Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1960
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


I _




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalremayl 968pana



















































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W. P. LE
H. R. PAHF
FR
Panama C


ress Officer
tions Editor
nts
EL, FANNIE P.
T. TUNON


bout Our Cover

THE COLOR photo on our cover shows picturesque
Goofy Lake in Cerro Azul, about 25 miles east of Pan-
ama City. The highest point in Cerro Azul is 3,700 feet
while the lake itself is 2,150 feet above sea level, altitudes
that provide an invigorating, cooling change from Pan-
ama City. From the paved road that winds its way up,
the motorist is treated to sweeping views of the rolling
green mountains and of the lake.
Cerro Azul is but one of several areas of natural
beauty near Panama City worth the effort of driving.
There are others which, without the benefit of ballyhoo,
await the visitor. A few of these locales are discussed in
an article beginning on page 10.
Veteran sea captains who command huge tankers are
learning more about their profession at a small, man-
made lake in the foothills of the French Alps. It may
sound a bit farfetched at first but in reality is a cleverly
engineered operation that sharpens the skills of the
captains selected for the program. The story of the
school for skippers is an intriguing one and begins on
the opposite page.
The hobbyist who collects objects-whether they be
stamps, coins or whatever-builds a vast knowledge of
geography, history, and other matters through his collec-
tions. So it is with the collectors of bottles, who dig the
bottles from the soil, retrieve them from the ocean floor,
and occasionally even uncover them at dumps. An account
on the active Isthmian bottle collectors begins on page 6.
Computers have been put to work to solve some of the
problems concerning slides in the Panama Canal. Start-
ing on page 16 is a report on how the Canal's Civil
Engineering Branch is using these ultramodern machines
to answer questions that have plagued engineers since
construction days.
Cockfighting is the topic of an illustrated article that
begins on page 21. This pastime flourishes today in Latin
America, though it is banned in many nations of the
world. The fans in Panama are perhaps as avid as lovers
of cockfighting anywhere; there are cockrings in almost
every town and city in the Republic.


index


School for Skippers -___


Bottle Buffs_


Views of Panama______

Shipping Notes

Anniversaries --- ---


Canal History_

Computers Solve Slide Problems

Shipping Story _

Shipping Statistics______


----- 16

18


Cockfighting


d


f ~1


James P. MacLaren displays several of his old bottles in a bamboo
bottle tree. Bottles on the table include case bottles, patent medicine,
food, gin, whisky, bitters, French mustard, Scotland beer, and other
relics. MacLaren hccame a bottle collector by chance when he
was lost while reconnoitering for pieces-of-eight on the Las Cruces
trail. He found an early handblown bottle and was hooked!


MAY 1968


BER, Governor-President MORGAN E. (OODWIN, P
ATTr, Lieutenant Governor TOMAS A. CUPAS, Publica
N A. BALDWIN Editorial Assista
ANK A. BALDWIN
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITr
anal Information Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should he mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.



































Esso tanker captains maneuver their precisely scaled models during lake exercises at Grenoble. The models represent ships of 38,000,
80,000, and 191,000 deadweight tons, which the student-skippers learn to command. *
Pholo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.)



Set in the Jrench c4lp




School for Ship Captains


(The following article appeared in
a recent issue of The Lamp, Stand-
ard Oil Company (New Jersey) pub-
lication, which granted permission for
this reprinting in THE PANAMA CANAL
REVIEw.)
By Robert K. Bruce
"NEVER THOUGHT I'd be going back
to school on a ruddy little inland lake,"
said the British sea captain with a laugh.
For the past 6 years he had been a
pilot for Esso at the Libyan oil port of
Marsa el Brega on the Mediterranean.
guiding tankers to their moorings in all
weather. But at the moment he was
taking part in a 2-week course in ship-
handling at the Esso Marine Research
and Training Center, a unique institu-
tion located 35 miles northwest of
Grenoble, France.
On arriving at the center, he and his
seven classmates, all of them tanker


captains, displayed a certain skepticism
toward the program that awaited them.
After all, their seagoing experience
ranged from 14 to 30 years, and each
had established his competence beyond
question. Why, at this advanced stage
of their careers, had they been asked
to this secluded spot in the foothhills
of the Alps to pilot model ships on a
man-made lake?
The answer lies in the dramatic
growth in the size of tankers being built
in recent years and Jersey Standard's
recognition of the need to develop
training techniques to help its captains
and harbor pilots make the transition
from smaller ships to the supertankers
coming into service. In the past, tankers
in the Jersey fleet grew in relatively
small increments, and it was possible
for captains and pilots to predict ma-
neuvering and navigating characteristics


of each bigger ship on the basis of ex-
perience with the next smaller class. At
191,000 deadweight tons, however, the
recently completed Esso Malaysia is
100,000 deadweight bigger than the
largest Jersey tanker before her and is
the first of six ships of this class. The
current building program also includes
13, 240,000-deadweight-ton vessels,
with the first one due to enter service in
1969. There are few guides for han-
dling such vessels, and thus it is im-
perative to give shipmasters as much
knowledge as possible about proper
handling before they ever set foot on
the actual ships.
"Before the first group got here, we
knew what the initial reaction of the
men would be," acknowledged Capt.
Alf Lindh, one of the center's three
instructors and himself a veteran ship-
(See p. 4)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Ship Models



Perform Like



Big Vessels


(Continued from p. 3)
master and pilot. "They have every
right to question our methods and our
ability to teach them something they
don't already know about shiphandling.
I think we would be disappointed if
they didn't."
Capt. Joe Johnston, who played a
major role in developing the training
program and who now teaches at the
center, goes a step further. "The skep-
ticism these men bring with them is
actually an advantage. It makes all the
more meaningful the moment when
they discover for themselves the remark-
able similarity between handling a
model on the lake and a full-sized
tanker at sea."
There are four models. The largest
is the Esso Brittany, a 1 foot to 25 foot
scale copy of the 191,000 deadweight
Esso Malaysia. It is 42.5 feet long, has
a beam of 6.5 feet, draws slightly less
than 2.5 feet, weighs nearly 14 tons,
and will hold three men. Another 1 foot
to 25 foot model is the 38,000-dead-
weight Esso Berlin. It is 26 feet long
and holds two men. The Esso Grenoble
is also a model of the Esso Malaysia
class but on a scale of 1 foot to 40 foot.
It is 25 feet long and, like its larger
sister, holds three. The Esso Pembroke-
shire, a 1-foot to 40-foot model of its
80,000-deadweight namesake, is 20.5
feet long, and holds two people.
The models are not intended as exact
miniatures in every detail of their full-
sized counterparts. There are none of
the pipes, walkways, ladders, and
hatches that clutter a real tanker deck.
The normally flat deck is broken by
places for the helmsman and-in the
two 191,000-deadweight models-the
"deckhand" to sit.
But meticulous care has been taken
to make the models perform exactly
like the big ships. For example, the elec-
tric drive motors produce the precise
scale equivalent power as the big ships'
engines. It takes a while to reverse the
engine of a ship or to increase or de-
crease its speed. Electrical relays simu-
late this time lag in the models. Similar-


As the Brittany eases toward a model of the Esso mooring tower at Marsa el Brega, its
deckhand gages the remaining distances.
Photo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.)


ly, a series of relays times the movement
of a model's rudder to correspond with
that of the real ship.
In all the models, the captain sits
with his eyes at the level they would be
if he were standing on the bridge of a
full-sized ship. If the bow of his model
blocks the view of a buoy, he'll know
that the big ship will restrict his vision
in exactly the same manner. So detailed
is the simulation of performance that
the model's anchor chains will break
under a strain equivalent in scale to
that which could snap a full-sized chain.
A visitor to Esso REM (For Rech-
erche et d'Essais pour la Marine) can
detect none of this realism as he watch-
es the models maneuvering on their 9-


acre sea. But he can sense it in the
animated conversations of the captains
during the classroom sessions and at the
excellent family-style lunches served in
the weathered farmhouse that is head-
quarters for Esso REM. And, seeing the
fatigue on the men's faces at the end
of a day of lake practice, he can well
understand Captain Johnston's remark
that 2 weeks at the center provide the
captains with years of additional ship-
handling experience. But even these im-
pressions in no way prepare the visitor
for the astonishing illusion that sailing
in one of these models creates.
Occupants of the helmsman's and
deckhand's positions in all but the larg-
est model half recline in their seats, their


MAY 1968






eyes at approximately the same level
as those of a man standing on the deck
of a full-sized tanker. Seen from this
position, the water stretches away for
great distances, the now remote shore-
lines blurred by heat waves rising from
the surface. The lake's 9 acres suddenly
become the 30 square miles of ocean
they represent in scale with the model.
From his forward seat in a 191,000-
deadweight model, the visitor can look
back along the broad main deck and
appreciate fully the tremendous size of
the 1,062-foot giant after which it is
patterned. He experiences the same
feeling, watching the gray hull of an-
other model glide past, that he would
meeting a ship at sea.
Added to his visual impressions are
the dimensions of motion and sound.
The model's speed and the way it re-
luctantly begins a turn, then swings with
increasing speed as the rudder over-
comes the vessel's forward momentum,
have the feel of a real tanker. The mo-
tion produced by a wave-making ma-
chine evokes vivid memories of tankers
churning through heavy seas. The elec-
tric motor's high-pitched whine, which
has no place in the steadily building
illusion, is soon forgotten. Another


sound replaces it, the half-heard, half-
beat of the propeller. Each model is
equipped with a radio system that per-
mits conversations between crew posi-
tions on the model, with other boats on
the lake, and with the instructors, who
oversee the exercises from outboard-
powered launches. Conversations are
crisp and professional. Listening to
them, one might easily be picking up
messages from the waters around a busy
tanker terminal.
Participants in the program must pay
unceasing attention to the operation of
their ships. An Italian captain summed
it up at the conclusion of an exercise.
"You can't relax a minute. You have to
concentrate all the way."
The lake, shaped like a dented oval,
is about 900 feet at its longest point and
600 at the widest. It was built by Trap-
pist monks in the 17th century to raise
fish for the tables of French monarchs,
was redesigned and enlarged for Esso
REM. After the lake had been drained,
its bottom was carefully shaped to form
shoals, bays, channels, and deep-water
areas, all in 1 foot to 25 foot scale. A 400-
foot-long replica of an actual bend in
the Suez Canal was carved out of
the western bank. Scale hydrographic


charts, used throughout the training
program, show depths ranging from
250 feet in the center to 40 feet near
the northern entrance of "Suez." In
actual fact, these represent water depths
of 10 feet and 1.6 feet. These latter
figures are not likely to be heard at the
the center, however, for a reason that
was explained to a visitor by Joe John-
ston during an early morning walk from
the office to the boathouse. The route
passes a small dam built to help keep
the lake at a constant level. This sum-
mer, however, the problem was one of
too little water, rather than too much.
Unusually dry weather had reduced the
inflow to a trickle.
"The lake is really low today," Cap-
tain Johnston commented. "It's down
about 7 feet." When his companion
mentioned that it looked to be only
about 2 inches below the spillway, the
captain smiled and said, "We don't like
to talk in inches or centimeters here.
As long as we can keep the captains
thinking in terms of feet, those are
real ships they're in and the training
will work."
Equipment on the lake includes a
replica of the unique Esso-designed
(See p. 13)


~r '. 4
-'.',-. *
1-11-5 o sn.

tia
-y .~j ; %
:7-~


Win

.~c, b.-..


The 42.5-foot Esso Brittany negotiates a difficult turn at a bend in the channel.
Photo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




































Elizabeth Robinson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Robinson, holds a beautiful black glass specimen from the collection of magnificent
case bottles found in Robinson's collection. Robinson began collecting bottles in 1950 and his parents were collectors.


THE CLINK of a spade striking glass
is music to the ear of the bottle buff
digging in hard ground. Carefully, di-
ligently, and expectantly, he digs away
not to break or mar the object which
may be a rare specimen-or just an-
other piece of broken glass. Search-
ing for bottles which are no longer
in use can be great fun and working
toward a collection, an absorbing and
satisfying hobby.
More than a dozen bottle enthusiasts
in the Canal Zone pursue this fascinat-
ing activity. They are unsung historians
who, by piecing together bits of in-
formation on bottles, are digging out
facts about different areas and eras of
culture. They experience the thrill of
finding something that once served and
lay buried and untouched, perhaps for
many years. They have the fun of buy-
ing and selling or swapping their loot
which may have come from the dump!
Bottle collecting is becoming more
and more popular on the historically
colorful Isthmus where Spanish, Eng-
lish and French pirates trod the trail
from the Chagres River to Panama City.
Years later, the 49'ers used the same
route to go from New York to the gold
fields of California.
Many tossed their empties of whisky


Bottle Buffs


Read History



In Old Glass



in the brush after quenching a tropical
thirst. Later still, thousands of con-
struction workers on the Canal added
their depleted bottles of bitters, whis-
ky and patent medicines to the debris
on the Isthmus. Much of this accumu-
lation of bottles which was not broken
or pulverized, plus bottles which once
contained food, cosmetics, and house-
hold liquids, now lie half buried in the
jungle, in the sea, in old dumps, and
anywhere that man paused to feed
himself and administer to his ailments.
Collectors rummaging for these early
day bottles on the Las Cruces trail have
found hand blown bottles dating back
to the 1860's, and flaws and color of


several finds indicate much older bot-
tles. Very often they pick up pieces,
necks and bottoms with blob seals.
Finding one of these often gets a person
hooked on bottles. More fortunate col-
lectors have found valuable coins
without too much effort.
Bottle collecting on the Isthmus does
not involve a great deal of back-break-
ing digging. On weekends, collectors
may be found scavenging old dumps,
uncovering jungle growths, and even
donning scuba diving gear to search in
the ocean. Remains of the original 25
Canal construction townsites are the
most fertile grounds and have exposed
many rare old bottles. Areas such as
Gorgona, Culebra, Matachin, San Pablo,
Las Cascadas, Lion Hill, Nombre de
Dios, and many other Canal construc-
tion sites once inhabited by workers
have left a legacy of beautiful black
glass, clay, stoneware, aquamarine, and
other crudely made bottles. They have
been found under sidewalks, beneath
fallen tree trunks, in the water and in
old bottle dumps. A collector knows
that pieces of broken glass glistening
in the distance may be the key to an
old dump and a depression near an old
building may have been a garbage
dump and yield rare old bottles.


MAY 1968






Taboga Island with its historic past,
has rewarded collectors with perhaps
the most valuable specimens in terms
of years. As far back as the 16th Cen-
tury Taboga and its surrounding islands
supplied provisions for Panama City.
Galleons for the conquest of Peru were
built here and these same ships, laden
with gold treasures, stopped here where
the riches were unloaded for an over-
land trip to the Atlantic coast of the
Isthmus, and from there on to Spain
aboard ship.
Later Taboga harbor was a hive of
activities offering snug mooring, fresh
water and supplies for vessels plying
the Pacific. Ships from many nations
stopped at the Pacific Mail Steamship
Company coal houses and machine shop
and took on or deposited Welsh coal
and bottles of medicine potions (some
made by a Scotchwoman there). Canal
Zone bottle collectors diving in Taboga
Bay bring up these bottles of medicine
potions, compounds of castor oil, soda
water and whisky.
The soda water bottles, called tear
- drops by collectors, were often used as
ballast in ships from England and Scot-
land. Several of these, filled with dirt,
marine life and bearing barnacles are
now in the possession of Canal Zone
collectors. Some of the oldest Taboga
bottles have been found by scuba diver
collector Sgt. Dion Daugherty. One of
the finest specimens has been found
by shell-collector Elizabeth Ballerini
(wife of a Gorgas Hospital doctor) on
Kobbe Beaoh across from Taboga.
On the Atlantic side, bottle collectors
Luke Palumbo and Jim Collins search
for old bottles out toward Fort Sherman
and San Lorenzo. Palumbo's collection
contains several handblown bottles,
black glass square bottles, inkwells and
a variety of medicine containers. Bottle
collecting is a family project with the
Collins family which includes 5 children
-all avid collectors. Their collection of
approximately 300 specimens includes
bottles and inkwells from many parts
of the world. Of particular interest are
several one gallon moonshine jugs from
Jamaica, France, and the United States
and medicine bottles which are em-
bossed with porcelain. Several bottles
date prior to 1849, probably 1830's and
early 40's and some bottles Collins dug
in a village, which according to maps,
dated back to 1763.
One of the first Canal Zone collectors
was Adrien Bouche, member of a well-
known Canal Zone family, who began
digging about 20 years ago when bottle
collecting was little known on the Isth-
mus. His collection, relatively small in
number, is compensated by the high


,) P



~i t
I


Scuba diver-collector Sgt. Dion Daugherty holds a French ink and a Taboga bottle from
his collection of antique bottles. His are some of the oldest found near Taboga.


quality of his selections. Bouche be-
lieves that the most valuable bottles
come from deep in the ground and
that is where most of his come from
-the old townsite dumps at Gorgona,
La Pita, the Las Cruces trail and the
sites of towns in existence before Canal
construction days.
A Chinese rice vinegar jug and two
lovely Chinese bottles which look like
vases, and probably contained wine, are
outstanding in the collection. These bot-
tles may be an indication that Chinese
had once established themselves as mer-
chants in food in these areas. Several old
beer bottles he found in La Pita (a signal
station on the Cut), and labeled Drew's
Doppell Kronenbier, are the only ones
of this type to be found in the Isthmus.
Perhaps a La Pita resident had a par-
ticular fondness for that German brew


and imported it for his exclusive
drinking pleasure.
A handblown bottle he picked up in
Boquete showing the whittle marks of
a wooden mold is truly a collector's
treasure. Two dog-bottles (having pic-
tures of dogs) Bouche picked up in a
drainage ditch excavation in Bocas del
Toro, marked JJW Peters, one with a
dog's head and the other plain, are
more than 100 years old.
In digging up these relics Bouche has
exposed such articles as old wood and
coal burning stoves, grates, coins, iron
beds, springs, high-button shoes, spit-
oons, clay pipes and many other objects
of a bygone era. Some of the bottles
found in the entanglement of these ar-
ticles have a film over the glass caused
by the action of water seepage on the
(See p. 8)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


ar M



























Broken concrete slabs near a large tree root at Gorgona have been lifted to reveal these
clay bottles which were used as a base under the concrete. Usually the bottles were placed
neck down, side by side to make a firmer base. They were used also to outline graves.




ottlei ZJell Jitstory



O( Jt 9tmui and World


(Continued from p. 7)
old imperfect glass. The glazed clay
bottles he has found buried deep in the
earth have an etching caused by alka-
line substances which has worked on
the glass over the many years.
It is apparent that a large number of
clay bottles (some made by Doulton)
reached the Isthmus from England and
Scotland. They are the most common
bottles found in the Canal Zone col-
lections. These hardy empties were used
(upside down) to outline graves and
gardens. Their ruggedness is responsible
for their surviving the ravages of time.
Frank Robinson, who is with the
Hydrology Section of the Interoceanic
Canal Studies, and his brother John,
who began collecting in 1950, are
among the early Canal Zone bottle buffs.
Their parents also were Canal Zone bot-
tle collectors before them. Frank Robin-
son's collection includes a variety of
magnificent case bottles, the very dark
bottles whose square shape allowed 12
bottles to be packed in a case. The
elegant large bottles contained gin from
Holland. Among his outstanding and
beautiful case bottles is one picked up


by a friend at an old abandoned tin
mine in Australia.
James Fulton, a newcomer among
the bottle collectors, has amassed a col-
lection of approximately 1,500 speci-
mens in about I year of bottle hunting.
His most recent acquisition is a lovely
demijohn found in the Interior of Pan-
ama which could be 150 years old. His
large collection consists of every varie-
ty of bottle on the Isthmus. There are
clay beers, rum, whisky, gins, dog-
bottles, taper gins, bitters, cosmetics,
Paraiso Springs Coca-Cola, wines, black
glass, blue medicine, inks and many
others. His favorite is the square Aro-
matic Schnapps bottle from Holland.
Fulton has found most of his bottles
along the Canal and not more than 2
inches below the ground.
J. P. MacLaren, Chief of the Sanita-
tion Division, an enthusiastic collector.
is currently displaying a bottle collec-
tion at the Canal Zone Library-Museum.
His remarkable collection of approxi-
mately 500 quality bottles includes bev-
erages, household and patent medicine
bottles from many parts of the world
-the U.S., the Caribbean, many Euro-


pean countries and from as far off as
India. He points out Canal Zone bottles
which are collectors' items simply be-
cause they are bottles of this area. One
of the oldest is a Niagara bottle em-
bossed with the names J. E. Duncombe,
Canal Zone, R.P. and I. L. Maduro,
Canal Zone, which contained soda
water, lemonade and other sweetened
carbonated beverages, and has a mar-
ble in its pinched top to let out a jigger
at a time. The same bottle has been
found embossed "Isthmanian Aerated
Water Factory, Colon" showing the
wide usage of all bottles for different
beverages.
Medicine bottles in the MacLaren
collection bear such names as Pink Pills
for Pale People, Lydia Pinkham's Blood
Purifier, Benjamin's Lung Balsm, Davis
Vegetable Pain Killer, Chamberlain's
Colic, Cholera and Diarrhea Remedy,
and Morses Indian Root Pills.
It is interesting to note that the patent
medicine habit was a serious and dan-
gerous one in the United States at the
turn of the century. A mother who gave
her child a dose of Mrs. Winslow's
Soothing Syrup was actually doping
the child to sleep with opium! When
our grandmothers nipped a bottle of
Ayer's Cherry Pectoral for their colds,
they were drinking a mixture of 34
percent heroin! A large number of
these products found their way to the
Canal Zone.
Bottle collectors usually classify their
bottles according to the contents they
once contained. Bottles for beverages
probably have the most extensive as-
sortment with bitters bottles taking the
lead. When a stiff tax on the sale of
gin and the number of pubs went into
effect in England, a surprising number
of apothacary shops came into existence
selling medicinal gin to help cure the
ailments of the day. The practice carried
across the Atlantic to the United States
and a new product, bitters, was born
and became very popular. More than
400 kinds of bitters were put on the
market to relieve the aches, pains and
thirst of our ancestors who enjoyed their
liquor under the guise of cure-alls.
Many of these are found in the Canal
Zone bottle collections.
Dating a bottle and getting the facts
of a find may involve considerable re-
search such as writing to companies,
researching lists of businesses which
have been inactive for many years, and
contacting other bottle collectors.
The actual value of a bottle is not
necessarily determined by age. A col-
lector may be interested in embossed
bottles, bottles of a certain age, color,


MAY 1968





shape or height, bottles of a particular
method of manufacture, or other cate-
gories according to his whims. Collec-
tors know that bottles made from earli-
est times to about 1860 were free
blown, made by a glassblower who
dipped the end of his blowpipe into a
pot of molten glass and the size and
shape of the bottle was determined by
blowing and reheating the bubble at
the end of the blowpipe. The worker
cut the glass from the blowpipe leaving
a rough scar referred to as a pontil
mark. This mark is the surest sign of a
valuable collectable bottle. Free blown
bottles were never alike. They were
often lopsided, had uneven walls and
crudely applied lips, as the lip was ap-
plied after the bottle was shaped. An-
other sure sign of a very old bottle is
a "sheared lip" (before 1840). The lip
was formed by simply cutting the glass
free of the blowpipe with a pair of
shears, leaving the lip with a stovepipe


look. After 1840, bottle makers applied
a ring of glass around the sheared lip.
Wooden molds were used from about
1800 to 1860. These molds were whit-
tled from apple or maple wood and the
bottles cast in these carved molds have
the telltale whittle marks which col-
lectors look for. The molds were in two,
three, four or five pieces. The glass-
blower blew a few puffs lowering a
glass lump into the hollow mold and
then continued blowing into the tube
until the glass was forced against the
sides of the mold. Raised letters were
whittled in the molds and the molten
glass took the shape of the container.
Ninety percent of the bottles made
before 1904 were not embossed. Before
the Civil War, instructions for taking a
medicine or the name of a firm was
written on a piece of paper and tied to
the neck of the bottle.
Molds were replaced by semi-auto-
matic machines and then in 1903 an


automatic bottle-making machine came
into existence. But it was 10 years
before machinery replaced hand blown
mass production of bottles.
The fascination of searching for these
bottles that reveal what our Isthmian
forefathers drank, ate, and used to cure
their ailments, has captured the fancy
of several other Canal Zone collectors
such as, Alwyn Sprague, Carl Glass,
Kenneth Manthorne, Al Chandler,
Robert Stewart, Edward McFarland,
Charles Rheberg, Gustave Bliss, Karl
Longley, Lois Harrison, and Judy
Williams.
Bliss, who is with the 352d, U.S. Army
Aviation Detachment at Fort Clayton,
has found the subject of glass recovered
on the Isthmus so intriguing that he
is writing a historical narrative with
pictorial views of the bottles found in
the Canal Zone and vicinity. Bliss'
efforts are sure to be invaluable to
future collectors and historians.


__ A


/I^


t


AI


Pati and Doree MacLaren hold an early French wine bottle found underground along the Las Cruces trail. The assortment of bottles in
front includes "tear drops," round bottom sodas, French champagnes, raboga dark glass, food, beverages, and medicine bottles.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


-~JF"


-"


.41
"jr .*


' t,


,. t







Vistas Abound



In Panama's



Countryside



UNSUSPECTED NATURAL beauties
lie within easy distance off Panama's
main highway.
Picturesque towns and sights abound,
to be sure, along the Inter-American
Highway from the boundary with Costa
Rica to Chepo, 37 miles east of Panama
City. But for the motorist willing to
exert a little effort, the reward can be
an unforgettable sight or spot.
A dirt, gravel or macadam road
branching off the pavement usually
leads to such a reward.
Goofy Lake in Cerro Azul, El Chorro
in La Chorrera, and La Angostura in
Penonom6 are three examples of spec-
tacularly beautiful places off the beaten
path.
Cerro Azul is 25 miles east of Panama
City, an hour's drive. The turn-off is
roughly midway on the road between
Tocumen Airport and Pacora.
The development started in 1943
when Juan Euribiades Jim6nez, a prom-
inent Panama City businessman, pur-
chased a 3,000-hectare (7,500 acres)
tract. He became interested in the place
when he was told by a visiting German
urbanization expert that an area with
Alpine climate lay close to the capital
city and would provide an ideal de-
velopment area. Later a road was built
from the Pacora Highway to Cerro
Azul. The name, incidentally, was
inspired by the Blue Ridge Mountains
in Virginia.
When Jim6nez purchased the land,
there was no lake. About 3 years after
he acquired the property, he was on
a hunting trip with a guide from the
area and they came onto a marshy
valley. The guide told him the area
flooded during the rainy season, be-
coming a lagoon. He said he was
sure if a retaining wall were built,
the waters would be trapped and a
year-round lake would be formed.
That's how Goofy Lake was con-
ceived.
Jim6nez decided to tackle the project.
A Panamanian engineering firm drew


"...- "i~u ,--~-'II-w .a
La Angostura, a miniature Grand Canyon, is approximately 100 miles from Panama City
on the road between Penonom6 and La Pintada, in CoclC Province. It is one of the most
scenic spots in Panama's interior but is known by few Americans.


the plans and carried out the construc-
tion of the dam, which is a terraced dirt
structure with a rock reinforcement in
the middle.
Friends called Jim6nez "gufy" (a
phonetic Spanish adaptation of "goo-
fy"), he recalls now, "so I decided that
if I was goofy, then it should be called
Goofy Lake."
The project was begun in 1945 and
the lake was ready in 1950.
"The wall is still there," Jim6nez
says with a smile.


Goofy Lake covers 25 hectares (62.5
acres) and its average depth is 33 feet.
It is 2,150 feet high (the highest point
in Cerro Azul is 3,700 feet).
Shortly after the lake was ready,
Jim6nez had it stocked with 200 big-
mouth bass which he imported from the
United States by air. To feed the bass,
he later put in bluegill which he ob-
tained locally. Anglers who visit Goofy
Lake now catch the descendants of the
original 200 big-mouth bass.
Today, scores of families have per-


,- ..'.. .


Beautiful homes have been built in Cerro Azul, from where residents commute the 25 miles
to their places of work in Panama City.


MAY 1968








Scenery Charms Motorists


inanent or weekend homes in Cerro
Azul.
The possibilities for the future are
promising. Two large coffee plantations
are flourishing in Cerro Azul. One,
owned by Agro, S.A., a firm established
with U.S. capital, has 128,000 coffee
trees growing and is planting 100,000
more in May. Pastures already are
being developed for cattle raising.
Five thousand acres are still to be
developed.
The time will come, Jim6nez is
confident, when the long-planned road
connecting Cerro Azul and Mandinga,
on the San Bias Indian Reservation on
the Atlantic mainland, will be a reality.
When that happens, he says, Cerro Azul
will be the ideal place for a first-class
tourist resort. Already there is a project
for a motel atop Cerro Jefe, the highest
point in the area.
In the opposite direction-west of
Panama City-is La Chorrera, a thriving
town only 25 miles from the capital.
The route to El Chorro (literally The
Gush) traverses the central part of the
town, on the outskirts of which it be-
comes a hard-packed dirt road leading
directly to the edge of the falls, about
15 minutes by car.
At this spot, the Caimito River falls
33 feet into a natural pool 130 by 195
feet and 14 feet deep. At their widest
point, the falls measure approximately)
65 feet.
Some of the natural charm of the spot
has been marred by the intrusion of
progress-a small power generating
plant that combines hydroelectric and
thermic installations. Rut it still is a
natural beauty worth seeing.
La Angostura (literally The Narrow-
ness) is different from El Chorro in a
breath-taking way. It can be likened to
a miniature Grand Canyon.
The spot is approximately 100 miles
southwest from the capital on the road
between Penonom6 and La Pintada,
two of the most attractive towns in
Panama's interior. La Pintada, inci-
dentally, is famous for its hand-woven
"montuno" hats.
The mile-long detour to La Angostura
requires very slow driving (in the dry
season, a grader usually levels the dirt
road). Or you can walk in. Whichever
way is used, the trouble is well worth it.
The PANAMA CANAL REVIEW asked


one of Penonom6's outstanding citizens,
Sr. Simeon Conte, who" is well known
as a writer, for a description of the
place. This is what he wrote:
"The Zarati River springs from the
Isthmian Andes, north of Penonome, in
the Trinity Mountain in Capira district.
At Penonom6, where it turns into a gi-
gantic horizontal 'S,' the river rushes
southward into the strangling walls of
La Angostura.
"La Angostura is a rocky canyon
about 1 mile long that narrows at the
bottom from 10 feet to 3 feet. It is a
scant 3 miles from Penonom6, on the
left from the road linking Penonom6
and La Pintada.
"According to 'The Ancient Civiliza-
tions of the New World,' written by
North American archaeologist A. Hyatt
Veryll around 1924, the Guacamaya
Mountain, which towers over the south-
ern of horizon of Penonom6 and La Pin-
tada, was an active volcano about 4,000
years ago. The author is of the opinion
that the Guacamava's eruptions account
for the present topographic features of
certain areas in Cocl] Province.
"Be that as it may, La Angostura is
one of the most scenic spots in the in-
terior of the country. The Zarati River


flows between huge rocks marked by
projections so precise in their geometric
profiles that they strike the viewer as
having been chiseled by man himself.
On sunny afternoons, the falling water
and its curtain of mist glisten with the
polichromy of the rainbow.
"The place is romantic and evocative.
'Penonomefios' of all times have made
it a favorite spot and by the banks of
the foamy torrent many maids have
murmured 'yes' to the suitors who
became their husbands.
"At sunset, the panorama in La An-
gostura becomes extraordinarily beau-
tiful. The sun, dipping behind the
Guacamaya peak, throws its dying rays
into the torrent itself, piercing the length
of the canyon and casting about
tonalities of incredible beauty.
"One lives a moment of poetry in
the brief twilight.
"At the peak of the dr, season, in
April, the charm of La Angostura is at
its best. The river, running low, hurls
itself into a hole carved in the rock over
the centuries and gushes out from a
lower opening in the rock.
"That is La Angostura-a song of
water flowing from an impressive rocky
throat."


Chorrera Falls has been a favorite swimming hole for generations of Panamanians. Here,
the Caimito River plunges 33 feet into a natural pool.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










N


i


New Maersk Freighter
THE MAERSK Line's newest cargo
ship, the Cornelia Maersk, a blue-hulled
addition to the Maersk fleet, is arriving
in Balboa the first part of June on her
second visit to the Canal after making
her maiden voyage to the Far East via
New York and the east coast of the
United States. The 11,000 deadweight
ton ship is the second in a seven-vessel
series of new Maersk line ships, three
of which are being built in Bergen.
Norway, and two others in Sweden.
Very highly automated, the Cornelia
.laersk can sail with an unmanned en-
gineroom while the main engine is
controlled from the bridge. All instru-
ments and controls are centralized in an
insulated, air-conditioned control room
on the third deck.
C. B. Fenton and Company, which
handles the Maersk Line at the Canal.
announced that the Cornelia would join
the Maersk Line services between east-
ern Canada, U.S. ports on the Atlantic
and Pacific, the Far East and South-
east Asia. These services are being
maintained by 16 to 18 vessels at the
present time.

New Lykes Liner
THE NEW $12 million SS Letitia
Lykes, a highly automated Gulf Clip-
per added recently to the Lykes Broth-
ers Steamship Company fleet, passed
through the Canal in February on her
maiden voyage from the U.S. gulf to


G


I-


ports in Japan, Korea, Okinawa, For- Capt. R. J. Wesley, President of the Canal
mosa and Hong Kong. She is the 32d Zone Pilots' Association, right, presents
new ship to join the Lykes Line fet Commodore George Campbell of the Shaw
new ship to join the Lykes Line fleet Savill Line, an honorary membership in
in the company's fleet replacement pro- the. Canal Zone Pilots' Association. The
gram which will ultimately cost an Commodore, who will retire when the SS
estimated half billion dollars. The Le- Gothic returns to England, also received a
Panama Canal Honorary Marine License
titia replaces a new ship of the same from Capt. A. L. Gallin, Panama Canal Nay-
name which was battered and sunk by igation Director, left. The framed copy
hurricane Betsy in 1965 while outfitting of the license is held by Mrs. Campbell.
in New Orleans. The ceremony took place on the bridge of
n to an a i B the Gothic as it passed through the Pan-
According to an article in Brandn's ama Canal recently. Commodore Campbell
joined the Shaw Savill Line in 1927. His
(See p. 14) first command was the Samsylvan.


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN

MONTHS


1200 N
U
1100 M
B
1000 E
R
900 0
F
800 T
R
700 A
N
600
I
T
0 S


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR THIRD QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1968
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1968 1967
Commercial 3,281 3,090
U.S. Government 388 212
Free 28 21
Total. 3,697 3,323
TOLLS0
Commercial $20,636,139 $19,205,955
U.S. Government- 2,330,702 1,342,326
Total $22,966,841 $20,548,281
CARGO"*
Commercial 23,928,842 21,854,242
U.S. Government 2,074,013 1,558,097
Free 94,191 150,937
Total 26,097,046 923,563,276
o Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.


MAY 1968


196




1967






(AVERAGE 1951...1955)

-(AVERAGE 1951 1955)-


~P11111~~

r:"nnh~ a\








Skippers

(Continued from p. 5)
bow-mooring tower at Marsa el Brega.
A mooring buoy, held in place by an-
chors buried in the lake bottom, floats
a short distance away. Such devices,
located in deep water several miles from
shore, are becoming more and more
common as tanker size increases. Ships
are held by mooring lines led out from
the bow and are free to swing 360 de-
grees to allow for wind and current va-
riations. Tankers using bow moorings
generally load or discharge their cargoes
through floating hoses connected to
submarine pipelines.
A floating pier, held by one anchor
to permit it to swing with the wind, is
used to simulate ship-to-ship berthing.
The need for ships to tie up alongside
one another in open water is rare but
occasionally occurs when a very large
tanker must pump part of its cargo into
a smaller ship before the former can
enter a relatively shallow harbor.
A similar pier, this one immobile,
provides experience in putting a ship
alongside a dock. Traffic lights at each
end are wired to shock-measuring de-
vices on the fendering system of the
pier. If a captain brings his model along-
side as he should, the lights stay off. If
he gives the dock a gentle nudge, the
green light goes on. A harder jolt results
in a yellow light and tells him that a
full-sized pier would have been dam-
aged. When the red light goes-accom-
panied by a nerve-shattering klaxon-


he can be thankful strength of tl
isn't in scale to that of an actual o
red light means he probably
have demolished the dock und
mal circumstances. The klaxon
sounds, incidentally.
Also on the lake are two convey
sea berths. These consist of there
arranged in a semicircle. To
ship must drop both anchors, th
toward the buoys, paying out
chain as it goes, until mooring w
be carried from the ship's stern
buoys. The mooring wires at th
and anchors at the bow hold t
in a fixed position during the
of cargo.
The experience of two mem
a recent training group at one
sea berths helps illustrate the a
with which the models simulate
conditions. One captain, a Fren
commands a 697-foot tanker of
tional design. The ship's bridge
ated atop a midships house,
halfway between bow and ste
other captain is an American
master of an "all-aft" tanker.
design, which has grown in po
during the last 5 years, there is
ships house. The bridge sits a
"afterhouse" on the ship's stem
has been heightened by two d
hold the accommodations form
ated amidships. Although the
can's tanker is only 100 feet lon
that of his French colleague, I
down from the bridge on 600


The lily-pond stillness of this lake may not look much like an ocean but the captain
trained here are impressed with how much they learn in the lake about ship 1
Photo by Standard Oil C


S-.
1 i I I" ."! ,


he dock main deck. The French captain sees
ne. The less than half as much.
would During their work at the sea berth,
ler nor- in a model of the all-aft Esso Malaysia,
seldom the French master consistently went too
far into the berth before dropping his
national anchors. The American, accustomed to
e buoys gaging distances from a point far back
noor, a from his ship's bow, had little diffi-
en back culty, even though he had never seen
anchor a full-sized sea berth and the real
ires can Esso Malaysia is 265 feet longer than
to the his own ship.
he stern The story-and the fact the French-
he ship man mastered the maneuver before
transfer his 2-week stay ended-also demon-
strates the primary reason why Esso
ibers of REM exists.
of the The construction and maintenance of
accuracy the training center and its facilities
e actual were entrusted to Sogr6ah, a world-
ichman, renowned hydraulic research company
conven- which has its base in Grenoble. Sogr6ah
is loc- (an acronym for Soci6t6 Grenobloise
roughly d'Etudes et d'Applications Hydrauli-
r. The ques) is no stranger to the Jersey orga-
who is nization, nor, indeed, is the concept of
In this using scaled-down tankers to simulate
puarity actual operating conditions.
no mid-
top the In 1959 the company was contem-
Swhich plating construction of its first 80,000-
ecks to deadweight tankers. Since the vessels
erly loc- represented, at the time, a significant
Ameri- increase in size over existing tankers,
ger than there was a question regarding their
e looks ability to negotiate such restricted
feet of waterways as the Suez Canal. To deter-
mine how manageable the new ships
would be, Jersey contracted with So-
gr6ah to construct a scale-model bend
of the Suez and a self-propelled model
of the proposed tankers. A specially
trained Sogr6ah engineer, his eyes
where those of the ship's captain would
be, piloted the model tanker through
the model canal again and again.
Wind direction and speed, water depth,
i-- current, all were in exact proportion.
- Test results showed the new design
to be a fine-handling ship. The tank-
ers were built and, on subsequent
voyages through the Suez, confirmed
the remarkable accuracy with which
1 their handling characteristics had been
reproduced at Grenoble.
Although no one knew at the time,
the existence of the world's most un-
Susual marine training center had been
assured and, with it, the continued
ns being safety and efficiency that have always
handling. characterized the operation of Jersey's
o. (N.J.) tanker fleet.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Clarence W. Marshall
Detention Guard

MARINE BUREAU
Kenneth L. Jamieson
Truck Driver

E C I N Efi AN S ACTION
BURA I
Carl.'SHwCatrlIo
M: hie C r
C C. Cnlch.low m .
Motor Launch Operator
John A. Everson
General Foreman Electrician

HEALTH BUREAU
Percival L. McDonald
Hospital Attendant


(Continued from p. 12)
Shipper and Forwarder, the Letitia
Lykes and her sister ships are the largest
cargo vessels ever built in New Orleans,
as well as the largest and fastest ships
ever to join the Lykes fleet. They have
a deadweight of 14,000 tons, a cargo
capacity of 750,000 cubic feet and a
speed in excess of 20 knots. The cargo
transports are completely air-condition-
ed, have accommodations for four pas-
sengers and are equipped with the
latest and finest cargo handling and
stowing equipment available.

P & O. Cruises
TWO OF the largest of the P & O
passenger ships arrived at the Canal
during April from the west coast of the
United States on 3-month cruises, one
called Springtime, the other Jolly Swag-
man. They were the superliner Oriana
and the 45,000-ton Canberra with more
than 1,800 passengers each. The Oriana
arrived April 6 and the Canberra April
27. Both docked in Balboa and Cristo-
bal and left for Europe including Eng-
land, France, Spain and Portugal. On
the homeward voyage around the Cape
of Good Hope and across the Indian
Ocean to Australia, the Orianas spring-
time itinerary includes calls at Sydney,
Auckland, Suva, and Honolulu. The
Canberra is following a similar schedule
but the passengers are being offered
optional tours to South Africa and to
the Australian Outback. Norton Lilly
represent the line at the Canal.


ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
Ralph F. L. Blades
Photocopying-Equipment Operator
Arnold W. Marshall
Clerk-Photography

MARINE BUREAU
Aston T. Greene
Oiler-Floating Plant
Ernest B. Rainier
Captain of the Port
Richard T. Baltozer
Leader Lock Operator-Machinist
Richard C. Sergeant
Captain of the Port
Rudolph Young
Asphalt or Cement Worker

COMPTROLLER'S OFFICE
Daile D. Keigley
Supervisory Staff Accountant

ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Glenn H. Burdick
Administrative Officer Lr
AdAn Castillo
Lead Foreman-Paver
Dcroteo Hernmndez
Paver
German C. Lambridge
Maintenanceman-Distri
Norman S. Lewis
Boilermaker
Frank G. Layne
Helper Electrician
Aston S. Smith
Electrician-Lineman
Richard A. Armstrong
Helper Central Office Repairman
Arthur W. Davis
Carpenter
Miguel De la Rosa
Seaman
Ira M. Payne
Construction Inspector-General
Luis Sam
Electrician-Lineman
Arthur B. Butcher
Boiler Tender-High Pressure
Enrique Charles
Oiler-Floating Plant
Joseph M. Evelyn
Helper Machinist-Maintenance
Cleofas G6mez O.
Winchman


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
John E. Hogan
Supervisory Supply Clerk
Arthur Hilton
Leader Milk Plant Worker
Arthur W. Smith
Supervisory General Supply Specialist
L. M. Elliott
Laborer
Ephraim R. Innis
Guard
F. D. Stewart
Lead Foreman Laborer-Cleaner


TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Benjamin S. Shoy
Cargo Checker
Herman J. Feurtado
Time and Leave Supervisor
Juan R. Griffin
Bus Service Inspector
Noe lyJames









Lillian R. Gibson
Teacher-Elementary L.A. Schools
Hamilton H. Lavalas
Junior High Teacher. L.A. Schools
Clyde E. Thomas
Detention Guard
Alfred A. Douglas
Clerk
George A. Martin
Police Captain
Howard J. Toland
Police Sergeant
Erell C. Alexis
Detention Guard


HEALTH BUREAU
Pedro VAsquez
Leader Exterminator
Iris A. Crichlow
Nursing Assistant-Medicine and
Surgery
Eric A. Edwards
Diet Cook


MAY 1968







CANAL HISTORY


50 year c4go
SOCIAL ACTIVITIES in the Canal
Zone 50 years ago were geared to the
war effort and the Committee for the
War Fund of the American Red Cross
sponsored its first entertainment trip
through the Canal April 28, from Cris-
tobal to Balboa. Lady Mallet, wife of
the British Minister in Panama and
founder of the Panama Red Cross,
made an urgent call for books and mag-
azines for wounded New Zealand sol-
diers who were to transit the Canal
aboard a hospital ship.


An item in the local press said that
due to increased requirements of the
U.S. Government, prices of tobacco
and cigarettes went "sky high" in the
commissaries and clubhouses and no
more of a popular chewing tobacco,
would be shipped to the Isthmus for
the remainder of the war. According
to the Panama Canal Record, wheatless
Monday established March 18 in the
Canal Zone, produced a 31 percent re-
duction in the consumption of flour in
1 month.


A news item in the Star and Herald,
May 7, stated 21 members of The Incas,
the oldest society in the Canal Zone,
composed of "oldtimers" who came to
work for the Canal within 3 months


after the purchase of the French Canal
properties, celebrated their 14th annual
banquet at the Century Club. The menu
included such delicacies as canape of
caviar Romanoff, broiled spring chicken,
and other gourmet delights.
*0
According to the Panama Canal Rec-
ord, the construction of the nurses'
home, Colon Beach, was completed
during the month of May by the Con-
struction Division and turned over to
the Health Department.
*0
The Colon correspondent reported
that residents of Gatun were scared by
a queer looking object on horseback
which turned out to be a policeman
wearing a blue veil as a protection
against the hordes of mosquitos that
come out at the beginning of rainy
season.

25 year c4go
THE CANAL ZONE traffic laws and
regulations were amended April 1,
1943, making effective on April 15 a
change from left-hand to right-hand
driving on Canal Zone streets and high-
ways. The change was made simultane-
ous with that in the Republic of Pan-
ama. The accepted explanation of the
origin of left-hand driving on the Isth-
mus is that it was established by Brit-
ish West Indian carriage drivers who


I. ~


-m- -a:.._ -
Two motorists stop for a chat on Gaillard Highway on the approach to Pedro Miguel
in 1917. Notice that the road was much narrower then but traffic was lighter and the pace
of the motorist, perhaps life in general, was more leisurely.


came to the Isthmus in early construc-
tion days.

Coincident with the establishment of
right-hand driving in the Canal Zone
and Panama, the Trans-Isthmian High-
way linking the two terminal areas of
the Canal was officially opened to the
public April 15, 1943.
0
A messenger at the Balboa Heights
Administration Building, Hopeton
Simms, claimed to be the first cyclist
to cross the Isthmus on the new Trans-
Isthmian Highway. He made it in
2 hours and 45 minutes, according to
an item which appeared in the
local press.

More than $1 million was invested
in War Bonds by Canal Zone buyers
during April and total sales reached
$12 million as of May 11, 1943.

10 year 4go
A THREE-SPAN arch truss type bridge
design submitted by Sverdrup & Parcel
Engineering Co. of St. Louis, was se-
lected for the permanent Canal crossing
after preliminary designs for the bridge
were reviewed by the Board of Consul-
tants here April 10, 1958.
*
An emergency repair job on approx-
imatey 8,000 sq. ft. of floor slab in the
east chamber of Pedro Miguel Locks
curtailed transit operations for the first
time in 44 years of Canal operations
10 years ago.
*
Domestic conversion to 60-cycle cur-
rent began on the Pacific side and the
Central Labor Office Branch of the
Personnel Bureau moved from Building
69 to Ancon.

One year c4go
APRIL 1967 was another record month
for Panama Canal traffic with a daily
average of 39.6 ships passing from
ocean-to-ocean.
*
A May 1 report on the Cut widening
project which had been underway for
a little over 3 months showed that ap-
proximately 400,000 cubic yards of
Zone 1 (above elevation 95) material
had been removed by the Foster Con-
struction Company.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Computers Give Answers



To Canal Slide Problems


ONE OF man's newest technical tools
-the computer-is now being used to
solve one of the oldest problems of
the Panama Canal-slides. The results
are greater safety and economy for
the Canal.
Landslides have long been one of the
most vexing of engineering problems.
The Panama Canal made world head-
lines because of the disastrous slides
which delayed construction at a cost of
millions of dollars and even closed the
Canal after it was opened to traffic. Sta-
bility of the channel slopes still requires
the constant attention of engineers
and geologists.
Laymen may justifiably wonder why
engineers have been unsuccessful so
often in designing excavation slopes or
building embankments safe against
sliding. The collapse of a building or


a bridge is a rare occurrence compared
with the frequency of landslides. The
basic reasons are simple.
The designer of a steel bridge knows
a great deal about his construction ma-
terial. He knows how strong the steel
is and how much it will bend or stretch
under the weight it must bear. Also, the
properties of steel are constant because
it is man-made; its manufacture is
closely controlled and the final product,
in the form of beams or girders, is
inspected and tested before the structure
is built.
But the engineer who designs a
structure of soil or rock, such as a dam
or a railroad embankment, is dealing
with raw materials as provided capri-
ciously by nature. He may grade the
rock and compact the soil, but the final
properties of these materials-no matter


how closely construction is controlled-
usually vary from point to point and
can be only approximately determined.
Also, whereas concrete and steel have
one kind of strength called "cohesion,"
soil and rock have two distinctive types,
cohesion and friction. These act to-
gether in an extremely complex way,
and, in addition, are greatly affected
by ground water.
In the design of excavation slopes,
such as in the widening of the Panama
Canal, the engineer's challenge is even
greater than when building the dam
or railroad embankment. For here he
does not build the slopes but only shapes
the materials already constructed by
nature so that the slope will hold up
safely, without requiring unnecessary
quantities of costly excavation.
For help, the engineer turns to the


This rock slide at Culebra (Gaillard) Cut during construction days smashed and partially buried a steam shovel. At left, a crane moves in
to remove the debris from the slide, which occurred on the south end of Gold Hill in 1913. Slides were common in those days.


MAY 1968







geologist who examines the surround-
ing terrain, drills holes, samples and
tests the sub-surface materials and de-
termines changing levels of ground
water and patterns of seepage. He also
plots the joints, faults and bedding
planes that criss-cross the earth's crust.
However, the geologic program, no
matter how extensive, gives the en-
gineer only an approximate picture of
the actual strength, elasticity, porosity
and other rock or soil characteristics
upon which his design must depend.
From this incomplete data, the en-
gineer has to define conditions, make
analyses and calculations. He focuses
his attention on two basic characteris-
tics: the stresses in the ground caused
by the forces of gravity which tend to
flatten the slope; and the strength of the
soil and rocks that will sustain the slope
against these forces. Both of these
properties are highly complex.
Further difficulties arise because these
stresses are not evenly distributed. As
to the forces of resistance, the engineer
concerns himself primarily with what is
known as shearing strength-the strength
which materials possess to prevent one
portion of a mass from sliding along
an adjacent portion. This is the type
of material failure that occurs in
landslides. Shearing and other types of
strength, plus the effects of water and
its movements all must be taken into
consideration by the engineer.
When the Panama Canal was built,
very little progress had been made in
solving these problems and the planning
of excavation slopes was largely a mat-
ter of intuition and experience. Catas-
tropic slides were the result. They not
only played havoc with cost estimates
and construction schedules but they
also added greatly to the final cost of
digging the Canal because when the
slopes failed the natural rock structure
was destroyed and the resulting final
slopes had to be excavated much flatten
than if they had been properly designed
in the first place.
Since then, slope stability has been
subject to intensive study and a high-
ly specialized field of engineering,
known as soils mechanics, has been
developed to attack this problem.
Judgement must still be exercised but
new methods and theories have resulted
in tremendous progress. Slopes and
embankments are far safer and great
excavation economies are being realized.
During the past decade, computers
have contributed dramatically to pro-
gress in soils mechanics and slope sta-
bility. Now even the most complex en-
gineering calculations can be performed
in a fraction of the time formerly re-


TYPE AN ESTIMATE OF THE FACTOR OF SAFETY.
1.1
1.10000 0. -.976E 04 .383E 05
1.06769 -.44629 -.976E 04 .383E 05
1.08384 -.22315 -.268E 04 .146E 05
1.09626 -.30176 .155E 04 -.497E 03
1.10216 -.29094 .842E 02 -.340E 02
1.10250 -.29026 .272E 00 -.133E 00
FS- 1.10250
LAM8BA- -.29026
00 YOU WANT DETAILED FORCE OUTPUT....
no
CALCULATIONS HAVE BEEN COMPLETED. TYRE A NUMBER.
1 TO CHANGE THE SIDE FORCE ASSUMPTION
2 TO ADJUST THE FAILURE SURFACE
3 TO INPUT AN ENTIRELY NEW FAILURE SURFACE
4 TO CHANGE SOIL PROPERTIES
5 TO CHANGE THE PHREATIC SURFACE
6 BOTH (4) AND (5)
7 WHOLE NEW PROBLEM
8 TO TERMINATE.


X-COORO
252.00
280.00
292.00
320.00
356.00
382.00
400.00
420.00
440.00
468.00
494.00
520.00
545.92
560.00
580.00
600.00
621.92
640.00
662.00
684.00
720.00
750.00
773.89
776.00
795.95


YTL
137.00
181.10
200.00
200.00
200 00
212.00
218.70
226. 14
233.58
244.00
254.23
26.4 6
274.66
280.20
288.07
295 94
304.57
311.69
320.34
329.00
332.00
348.07
360.87
362.00
362.00


YTRAR
137.00
101.29
-855.22
127.15
142.141
146.71
150.08
154.90
159.68
167.79
176.83
186.15
198.30
202.19
209.61
216.94
227.86
236.98
250.73
265.87
301.44
328.12
339.62
341.75
362.00


YFS RATIO
137.00
131.46
129.92
176.33 .nil
124.42 .238
125.08 .249
125.54 .263
127.71 .276
129.88 .287
134.84 .302
141.63 .313
148.43 .325
157.90 .346
163.04 .334
172.04 .324
181.04 .312
194.01 .306
204.71 .302
220.47 .303
236.24 .319
267.92 .523
299.52 .589
332.00 .264
334.87 .253
362.00


ERAR
.000E 00
.217E 02
.230E 01
.36E 03
.282E 03
.311E 03
339E 03
.354E 03
.368E 03
.369E 03
346E 03
.321E 03
.276E 03
.272E 03
.253E 03
.234E 03
.196E 03
166E 03
.122E 03
817E 02
.776E 02
.400E 02
.417E 02
.343E 02
966E-03


NBAR
.347E 01
.636E 01
.747E 01
.703E 01
.690E 01
.760E 01
.731E 01
.769E 01
.748E 01
.708E 01
.730E 01
.664E 01
.662E 01
.594E 01
.588E 01
.483E 01
.466E 01
.381E 01
.353E 01
.231E 01
.123E 01
.128E 01
.261E 01
.126E 01


XN
278.03
287.15
306 40
338.29
370.24
391.43
410.41
430.39
454.56
481.33
507.32
533.03
552.98
569.91
589.91
610.56
630.68
650.26
672.20
695.09
730.07
761.20
774.92
779.28


CALCULATIONS HAVE BEEN COMPLETE. TYPE A NUMBER.
1 TO CHANGE THE SIDE FORCE ASSUMPTION
2 TO ADJUST THE FAILURE SURFACE
3 TO INPUT AN ENTIRELY NEW FAILURE SURFACE
4 TO CHANGE SOIL PROPERTIES
5 TO CHANGE THE PHREATIC SURFACE
6 BOTH (4) AND (5)
7 WHOLE NEW PROBLEM
8 TO TERMINATE.
QUIT,
R 19.533+31.183

To the layman, this may look like gobbledygook. But it is actual input-output data printed
by a keyboard console of the large IBM 7094 Computer at Massachusetts Institute of
Technology for the stability analyses of Las Cascadas Hill. The engineer operates the
computer through the keyboard, typing in data and instructions in accordance with the
computer program, and receiving the results of lengthy computations in a matter of seconds.
Thus the engineer actually converses with the computer in this operation.


quired. This is a great advantage when
innumerable, time consuming trial and
error computations have to be made.
Entirely new methods of analysis,
formerly of theoretical interest only be-
cause of the mathematical complexity,
suddenly became the practical design
tools of the soils engineer. In ad-
dition, the speed of the computer has
enabled the engineer to study a wide
range of possible conditions affecting
his problem.
For example, if the presence of an
important geologic fault is suspected
but not definitely confirmed, he can
solve his problem to include the fault,


or to exclude it, thus establishing its
relative importance to the stability of
his slope. The results might lead to
further work for the geologist in the
field, or it may be found that the sus-
pected fault is relatively unimportant
due to its position and the conditions
surrounding it.
Though his knowledge of subsurface
conditions remains limited, and always
will, the engineer can analyze a far wid-
er range of possible conditions and
thereby make design decisions which
are much more valid.
The Civil Engineering Branch of the
(See p. 20)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS


Nationality


Belgian ---__-__.
British __-----__
Chilean-------
Chinese (Nat'l.)___
Colombian ----.
Danish ______---
Ecuadorean ----_
French------_
German _------
Greek_.__. ____-
Honduran .--_
Israeli-----
Italian--------
Japanese ----.----
Liberian --___-
Netherlands _-
Nicaraguan-----
Norwegian ------
Panamanian --
Peruvian ----.-
Philippine ----
South Korean- .
Soviet -----
Swedish ------
Swiss ----
United States -..
Yugoslavian --_.
All Others-..--
Total -- .


Third quarter, fiscal year-
1968 1967
No. of Tons of No. of Tons of
transits cargo transits cargo
27 72,295 15 76,232
347 2,538,600 329 2,366,928
30 188,840 30 181,790
27 163,099 23 183,482
43 111,530 59 106,725
106 709,101 112 748,850
51 52,907 9 11,924
49 270,328 67 277,384
351 1,355,738 343 1,258,789
110 1,214,532 104 1,045,652
42 18,600 50 34,443
27 179,112 23 172,409
76 566,145 54 389,765
262 2,121,405 208 1,744,606
379 5,188,554 332 4,706,798
130 558,395 127 445,316
18 28,632 15 31,869
354 3,935,911 388 3,704,979
129 693,823 126 558,547
47 193,968 36 181,013
25 120,040 24 128,378
15 69,926 10 28,074
30 172,911 10 64,083
121 849,395 95 606,110
14 11,550 15 28,212
386 1,942,918 413 2,303,617
12 140,885 6 78,525
73 458,514 67 387,080
3,281 23,927,654 3,090 21,851,580


1961-65
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
12 51,936
330 2,081,299
26 184,584
17 114,964
62 91,143
71 368,953
8 10,236
37 186,983
279 828,327
154 1,494,286
50 40,194
15 62,797
44 267,283
192 1,101,520
234 2,364,967
163 728,725
10 15,039
370 2,882,728
115 493,209
28 112,826
18 85,503
3 12,443
10 74,618
94 581,913
9 11,857
396 2,337,656
3 25,202
35 188,204
2,785 16,799,395


Month


July ---------
August------------
September-----------
October-------------
November----------
December_-----
January- _____
February---
March __----
April--------------
May--------------
June----------------
Totals for
fiscal year-------


1968

1,177
1,117
1,023
1,048
1,041
1,100
1,094
1,055
1,132


Transits


1967

1,039
1,008
988
1,005
985
987
1,043
968
1,079
1,094
1,128
1,088
12.412


SBefore deduction of any operating expenses.


Avg. No.
Transits
1961-65
960
949
908
946
922
946
903
868
1,014
966
999
954
11.335


Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)


1968

7,400
6,751
6,370
6,754
6,672
7,133
6,916
6,685
7,028


1967

6,205
6,392
6,057
6,157
6,028
6,084
6,318
6,049
6,831
6,823
7,005
6,820
76,769


Average
Tolls
1961-65
4,929
4,920
4,697
4,838
4,748
4,955
4,635
4,506
5,325
5,067
5,232
5,013
58,865


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transit of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over)
segregated into 8 main trade routes:
Third quarter, fiscal year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
1968 1967 Transits
1961-65
United States Intercoastal------------------------ 78 112 99
East coast United States and South America ------. -- 405 434 563
East coast United States and Central America--------- 171 171 131
East coast United States and Far East------- ------- 763 657 522
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia------- 90 105 70
Europe and West coast United States/Canada--------- 260 279 260
Europe and South America----------- ----------- 363 348 316
Europe and Australasia -------- ------------ 126 102 110
All other routes.. ----- ----------------------___ 1,025 882 715
Total traffic ____----------------__ 3,281 3,090 2,786


Ships Growing



Too Large for



Many Harbors


THE PANAMA Canal is not alone in
facing a growing number of ships too
large to transit. Ships now are being
built in many parts of the world that
are too big to enter most harbors.
A recent issue of the German Tribune
reported Germany's largest vessel, the
192,000-ton Shell tanker Myrina, had
docked unladen in Hamburg. As yet,
no port in the Federal Republic could
handle a laden tanker of this size.
What is the point of building a tanker
of this size to fly under the Federal
Republic ensign when it will never be
able to berth in its own country, the
writer asked.
"Shipping nowadays is so interna-
tionally minded that a narrow national-
istic outlook is outmoded. The Myrina
was built in Northern Ireland and
docked in Hamburg only to have its
hull painted in the giant Elbe 17 dry
dock originally built to handle Third
Reich destroyers.
"Belfast has no dry dock large enough
to handle a vessel of this size. The new
tanker was, incidentally, built in a Brit-
ish yard partly because of the offset
agreement for the foreign exchange
costs of Britain's Army of the Rhine.
"At Kiel's Howaldt yard, on the other
hand, another super-tanker commis-
sioned by Shell of England is nearing
completion. Because of new regulations
of maximum draft the second tanker
will have 210,000 deadweight tons.
"Is this utterly illogical? Far from it.
It is one of the reasons why closure of
the Suez Canal has had so little effect
on the oil market in Germany. Federal
Republic tankers happened at the right
moment to be conveying oil for other
countries while tankers that are in the
eyes of Arab countries neutral, shipped
petroleum for Germany. Oil is an
international business."
The Myrina, the largest ship to be
launched to date in Europe, is a turbine
drive tanker 1,050 feet long and with
a beam of 155 feet. Sweden has a
230,000 tonner due for delivery at the
end of 1969 and Germany is building
three of 240,000 tons for delivery in
1969 and 1970.
The Marine Engineering Log of


MAY 1968


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)







November 1967 said two more tankers
of 240,000 and 130,000 tons are under
construction in Italian shipyards. The
larger of the two will be the biggest
ship ever built in Italy. Like the other
ships of her class, the largest single
screw ships ever constructed, she will
be highly automated and will feature
the bulbous bow designed by Esso en-
gineers to improve speed and economy
of fuel consumption. She will be 1,100
feet long and have a beam of 170 feet
and draft of 48 feet, with a service
sped of 17 knots. She is scheduled for
completion in 1969.
The same magazine said the world's
largest tanker is under construction at
the Ishikawajima Harima shipyards in
Yokohama. Of 276,000 deadweight tons.
she is the first of six to be used by Gulf
Oil's Bantry Bay operation. She is owned
by National Bulk Carriers and chartered
to Gulf.
But bigger tankers are still to come.
Mitsui Zosen, one of Japan's leading
shipbuilding companies, recently dis-
closed the basic design specifications of
a mammoth 400,000 deadweight-ton
tanker it is offering to ship operators.
A company spokesman said many
problems, such as hull vibration and
the relationship between main engine
output and ship's speed, still had to
be solved. And the location of the bridge
would have to be decided by the owners.
The end is still not in sight. Daniel
D. Stohmeier, vice president of Beth-
lehem Steel Corp., in charge of ship-
building, said in an interview appearing
in the American Bureau of Shipping
Surveyer that to say ships will stop
getting bigger after a certain point is
reached is like talking about limits to
track records.
"When Bethlehem built a class of
28,000 deadweight-ton tankers in 1948,
they were heralded as supertankerss' by
the press. When we brought out the
World Glory in 1954, we were told
that a ship of 45,500 deadweight was
too big for any practical use. Then we
built the Manhattan, more than twice
as big. There is no practical limit to
the size of ships."


Correction
Some of the transit figures for the
second quarter of fiscal year 1968 ap-
pearing in the February issue of THE
PANAMA CANAL REVIEW were incor-
rect. Total figures should have been:
commercial vessels, oceangoing, 3,189;
small, 116; total commercial, 3,305;
U.S. Government vessels, oceangoing,
350; small, 30; and total commercial
and U.S. Government, 3,685.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic

Third quarter, fiscal year-


Commodity


Ores, various------------------- --
Boards and planks --------------
Metals, various-------------------------
Sugar_--------------------------------
Fishmeal------ --------- -------
Iron and steel plates, sheets, coils-------..
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)-----------------
Bananas------------------------------
Lumber, miscellaneous-----------------
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous ----------------------
Wheat----------------- -----------
Petroleum and petroleum products ---
Pulpwood---------------------------
Plywood--- ---------------------
Canned food products-- ----------
All others-------- ---- -----
Total-------------- -------


1,271,059
646,072
629,669
502,219
495,547
459,150
435,017
353,780
351,331
322,394
251,555
247,476
239,348
177,403
153,752
2,396,700
8.932,472


1,164,642
N.A.
311,820
432,293
310,136
N.A.

341,895
364,031
N.A.
N.A.
54,112
268,076
203,589
N.A.
200,181
4,729,843


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
1,669,063
N.A.
304,018
467,720
N.A.
N.A.
264,520
293,481
N.A.
N.A.
467,292
410,399
126,688
N.A.
222,514
3,585,694


8,380,618 7,811,389


Atlantic to Pacific


Third quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity 5-Yr. Avg.
1968 1967 1961-65
1961-65

Coal and coke----- --------------- 3,680,929 2,838,219 1,505,514
Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)__. 3,630,113 4,041,140 2,867,923
Phosphate----------------------------- 1,077,614 917,366 537,037
Corn ._--------------------------- 947,100 636,400 496,187
Soybeans---------------------------- 600,673 447,225 381,430
Ores, various _--_---------. 463,560 412,173 75,586
Metal, scrap-------- --------------- 422,687 719,540 466,944
Sorghum-------------------------------- 289,662 97,862 N.A.
Wheat ----- ----------- ----- 248,258 111,972 82,552
Metal, iron-------------- 233,026 55,761 45,571
Rice --------- -- -------------- 218,441 155,463 34,651
Sugar-- ---------- ------- 191,045 153,016 174,394
Paper and paper products ----- -173,867 137,876 87,202
Cotton, raw. ------- 170,380 157,909 118,155
Chemicals, miscellaneous ------------------. 145,171 253,997 159,238
All others ----- ------------------- 2,502,656 2,335,043 1,955,621
Total -------- 14,995,182 13,470,962 8,988,005

CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

Third quarter, fiscal year-


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing -------
Small --
Total commercial
U.S. Government vessels: *
Oceangoing--------------___
Small ---------------- -
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov
ernment_ _____.- ___ ____


1968
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic

1,659 1,622
81 50
1,740 1,672

224 164
9 15

1,973 1,851


Total


3,281
131
3,412


1967

Total


3,090
128
3,218


388 212
24 26


3.824


3.456


Avg. No.
Transit
1961-65

Total


2,785
126
2,911

61
39

3.011


o Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
transited free.


