would have survived with tremendous handicaps. other patients with diverse conditions of the spine requiring surgery and fusion. As is to be expected, there is a much more active training program at Gorgas than at Coco Colo Hospital. But the requirements are the same for teaching-cases. The program has made Gorgas a teaching hospital the equal of any in the United States, and has thus helped to make available on the Isthmus medical care comparable to that practiced in the most outstanding centers in the United States Valuable Teaching Cases It is important to understand that a teaching program has been in existence at Gorgas Hospital for at least 40 years. It started when interns were first recruited for service at Gorgas Hospital and then was gradually enlarged to include residents in training. The bulk of the teaching cases comes from among patients— United States and Panamanian citzens— who are eligible for care and medical facilities in the Canal Zone. It is only the unusual cases, those which are difficult to diagnose or which present problems in treatment, that come from Panama. Through the program, these patients are helped and at the same time the clinical experience of the physicians in training in enlarged. Massive Goiter Removed Mrs. Eduarda R. came to Gorgas Hospital with a massive goiter, her thyroid gland enormously distended. The normal dimensions of the gland are about two and one-half inches in diameter. The weight of the massive growth caused her to stoop and she could hardly swallow or breathe. The case was taken to the Nuclear Medicine Section, but the goiter was far too advanced for treatment with radioactive iodine. It took 6 months of inpatient and outpatient treatment to bring Mrs. R's health back in balance for surgery. When the goiter was finally removed, it was found to be the largest ever taken out at Gorgas Hospital in the memory of veteran physicians, and of a size rarely (See p. 20) The Panama Canal Review 19

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Helpins Them Walk, Live (Continued from p. 19) recorded in medical textbooks. Mrs. R. has recovered. Plastic surgery of cleft lips— a congenital defect-is not an easy job, particularly if the palate also is involved. Under the teaching program, several cases of this type have been successfully treated, most of them in San Bias Indian babies. This condition is only occasionally encountered in a population the size of that in the Zone. The opportunity to see and treat these additional cases will make physicians in Canal Zone hospitals more adept in their treatment of future patients. Snake-Bite Victim Snake-bite incidents are always of interest to the medical profession. One such case was that of Rengifo A., an Indian boy about 12 years old. He was bitten by a fer-de-lance below the right knee while farming in the Madden Lake area. Neighbors applied a very tight grass tourniquet on his leg. It took hours to get him to the hospital, and during that period the tourniquet was not loosened. By the time he was admitted, gangrene had set in. Young Rengifo recovered from the effects of the venom, but his leg had to be amputated where the tourniquet had been placed. At the end of his treatment, which lasted 170 days, Rengifo walked out of the hospital with an artificial leg. Not all of the patients treated under the resident training program start out as "teaching cases." Eduardo B., 7 years old, the corneas of whose eyes had been badly scarred by an infection, was "adopted" by the men of a U.S. Army company who raised funds to send him to Gorgas. The first corneal transplant— a surgery not frequent in Gorgas because of the lack of an eye bank —proved unsuccessful. By that time, funds raised by the troops had been exhausted, so Eduardo was taken on as a "teaching case." He has since had a corneal transplant of the left eye and a cataract extraction and has improved, but still is under treatment in the Ophthalmology Service. Teaching Cases Are Varied The variety of teaching cases is such that every service of the hospitals has them at one time or another. When 8-year-old Luis E., from Escobal, Colon Province, was operated on for the removal of bone fragments pressing on a nerve, causing facial paralysis, it was only the second time that such surgery was performed in the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Service of Gorgas. The boy had suffered a skull fracture several months earlier in a fall on a wharf. The pieces of bone pressing on the facial nerve paralyzed the right side of his face. He couldn't close his right eye— not even when sleeping. It is only in the very recent past that surgery of this type, in this area, has become feasible. Luis, still reporting for observation once every 3 months, has now recovered 95 percent of his facial functions. Born Without Thumbs Miriam P., now a teenager, was bom without thumbs and without the radius bone in both arms. As a result she could not grasp objects. Orthopedic surgeons reconstructed the index finger in each hand into a thumb, which involved moving the digit from one position to the other. They also fused the wrist bones. Miriam, whose treatment has taken about 4 years, now can grasp objects with her three fingers and thumb in each hand. These cases are but a few of the many which show dramatically what medicine can do for people today, as well as the benefits for all involved in the teaching program. A more complete list of cases of outstanding medical assistance under the program in Gorgas Hospital alone would include patients who recovered from massive obstructive-distention of both kidneys, intersex problems, clubfoot deformities, fractures, wounds, post-polio complications, skin diseases— and many more. They Come from Near and Far The teaching case patients come to the hospitals in diverse ways. 20 Sometimes the hospital's doctors discover them; sometimes they are referred by doctors in Panama who are familiar with the teaching program in the Canal Zone, or by missionary doctors visiting remote areas in the Republic; sometimes they are brought in by their employers in the Canal Zone. Participants in the Health Bureau teaching program are the interns and resident physicians, under the guidance and supervision of boardcertified specialists on the hospital staffs. Depending on the specialty in which they are training, residents will spend anywhere from 2 to 4 years at Gorgas. At the end of training, they are board-qualified and must pass an examination for board certification, which is official recognition of their rank as specialists. Far Reaching* Benefits The growth of the teaching case program in the Canal Zone hospitals over the past 10 years bespeaks its value. The benefits have been farranging— for medical staffs, patients, and communities. It is a program of enormous impact on the health status of the chronically and severely ill, both in Panama and in the Zone. For the patients from Panama, it means care not normally available to them for various reasons. To Zone patients, it means new and improved techniques which their physicians would not ordinarily have learned in their conventional care of patients. To phvsicians, it means the opportunity to see and treat diseases of a type and severity they would perhaps not see in a lifetime of practice. There is far more than the broadening of their field of interest and practice. Direct benefit to the Canal Zone communities has been through improvement of the quality of medical care by providing training opportunities to interns and residents and stimulation to stafl phvsicians. Though conceived primarily for its scientific value, the program has happilv developed into a people-topeople project which has won lasting, and nicest of all, healthy friends. November 1968

