Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1960
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
Classification:
HE2830.P2 P3 ( lcc )
386/.445 ( ddc )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES



















Digitized by the Internet Archive


University


in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie139pana







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IN THIS ISSUE
Trailer Travelers
Museum Pieces
Lock Chamber Ceremonial
Micro Network Grows


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51






{ JOSEPH Press 0f
iN J.e Gt Grnor- R E- 1- u-W Publications Editors
F.BiR Lieutenant Governor ROBERT D. KERR and JULIO E
E:nv.K A. Bu.Dwns Official Panama Canal Publication Edit Assistants
AitAN A. BALDWIN Editorial Assistants
Canal Information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and '
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mounl C.Z.
n:1 .11e at all P anaa Canal ServicA 'nter Retail Store, and the Tivoli Gi, -t lliie t1 r 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each,
Po-utai mn-y orders md pat.ible to tile ianama Canal Compan siouid bl, mailed to iBox M, Balboa Height,, C.Z.
Editorial Ofiics are- located in the Admiin trationl Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.


ficer

. BRICENO

OMAS A. CUPAs


THIS MONTH'S COVER
THE ANNUAL observance of Semana Santa
(Holy Week) in Panama brings forth many tradi-
-' tional religious processions in commemoration of
{ the Life, Passion, and Death of Jesus Christ. The
-..,,. cover photo, taken by Orestes Cabredo, Panama
Photographer, shows such a procession in Peno-
, t -. .nom6. Holy Week this year is April 7 through 14.


Colonel Parker and Colonel Leber pose in the Lieutenant Governor's office.




c4rriving and leaving,

THE CANAL ZONE will have a new Lieutenant Governor beginning
Monday, April 8, as Col. Walter P. Leber departs for a new assignment
as Ohio River Division Engineer, and Col. David S. Parker assumes
his new duties as Lieutenant Governor of the Canal Zone.
Colonel Leber, who recently was nominated for promotion to
Brigadier General by President Kennedy, has served as Lieutenant
Governor since June 26, 1961, when he came to the Isthmus from
Washington, D.C., where he had served 3 years as Executive Officer
to the Chief of Engineers.
Colonel Parker, who served as Military Assistant to the Governor of
the Canal Zone from 1952 to 1954, arrived on the Isthmus late last
month from Washington, D.C.
Graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point
in 1940, the new Lieutenant Governor served on the staffs of both
Adm. Chester Nimitz and Gen. Douglas MacArthur during World
War II. He was with the Army of Occupation in Japan for 3 years,
received a master's degree in civil engineering from the University of
California in 1949, served as instructor in Military Topography at
West Point, then came to the Canal Zone for his first tour of duty
with the Canal organization.
Since leaving the Isthmus in 1954, he has served with the Portland
Engineer District in Oregon, with the First Corps in Korea, and with
the office of the Chief of Engineers in Washington.
The departing Lieutenant Governor, a native of St. Louis, will be
stationed at Cincinnati, Ohio, in his new assignment.


Index
Trailer Travelers Welcomed___________-- 3
Shrine Anniversary Ceremony----------- 5
Museum Pieces From Cut ______________ 7
Inter-American Relations________ 9
Heading For New Diggings ------_---_ 17
Microwave Network Growing-----_----_ 18
Canal History, Retirements--_------_____ 20
Anniversaries_____ _______ 21
Promotions and Transfers -----------_- 22
"3" To KO Polio ---------------__-- 23
Shipping -- ________________ 24


ZONIANS AND PANAMANIANS dubious about
driving between here and the United States got
a shock recently when 24 trailer couples arrived,
a few of them young, in their 50's, others retirees
in their 70's. The Highroaders have taken all
kinds of roads, not just high ones. Some members
list Africa, Russia, and Alaska among their more
distant tour points. For an account of their visit,
see page 3.
A dewatered chamber of Miraflores Locks will
be the scene of a Shrine ceremonial reenacting
an initiation of nearly 50 years ago. One of the
members of the original initiation class still is
living on the Isthmus.
Out on the Cut widening project relics pre-
dating even early French construction days are
being found, some from the late 1850's. And
there's a report on expansion of the microwave
network on the Isthmus. Fourteen towers, many
in remote sites, were required for the installa-
tion, which serves 20,000 subscribers in major
population centers.


APRL 5, 1963


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Veterans of many miles in many lands, Joe and Lydia M. Bos stand alongside
their trailer, on which is painted a list of their travels.


"LET'S GO"


As the trailer travelers came off the bridge, nearing
completion of their journey-one way.


... AND THEY DID


WHAT TO DO with those long empty
years after retirement?
This is a problem which never has
been raised for many of the 48 men and
women who visited the Isthmus recently
as members of the Highroaders Trailer
Club.
With most of them well into their
60's-there are two or three babies in
their 50's-the energetic Highroaders
have been exploring the highways and
byways of the world, and they love it.
Their mode of travel is one that is
fairly common in the United States but
practically unknown in Panama. In fact,
their arrival on the Isthmus caused a
mild sensation among most local res-
idents who were unaware that the
Interamerican Highway was open to
anything more cumbersome than the
family car.
While residents of the Canal Zone
and Panama may drive to David, the
Costa Rican border, or even to San Jose,
this group of intrepid trail-breakers suc-
ceeded in piloting their cars and trailers
over the unpaved mountain roads of
Central America, experiencing nothing
more serious than a few flat tires and/or
a broken spring.
The Highroaders may be out for
adventure, but they believe in comfort
too. Their roomy trailers are equipped
with electric lights, running hot and
cold water, showers, toilets, and refrig-
eration. Some had the added luxury of
air conditioning. One pair of travelers
had an electric organ which was used
for church services and came in handy
for evening entertainments, and several

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 3


had motor scooters as part of their
equipment.
Under the capable guidance of
William O. Carlson of Franklin, Ohio,
the trailer travelers drove down through
Mexico and Central America at a fairly
steady pace, with stops here and there
for sightseeing, repairs, and rest.
Taking a hint from their pioneer
ancestors, the Highroaders followed
each other in caravan style, parked for
the night in a loose circle, and had
community conferences on routes, travel
time, and stopover sites. They usually
hit the road about 8 a.m. and sometimes
drove until 4 in the afternoon.
Community activities were coordi-
nated, with different tasks taken over by
volunteers. The Sunday church services,
for instance, were conducted by Mrs.
Lena Mae Shank of Indianapolis, who
was elected honorary chaplain. In Tegu-
cigalpa, Honduras, they held services
under the wing of a plane with an in-
terested group of Hondurans watching
in the background.
Her husband Robert, an airport oper-
ator, has the distinction of being the
only surviving one of the four airmail
pilots who flew the mail when the
U.S. Government took over this service
in 1918.
The necessary and important job of
collecting and distributing mail was
assumed on the trip by Charles Dodge
of Imlay City, Mich. He did so well,
in fact, that his fellow travelers were
thinking of giving him some sort of a
certificate.
While most of the Highroaders have
been members of the Caravan Club for


a number of years, this was the first
extensive trip for Lawrence Wilkins, a
former engineer with the Pontiac Motor
Co. in Michigan. Mr. Wilkins was so
interested in the trailer-travel hobby
that he designed a Pontiac specially
equipped for trailer towing. He retired
from Pontiac January 1 after 35 years
of service, so he could make this trip.
In addition to their own names and
the number of their trailers, the High-
roaders have painted on their trailers
the names of many of the countries they
have visited in their travels. On some,
the list is impressive.
Probably all travel records for mem-
bers of this particular group were
broken by Horace Dickey of Burbank,
Calif., who retired 6 years ago when
he was 70 and since then has trailered
through most of Africa and Europe,
including Russia, and visited a number

William O. Carlson, Highroaders leader, is
greeted by Manuelita de la Guardia of the
Panama Tourist Institute, and Frank A.
Baldwin, Panama Canal Information
Officer. In background is Caravaner Mrs.
Henry Gustafson.


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of countries in the Middle East and
Asia. One of his prize exhibits is a pic-
ture of his trailer parked in Red Square
in Moscow.
In 1959 and 1960, Mr. and Mrs.
Dickey traveled in their trailer from
the most southern point in Africa to the
most northern part of the Norwegian
peninsula. The Dickeys had a narrow
escape in Africa when a sleepy elephant
ambled into the trailer camp one night
and just happened to step on their
trailer. The body of the vehicle re-
ceived extensive damages. The Dickeys,
however, escaped uninjured.
Language can sometimes be a barrier,
but in most places the Highroaders en-
countered only courtesy and hospitality.
On the way down through Central
America, there were a few extensive
delays at the borders while surprised
customs and immigration officers tackled
the task of inspecting 24 trailers and
their 48 occupants. They were enthu-
siastic about their reception in Panama,
where they were met by Manuelita de
la Guardia of the Panama Tourist Insti-
tute and Frank A. Baldwin of the
Panama Canal Information Office.
Although a few decided to return
home by ship, or ship cars and trailers
and fly home, some of the group who
came as far as Panama retraced the
road back to Mexico and the Texas
border after a period of sightseeing and
shopping on the Isthmus.


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A windowsill shelf in the Wilkins trailer with miniature car and trailer, Seattle World's
Fair souvenir, center, Alaska "milepost," at right, and mementos of trip to the Isthmus.


Their headquarters and trailer haven
here was a section of the parking area
at the President Remon Racetrack,
where special water and power lines and
lights were extended to the caravan.
During their stay, many were guests at
an exhibition of folklore dancing and
other events in Panama City, visited the
San Bias Islands, Miraflores Locks,
made a partial transit of the Canal,
visited Summit Gardens, and drove on
as far as Chepo for a picnic dinner.
One of the races at the Remon track
was labeled the Inter-American Car-
avan Handicap in honor of the visitors


and Mr. Carlson made the trophy
presentation.
All along their route to Panama, the
trailerites found citizens surprised that
they were not advertising anything, had
nothing to sell, that there were "no
strings" attached to the Caravan trip,
that it was strictly for pleasure, nobody
was paid, and all paid their own
expenses.
The trip to the Isthmus resulted
when a number of the Caravan mem-
bers were chatting during a get-together
in Florida. In 1958, 26 trailers made a
(See p. 23)


Visitors were amazed at spaciousness and
convenience of equipment in trailers. Here
Dee Blakeley converts couch into a bed
for two.


4 APRIL 5, 1963


THEIR HOMES ALL OVER U.S.

D)r. F. ld Elizabetth Birw lood-1755 East 73d I i i. Cli. ,,'- 49, III.
Bud and ID)e Blakelev-17235 ,East Annadale, Sinr-'r Calif.
Joe and (Toos) Lvdia M. Bos-10812 West Linn -, i M ,I .I, Ill-, i. Iowa.
Paid and Madeline Brvai-6(376 17th Avenue North, St. Pr. i l. Fla.
I. and Ai nes Carlson-P.O. Box 5, Franklin, Ohio.
Horace and Alice Di. ke-1225 North Main Street, Burbank, Calif.
(Charles and Irene D.. 1_. 1-15 (crove Avenue, nImlav ( ', I. h
Raliph and Lillie Douglass-P.O. Box 51. Sedona, Ariz.
C. K. and Mildred Fetter-7i17 \\est Market, Limna, Ohio.
Cla\ and Esther .arr ison-390)1 South Dixie Drive. Dayton 39, Ohio.
lIoyhd and Liliai ;oodhin- Miami. Okla.
t i lr\ aod Nina (;ust afson-327 East 1"3 Mile Road, Roval Oak, Mieh.
Cuv and& Lo uise lawks-43I Southern Parkxway, i *..- ill, 14, Ky.
Vertlron nrnd Cnlara Lccii-i2382 Zi Zag \\Vay, Tustin, Calif.
Worth aind Maud O ierackr- .D1. No. 1 I.... :.-ii Coca, Fla.
Max and AnnaBelle Parsons -103 Siinnxvside Drive, Battle Creek, Mich.
Iaxmiond and Ethel Raits-14608 Southern Parkwax, i. Il'. 14. Kv.
Paul and Rilth Ross-19409t) 5th Avxenue, La I i., I ,1 Calif.
Rloh rt and L ena Mac Shank-4100) Moiler Road, Indianapolis 14, Ind.
Valnd larv a -I East '0i', Okmnulgee, Okla.
1,t ..' and ilarv Warren,-9S40 Sashabaw Road, Clarkston, Mich.
Flod andi Ruth X\ 3432 Parkside Dri\e, San Bernardino, Calif.
Ia'xn- c and Enna W\ilkins-10265 Lakeside Drive, Pontiac, Mich.


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LOCK CHAMBER




SITE FOR SHRinE




CEREmOnIAL


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The bronze tablet located on the center wall of Miraflores Locks commemorating the first
Shrine Ceremonial held south of the U.S. border is examined by George M. Klepper, left,
Imperial Potentate of the Shrine, who visited the Isthmus recently. With him is Burton
Davis, Plant Engineer of the Industrial Division, who is the Potentate of the Abou Saad
Temple of Ancon.


Hugh (Scotty) MacPherson


SUNDAY afternoon, April 7, about
4 p.m., a group of several hundred
solemn men, some wearing Shrine
regalia and all wearing Shriners' fezzes,
will descend into the empty upper lock
chamber of the west lane of Miraflores
Locks.
They will not be on their way to the
empty chamber to continue with the
periodic lock overhaul which has been
in progress in the west lane since
March 18, although a number of Locks
Division and locks overhaul employees
may be among them, including Roy
Stockham, Chief of the Locks Division.
They will be Nobles of the Ancient
Arabic Order of the Mystic Shrine who,
on the empty floor of the locks chamber,
will initiate 50 or more men into the
order in a reenactment of a Shrine initia-
tion ceremonial first held in this lock
chamber September 1, 1913.
The ceremonial to be held Sunday
will be conducted by Abou Saad Poten-
tate Burton Davis, who is employed by
the Panama Canal as Plant Engineer of
the Industrial Division. He will be
assisted by the divan officers and others
of the 700 Nobles of the local temple
and possibly representatives of the
Osman Temple of St. Paul, Minn.,
which is the mother temple of Abou
Saad.
An honored member of the group
will be Hugh (Scotty) MacPherson, a
retired Panama Canal employee who
came to work with the Isthmian Canal
Commission in 1907 and who is the
only member of the original initiation
class still living on the Isthmus.
In fact, Scotty is one of only five or
six survivors of the first class of 171
"sons of the desert" on whom, according
to the inscription on a bronze tablet on
the Miraflores Locks wall, "was con-
ferred in full form the Ancient Arabic


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


I I -, - '-_ --


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Members of the fife and drum corps of the Osman Temple of the Ancient Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, shown at the
bottom of the west chamber of the upper lock at Miraflores during the first initiation ceremony held September 1, 1913. The Osman Temple
is located in St. Paul, Minn.


Order of the Nobles of the Mystic
Shrine."
Also present will be James E. Jacob,
a retired employee of the Canal Zone
Health Bureau, who is the only other
charter member of Abou Saad Temple
now living on the Isthmus. Abou Saad
Temple received its charter from the
Imperial Council in 1917.
Although Scotty and his fellow ini-
tiates of that ceremony held in the
empty unfinished lock chamber a half
century ago went through what Shriners
call a "hot sands" ceremonial, the men
to be received into the order Sunday
will get the "cold sands" treatment. In
other words, the initiation will be a
little more decorous than most of these
affairs and much easier on the initiates.
Scotty, who now lives in the Cristobal
YMIC.N, recalls that original ceremony
as a memorable occasion.
It was attended by 190 visiting mem-
bers of the Mystic Shrine who came to
the Isthmus from St. Paul by way of
New Orleans. The group included
Imperial Potentate W. W. Irwin and
J. Harry Lewis, potentate of Osman
Temple.
The ceremonial was authorized
under the special dispensation of the
Imperial Potentate and was the first
Shrine Ceremonial ever held south of
the Rio Grande.
The west chamber of Miraflores
Locks, on which work was being com-


pleted in 1913, was decorated to re-
semble the interior of a Shrine Temple.
After the 171 sons of the desert had
crossed the hot sands to the city of
"Mecca," a bronze tablet was placed
on the centerwall of the locks to
commemorate the event.
The tablet, still in place on the
locks centerwall, bears the following
inscription:
"This tablet marks the oasis where,
on "Ailoul Ahaad 1327," (September 1,
1913) a caravan from Osman Temple
paused in its journey toward the setting
sun and conferred in full form the
Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of
the Mystic Shrine on 171 sons of the
desert in service under the Isthmian
Canal Commission. May Allah protect
and sustain them."
In addition to being a venerable and
still active member of the local Shrine,
Scotty MacPherson is a Knight Com-
mander of the Court of Honor of the
Zone and is an honorary member of
Scottish Rite Bodies in the Canal
Sojourners Lodge, A.F. & A.M., in Cris-
tobal. His home Lodge is in Saltcoats,
Scotland, a town Scotty left in 1907 to
come to Panama to work for the Isth-
mian Canal Commission as a carpenter
foreman. He remembers that he di-
rected the carpenters who were doing
the interior finishing work on Colonel
Goethals' house in Culebra.
An attack of malaria forced him home


to Scotland for a year, but Scotty
returned to Panama and continued with
the Panama Canal's former Building
Division until his retirement in 1934.
Still full of vim and vigor, Scotty trans-
ferred to the U.S. Navy and was em-
ployed on the Atlantic side until 1947
when he retired for the second time.
He has been a naturalized United States
citizen since 1911.
All Shriners in good standing residing
on the Isthmus or visiting here are
invited to attend the ceremony to be
held at Miraflores Locks Sunday. The
only requirement, in addition to a mem-
bership card, is that the member wear
a fez. Those who attend will receive
cards to commemorate the occasion.
In holding the ceremony at Mira-
flores in April, the members of the
Order of the Shrine are jumping the
gun slightly since the ceremonial 50
years ago was held September 1.
But there was little choice, since this
is the first time that the upper west
chamber of Miraflores Locks has been
unwatered since 1961 and it probably
will be the last time except in case of
an emergency or inspection, that the
water is completely drained from the
Miraflores Locks to permit overhaul.
The overhaul work now being done
at the Miraflores Locks includes modifi-
cations to make unwatering of the locks
chambers unnecessary when repair or
overhaul is scheduled.


APRIL 5, 1963




* -.


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Tangle of old rails in foreground forms frame for view of section of original right-of-way
location of old Panama railway line. Stone ballast now is surface of roadway into project
area


A bridge of the old French railway, over a
Mandinga River slough, back in use. Earth
moving equipment and cars of employees
of the contractor and project supervisors
now pass over it, after rough surfacing with
a fresh cover of earth.


From


The Cut


Several of the old wrought iron railway cars found on the side of a bank, partially
embedded in the earth. Some of the lighter bracing members were distorted by trees
2 feet and more in diameter growing up through them.


AN OPEN AIR museum of relics pre-
dating even early French construction
days on the Panama Canal will be
established within the near future as a
by-product of the latest project for
widening of the Canal channel from
300 to 500 feet.
It is to be located on Contractor's Hill,
and can be established at little cost
through coordination with routine pro-
ject operations. Material and equipment
of French construction days and some
from the old Panama Railroad dating
back to the late 1850's are being dug
out by the contractor at work on the
Zone I (above elevation 95) work on
the 3.1-mile Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas
Reach widening.
Plans also call for placing repre-
sentative items of construction equip-
ment in the vicinity of the Balboa
Heights railroad station where the most
ancient of the Panama Railroad's loco-
motives, "Old 299," was dedicated as a
monument January 28, 1955, during
celebration of the railroad's centennial.
Old, small Belgian and French dump
cars manufactured in the 1880's, and
some from early U.S. construction work,
are being found on the project site,
along with rail, original bridges for the
rail line, and pieces of abutments for it.
Some of the best of the representative
salvage items, including each different
type of car, will be put aside, cleaned
and restored, and mounted on pieces of
original rail.
A considerable amount of such
salvage is being found in the project
area, more than on earlier widening
projects. Work in this area is the first
in which the contract was basically for


MUSEUM



PIECES






removal of simple earth overburden,
with a minimum of rock excavation. It
is intended to use the satisfactory rock
from the Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas
Reach project for fill for the Trinidad
Dam.
Some rocks and boulders, of course,
are being encountered in the project,
since the area is referred to as a "geo-
logical garbage dump" due to volcanic
activity and tectonic disturbances.
These tectonic disturbances have
been upheavals and dropping of large
blocks of earth masses deep within the
ground, as well as at the surface, result-
ing in seismic activity and folding and
faulting of the earth's crust. Volcanic
activity and marine sedimentation have
occurred repeatedly from 50 million
years ago to the present.
The four huge 44-cubic yard power
scrapers at work have had a peak week
as high as approximately 180,000 cubic
yards of earth and rock moved, being
kept at the job on two 12-hour shifts
6 days a week. They are proving to be
rugged machines, and have a life
expectancy of several years. They each
consume about 580 gallons of diesel
oil per day on a full schedule.
The Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas Reach
Zone I contractor, Moretti-Harrison, of
Miami, Fla., should be at least a mile
south of the starting point at the Man-
dinga River by the time bids are taken
sometime after July 1 for the Zone II
work (below elevation 95). The Dredg-
ing Division will complete the Zone II
work in the Empire Reach widening
project area to the south in a few
more weeks.
Some of the better scrap is being
salvaged for bureaus and divisions
which have use for it. The rest will be

This puncture cost about $4,000. A piece
of old rail from French construction days
pierced the thick rubber and heavy metal
mesh multiple ply of one of the huge tires
for the 44-cubic yard power scrapers at
work on the project. This tire was brand
new when work started January 21.


reburied in spoil dumps with a mini-
mum amount of cover so it can be
reclaimed later if this desirable. The
best scrap is bringing only $20 a ton
now, compared with more than $40 a
ton 7 or 8 years ago. Difficulty of
removal and difficulty of access to the
project area currently make it uneco-
nomical to salvage the poorer scrap.
Pieces of the scrap have punctured
six of the tires for the big power
scrapers-tires costing about $4,000
each. Five of those punctured still
are useable. One is a complete loss
because of breaking of the multiple ply
wire mesh reenforcing these tires in
place of the fabric used in regular tires.
The others damaged have a reduced
service mileage left. Six new ones have
been purchased.


There's little difference in character
of earth and rock being encountered on
the Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas Reach
project from that found during similar
work on the west bank of the Canal
farther south, with sediment showing
heavy volcanic content.
Source of this, it is believed, was an
ancient volcano in the vicinity of the
hills between Chiva Chiva Trail and
Las Cumbres on the Trans-Isthmian
Highway. Cerro Gordo, on the Con-
tinental Divide behind Empire Reach,
probably was a subsidiary cone late
in the volcanic history of the area.
Parts of the apparent cone of this
volcano are about 3% miles from the
Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas project area,
and within approximately 1% miles of
the Canal channel at the closest point.


Abutments of the original French railway bridge across the Mandinga River are visible
in center of picture on far bank. The location is about a quarter of a mile west of the
Canal channel.


I


Communism: For The Birds
THERE'S a general exodus of balanced wildlife from the area of the Bas
Obispo-Las Cascadas Reach Canal widening project.
Among those fleeing as earth moving equipment works south are some
"Communists." These are the Greater Ani, birds of a dozen or so per flock
which build a communal nest on the ground, take turns using it, sit simul-
taneously on eggs laid in it, and apparently share parenthood of all results
of hatching.
And on numerous occasions they appear to have noisy and unnecessary
conferences and disturb the natural serenity of their surroundings, reports
project engineer Charles McG. Brandl, amateur naturalist and aspiring
ornithological photographer.
Wary and timid, the Greater Ani are rare in and near populated areas, but
fairly common in more remote regions.
The better known Lesser Ani often follow mowers, gleaning for the insects
put to flight.
Also found in the project area have been the mot-mots, pretty birds with
iridescent pastel coloring. They have a distinctive call and respond to calls
by bird fanciers, coming to them. They have a peculiar tail construction and
the effort of making their call causes their tails to flop forward as they sound off.







INTER-AMERICAN



RELATIONS







Inter-American relations is an "already long and somewhat abused"
subject, in the opinion of Bishop Mark G. McGrath, C.S.C., Auxiliary
Bishop of Panama, but one that will have to be discussed for many decades
to come with "increasing clarity and a greater sense of urgency." His
comments here are from a speech before the American Society of Panama
recently. They are published as the views of a man held in high regard
by all who know him, who has dedicated his life to service, and who
cannot be accused of "crackpotism" or "ax-grinding" for personal reasons.
Bishop McGrath offered his comments "with the consciousness that many
are better informed than myself and more equipped to speak on the
matter; I simply give my ideas and reflections with the hope that they may
contribute something to your own thinking on the problem."
Chips land in Panama, the Canal Zone, and many even fly as far as the
United States itself.


A VERY HIGH Churchman in North
America recently remarked to me that
there was not much reason for thinking
of help to Latin America since these
countries would have to go through a
Communist experience anyway.
Apart from the fact that a nation does
not merely "go through a Communist
experience" (because the door closes
behind the nation which falls under
communism and it does not easily
re-open), there is the more fundamental
concern caused by the statement to
which I refer, namely, the extreme
pessimism reflected in what a recog-
nized leader of society in North America
is thinking about our part of the world.
There are others, of course, who brush
off the worries and dangers of the time
with a bland type of optimism which
can only inspire in us a similar distrust.
There are those also who speak of com-
munism in Cuba as being a blessing
because it has served to awaken us to
the dangers at hand. This would be true
if it really had awakened a sufficient
number of our leaders in both North
and Latin America, and if it had not
only awakened but also enlightened


them to the fundamental flaws now
affecting our society and driving it
toward other Cubas.
I would begin by observing the
strangely split personality which many
Americans and, to a certain extent, the
United States as such, presents before
the world in the matter of Latin America
as, I suppose, also in other foreign areas.


Book apparently

read as form

of "diplomatic

masochism

AT TIMES Americans give off an
impression of bland confidence and
assured superiority. At other times they
seem completely overwhelmed with
their inadequacy in understanding and


BISHOP MARK G. McGRATH
Bishop McGrath, C.S.C., who has
spent much of his life working on behalf
of Latin American campesinos, is the
son of the late John T. McGrath, a
Canal employee who came to the Isth-
mus in 1914 from Trenton, N.J. He
lived in the Canal Zone several years,
attended the University of Notre Dame,
received his bachelor's degree at Catho-
lic Institute in Paris, and earned his
doctorate in theology at the College of
Angels in Rome. He was consecrated as
a Bishop October 8, 1961, and named
auxiliary to the Archbishop of Panama.

handling foreign relations or particularly
their relations in foreign countries and
indulge in a severe amount of breast-
beating about their mistakes and guilt
and failures. An example of this type of
thinking is to be found in the book
written by C. Wright Mills entitled
"Listen Yankee!"
The book blames the United States
exaggeratedly for what has happened
in Cuba; but what is most remarkable
is that the book has sold widely through-
out the United States, and it is appar-
ently being read by many Americans
as a form of diplomatic masochism. On
a more simple plane, one discovers
many Americans in Latin America who
are confident of their own personal
superiority in so many ways and yet
find themselves embarrassingly disguis-
ing their influence on local affairs for
fear that it will be rejected because it
is American.
Recently I had occasion to overhear
the observation of an American gentle-
man who was anxious to support a
student in the University of Panama
for a scholarship to be granted by this


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


F1



k~



"i"

















It's Not


All


Like This


American's corporation. He was sure of
what he was doing, but he was com-
pletly undone when he was told that it
would be better for him not to publicize
the fact that the scholarship was given
by the corporation because it would
limit the student's freedom in University
federation activity; since he would be
considered by many as a hireling of
the United States.


THE CENTLEMAN could not see or
understand this observation, except as
an insult to his Americanism; whereas
in fact, it is no such thing.
There are two very different problems
involved which must be kept always
distinct, namely: (1) one's own love
and pride in his own great national
inheritance, the virtues of his people,
and his own talents; (2) as dis-
tinguished from a sincere endeavor to
understand the different ways and
problems of another nation in which he
may find himself or with which he
would have to deal; and a tactful under-
standing that his contribution, if it is
to be positive and real for this nation,
must be indirect, disguised, discreet,
and always subordinate to local en-
deavors if it is not to be felt as an
imposition from abroad.
It is an apparent difficulty in blending
lawful national pride with discreet


(even if vigorous) influence abroad
which would seem to produce the split-
personality image mentioned above.
If we go a little bit more deeply into
the problem, we discover immediately
what is perhaps the greatest roadblock
to genuine inter-American collaboration,
namely, the great ignorance that exists
in both North and Latin America about
one another. It is commonplace to
mention this factor, and yet I do not
think that we weigh the consequences.


I THINK it is fair to state that the
Catholic bishops of the United States
are among its most intelligent and most
influential citizens. What they think and
say and do about Latin America will
have a great bearing upon the eventual
relationships of the United States with
Latin America. And yet, I think I can
say without any fear of offense that
most Catholic bishops of the United
States know very little about Latin
America and its problems and are quite
confused about just what they can do
to help. If this can be said of them, it
certainly can be said of the ministers
of other religions and of outstanding
leaders in all civic and national areas.
It is not only that many, if not most of
these persons, do not know whether
Venezuela is to be found on the Atlantic
or on the Pacific ocean, but more im-


portantly that they do not have any
clear notion of the social upheavals now
taking place in Latin America and of
the entire historical, social, political,
and religious environment which has
made and makes Latin America what
it is today. Obviously we must make a
similar observation regarding the igno-
rance of the leaders of the Latin Amer-
ican society, and, of course, much more
so in the case of the masses, regarding
the United States.
And, here again, it is not so much a
question of some of them thinking that
Hollywood is to be found on the out-
skirts of New York City as rather their
frequent ignorance of the social struc-
ture of the United States and how it
came to be. This is often manifest in
the blanket statements of social re-
formers in Latin America, condemning
all forms of capitalism and considering
the United States to be a gross example
of abusive capitalism.

ACTUALLY, THE target of these
attacks is still principally the liberal
capitalism of the last century which
perhaps holds out in other areas of the
world but which has certainly been
greatly gone over in the United States
which, in many ways, is a far more
socialized nation today than any nation
of Latin America with the exception,

10 APRIL 5, 1963


-e~--T=







NS


Nor Is It

All

Like This


of course, of Cuba. One example suffices
to bring out this point. The progressive
tax system as applied in the United
States would raise a tremendous cry
from the business leaders of most of
the Latin American countries if it were
imposed upon them.
There is another aspect to this mutual
ignorance which I think is worth bring-
ing out; it is somewhat more delicate
but I think nonetheless valuable. Most
Americans who live in Latin America
for short or long periods of time manage
to collect themselves into very cohesive
groups, known in various nations as "the
Embassy crowd," "the American col-
ony," etc., according to whether the
nucleus of the group is made up of the
staff of the Embassy and its related
missions, or of a business group. (In
Panama we have a broader-based U.S.
group-Canal Zone, Armed Forces,
Embassy, United States residents in
Panama.)
These groups generally attend the same
hotels and clubs and, in their social rela-
tionships, they are limited to contacts
with one another or with persons of the
country in which they are living who
enjoy the same economic standards of
life to which they are accustomed.
A person may live in a foreign country
in this fashion for 30 or more years
and never really come to know that
country or its people adequately. He
will judge that country exclusively by


the small coterie of privileged individ-
uals with whom he deals, and he will
come to think about the country exactly
as these same privileged individuals
think.

I CAN EXEMPLIFY this even in the
case of priests who would come from
the United States to work in Latin
America as missionaries. If one of them
is placed as pastor of a crowded,
populous, urban area, or out on land
among the poor and backward, he
meets the masses of Latin America; but,
if he finds himself placed as a pro-
fessor in a private school, frequented
principally by children of well-to do
families, he may never meet psycho-
logically the masses of Latin America.
The persons with whom he will mostly
deal are his students and their parents
and the parents' associates, etc. He will
hear them day in and day out talking
about their own country. They will give
him his legal advice, his educational
policy will be much affected by them,
he will even read the same newspapers
they read. Thus it is that, though he
may have been the son of a truck driver
in the United States, he will develop
mentally and psychologically in Latin
America into an aristocrat.
This, which could happen in the case of
a priest or other missionary, with more
reason can take place in the case of a
lay person in Latin America working


for the Government or for a U.S. cor-
poration or in a similar employment who
finds that his salary allows him to enjoy
the luxury of one or two maids, the best
local clubs, trips to the ocean, and in
general the company of the more com-
fortable classes of the society in which
he finds himself. Thus it is that Amer-
icans abroad can quite often live within
glass cages of their own making.

FROM WITHIN, they can see the
poverty and the social problems of
Latin America, but they come to look
upon them too often with that certain
indifference or fatalistic acceptance
which is often characteristic of the
aristocratic classes. This problem is
more complicated by the fact that
American businessmen abroad, as
businessmen everywhere, and rightly so,
are out to make money. Businessmen
and industrialists are not generally phi-
lanthropic in their viewpoints on busi-
ness. We know that the laboring classes
in the United States had to fight long
and hard to obtain a position of bargain-
ing power by which they could elimi-
nate most of the abuses of unrestrained
capital and management.
Some would say that the pendulum has
now swung in the United States to the
other side. But, it is quite obvious that
the labor movement in Latin America
on the whole is very weak. Sometimes
it makes very much noise when it is


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







"DIFFICULT TO RECEIVE HELP"


utilized by Communist leaders for po-
litical purposes. But, in most nations of
Latin America, the bulk of the laborers
are unorganized and are very much at
the mercy of their employers.
American industrialists and business-
men abroad too often feel that they are
doing all that they need do in labor
relations if they keep within the local
laws, whereas these local laws in many
cases do not begin to assure labor pro-
tection. And thus, we find many Amer-
ican businessmen abroad who are far
more reactionary, far more prone to
dismiss as Communist every possible
labor agitation than they would ever
have been had they remained in the
United States itself. I have heard
very responsible business leaders in
various Latin American nations reject
all non-"rightist" organizations as being
Communist.



Quasi-experts from

golden ghettoes"

often help further

narrow attitude


AMONG THE organizations thus con-
demned were the various Christian
Democratic movements of Latin Amer-
ica which differ greatly from country
to country but which in some of these
countries offer a healthy political alter-
native to the extremism of the right or
the left. I cannot speak of Panama
where the Christian Democratic Party
has only recently been created.
An added problem is created for the
United States when these very Amer-
icans who have been living within their
golden ghettoes in Latin America return
to the United States. They pass in their
U.S. circles as quasi-experts on Latin
America. Their judgments are re-
spected. They often help to further
narrow attitudes on Latin America, for
example the quite endemic notion that
Latin America should be more explicit
in thanking the United States for
its aid.
Recently I was in Miami, Fla., at the
very time that the President of Panama


requested of President Kennedy a revi-
sion of the Canal treaty. This request
was announced in a Miami newspaper
under headlines which said something
like this, "Panamanians Not Content,
Want More." There are many persons
in the Canal Zone who still repeat the
wornout expression, "This country
would still be swimming in alligators if
we hadn't come." No one denies the
great helps that have been received in
Latin America from the United States
presence and industry, but it is entirely
false to suppose that all or most of these
have been realized out of merely
philanthropic purpose.

EVEN WHEN this purpose is evident,
it remains difficult to receive help from
another and doubly so when he is so
tactless that he keeps reminding you
that he is giving you this help. There
is a rightful propaganda and political
value in international giving; but it
must be discreet.
I have spoken of the ignorance which
exists on both sides of the Rio Grande
regarding the other side, and I have
stressed particularly the American igno-
rance of Latin America because I am
speaking to the American Society, but
it is necessary to pin down in some
fashion a few aspects of this ignorance.
What is the American ignorant of re-
garding Latin America? This is a very
vast subject which I can only pretend
to open up for your consideration.
First of all, it might be said that a person
from the United States must wash his
mind of accepted social and political
patterns if he is to understand the social
and political structure of Latin America.
He is used to a society which was born
and grew on a frontier in the form of
rugged democracy. He has never experi-
enced an aristocratic colonial structure
into which Latin America was born
with the Spanish, with the Iberian con-
quests and into which it has remained
more or less fixed for 400 years.
The Latin American Conquistadores
and their descendants in power have for
so long held the landed wealth and
economic and political control that it is
ingrained into their habits of thinking
that things should be as they are. One
might explicate their attitude by
saying, "Some are born to riches and
power and comfort, the rest are not."
This attitude does not spring from
malice; it is characteristic of all aristo-


cratic societies; and we must remember
that most societies have been aristocratic
until very recently in history.

WHEN THE aristocrats exercise their
power and wealth with a personal
interest for at least the minimum sup-
port of the masses, then we have a
paternalistic society which has many
virtues in certain periods of social evolu-
tion. When this does not happen, then
we have an oligarchical structure which
brings about genuine oppression of the
masses. In any case, the existence of this
structure in Latin America sets it off
considerably as regards the United
States. You cannot begin to compare,
for example, the youth of the United
States and the youth of, let us say,
Bolivia. The great bulk of the U.S.
youth will study all or most of the way
through high school. In Bolivia, possibly
only 7 percent will ever get as far as
high school, and certainly no more than
1 percent will reach the university.
Yet, if you take that upper 1 percent
and compare it to the average Amer-
ican youth, you will probably find that
the Bolivian in question has broader
cultural values than the average Amer-
ican student of his own age. Com-
parisons between the two societies,
north and south, are obviously quite
difficult.
The tourist from the United States who
visits Latin America and only goes
through its cities has the impression of



Primitive society,

growing slums

just few miles

outside the cities

a uniform civilization because he stays
in the best hotels and travels by the
best means. Yet, if he takes the time to
go just a few miles out of the city in
almost any direction, he will find a very
primitive society; and nowadays, he
need only visit the growing slum areas
to have a firsthand impression of the
suffering masses of Latin America.

12 APRUL 5, 1963





WITHOUT DEVELOPING this com-
parison any further and only having
suggested it to you, I must mention
another complicating factor. The star-
tling phenomenon of Latin America
today is precisely that this aristocratic



Aristocratic social

structure crumbling

with amazing speed

in Latin America


social structure, which has held together
for all these centuries, is crumbling with
amazing speed. This, too, complicates
the consideration of the Latin American
scene. There are many factors which
could be adduced as causes and ex-
planations of the social changes now
being experienced.


one of the greatest internal migrations
that history has recorded.
Throughout Latin America, masses con-
verge upon the cities and produce the
ever-growing slum areas. In Santiago,
Chile, for instance, every year 40,000
persons pour in from the land. This is
entirely apart from the vegetative in-
crease of the city population itself. But
the cities are simply not equipped to
give houses, food, work, schools, and
churches to all these late arrivals.


ONCE THEY HAVE exhausted avail-
able living space in the houses of
friends, they must throw some boards
together on any unoccupied land, and
you have the beginning of the "Villa
Miseria," the "Callampa," the "Casas
Brujas," the "Favella," etc., as these
blights upon our cities are colorfully
termed in the various countries of Latin
America.
There are other factors that bring about
change. The American tends to think of
the Industrial Revolution as something
that occurred already. Actually, it is
just beginning in most areas of Latin


IF SOCIAL STRUCTURES are chang-
ing rapidly and must change rapidly,
these changes must nonetheless be care-
fully studied and, as far as possible,
controlled. On the other hand, it is cer-
tainly to be regretted that it is so char-
acteristic of the comfortable classes of
Latin America to resist change, all
change that is social as well as economic,
and to ascribe their resistance wholly
to motives of anti-communism, when
it is quite obvious that their most
serious concern is often with their own
economic and social position.
This is regrettable, but it is also regret-
table that so few Americans, whether
at home or abroad, have a genuine intui-
tion into the social structure of Latin
America as it has been, and the social
changes which are now taking place.
The reactionary attitude of so many
Americans living abroad succeeds in
giving the almost universal impression
that they, and therefore the United
States, are identified with those who
resist social changes.
The poor Latin American sees the very
high standard of living portrayed in the
U.S. movies which have had a strong
effect in increasing his desire for greater


"CHANGES MUST BE STUDIED"


Certainly one of them is the tremendous
population growth in Latin America,
said to be the heaviest in any area of
the world. Within 30 years, the popula-
tion of Latin America will double. For
static economies, not used to economic
expansion, this inevitably produces tre-
mendous problems of unemployment,
housing, schools, churches, hospitals,
etc. Another great change that has
occurred is the introduction in the cities
more and more of the U.S. way of life
with all its comforts, for those who can
buy them.
This has increased the already existing
tendency of the Latin American land-
owner to live in the city. His absence
from the land and his unconcern about
the land have helped to accentuate the
very grievous problems of production
in many rural areas. This neglect of the
land is starkly evident in Panama where
the great bulk of the land we farm is
still cultivated without the assistance
of either machine or animals, being
worked upon simply by hand. The
population explosion on the land as well
as the backwardness and unemployment
of the "campesinos," added to the
allurement of city lights, have produced


America, and it is producing the same
effects that it brought about in Europe
and in the United States. The major
problem is that the effects brought
about by this recent industrial revolu-
tion and the other factors which I have
briefly pointed out are occurring with
such tremendous velocity, one might
say that Latin America is being forced
to go through, in 30 or 40 years, what
other nations have experienced in
periods of centuries.
It is not surprising, in view of this cir-
cumstance, that many of its own aristo-
cratic leaders very honestly oppose
many of the inevitable changes which
are taking place and consider them the
works of destruction. The insistence by
the U.S. Government and the Alliance
for Progress upon such sweeping
changes as tax reform and land reform
and vocational education and guidance,
etc., can appear to the conservative
minds of Latin America as reckless. It is
necessary to understand that not every
opposition to change in Latin America
springs from ill-will simply, and that
often the over-simplified appeals for
change which come from United States
representatives at home or abroad
warrant some distrust.


comfort in life; he sees the Americans
in his own country living very comfort-
ably; he sees the tourists who come
through and criticize quite freely every-
thing that does not come up to their
own standards of material comfort; and
he has the impression that the American
is not concerned about his poverty.



Established order

concept varies;

masses don't get

U. S. aid direct


FOR EXAMPLE, when President
Eisenhower came to Chile in 1960, he
spoke very eloquently about the need
for inter-American unity, but used some
ill-chosen phrases. He exhorted all who
heard him to the defense of the estab-
lished order. This phrase is quite accept-


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





able in the United States, where most
people have a comfortable share in the
established order, but it is politically
dead in Latin America, where most
people want to change the established
order for one in which they can have
a larger share of goods and of power.
Again, there is the problem that the
U.S. relations with Latin America are
generally and officially carried out
through the governments. Many of these
governments are struggling for eco-
nomic survival, so that the great bulk
of U.S. aid, which is not military, goes
into balancing their budgets. This goes
on without the kind of social and eco-
nomic reforms which might serve to
balance some of the budgets internally.
Meanwhile, there are tremendous exam-
ples of human suffering, such as now
affects over 20 million poor in north-
eastern Brazil, who do not receive, as
they might, the direct help of the
people of the United States.
I recognize that these are complicated
problems, but I mention them because
of the undoubted effect that they pro-
duce upon the Latin American mind.
It is very difficult for a person in the
United States to understand how any-
one can be drawn to communism; but it
is terribly easy for the pied pipers of
Moscow to entice millions of our poor
in Latin America to their and our own
destruction. I need not describe for you
who know this problem very well some
of the extreme examples of poverty,
ignorance, and other physical and moral
miseries which are so common in Latin
America. Perhaps a story might help to
bring out what I want to express.


A FEW YEARS AGO I met in Chile a
young Argentinian priest who was
trying to make contact with some of
the poorest elements of Santiago slums.
He actually lived in these slums in
miserable conditions for several months
in his initial contacts and has always
continued to return to this same form
of life from time to time. After the first
few months of this kind of living, I met
him and, among other things, he made
this remark to me, "You would be sur-
prised what most tempted me during
these months in the Callampa (slums).
"It was not anything concerning women
or drink or things that men generally
consider to be their temptations. It was
rather the temptation of communism.
I would never become a Communist
because I know too much about it and
about our own Christian faith, but I can
certainly understand the temptation,
and I even felt it. When one is immersed
in misery and he is only offered one
solution, namely, the Communist solu-


tion, he does not have much of an alter-
native. It is either this or no hope for
change."
The remarks of this young Jesuit priest
struck me forcibly. We must offer hope
to our poor, genuine hope, hope for
genuine and lasting improvement.
Too often the richer classes of Latin
America feel that they are doing all
that they can and must for the poor by
bringing them gifts at Christmastime,
organizing summer camps for their
children, teaching catechism to these


same children, setting up orphanages,
etc. Obviously, this is only a pater-
nalistic solution, not adequate to the
times. It alleviates the sufferings but
does not remove their cause nor does it
improve lastingly the economic and
social situation of the poor.

I THINK MANY Americans abroad
have fallen into this same type of pater-
nalistic thinking, and so have all those
Americans at home who think that the
problems of Latin America, economic

14 APRIL 5, 1963


This Helps,


But It


Isn't Enough


















































and social, can be solved simply by
sending money or other forms of eco-
nomic assistance. These are needed,
but the solution lies in carefully guided
structural change, linked to educa-
tion in community responsibility and
community effort.
If I may begin to sum up, I would say
that one of the greatest obstacles to
better relationships between the Amer-
icas is ignorance of one another, an
ignorance which is shared in often by
Americans abroad and, of course, in
these considerations we have included
those Americans living in the Canal
Zone sector of Panama. Overcoming
this ignorance requires not merely a
factual learning about the countries of
Latin America but a feeling for the
strong differences in cultural and social
organization.


All this is complicated the more by the
tremendous social changes now taking
place in Latin America. Our problem
becomes every day more complex. Some
persons may think that we are only
recently becoming aware of our poor in
Latin America; this is not entirely true.
By reason of many of the things which
I have tried to describe, we are acquir-
ing every day a greater number of poor
in more areas. Thirty or forty years ago
the problem of misery in Latin America,
as it now exists on the land and par-
ticularly in the slum areas of the cities,
was unknown.
What conclusion can be drawn from
those observations?

THERE IS A tendency for us to preach
to one another on these matters, Amer-
icans to Latin Americans and vice versa,


Mingling, Sharing


Thoughts, Ideas,


Dispels Ignorance


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


and perhaps I seem to be preaching to
you today. Actually, there is no easy
solution as we all know, but a btgirning
of a solution lies in the recognition of
our mutual ignorance and in an effort,
particularly on the part of those who
are living in Latin America, to make a
real contact with its peoples; to jostle
one's self occasionally out of his busy
or comfortable round of life; to travel
about the country, learn the lan-
guage above all, and talk to the people,
listening perhaps more than one talks.
I have many friends in the Canal Zone-
and please remember that I was born
in the Canal Zone-who have lived
there for 30 or 40 years without ever
having made any attempt to learn the
Spanish language. This, of course,
means a marked disinterest in Panama.
And, when this is multiplied by many,
many individuals, it can help explain
the impression that is given to the Pan-
amanians of supreme indifference on
the part of U.S. people, which they must
judge through the Canal Zonians, the
military forces in Panama, the official
authorities, and the tourists.
Recently there has been a marked effort
on the part of responsible sectors in the
Armed Forces, in the Canal Zone and
in the Embassy to initiate beneficient
contacts with Panamanians. This has
given rise, for example, to help for
children and for the poor through
what is popularly known as "Operation
Friendship," one of the greatest
diplomatic successes in Canal Zone and
Panamanian history.

AM ER IC ANS RESIDENT in Panama,
through this very American Society,
have also undertaken beneficient activi-
ties. All this type of activity is of great
help to the needy and serves to establish
the kind of human relationship which
has so often been lacking between
Americans abroad and the peoples who
surround them.
There are some Americans who would
like to affect also the ideological orien-
tation of certain student, labor, and
other groups. This, of course, must be
done with care, lest it appear as a public
interference in local politics. Perhaps
much more can be done, at least to
erase the image of a retarded and
regressive American capitalism, by pro-
moting economic endeavors which will
favor the kind of social and economic
changes that are desirable in Latin
America.
We talk a great deal about the need
for greater social justice in Latin Amer-
ica, which might be characterized as
meaning a more equitable distribution
of the national wealth. Americans






Americans can help

in 'social mobility;"

Latin American

capital straying


should take a certain leadership in Latin
America by the way they pay their help,
by the way they train their help, by the
guarantees they give, by the social
mobility they encourage, in allowing
competent help to rise to top positions
even in American firms in Latin
America, etc.
But, we must all realize that simply
dividing up the national wealth among
all the citizens would perhaps only leave
us all poor. It is equally important that
we stress the necessity for economic
development so that there will be
greater wealth and greater production
to be shared and enjoyed by all.

THIS IS PERHAPS the greatest secret
which Americans abroad should begin
to reveal to many of their local friends
and business associates. It is a scan-
dalous fact that great quantities of
capital from Latin America are being
sent abroad to be placed often in
foreign deposits. This represents, on the
part of Latin American capitalists, an
injustice to their own countries which
are at the same time requesting that the
United States officially, and through its
business enterprises, invest capital in
Latin America.
The entire capital promised by the
Alliance for Progress over the next 10
years is said to be considerably less than
the capital deposited by Latin American
capitalists abroad in the last few
years. The Latin American governments
should do as much as they can to stop
and to penalize this flight of national
wealth abroad, but much has to be done
to change the mentality which permits
and encourages this kind of flight. The
Latin American capitalist is obviously
manifesting little faith in the economic
and political future of his own country.


He can be encouraged to greater faith
by his own American friends living in
Latin America. Furthermore, the Latin
American capitalist who sends his
money abroad often does so because he
does not realize the opportunities which
he could develop by investing some of
that capital at home.
The proper investment and control of
development of capital in wealth-
producing enterprises in Latin America
is a lesson which must be learned, but
the wealth of Latin America would still
tend to maintain a colonial and non-
progressive mentality of hoarding the
wealth, or at least of not investing it
unless there is an assurance of a large
and quick profit.

FURTHERMORE, the Latin American
generally-and this I recognize as a
Churchman-is often bereft of a social
sense in his religion. He does not clearly
recognize his moral obligations to
society, in politics, business, or social
relations. The Latin American capitalists
who drain the wealth of their nations,
even if it is their own, by sending it
abroad are probably not conscious of
the very grave social harm they so
occasion to their nations, or at least of
the social moral responsibility involved
in their procedure.
When anyone speaks of Latin America,
as I have done, it is necessary to honestly
remind all of us, including the speaker,
of the danger involved in generaliza-
tions. The economic and social picture
of Latin America varies greatly from
country to country and region to region.
Just for example, there is much more
social mobility in Panama City than
there is on the land, and much more in
Panama than many of the other nations
of Latin America. The vast particular
differences in Latin America must not
be forgotten when we generalize.
And so I end as I began by reminding
you that these have only been some
personal observations on our inter-
American relations which I pass on to
you with the hope that they may be of
some help in your own thinking about
the problem, and with the realization
that we must continue to think and
discuss these problems quite openly and
frankly because, without a clear knowl-
edge of what is happening around us


and a generous will to work together for
a society that is true to our spiritual
traditions in both North and Latin
America, and free and progressive, and
just and generous to all its citizens, we
may fear for evil days ahead.
I have often said and I really believe
that communism in Latin America is
not our real danger; that communism
would not have a chance in Latin Amer-
ica if we, who call ourselves Christians,
would just occasionally stop thinking
only about ourselves and look at these
general problems which affect each
country and all of us together, and then
make some generous effort to achieve
the kind of society which our gospel
and our faith would demand.

IT WILL BE many a year before a
significant improvement comes about in
the socio-economic problems of Latin
America. But it is important to raise
hopes now. Pessimism and despair drive
men to extreme solutions-such as com-
munism. We are in an age of rapid
change in Latin America. If our Latin
American business leaders, if the United
States, if U.S. personnel and citizens in
Latin America appear as enemies of
change, they will continue to lose the
confidence of the masses and of many
serious social leaders.
If, on the contrary, as they have begun
to do, they at once encourage and guide
socio-economic changes (tax reform,



... We may hope for

flowering of spirit

of man... saved

from yawning abyss

land-reform, broader technical educa-
tion, etc.) into healthy, productive
channels, communism in the Americas
will wither and die, for its roots will
have been cut, and we may hope for a
new flowering of the spirit of man freed
from its present miseries and saved from
the yawning abyss of Marxist despair.


"ITS ROOTS WILL HAVE BEEN CUT"


16 APRIL 5, 1963















IV


oW


P. Alton White tries the seat at the controls of the 15-cubic yard dipper
dredge Cascadas. His father had been its chief engineer.



For New Diggings


ALLEGIANCE to the Dredging Divi-
sion, its men, machinery, and equip-
ment, and pride in its accomplishments:
That capsulizes the impression of
P. Alton White as, looking toward retire-
ment, he glanced back at high points
during his 38 years with the Division.
Mr. White retired April 1 as Dredg-
ing Division Chief, the only man to have
held that title. Before he took over in
1950, his predecessors on the job had
been designated superintendents.
During Mr. White's service, the Pan-
ama Canal embarked on, and completed,
its longest single project since construc-
tion days: Project 13. This job, spanning
two decades, laid the groundwork for
and proved the value of the continuing
program for widening of the Canal
channel from 300 to 500 feet.
Project 13 was widening from 300 to
500 feet a 1%-mile channel section
through Culebra Reach, the worst slide
area. More than 9.9 million cubic yards
of earth and rock were drilled, blasted,
sluiced, and dug between January 1935
and fiscal year 1955-56, when the
project was completed.
Goals were to provide a passing area
and reduce slide frequency by grading
the slopes. It wasn't a continuous project
over all those years. It was one on
which work was done when other pri-
orities didn't require concentration of
Dredging Division efforts elsewhere.
Other highlights during Mr. White's
career here were deepening of the
Pacific entrance channel and Balboa
Harbor 5 feet, dredging the third locks
entrance channels during World War II,
at Miraflores and Gatun Locks and the
north approach to Miraflores Lake,
construction of the Balboa convoy
assembly area opposite Fort Amador,


and the Canal channel widening
program, started in 1959 and to be
completed in 1966 or 1967.
The assembly area was for mooring
of Navy tankers, and could handle
12 seagoing supertankers. Mr. White
recalls that three 15-cubic yard dipper
dredges and two suction dredges were
at work on this program: the dipper
dredges Gamboa, Paraiso, and Casca-
das, and suction dredges Mindi, a 28-
inch, and Las Cruces, a 24-inch.
The dipper dredges were 3 of the
20 at work in 1915 at the end of the
construction period, and the Cascadas
and Paraiso are 2 of only 5 known
dipper dredges of their size in the world.
The dipper dredge, he feels, is the
most important type ever used on the
Canal, as it can be moved faster, in and
out of the channel even in intervals
between transiting ships, and is versa-
tile, digging both hard and soft material.
Another high point in his memories
was building of the town of Gamboa
in 1936-38, with a layout of separated
residential, civic, and service facilities.
A special affection for the dredge
Cascadas is evident as Mr. White fields
questions. His father, D. P. White, was
chief engineer of the Cascadas before
his retirement in 1942.
Original log books still aboard show
the Cascadas has dug nearly 47.2 mil-
lion cubic yards of earth and rock since
it was commissioned October 13, 1915.
It has dug a record 23,000 cubic yards
in 24 hours.
Among the "sad days" he recalls was
the layoff right after World War II
when the Mindi was tied up for 2%
years for economy reasons. "We had
to lay off some highly qualified men,"
he regretted, but although many of


them went on to jobs elsewhere in the
Americas, some later returned to the
Panama Canal.
Most of the sad days he recalls
entailed cutbacks for the Dredging Divi-
sion for economy or policy reasons. But
he's pleased at having always stayed
within his budget and kept overhead
down.
He regards John G. Claybourn, Ann
Arbor, Mich., a former superintendent
of the Dredging Division, as one of the
greatest men he ever met. Mr. Clay-
bourn, a civil engineer, and Mr. White
came to the Isthmus at the same time,
in 1910, when the latter's father entered
Canal service and Alton entered the first
grade at Gatun. He's a graduate of
Balboa High School. Project 13 was
started while Mr. Claybourn was
Dredging Division superintendent.
Mr. White joined the Dredging Divi-
sion as a recorder in 1925, was made an
assistant supervisor in 1935, supervisor
in 1940, and assistant superintendent
in 1948, when A. C. (Gus) Medinger,
now an Orinoco Mining Co. consultant,
was superintendent. Mr. Medinger is
the father of R. E. Medinger, chief
admeasurer.
Mrs. White is the former Mattielee
Brown. They have a son, Dennis,
Phoenix, Ariz., an electrical engineer
with General Electric, and a daughter,
Jean Ann, Boulder, Colo., whose hus-
band, Maj. Charles F. McGinn, is a
Strategic Air Command pilot.
During his Canal service, Mr. White
has been active in Community Chest
and United Fund work, the Mutual
Benefit Association, Boy Scout Council,
and is a past president of the Canal
Zone Amateur Radio Association. He is
a member of the Canal Zone Society of
Professional Engineers, the Society of
American Military Ernginrers, and holds
a Master Key to the Panama Canal
presented by Governor Potter in 1960.
He and his wife plan to rent a house
in Houston, Tex., where they have a
lot of friends and relatives, and to spend
some time with Mr. White's parents in
San Diego.
He has enough hobbies to keep things
from getting dull: ham radio, color
slides, hunting, and fishing. He says he
plans to hunt wild turkey and cerveza
trees in Texas, geese and ducks around
Port Arthur and Beaumont, where he
has a number of friends in dredging
who know where to go for good hunting
and fishing.
And although retiring, Mr. White
may not mean full retirement, for he
admits that he may have "some interest"
in future dredging projects.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




















S 60 MC MICROWAVE TRUNK
---- EARLIER ROUTES RETAINED
- LOWER CAPACITY ROUTES
REPEATER AND COMMUNICATION CENTER
gg REPEATER ONLY
32 MILES


Map of the communications system operated by Comunicaciones, S.A., showing location of key units and distances between them.
Maintenance centers were located by traffic volume and geographic location.




Phone Microwave Network Growing


(The following article is based on
one entitled "A Modern Communica-
tions System for Panama," published
in the "Automatic and Technical
Journal." It is excerpted and para-
phrased in some parts to avoid tech-
nical data. It was written by Alan C.
Walker of Lenkurt Electric Co., Inc.,
one of the firms involved in design
and installation of the new microwave
system.)
RARELY does an engineering group
have the opportunity to design and
build an essentially new communica-
tions system in a single operation. Such
a situation did develop recently in the
Republic of Panama, however, and
through the combined and coordinated
efforts of Lenkurt Electric and Auto-
matic Electric, an entirely new com-
munications network was brought to
Panama.
Engineered, furnished, and installed
for the private owner, Comunicaciones,
S.A., the project enjoyed the keen
interest and support of government offi-
cials, headed by President Roberto F.
Chiari. The new system serves 20,000
subscribers in major population centers;
with its modern services (including the
convenience of direct distance dialing)
it is certain to grow rapidly.
The climate and rugged terrain and
the lack of any substantial existing
trunklines dictated the establishment of
a microwave system. Because of the
urgent need for the new facilities,
several activities were carried on at the


same time. For example, preliminary
equipment orders were placed very
shortly after the arrival of radio-path
survey parties in Panama City.
In general, the requirements were
that telephone and telegraph transmis-
sion performance be equal to that of
the domestic network in the United
States of America, and that all circuits
be compatible and interconnectable
with those of the Inter-American Tele-
communications Networks, now in the
planning stages.
To insure a system that would provide
overall performance equal to these high
standards, the microwave paths were

President Roberto F. Chiari at the inaugu-
ration of the new Comunicaciones, S.A.,
microwave network.

I M


very carefully evaluated for fade margin
and idle circuit noise level. Tower
heights at the 14 microwave sites were
so specified that atmospheric conditions
would have minimum effect.
Antenna sizes were made conserva-
tively large and the net result was a
microwave path reliability greater than
99.99 percent.
Future growth was naturally a factor.
Antennas are so equipped that there
will be minimum system interruption
when expansion becomes necessary.
The equipment is designed to make
easier addition of a system for TV dis-
tribution throughout the country. Even
with this planned addition, the original
battery plant installations will still have
at least 8 hours reserve.
Either because commercial power
was absent at many locations, or because
the existing municipal plants already
were overloaded, it was necessary to
provide for power at a number of sites.
For utmost reliability, dual generating
plants were provided at these points.
Three maintenance zones were estab-
lished for the system, with centers
located in Panama City, Aguadulce, and
David. Any change from normal opera-
tion of the monitored equipment, at any
station, is noted immediately, and the
changed condition displayed on the sys-
tem status panel to inform maintenance
personnel.
Telephone and teletype service
switching offices were installed at
David, Santiago, Aguadulce, Chitre,

18 APmL 5, 1963


BOCAS EL TORO


COLON


CAIeBEAN SEA


CERRO


O


PACIFIC OCEAN


COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
COMUNICACIONES S-A.
PANAMA






Bocas del Toro, and Panama City. The
system was interconnected with an
installation made in March 1960 which
linked the towns of David, Boquete,
Concepcion, and Puerto Armuelles, all
in western Panama.
Urgency of time required that the
first circuits be operated on a manual
basis until the dial exchanges could be
installed. New dial telephone exchanges
have now been installed and connected
into the system.
Additional channel groups can be
added when traffic requirements de-
mand it. The over-water link from Cerro
Campana to Bocas del Toro, 160
miles away, uses high-gain antennas,
because line-of-sight does not exist over
this path.
In June 1960 a system installed at
David made possible automatic dialing
by customers in their cars to anyone
else in the area. This is effected through
exchanges at David, Boquete, Concep-
cion, and Puerto Armuelles. This system
was the pioneer installation of its type
outside the United States.
Panama's communications are mod-
em, efficient, and dependable. The
services will shortly offer dialed-up
telegraph" (which will include modern
data handling), and a television net-
work. The Panama communications
project is an outstanding example of
what a determined group of engineers
can accomplish in a short time, when
the opportunity is offered through the
vision of a progressive administration.
The project also demonstrates the
manner in which members of two sister
companies, Lenkurt Electric and Auto-
matic Electric, work together to get a
big job done.

Eduardo GonzAlez, executive vice president
of Comunicaciones, S.A.








p- .
I4
I~,, '


The Cerro Pelado reflector unit at Gamboa in the Panama Canal microwave system.
This is a sample of the terrain problems encountered in construction of units for the
Comunicaciones, S.A., network.



Like Zone's System


OPERATIONALLY, the microwave
communication systems of the Panama
Canal and Comunicaciones, S.A., are
the same, and electronic equipment
components were made by the same
companies.
The Canal Zone system planning was
started in 1957, it reached final design
stage in 1959 and Phase I installation
was completed in 1960. Installation of
links with the Federal Aviation Agency
installations on the Isthmus was
completed in January 1962.
Micro system message routing
between Cristobal and Balboa Heights
is from the Cristobal exchange to a
reflector at Gatun, via a reflector on
Cerro Pelado at Gamboa to one on Sosa
Hill on the Pacific side, thence to the
Balboa Heights exchange. A reflector
on Ancon Hill links the FAA operations
building with its Chiva Chiva radio
station. Other outlying FAA radio
stations are at Cerro Calera and Telfer's
Island.
A call from the Canal Zone to parts
of the interior now served by the micro-


wave system formerly took as long as
a half hour to an hour to complete,
because of cable capacity limitation and
the number of separate connections that
had to be completed. And when com-
pleted, voice quality was often far from
what was to be desired. Time required
now is only from half a minute to a
minute, with voice quality so good that
there's no difference between a call to
David and one to Panama City.
The 102-pair Panama Canal's Trans-
Isthmian Telephone Cable No. 2 along
the Trans-Isthmian Highway still is in
use, but cable No. 1 along the railway
no longer carries trunk calls. It is a
49-year-old 50-pair cable, and now
is used only for local calls between
Gamboa and Cristobal.
The firm of Gibbs & Hill designed
the Panama Canal microwave system
and it was installed by Motorola Com-
munication & Electronics, Inc. The En-
gineering Division of the Engineering
and Construction Bureau worked with
the design firm and the Electrical
Division worked with the installation
company on the projects.


'1








CANAL HISTORY


50 Years A4o
THE ONLY materials to be purchased
on annual contracts for the year, it was
announced, were lubricants, waste,
white lead, red lead, rope, forage,
turpentine, kerosene, and gasoline. All
other supplies were to be purchased
under emergency contracts terms.
The decision was in line with policy
instituted in 1910 of gradually reducing
the stock of materials carried in store
on the Isthmus so that when work on the
Canal was completed there would be
the least possible amount to dispose of.
An error in designating the picture on
the 2-cent stamps in the Panama-Pacific
Exposition commemorative series as
"Gatun Locks," when it really rep-
resented Pedro Miguel Locks, led the
Post Office Department to destroy all
of the stamps thus printed-about 20
million.


RETIREMENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of February to the
employees listed below, with positions,
and years of Canal service:
Frank H. Archibald, Deckhand, Port Cap-
tain's Office, Atlantic Side; 37 years,
7 months, 7 days.
Violet L. Bingham, Elementary School
Teacher, Latin American Schools, Atlan-
tic Side; 35 years, 7 months, 6 days.
George P. Bonneau, Jr., Contraband Con-
trol Inspector, Custom Division, Pacific
Side; 14 years, 10 months, 26 days.
NicolAs Borbua, Helper Lock Operator,
Locks Division, Atlantic Side; 42 years,
10 months, 10 days.
Ronald Chambers, Launch Operator, Port
Captain's Office, Atlantic Side; 24 years,
5 months, 10 days .
Edward A. Eckhoff, Planner and Esti-
mator, Industrial Division, Atlantic Side;
28 years, 5 months, 2 days.
Benjamin Ennis, Pest Control Inspector
Community Services Division, Pacific
Side; 22 years, 7 months, 23 days.
Richard W. Fuller, Supervisory Claims
examiner, General Audit Division Pacific
Side; 28 years, 11 months, 10 days.
Mervial O. Maynard, Radio Operator,
Dredging Division, Pacific Side; 39 years,
3 months, 21 days.
Gerardo Pascual, Helper Lock Operator,
Locks Division, Atlantic Side; 21 years,
9 months, 11 days.
Erwin F. Ramsey, Engineman, Hoisting
and Portable, Community Services Di-
vision, Atlantic Side; 19 years, 9 months,
4 days.
Arthur E. Richards, Guard, Motor Trans-
portation Division, Atlantic Side; 43
years, 5 months, 4 days.
Paree L. Roland, General Foreman, Public
Works, Maintainance Division, Pacific
Side; 19 years, 6 months, 17 days.


25 I earsi 4go
EVACUATION of Paraiso, long head-
quarters of the Dredging Division, was
proceeding rapidly in the third and
final year's program of transferring the
division to Gamboa.
In the wake of arrest of 3 persons in
New York on charges their mission was
to obtain U.S. military secrets, it was
announced their instructions included
obtaining wartime plans for operation
of the Panama Canal Locks. Identified
only as agents of an "unnamed Euro-
pean power," all were said to have been
either German-born or educated in
Germany.
Two bills, one for 30-year retirement
for Canal employees, the other for
annuities for widows of Government
workers in the Canal Zone, were before
Congress.


Clyde L. Sharp, Finance Branch Superin-
tendent, Postal Division, Pacific Side;
31 years, 7 months, 9 days.
Chanan Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 34 years, 3 months,
11 days.
Gurdas Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 31 years, 3 months,
29 days.
Alberta M. Stone, Freight Rate Assistant,
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 15 years,
8 months, 13 days.
Cecil S. Thompson, Train Baggageman,
Railroad Division, Atlantic Side; 32
years, 8 months, 13 days.
Lebert Trotman, Deckhand, Port Captain's
Office, Atlantic Side; 21 years, 10
months, 1 day.
James U. Williams, Guard, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 18 years, 3 months,
4 days.


-ACCIDENTS


FOR

THIS MONTH

AND

THIS YEAR


FEBRUARY

ALL UNITS
YEAR TO DATE


CASES


'63 '62


10 year ,go
AUTHOR and playwright J. P. McEvoy
and his wife were preparing to sail for
return to the States after having spent
2 weeks on the Isthmus. Mr. McEvoy
also was a roving editor of Readers
Digest, Mrs. McEvoy also was a widely
known writer.
Preliminary work was under way on
erection of the Goethals Memorial at
the foot of the Administration Building
steps.
A seafaring career spanning half a
century and linking the sailing ship era
with that of modern luxury liners neared
an end for Capt. Erik J. Eriksen, master
of the liner Cristobal. He had accepted
appointment as Panama Line agent
in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and after a
vacation he and Mrs. Eriksen were
to move to the Haitian port to begin
'landlubber" duties.

One year c4o
DEAN Roger C. Hackett of the Canal
Zone Junior College, which he had
headed since 1941, planned for his
retirement following the close of the
summer session in late August.
The Canal Zone Health Bureau's
achievement of almost 2 million con-
secutive hours without a disabling
injury was recognized with presentation
of the National Safety Council Award
of Merit to the Bureau.
Four earthquake tremors shook up
the Isthmus March 12, the first, at
4:42 a.m., strong enough to awaken
many people. The strongest, at 6:41
a.m., was rated Intensity V. The 'quake
center probably was in the vicinity of
the Panama-Costa Rica border.


CASES
'63


DAYS
ABSENT
'63 '62


242(11) 215 13(1) 12 198 282
510(23) 403 27(2) 24 271(7) 6360
() Locks Overhaul injuries Included in total.


20 APRIL 5, 1963


RETIREMENTS







ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Robert L. Snyder
Services Assistant to
Director of Posts
MARINE U
Walter G. Brown
Inspector, Scales an il
Meters
Alvin A. Rankin
Inspector, Floating Equi et
Nathaniel A. Dal
Foundry Chi er
David E. Grant
Maintenanceman, Rope and
Wire Cable
Karm Singh
Deckhand


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Earl C. Orr
rvisory Merchandise
Segment Officer

Guar

TRANS ACTION AND
k TER S BUREAU
an arr a
om e Equipment
ceman
Rupert A. Walters
Shipment Clerk
Delfino Andrade
Guard


ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
George Vieto
Chief, Transportation
Section
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Margaret M. Finnegan
Window Clerk
Iris D. Richmond
Window Clerk
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Laurent J. Baptiste
Central Office Repairman
Lucille M. Fulop
Secretary (Stenographer)
Milton M. LaCroix
Shift Engineer
John W. Williams
Maintenanceman Distribution
Systems
Eruolfo Angulo
Truck Driver
Sebastian Barsallo
Paver
Frank M. Cambridge
Heavy Laborer
Urvin N. Cornwall
Paver
Josa A. C6rdova
Helper Electrician, Power
Plant
Alfredo C. Newball
Seaman
Juan Pastor Pacheco
Laborer
Justo P. Villalaz
Painter
HEALTH BUREAU
Ella A. Partons
Staff Nurse, Tuberculosis
Marcia H. Van Home
Administrative Assistant
Winona A. Smith
Medical Technician, General
Jos6 A. Delgado
Heavy Pest Control Laborer
Cyril G. Francis
Hospital Attendant
Gelacio Marin
Diet Cook

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Lorenzo P6rez
Hospital Food Service Worker
Jorge Sanchez
Exterminator
Joseph A. Soberanis
Nursing Assistant, Psychiatry
Victor A. Thompson
Messenger and Motor
Vehicle Operator
Jorge Ubarnes
Hospital Food Service
Worker
MARINE BUREAU
Walter A. Dryia
Assistant to Marine Director
Frank P. Marczak
Marine Traffic Controller
Robert L. Rankin
ar Traffc Co er
ra. af/Mc o oller
FrankR b on
Mot c C tai n
Pedr Ab go in

6 Amaya
ock ra
Alfonso B

Jos6 Cea
Maintenanceman
Cedric I. Gibb
Helper Lock Operator
Manuel Montout
Deckhand
James Parris
Helper Machinist
Israil Rook
Seaman
Carlos A. Victoria
Deckhand
N. F. Whitfield
Maintenance Painter
OFFICE OF
THE COMPTROLLER
John R. Cough
Budget Analyst
Elizabeth Sudron
Travel Expense Claims
Examiner


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Albert D. Jones
Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Leticia E. McDowell
Clerk
Margaret Mussa
Clerk Typist
Teodoro Abrego
Baker Assistant
Banfield F. Alleyne
Laborer Cleaner
Joseph A. Chambers
Baker Assistant
A. C. Jimenez
Utility Worker
Myrtle A. Garraway
Utility Worker
Justino G6ndola
Milker
Evans A. Gooding
Utility Worker
Allan S. Vanterpool
Laborer Cleaner

TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Juan F. Edmondson
Electrician
Arthur B. Rigby
Engineer, Locomotive Yard
Roswell J. Tobin
Leader, Liquid Fuels
Wharfman
James O. Brown
Stevedore
Dennis E. Clarke
Helper, Liquid Fuels
Wharfman
Jos6 A. Damas
Line Handler
Fulix Anselmo Dogu6
Shipment Clerk
H6ctor Haddo
Automotive Equipment
Serviceman
Josi Lara
Stevedore
Moisis Minas
Leader Railroad Trackman


I


II







PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS


i '.11'LOYEES promoted or transferred
between February 5 and March 5 are
listed. Within-grade promotions and
job reclassifications are not listed.
ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Ranghilt H. Melzi, Clerk-Typist, Division
of Schools to File Clerk.
Samuel H. Edwards, Counterman, Supply
Division to Messenger.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Hector Ching, Detention Guard, Police
Division, to Firefighter, Fire Division.
Cecil L. Miller, Truck Driver, Dredging
Division, to Detention Guard, Police
Division.
Postal Division
Dick R. Brandom, Finance Branch Super-
intendent to Relief Supervisor, Balboa.
Milton J. Halley, Relief Supervisor, Balboa,
to Finance Branch Superintendent.
Bernard J. Craig, Guard, Locks Division,
to Distribution Clerk, Substitute.
Division of Schools
Lavon B. Dusold, Clerk-Stenographer from
Police Division.
Doris T. De Fowles, from Clerk-Typist to
Clerk-Stenographer.
Dorothy M. Darcy, Janet E. Jenner, Sub-
stitute Teacher to Teacher, Senior High
U.S. Schools.
Sandra Motta, Substitute Teacher to
Teacher, Junior High U.S. Schools.
Helen E. Jones, Joan Machatton, Substitute
Teacher to Teacher, Elementary U.S.
Schools.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Electrical Division
Alfred T. Marsh, Electrician to Test Oper-
ator-Foreman (Electrical-Power System).
Allen C. Swicegood, Electrician to Senior
Operator (Generating Station).
Joseph M. Griffith, Railroad Trackman,
Railroad Division, to Helper Machinist
(Maintenance).
Dredging Division
Basilio Acosta, Wiper (Floating Plant) to
Fireman (Floating Plant).
Ismael Fuentes, Heavy Laborer to Leader
Heavy Laborer.
Albert R. George, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Helper Machinist (Marine).
Faustino Martinez, Heavy Laborer to
Boatman.
Theophilus Peterkin, Clerk to Clerk-Typist.
Sidney Bennett, Irwin C. Boyce, Winston
Chambers, Samuel Pinz6n, Jr., Naviga-
tional Aid Worker to Gas Navigation
Light Serviceman.
Engineering Division
Lydia Czapek, Engineering Draftsman
(Civil) to Physical Science Technician
(Geology).
Virgilio F. Garcia, Illustrator (General) to
Illustrator.
Calixto Villarreal, Dock Worker, Terminals
Division, to Surveying Aid.


Maintenance Division
Silvestre A. Caiiizalez, Helper Lock Oper-
ator, Locks Division, to Helper Welder.
Ricardo Chen, Apprentice (Welder) (4th
Year), from Industrial Division.
Goldbern E. Gittens, Carpenter (Mainte-
nance), Locks Division, to Carpenter.
Carlos P6rez, Painter (Maintenance), from
Locks Division.
Charles C. Wilson, Laborer (Cleaner),
Community Services Division, to Painter
(Maintenance).
HEALTH BUREAU
Julia E. Martin, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse
(Medicine and Surgery), Gorgas Hos-
pital.
Eliza W. Robinson, Counterwoman, Supply
Division, to Nursing Assistant, Coco Solo
Hospital.
Jos6 M. Santimateo, Railroad Trackman,
Railroad Division, to Laborer (Heavy-
Pest Control), Division of Sanitation.
Gil Batista, Laborer (Cleaner), Community
Services Division, to Laborer (Heavy-
Pest Control), Division of Sanitation.
MARINE BUREAU
James M. Walsh, Towboat Master, from
Dredging Division.
James E. Taylor, Clerk-Typist to Clerk.
Industrial Division
Levy Evelyn, Jr., Apprentice Welder (2d
year), from Maintenance Division.
Valentine I. James, Helper Blacksmith
(Heavy Fires), to Foundry Chipper.
Luis A. Fajardo, Heavy Laborer, to Helper
Machinist.
Locks Division
King J. Julie, Seymour A. Price, Clifford
L. Stewart, Painter to Leader Painter.
Marcelino Cerezo, Laborer, Dredging Divi-
sion, to Asphalt or Cement Worker.
Marcos E. Del Rio, Heavy Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Line Handler.
Juan G6ndola, Laborer, Dredging Divi-
sion, to Painter (Maintenance).
Leslie A. McLean, Line Handler to Helper
Lock Operator.
Mickell Williams, Helper Lock Operator to
Crane Hookman.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICES BUREAU
Mary N. Orr, Secretary (Stenography), to
Administrative Services Assistant, Office
of the Director.
Marilyn B. Gayer, Clerk-Stenographer
from Accounting Division to Office of
the Director.
Supply Division
Roberta J. Paterson, Clerk-Typist, Admin-
istrative Branch, to Accounting Clerk,
Office of General Manager.
Bernice E. Smith, Clerk-Typist to File
Clerk, Office of General Manager.
James N. Weeks, Stock Control Clerk to
Accounting Clerk.
John F. Williams, Warehouseman to
Guard.
Elias Gill, Laborer Cleaner to Sales Clerk.
Eugene G. Wilson, Laborer to Sales Clerk.


Jorge HernAndez, Heavy Laborer from
Locks Division.
Ralph S. Buddle, Laundry Worker (Heavy),
to Extractor and Tumblerman.
Clifford W. Edwards, Extractor and Tum-
blerman to Washman.
Andr6s Griffin, Clerk to Guest House Clerk.
Dem6stenes Murillo, Heavy Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Clarence E. James, Packager to Milk Plant
Worker.
Frances A. Jolliffe, Package Boy to Utility
Worker.
Steven R. Ashby, Bell Boy to Utility
Worker.
Alfred J. Davis, Heavy Laborer, Locks
Division, to Utility Worker.
Arthur Smith, Hugo Salazar, Pinsetter to
Utility Worker.
Merdell B. Thompson, Utility Worker to
Counterwoman.
Herbert Brown, Camilo Cordero, Alsay
Thomas, Utility Worker to Counterman.
Conrad S. Best, Utility Worker to Grocery
Attendant.
Wilfort B. Gordon, Utility Worker to
Heavy Laborer.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Terminals Division
Francois O. Modestin, Supervisory Cargo
Clerk to Supervisory Cargo Tracer Clerk.
Frank Fox, Cargo Marker to Timekeeper.
Juan Sevillano, Dock Worker to Stevedore.
Reginald Denny, Llewelyn Q. Jolliffe, John
R. Burnham, Cargo Marker to Clerk
Checker.
Jerry R. Escalona, Laborer Cleaner, Supply
Division, to Cargo Marker.
Clement S. McFarlane, Cargo Marker to
Cargo Checker.
Noel A. Jones, Utility Worker, Supply Divi-
sion, to Cargo Marker.
Selwyn O. Brown, Cargo Marker to Clerk.
Jose M. Maza, Laborer Cleaner, Supply
Division, to Dock Worker.
Earl R. Russell, Counterman, Supply Divi-
sion, to Cargo Marker.
Alfredo Garcia, Clerk, Terminals Division,
to Cargo Clerk.
Ruben Davis, Laborer Cleaner, Division of
Schools, to Cargo Marker.
Railroad Division
Louis A. Atherton, Gornett H. Hartley,
Clerk-Typist, to Supervisory Clerk.
Sidney Crawford, Oiler to Centrifuge
Operator.
George M. Piggott, Helper Locomotive
Engineer to Brakeman.
Albert Smith, Helper (General) to Painter
(Maintenance).
Rupert Clark, Laborer Cleaner to Laborer.
Motor Transportation Division
Jorge Julian, Truck Driver to Truck Driver
(Heavy).
Ricardo R. Reefer, Deckhand, Navigation
Division, to Chauffeur.
OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
Thomas E. Spencer, General Claims Exam-
iner, General Audit Division, Office of
the Comptroller.

22 APRIL 5, 1963






May V. Adonican, Bookkeeping Machine
Operator, Accounting Division, Office of
the Comptroller.
Ernesto O. Achon, Accounting Clerk,
Supply Division, Office of General Man-
ager.
C. Lammerts van Bueren, Canal Zone
Guide (Interpreter), Panama Canal In-
formation Office Canal Zone Guide
Service.
Frank A. Venture, Storekeeping Clerk,
Printing Plant, Mount Hope.
Hedwig ChAvez, Clerk-Typist, Navigation
Division.
William R. Bailey, Gerald W. Coffey,
Marine Traffic Controller, Navigation
Division.
Joseph Kendall, Aurelio Newball, Clerk,
Navigation Division.
Hubert H. Vickers, Joseph C. Ward, Clerk,
Railroad Division.
Peter A. Ellis, Clerk, Railroad Division,
and Theater Usher.



Highroaders
(Continued from p. 4)
journey to San Jose, Costa Rica. That
was when they took the name High-
roaders. Some who were on that trip
urged that Mr. Carlson arrange a re-
union of those on the Costa Rica tour.
He replied he wouldn't stage it unless
they'd agree to go to Costa Rica for the
reunion dinner. They replied, "Let's go"
-and they did, and came on to Panama.
En route, they were said also to have
been the first trailer caravan to visit
the Yucatan peninsula.
One member of the party, Bud
Blakeley, had been through the Canal
on a Navy ship during World War I.
Another, Henry Gustafson, had helped
machine the Canal lock gates at
Wheeling, W. Va.
One of the male Caravaners labeled
the group, "The craziest people in the
world with the most sense."
Home for the Highroaders is in
widely scattered parts of the United
States, and they were looking forward
to spending some time with their fam-
ilies upon their return. But, already, the
club has announced a new tour. This
time it will be around the world by way
of the Far East and Australia.
Officers of the Tourist Bureau of
Panama extended their cooperation to
the Caravan and advised them that any
request for tourist information or plans
for organizing similar caravans to
Panama should be addressed to:
Institute Panamefio de Turismo, Box
4421, Panama, Republic of Panama, or
to Wendell P. Colton Division, Wesley
Associates, Inc., 630 Fifth Avenue,
New York 20, N.Y.


c4 Lad Roll (or Polio...


... ut a Winner (or You


ANYONE WHO'S SPENT a little time with the ivory cubes knows that three's
a loser for the man handling the dice. But it's a winner in the current oral polio
vaccine program in the Canal Zone-and that's not a gambling matter.
In fact, the only way you can gamble and lose in the oral polio vaccine
program is to fail to get three-all three doses, that is.
The first dose already has been given in Gamboa and will be administered
in the rest of the Canal Zone this month. Then, in May, the second dose will
be given. And the third dose, the real clincher to the treatment, will be given
at a still unannounced date.
All three doses are necessary for complete protection. Taking one dose and
skipping the other two, or taking two and skipping the third one doesn't give
you complete protection.
So don't gamble. Shoot for three in the oral polio vaccine program. All it
requires is eating three cubes (made of sugar, not ivory), and what could be
easier than that? Play the game of health with three as your point-and have
complete protection.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










SH I1


PPI


Bremen at Cristobal
THE FIFTH IN a line of famous
ocean liners of the same name, the
North German Lloyd's 32,335-gross-ton
Bremen, is shown tied up at a pier in
Cristobal during a recent visit to the
Canal as a part of a cruise to the Carib-
bean. Members of the crew can be seen
taking advantage of the sunny dry
season Isthmian weather to paint the
ship's side and lower the lifeboats for
full overhaul and painting.
This Bremen is the former French
liner Pasteur, built in St. Nazaire in
1938 and used during the war as a
troop transport. She was purchased in
1957 by North German Lloyd and
completely refitted for the North Atlan-
tic trade and winter cruises. On her
regular run she can carry 1,127 passen-
gers in first and tourist classes, but on
cruises the ship can accommodate 700.
Her public rooms are completely air
conditioned. According to her agents,
the Continental Shipping Co., this
Bremen has been visiting the Canal on
winter cruises since 1960.
The most famous of the five North
German Lloyd's Bremens, lost in World

Painters at work near bow; lifeboat lowered
to dock level for overhaul, painting.


TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING.
VESSELS IN FEBRUARY

Commercial. ........... 841 841
U.S. Government. ......... 13 11
Free................... 8 11
Total. ............ 862 863
TOLLS
Commercial .... $4,314 .1 $4,390.163
U.S. Government 711 7, 47.207
Total. $4,384 '1-. $4 1 ;7 .-,
CARGO"
Commercial. 4876,698 5.290,975
U.S. Government 74,375 ".- ,'.


Free. .


.... 39,312 48,004
Total.... 4 'r,,' .-- 5.394.017


I, 1 on all veses -ean-goin C and s lalt
" ,. ,.> ,' ;*are inn lon i tons.

War II, came through the Canal on a
cruise in February 1939 and still holds
the record as the largest passenger vessel
to transit. She had a registered gross
tonnage of 51,730 tons, was 898.7 feet
in length and had a beam of 102 feet.
She was built in 1929. The first Bremen
went into service between Germany and
the United States in 1858, the second
in 1897, and the third in 1922.

Frozen Cargo Ship
THE SHAW SAVILL LINE'S newest
motor liner, the Megantic, is a glutton
when it comes to carrying chilled and
frozen cargo. The sleek new freighter,
which returned to England early in
March on the last leg of her maiden
voyage to New Zealand, had most
of her 665,000 cubic feet of cargo
space filled with New Zealand prod-
ucts. Eighty-five percent of cargo
accommodations is insulated.
All holds and upper and lower 'tween
decks are arranged for frozen cargo.
Wing compartments are intended for
carrying chilled meat. Two deep tanks
at the forward end of the No. 4 hold
are suitable for edible oils. The ship
will make regular trips through the
Canal in the future, according to
W. Andrews & Co., agents for the
line here.


Easter Cruise
THE HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE'S
Rotterdam is due to transit the Canal
northbound April 9 on her way back to
New York following an 80-day round-
the-world cruise. She is reported to have
on board a number of passengers from
the U.S. west coast who are travelling
to Europe on the ship with a stop in
New York to view the annual Easter
Parade.
On her way to the Canal, the Rotter-
dam will call at Acapulco. In New York,
she will dock for 3 days before sailing
for Europe. Passengers may use the
ship as a floating hotel during the New
York stay.

Horses-Horses
NOT LONG AGO 11 horses went
through the Canal as passengers aboard
the Gulf & South American Steamship
Company's Gulf Merchant. It is not
unusual to find horses listed as part of
a ship's cargo but these were Chilean
race horses worth $20,000 each. Accord-
ing to an item in the Port of Mobile
News, the valuable animals arrived
in Mobile safe and sound and were
delivered to N. B. Hunt, the son of a
prominent Texas oilman. Ten of them
were brood mares: the 11th, Miss
Therese, will race as a 4-year-old.
The Gulf Merchant, represented
here by Panama Agencies, is one of a
fleet of merchant ships plying between
west coast South American ports and
the gulf area.

France Has Birthday
THE LUXURIOUS French liner
France, which docked in Cristobal
March 25, recently completed its first
year of operation. The vessel went into
active service in the North Atlantic in
February 1962 and since then has made
44 crossings, one cruise to the Canary
Islands, and two to the West Indies.
The French Line reported that during
the year the ship carried more than
65,000 passengers, and sailed 158,000
miles. With a length of 1,033 feet, the
vessel is the world's longest. She was
docked at Pier 9 in Cristobal during
this first visit to the Canal.

24 APRIL 5, 1963


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LOTN AittPO


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 04820 4829







Full Text

PAGE 1

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PAGE 2

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

PAGE 3

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://wwwarchiveorg/details/panamacanal revie 139pana

PAGE 7

Ill r I e s -~ L ki Cham ber Cerem nial IN MP Sr Neto iow s~mA 'Go(rv/ oS~1 b aIi/ ~/~

PAGE 8

THIS MONTH'S COVER THE ANNUAL observance of Semana Santa (Holy Week) in Panama brings forth many traditional religious processions in commemoration of the Life, Passion, and Death of Jesus Christ. The cover photo, taken by Orestes Cabredo, Panama photographer, shows such a procession in Peno7 nom(. Holy Week this year is April 7 through 14. Index a___ Trailer Travelers Welcomed -3 Shrine Anniversary Ceremony --5 NMuseuin Pieces From Cut --7 Inter-American Relations -9 Heading For New Diggings 17 Microwave Network Growing --18 Canal History, Retirements -------------20 Colonel Parker and Colonel Leber pose in the Lieutenant Governor's office. Anniversaries ----------------------21 Promotions and Transfers 22 "3" To KO Polio ---------------------23 Shipping 24 ZONIANS AND PANAMANIANS dubious about THE CANAL ZONE will have a new Lieutenant Governor beginning driving between here and the United States got Monday, April 8, as Col. Walter P. Leber departs for a new assignment a shock recently when 24 trailer couples arrived, as Ohio River Division Engineer, and Col. David S. Parker assumes in their 50's, others retirees his new duties as Lieutenant Governor of the Canal Zone. a few of them young,bin ters he tens Colonel Leber, who recently was nominated for promotion to in their 70's. The Highroaders have taken all Brigadier General by President Kennedy, has served as Lieutenant kinds of roads, not just high ones. Some members Governor since June 26, 1961, when he came to the Isthmus from list Africa, Russia, and Alaska among their more Washington, D.C., where he had served 3 years as Executive Officer distant tour points. For an account of their visit, to the Chief of Engineers. see page 3. Colonel Parker, who served as Military Assistant to the Governor of A devaterel chamber of Miraflores Locks will the Canal Zone from 1952 to 1954, arrived on the Isthmus late last month from Washington, D.C. be the scene of a Shrine ceremonial reenacting Graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point an initiation of nearly 50 years ago. One of the in 1940, the new Lieutenant Governor served on the staffs of both members of the original initiation class still is Adm. Chester Nimitz and Gen. Douglas MacArthur during World living on the Isthmus. War II. He was with the Army of Occupation in Japan for 3 years, Out on the Cut widening project relies prereceived a master's degree in civil engineering from the University of California in 1949, served as instructor in Military Topography at dating even early French construction days are West Point, then came to the Canal Zone for his first tour of dotybeing found, some from the late 1850's. And with the Canal organization. there's a report on expansion of the microwave Since leaving the Isthmus in 1954, he has served with the Portland network on the Isthmus. Fourteen towers, many Eingineer District in Oregon, with the First Corps in Korea, and with .. the office of the Chief of Engineers in Washington. in remote sites, were required for the installaThe departing Lieutenant Governor, a native of St. Louis, will be tion, which serves 20,000 subscribers in major stationed at Cincinnati, Ohio, in his new assignment. population centers. 2 APRIL 5, 1963

PAGE 9

Veterans of many miles in many lands. Joe and Lydia M. Bos stand alongside As the trailer travelers came off the bridge, nearing their trailer, on which is painted a list of their travels. completion of their journey-one way. WHAT TO DO with those long eimpty had imotor scooters as part of their a number of years, this w,\as the first Years after retirement? eutipmie'nt. etensise trip for Lassrecie Wilkins, a This is a problem which ne'r hiaf Under the capable giidance of forer eliginer with the Pontiae Motoi been raised for main\ of the 48 men ind William 0. Carlson of Franklin, Ohio. C(. ill Miehigain. Mr. Wilkins was si women who visited the Isthmus recently. the trailer travelers drove down thiougi inteirstcd in the trailer-trascl hobb as members of the Highlroaders Tiailer Mexico and Central America at a fairly that he desi gi d a Ponitiae special Club. steady pace, with stops here and then eqlippd for traili to'ilg. iH' retired With most of them w\ell into their for sightseeing, repairs, and rest. fomill Poitiae Janiiary I iftT 31 N yeli 60's-there are twvo r three aiit's in Taking a hint from their pioiieer of services, so lie could make this trip. their 50's-the energetic Highroaders ancestors, the Highlroaders followed hi addition to thei ow\i names and have been exploring the highwsas and each other in caravaii styIs', parked for tit toonhibtr of thwir tiailtrs, th Highbxvays of the world, anti the\ lot' it. the iiight in a loose circle, and had rMadcls hav' paiited oil their trailers Their mode of travel is ee that is c >mmomt conferences on routes, travel tie mlilts of ila y of the colintriis they Teir moe of traels U nit tats time, and stopover sites. They usually Ila: c \isitcd ill titir tiansi. Oi some, fairlyhit the road about ita.m. aetd smitim th st is iitress practically unknown in Panama. In fact, hit t uroal abiuthe atitooni their arris al oil the Isthmlus caused it rove until 4 ill the afternoltoil Piatbl *v all tiael records for mnc(mlmild sensation among most local resoom iiity acti'itOe s tr t1 irdi tf tlis partici lar itoup wi 'I*(, miil 5'nstin mnt t ialnated, svitii difitretit tasks taken oxe t'r I). itiIi t.f11,llI)tkso olii idents who were unaware that the Voluntetrs. Tht' SudidaN hutre ske' icvb broken 1.\ Hoiacc i ktrs of Burbank, Intiramerican Highwav was open to r.y, lif. who rcti1d 6 "cars ago when anvthinig more cumbersome than the for instance, Sere eoindiuttd 1 Mrs i w as 70 and sitci th has tailtrd family car. It'ina Mae Sha(k of Iidiaiaps, wh tlgi mtt if Africa and Eirope, was elected honorary chaplain. Il T'gmincldO liltssia, and i.sitetd a ilumobr Xhile residents of the Canal Zone cigalpa, Honduras, thev held service's I. and Panama may drive to David, the under the wing of a plane with an inCosta Rican border, or even to San Jos6, terested group of Hondurans watchiio William 0. Carlson, Highroaders leader, is this group of intrepid trail-breakers sue* tie k greeted by Manuelita de la Guardia of the in t-e background. Panama Tourist Institute, and Frank A. needed in piloting their cars and trailers Her husband Robert, an airport optrBaldwin, Panama Canal Information over the unpaved mountain roads of ator, has the distinction of beiig th Officer. In background is Caravaner Mrs. Central America, experiencing nothing Only surviving one of the four airmail Henry Gustafson. more serious than a few flat tires and or pilots who flew the mail when the a broken spring. U.S. Government took over this service The Highroaders may be out for in I918. adventure, but they believe in comfort The necessary and important jot) of too. Their roomy trailers are equipped collecting and 'distributing mail w.as w\ith electric lights, running hot and assumed on the trip by Charles Dodgl cold water, showers, toilets, and refrigof Imlay City, Mich. He did so well, eration. Some had the added luxury of in fact,' that his fellow travelers were air conditioning. One pair of travelers thinking of giving him some sort of a had an electric organ which was used crtificate. for church services and came in hands' While most of the Higihroaders have for evening entertainments, and several been members of the Caravan Club for 0 TiE PANAMA CANAL REvIEW 3

PAGE 10

14 countries in the Middle East and h Asia. One of his prize exhibits is a picture of his trailer parked in Red Square in Ioscow. In 1959 and 1960, Mr. and Mrs. Dickey traveled in their trailer from tile most southern point in Africa to the most northern part of the Norwegian peninsula. The Dickevs had a narrow escape in Africa when a sleepy elephant ambled into the trailer camp one night and just happened to step on their trailer. The body of the vehicle reecived extensive damages. The Dickey s, liow c cr, escalpcd uninjurecd. Laniguage can sometimes be a barrier, but in most places the Highroaders encountered only courtesy and hospitality. On the way down through Central A windowsill shelf in the Wilkins trailer with miniature car and trailer, Seattle World's America, there were a few extensive Fair souvenir, center, Alaska "milepost," at right, and mementos of trip to the Isthmus. delavs at the borders while surprised customs and immigration officers tackled Their headquarters and trailer haven and Mr. Carlson made the trophy the task of inspecting 24 trailers and here was a section of the parking area presentation. their 48 occupants. They were enthuat the President Remon Racetrack, All along their route to Panama, the siastic about their reception in Panama, w icre special water and power lines ainc trailerites found citizens surprised that where they were met bv NIanuelita dC lights were extended to the caravan. the were not advertising anything, had la Guardia of the Panarna Tourist IistiDuring their sta\, many, were guests at nothing to sell, that there were "no tutt and Frank A. Baldwin of thn an exhibition of folklo're dancing and strings" attached to the Caravan trip, Panama Canal Information Office. other events in Panama City. visited the that it was strictly for pleasure, nobody Although a few decided to return San Blas Islands, Miraflores Locks, wx as paid, and all paid their own home by ship, or ship cars and trailers made a partial transit of the Canal, expenses. and fly homc, some of the group who visited Summit Gardens, and drove on The trip to the isthmus resulted caie as far as Panama retraced the as far as Chepo for a picnic dinner. when a number of the Caravan memroad back to Mexico and the Texas Out of the races at the Remon track hers were chatting during a get-together border after a period of sightseeing and was labeled the Inter-American Carin Florida. In 1958, 26 trailers made a shopping on the Isthmus. ax an Handicap in honor of the visitors (See p. 2.3) SAL OVER U S. Visitors were amazed at spaciousness and convenience of equipment in trailers. Here Dee Blakeley converts couch into a bed for two. 4 APRL 5, 1963

PAGE 11

LOCK CHAMBER SITE FOR SHRInE Hugh (Scotty) MacPherson SUNDAY afternoon, April 7, about 4 p.m., a group of several hundred solemn men, some wearing Shrine regalia and all wearing Shriners' fezzes, Will descend into the empty upper lock chamber of the west lane of Miraflores Locks. They NWill not be on their way to the empty chamber to continue with the periodic lock overhaul which has been in progress in the West lane since March 18, although a number of Locks Division and locks overhaul employees may be among them, including 'Rv Stockham, Chief of the Locks Division. They will be Nobles of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Mystic Shrine who. on the empty floor of the locks chamber, will initiate 50 or more men into the order in a reenactment of a Shrine initiation ceremonial first held in this lock WS 1 chamber September 1, 1913. The ceremonial to be held Sunday will be conducted by Abou Saad Poten-tate Burton Davis, who is employed by the Panama Canal as Plant Engilleer of the Industrial Division. He will be assisted by the divan officers and others of the 700 Nobles of the local temple -. and possibly representatives of the Osman Temple of St. Paul, Minn., which is the mother temple of Abou Saad. An honored member of the group will be Hugh (Scotty) MacPherson, a retired Panama Canal employee who came to work with the lsthmian Canal Commission in 1907 and who is the Onl member of the original in itiation class still living on the Isthmus. In fact, Scotty is one of only five or six survivors of the first class of 171 The bronze tablet located on the center wall of Mirallores Locks commemorating the first "sons of the desert" on whom, according Shrine Ceremonial held south of the U.S. border is examined by George M. Klepper, left, to the inscription on a bronze tablet ol Imperial Potentate of the Shrine, who visited the Isthmus recently. With him is Burton Davis, Plant Engineer of the Industrial Division, who is the Potentate of the Abou Saad the Miraflores Locks wall, "was conTemple of Ancon. ferred in full form the Ancient Arabic THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5

PAGE 12

C rMembers of the fife and drum corps of the Osman Temple of the Ancient Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, shown at the bottom of the west chamber of the upper lock at Miraflores during the first initiation ceremony held September 1, 1913. The Osman Temple is located in St. Paul, Minn. Order of the Nobles of the Mystic pleted in 1913, was decorated to reto Scotland for a year, but Scotty Shrine." semble the interior of a Shrine Temple. returned to Panama and continued with Also present will be James E. Jacob, After the 17 1 sons of the desert had the Panama Canal's former Building a retired employee of the Canal Zone crossed the hot sands to the city of Division until his retirement in 1934. Health Bureau, who is the only other "Mecca," a bronze tablet was placed Still full of vim and vigor, Scotty transcharter member of Abou Saad Temple on the centerwall of the locks to ferred to the U.S. Navy and was emnow living on the Isthmus. Abou Saad commemorate the event. played on the Atlantic side until 1947 Temple received its charter from the The tablet, still in place on the when he retired for the second time. Imperial Council in 1917. locks centerwall, bears the following He has been a naturalized United States Although Scotty and his fellow iniinscription: citizen since 1911. tiateS of that ceremony held in the "This tablet marks the oasis where, All Shriners in good standing residing empty unfinished lock chamber a half on "Ailoul Ahaad 1327," (September 1, on the Isthmus or visiting here are century ago xxwent through what Shriners 1913) a caravan from Osman Temple inxited to attend the ceremony to be call a "hot sands" ceremonial, the men paused in its journey toward the setting held at Miraflores Locks Sunday. The to be received into the order Sunday sun and conferred in full form the on]x requirement, in addition to a memwill get the "cold sands" treatment. In Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of bership card, is that the member wear other words, the initiation xxill be a the My stic Shrine on 171 sons of the a fez. Those who attend will receive little more decorous than most of these desert in service under the Isthmian cards to commemorate the occasion. affairs and much easier on the initiates. Canal Commission. May Allah protect In holding the ceremony at MiraScotty,, xvho now lives in the Cristobal and sustain them." flores in April, the members of the YMCA, recalls that original ceremony In addition to being a venerable and Order of the Shrine are jumping the as a memorable occasion. still active member of the local Shrine, gun slightly since the ceremonial 50 It was attended by 190 visiting memScotty MacPherson is a Knight Coinyears ago was held September 1. hers of the Mstic Shrine who came to mander of the Court of Honor of the But there was little choice, since this the Isthmus from St. Paul by wa v of Zone and is an honorary member of is the first time that the upper west Newx Orleans. The group included Scottish Bite Bodies in the Canal chamber of Miraflores Locks has been iniperial Potentate W. W. Irwin and Sojourners Lodge, A.F. & A.M., in Crisunwatered since 1961 and it probably J. Harry Lewis, potentate of Osman tobal. His home Lodge is in Saltcoats, will be the last time except in case of Temple Scotland, a town Scotty left in 1907 to an emergency or inspection, that the T1h C1erenmonial was authorized come to Panama to work for the Isthwater is completely drained from the mnoalr the special dispensation of the mian Canal Commission as a carpenter Miraflores Locks to permit overhaul. Impri Ld Potentate and \xas the first foreman. He remembers that he diThe overhaul work now being done Shi e Ceremonial ever held south of rested the carpenters who were doing at the Miraflores Locks includes modifiti B io (andae. the interior finishing work on Colonel cations to make unwatering of the locks The wexxst chamber of Miraflores Goethals' house in Culebra. chambers unnecessary when repair or So.1ks, on xwhxlli work was being comAn attack of malaria forced him home overhaul is scheduled. 6 APRIL 5, 1963

PAGE 13

A bridge of the old French railway, over a Mandinga River slough, back mn use. Earth -moving equipment and cars of employees Tangle of old rails in foreground forms frame for view of section of original right-of-way of the contractor and project supervisors location of old Panama railway line. Stone ballast now is surface of roadway into project now pass over it, after rough surfacing with area. a fresh cover of earth. AN OPEN AIR museum of relics predating even early French construction days on the Panama Canal will be MU UMSestablished within the near future as a M U SEU Mby-product of the latest project for widening of the Canal channel from 300 to 500 feet. PIEC FSIt is to be located on Contractor's Hill, f Omand can~ be established at little cost PIECE Fromthrough coordination with routine proof French construction days and some 1T11h C u t from the old Panama Railroad dating back to the late 1850's are being dug out by the contractor at work on the Zone 'I (above elevation 95) work on the 3.1-mile Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas Reach widening. Several of the old wrought iron railway cars found on the side of a bank, partially Pantaies of calruplctin erpembedded in the earth. Some of the lighter bracing members were distorted by trees .ettv itm of cos. cineup 2 feet and more in diameter growing up through them. ment in the vicinity of the Balboa Heights railroad station where the most r ancient of the Panama Railroad's locomotives, "Old 299," was dedicated as a monument January 28. 1955, during celebration of the railroad's centennial. Old, small Belgian and French dump cars manufactured in the 1880's, and some front early U.S. construction work, are being found on the project site, ~' along with rail, original bridges for the -rail line, and pieces of abutments for it. Some of the best of the representative salvage items, including each different -. type of car, will be put aside, cleaned and restored, and mounted on pieces of original rail. A considerable amount of such salvage is being found in the project area, more than on earlier widening projects. Work in this area is the first in which the contract was basically for

PAGE 14

removal of simple earth overburden, with a minimum of rock excavation. It is intended to use the satisfactory rock Communism: For The Birds from the Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas Reach project for fill for the Trinidad THERE'S a general exodus of balanced wildlife from the area of the Bas Dam. Obispo-Las Cascadas Reach Canal widening project. Some rocks and boulders, of course, Among those fleeing as earth moving equipment works south are some are being encountered in the project, "Communists." These are the Greater Ani, birds of a dozen or so per flock since the area is referred to as a "geowhich build a communal nest on the ground, take turns using it, sit simullogical garbage dump" due to volcanic taneously on eggs laid in it, and apparently share parenthood of all results activity and tectonic disturbances. of hatching. These tectonic disturbances have been upheavals and dropping of large And ...on numerous occasions they appear to have noisy and unnecessary blocks of earth masses deep within the conferences and disturb the natural serenity of their surroundings, reports ground, as well as at the surface, resultproject engineer Charles McG. Brandl, amateur naturalist and aspiring ing in seismic activity and folding and ornithological photographer. faulting of the earth's crust. Volcanic Wary and timid, the Greater Ani are rare in and near populated areas, but activity and marine sedimentation have fairly common in more remote regions. occurred repeatedly from 50 million The better known Lesser Ani often follow mowers, gleaning for the insects years ago to the present. put to flight. The four huge 44-cubic yard power scrapers at work have had a peak week Also found in the project area have been the mot-mots, pretty birds with as high as approximately 180,000 cubic iridescent pastel coloring. They have a distinctive call and respond to calls yards of earth and rock moved, being by bird fanciers, coming to them. They have a peculiar tail construction and kept at the job on two 12-hour shifts the effort of making their call causes their tails to flop forward as they sound off. 6 days a week. They are proving to be rugged machines, and have a life reburied in spoil dumps with a miniThere's little difference in character cnsuye 'about 580 gallons of diesel mum amount of cover so it can be of earth and rock being encountered on consume abon a all hddese. reclaimed later if this desirable. The the Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas Reach Th er Bas ObioLasascda Reach best scrap is bringing only $20 a ton project from that found during similar Zone I contractor, Moretti-Harrison, of now, compared with more than $40 a work on the west bank of the Canal Zane Fla., ctshould be at least a mile ton 7 or 8 years ago. Difficulty of farther south, with sediment showing Miami, Fla., sharid pe at e anremoval and difficulty of access to the heavy volcanic content. dinga River by the time bids are taken project area currently make it unecoSource of this, it is believed, was an sometime after July 1 for the Zone II nomical to salvage the poorer scrap. ancient volcano in the vicinity of the work (below elevation 95). The DredgPieces of the scrap have punctured hills between Chiva Chiva Trail and wnDivision will tole) The Zonedg six of the tires for the big power Las Cumbres on the Trans-Isthmian ing complete scrapers-tires costing about $4,000 Highway. Cerro Gordo, on the Conwork in the Empire Reach widening each. Five of those punctured still tinental Divide behind Empire Reach, pre we. tare useable. One is a complete loss probably was a subsidiary cone late more weeks. because of breaking of the multiple ply in the volcanic history of the area. Some of the better scrap is being ms e salvaged for bureaus and divisions wire mesh reinforcing these tires in Parts of the apparent cone of this which have use for it. The rest will be place of the fabric used in regular tires. volcano are about 3 miles from the The others damaged have a reduced Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas project area, cost about $4,000. A piece service mileage left. Six new ones have and within approximately 1% miles of This punctureos acont $ ays been purchased. the Canal channel at the closest point. of old rail from French construction days pierced the thick rubber and heavy metal mesh multiple ply of one of the huge tires Abutments of the original French railway bridge across the Mandinga River are visible for the 44-cubic yard power scrapers at in center of picture on far bank. The location is about a quarter of a mile west of the work on the project. This tire was brand Canal channel. new when work started January 21. AeA

PAGE 15

INTER-AMERICAN RELATIONS Inter-American relations is an "already long and somewhat abused" subject, in the opinion of Bishop Mark G. McGrath, C.S.C., Auxiliary Bishop of Panama, but one that will have to be discussed for many decades to come with "increasing clarity and a greater sense of urgency." His comments here are from a speech before the American Society of Panama recently. They are published as the views of a man held in high regard by all who know him, who has dedicated his life to service, and who BISHOP MARK G. McGRATH cannot be accused of "crackpotism" or "ax-grinding" for personal reasons. Bishop McGrath, C.S.C., who has Bishop McGrath ofered his comments "with the consciousness that many spent much of his life working on behalf are better informed than myself and more equipped to speak on the of Latin American campesinos, is the matter; I simply give my ideas and reflections with the hope that they may son of the late John T. McGrath, a contribute something to your own thinking on the problem." Canal employee who came to the IsthChips land in Panama, the Canal Zone, and many even fly as far as the mus in 1914 from Trenton, N.J. He United States itself. lived in the Canal Zone several years, attended the University of Notre Dame, received his bachelor's degree at Catholic Institute in Paris, and earned his doctorate in theology at the College of Angels in Rome. He was consecrated as a Bishop October 8, 1961, and named auxiliarv to the Archbishop of Panama. A VERY HIGH Churchman in North them to the fundamental flaws now handling foreign relations or particularly America recently remarked to me that affecting our society and driving it their relations in foreign countries and there was not much reason for thinking toward other Cubas. indulge in a severe amount of breastof help to Latin America since these I would begin by observing the beating about their mistakes and guilt countries would have to go through a strangely split personality which many and failures. An example of this type of Communist experience anyway. Americans and, to a certain extent, the thinking is to be found in the book Apart from the fact that a nation does United States as such, presents before written by C. Wright Mills entitled not merely "go through a Communist the world in the matter of Latin America Wright Yisknite experience" (because the door closes as, I suppose, also in other foreign areas. 'Listen Yankee! behind the nation which falls under The book blames the United States communism and it does not easily exaggeratedly for what has happened re-open), there is the more fundamental in Cuba; but what is most remarkable concern caused by the statement to no0k apparently is that the book has sold widely throughwhich I refer, namely, the extreme out the United States, and it is apparpessimism reflected in what a recogently being read by many Americans nized leader of society in North America read as form as a form of diplomatic masochism. On is thinking about our' part of the world. a more simple plane, one discovers There are others, of course, who brush / ., many Americans in Latin America who off the worries and dangers of the time o diplomatic are confident of their own personal with a bland type of optimism which superiority in so many ways and yet can only inspire in us a similar distrust. // find themselves embarrassingly disguisThere are those also who speak of commasochism ing their influence on local affairs for munism in Cuba as being a blessing fear that it will be rejected because it because it has served to awaken us to is American. the dangers at hand. This would be true AT TIMES Americans give off an Recently I had occasion to overhear if it really had awakened a sufficient impression of bland confidence and the observation of an American gentlenumber of our leaders in both North assured superiority. At other times they man who was anxious to support a and Latin America, and if it had not seem completely overwhelmed with student in the University of Panama only awakened but also enlightened their inadequacy in understanding and for a scholarship to be granted by this THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9

PAGE 16

-s It's Not All Like This American's corporation. He was sure of (even if vigorous) influence abroad portantly that they do not have any w\hat he was doing, but he was coinwhich would seem to produce the splitclear notion of the social upheavals now plctlv undone when he was told that it personality image mentioned above. taking place in Latin America and of iould be better for him not to publicize If we go a little bit more deeply into the entire historical, social, political, the fact that the scholarship was given the problem, we discover immediately and religious environment which has by the corporation because it would what is perhaps the greatest roadblock made and makes Latin America what limit the student's freedom in University to genuine inter-American collaboration, it is today. Obviously we must make a federation activity: since he would be namely, the great ignorance that exists similar observation regarding the ignoconsidered by many as a hireling of in both North and Latin America about rance of the leaders of the Latin Amerthe United States. one another. It is commonplace to ican society, and, of course, much more mention this factor, and yet I do not so in the case of the masses, regarding think that we weigh the consequences. the United States. THE GENTLEMAN could nmot see or And, here again, it is not so much a understand this observation, except as question of some of them thinking that an insult to his Americanism; whereas I THINK it is fair to state that the Hollywood is to be found on the outin fact, it is no such thing. Catholic bishops of the United States skirts of New York City as rather their There are two very different problems are among its most intelligent and most frequent ignorance of the social strucinvolved which must be kept always influential citizens. What they think and ture of the United States and how it distinct, namely: (1) one's own love say and do about Latin America will came to be. This is often manifest in and pride in his own great national have a great bearing upon the eventual the blanket statements of social reinheritance, the virtues of his people, relationships of the United States with formers in Latin America, condemning and his own talents: (2) as disLatin America. And yet, I think I can all forms of capitalism and considering tinguished from a sincere endeavor to say without any fear of offense that the United States to be a gross example understand the different ways and most Catholic bishops of the United of abusive capitalism. problems of another nation in which he States know very little about Latin may find himself or with which he America and its problems and are quite wN omld have to deal; and a tactful underconfused about just what they can do ACTUALLY, THE target of these standing that his contribution, if it is to help. If this can be said of them, it attacks is still principally the liberal to be positive and real for this nation, certainly can be said of the ministers capitalism of the last century which must he indirect, disguised, discreet, of other religions and of outstanding perhaps holds out in other areas of the and alvays subordinate to local enleaders in all civic and national areas. world but which has certainly been xsavors if it is not to be felt as an It is not only that many', if not most of greatly gone over in the United States imposition from abroad. these persons, do not know whether whieh, in many ways, is a far more It is an apparent difficulty in blending Venezuela is to be found on the Atlantic socialized nation today than any nation lawfil national pride with discreet or on the Pacific ocean, but more imof Latin America with the exception, 10 APRIL 5, 1963

PAGE 17

Nor Is It All Like This of course, of Cuba. One example suffices the small coterie of privileged individfor the Government or for a U.S. corto bring out this point. The progressive uals with whom he deals, and he will poration or in a similar employment who tax system as applied in the United come to think about the country exactly finds that his salary allows him to enjoy States would raise a tremendous cry as these same privileged individuals the luxury of one or two maids, the best from the business leaders of most of think. local clubs, trips to the ocean, and in the Latin American countries if it were general the company of the more comimposed upon them. fortable classes of the society in which There is another aspect to this mutual I CAN EXEMPLIFY this even in the he finds himself. Thus it is that Amerignorance which I think is worth bringcase of priests who would come from icans abroad can quite often live within ing out; it is somewhat more delicate the United States to work in Latim glass cages of their own making. but I think nonetheless valuable. Most America as missionaries. If one of them Americans who live in Latin America is placed as pastor of a crowded, for short or long periods of time manage populous, urban area, or out on land FROM WITHIN, they can see the to collect themselves into very cohesive among the poor and backward, he poverty and the social problems of groups, known in various nations as "the meets the masses of Latin America; but, Latin America, but they come to look Embassy crowd," "the American colif he finds himself placed as a proupon them too often with that certain ony," etc., according to whether the fessor in a private school, frequented indifference or fatalistic acceptance nucleus of the group is made up of the principally by children of well-to do which is often characteristic of the staf of the Embupss ad e ups r fte families, le may never meet psychoaristocratic classes. This problem is staff of the Embassy and its related faieshemyne missions, or of a business group. (I logically the masses of Latin America. more complicated by the fact that Panama we have a broader-based U.S. The persons with whom he will mostly American businessmen abroad, as group-Canal Zone, Armed Forces, deal are his students and their parents businessmen everywhere, and rightly so, Embassy, United States residents in and the parents' associates, etc. He will are out to make money. Businessmen Panama.) hear them dav in and day out talking and industrialists are not generally phiabout their own country. They will give lanthropic in their viewpoints on busiThese groups generally attend the same him his legal advice, his educational ness. We know that the laboring classes hotels and clubs and, in their social relapolicy will be much affected by them, in the United States had to fight long tionships, they are limited to contacts he will even read the same newspapers and hard to obtain a position of bargainwith one another or with persons of the they read. Thus it is that, though he ing power by which they could elimicountry in which they are living who may have been the son of a truck driver nate most of the abuses of unrestrained enjoy the same economic standards of in the United States, he will develop capital and management. life to which they are accustomed. mentally and psychologically in Latin Some would say that the pendulum has A person may live in a foreign country America into an aristocrat. now swung in the United States to the in this fashion for 30 or more years This, which could happen in the case of other side. But, it is quite obvious that and never really come to know that a priest or other missionary, with more the labor movement in Latin America country or its people adequately. He reason can take place in the case of a on the whole is very weak. Sometimes will judge that country exclusively by lay person in Latin America working it makes very much noise when it is THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11

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"DIFFICULT TO RECEIVE HELP" utilized by Communist leaders for porequested of President Kennedy a revicratic societies; and we must remember litical purposes. But, in most nations of sion of the Canal treatv. This request that most societies have been aristocratic Latin America, the bulk of the laborers was announced in a Miami newspaper until very recently in history. are unorganized and are very much at under headlines which said something the merey of their employers. like this, "Panamanians Not Content, American industrialists and businessWant More." There are many persons WHEN THE aristocrats exercise their men abroad too often feel that they are in the Canal Zone who still repeat the power and wealth with a personal doing all that they need do in labor workout expression, "This country interest for at least the minimum supel~ations if they keep within the local would still be swimming in alligators if port of the masses, then we have a laws, wxhereas these local laws in many we hadn't come." No one denies the paternalistic society which has many eases do not begin to assure labor progreat helps that have beeen received in virtues in certain periods of social evolute(tion. And thus, we find many AmerLatin America from the United States tion. When this does not happen, then ican businessmen abroad who are far presence and industry, but it is entirely we have an oligarchical structure which mere reactionar %. fIar more prone to false to suppose that all or most of these brings about genuine oppression of the dismuis; as ComnJIinist every possible have been realized out of merely masses. In any case, the existence of this labor agitation than thev would ever philanthropic purpose. structure in Latin America sets it off have been had thev remained in the considerably as regards the United United States itself. I have heard States. You cannot begin to compare, very responsible business leaders in EVEN WHEN this purpose is evident, for example, the youth of the United various Latin American nations reject it remains difficult to receive help from States and the youth of, let us say, all non-rightist" organizations as being another and doubly so when he is so Bolivia. The great bulk of the U.S. Communist. tactless that he keeps reminding you youth will study all or most of the way that he is giving you this help. There through high school. In Bolivia, possibly is a rightful propaganda and political only 7 percent will ever get as far as value in international giving; but it high school, and certainly no more than inust be discreet. 1 percent will reach the university. uasi-eXperts from I have spoken of the ignorance which Yet, if you take that upper 1 percent exists on both sides of the Rio Grande and compare it to the average AmerI I/ regarding the other side, and I have ican youth, you will probably find that golden ghettoes stressed particularly the American ignothe Bolivian in question has broader rance of Latin America because I am cultural values than the average Amerspeaking to the American Society, but ican student of his own age. Comoften help further it is necessary to pin down in' some parisons between the two societies, fashion a few aspects of this ignorance. north and south, are obviously quite n w i What is the American ignorant of redifficult. narrow attitude garding Latin America? This is a verve The tourist from the United States who vast subject which I can only pretend visits Latin America and only goes to open up for your consideration. through its cities has the impression of AMONG; THE organizations thus conFirst of all, it might be said that a person demned were the various Christian from the United States must wash his Democratic movements of Latin Amermind of accepted social and political ica which differ greatly from country patterns if he is to understand the social P ---to country but which in some of these and political structure of Latin America. 'imii so et, countries offer a healthy political alterHe is used to a society which was born native to the extremism of the right or and grew on a frontier in the form of the left. I cannot speak of Panama rugged democracy. He has never experiwhere the Christian Democratic Party enced an aristocratic colonial structure has only recently been created. into which Latin America was born just fw mles An added problem is created for the with the Spanish, with the Iberian conUnited States when these very Amerquests and into which it has remained icans who have been living within their more or less fixed for 400 years. outside the cities goldeii ghettoes in Latin America return The Latin American Conquistadores to the United States. They pass in their and their descendants in power have for AS. circles as uasi-xperts on Latin so long held the landed wealth and a uniform civilization because he stays specate. They often help to further economic and political control that it is in the best hotels and travels by the narrow attitudes on Latin America, for ingrained into their habits of thinking best means. Yet, if he takes the time to example the quite endemic notion that that things should be as they are. One go just a few miles out of the city in Latin America should be more explicit might explicate their attitude by almost any direction, he will find a very in thanking the United States for saying, "Some are born to riches and primitive society; and nowadays, he its aIid. power and comfort, the rest are not." need only visit the growing slum areas Recently I was in Miami, Fla., at the This attitude does not spring from to have a firsthand impression of the very time that the President of Panama malice; it is characteristic of all aristosuffering masses of Latin America. 12 APRIL 5, 1963

PAGE 19

WITHOUT DEVELOPING this comone of the greatest internal migrations IF SOCIAL STRUCTURES are changparison any further and only having that history has recorded. ing rapidly and must change rapidly, suggested it to you, I must mention Throughout Latin America, masses conthese changes must nonetheless be careanother complicating factor. The starverge upon the cities and produce the fully studied and, as far as possible, tling phenomenon of Latin America ever-growing slun areas. In Santiago, controlled. On the other hand, it is certoday is precisely that this aristocratic Chile, for instance, every year 40,000 tainly to be regretted that it is so charpersons pour in from the land. This is acteristic of the comfortable classes of entirely apart from the vegetative inLatin America to resist change, all crease of the city population itself. But change that is social as well as economic, Acs the cities are simply not equipped to and to ascribe their resistance wholv Aristocratic socil give houses, food, work, schools, and to motives of anti-comnumism, whwi churches to all these late arrivals, it is quite obvious that thc ir most c bi serious concern is often with their own structure crumbling economic and social position. This is regrettable, but it is also regretONCE THEY HAVE exhausted availtable that so few Americans, whether with amazing spee able living space in the houses of at ]iomc or abroad, have a gemine intuifriends, they must throw some boards tion il to the social structure of Latin -together on any unoccupied land, and America as it has been, and the social in Latin America you have the beginning of the "Villa changes wIch are now taking place. Miseria," the "Callampa," the "Casas The reactionary attitude of so mans Brujas," the "Favella," etc., as these Americans living abroad succeeds in social structure, which has held together blights upon our cities are colorfully giving the almost universal impression for all these centuries, is crumbling with termed in the various countries of Latin that they, and therefore the United amazing speed. This, too, complicates America. States, are identified with those who the consideration of the Latin American There are other factors that bring about resist social changes. scene. There are many factors which change. The American tends to think of The poor Latin Amnerican sees thr %erx could be adduced as causes and exthe Industrial Revolution as something high standard of living portrayed in the planations of the social changes now that occurred already. Actually, it is U.S. movies which have had a strong being experienced. just beginning ill most areas of Latin effect in increasing his desire for greater "CHANGES MUST BE STUDIED" Certainly one of them is the tremendous America, and it is producing the same comfort in life; he sees the Americans population growth in Latin America, effects that it brought about in Europe in his own country living very comfortsaid to be the heaviest in any area of and in the United States. The major ablx; he sees the tourists who come the world. Within 30 years, the populaproblem is that the effects brought thrunigh and criticize quite freely everytion of Latin America will double. For about by this recent industrial revolnthing that does not come up to their static economies, not used to economic tion and the other factors which I have own standards of material comfort; and expansion, this inevitably produces trebriefly pointed out are occurring with he has the impression that the American mendous problems of unemployment, such tremendous velocity, one might is not concerned about his poverty. housing, schools, churches, hospitals, say that Latin America is being forced etc. Another great change that has to go through, in 30 or 40 years, what occurred is the introduction in the cities other nations have experienced in more and more of the U.S. way of life periods of centuries. Established order with all its comforts, for those who can It is not surprising, in view of this cirbuy them. cumstance, that many of its own aristoThis has increased the already existing cratic leaders very honestly oppose c t tendenev of the Latin American landmany of the inevitable changes which owner to live in the city. His absence are taking place and consider them the from the land and his unconcern about works of destruction. The insistence by the land have helped to accentuate the the U.S. Government and the Alliance very grievous problems of production for Progress upon such sweeping in many rural areas. This neglect of the changes as tax reform and land reform U. S. aid direct land is starkly evident in Panama where and vocational education and guidance, the great buk of the land we farm is etc., can appear to the conservative th great .b othe lde aris minds of Latin America as reckless. It is still cultivated without the assistance necessary to understand that not ever FOR EXAMPLE, when President of either machine or animals, being opposition to change in Latin America Eisenhower came to Chile in 1960, he worked upon simply by hand. The springs from ill-will simply, and that spoke very eloquently about the need population explosion on the land as well often the over-simplified appeals for for inter-American unity, but used some as the backwardness and unemployment change which come from United States ill-chosen phrases. He exhorted all who of the "campesinos," added to the representatives at home or abroad heard him to the defense of the estaballurement of city lights, have produced warrant some distrust. lished order. This phrase is quite acceptTHE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13

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able in the United States, where most people have a comfortable share in the established order, but it is politically dead in Latin America, where most people want to change the established order for one in which they can have This H helps, a larger share of goods and of power. Auain, there is the problem that the U.S. relations with Latin America are generally and officially carried out through the governments. Many of these J 9 n governments are struggling for ecoIsn't E ough nomic survival, so that the great bulk of U.S. aid, which is not military, goes into balancing their budgets. This goes on without the kind of social and economic reforms which might serve to balance some of the budgets internally. Meanwhile, there are tremendous exampies of human suffering, such as now affects over 20 million poor in northeastern Brazil, who do not receive, as they might, the direct help of the people of the United States. I recognize that these are complicated problems, but I mention them because of the undoubted effect that they produce upon the Latin American mind. It is very difficult for a person in the United States to understand howN an\one can be drawn to communism; but it is terribly easy for the pied pipers of Moscow to entice millions of our poor in Latin America to their and our own destruction. I need not describe for you who know this problem very well some of the extreme examples of poverty, ignorance, and other physical and moral miseries which are so common in Latin America. Perhaps a story might help to bring out what I want to express. A FEW YEARS AGO I met in Chile a young Argentinian priest who was trying to make contact with some (f the poorest elements of Santiago slums. He actually lived in these slums in miserable conditions for several months in his initial contacts and has ahvays continued to return to this same form of life from time to time. After the first few months of this kind of living, I met him and, among other things, he made this remark to me, "You would be surtion, he does not have much of an altersame children, setting up orphanages, prised what most tempted me during native. It is either this or no hope for etc. Obviously, this is only a paterthese months in the Callainpa (slums. change." nalistic solution, not adequate to the anything concerning women The remarks of this young Jesuit priest times. It alleviates the sufferings but or drink or things that men generally struck me forcibly. We must offer hope does not remove their cause nor does it consider to be their temptations. It was improve lastingly the economic and rather the temptation of communism. to our poor, genuine hope, hope for sovealstingly the poom I would never become a Communist genuine and lasting improvement. social situation of the poor. because I know too much about it and Too often the richer classes of Latin about our own Christian faith, but I can America feel that they are doing all I THINK MANY Americans abroad certainly understand the temptation, that they can and must for the poor by have fallen into this same type of paterand I even felt it. When one is immersed bringing them gifts at Christmastime, nalistic thinking, and so have all those in misery and he is only offered one organizing suinmer camps for their Americans at home who think that the solution, namely, the Communist solnchildren, teaching catechism to these problems of Latin America, economic 14 APRIL 5, 1963

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and perhaps I seem to be preaching to yl-ou today. Actually, there is no casy Sllition as we all know, but a beginning )f a solution lies in the recognition of ..-our miutual ignorance and in an effort, M ingling, Sharing particularly oil the part of those \%io are li ijg in Latin America, to make a real colitact with its peoples: to jostle Thoughts, Ideas, 01's sf occasional out of iis husv or comfortable round of life; to travel about the country, learn the lanDispels Ignorance Iage above all, and talk to the people, listening perhaps more than one talks. I hax e many friends in the Canal Zoneand please remember that I wXas born in the Canal Zone-who have lived there for 30 or 40 years without ever having made any attempt to learn the A la Spanish language. This, of ous. neans a marked disinterest in Panama. Antd, when this is multiplied y imauy, moan individuals, it can help explain the imprpiession that is gTivell to thePallamanians of supreme iidiltereie' on the pai t of U.S. people, x whiel thcy ilust judge through the Canal Zonians, the ilitarx forces in Panam a. the (official authorities, and the tourists. -Itrelntiv there has been a marked effort on the part of responsible sectors in the Armed Forces, in the Canal Zone and in the Embassy to initiate bencficient contacts xxith Panamanians. This has given rise, for example, to help for children and for the poor through what is popularly known as "Operation Friendship," one of the greatest diplomatic successes in Canal Zone and Panamanian history. AMERICANS RESIDENT in Panama, through this \er American Societx, have also undertaken beneficit'nt actiVities. All this type of actiitx is of great help to the needy and serves to establish the kind of human relationship which and social, can be solved simply by All this is complicated the more by the has so often been lacking between sending money or other forms of ecotremendous social changes now taking Americans abroad and the peoples who nomic assistance. These are needed, place in Latin America. Our problem surround them. but the solution lies in carefully guided becomes every day more complex. Some There are sonic Americans xxho would structural change, linked to educapersons may think that we are only like to affect also the ideological oricntion in community responsibility and recently becoming aware of our poor in tation of certain student, labor, and community effort. Latin America; this is not entirely true. other groups. This, of course, must be If I may begin to sum up, I would say By reason of many of the things which done with care, lest it appear as a public that one of the greatest obstacles to I have tried to describe, we are acquirinterference in local politics. Perhaps better relationships between the Amering every day a greater number of poor m-h more can be done, at least to icas is ignorance of one another, an in more areas. Thirty or forty years ago erase the image of a retarded and ignorance which is shared in often by the problem of misery in Latin America, regressive American capitalism, by proAmericans abroad and, of course, Hi as it nowv exists on the land and parmoting economic endeavors which will these considerations xwe have included ticularly in the slum areas of the cities, faxor the kind of social and economic those Americans living in the Canal Was unknown. changes that are desirable in Latin Zone sector of Panama. Overcoming \Vhat conclusion can be drawn from those obserx'ations? Arela this ignorance requires not merely aa We talk a great deal about the need factual learning about the countries of for greater social justice in Latin AmerLatin America but a feeling for the THERE IS A tendency for us to preach ica, which might be characterized as strong differences in cultural and social to one another on these matters, Amerleaning a more equitable distribution organization. icans to Latin Americans and vice versa, of the national wealth. Americans TiE PANAMA CANAL REvIEw 15

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He can be encouraged to greater faith and a generous will to work together for Americans can help by his own American friends living in a society that is true to our spiritual Latin America. Furthermore, the Latin traditions in both North and Latin .I II American capitalist who sends his America, and free and progressive, and in SoCial mObility;" money abroad often does so because he just and generous to all its citizens, we does not realize the opportunities which may fear for evil days ahead. he could develop by investing some of I have often said and I really believe Latin American that c at hm. that communism in Latin America is epopit emet anot our real danger; that communism The proper investment and control of would not have a chance in Latin Amercapital straying in weahica if we, who call ourselves Christians, producing enterprises in Latin America would just occasionally stop thinking is a lesson which must be learned, but only about ourselves and look at these the wealth of Latin America would still general problems which affect each should take a certain leadership in Latin tend to maintain a colonial and noncountry and all of us together, and then America by the way they pay their help, progressive mentality of hoarding the make some generous effort to achieve by the way they train their help, by the wealth, or at least of not investing it the kind of society which our gospel guarantees they give, by the social unless there is an assurance of a large and our faith would demand. mobility they encourage, in allowing and quick profit. competent help to rise to top positions IT WILL BE many a year before a even in American firms in Latin America, etc. FURTHERMORE, the Latin American significant improvement comes about in But, we must all realize that simply generally-and this I recognize as a the socio-economic problems of Latin dividing up the national wealth among Churchman-is often bereft of a social America. But it is important to raise all the citizens would perhaps only leave sense in his religion. He does not clearly hopes now. Pessimism and despair drive us all poor. It is equally important that recognize his moral obligations to men to extreme solutions-such as comwe stress the necessity for economic society, in politics, business, or social munism. We are in an age of rapid development so that there will be relations. The Latin American capitalists change in Latin America. If our Latin greater wealth and greater production who drain the wealth of their nations, American business leaders, if the United to be shared and enjoyed by all. even if it is their own, 1y sending it States, if U.S. personnel and citizens in abroad are probably not conscious of Latin America appear as enemies of the very grave social harm they so change, they will continue to lose the THIS IS PERHAPS the greatest secret occasion to their nations, or at least of confidence of the masses and of many which Americans abroad should begin the social moral responsibility involved serious social leaders. to rveal to miany of their local friends in their procedure. If, on the contrary, as they have begun and business associates. It is a scanWhen anyone speaks of Latin America, to do, they at once encourage and guide dalous fact that great quantities of as I have done, it is necessary to honestly socio-economic changes (tax reform, capital from Latin America are being remind all of us, including the speaker, sent abroad to be placed often in of the danger involved in generalizaforeign deposits. This represents, on the tions. The economic and social picture i/ s part of Latin American capitalists, an of Latin America varies greatly from .We may hope for injustice to their own countries which country to country and region to region. are at the same time requesting that the Just for example, there is much more United States officially, and through its social mobility in Panama City than flowering of spit business enterprises, invest capital in there is on the land, and much more in Latin America. Panama than many of the other nations The entire capital promised by the of Latin America. The vast particular of man ...saved Alliance for Progress over the next 10 differences in Latin America must not years is said to be considerably less than be forgotten when we generalize. fr. // the capital deposited by Latin American And so I end as I began by reminding from yawning byss capitalists abroad in the last few von that these have only been some years. The Latin American governments personal observations on our intershould do as much as they can to stop American relations which I pass on to land-reform, broader technical educaand to penalize this flight of national you with the hope that they may be of tion, etc.) into healthy, productive wvealth abroad, but much has to be done some help in your own thinking about channels, communism in the Americas to change the mentality which permits the problem, and with the realization will wither and die, for its roots will an( encourages this kind of flight. The that we must continue to think and have been cut, and we may hope for a Latin American capitalist is obviously discuss these problems quite openly and new flowering of the spirit of man freed manifesting little faith in the economic frankly because, without a clear knowlfrom its present miseries and saved from and political future of his own country. edge of vhat is happening around us the yawning abyss of Marxist despair. "ITS ROOTS WILL HAVE BEEN CUT" 16 APRIL 5, 1963

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them went on to jobs elsewhere in the Anmricas, some later retirned to the Panama Canal. Most of the sad days he recalls entailed cutbacks for the i edging Division for ecolnom'v or policy reasons. But he's pleased at having al ax s sta\ ed within his btidge t and ke pt m a ht 'ad VA ~ f( lc realdxs John G( ( lavlouniil Ann 01 ;\ h()r Mich, a forinet slifle intelllIcnt \ of tlo i~rdginig Div ision, as one of the gratl st Ineftieh exver Illet. Mr. (lax liaboi I), a i i i eginuc r, and Mr. whitee ca lit to tll lstli is at the sainttine -ill 1910, who'l tile latter' s fthe chit nt'
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Map of the communications system operated by Comunicaciones, S.A., showing location of key units and distances between them. Maintenance centers were located by traffic volume and geographic location. Phone Microwave Network Growing (The following article is based on same time. For example, preliminary very carefully evaluated for fade margin one entitled "A Modern Cominumicaequipment orders were placed very and idle circuit noise level. Tower tions System for Panama," published shortly after the arrival of radio-path heights at the 14 microwave sites were in the "Automatic and Technical survey parties in Panama City. so specified that atmospheric conditions Journal." It is excerpted and paraIn general, the requirements were would have minimum effect. phrased in some parts to avoid techthat telephone and telegraph transmisAntenna sizes were made conservanical data. It teas written by Alan C. sion performance be equal to that of tively large and the net result was a Walker of Lenkurt Electric Co., Inc., the domestic network in the United microwave path reliability greater than one of the firms involved in design States of America, and that all circuits 99.99 percent. and installation of the new microwave be compatible and interconnectable Future growth was naturally a factor. system.) with those of the Inter-American TeleAntennas are so equipped that there RARELY does an engineering group communications Networks, now in the wNill be minimum system interruption have the opportunity to design and planning stages. when expansion becomes necessary. build an essentially new communicaTo insure a system that would provide The equipment is designed to make tions system in a single operation. Such overall performance equal to these high easier addition of a system for TV disa situation did develop recently in the standards, the microwave paths were tribution throughout the country. Even Republic of Panama, however, and vith this planned addition, the original through the combined and coordinated President Roberto F. Chiari at the inaugubattery plant installations will still have efforts of Lenkurt Electric and Autoration of the new Comunicaciones, S.A., at least S hours reserve. matic Electric, an entirely new commicrowave network. Either because commercial power munications network was brought to was absent at many locations, or because Panama. the existing municipal plants already Engineered, furnished, and installed were overloaded, it was necessary to for the private owner, Comunicaciones provide for power at a number of sites. S.A., the project enjoyed the keen For utmost reliability, dual generating interest and support of government offiplants were provided at these points. cials, headed by President Roberto F. Three maintenance zones were estab(hiari. The new system serves 20,000 lished for the system, with centers subscribers in major population centers; located in Panama'City, Aguadulce, and with its modern services (including the David. Any change from normal operaconvenience of direct distance dialing) tion of the monitored equipment, at any it is certain to grows rapidly. station, is noted immediately, and the The climate arid rugged terrain and changed condition displayed'on the systhe lack of any substantial existing tem status panel to inform maintenance triinklinies dictated the establishment of personnel. a microwave system. Because of the Telephone and teletype service urgent need for the new facilities, switching offices were installed at several activities were carried on at the David, Santiago, Aguadulce, Chitre, 518 APRIL 5, 1963

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Bocas del Toro, and Panama City. The system was interconnected with an installation made in March 1960 which linked the towns of David, Boquete, Concepcion, and Puerto Armuelles, all in western Panama. Urgency of time required that the first circuits be operated on a manual basis until the dial exchanges could be installed. New dial telephone exchanges have now been installed and connected into the system. Additional channel groups can be added when traffic requirements demand it. The over-water link from Cerro Campana to Bocas del Toro, 160 miles away, uses high-gain antennas, because line-of-sight does not exist over this path. In June 1960 a system installed at David made possible automatic dialing by customers in their cars to anyone else in the area. This is effected through exchanges at David, Boquete, Concepcion, and Puerto Armuelles. This system was the pioneer installation of its type outside the United States. Panama's communications are modern, efficient, and dependable. The The Cerro Pelado reflector unit at Gamboa in the Panama Canal microwave system. services will shortly offer dill This is a sample of the terrain problems encountered in construction of units for the servceswil shrtlyoffr dale-uPComunicaciones, S.A., network. telegraph (which will include modern data handling), and a television network. The Panama communications project is an outstanding example of what a determined group of engineersL i e Z n Sy t m can accomplish in a short time, when the opportunity is offered through the vision of a progressive administration. OPERATIONALLY, the microwave wave sy stem formerly took as long as The project also demonstrates the communication systems of the Panama a half hour to an hour to complete, manner in which members of two sister Canal and Comunicaciones, S.A., are becausC of cable capacity limitation and companies, Lenkurt Electric and Autothe same, and electronic equipment the number of separate connections that matic Electric, work together to get a components were made by the same had to be completed. And when combig job done. companies. plated, voice quality was often far from The Canal Zone system planning xxs what was to be desired. Time required started ina 1957 item pl g wsi now is only from half a minute to a Eduardo GonzAlez, executive vice president started in 195, it reached final design minute, with voice quality so good that of Comunicaciones, S.A. stae 1959 and Phase I stallation no difference betee a call to xvas completed in 1960. Installation of David and one to Panama Cit. links with the Federal Aviation Agency The 102-pair Panama Canal's Transinstallations on the Isthmus was Isthmian Telephone Cable No. 2 along completed in January 1962. the Trans-Isthmian Highway still is in Micro system inessage routing use, but cable No. I along the railwax between Cristobal and Balboa Heights no longer carries trunk calls. It is a is from the Cristobal exchange to a 49car-old 50-pair cable, and nowx' reflector at Gatun, via a reflector on is used only for local calls between Cerro Pelado at Gamboa to one on Sosa Gammboa and Cristobal. Hill on the Pacific side, thence to the The firm of Gibbs & Hill designed Balboa Heights exchange. A reflector the Panama Canal microwave system on Ancon Hill links the FAA operations and it was installed by Motorola Coinbuilding With its Chiva Chiva radio munication & Electronics, Inc. The Enstation. Other outlying FAA radio gineering Dix ision of the Engineering stations are at Cerro Calera and Telfer's amd Construction Bureau worked with Island. the design firm and the Electrical A call from the Canal Zone to parts Division worked xvith the installation of the interior now served by the microcompany on the projects.

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CANAL HISTORY 50 ?JearJ dgo 25 Year. ago 10 ?IearJ 4go THE ONLY materials to be purchased EVACUATION of Paraiso, long headAUTHOR and playwright J. P. MeEvoy Oin a nnal contracts for the year, it was quarters of the Dredging Division, was and his wife were preparing to sail for announced, were lubricants, waste, proceeding rapidly in the third and return to the States after having spent white lead, red lead, rope, forage, final year's program of transferring the 2 weeks on the Isthmus. Mr. McEvoy turpentine, kerosene, and gasoline. All division to Gamboa. also was a roving editor of Readers other supplies were to be purchased In the wake of arrest of 3 persons in Digest, Mrs. McEvoy also was a widely under emergency contracts terms. New York on charges their mission was known writer. The decision was in line with policy to obtain U.S. military secrets, it was Preliminary work was under way on instituted in 1910 of gradually reducing announced their instructions included erection of the Goethals Memorial at the sthck of materials carried in store obtaining wartime plans for operation the foot of the Administration Building on the Isthmus so that when work on the of the Panama Canal Locks. Identified steps. the least possile amount to dispose of Oly as agents of an unnamedd EuroA seafaring career spanning half a Ath error i dssignating the picture o. pean power," all were said to have been century and linking the sailing ship era In h either German-born or educated in with that of modern luxury liners neared the 2-cent stamps in the Pananui-Pacihic Exposition commemnorative series as Germany. an end for Capt. Erik J. Eriksen, master "Gatun Locks," when it really repTwo bills, one for :30-year retirement of the liner Cristobal. He had accepted resented Pedro Miguel Locks, led the for Canal employees, the other for appointment as Panama Line agent Post Office Department to destroy all annuities for widows of Government in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and after a of the stamps thus printed-about 20 workers in the Canal Zone, were before vacation he and Mrs. Eriksen were million. Congr ss. to move to the Haitian port to begin "landlubber" duties. RETIREMENTS One Jear 4o DEAN Roger C. Hackett of the Canal RETIREMENT certificates wcre preClyde L. Sharp, Finance Branch SuperinZone Junior College, which he had sent'(e at the end of February to the tendeit. Postal Division, Pacific Side; headed since 1941, planned for his 'ri1' lstedbelw, wth 31 years, 7 months, 9 days. mplovues listed below, with positions. Chanan Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Diviretirement following the close of the and years of Canal service: sion, Atlantic Side; 34 years, 3 months, summer session in late August. Frank H. Archibald, Deckhand, Port Cap11 days. The Canal Zone Health Bureau's taint Office, Atlantic Side; 37 years, Gurdas Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Diviachievement of almost 2 million con7 mosmths, 7 Alays.aantivemede of ye, 2 m Violet L. Bingham, Elementary School 9 A Side; 31 years, 3 monts, secutive hours without a disabling Teacher, L atin American Schools, Atlasnh. tic Side 3.5 iears. months, 6 days. Alberta M. Stone, Freight Rate Assistant, injury was recognized with presentation George P. Bonneau, Jr., Contraband ConSupply Division, Pacific Side; 15 years, of the National Safety Council Award trol Inspector, Custom Division, Pacific 8 months, 13 days. of Merit to the Bureau. Side; 14 years, 10 months, 26 days. Cecil S. Thompson, Train Baggageman, Four earthquake tremors shook up Nicolas Borbua, Helper Lock Operator, Railroad Division, Atlantic Side; 32 t us Mar ch 12 treeirst, t Locks Division, Atlantic Side; 42 years, years, 8 months, 13 days. the Isthmus \larch 12, the first, at 10 nionths, 10 days. Lebert Trotman, Deckhand, Port Captain's 4:42 a.m., strong enough to awaken Ronald Chambers, Launch Operator, Port Office, Atlantic Side; 21 years, 10 many people. The strongest, at 6:41 Captain s Office, Atlantic Side; 24 years, months, 1 day. a.m., was rated Intensity V. The 'quake 5 months, 10 da 'svs James U. Williamns, Guard, Terminals Divicne' e'uk Edard A. I ckhof, Planner and EstiJin Atlic Si 1 yearcenter probably was in the vicinity of inator, Industrial Division, Atlantic Side; 4 days the Panama-Costa Rica border. -8 years, 5 months, 2 days. Benjamin Ennis, Pest Control Inspector Community Services Division, Pacific Side; 22 years, 7 months, 23 dayvs. Richard V. Fuller, Supervisory Claims -ACCIDENTS \xmfliner, General Audit Division Pacific Sid; 2S xiers, 11 months, 10 days. FOR NIervial .Maynard, Radio Operator, Dre d'ing Division, Pacific Side: :39 years, THIS MONTH 3 iionths, 21 days. QUIET Gerardo Pascual, Helper Lock Operator, AND FIRST AID HOSPITAL Lks Division, Atlantic Side; 21 years, ZONE 9 month 11 day~s.SYE Erwin F. Ramnsey, Enine-man, Hloisting and Portable Community Services Diision, Atlanitic Side; 19 years, 9 months, DAYS 4 di FEBRUARY CASES CASES ABSENT Ar thur E. Richards, Guard. Motor Transrtiti )It Division, Atlantic Side; 43 63 '62 '63 *62 '63 '62 -r, r5 months. 4 davs. ALL UNITS 242(1) 215 13(1) 12 198 282 Part( L. Roland, General Foreman, Public \\urks, MIaitainanc Division, Pacific YEAR TO DATE 510(23) 403 27(2) 24 271 ,7 6360 ide, 1 \cears, 6 nionths, 17 days,. ) Locks Overhaul injuries included In total. 20 APHiL 5, 1963

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CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY Robert L. Snyder SERVICE BUREAU Services Assistant to Earl C. Orr Director of Posts risory merchandise NE a cement Officer 5CPPLY AND C UNITY M A4IN SERIFICE B A RAU Walter G. Brown uar t. r AUInspector, Scales an QiI Meters TRANSr OFIATION AND Alvin A. Rankin TERMNN LS BUREAU James N. rgan Inspector, Floating Equine t L,2 a a orer Gean Nathaniel A. Da an JBrrua Foundry Chi er 0omo e Equipment David E. Grant arten NIaintenanceman, Rope and Rupert A. Walters Wire Cable Shipment Clerk Karm Singh Delfino Andrade Deckhand Guard ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Lorenzo Perez SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY George Vieto Hospital Food Service Worker SERVICE BUREAU Chief, Transportation Jorge Sanchez Albert D. Jones Section ExterminatorAbetDJos Josneh A. otberanis Grounds Maintenance CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Nursing Assistant, Psychiatry Equipment Operator Margaret N. Finnegan Victor A. Thompson Leticia E. McDowell Window Clerk Messenger and Motor Clerk Iris D. Richmond Vehicle Operator Margaret Mussa Window Clerk Jorge Ubarnes Clerk Typist Hospital Food Service Teodoro Abrego ENGINEERING AND Worker Baker Assistant CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Banfield F. Alleyne Laurent J. Baptiste MARINE BUREAU Laborer Cleaner Central Office Repairman Walter A. Dryja Joseph A. Chambers Lucille M. Fulop Assistant to Marine Director Baker Assistant Secretary (Stenographer) Frank P. Marczak A. C. Jimenez Milton M. LaCroix Marine Traffic Controller Utility Worker Shift Engineer Robert L. Rankin Myrtle A. Garraway John W. Williams ar Traffic Co er Utility 'Worker Maintenanceman Distribution Ri d Thor n Justino G ndola Systems Ian affic o oller Milker ooin Eruolfo A. Angulo Frank R bi n Eva lA Workr SebaTin arsallo Iot L ne C tain Allan S. Vanterpool Paver Pedr Ab Laborer Cleaner Paver ecnd Frank M. Cambridge s I Amaya Heavy Laborer r Ck ra TRANSPORTATION AND Urvin N. Cornwall Alfonso Br TERMINALS BUREAU Paver ck Opera Juan F. Edmondson Jose A. C6rdova Jos6 Cea Electrician Helper Electrician, Power Nlaintenanceman Arthur B. Rigby Plant Cedric I. Gibb Engineer, Locomotive Yard Alfredo C. Newball Helper Lock Operator Roswell J. Tobin Seaman Manuel Montout Leader, Liquid Fuels Juan Pastor Pacheco Deckhand Wharfman Laborer James Parris James 0. Brown Just P. Villalaz Helper Machinist Stevedore Painter Israil Rook Dennis E. Clarke HEALTH BUREAU Seaman Helper, Liquid Fuels Ella A. Partons Carlos A. Victoria Wharfman Staff Nurse, Tuberculosis Deckhand Jos6 A. Damas Marcia H. Van Home N. F. Whitfield Line Handler Administrative Assistant Maintenance Painter Felix Anselmo Dogu6 Winona A. Smith OFFICE OF Shipment Clerk Medical Technician, General THE COMPTROLLER 116etor Haddo Jos6 A. Delgado Automotive Equipment Heavy Pest Control Laborer John R, Gough Serviceman Cyril G. Francis Budget Analyst Joso Lara Hospital Attendant Elizabeth Sudron Stevedore Gelacio Marin Travel Expense Claims Mois6s Minas Diet Cook Examiner Leader Railroad Trackman THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21

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IMiPLOYEES promoted or transferred Maintenance Division Jorge HernAndez, Heavy Laborer from Locks Division. \t een February 5 and March 5 are Silvestre A. Caniizalez, Helper Lock OperRalph S. Buddle, Laundry Worker (Heavy), ded. Within-grade promotions and ator, Locks Division, to Helper Welder to Extractor and Tumblerman. I A reclassifications are not listed. Ricardo Chen, Apprentice (Welder) (4th Clifford W. Edwards, Extractor and TurnYear), from Industrial Division. blerman to Washman. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Goldbern E. Gittens, Carpenter (MainteAndr6s Griffin, Clerk to Guest House Clerk. Ranghilt II. Melzi, Clerk-Typist, Division nane), Locks Divisin, to Carpenter. Dem6stenes Murillo, Heavy Laborer, Mainofg Schools to File Clerk. C(Maintenance), from tenance Division, to Laborer Cleaner. Stauel H. Edwards, Counterman, Supply rocks Division. Clarence E. James, Packager to Milk Plant nison to edrsenter aSp Charles C. Wilson. Laborer (Cleaner), 'Worker, Divsioi ti MessengerConnunity Services Division, to Painter Frances A. Jolliffe, Package Boy to Utility CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU (