Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1960
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
23584335 ( ALEPH )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrenovl 967pana

































































NOVEMBER 1967


~ANA~1-~ ((.'~I~i~bl~~ C~1~4L






W. P. LE
H. R. PARF
FtA
Panama Ca


4bout Our Cover


MOLAS MADE by the Cuna Indians of the San Bias
Islands adorn the cover of this issue of THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW.
Artistically designed in bright colors and intricately
sewn, they represent a small but purely Panamanian
industry. The molas themselves occasionally reach the
smart shops of New Orleans and New York where they
fetch good prices. They are seen with greater frequency
in Panama.
When framed, they make handsome wall decorations
for the home-the most common use for them. They also
are used to cover pillows and stitched together to form
jackets, blouses or skirts.
The mola consists basically of four pieces of cotton
cloth, usually 14 by 20 inches, of different colors, with
green, red, orange and black dominating. These are
placed in layers, one over the other, and sewn together.
At first glance, they seem to be appliqued, but this is
not the case. The Indian seamstress cuts into the layers
of material until she finds the color she wants; by cutting


Jndex


away and by sewing the edges, she creates the design
she wishes.
These designs have no religious significance, contrary
to what many believe, and the variety of designs is
limited only by the rich imagination of the Cuna women
who have an extraordinary artistic sense.
It is believed that the mola came into existence in
the middle of the last century when the Cunas established
themselves on the islands in search of a climate more
hospitable than that of the jungle. The women wore
white blouses of cotton with shells and pieces of mirrors
and beads used as trimmings on the borders of the blouse.
The appearance of colored cloth and the sewing
machine on the islands permitted the women to change
the beads on their blouses for trimmings of colored ma-
terial, beginning with simple designs. These evolved into
more complicated designs and soon covered the entire
blouse. Thus the mola was born.
Now, a prospective bride of San Blas would not think
of getting married if she did not have a dozen new molas
in her trousseau.


Panama's Banana Industry
Inter American Geodetic Survey
Cristobal Women's Club
Shipping Notes
Summit Gardens_
Visiting Cruise Ships
Shipping Statistics__
Canal Ilistory --.---
National Lottery __ ......
Anniversaries


What's the crowd waiting for? Turn to page 17 and find out.


NOVEMBER 1967


BER, Governor-President ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
PAN" Publications Editors
Irr, Lieutenant Governor MORGAN E. GOODWIN and TOMAS A. CUPAS
ANK A. BALDWIN Editorial Assistants
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TO BI BITTEL, FANNIE P.
anal Information Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE T. TUNON
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents eacb.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should he mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.





























Freshly cut bananas, still bearing their protective polyethylene sacks, are taken from the field to the packing house. Each stem of this very
delicate fruit is carefully place into a cradlelike section of the vehicle as further protection against bruising.



,i Vital to Panama






Banana Industry


SOMETIMES THEY call it green gold.
But it's familiar to most people as the
banana-plump, tasty and a hardwork-
ing contributor to Panama's economy.
The consumer in the United States or
Europe may think this nickname odd
because he knows bananas are yellow,
not green. But they are green when
the big, 75-pound stalks are harvested
and still green when shipped out to
customers abroad.
The banana grows wild throughout
much of Panama, but it is the commer-
cial cultivation of bananas that means
much to the country. The banana in
this case is the sweet banana, not the
plaintain or cooking banana which is
starchy rather than sweet. The plain-
tain is used widely as a key ingredient
in many dishes, and eaten as a vegeta-
ble in Latin America. However, it
rarely appears in the markets of the
Temperate Zone.
More than 11,000 Panamanians are
employed in the banana industry which


exported almost 14 million bunches in
1966, according to Panama Government
figures. This represented nearly $35 mil-
lion, and was 44 percent of the country's
total exports. Besides salaries, the banana
means tax money for schools, roads,
hospitals and services every citizen
expects from his government.
This remarkable plant is one of the
world's most important fruits for three
fundamental reasons-its food value,
pleasing flavor and year-round avail-
ability. Less obvious characteristics
enhance its value as a crop that lends
itself to profitable large scale cultivation.
Production is more or less constant
throughout the year, so management
doesn't have to hire great numbers
of workers for brief periods, partic-
ularly during harvest time. This built-in
advantage also gives the field hand a
steady paycheck as opposed to a
seasonal one.
Another tremendous benefit is com-
parative freedom from constant replant-


ings. The seed, composed of suckers and
divisions of the psuedostem, produces
a new plant every 10 to 15 months for
as long as 40 years.
After fruiting, the 10 to 12-foot stem
or false trunk dies. A sweep of the
machete cuts it down and other suckers
soon shoot up from the underground
rhizome (stem).
Thanks to the rapid growth and the
fact that the first crop is obtained in
about a year, financial returns are quick;
the planter doesn't have a lot of cash
tied up for a long time in a slow-
growing crop.
The entire operation sounds unbe-
lievably simple, but it really isn't. There
are hazards and pitfalls that must be
avoided if banana cultivation on a
commercial basis is to succeed. Highly
efficient and knowledgeable manage-
ment is a must. Effective organization
and flexibility must guide every phase
(See p. 4)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Wind, Cold



Are Enemies



Of Bananas



(Continued from p. 3)
of the operation-growing, harvesting,
packing, distributing and sales.
Irrigation is required to guarantee
continuous production during the dry
season. Spraying with DDT and other
chemicals is imperative to keep bananas
coming and free of disease.
A highly perishable commodity, the
banana has to be handled carefully. The
time to cut the green fruit is selected
through careful observation and by
people with considerable experience.
The degree of maturity the fruit is al-
lowed to attain before harvesting de-
pends upon the distance it must travel
to market and the type of transporta-
tion. Bananas going from Panama to the
United States ripen 8 to 10 days after
cutting time. For those going to Europe,
it takes longer.
Refrigerated ships, in which they
travel to consumers, are cooled to about
56 degrees, slowing to some extent the
ripening process.
Bananas, like virtually all crops, are
vulnerable to disease. The most lethal
is called Panama disease, which also is
prevalent in other countries. It is a fun-
gus that destroys the roots, then the rest
of the plant.
Blowdowns are another menace to
bananas. Even light winds can lay waste
to acre after acre of bananas. Of less
importance to Panama but of great con-
sequence to other regions of the world is
the danger of a cold snap. When the
mercury drops to below 54 degrees, the
grower can expect to find some damage
to the fruit.
The leader of Panama's banana indus-
try is the Chiriqui Land Company, a
subsidiary of the United Fruit Com-
pany. The firm's first investment in Pan-
ama was at the Caribbean settlement of
Almirante in 1898. By 1914, the pro-
duction from the region's Changuinola


1 --



A workman unloads the stems at the packing plant. Here they are hung individually on
overhead hooks that carry them to the processing areas where they are first cut from the stem.


Valley became famous for high quality
bananas which brought good prices in
the United States and Canada.
At the end of World War I, an infes-
tation of Panama disease destroyed great
numbers of banana plants and almost
forced the company to close down its
operations here. But it survived and


gradually recovered. In 1927, it set up
a new branch on the Pacific coast in
Chiriqui, calling it the Armuelles Divi-
sion-presently the largest banana pro-
ducing enterprise in the country. This
region was called Rabo de Puerco (pig-
tail) at the time and is now the city of
Puerto Armuelles.


Intent youth cuts "hands" of bananas from the stems with hooked knife, then places them
into the washing tubs behind him. Women separate them into smaller hands, cull out those
not meeting quality standards and put the others on conveyor belts for weighing and packing.


NOVEMBER 1967


-






It was a swampy, malaria and insect-
ridden area but gradually that was
changed. Under terms of a contract
with the Government, the company built
a large wharf on the bay, laid several
miles of railroad track linking it with
the main track of Panama's Ferrocar-
ril Nacional de Chiriqui and made
other improvements not covered by the
contract.
A mosquito control program helped
to convert the former pesthole into a
healthy community. A company-built
and operated hospital serves the more
than 5,000 employees and their families.
Needed skills are learned at the modern
machine shop. Schools put up by the
company for workers' families were
turned over to the Panama Government,
which now administers them. Recre-
ational facilities and athletic teams for
both adults and children were establish-
ed. A scholarship program for children,
a retirement plan and housing are
some of the other benefits the company
provides for employees.
The Armuelles Division of the Chiri-
qui Land Company has an annual pay-
roll of more than $7 million and con-
tributes heavily to the local economy by
purchasing cement, paint, lumber, food
and innumerable other commodities.
It also pays rent to the railroad for
use of the main line, export tax, income
and other miscellaneous taxes. Together
these payments come to more than $3
million a year. A few years ago after the
company began shipping bananas by
pasteboard box instead of by stem, the
Armuelles Division built a $2 million
factory where Chiricanos are employed
to turn out these containers.
Each one holds 42 pounds of bananas,
allowing for shrinkage to a guaranteed
40 pounds, and last year the division
exported 12 million boxes, mostly to the
United States. The divisional manager,
Clyde E. DeLawder, points out that
30 percent of this comes from 14 inde-
pendent producers who profit by the
large company's marketing and other
facilities. "We buy all they produce,"
he explained.
The Gros Michel specie of banana,
the most popular grown for many years
in this area, is being replaced by the
Valery. "The Cros Michel banana is
susceptible to Panama disease which
ruins the soil for bananas in the future,"
DeLawder noted. "We began to box
bananas in 1961. This opened the way
to the Valery, a thin-skinned banana that
bruises easily but resists Panama dis-
ease." The Cros Michel is being phased
out at Puerto Armuelles and eventually


Properly-weighed quantity of fruit, 42 pounds, goes into open trays and is inspected before
being placed into plastic-lined box. Spool near the girl's head contains United Fruit
Company's "Chiquita" trademark seal for bananas going to the United States and Europe.


only Valery bananas will be produced.
The word Valery is a registered
trademark of the United Fruit Co.
Bananas take a lot of nitrogen from
the soil. Fertilizers are used in great
quantities to replace it. Aerial spraying
lays down fertilizers, fungicides and in-
secticides. Polyethylene sacks are placed
over every stalk of maturing bananas
to offer further protection against insects.
This gives the illusion that the sacks are
almost part of the plant.
Every 6 to 10 years land is left fallow
to starve out the nematodes in that


(-
. /


Two-fisted eater of bananas, William E.
Lebrun, Jr., is obviously an enthusiastic
supporter of the Panama banana industry.


area. Another important measure is
the use of guy lines to give each plant
greater support and protection against
blowdown.
Mechanization is used where practi-
cal, but many of these tasks must be
done by hand labor. At the packing
plant, stalks suspended from overhead
hooks move on a conveyor to large
washing pools. Workmen use short
curved knives to cut "hands" of bananas
from the stalks and place them into the
water for washing.
Women discard those that don't meet
the quality standards. The rest are car-
ried on to where the brand name seal,
"Chiquita" if bound for the United
States or Europe, is placed on each one.
Finally, they are placed in cartons,
which are checked for weight. The
bananas are covered with a layer of
polyethylene and the box closed.
The banana yields few byproducts
though one company does produce
mashed banana, or puree.
Demand for high quality fruit in
temperate markets is great, fluctuating
only slightly according to the availability
of other fruits. This delicious food, which
provides the livelihood for thousands of
persons in Panama and other nations of
Latin America, Asia and Africa, seems
to be almost perfect.
But for the chubby consumer, at least,
it isn't. Bananas contain about 460
calories per pound.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








IAGS Mapping


Experts Aid


The Americas


THE INTER American Geodetic Sur-
vey (IAGS) is one of the largest U.S.
mapping organizations but it does not
produce a single map.
Its task is to assist the mapping
agencies in Central and South America
in producing the maps themselves.
Maps can be used as valuable tools for
implementing economic development
programs.
Mapping in the Americas had its
beginning near the end of World War
II, in 1945 when President Harry S.
Truman directed the U.S. War Depart-
ment to establish long-range mapping
and charting projects in the Antilles,
Central and South America. To carry
out this mission, the Caribbean Defense
Command was assigned the responsi-
bility and was issued an initial direc-
tive April 5, 1946, forming the Inter
American Geodetic Survey.
The directive designated its plan as
"Mapping Plans Caribbean Defense
Command," abbreviated MAPPLAN,
CDC. Now it is simply MAPPLAN.
From 1946 to 1957, a few maps were
produced. During those years, the geo-
detic networks were being established
and photographs were being taken.
Some 170,000 square miles of Latin
America have been mapped since the
inauguration of the plan.
LAGS projects are at work in Bolivia,
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Sal-
vador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicara-
gua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and
Venezuela.
The IAGS carries out the U.S. Army's
portion of the MAPPLAN directive to
collect existing data; to obtain new
data through aerial photography and
in the field; to establish a geodetic
tie between North and South Amer-
ica; to standardize maps; to develop
cartographic agencies; and to promote
international good will.
When IAGS personnel speak of
mapping Latin America, they refer to
a total area of more than 8 million
square miles. Brazil alone is 250,000
square miles larger than the continental
United States.
IAGS has loaned more than $5


They're not admiring the scenery, although that would be easy to do. The group above is
engaged in leveling while standing atop a dam in Brazil.


millions worth of equipment to the col-
laborating agencies of Latin American
nations. Each of these agencies receive
continuous technical assistance from
qualified, bilingual U.S. technicians
either permanently assigned to the
country or on temporary duty assign-
ments from the Canal Zone. Technical
training is provided in the Canal Zone
Cartographic School. U.S. bilingual
personnel perform certain operations
beyond the capability of the collaborat-
ing agency and bilingual engineers in
the field give on-the-job training, as-
sisting in the preparation of the annual
mapping program of the country.


Col. Edward C. Bruce, the new director of
the U.S. Army Inter American Geodetic
Survey, is on his second assignment in
Latin America. He served as MAPPLAN
officer for the United States Southern Com-
mand from September 1961 to July 1964.


More than 550 rugged military-type
vehicles-needed because of inadequate
roads or extreme weather conditions-
are on loan to collaborating nations.
In the Canal Zone, IAGS has an
instrument branch where repairs are
made to instruments for collaborating
agencies as well as those of IAGS.
Every two years, each piece of techni-
cal equipment is rotated for complete
inspection, adjustment and overhaul, if
necessary. And no charge is made to
the collaborating country.
The IAGS Cartographic School at
Fort Clayton was established in 1952
to train people in all phases of map-
making and geodesy, a specialized form
of mathematics related to the science
of mapmaking. To date, more than
2,200 students from 21 Latin Amer-
ican countries have graduated from
the school.
This institution has two four-month
semesters a year and the student body
is made up of male and female, civilians
and military, enlisted personnel and
officers. All courses are taught in
Spanish by bilingual instructors.
The training is of a practical nature,
with about 70 percent of the time be-
ing devoted to field and office exercises
designed to develop the technical tal-
ents of students. In 1965, a college level
program in advanced photogrammetry
(using aerial photos to make accurate
measurements in mapmaking) was
introduced and training now is given
at that level.
About 75 percent of the photography
in South America has been accomplish-
ed by the U.S. Air Force. The balance
has been taken by the U.S. Navy


NOVEMBER 1967


d9~ti5~ --- r~







and planes privately contracted within
the countries.
The Canal Zone-based 937th En-
gineer Company provides the Army
aviation support to the Inter American
Geodetic Survey, by transporting per-
sonnel and equipment to station sites.
The aviators assigned to this unit
are among the most highly qualified
and experienced in the Army. For some
of the most hazardous flying conditions
in the world, outside of actual combat,
are encountered in supporting the IAGS
mapping program. I'ypes of terrain
vary from the lofty Peruvian Andes
with elevations reaching 20,000 feet
to the Central American jungles and
to the vast llanos of Colombia and
Venezuela.
The 937th Engineer Company head-
quarters element exists solely to support
field operations of aircraft and person-
nel from Guatemala to Chile and
Brazil. Thousands of miles are traveled
throughout Central and South America
monthly in this support operation and
a high frequency radio network is
constantly alert to pass on the routine
or unexpected requirements of mapping
operations.
The IAGS has a Natural Resources
Division, composed of geologists, hy-
drologists, foresters and other scientists,
to assist the Latin American countries
in their economic development pro-
grams. The professional development
programs are provided by this division
at the request of USAID (United States
Agency for International Development)
missions. Since its inception, in June
1963, the division has answered 35
requests for advice and assistance in
II nations.
The development programs involve
the inventory and better utilization of
natural resources such as soils, water,
vegetation, climate, physiography and
minerals in such fields as agriculture,
forestry, mining and in the installation
of various types of water and land
resources projects.
In Latin America there are about
4,000 persons involved in the mapping
program; this figure includes 700
from IAGS.
As each agency becomes more and
more proficient, the production of that
country's maps goes up and the product
will be available to the United States
and to the nation itself for economic
planning or military activities.
Mapping operations in Panama under
the direction of the IAGS started in
1946. The Republic of Panama, with
no national cartographic agency at that
time, formed a provisional Division of
(See p. 8)

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7


Climbing a 103-foot bilby tower to get a line of sight of sufficient length for the geodetic
control is all part of a day's work for the men of the Inter American Geodetic Survey.
This photo was taken in Venezuela.


Major David D. Dross, new operations officer with the 937th Engineer Company (Aviation)
is on a second tour of duty in the Canal Zone. He departed from the Canal Zone in 1964
and his last assignment before returning was in Vietnam. The aviators assigned to the 937th
are among the most highly qualified and experienced in the Army.







Aerial Photoi


&C3ential to


Mapmaking

(Continued from p. 7)
Cartography under the Ministry of
Public Works as a part of the Pan
American Highway office to collaborate
with the IAGS in the early mapping
operations.
At the beginning, the 660th Topog-
raphic Survey Battalion assisted in
the basic geodetic network of levels
a;nd triangulation. The 660th left in
1949 and in 1955 the 551st Engineer
Company (Survey) was assigned to
IAGS. Its principal duties were to
perform supplemental map control and
field classification.
The later members of this organiza-
tion participated in the field editing
of large scale topographic map sheets
until it was transferred back to Fort
Belvoir, Virginia, in 1966. Since then,
members of the Panama government
mapping agency have continued map-
ping activities where photography has
been obtained.
Large scale maps are more detailed
than small scale. Extreme examples are
a one sheet map of the world (small
scale) in comparison with a one sheet
map of a town or city (large scale).
Panama's new cartographic building,
the Instituto Cartografico Tommy Guar-
dia, was inaugurated by Panama Pres-
ident Marco A. Robles the past Febru-


EI


The instrument is a tellurometer and using it is Julio Mock, a student from Panama in the
Field Surveys Branch of the IAGS school. Seated, from left: Jose Whittingham, assistant
instructor, also from Panama; Nelson Rada of Venezuela; and Victor Villatoro of Guatemala.


ary. At that time, President Robles
signed the first map sheet to be run
off a new press and he pressed the
button to start the presses rolling.
The institute was named in honor of
the late Tomas Guardia, Jr., who was
director of the Panama mapping agency
until his death in 1965. He was an
instructor of the Inter American Geo-
detic Survey Cartographic School dur-
ing its early years and served as Chief
of the Office Engineering Branch of the
school from 1952 to 1954.
When the cartographic agency moved
into its new building, IAGS technicians
assisted in installing and calibrating the
cameras and printing press. All branch-
es of the IAGS Cartographic section
have responded to requests for tech-


A surveying party in Peru, using IAGS equipment, is a focus of interest in the town.


nical advice and other assistance since
the building has been opened.
The officer in charge of the Panama
Project is Major Jack L. Duncan; the
project engineer is George E. Rich-
ardson. The chief of the Instituto
Cartografico Tommy Guardia is Arq.
Edwin Fabrega.
One of the essential factors in map-
making today is the acquisition of aerial
photography. In Panama, the U.S. Air
Force, Navy and civilian contractors
for the Army Map Service have ob-
tained about 70 percent of the neces-
sary photo coverage. The difficulties in
getting the final 30 percent are con-
stant cloud coverage in the wet season
and smoke haze in the dry season. Re-
cently, experiments have been made
with radar photography in the Darien
area from which topographic maps will
be completed later this year.
Of the total of 216 large scale map
sheets needed to cover the entire Re-
public, 104 have been published. The
two gap areas are the Darien east of
Chepo and the Golfo de los Mosquitos.
Ten more map sheets were readied for
publication last year when a precise
definition of the border between Pan-
ama and Costa Rica was agreed to by
the mapping agencies of both countries.
Utilizing information from the large
scale map sheets and source data for
areas not yet mapped, the Instituto
Cartografico Tommy Guardia produced
a small scale map of the entire Republic.
This is the way IAGS operates in all
countries of Latin America. It helps
the nation build up its own mapping
agency so that most of the work can
be accomplished by that country.


NOVEh BER 1967








60th Birthday



For Cristobdl



Woman's Club


THE CRISTOBAL Woman's Club,
celebrating its 60th anniversary this
year, came into being in days that
tried men's souls, and even more so
tried their women's souls.
Col. William C. Gorgas had exter-
minated the danger of yellow fever on
the Isthmus through mosquito control.
By 1905, towns were growing up like
mushrooms along the route of the pro-
posed Panama Canal and, little bv lit-
tle, these towns were peopled by women
and children, the families of Canal
construction men.
But for the women who came to the
Canal Zone in those days there was
little of beauty, except for the tropical
verdure. There were few comforts in
the Canal Zone in those early days;
there were many privations, and almost
no diversions. In some cases, families
lived in freight cars on sidings and
many families were housed in the most
primitive shacks. Housekeeping con-
veniences were rare, food was of such
poor quality that even good cooks had
their ingenuity taxed to set a nourish-
ing and appetizing table. The women
became discontented and added to the
low morale of the men, with the result
that every boat saw an exodus of the
Canal diggers and their families.
The U.S. Government, concerned
with the problems of the building of
the Panama Canal, still was not too
busy to consider the problem of the
women in the Canal Zone. A directive
was issued by the Government "to pro-
vide an object in life for the wives of
the employees and relieve monotony,"
and Miss Helen Varick Boswell was
sent from Washington's National Civic
Foundation to look into conditions.
Women's clubs appeared to her to be
the answer.
The Cristobal Woman's Club was
organized September 27, 1907, and
was the first of a group of seven Isth-
mian clubs formed 2 weeks later under
the name of the Canal Zone Federation
of Women's Club. These clubs -were
landmarks of the early construction
days of the Panama Canal, and the


- I' It
r- Z


Tuesday morning workshop with members busy in Bazaar preparations.


The Cristobal Woman's Club has been in its own building in Margarita since August 1959.


names on the club rosters are familiar
to students of Canal history.
Mrs. George W. Goethals, wife of
Colonel Goethals whose engineering
skill completed the mammoth task of
the Canal building, was the first presi-
dent of the Canal Zone Federation. The
first four vice presidents were Mrs.
Lorin C. Collins, who later became pres-
ident; Mrs. Gorgas, to whose husband


the Canal Zone owes its present-day
sanitation; Mrs. William L. Sibert,
wife of the colonel of engineers in
charge of construction on the Atlantic
side for many years, and Mrs. Chester
Harding, whose husband later became
a Governor,
Then, just as the towns were deserted
upon completion of the Canal and, in
(See p. 21)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









SH 1


Ever Larger Tankers
THE RAPID growth in the size of the
oil tanker has manifested itself in the
past year by the delivery of the first
vessel of over 200,000 tons deadweight,
the Idemitsu Mlaru, and by the ordering
of six tankers each of 276,000 tons
deadweight for the Gulf Oil Company.
These projected vessels will be used
to transport crude oil from the Per-
sian Gulf to a storage depot in Ban-
try Bay, Ireland, for trans-shipment to
the European oil refineries in smaller
vessels.
This system of trans-shipment is the
economic solution to transportation of
crude oil in large "Cape route only" ves-
sels. If sufficient depth of water is pro-
vided at the loading and storage ter-
minals, the growth in size may continue
with a possibility that there will be
500,000 tonners and 1 million ton
deadweight tankers.
Giant Bulk Carrier
THE SHOBU MARU, one of the largest
bulk carriers now in service in Japan,
made her maiden voyage through the
Panama Canal in mid-August with a
cargo of 55,000 long tons of coal from
Norfolk to Japan. The big ship is 815
feet in length and has a beam of 104.49
feet which put her in a class with some
of the Canal's biggest customers. Her
summer deadweight w-as given as
62,418 tons. Her agent at the Canal is
Boyd Brothers.


PPI


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1968
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1968 1967
Commercial ----________ 3,316 3,035
U.S. Government___ 350 189
Free-- ______ 19 28
Total-- ___ 3,685 3,252
TOLLS*
Commercial _$20,527,815 $18,666,255
U.S. Government_ 2,284,978 1,168,509
Total $_22,812,793 $19,834,764
CARGO00
Commercial --_ 23,399,819 21,331,067
U.S. Government_ 2,331,390 1,151,816
Free 134,260 153,481
Total_ __ 25,865,469 22,636,364
SIncludes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.

According to a recent article in the
Marine Digest, the Shobu MAaru has a
revolutionary bow design which en-
abled her to exceed design specifica-
tions in test runs. Her new contour
combines the best features of both
cylindrical and bulbous bows. It was
developed by Nippon Kokan K.K.,
builders of the vessel, for operation of
large ships on engines of lower power
without sacrificing speed. The Shobu
laru established top speed of 17.38
knots and service speed of 15.25 knots
with one-third cargo load during her
sea trials.


1968




1967 \/-







-(AVERAGE 1951-1955)


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN


1200 N
U
1100 M
8
1000 E
R
900 0
F
800 T
R
700 A
N
600
I
T
0 S


MONTHS


N


G


New Italian Visitor
THE 30,000-TON Italian liner Euge-
nio C. will make her first visit to the
Isthmus January 3 when she docks at
Cristobal during a 31-day Caribbean
cruise, according to her local agents,
C. B. Fenton & Company, Inc.
Built in 1966, this luxury liner is
considered the largest and fastest ves-
sel of the non-governmental Italian fleet.
She is equipped with a double set of
finned stabilizers which eliminate rol-
ling and she holds the speed record
(27 knots) on the Mediterranean-South
America run.
The Eugenio C. is scheduled to visit
St. Thomas, Fort de France, Bridge-
town, Port of Spain, La Guaira, then
Cristobal, Montego Bay, Port Everglades
and finally Nassau before heading home
to Genoa.

New Cargo Vessels
LYKES BROS. Steamship Co. Inc., of
New Orleans, which is one of the
Panama Canal's biggest customers, has
invited bids for the construction of 3
new all-purpose cargo ships it plans to
add to its fleet, according to an article in
Brandon's Shipper & Forwarder.
These ships, to be the largest of
common-carrier cargoliners ever built,
will be 875 feet in length and 106 feet
in beam. They are to be named the Sea-
bee Class, in honor of the U.S. Navy
construction battalions observing their
25th anniversary this year.
Each driven by a powerplant of
36,000 shaft horsepower, the largest
ever installed in any cargo vessel, the
Seabees will cross the ocean at 20 knots
or faster. The company plans to place
them in service between the U.S. Gulf
ports and Continental Europe early
in 1970.
Lykes president Frank A. Nemec was
reported as stating that the new ships
will offer unprecedented flexibility in
carrying various types of commercial
and military cargo. "This is not just
another new ship but is a whole new
method of ocean transportation based
on a new method of handling shipboard
cargo," Nemec was quoted in the
article.


NOVEMBER 1967








Summit Gardens: Fun


For Adults


AS DRY season approaches, Isthmian
residents begin planning more outdoor
activities, particularly those the entire
family can enjoy together.
Picnics with the accompanying cook-
outs or barbecues are high on the list
of dry season activities. And one of the
favorite locations to take the family
for a day outdoors is Summit Gardens,
the sprawling, 300-acre natural wonder-
land on Gaillard Highway, not far
from Gamboa.
Picturesque vegetation, shade trees,
lily ponds, picnic tables, fireplaces,
winding flowered lanes, gently rolling
hills and uncluttered lawns where the
kiddies can romp while adults relax in
the afternoon somnolence. These are a
few of the attractions.
Parents who take their youngsters
for a day at Summit Gardens are almost
sure to be asked to take them for a
ride on one of the two burritos, Mancha
or Gato. Presented as a gift from
former Canal Zone Gov. Robert J.
Fleming, Jr., the sturdy burritos mean
free rides to the children visiting Sum-
mit. The pair also serve as ambassadors
of good will at various fairs throughout


the Republic of Panama. They are
usually seen by the Panama Canal pa-
vilion at the fairs where local kiddies
are given rides.
Another fascination for the children
and parents, alike, is the Summit Gar-
dens Zoo. Though small compared with
metropolitan zoos in the United States
and other nations, this zoo, the only
public one on the Isthmus, houses a
large number of the animals found in
Panama. In fact, almost all of the an-
imals and birds on display at the zoo
are natives of this area.
A few rabbits, chickens and geese
have found their way into some of the
cages, to the surprise of first time visi-
tors. But by and large, the animals are
not the type found in northern climes.
From time to time, new species are
acquired through donations or by being
captured by zoo officials.


Roy Sharp, who as South
Grounds Supervisor has re
for Summit Gardens, says
frequently netted and ad
collection of fowl.


Curious jaguar peers out as photographer


cm District snaps this picture. This animal was purchas-
sponsibility ed as a cub from an elderly Indian woman
who had killed the mother. But that was
birds are 3 years ago and the former baby jaguar has
ded to the since grown into an adult weighing some 200
pounds. The jaguar is the largest member
(See p. 12) of the cat family in the Americas.


View of an undisturbed lily pond from under one of the bridges at Summit Gardens. Beautiful landscaped paths and walkways help to
make this area inviting for a lazy day stroll. More energetic children may prefer to frolic.


TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Truly A Miraculous Plant


(Continued from p. 11)
One of the most looked at animals
in the Summit Gardens cages is a three-
year-old jaguar, the only one in the zoo.
The jaguar is the largest member of
the cat family in this hemisphere. This
animal was purchased as a cuddly,
weeks-old cub from an elderly Indian
woman who had shot its mother and
retrieved the baby. L. A. Ferguson, Di-
rector of the Supply and Community
Services Bureau under which Summit
Gardens is administered, set up a special
cub purchase fund contributed to by
friends and associates. Today the jag-
uar is a lithe adult weighing perhaps
200 pounds.
Another ferocious member of the cat
family found at Summit is the puma,
an animal that ranges from the United
States to South America. Smaller than
the jaguar, it is known as the mountain
lion in parts of the United States. Two
still smaller felines are the jaguarundi,
which some Isthmians erroneously call
a black panther, and the ocelot or ti-
grillo. Near the cages housing these
are the gatos negros, members of the
weasel family.
Favorites of the young set are the
spider monkeys that use arms, legs and
tail to swing about, showing off their
agility. The imploring faces of the lit-
tle capuchin monkeys, the type used
by the old organ grinders, rarely fail
to capture the sympathetic attention
of visitors.
Red, white and black vultures with
great wingspreads are among the larger
Panamanian and migratory birds on
display. There is also a spindly legged
stork. Loud squawking but brilliantly
feathered macaws glare out at visitors.
Dozens of varieties of smaller birds
are housed together in a miniature
jungle of plantlife that provides natural
and roomy environment. The birds in-
side range from the toucans with their
large, multicolored beaks and the tiny
blue honey creepers with red legs, to
the bright red "sangre de toro" or tan-
ager and orange billed sparrow. Fre-
quently the birds with less spectacular
physical features possess curious habits.
For example, the cowbird lays eggs
in the nests of other birds and lets
them hatch them and feed and care
for the young.
A stroll through the zoo grounds
takes you past cages with crab eating
raccoons, wild turkey, native deer, capy-
bara (the world's largest rodent),


the kinkajou or honey bear, pools
with turtles and caimans and myriad
other creatures.
But it is the vegetation-trees and
plants from many tropical nations-that
draws thousands to the Gardens every
year. Set up in 1923 to introduce, prop-
agate and disseminate plants for the
Isthmus, the Gardens have thousands of
economic, fruit and flowering trees,
ornamental shrubs, and vines. These
grace virtually every townsite within


the Canal Zone plus Panama City
and Colon.
Some experimental work is done on
such things as grasses for grazing and
for lawns. Seeds from many plants
nurtured in Summit Gardens have
been sent to other countries in the
hemisphere.
Plants now flourishing at Summit
Gardens came from Madagascar, the
Philippines, Australia, New Zealand,
Hawaii, China, Burma, the Vest Indies,


, / .ff. *.. ,- '-- ... ; -*'
-,
- .. ';- -- .-..' -. i -
Huge, tangled banyan tree chokes out most other trees that happen to be in the way. There
is no limit to the number of aerial roots that descend from above the ground and implant
themselves into the soil, creating a huge tangle of what appears to be additional trunks.


Stoic looking capybara may not be the most beautiful resident of Summit Gardens but he
is surely one of the most interesting. The capybara is the world's largest rodent.


NOVEMBER 1967





































A group of children stroll under an archway of bamboo, which is a
member of the grass family. Bamboo grows several inches in a day
but grows in height only, and not in diameter. Sometimes it grows
to a height of 50 feet and is frequently confused with rattan, a palm
commonly used in the manufacture of furniture.


A feminine visitor examines this miraculous plant, the only one at
Summit Gardens. As the name implies, this member of the plant
world has an extraordinary characteristic. It produces red berries
which, when eaten, cause everything eaten for 2 hours or longer
afterwards to taste almost sickening sweet.


the East Indies, Central and South
America, and the Mediterranean area.
The best way for a layman nature
lover or avid horticulturist to see Sum-
mit Gardens is the dry season tours
conducted by Sharp who plans to re-
sume the tours again this year. The
newcomer to the tropics finds these
tours of special interest. Sharp points
out the rarer plants, describes their
uses, physical qualities and more no-
table characteristics. Many of these are
indeed worthy of notation.
Several beautiful stands of bamboo
are found throughout the Gardens. The
bamboo shoot, which is covered with
a prickly sheath, never grows in diam-
eter but makes up for it by rapid
vertical growth. It rises as much as I
foot in 24 hours and eventually reaches
a height of up to 50 feet. "Bamboo"
furniture found in many households
is actually not bamboo but rattan, a
climbing palm.
Scattered throughout the Gardens
are teak trees, a native of Burma that
was first introduced here in 1926. It is
one of the most highly valued woods
because of its beautiful grain, hardness,
resistance to termites and, to some ex-
tent, even to fire. It is commonly used
for decking on sleek yachts and for


elegant furniture. In Panama City, shop-
pers find handsome wooden chests from
India made of teak.
The banyan is a strange tree from
India which is found in Summit Gar-
dens also. It has a main trunk and an
unlimited number of aerial roots that
descend from limbs and implant them-
selves into the ground, producing a vast
entanglement that strangles other trees.
One of the few it does not kill is the
palm which has an internal cell struc-
ture allowing it to receive nourishment
directly from the ground up through
the trunk.
One of the largest palms in the world,
the talipot palm of Ceylon is found
near the entrance to Summit Gardens.
It flowers only once every 30 to 35
years, then dies. The talipot is also the
home of bats which cut partially through
the large leaves to make them droop,
providing a cave-like hiding place on
the underside.
The nispero, or sapodilla, an ex-
tremely hardwood tree, produces a
small edible fruit. While still green,
the fruit gives a milky sap originally
used for the manufacture of chewing
gum. Mistletoe, a parasitic vine, is seen
clinging to mango and other trees in
the Gardens.


Growing in great profusion at the
Gardens are various species of orchids,
large and small, which festoon tree
trunks where they have been nailed.
Despite their apparently clinging ten-
dency, the orchids are not parasites;
they) receive nutrition through the air
and rain rather than from a host. Va-
nilla, a vine that was the original source
of vanilla extract, is a flowering orchid,
also seen at Summit.
African coffee plants, rubber plants
from Brazil, espave or wild cashew and
the cola tree, originally used for popular
cola drinks, are a few of other thousands
of plant species.
The properties of the miraculous
plant seems almost incredible to some
visitors to the Gardens. This tropical
African plant produces red berries
which, when eaten, cause everything
consumed for 2 or 3 hours thereafter
to have a sugary sweet taste.
Sharp says the true test of this is to
taste a sour lemon before eating one of
the berries; next taste the same lemon
and notice the striking difference. The
before and after are important, Sharp
says, because otherwise the taster will
think he is being given a sweet lemon.
These are but a few of the delights of
Summit Gardens-and admission is free.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS


Nationality


Belgian --____--
British ____----
Chilean __ __
Chinese (Natl.)-__
Colombian -----
Cypriot .. .....
Danish -----
Ecuadorean___
Finnish ___----.
French --------
German __-____-
Creek______
Honduran ._____-
Indian __-__--
Israeli-------
Italian---
Japanese---
Liberian --_--
Mexican -----
Netherlands ----
Nicaraguan ---
Norwegian ____--
Panamanian ----
Peruvian -----_-.
Philippine ------
Polish ____----
Soviet __. __
Swedish __._____
Swiss -
United States --.
Yugoslavian ..---
All Others --...
Total --.


First quarter, fiscal year-


No. of
transits
28
359
29
25
61
10
122
34
11
57
331
100
46
12
33
69
252
376
17
92
20
410
116
38
23
10
18
107
23
430
11
46
3,316


1968 1967
1 Tons of No. of I Tons of


cargo
70,367
2,966,604
161,043
200,338
104,221
35,842
581,532
32,174
64,505
279,679
1,335,386
1,090,789
24,091
141,676
147,991
538,727
1,754,164
4,740,073
42,846
376,851
32,594
4,166,718
576,246
158,897
100,058
93,320
111,120
787,315
36,266
2,211,600
153,669
283,117
23,399,819


transits
17
329
28
26
57
3
104
12
16
57
285
143
29
7
24
49
220
343
11
124
18
382
121
35
25

6
100
5
422
4
33
3,035


cargo
69,371
2,389,969
165,545
208,041
111,549
32,050
566,499
20,884
71,151
162,077
951,609
1,195,989
13,933
185,338
142,960
371,267
1,783,601
4,597,731
44,282
442,033
30,060
3,584,161
467,118
164,713
142,036

52,095
775,931
20,701
2,344,131
57,013
181,737
21,345,575


'


OTHssC ..f ne oCIAL TRAFFIC ANr TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)


Transits


I Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)


Month Avg. No. Average
1968 1967 Transits 1968 1967 Tolls
1961-65 1961-65
July------------- 1,177 1,039 960 7,400 6,205 4,929
August ---1,117 1,008 949 6,751 6,392 4,920
September .... 1,022 988 908 6,366 6,057 4,697
October -.---------- 1,005 946 6,157 4,838
November ---------- 985 922 6,028 4,748
December ------- 987 946 6,084 4,955
January------------- 1,043 903 6,318 4,635
February --------- -968 868 6,049 4,506
March--------------. 1,079 1,014 6,831 5.325
April _------__ --. 1,094 966 6,823 5,067
May ----- ----- 1,128 999 7,005 5,232
June -..-- 1,088 954 6,820 5,013
Totals for- -
fiscal year _-- 12,412 11,335 76,769 58,865
Before deduction of any operating expenses.

The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over)
segregated into 8 main trade routes:


Trade routes

United States Intercoastal -- --
East coast United States and South America ---
East coast United States and Central America--
East coast United States and Far East -. --....
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia
Europe and West coast United States/Canada
Europe and South America
Europe and Australasia ---
All other routes
Total traffic


First quarter, fiscal year-
Avg. No.
1968 1967 Transits
1961-65
99 127 116
392 465 590
159 120 124
730 684 566
103 118 87
227 237 215
361 235 303
115 92 85
1,130 958 731
3,316 3,036 2,817


NOVEMBER 1967


~--~---


1961-65
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
12 37,985
310 2,047,775
31 212,446
20 141,456
64 107,839
78 359,386
12 14,195
6 21,478
35 198,935
278 849,505
164 1,612,077
49 37,823

14 60,334
51 300,464
221 1,266,483
225 2,186,987
7 16,402
147 701,987
15 25,293
347 2,520,866
112 468,194
30 145,532
15 58,712
---- ---------
2 16,602
91 529,290
10 20,413
439 2,623,810
---- ---------
32 187,790
2,817 16,770,059


Cruise Season




To Bring Wave




Of Tourists




THIRTY OR more cruise ships, flying
the flag of the United States and many
other nations and carrying 15,000 to
20,000 tourists, will call at Canal ports
during the 1967-68 cruise season.
Shipping agents who have received
the winter cruise schedule from the
companies thev represent here point
out that all of the vessels listed are
usually on the North Atlantic or Euro-
pean service during the summer months
and do not visit the Canal as part of
a regular nrn.
In addition to the big luxury liners
on special cruises, many thousands
more tourists will arrive here on pas-
senger ships which are regular Canal
customers. These include the Grace
Line and New Zealand Shipping Com-
pany ships as well as the P & O Lines,
the American President Lines and the
Shaw Savill round-the-world liners.
According to the advance schedule,
most of the ships due to touch at Canal
ports during the winter have been
here before. One exception is the French
Line's Renaissance, due at Cristobal
March 9. Formerly on the European-
Mediterranean cruise run, she is making
her first trip to the Canal on a Carib-
bean cruise. Another exception is the
Italian liner Eugenio C. which will
make a stop at Cristobal January 3
during a Caribbean cruise also.
Some of the larger liners, which visit-
ed Cristobal last year, are the French
Line's France, due to call February 19
and 29; the United States is due De-
cember 27 and February 7; and the
Queen Elizabeth, January 29. All but
United States are too large to pass
through the Canal.
The parade of cruise ships began
September 21 when the Holland Amer-
ica Line Statendam arrived at Cristobal
and transited the Canal en route to the
U.S. west coast. She is to make a series
of cruises from California to the Pacific
during the winter and will return to
Ballxoa April 2 on her way back to
New York.
The Norwegian America Line Ber-
gensfjord went through the Canal Oc-







tuber 3 en route to South America with
a special visit to Easter Island. After
leaving Cristobal the ship also called at
Callao, Valparaiso, Montevideo, Buenos
Aires, Santos, Recife and Curacao. The
Brasil will transit southbound and de-
part Balboa November 9 for an around
South America cruise.
December will bring the United
States into Cristobal on a Caribbean
cruise, the Moore McCormack Line
Argentina on a Cristobal cruise from
New York and the Holland America
Line laasdam from the west coast with
the Chapman College students aboard.
The Queen Mary will stop in Balboa
December 1 during her final voyage.
January and February are the busy'
cruise months. The Queen Elizabeth,
the Empress of Canada and the Fede-
rico C will clock in Cristobal on West
Indies cruises. The Kungsholm will ar-
rive at Cristobal January 12 on a 93
day "Cruise of a Lifetime" to the South
Sea islands, the Far East and the Pacific.
The Bergensfjord will transit January
24 on a cruise around South America.
The Europa will visit Cristobal Jan-
uary 14 and February 10 as part of
Caribbean cruises.
Due in February are the Leonardo
da Vinci, of the Italian Line from New
York and Port Everglades on a Carib-
bean cruise, the Franconia and the
Carmania of the Cunard Line, the Em-
press of Canada, the United States, the
France, Hanseatic and the Federico C
all on Caribbean cruises. The Argentina
will transit February 8 on a round
South America cruise.
The Home Lines' ultramodern pas-
senger liner Oceanic is to make a stop
in February as part of a Caribbean
cruise with a visit at the San Bias
Islands.
The Renaissance will stop in Cristo-
bal March 9 and the Federico C will
make two calls at Cristobal that month.
Both the Hanseatic and Bremen will
stop at Cristobal in March during
Caribbean cruises.
The Caronia, the Cunard Line cruise
vessel, will arrive in Balboa April 25
on the last leg of a round-the-world
cruise. The Statendam and the Kung-
sholm, the Rotterdam and the Bergensf-
jord all are to dock in Balboa during
March or April on the return trip to
New York following cruises to South
America and the Pacific.
Scheduled to make a southbound
transit of the Canal early in December
is the new cruise ship Princess Italia
operated by the Princess Cruises of
Los Angeles. The $20 million, 12,000
ton liner constructed in Trieste has
been designed expressly as a cruise liner.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED T'-:3r"r'C'- THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic


Commodity


Ores, various __ _
Sugar -- --- __ ___________
Lumber, miscellaneous ------__--_ ___
Petroleum and petroleum products ---- ------
Miscellaneous iron and steel manufactures-- -
Fishmeal -_____---- __--
Metals, various_-----------------------
Bananas ----- --------------------___
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)_ _______----
Pulpwood ---
Canned food products----------__________
Iron and steel plates and sheets-___- ---
Boards and planks __ ----
Salt___________ -----__-
Wheat------- -----___-__ --- ---
All others .-----.. ---- ----------
Total ___________--_____-- -----


First quarter, fiscal year-


1,037,172
832,038
824,496
618,861
580,635
360,526
354,308
319,833

300,276
238,167
210,355
156,297
150,127
131,587
128,839
2,248,017
8.491.539


1967

1,541,587
874.014
N.A.
174,887
N.A.
294,364
336,364
319,000

235,650
152,313
223,041
N.A.
N.A.
22
111,011
4,156,940
8,419,193


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65

282,514
693,908
N.A.
490,599
N.A.
N.A.
274,741
274,753

196,404
130,271
253,387
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
152,080
4,594,774
7,343,431


Atlantic to Pacific


Commodity


Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)_.
Coal and coke--- -----
Metal, scrap--- ------
Metal, iron ------ _____
Phosphate---__---- -----___---
Corn --------
Soybeans ---________
Ores, various--- ------_-------_____
Sorghum-----___--- -- -__
Sugar-----------------------__------
Wheat_ ----- ------
Chemicals, unclassified
Paper and paper products -------------
Sulphur--------------- ----------
Fertilizers, unclassified ---- ----
All others -
Total ______________________


First quarter, fiscal year-


3,594,632
2,504,584
1,260,135
969,036
931,022
607,078
554,388
431,630
365,211
297,063
296,723
252,706
167,788
137,198
135,992
2,403,094
14,908,280


1967

4,039,479
1,617,581
549,348
41,285
745,854
1,006,719
436,813
445,065
160,197
240,674
559,826
246,430
173,949
130,205
105,473
2,427,484
12,926,382


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
2,848,139
1,521,383
812,008
48,694
497,992
299,197
279,937
70,671
N.A.
367,986
179,668
161,332
108,532
114,002
103,381
2,013,706
9,426,628


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

First quarter, fiscal year-
Avg. No.
1968 1967 Transits
1961-65
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic
Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing--------------_ 1,656 1,660 3,316 2,953 2,817
Small ------ 87 83 170 115 146
Total commercial-- ------ 1,743 1,743 3,486 3,068 2,963

U.S. Government vessels: **
Oceangoing -- ------------- 212 138 350 149 57
Small *----------------- 15 21 36 40 38
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment ------- --- 1,970 1,902 3,872 3,257 3,058
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
00 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
transited free.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


I-


-~-~-~-








CANAL HI S'tRY:


50 yearJ c4o
IN THE autumn of 1917, the Canal
organization announced plans for experi-
mental cattle breeding in the Zone,
following success with an original pro-
gram of fattening young cattle brought
in from outside. Canal authorities an-
nounced their desire for purchase of
30 bulls in Louisiana or southern Tex-
as, with Holsteins preferred for dairy
purposes and Herefords for beef cattle.
Two roads now essential to Pacific
side auto traffic came under construc-
tion 50 years ago. One was the highway
between Corozal and Miraflores, en-
gineered in 1917 to shorten by 3,840
feet the old road which ran parallel to
the Panama Railroad bed.
A second road then being built con-
nected Balboa with the old pier at La
Boca, running along the base of Sosa
Hill and through the bed of the old
Sosa Hill quarry.

25 year3 d4oo
CANAL ZONE residents were feeling
a unique side effect of World War 11
in September 1942 when they were
warned not to carry on private cor-
respondence with unknown persons


through clubs such as "Lonely Hearts"
and "Pen Pals." Authorities cautioned
against any persons representing them-
selves as collectors of unusual post-
marks, signatures and postcards as well.
It was a time of realization that solici-
tations for information on the Panama
Canal might come from Axis agents.
Twenty-five years ago, the new Bal-
boa High School building was used
to house senior high classes, previously
held in the Balboa Elementary School,
and most junior high classes. In mid-
October, students and schools personnel
learned they were soon to be inoculat-
ed against typhoid in a separate phase
of the Canal Zone's first typhoid
inoculation program.
Use and possession of marijuana be-
came a crime in the Canal Zone on
October 1, 1942, when the 77th Con-
gress passed an amendment to the
Canal Zone Code making this a criminal
offense.

10 Years c4go
THE U.S. BUREAU of Public Roads
announced, in September 1957, that
the Interamerican Highway would be
completed within 2 years. Officials ex-
pected the new road to be open for


motor travel from Laredo, Texas, to
the Panama Canal before 1959.
Pacific side teenagers received a boost
from the Canal organization September
11 when Gov. W. E. Potter formally
presented them the keys to Building
9A in Balboa for establishment of the
Balboa Teen Club, still operating today.
Bids opened in the fall of 1957 for
alterations and additions to convert the
former Ancon Commissary into a new
office building for the Panama Canal
Personnel Bureau.

One year c4,o
NOVEMBER 1966 saw the arrival of
Sing-Out '66, an exciting youth program
which earned acclaim throughout Pan-
ama and the Canal Zone. This was the
first visit to the Isthmus for the 160-
member globetrotting cast. The Sing-
Out theme song, "Up With People,"
was to become a familiar sound in both
English and Spanish.
The last of the original Panama
Canal "mules" was slated for disas-
sembling in November 1966. This
marked the 68th "mule" to end up
on the scrap heap since the old models
were gradually replaced by new towing
locomotives in 1964.


I

I rr'"LVDlT PROGREQRSSIVE D4 R F




u uNLEU: Iiiiii


lot-

Campaigning was spirited at the Culebra Post Office in 1912 during mock elections. Because U.S.-citizen residents of the Canal Zone could
not vote in national elections at that time, mock elections were held a few weeks before elections in the United States as "manifestations
of political desire for expression," according to the "Canal Record." The tickets usually bore nominations for national and municipal offices
and at least one village included on its ticket a nomination for the position of "town grouch."


NOVEMBER 1967


:7.








What Dreams Are Made of:


Winning Lottery


Numbers


A $50 MILLION business that thrives
on dreams and hunches?
That's the National Lottery of
Panama, which twice a week can turn
the timely dream or the right hunch
into a fortune.
It's just a matter of converting a
mental image conceived during sleep
or an intuition into the numbers that'll
show up on the Lottery's prize board.
And because people keep having dreams
and getting hunches, they continue
playing the lottery.
In Panama, they have been playing it
for 84 years now, first when it was a
privately owned business and later
when it became a government oper-
ation. So heavily in fact-approximately
$1,250,000 weekly-that the National
Lottery ranks as the largest independ-
ent agency of the Panamanian Govern-
ment from the standpoint of generating
revenue for the treasury.
The Panama Lottery runs two
drawings weekly, on Sundays and
Wednesday. For each drawing, it is-
sues tickets numbered from 0000 to
9999 and from 00 to 99. The Sunday
4-digit tickets consist of 75 pieces each:


the Wednesday tickets, of 30 pieces
each-10,000 tickets for each drawing.
Each piece costs 55 cents and can win
prizes ranging from $1 to $1,000. There
are three main prizes in every drawing.
For the complete ticket on Sundays,
these prizes are $75,000, $22,500 and
$11,250; on Wednesdays, $30,000,
$9,000 and $4,500. Lesser prizes or
"approximations" are derived from the
main numbers. Eleven hundred of the
2-digit tickets containing 20 pieces of
the same number are issued for Sun-
days; 925 2-digit tickets, also of 20
pieces each, for Wednesdays. Each
piece costs 20 cents and stands to win
$11 for first prize, $3 for second, and
$2 for third. The Panamanian govern-
ment levies no taxes on lottery prizes.
There are two special or extraordi-
nary drawings in the year. One, on the
first Wednesday in July, has a first
prize of $100,000 (50 pieces in the
ticket); the other, on the Wednesday
before Christmas, offers a $250,000
first prize (125 pieces in the ticket).
The price doubles for the special
drawings.
To sell this huge quantity of tickets


(sales are averaging 90 percent of the
total weekly issue worth $1,400,500)
the Lottery employs an army of ap.
proximately 2,500 vendors in Panama
City and Colon, which account for 80
percent of the sales, and about 50
contractors in the rest of the country
who in turn employ an estimated 500
vendors. Regular vendors earn 6 per-
cent commission; contractors get 9 per-
cent, but have to pay their own ven-
dors and cannot turn in unsold tickets
as vendors in Panama City and Colon
are allowed to do.
Lottery vendors can play an im-
portant part in the lives of their cus-
tomers. Win the friendship of one and
you're assured of your favorite number
every week; fall into bad grace and
you may find that a fortune slipped
out of your grasp.
One of the most widely-known ven-
dors in Panama City is Mrs. Adelina A.
de Icaza, a great grandmother who in
30 years has set an amazing record of
good luck for her customers.
She has sold the first prize 28 times;
(See p. 18)


I Milk J


Hundreds of hopeful players gather in Lottery Plaza every Wednesday and Sunday to see the lottery drawings held in kiosk at right.
Thousands of others in every city, town and province of the country see and hear the drawings over television and radio.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Luck Stories



Are Bizarre,



Commonplace



(Continued from p. 17)
the second prize, 16 times; the third
prize, 23 times. Her phenomenal record
of selling prize-winning tickets began
in 1942, when 3757 played on October
18. (Incidentally, when 3757 played
again for first prize 13 years later, on
September 5, 1965, Mrs. Icaza was still
selling it.) The last time she sold the
big prize-6180-was August 20 of
this year.
Once she sold the first prize two
Sunday in a row (3757 on September
5, 1965, and 7091 on September 12,
1965). She tells a typical lottery luck
story in this connection:
A friend came to her stand to buy
a complete 75-piece ticket. He asked
Mrs. Icaza to choose the number
for him.
"I was playing 1 that week," she
recalls, "so 1 gave him 7091. A short
time later, he ran into a friend and
offered to sell him half the ticket. The
friend inquired where the number had
been bought. When he was told it
came from me, his reply was: 'Oh, no;
she sold the first prize last week.' "
Well, 7091 played and Mrs. Icaza's
friend was richer by $75,000 and the
other fellow was out the $37,500 he
would have won if he had bought half
the ticket.
More than her lucky hand, however,
it's her exceptional honesty that has
made Mrs. Icaza outstanding.
Three times in 30 years she has
returned prize-winning tickets to cus-
tomers who had reserved numbers but
failed to pay for them. The sums in-
volved were $2,000, $19,000 and
$42,000. To appreciate the generosity
and unselfishness of her action, it must
be remembered that prize-winning
lottery tickets are payable to the bearer.
Mrs. Icaza tells about these incidents
modestly.
When 6400 played on January 6,
1952, she had reserved 42 pieces of
that number for a long-time customer.
As a matter of fact, that was the second
successive week she had saved, unpaid,
the 42 pieces of 6400 for this customer.


.UWUWW" .
The orphan girl in center has just drawn an ivory ball from the revolving cage operated
by lottery employee in white shirt. Everyone's eyes are on the young lady.


She has given it to the Governor of the Province who unscrews it open and shows the number
in each half to the spectators and to the television cameras. The crowd roars.


When the number played, she im-
mediately went to her customer's home
to turn in the winning pieces. The cus-
tomer refused to accept them, pointing
out they were unpaid.
The following day, Mrs. Icaza went
to the lottery office, cashed the pieces
and then deposited the $42,000 in the
Banco Nacional in her customer's name.
"You can draw against your $42,000,"
Mrs. Icaza told the customer by phone,
"the money has been deposited in
your name.
Mrs. Icaza admits she was suitably
rewarded.


On the two other occasions, her
fortunate customers also had failed to
pay for their reserved tickets.
"But 1 knew they would pay, even
if they didn't hit," is Mrs. Icaza's simple
explanation.
Has she hit the lottery herself?
Yes, once. By mistake.
A customer who went on vacation
paid up his 26 pieces of 3757 for 6
weeks. The number won first prize on
the third week after his departure.
When Mrs. Icaza went to the Lottery
Office to have the prize-winning pieces
kept in the safe until her customer's


NOVEMBER 1967










4225 -


1622 -




I ," ." ,




The winning numbers are posted on the lottery's prize board as each is drawn. The board
also shows the province where each winning ticket is sold.


return, she discovered she had put aside
28 instead of 26 pieces. The mistake
was worth $2,000 to her.
Like other vendors, Mrs. Icaza finds
that dreams and hunches motivate
many of her customers. People will go
after a particular number because they
had a dream which "meant" that
number.
Dreams fall into two classes: Those
in which specific numbers come up and
those which involve persons, animals,
objects, or situations which require
translation into numbers. Even number
dreams, unless they are the 4-digit
variety, will require some interpretation
if the dreamer wants to go after the
big money. Here's the way one man
interpreted a 1-number dream to hit
the big 4-digit first prize: His deceased
brother told him in a dream: "Buy
7." He bought 7777, 10 pieces-and
collected $10,000 the following Sunday.
The official Lottery magazine once
told of the consistent good luck of a
Canal Zone employee, now deceased.
He had won $6,000 on 9313 and hit
for $10,000 with the same number
3 years later.
Why did he start to play that number?
Here's the Lottery magazine's version:
"A friend died, owing him $9. Then
the friend appeared in a dream and
handed him $3. The friend reappeared
and handed him $1 and showed up
a third time to pay $3."
Non-number dreams are subject to
various interpretations, depending on
what dream book or interpreter is con-
sulted. Of course, if the resulting num-
ber doesn't play, the fault is neither
with the book nor the interpreter, but
with the dreamer himself. Either it was
a "bad" dream or some important detail
was not remembered at the time of
the consultation.
Hunches may be individual or col-


lective. A person will feel strongly one
week on the number of his paycheck,
or his identification card, or his tele-
phone, or his postal box, or his license
plate, or his birth date, or his age,
or a family anniversary (particular-
ly a death anniversary), or the grave
of a deceased relative or friend, or a
pawnshop ticket, or any one of a myr-
iad of such number-bearing objects or
situations.
Often the whole community of
lottery players will pursue a particular
number 1 week because of some at-
tention-attracting event-the death of
a national figure (date, age, grave
number), or an unusual accident (the
number of victims or the license plate


number of the vehicle involved), or a
significant anniversary. The age of
Christ, 33, is very popular around
Easter Week.
On such stuff the lottery business
thrives. And how it has thrived in
Panama!
In the past 10 years, the Panama
Lottery's gross revenue and net earn-
ings have nearly doubled. In 1966,
gross income was approximately $50
million and net earnings topped $10
million. The estimate of the gross take
this year is $70 million with net earnings
exceeding $12 million.
The Lottery's operations provide the
National Government with about 10
percent of its revenue. Lottery funds
support hospitals, health units, nurs-
eries, asylums, orphanages, and disaster
relief operations. For example, the
recently inaugurated center for the
Panamanian Institute of Special Edu-
cation, which treats exceptional chil-
dren, was built with lottery money. By
law, 10 percent of all unsold prizes is
set aside for the Institute. Unsold tickets
turned in to the Lottery prior to each
drawing are held for 1 year if they win
prizes. Then they are destroyed.
It is often said that if there is any
one institution in which Panamanians
have blind faith that institution is the
National Lottery. This reflects the out-
standing record of integrity of the
organization since its beginning.
Take the drawings. They are con-
(See p. 20)


Language is no barrier for playing the Panama Lottery. An American customer points to
the number he wants. Maybe it's his license plate number or postal box.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










(Continued from p. 19)
ducted in public and are open to
inspection by anyone.
Forty identical ivory balls, numbered
from 0 to 9 (four to each number),
are used in the drawings. Each ball
unscrews in two halves, each bearing
the number inside. The halves are
placed on public display 1 hour before
each drawing in the triangular kiosk
behind the Lottery Office where the
numbers are drawn. In the presence
of two witnesses picked at random from
among the spectators, each ivory ball
is then put together and placed in a
hand-operated revolving cage.
Three children between 6 and 7
years of age, rotated weekly from
among the city's four orphanages,
draw four balls each, or one complete
prize. The orphanage gets $7 for its
children's services.
Rain or shine, hundreds of hopeful
players crowd in the small plaza sur-
rounding the kiosk to witness the draw-
ing. Many of them make last-minute
purchases from vendors shouting the
numbers still available on their boards
or waving strips of tickets to attract
attention.
At 11 a.m. on Sundays and at 12 on
Wednesday all eyes converge on the
kiosk. The participants in the drawing
are the Governor of Panama Province,
who is the presiding authority; the
Vice Minister of Finance, who repre-
sents the Government; a notary public,
the two witnesses (who get no emolu-
ments) and the three orphans. Their
every movement is covered by televi-
sion cameras and described by eight
TV and radio announcers. There is
literally no corer of the country where
the Lottery drawing cannot be seen
or heard.
On a signal from the Governor, a
Lottery employee starts the gyrations
of the cage. The ivory balls tumble as
the cage spins. Another signal from the
Governor and it stops. A small trap-
door in the cage is opened, the little
orphan picks up a ball and hands it
to the Governor. He unscrews it and
then reads the number aloud, showing


the numbered halves to the public. The
ball is put together again and returned
to the cage.
The process is repeated until 12
numbers-4 to each prize-have been
drawn.
To a newcomer the spectacle is one
of organized bedlam, but exciting.
The system is the same for every
drawing, just as it has been since the
Lottery began as a private institution
in 1883. Founded by the revered phil-
anthropist Jose Gabriel Duque, it started
as a 3-digit, one-prize lottery. Each
ticket consisted of 5 pieces and sold for
1 peso (half a dollar). The first prize
was 500 pesos. The very first drawing
was held February 25, 1883, and the
winning number was 053. The change
to the present 4-digit system was made
in 1903..
When Mr. Duque's concession ex-
pired in 1919, the Government took
over the lottery operation. By that time,
three prizes were being offered. The
first drawing under Government super-
vision was held March 30, 1919, and
the winning number was 1705.
One more change was to occur.
Until 1921, only the first prize actually
was drawn; second prize was the num-
ber immediately preceding and third
prize the number immediately follow-
ing. Since that year, each prize is
drawn separately.


Duque Founded Lottery


" /


1 .. ..



Mrs. Adelina A. de Icaza still sells No. 6400. Fifteen years ago a long-time customer failed
to pay Mrs. Icaza for 42 reserved pieces of that number which hit the first prize of $42,000,
but Mrs. Icaza delivered the prize money to the customer.


NOVEMBER 1967


A state lottery is not peculiar to
Panama. Every Latin American country
runs one or more lotteries (in 'Colom-
bia, for example, one is drawn ever)
day of the week). Through the centu-
ries lotteries have been conducted in
England, Ireland, Germany, France,
Spain, Switzerland, Russia, and the
United States. The largest in the
United States was the Louisiana Lot-
tery, conducted after the Civil War
by the State of Louisiana. It was even-
tually stopped by law, but lotteries are
being revived in a few states in recent
years and the idea of a Federal lottery
has gained advocates.
All of the modern lotteries trace
their origin to the days of Rome, where
drawings for valuable prizes were held
after imperial banquets or the festivals
in the Coliseum. Lotteries such as we
know them today were first held in
Italy and the earliest state lotteries are
reported to have been conducted in
France in 1520.
Wherever a lottery has operated, man
has sought to perfect a system that will
assure him of the winning numbers.
In Panama it has been no different.
Dreams, hunches, mathematical for-
mulae-all and more have been tried,
to no avail. Perhaps there is one system
after all that has proved its effective-
ness, yet few have been aware of it.
It is to forget about the numbers and
simply keep buying tickets at No.
11-13, "1" Street.
That's Mrs. Adelina A. de Icaza's
selling address.


dw


-i!
sr








Philanthropy



Big Part of



Club's Work


(Continued from p. 9)
some cases were inundated when Gatun
Lake was formed, so the clubs dissolved
automatically, their mission finished.
Of the original clubs formed under
the Canal Zone Federation, the Cristo-
bal Woman's Club is the only one in
continuous existence from the day it
was founded.
The first yearbook of the Cristobal
Woman's Club listed 61 members. Then
came the dissolution of the Canal Zone
Federation on January 25, 1913. It was
a period of change, from the Construc-
tion era to the maintenance period.
Executives were for the most part
transferred to the Pacific side where the
seat of the Canal Zone Government was
to be located, and many engineers, with
their families sailed for the States and
to other construction projects. Mem-
bership in the Cristobal Woman's Club
in 1913 dropped to 37.
A quarter of a century later the club
roster listed 134 names. Today, on its
60th anniversary the Cristobal Woman's
Club has 254 members, representing
more than a dozen countries.
The Cristobal Woman's Club has
been a member of the General Federa-
tion of Women's Clubs, with head-
quarters in Washington, D.C., since
November 4, 1914.
As the Club grew, it established the
first library in Cristobal and was the
nucleus for the Atlantic side Chapter of
the American Red Cross. Civic improve-
ments sponsored by the Club included
a playground in Colon, a rest home for
women crossing the Isthmus, and a
drinking fountain for the overworked
cab horses of Colon. The Club also
published a cookbook.
For almost 25 years the Club oper-
ated a Women's Exchange and Tea
Room at the Gilbert House in Colon,
the Club headquarters until the historic
building was condemned and torn down
in 1952. The Women's Exchange and
Tea Room profits were the principal
support of the free clinic, the Cristobal
Woman's Club's philanthropic work
at the time.


Governor W. P. Leber was the guest speaker at the 60th anniversary meeting of the Cristobal
Woman's Club last month. At his right is Mrs. Harry Butz, president for 1967-1968. From
left: Mrs. Howard Prithaln, recording secretary; Mrs. Butz; Governor Leber; Mrs. Curtis
Coate, treasurer; Mrs. Charles Hinz, corresponding secretary and Mrs. Patrick Ridge,
first vice president. Mrs. Andrew Kozar, second vice president, is not in the photograph.


A soup kitchen was operated by the
Cristobal Woman's Club during 1921
and 1922 to help feed the needy
of Colon.
An interesting sidelight is that in
those early years, when funds were
needed to continue the operations of
the Club, it was decided to hold a card
party as a money making project. But
first the bylaws had to be changed.
Some of the Club's founders were
opposed to card playing as "not fit for
genteel ladies."
The old YMCA building in Cristobal
was the Club's first meeting place.
From 1917 to 1952 the Gilbert House
was Club headquarters. The American
Red Cross gave the Club permission
to use their building from 1952 to
August 1959, when the Cristobal Wom-
an's Club building was completed in
Margarita.
The philanthropy program of the
Cristobal Woman's Club has been active
since the Club was formed 60 years
ago. Each Thursday of every week in
the year, food and clothing are distrib-
uted to about 80 aged indigents of
Colon, most of them over 75 years of
age, who gather at the Cristobal Wom-
an's Club little room in the back of the
old Cristobal Fire Station.
Long before the doors open at 8:30
a.m. each Thursday, the aged, the lame,


and the near-blind begin to congregate
to await the arrival of the Cristobal
Woman's Club Philanthropy Commit-
tee members. Some of the aged assist
one another, some lean upon a young-
ster's arm. Each carries a sack or home-
sewn bag in which are placed the
food contributions. Sometimes there are
extras, and always there are extras at
Christmas and New Year's.
Volunteer members fill shopping
bags, mostly with foodstuffs, for distrib-
ution to Colon's aged poor for those
holidays. Last Christmas the Philan-
thropy Committee supervised the prep-
aration and filling of more than 200
bags for their regulars and about 150
"extras." Investigation teams of the Club
visit and determine the needs of those
who apply for aid and, although old
people get first consideration, clothing
is provided also for children.
The 60th anniversary of the Cristobal
Woman's Club, founded in Canal con-
struction days, was fittingly observed
last month with an address by Cov.
W. P. Leber on the Canal's future.
Mrs. Harry Butz, president, presided
and, symbolic of the club's history, used
a cocobolo wood gavel that dates back
to French construction days and which
was salvaged from the attic of the old
Panama Canal Administration Building
in Panama City many years ago.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








ANNIVERSARIES

(On the basis of total Federal Service)


ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
Luther B. Matthews
Cylinder Pressman-Small
MARINE BUREAU
Pablo V. Caballero
Lead Foreman-Operations-Lock Wall
Reginald A. Carter
Time and Leave Clerk
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Alejandro Martin
Oiler-Floating Plant
David H. Sterling
Leader-Sea I,
TR.ANSPOt A TION DrEf FINALS

Edw *osep
Tru rv
Harry J. A
Truck D v vy I er
Charles L. a er
Toolroom Attendant
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICES BUREAU
Stephen McBean
Leader Laborer-Cleaner
Wilfred White
Sales Store Department Manager-
Sundries
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
George V. Richards
Principal-LA Schools
HEALTH BUREAU
Stella I. N. Frampton
Personnel Clerk-Typing


Alec Lampee likes
Dottie Denzler. And when
he takes her for a drive Alec watches
Dottie more than he watches the traffic.
So you'd better be watching out for Alec!

Watch out for the other guy!
Published to save lives in cooperation with The
Advertising Council and the National Safety Council.


ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
John G. Bing
Head, Composing-Printing Plant
Stephen W. Thome
Compositor-Hand

MARINE BUREAU
Edgar E. Peterson
Leader Seaman
Lothan R. Raphael
Leader Linehandler-Deckhand
K. R. Shepherd
Leader Linehandler-Deckhand
Boatswain
Samuel A. Williams
Seaman
Alejandro Gerald
Teletypist
Cecil C. Williams
Helper Lock Operator
Anthony J. Zablocki
Master-Towboat
Roberto C. Mitchell
Leader Linehander-Deckhand
Boatswain
Jose D. Sandino
Helper Lock Operator
William F. Young
Foreman-Lock Operatio

ENGINEERING AND CONSTR
BUREAU
W. A. Brathwaite
Water Tender-Floating a
William I. Hollowell
General Foreman Pipe
Allen K. Miller
Supervisory General Engineer-
Specifications
Sylbert A. Bowen
Guard
Victor A. Cisneros
Centrifuge Operator
Harold M. Cooper
Motor Launch Operator
Lawrence W. Matthews
Oiler-Floating Plant
Bindley B. Tappin
Launch Operator-Motor
Leon W. Warren
Engineering Technician
Bob D. Maynard
Lead Foreman Plumber
Henry F. Scott
Seaman
Mario Torreglosa
Helper Electrician-Power Plant

SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
James S. Raymond
Lead Foreman-Cemetery
Leonard I. Sealey
Supply Clerk
Ronald V. King
Supply Clerk
Mary N. Orr
Administrative Assistant


Juan Santana
Grounds Maintenance Equipment
Operator-Small
Castell D. Alleyne
Electrical Equipment Repairman
Herbert Johnson
Time and Leave Clerk
George S. Kirton
Meat Cutter
Berta J. Materon
Seamstress
Darrington A. Moss
Lead Foreman-Grounds

PERSONNEL BUREAU
Clarence H. Browne
Staffing Clerk

CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Joseph W. Coffin, Jr.
Fire Lieutenant
Alfonso C. Greaves
Teacher-Senior High, LA Schools
Adolph Kapinos
Police Sergeant
Charles A. Mockus
Fin e Branch Superintendent
ne 'pley


d
C li Division
S n Tr dwell

Je me A. e ood
etentio C d
y n Mf. us I

R vy
Deten on Guard
John Kozar
Police Private
Richard B. Simpson
Fire Sergeant
Matthew J. Wilder
Fire Lieutenant

TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Carlos Ballou
Leader Liquid Fuels Wharfman
Gerald S. Parris
Lead Foreman-Dock Stevedoring
John F. Anderson
Cargo Checker
Samuel Bradiel
Boilermaker-Maintenance
Lewis S. Brown
Clerk-Checker
Allie WV. Bruno
Clerk
Raphael L. Esteban
Leader-Dock-Stevedoring
Joseph N. Greenidge
Guard
Allan Logan
Railroad Trackman-Mainline
Joseph B. Reid, Jr.
Truck Driver


NOVEMBER 1967







Transit in a Torrent


A driving rainy season downpour greets the French flag ship Cetra Carina as she moves southbound through Pedro Miguel Locks during
her first transit of the Canal. The 835-foot vessel, en route from Newport News, Va., to Tobata, Japan, was loaded with a cargo of coal at
the time. Notice how the force of the wind and rain caused the metal cones on the left to lean. The cones indicate the number of pairs of
locomotives required to bring the ships following the Cetra Carina through the locks. In this case the two cones at the top indicate two
pairs of locomotives are being used for one ship, the single cone at the bottom means that another ship, a small one, is coming through on
the same lockage but without any locomotives. When ships require locomotives, or "mules," as most do, a minimum of two pairs are used.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




Full Text

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrenov1967pana

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NOVEMBER 1967 y

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W. P. Leber, Governor-President H. R. Parfitt, Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer &*J5£k Robert D. Kerr, Press Officer Publications Editors Morgan E. Goodwin and Tomas A. Cupas Editorial Assistants Eunice Richard, Tobi Bittel, Fannie P. Hernandez, and Jose T. Tunon Official Panama Canal Publication Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees. Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each. Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. cAbout Our Cover MOLAS MADE by the Cuna Indians of the San Bias Islands adorn the cover of this issue of The Panama Canal Review. Artistically designed in bright colors and intricately sewn, they represent a small but purely Panamanian industry. The molas themselves occasionally reach the smart shops of New Orleans and New York where they fetch good prices. They are seen with greater frequency in Panama. When framed, they make handsome wall decorations for die home— the most common use for them. They also are used to cover pillows and stitched together to form jackets, blouses or skirts. The mola consists basically of four pieces of cotton cloth, usually 14 by 20 inches, of different colors, with green, red, orange and black dominating. These are placed in layers, one over the other, and sewn together. At first glance, they seem to be appliqued, but this is not the case. The Indian seamstress cuts into the layers of material until she finds the color she wants; by cutting Snaex Panama's Banana Industry 3 Inter American Geodetic Survey 6 Cristobal Women's Club 9 Shipping Notes 10 Summit Gardens 11 Visiting Cruise Ships 14 Shipping Statistics __ 14 Canal History 16 National Lottery 17 Anniversaries 22 away and by sewing the edges, she creates the design she wishes. These designs have no religious significance, contrary to what many believe, and the variety of designs is limited only by the rich imagination of the Cuna women who have an extraordinary artistic sense. It is believed that the mola came into existence in the middle of the last century when the Cunas established themselves on the islands in search of a climate more hospitable than that of the jungle. The women wore white blouses of cotton witfi shells and pieces of mirrors and beads used as trimmings on the borders of the blouse. The appearance of colored cloth and the sewing machine on the islands permitted the women to change the beads on their blouses for trimmings of colored material, beginning with simple designs. These evolved into more complicated designs and soon covered the entire blouse. Thus the mola was born. Now, a prospective bride of San Bias would not think of getting married if she did not have a dozen new molas in her trousseau. What's the crowd waiting for? Turn to page 17 and find out. 2 November 1967

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il Freshly cut bananas, still bearing their protective polyethylene sacks, are taken from the field to the packing house. Each stem of this very delicate fruit is carefully place into a cradlelike section of the vehicle as further protection against bruising. 3d Vital to Panama Banana Industry SOMETIMES THEY call it green gold. But it's familiar to most people as the banana— plump, tasty and a hardworking contributor to Panama's economy. The consumer in the United States or Europe may think this nickname odd because he knows bananas are yellow, not green. But they are green when the big, 75-pound stalks are harvested and still green when shipped out to customers abroad. The banana grows wild throughout much of Panama, but it is the commercial cultivation of bananas that means much to the country. The banana in this case is the sweet banana, not the plaintain or cooking banana which is starchy rather than sweet. The plaintain is used widely as a key ingredient in many dishes, and eaten as a vegetable in Latin America. However, it rarely appears in the markets of the Temperate Zone. More than 11,000 Panamanians are employed in the banana industry which The Panama Canal Review 3 exported almost 14 million bunches in 1966, according to Panama Government figures. This represented nearly $35 million, and was 44 percent of the country's total exports. Besides salaries, the banana means tax money for schools, roads, hospitals and services every citizen expects from his government. This remarkable plant is one of the world's most important fruits for three fundamental reasons— its food value, pleasing flavor and year-round availability. Less obvious characteristics enhance its value as a crop that lends itself to profitable large scale cultivation. Production is more or less constant throughout the year, so management doesn't have to hire great numbers of workers for brief periods, particularlv during harvest time. This built-in advantage also gives the field hand a steady pavcheck as opposed to a seasonal one. Another tremendous benefit is comparative freedom from constant replantiiigs. The seed, composed of suckers and divisions of the psuedostem, produces a new plant every 10 to 15 months for as long as 40 years. After fruiting, the 10 to 12-foot stem or false trunk dies. A sweep of the machete cuts it down and other suckers soon shoot up from the underground rhizome (stem). Thanks to the rapid growth and the fact that the first crop is obtained in about a year, financial returns are quick; the planter doesn't have a lot of cash tied up for a long time in a slowgrowing crop. The entire operation sounds unbelievably simple, but it really isn't. There are hazards and pitfalls that must be avoided if banana cultivation on a commercial basis is to succeed. Highly efficient and knowledgeable management is a must. Effective organization and flexibility must guide every phase (See p. 4)

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Wind, Cold Are Enemies OfB ananas (Continued from p. 3) of the operation— growing, harvesting, packing, distributing and sales. irrigation is required to guarantee continuous production during the dry season. Spraying with DDT and other chemicals is imperative to keep bananas coming and free of disease. A highly perishable commodity, the banana has to be handled carefully. The time to cut the green fruit is selected through careful observation and by people with considerable experience. The degree of maturity the fruit is allowed to attain before harvesting depends upon the distance it must travel to market and the type of transportation. Bananas going from Panama to the United States ripen 8 to 10 days after cutting time. For those going to Europe, it takes longer. Refrigerated ships, in which they travel to consumers, are cooled to about 56 degrees, slowing to some extent the ripening process. Bananas, like virtually all crops, are vulnerable to disease. The most lethal is called Panama disease, which also is prevalent in other countries. It is a fungus that destroys the roots, then the rest of the plant. Blowdowns are another menace to bananas. Even light winds can lay waste to acre after acre of bananas. Of less importance to Panama but of great consequence to other regions of the world is the danger of a cold snap. When the mercury drops to below 54 degrees, the grower can expect to find some damage to the fruit. The leader of Panama's banana industry is the Chiriqui Land Company, a subsidiary of the United Fruit Company. The firm's first investment in Panama was at the Caribbean settlement of Almirante in 1898. By 1914, the production from the region's Changuinola A workman unloads the stems at the packing plant. Here they are hung individually on overhead hooks that carry them to the processing areas where they are first cut from the stem. Valley became famous for high quality bananas which brought good prices in the United States and Canada. At the end of World War I, an infestation of Panama disease destroyed great numbers of banana plants and almost forced the company to close down its operations here. But it survived and gradually recovered. In 1927, it set up a new branch on the Pacific coast in Chiriqui, calling it the Armuelles Division-presently the largest banana producing enterprise in the country. This region was called Rabo de Puerco (pigtail) at the time and is now the citv of Puerto Armuelles. Intent youth cuts "hands" of bananas from the stems with hooked knife, then places them into the washing tubs behind him. Women separate them into smaller hands, cull out those not meeting quality standards and put the others on conveyor belts for weighing and packing. November 1967

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It was a swampy, malaria and insectridden area but gradually that was changed. Under terms of a contract with the Government, the company built a large wharf on the bay, laid several miles of railroad track linking it with the main track of Panama's Ferrocarril Nacional de Chiriqui and made other improvements not covered by the contract. A mosquito control program helped to convert the former pesthole into a healthy community. A company-built and operated hospital serves the more than 5,000 employees and their families. Needed skills are learned at the modern machine shop. Schools put up by the company for workers' families were turned over to the Panama Government, which now administers them. Recreational facilities and athletic teams for both adults and children were established. A scholarship program for children, a retirement plan and housing are some of the other benefits the company provides for employees. The Armuelles Division of the Chiriqui Land Company has an annual payroll of more than $7 million and contributes heavily to the local economy by purchasing cement, paint, lumber, food and innumerable other commodities. It also pays rent to the railroad for use of the main line, export tax, income and other miscellaneous taxes. Together these payments come to more than $3 million a year. A few years ago after the company began shipping bananas by pasteboard box instead of by stem, the Armuelles Division built a $2 million factory where Chiricanos are employed to turn out these containers. Each one holds 42 pounds of bananas, allowing for shrinkage to a guaranteed 40 pounds, and last year the division exported 12 million boxes, mostly to the United States. The divisional manager, Clyde E. DeLawder, points out that 30 percent of this comes from 14 independent producers who profit by the large company's marketing and other facilities. "We buy all they produce," he explained. The Gros Michel specie of banana, the most popular grown for many years in this area, is being replaced by the Valery. "The Gros Michel banana is susceptible to Panama disease which ruins the soil for bananas in the future," DeLawder noted. "We began to box bananas in 1961. This opened the way to the Valery, a thin-skinned banana that bruises easily but resists Panama disease." The Gros Michel is being phased out at Puerto Armuelles and eventually •1L Properly-weighed quantity of fniit, 42 pounds, goes into open trays and is inspected before being placed into plastic-lined box. Spool near the girl's head contains United Fruit Company's "Chiquita" trademark seal for bananas going to the United States and Europe. onlv Valerv bananas will be produced. The word Valery is a registered trademark of the United Fruit Co. Bananas take a lot of nitrogen from the soil. Fertilizers are used in great quantities to replace it. Aerial spraying lays down fertilizers, fungicides and insecticides. Polyethylene sacks are placed over every stalk of maturing bananas to offer further protection against insects. This gives the illusion that the sacks are almost part of the plant. Every 6 to 10 years land is left fallow to starve out the nematodes in that Two-fisted eater of bananas, William E. Lebrun, Jr., is obviously an enthusiastic supporter of the Panama banana industry. area. Another important measure is the use of guy lines to give each plant greater support and protection against blowdown. Mechanization is used where practical, but many of these tasks must be done by hand labor. At the packing plant, stalks suspended from overhead hooks move on a conveyor to large washing pools. Workmen use short curved knives to cut "hands" of bananas from the stalks and place them into the water for washing. Women discard those that don't meet the quality standards. The rest are carried on to where the brand name seal, "Chiquita" if bound for the United States or Europe, is placed on each one. Finally, they are placed in cartons, which are checked for weight. The bananas are covered with a layer of polyethylene and the box closed. The banana yields few byproducts though one company does produce mashed banana, or puree. Demand for high quality fruit in temperate markets is great, fluctuating only slightly according to the availability of other fruits. This delicious food, which provides the livelihood for thousands of persons in Panama and other nations of Latin America, Asia and Africa, seems to be almost perfect. But for the chubby consumer, at least, it isn't. Bananas contain about 460 calories per pound. The Panama Canal Review

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I AGS Mapping Experts Aid The Americas THE INTER American Geodetic Survey (IAGS) is one of the largest U.S. mapping organizations but it does not produce a single map. Its task is to assist the mapping agencies in Central and South America in producing the maps themselves. Maps can be used as valuable tools for implementing economic development programs. Mapping in the Americas had its beginning near the end of World War II, in 1945 when President Harry S. Truman directed the U.S. War Department to establish long-range mapping and charting projects in the Antilles, Central and South America. To carry out this mission, the Caribbean Defense Command was assigned the responsibility and was issued an initial directive April 5, 1946, forming the Inter American Geodetic Survey. The directive designated its plan as "Mapping Plans Caribbean Defense Command," abbreviated MAPPLAN, CDC. Now it is simply MAPPLAN. From 1946 to 1957, a few maps were produced. During those years, the geodetic networks were being established and photographs were being taken. Some 170,000 square miles of Latin America have been mapped since the inauguration of the plan. IAGS projects are at work in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. The IAGS carries out the U.S. Army's portion of the MAPPLAN directive to collect existing data; to obtain new data through aerial photography and in the field; to establish a geodetic tie between North and South America; to standardize maps; to develop cartographic agencies; and to promote international good will. When IAGS personnel speak of mapping Latin America, they refer to a total area of more than 8 million square miles. Brazil alone is 250,000 square miles larger than the continental United States. IAGS has loaned more than $5 They're not admiring the scenery, although that would be easy to do. The group above is engaged in leveling while standing atop a dam in Brazil. millions worth of equipment to the collaborating agencies of Latin American nations. Each of these agencies receive continuous technical assistance from qualified, bilingual U.S. technicians either permanently assigned to the country or on temporary duty assignments from the Canal Zone. Technical training is provided in the Canal Zone Cartographic School. U.S. bilingual personnel perform certain operations beyond the capability of the collaborating agency and bilingual engineers in the field give on-the-job training, assisting in the preparation of the annual mapping program of the country. Col. Edward C. Bruce, the new director of the U.S. Army Inter American Geodetic Survey, is on his second assignment in Latin America. He served as MAPPLAN officer for the United States Southern Command from September 1961 to July 1964. More than 550 rugged military-type vehicles— needed because of inadequate roads or extreme weather conditionsare on loan to collaborating nations. In the Canal Zone, IAGS has an instrument branch where repairs are made to instruments for collaborating agencies as well as those of IAGS. Every two years, each piece of technical equipment is rotated for complete inspection, adjustment and overhaul, if necessary. And no charge is made to the collaborating country. The IAGS Cartographic School at Fort Clayton was established in 1952 to train people in all phases of mapmaking and geodesy, a specialized form of mathematics related to the science of mapmaking. To date, more than 2,200 students from 21 Latin American countries have graduated from the school. This institution has two four-month semesters a year and the student body is made up of male and female, civilians and military, enlisted personnel and officers. All courses are taught in Spanish bv bilingual instructors. The training is of a practical nature, with about 70 percent of the time being devoted to field and office exercises designed to develop the technical talents of students. In 1965, a college level program in advanced photogrammetry (using aerial photos to make accurate measurements in mapmaking) was introduced and training now is given at that level. About 75 percent of the photography in South America has been accomplished by the U.S. Air Force. The balance has been taken by the U.S. Navy 6 November 1967

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and planes privately contracted within the countries. The Canal Zone-based 937th Engineer Company provides the Army aviation support to the Inter American Geodetic Survey, by transporting personnel and equipment to station sites. The aviators assigned to this unit are among the most highly qualified and experienced in the Army. For some of the most hazardous flying conditions in the world, outside of actual combat, are encountered in supporting the IAGS mapping program. Types of terrain vary from the lofty Peruvian Andes with elevations reaching 20,000 feet to the Central American jungles and to the vast llanos of Colombia and Venezuela. The 937 th Engineer Company headquarters element exists solely to support field operations of aircraft and personnel from Guatemala to Chile and Brazil. Thousands of miles are traveled throughout Central and South America monthly in this support operation and a high frequency radio network is constantly alert to pass on the routine or unexpected requirements of mapping operations. The IAGS has a Natural Resources Division, composed of geologists, hydrologists, foresters and other scientists, to assist the Latin American countries in their economic development programs. The professional development programs are provided by this division at the request of USAID (United States Agency for International Development) missions. Since its inception, in June 1963, the division has answered 35 requests for advice and assistance in 11 nations. The development programs involve the inventory and better utilization of natural resources such as soils, water, vegetation, climate, physiography and minerals in such fields as agriculture, forestry, mining and in the installation of various types of water and land resources projects. In Latin America there are about 4,000 persons involved in the mapping program; this figure includes 700 from IAGS. As each agency becomes more and more proficient, the production of that country's maps goes up and the product will be available to the United States and to the nation itself for economic planning or military activities. Mapping operations in Panama under the direction of the IAGS started in 1946. The Republic of Panama, with no national cartographic agency at that time, formed a provisional Division of (See p. 8) Climbing a 103-foot bilby tower to get a line of sight of sufficient length for the geodetic control is all part of a day's work for the men of the Inter American Geodetic Survey. This photo was taken in Venezuela. Major David D. Dross, new operations officer with the 937th Engineer Company (Aviation) is on a second tour of duty in the Canal Zone. He departed from the Canal Zone in 1964 and his last assignment before returning was in Vietnam. The aviators assigned to the 937th are among the most highly qualified and experienced in the Army. The Panama Canal Review

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cAerial Photod CJJential to Mapmaklng, (Continued from p. 7) Cartography under the Ministry of Public Works as a part of the Pan American Highway office to collaborate with the IAGS in the early mapping operations. At the beginning, the 660th Topographic Survey Battalion assisted in the basic geodetic network of levels aind triangulation. The 660th left in 1949 and in 1955 the 551st Engineer Company (Survey) was assigned to LAGS. Its principal duties were to perform supplemental map control and field classification. The later members of this organization participated in the field editing of large scale topographic map sheets until it was transferred back to Fort Belvoir, Virginia, in 1966. Since then, members of the Panama government mapping agency have continued mapping activities where photography has been obtained. Large scale maps are more detailed than small scale. Extreme examples are a one sheet map of the world (small scale) in comparison with a one sheet map of a town or city (large scale). Panama's new cartographic building, the Institute Cartografico Tommy Guardia, was inaugurated by Panama President Marco A. Robles the past FebruThe instrument is a tellurometer and using it is Julio Mock, a student from Panama in the iSEJlTT ^^P the xA GS s D ch ? oI r Seated from left: Jose Whittingham, assistant instructor, also from Panama; Nelson Rada of Venezuela; and Victor Villatoro of Guatemala ary. At that time, President Robles signed the first map sheet to be run off a new press and he pressed the button to start the presses rolling. The institute was named in honor of the late Tomas Guardia, Jr., who was director of the Panama mapping agency until his death in 1965. He was an instructor of the Inter American Geodetic Survey Cartographic School during its early years and served as Chief of the Office Engineering Branch of the school from 1952 to 1954. When the cartographic agency moved into its new building, IAGS technicians assisted in installing and calibrating the cameras and printing press. All branches of the IAGS Cartographic section have responded to requests for techA surveying party in Peru, using IAGS equipment, is a focus of interest in the town. nical advice and other assistance since the building has been opened. The officer in charge of the Panama Project is Major Jack L. Duncan; the project engineer is George E. Richardson. The chief of the Instituto Cartografico Tommy Guardia is Arq. Edwin Fabrega. One of the essential factors in mapmaking today is the acquisition of aerial photography. In Panama, the U.S. Air Force, Navy and civilian contractors for the Army Map Service have obtained about 70 percent of the necessary photo coverage. The difficulties in getting the final 30 percent are constant cloud coverage in the wet season and smoke haze in the dry season. Recently, experiments have been made with radar photography in the Darien area from which topographic maps will be completed later this year. Of the total of 216 large scale map sheets needed to cover the entire Republic, 104 have been published. The two gap areas are the Darien east of Chepo and the Golfo de los Mosquitos. Ten more map sheets were readied for publication last year when a precise definition of the border between Panama and Costa Rica was agreed to by the mapping agencies of both countries. Utilizing information from the large scale map sheets and source data for areas not yet mapped, the Instituto Cartografico Tommy Guardia produced a small scale map of the entire Republic. This is the way IAGS operates in all countries of Latin America. It helps the nation build up its own mapping agency so that most of the work can be accomplished by that country. 8 November 1967

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60th Birthday For Cristobal w oman s Club THE CRISTOBAL Woman's Club, celebrating its 60th anniversary this year, came into being in days that tried men's souls, and even more so tried their women's souls. Col. William C. Gorgas had exterminated the danger of yellow fever on the Isthmus through mosquito control. Bv 1905, towns were growing up like mushrooms along the route of the proposed Panama Canal and. little bv little, these towns were peopled bv women and children, the families of Canal construction men. But for the women who came to the Canal Zone in those davs there was little of beauty, except for the tropical verdure. There were few comforts in the Canal Zone in those early days; there were manv privations, and almost no diversions. In some cases, families lived in freight cars on sidings and manv families were housed in the most primitive shacks. Housekeeping conveniences were rare, food was of such poor quality that even good cooks had their ingenuitv taxed to set a nourishing and appetizing table. The women became discontented and added to the low morale of the men, with the result that every boat saw an exodus of the Canal diggers and their families. The U.S. Government, concerned with the problems of the building of the Panama Canal, still was not too busy to consider the problem of the women in the Canal Zone. A directive was issued by the Government "to provide an object in life for the wives of the employees and relieve monotony," and Miss Helen Varick Bosvvell was sent from Washington's National Civic Foundation to look into conditions. Women's clubs appeared to her to be the answer. The Cristobal Woman's Club was organized September 27, 1907, and was the Erst of a group of seven Isthmian clubs formed 2 weeks later under the name of the Canal Zone Federation of Women's Club. These clubs were landmarks of the early construction davs of the Panama Canal, and the Tuesday morning workshop with members busy in Bazaar preparations. n turn The Cristobal Woman's Club has been in its own building in Margarita since August 1959. names on the club rosters are familiar to students of Canal history. Mrs. George W. Goethals, wife of Colonel Goethals whose engineering skill completed the mammoth task of the Canal building, was the first president of the Canal Zone Federation. The first four vice presidents were Mrs. Lorin C. Collins, who later became president; Mrs. Gorgas, to whose husband the Canal Zone owes its present-daysanitation; Mrs. William L. Sibert, wife of the colonel of engineers in charge of construction on the Atlantic side for many years, and Mrs. Chester Harding, whose husband later became a Governor. Then, just as the towns were deserted upon completion of the Canal and, in (See p. 21) The Panama Canal Review

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SNIFFING Ever Larger Tankers THE RAPID growth in the size of the oil tanker has manifested itself in the past year by the delivery of the first vessel of over 200,000 tons deadweight, the Idemitsu Maru, and by the ordering of six tankers each of 276,000 tons deadweight for the Gulf Oil Company. These projected vessels will be used to transport crude oil from the Persian Gulf to a storage depot in Bantry Bay, Ireland, for trans-shipment to the European oil refineries in smaller vessels. This system of trans-shipment is the economic solution to transportation of crude oil in large "Cape route onlv" vessels. If sufficient depth of water is provided at the loading and storage terminals, the growth in size may continue with a possibility that there will be 500,000 tonners and 1 million ton deadweight tankers. Giant Bulk Carrier THE SHOBU MARU, one of the largest bulk carriers now in service in Japan, made her maiden voyage through the Panama Canal in mid-August with a cargo of 55,000 long tons of coal from Norfolk to Japan. The big ship is 815 feet in length and has a beam of 104.49 feet which put her in a class with some of the Canal's biggest customers. Her summer deadweight was given as 62,418 tons. Her agent at the Canal is Boyd Brothers. PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC STATISTICS FOR FIRST QUARTER FISCAL YEAR 1968 TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels) 1 968 1967 Commercial 3,316 U.S. Government 350 Free 19 3,035 189 98 Total 3,685 3,252 TOLLS Commercial $20,527,815 $18,666,255 U.S. Government2,284,978 1,168,509 Total __ $22,812,793 $19,834,764 CARGO 00 Commercial 23,399,819 21,331,067 U.S. Government. 2,331,390 1,151,816 Free 134,260 153,481 Total 25,865,469 22,636,364 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and small. 00 Cargo figures are in long tons. According to a recent article in the Marine Digest, the Shobu Maru has a revolutionary bow design which enabled her to exceed design specifications in test runs. Her new contour combines the best features of both cylindrical and bulbous bows. It was developed by Nippon Kokan K.K., builders of the vessel, for operation of large ships on engines of lower power without sacrificing speed. The Shobu Maru established top speed of 17.38 knots and service speed of 15.25 knots with one-third cargo load during her sea trials. ^1968

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Summit Gardens: Fun For Adults, Children AS DRY season approaches. Isthmian residents begin planning more outdoor activities, particularly those the entire family can enjoy together. Picnics with the accompanying cookouts or barbecues are high on the list of dry season activities. And one of the favorite locations to take the family for a dav outdoors is Summit Gardens, the sprawling, 300-acre natural wonderland on Gaillard Highway, not far from Gamboa. Picturesque vegetation, shade trees, lily ponds, picnic tables, fireplaces, winding flowered lanes, gently rolling hills and uncluttered lawns where the kiddies can romp while adults relax in the afternoon somnolence. These are a few of the attractions. Parents who take their youngsters for a day at Summit Gardens are almost sure to be asked to take them for a ride on one of the two burritos, Mancha or Gato. Presented as a gift from former Canal Zone Gov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., the sturdy burritos mean free rides to the children visiting Summit. The pair also serve as ambassadors of good will at various fairs throughout the Republic of Panama. They are usually seen by the Panama Canal pavilion at the fairs where local kiddies are given rides. Another fascination for the children and parents, alike, is the Summit Gardens Zoo. Though small compared with metropolitan zoos in the United States and other nations, this zoo, the only public one on the Isthmus, houses a large number of the animals found in Panama. In fact, almost all of the animals and birds on display at the zoo are natives of this area. A few rabbits, chickens and geese have found their way into some of the cages, to the surprise of first time visitors. But by and large, the animals are not the type found in northern climes. From time to time, new species are acquired through donations or by being captured by zoo officials. Roy Sharp, who as Southern District Grounds Supervisor has responsibility for Summit Gardens, says birds are frequently netted and added to the collection of fowl. (See p. 12) Curious jaguar peers out as photographer snaps this picture. This animal was purchased as a cub from an elderly Indian woman who had killed the mother. But that was 3 years ago and the former baby jaguar has since grown into an adult weighing some 200 pounds. The jaguar is the largest member of the cat family in the Americas. View of an undisturbed lily pond from under one of the bridges at Summit Gardens. Beautiful landscaped paths and walkways help to make this area inviting for a lazy day stroll. More energetic children may prefer to frolic. The Panama Canal Review 11

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Truly A Miraculous Plant (Continued from p. 11) One of the most looked at animals in the Summit Gardens cages is a threeyear-old jaguar, the only one in the zoo. The jaguar is the largest member of the cat family in this hemisphere. This animal was purchased as a cuddly, weeks-old cub from an elderly Indian woman who had shot its mother and retrieved the baby. L. A. Ferguson, Director of the Supply and Community Services Bureau under which Summit Gardens is administered, set up a special cub purchase fund contributed to by friends and associates. Today the jaguar is a lithe adult weighing perhaps 200 pounds. Another ferocious member of the cat family found at Summit is the puma, an animal that ranges from the United States to South America. Smaller than the jaguar, it is known as the mountain lion in parts of the United States. Two still smaller felines are the jaguarundi, which some Isthmians erroneously' call a black panther, and the ocelot or tigrillo. Near the cages housing these are the gatos negros, members of the weasel family. Favorites of the young set are the spider monkeys that use arms, legs and tail to swing about, showing off their agility. The imploring faces of the little capuchin monkeys, the type used by the old organ grinders, rarely fail to capture the sympathetic attention of visitors. Red, white and black vultures with great wingspreads are among the larger Panamanian and migratory birds on display. There is also a spindly legged stork. Loud squawking but brilliantly feathered macaws glare out at visitors. Dozens of varieties of smaller birds are housed together in a miniature jungle of plantlife that provides natural and roomy environment. The birds inside range from the toucans with their large, multicolored beaks and the tiny blue honey creepers with red legs, to the bright red "sangre de toro" or tanager and orange billed sparrow. Frequently the birds with less spectacular physical features possess curious habits. For example, the cowbird lays eggs in the nests of other birds and lets them hatch them and feed and care for the young. A stroll through the zoo grounds takes you past cages with crab eating raccoons, wild turkey, native deer, capybara (the world's largest rodent). the kinkajou or honey bear, pools with turtles and caimans and myriad other creatures. But it is the vegetation— trees and plants from many tropical nations— that draws thousands to the Gardens every year. Set up in 1923 to introduce, propagate and disseminate plants for the Isthmus, the Gardens have thousands of economic, fruit and flowering trees, ornamental shrubs, and vines. These grace virtually every townsite within the Canal Zone plus Panama City and Colon. Some experimental work is done on such things as grasses for grazing and for lawns. Seeds from many plants nurtured in Summit Gardens have been sent to other countries in the hemisphere. Plants now flourishing at Summit Gardens came from Madagascar, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, China, Burma, the West Indies, ; v^ Huge, tangled banyan tree chokes out most other trees that happen to be in the way. There is no limit to the number of aerial roots that descend from above the ground and implant themselves into the soil, creating a huge tangle of what appears to be additional trunks. >Z£r~*" '~ tS'^'*^* • --,. -^ Z^^MzZ -isfr>i Stoic looking capybara may not be the most beautiful resident of Summit Gardens but he is surely one of the most interesting. The capybara is the world's largest rodent. 12 November 1967

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~Ss A group of children stroll under an archway of bamboo, which is a member of the grass family. Bamboo grows several inches in a day but grows in height only, and not in diameter. Sometimes it grows to a height of 50 feet and is frequently confused with rattan, a palm commonly used in the manufacture of furniture. A feminine visitor examines this miraculous plant, the only one at Summit Gardens. As the name implies, this member of the plant world has an extraordinary characteristic. It produces red berries which, when eaten, cause everything eaten for 2 hours or longer afterwards to taste almost sickening sweet. the East Indies, Central and South America, and the Mediterranean area. The best way for a layman nature lover or avid horticulturist to see Summit Gardens is the dry season tours conducted by Sharp who plans to resume the tours again this year. The newcomer to the tropics finds these tours of special interest. Sharp points out the rarer plants, describes their uses, physical qualities and more notable characteristics. Many of these are indeed worthy of notation. Several beautiful stands of bamboo are found throughout the Gardens. The bamboo shoot, which is covered with a prickly sheath, never grows in diameter but makes up for it by rapid vertical growth. It rises as much as 1 foot in 24 hours and eventually reaches a height of up to 50 feet. "Bamboo" furniture found in many households is actually not bamboo but rattan, a climbing palm. Scattered throughout the Gardens are teak trees, a native of Burma that was first introduced here in 1926. It is one of the most highly valued woods because of its beautiful grain, hardness, resistance to termites and, to some extent, even to fire. It is commonly used for decking on sleek yachts and for elegant furniture. In Panama City, shoppers find handsome wooden chests from India made of teak. The banyan is a strange tree from India which is found in Summit Gardens also. It has a main trunk and an unlimited number of aerial roots that descend from limbs and implant themselves into the ground, producing a vast entanglement that strangles other trees. One of the few it does not kill is the palm which has an internal cell structure allowing it to receive nourishment directlv from the ground up through the trunk. One of the largest palms in the world, the talipot palm of Ceylon is found near the entrance to Summit Gardens. It flowers only once every 30 to 35 vears, then dies. The talipot is also the home of bats which cut partially through the large leaves to make them droop, providing a cave-like hiding place on the underside. The nispero, or sapodilla, an extremely hardwood tree, produces a small edible fruit. While still green, the fruit gives a milky sap originally used for the manufacture of chewing gum. Mistletoe, a parasitic vine, is seen clinging to mango and other trees in the Gardens. Growing in great profusion at the Gardens are various species of orchids, large and small, which festoon tree trunks where they have been nailed. Despite their apparently clinging tendency, the orchids are not parasites; they receive nutrition through the air and rain rather than from a host. Vanilla, a vine that was the original source of vanilla extract, is a flowering orchid, also seen at Summit. African coffee plants, rubber plants from Brazil, espave or wild cashew and the cola tree, originally used for popular cola drinks, are a few of other thousands of plant species. The properties of the miraculous plant seems almost incredible to some visitors to the Gardens. This tropical African plant produces red berries which, when eaten, cause everything consumed for 2 or 3 hours thereafter to have a sugary sweet taste. Sharp says the true test of this is to taste a sour lemon before eating one of the berries; next taste the same lemon and notice the striking difference. The before and after are important, Sharp says, because otherwise the taster will think he is being given a sweet lemon. These are but a few of the delights of Summit Gardens— and admission is free. The Panama Canal Review 13

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

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tober 3 en route to South America with a special visit to Easter Island. After leaving Cristobal the ship also called at Callao, Valparaiso, Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Santos, Recife and Curacao. The Brasil will transit southbound and depart Balboa November 9 for an around South America cruise. December will bring the United States into Cristobal on a Caribbean cruise, the Moore McCormack Line Argentina on a Cristobal cruise from New York and the Holland America Line Maasdam from the west coast with the Chapman College students aboard. The Queen Mary will stop in Balboa December 1 during her final voyage. January and February are the busy cruise months. The Queen Elizabeth, the Empress of Canada and the Federico C will dock in Cristobal on West Indies cruises. The Kungsholm will arrive at Cristobal January 12 on a 93 day "Cruise of a Lifetime" to the South Sea islands, the Far East and the Pacific. The Bergensfjord will transit January 24 on a cruise around South America. The Europa will visit Cristobal January 14 and February 10 as part of Caribbean cruises. Due in February are the Leonardo da Vinci, of the Italian Line from New York and Port Everglades on a Caribbean cruise, the Franconia and the Carmania of the Cunard Line, the Empress of Canada, the United States, the France, Hanseatic and the Federico C all on Caribbean cruises. The Argentina will transit February 8 on a round South America cruise. The Home Lines' ultramodern passenger liner Oceanic is to make a stop in February as part of a Caribbean cruise with a visit at the San Bias Islands. The Renaissance will stop in Cristobal March 9 and the Federico C will make two calls at Cristobal that month. Both the Hanseatic and Bremen will stop at Cristobal in March during Caribbean cruises. The Caronia, the Cunard Line cruise vessel, will arrive in Balboa April 25 on the last leg of a round-the-world cruise. The Statendam and the Kungsholm, the Rotterdam and the Bergensfjord all are to dock in Balboa during March or April on the return trip to New York following cruises to South America and the Pacific. Scheduled to make a southbound transit of the Canal early in December is the new cruise ship Princess Italia operated by the Princess Cruises of Los Angeles. The $20 million, 12,000 ton liner constructed in Trieste has been designed expressly as a cruise liner. PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic Commodity Ores, various Sugar Lumber, miscellaneous Petroleum and petroleum products Miscellaneous iron and steel manufactures Fishmeal Metals, various Bananas Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) Pulpwood Canned food products Iron and steel plates and sheets Boards and planks Salt Wheat All others Total First quarter, fiscal year1968

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CANAL HISTORY 50 y[ear4 cAgo IN THE autumn of 1917, the Canal organization announced plans for experimental cattle breeding in the Zone, following success with an original program of fattening young cattle brought in from outside. Canal authorities announced their desire for purchase of 30 bulls in Louisiana or southern Texas, with Holsteins preferred for dairy purposes and Herefords for beef cattle. Two roads now essential to Pacific side auto traffic came under construction 50 years ago. One was the highway between Corozal and Miraflores, engineered in 1917 to shorten by 3,840 feet the old road which ran parallel to the Panama Railroad bed. A second road then being built connected Balboa with the old pier at La Boca, running along the base of Sosa Hill and through the bed of the old Sosa Hill quarrv. 25 y[earJ c4g.o CANAL ZONE residents were feeling a unique side effect of World War II in September 1942 when they were warned not to carry on private correspondence with unknown persons through clubs such as "Lonely Hearts" and "Pen Pals." Authorities cautioned against any persons representing themselves as collectors of unusual postmarks, signatures and postcards as well. It was a time of realization that solicitations for information on the Panama Canal might come from Axis agents. Twenty-five years ago, the new Balboa High School building was used to house senior high classes, previously held in the Balboa Elementarv School, and most junior high classes. In midOctober, students and schools personnel learned they were soon to be inoculated against typhoid in a separate phase of the Canal Zone's first typhoid inoculation program. Use and possession of marijuana became a crime in the Canal Zone on October 1, 1942, when the 77th Congress passed an amendment to the Canal Zone Code making this a criminal offense. 10 year J c4g.o THE U.S. BUREAU of Public Roads announced, in September 1957, that the Interamerican Highway would be completed within 2 years. Officials expected the new road to be open for motor travel from Laredo, Texas, to the Panama Canal before 1959. Pacific side teenagers received a boost from the Canal organization September 11 when Gov. W, E. Potter formally presented them the keys to Budding 9A in Balboa for establishment of the Balboa Teen Club, still operating today. Bids opened in the fall of 1957 for alterations and additions to convert the former Ancon Commissary into a new office building for the Panama Canal Personnel Bureau. One \j[ear cAgo NOVEMBER 1966 saw the arrival of Sing-Out '66, an exciting vouth program which earned acclaim throughout Panama and the Canal Zone. This was the first visit to the Isthmus for the 160member globetrotting cast. The SingOut theme song, "Up With People," was to become a familiar sound in both English and Spanish. The last of the original Panama Canal "mules" was slated for disassembling in November 1966. This marked the 68th "mule" to end up on the scrap heap since the old models were gradually replaced bv new towing locomotives in 1964. lfcUi DEPENDENT PROGRESSIVE PARTY-^ tovx Cooke j progress *^M Campaigning was spirited at the Culebra Post Office in 1912 during mock elections. Because U.S. -citizen residents of the Canal Zone could not vote in national elections at that time, mock elections were held a few weeks before elections in the United States as "manifestations of political desire for expression," according to the "Canal Record." The tickets usually bore nominations for national and municipal offices and at least one village included on its ticket a nomination for the position of "town grouch." 16 November 1967

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What Dreams Are Made of: Winning Lottery Numbers A $50 MILLION business that thrives on dreams and hunches? That's the National Lottery of Panama, which twice a week can turn the timelv dream or the right hunch into a fortune. It's just a matter of converting a mental image conceived during sleep or an intuition into the numbers that'll show up on the Lottery's prize board. And because people keep having dreams and getting hunches, thev continue plaving the lottery. In Panama, they have been playing it for 84 years now, first when it was a privately owned business and later when it became a government operation. So heavily in fact— approximately $1,250,000 weekly-that the National Lottery ranks as the largest independent agency of the Panamanian Government from the standpoint of generating revenue for the treasury. The Panama Lottery runs two drawings weekly, on Sundays and Wednesdays. For each drawing, it issues tickets numbered from 0000 to 9999 and from 00 to 99. The Sunday 4-digit tickets consist of 75 pieces each; the Wednesday tickets, of 30 pieces each— 10,000 tickets for each drawing. Each piece costs 55 cents and can win prizes ranging from $1 to $1,000. There are three main prizes in ever)' drawing. For the complete ticket on Sundays, these prizes are $75,000, $22,500 and $11,250; on Wednesdays, $30,000, $9,000 and $4,500. Lesser prizes or "approximations" are derived from the main numbers. Eleven hundred of the 2-digit tickets containing 20 pieces of the same number are issued for Sundays; 925 2-digit tickets, also of 20 pieces each, for Wednesdays. Each piece costs 20 cents and stands to win $11 for first prize, $3 for second, and $2 for third. The Panamanian government levies no taxes on lottery prizes. There are two special or extraordinary drawings in the year. One, on the first Wednesday in July, has a first prize of $100,000 (50 'pieces in the ticket); the other, on the Wednesday before Christmas, offers a $250,000 first prize (125 pieces in the ticket). The price doubles for the special drawings. To sell this huge quantity of tickets (sales are averaging 90 percent of the total weekly issue worth $1,400,500) the Lottery employs an army of approximately 2,500 vendors in Panama City and Colon, which account for 80 percent of the sales, and about 50 contractors in the rest of the country who in turn employ an estimated 500 vendors. Regular vendors earn 6 percent commission; contractors get 9 percent, but have to pay their own vendors and cannot turn in unsold tickets as vendors in Panama City and Colon are allowed to do. Lottery vendors can play an important part in the lives of their customers. Win the friendship of one and you're assured of vour favorite number every week; fall into bad grace and you may find that a fortune slipped out of your grasp. One of the most widely-known vendors in Panama City is Mrs. Adelina A. de Icaza, a great grandmother who in 30 years has set an amazing record of good luck for her customers. She has sold the first prize 28 times; (See p. 18) ^9 Hundreds of hopeful players gather in Lottery Plaza every Wednesday and Sunday to see the lottery drawings held in kiosk at right. Thousands of others in every city, town and province of the country see and hear the drawings over television and radio. The Panama Canal Review 17

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Luck Stories Are Bizarre, Commonplace (Continued from p. 1 7) the second prize, 16 times; the third prize, 23 times. Her phenomenal record of selling prize-winning tickets began in 1942, when 3757 played on October 18. (Incidentally, when 3757 played again for first prize 13 years later, on September 5, 1965, Mrs. Icaza was still selling it.) The last time she sold the big prize— 6180— was August 20 of this year. Once she sold the first prize two Sundays in a row (3757 on September 5, 1965, and 7091 on September 12, 1965). She tells a typical lottery luck story in this connection: A friend came to her stand to buy a complete 75-piece ticket. He asked Mrs. Icaza to choose the number for him. "I was playing 1 that week," she recalls, "so I gave him 7091. A short time later, he ran into a friend and offered to sell him half the ticket. The friend inquired where the number had been bought. When he was told it came from me, his reply was: 'Oh, no; she sold the first prize last week.' Well, 7091 played and Mrs. Icaza's friend was richer by $75,000 and the other fellow was out the $37,500 he would have won if he had bought half the ticket. More than her lucky hand, however, it's her exceptional honesty that has made Mrs. Icaza outstanding. Three times in 30 years she has returned prize-winning tickets to customers who had reserved numbers but failed to pay for them. The sums involved were $2,000, $19,000 and $42,000. To appreciate the generosity and unselfishness of her action, it must be remembered that prize-winning lottery tickets are payable to the bearer. Mrs. Icaza tells about these incidents modestly. When 6400 played on January 6, 1952, she had reserved 42 pieces of that number for a long-time customer. As a matter of fact, that was the second successive week she had saved, unpaid, the 42 pieces of 6400 for this customer. The orphan girl in center has just drawn an ivory ball from the revolving cage operated by lottery employee in white shirt. Everyone's eyes are on the young lady. She has given it to the Governor of the Province who unscrews it open and shows the number in each half to the spectators and to the television cameras. The crowd roars. When the number played, she immediately went to her customer's home to turn in the winning pieces. The customer refused to accept them, pointing out they were unpaid. The following day, Mrs. Icaza went to the lottery office, cashed the pieces and then deposited the $42,000 in the Banco Nacional in her customer's name. "You can draw against your $42,000," Mrs. Icaza told the customer by phone, "the money has been deposited in your name." Mrs. Icaza admits she was suitably rewarded. On the two other occasions, her fortunate customers also had failed to pay for their reserved tickets. "But I knew they would pay, even if they didn't hit," is Mrs. Icaza's simple explanation. Has she hit the lottery herself? Yes, once. By mistake. A customer who went on vacation paid up his 26 pieces of 3757 for 6 weeks. The number won first prize on the third week after his departure. When Mrs. Icaza went to the Lottery Office to have the prize-winning pieces kept in the safe until her customer's 18 November 1967

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The winning numbers are posted on the lottery's prize board as each is drawn. The board also shows the province where each winning ticket is sold. return, she discovered she had put aside 28 instead of 26 pieces. The mistake was worth $2,000 to her. Like other vendors, Mrs. Icaza finds that dreams and hunches motivate many of her customers. People will go after a particular number because they had a dream which "meant" that number. Dreams fall into two classes: Those in which specific numbers come up and those which involve persons, animals, objects, or situations which require translation into numbers. Even number dreams, unless they are the 4-digit variety, will require some interpretation if the dreamer wants to go after the big money. Here's the way one man interpreted a 1 -number dream to hit the big 4-digit first prize: His deceased brother told him in a dream: "Buy 7." He bought 7777, 10 pieces— and collected $10,000 the following Sunday. The official Lottery magazine once told of the consistent good luck of a Canal Zone employee, now deceased. He had won $6,000 on 9313 and hit for $10,000 with the same number 3 years later. Why did he start to play that number? Here's the Lottery magazine's version: "A friend died, owing him $9. Then the friend appeared in a dream and handed him $3. The friend reappeared and handed him $1 and showed up a third time to pay $3." Non-number dreams are subject to various interpretations, depending on what dream book or interpreter is consulted. Of course, if the resulting number doesn't play, the fault is neither with the book nor the interpreter, but with the dreamer himself. Either it was a "bad" dream or some important detail was not remembered at the time of the consultation. Hunches may be individual or collective. A person will feel strongly one week on the number of his paycheck, or his identification card, or his telephone, or his postal box, or his license plate, or his birth date, or his age, or a family anniversary (particularly a death anniversary), or the grave of a deceased relative or friend, or a pawnshop ticket, or any one of a myriad of such number-bearing objects or situations. Often the whole community of lottery players will pursue a particular number 1 week because of some attention-attracting event— the death of a national figure (date, age, grave number), or an unusual accident (the number of victims or the license plate number of the vehicle involved), or a significant anniversary. The age of Christ, 33, is very popular around Easter Week. On such stuff the lottery business thrives. And how it has thrived in Panama! In the past 10 years, the Panama Lottery's gross revenue and net earnings have nearly doubled. In 1966, gross income was approximately $50 million and net earnings topped $10 million. The estimate of the gross take this year is $70 million with net earnings exceeding $12 million. The Lottery's operations provide the National Government with about 10 percent of its revenue. Lottery funds support hospitals, health units, nurseries, asylums, orphanages, and disaster relief operations. For example, the recently inaugurated center for the Panamanian Institute of Special Education, which treats exceptional children, was built with lottery money. By law, 10 percent of all unsold prizes is set aside for the Institute. Unsold tickets turned in to the Lottery prior to each drawing are held for 1 year if they win prizes. Then they are destroyed. It is often said that if there is any one institution in which Panamanians have blind faith that institution is the National Lottery. This reflects the outstanding record of integrity of the organization since its beginning. Take the drawings. They are con(See p. 20) Language is no barrier for playing the Panama Lottery. An American customer points to the number he wants. Maybe it's his license plate number or postal box. The Panama Canal Review 19

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Duque Founded Lottery (Continued from p. 19) ducted in public and are open to inspection by anyone. Forty identical ivory balls, numbered from to 9 (four to each number), are used in the drawings. Each ball unscrews in two halves, each bearing the number inside. The halves are placed on public display 1 hour before each drawing in the triangular kiosk behind the Lottery Office where the numbers are drawn. In the presence of two witnesses picked at random from among the spectators, each ivory ball is then put together and placed in a hand-operated revolving cage. Three children between 6 and 7 years of age, rotated weekly from among the city's four orphanages, draw four balls each, or one complete prize. The orphanage gets $7 for its children's services. Rain or shine, hundreds of hopeful players crowd in the small plaza surrounding the kiosk to witness the drawing. Many of them make last-minute purchases from vendors shouting the numbers still available on their boards or waving strips of tickets to attract attention. At 11 a.m. on Sundays and at 12 on Wednesdays all eyes converge on the kiosk. The participants in the drawing are the Governor of Panama Province, who is the presiding authority; the Vice Minister of Finance, who represents the Government; a notary public, the two witnesses (who get no emoluments) and the three orphans. Their every movement is covered by television cameras and described by eight TV and radio announcers. There is literally no corner of the country where the Lottery drawing cannot be seen or heard. On a signal from the Governor, a Lottery employee starts the gyrations of the cage. The ivory balls tumble as the cage spins. Another signal from the Governor and it stops. A small trapdoor in the cage is opened, the little orphan picks up a ball and hands it to the Governor. He unscrews it and then reads the number aloud, showing the numbered halves to the public. The ball is put together again and returned to the cage. The process is repeated until 12 numbers— 4 to each prize— have been drawn. To a newcomer the spectacle is one of organized bedlam, but exciting. The system is the same for every drawing, just as it has been since the Lottery began as a private institution in 1883. Founded by the revered philanthropist Jose Gabriel Duque, it started as a 3-digit, one-prize lottery. Each ticket consisted of 5 pieces and sold for 1 peso (half a dollar). The fust prize was 500 pesos. The very first drawing was held February 25, 1883, and the winning number was 053. The change to the present 4-digit system was made in 1903. When Mr. Duque's concession expired in 1919, the Government took over the lottery operation. By that time, three prizes were being offered. The first drawing under Government supervision was held March 30, 1919, and the winning number was 1705. One more change was to occur. Until 1921, only the first prize actually was drawn; second prize was the number immediately preceding and third prize the number immediately following. Since that year, each prize is drawn separately. A state lottery is not peculiar to Panama. Every Latin American country runs one or more lotteries (in Colombia, for example, one is drawn ever)' day of the week) Through the centuries lotteries have been conducted in England, Ireland, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Russia, and the United States. The largest in the United States was the Louisiana Lottery, conducted after the Civil War by the State of Louisiana. It was eventually stopped by law, but lotteries are being revived in a few states in recent years and the idea of a Federal lottery has gained advocates. All of the modern lotteries trace their origin to the days of Rome, where drawings for valuable prizes were held after imperial banquets or the festivals in the Coliseum. Lotteries such as we know them today were first held in Italy and the earliest state lotteries are reported to have been conducted in France in 1520. Wherever a lottery has operated, man has sought to perfect a system that will assure him of the winning numbers. In Panama it has been no different. Dreams, hunches, mathematical formulae—all and more have been tried, to no avail. Perhaps there is one system after all that has proved its effectiveness, yet few have been aware of it. It is to forget about the numbers and simply keep buying tickets at No. 11-13, "I" Street. That selling

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Philanthropy Big Part of Club's Work (Continued from p. 9) some cases were inundated when Catun Lake was formed, so the clubs dissolved automatically, their mission finished. Of the original clubs formed under the Canal Zone Federation, the Cristobal Woman's Club is the only one in continuous existence from the day it was founded. The first yearbook of the Cristobal Woman's Club listed 61 members. Then came the dissolution of the Canal Zone Federation on January25, 1913. It was a period of change, from the Construction era to the maintenance period. Executives were for the most part transferred to the Pacific side where the seat of the Canal Zone Government was to be located, and many engineers, with their families sailed for the States and to other construction projects. Membership in the Cristobal Woman's Club in 1913 dropped to 37. A quarter of a century later the club roster listed 134 names. Today, on its 60th anniversary the Cristobal Woman's Club has 254 members, representing more than a dozen countries. The Cristobal Woman's Club has been a member of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, with headquarters in Washington, D.C., since November 4, 1914. As the Club grew, it established the first library in Cristobal and was the nucleus for the Atlantic side Chapter of the American Red Cross. Civic improvements sponsored by the Club included a playground in Colon, a rest home for women crossing the Isthmus, and a drinking fountain for the overworked cab horses of Colon. The Club also published a cookbook. For almost 25 years the Club operated a Women's Exchange and Tea Room at the Gilbert House in Colon, the Club headquarters until the historic building was condemned and torn down in 1952. The Women's Exchange and Tea Room profits were the principal support of the free clinic, the Cristobal Woman's Club's philanthropic work at the time. Governor \V. P. Leber was the guest speaker at the 60th anniversary meeting of the Cristobal Woman's Club last month. At his right is Mrs. Harry Butz, president for 1967-1968. From left: Mrs. Howard Prithain, recording secretary; Mrs. Butz; Governor Leber; Mrs. Curtis Coate, treasurer; Mrs. Charles Hinz, corresponding secretary and Mrs. Patrick Ridge, first vice president. Mrs. Andrew Kozar, second vice president, is not in the photograph. A soup kitchen was operated by the Cristobal Woman's Club during 1921 and 1922 to help feed the needy of Colon. An interesting sidelight is that in those early years, when funds were needed to continue the operations of the Club, it was decided to hold a card party as a money making project. But first the bylaws had to be changed. Some of the Club's founders were opposed to card playing as "not fit for genteel ladies." The old YMCA building in Cristobal was the Club's first meeting place. From 1917 to 1952 the Gilbert House was Club headquarters. The American Red Cross gave the Club permission to use their building from 1952 to August 1959, when the Cristobal Woman's Club building was completed in Margarita. The philanthropy program of the Cristobal Woman's Club has been active since the Club was formed 60 years ago. Each Thursday of every week in the year, food and clothing are distributed to about 80 aged indigents of Colon, most of them over 75 years of age, who gather at the Cristobal Woman's Club little room in the back of the old Cristobal Fire Station. Long before the doors open at 8:30 a.m. each Thursday, the aged, the lame, and the near-blind begin to congregate to await the arrival of the Cristobal Woman's Club Philanthropy Committee members. Some of the aged assist one another, some lean upon a youngster's arm. Each carries a sack or homesewn bag in which are placed the food contributions. Sometimes there are extras, and always there are extras at Christmas and New Year's. Volunteer members fill shopping bags, mostly with foodstuffs, for distribution to Colon's aged poor for those holidays. Last Christmas the Philanthropy Committee supervised the preparation and filling of more than 200 bags for their regulars and about 150 "extras." Investigation teams of the Club visit and determine the needs of those who apply for aid and, although old people get first consideration, clothing is provided also for children. The 60th anniversary of the Cristobal Woman's Club, founded in Canal construction days, was fittingly observed last month with an address by Gov. W. P. Leber on the Canal's future. Mrs. Harry Butz, president, presided and, symbolic of the club's history, used a cocobolo wood gavel that dates back to French construction davs and which was salvaged from the attic of the old Panama Canal Administration Building in Panama City many years ago. The Panama Canal Review 21

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ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION Luther B. Matthews Cylinder Pressman— Small MARINE BUREAU Pablo V. Caballero Lead Foreman-Operations— Lock Wall Reginald A. Carter Time and Leave Clerk ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Alejandro Martin Oiler— Floating Plant David H. Sterling Leader— Sean TRANSPQ, INALS Edv TrucT Harry J. AiJ Truck D| Charles L. Toolroom Attendant SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU Stephen McBean Leader Laborer— Cleaner Wilfred White Sales Store Department ManagerSundries CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU George V. Richards Principal— LA Schools HEALTH BUREAU Stella I. N. Frampton Personnel Clerk— Typing Alec Lampee likes Dottie Denzler. And when he takes her for a drive Alec watches Dottie more than he watches the traffic. So you'd better be watching out for Alec! Watch out for the other guy! Published to save lives in cooperation with The Advertising Council and the National Safety Council. ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION John G. Bing Head, Composing— Printing Plant Stephen W. Thorne Compositor— Hand MARINE BUREAU Edgar E. Peterson Leader Seaman Lothan R. Raphael Leader Linehandler— Deckhand K. R. Shepherd Leader Linehandler— Deckhand Boatswain Samuel A. Williams Seaman Alejandro Gerald Teletypist Cecil C. Williams Helper Lock Operator Anthony J. Zablocki Master— Towboat Roberto C. Mitchell Leader Linehander— Deckhand Boatswain Jose D. Sandino Helper Lock Operator William F. Young Foreman— Lock Operati ENGINEERING AND COTs BUREAU W. A. Brathwaite Water Tender— Floating William I. HoIIowell General Foreman Pipe Allen K. Miller Supervisory General EngineerSpecifications Sylbert A. Bowen Guard Victor A. Cisneros Centrifuge Operator Harold M. Cooper Motor Launch Operator Lawrence W. Matthews Oiler— Floating Plant Bindley B. Tappin Launch Operator— Motor Leon W. Warren Engineering Technician Bob D. Maynard Lead Foreman Plumber Henry F. Scott Seaman Mario Torreglosa Helper Electrician— Power Plant SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU James S. Raymond Lead Foreman— Cemetery Leonard I. Sealey Supply Clerk Ronald V. King Supply Clerk Mary N. OnAdministrative Assistant Juan Santana Grounds Maintenance Equipment Operator— Small Castell D. Alleyne Electrical Equipment Repairman Herbert Johnson Time and Leave Clerk George S. Kirton Meat Cutter Berta J. Materon Seamstress Darrington A. Moss Lead Foreman— Grounds PERSONNEL BUREAU Clarence H. Browne Staffing Clerk CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Joseph W. Coffin, Jr. Fire Lieutenant Alfonso C. Greaves Teacher— Senior High, LA Schools Adolph Kapinos Police Sergeant Charles A. Mockus Finance Branch Superintendent pley Division dwell nt ood d 1 Re^ken^I^^^vy Detention Guard John Kozar Police Private Richard B. Simpson Fire Sergeant Matthew J. Wilder Fire Lieutenant TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Carlos Ballou Leader Liquid Fuels Wharfman Gerald S. Parris Lead Foreman— Dock Stevedoring John F. Anderson Cargo Checker Samuel Bradiel Boilermaker— Maintenance Lewis S. Brown Clerk— Checker Allie W. Bruno Clerk Raphael L. Esteban Leader— Dock— Stevedoring Joseph N. Greenidge Guard Allan Logan Railroad Trackman— Mainline Joseph B. Reid, Jr. Truck Driver 22 November 1967

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Transit in a Torrent A driving rainy season downpour greets the French flag ship Cetra Carina as she moves southbound through Pedro Miguel Locks during her first transit of the Canal. The 835-foot vessel, en route from Newport News, Va., to Tobata, Japan, was loaded with a cargo of coal at the time. Notice how the force of the wind and rain caused the metal cones on the left to lean. The cones indicate the number of pairs of locomotives required to bring the ships following the Cetra Carina through the locks. In this case the two cones at the top indicate two pairs of locomotives are being used for one ship, the single cone at the bottom means that another ship, a small one, is coming through on the same lockage but without any locomotives. When ships require locomotives, or "mules," as most do, a minimum of two pairs are used. The Panama Canal Review 23

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