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D o w N U T N D E R L O C K A LITTLE-KNOWN underground world exists "down under" that has nothing to do with Australia or a resistance movement. Those below in this case are the men who work down under the Panama Canal locks, and who walk the labyrinths that form a vital network thousands of feet long under the locks' surfaces. The operations of the locks fall naturally into three parts— the control houses above ground level, the operations on the ground that involve the lock walls, and those down under. The number of men assigned to dutv under locks varies. During an overhaul period, some 950 extra employees may be hired, about 700 bv the Locks Division and some 250 bv Maintenance. After the chambers are drained, these men descend to begin the actual overhaul which involves maintenance and repairs. But during the normal workweeks it's a pretty quiet world down under. About 20 maintenance men— painters, oilers, craftsmen and helpers— usually work at each lock during the The Panama Canal Review s GREASING JOB— Francisco Wason, oiler (kneeling) greases sheave on the rising stem valve roller train chain. Leslie C. Mcintosh, oiler (standing) greases guide rollers on rising stem crosshead. day. On the night shift, six men who handle service calls are assigned at each lock. And there mav be an occasional boa or opossum down there, but of course they're not on the duty roster. The lock operator leader, mechanical, and his counterpart, the lock operator leader, electrical, have the most responsible positions. Formerly, the leader, mechanical, was "senior tunnel man" and the tunnel still is his domain. But whatever the title, the job entails quite a bit of exercise, especially leg work. Usually, the lock operator, mechanical, "goes for a walk" first thing in the morning. He walks the length of the tunnel on the first lockage and checks to see that all machines are operating properlv. Since the lock chamber is 1,050 feet and the tunnels extend another 300 feet at either end of the chamber, it's a good constitutional. All the locks have essentially the same dimensions. On duty at Miraflores Locks is Oliver G. Paterson of Los Rios, lead21 er lock operator, who is the senior in this position on the Pacific side of the Isthmus. His U.S. Government service dates to 1939. At Pedro Miguel, the supervisor of leader locks operators in maintenance work, Joe Young, has service that dates from 1941. Leader lock operator Greg Gramlich's service also goes back to that year. A close second in length of service is Ray F. Hesch, also a leader lock operator, whose service dates to 1942. The dean of leader lock operator machinists at Gatun Locks is Daniel A. Lawson, whose service dates to 1936. Their underground dutv stations are compact. There's a desk, clipboards that hold inspection schedules for the start of each shift, and handtools for small repairs, filing, or small assembly operations. The leader lock operator, electrical, has duties similar to those of his colleague, except that in his case the work involves the intricate electrical (See p. 22)

