Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1960
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text














UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES





















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalreaug1968pana


























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W. P. LEBEl, Governor-President
H. R. PAtFITT, Lieutenant Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN


Panama Ca


.MORGAN E. GOOnwIN, Press Officer
PANA A Publications Editors
THEODORE BARRINGTON, TONIAS A. CUPAS
Editorial Assistants


anal In n fficr Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE jICHARD, OBI 51TI
nal Informaon Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should he mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa lleights, C.Z.


EL, FANNIE P.
T. TUNON


A HOI[ 101 1OT ROUB[[...




Andex

A Hole Lot of Trouble 2


San Miguelito --
The Art of Repairs__
Anniversaries
Hemisfair
Canal History
La Arena Pottery-
Shipping Notes_
Insurance Protects
11,000 Employees
Port Kobe, Japan
Shipping Story,
Statistics


S6


Cover Story

OUR COVER of the recent repairs at
Gatun locks, as well as the sketches
printed on pp. 9-11, are the work of
Artist Al Sprague, a Curundu junior
lligh School teacher. His paintings and
sculpture have enjoyed wide shootings
hothl in the United States and the Canal
Zone, and he is on permanent display
at Amnherst College in New England
and in the Union of South Africa.


The SHOZAN MAU at Baltimore drydock, after PanCana expertise got her floating again.


-The SHOZAN MARU at Baltimore drydock, after PanCanal expertise got her floating again.
The SHOZAN MlARU at Baltimore drydocek, after PanCanal expertise got her floating again.


AUGUST 1968


m- n







ij~ (~


It"

ii -


Robert W. Lowry, left, Assistant Chief of
the Dredging Division, and Capt. Richard C.
Sergeant, the then Captain of the Port,
Balhoa-two of the key men in resolving the
Shozan Maru crisis.


~I


3ih


...SO[V[D ON TH[ DOUB[[


The terse announcement that the Panama Canal was open
to ships again conveyed none of the drama and anxiety
through which the organization had just lived: "The Pan-
ama Canal is now back in operation after having been
closed to traffic by a ship accident in Gaillard Cut," the key
paragraph read.
The interim of that stoppage was among the most dramatic
in the history of the Canal, and the refloating operation which
was accomplished in the period ranks with the most notable
achievements of the men whose job it is to keep the waterway
open.
The events that led to the unexpected-a super bulk carrier
sunk in the middle of Gaillard Cut-began on February 25.
It was Carnival Sundav on the Isthmus, one of the year's
most festive days. An added attraction was the third round
of the 1968 Open Golf Tournament at the Panama Golf Club,
an event which particularly attracts Canal Zone residents.
At the Canal, operations were apparently calm. But in
transit was a 746-foot bulk carrier, the Shozan MAaru, of 55,000
deadweight tons and laden with 51,806 tons of iron ore. She
was approaching the midway point of her Pacific-to-Atlantic
transit, and was already in the Cut. Suddenly, the Shozan
lari struck the bank of Las Cascadas Reach.
The vessel started taking water badly, and soon David
Sullivan, in charge of dispatching in the Gamboa Field Office
of the Dredging Division, had his hand full-literally-a micro-
phone in one and a telephone in the other. There was equip-
ment to be mobilized, personnel to he located, instructions


to be conveyed, innumerable queries to be answered. The
seriously damaged Shozan Marn kept moving in a game effort
to reach Gamboa and the safety of a beaching area, a
tantalizing three miles away.
Shortly after the initial report of the accident-the worst
had materialized. From the nearby launch Shearwater came
word that the Shozan Maru had sunk approximately one mile
from Gamboa. Confirmation came quickly from the tug
Stcvens, which had rushed to assist the stricken vessel. The
message from the Stevens' master, Riggs Forest: "The Shozan
Maru is very definitely and very firmly grounded by the head
at Station 1515 and the Panama Canal is blocked."
Among the first to arrive on the scene was R. \. Lowr\,
Assistant Chief, Dredging Division, who had been summoned
from home where he was operating his ham radio. With
Capt. Arthur L. Logan, Sr., Assistant Port Captain, Balboa,
he went to the Shozan Marn by launch from Gamboa.
"It was a shocking sight," Lowry recalls. "The ore carrier
was aground with the forward portion of the ship consider-
ably lowered."
The grounded ship became the rendezvous for key Canal
officials; Col. James A. Betts, Engineering and Construction
Director; Capt. Donald A. Dertien, Marine Director; Capt.
A. L. Gallin, Chief, Navigation Division; and Capt. Richard
A. Sergeant, the then Captain of the Port, Balboa, who joined
Lowry and Logan on the bridge. By then, a preliminary
estimate of the situation was available. The ship's forepeak
and No. 1 ballast tanks were flooded, but no water had
entered the cargo holds.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







...the


answer came


soon...


Ashore, men and equipment were being mobilized for what
officials already knew could be a round-the-clock operation.
The buoy tender U.S. Atlas was ordered to the grounded
ship. Victor C. Melant, the Dredging Division's Construction
and Maintenance Superintendent, joined the Atlas. Even at
this early stage, a critical order went out: put plenty of air
hose aboard the Atlas.
Aboard the Shozan Maru, a plan of action emerged from
the conference. It consisted of three alternatives-dewatering
the flooded compartments with the ship's pumping gear, forc-
ing the water out of the hole in the bottom by compressed
air, or jettisoning cargo as necessary to refloat the vessel.
Gov. W. P. Leber went to the bridge of the Shozan Mariu,
followed a short time later by Lt. Gov. H. R. Parfitt.
With three alternatives now endorsed by the Canal's two top
officials, the salvage operation drew nearer to execution. Ar-
riving on the scene were the then Acting Chief of the Indus-
trial Division, Julius Grigore, Jr., Salvage Master Burt Powell,
C. W. Field, Dennis Gilbert and Earl Robbins, also of the
Industrial Division, and diver Ralph Morales.
By this time the situation had grown more acute with the
report that the No. 2 starboard ballast tank of the Shozan
Manru was flooding. The go-ahead came from Canal officials:
"We are placing the carrying out of this mission in the hands
of a team of two men-Burt Powell and Bob Lowry."
The news that the Canal was blocked already had spread.


Local correspondents of stateside wire services converged on
the Information Office in the Administration Building. Mrs.
Tobi Bittel, who was in the office, bore the brunt of the initial
queries until the arrival of the then Press Officer, Robert D.
Kerr. By evening, the Press Office staff was answering
telephone calls from news media in Miami, New York, and
Chicago, keeping local reporters informed of developments
and arranging for on-the-spot coverage by Isthmian newsmen,
network film correspondents and local television cameramen.
The Panama Canal Information staff was to keep on the job
through the next day.
Aboard the Shozan Maru, word was anxiously awaited from
diver Morales, down inspecting the damage. His report im-
mediately eliminated the first alternative in the plan of action;
the rupture in the skin of the ship was too big to be sealed with
collision mats and permit use of the ship's pumps to dewater
flooded compartments. But the damage was located far enough
below the waterline to attempt the second alternative-use of
compressed air.
Even so, preparations were made to be ready for the third
alternative-jettisoning cargo. Walter Malone, master of the
250-ton floating crane Hercules, began rigging Derrick Barge
No. 157 for clamshell operation if needed.
In the Gamboa shops, B. M. Parmentier, John Farrow and
Noel Gibson went to work cutting steel plate flanges to blank


Other key members in the massive team effort to refloat the Shozan Maru were, from left, Burton L. Powell, Salvage Master; and Carley R.
May, Ralph Morales, and Elbert T. Chappell, Jr., Industrial Division divers.
























4'
J>


The Shozan Maru ed up at Gamboa after refloating was completed.
The Shozan Maru tied up at Gamboa after refloating was completed.


off vent pipes on the ship. Aboard the Shozan Alaru, the crew
of the Atlas lent a hand with the removal of deck vents. When
the vent pipes were sealed and the air hose connected, the
compressor aboard the Atlas began pumping air into the
Shozan larni.
To force out the tons of water that had poured into the
vessel through the gash in the forward peak above the keel,
11 pounds of air pressure per-square-inch would be required.
The forepeak tank-tops of most seagoing ships are tested to
six pounds per-square-inch. No one knew the construction of
the Shozan laru's tank-top. Could the ship's deck stand the
pressure of millions of pounds of compressed air pushing
against it? Everyone on the job knew it was a gamble.
The answer was not long in coming. Almost imperceptibly,
the bow of the huge vessel which had been resting on the
bottom of the Canal, started to rise. Eventually, the com-
pressed air pushed the water in the peak tank vertically down-
ward by 24 feet-and the air was bubbling through the
ragged gash below. The bow had been raised two feet:
But then, another crucial decision had to be taken. Should
the ship he moved now? The consensus was that it was worth
another gamble. Should it fail, the situation would be no
worse than when the refloating operation had begun. Canal
officials acted decisively, and the order was given: "We take
full responsibility. Captain Sergeant, proceed to Camboa
moorings under tug power without using ship's propeller."
With four tugs assisting, the Shozan Maru began inching
forward, its keel close to the bottom of the Canal. But Captain
Sergeant, drawing on a lifetime of experience in putting ships
through the waterway, maneuvered the large vessel success-
fully over the last critical mile. As if symbolically, dawn was
just breaking-and the Shozan Mlaru was safe at mooring. The


Panama Canal has shaken off its "darkest night," said officials
involved in the refloating operation.
But still there were problems. With the waterway blocked,
ships had lined up along the Canal at both entrances awaiting
transit. When the Canal was declared reopened to traffic, the
backlog numbered 84 vessels. The problem was compounded
by the fact that the blockage occurred while one lane at
Gatun Locks was out of service for overhaul.
Then the Locks and Navigation Divisions swung into action.
Equipment was moved to Gatun Locks, including the Dredg-
ing Division's floating crane Hercules, to reopen the east lane,
and the final push came on February 29 when 65 oceangoing
ships were transited-an effort which required, among others,
the varied skills of pilots, marine traffic controllers, admeas-
urers, deckhands, tug and launch crews, operations and
maintenance supervisors, control house operators, lockmasters,
towing locomotive operators, line-handlers, and helpers.
Thus, three days after that fateful February 25, the Panama
Canal had left crisis behind and was basking in congratulations
pouring in from the shipping world. Official praise was be-
stowed on the Navigation, Dredging and Industrial Divisions,
and commendations were extended to Captain Sergeant, to
Lowry and Powell. The highest accolade embraced the entire
Panama Canal organization, one from Secretary of the Army
Stanley R. Resor, in a letter to Governor Leber:
"Dear Governor Leber:
"Please accept and convey to the members of your staff and
to the employees of the Panama Canal Company my highest
respect for your outstanding achievement in handling this past
Sunday's mishap. Your actions in averting a near disaster once
again remind us all of our continued pride and esteem for
your entire organization. In recognition of the professional
competence and devotion to duty of all, Well Done!"


TIlE PANAIMA CANAL REVIEW


I' ;








*an 9tiguelito...




iaunZCAL C/ a mecu ;ctiVe fcadt/


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The Holy Mass has reached a
climactic moment-the Communion by
the celebrant and the assembly. God
has accepted the sacrifice of Christ
just offered to Him, and gives back
Christ Himself, dead and risen, as
the nourishment of Christian life.
A guitar caresses the silence, and a
high-pitched Panamanian voice with an
accent of the Interior rises in a song of
joy, joined by hundreds of other voices
in a "torrente paso trote."
This is part of the Panamanian Mass,
sung with the music and words of
Panama's folklore, in a hymn of praise
which brings forth all the fervor of
the people.
Why the gay rhythm?
"Because no one is sad when he eats,"
is the simple explanation by Jos6 Nelson
(Pepe) Rios, composer of the music
and words of the Native Panamanian
Mass of San Miguelito.
And the torrente paso trote pro-


5
AV3.C


." I N


t


Francisco Medina: the drums speak of joy.


ceeds vibrantly through the Eucharistic
Banquet.
Everything about the Native Pan-
amanian Mass is impressive. The temple
where the service is offered, Church of
Christ The Redeemer, was built only
three years ago and does not follow con-
ventional lines. It is shaped like a
gigantic tent-just as the earliest tem-
ples were in the Bible. The circular,
galvanized iron roof, about 150 feet
in diameter, rests on rectangular pillars
and, at opposite ends, on two structures
that serve as chapel and storage
room, respectively.
"This represents the real concept of
a church and a people on the move,"
according to Father Leon Mahon, 42,
a priest of the new breed. He came
from Chicago five years ago to direct a
pilot project based on the new system
of the Catholic Church for the forma-
tion of laymen as the basis for the
survival of the Church itself.
The Native Panamanian Mass is an
expression of that new concept. And
the singer-composer Pepe Rios, with
his simple enthusiasm born of deep
faith, is an example of the new Catholic
in Panama who believes, understanding
what he believes. Born in Chitr6, he
works as an accountant with the
National Service of Volunteers, Pan-
ama's Peace Corps. With his wife
Silvia and four children, he has lived
five years in San Miguelito, the mush-
rooming community of low'-income
people on the Tocumen Airport Road
at its intersection with the Trans-
isthmian Highway. He is just over 30.
His passion for native music (and
dancing) has always been strong.
The idea of the Native Panamanian
Mass came to Pepe while attending a
cursillo (a modified form of weekend
retreat) on Christian initiation, one of
the many which the team of priests of
the community, aided by a group of
Maryknoll Sisters, has organized for the
residents. On the second day of the
retreat, Pepe-whose restlessness is
betrayed by his eyes-broke with tradi-
tion. He brought along his guitar, and


Jos6 Nelson Rios, composer-musician.

instead of spending the evening crack-
ing jokes the 40 men in the retreat put
on a native dance. The next day, instead
of a dance, it was a serenade.

Through Pepe and his companions
at the retreat, grassroots Panamanians
again had expressed their joy through
the means best known to them-folk
music. Encouraged, Pepe Rios then
composed what he entitled, "Classical
Panamanian Melody" which he sang
for the first time at Mass in October
1965. The purpose of the hymn was
to prepare the assembly for the Com-
munion. This "Classical Melody" re-
mains a part of the Native Mass.
Panamanians who hear it recognize
its tune immediately-the tamborito
"Hojita de GuarumA."
But with what solemnity it is imbued
through the slowest of rhythms given
by Pepe Rios to this peak moment of
acclamation! And, as in many of his
other verses, Pepe Rios retained much
of the words of the liturgy:
Holy, Holy is the Lord
And of the universe He is God;
Blessed is he who comes
In the name of the Lord.
Holy, Holy is the Lord
And of the universe He is God.
Heaven and earth are filled
With Thy Glory, Great Lord.


AUGUST 1968






"Anb thye people...

rose itp niub ue oTCe."-E.od"


The simplicity of the words is in
keeping with the acclamation in the
liturgy:
Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God
of Hosts.
Heaven and earth are filled with
your glory.
Hosanna in the highest!
Blessed is he who comes in the
name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.
Encouraged by Father Mahon, Pepe
Rios devoted himself to composing the
full Native Panamanian Mass. By Christ-
mas, 1965, he had finished the Invita-
tion, the Glory to God, the Alleluia
Hymn and the Creed. By the middle of
1966, the Lamb of God, the Offertory,
and the Communion and the Dismissal
hymns were ready.

The Native Panamanian Mass of San
Miguelito consists of 13 hymns. The first
five correspond to the Entrance Rite.
As Pepc Rios explains, the music of
the first two is gay, as befits the joy of
those who go to meet the Lord. The
Introduction is a saloma and the Invi-
tation a tamborito, both original com-
positions. But in the third hymn, the
music turns solemn and reverent. It is
a torrent de llanto.

As the Mass proper begins, the plain-
tive, repentant notes of the imploring
"Capricho Montafiero" rise from the


z- a2r. 4 *,
,- ..
,,. t ;r ... ,

The statue of Jesus rises above San Miguelito.


assembly in the Kyrie Litany, imploring
the Lord's forgiveness:
Lord have mercy
Have mercy upon us.
Ouo, uo, ouo, uo.
But the music turns exultant again
for the Glory to God, a hymn of exal-
tation sung with a tuna beat: "Glory
to God in Heaven and His peace for
him who loves Him."
"It's the song of a man who feels he
has been pardoned," Pepe Rios explains,
"and longs to exalt the dignity of God."
The Mass then enters into the Liturgy


Father Leon prepares to give communion to a young couple during Mass.


--


of the Word, in which God transmits
an actual message of life through the
Scripture. This message reaches the
assembly with special efficacy when the
Church proclaims the Word of God in
the liturgy.
And this, which Pepe Rios describes
as "the most mystical part of the Mass,"
begins with a torrente valdivieso for the
Alleluia which precedes the word of
the Son of God. Then, the sung Creed,
in which the assembly replies to the
Word of God by proclaiming its
baptismal faith:
We believe in God,
We believe in Him,
In our Father the Creator,
Hey, hey, ho, we believe.
It is a slow cumbia, neither gay nor
sad, but sung with fervent enthusiasm.
The "Choral Punto" announces the
Liturgy of the Eucharist. For the Offer-
tory, Pepe Rios chose the music of
the classic Panamanian punto, which in
years past was the favorite of the
aristocracy:
Bless the bread and the wine,
Most Loving Lord,
And become the body and blood
Of the Redeemer Teacher.
is the final stanza of the "Choral Punto."
And responding to the celebrant's














































The congregation singing with the musicians during services.


invitation to recite the Eucharistic
Prayer, the assembly chants, "Holy,
Holy, Holy is the Lord" to the slow
beat of "Hojita de Guaruma."
This moment of intense devotion,
perhaps the deepest of all spiritual
emotions for the participants, is pro-
longed by the "Slow Lament," a gallino
which is the hymn of the Breaking of
the Bread-the rite which reproduces
the gesture of Christ breaking the bread
at the Last Supper, as the father does
at the family table when he breaks the
bread for his children:
Lamb of God
Who takes away
The sins of the world,
Have mercy on us.

And as participation in the Mass
culminates in communion by the cele-
brant and the assembly, the two
Communion hymns ring out joyfully...


a torrente paso trote and a torrente Maria
which close with the stanza:
Through this pure morsel,
In your promised kingdom,
I hope to have earned
Infinite glory.
Lord, come to our people,
Who long for Thee. Come.
As the blessing of the Almighty
descends upon the assembly, imparted
by the celebrant to conclude the Rite
of Dismissal, the faithful sing a torrente
zapatero, whose final saloma-"ouo, uo,
Alleluia"- lingers on after the Native
Panamanian Mass has come to an end.
All this Pepe Rios composed by ear,
for he has had no formal music educa-
tion. He hopes to attend the National
Music Institute soon.
From the very beginning, the Native
Mass has enjoyed wide acceptance in
the San Miguelito community. Com-
posed in antiphonal form (repetition of
music and words) to facilitate memoriz-


ing, all the regular participants in the
9 a.m. Sunday Mass sing it by heart.
Generally, the accompaniment is
with a large guitar (played by Pepe
Rios, who also plays the smaller banjo-
like mejaranera and is a fine singer)
and one native drum. When possible
a violin is added. Recordings of the
Mass are available at the Rectory.
For those who hear the Native Pan-
amanian Mass of San Miguelito for the
first time, the experience is unforget-
table. One is gripped by the intense
spiritual emotion that radiates from the
assembly from the very moment the
spacious temple is filled with song-a
saloma that is reverent invitation:
Let's go, sir, let's go, let's go
to Mass.
Let's go, compadres, let's go.
let's go to Mass.
Let's go, comadres, let's go.
let's go to Mass.


AUcusr 1968







THE ART



OF REPAIR


TO THE LAYMAN'S eye, there may be little art to "repairing"
something-until that precise moment when he sets out to do the
repairing himself. He may then get a painful hint of what craftsmen
learn through long experience-that to a greater or lesser degree,
everything is an art. The art of repairing Canal locks is one art:
sketching the task is another. To celebrate the former, Artist Al
Sprague undertook our cover, and these sketches on this and the
following two pages-various impressions of the recent overhaul at
Gatun Locks, repairs which quickly devastate illusions about the
simple ease of skilled labor. The overhaul involved not only money,
time, and the most expert of timing, but extraordinary men.
Secretary of the Army Stanley R. Resor expressed this view
in a letter to Canal Zone Governor \V. P. Leber: .the manner
in which this difficult and dangerous task was accomplished reflects
that dedicated and efficient performance of Canal personnel which
is a source of great pride to the Nation it was especially gratify-
ing that the overhaul was accomplished with minimum impact on
Canal traffic operations "


Riggers direct a crane atop I


Installing funnels, in preparation for pouring babbit behind
bearing plates.


ock gate.




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Lock gates open slightly.


AUGUST 1968


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Above, men paint underside of vehicular crossing at lower end of Gatun. Below left, men work on bearing plates at miter end of gate.
At right below, the intermediate gate is being painted.

L 263
















MARINE BUREAU
Ernest C. Bryan
Helper Shipwright
Lester G. Williams
Linehandler (Deckhand)

HEALTH BUREAU
Charles A. Gordon
Clinic Clerk


ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Cecil F. Haynes
Supply Clerk
Peter Alexis
Distribution Facilities Assistant
Oscar D. Cr
Motion Cre roje o st m)
Patna
Assi afteail NraMInager

TRANSPO TR A T UE NALS
7721EAD
Juan Reyna
Stevedore
Harold L. Shaw
Supervisory Cargo Checker
Reuben F. Ellis
Forgeman


INTERNAL SECURITY OFFICE
William E. Lebrun
Security Officer

MAGISTRATES' COURTS
John A. Michaelis
Constable

ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
Winston Yearwood
Cylinder Pressman (Large)

CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
John W. Dwyer
Distribution and Window Clerk
John Kozar
Police Private

OFFICE OF TIE COMPTROLLER
Margaret F. Wiggin
General Claims Examiner

ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Henry J. Jempierre
Surveying Aid
Minor Campbell
Painter
Rowland N. Brown
Painter


Camilo Livingston
Roofer
St. Clair A. Husband
Helper Armature Winder
Percival Wade
Oiler (Floating Plant)
William K. Renner
Chief Engineer, Dipper Dredge
James E. Huddleston
Senior Operator (Generating Station)
Raymond L. Watson










Oiler (Floating Plant)
Joseph N. Edwards
Leader Carpenter









MARINE BUREAU
George C. Bannister
Leharfbuilder maintenance )
Cregorio o
e r Blac it ( he ires)







Fred R. Trout
Oiler ( oating Plant)
Joseph N. Edwards
Leader Carpenter



MARINE BUREAU
George C. Bannister
Wharfbuilder (Maintenance)
Fred R. Trout
Lead Foreman Welder
Juan Bonilla
Linehandler (Deckhand)


Lesley A. White
Seaman
Gonzalo L6pez
Cement Finisher

SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
BUREAU
Gilbert E. Manning
Lead Foreman (Grounds)
Isaac Guizado
Gardener
Herman K. Laing
Supply Clerk
Clarisa M. Depass
Supply Clerk
Oscar B. Lowe
Cafeteria Manager
Cleveland A. Johnson
Leader Laborer (Cleaner)
Eliseo Gonzalez M.
Laborer (Heavy Cold Storage)
Alexander Grant
Supervisory Sales Store Clerk

TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Joseph E. Grant
Truck Driver
Robert A. Barbet
Chauffeur
Joshua E. Robinson
School Bus Driver

12 AUGUST 1968


ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
J. Bartley Smith
Supervisory Electrical Engineer (General)
Victor L. Sanger
Lead Foreman (Public Works,
Construction and Maintenance)






you 'II are well at






HEMISFAIR


The Tower of the Americas Dominates the fair.


IMAGINE a picturesque waterway
boasting a profound depth of 32 feet,
with a staggering supply rate of 750
gallons a minute (vs. 3 million for the
Canal). Add to this a few gondolas,
flower boats, dining barges-plus foun-
tains, artesian wells, and various landing
sites.
Where are we? On a miniversion of
the Panama Canal? Or perhaps in
Venice, one hemisphere removed?
Not quite-merely a couple of thou-
sand miles away-at Hemisfair, San
Antonio, Tex., which numbers among
its many proud boasts, "Nothing suc-
ceeds like access." Part of Hemisfair's
charm is the ease with which fair-goers
can enjoy all the attractions, and a
mile-long "canalito," in combination
with a 7,000-foot-long minirail, is
seeing to this. Sited 150 miles from the
closest navigable water, landlocked
Hemisfair has more water traffic than
the Panama Canal, though admittedly
the vessels which travel on the 330- by
210-foot artificial lake are slightly
smaller. The winding lake is also an
extension of the San Antonio River
which means that visitors can depart
from downtown, a la gondola, right to
the canal and fair itself in a matter of
minutes-somewhat quicker than a Pan
Canal crossing.
Almost paralleling in miniature the
Panama Railroad, Hemisfair has a
7,000-foot-long minirail which not only
passes by the exhibits but actually
enters the interior of a few. Its major
stopping places are the private exhibits
and foreign government sectors. Eighty
feet above it is erected a skvride
which for a quarter-mile offers the
visitor a panoramic view of the entire
fair.
Hemisfair itself, which includes the
elaborate pavilions of 34 nations and the
exhibits of many others, has as its cen-
tral theme, Confluence of Civilization
in the Americas. The theme is graph-
ically presented by Confluence Cos-
mos, a unique thematic delineation
which is the latest in audio-visual pre-
sentation. Through films with sliding
screens and panels, an artificial sky and
other motifs, the viewer vicariously
experiences Man's past-recent and
distant-and gets a generous glimpse of
what the future might hold. In this way,
the $7 million exhibit of the United
States extolls Hemisfair's three sub-
themes, the Legacy, the Harvest, and
the Promise.
The Legacy honors the early ex-
plorers and discoverers who opened the
way to the New World, emphasizing
particularly the courageous dreamers of


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










'A~ C


BRIDGE OF THt A
MN-wNI .. lll I-


Pt.





r-.
n R


*-OR


Panama's exhibit attracted a large number of Heisfair visitors.

Panama's exhibit attracted a large number of Hemisfair visitors.


Spain, Portugal, and Italy who were
undaunted by the fears which intimi-
dated most navigators of the day as
they pondered what lay far beyond the
horizons of the sea. Also as part of the
Legacy, there is a simulated ocean
crossing on the "All Peoples' Ship." This
symbolic vessel has projected on its
sails the various ethnic groups who
came together to form the confluence
of what is now America-a various
mixture of racial genes and cultural
influences.
The Harvest, besides describing our
current national purposes in accordance
with the Preamble to the Constitution,
shows how the Legacy is realized in a
harvest of employment opportunities,
homes and property, and freedom of
movement and recreation, with em-
phasis on individuals working toward
common goals as the formula for suc-
cess-despite differences in background.
From the Harvest, the visitor is taken
to the Promise, where the problems as
well as the achievements of today are
presented in relation to the future. The
viewer is reminded that a confluence
of cooperative action must continue
to prevail if progress is to remain
uninterrupted.


Architecturally symbolizing the fair's
theme is the gigantic Tower of the
Americas, a 622-foot structure complete
with observation decks, elevators, and
a revolving restaurant at the top. Con-
structed at a cost of more than $5
million, the tower is 67 feet higher than
the Washington Monument and is in
the very center of the 92-acre fair site,
logically joining together the various
architectural components of Hemisfair.
Panama is colorfully represented at
Hemisfair with the theme, Panama-
Bridge of the Americas. In four sectors
covering 3,000 square feet, the pavilion
includes displays of Panamanian pot-
tery, handicrafts, and native costumes.
Live presentations feature folkloric
dances and the music of various regions
of Panama. Also highlighted are con-
temporary paintings by nationally
known Panamanian artists, as well as
an exhibit showing the vital economic
forces present in the Colon sector.
The Canal itself is depicted by an
elaborate topographical display which
takes the viewer on a simulated trip
through the waterway. The narrated
presentation is cued to a relief map
with a complex lighting system that
spotlights each feature as it is men-


tioned. As the fair-goer moves through
the Canal on a make-believe crossing
to the Pacific, a daylight-to-nightfall
transition is simulated. When darkness
has fallen, about halfway through the
crossing, the Canal itself suddenly
comes alive with lights of ships, buoys,
and lighthouses which flash along the
banks of the waterway. The presenta-
tion was built for the Panama Canal,
using as a mold an exhibit which has
been on display at the Canal Zone
Library for many years.
By the time Hemisfair is over on
October 8, more than 7 million visitors
will have attended. Besides the exhibits
mentioned-and there are innumerable
others-nationally known entertainers
will be performing, including Bob New-
hart, Jimmy Dean, and others. The fair
is a $156 million project which places
it in a category high on the list of
national exhibitions. And besides its
elaborate attractions, there also are
those two little canalitos-the one
through the fair, and the other a micro-
cosm of your own tropical habitat.
If you are planning a trip to the
States soon, Hemisfair is a fair bet to
prove a delightful experience.


AvcvsT 1968


* ^


_z







CANAL HI S'7QRY:


50 y1earj 4go
CANAL ZONE Governor Chester
Harding issued an order that no pas-
senger should be allowed to carry cam-
eras aboard any boat or vessel in waters
of the Canal Zone. Such camera equip-
ment was to be turned over to the Canal
Zone customs inspector, who delivered
it to the purser or other officer of the
vessel with instructions that it must not
be returned to the owner until the
vessel was out of Canal waters.
*0
Instructions to passengers intending
to leave the Canal Zone, in order to
enforce provisions of the Espionage Act
and the Trading With the Enemy Act,
of June 15, 1917, and October 6, 1917,
respectively, said "It is unlawful for any
person to send, or take out of, or bring
into, or attempt to send or take out of
or bring into the Canal Zone any letter
or other writing, or tangible form of
communication except in the regular
course of mail. Penalty for violation of
this statute is a fine of $10,000 or 10
years imprisonment, or both."
0
Canal Zone commissaries were show-
ing a wartime novelty, a "Hoover Bread
Board," to be used to further the saving
of bread "which may then be cut during
the meal instead of being sliced too
plentifully before mealtime."
*
The Panama Canal Record of
August 21, 1918, featured "Meatless
Recipes." These included peanut loaf
with cream sauce; bean and nut loaf
with Italian sauce; and Liberty loaf
with McAdoo sauce. The consumption
of cornmeal in preference to other sub-
stitutes was requested by the Food
Administration as a patriotic duty.

25 Vearf cdlo
"ITALY'S FEAR of Nazis Blocks Road
To Peace-Talks for Peace Underway
In Vatican, Rome" were the Star &
Herald's top of front page headlines on
August 1, 1943.
*
Mooring facilities in Balboa inner
harbor were practically doubled with
completion of a Dredging Division
project and installation of anchors and
buoys. The work was in progress, inter-
mittently, the past year and more than
1 million cubic yards of earth removed
to enlarge the anchorage near the
pier area.


The quarantine period for dogs and
cats brought into the Canal Zone will be
raised to 6 months, effective Sep-
tember 1, as a measure of prevention
of introduction of rabies on the Isthmus,
according to a circular issued by
Col. H. C. Dooling, Acting Chief Health
Officer. The quarantine period, at the
time, was 3 months.

10 year c4go
A TOUGH CRACKDOWN on mos-
quitoes in the Canal Zone, including an
aerial spray assault, was announced by
Gov. W. E. Potter following a horse-
back survey of the Mindi Farm dairy
area with Col. Charles Bruce, the Zone's
Health Director. This was probably the
first time in a quarter of a century a
Zone Governor and his top medical
executive made a first-hand study of a
field problem on horseback. The)y were
accompanied by L. A. Ferguson. The
extermination program was planned in
cooperation with the U.S. Armed
Forces, the military to supply the plane
and the Zone Government to supply the
spray materials.
*
A slide involving 50,000 cubic yards
of material occurred on the east bank
of the Canal, at La Pita bend, just
below the La Pita Signal Station. The


slide caused no interference with ship-
ping. It is believed the slide was
triggered by an earthquake and tor-
rential rains. The slide at La Pita was
the first of any magnitude since 3 years
ago when an earth movement involving
60,000 cubic yards occurred just north
of the La Pita break.

Free bus transportation was provided
for Canal Zone school children for the
first time this year.


One year c4o
WITH A DAILY average of 42 ocean-
going ships during the month of July,
more ships are being put through the
Panama Canal than at any other time in
the history of the waterway. The record
breaking traffic of April, May, and June
continued into July and increased an
additional 6 percent. The 31-day period
ended with a total of 1,302 blue-water
ships, the highest single month's total
recorded.
*
Hail was reported in Los Rios, Coro-
zal, and Diablo Heights on July 18 and
again September 6 the 11th and
12th instances of hail in the Canal Zone
since the phenomenon was officially
noted at Cucaracha in 1908.


DAMP RESPITE-Steamshovel No. 254's efforts at Culebra Cut in 1911 are slightly
dampened by one of Panama's notorious rainstorms.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







It's More than Pot Luck at


L


A


ARENA


AN ART practiced millenniums ago in
the storied lands of Egypt, Chaldea and
Crete is opening new horizons for the
village of La Arena, some 250 kilo-
meters southwest of Panama City.
Work in ceramics has been known
in La Arena, a community of less
than 3,000 population, from time im-
memorial.
Most of the residents now engage in
cattle raising, which is the main occu-
pation in the Azuero Peninsula in
southwestern Panama, or in agriculture.
But even before the time of the conquis-
tadores, what is now known as La Arena
was the place where first the In-
dians and then the settlers supplied
themselves with clay utensils: bulging
tinajas to keep the water cool on warm
days; round pots to cook the daily
meals, and a variety of other utensils
all made in La Arena. Of course, the
baking and the finishing were primitive,
but customers in those days were not
as exacting as now.
From the very beginning, women
took over pottery work in La Arena for
reasons no one can explain. Their prim-
itive ovens can still be seen in the
outskirts of the village.
During the thirties, a young woman
from the nearby, progressive city of


Chitre, Miss Diana Julia Chiari, was
appointed a schoolteacher in the vil-
lage. She quickly became enthusiastic
over ceramics, which she learned from
the village women. Every day after
school, she studied books on pottery'
and ceramics, and soon she became
more adept than her instructors. She
turned the tables-teaching the residents
how to improve their techniques, how
to apply decorations with clays of
various colors and artificial coloring,
the method for building indirect heat
ovens and generally improving the qual-


itv of their ceramics. The glazing pro-
cess, in its primitive form, was another
forward method taught by the young
teacher to the people of La Arena.
Miss Chiari, by then a key community
leader, turned her energies to having a
pottery school established in La Arena.
One of Panama's presidents, Dr. Juan
Dem6stenes Arosemena, turned the
young teacher's dream into reality by
founding the National Pottery School in
La Arena. Miss Chiari was the first
principal.
Diana Julia Chiari was married years
later to Victor Cruber, an American,
and moved to the Panama Canal Zone.
But she never forgot the village of La
Arena. She took friends from Panama
and the Canal Zone on weekend trips
to La Arena to see the work done there.
Another Canal Zone resident, Mrs.
Theresa Lutz, visited La Arena, accom-
panied by an official of the Canal Zone
schools. They were amazed at the work
turned out from the little pottery school
despite the lack of modern facilities
and with only a firewood oven. On her
return to Balboa, Mrs. Lutz aroused the
interest of Mrs. Emily C. Bolton, then
president of the Balboa Women's
Club, in La Arena's pottery school.
The result was that the Club donated to


The Finishing Room at La Arena. With vegetable and synthetic hues, workers apply the various decorations which grow brighter with time.

WSLi limur ^*i






the school a fine ceramics electric oven.
The only condition stipulated by the
Balboa women was that the oven should
be used exclusively for the benefit of
the community. Even today, the oven
donated by the Canal Zone ladies is
still the best piece of equipment in the
oven room of the ceramics center in
La Arena.
A little over three years ago, the
Ministry of Agriculture of Panama,
with United Nations assistance, estab-
lished in neighboring Chitr6 the Na-
tional Handicraft and Small Industries
Service-SENAPI-for the purpose of
encouraging the development of small
industries in various communities of the
central provinces of the Republic. It
has become a large organization, di-
rected by Pedro Bolafios of the Minis-
try of Agriculture, Commerce and
Industries of Panama, and Jean Barroux
of the International Labor Organization.
From the outset, SENAPI centered
its attention on La Arena. Panamanian
and United Nations experts were as-
signed to the town to help the National
Pottery School progress scientifically
and to serve as a model for other com-
munities which might develop ceramics
as a small industry. The National Pot-
tery School became the La Arena
Center under SENAPI in Chitrd.
The project is supervised by Pana-
manian and United Nations experts:
Ivan Zachrison, a Panamanian artist
who has specialized in ceramics, and
George Cuielle, a French expert in ce-
ramics who also is with the United
Nations. They taught the first 16 stu-
dents who reported to the Center.
Currently they are training more than
30 other apprentices. The ceramic
pieces are designed by Alberto Chan
and Rene Diaz, both Panamanians, and
Malcolm Benjamin, another U.N. expert
from the United States.
One of the most important phases of
the project was to develop the La
Arena Center as a cooperative. This
was the job of Franz Helm, a German-
born authority on cooperatives from the
United Nations.
Cuielle points out that top-quality
clay is abundant in Panama, especially
in the central region. "It is a good in-
dustry for the inhabitants of the re-
gion," he remarks. "The raw material is
quite available and costs them nothing.
They have only to manufacture a va-
riety of utensils for which there is a


- -


Fifteen-year-old Luis Calder6n, the youngest of the workers at La Arena, utilizing a
tiny hand-lathe.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







La Arena now


stopping point


for travelers



demand, and they have a means of
livelihood assured."
The La Arena ceramics shop is on
a par with the best, thanks to the help
of Panamanian and United Nations ex-
perts and the equipment furnished by
the world organization. It is supplied
with indirect heat ovens, including the
first one using wood, others em-
ploying gas, and the electric oven
donated by the Balboa Women's Club.
An air compressor facilitates the enam-
eling process which precedes the
baking. In a finishing room, residents
create bright adornments along the lines
of the Indian designs found in the
Conte Site in Code province.
All types of fine vessels, dishes, and
decorative pieces are turned out in a
lathe room. Everything from simple
dishes to amphoras of pre-Columbian
design are produced in this room. Sev-
eral of the amphoras which are replicas
of those found in the Conte Site, com-
plete with designs, have been displayed
by SENAPI in the Panama Pavilion at
Hemisfair in San Antonio, Tex. They
have attracted considerable attention
and already European and United
States importers are showing an interest
in the ceramics from La Arena.
The impact of the La Arena Center
(the official designation of the coopera-
tive project in SENAPI is "La Arena
Ceramics Industries") has been tre-
mendous in the three short years since
its establishment. Its direct sales in
1967 amounted to $16,000. These are
handled in the Center offices in La
Arena and through SENAPI in Panama
City and Colon, the Canal Zone and
other areas of the Republic.
The Center's influence touches most
residents of the town. Brothers Victor
and Ernesto Murillo are typical exam-
ples. The former lives in the center of
town and spends his spare time decora-
ting and turning on a lathe vessels
and pots. Ernesto owns an indirect heat,
firewood oven on the outskirts of town.


I. -


-~t
P.K.b.


.L 11 FL
Mateo Batista removes from the gas-electric kiln a newly baked pot. The oven was donated
to Cooperative Ceramic Industries of La Arena by the Balboa Women's Club in 1963 when
the center was still called the National Pottery School.


He built it under the direction of a
Peace Corps volunteer. Both brothers
learned the art in the La Arena Center
and in a few months after striking out
on their own, Ernesto had saved enough
to buy a small $1,000 delivery truck.
The annual impact on the town from
the ceramics industry is estimated at
more than $20,000, since other families
besides the Murillos work at it during
their spare time.
The results at La Arena have been
so encouraging that SENAPI officials
organized another ceramics shop in
Chitri under instructor Toribio Ruiz
Avila, a native of La Arena. Ruiz al-
ready is training the first five of a group
of 20 young men from La Pefia, Vera-
guas Province, 254 kilometers west of
Panama City.
"The talent for ceramics of these
young people is marvelous," Ruiz
says. "After two weeks training, they
were fashioning delicate clay figures."
The young men will form the nucleus
of the La Pefia Center.


Ruiz was a student under Mrs.
Gruver, whom he recalls affectionately.
"All I know, I owe to her," he said,
recalling his school days.
The La Pefia Center is being
equipped with a $16,000 donation from
the Panama National Lottery. Labor for
the building is being furnished by resi-
dents of the town. The Center will
specialize in fine ceramics, copying the
pre-Columbian gold huacas. Because of
their small size, there will be no diffi-
culty in shipping these items to prin-
cipal markets in the United States
and Europe.
Thanks to the dedication of a young
teacher imbued with the ambition to
help others, a small town in Panama-
aided by the Government and by the
United Nations-is now pulling itself
up by its own bootstraps. La Arena has
become a stopping point for travelers
and visitors, most of who come away
carrying a fine ceramics piece decora-
ted with Indian motifs and labeled,
Made in La Arena-Panama.


AUGUST 1968


~----~T~ __
----


i___








bHI


20,000 First Transits
MORE THAN 13,000 ships making
their first transits have been measured
at Cristobal, and more than 7,000 at
Balboa in the past 30 years during
which the present Panama Canal rules
for determining tolls have been in
sole effect.
Panama Canal admeasurers, the men
who compute the ship tolls, made an
informal check recently and came up
with the above figures. They pointed
out, however, that these did not include
every measuring job their offices had
done in the past 30 years. These figures
included only ships making the Canal
transit for the first time. There were
thousands more that had to be meas-
ured again because they had undergone
structural changes since their previous
transit which might have changed
cargo-carrying capacity.
The admeasuring office also said that
more new ships were measured on the
Atlantic side than on the Pacific side
since most new ships were constructed
in European shipyards or on the east
coast of the United States. The bulk of
the new vessels coming into Balboa
have been built in Japanese shipyards,
and there was a considerable increase
in the number of these in the past
15 years.
Second Billionth Ton
WITH CARGO going through the
Panama Canal at a record rate, Canal
statisticians estimate that it will not be
more than two or three years before


PPI


the second billionth ton makes its tran-
sit through the waterway. This year,
for the first time in history, cargo car-
ried on ships using the Canal reached
the 100,000,000 long-ton mark.
The first billionth ton of cargo to pass
from ocean to ocean via the Panama
Canal moved from Atlantic to Pacific
on December 12, 1956 after the Canal
had been in operation 42 years. At that
time, it was estimated that the second
billionth ton would arrive sometime in
1975 or 1976. This schedule possibly
would have still been in effect if the
traffic had not taken a sharp rise due
to ocean movements to and from the Far
East and the closing of the Suez Canal.
Cargo moving in all other routes through
the Panama Canal actually declined in
the past fiscal year, figures show.
New Coastal Freighter
THE 240-FOOT Dina U which was
launched May 24 at Lemmer, The
Netherlands, will join in August a fleet
of three coastal vessels that ply U.S.
Gulf ports and ports on the west coast
of Central America. Operated by the
Azta Line, the Dina U will make reg-
ular trips through the Panama Canal
with cargo for Central America, Pan-
ama and the United States. Of her
76,000-cubic-foot bale capacity, 25,000
feet are fully refrigerated in two
hatches, one forward and one aft.
The ship is fully automated and can
be operated from the bridge. The very
latest nautical instruments have been
installed as well as the most modern
1200 N
U
1100 M
B
/ 1000 E
R
900 0
F
800 T
R
700 A
N
S
600
T
0 S


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN


MONTHS


N


G


cargo gear, including two heavy lifts
of 20 tons each. It has a well-appointed
owner's quarters and crew accommoda-
tions, all air-conditioned. Pacific Ford
represents the line at Panama.
Direct N.Y. to N.Z. Service
A DIRECT sea link between New
Zealand and New York will be estab-
lished later this year by the Chandris
Lines when the SS Ellinis begins calling
at New York on its around-the-world
voyages. The vessel will pass through
the Canal in October northbound on its
way from New Zealand to Europe via
New York.
Andrews and Company, local agent
for the Chandris Line ships, say that
the SS Queen Frederica, latest addition
to the fleet, is due here the same month
on its first around-the-world trip. The
Australis, formerly the SS America,
made the trip northbound in June, also
on a regular around-the-world voyage
with a stop at Port Everglades, Fla.
Oriana Returns
THE P. & O. LINES' Oriana returned
to Balboa July 10 from the U.S. west
coast on her first visit since suffering
propeller damage in Gatun Lake early
in April. The ship received permanent
repairs in Southampton and then con-
tinued her around-the-world voyage
from England May 19. She skipped New
Zealand on this voyage in order to re-
turn to her original schedule.


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FOURTH QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1968
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1968 1967
Commercial --------- 3,412 3,310
U.S. Government-- -- 416 269
Free------------------ 21 24
Total --------- 3,849 3.603
TOLLS*
Commercial- $22,208,172 $20,658,173
U.S. Government_ 2,541,393 1,676,191
Total --_$24,749,565 $22,334,364
CARGO"
Commercial--- 25,688,151 22,757,829
U.S. Government_ 2,289,625 1,825,283
Free -.---.- 113,766 171,570
Total 28,091,542 24,754,682
a Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons on all vessels.
oceangoing and small.


TIlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW































Officers of the Board, from left: Thomas C. Peterson, Vice President; William A. Sullivan, President; and Janet Stanford, Secretary.




INSURANCE PROVES POPULAR


FEW EMPLOYEE programs in the
Panama Canal organization have at-
tracted as wide a participation as
the group health and life insurance
plans which now protect approximately
II,000 employees.
Premiums totalling $2,409,000 are
paid annually by Panama Canal em-
ployees and nearly 4,000 participants
from other local agencies.
The five health and life insurance
plans are open to U.S.-citizen and non-
U.S.-citizen employees of all agencies,
but Canal employees comprise the bulk
of participants.
A unique aspect of the insurance
programs is that they are managed by
the employees themselves through an
elected board-the Group Insurance
Board of the Canal Zone. The Board is
composed of 21 representatives of em-
ployees of the Canal organization, the
three military branches, and the Feder-
al Aviation Agency-all but one elected
by the employees. In addition, the
board accepts non-voting members rep-
resenting the Canal Zone Civic Coun-
cils, labor unions and Federal agencies
having under 100 persons enrolled in
the programs.
Elections for board members are
held every 3 years (the next one is
scheduled in November 1969). In the
Canal organization, bureaus nominate


two candidates each. Ballots are distrib-
uted and collected by timekeepers. U.S.-
citizen employees elect five members
and three alternates; non-U.S.-citizen
employees, six members and three alter-
nates. The reason for the difference in
the number of elected representatives
is that the Panama Canal organization
has accepted the responsibility and ex-
pense of providing office space, person-
nel, materials and services to implement
the actions of the board, and is there-
by authorized to appoint one voting
member to the Board.
Of the five insurance plans admin-
istered by the board, only one is not
under its exclusive supervision. That is
the Canal Zone Benefit Plan (U.S.
Health), the contract for which is nego-
tiated by the U.S. Civil Service Com-
mission under the Federal Employees
Health Benefit Act of 1960. The Presi-
dent of the Group Insurance Board
travels annually to Washington, D.C., to
participate in the contract negotiations.
The other four plans are operated
solely by the Group Insurance Board.
They are the Canal Zone Benefit Plan
(non-U.S. Health), the U.S. Citizens
Supplementary Life Insurance Plan,
the non-U.S. Citizens Life Insurance
Plan and the Group Indemnity and
Supplementary Health Plan.
Mutual of Omaha and United of


Omaha underwrite the health and life
insurance plans, respectively.
The U.S. Citizens Health Plan is
audited by the U.S. Civil Service
Commission; the other four plans by
Arthur Andersen & Co., which is a
consultant firm under contract to the
Canal organization.
Employees of the following Federal
agencies on the Isthmus are covered by
one or more of the insurance plans:
Panama Canal organization, U.S. Army,
U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, Federal
Aviation Agency, Smithsonian Institute,
Fort Gulick Officers' Open Mess, Army/
Air Force Exchange, Middle America
Research Unit, Army/Air Force Motion
Picture, and American Embassy. The
number of participants per agency
ranges from two in the non-U.S. Life
plan for Army/Air Force Motion Picture
to 8,781 in the non-U.S. health plan for
the Canal organization.
The Group Insurance Board is
charged with "assuring that the most
beneficial and effective results to the
participating members are obtained."
To carry out its mission, the board holds
frequent special meetings in addition
to regular quarterly sessions.
Officers of the board are: William A.
Sullivan, president; Thomas C. Peter-
son, vice president; and Janet Stanford,
secretary.


AUGUST 1968











1 0















100=


4e At{W


lCe


Honda. Sony. Canon. Toyota.
Japanese names? Yes.
Well known? Quite.
Ah-so, but not always. For decades, the only Japanese
familiar to the Western ear were Fuji, Yokohama, and Tokyo
Rose-points of interest or siren nicknames-and later, the
terrible names of Suribachi, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Even
after World War 11 was over, brand names of Japanese goods
hardly became household words overnight in any place but Ja-
pan. What manufactured goods did find their way into export
were generally cheap, non-competitive items which tended
to lend a twist of derision to the phrase, Made in Japan. It
was as though Japan produced nothing but toys, firecrackers
and fans.
Time has erased this myth. Little by little, tariffs were
lifted, other commercial barriers removed, and the eyes of
the world opened to a vital, reconstructed Japan that in two
decades rose from the ashes of defeat to become one of the
major industrial powers of the world. Japan now challenges
world markets with quality cameras, television, automobiles,
motorcycles-and practically dominates the field of small tran-
sistorized components. The nation has even threatened the
long-time supremacy of other nations in basic industries such
as steel, metallurgy, and shipbuilding.
Sharply increased Japanese exports and shipping both owe
an enormous debt to the Port of Kobe, an ancient site which
dates back to the eighth century as an important center of com-
merce and now celebrating its I00th anniversary as a formal
international port. It is today the first port of Japan in terms
of value of trade ($3.9 billion in 1966) and covers a sprawling
5.4 square miles in water area alone. Its chief product move-
ment involves steel, rubber goods, sake, machinery, books,
and last, but extremely prominent-ships.
The port is also a city which is an international and cosmo-
politan one-no recent development but having evolved from
the assimilation of varied foreign cultures which began to
settle in Kobe from the 19th century on. The port attracted


commerce, commerce bred wealth, and the resultant stability
nurtured the seeds of a flowering city.
Kobe is an excellent natural port, surrounded by various
mountains. Wada-misaki Point shields the harbor from the
high, western waves, the Rokko summits protect it on the
north, and the port thus requires breakwaters in only two
directions-east and south-to be secure from high seas. This
has made the massive expansion undergone since World War
II far less expensive than it would have been otherwise. As
to future growth, this includes a port island currently under
construction which will berth 30 additional ships. Other ex-
pansion projects, including those to take care of the new con-
tainer ships, are either on the drawing board or already begun,
to keep pace with Kobe's apparently endless increase in pro-
fitable ship traffic. To lend an idea of this constant growth,
from 1955 to 1966 Kobe more than tripled the number of
ships handled, from 20,328 to 73,164.
In its long and varied history, Kobe has passed through
the traditional growing pains of large commercial ports, but
has had additional difficulties to overcome which go back as
far as the 15th century. From the 15th through the I8th
centuries, for example, armed patrol boats maintained vigi-
lance around the port to control the many pirates who roved
the inland seas in search of booty. The port also suffered a
a major earthquake in the 16th century, and had to be di-
verted to military use during the Sino-Japanese and Russo-
Japanese wars. In addition, Japan did not willingly open its
portals to trade with the West, and the initial result of Com-
modore Perry's two visits to Japan in the I850's was merely
an agreement which permitted Western ships to refuel and
take on supplies at Japanese ports. By the I860's, however,
Japan's commercial isolation from the Occident was beginning
to crumble, and in 1868 Kobe became a port of international
scope. It has been such ever since.
Whether Japan's ever-increasing varieties of export will
make even more of its product names world famous, only
time will tell. But if they do, you can be sure the Port of
Kobe played a large part in it.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Just one segment of the huge Japanese port.


9,






CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

I -Fourth quarter, fiscal year-


Nationality


Belgian ___-____
British __-------
Chilean ------
Chinese (Nat'l.)-_
Colombian -___--
Cuban ____----_
Danish ____-----
Ecuadorean ----
Finnish -__--_-.
French __------
German ------_
Greek---
Honduran ----
Israeli____
Italian ___-
Japanese -------
Liberian ----
Mexican ----_---
Netherlands ----
Nicaraguan _--_-
Norwegian ------
Panamanian---
Peruvian--_--.--
Philippine ----
South Korean --
Soviet ---
Swedish ----_-_
Swiss ----
United States --
All Others ---
Total --


1968
No. of Tons of
transits cargo
28 53,883
368 2,874,005
28 186,951
29 185,998
47 106,924
13 142,021
90 592,677
37 45,725
10 71,339
52 216,786
305 1,110,121
132 1,113,545
58 36,753
33 212,645
55 343,434
261 2,234,465
399 6,239,840
22 101,562
135 555,390
17 27,829
381 4,296,036
146 763,892
38 159,647
25 107,972
12 56,176
32 134,257
126 819,879
16 29,591
439 2,308,195
78 558,670
3,412 25,686,208


1967
No. of Tons of
transits cargo
16 38,888
349 2,330,543
31 174,695
25 188,215
55 104,994
9 89,797
120 675,520
15 17,625
9 45,571
68 222,103
326 1,071,617
98 1,096,013
46 28,562
27 172,745
65 478,613
220 1,712,348
390 4,724,943
8 42,540
125 527,364
15 21,639
378 3,964,673
135 844,854
41 182,488
28 193,632
11 50,249
13 96,215
104 728,943
21 60,289
495 2,412,625
67 456,960
3,310 22,755,263


1961-65
Avg.No.! Avg.tons
transit of cargo
12 39,306
331 2,086,651
30 213,847
23 178,357
65 108,257
1 8,484
82 454,208
10 11,889
7 35,856
41 219,953
285 875,621
161 1,609,353
41 32,678
16 61,923
49 297,801
210 1,227,652
259 2,567,640
8 26,823
165 717,449
13 23.332
371 2,970,087
125 515,494
32 138,291
19 90,273
3 7,928
6 41,850
88 549,041
10 10,086
435 2,594,084
21 181,146
2,919 17,895,360


I Transits I


Month


July---- --------
August------_----
September-----------
October-----------
November---------
December- -------
January____-- -----
February ---- -----
March _-..-------
April -------------
May------ ------
June_- -----------
Totals for
fiscal year _---


1968

1,177
1,117
1,023
1,048
1,041
1,100
1,094
1,055
1,132
1,132
1,168
1,112
13,199


1967

1,039
1,008
988
1,005
985
987
1,043
968
1,079
1,094
1,128
1,088
12,412


Avg. No.
Transits
1961-65
960
949
908
946
922
946
903
868
1,014
966
999
954
11,335


Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)
Average
1968 1967 Tolls
1961-65
7,400 6,205 4,929
6,751 6,392 4,920
6,370 6,057 4,697
6,754 6,157 4,838
6,672 6,028 4,748
7,133 6,084 4,955
6,916 6,318 4,635
6,685 6,049 4,506
7,028 6,831 5,325
7,301 6,823 5,067
7,493 7,005 5,232
7,405 6,820 5,013
83,908 76,769 58,865


Before deduction of any operating expenses.

TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over)
segregated into eight main trade routes:

Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
1968 1967 Transits
1961-65
United States Intercoastal--____ ________ 123 134 115
East coast United States and South America __---__- 380 398 583
East coast United States and Central America --~__- 183 175 128
East coast United States and Far East _______- 807 756 565
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia --- 86 112 80
Europe and West coast United States/Canada__..._. 248 229 235
Europe and South America- ____ 329 474 328
Europe and Australasia._ _______ 121 99 112
All other routes ------------------. --.__-_ 1,135 932 773
Total traffic -__ ----.___-- _--- ____--- 3,412 3,309 2,919


Surveyor for



Lloyd's Is



A Busy Man



NOT LONG ago when the British
cruise liner Oriana, en route to England
with more thai, 1,000 passengers, dam-
aged her port propeller as she was
passing through Gatun Lake, one of the
first men to board her was C. H.
Haman, Senior Survevor for Lloyd's
Register of Shipping in the Canal Zone.
Getting on the ship at Gatun Locks,
Haman made a thorough investigation
of the damage which, in the language of
Lloyd's, had put her "out of class" (not
seaworthy). In this case, the Oriana got
temporary repairs and was given an in-
terim certificate to proceed on her voy-
age with one engine, provided that she
get permanent repairs on arrival at her
home port of Southampton. The Oriana
sailed from Nassau, where she unloaded
her passengers and later was repaired
in England.
This was only one of the many duties
that keep the Surveyor for Lloyd's on
24-hour call seven days a week. In
fact, he is one of the busiest men at
the Canal, where more than 13,000
oceangoing ships cross each year.
Most of the work concerns regular
run-of-the-mill ships that limp into
Balboa or Cristobal any time of the day
or night or suffer damage while making
the Canal transit. In case of trouble.
the man from Lloyd's or his counter-
part from the American Bureau of Ship-
ping, which also maintains a full-time
surveyor here, is one of the first men
to be called.
Haman, who is retiring this year. is
a native of Holland. A naturalized U.S.
citizen, he has been on the job for
Lloyd's at the Panama Canal for the
past 18 years. He received his educa-
tion in the United States, holds a Chief
Engineer's license, and is a member of
the U.S. Society of Naval Architects
and Engineers and of the Northeast
Coast Institution of Engineers and
Shipbuilders of Great Britain.
Prior to joining Lloyd's Register of
Shipping in 1947, he was Superintend-
ent-engineer of the Middle Eastern
area with Lumberman's Mutual Cas-
ualty Company, and port engineer for
the War Shipping Administration in


AUGUST 1968


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)



























C. H. Haman


Naples and Port Said. He came to Bal-
boa from Baltimore as ship and en-
gineer surveyor and subsequently was
appointed senior surveyor. During his
years here, Haman has attended ships
classed in Lloyd's Register of Shipping
in ports of Central and South America
and has supervised ship construction in
Peru and Mexico.
Haman and his successor John
Charlton, a British engineer who came
here from Mobile, Ala., are two of a
group of permanent surveyors ap-
pointed to the Canal by Lloyd's. The
society, however, has been represented
at the Canal since it was opened to
traffic in 1914. At that time, Lloyd's
surveying work was handled by E. S.
Humber, head of a well-known local
British family, who also was agent for
the Corporation of Lloyd's, the sister
organization that transacts ship insur-
ance. Humber in turn, appointed en-
gineers who did the actual inspection
aboard ships.
In 1922, Lloyd's announced that they
had decided to station in the Canal
Zone one of their own engineers as ex-
clusive surveyor for Lloyd's. Following
the arrival of George Allan from New
York, the office on the second floor of
the Terminals Building in Balboa was
opened. It is manned by the surveyor
and Fred Ramdeen, the staff clerk and
accountant who has worked there since
1924 and has been right-hand man to
all nine of the former surveyors.
The society known as Lloyd's Reg-
ister of Shipping, with headquarters in
London, England and branches in prin-
cipal ports throughout the world, has
been engaged for the past 200 years
in the classification of ships. The
phrase, "A-1 at Lloyd's" has become a
byword of quality in countries all
around the globe.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic

Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity 5-Yr. Avg.
1968 1967 1961-65
1961-65

Ores, various__ -__-__---------- ------- 1,103,983 1,077,762 246,962
Boards and planks ----------- --------- 1,029,546 N.A. N.A.
Sugar ------------------------------ 724,440 700,662 593,689
Iron and steel plates, sheets, coils ---- 642,998 N.A. N.A.
Fishmeal-------------------- ---- 461,577 391,831 N.A.
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous ---- ------------ 413,503 N.A. N.A.
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)___--------- --- 377,920 268,024 239,518
Bananas -- 354,613 380,903 302,024
Metals, various _-------------- -- 313,004 310,406 316,863
Pulpwoud ------ 288,851 200,254 141,437
Potash ---_---------------------------_ 260,579 98,589 1,956
Plywood -------- -------------------- 210,467 N.A. N.A.
Lumber, miscellaneous---_ 169,059 N.A. N.A.
Canned food products --------------------- 155,309 153,596 217,725
Iron and steel wire, bars, and rods__--- 149,882 N.A. N.A.
All others ----- --------- 2,684,027 4,378,962 5,939,749
Total ----- ---------- 9,339,758 7,960,989 7,999,923

Atlantic to Pacific

Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity 196 1967 5-Yr. Avg.
1968 1967
1961-65
Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)__ 4,575,163 4,412,152 3,032,710
Coal and coke_ --- ----- 3,866,856 2,527,935 1,630,663
Phosphate ----------------------- 1,246,581 865,414 553,806
Corn ----------------------------- -- 793,888 545,273 368,977
Soybeans -672,205 427,349 332,040
Metal, scrap ---- --------- ---- 407,077 1,291,156 669,565
Ores, various --------------------- 365,525 331,333 86,020
Metal, iron ---------- ------ 278,974 276,196 52,629
Sugar ------ 267,705 319,352 320,063
Rice --- --------------- ---------- 257,422 248,327 63,341
Sorghum ---------- 202,437 192,117 N.A.
Paper and paper products__---- --- 197,843 153,019 115,754
Wheat ---- -------- 193,491 146,892 147,473
Fertilizers, unclassified ----- --------- 190,594 155,850 104,308
Cotton, raw ------ ------------- -- 181,895 122,465 105,447
All others ---------------------- 2,648,794 2,779,444 2,312,641
Total --- ------ 16,346,450 14,794,274 9,895,437


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Avg. No.
1968 1967 Transits
1961-65
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic
Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing ---------- 1,705 1,707 3,412 3,310 2,919
Small --.---- ------ 80 74 154 175 134
Total commercial ------ 1,785 1,781 3,566 3,485 3,053
U.S. Government vessels: 00
Oceangoing 232 184 416 269 64
Small ---------------- 16 15 31 33 37
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment_----------- --- 2,033 1,980 4,013 3,787 3,154
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1. 1951, Government-operated ships
transited free.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




Full Text

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalreaug1968pana

PAGE 7

.

PAGE 8

VV. P. Leber, Governor-President H. R. Pabfitt, Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer /I .m mK Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer Publications Editors Theodore Barrincton, Tomas A. Cupas Editorial Assistants Evnice Richard, Tobi Bittel, Fanndz P. Hernandez, and Jose T. Tunon Official Panama Canal Publication Published quarterly at Balboa Heights. C.Z Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees Subscriptions, $1 a year: airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights CZ Editorial Q ffices arr i ocatcd m t he Administration Building, Balboa Heights CZ el S ms *"* A HOLE LOT OF TROUBLE... Sndex A Hole Lot of Trouble 2 San Miguelito 6 The Art of Repairs 9 Anniversaries 12 Hemisfair 13 Canal History 15 La Arena Pottery 16 Shipping Notes 19 Insurance Protects 11,000 Employees 20 Port Kobe, Japan 21 Shipping Storv, Statistics 22 Cover Story, OUR COVER of the recent repairs at Catun locks, as ivell as the sketches printed on pp. 9-11, are the work of Artist Al Sprague, a Curundu Junior High School teacher. His paintings and sculpture have enjoyed wide .showings both in the United States and the Canal Zone, and he is on permanent display at Amherst College in New England and in the Union of South Africa. The SHOZAN MARU at Baltimore drydock, after PanOtnal expertise got her floating again. 2 August 1968

PAGE 9

Robert W. Lowry, left, Assistant Chief of the Dredging Division, and Capt. Richard C. Sergeant, the then Captain of the Port, Balboa— two of the key men in resolving the Shozan Maru crisis. The terse announcement that the Panama Canal was open to ships again conveyed none of the drama and anxiety through which the organization had just lived: "The Panama Canal is now back in operation after having been closed to traffic by a ship accident in Gaillard Cut" the key paragraph read. The interim of that stoppage was among the most dramatic in the history of the Canal, and the refloating operation which was accomplished in the period ranks with the most notable achievements of the men whose job it is to keep the waterway open The events that led to the unexpected-a super bulk carrier sunk in the middle of Gaillard Cut-began on February 25. It was Carnival Sundav on the Isthmus, one of the years most festive days. An added attraction was the third round of the 1968 Open Golf Tournament at the Panama Golf Club, an event which particularly attracts Canal Zone residents. At the Canal, operations were apparently calm. But in transit was a 746-foot bulk carrier, the Shozan Maru, of 55,000 deadweight tons and laden with 51,806 tons of iron ore. She was approaching the midway point of her Pacific-to-Atlantic transit, and was already in the Cut. Suddenly, the Shozan Maru struck the bank of Las Cascadas Reach. The vessel started taking water badly, and soon David Sullivan, in charge of dispatching in the Gamboa Field Office of the Dredging Division, had his hand full-Iiterally-a microphone in one and a telephone in the other. There was equipment to be mobilized, personnel to be located, instructions The Panama Canal Review 3 THE DOUBLE to be conveyed, innumerable queries to be answered. The seriously damaged Shozan Maru kept moving in a game effort to reach Gamboa and the safety of a beaching area, a tantalizing three miles away. Shortly after the initial report of the accident-the worst had materialized. From the nearby launch Shearwater came word that the Shozan Maru had sunk approximately one mile from Gamboa. Confirmation came quickly from the tug Stevens which had rushed to assist the stricken vessel The message from the Stevens master, Riggs Forest: "The Shozan Man, is very definitely and very firmly grounded by the head at Station 1515 and the Panama Canal is blocked. Among the first to arrive on the scene was R. W. Lowry Assistant Chief, Dredging Division, who had been summoned from home where he was operating his ham radio. With Capt. Arthur L. Logan, St., Assistant Port Captain, Balboa, he went to the Shozan Maru by launch from Gamboa. "It was a shocking sight," Lowry recalls. "The ore carrier was aground with the forward portion of the ship considerably lowered." The grounded ship became the rendezvous for key Canal officials: Col. James A. Betts, Engineering and Construction Director; Capt. Donald A. Dertien, Marine Director; Capt. A L. Gallin, Chief, Navigation Division; and Capt. Richard A Sergeant the then Captain of the Port, Balboa, who joined Lowrv and Logan on the bridge. By then, a preliminary estimate of the situation was available. The ship's forepeak and No. 1 ballast tanks were flooded, but no water had entered the cargo holds.

PAGE 10

". . the answer came soon . ." Ashore, men and equipment were being mobilized for what officials already knew could be a round-the-clock operation. The buoy tender U.S. Atlas was ordered to the grounded ship. Victor C. Melant, the Dredging Division's Construction and Maintenance Superintendent, joined the Atlas. Even at this early stage, a critical order went out: put plenty of air hose aboard the Atlas. Aboard the Shozan Mam, a plan of action emerged from the conference. It consisted of three alternatives-dewatering the flooded compartments with the ship's pumping gear, forcing the water out of the hole in the bottom by compressed air, or jettisoning cargo as necessary to refloat the vessel. Gov. W. P. Leber went to the bridge of the Shozan Mam, followed a short time later by Lt. Gov. H. R. Parfitt. With three alternatives now endorsed by the Canal's two top officials, the salvage operation drew nearer to execution. Arriving on the scene were the then Acting Chief of the Industrial Division, Julius Grigore, Jr., Salvage Master Burt Powell, C. W. Field, Dennis Gilbert and Earl Robbins, also of the Industrial Division, and diver Ralph Morales. By this time the situation had grown more acute with the report that the No. 2 starboard ballast tank of the Shozan Mam was flooding. The go-ahead came from Canal officials: "We are placing the carrying out of this mission in the hands of a team of two men-Burt Powell and Bob Lowry." The news that the Canal was blocked already had spread. Local correspondents of stateside wire services converged on the Information Office in the Administration Building. Mrs. Tobi Bittel, who was in the office, bore the brunt of the initial queries until the arrival of the then Press Officer, Robert D Kerr. By evening, the Press Office staff was' answering telephone calls from news media in Miami, New York, and Chicago, keeping local reporters informed of developments and arranging for on-the-spot coverage by Isthmian newsmen, network film correspondents and local television cameramen' The Panama Canal Information staff was to keep on the job through the next day. Aboard the Shozan Mam, word was anxiously awaited from diver Morales, down inspecting the damage. His report immediately eliminated the first alternative in the plan of action; the rupture in the skin of the ship was too big to be sealed with collision mats and permit use of the ship's pumps to dewater flooded compartments. But the damage was located far enough below the waterline to attempt the second alternative-use of compressed air. Even so, preparations were made to be ready for the third alternative-jettisoning cargo. Walter Malone, master of the 250-ton floating crane Hercules, began rigging Derrick Barge No. 157 for clamshell operation if needed. In the Gamboa shops, B. M. Parmentier, John Farrow and Noel Gibson went to work cutting steel plate flanges to blank

PAGE 11

I i 3f The Shozan Maru tied up at Gamboa after refloating was completed. off vent pipes on the ship. Aboard the Shozan Maru, the crew of the Atlas lent a hand with the removal of deck vents. When the vent pipes were sealed and the air hose connected, the compressor aboard the Atlas began pumping air into the Shozan Maru. To force out the tons of water that had poured into the vessel through the gash in the forward peak above the keel, 11 pounds of air pressure per-square-inch would be required. The forepeak tank-tops of most seagoing ships are tested to six pounds per-square-inch. No one knew the construction of the Shozan Mam's tank-top. Could the ship's deck stand the pressure of millions of pounds of compressed air pushing against it? Everyone on the job knew it was a gamble. The answer was not long in coming. Almost imperceptibly, the bow of the huge vessel which had been resting on the bottom of the Canal, started to rise. Eventually, the compressed air pushed the water in the peak tank vertically downward by 24 feet-and the air was bubbling through the ragged gash below. The bow had been raised two feet: But then, another crucial decision had to be taken. Should the ship he moved now? The consensus was that it was worth another gamble. Should it fail, the situation would be no worse than when the refloating operation had begun. Canal officials acted decisively, and the order was given: "We take full responsibility. Captain Sergeant, proceed to Gamboa moorings under tug power without using ship's propeller.' With four tugs assisting, the Shozan Maru began inching forward, its keel close to the bottom of the Canal. But Captain Sergeant, drawing on a lifetime of experience in putting ships through the waterway, maneuvered the large vessel successfullyover the last critical mile. As if symbolically, dawn was just breaking— and the Shozan Maru was safe at mooring. The Panama Canal has shaken off its "darkest night," said officials involved in the refloating operation. But still there were problems. With the waterway blocked, ships had lined up along the Canal at both entrances awaiting transit. When the Canal was declared reopened to traffic, the backlog numbered 84 vessels. The problem was compounded by the fact that the blockage occurred while one lane at Gatun Locks was out of service for overhaul. Then the Locks and Navigation Divisions swung into action. Equipment was moved to Gatun Locks, including the Dredging Division's floating crane Hercules, to reopen the east lane, and the final push came on February 29 when 65 oceangoing ships were transited-an effort which required, among others, the varied skills of pilots, marine traffic controllers, admeasurers, deckhands, tug and launch crews, operations and maintenance supervisors, control house operators, lockmasters, towing locomotive operators, line-handlers, and helpers. Thus, three days after that fateful February 25, the Panama Canal had left crisis behind and was basking in congratulations pouring in from the shipping world. Official praise was bestowed on the Navigation, Dredging and Industrial Divisions, and commendations were extended to Captain Sergeant, to Lowry and Powell. The highest accolade embraced the entire Panama Canal organization, one from Secretary of the Army Stanley R. Resor, in a letter to Governor Leber: "Dear Governor Leber: "Please accept and convey to the members of your staff and to the employees of the Panama Canal Company my highest respect for your outstanding achievement in handling this past Sunday's mishap. Your actions in averting a near disaster once again rcmiiid us all of our continued pride and esteem for your entire organization. In recognition of the professional competence and devotion to duty of all, Well Done!" The Panama Caxal Review

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ii>an ifligueltto . towndi of a sriem Tva&ue fizvtA, The Holy Mass has reached a climactic moment— the Communion by the celebrant and the assembly. God has accepted the sacrifice of Christ just offered to Him, and gives back Christ Himself, dead and risen, as the nourishment of Christian life. A guitar caresses the silence, and a high-pitched Panamanian voice with an accent of the Interior rises in a song of joy, joined by hundreds of other voices in a "torrente paso trote." This is part of the Panamanian Mass, sung with the music and words of Panama's folklore, in a hymn of praise which brings forth all the fervor of the people. Why the gay rhythm? "Because no one is sad when he eats," is the simple explanation by Jose Nelson (Pepe) Rios, composer of the music and words of the Native Panamanian Mass of San Miguelito. And the torrente paso trote pro^> Francisco Medina: the drums speak of ji joy. ceeds vibrandy through the Eucharistic Banquet. Everything about the Native Panamanian Mass is impressive. The temple where the service is offered, Church of Christ The Redeemer, was built only three years ago and does not follow conventional lines. It is shaped like a gigantic tent-just as the earliest temples were in the Bible. The circular, galvanized iron roof, about 150 feet in diameter, rests on rectangular pillars and, at opposite ends, on two structures that serve as chapel and storage room, respectively. "This represents the real concept of a church and a people on the move," according to Father Leon Mahon, 42, a priest of the new breed. He came from Chicago five years ago to direct a pilot project based on the new system of the Catholic Church for the formation of laymen as the basis for the survival of the Church itself. The Native Panamanian Mass is an expression of that new concept. And the singer-composer Pepe Rios, with his simple enthusiasm born of deep faith, is an example of the new Catholic in Panama who believes, understanding what he believes. Born in Chitre, he works as an accountant with the National Service of Volunteers, Panama's Peace Corps. With his wife Silvia and four children, he has lived five years in San Miguelito, the mushrooming community of low-income people on the Tocumen Airport Road at its intersection with the Transisthmian Highway. He is just over 30. His passion for native music (and dancing) has always been strong. The idea of the Native Panamanian Mass came to Pepe while attending a cursillo (a modified form of weekend retreat) on Christian initiation, one of the many which the team of priests of the community, aided by a group of Maryknoll Sisters, has organized for the residents. On the second day of the retreat, Pepe-whose restlessness is betrayed by his eyes-broke with tradition. He brought along his guitar, and *"^" Jos£ Nelson Rios, composer-musician. instead of spending the evening cracking jokes the 40 men in the retreat put on a native dance. The next day, instead of a dance, it was a serenade. Through Pepe and his companions at the retreat, grassroots Panamanians again had expressed their joy through the means best known to them-folk music. Encouraged, Pepe Rios then composed what he entitled, "Classical Panamanian Melody" which he sang for the first time at Mass in October 1965. The purpose of the hymn was to prepare the assembly for the Communion. This "Classical Melody" remains a part of the Native Mass. Panamanians who hear it recognize its tune immediately-the tamborito "Hojita de Guaruma." But with what solemnity it is imbued through the slowest of rhythms given by Pepe Rios to this peak moment of acclamation! And, as in many of his other verses, Pepe Rios retained much of the words of the liturgy: Holy, Holy is the Lord And of the universe He is God; Blessed is he who comes In the name of the Lord. Holy, Holy is the Lord And of the universe He is God. Heaven and earth are filled With Thy Glory, Great Lord. 6 August 1968

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"^nfc tl\z people . rase up auft rejutrefc. > -Eiodus The simplicity of the words is in keeping with the acclamation in the liturgy: Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and earth are filled with your glory. Hosanna in the highest*. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. Encouraged by Father Mahon, Pepe Rios devoted himself to composing the full Native Panamanian Mass. By Christmas, 1965, he had finished the Invitation, the Glory to God, the Alleluia Hymn and the Creed. By the middle of 1966, the Lamb of God, the Offertory, and the Communion and the Dismissal hymns were ready. The Native Panamanian Mass of San Miguelito consists of 13 hymns. The first five correspond to the Entrance Rite. As Pepc Rios explains, the music of the first two is gav, as befits the joy of those who go to meet the Lord. The Introduction is a saloma and the Invitation a tamborito, both original compositions. But in the third hymn, the music turns solemn and reverent. It is a torrente de llanto. As the Mass proper begins, the plaintive, repentant notes of the imploring "Capricho Montanero" rise from the jSt*"* *8^&£ The statue of Jesus rises above San Miguelito. assembly in the Kyrie Litany, imploring the Lord's forgiveness: Lord have mercy Have mercy upon us. Ouo, uo, ouo, uo. But the music turns exultant again for the Glory to God, a hymn of exaltation sung with a tuna beat: "Glory to God in Heaven and His peace for him who loves Him." "It's the song of a man who feels he has been pardoned," Pepe Rios explains, "and longs to exalt the dignity of God." The Mass then enters into the Liturgy Father Leon prepares to give communion to a young couple during Mass. of the Word, in which God transmits an actual message of life through the Scripture. This message reaches the assembly with special efficacy when the Church proclaims the Word of God in the liturgy. And this, which Pepe Rios describes as "the most mystical part of the Mass," begins with a torrente valdivieso for the Alleluia which precedes the word of the Son of God. Then, the sung Creed, in which the assembly replies to the Word of God by proclaiming its baptismal faith: We believe in God, We believe in Him, In our Father the Creator, Hey, hey, ho, we believe. It is a slow cumbia, neither gay nor sad, but sung with fervent enthusiasm. The "Choral Punto" announces the Liturgy of the Eucharist. For the Offertor)', Pepe Rios chose the music of the classic Panamanian punto, which in years past was the favorite of the aristocracy: Bless the bread and the wine, Most Loving Lord, And become the body and blood Of the Redeemer Teacher. is the final stanza of the "Choral Punto." And responding to the celebrant's

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. The congregation singing with the musicians during services. invitation to recite the Eucharistic Prayer, the assembly chants, "Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord" to the slow beat of "Hojita de Guaruma." This moment of intense devotion, perhaps the deepest of all spiritual emotions for the participants, is prolonged by the "Slow Lament," a gallino which is the hymn of the Breaking of the Bread-the rite which reproduces the gesture of Christ breaking the bread at the Last Supper, as the father does at the family table when he breaks the bread for his children: Lamb of God Who takes away The sins of the world. Have mercy on us. And as participation in the Mass culminates in communion by the celebrant and the assembly, the two Communion hymns ring out joyfully . a torrente paso trote and a torrente Maria which close with the stanza: Through this pure morsel, In your promised kingdom. I hope to have earned Infinite glory. Lord, come to our people. Who long for Thee. Come. As the blessing of the Almightv descends upon the assemblv, imparted by the celebrant to conclude the Rite of Dismissal, the faithful sing a torrente zapatero, whose final saloma— "ouo, uo, Alleluia"— lingers on after the Native Panamanian Mass has come to an end. All this Pepe Rios composed by ear, for he has had no formal music education. He hopes to attend the National Music Institute soon. From the very beginning, the Native Mass has enjoyed wide acceptance in the San Miguelito community. Composed in antiphonal form (repetition of music and words) to facilitate memorizing, all the regular participants in the 9 a.m. Sunday Mass sing it by heart. Generally, the accompaniment is with a large guitar (played by Pepe Rios, who also plays the smaller banjolike mejoranera and is a fine singer) and one native drum. When possible a violin is added. Recordings of the Mass are available at the Rectory. For those who hear the Native Panamanian Mass of San Miguelito for the first time, the experience is unforgettable. One is gripped by the intense spiritual emotion that radiates from the assembly from the very moment the spacious temple is filled with song— a saloma that is reverent invitation: Let's go, sir, let's go, let's go to Mass. Let's go, compadres, let's go, let's go to Mass. Let's go, comadres. let's go, let's go to Mass. 8 August 1968

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THE ART OF REPAIR TO THE LAYMAN'S eye, there may be little art to "repairing" something— until that precise moment when he sets out to do the repairing himself. He may then get a painful hint of what craftsmen learn through long experience-that to a greater or lesser degree, everything is an art. The art of repairing Canal locks is one art: sketching the task is another. To celebrate the former, Artist Al Sprague undertook our cover, and these sketches on this and the following tico pages-various impressions of the recent overhaul at Gatun Locks, repairs which quickly devastate illusions about the simple ease of skilled labor. The overhaul involved not only money, time, and the most expert of timing, but extraordinary men. Secretary of the Army Stanley R. Resor expressed this viewin a letter to Canal Zone Governor \V. P. Leber: "... the manner in which this difficult and dangerous task was accomplished reflects that dedicated and efficient performance of Canal personnel which is a source of great pride to the Nation . it was especially gratifying that the overhaul was accomplished with minimum impact on Canal traffic operations. ..." Installing funnels, in preparation for pouring babbit behind bearing plates. Riggers direct a crane atop lock gate. M •

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Lock gates open slightly. 10 August 1968

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Above men paint underside of vehicular crossing at lower end of Gatun. Below left, men work on bearing plates at miter end of gate. ^ At right below, the intermediate gate is being painted. ,/;.* M;..?

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ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) MARINE BUREAU Ernest C. Bryan Helper Shipwright Lester G. Williams Linehandler (Deckhand) HEALTH BUREAU Charles A. Gordon Clinic Clerk INTERNAL SECURITY OFFICE William E. Lebrun Security Officer MAGISTRATES' COURTS John A. Michaelis Constable ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION Winston Yearwood Cylinder Pressman (Large) CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU John W. Dwyer Distribution and Window Clerk John Kozar Police Private OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Margaret F. Wiggin General Claims Examiner ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Henry J. Jempierre Surveying Aid Minor Campbell Painter Rowland N. Brown Painter SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Cecil F. Haynes Supply Clerk Peter Alexis Distribution Facilities Assistant Oscar D. Cr Motion^R^fe froie^oj^fs Patna Assiftai -
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uou '11 fare well at HEMISFAIR The Tower of the Americas Dominates the fair. THE Panama Canal Review 13 IMAGINE a picturesque waterway boasting a profound depth of 3% feet, with a staggering supply rate of 750 gallons a minute (vs. 3 million for the Canal). Add to this a few gondolas, flower boats, dining barges-plus fountains, artesian wells, and various landing sites. Where are we? On a miniversion of the Panama Canal? Or perhaps in Venice, one hemisphere removed? Not quite— merely a couple of thousand miles away— at Hemisfair, San Antonio, Tex., which numbers among its manv proud boasts, "Nothing succeeds like access." Part of Hemisfair's charm is the ease with which fair-goers can enjoy all the attractions, and a mile-long "canalito," in combination with a 7,000-foot-long minirail, is seeing to this. Sited 150 miles from the closest navigable water, landlocked Hemisfair has more water traffic than the Panama Canal, though admittedly the vessels which travel on the 330by 210-foot artificial lake are slightly smaller. The winding lake is also an extension of the San Antonio River which means that visitors can depart from downtown, a la gondola, right to the canal and fair itself in a matter of minutes— somewhat quicker than a Pan Canal crossing. Almost paralleling in miniature the Panama Railroad, Hemisfair has a 7,000-foot-long minirail which not only passes by the exhibits but actually enters the interior of a few. Its major stopping places are the private exhibits and foreign government sectors. Eightyfeet above it is erected a skyride which for a quarter-mile offers the visitor a panoramic view of the entire fair. Hemisfair itself, which includes the elaborate pavilions of 34 nations and the exhibits of many others, has as its central theme, Confluence of Civilization in the Americas. The theme is graphically presented by Confluence Cosmos, a unique thematic delineation which is the latest in audio-visual presentation. Through films with sliding screens and panels, an artificial sky and other motifs, the viewer vicariously experiences Man's past— recent and distant-and gets a generous glimpse of what the future might hold. In this way, the $7 million exhibit of the United States extolls Hemisfair's three subthemes, the Legacy, the Harvest, and the Promise. The Legacv honors the early explorers and discoverers who opened the way to the New World, emphasizing particularly the courageous dreamers of

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PANAMA ^cncTHF AMERICAS ,.. &#*> i; &IQ§£**' I AMr y*^ "Kje Panama's exhibit attracted a large number of Hemisfair visitors. Spain, Portugal, and Italy who were undaunted by the fears which intimidated most navigators of the day as the\' pondered what lav far bevond the horizons of the sea. Also as part of the Legacy, there is a simulated ocean crossing on the "All Peoples' Ship." This symbolic vessel has projected on its sails the various ethnic groups who came together to form the confluence of what is now America— a various mixture of racial genes and cultural influences. The Harvest, besides describing our current national purposes in accordance with the Preamble to the Constitution, shows how the Legacy is realized in a harvest of employment opportunities, homes and property, and freedom of movement and recreation, with emphasis on individuals working toward common goals as the formula for success-despite differences in background. From the Harvest, the visitor is taken to the Promise, where the problems as well as the achievements of todav are presented in relation to the future. The viewer is reminded that a confluence of cooperative action must continue to prevail if progress is to remain uninterrupted. Architecturally symbolizing the fair's theme is the gigantic Tower of the Americas, a 622-foot structure complete with observation decks, elevators, and a revolving restaurant at the top. Constructed at a cost of more than $5 million, the tower is 67 feet higher than the Washington Monument and is in the very center of the 92-acre fair site, logically joining together the various architectural components of Hemisfair. Panama is colorfullv represented at Hemisfair with the theme, PanamaBridge of the Americas. In four sectors covering 3,000 square feet, the pavilion includes displays of Panamanian pottery, handicrafts, and native costumes. Live presentations feature folkloric dances and the music of various regions of Panama. Also highlighted are contemporary paintings by nationallv known Panamanian artists, as well as an exhibit showing the vital economicforces present in the Colon sector. The Canal itself is depicted bv an elaborate topographical displav which takes the viewer on a simulated trip through the waterway. The narrated presentation is cued to a relief map with a complex lighting svstem that spotlights each feature as it is mentioned. As the fair-goer moves through the Canal on a make-believe crossing to the Pacific, a daylight-to-nightfall transition is simulated. When darkness has fallen, about halfway through the crossing, the Canal itself suddenly comes alive with lights of ships, buovs, and lighthouses which flash along the banks of the waterwav. The presentation was built for the Panama Canal, using as a mold an exhibit which has been on display at the Canal Zone Library for manv years. By the time Hemisfair is over on October 8, more than 7 million visitors will have attended. Besides the exhibits mentioned— and there are innumerable others— nationally known entertainers will be performing, including Bob Newhart, Jimmy Dean, and others. The fair is a $156 million project which places it in a category high on the list of national exhibitions. And besides its elaborate attractions, there also are those two little canalitos— the one through the fair, and the other a microcosm of your own tropical habitat. If you are planning a trip to the States soon, Hemisfair is a fair bet to prove a delightful experience. 14 August 1968

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CANAL HISTORY 50 year J c4ao CANAL ZONE Governor Chester Harding issued an order that no passenger should be allowed to carry cameras aboard any boat or vessel in waters of the Canal Zone. Such camera equipment was to be turned over to the Canal Zone customs inspector, who delivered it to the purser or other officer of the vessel with instructions that it must not be returned to the owner until the vessel was out of Canal waters. • Instructions to passengers intending to leave the Canal Zone, in order to enforce provisions of the Espionage Act and the Trading With the Enemy Act, of June 15, 1917, and October 6, 1917, respectively, said "It is unlawful for any person to send, or take out of, or bring into, or attempt to send or take out of or bring into the Canal Zone any letter or other writing, or tangible form of communication except in the regular course of mail. Penalty for violation of this statute is a fine of 810,000 or 10 vears imprisonment, or both." • Canal Zone commissaries were showing a wartime novelty, a "Hoover Bread Board," to be used to further the saving of bread "which may then be cut during the meal instead of being sliced too plentifully before mealtime." • The Panama Canal Record of August 21, 1918, featured "Meatless Recipes." These included peanut loaf with cream sauce; bean and nut loaf with Italian sauce; and Liberty loaf with McAdoo sauce. The consumption of cornmeal in preference to other substitutes was requested by the Food Administration as a patriotic duty. 25 year* eAao "ITALY'S FEAR of Nazis Blocks Road To Peace-Talks for Peace Underway In Vatican, Rome" were the Star if Herald's top of front page headlines on August 1, 1943. • Mooring facilities in Balboa inner harbor were practically doubled with completion of a Dredging Division project and installation of anchors and buoys. The work was in progress, intermittently, the past year and more than 1 million cubic vards of earth removed to enlarge the anchorage near the pier area. The quarantine period for dogs and cats brought into the Canal Zone will be raised to 6 months, effective September 1, as a measure of prevention of introduction of rabies on the Isthmus, according to a circular issued by Col. H. C. Dooling, Acting Chief Health Officer. The quarantine period, at the time, was 3 months. 10 years cAao A TOUGH CRACKDOWN on mosquitoes in the Canal Zone, including an aerial spray assault, was announced by Gov. W. E. Potter following a horseback survey of the Mindi Farm dairy area with Col. Charles Bruce, the Zone's Health Director. This was probably the first time in a quarter of a century a Zone Governor and his top medical executive made a first-hand study of a field problem on horseback. They were accompanied by L. A. Ferguson. The extermination program was planned in cooperation with the U.S. Armed Forces, the military to supply the plane and the Zone Government to supply the sprav materials. • A slide involving 50,000 cubic yards of material occurred on the east bank of the Canal, at La Pita bend, just below the La Pita Signal Station. The slide caused no interference with shipping. It is believed the slide was triggered by an earthquake and torrential rains. The slide at La Pita was the first of any magnitude since 3 years ago when an earth movement involving 60,000 cubic yards occurred just north of the La Pita break. • Free bus transportation was provided for Canal Zone school children for the first time this year. One year c4ao WITH A DAILY average of 42 oceangoing ships during the month of July, more ships are being put through the Panama Canal than at any other time in the history of the waterway. The record breaking traffic of April, May, and June continued into July and increased an additional 6 percent. The 31-day period ended with a total of 1,302 blue-water ships, the highest single month's total recorded. • Hail was reported in Los Rios, Corozal, and Diablo Heights on July 18 and again September 6 ... the 11th and 12th instances of hail in the Canal Zone since the phenomenon was officiallynoted at Cucaracha in 1908. DAMP RESPITE-Steamshovel No. 254s efforts at Culebra Cut in 1911 are slightly dampened by one of Panama's notorious rainstorms. The Panama Canal Review 15

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Ifs More than Pot Luck at LA ARENA AN ART practiced milleniums ago in the storied lands of Egypt, Chaldea and Crete is opening new horizons for the village of La Arena, some 250 kilometers southwest of Panama City. Work in ceramics has been known in La Arena, a community of less than 3,000 population, from time immemorial. Most of the residents now engage in cattle raising, which is the main occupation in the Azuero Peninsula in southwestern Panama, or in agriculture. But even before the time of the conquistadores, what is now known as La Arena was the place where first the Indians and then the settlers supplied themselves with clay utensils: bulging tinajas to keep the water cool on warm days; round pots to cook the daily meals, and a variety of other utensils all made in La Arena. Of course, the baking and the finishing were primitive, but customers in those days were not as exacting as now. From the very beginning, women took over pottery work in La Arena for reasons no one can explain. Their primitive ovens can still be seen in the outskirts of the village. During the thirties, a young woman from the nearby, progressive city of Chitre, Miss Diana Julia Chiari, was appointed a schoolteacher in the village. She quickly became enthusiastic over ceramics, which she learned from the village women. Every day after school, she studied books on potterv and ceramics, and soon she became more adept than her instructors. She turned the tables— teaching the residents how to improve their techniques, how to apply decorations with clays of various colors and artificial coloring, the method for building indirect heat ovens and generally improving the quality of their ceramics. The glazing process, in its primitive form, was another forward method taught by the young teacher to the people of La Arena. Miss Chiari, by then a key community leader, turned her energies to having a potterv school established in La Arena. One of Panama's presidents, Dr. Juan Demostenes Arosemena, turned the young teacher's dream into reality by founding the National Pottery School in La Arena. Miss Chiari was the first principal. Diana Julia Chiari was married years later to Victor Gruber, an American, and moved to the Panama Canal Zone. But she never forgot the village of La Arena. She took friends from Panama and the Canal Zone on weekend trips to La Arena to see the work done there Another Canal Zone resident, Mrs. Theresa Lutz, visited La Arena, accompanied by an official of the Canal Zone schools. Thev were amazed at the work turned out from the little pottery school despite the lack of modern facilities and with only a firewood oven. On her return to Balboa, Mrs. Lutz aroused the interest of Mrs. Emilv C. Bolton, then president of the Balboa Women's Club, in La Arena's potterv school. The result was that the Club donated to The Finishing Room at La Arena. With vegetable and synthetic hues, workers apply the various decorations which grow brighter with time. I

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the school a fine ceramics electric oven. The only condition stipulated by the Balboa women was that the oven should be used exclusively for the benefit of the community. Even today, the oven donated bv the Canal Zone ladies is still the best piece of equipment in the oven room of the ceramics center in La Arena. A little over three years ago, the Ministry of Agriculture of Panama, with United Nations assistance, established in neighboring Chitre the National Handicraft and Small Industries Service— SENAPI— for the purpose of encouraging the development of small industries in various communities of the central provinces of the Republic. It has become a large organization, directed by Pedro Bolanos of the Ministry of Agriculture. Commerce and Industries of Panama, and Jean Barroux of the International Labor Organization. From the outset, SENAPI centered its attention on La Arena. Panamanian and United Nations experts were assigned to the town to help the National Potter}School progress scientifically and to serve as a model for other communities which might develop ceramics as a small industry. The National Pottery School became the La Arena Center under SENAPI in Chitre. The project is supervised by Panamanian and United Nations experts: Ivan Zachrison, a Panamanian artist who has specialized in ceramics, and George Cuielle, a French expert in ceramics who also is with the United Nations. They taught the first 16 students who reported to the Center. Currently they are training more than 30 other apprentices. The ceramic pieces are designed by Alberto Chan and Rene Diaz, both Panamanians, and Malcolm Benjamin, another U.N. expert from the United States. One of the most important phases of the project was to develop the La Arena Center as a cooperative. This was the job of Franz Helm, a Germanbom authority on cooperatives from the United Nations. Cuielle points out that top-quality clay is abundant in Panama, especially in the central region. "It is a good industry for the inhabitants of the region," he remarks. "The raw material is quite available and costs them nothing. They have only to manufacture a variety of utensils for which there is a Fifteen-year-old Luis Calderon, the youngest of the workers at La Arena, utilizing a tiny hand-lathe. The Panama Canal Review 17

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La Arena now stopping point for travelers demand, and they have a means of livelihood assured." The La Arena ceramics shop is on a par with the best, thanks to the help of Panamanian and United Nations experts and the equipment furnished by the world organization. It is supplied with indirect heat ovens, including the first one using wood, others employing gas, and the electric oven donated by the Balboa Women's Club. An air compressor facilitates the enameling process which precedes the baking. In a finishing room, residents create bright adornments along the lines of the Indian designs found in the Conte Site in Code province. All types of fine vessels, dishes, and decorative pieces are turned out in a lathe room. Everything from simple dishes to amphoras of pre-Columbian design are produced in this room. Several of the amphoras which are replicas of those found in the Conte Site, complete with designs, have been displayed by SENAPI in the Panama Pavilion at Hemisfair in San Antonio, Tex. They have attracted considerable attention and already European and United States importers are showing an interest in the ceramics from La Arena. The impact of the La Arena Center (the official designation of the cooperative project in SENAPI is "La Arena Ceramics Industries") has been tremendous in the three short years since its establishment. Its direct sales in 1967 amounted to $16,000. These are handled in the Center offices in La Arena and through SENAPI in Panama City and Colon, the Canal Zone and other areas of the Republic. The Center's influence touches most residents of the town. Brothers Victor and Ernesto Murillo are typical examples. The former lives in the center of town and spends his spare time decorating and turning on a lathe vessels and pots. Ernesto owns an indirect heat, firewood oven on the outskirts of town. Mateo Batista removes from the gas-electric kiln a newly baked pot. The oven was donated to Cooperative Ceramic Industries of La Arena by the Balboa Women's Club in 1963 when the center was still called the National Pottery School. He built it under the direction of a Peace Corps volunteer. Both brothers learned the art in the La Arena Center and in a few months after striking out on their own, Ernesto had saved enough to buy a small $1,000 delivery truck. The annual impact on the town from the ceramics industry is estimated at more than $20,000, since other families besides the Murillos work at it during their spare time. The results at La Arena have been so encouraging that SENAPI officials organized another ceramics shop in Chitre under instructor Toribio Ruiz Avila, a native of La Arena. Ruiz already is training the first five of a group of 20 young men from La Pena, Veraguas Province, 254 kilometers west of Panama City. "The talent for ceramics of these young people is marvelous," Ruiz says. "After two weeks training, they were fashioning delicate clay figures." The young men will form the nucleus of the La Pena Center. Ruiz was a student under Mrs. Graver, whom he recalls affectionately. "All I know, I owe to her," he said, recalling his school days. The La Pena Center is being equipped with a $16,000 donation from the Panama National Lottery. Labor for the building is being furnished by residents of the town. The Center will specialize in fine ceramics, copying the pre-Columbian gold huacas. Because of their small size, there will be no difficulty in shipping these items to principal markets in the United States and Europe. Thanks to the dedication of a young teacher imbued with the ambition to help others, a small town in Panamaaided by the Government and by the United Nations— is now pulling itself up bv its own bootstraps. La Arena has become a stopping point for travelers and visitors, most of who come away carrying a fine ceramics piece decorated with Indian motifs and labeled. Made in La Arena— Panama. 18 August 1968

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SHIPPING 20,000 First Transits MORE THAN 13,000 ships making their first transits have been measured at Cristobal, and more than 7,000 at Balboa in the past 30 years during which the present Panama Canal rules for determining tolls have been in sole effect. Panama Canal admeasurers, the men who compute the ship tolls, made an informal check recently and came up with the above figures. They pointed out, however, that these did not include every measuring job their offices had done in the past 30 years. These figures included only ships making the Canal transit for the first time. There were thousands more that had to be measured again because they had undergone structural changes since their previous transit which might have changed cargo-carrving capacity. The admeasuring office also said that more new ships were measured on the Atlantic side than on the Pacific side since most new ships were constructed in European shipyards or on the east coast of the United States. The bulk of the new vessels coming into Balboa have been built in Japanese shipyards, and there was a considerable increase in the number of these in the past 15 years. Second Billionth Ton WITH CARGO going through the Panama Canal at a record rate, Canal statisticians estimate that it will not be more than two or three vears before the second billionth ton makes its transit through the waterway. This year, for the first time in history, cargo carried on ships using the Canal reached the 100,000,000 long-ton mark. The first billionth ton of cargo to pass from ocean to ocean via the Panama Canal moved from Atlantic to Pacific on December 12, 1956 after the Canal had been in operation 42 years. At that time, it was estimated that the second billionth ton would arrive sometime in 1975 or 1976. This schedule possibly would have still been in effect if the traffic had not taken a sharp rise due to ocean movements to and from the Far East and the closing of the Suez Canal. Cargo moving in all other routes through the Panama Canal actually declined in the past fiscal vear, figures show. New Coastal Freighter THE 240-FOOT Dina U which was launched May 24 at Lemmer, The Netherlands, will join in August a fleet of three coastal vessels that ply U.S. Gulf ports and ports on the west coast of Central America. Operated by the Azta Line, the Dina U will make regular trips through the Panama Canal with cargo for Central America, Panama and the United States. Of her 76,000-cubic-foot bale capacity, 25,000 feet are fully refrigerated in two hatches, one forward and one aft. The ship is fullv automated and can be operated from the bridge. The very latest nautical instruments have been installed as well as the most modem ^1968

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tft Mm A Officers of the Board, from left: Thomas C. Peterson, Vice President; William A. Sullivan, President; and Janet Stanford, Secretary. INSURANCE PROVES POPULAR FEW EMPLOYEE programs in the Panama Canal organization have attracted as wide a participation as the group health and life insurance plans which now protect approximately 11,000 employees. Premiums totalling $2,409,000 are paid annually by Panama Canal employees and nearly 4,000 participants from other local agencies. The five health and life insurance plans are open to U.S. -citizen and nonU.S. -citizen employees of all agencies, but Canal employees comprise the bulk of participants. A unique aspect of the insurance programs is that they are managed bv the employees themselves through an elected board— the Group Insurance Board of the Canal Zone. The Board is composed of 21 representatives of employees of the Canal organization, the three military branches, and the Federal Aviation Agency— all but one elected by the employees. In addition, the board accepts non-voting members representing the Canal Zone Civic Councils, labor unions and Federal agencies having under 100 persons enrolled in the programs. Elections for board members are held every 3 years (the next one is scheduled in November 1969). In the Canal organization, bureaus nominate two candidates each. Ballots are distributed and collected bv timekeepers. U.S.citizen employees elect five members and three alternates; non-U. S. -citizen employees, six members and three alternates. The reason for the difference in the number of elected representatives is that the Panama Canal organization has accepted the responsibility and expense of providing office space, personnel, materials and services to implement the actions of the board, and is therebv authorized to appoint one voting member to the Board. Of the five insurance plans administered by the board, only one is not under its exclusive supervision. That is the Canal Zone Benefit Plan (U.S. Health), the contract for which is negotiated bv the U.S. Civil Service Commission under the Federal Employees Health Benefit Act of 1960. The President of the Group Insurance Board travels annually to Washington, D.C., to participate in the contract negotiations. The other four plans are operated solelv bv the Group Insurance Board. They are the Canal Zone Benefit Plan (non-U. S. Health), the U.S. Citizens Supplementary Life Insurance Plan, the non-U. S. Citizens Life Insurance Plan and the Group Indemnity and Supplementary Health Plan. Mutual of Omaha and United of Omaha underwrite the health and life insurance plans, respectively. The U.S. Citizens Health Plan is audited by the U.S. Civil Service Commission; the other four plans bv Arthur Andersen & Co., which is a consultant firm under contract to the Canal organization. Employees of the following Federal agencies on the Isthmus are covered bv one or more of the insurance plans: Panama Canal organization, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, Federal Aviation Agencv, Smithsonian Institute, Fort Gulick Officers' Open Mess, Army/ Air Force Exchange, Middle America Besearch Unit, Army /Air Force Motion Picture, and American Embassy. The number of participants per agencv ranges from two in the non-U. S. Life plan for Army/Air Force Motion Picture to 8,781 in the non-U. S. health plan for the Canal organization. The Group Insurance Board is charged with "assuring that the most beneficial and effective results to the participating members are obtained." To carry out its mission, the board holds frequent special meetings in addition to regular quarterly sessions. Officers of the board are: William A. Sullivan, president; Thomas C. Peterson, vice president; and Janet Stanford, secretary. 20 August 1968

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Just one segment of the huge Japanese port. IUU™ 'W wevUuwu c£ iycwt J/tom Honda. Sony. Canon. Toyota. Japanese names? Yes. Well known? Quite. Ah-so, but not always. For decades, the only Japanese familiar to the Western ear were Fuji, Yokohama, and Tokyo Rose— points of interest or siren nicknames— and later, the terrible names of Suribachi, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Even after World War II was over, brand names of Japanese goods hardly became household words overnight in any place but Japan. What manufactured goods did find their way into export were generally cheap, non-competitive items which tended to lend a twist of derision to the phrase, Made in Japan. It was as though Japan produced nothing but toys, firecrackers and fans. Time has erased this myth. Little by little, tariffs were lifted, other commercial barriers removed, and the eyes of the world opened to a vital, reconstructed Japan that in two decades rose from the ashes of defeat to become one of the major industrial powers of the world. Japan now challenges world markets with quality cameras, television, automobiles, motorcycles— and practically dominates the field of small transistorized components. The nation has even threatened the long-time supremacy of other nations in basic industries such as steel, metallurgy, and shipbuilding. Sharply increased Japanese exports and shipping both owe an enormous debt to the Port of Kobe, an ancient site which dates back to the eighth century as an important center of commerce and now celebrating its 100th anniversary as a formal international port. It is today the first port of Japan in terms of value of trade ($3.9 billion in 1966) and covers a sprawling 5.4 square miles in water area alone. Its chief product movement involves steel, rubber goods, sake, machinery, books, and last, but extremely prominent— ships. The port is also a city which is an international and cosmopolitan one— no recent development but having evolved from the assimilation of varied foreign cultures which began to settle in Kobe from the 19th century on. The port attracted commerce, commerce bred wealth, and the resultant stability nurtured the seeds of a flowering city. Kobe is an excellent natural port, surrounded by various mountains. Wada-misaki Point shields the harbor from the high, western waves, the Rokko summits protect it on the north, and the port thus requires breakwaters in only two directions— east and south— to be secure from high seas. This has made the massive expansion undergone since World War II far less expensive than it would have been otherwise. As to future growth, this includes a port island currently under construction which will berth 30 additional ships. Other expansion projects, including those to take care of the new container ships, are either on the drawing board or already begun, to keep pace with Kobe's apparendy endless increase in profitable ship traffic. To lend an idea of this constant growth, from 1955 to 1966 Kobe more than tripled the number of ships handled, from 20,328 to 73,164. In its long and varied history, Kobe has passed through the traditional growing pains of large commercial ports, but has had additional difficulties to overcome which go back as far as the 15th century. From the 15th through the 18th centuries, for example, armed patrol boats maintained vigilance around the port to control the many pirates who roved the inland seas in search of booty. The port also suffered a a major earthquake in the 16th century, and had to be diverted to military use during the Sino-Japanese and RussoJapanese wars. In addition, Japan did not willingly open its portals to trade with the West, and the initial result of Commodore Perry's two visits to Japan in the 1850's was merely an agreement which permitted Western ships to refuel and take on supplies at Japanese ports. By the 1860's, however, Japan's commercial isolation from the Occident was beginning to crumble, and in 1868 Kobe became a port of international scope. It has been such ever since. Whether Japan's ever-increasing varieties of export will make even more of its product names world famous, only time will tell. But if they do, you can be sure the Port of Kobe played a large part in it. The Panama Canal Review 21

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS Nationality Fourth quarter, fiscal year— 1968 Belgian British Chilean Chinese (Nat'l.). Colombian Cuban Danish Ecuadorean Finnish French German Greek Honduran Israeli Italian Japanese Liberian Mexican Netherlands Nicaraguan Norwegian Panamanian Peruvian Philippine South Korean Soviet Swedish Swiss United States___ All Others Total No. of transits 28 368 28 29 47 13 90 37 10 52 305 132 58 33 55 261 399 22 135 17 381 146 38 25 12 32 126 16 439 78 Tons of cargo 3,412 53,883 2,874,005 186,951 185,998 106,924 142,021 592,677 45,725 71,339 216,786 1,110,121 1,113,545 36,753 212,645 343,434 2,234,465 6,239,840 101,562 555,390 27,829 4,296,036 763,892 159,647 107,972 56,176 134,257 819.879 29,591 2,308,195 558,670 1967 No. of transits 16 349 31 25 55 9 120 15 9 68 326 98 46 27 65 220 390 8 125 15 378 ia5 41 28 11 13 104 21 495 67 Tons of cargo 25,686,208 I 3,310 38,888 2,330,543 174,695 188,215 104,994 89,797 675,520 17,625 45,571 222,103 1,071,617 1,096,013 28,562 172,745 478,613 1,712,348 4,724,943 42,540 527,364 21,639 3,964,673 844,854 182,488 193,632 50,249 96,215 728,943 60,289 2,412,625 456,960 1961-65 Avg. No. transits 22,755,263 12 331 30 23 65 1 82 10 7 41 285 161 41 16 49 210 259 8 165 13 371 125 32 19 3 6 88 10 435 21 2,919 Avg. tons of cargo 39,306 2,086,651 213,847 178,357 108,257 8,484 454,208 11,889 35,856 219,953 875,621 1,609,353 32,678 61,923 297,801 1,227,652 2,567,640 26,823 717,449 23.332 2,970,087 515,494 138,291 90,273 7,928 41,850 549,041 10,086 2,594,084 181,146 17,895,360 MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over— (Fiscal years) Month July August September October November December January February March April May June Totals for fiscal yearTransits 1968 1,177 1,117 1,023 1,048 1,041 1,100 1,094 1,055 1,132 1,132 1,168 1,112 13,199 1967 1,039 1,008 988 1,005 985 987 1,043 968 1,079 1,094 1,128 1,088 12,412 Avg. No. Transits 1961-65 960 949 908 946 922 946 903 868 1,014 966 999 954 11,335 Gross tolls" (Thousands of dollars) 1968 7,400 6,751 6,370 6,754 6,672 7,133 6,916 6,685 7,028 7,301 7,493 7,405 83,908 1967 6,205 6,392 6,057 6,157 6,028 6,084 6,318 6,049 6,831 6,823 7,005 6,820 76,769 Average Tolls 1961-65 4,929 4,920 4,697 4,838 4,748 4,955 4,635 4,506 5,325 5,067 5,232 5,013 58,865 • Before deduction of any operating expenses. TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES 5 e^^ ,0 i n^ g ei t e ^^r. r ad h e e r Tes bCr "' ^"^ ' "* C """"™ ] v " b < 300 "* *— ' —J Trade routes United States Intercoastal___ East coast United States and South America East coast United States and Central America ._ Last coast United States and Far East East coast United States/Canada and Australasia Europe and West coast United States/Canada „ Europe and South America Europe and Australasia All other routes__ Total traffic Fourth quarter, fiscal year— 1968 123 380 183 807 86 248 329 121 1,135 3,412 1967 134 398 175 756 112 229 474 99 932 3,309 Avg. No. Transits 1961-65 115 583 128 565 80 235 328 112 773 Surveyor for Lloyd's Is A Busy Man 2,919 NOT LONG ago when the British cruise liner Oriana, en route to England with more than 1,000 passengers, damaged her port propeller as she was passing through Gatun Lake, one of the first men to board her was C. H. Hainan, Senior Surveyor for Lloyd's Register of Shipping in the Canal Zone. Getting on the ship at Gatun Locks, Hainan made a thorough investigation of the damage which, in the language of Lloyd's, had put her "out of class" "(not seaworthy). In this case, the Oriana got temporary repairs and was given an interim certificate to proceed on her voyage with one engine, provided that she get permanent repairs on arrival at her home port of Southampton. The Oriana sailed from Nassau, where she unloaded her passengers and later was repaired in England. This was only one of the manv duties that keep the Surveyor for Lloyd's on 24-hour call seven days a week. In fact, he is one of the busiest men at the Canal, where more than 13,000 oceangoing ships cross each year. Most of the work concerns regular run-of-the-mill ships that limp into Balboa or Cristobal any time of the dav or night or suffer damage while making the Canal transit. In case of trouble, the man from Lloyd's or his counterpart from the American Bureau of Shipping, which also maintains a full-time surveyor here, is one of the first men to be called. Haman, who is retiring this vear, is a native of Holland. A naturalized U.S. citizen, he has been on the job for Lloyd's at the Panama Canal for the past 18 years. He received his education in the United States, holds a Chief Engineer's license, and is a member of the U.S. Society of Naval Architects and Engineers and of the Northeast Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders of Great Britain. Prior to joining Lloyd's Register of Shipping in 1947, he was Superintendent-engineer of the Middle Eastern area with Lumberman's Mutual Casualty Company, and port engineer for the War Shipping Administration in 22 August 1968

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C. H. Hainan Naples and Port Said. He came to Balboa from Baltimore as ship and engineer surveyor and subsequendy was appointed senior surveyor. During his years here, Haman has attended ships classed in Lloyd's Register of Shipping in ports of Central and South America and has supervised ship construction in Peru and Mexico. Haman and his successor John Charlton, a British engineer who came here from Mobile, Ala., are two of a group of permanent surveyors appointed to the Canal by Lloyd's. The society, however, has been represented at the Canal since it was opened to traffic in 1914. At that time, Lloyd's surveying work was handled bv E. S. Humber, head of a well-known local British family, who also was agent for the Corporation of Lloyd's, the sister organization that transacts ship insurance. Humber in turn, appointed engineers who did the actual inspection aboard ships. In 1922, Lloyd's announced that thev had decided to station in the Canal Zone one of their own engineers as exclusive surveyor for Lloyd's. Following the arrival of George Allan from New York, the office on the second floor of the Terminals Building in Balboa was opened. It is manned by the surveyor and Fred Ramdeen, the staff clerk and accountant who has worked there since 1924 and has been right-hand man to all nine of the former surveyors. The society known as Lloyd's Register of Shipping, with headquarters in London, England and branches in principal ports throughout the world, has been engaged for the past 200 years in the classification of ships. The phrase, "A-l at Lloyd's" has become a byword of quality in countries all around the globe. PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic Commodity Ores, various Boards and planks Sugar Iron and steel plates, sheets, coils Fishmeal Iron and steel manufactures, miscellaneous Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) Bananas Metals, various Pulpwood Potash Plywood Lumber, miscellaneous Canned food products Iron and steel wire, bars, and rods All others Total Fourth quarter, fiscal year— 1968 1,103,983 1,029,546 724,440 642,998 461,577 413,503 377,920 354,613 313,004 288,851 260,579 210,467 169,059 155,309 149,882 2,684,027 9,339,758 1967 1,077,762 N.A. 700,662 N.A. 391,831 N.A. 268,024 380,903 310,406 200,254 98,589 N.A. N.A. 153,596 N.A. 4,378,962 7,960,989 5-Yr. Avg. 1961-65 246,962 N.A. 593,689 N.A. N.A. N.A. 239,518 302,024 316,863 141,437 1,956 N.A. N.A. 217.725 N.A. 5,939,749 7,999,923 Atlantic to Pacific Commodity Petroleum and products ( excluding asphalt ) Coal and coke Phosphate Com Soybeans Metal, scrap Ores, various Metal, iron Sugar Rice Sorghum Paper and paper products Wheats Fertilizers, unclassified Cotton, raw All others Total Fourth quarter, fiscal year— 1968

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 07150 0291 tot UTN AMERICA.