Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1960
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
UF00097366_00030 ( sobekcm )
23584335 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
HE2830.P2 P3 ( lcc )
386/.445 ( ddc )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries












http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie15pana






























A CHORI

APIRA


Ul F IP fAHM


MALA


FRANCGBO PIZARRO SAILED
FROM PANAMA TO CONQUER
PERU-1524


NOVEMBER 1965


PANMAPTPJT~ CAN L



r v-






ROBERT J. FLEMING, Jr., Governor-President i- ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
-r If Publications Editors
H. R. PARFITT, Lieutenant Governor A -- RICHARD D. PEACOCK and TOMAS A. CUPAS
U VEditorial Assistants
FRANK A. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
Panama Canal Information Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. JOSE T. TuRON
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.



AbTbout Our Cover


THE COVER MAP that tells Panama's story-past and
present-reflects the theme of this issue: Panama, play-
ground of Latin America. More tourists are discovering
this fact each year.
A trip to Panama is worth anyone's time. Just over
2 hours from the United States by jet and little more
than that from many Latin American cities, Panama
offers a wide variety of activity, shopping, climate, and
there is much to see.
A nation of just over 1 million citizens, Panama
occupies the isthmus that has been a focal point for trade
and travelers for more than 450 years. The narrow stretch
of the Republic of Panama runs, roughly, east and west,
and its geography, which has always been important,
affects the way of life of its people.


In the west, there are mountains and rich soil-Chiriqui
Province might be called Panama's breadbasket. In the
east, not yet reached by modern roads, life among the
Indians is much the same as it was hundreds of years ago.
It's likely the visitor will spend his time in Panama
City and Colon, the two cities at opposite ends of the
Panama Canal. Panama City, dominating in population
and commerce, is the main stopping-off point.
It is not possible to include all of the Panama story in
a single REVIEW issue. The main points of interest, a list
of what to do, what to see and where to go, have been
packed into several articles. The map on the cover
was originally prepared by engineers of the U.S. Arm%.
Southern Command, and was redrawn especially for
this issue.


-^ 3 -. '
'.

..^ '^ -


^ : ~ : L.
:-'. +- -. *:-r(. ^
__ -t^^'


9ndex
Welcome to Panama----
Panama's History----
Sports in Panama and
Canal Zone___ ---
National Carnival, Fairs ----
After Dark__ ---
Chiriqui_______------
Panama in Pictures ----__--
Bocas del Toro, the San Bias.
Quarterly Traffic Report _---
Cruise Ship Report ---_-- -
Visitor's Notebook --------
The Panama Canal Story --.
Canal History------
Anniversaries __ _-- --
Fishing in Panama .. ..
Shl pping .. _. ........-
Shipping


NOVEMBER 1965


6
8
10
12
13
14
16
16
18
19
25
27
28
30
31


'~P~E~PEL1WIIE: :u'
r





















II 'NJAMA



My countrymen and I welcome visitors with the heritage of hospitality that

has been a Panamanian tradition for centuries. From the days of the Spanish Main, Panama

has developed an international flavor; it has become one of the great meeting places of the

world.
The colorful galleon has given way to swift jets and luxury liners that bring

visitors to our shores in ever increasing numbers. They come to enjoy our sunshine, incomparable

fishing, and countless attractions.
The Republic of Panama claims a proud history. Its earliest days are reflected

in the old Spanish ruins at Panama Viejo; modern Panama can be seen in tall, beautiful hotels,

apartments and in a hustle of commerce along its tree-lined boulevards.
From golf and swimming to baseball, bullfighting and nightl;fe, a panorama

of pleasure awaits the visitor here. The interior of the Republic blossoms with flowers, and in

the west there are trout lakes and cool mountains. There is a new experience each day for

those who seek enjoyment. For those who seek relaxation, there is no better place than Panama.
In behalf of all Panamanians, then, I extend a warm welcome to our visitors,

confident that they will place the sunsplashed image of Panama among their treasured memories.



Pedro A. Diaz
Director
Panama Government Tourist Bureau



Panama, November, 1965






ANAMA CANAL REV






























Ruins of several churches and public buildings destroyed by Henry
Morgan and his buccaneers in 1671 still stand in Old Panama.


The Golden Altar of San Jose Church, one of the most beautiful
in existence today, escaped the attack of Morgan's pirates.


The Reason: Geography



THE ISTHMUS:


FOCAL POINT


OF HISTORY

FROM THE MOMENT of its discovery, the unique
geographical position of Panama has given the Isthmus
a history of real romance and charm-richer in historical
events than most parts of the two continents it joins.
Since the days when Columbus was investigating every
nook and corner of the Caribbean coast of Panama, look-
ing for a way to India, the Isthmus has occupied the
center of world interest. Footsteps of many men from
many nations have trod its soil, always in search of
a road across this narrow neck of land.
One of those to continue the search was Vasco Nlfiez
de Balboa, who forced his way in 1513 through the
jungles and mountains and reached a mountain top in
Darien from where he discovered the Pacific Ocean.
Three years later, Pedro Arias de Avila, who was the
Spanish governor of the colony already established on
the Caribbean side of the Isthmus, pushed his conquest
to a native fishing village on the Pacific and founded
the old city of Panama, where it remained for 154 years.
Today, its ruins stand just east of the city.
Soon after its discovery, this narrow neck of land
became the strategic point of the New World's commerce.
For three centuries Panama was the treasure chest of the
New World, the port of embarkation for the expeditions
in search of gold and silver, and the port of return to
Spain. It was here where the Spanish galleons arrived
with merchandise for distribution. Ships laden with
treasures for the King of Spain arrived from Peru, their
rich cargoes transferred to the backs of mules, carried
across the Isthmus, and loaded on ships bound for Spain.
Fourteen years after the founding of Panama City and
Nombre de Dios, Spaniards of the colony explored the
Chagres and the Rio Grande Rivers, studying the
possibility of using the two rivers to make a canal.
The city of Panama ceased to be a mud-hut village and
in a few years it became a colonial city with buildings,
churches, and a cathedral. At the height of its impor-
tance, Panama was known as the richest and most
luxurious city in the world. Prosperity continued until
the city was destroyed by the romantic English buccaneer
Sir Henry Morgan, in 1671.
In 1673, a new walled Panama was founded some
6 miles from the old site. For almost 200 years the old


NOVEMBER 1965





forest stone-paved highway from the
capital to Portobelo, on the Caribbean
side, was the thoroughfare over which
much of Spain's commerce passed.
Portobelo was a busy commercial
city where traders came from Europe
to trade with merchants from Peru, Chi-
le, and Mexico. During the 40 days of
its fair, Portobelo vibrated with human-
ity-slaves unloaded cargoes from the
Spanish galleons in the port, while
hundreds of mules, laden with native
products and treasures collected during
the year to send to Spain, passed through
the narrow streets of the town. Gold
and silver bars were piled up like fire-
wood in the Royal Treasury Building
ready to be used as a means of exchange
between the trader from Spain and the
buyers from America. Portobelo was
the victim of buccaneers and English
aggression several times.
It was not until the 18th century that
the flood of Peruvian treasure began
gradually to subside and the importance
of Panama began to wane. Spain was
emerging from her "Golden Age." Other
countries were making forced efforts to
participate in the New World trade.
The assaults and cruelties of the
pirates and the threats of the British to
establish themselves in America's vital
points disrupted the Panama-Portobelo
route. Traffic stoppage brought poverty
to Portobelo. Commercial life in Panama
became nil, but they maintained the
churches, the convents and way of
life. Thus, the colonial era and Spanish
power in Panama came to an end.
Then came the revolutionary move-
ment bringing a reawakening in the
provinces that stirred up the struggle
for independence. Politically, commer-
cially, and geographically Panama oc-
cupied, at this time, an isolated po-
sition as a much-neglected part of the
Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, com-
posed of the present countries of Co-
lombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Vene-
zuela. In 1821, the Panamanians de-
clared independence from Spain, and
united their lot with La Gran Colom-
bia. By terms of the incorporation Pan-
ama expressly reserved the right to
secede. And when Gran Colombia split
into three parts in 1830, a separatist
faction in Panama wanted independ-
ence, but after some hesitation Panama
attached itself to New Granada.
Simon Bolivar had predicted great-
ness for the Isthmus of Panama because
of its strategic position between two
oceans. In 1821, hoping to draw the
new republics closer together, he invit-
ed the provisional governments of Peru,
(See p. 26)


Lacy balconies overlooking a narrow street and a romantic street lamp preserve the flavor
of Panama's colonial splendor.


* it i ,


-1..


The Cathedral of Panama, started in 1688, was completed in 1796. Mother of pearl shells
adorn the twin towers of the beautiful colonial structure.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


t-





NOT ONLY is Panama the hub of
Central America geographically, it also
is one of the biggest sports centers in
Latin America.
Panama is a small, but sports-minded,
nation. Many Panamanians have become
stars in the sporting world-especially
in the United States. Athletes and sports
enthusiasts from over the world venture
to Panama for sporting events.
The tourist who visits Panama will
find many spectator and participation
sports available. One is horse racing.
\ Xtn.ill'. every weekend of the year
there is racing at the "Presidente
Rem6n" track, where thoroughbreds
from Panama compete with North and
South America's finest. Tourists are
admitted free by showing their tourist
card. Panamanians Braulio Baeza and
Manuel Ycaza are leading jockeys on
the stateside racing circuit.
Boxing fans will find a bout nearly
ever weekend at the National Gym or
the Olympic Stadium in Panama City,
or at the Colon Arena in Colon. Among
the Panamanians reaching world-
renow\ned status are the late Panama
Al Brown, former world's bantamweight
champion, and the current lightweight
title holder, Ismael Laguna.


, -., .



f J


World famous toreadors come to Panama during the dry season to fight native-bred and imported bulls.


NOVEMBER 1965




































Top South American and U.S. thoroughbreds head around the first turn at the President
Remon Track.


World renowned also is major league
baseball-and Panama is no exception.
From December to February fans jam
the National Stadium weekday nights
and Sunday afternoons to watch the
Panama Professional Baseball League
in action. The four teams, each from a
different province, are composed of
major leaguers and local talent. Pana-
manian players in the big leagues are
Hector Lopez iNen York Yankees),
Rutherford "Ghico" Salmon (Cleveland
Indians), and Emilio Phillips (Philadel-
phia Phillies). Numerous youth leagues,
both baseball and softball, provide for
Panama's future diamond stars.
The bullfight-a Spanish tradition for
centuries-has aficionados in Panama,
too. Mexican, Spanish, and South Amer-
ican bullfighters have their "moment of
truth" from January to April when they
confront Panama's native-bred bulls at
the Plaza de la Macarena in suburban
San Francisco de la Caleta.
All year round the handsomely main-
tained Panama Golf Club draws players
from the Republic and the Canal Zone.
In February, the club attracts some of
the world's top professionals for the
Panama Open. Last month, Mike Sou-
chack of the United States and Juan
"Chi Chi" Rodriguez of Puerto Rico
played a match there for ABC-TV's
"Wonderful World of Golf."


Basketball fans get top-flight action
in Panama June through September.
The Panama and Colon basketball
leagues offer fast, talented action and,
each year, the Panama All-Stars go to
the Central American and Panama
Games. In all the years that a Panama-
nian team has competed in the Games,
it has not lost a basketball game.
Panama's jungles are a hunter's dream
come true. The hunting enthusiast can
stalk jaguar, ocelot, puma, deer, wild-
cat, wild pig, and boar. Bird hunters can
search out wild turkey, duck, quail,
and wild dove.
Cockfighting has been a popular
activity in Panama for many years.
Cockfights take place every Sunday and
Monday at the "Club Gallistico de
Panama" in Panama City. In addition,
most interior towns have their own
well-rigged arenas.
If you prefer to go to the beach and
soak up sun or if you prefer a boating
excursion, Panama offers a wide variety
of choices on either side of the Isthmus.
Tops in popularity are the Pacific
side beaches at Rio Mar and Santa
Clara-which also boast several cabin
rental sites. Surfing is becoming quite
popular now at most interior beaches.
At the Olympic Swimming Pool in Pan-
ama City, tourists are admitted upon
(See p. 24)


Two players battle for a rebound in
Panama Basketball League action at the
National Gymnasium.


rHE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Carnival

I








z especial exhibits, and programs. The Panama Canal
7)1 /1 4* *^'U











organization tells the Canal story in a documentary
and through selections of slides and photographs.
/ ,^ L"















r A Mancha and Gato, the two well-known burros from
Summit CARNIVAL, IN PANAMA, starts 4 days before Lent
'-*- "l ._ ; S and closes at dawn on Ash Wednesday.
,' ) Fairs, in Panama, go on all-year-round in some
part of the country. No matter what month a visitor
yf^ \ L i, \may come to the Republic, somewhere a special
Sv. ti l .i.' fe .. ~ festivity will be underway.
SPanamas Whether Carnival or fair, the U.S. residents and
M, -- military and civilian organizations in the Canal Zone
/r'. : ., ; 11 actively participate and provide the support necessary
r'r .. f. f.y to insure the success of a special event.
";', .=a t .... -, Each fair in the Republic of Panama has its Queen,
;.. r '- ,,." ^ .' special exhibits, and programs. The Panama Canal
j / ." -* I." k organization tells the Canal story in a documentary
S. -' frT'-- ., and through selections of slides and photographs.
-., :., ." Mancha and Gato, the two well-known burros from
"--j^j ,^ ~Summit Gardens in the Canal Zone, always travel to
--^- f. Panama's fairs to give rides to the young fairgoers.
.,' Calves from the Panama Canal's Mindi Dairy Farm


8 NOVEMBER 1965












































usually are contributed by the Canal
organization as special prizes to Panama
agriculture students.
Carnival, like the fairs, is a time of
gaiety. But Carnival, more specifical-
ly, is a time of polleras, montunos,
costumes, and floats.
Traditional music of Carnival is heard
in Panama and the Canal Zone from the
first of January, and the Carnival Flag
of blue and white is raised with ap-
propriate ceremony in Panama and in
the Canal Zone during the first weeks
of the new year.
Throughout January, candidates for
Carnival Queen compete for the crown
to be worn by the representative of
each respective community, each social
center, and many organizations.
Carnival weekend is a busy one for
the many Queens. A Coronation Ball
for the Canal Zone Pacific Side Carnival
Queei is usually held at the Tivoli
Guest House. The Coronation Ball of
the Atlantic Side Queen generally is
held at the Breakers Club at Coco Solo.
Panama's official Carnival Queen, select-
(See p. 22)


The excitement of a rural fair in Panama. At this one, a group demonstrates the square
dance, a native dance of the United States. Typical Panamanian dances flavor all fairs
and furnish fun. The fair's primary purposes are to spotlight agricultural, commercial, and
industrial aspects of the area and to advance progress and knowledge in these areas.


Parade at Carnival time. This float boasts beautiful members of the Chinese colony riding
the back of a colorful dragon. The parade is a dazzling highlight of the Carnival.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








































This is the brightness of night in Panama, along Balboa Boulevard by the Bay of Panama.


I)iiuic at night, as a cool breeze from the bay sweeps across this terraced restaurant close
by the bay. A garden atmosphere completes the scene.


IT'S BEEN GOING on for the past 450
years or so.
Night life in Panama, that is.
It probably started when the first of
the gay Spanish dons set foot on the
Isthmus and it has been continuing in
various degrees of intensity ever since.
Although night life in Panama is far
more sleek and sophisticated than it
was in the wide open days of the con-
struction era or the World War II days,
it always has had a color and character
all its own and a gay, pulsating rhythm
purely Panamanian.
Tourists lucky enough to visit the
Isthmus during the annual Carnival
season will find all of Panama involved
in a gay 4-day party. In addition to the
regular entertainment offered by the
hotels, clubs and night spots, Carnival
brings to life the gay native dances in
the open-air dance halls called "toldos,"
built especially for the celebration in
many parts of Panama and the interior.
During the rest of the year there still
is plenty of bright entertainment rang-
ing from dinner under the stars in a
tropical garden to dancing in a luxuri-

10 NOVEMBER 1965




































Ruins at Panama Viejo are beautiful at night.


Near the modern hotel area, this open air restaurant offers a view of a busy thoroughfare.


ous hotel supper room and a whirl in
the glamorous gambling casinos. And
there are several air-conditioned motion
picture theaters featuring both Holly-
wood and European films.
Panama City boasts three topnotch
luxury hotels. One, the International, is
located near the shopping district in the
heart of town. The other two, the
Hotel El Continental and El Panama
Hilton, are near the elite residential
districts of Panama.
The International is noted for its
excellent restaurant and French cuisine.
The Hilton and the Continental have


deluxe supper rooms where the service,
the music and the floor shows are su-
perb. And there are Government-oper-
ated gambling casinos in both hotels.
Another excellent hotel with continental
food and music for dancing is La Siesta,
an attractive motel-type inn located near
Tocumen Airport. All are completely
air conditioned.
A popular place for cocktails before
dinner or drinks afterwards is the El
Bombarde Room of the Panama Hilton,
with its giant Wurlitzer organ played
nightly by Leroy Lewis. The organ,
one of the largest three-manual key-


board types ever built by Wurlitzer,
has 259 stops and can produce sounds
ranging from a whisper to a thunderous
roll.
Panama dishes and seafood are the
specialty of Club Panamar, an attractive
and popular restaurant with an open-air
tropical garden located on the shores of
Panama Bay. The service is excellent
and there is a wide selection of wines.
While the native dishes of Panama
can match those of any other country,
the visitor may wish to try another
variety. There are two excellent Chinese
(See p. 23)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


A sidewalk cafe, informal and gay.







Chiriqui Province:



Land of Contrasts


Ir .' -- .
'. 4 :
.', : ...' ,... '
; ..

Thoroughbred horses are raised at this
farm near Concepci6n, Chiriqui.


CHIRIQUI IS PANAMA'S province of
lovely contrasts. It's a place where a
half-hour drive takes you from the trop-
ical climate of its principal city, David,
to the eternal spring that graces the
mountain village of Boquete.
This province of towering peaks and
rich soil is about 300 miles from Pan-
ama-1 hour by air. A side trip to Chi-
riqui province is one that pays a traveler
many dividends.
There are several "musts" in the area.
One is the Boquete orange, a navel
orange unsuprassed in the world for
delicacy and flavor. Everyone should
experience the taste thrill of this fruit.
And, of course, the highlands of Chi-
riqui are famous for quality coffee, and
its lowlands for tobacco.
The province produces much of the
food for the Republic of Panama-there
are huge banana plantations, many
coffee fincas (farms), a huge citrus
development that will one day export
much orange juice, and high on the
slopes of the mountains are grown much
of the produce sold in the marketplaces


of Panama City and Colon. It also pro-
duces most of the beef for the country.
The vegetables grown in the rich
soils of the highlands are famous for
their size and quality. Fruits abound,
and the Boquete strawberry has a
wide reputation for its gigantic size and
sweetness.
The region boasts cold streams that
attract fishermen, and its woodlands
and mountainsides provide some of the
country's most beautiful scenery. Wild-
flowers, lakes, and the majesty of "el
volcan Baru" make Chiriqui a camera
fan's paradise.
In both David and Boquete there
are fine hotels and modern restaurants
and transportation. "Chiricanos" are
noted for their friendly spirit and for
their energy.
The area offers hunting, trout fish-
ing, and for the salt water fisherman,
the Pacific is nearby. Whether the
traveler goes by air, or takes the 8-hour
trip by car on the Inter-American
Highway from Panama City, he will
find his destination a rewarding one.


F/^.


The beauty of El Barn can be seen for miles in the Boquete area.


A placid lakeside scene in the Volcan area.


12 NOVEMBER 1965















Twins Roxana Varela, left, and Dagmar, in typical native costumes.





View of Panama


Poolside at the beautiful Panama Hilton Hotel.


On the waterfront, Panama City. Note the shrimp fleet at rear.


An aerial view of downtown Panama City.


A favorite spot for tourists in Panama.


The imposing Continental Hotel.





r.- r Ir I unnm

I-Ersr- "FSr r
I ~~--.7
usin". ...


Farming in the Chiriqui highlands.







Pleasure



Islands


AT OPPOSITE ENDS of the Republic
of Panama are two lovely places-both
a short distance form Panama's main
thoroughfares and both with an appeal
that attracts tourists who want some-
thing different, visitors who want to
really know the country .
Bocas del Toro, in western Panama,
and the San Bias Islands, in the eastern
part, are both on the Atlantic side of
Panama.
Bocas is a quiet, beautiful group of
islands, largely undiscovered by tour-
ists, though a few trickle in from nearby i
Panama City. It has its eye on the
future, and while e accommodations are
now limited, the potential for a brisk
tourist trade is tremendous.
The San Bias are unique islands; life
there goes on much as it did when Co- ,
lumbus sailed into the Bocas del Toro
area 463 years age. The short, indus- .,.'
trious Indian population is known local- f" '" .
ly for its self-sufficient and democratic
outlook. The San Bias live largely in Approaching the island of Ailig
Svessel that buys San Bias har
42 settlements scattered through 365 is-
lands. They are adopting some modern
conveniences, but socially they are se-
lective, r tinriiig many tribal customs "
and ceremonies.
The San Bias Islands are accessible
by air, and the enchanting view from ..
an airplane is, by itself, worth the mod- .-
est price of a ticket. This is one of the
musts for tourists and the trip can be
taken both ways in a day. In a few
years, the opportunity to take this trip
into the past may disappear.
For a souvenir, the tourist may want
to buy a mola, a beautiful and interest-
ing creation of the San Bias women.
Di sii,.. vary from geometric to birds,
\ illI.g scenes, animals, or symbols de-
piir.lihi cultural or religious themes.
Sewn by hand, the complicated stitch-
ing requires hours of hard work. Fram-
ed, the mola is an exquisite decoration.
At Bocas, the climate and beaches
are unsurpassed. And the fishing is su-
perb. Pr iL. are extremely reasonable,
:lhiIIIl the accommodations are not to
be compared with those in a modem city
or town; lrh \ are rudimentary and suited
to the tourist who doesn't require many San Bias Indian girls, with n
conveniences to enjoy his stay. perform in special tribal


andi in a cayuco-a native canoe. Boat at dockside is a trading
vest of coconuts, sells everything from nails to ice cream.


naracas and homemade flutes, practice a dance that they
ceremonies. Original music is composed for the dance.


14 NOVEMBER 1965










gY" .z


rlanwn


kJI ~iJ~


The pier at Bocas del Toro. Scenery on the
islands is magnificent and it is a place
where a walk is not a chore but an
enjoyable experience.


There is an interesting stalactite cave
to see, outer island trips to take, a
visit to a banana plantation, skindiving
in the clear waters, and water skiing.
Boats may be rented for fishing. Seafood
is abundant, and delicious Bocas del
Toro lobsters or turtle steaks are served
at the airport restaurant, 5 minutes
walking distance from the hotel.
Bocas is reached by daily air service
from Panama, and from David. Or, the
traveler can enjoy a scenic 7- or 8-hour
trip to David by auto and then fly to
Bocas.
Souvenirs from Bocas include stuffed
turtles, interesting items of tortoise shell,
or the beautifully preserved barracuda
heads, mounted on lacquered plaques.





This lobster weighed 14 pounds. The res-
idents of Bocas del Toro have a plentiful
supply of these tasty shellfish, fresh from
the surrounding waters.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


'I


;1.. .
'-- ~


IIfAW


14v






CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
I First quarter, fiscal year-


Nationality Nu

tra
Bilei. -
Chilean I
Chinese i\jt I
Colombian -----
Danish--------
French --------
German -------
Greek .-------
Honduran -----
Israeli ---------
Italian------
Japanese-------
Liberian -------
Mexican ....
Netherlands ----
Nicaraguan.. ---
Norwegian -----
Panamanian -
Peruvian ------
Philippine------
Swedish--------
Swiss ---------
United States ..
All Others -----
Total ----


1966
mber Tons
of of
nsits cargo
14 42,060
309 2. 32-.21b
23 1i .b
35 290,902
58 150,953
100 5 3 il('~
52 174,362
310 1,003,761
126 1. 11(. 4,
50 27,494
23 204,443
56 357.362
223 1, 14'I
294 3551.193
14 l1 ,1
150 487,998
17 28,497
393 3,755,969
133 621,823
33 175,921
20 91,073
103 622,110
18 18,191
338 1 14 "i"
61 530,805
* j3 3 1, i.,'-. "^.


Number Tons
of of
transits cargo
10 46,768
326 2,b6, -23
32 241.132
14 1 ,s5:
64 *: 5i1 1
68 4 33,h ,5
39 200,29,6
283 878,016
150 1,487,382
79 54 51i4
13 1,.2i, s
48 262,054
214 1 24 2n:3
245 ).tIl. I -35
14 12,247
168 613,486
16 14,861
362 2,988,576
143 702,561
40 174 5)4
19 63.112
110 687,948
20 5,718
436 2,669,544
63 511 379
2 *'7- lP Y'.3 31 :


1951-55


9ao5


Month


July------------
.IlaUils - ---
,)t 'l t. n er - -
October ----
November --------
December --------
January----------
February --. --
March ---------
April - - -
April -----------
May-- ---------
June- ---------
Totals for
Fiscal Year


T t Gross tolls *
Transits (In thousands of dollars)
Avg. No. Average
1966 1965 Transits 1966 1965 Tolls.
1951-55 1951-55
993 1,004 557 $5,604 $5,313 $2,432
983 1,004 554 5 4'8 5,497 2,403
977 970 570 5,456 5,339 2,431
1,018 607 5,484 2,559
988 568 5,435 2,361
1,021 599 5,641 2,545
921 580 4,982 2,444
819 559 4,523 2,349
1,084 632 6,231 2,657
1,052 608 5,888 2,588
1,010 629 5,732 2,672
944 599 5,384 2,528

2,953 11 '65 7,062 16,548 $65,449 $i29.9hj


* Before deduction of any operating expenses.


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into 8 main trade routes:
S First quarter, fiscal year-


Trade routes


United States Intercoastal -------------------
East coast of United States and South America -
East coast of United States and Central America -
East coast of United States and Far East_ -
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia -
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada -
Europe and South America_- -__- --
Europe and Australasia ------------_-------
All other routes ----------------_--__-_---
Total traffic --_-- ____


1966

104
440
159
634
110
223
339
83
861
2,953


1965

135
541
169
562
113
235
338
84
799
2,976


Avg. No.
Transits
1951-55
178
387
113
239
49
167
111
83
353
1,680


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal Years)


1


i


Average Average
number tons
transits of cargo
1 2,307
286 1,753,044
15 07567
3 2).2 '.6
35 40,056
60 220,751
31 129,938
38 '5.95(
28 221,1'4,
93 131,492
30 146,915
------- --- -- -

57 367,978
31 189,420
28 131,769
4 3,288
189 723,252
96 548,900
5 13,392
6 30,561
48 183,337
2 11,789
538 3,364,851
56 106,726
1,680 8,502,690


Cruise Liners




To Call Here




During Season


More than 10,000 tourists, scheduled
to arrive aboard 20 or more luxurious
cruise liners, will visit Panama and the
Canal Zone during the 1965-66 cruise
season.
Traveling on cruises around the world
and to such romantic and faraway
places as the South Seas, the Orient and
the West Indies, they will spend a day
or more ashore on the Isthmus shopping
and visiting points of interest.
Agents handling the winter and spring
cruise ships have announced their ad-
vance itineraries which will bring to the
Canal during the next few months such
well-known vessels as the huge United
States, the Home Lines' new Oceanic,
and the Zim Line's new Shalom. Another
new ship making her maiden cruise to
the Canal is the Norwegian America
liner Sagafjord, due November 22 on a
Caribbean cruise and April 6 on the
last lap of a world cruise.
The cruise season opened October 17
with the arrival in Cristobal of the Nor-
wegian America liner Oslofjord, a fa-
miliar winter visitor. This ship will call
at Cristobal again January 22.
Another Norwegian America Line
vessel due in January is the Bergensfjord,
traveling from New York on a 77-day
cruise. This vessel transits the Canal
January 24 and docks in Balboa before
departing for the Galapagos Islands, the
South Seas, Australia, New Zealand, and
back around South America.
C. B. Fenton, local agents for the
NirVt-gian America Line, the Flagship
Line, the Swedish America Line and the
Home Lines, also announced the sched-
uled arrival of the Viking Princess, a
Flagship Line luxury ship due in Balboa
December 17 following a world cruise.
The vessel will berth in Cristobal.
The Swedish America liner Grips-
holm, also on a world cruise, is due in
Cristobal January 13 and will transit the
same day to dock in Balboa.
One of the newest ships on the cruise
schedule is the Oceanic, which flies
the flag of Panama and is the ultra-
modern flagship of the Home Lines.

16 NOVEMBER 1965






This ship started service between New
York and Nassau last April and is mak-
ing her first visit to the Isthmus. She
will arrive in Cristobal February 15 on
a 15-day cruise out of New York. A stop
at the San Bias Islands is included.
The Hanseatic, another well-known
Home liner, is due in Cristobal Feb-
ruary 17 on a W\..st Indies cruise out of
Port Everglades, Fla.
Due in Cristobal December 23 on a
Christmas cruise to the West Indies is
the new Zim liner Shalom, a beautiful
cruise vessel placed in service last year.
The United Fruit Co., agents for Zim
Lines and the Moore-McCormack Line,
announced the scheduled arrival of the
SS Argentina in January from New York
on a Caribbean cruise.
The SS United States, one of the great
passenger liners of modern times and
one of the fastest, will arrive in Cristo-
bal February 12 on her third visit to
Cristobal. The 990-foot liner will be
brought to dock at about 7 a.m. and
will remain here until 2 a.m. the follow-
ing day when it will sail for Kingston,
Jamaica. Panama Agencies represent
the United States Line here.
The North German Lloyd liner Bre-
men is due February 25 for a 1-day visit
as part of a West Indies cruise. Conti-
nental Shipping Corp. is the agent.
Four cruise vessels owned by the
Holland America Line are due to visit
the Canal this season. They are the
Ryndam, the Maasdam, the Rotterdam,
and the Statendam. All are well-known
winter visitors and all are scheduled to
pass through the Canal and dock either
in Balboa or Cristobal. The Ryndam
will arrive in Balboa April 16 from Aus-
tralia, the Maasdam is due January 22
in Balboa from the South Seas; the Rot-
terdam will come to Balboa April 8
after a world cruise, and the Statendam
is due in Balboa December 3.
Pacific Ford, agents for Cunard and
Royal Mail Lines as well as for the Hol-
land America Line ships, announced
that the Cunard cruise liner Caronia
would make its annual visit to the Canal
April 29 on the last lap of a world cruise
and that the Royal Mail liner Andes was
due in Cristobal January 24.
The P. & O. Orient Lines, represented
here by Norton Lilly & Co., have eight
voyages scheduled to include the Pan-
ama Canal during the 1965-66 cruise
season.
These cruises are scheduled for the
Oronsay, due here November 20 and
October 9; the Arcadia, due Decem-
ber 4; the Orsova due February 2; the
Chusan due December 19 and the Can-
berra, flagship of the line, due April 29.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic


Commodity


Ores, various ------- __ __
Lumber-________--________
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) ---
Wheat-
Sugar------- ---------------
Canned food products ---------------
Nitrate of soda -------------___
Fishmeal ---- __- _____
Bananas---- ----- __________ ______
Metals, various -- -__--__--_--
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit)------------ --------__
Coffee______ ---- __-----_-________---
Pulpwood________ ______
Iron and steel manufactures -----
Sulfur -------------
All others ----------
Total -----


First quarter, fiscal year-


1966

1,717,385
1,088,396
148,974
257,918
840,926
256,459
133,473
229,073
309,234
363,871

179,443
105,538
134,587
856,840
75,954
1.5tbl..' I
8,259,882


Atlantic to Pacific


Commodity


1966
Rice -- -- --------------- ------- 103,671
Sugar --.----- -- 168,273
Sulfur---_------------ 118,208
Bauxite---- ----- 175,824
Coal and coke---------------------------- 1,713,914
Sorghum_______ ------------------------ 149,740
Ammonium compounds-------------------- 97,664
Phosphates --- -----_--------------- 778,403
Soybeans --------------_---- ------ 411,888
Fertilizers, unclassfied ___________ ---- 119,828
Wheat --------- -- -- -----__--- 191,559
Iron and steel manufactures---------------- 436,755
Co --------rn--_---------------- 825,376
Machinery _____________ 106,902
Ores, various---------------------------- 121,765
Metal (scrap) ---------- 510,379
Paper and paper products------------------ 125,053
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) ---- 3,484,786
Chemicals, unclassified-- 199,092
All others -------- -------------- 1,599,626
Total _----- 11,43806
11,438,706


1965

1,975,959
1,058,749
291,459
179,693
826,657
252,338
156,590
320,483
327 57's
-.22,953

205,568
88,085
143,739
426,827
115,863
1,294,877
7,957,415


Average
1951-55
987,567
798,109
339,598
473,208
346,218
309,830
250,093
N.A.
155,958
175,110

142,823
60,065
44,248
39,171

747,752
4,869,750


First quarter, fiscal year-


1965

67,865
244,688
123,385
196,485
1,429,851
88,837
84,892
708,341
328,847
126,044
152,030
361,229
624,373
109,823
257,239
697,992
152,030
3,608,789
207,198
1,365,977
10,935,915


Average
1951-55
28,420
99,311
96,831
7,910
539,013
N.A.
37,794
156,591
43,705
35,221
49,017
376,917
12,729
66,690
53,676
10,321
90,900
709,710
45,236
1,172,908
3,632,900


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

First quarter, fiscal year-


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing ----__-- -
Small*----------
Total commercial _______ ------
U.S. Government vessels: **
Oceangoing-_ __- __ --
Small* -------
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment _--_-- _____


Atlantic
to
Pacific

1,496
74
1,570

131
14

1,715


Pacific
to
Atlantic

1,457
41
1,49S


Total


2,953
115
3,068


18 149
26 40


1,542


3,257


1965

Total


2,976
163
3,139

67
30

3,236


Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Avg. No
Transits
1951-55

Total


1,680
304
1,984

201
89

2,274


.


Atlantic to Pacific







Visitor s



Notebook



On Panama

VISITORS TO THE Republic of Pan-
ama and the Canal Zone come by every
mode of transportation ever invented by
man. They come by sea, by air, and over
the InterAmerican HiTh\.L' traveling
by conventional plane, boat, car and
bus. Some have come on motorcycles
and bicycles, and there also have been
intrepid hikers-all with the Isthmus as
their v..l
The only tourist requirements are a
smallpox vaccination and a tourist card.
The former is compulsory for all travel-
ers, by international regulations. The
latter sells for S2 and is obtained through
any travel agency or transportation
company. The tourist card permits the
visitor to remain 30 days, and may be
extended to 90 days when the tourist
is in the country.
If the traveler has a valid passport, so
much the better. Instead of a tourist
card, he may secure through the Pan-
amanian consulate a tourist visa valid
for 90 days.
U.S. currency is used in the Canal
Zone and the Republic of Panama.
The monetary unit of Panama is the bal-
boa, and prices may be quoted in bal-
boas, written B/. Minted, but not in
wide circulation, is the balboa, a silver
coin equivalent to the U.S. dollar. Pan-
ama has no paper money and uses the
U.S. paper money, while all the coun-
try's coins are equivalent to U.S. coins.
Fr., .elers' checks are accepted by hotels
and business establishments.
The climate is tropical, with relatively
liic but even temperatures thri.igh'oit
the year. December through April is
Panama's summer, or di,. season, and
January usually is Panama's loveliest
month. The landscape, in January, is
still fresh and green from the rainy
season which ends in December, and
unseared by the constant sun and inter-
mittent trade winds of the dry season.
It is cl' r.ll'., cool and not sultry as
lliring the rainy season.
Sportswear and summer clothing are
worn oihr. IL'luIt the year in Panama.
nB.l,ilE suits are important in the Isth-
mian wardrobe and so are comfortable


Balboa Boulevard winds along the inner crescent of beautiful Panama City, and no visitor
should miss an opportunity to see this scenic thoroughfare.


low-heeled shoes for tours, shopping, or
trips to the country.
The Republic of Panama geograph-
ically links Central and South America,
and its biggest tourist attraction, of
world renown, is the Panama Canal in
the Canal Zone.
The Canal was built by the United
States at a cost of $380 million and rep-
resents 10 years of hard work. It is ap-
proximately 50 miles long, deep water
to deep water, and follows a north-
westerley to southeasterly direction.
The entire area of the Canal Zone
population in 1960, including the U.S.
Armed Forces, was 42,122.
The population of the Republic of
Panama, in the 1960 census, was
1,075,541, with 41.5 percent urban and
58.5 percent rural. Panama Cirt, the
most populated area, has more than
300,000 inhabitants.
The sanitation of the Isthmus and the
provision of a pure water supply were
problems of crreatst consequence in the
successful completion of the Panama


Canal and these problems were solved
during construction days. There is an
ample supply of pure filtered water
today.
Milk is pasteurized, Panama's meats
are good, and the fish are excellent.
Fruits and vegetables are excellent, too.
Transportation between the Atlantic
and Pacific sides of the Isthmus is avail-
able by railway or highway. The Pan-
ama Railroad crosses the Isthmus in
1 hour 25 minutes for the 48-mile trip
and the round trip costs $2. Twelve
p.is,~-iner trains operate daily between
Colon and Panama City, and weekends
there are 14 passenger trains.
Bus lines serve the principal areas in
the Canal Zone, the cities of Panama and
Colon, and the interior of the Republic
traveling over the multimillion-dollar
Thatcher Ferry Bridge.
Arr.ima mn.nte; for cars for hire may
be made privately or through one of
the several reputable travel agencies in
Panama. As for language, both English
and Spanish are commonly spoken.

18 NOVEMBER 1965







THE PANAMA CANAL


This mammoth water staircase raises ships from the level of the Atlantic Ocean, at bottom of picture, to Gatun Lake,
in background, in three steps. The lake is 85 feet above the level of the Atlantic.


WHETHER IT IS A visitor's first look
or his 50th, there has never been one
with soul so dead that he does not thrill
at the sight of the huge ocean liners
smoothly climbing the 85-foot water
stairs of Gatun Locks on the Atlantic
side or being locked through the two
locks at Miraflores and one at Pedro
Miguel on the Pacific side of the Canal.
As the tourist pamphlets say, it is an
engineering triumph that never fails to
stimulate a deep feeling of amazement
and respect.
From the mechanical standpoint, the
Panama Canal remains one of the
wonders of the world. Even though the
construction of larger and larger mer-
chant vessels has been one factor lead-
ing to the call for a new and larger
waterway, the Panama Canal is still of
significance to the entire world and a
primary influence on world commerce.
It is also a thrill to stand at the
visitor's lookout at Contractors' Hill
and watch the never-ending parade of
freighters, tankers, superships and sleek
liners as they steam majestically through
the narrow ribbon of Gaillard Cut.
Visitors to the Panama Canal will be

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19


Vital Vo Trade,

Jt 4lJo cttiacti

ManOY Z)ouriJtj

interested primarily in the operation of
the locks, the view of the bay from the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge in Balboa, and
a partial transit through the Cut aboard
the Panama Canal sightseeing launch
Las Cruces, which has been available
to an increasing flow of Isthmian visitors
since 1962.
While the locks are engineering mar-
vels, the trip through Gaillard Cut gives
a vivid picture of the difficulties en-
countered by the Canal builders in slic-
ing a "big ditch" through hundreds of
feet of rock and shale which make up
the continental divide.
Members of the Panama Canal Guide
Service, an elite and knowledgeable
corps, are on hand to explain the work-
ing of the Panama Canal locks.
Points of interest which the Isthmian


visitor may also tour on his own include
the famous Summit Gardens where there
is one of the world's most complete col-
lection of tropical plants; Madden Dam
where the Canal's water supply is stor-
ed; the Canal Administration Building;
Gorgas Hospital; the Canal Zone Li-
brary Museum; and the palm-shaded
avenues of Balboa, Ancon, Margarita
and other Canal Zone community towns.
Madden Lake, a reservoir stretching
for 19 miles behind Madden Dam, is
one of the favorite recreation spots for
Isthmian residents. The lake is used for
boating, fishing and swimming. The
Canal Zone Boy Scouts have a year-
round camp there and the Hydro-
graphic Branch of the Panama Canal
maintains water stations on the banks
of the Pequini, Bocaron, and Chagres
Rivers.
Summit Gardens, located on the crest
of the continental divide, is a wonder-
land for the naturalist, the botanist or
the casual visitor. Established in 1923
as a plant introduction garden, some
15,000 different kinds of plant life have
been introduced. There is a rapidly
(See p. 20)


Gatun Locks.



































Panama Canal

Jj a Aust

Jor viditori

(Continued from p. 19)
S i'.[. ig zoo and picnic grounds.
The Panama Canal is only 51 years
old, but the Isthmus of Panama on
which it is situated has a rich heritage
of historic legend and human interest
dating back as far as the Spanish
conquistadores.
Tourists on a brief visit may miss
some of the historic sites and crum-
bling ruins such as the fortifications of
Fort San Lorenzo on the Atlantic Side
and the Las Cruces Trail over which
was shipped the gold and silver treasure
of the Americas.
Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the
Chagres River protected the Atlantic
terminus of the old Cruces Trail used
from 1530 to 1855 for commercial and
Ip.i'. ir'' traffic over the Isthmus. The
old fort was attacked and captured
several times by the FriL'lih' during the
lAl, 17th and 18th centuries.
V. ,lii of the old Cruces Trail mav
be seen today ilthnihiLi ii was l1ni, ago
abandoned as i hI].I'h..I. A stretch
still in fairly i ...n l. o rIliIn.ii crosses the


Stored behind Madden Dam is the water supply that carries the Canal operation through
the dry season. The huge lake also attracts fishermen.


Where Las Cruces trail begins. The historical cannon is reminiscent of the days when
Spanish explorers used this trail across the Isthmus to transport looted gold.


20 NOVEMBER 1965







The Canal Zone:


Tourist Magnet

Madden Dam Road in the center of the
Canal Zone forest reservation, one of
the beauty spots of the Canal Zone.
Picnic tables are available there for
those who want to eat lunch or barbecue
after walking along the historic cobble-
stone trail.
The Panama Railroad, built in 1855
and the first transcontinental railroad
in this hemisphere, follows the Pan-
ama Canal channel for most of its
50-mile length. Equipped with modem
diesel engines and comfortable passen-
ger coaches, it gives the visitor a good
view of the Canal.
At the end of a day of sightseeing.
visitors may find it relaxing to pay a call
on the venerable Tivoli Guest House.
Built in 1906, since 1951 it has been a
guest house, but only for official Panama
Canal visitors. One of its first guests was
President Theodore Roosevelt and his .
party when they came to the Isthmus The entrance to Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the Chagres River. The fort played
in 1906. a vital part in early Isthmian history.















s al k o ,




pas.rs."
*1










The Panama Canal Guide Service at Miraflores and Gatun Locks Another train crosses the Isthmus on the oldest transcontinental
serves thousands of visitors a year, at pavilions at the locks, aboard railroad in the hemisphere. Completed in 1855, it was rebuilt by
passenger ships, and on tours, the United States after 1900. In this view it runs beside the Canal.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21






* ^ ''-


Aboard this float in the Carnival parade are Panamanian beauties in the beautiful native
costume, the pollera.


The splendor of the luxurious pollera, typ-
ical Panamanian costume, against the
ancient backdrop of stone in the Old Pan-
ama Cathedral tower. Miss Ilka Rubella
Crosthwaite P. models the dress.


.o.
.

RK-aa -- '^i-


A native conjunto plays as dancers in costume entertain onlookers
at Panama Viejo.


Youngsters lead calves at a fair. Display of livestock, including
those nurtured under 4-H Club sponsorship, is a feature of fairs
in the interior of Panama.


Carnival and Fairs-Traditional in Panama


(Continued from p. 9)
ed by the Panama Carnival Junta, is
crowned in a beautiful ceremony at
Panama Cit,.'s Olympic Stadium.
On Carnival Saturday, the President
of the Republic of Panama receives in
audience the Panama Crit Queen, the
Canal Zone Pacific Side Queen, the
Queen of the Chinese colony in Panama,
and other Queens.
Traditional Pollera Day is Sunday of


Carnival Week. The Carnival Queens,
accompanied by King Momo and all
the court, parade through the main
streets in open cars. A Carnival Classic
is usually held that afternoon at the
Remon Race Track in Panama City,
with all the Carnival Queens as honor
guests.
Carnival Monday is sprinkled with
confetti and looped with serpentine from
the mock "battles" by Carnival merry-


makers up and down Panama City's
Central Avenue and other streets of the
city that are closed to traffic.
The climax of Carnival in Panama is
Carnival Tuesday, when a parade is held
in the afternoon. The Panama Canal
organization, U.S. Armed Forces in the
Canal Zone, industries in Panama and
the Panama Carnival Junta are repre-
sented in color and original floats. Each
(See p. 30)

22 NOVEMBER 1965


~Yr


j E !~s


























Downtown Panama after dark. Central Avenue is a splash of neon and moving cars.


Panama


After


Dark
(Continued from p. 11)
restaurants, the Gran China on Balboa
Avenue near the sea and the Restau-
rante Gran Formosa on the Trans-
Isthmian Highway.
Italian food is the specialty of the
Capri, an open-air restaurant across
from the Panama Hilton and La Fioren-
tina on Ricardo Arias Avenue. For char-
coal broiled steaks U.S. style, there is
the Club 21 on Via Espafia.
If a visitor is not too tired after a day
of swimming, fishing or sightseeing, he
can take in one of a number of night
clubs where things are jumping and the
local atmosphere and music are exotic.
There are El Sombrero on Via Espafia
with bright new shows imported from
South America; Maxims, an intimate
night club across the street from the
Panama Hilton and any number of
smaller intimate bars and night spots.
A conducted tour of the city's night
life may be arranged.


Panama's theaters draw large evening crowds.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


N







































Ismael Laguna, left, and Carlos Ortiz trade
blows in bout in which Laguna captured
lightweight crown. They will fight again
November 13.


Panama Sports

Suit All Tastes
(Continued from p. 7)
presentation of identification. A launch
trip to Taboga Island puts you on
the most beautiful beaches in Panama.
Boating is expanding as recreation in
Panama. The Panama Yacht Club offers
excellent facilities.
Tennis lovers will find the tennis
courts at the Olympic Swimming Pool
.~..l.l1h, at a nominal fee. The local
open tennis tournaments are held at the
pool courts.
A rapidly rising sport in Panama is
bowling. Panama bowling enthusiasts
In to bowling alleys in the Zone, but
a $400,000, 16-lane establishment, next
to Sears on the Trans-Isthmian High-
way, is scheduled to open next month.
In short, the stopover tourist, the
. retL:l'. vacationer, and visitors to the
Isthmus-all can find nearly every sport
or outdoor activity to satisfy their ath-
letic and recreational wishes.


Baseball action in Panama. The Republic has sent many of its top baseball men to the
major leagues in the United States.


NOVEMBER 1965







CAiNAL HISTORY


50 Year cgo
TRAFFIC THROUGH the Panama
Canal came to a halt October 18, 1915,
when slides, which had plagued Canal
authorities earlier that year, completely
closed Gaillard Cut. The major slide
occurred about 1,000 feet north of Gold
Hill and blocked the channel for the fol-
lowing 6 months. Five dredges were
immediately brought into the area and
work of removing the slide material con-
tinued on a 24-hour-a-day basis. Ship-
ping tied up at Balboa and Cristobal
while some vessels took on fuel and
stores for the long trip around the
Straits of Magellan. At one time there
were 83 vessels tied up in the Canal
awaiting passage.
The blocking of the Canal caused a
heavy increase in the demand for food
supplies, upset the normal conditions of
supplying coal and placed an unusual
burden of traffic on the Panama Rail-
road, which was used again for the first
time since the Canal opened to traffic,
for the transfer of cargo between the
terminal ports. In October 1915, the
railroad was handling between 4,000
and 5,000 tons of transisthmian freight
per day.
While the Dredging Division worked
on removing the slide, heavy rains
caused the sharpest rise of the Chagres
River and Gatun Lake since the Canal
was placed in commercial operation.


25 Year 4go
EXPANSION OF military installations
in the Canal Zone was being planned
25 years ago as a result of the war in
Europe. Work continued on the con-
struction of hangars at Howard Field
and plans were announced for the
construction of underground air raid
shelters.
Secretary of Navy Frank Knox said
that President Roosevelt had allocated
$50 million to construct air and naval
bases in the Caribbean. He planned a
visit to Coco Solo later in the year.
The first step toward the construction
of a tunnel or bridge to replace the in-
adequate ferry system across the Canal
was taken by the United States with
the appointment of an engineer to study
the problem and decide where a tunnel
or bridge should be located. The United
States also announced that it would
build a road between Madden Dam and
Cativa.

10 Year3d aio
FORMAL ACCEPTANCE of the Con-
tractors Hill project was made in Sep-
tember 1955 after the Tecon Corpora-
tion of Texas had completed the work
in 15 months. The project was the
largest of its kind in the history of the
Canal since construction days. It was
primarily preventive work to avoid a
possible rock fall which could have


blocked the channel in Gaillard Cut.
The bronze bust of Count Ferdinand
de Lesseps, whose name is linked with
the early history of the Panama Canal,
was formally presented to the Panama
Canal in November 1955 by the Board
of Directors of the Suez Canal Com-
pany. The presentation ceremony, held
in the Administration Building at Bal-
boa Heights, marked the 150th anni-
versary of de Lesseps' birth and was a
feature of a worldwide observance of the
Ferdinand de Lesseps sesquicentennial
celebration.
Specifications were prepared and
invitations for proposals were being
issued for test models of the new power-
ful replacement towing locomotives for
the Panama Canal locks. The project
was the biggest single replacement
order for Panama Canal equipment
cost-wise, in the history of the waterway.
One year a4o
ONE OF THE last phases of the long
range program for widening the Pan-
ama Canal channel from 300 to 500 feet
came to a close last September when
the last yard of the 51 million cubic
yards of earth overburden was removed.
The work begun on a contract awarded
to Moretti and Harrison of Miami in
January 1963 involved the removal of
51 million cubic yards of earth over-
burden on the 3%-mile Las Cascadas-
Bas Obispo Reaches.


,i


Pedro Miguel Locks in March 1915. These ships were moored to the lock walls, delayed by slides in the Cut near Gold Hill. A few
months later, slides closed the Canal and it took 6 months to clear it for traffic.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


i
; ;;
*
r~e

I i


~p~
r







The Isthmus: Focal Point of History


f ^^f ^ ^

A new city of Panama was built within
massive walls 2 years after the destruction
of Old Panama. Portions of the old wall are
still seen in parts of the city, mainly at Las
Bovedas and along the shoreline of the city.

(Continued from p. 5)
Argentina, and Chile to an international
congress to be held in Panama. How-
ever, unsettled conditions prevented
the conference at that time. It wasn't
until 1826 that the congress convened
with representatives of Colombia, Pe-
ru, Central America, and Mexico and
drafted a treaty of perpetual union.
This first attempt to achieve unity
among the nations of the Western
Hemisphere is known as the Panama
Congress.
Panama continued as a department
of the United States of Colombia for a
period of 82 years-from 1821 to No-
vember 1903. During these years many
projects for a Panama Canal were
placed before the Governments of La
Gran Colombia and later Nueva Grana-
da. The most int, iliwi, events in the
history of Panama since her separation
from Spain are those connected with
efforts to build a canal from the Carib-
bean to the Pacific. Bolivar approved
the idea in theory, as had others.
The search continued for a route
across the Isthmus. At various times,
E.nl lid and France showed great in-
terest in this waterway route. The Gov-
ernment of the United States did not
Iciii to consider the matter mind 1835.
At this time, President Jackson was
asked by the U.S. Senate to consider


negotiating with Nueva Granada and
the Central American Republics in
respect to such a canal.
Nothing came of this at the time.
It wasn't until the western frontier of
the United States became part of the
United States, a result of the Mexican
War, and the need for making the new
possessions more accessible from the
Eastern States, that the franchise to
construct a railroad was secured from
the Nueva Granada Government. A
year later, in 1849, the gold rush of
the "fortv-niners" to California gave
impetus to the land route and the
Panama Railroad was born.
In those days there were no railroads
uniting the east and west of the United
States. Because of the Indians inhabit-
ing the central part of the United
States, it was dangerous and almost
impossible to cross the country. The
safest way was via the Isthmus of Pan-
ama. The sailboats and steamers carry-
ing the adventurers to the Isthmian
ports brought riches to Panama again.
The Isthmian towns came alive again-
hotels and transportation facilities were
organized for the travelers. Life and
splendor came to the Isthmus once
more.
Panama was experiencing years of
abundance similar to the happy times
of the Portobelo fairs. The construction
of the railroad brought development of
Manzanillo Island where Colon stands
today. Workers were brought in. First
came the Irish workmen who soon were
overcome by the climate. Malaria and
fellow fever also put an end to the
Chinese, who replaced the Irish. Ja-
maicans were brought in to complete
the work on the construction of the
railroad. The famous Panama Railroad
was opened to traffic in 1855.
In the United States the great water-
way project still hung fire. Between
1857 and 1863 an almost unbroken
series of factional disturbances agitated
New Granada. Several times the safety
of the Panama Railroad gave new
impetus to the plans for a canal.
In Mav, 1876, Colombia granted a
concession for the construction of a
canal by wav of Panama to Lt. Lucien
Napoleon Bonaparte Wvse, an officer
in the French Army. This concession
he sold to a group of French financiers,
who persuaded the builder of the Suez,
Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, to join
them.
In 1881, the French organized La
Compagnie Universelle du Canal In-
teroceanique. Disease, mismanagement,


extravagance, corruption, and technical
incompetence have been ascribed as the
causes of the French company's failure,
and in 1889, after 8 years of work, the
company went bankrupt. A new com-
pany was formed in 1894 but did no
work.
The U.S. Government then entered
into negotiations with Colombia to take
over the project; but the treaty between
the two governments, known as the
Herran-Hay Treaty, was rejected by the
Colombian Senate.
For Colombia, the canal was im-
portant but not decisive. For Panama
it meant life or death. Colombia's re-
jection of the treaty meant the end of
Panama's only means of economic sal-
vation. Without a canal there would
surely be an economic crisis. There
were visions of the dark days of pov-
erty and misery that existed before the
construction of the Panama Railroad.
It was during these negotiations that
Panama decided her destiny, and on
the 3d of November, 1903, she declar-
ed her separation from Colombia and
became a republic. Panama had made
many attempts to free herself-53 up-
risings in 57 years. On the 18th of
November 1903, the Hay-Bunau Vari-
Ila Treaty was signed between Panama
and the United States.
Five years elapsed between the
French collapse and the beginning of
the U.S. effort to build the canal.
Am:rican engineers found much of
the work done by the French usable,
especially in Culebra Cut. But they
changed the plan for the canal from
sea-level to a lock-type canal.
Before starting the construction
work, the Americans considered of ut-
most importance the improvement of
sanitary conditions on the Isthmus. They
brought immediate changes: nmuldd
streets were paved and proper sew-
erage systems were installed. Within
2 ears thev eradicated yellow fever
and reduced fatalities from other dis-
eases. Sanitary precautions were estab-
lished and enforced, making Panama
one of the healthiest countries in the
hemisphere.
Ten years later the Panama Canal
was built. The dream and prophecy of
many had been realized. Since then
Panama has prospered and taken her
place among the free nations of the
world. Her position between the two
mighty oceans shall always be the most
important factor toward an even more
brilliant future.

26 NOVEMBER 1965







ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


MARINE BUREAU
Cyril V. Atherton,
Leader Maintenanceman
James T. Chambers
Clerk
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Hubert A. Dawkins
Chauffer
Adolphus E. Johnson
Helper (Materas Handlin Equipment
Repairmanl'
Claudius A a
Clerk

Clerk
Harold d\ -- AT I

SUPPLY ADVICE
BUREAU
David A. Fyffe
Snack Bar Operator
Reuben T. Stewart
Assistant Retail Store Manager
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Frederick C. Bitter
Chief Engineer, Towboat, Salvage
Pablo Marin
Leader Maintenanceman


ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE
DIVISION
Conrad A. Boyd
Packer (Light)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
BUREAU
Joseph L. H. Demers
Supervisory Storage Officer
Albert E. Watson
Lead Foreman (Gro ds
Ucaston A. Barclay
Leader Maintenanceman
Douglas C. Best
Illustrator (General)
Beauford J. Hartley
Leader Engineman (I- ting d
Portable)
George W. Hinds
Sales Section Head
John T. Pessoa
Sales Section Head
Conrad A. Walrond
Sales Section Head
Cecil D. Gooding
Assistant Commissary Store Manager
Arthur J. Mike
Retail Store Department Manager
(General)


4f,
1 ---L
^mm m an a
.- J,.' ,l ml



*T I.'


The luxury liner Shalom will visit the port of Cristobal on December 23. This will be the
first visit of this ship to the area. It will call while on a Christmas cruise to the West Indies.


MARINE BUREAU
John R. Bruland, Jr.
Associate Supervisory Inspector
(Boilermaker)
Thomas J. Pimento
Machinist (Marine)
Cecil O. Brooks
Seaman
Joh urns
4Chief HN never, Towboat
colAs .nt a
Cement ni er (Maintenance)
George W. ul ns, Jr.
Lock Ope t (Engineman-Hoisting and
Porta e)
N tEa NG AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Belisario Angulo
Laborer
Leslie A. Hurdle
Seaman
TomAs Rios
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Leopoldo De Gracia
Cement Finisher
Arthur U. Johnson
Helper Plumber
Frederick McClure
Carpenter
Charles S. Smith II
Guard
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Herman C. Graham
Cargo Clerk
George J. Herring
Yardmaster
Archibald W. Lecky
Freight Rate Assistant
Maxwell S. Sanders
General Foreman (Fuel Operations)
Sixto Guti6rrez
Linehandler
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Adamary Anderson
Counselor (U.S. Schools)
Calmer A. Batalden
Teacher (U.S. Schools)
Mary B. Journeay
Instructor (Canal Zone College)
Thomas L. Sellers
Foreman, Mailing Division (IP)
Gaddis Wall
District Police Commander
HEALTH BUREAU
Jennie G. Johannes
Nurse Supervisor (Pediatrics)
Ora V. Stich
Librarian (Medical and Biological
Sciences)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





'-V


a-


THE HOOK SETS tight and the line
slices through blu-bl.Nak % atter, the- reel
Slhuni es ad \our line is straight and
.htrd. like a iamrid The great black
nimarli ha. st'IruLk
lii Panama. lihere the marlin are
plentiful this iniompiarjble thrill of
hooking O)nI of the \\%ld', biggest anid
nmst challenging fish is nut rare. Most
likely it will be a marlin, but it could be
the Pacific sailfish, which h is much big-
ger than the Atlantic %ariet), or the
moniitrous sawfish The world's record
for sawhsh %as set in Paiiarna waters.
'I here 21 other wiorll's record fish have
been landed, including black, blue and
silver marlin snook, amberjack. sailfsh.
and giant sea bass
Panama's name means "abindaince of
ish." acrordirir to one popular transla-
hron. And the fish abound irn waters that


can be reached from Panama City in a
tr \ m iriutLes.
Angorg the pt-,ple who take fishing
seriousl. the marlin is the big thing in
Panam.i. These giant fighters are the
bluck. striped, and blue marlin. Ap-
parentlv, thire is a1 growing belief that
there is also a silver marlin. About
i9 pCrIent It the niarlin caught are
the black and tht e a'.erage 250 to 300i
pounds. However, a 400 or 500 pound
marlin is not .t all uncommon. The
world's record for the black marlin is
1.560 pounds
.M.-lhi are caught by trolling. Live
bonita is the best bait, but a marlin \will
hit strip of cut bonita too'. Though
bats troll at moderate speed to make it
easier for the marlin. thtre's no worr)
about that. A marlin can outrnm an\
fishing boat. Onci the hook is set. the


This 85-pound red snapper was caught in
Panama waters by Leo Krziza, right,
kneeling.

boat is worked toward the fish as the
angler pumps the rod. Hooked in the
gill, a vital spot, a marlin can be boated
in 5 to 20 minutes. But if he's hook-
ed in the bill or the eye, the battle can
be 4 to 12 hours' long, and it has been
in many cases.


A happy man, and why not? Frank Violette landed this 662-pound black marlin in 15 minutes at Pifias Bay.


NOVEMBER 1965

























A photo roundup from several marlin trips shows how it's done. The mighty marlin jumps, beginning a fierce fight to shake the
Here, the hook is set. hook loose.

Pinas Bay, about 140 miles from
Panama, offers the best marlin fishing. -
Others, though, are caught within 5 or-. .
6 hours of Panama.
Sailfish are abundant less than an
hour from downtown Panama. The sail-
fish is a famous fighter and Panama is
one of the few places in the world
where a fisherman has a good chance to
hook one in a single day's fishing.
Catching marlin is a business that
usually requires a trip of several days-
a week is best. The Club de Pesca
at Pinas Bay has complete facilities
for anglers, including boats, tackle and
guides.
(See p. 30) Still fighting, the 450-pound giant lunges. Completely out of the water, he fights hard.



























Hard, careful work brings the catch nearer. Still game, but defeated, he's nearly in the boat.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 29







FISHING IN PANAMA


N r
4
S--
.. .. :-

^- ;'1 -E .- .-. -" .a.


Fishing from the jetties, these boys may come up with corbina, snapper, jack, and other
fish that are fun to catch-and delicious, too.


... A Note to Shoppers

IF YOU HAVE the thinnest veneer of c (.in it, the first drop of bargain-hunting
blood, then Panama is your oyster. To the shopper, downtown Panama City can
be a sort of international supermarket, a place to look, choose, and buy-and
the things tourists love to buy spill from the shelves and showcases of dozens
of shops.
Getting to the heart of this intriguing subject, a list of popular items would
have to include linens, perfume, cameras and photo equipment, electronic
devices (tape recorders are popular), brass, carved objects of ivory, jade and
soapstone, silver, watches, pearls and semi-precious stones (mounted and un-
mounted). The careful shopper can purchase just about all of these things at
prices less than he'd pay in the United States.
The mola, made by the San Bias Indians, is in a category by itself. This native
product is of cloth, closely stitched by hand. It features endless designs and
themes and is unique in the world. Framed, it makes a lovely wall decoration,
or it can cover an occasional pillow. It can be purchased reasonably.
There is also a wide selection of ivory, elaborate carved East Indian and
oriental screens, glassware, and china.
Needless to say, it helps to have some knowledge of what one is buying. That
is one qualification for being a wise consumer anywhere, any country, and
Panama is no exception.
\\ ih a little time, the shopper can enjoy the exotic flavor of stores that feature
a wide variety of this merchandise. He can see carved oriental furniture that
is so 1..nitifiul that it must be seen to be believed. He can see a thousand brass
objects, figurines, and tablecloths. There are silks and brocades at good prices.
The merchants and sales help are, t>iti..ill\, extremely polite, and helpful.
Thlmiinj some prices are firmly set; many are not. Bargaining is accepted by
some merchants as a way of doing business; other merchants expect it. This
gives both parties a conversational point and it also reflects the fact that
Panamanian businessmen are competitive and eager to please.
Shopping in Panama can be fun, and there are treasures that one might never
own unless he visited stores in either Panama Citv on the Pacific, or Colon, a
short distance away on the Atlantic. It's an experience no visitor should miss.


fki l


NOVEMBER 1965


(Continued from p. 29)
But if it isn't marlin you're after, the
fishing close to Panama City offers other
game fish prized in tropical waters, and
these run heavier, as a rule, than in
many popular fishing resorts in the
tropics.
On a typical day of fishing, a catch
might include amberjack, bonita, wahoo,
kingfish mackerel, dolphin, and-if luck
is with the boat-a sailfish. All these
fish take artificial or cut bait; all are
caught while trolling.
For the bottom-fishing angler, the red
snapper and corbina are prized. These
may be caught from docks, piers and
jetties. They run from about 5 to 30
pounds for the snapper, 3 to 20 pounds
for corbina. Which is the best eating
is a gourmet's debate, but in Panama
the corbina has the edge.
Panama's mountain lakes in the west-
ern area-near Cerro Punta or Volcan-
are noted for bass and blue gill, and
many interior streams offer fine trout
fishing.
In nearby towns, fishermen can find
comfortable quarters and transportation.
Whether you want the challenge of
back-breaking marlin or joy of tempting
trout with delicate flies, there is fishing
in Panama to please the most avid
angler.

Carnival, Fairs
(Continued from p. 22)
Carnival Queen and her court rides
in a decorated float, and the Queens'
band fill the air with melody, while
groups of masqueraders compete for
prizes offered for the most original,
gayest, and noisiest.
Each night of Carnival there's danc-
ing in the hotels and clubs of Panama
City, and in open air dance pavilions
known as "toldos."
Gaiety reaches its climax in the early
hours of Ash Wednesday morning when
the dance music changes to a funeral
march. Pallbearers carry tiny coffins, in
each of which lies a fish, and a candle-
light parade winds through the city's
streets to the nearest beach for the
"Burial of the Fish."
With the dawn, the religious go to
church before taking up their everyday
affairs, and another Panama Carnival is
over-until next year.
But check the calendar. Somewhere
in the Republic a fair is taking place,
with a miniature Carnival underway in
a rustic setting.









SrI

U.S. STILL LEADS
SHIPS FLYING THE flag of the
United States still are the best cus-
tomers of the Panama Canal but
they are getting a run for their money
from Norway and Great Britain.
During the fiscal year ending July
31, there were 1,678 transits by U.S.-
owned vessels as compared to 1,446
by Norwegian and 1,339 by those
flying the British flag.
Other nations represented in the
list of the first six best Canal custom-
ers were Germany with 1,186 tran-
sits; Liberia with 1,118 transits and
Japan with 804.
Although the United Stated topped
the list in the number of transits and
the amount of ship tonnage using the
Panama Canal during fiscal year
1965, it came in third in the total
amount of cargo carried through the
waterway.
According to official figures, first
place in cargo tonnage went to
ships flying the Liberian flag and
second place to vessels of Norwegian
registry. Each totaled more than
13 million long tons. The U.S.-flag
ships carried 9,986,170 tons and
British ships were fourth in the num-
ber of transits, tonnage, and cargo.
Greece, with only 575 transits for
the year, was fifth in the amount
of cargo. Japan took sixth place in
the number of transits, tonnage, and
cargo.

AUSTRALISS" VOYAGE
A WELL-KNOWN former United
States Line vessel, sailing under an-
other name and another flag, arrived
in Balboa in October on her maiden
voyage around the world.
She was the 36,961-gross-ton Aus-
tralis, formerly the SS America,
which was reconverted to round-the-
world cruising and is sailing for
the Greek-owned Chandres Lines.
The vessel was built in Newport
News for the United States Lines in
1940 and was put in service during

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 31


PPI N


TRANSITS BY OCEANCOI
IN FIRST QUAR
FISCAL YEAR 1
Coniitercial ..__
U.S. Government .
Free --...
Total .
TOLLS*
Coini crucial .. $16,557,70(
L'.S. ( government 932,01
Total __$17,489,72
CARGO**
Commercial 19.494.792
'.S. Go: ernment 814,148
Free 18,28
Total 20,327,221


G


NC VESSELS installed on the Fred Olsen Line
TER cargo ship Buffalo which makes reg-
1966 965 ular trips through the Canal on her
2 -,. ; ,i8 run between North Pacific ports, the
149 65 continent and the United Kingdom.
9 24 Other ships in this service, the Bo-
3,111 ..- nanza, Bolinas, and Burrard also are
to be altered in the same way.
Cfi' I&M ",)A


5

2

1


Su,i, uJ.U, .',-,
402,367
$16,567,401
18,893.330
442.969
1:35.925
19,472,224


o In ides tolls on all vessels, octangoing and
small.
*Cargo figures aie in long tons.

World War II as a troopship under
the name of West Point. After the
war, she was returned to her owners
and for a number of years was used
in the North Atlantic service. She
has made several trips through the
Canal as both the America and as
the West Point.

NEW TECHNIQUE
A NEW TYPE of side port designed
for truck-to-truck loading has been


According to an item in the "Pacif-
ic Shipper," the new type of mech-
anization permits the ship to dis-
charge and load by means of forklift
trucks through side ports with the
advantages of faster loading and dis-
charging and reduction in port time.
The truck-to-truck method gives bet-
ter and safer handling and permits
work to continue in bad weather
without risk of damage to the cargo.
The Buffalo also was fitted with
flush deck, steel hatches, and bulk-
head ports for the passage of forklift
trucks. Holds have been given ver-
tical walls to insure safe stowage of
loads. Starboard side of the ship has
two combined side ports and hatches
fitted each with a movable platform
which can be lifted or lowered ac-
cording to the height of the ship's
side above dock level.


1100
N
U
1000 M
B
E
900 R
0
800 F
T
700
A
N
600 S
T
n S


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN

MONTHS


1965

1966








(AVERAGE 1951-1955)
a 1 _









CARIC


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sHimme .Mr : in T." ..

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COLUMBUS SAILED SOUTH
ALONG COAST- 1502


PENAL I


PAC If IFI


OCEAN


3202













Date Due

Due Returned Due i Returned



AV ..i If.. ..






___ ___ I ___ ___
AU6U;i






_______________i____________________________







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L4ATIN AMtICA

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 04820 5131







Full Text

PAGE 2

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

PAGE 4

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie15pana

PAGE 7

VKfro*

PAGE 8

Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor-President H. R. Parfitt, Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication Published quarterly at Balboa Heights. C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees. Robert D. Kerr, Press Officer Publications Editors Richard D. Peacock and Tomas A. Cupas Editorial Assistants Eunice Richard, Tobi Bittel, and Jose T. Tunon cAvout Our Cover THE COYER MAP that tells Panama's story-past and present— reflects the theme of this issue: Panama, playground of Latin America. More tourists are discovering this fact each year. A trip to Panama is worth anyone's time. Just over 2 hours from the United States by jet and little more than that from many Latin American cities, Panama offers a wide variety of activity, shopping, climate, and there is much to see. A nation of just over 1 million citizens, Panama occupies the isthmus that has been a focal point for trade and travelers for more than 450 years. The narrow stretch of the Republic of Panama runs, roughly, east and west, and its geographv, which has always been important, affects the way of life of its people. In the west, there are mountains and rich soil— Chiriqui Province might be called Panama's breadbasket. In the east, not yet reached by modern roads, life among the Indians is much the same as it was hundreds of years ago. It's likely the visitor will spend his time in Panama City and Colon, the two cities at opposite ends of the Panama Canal. Panama City, dominating in population and commerce, is the main stopping-off point. It is not possible to include all of the Panama story in a single Review issue. The main points of interest, a list of what to do, what to see and where to go, have been packed into several articles. The map on the cover was originally prepared bv engineers of the U.S. Armv, Southern Command, and was redrawn especially for this issue. 3ndex Welcome to Panama 3 Panama's History 4 Sports in Panama and Canal Zone 6 National Carnival, Fairs 8 After Dark 10 Chiriqui 12 Panama in Pictures 13 Bocas del Toro, the San Bias 14 Quarterly Traffic Report 16 Cruise Ship Report 16 Visitor's Notebook 18 The Panama Canal Story 19 Canal History 25 Anniversaries 27 Fishing in Panama 28 Shopping 30 Shipping 31 November 1965

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ESJOMi of hospitality that vh the heritage ot w^ „H \ welcome visitors ' Panama („r centuries, rrom i„ rP5 ofthe L en a Panamanian W*" f r has been a flavor; it has become one o sbo res In ever increasing numbers. v -,sitors to our shores ^ „tless attractions. ,., esV days are — 9 and bl of Panama ciaims a prooa history. Us ^ TWeRepubl-of n t he .Id Sconish ruins at Panama V.,. ^^ w stle of commerce along Q panora ma Fromg oHan d s.imm,ngto blosso ms ..h Ho.ers, a The interior of the y ,„,, i. • ~ "*"* ^ h . -v*-'lte „, — — •*" tremo i s confident that they Pedro K. DireC * r t ,rist Bureau Ponama Government Tourist Panama November, l 5 The Panama Canal Review

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Ruins of several churches and public buildings destroyed by Henry Morgan and his buccaneers in 1671 still stand in Old Panama. The Golden Altar of San Jose Church, one of the most beautiful in existence today, escaped the attack of Morgan's pirates. The Reason: Geography THE ISTHMUS: FOCAL POINT OF HISTORY FROM THE MOMENT of its discovery, the unique geographical position of Panama has given the Isthmus a history of real romance and charm— richer in historical events than most parts of the two continents it joins. Since the days when Columbus was investigating every nook and corner of the Caribbean coast of Panama, looking for a way to India, the Isthmus has occupied the center of world interest. Footsteps of many men from many nations have trod its soil, always in search of a road across this narrow neck of land. One of those to continue the search was Vasco Nunez de Balboa, who forced his way in 1513 through the jungles and mountains and reached a mountain top in Darien from where he discovered the Pacific Ocean. Three years later, Pedro Arias de Avila, who was the Spanish governor of the colony already established on the Caribbean side of the Isthmus, pushed his conquest to a native fishing village on the Pacific and founded the old city of Panama, where it remained for 154 years. Today, its ruins stand just east of the city. Soon after its discovery, this narrow neck of land became the strategic point of the New World's commerce. For three centuries Panama was the treasure chest of the New World, the port of embarkation for the expeditions in search of gold and silver, and the port of return to Spain. It was here where the Spanish galleons arrived with merchandise for distribution. Ships laden with treasures for the King of Spain arrived from Peru, their rich cargoes transferred to the backs of mules, carried across the Isthmus, and loaded on ships bound for Spain. Fourteen years after the founding of Panama City and Nombre de Dios, Spaniards of the colony explored the Chagres and the Rio Grande Rivers, studying the possibility of using the two rivers to make a canal. The city of Panama ceased to be a mud-hut village and in a few years it became a colonial city with buildings, churches, and a cathedral. At the height of its importance, Panama was known as the richest and most luxurious city in the world. Prosperity continued until the city was destroyed by the romantic English buccaneer Sir Henry Morgan, in 1671. In 1673, a new walled Panama was founded some 6 miles from the old site. For almost 200 years the old 4 November 1965

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forest stone-paved highway from the capital to Portobelo, on the Caribbean side, was the thoroughfare over which much of Spain's commerce passed. Portobelo was a busy commercial city where traders came from Europe to trade with merchants from Peru, Chile, and Mexico. During the 40 days of its fair, Portobelo vibrated with humanity—slaves unloaded cargoes from the Spanish galleons in the port, while hundreds of mules, laden with native products and treasures collected during the year to send to Spain, passed through the narrow streets of the town. Gold and silver bars were piled up like firewood in the Royal Treasurv Building ready to be used as a means of exchange between the trader from Spain and the buyers from America. Portobelo was the victim of buccaneers and English aggression several times. It was not until the 18th century that the flood of Peruvian treasure began gradually to subside and the importance ot Panama began to wane. Spain was emerging from her "Golden Age." Other countries were making forced efforts to participate in the New World trade. The assaults and cruelties of the pirates and the threats of the British to establish themselves in America's vital points disrupted the Panama-Portobelo route. Traffic stoppage brought poverty to Portobelo. Commercial life in Panama became nil, but they maintained the churches, the convents and wav of life. Thus, the colonial era and Spanish power in Panama came to an end. Then came the revolutionary movement bringing a reawakening in the provinces that stirred up the struggle for independence. Politically, commercially, and geographically Panama occupied, at this time, an isolated position as a much-neglected part of the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, composed of the present countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. In 1821, the Panamanians declared independence from Spain, and united their lot with La Gran Colombia. By terms of the incorporation Panama expressly reserved the right to secede. And when Gran Colombia split into three parts in 1830, a separatist faction in Panama wanted independence, but after some hesitation Panama attached itself to New Granada. Simon Bolivar had predicted greatness for the Isthmus of Panama because of its strategic position between two oceans. In 1821, hoping to draw the new republics closer together, he invited the provisional governments of Peru, (See p. 26) Lacy balconies overlooking a narrow street and a romantic street lamp preserve the flavor of Panama's colonial splendor. The Cathedral of Panama, started in 1688, was completed in 1796. Mother of pearl shells adorn the twin towers of the beautiful colonial structure. The Panama Canal Review

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NOT ONLY is Panama the hub of Central America geographically, it also is one of the biggest sports centers in Latin America. Panama is a small, but sports-minded, nation. Manx Panamanians have become stars in the sporting world— especially in the United States. Athletes and sports enthusiasts from over the world venture to Panama for sporting events. The tourist who visits Panama will find many spectator and participation sports available. One is horse racing. Virtually every weekend of the vear there is racing at the "Presidente Remon" track, where thoroughbreds from Panama compete with North and South America's finest. Tourists are admitted free bv showing their tourist card. Panamanians Braulio Baeza and Manuel Ycaza are leading jockevs on the stateside racing circuit. Boxing fans will find a bout nearly everv weekend at the National Gvm or the Olympic Stadium in Panama Citv, or at the Colon Arena in Colon. Among the Panamanians reaching worldrenowned status are the late Panama Al Brown, former world's bantamweight champion, and the current lightweight title holder, Ismael Laguna. World famous toreadors come to Panama during the dry season to fight native-bred and imported bulls. 6 November 1965

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Top South American and U.S. thoroughbreds head around the first turn at the President Remon Track. World renowned also is major league baseball— and Panama is no exception. From December to Februarv fans jam the National Stadium weekdav nights and Sunday afternoons to watch the Panama Professional Baseball League in action. The four teams, each from a different province, are composed of major leaguers and local talent. Panamanian plavers in the big leagues are Hector Lopez (New York Yankees), Rutherford "Ghico" Salmon (Cleveland Indians), and Emilio Phillips (Philadelphia Phillies). Numerous vouth leagues, both baseball and Softball, provide for Panama's future diamond stars. The bullfight— a Spanish tradition for centuries— has aficionados in Panama, too. Mexican, Spanish, and South American bullfighters have their "moment of truth" from January to April when thev confront Panama's native-bred bulls at the Plaza de la Macarena in suburban San Francisco de la Caleta. All year round the handsomelv maintained Panama Golf Club draws plavers from the Republic and the Canal Zone. In Februarv. the club attracts some of the world's top professionals for the Panama Open Last month, Mike Souchack of the United States and Juan "Chi Chi" Rodriguez of Puerto Rico played a match there for ABC-TV's "Wonderful World of Golf." Basketball fans get top-flight action in Panama June through September. The Panama and Colon basketball leagues offer fast, talented action and, each year, the Panama All-Stars go to the Gentral American and Panama Games. In all the years that a Panamanian team has competed in the Games, it has not lost a basketball game. Panama's jungles are a hunter's dream come true. The hunting enthusiast can stalk jaguar, ocelot, puma, deer, wildcat, wild pig, and boar. Bird hunters can search out wild turkev, duck, quail, and wild dove. Cockfighting has been a popular activity in Panama for manv vears. Cockfights take place everv Sundav and Mondav at the "Club Gallistico de Panama" in Panama Citv. In addition, most interior towns have their own well-rigged arenas. If you prefer to go to the beach and soak up sun or if you prefer a boating excursion, Panama offers a wide variety of choices on either side of the Isthmus. Tops in popularitv are the Pacific side beaches at Rio Mar and Santa Clara— which also boast several cabin rental sites. Surfing is becoming quite popular now at most interior beaches. At the Olympic Swimming Pool in Panama Citv, tourists are admitted upon (See p. 24) Two players battle for a rebound in Panama Basketball League action at the National Gymnasium. The Panama Canal Review

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a arniva i cAnd air A CARNIVAL, IN PANAMA, starts 4 davs before Lent and closes at dawn on Ash Wednesday. Fairs, in Panama, go on all-year-round in some part of the country. No matter what month a visitor may come to the Republic, somewhere a special festivity will be underway. Whether Carnival or fair, the U.S. residents and militarv and civilian organizations in the Canal Zone activelv participate and provide the support necessary to insure the success of a special event. Each fair in the Republic of Panama has its Queen, special exhibits, and programs. The Panama Canal organization tells the Canal story in a documentary and through selections of slides and photographs. Mancha and Gato, the two well-known burros from Summit Gardens in the Canal Zone, always travel to Panama's fairs to give rides to the young fairgoers. Calves from the Panama Canal's Mindi Dairv Farm 8 November 1965

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,j( p§3> trim usually are contributed by the Canal organization as special prizes to Panama agriculture students. Carnival, like the fairs, is a time of gaiety. But Carnival, more specifically, is a time of polleras, montunos, costumes, and floats. Traditional music of Carnival is heard in Panama and the Canal Zone from the first of January, and the Carnival Flag of blue and white is raised with appropriate ceremony in Panama and in the Canal Zone during the first weeks of the new year. Throughout January, candidates for Carnival Queen compete for the crown to be worn by the representative of each respective community, each social center, and many organizations. Carnival weekend is a busv one for the many Queens. A Coronation Ball for the Canal Zone Pacific Side Carnival Queen is usually held at the Tivoli Guest House. The Coronation Ball of the Atlantic Side Queen generally is held at the Breakers Club at Coco Solo. Panama's official Carnival Queen, select(See p. 22) The excitement of a rural fair in Panama. At this one, a group demonstrates the square dance, a native dance of the United States. Typical Panamanian dances flavor all fairs and furnish fun. The fair's primary purposes are to spotlight agricultural, commercial, and industrial aspects of the area and to advance progress and knowledge in these areas. Parade at Carnival time. This float boasts beautiful members of the Chinese colony riding the back of a colorful dragon. The parade is a dazzling highlight of the Carnival. The Panama Canal Beview 9

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This is the brightness of night in Panama, along Balboa Boulevard by the Bay of Panama. Dining at night, as a cool breeze from the bay sweeps across this terraced restaurant close by the bay. A garden atmosphere completes the scene. IT'S BEEN GOING on for the past 450 years or so. Night life in Panama, that is. It probably started when the first of the gay Spanish dons set foot on the Isthmus and it has been continuing in various degrees of intensity ever since. Although night life in Panama is far more sleek and sophisticated than it was in the wide open days of the construction era or the World War II days, it always has had a color and character all its own and a gay, pulsating rhythm purely Panamanian. Tourists lucky enough to visit the Isthmus during the annual Carnival season will find all of Panama involved in a gay 4-day party. In addition to the regular entertainment offered by the hotels, clubs and night spots. Carnival brings to life the gay native dances in the open-air dance halls called "toldos," built especially for the celebration in many parts of Panama and the interior. During the rest of the year there still is plenty of bright entertainment ranging from dinner under the stars in a tropical garden to dancing in a luxuri10 November 1965

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Ruins at Panama Viejo are beautiful at night. A sidewalk cafe, informal and gay. Near the modern hotel area, this open air restaurant offers a view of a busy thoroughfare. ous hotel supper room and a whirl in the glamorous gambling casinos. And there are several air-conditioned motion picture theaters featuring both Hollywood and European films. Panama City boasts three topnotch luxury hotels. One, the International, is located near the shopping district in the heart of town. The other two, the Hotel El Continental and EI Panama Hilton, are near the elite residential districts of Panama. The International is noted for its excellent restaurant and French cuisine. The Hilton and the Continental have deluxe supper rooms where the service, the music and the floor shows are superb. And there are Government-operated gambling casinos in both hotels. Another excellent hotel with continental food and music for dancing is La Siesta, an attractive motel-type inn located near Tocumen Airport. All are completely air conditioned. A popular place for cocktails before dinner or drinks afterwards is the El Bombarde Room of the Panama Hilton, with its giant Wurlitzer organ plaved nightly by Leroy Lewis. The organ, one of the largest three-manual keyboard types ever built by Wurlitzer, has 259 stops and can produce sounds ranging from a whisper to a thunderous roll. Panama dishes and seafood are the specialty of Club Panamar, an attractive and popular restaurant with an open-air tropical garden located on the shores of Panama Bay. The service is excellent and there is a wide selection of wines. While the native dishes of Panama can match those of any other country, the visitor may wish to try another variety. There are two excellent Chinese (See p. 23) The Panama Canal Review 11

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Chiriqui Province: Land of Contrasts Thoroughbred horses are raised at this farm near Conception, Chiriqui. CHIRIQUI IS PANAMA'S province of lovelv contrasts. It's a place where a half-hour drive takes you from the tropical climate of its principal city, David, to the eternal spring that graces the mountain village of Boquete. This province of towering peaks and rich soil is about 300 miles from Panama— 1 hour bv air. A side trip to Chiriqui province is one that pavs a traveler manv dividends. There are several "musts" in the area. One is the Boquete orange, a navel orange unsuprassed in the world for delicacy and flavor. Everyone should experience the taste thrill of this fruit. And, of course, the highlands of Chiriqui are famous for quality coffee, and its lowlands for tobacco. The province produces much of the food for the Republic of Panama— there are huge banana plantations, many coffee fincas (farms), a huge citrus development that will one dav export much orange juice, and high on the slopes of the mountains are grown much of the produce sold in the marketplaces of Panama City and Colon. It also produces most of the beef for the country The vegetables grown in the rich soils of the highlands are famous for their size and quality. Fruits abound, and the Boquete strawberrv has a wide reputation for its gigantic size and sweetness. The region boasts cold streams that attract fishermen, and its woodlands and mountainsides provide some of the country's most beautiful scenery. Wildflowers, lakes, and the majesty of "el volcan Baru" make Chiriqui a camera fan's paradise. In both David and Boquete there are fine hotels and modern restaurants and transportation. "Chiricanos" are noted for their friendly spirit and for their energy. The area offers hunting, trout fishing, and for the salt water fisherman, the Pacific is nearby. Whether the traveler goes by air, or takes the 8-hour trip by car on the Inter-American Highway from Panama City, he will find his destination a rewarding one. The beauty of El Baru can be seen for miles in the Boquete area. A placid lakeside scene in the Volcan area. 12 November 1965

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Twins Roxana Varela, left, and Dagmar, in typical native costume Views o/ Panama ^^l"^^f jTil^nii M J V, f On the waterfront, Panama City. Note the shrimp fleet at rear. Poolside at the beautiful Panama Hilton Hotel An aerial view of downtown Panama City. A favorite spot for tourists in Panama. The imposing Continental Hotel. Farming in the Chiriqui highlands. U-TirIfinnn, JBi r flHiiriri pnrr iniirim

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Pleasure Islands AT OPPOSITE ENDS of the Republic of Panama are two lovely places— both a short distance form Panama's main thoroughfares and both with an appeal that attracts tourists who want something different, visitors who want to reallv know the country. Bocas del Toro, in western Panama, and the San Bias Islands, in the eastern part, are both on the Atlantic side of Panama. Bocas is a quiet, beautiful group of islands, largely undiscovered by tourists, though a few trickle in from nearby Panama City. It has its eye on the future, and while accommodations are now limited, the potential for a brisk tourist trade is tremendous. The San Bias are unique islands; life there goes on much as it did when Columbus sailed into the Bocas del Toro area 463 vears age. The short, industrious Indian population is known locallv for its self-sufficient and democratic outlook. The San Bias live largely in 42 settlements scattered through 365 islands. They are adopting some modern conveniences, but socially they are selective, retaining many tribal customs and ceremonies. The San Bias Islands are accessible by air, and the enchanting view from an airplane is, by itself, worth the modest price of a ticket. This is one of the musts for tourists and the trip can be taken both ways in a day. In a few years, the opportunity to take this trip into the past may disappear. For a souvenir, the tourist may want to buy a mola, a beautiful and interesting creation of the San Bias women. Designs vary from geometric to birds, village scenes, animals, or svmbols depicting cultural or religious themes. Sewn by hand, the complicated stitching requires hours of hard work. Framed, the mola is an exquisite decoration. At Bocas, the climate and beaches are unsurpassed. And the fishing is superb. Prices are extremely reasonable, though the accommodations are not to be compared with those in a modern city or town; they are rudimentary and suited to the tourist who doesn't require manv conveniences to enjoy his stay. Approaching the island of Ailigandi in a cayuco— a native canoe. Boat at dockside is a trading vessel that buys San Bias harvest of coconuts, sells everything from nails to ice cream. San Bias Indian girls, with maraca-s and homemade flutes, practice a dance that they perform in special tribal ceremonies. Original music is composed for the dance. 14 November 1965

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The pier at Bocas del Toro. Scenery on the islands is magnificent and it is a place where a walk is not a chore but an enjoyable experience. There is an interesting stalactite cave to see, outer island trips to take, a visit to a banana plantation, skindiving in the clear waters, and water skiing. Boats may be rented for fishing. Seafood is abundant, and delicious Bocas del Toro lobsters or turtle steaks are served at the airport restaurant, 5 minutes walking distance from the hotel. Bocas is reached by daily air service from Panama, and from David. Or, the traveler can enjoy a scenic 7or 8-hour trip to David by auto and then fly to Bocas. Souvenirs from Bocas include stuffed turtles, interesting items of tortoise shell, or the beautifully preserved barracuda heads, mounted on lacquered plaques. *1^S|^ \ This lobster weighed 14 pounds. The residents of Bocas del Toro have a plentiful supply of these tasty shellfish, fresh from the surrounding waters. The Panama Canal Review 15

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

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This ship started service between NewYork and Nassau last April and is making her first visit to the Isthmus. She will arrive in Cristobal February 15 on a 15-day cruise out of New York. A stop at the San Bias Islands is included. The Hanscatic, another well-known Home liner, is due in Cristobal February 17 on a West Indies cruise out of Port Everglades, Fla. Due in Cristobal December 23 on a Christmas cruise to the West Indies is the new Zim liner Shalom, a beautiful cruise vessel placed in service last year. The United Fruit Co., agents for Zim Lines and the Moore-McCormack Line, announced the scheduled arrival of the SS Argentina in January from New York on a Caribbean cruise. The SS United States, one of the great passenger liners of modern times and one of the fastest, will arrive in Cristobal February 12 on her third visit to Cristobal. The 990-foot liner will be brought to dock at about 7 a.m. and will remain here until 2 a.m. the following day when it will sail for Kingston, Jamaica. Panama Agencies represent the United States Line here. The North German Lloyd liner Bremen is due February 25 for a 1-day visit as part of a West Indies cruise. Continental Shipping Corp. is the agent. Four cruise vessels owned by the Holland America Line are due to visit the Canal this season. They are the Ryndam, the Maasdam, the Rotterdam, and the Statendam. All are well-known winter visitors and all are scheduled to pass through the Canal and dock either in Balboa or Cristobal. The Ryndam will arrive in Balboa April 16 from Australia, the Maasdam is due January 22 in Balboa from the South Seas; the Rotterdam will come to Balboa April 8 after a world cruise, and the Statendam is due in Balboa December 3. Pacific Ford, agents for Cunard and Royal Mail Lines as well as for the Holland America Line ships, announced that the Cunard cruise liner Caronia would make its annual visit to the Canal April 29 on the last lap of a world cruise and that the Royal Mail liner Andes was due in Cristobal January 24. The P. & O. Orient Lines, represented here by Norton Lilly & Co., have eight voyages scheduled to include the Panama Canal during the 1965-66 cruise season. These cruises are scheduled for the Oronsay, due here November 20 and October 9; the Arcadia, due December 4; the Orsova due February 2; the Chusan due December 19 and the Canberra, flagship of the line, due April 29. PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic Commodity Ores, various Lumber Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) Wheat Sugar Canned food products Nitrate of soda Fishmeal Bananas Metals, various Food products in refrigeration (except fresh fruit) Coffee Pulpwood Iron and steel manufactures Sulfur All others TotalFirst quarter, fiscal year— 1966 1,717,385 1,088,396 148,974 257,918 840,926 256,459 133,473 229,073 309,234 363,871 179,443 105,538 134,587 856,840 75,954 1,561,811 8,259,882 1965 1,975,959 1,058,749 291,459 179,693 826,657 252,338 156,590 320,483 327,575 292,953 205,568 88,085 143,739 426,827 115,863 1,294,877 7,957,415 Average 1951-55 987,567 798,109 339,598 473,208 346,218 309,830 250,093 N.A. 155,958 175,110 142,823 60,065 44,248 39,171 747,752 4,869,750 Atlantic to Pacific Commodity Rice Sugar Sulfur Bauxite Coal and coke Sorghum Ammonium compounds Phosphates Soybeans Fertilizers, unclassfied Wheat Iron and steel manufactures Corn Machinery Ores, various Metal (scrap) Paper and paper products Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) Chemicals, unclassified All others Total First quarter, fiscal year1966 103,671 168,273 118,208 175,824 713,914 149,740 97,664 778,403 411,888 119,828 191,559 436,755 825,376 106,902 121,765 510,379 125,053 484,786 199,092 599,626 11,438,706 1965 67,865 244,688 123,385 196,485 1,429,851 88,837 84,892 708,341 328,847 126,044 152,030 361,229 624,373 109,823 257,239 697,992 152,030 3,608,789 207,198 1,365,977 10,935,915 Average 1951-55 28,420 99,311 96,831 7,910 539,013 N.A. 37,794 156,591 43,705 35,221 49,017 376,917 12,729 66,690 53,676 10,321 90,900 709,710 45,236 1,172,908 3,632,900 CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

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Visitor s Notebook On Panama VISITORS TO THE Republic of Panama and the Canal Zone come by every mode of transportation ever invented by man. Thcv come bv sea, by air, and over the InterAmerican Highway, traveling bv conventional plane, boat, car and bus. Some have come on motorcycles and bicvcles, and there also have been intrepid hikers— all with the Isthmus as their goal. The onlv tourist requirements are a smallpox vaccination and a tourist card. The former is compulsory for all travelers, by international regulations. The latter sells for 82 and is obtained through anv travel agency or transportation company. The tourist card permits the visitor to remain 30 days, and may be extended to 90 days when the tourist is in the country. If the traveler has a valid passport, so much the better. Instead of a tourist card, he may secure through the Panamanian consulate a tourist visa valid for 90 daws. U.S. currency is used in the Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama. The monetary unit of Panama is the balboa, and prices may be quoted in balboas, written B/. Minted, but not in wide circulation, is the balboa, a silver coin equivalent to the U.S. dollar. Panama has no paper money and uses the U.S. paper money, while all the country's coins are equivalent to U.S. coins. Travelers' checks are accepted by hotels and business establishments. The climate is tropical, with relatively high but even temperatures throughout the year. December through April is Panama's summer, or dry season, and January usually is Panama's loveliest month. The landscape, in January, is still fresh and green from the rainy season which ends in December, and unseared by the constant sun and intermittent trade winds of the drv season. It is generally cool and not sultry as during the rainv season. Sportswear and summer clothing are worn throughout the year in Panama. Bathing suits are important in the Isthmian wardrobe and so are comfortable My*. I Balboa Boulevard winds along the inner crescent of beautiful Panama City, and no visitor should miss an opportunity to see this scenic thoroughfare. low-heeled shoes for tours, shopping, or trips to the country. The Republic of Panama geographically links Central and South America, and its biggest tourist attraction, of world renown, is the Panama Canal in the Canal Zone. The Canal was built by the United States at a cost of $380 million and represents 10 years of hard work. It is approximately 50 miles long, deep water to deep water, and follows a northwesterley to southeasterly direction. The entire area of the Canal Zone population in 1960, including the U.S. Armed Forces, was 42,122. The population of the Republic of Panama, in the 1960 census, was 1,075,541, with 41.5 percent urban and 58.5 percent rural. Panama City, the most populated area, has more than 300,000 inhabitants. The sanitation of the Isthmus and the provision of a pure water supply were problems of greatest consequence in the successful completion of the Panama Canal and these problems were solved during construction days. There is an ample supply of pure filtered water today. Milk is pasteurized, Panama's meats are good, and the fish are excellent. Fruits and vegetables are excellent, too. Transportation between the Atlantic and Pacific sides of the Isthmus is available by railway or highway. The Panama Railroad crosses the Isthmus in 1 hour 25 minutes for the 48-mile trip and the round trip costs $2. Twelve passenger trains operate daily between Colon and Panama City, and weekends there are 14 passenger trains. Bus lines serve the principal areas in the Canal Zone, the cities of Panama and Colon, and the interior of the Republic traveling over the multimillion-dollar Thatcher Ferry Bridge. Arrangements for cars for hire may be made privately or through one of the several reputable travel agencies in Panama. As for language, both English and Spanish are commonly spoken. 18 November 1965

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THE PANAMA CANAL Gatun Locks. This mammoth water staircase raises ships from the level of the Atlantic Ocean, at bottom of picture, to Gatun Lake, in background, in three steps. The lake is 85 feet above the level of the Atlantic. WHETHER IT IS A visitor's first look or his 50th, there has never been one with soul so dead that he does not thrill at the sight of the huge ocean liners smoothly climbing the 85-foot water stairs of Gatun Locks on the Atlantic side or being locked through the two locks at Miraflores and one at Pedro Miguel on the Pacific side of the Canal. As the tourist pamphlets say, it is an engineering triumph that never fails to stimulate a deep feeling of amazement and respect. From the mechanical standpoint, the Panama Canal remains one of the wonders of the world. Even though the construction of larger and larger merchant vessels has been one factor leading to the call for a new and larger waterway, the Panama Canal is still of significance to the entire world and a primary influence on world commerce. It is also a thrill to stand at the visitor's lookout at Contractors' Hill and watch the never-ending parade of freighters, tankers, superships and sleek liners as they steam majestically through the narrow ribbon of Gaillard Cut. Visitors to the Panama Canal will be Vital Uo urade, Jt c4bo c4tttact3 -Many, Vourijtj interested primarily in the operation of the locks, the view of the bay from the Thatcher Ferry Bridge in Balboa, and a partial transit through the Cut aboard the Panama Canal sightseeing launch Las Cruces, which has been available to an increasing flow of Isthmian visitors since 1962. While the locks are engineering marvels, the trip through Gaillard Cut gives a vivid picture of the difficulties encountered by the Canal builders in slicing a "big ditch" through hundreds of feet of rock and shale which make up the continental divide. Members of the Panama Canal Guide Service, an elite and knowledgeable corps, are on hand to explain the working of the Panama Canal locks. Points of interest which the Isthmian visitor may also tour on his own include the famous Summit Gardens where there is one of the world's most complete collection of tropical plants; Madden Dam where the Canal's water supply is stored; the Canal Administration Building; Gorgas Hospital; the Canal Zone Library Museum; and the palm-shaded avenues of Balboa, Ancon, Margarita and other Canal Zone community towns. Madden Lake, a reservoir stretching for 19 miles behind Madden Dam, is one of the favorite recreation spots for Isthmian residents. The lake is used for boating, fishing and swimming. The Canal Zone Boy Scouts have a yearround camp there and the Hydrographic Branch of the Panama Canal maintains water stations on the banks of the Pequini, Bocaron, and Chagres Rivers. Summit Gardens, located on the crest of the continental divide, is a wonderland for the naturalist, the botanist or the casual visitor. Established in 1923 as a plant introduction garden, some 15,000 different kinds of plant life have been introduced. There is a rapidlv (See p. 20) The Panama Canal Review 19

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?#.*-£•!*&* Panama Canal Jj a -Mujt Jor Vljltorj (Continued from p. 19) expanding zoo and picnic grounds. The Panama Canal is only 51 years old, but the Isthmus of Panama on which it is situated has a rich heritage of historic legend and human interest dating back as far as the Spanish conquistadores. Tourists on a brief visit may miss some of the historic sites and crumbling ruins such as the fortifications of Fort San Lorenzo on the Atlantic Side and the Las Cruces Trail over which was shipped the gold and silver treasure of the Americas. Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the Chagres River protected the Atlantic terminus of the old Cruces Trail used from 1530 to 1855 for commercial and passenger traffic over the Isthmus. The old fort was attacked and captured several times by the English during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Vestiges of the old Cruces Trail may be seen today although it was long ago abandoned as a highway, A stretch still in fairly good condition crosses the Stored behind Madden Dam is the water supply that carries the Canal operation through the dry season. The huge lake also attracts fishermen. Where Las Cruces trail begins. The historical cannon is reminiscent of the days when Spanish explorers used this trail across the Isthmus to transport looted gold. 20 November 1965

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The Canal Zone: Tourist Magnet Madden Dam Road in the center of the Canal Zone forest reservation, one of the beauty spots of the Canal Zone. Picnic tables are available there for those who want to eat lunch or barbecue after walking along the historic cobblestone trail. The Panama Railroad, built in 1855 and the first transcontinental railroad in this hemisphere, follows the Panama Canal channel for most of its 50-mile length. Equipped with modern diesel engines and comfortable passenger coaches, it gives the visitor a good view of the Canal. At the end of a day of sightseeing, visitors may find it relaxing to pav a call on the venerable Tivoli Guest House. Ruilt in 1906, since 1951 it has been a guest house, but onlv for official Panama Canal visitors. One of its first guests was President Theodore Roosevelt and his partv when thev came to the Isthmus in 1906. The entrance to Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the Chagres River. The fort played a vital part in early Isthmian history. HI 1> HUM mil! I The Panama Canal Guide Service at Miraflores and Gatun Locks serves thousands of visitors a year, at pavilions at the locks, aboard passenger ships, and on tours. Another train crosses the Isthmus on the oldest transcontinental railroad in the hemisphere. Completed in 1855, it was rebuilt by the United States after 1900. In this view it runs beside the Canal. The Panama Canal Review 21

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The splendor of the luxurious pollera, typical Panamanian costume, against the Aboard this float in the Carnival parade are Panamanian beauties in the beautiful native M*""* backdrop of stone in the Old Pancostume, the pollera. ama C atl Y; dra tower. Miss Ilka Rubeha Crosthwaite P. models the dress. A native conjunto plays as dancers in costume entertain onlookers at Panama Viejo. cji uV&Sr-'r .•&* Youngsters lead calves at a fair. Display of livestock, including those nurtured under 4-H Club sponsorship, is a feature of fairs in the interior of Panama. Carnival and Fairs— Traditional in Panama (Continued from p. 9) ed by the Panama Carnival Junta, is crowned in a beautiful ceremony at Panama City's Olympic Stadium. On Carnival Saturday, the President of the Republic of Panama receives in audience the Panama City Queen, the Canal Zone Pacific Side Queen, the Queen of the Chinese colony in Panama, and other Queens. Traditional Pollera Day is Sunday of Carnival Week. The Carnival Queens, accompanied by King Momo and all the court, parade through the main streets in open cars. A Carnival Classicis usually held that afternoon at the Rcmon Race Track in Panama City, with all the Carnival Queens as honor guests. Carnival Monday is sprinkled with confetti and looped with seq^entine from the mock "battles" bv Carnival merrymakers up and down Panama City's Central Avenue and other streets of the city that are closed to traffic. The climax of Carnival in Panama is Carnival Tuesday, when a parade is held in the afternoon. The Panama Canal organization, U.S. Armed Forces in the Canal Zone, industries in Panama and the Panama Carnival Junta are represented in color and original floats. Each (See p. 30) November 1965

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Downtown Panama after dark. Central Avenue is a splash of neon and moving cars. Panama After Dark (Continued from p. 11) restaurants, the Gran China on Balboa Avenue near the sea and the Restaurante Gran Formosa on the TransIsthmian Highway. Italian food is the specialty of the Capri, an open-air restaurant across from the Panama Hilton and La Fiorentina on Ricardo Arias Avenue. For charcoal broiled steaks U.S. style, there is the Club 21 on Via Espafia. If a visitor is not too tired after a day of swimming, fishing or sightseeing, he can take in one of a number of night clubs where things are jumping and the local atmosphere and music are exotic. There are El Sombrero on Via Espafia with bright new shows imported from South America; Maxims, an intimate night club across the street from the Panama Hilton and any number of smaller intimate bars and night spots. A conducted tour of the citv's night life may be arranged. Panama's theaters draw large evening crowds. The Panama Canal Review 23

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Ismael Lacuna, left, and Carlos Ortiz trade blows in bout in which Laguna captured lightweight crown. They will fight again November 13. Panama Sports Suit All Tastes (Continued from p. 7) presentation of identification. A launch trip to Taboga Island puts vou on the most beautiful beaches in Panama. Boating is expanding as recreation in Panama. The Panama Yacht Club offers excellent facilities. Tennis lovers will find the tennis courts at the Olympic Swimming Pool available at a nominal fee. The local open tennis tournaments are held at the pool courts. A rapidly rising sport in Panama is bowling. Panama bowling enthusiasts go to bowling allevs in the Zone, but a $ 100,000, 16-lane establishment, next to Sears on the Trans-Isthmian Highway, is scheduled to open next month. In short, the stopover tourist, the lengthy vacationer, and visitors to the Isthmus— all can find nearlv every sport or outdoor activity to satisfy their athletic and recreational wishes. • • > J V/' #Mr% <* V Baseball action in Panama. The Republic has sent many of its top baseball men to the major leagues in the United States. 24 November 1965

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CANAL HISTORY 50 1/earJ cAgo TRAFFIC THROUGH the Panama Canal came to a halt October 18, 1915, when slides, which had plagued Canal authorities earlier that year, completely closed Gaillard Cut. The major slide ocurred about 1,000 feet north of Gold Hill and blocked the channel for the following 6 months. Five dredges were immediately brought into the area and work of removing the slide material continued on a 24-hour-a-day basis. Shipping tied up at Balboa and Cristobal while some vessels took on fuel and stores for the long trip around the Straits of Magellan. At one time there were 83 vessels tied up in the Canal awaiting passage. The blocking of the Canal caused a heavy increase in the demand for food supplies, upset the normal conditions of supplying coal and placed an unusual burden of traffic on the Panama Railroad, which was used again for the first time since the Canal opened to traffic, for the transfer of cargo between the terminal ports. In October 1915, the railroad was handling between 4,000 and 5,000 tons of transisthmian freight per day. While the Dredging Division worked on removing the slide, heavy rains caused the sharpest rise of the Chagres River and Gatun Lake since the Canal was placed in commercial operation. 25 yearJ c4go EXPANSION OF military installations in the Canal Zone was being planned 25 years ago as a result of the war in Europe. Work continued on the construction of hangars at Howard Field and plans were announced for the construction of underground air raid shelters. Secretary of Navy Frank Knox said that President Roosevelt had allocated $50 million to construct air and naval bases in the Caribbean. He planned a visit to Coco Solo later in the year. The first step toward the construction of a tunnel or bridge to replace the inadequate ferry system across the Canal was taken by the United States with the appointment of an engineer to studv the problem and decide where a tunnel or bridge should be located. The United States also announced that it would build a road between Madden Dam and Cativa. 10 year3 c4ao FORMAL ACCEPTANCE of the Contractors Hill project was made in September 1955 after the Tecon Corporation of Texas had completed the work in 15 months. The project was the largest of its kind in the history of the Canal since construction days. It was primarily preventive work to avoid a possible rock fall which could have blocked the channel in Gaillard Cut. The bronze bust of Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, whose name is linked with the early history of the Panama Canal, was formally presented to the Panama Canal in November 1955 by the Board of Directors of the Suez Canal Company. The presentation ceremony, held in the Administration Building at Balboa Heights, marked the 150th anniversary of de Lesseps' birth and was a feature of a worldwide observance of the Ferdinand de Lesseps sesquicentennial celebration. Specifications were prepared and invitations for proposals were being issued for test models of the new powerful replacement towing locomotives for the Panama Canal locks. The project was the biggest single replacement order for Panama Canal equipment cost-wise, in the history of the waterway. One year cAgo ONE OF THE last phases of the long range program for widening the Panama Canal channel from 300 to 500 feet came to a close last September when the last yard of the 5% million cubic yards of earth overburden was removed. The work begun on a contract awarded to Moretti and Harrison of Miami in January 1963 involved the removal of 5V2 million cubic yards of earth overburden on the 3V2-mile Las CascadasBas Obispo Reaches. Pedro Miguel Locks in March 1915. These ships were moored to the lock walls, delayed by slides in the Cut near Gold Hill. A few months later, slides closed the Canal and it took 6 months to clear it for traffic. The Panama Canal Review 25

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The Isthmus: Focal Point of History A new city of Panama was built within massive walls 2 years after the destruction of Old Panama. Portions of the old wall are still seen in parts of the city, mainly at Las Bovedas and along the shoreline of the city. (Continued from p. 5) Argentina, and Chile to an international congress to be held in Panama. However, unsettled conditions prevented the conference at that time. It wasn't until 1826 that the congress convened with representatives of Colombia, Peru, Central America, and Mexico and drafted a treatv of perpetual union. This first attempt to achieve unity among the nations of the Western Hemisphere is known as the Panama Congress. Panama continued as a department of the United States of Colombia for a period of 82 vears— from 1821 to November 1903. During these years many projects for a Panama Canal were placed before the Governments of La (Iran Colombia and later Nueva Granada. The most interesting events in the history of Panama since her s?paration from Spain are those connected with efforts to build a canal from the Caribbean to the Pacific. Bolivar approved the idea in theorv, as had others. The search continued for a route across the Isthmus. At various times, England and France showed great interest in this waterway route. The Government of the United States did not begin to consider the matter until 1835. At this time. President Jackson was asked bv the U.S. Senate to consider negotiating with Nueva Granada and the Central American Republics in respect to such a canal. Nothing came of this at the time. It wasn't until the western frontier of the United States became part of the United States, a result of the Mexican War, and the need for making the new possessions more accessible from the Eastern States, that the franchise to construct a railroad was secured from the Nueva Granada Government. A vear later, in 1849, the gold rush of the "fortv-niners" to California gave impetus to the land route and the Panama Railroad was born. In those davs there were no railroads uniting the east and west of the United States. Because of the Indians inhabiting the central part of the United States, it was dangerous and almost impossible to cross the country. The safest way was via the Isthmus of Panama. The sailboats and steamers carrying the adventurers to the Isthmian ports brought riches to Panama again. The Isthmian towns came alive again— hotels and transportation facilities were organized for the travelers. Life and splendor came to the Isthmus once more. Panama was experiencing years of abundance similar to the happy times of the Portobelo fairs. The construction of the railroad brought development of Manzanillo Island where Colon stands todav. Workers were brought in. First came the Irish workmen who soon were overcome bv the climate. Malaria and vellow fever also put an end to the Chinese, who replaced the Irish. Jamaicans were brought in to complete the work on the construction of the railroad. The famous Panama Railroad was opened to traffic in 1855. In the United States the great waterwav project still hung fire. Between 1857 and 1863 an almost unbroken series of factional disturbances agitated New Granada. Several times the safety of the Panama Railroad gave new impetus to the plans for a canal. In Mav, 1876, Colombia granted a concession for the construction of a canal bv wav of Panama to Lt. Lucien Napoleon Bonaparte Wyse, an officer in the French Arm v. This concession he sold to a group of French financiers, who persuaded the builder of the Suez, Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, to join them. In 1881, the French organized La Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interoceanique. Disease, mismanagement, extravagance, corruption, and technical incompetence have been ascribed as the causes of the French company's failure, and in 1889, after 8 years of work, the companv went bankrupt. A new company was formed in 1894 but did no work. The U.S. Government then entered into negotiations with Colombia to take over the project; but the treatv between the two governments, known as the Herran-Hay Treaty, was rejected by the Colombian Senate. For Colombia, the canal was important but not decisive. For Panama it meant life or death. Colombia's rejection of the treaty meant the end of Panama's onlv means of economic salvation. Without a canal there would surelv be an economic crisis. There were visions of the dark davs of poverty and misery that existed before the construction of the Panama Railroad. It was during these negotiations that Panama decided her destiny, and on the 3d of November, 1903, she declared her separation from Colombia and became a republic. Panama had made manv attempts to free herself— 53 uprisings in 57 years. On the 18th of November 1903, the Hay-Bunau Vari11a Treaty was signed between Panama and the United States. Five years elapsed between the French collapse and the beginning of the U.S. effort to build the canal. American engineers found much of the work done by the French usable, especially in Culebra Cut. But they changed the plan for the canal from sea-level to a lock-type canal. Before starting the construction work, the Americans considered of utmost importance the improvement of sanitary conditions on the Isthmus. Thev brought immediate changes: mudd) streets were paved and proper sewerage systems were installed. Within 2 vears thev eradicated yellow fever and reduced fatalities from other diseases. Sanitarv precautions were established and enforced, making Panama one of the healthiest countries in the hemisphere. Ten vears later the Panama Canal was built. The dream and prophecy of main had been realized. Since then Panama has prospered and taken her place among the free nations of the world. Her position between the two mighty oceans shall always be the most important factor toward an even more brilliant future. 26 Novembeh 1965

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ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) MARINE BUREAU Cyril V. Atherton, Leader Maintenanceman James T. Chambers Clerk TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Hubert A. Dawkins Chauffer Adolphus E. Johnson Helper (Materials Handl Repairm Claudius A.^re-a Clerk Harol Clerk SUPPLY Equipment MU BUREAU RVICE David A. Fyffe Snack Bar Operator Reuben T. Stewart Assistant Retail Store Manager ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Frederick C. Bitter Chief Engineer, Towboat, Salvage Pablo Marin Leader Maintenanceman ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE DIVISION Conrad A. Boyd Packer (Light) SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Joseph L. H. Demers Supervisory Storage Officer Albert E. Watson Lead Foreman (Gro Ucaston A. Barclay Leader Maintenanceman Douglas C. Best Illustrator (General) Beauford J. Hartley Leader Engineman ( Portable) George W. Hinds Sales Section Head John T. Pessoa Sales Section Head Conrad A. Walrond Sales Section Head Cecil D. Gooding Assistant Commissary Store Manager Arthur J. Mike Retail Store Department Manager (General) wfc The luxury liner Shalom will visit the port of Cristobal on December 23. This will be the first visit of this ship to the area. It will call while on a Christmas cruise to the West Indies. MARINE BUREAU John R. Bruland, Jr. Associate Supervisory Inspector (Boilermaker) Thomas J. Pimento Machinist (Marine) Cecil O. Brooks Seaman T"hp T Riirni; Chief Engineer, Towboat ntana niseer (Maintenance) ullns, Jr. toy (Engineman-Hoisting and G AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Belisario Angulo Laborer Leslie A. Hurdle Seaman Tom as Rios Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems) Leopoldo De Gracia Cement Finisher Arthur U. Johnson Helper Plumber Frederick McClure Carpenter Charles S. Smith II Guard TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Herman C. Graham Cargo Clerk George J. Herring Yardmaster Archibald W. Lecky Freight Rate Assistant Maxwell S. Sanders General Foreman (Fuel Operations) Sixto Gutierrez Linehandler CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Adamary Anderson Counselor (U.S. Schools) Calmer A. Batalden Teacher (U.S. Schools) Mary B. Journeay Instructor (Canal Zone College) Thomas L. Sellers Foreman, Mailing Division (IP) Gaddis Wall District Police Commander HEALTH BUREAU Jennie G. Johannes Nurse Supervisor (Pediatrics) Ora V. Stich Librarian (Medical and Biological Sciences) The Panama Canal Review 27

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THE HOOK SETS tight and the line slices through blue-black water; the reel whines and your line is straight and hard, like a ramrod. The great black marlin has struck. In Panama, where the marlin plentiful, this incomparable thrill of hooking one of the world's biggest and most challenging fish is not rare. Most likely it will be a marlin, but it could be the Pacific sailfish, which is much bigger than the Atlantic variety, or the monstrous sawfish. The world's record for sawfish was set in Panama waters, where 21 other world's record fish have been landed, including black, blue and silver marlin, snook, amberjack, sailfish. and giant sea bass. Panama's name means "abundance of fish," according to one popular translation. And the fish abound in waters that can be reached few minutes. Among the people who take fishing seriously, the marlin is the big thing in Panama. These giant fighters are the black, striped, and blue marlin. Apparently, there is a growing belief that there is also a silver marlin. About 95 percent of the marlin caught are the black and these average 250 to 300 pounds. However, a 400 or 500 pound marlin is not at all uncommon. The world's record for the black marlin is 1,560 pounds. Marlin are caught by trolling. Live bonita is the best bait, but a marlin will hit strips of cut bonita too. Though boats troll at moderate speed to make it easier for the marlin, there's no worry about that. A marlin can outrun anv fishing boat. Once the hook is set, the This 85-pound red snapper was caught in Panama waters by Leo Krziza, right, kneeling. boat is worked toward the fish as the angler pumps the rod. Hooked in the gill, a vital spot, a marlin can be boated in 5 to 20 minutes. But if he's hooked in the bill or the eve, the battle can be 4 to 12 hours' long, and it has been in many cases. A happy man, and why not? Frank Violette landed this 662-pound black marlin in 15 minutes at Pirias Bay. 28 November 1965

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A photo roundup from several marlin trips shows how it's done. Here, the hook is set. The mighty marlin jumps, beginning a fierce fight to shake the hook loose. Pinas Bay, about 140 miles from Panama, offers the best marlin fishing. Others, though, are caught within 5 or 6 hours of Panama. Sailfish are abundant less than an hour from downtown Panama. The sailfish is a famous fighter and Panama is one of the few places in the world where a fisherman has a good chance to hook one in a single dav's fishing. Catching marlin is a business that usually requires a trip of several davs— a week is best. The Club de Pesca at Pinas Bay has complete facilities for anglers, including boats, tackle and guides. (See p. 30) Still fighting, the 450-pound giant lunges. Completely out of the water, he fights hard. Hard, careful work brings the catch nearer. The Panama Canal Review 29 Still game, but defeated, he's nearly in the boat.

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FISHING IN PANAMA Fishing from the jetties, these boys may come up with corbina, snapper, jack, and other fish that are fun to catch— and delicious, too. ... A Note to Shoppers IF YOU HAVE the thinnest veneer of curiosity, the first drop of bargain-hunting blood, then Panama is vour o\ ster. To the shopper, downtown Panama Citv can be a sort of international supermarket, a place to look, choose, and buv— and the things tourists love to buy spill from the shelves and showcases of dozens of shops. Getting to the heart of this intriguing subject, a list of popular items would have to include linens, perfume, cameras and photo equipment, electronic devices (tape recorders are popular), brass, carved objects of ivorv, jade and soapstone, silver, watches, pearls and semi-precious stones (mounted and unmounted). The careful shopper can purchase just about all of these things at prices less than he'd pav in the United States. The mola, made by the San Bias Indians, is in a categorv bv itself. This native product is of cloth, closelv stitched bv hand. It features endless designs and themes and is unique in the world. Framed, it makes a lovelv wall decoration, or it can cover an occasional pillow. It can be purchased reasonably. There is also a wide selection of ivorv, elaborate carved East Indian and oriental screens, glassware, and china. Needless to sav, it helps to have some knowledge of what one is buving. That is one qualification for being a wise consumer anvwhere, any countrv, and Panama is no exception. With a little time, the shopper can enjov the exotic flavor of stores that feature a wide variety of this merchandise. He can see carved oriental furniture that is so beautiful that it must be seen to be believed. He can see a thousand brass objects, figurines, and tablecloths. There are silks and brocades at good prices. The merchants and sales help are, generally, extremely polite, and helpful. Though some prices are firmlv set; manv are not. Bargaining is accepted bv some merchants as a way of doing business; other merchants expect it. This gives both parties a conversational point and it also reflects the fact that Panamanian businessmen are competitive and eager to please. Shopping in Panama can be fun, and there arc treasures that one might never own unless he visited stores in either Panama Citv on the Pacific, or Colon, a short distance away on the Atlantic. It's an experience no visitor should miss. (Continued from p. 29) But if it isn't marlin you're after, the fishing close to Panama City offers other game fish prized in tropical waters, and these run heavier, as a rule, than in many popular fishing resorts in the tropics. On a typical day of fishing, a catch might include amberjack, bonita, wahoo, kingfish mackerel, dolphin, and— if luck is with the boat— a sailfish. All these fish take artificial or cut bait; all are caught while trolling. For the bottom-fishing angler, the red snapper and corbina are prized. These may be caught from docks, piers and jetties. They run from about 5 to 30 pounds for the snapper, 3 to 20 pounds for corbina. Which is the best eating is a gourmet's debate, but in Panama the corbina has the edge. Panama's mountain lakes in the western area— near Cerro Punta or Volcan— are noted for bass and blue gill, and many interior streams offer fine trout fishing. In nearby towns, fishermen can find comfortable quarters and transportation. Whether you want the challenge of back-breaking marlin or joy of tempting trout with delicate flies, there is fishing in Panama to please the most avid angler. Carnival, Fairs (Continued from p. 22) Carnival Queen and her court rides in a decorated float, and the Queens' band^ fill the air with melody, while groups of masqueraders compete for prizes offered for the most original, gayest, and noisiest. Each night of Carnival there's dancing in the hotels and clubs of Panama City, and in open air dance pavilions known as "toldos." Gaiety reaches its climax in the early hours of Ash Wednesday morning when the dance music changes to a funeral march. Pallbearers carry tiny coffins, in each of which lies a fish, and a candlelight parade winds through the city's streets to the nearest beach for the "Burial of the Fish." With the dawn, the religious go to church before taking up their everyday affairs, and another Panama Carnival is over— until next year. But check the calendar. Somewhere in the Bepublic a fair is taking place, with a miniature Carnival underway in a rustic setting. 30 November 1965

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S H U.S. STILL LEADS SHIPS FLYIXG THE flag of the United States still are the best customers of the Panama Canal but they are getting a run for their monev from Norway and Great Britain. During the fiscal year ending July 31, there were 1,678 transits by U.S.owned vessels as compared to 1,446 by Norwegian and 1,339 by those thing the British flag. Other nations represented in the list of the first six best Canal customers were Germany with 1,186 transits; Liberia with 1,118 transits and Japan with 804. Although the United Stated topped the list in the number of transits and the amount of ship tonnage using the Panama Canal during fiscal year 1965, it came in third in the total amount of cargo carried through the waterway. According to official figures, first place in cargo tonnage went to ships flying the Liberian flag and second place to vessels of Norwegian registry. Each totaled more than 13 million long tons. The U.S. -flag ships carried 9,986,170 tons and British ships were fourth in the number of transits, tonnage, and cargo. Greece, with only 575 transits for the year, was fifth in the amount of cargo. Japan took sixth place in the number of transits, tonnage, and cargo. "AUSTRALIS" VOYAGE A WELL-KNOWN former United States Line vessel, sailing under another name and another flag, arrived in Balboa in October on her maiden voyage around the world. She was the 36,961-gross-ton Australia, formerly the SS America, which was reconverted to round-theworld cruising and is sailing for the Greek-owned Chandres Lines. The vessel was built in Newport News for the United States Lines in 1940 and was put in service during TRANSITS BY OCEANGOING VESSELS installed on the Fred Olsen Line EISCAL T y?AR R I966 R ^ f"^ ^ "** "*" ular trips through the Canal on her 2,953 2,978 run between North Pacific ports, the U.S. Government.. continent and the United Kingdom. Other ships in this service, the BoTotal— 3,111 3,067 nanza, Bolinas, and Burrard also are to be altered in the same way. Commercial $16,557,706 $16,165,034 U.S. Government 932,019 402,367 According to an item in the "PacifTotal-__ $17,489,725 $16,567,401 ic Shi PP er >" the new type of mechCARGO 00 anization permits the ship to disCommerciaL19.494,792 18,893,330 charge and load by means of forklift trucks through side ports with the Free advantages of faster loading and disTotal20,327,221 19,472,224 charging and reduction in port time • Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and The truck-to-truck method gives betim ^l n ter and safer handling and permits •"Cargo figures are in long tons. o r work to continue in bad weather .,, ,, ,„ TT without risk of damage to the cargo. World \\ ar II as a troopship under the name of West Point. After the The Buffalo also was fitted with war, she was returned to her owners flush deck, steel hatches, and bulkand for a number of years was used head ports for the passage of forklift in the North Atlantic service. She trucks. Holds have been given verhas made several trips through the tica l walls to insure safe stowage of Canal as both the America and as loads. Starboard side of the ship has the West Point. two combined side ports and hatches fitted each widi a movable platform NEW TECHNIQUE which can be lifted or lowered acA NEW TYPE of side port designed cording to the height of the ship's for truck-to-truck loading has been side above dock level. 1965

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PANAMA CANAL GRAPHIC BRANCH

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Due JUL, SC AUG 3 Date Due Returned I Due Returned a9 m-fr4^2

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/ 7 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA HMI„ 3 1262 04820 5131


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