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CENTER WALL TUNNEL, looking north, shows the long, long walk ahead of the tunnel workers. Lubricating boxes are mounted on either side. Just beyond the lubricating boxes are the guards for the miter gate bullwheels. They Work Down, Down Under (Continued from p. 21) equipment in the tunnels. At some points, the machines and electrical equipment are half a mile away from the control house. Each tunnel is divided horizontally into three stories— the lower for drainage, the middle for wiring and the top as a passageway with bays into which the machinery to operate the locks is set. There are huge cast steel bullwheels more than 19 feet across, weighing 35,000 pounds and mounted horizontally on a large center pin. These open and close the lock gates through a connecting arm. In the next bay is the tiny 40-horsepower motor which is able to operate the wheels, and in tum the gates, through sharp gear reductions. A 40-horsepower motor also is used to operate the miter gate and the rising stem valves. The original machinery, installed 54 years ago by Panama Canal construction workers, is still in use today. For over half a centurv the original rising stem valves have been in operation, the wheels have been turning, the chain has been extended across the locks chambers and then recessed, and the little motors have been doing the work. Only the motors have undergone a slight change. Once a 25-horsepower motor was used, as a predecessor to the 40-horsepower motor. Along the passageways down under, there are the transformer rooms at intervals, and in the center —walls are float wells to determine the depth of the water in each lock chamber for the gages in the control house. Machinery for the chain fender, a safety device to prevent a ship from striking the miter gates, requires periodic lubrication and is in a pit approximately 70 feet deep. Stairs go down most of the way, with the last 20 feet traveled down a ladder. The chain stretches across the lock chamber and is worked by a hydraulicallv operated system of cylinders controlled remotely from the tower. A lighted red indicator on the wall shows when the chain is up. When the chain is down, the indicator is recessed in the wall. There are slots in the side wall and bottom of the lock chamber, and when a vessel is transiting, the chain falls into its grooves in the lock floor and out of the way. The intricacy of the operation is spelled out in a diagram sketch on one side of the tunnel wall. Most of the work underground is at a level of about 8 feet, although the rising stem lubricators weeklv 22 November 1968

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go down into a pit about 20 feet below the tunnel surface. Another weeklv lubrication operation is the care for the miter gate movingmachinerv. The lubrication crew, a leader, and five or six men provide lubrication for all the machinery, check to see that everything is as it should be, and call attention to am thing that might be wrong. Periodic inspections are made of electricity and water lines and the sump pumps in the lower tunnel. A hole, about 3 feet by 4 feet, gives access to the shaft for the lower under-tunnel, below the floor of the locks chambers. At first glance, it looks like the black hole of Calcutta. Over half a century ago, the men assigned to do the inspections in that under-tunnel area made the descent bv a ladder set flush against one wall. Over the years, an improvement to the operation was made, and the inspectors rode down to the undertunnel area in a "bosun's chair," a board rigged on a line, kind of a close relative to a child's swing. The newest development, which is just being installed, consists of a wire cage or man-hoist, in which a man stands as he is lowered down. The underground world of the Panama Canal also has an emergency pump and sprinkler system in case of fire, primarily for protection of the miter gates in event of a floating fire, and for protection of control house personnel. A little-known role of the underground locks area is that it is also a shelter area. Civil defense emergency rations and drinking water are stored in each tunnel and are checked periodically. All the locks machinery is activated from the control tower. Before any maintenance service is performed, the control tower is advised as to exactly what part of the machinery is to be out of operation. The accident rate in the underground area is extremely low, due to implementation of good safety regulations. After the control tower has been notified what machinery is to be out of operation and worked on, the machinery in question is tagged at two locations. Each employee responsible has a lock with his own key to the equipment on which he is working. Leaders have four locks mastered to their own personal keys, and a tag with the workman's name is placed on the machine and the equipment locked to prevent its being turned on while work is underway. Although all the locks are essentially the same, the men who work at Miraflores and Gatun Locks also have bridge maintenance responsibilities. At Miraflores, the swing bridge is maintained so that it can be operated in an emergency. The bridge itself is operated from the bridge control house, but there is intercommunication with the locks. At Gatun, maintenance work is done on the vehicular bridge, which is operated from the control house. Life down under has its moments of excitement, too, wholly apart from the locks operation and yet linked to it. The White Rabbit of Alice's Wonderland may not be found in the tunnels, but once in a while the men come across snakes, mostly boas, especially at the beginning of the rainy season. The snakes are washed down-river during the heavy rains, and when the lock gates are open, they slither up on the gate arms and then inside. While most of the snakes found in the lock tunnels are boas, a number of fer-de-lance have made locks' tunnel visits, too. Opossums have found their way inside the lock tunnels, and a few times sloths have crawled up over the fence and into the tunnel, where they curled up like raggedy balls until they were found and evicted. You see, there is plenty of variety "down under." GO!— James E. Farrell begins the descent to the cross-under area beneath the locks' floors. Center, flush to the wall, is the ladder the first locks' workers used. The bosun's chair, in which Farrell sits, is due to be replaced in the near future by a wire cage or man hoist, in which a man stands as he is lowered. The Panama Canal Review 23

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PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic Commodity First quarter, fiscal yearOres, various — Iron and steel, plates, sheets, and coils— Boards and planks Sugar Fishmeal Metals, various Iron and steel manufactures, misc Bananas Pulpwood Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) Plywood and veneers Canned food products Potash Petroleum and products Coffee All others 1969 Total 1,231,354 820,697 806,677 741,682 414,055 329,865 315,711 296,801 282,618 274,150 208,441 179,491 158,284 150,126 148,325 2,469,938 1968 8,828,215 1,037,172 156,297 150,127 832,038 360,526 354,308 580,635 319,838 238,167 300,276 121,409 210,355 115,546 618,861 105,582 2,990,402 5-Yr. Avg. 1961-65 8,491,539 282,514 N.A. N.A. 693,908 N.A. 274,741 N.A. 274,753 130,271 196,404 N.A. 253,387 130,271 490,599 109,537 4,507,046 7,343,431 Atlantic to Pacific Commodity First quarter, fiscal year— 1969 Petroleum and products Coal and coke Phosphates Corn Metal, scrap Sorghum Wheat Soybeans Ores, various Metal, iron Sugar Paper and paper products Chemicals, unclassified Rice Cotton, raw All others TotaL 4,199,180 3,544,096 1,225,062 736,428 704,733 556,250 506,225 486,988 397,495 373,884 262,432 227,536 161,048 149,353 145,004 2,730,438 1968 16,406,152 3,594,632 2,504,584 931,022 607,078 1,260,135 365,211 296,723 554,388 431,630 969,036 297,063 167,788 252,706 85,376 97,441 2,493,467 5-Yr. Avg. 1961-65 14,908,280 2,848,139 1,521,383 497,992 299,197 812,008 N.A. 179,668 279,937 70,671 48,694 367,986 108,532 161,332 28,632 79,961 2,122,496 9,426,628 TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercia

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CRUISE SEASON THE 1968-1969 cruise season, starting this month, will bring the Holland-American luxury liner, SS Statendam, to the Isthmus on five "festival cruises." The vessel transited the Panama Canal last month on what was to have been the first of two Caribbean Festival cruises, one this year and the other in 1969. The cruises proved so popular, however, that additional Caribbean Festival cruises are scheduled for November 14, January 9, February 8, and March 11. The SS Statendam, whose local agent is Pacific-Ford, S.A. on these cruises, sails from Los Angeles and anchors in seven Caribbean ports as well as several Mexican and South American harbors. The Festival cruises will bring the SS Statendam on 10 trips through PanCanal. Each cruise is for 25 days and covers 9,300 miles. The Southern Cross will transit the Canal November 6 and again December 18, according to Pacific-Ford. The Akaroa will transit December 4, and Christmas Eve will see the Northern Star in Balboa for a transit on Christmas Day. A New Year's Eve arrival will be the Stella Oceanis, which will dock in Cristobal and sail New Year's Day. C. B. Fenton & Co., Inc. had its 1968-1969 cruise vessel schedule inaugurated last month with the arrivals of the Bergensfjord and the Kungsholm at Canal ports. On November 3, Panama's Independence Day, the Sagafjord arrived in Cristobal for immediate transit. The vessel berthed in Balboa from mid-afternoon until 1 a.m. the following day. The Federico C, also represented by Fenton, will make a series of calls at Cristobal starting December 30. Federico C will sail from Port Everglades, Fla., cruise through the Caribbean and then dock at Cristobal for about 10 hours. The ship will come back to Cristobal for half-day visits January 13 and 27, February (See p. 27) CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

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Refreshing Chiriqui Highlands (Continued from p. 1 7) 11,000-foot peaks rise no higher than the spirit of the people who call them home. Along with those already mentioned, there are the Leonard Butzes, both in their 80's, and the brothers Gutierrez— one of whom came to die at Cerro Punta of tuberculosis 20 years ago. They farm broad stretches of land— themselves. And there is the "old" barber who walks up 3 miles each week to cut John Winklosky's hair— on a road with 40 percent grades. Winklosky and his wife Henryetta are recent retirees from Pan Canal. There are youngsters in the area now— 40-year-old Tommy Carruth, for example, who provided the initial impetus for this story. When I told him over coffee one afternoon we were looking for story ideas, he said: "You know, there's kind of a pretty place up in the Interior you might Piftatas (Continued from p. 8) into a clown, an animal face or any number of figures. An empty gallon ice cream container or a hatbox is an excellent base for a pifiata. Dress it up with crepe paper and add features to make an animal face, a bird, a flower or a fruit. The paper bag and cardboard pifiatas are safer than the pottery pifiata and will not hurt anyone when broken. Make a pifiata by any method. Hang it up, being sure the rope is strung tihrough a hook on a pulley so it can be raised up and down and moved about. This way, the master of ceremonies can move the pifiata out of the path of the whooshing broomstick. Now watch the fun as the blindfolded child or adult flails at the empty air. He gets three tries and the game goes on until a guest gives the pifiata a good whack and breaks it, spilling out the goodies. The party is launched! be interested in. Everybody goes up there to die— and lives for 30 years." Carruth has mountain fever, too. A building contractor in Panama City, he gets up to his Cerro Punta retreat as often as possible. The ease of enjoying BoqueteCerro Punta advantages for merely a weekend— and a weekend only whets the appetite— may tax your credibility. You can stay in Boquete, after a short 6-hour drive from Panama City, for less than $20 a night for two, with private bath and including all meals. The food is well-prepared, and varied, and the streams that lull you to sleep near the hotels Panamonte, Dos Rios and the quaint Pension Marilos cost nothing extra. Most rates remain unchanged from one time of the year to the other. The entire year is the season. If you stay at the Marilos, you will meet its engaging host, Gregory Chuljak, Austrian-turnedYugoslav-tumed Panamanian, a man whose 65 years cross several countries, careers, and turns of fortune. You'll feel fortunate to have known him. As you go over to the other side of the mountain-range toward Cerro Punta, you can stop at the Dos Rios' sister hotel, of the same name in El Volcan. Farther up toward Cerro Punta itself, there is Curt Hemmerling's chalet, which he has supplemented with comfortable lodging and excellent cooking— at outrageously low rates. The drive from Panama City itself is smooth, fast, and only the varied landscape will delay you as you stop for pictures. Otherwise, the trip is rapid. Beyond Bio Hato, about 75 miles out from Panama City on the Inter-American Highway, the road is new all the way to David and feels like it. From David, it is only a short drive to either Boquete or Cerro Punta. But by no means accept this verbal imitation as even a partial mirror of such a journey. It is yours as it was mine, for the easy taking. It will take you away— to the cool, primitive forests you dream of, to the meadows, to the brooks and rivers, and to the mountains— the mountains that make you suddenly stand still and stare up, way up high. As mother nature re-unfolds herself to you, a masculine touch is evident in her stroke; perhaps there is another— older— Patriarch in Cerro Punta. Theodore Barrington MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over— (Fiscal years)

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o HIPPING (Continued from p. 25) 10 and 24, March 10 and 24, and April 7 and 21. The Bergensfjord, due in Cristobal in late January, will transit the Panama Canal and dock in Balboa. The Oceanic, on Fenton's winter cruise schedule, will visit Cristobal January 25 and again February 12. Steady Customer LLOYD TRIESTINO, one of Italy's most" important shipping lines, continues as a Panama Canal customer after the first two transits by its luxury ships earlier this year. The first to transit was the Guglielmo Marconi, a 27,900-ton passenger liner which arrived in Balboa February 23, transiting northbound. The Galileo Galilei, a sister ship, went through the Canal October 29, and will transit again, northbound, on March 16 and August 6, 1969. The Guglielmo Marconi will be in Canal waters again November 11, 1969, and will transit northbound. Because of the closing of the Suez Canal, these ships are now circling the world. Both are 701.59 feet long, with a beam of 93.80 feet. Each can accommodate 1,629 firstand touristclass passengers. With a speed of 24 knots, they are among the fastest ships transiting the Canal. Both were put in service in 1963. Holland-American Line announced that the company will invest 4 million dollars this fall in refurbishing the line's three big vessels— SS Rotterdam, SS Nieuw Amsterdam, and SS Statendam, all of which are Panama Canal customers. PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC STATISTICS FOR FIRST QUARTER FISCAL YEAR 1969 TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels) 1969 1968 Commercial 3,346 3,317 U.S. Government 381 350 Free 19 27 Total 3,746 3,694 TOLLS' Commercial __ $2 1 ,932,274 $20,531 ,957 U.S. Government 2,426,073 2,284,978 Total $24,358,347 $22,816,935 CARGO 00 Commercial— 25,236,502 23,403,346 U.S. Government 2,312,423 2,331,434 Free 38,041 138,268 Total 27,586,966 25,873,048 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and small. 00 Cargo figures are in long tons on all vessels, oceangoing and small. s. I96B

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