-I-


I


1-1


I


I I I













ir. ..*
C



-I


ii l^ I
^ac~lil L S^Iaj]1 1


'S Sa'^3 -


Inspecting computer output results is Gary Guazzo, right, soils engineer of the Civil Engineering Branch, while Tony Mann, chief of the branch,
studies the problem plans. Mrs. Naomi Wright, computer programmer with the IBM Company, is seated at the computer control console.



Computers oost Canal egticiency


(Continued from p. 17)
Engineering Division, which is respon-
sible for slope stability problems on the
Canal, is applying the latest develop-
ment in computer methods of analysis.
On the Canal widening project now
underway, the highest soft rock slopes
on the entire Canal are being excavated
at Las Cascadas Hill. Improper design
of these slopes could cause failures
dwarfing even the worst slides of
construction days.
After lengthy geologic investigation
of this problem, it became evident that
the complex conditions existing in this
hill could be adequately analyzed only
by computer methods.
Assistance was obtained from slope
stability experts at Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology in adapting com-
puter programs for applications to the
problems. Several methods of analysis


were run on the IBM 7094 computer
at MIT to evaluate specific factors and
to determine conditions which should be
defined for the design analysis.
When these basic problems had been
resolved, the actual slope design was
undertaken by the Civil Engineering
Branch, with successive design problems
run on computers at the McDonnell
Automation Center at St. Louis.
Tony Mann, chief of the Civil En-
gineering Branch, ran several of the
problems at MIT and coordinated the
project with university experts. Mann,
who provided the information for this
article, did much of the computer work
at St. Louis, also.
Major slope changes resulted from
this study and excavation is now under-
way in the field with far greater confi-
dence in the safety of the new Canal
slopes.
Meanwhile, the Civil Engineering


Branch proceeds with the development
and application of computer methods
on the continuing slope problems of the
Canal widening project, the analysis of
old and new slides in the Canal and
the evaluation of excavation cost and
methods on other Canal improvements
as well.
Many computer solutions now are
being handled entirely in the Canal
Zone by use of the IBM 1130 machine
operated by the Schools Division. This
machine is proving capable of handling
a wide variety of analytical meth-
ods and expanded magnetic storage will
soon increase the range of problems
which can be processed. At the same
time, new computer programs constant-
ly are being obtained, evaluated and
adapted for use on Canal problems.
The use of computer is part of the
continuous, overall task of upgrading
the efficiency of the Panama Canal.


MAY 1968







Panamanians


Avid Fans of


Cockfighting



THE SMALL winged gladiators charge
each other furiously and viciously. With
each flurry of wings, wicked dagger-
like spurs flash as beaks clamp tightly
on skin or feathers for a hold. Shouting
themselves hoarse, spectators lay wagers
as they follow the combat in the pit
with eyes wide from the excitement.
The combatants display incredible
courage. Biting, beating their wings Cockfights are fast and furious. The gamecocks use beaks, wings, and spurs.
and stabbing, they are intent only
on killing. Ti __ ""
Suddenly, one falls mortally wounded. -
Even in the throes of death, spur-heeled
legs beat wildly, seeking out the foe. A '
The scene might well be from the
days of the Roman Empire. Or from ,
ancient China, long before the Chris-
tian era. But no. It's from today, as it
has been over the centuries and it re-
mains a spectacle not recommended
for the squeamish.
Cockfighting dates back to the 5th
century before Christ, when it was in- .
produced by Themistocles into Greece,
whence it spread throughout the Roman
Empire. It originated in the Orient.
Today, cockfighting or cocking is
popular throughout Latin America,
where the sport was brought by the
Spaniards. For years it was widespread
in England, Ireland, Belgium, India,
and Asia and flourished in parts of the
United States. Now though, it is illegal
in England, the United States, and some
other countries.
Practically every city or town in
Panama has cockfights on Sundays or
holidays. In the capital city, the main
cockpit is at the Club Gallistico, located ..........
on Via Espafia opposite the National .
Guard booth at the entrance to the Old
Panama road.
The gamecock, which is a distinct
variety, closely resembles the wild jun-
gle fowl of India. Instinctively pugna- ill
(See p. 22) Referee is custodian of bets between owners of gamecocks. His decisions on fights are final.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Gamecocks


Are Trained


For Battle


(Continued from p. 21)
cious and courageous to the point of
exaggeration, the gamecock has been
bred for thousands of years but for one
purpose-to fight to the death.
Of the more than 100 recognized
gamecock breeds, the small Spanish
fighting cock is favored in Panama be-
cause of breed, aggressiveness and, of
course, heritage. Its weight fluctuates
between 2 pounds 15 ounces and 3
pounds 12 ounces, in contrast with the
giant Belgian gamecocks of 12 pounds
or more.
After the gamecock, the principal
figures in cocking are the breeder and
the pitter or handler. The former de-
votes time and money-for sport rather
than for money-to the breeding of the
fowl. The latter trains them for combat.
Generally, the breeder keeps the chick
for 12 months or until the spur is %-
inch long; then the pitter takes over.
The pitter removes the comb, shaves
and feeds and trains the bird. After 6 to
8 weeks, the gamecock goes through
"exercise No. 8," which is the decisive
test. The pitter passes the gamecock
around and between his legs, describing
a figure eight, again and again. If by
the 150th turn, the cock has not opened
its beak, it is ready for the pit.
Weight is the decisive factor in a
match, for the combatants must have
identical weight. This is determined on
the scales in the cockring. The match
includes the amount of the wager be-
tween the owners, which is held by the
referee. Should one of the gamecocks
fail to appear in the pit, its owner loses
half the wager.
In Panama City, cockfighting is
governed by municipal ordnance.
When a contest is about to start, only
the owners are allowed in the pit. They
set the gamecocks to bite each other
on the head, as an incitement to com-
bat. After a few seconds, the cocks are
released and the owners leave the pit.
From then on, no one is allowed inside,
except when the referee-who is the
supreme authority-calls for a "careo"


MAY 1968


Weight is the main factor in matching gamecocks. Weigh-in takes place on scales at cockring.


or confrontation. This occurs if both
gamecocks cease fighting for 1 minute
or if they draw apart 1 meter without
attacking each other. When a "careo"
is ordered, the handlers come into the
pit, pick up their animals and are given
2 minutes to revive them, each accord-
ing to his method. Only if both game-
cocks have been deprived of sight in
combat are the pitters allowed to stim-
ulate them by hand when the contest
is resumed.
The referee also acts in cases where
the combat does not end in death. He
may award the fight to the gamecock
which has beaten down its foe and the
latter offers no opposition for I minute,


or he may call a draw if neither bird
can keep on fighting either because of
exhaustion or because of the extent of
its wounds.
In combat, the fighting cock uses the
wings to beat down its foe, the beak
to hold on, and the spur to stab. Game-
cocks in Panama are heeled with nat-
ural spurs, in contrast with other places
where steel gaffs are used. The game-
cocks are pitted shaved and combless.
The former may be compared with the
attire prizefighters wear in the ring; the
latter is due to the fact that the comb
would provide a very vulnerable target.
A cockfight lasts from a few seconds
to as long as 15 minutes.


Handlers incite their birds to fight before releasing them in arena.
Handlers incite their birds to fight before releasing them in arena.






Spectators sit or stand on tiers around
the circular pit. which measures be-
tween 18 and 20 feet in diameter and
has a 1'2-foot barrier. Wagers are made
throughout the course of the contest and
the bettor can "cover up," as the fight
progresses, by betting on the cock hav-
ing the advantage if his original choice is
doing badly. Of course, at that stage,
he must offer odds.
Among cockfight bettors, it is a
matter of personal honor to pay off
without argument. In Panama, inci-
dentally, bets still are laid in silver
"pesos" worth 50 cents each. In the
case of inter-province or international
tournaments, bets usually run into the
thousands of dollars.
Cocking is surprisingly widespread
in Panama. Until relatively recently, it
was a sport for the wealthy because
gamecocks were imported and the price
of the birds ran high. But as restrictions
increased over the importation of fowl,
gamecock breeding became more and
more popular. An idea of how wide-
spread the sport is, is provided by the
fact that in the Club Gallistico alone
some 80 matches are fought weekly on


Saturday, Sundays, and Mondays dur-
ing the season which lasts from January
through April. This means that weekly
there are 160 gamecocks available for
fighting, of which approximately half
are new birds. If it is remembered that
there are other cockrings in the city
and that cockfights are held in many
other places in the country, one can get


an idea of how deeply the sport runs.
Very distinguished names in Pan-
amanian society have been linked with
cockfighting.
From a pastime for nobility, cock-
fighting has grown into a sport in which
the rich can envv the humble for the
possession of a fighting cock, whose
crowing in the pit is a clarion of victory.


t.. .
j', ? t

F-t i t_ _- .1
,' ..


Gamecock on sign marks site of Club Gallistico on Via Espaiia,


in Panama City.


4 -


TAr .i. i i.


Spectators sit or stand on tiers around circular cockring. Man pointing is shouting out his wagcr to any taker.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




Full Text

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalremay1968pana

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JKsiFT^ \M 15 196* 1i X •f I *4\ m& Tx.

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W. P. Leber, Governor-President H. R. Parfitt, Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer Tomas A. Cupas, Publications Editor Editorial Assistants Eunice Richard, Tobi Bittel, Fanndj P. Hernandez, and Jose T. Tunon Official Panama Canal Publication Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees. Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each. Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. c4bout Our Cover THE COLOR photo on our cover shows picturesque Goofy Lake in Cerro Azul, about 25 miles east of Panama City. The highest point in Cerro Azul is 3,700 feet while the lake itself is 2,150 feet above sea level, altitudes that provide an invigorating, cooling change from Panama City. From the paved road that winds its way up, the motorist is treated to sweeping views of the rolling green mountains and of the lake. Cerro Azul is but one of several areas of natural beauty near Panama City worth the effort of driving. There are others which, without the benefit of ballyhoo, await the visitor. A few of these locales are discussed in an article beginning on page 10. Veteran sea captains who command huge tankers are learning more about their profession at a small, manmade lake in the foothills of the French Alps. It may sound a bit farfetched at first but in reality is a cleverly engineered operation that sharpens the skills of the captains selected for the program. The story of the school for skippers is an intriguing one and begins on the opposite page. The hobbyist who collects objects— whether they be stamps, coins or whatever— builds a vast knowledge of geography, history, and other matters through his collections. So it is with the collectors of bottles, who dig the bottles from the soil, retrieve them from the ocean floor, and occasionally even uncover them at dumps. An account on the active Isthmian bottle collectors begins on page 6. Computers have been put to work to solve some of the problems concerning slides in the Panama Canal. Starting on page 16 is a report on how the Canal's Civil Engineering Branch is using these ultramodern machines to answer questions that have plagued engineers since construction days. Cockfighting is the topic of an illustrated article that begins on page 21. This pastime flourishes today in Latin America, though it is banned in many nations of the world. The fans in Panama are perhaps as avid as lovers of cockfighting anywhere; there are cockrings in almost every town and city in the Republic. Sndex School for Skippers 3 Bottle Buffs 6 Views of Panama 10 Shipping Notes 12 Anniversaries 14 Canal History 15 Computers Solve Slide Problems 16 Shipping Story 18 Shipping Statistics 18 Cockfighting 21 hi ** James P. MacLaren displays several of his old bottles in a bamboo bottle tree. Bottles on the table include case bottles, patent medicine, food, gin, whisky, bitters, French mustard, Scotland beer, and other relics. MacLaren became a bottle collector by chance when he was lost while reconnoitering for pieces-of-eight on the Las Cruces trail. He found an early handblown bottle and was hooked! May 1968

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Esso tanker captains maneuver their precisely scaled models during lake exercises at Grenoble. The models represent ships of 38,000, 80,000, and 191,000 deadweight tons, which the student-skippers leam to command. Photo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.) Set In the Jrench c4lp5 School for Ship Captains (The following article appeared in a recent issue of The Lamp, Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) publication, which granted permission for this reprinting in The Panama Canal Review. ) By Robert K. Bruce "NEVER THOUGHT I'd be going back to school on a ruddy little inland lake," said the British sea captain with a laugh. For the past 6 years he had been a pilot for Esso at the Libyan oil port of Marsa el Brega on the Mediterranean, guiding tankers to their moorings in all weather. But at the moment he was taking part in a 2-week course in shiphandling at the Esso Marine Research and Training Center, a unique institution located 35 miles northwest of Grenoble, France. On arriving at the center, he and his seven classmates, all of them tanker captains, displayed a certain skepticism toward the program that awaited them. After all, their seagoing experience ranged from 14 to 30 years, and each had established his competence beyond question. Why, at this advanced stage of their careers, had they been asked to this secluded spot in the foothhills of the Alps to pilot model ships on a man-made lake? The answer lies in the dramatic growth in the size of tankers being built in recent years and Jersey Standard's recognition of the need to develop training techniques to help its captains and harbor pilots make the transition from smaller ships to the supertankers coming into service. In the past, tankers in the Jersey fleet grew in relatively small increments, and it was possible for captains and pilots to predict maneuvering and navigating characteristics of each bigger ship on the basis of experience with the next smaller class. At 191,000 deadweight tons, however, the recently completed Esso Malaysia is 100,000 deadweight bigger than the largest Jersey tanker before her and is the first of six ships of this class. The current building program also includes 13, 240,000-deadweight-ton vessels, with the first one due to enter service in 1969. There are few guides for handling such vessels, and thus it is imperative to give shipmasters as much knowledge as possible about proper handling before they ever set foot on the actual ships. "Before the first group got here, we knew what the initial reaction of the men would be," acknowledged Capt. Alf Lindh, one of the center's three instructors and himself a veteran ship(See p. 4) The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 10

Ship Models Perform Like Big Vessels (Continued from p. 3) master and pilot. "They have every right to question our methods and our ability to teach them something they don't already know about shiphandling. I think we would be disappointed if they didn't." Capt. Joe Johnston, who played a major role in developing the training program and who now teaches at the center, goes a step further. "The skepticism these men bring with them is actually an advantage. It makes all the more meaningful the moment when they discover for themselves the remarkable similarity between handling a model on the lake and a full-sized tanker at sea." There are four models. The largest is the Esso Brittany, a 1 foot to 25 foot scale copy of the 191,000 deadweight Esso Malaysia. It is 42.5 feet long, has a beam of 6.5 feet, draws slightly less than 2.5 feet, weighs nearly 14 tons, and will hold three men. Another 1 foot to 25 foot model is the 38,000-deadweight Esso Berlin. It is 26 feet long and holds two men. The Esso Grenoble is also a model of the Esso Malaysia class but on a scale of 1 foot to 40 foot. It is 25 feet long and, like its larger sister, holds three. The Esso Pembrokeshire, a 1-foot to 40-foot model of its 80,000-deadweight namesake, is 20.5 feet long, and holds two people. The models are not intended as exact miniatures in every detail of their fullsized counterparts. There are none of the pipes, walkways, ladders, and hatches that clutter a real tanker deck. The normally flat deck is broken by places for the helmsman and— in the two 191,000-deadweight models— the "deckhand" to sit. But meticulous care has been taken to make the models perform exactly like the big ships. For example, the electric drive motors produce the precise scale equivalent power as the big ships' engines. It takes a while to reverse the engine of a ship or to increase or decrease its speed. Electrical relays simulate this time lag in the models. SimilarAs the Brittany eases toward a model of the Esso mooring tower at Marsa el Brega, its deckhand gages the remaining distances. Photo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.) ly, a series of relays times the movement of a model's rudder to correspond with that of the real ship. In all the models, the captain sits with his eyes at the level they would be if he were standing on the bridge of a full-sized ship. If the bow of his model blocks the view of a buoy, he'll know that the big ship will restrict his vision in exactly the same manner. So detailed is the simulation of performance that the model's anchor chains will break under a strain equivalent in scale to that which could snap a full-sized chain. A visitor to Esso REM (For Recherche et d'Essais pour la Marine) can detect none of this realism as he watches the models maneuvering on their 9acre sea. But he can sense it in the animated conversations of the captains during the classroom sessions and at the excellent family-style lunches served in the weathered farmhouse that is headquarters for Esso REM. And, seeing the fatigue on the men's faces at the end of a day of lake practice, he can well understand Captain Johnston's remark that 2 weeks at the center provide the captains with years of additional shiphandling experience. But even these impressions in no way prepare the visitor for the astonishing illusion that sailing in one of these models creates. Occupants of the helmsman's and deckhand's positions in all but the largest model half recline in their seats, their May 1968

PAGE 11

eyes at approximately the same level as those of a man standing on the deck of a full-sized tanker. Seen from this position, the water stretches away for great distances, the now remote shorelines blurred by heat waves rising from the surface. The lake's 9 acres suddenly become the 30 square miles of ocean they represent in scale with the model. From his forward seat in a 191,000deadweight model, the visitor can look back along the broad main deck and appreciate fully the tremendous size of the 1,062-foot giant after which it is patterned. He experiences the same feeling, watching the gray hull of another model glide past, that he would meeting a ship at sea. Added to his visual impressions are the dimensions of motion and sound. The model's speed and the way it reluctantly begins a turn, then swings with increasing speed as the rudder overcomes the vessel's forward momentum, have the feel of a real tanker. The motion produced by a wave-making machine evokes vivid memories of tankers churning through heavy seas. The electric motor's high-pitched whine, which has no place in the steadily building illusion, is soon forgotten. Another sound replaces it, the half-heard, halfbeat of the propeller. Each model is equipped with a radio system that permits conversations between crew positions on the model, with other boats on the lake, and widi the instructors, who oversee the exercises from outboardpowered launches. Conversations are crisp and professional. Listening to them, one might easily be picking up messages from the waters around a busy tanker terminal. Participants in the program must pay unceasing attention to the operation of their ships. An Italian captain summed it up at the conclusion of an exercise. "You can't relax a minute. You have to concentrate all the way." The lake, shaped like a dented oval, is about 900 feet at its longest point and 600 at the widest. It was built by Trappist monks in the 17th century to raise fish for the tables of French monarchs, was redesigned and enlarged for Esso REM. After the lake had been drained, its bottom was carefully shaped to form shoals, bays, channels, and deep-water areas, all in 1 foot to 25 foot scale. A 400foot-long replica of an actual bend in the Suez Canal was carved out of the western bank. Scale hydrographic charts, used throughout the training program, show depths ranging from 250 feet in the center to 40 feet near the northern entrance of "Suez." In actual fact, these represent water depths of 10 feet and 1.6 feet. These latter figures are not likely to be heard at the the center, however, for a reason that was explained to a visitor by Joe Johnston during an early morning walk from the office to the boathouse. The route passes a small dam built to help keep the lake at a constant level. This summer, however, the problem was one of too little water, rather than too much. Unusually dry weather had reduced the inflow to a trickle. "The lake is really low today," Captain Johnston commented. "It's down about 7 feet." When his companion mentioned that it looked to be only about 2 inches below the spillway, the captain smiled and said, "We don't like to talk in inches or centimeters here. As long as we can keep the captains thinking in terms of feet, those are real ships they're in and the training will work." Equipment on the lake includes a replica of the unique Esso-designed (See p. 13) •r KSBWKnMW The 42.5-foot Esso Brittany negotiates a difficult turn at a bend in the channel. Photo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.) The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 12

Elizabeth Robinson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Robinson, holds a beautiful black glass specimen from the collection of magnificent case bottles found in Robinson's collection. Robinson began collecting bottles in 1950 and his parents were collectors. THE CLINK of a spade striking glass is music to the ear of the bottle buff digging in hard ground. Carefully, diligently, and expeotantly, he digs away not to break or mar the object which may be a rare specimen— or just another piece of broken glass. Searching for bottles which are no longer in use can be great fun and working toward a collection, an absorbing and satisfying hobby. More than a dozen bottle enthusiasts in the Canal Zone pursue this fascinating activity. They are unsung historians who, by piecing together bits of information on botdes, are digging out facts about different areas and eras of culture. They experience the thrill of finding something that once served and lay buried and untouched, perhaps for many years. They have the fun of buying and selling or swapping their loot which may have come from the dump! Bottle collecting is becoming more and more popular on the historically colorful Isthmus where Spanish, English and French pirates trod the trail from the Chagres River to Panama City. Years later, the 49'ers used the same route to go from New York to the gold fields of California. Many tossed their empties of whisky Bottle Buffs Read History In Old Glass in the brush after quenching a tropical thirst. Later still, thousands of construction workers on the Canal added their depleted bottles of bitters, whisky and patent medicines to the debris on the Isthmus. Much of this accumulation of botdes which was not broken or pulverized, plus bottles which once contained food, cosmetics, and household liquids, now lie half buried in the jungle, in the sea, in old dumps, and anywhere that man paused to feed himself and administer to his ailments. Collectors rummaging for these early day bottles on the Las Cruces trail have found hand blown bottles dating back to the 1860's, and flaws and color of several finds indicate much older bottles. Very often they pick up pieces, necks and bottoms with blob seals. Finding one of these often gets a person hooked on bottles. More fortunate collectors have found valuable coins without too much effort. Bottle collecting on the Isthmus does not involve a great deal of back-breaking digging. On weekends, collectors may be found scavenging old dumps, uncovering jungle growths, and even donning scuba diving gear to search in the ocean. Remains of the original 25 Canal construction townsites are the most fertile grounds and have exposed many rare old bottles. Areas such as Gorgona, Culebra, Matachin, San Pablo, Las Cascadas, Lion Hill, Nombre de Dios, and many other Canal construction sites once inhabited by workers have left a legacy of beautiful black glass, clay, stoneware, aquamarine, and other crudely made bottles. They have been found under sidewalks, beneath fallen tree trunks, in the water and in old bottle dumps. A collector knows that pieces of broken glass glistening in the distance may be the key to an old dump and a depression near an old building may have been a garbage dump and yield rare old bottles. 6 May 1968

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Taboga Island with its historic past, has rewarded collectors with perhaps the most valuable specimens in terms of years. As far back as the 16th Century Taboga and its surrounding islands supplied provisions for Panama City. Galleons for the conquest of Peru were built here and these same ships, laden with gold treasures, stopped here where the riches were unloaded for an overland trip to the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus, and from there on to Spain aboard ship. Later Taboga harbor was a hive of activities offering snug mooring, fresh water and supplies for vessels plying the Pacific. Ships from many nations stopped at the Pacific Mail Steamship Company coal houses and machine shop and took on or deposited Welsh coal and bottles of medicine potions (some made by a Scotchwoman there). Canal Zone bottle collectors diving in Taboga Bay bring up these bottles of medicine potions, compounds of castor oil, soda water and whisky. The soda water bottles, called tear drops by collectors, were often used as ballast in ships from England and Scotland. Several of these, filled with dirt, marine life and bearing barnacles are now in the possession of Canal Zone collectors. Some of the oldest Taboga bottles have been found by scuba diver collector Sgt. Dion Daugherty. One of the finest specimens has been found by shell-collector Elizabeth Ballerini (wife of a Gorgas Hospital doctor) on Kobbe Beach across from Taboga. On the Atlantic side, botde collectors Luke Palumbo and Jim Collins search for old botdes out toward Fort Sherman and San Lorenzo. Palumbo's collection contains several handblown bottles, black glass square bottles, inkwells and a variety of medicine containers. Bottle collecting is a family project with the Collins family which includes 5 children —all avid collectors. Their collection of approximately 300 specimens includes bottles and inkwells from many parts of the world. Of particular interest are several one gallon moonshine jugs from Jamaica, France, and the United States and medicine bottles which are embossed with porcelain. Several bottles date prior to 1849, probably 1830's and early 40's and some botdes Collins dug in a village, which according to maps, dated back to 1763. One of the first Canal Zone collectors was Adrien Bouche, member of a wellknown Canal Zone family, who began digging about 20 years ago when bottle collecting was little known on the Isthmus. His collection, relatively small in number, is compensated by the high H*i Scuba diver-collector Sgt. Dion Daugherty holds a French ink and a Taboga bottle from his collection of antique bottles. His are some of the oldest found near Taboga. quality of his selections. Bouche believes that the most valuable bottles come from deep in the ground and that is where most of his come from —the old townsite dumps at Gorgona, La Pita, the Las Cruces trail and the sites of towns in existence before Canal construction days. A Chinese rice vinegar jug and two lovely Chinese botdes which look like vases, and probably contained wine, are outstanding in the collection. These bottles may be an indication that Chinese had once established themselves as merchants in food in these areas. Several old beer bottles he found in La Pita (a signal station on the Cut), and labeled Drew's Doppell Kronenbier, are the only ones of this type to be found in the Isthmus. Perhaps a La Pita resident had a particular fondness for that German brew and imported it for his exclusive drinking pleasure. A handblown botde he picked up in Boquete showing the whittle marks of a wooden mold is truly a collector's treasure. Two dog-botdes (having pictures of dogs) Bouche picked up in a drainage ditch excavation in Bocas del Toro, marked JJW Peters, one with a dog's head and the other plain, are more than 100 years old. In digging up these relics Bouche has exposed such articles as old wood and coal burning stoves, grates, coins, iron beds, springs, high-button shoes, spitoons, clay pipes and many other objects of a bygone era. Some of the bottles found in the entanglement of these articles have a film over the glass caused by the action of water seepage on the (See p. 8) The Panama Canal Review

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Broken concrete slabs near a large tree root at Gorgona have been lifted to reveal these clay bottles which were used as a base under the concrete. Usually the bottles were placed neck down, side by side to make a firmer base. They were used also to outline graves. Mottle A Veil MiAtory, Of 3d tit mud ana World (Continued from p. 7) old imperfect glass. The glazed clay botdes he has found buried deep in the earth have an etching caused by alkaline substances which has worked on the glass over the many years. It is apparent that a large number of clay bottles (some made by Doulton) reached the Isthmus from England and Scotland. They are the most common bottles found in the Canal Zone collections. These hardy empties were used (upside down) to outline graves and gardens. Their ruggedness is responsible for their surviving the ravages of time. Frank Robinson, who is with the Hydrology Section of the Interoceanic Canal Studies, and his brother John, who began collecting in 1950, are among the early Canal Zone bottle buffs. Their parents also were Canal Zone bottle collectors before them. Frank Robinson's collection includes a variety of magnificent case bottles, the very dark bottles whose square shape allowed 12 bottles to be packed in a case. The elegant large bottles contained gin from Holland. Among his outstanding and beautiful case bottles is one picked up by a friend at an old abandoned tin mine in Australia. James Fulton, a newcomer among the bottle collectors, has amassed a collection of approximately 1,500 specimens in about 1 year of bottle hunting. His most recent acquisition is a lovely demijohn found in the Interior of Panama which could be 150 years old. His large collection consists of every variety of bottle on the Isthmus. There are clay beers, rum, whisky, gins, dogbottles, taper gins, bitters, cosmetics, Paraiso Springs Coca-Cola, wines, blackglass, blue medicine, inks and manv others. His favorite is the square Aromatic Schnapps bottle from Holland. Fulton has found most of his bottles along the Canal and not more than 2 inches below the ground. J. P. MacLaren, Chief of the Sanitation Division, an enthusiastic collector, is currently displaying a bottle collection at the Canal Zone Library-Museum. His remarkable collection of approximately 500 qualitv bottles includes beverages, household and patent medicine bottles from manv parts of the world —the U.S., the Caribbean, manv European countries and from as far off as India. He points out Canal Zone bottles which are collectors' items simply because they are bottles of this area' One of the oldest is a Niagara bottle embossed with the names J. E. Duncombe, Canal Zone, R.P. and I. L. Maduro, I Canal Zone, which contained soda water, lemonade and other sweetened carbonated beverages, and has a marble in its pinched top to let out a jigger at a time. The same bottle has been found embossed "Isthmanian Aerated Water Factor)', Colon" showing the wide usage of all bottles for different beverages. Medicine bottles in the MacLaren collection bear such names as Pink Pills for Pale People, Lvdia Pinkham's Blood Purifier, Benjamin's Lung Balsm, Davis Vegetable Pain Killer, Chamberlain's Colic, Cholera and Diarrhea Remedv. and Morses Indian Root Pills. It is interesting to note that the patent medicine habit was a serious and dangerous one in the United States at the turn of the century. A mother who gave her child a dose of Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup was actually doping the child to sleep with opium! When our grandmothers nipped a bottle of Ayer's Cherry Pectoral for their colds, they were drinking a mixture of 34 percent heroin! A large number of these products found their wav to the Canal Zone. Bottle collectors usually classify their bottles according to the contents thev once contained. Bottles for beverages probably have the most extensive assortment with bitters bottles taking the lead. When a stiff tax on the sale of gin and the number of pubs went into effect in England, a surprising number of apothacary shops came into existence selling medicinal gin to help cure the ailments of the dav. The practice carried across the Adantic to the United States and a new product, bitters, was born and became very popular. More than 400 kinds of bitters were put on the market to relieve the aches, pains and thirst of our ancestors who enjoyed their liquor under the guise of cure-alls. Many of these are found in the Canal Zone bottle collections. Dating a bottle and getting the facts of a find may involve considerable research such as writing to companies, researching lists of businesses which have been inactive for many years, and contacting other bottle collectors. The actual value of a bottle is not necessarily determined by age. A collector mav be interested in embossed bottles, bottles of a certain age, color. S May 1968

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shape or height, bottles of a particular method of manufacture, or other categories according to his whims. Collectors know that bottles made from earliest times to about 1860 were free blown, made by a glassblower who dipped the end of his blowpipe into a pot of molten glass and the size and shape of the botde was determined by blowing and reheating the bubble at the end of the blowpipe. The worker cut the glass from the blowpipe leaving a rough scar referred to as a pontil mark. This mark is the surest sign of a valuable collectable botde. Free blown bottles were never alike. They were often lopsided, had uneven walls and crudely applied lips, as the lip was applied after the bottle was shaped. Another sure sign of a very old botde is a "sheared lip" (before 1840). The lip was formed by simply cutting the glass free of the blowpipe with a pair of shears, leaving the lip with a stovepipe look. After 1840, bottle makers applied a ring of glass around the sheared lip. Wooden molds were used from about 1800 to 1860. These molds were whittled from apple or maple wood and the bottles cast in these carved molds have the telltale whittle marks which collectors look for. The molds were in two, three, four or five pieces. The glassblower blew a few puffs lowering a glass lump into the hollow mold and then continued blowing into the tube until the glass was forced against the sides of the mold. Raised letters were whittled in the molds and the molten glass took the shape of the container. Ninety percent of the botdes made before 1904 were not embossed. Before the Civil War, instructions for taking a medicine or the name of a firm was written on a piece of paper and tied to the neck of the bottle. Molds were replaced by semi-automatic machines and then in 1903 an automatic botde-making machine came into existence. But it was 10 years before machinery replaced hand blown mass production of botdes. The fascination of searching for these bottles that reveal what our Isthmian forefathers drank, ate, and used to cure their ailments, has captured the fancy of several other Canal Zone collectors such as, Alwyn Sprague, Carl Glass, Kenneth Manthorne, A] Chandler, Robert Stewart, Edward McFarland, Charles Rheberg, Gustave Bliss, Karl Longley, Lois Harrison, and Judy Williams. Bliss, who is with the 352d, U.S. Army Aviation Detachment at Fort Clayton, has found the subject of glass recovered on the Isthmus so intriguing that he is writing a historical narrative with pictorial views of the botdes found in the Canal Zone and vicinity. Bliss' efforts are sure to be invaluable to future collectors and historians. Pati and Doree MacLaren hold an early French wine bottle found underground along the Las Cruces trail. The assortment of bottles in front includes "tear drops," round bottom sodas, French champagnes, laboga dark glass, food, beverages, and medicine bottles. The Panama Canal Review 9

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Vistas Abound /nP anama s Countryside UNSUSPECTED NATURAL beauties lie within easy distance off Panama's main highway. Picturesque towns and sights abound, to be sure, along the Inter-American Highway from the boundary with Costa Rica to Chepo, 37 miles east of Panama City. But for the motorist willing to exert a little effort, the reward can be an unforgettable sight or spot. A dirt, gravel or macadam road branching off the pavement usually leads to such a reward. Goofy Lake in Cerro Azul, El Chorro in La Chorrera, and La Angostura in Penonome are three examples of spectacularly beautiful places off the beaten path. Cerro Azul is 25 miles east of Panama City, an hour's drive. The turn-off is roughly midway on the road between Tocumen Airport and Pacora. The development started in 1943 when Juan Euribiades Jimenez, a prominent Panama City businessman, purchased a 3,000-hectare (7,500 acres) tract. He became interested in the place when he was told by a visiting German urbanization expert that an area with Alpine climate lay close to the capital city and would provide an ideal development area. Later a road was built from the Pacora Highway to Cerro Azul. The name, incidentally, was inspired by the Blue Ridge Mountains in Virginia. When Jimenez purchased the land, there was no lake. About 3 years after he acquired the property, he was on a hunting trip with a guide from the area and they came onto a marshv valley. The guide told him the area flooded during the rainy season, becoming a lagoon. He said he was sure if a retaining wall were built, the waters would be trapped and a year-round lake would be formed. That's how Goofy Lake was conceived. Jimenez decided to tackle the project. A Panamanian engineering firm drew La Angostura, a miniature Grand Canyon, is approximately 100 miles from Panama City on the road between Penonome and La Pintada, in Cocle Province. It is one of the most scenic spots in Panama's interior but is known by few Americans. the plans and carried out the construction of the dam, which is a terraced dirt structure with a rock reinforcement in the middle. Friends called Jimenez "gufy" (a phonetic Spanish adaptation of "goofy"), he recalls now, "so I decided that if I was goofy, then it should be called Goofy Lake." The project was begun in 1945 and the lake was ready in 1950. "The wall is still there," Jimenez says with a smile. Goofy Lake covers 25 hectares (62.5 acres) and its average depth is 33 feet. It is 2,150 feet high (the highest point in Cerro Azul is 3,700 feet). Shortly after the lake was ready, Jimenez had it stocked with 200 bigmouth bass which he imported from the United States by air. To feed the bass, he later put in bluegill which he obtained locally. Anglers who visit Goofy Lake now catch the descendants of the original 200 big-mouth bass. Today, scores of families have per%^^ •'•-' Beautiful homes have been built in Cerro Azul, from where residents commute the 25 miles to their places of work in Panama City. 10 May 1968

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Scenery Charms Motorists inanent or weekend homes in Cerro Azul. The possibilities for the future are promising. Two large coffee plantations are flourishing in Cerro Azul. One, owned by Agro, S.A., a firm established with U.S. capital, has 128,000 coffee trees growing and is planting 100,000 more in May. Pastures already are being developed for cattle raising. Five thousand acres are still to be developed. The time will come, Jimenez is confident, when the long-planned road connecting Cerro Azul and Mandinga, on the San Bias Indian Reservation on the Atlantic mainland, will be a reality. When that happens, he says, Cerro Azul will be the ideal place for a first-class tourist resort. Already there is a project for a motel atop Cerro Jefe, the highest point in the area. In the opposite direction-west of Panama City-is La Chorrera, a thriving town only 25 miles from the capital. The route to El Chorro (literally The Gush) traverses the central part of the town, on the outskirts of which it becomes a hard-packed dirt road leading directly to the edge of the falls, about 15 minutes by car. At this spot, the Caimito River falls 33 feet into a natural pool 130 by 195 feet and 14 feet deep. At their widest point, the falls measure approximately 65 feet. Some of the natural charm of the spot has been marred by the intrusion of progress-a small power generating plant that combines hydroelectric and thermic installations. But it still is a natural beauty worth seeing. La Angostura (literally The Narrowness) is different from El Chorro in a breath-taking way. It can be likened to a miniature Grand Canyon. The spot is approximately 100 miles southwest from the capital on the road between Penonome and La Pintada, two of the most attractive towns in Panama's interior. La Pintada, incidentally, is famous for its hand-woven "montuno" hats. The mile-long detour to La Angostura requires very slow driving (in the dry season, a grader usually levels the dirt road). Or you can walk in. Whichever way is used, the trouble is well worth it. The Panama Canal Review asked one of Penonome's outstanding citizens, Sr. Simeon Conte, who is well known as a writer, for a description of the place. This is what he wrote: "The Zarati River springs from the Isthmian Andes, north of Penonome, in the Trinity Mountain in Capira district. At Penonome, where it turns into a gigantic horizontal 'S,' the river rushes southward into the strangling walls of La Angostura. "La Angostura is a rocky canyon about 1 mile long that narrows at the bottom from 10 feet to 3 feet. It is_a scant 3 miles from Penonome, on the left from the road linking Penonome and La Pintada. "According to 'The Ancient Civilizations of the New World,' written by North American archaeologist A. Hyatt Veryll around 1924, the Guacamaya Mountain, which towers over the southem of horizon of Penonome and La Pintada, was an active volcano about 4,000 years ago. The author is of the opinion that the Guacamaya's eruptions account for the present topographic features of certain areas in Code Province. "Be that as it may, La Angostura is one of the most scenic spots in the interior of the country. The Zarati River flows between huge rocks marked by projections so precise in their geometric profiles that they strike the viewer as having been chiseled by man himself. On sunny afternoons, the falling water and its curtain of mist glisten with the polichromy of the rainbow. "The place is romantic and evocative. 'Penonomenos' of all times have made it a favorite spot and by the banks of the foamy torrent many maids have murmured 'yes' to the suitors who became their husbands. "At sunset, the panorama in La Angostura becomes extraordinarily beautiful. The sun, dipping behind the Guacamaya peak, throws its dying rays into the torrent itself, piercing the length of the canyon and casting about tonalities of incredible beauty. "One lives a moment of poetn' in the brief twilight. "At the peak of the dr, season, in April, the charm of La Angostura is at its best. The river, running low, hurls itself into a hole carved in the rock over the centuries and gushes out from a lower opening in the rock. "That is La Angostura— a song of water flowing from an impressive rockythroat." Chorrera Falls has been a favorite swimming hole for generations of Panamanians. Here, the Caimito River plunges 33 feet into a natural pool. The Panama Canal Review 11

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SH New Maersk Freighter THE MAERSK Line's newest cargo ship, the Cornelia Maersk, a blue-hulled addition to the Maersk fleet, is arriving in Balboa the first part of June on her second visit to the Canal after making her maiden voyage to the Far East via New York and the east coast of the United States. The 11,000 deadweight ton ship is the second in a seven-vessel series of new Maersk line ships, three of which are being built in Bergen, Norway, and two others in Sweden. Very highly automated, the Cornelia Maersk can sail with an unmanned engineroom while the main engine is controlled from the bridge. All instruments and controls are centralized in an insulated, air-conditioned control room on the third deck. C. B. Fenton and Company, which handles the Maersk Line at the Canal, announced that the Cornelia would join the Maersk Line services between eastem Canada, U.S. ports on the Atlantic and Pacific, the Far East and Southeast Asia. These services are being maintained by 16 to 18 vessels at the present time. New Lykes Liner THE NEW $12 million SS Letitia Ltjkes, a highly automated Gulf Clipper added recently to the Lykes Brothers Steamship Company fleet, passed through the Canal in February on her maiden voyage from the U.S. gulf to U?ING ports in Japan, Korea, Okinawa, Formosa and Hong Kong. She is the 32d new ship to join the Lykes Line fleet in the company's fleet replacement program which will ultimately cost an estimated half billion dollars. The Letitia replaces a new ship of the same name which was battered and sunk by hurricane Betsy in 1965 while outfitting in New Orleans. According to an article in Brandon's (See p. 14) Capt. R. J. Wesley, President of the Canal Zone Pilots' Association, right, presents Commodore George Campbell of the Shaw Savill Line, an honorary membership in the Canal Zone Pilots' Association. The Commodore, who will retire when the SS Gothic returns to England, also received a Panama Canal Honorary Marine License from Capt. A. L. Gallin, Panama Canal Navigation Director, left. The framed copy of the license is held by Mrs. Campbell. The ceremony took place on the bridge of the Gothic as it passed through the Panama Canal recently. Commodore Campbell joined the Shaw Savill Line in 1927. His first command was the Samsylvan. ^966

PAGE 19

Skippers Shun Klaxon Sound (Continued from p. 5) bow-mooring tower at Marsa el Brega. A mooring buoy, held in place by anchors buried in the lake bottom, floats a short distance away. Such devices, located in deep water several miles from shore, are becoming more and more common as tanker size increases. Ships are held by mooring lines led out from the bow and are free to swing 360 degrees to allow for wind and current variations. Tankers using bow moorings generally load or discharge their cargoes through floating hoses connected to submarine pipelines. A floating pier, held by one anchor to permit it to swing with the wind, is used to simulate ship-to-ship berthing. The need for ships to tie up alongside one another in open water is rare but occasionally occurs when a very large tanker must pump part of its cargo into a smaller ship before the former can enter a relatively shallow harbor. A similar pier, this one immobile, provides experience in putting a ship alongside a dock. Traffic lights at each end are wired to shock-measuring devices on the fendering system of the pier. If a captain brings his model alongside as he should, the lights stay off. If he gives the dock a gentle nudge, the green light goes on. A harder jolt results in a yellow light and tells him that a full-sized pier would have been damaged. When the red light goes— accompanied by a nerve-shattering klaxonhe can be thankful strength of the dock isn't in scale to that of an actual one. The red light means he probably would have demolished the dock under normal circumstances. The klaxon seldom sounds, incidentally. Also on the lake are two conventional sea berths. These consist of three buoys arranged in a semicircle. To moor, a ship must drop both anchors, then back toward the buoys, paying out anchor chain as it goes, until mooring wires can be carried from the ship's stern to the buoys. The mooring wires at the stern and anchors at the bow hold the ship in a fixed position during the transfer of cargo. The experience of two members of a recent training group at one of the sea berths helps illustrate the accuracy with which the models simulate actual conditions. One captain, a Frenchman, commands a 697-foot tanker of conventional design. The ship's bridge is located atop a midships house, roughly halfway between bow and stern. The other captain is an American who is master of an "ail-aft" tanker. In this design, which has grown in popularity during the last 5 years, there is no midships house. The bridge sits atop the "afterhouse" on the ship's stern, which has been heightened by two decks to hold the accommodations formerly located amidships. Although the American's tanker is only 100 feet longer than that of his French colleague, he looks down from the bridge on 600 feet of The lily-pond stillness of this lake may not look much like an ocean but the captains being trained here are impressed with how much they learn in the lake about ship handling. Photo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.) main deck. The French captain sees less than half as much. During their work at the sea berth, in a model of the ail-aft Esso Malaysia, the French master consistently went too far into the berth before dropping his anchors. The American, accustomed to gaging distances from a point far back from his ship's bow, had little difficulty, even though he had never seen a full-sized sea berth and the real Esso Malaysia is 265 feet longer than his own ship. The story— and the fact the Frenchman mastered the maneuver before his 2-week stay ended— also demonstrates the primary reason whv Esso REM exists. The construction and maintenance of the training center and its facilities were entrusted to Sogreah, a worldrenowned hydraulic research companv which has its base in Grenoble. Sogreah (an acronym for Societe Grenobloise d'Etudes et d'AppIications Hvdrauliques) is no stranger to the Jersey organization, nor, indeed, is the concept of using scaled-down tankers to simulate actual operating conditions. In 1959 the companv was contemplating construction of its first 80,000deadweight tankers. Since the vessels represented, at the time, a significant increase in size over existing tankers, there was a question regarding their ability to negotiate such restricted waterways as the Suez Canal. To determine how manageable the new ships would be, Jersey contracted with Sogreah to construct a scale-model bend of the Suez and a self-propelled model of the proposed tankers. A specially trained Sogreah engineer, his eyes where those of the ship's captain would be, piloted the model tanker through the model canal again and again. Wind direction and speed, water depth, current, all were in exact proportion. Test results showed the new design to be a fine-handling ship. The tankers were built and, on subsequent vovages through the Suez, confirmed the remarkable accuracy with which their handling characteristics had been reproduced at Grenoble. Although no one knew at the time, the existence of the world's most unusual marine training center had been assured and, with it, the continued safetv and efficiency that have alwavs characterized the operation of Jersey's tanker fleet. The Panama Canal Review 13

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ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Clarence W. Marshall Detention Guard MARINE BUREAU Kenneth L. Jamieson Truck Driver ENGIN TION Carlol Machine C. C. Critc Motor Launch Operator John A. Everson General Foreman Electrician HEALTH BUREAU Percival L. McDonald Hospital Attendant (Continued from p. 12) Shipper and Forwarder, the Letitia Lykes and her sister ships are the largest cargo vessels ever built in New Orleans, as well as the largest and fastest ships ever to join the Lykes fleet. They have a deadweight of 14,000 tons, a cargo capacity of 750,000 cubic feet and a speed in excess of 20 knots. The cargo transports are completely air-conditioned, have accomodations for four passengers and are equipped with the latest and finest cargo handling and stowing quipment available. P & O. Cruises TWO OF the largest of the P & O passenger ships arrived at the Canal during April from the west coast of the United States on 3-month cruises, one called Springtime, the other Jolly Swagman. They were the superliner Oriana and the 45,000-ton Canberra with more than 1,800 passengers each. The Oriana arrived April 6 and the Canberra April 27. Both docked in Balboa and Cristobal and left for Europe including England, France, Spain and Portugal. On the homeward voyage around the Cape of Good Hope and across the Indian Ocean to Australia, the Orianas springtime itinerary includes calls at Sydney, Auckland, Suva, and Honolulu. The Canberra is following a similar schedule but the passengers are being offered optional tours to South Africa and to the Australian Outback. Norton Lilly represent the line at the Canal. ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION Ralph F. L. Blades Photocopying-Equipment Operator Arnold W. Marshall Clerk-Photography MARINE BUREAU Aston T. Greene Oiler-Floating Plant Ernest B. Rainier Captain of the Port Richard T. Baltozer Leader Lock Operator-Machinist Richard C. Sergeant Captain of the Port Rudolph Young Asphalt or Cement Worker COMPTROLLER'S OFFICE Daile D. Keigley Supervisory Staff Accountant ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Glenn H. Burdick Administrative Officer Adan Castillo Lead Foreman-Paver Dproteo Hernandez Paver German C. Lam bridge Maintenance man-Distri Norman S. Lewis Boilermaker Frank G. Layne Helper Electrician Aston S. Smith Electrician— Lineman Richard A. Armstrong Helper Central Office Repairman Arthur W. Davis Carpenter Miguel De la Rosa Seaman Ira M. Payne Construction Inspector— General Luis Sam Electrician— Lineman Arthur B. Butcher Boiler Tender-High Pressure Enrique Charles Oiler— Floating Plant Joseph M. Evelyn Helper Machinist— Maintenance Cleofas Gomez O. Winchman SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU John E. Hogan Supervisory Supply Clerk Arthur Hilton Leader Milk Plant Worker Arthur W. Smith Supervisory General Supply Specialist L. M. Elliott Laborer Ephraim R. Innis Guard F. D. Stewart Lead Foreman Laborer-Cleaner TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Benjamin S. Shoy Cargo Checker Herman J. Feurtado Time and Leave Supervisor Juan R. Griffin Bus Service Inspector juries AFFAIRS BUREAU Lillian R. Gibson Teacher— Elementary L.A. Schools Hamilton H. Lavalas Junior High Teacher. L.A. Schools Clyde E. Thomas Detention Guard Alfred A. Douglas Clerk George A. Martin Police Captain Howard J. Toland Police Sergeant Erell C. Alexis Detention Guard HEALTH BUREAU Pedro Vasquez Leader Exterminator Iris A. Crichlow Nursing Assistant— Medicine and Surgery Eric A. Edwards Diet Cook 14 May 1968

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CANAL HISTORY 50 yearJ c4go SOCIAL ACTIVITIES in the Canal Zone 50 years ago were geared to the war effort and the Committee for the War Fund of the American Red Cross sponsored its first entertainment trip through the Canal April 28, from Cristobal to Balboa. Lady Mallet, wife of the British Minister in Panama and founder of the Panama Red Cross, made an urgent call for books and magazines for wounded New Zealand soldiers who were to transit the Canal aboard a hospital ship. An item in the local press said that due to increased requirements of the U.S. Government, prices of tobacco and cigarettes went "sky high" in the commissaries and clubhouses and no more of a popular chewing tobacco, would be shipped to the Isthmus for the remainder of the war. According to the Panama Canal Record, wheadess Mondays established March 18 in the Canal Zone, produced a 31 percent reduction in the consumption of flour in 1 month. A news item in the Star and Herald, May 7, stated 21 members of The Incas, the oldest society in the Canal Zone, composed of "oldtimers" who came to work for the Canal within 3 months after the purchase of the French Canal properties, celebrated their 14th annual banquet at the Century Club. The menu included such delicacies as canape of caviar Romanoff, broiled spring chicken, and other gourmet delights. • According to the Panama Canal Record, the construction of the nurses' home, Colon Beach, was completed during the month of May by the Construction Division and turned over to the Health Department. • The Colon correspondent reported that residents of Gatun were scared by a queer looking object on horseback which turned out to be a policeman wearing a blue veil as a protection against the hordes of mosquitos that come out at the beginning of rainy season. 25 tyeari c4go THE CANAL ZONE traffic laws and regulations were amended April 1, 1943, making effective on April 15 a change from left-hand to right-hand driving on Canal Zone streets and highways. The change was made simultaneous with that in the Republic of Panama. The accepted explanation of the origin of left-hand driving on the Isthmus is that it was established by British West Indian carnage drivers who Two motorists stop for a chat on Gaillard Highway on the approach to Pedro Miguel in 1917. Notice that the road was much narrower then but traffic was lighter and the pace of the motorist, perhaps life in general, was more leisurely. came to the Isthmus in early construction days. • Coincident with the establishment of right-hand driving in the Canal Zone and Panama, the Trans-Isthmian Highway linking the two terminal areas of the Canal was officially opened to the public April 15, 1943. A messenger at the Balboa Heights Administration Building, Hopeton Simms, claimed to be the first cyclist to cross the Isthmus on the new TransIsthmian Highway. He made it in 2 hours and 45 minutes, according to an item which appeared in the local press. • More than $1 million was invested in War Bonds by Canal Zone buyers during April and total sales reached $12 million as of May 11, 1943. 10 year J c4ao A THREE-SPAN arch truss type bridge design submitted by Sverdrup & Parcel Engineering Co. of St. Louis, was selected for the permanent Canal crossing after preliminary designs for the bridge were reviewed by the Board of Consultants here April 10, 1958. An emergency repair job on approximatey 8,000 sq. ft. of floor slab in the east chamber of Pedro Miguel Locks curtailed transit operations for the first time in 44 years of Canal operations 10 years ago. • Domestic conversion to 60-cycle current began on the Pacific side and the Central Labor Office Branch of the Personnel Bureau moved from Building 69 to Ancon. One year cAao APRIL 1967 was another record month for Panama Canal traffic with a daily average of 39.6 ships passing from ocean-to-ocean. A May 1 report on the Cut widening project which had been underway for a litde over 3 months showed that approximately 400,000 cubic yards of Zone 1 (above elevation 95) material had been removed by the Foster Construction Company. The Panama Canal Review 15

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Computers Give Answers To Canal Slide Problems ONE OF man's newest technical tools —the computer— is now being used to solve one of the oldest problems of the Panama Canal— slides. The results are greater safety and economy for the Canal. Landslides have long been one of the most vexing of engineering problems. The Panama Canal made world headlines because of the disastrous slides which delayed construction at a cost of millions of dollars and even closed the Canal after it was opened to traffic. Stability of the channel slopes still requires the constant attention of engineers and geologists. Laymen may justifiably wonder why engineers have been unsuccessful so often in designing excavation slopes or building embankments safe against sliding. The collapse of a building or a bridge is a rare occurrence compared with the frequency of landslides. The basic reasons are simple. The designer of a steel bridge knows a great deal about his construction material. He knows how strong the steel is and how much it will bend or stretch under the weight it must bear. Also, the properties of steel are constant because it is man-made; its manufacture is closely controlled and the final product, in the form of beams or girders, is inspected and tested before the structure is built. But the engineer who designs a structure of soil or rock, such as a dam or a railroad embankment, is dealing with raw materials as provided capriciously by nature. He may grade the rock and compact the soil, but the final properties of these materials— no matter how closely construction is controlledusually vary from point to point and can be only approximately determined. Also, whereas concrete and steel have one kind of strength called "cohesion," soil and rock have two distinctive types, cohesion and friction. These act together in an extremely complex way, and, in addition, are gready affected by ground water. In the design of excavation slopes, such as in the widening of the Panama Canal, the engineer's challenge is even greater than when building the dam or railroad embankment. For here he does not build the slopes but only shapes the materials already constructed bv nature so that the slope will hold up safely, without requiring unnecessary quantities of costly excavation. For help, the engineer turns to the This rock slide at Culebra (GaiUard) Cut during construction days smashed and partially buried a steam shovel. At left, a crane moves in to remove the debris from the slide, which occurred on the south end of Gold Hill in 1913. Slides were common in those days. 16 May 1968

PAGE 23

geologist who examines the surrounding terrain, drills holes, samples and tests the sub-surface materials and determines changing levels of ground water and patterns of seepage. He also plots the joints, faults and bedding planes that criss-cross the earth's crust. However, the geologic program, no matter how extensive, gives the engineer only an approximate picture of the actual strength, elasticity, porosity and other rock or soil characteristics upon which his design must depend. From this incomplete data, the engineer has to define conditions, make analyses and calculations. He focuses his attention on two basic characteristics: the stresses in the ground caused by the forces of gravity which tend to flatten the slope; and the strength of the soil and rocks that will sustain the slope against these forces. Both of these properties are highly complex. Further difficulties arise because these stresses are not evenly distributed. As to the forces of resistance, the engineer concerns himself primarily with what is known as shearing strength-the strength which materials possess to prevent one portion of a mass from sliding along an adjacent portion. This is the type of material failure that occurs in landslides. Shearing and other types of strength, plus the effects of water and its movements all must be taken into consideration by the engineer. When the Panama Canal was built, very little progress had been made in solving these problems and the planning of excavation slopes was largely a matter of intuition and experience. Catastropic slides were the result. They not only played havoc with cost estimates and construction schedules but they also added greatly to the final cost of digging the Canal because when the slopes failed the natural rock structure was destroyed and the resulting fina' slopes had to be excavated much flatter than if thev had been properly designed in the first place. Since then, slope stability has been subject to intensive studv and a highly specialized field of engineering. known as soils mechanics, has been developed to attack this problem. Judgement must still be exercised but new methods and theories have resulted in tremendous progress. Slopes and embankments are far safer and great excavation economies are being realized. During the past decade, computers have contributed dramatically to progress in soils mechanics and slope stability. Now even the most complex engineering calculations can be performed in a fraction of the time formerly reTYPE AN ESTIMATE OF THE FACTOR OF SAFETY. 1.1 1.

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY

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November 1967 said two more tankers of 240,000 and 130,000 tons are under construction in Italian shipyards. The larger of the two will be the biggest ship ever built in Italy. Like the other ships of her class, the largest single screw ships ever constructed, she will be highly automated and will feature the bulbous bow designed by Esso engineers to improve speed and economy of fuel consumption. She will be 1,100 feet long and have a beam of 170 feet and draft of 48 feet, with a service sped of 17 knots. She is scheduled for completion in 1969. The same magazine said the world's largest tanker is under construction at the Ishikawajima Harima shipyards in Yokohama. Of 276,000 deadweight tons, she is the first of six to be used by Gulf Oil's Bantry Bay operation. She is owned by National Bulk Carriers and chartered to Gulf. But bigger tankers are still to come. Mitsui Zosen, one of Japan's leading shipbuilding companies, recently disclosed the basic design specifications of a mammoth 400,000 deadweight-ton tanker it is offering to ship operators. A company spokesman said manv problems, such as hull vibration and the relationship between main engine output and ship's speed, still had to be solved. And the location of the bridge would have to be decided by the owners. The end is still not in sight. Daniel D. Stohmeier, vice president of Bethlehem Steel Corp., in charge of shipbuilding, said in an interview appearing in the American Bureau of Shipping Surveyer that to say ships will stop getting bigger after a certain point is reached is like talking about limits to track records. "When Bethlehem built a class of 28,000 deadweight-ton tankers in 1948. they were heralded as 'supertankers' by the press. When we brought out the World Glory in 1954, we were told that a ship of 45,500 deadweight was too big for any practical use. Then we built the Manhattan, more than twice as big. There is no practical limit to the size of ships." Correction Some of the transit figures for the second quarter of fiscal vear 1968 appearing in the February issue of The Panama Canal Beveew were incorrect. Total figures should have been: commercial vessels, oceangoing, 3,189; small, 116; total commercial, 3,305; U.S. Government vessels, oceangoing, 350; small, 30; and total commercial and U.S. Government, 3,685. PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic Commodity Ores, various Boards and planks Metals, various Sugar Fishmeal Iron and steel plates, sheets, coils Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) Bananas Lumber, miscellaneous Iron and steel manufactures, miscellaneous Wheat Petroleum and petroleum products. Pulpwood Plywood Canned food products All others Total 8,932,472 Third quarter, fiscal year— 1968 1,271,059 646,072 629,669 502,219 495,547 459,150 435,017 353,780 351,331 322,394 251,555 247,476 239,348 177,403 153,752 2,396,700 1967 1,164,642 N.A. 311,820 432,293 310,136 N.A. 341,895 364,031 N.A. N.A. 54,112 268,076 203,589 N.A. 200,181 4,729,843 8,380,618 5-Yr. Avg. 1961-65 1,669,063 N.A. 304,018 467,720 N.A. N.A. 264,520 293,481 N.A. N.A. 467,292 410,399 126,688 N.A. 222,514 3,585,694 7,811,389 Atlantic to Pacific Commodity Third quarter, fiscal vearCoal and coke V"i~"\ Petroleum and products ( excluding asphalt ) Phosphate Corn Soybeans Ores, various Metal, scrap Sorghum Wheat Metal, iron Rice Sugar Paper and paper products Cotton, raw Chemicals, miscellaneous All others Total 1968 3,680,929 3,630,113 1,077,614 947,100 600,673 463,560 422,687 289,662 248,258 233,026 218,441 191,045 173,867 170,380 145,171 2,502,656 14,995,182 1967 2,838,219 4,041,140 917,366 636,400 447,225 412,173 719,540 97,862 111,972 55,761 155,463 153,016 137,876 157,909 253,997 2,335,043 13,470,962 5-Yr. Avg. 1961-65 1,505,514 2,867,923 537,037 496,187 381,430 75,586 466,944 N.A. 82,552 45,571 34,651 174,394 87,202 118,155 159,238 1,955,621 8,988,005 CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

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Inspecting computer output results is Gary Guazzo, right, soils engineer of the Civil Engineering Branch, while Tony Mann, chief of the branch, studies the problem plans. Mrs. Naomi Wright, computer programmer with the IBM Company, is seated at the computer control console. Computer^ (Boost Canal Efficiency, (Continued from p. 17) Engineering Division, which is responsible for slope stability problems on the Canal, is applying the latest development in computer methods of analysis. On the Canal widening project now underway, the highest soft rock slopes on the entire Canal are being excavated at Las Cascadas Hill. Improper design of these slopes could cause failures dwarfing even the worst slides of construction days. After lengthy geologic investigation of this problem, it became evident that the complex conditions existing in this hill could be adequately analyzed only by computer methods. Assistance was obtained from slope stability experts at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in adapting computer programs for applications to the problems. Several methods of analysis were run on the IBM 7094 computer at MIT to evaluate specific factors and to determine conditions which should be defined for the design analysis. When these basic problems had been resolved, the actual slope design was undertaken by the Civil Engineering Branch, with successive design problems run on computers at the McDonnell Automation Center at St. Louis. Tony Mann, chief of the Civil Engineering Branch, ran several of the problems at MIT and coordinated the project with university experts. Mann, who provided the information for this article, did much of the computer work at St. Louis, also. Major slope changes resulted from this study and excavation is now underway in the field with far greater confidence in the safety of the new Canal slopes. Meanwhile, the Civil Engineering Branch proceeds with the development and application of computer methods on the continuing slope problems of the Canal widening project, the analysis of old and new slides in the Canal and the evaluation of excavation cost and methods on other Canal improvements as well. Many computer solutions now are being handled entirely in the Canal Zone by use of the IBM 1130 machine operated by the Schools Division. This machine is proving capable of handling a wide variety of analytical methods and expanded magnetic storage will soon increase the range of problems which can be processed. At the same time, new computer programs constantly are being obtained, evaluated and adapted for use on Canal problems. The use of computer is part of the continuous, overall task of upgrading the effciencv of the Panama Canal. 20 May 1968

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Panamanians Avid Fans of Cockfighting THE SMALL winged gladiators charge each other furiously and viciously. With each flurry of wings, wicked daggerlike spurs flash as beaks clamp tightly on skin or feathers for a hold. Shouting themselves hoarse, spectators lay wagers as they follow the combat in the pit with eyes wide from the excitement. The combatants display incredible courage. Biting, beating their wings and stabbing, they are intent only on killing. Suddenly, one falls mortally wounded. Even in the throes of death, spur-heeled legs beat wildly, seeking out the foe. The scene might well be from the days of the Roman Empire. Or from ancient China, long before the Christian era. But no. It's from today, as it has been over the centuries and it remains a spectacle not recommended for the squeamish. Cockfighting dates back to the 5th century before Christ, when it was introduced by Themistocles into Greece, whence it spread throughout the Roman Empire. It originated in the Orient. Today, cockfighting or cocking is popular throughout Latin America, where the sport was brought by the Spaniards. For years it was widespread in England, Ireland, Belgium, India, and Asia and flourished in parts of the United States. Now though, it is illegal in England, the United States, and some other countries. Practically every city or town in Panama has cockfights on Sundays or holidays. In the capital city, the main cockpit is at the Club Gallistico, located on Via Espana opposite the National Guard booth at the entrance to the Old Panama road. The gamecock, which is a distinct variety, closely resembles the wild jungle fowl of India. Instinctively pugnaCockfights are fast and furious. The gamecocks use beaks, wings, and spurs. (See p. 22) Referee is custodian of bets between owners of gamecocks. His decisions on fights are final. The Panama Canal Review 21

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Gamecocks Are Trained For Battle (Continued from p. 21) cious and courageous to the point of exaggeration, the gamecock has been bred for thousands of years but for one purpose— to fight to the death. Of the more than 100 recognized gamecock breeds, the small Spanish fighting cock is favored in Panama because of breed, aggressiveness and, of course, heritage. Its weight fluctuates between 2 pounds 15 ounces and 3 pounds 12 ounces, in contrast with the giant Belgian gamecocks of 12 pounds or more. After the gamecock, the principal figures in cocking are the breeder and the pitter or handler. The former devotes time and money— for sport rather than for money— to the breeding of the fowl. The latter trains them for combat. Generally, the breeder keeps the chick for 12 months or until the spur is Siinch long; then the pitter takes over. The pitter removes the comb, shaves and feeds and trains the bird. After 6 to 8 weeks, the gamecock goes through "exercise No. 8," which is the decisive test. The pitter passes the gamecock around and between his legs, describing a figure eight, again and again. If bv the 1.50th turn, the cock has not opened its beak, it is ready for the pit. Weight is the decisive factor in a match, for the combatants must have identical weight. This is determined on the scales in the cockling. The match includes the amount of the wager between the owners, which is held by the referee. Should one of the gamecocks fail to appear in the pit, its owner loses half the wager. In Panama City, cockfighting is governed by municipal ordnance. When a contest is about to start, only the owners are allowed in the pit. They set the gamecocks to bite each other on the head, as an incitement to combat. After a few seconds, the cocks are released and the owners leave the pit. From then on, no one is allowed inside, except when the referee— who is the supreme authority— calls for a "careo" Weight is the main factor in matching gamecocks. Weigh-in takes place on scales at cockring. or confrontation. This occurs if both gamecocks cease fighting for 1 minute or if they draw apart 1 meter without attacking each other. When a "careo" is ordered, the handlers come into the pit, pick up their animals and are given 2 minutes to revive them, each according to his method. Only if both gamecocks have been deprived of sight in combat are the pitters allowed to stimulate them by hand when the contest is resumed. The referee also acts in cases where the combat does not end in death. He may award the fight to the gamecock which has beaten down its foe and the latter offers no opposition for 1 minute, or he may call a draw if neither bird can keep on fighting either because of exhaustion or because of the extent of its wounds. In combat, the fighting cock uses the wings to beat down its foe, the beak to hold on, and the spur to stab. Gamecocks in Panama are heeled with natural spurs, in contrast with other places where steel gaffs are used. The gamecocks are pitted shaved and combless. The former may be compared with the attire prizefighters wear in the ring; the latter is due to the fact that the comb would provide a very vulnerable target. A cockfight lasts from a few seconds to as long as 15 minutes. ~ t Handlers incite their birds to fight before releasing them in arena. 22 May 1968

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Spectators sit or stand on tiers around the circular pit, which measures between 18 and 20 feet in diameter and has a lJj-foot barrier. Wagers are made throughout the course of the contest and the bettor can "cover up," as the fight progresses, bv betting on the cock having the advantage if his original choice is doing badly. Of course, at that stage. he must offer odds. Among cockfight bettors, it is a matter of personal honor to pay of! without argument. In Panama, incidentally, bets still are laid in silver "pesos" worth 50 cents each. In the case of inter-province or international tournaments, bets usually run into the thousands of dollars. Cocking is surprisingly widespread in Panama. Until relatively recently, it was a sport for the wealthy because gamecocks were imported and the price of the birds ran high. But as restrictions increased over the importation of fowl, gamecock breeding became more and more popular. An idea of how^ widespread the sport is, is provided by the fact that in the Club Gallistico alone some 80 matches are fought weekly on Saturdays, Sundays, and Mondays during the season which lasts from January through April. This means that weekly there are 160 gamecocks available for fighting, of which approximately half are new birds. If it is remembered that there are other cockrings in the city and that cockfights are held in many other places in the country, one can get an idea of how deeply the sport runs. Very' distinguished names in Panamanian society have been linked with cockfighting. From a pastime for nobility, cockfighting has grown into a sport in which the rich can envy the humble for the possession of a fighting cock, whose crowing in the pit is a clarion of victory. Gamecock on sign marks site of Club Gallistico on Via Espana, in Panama City. Spectators sit or stand on tiers around circular cockling. Man pointing is shouting out his wager to any taker. The Panama Canal Review 23

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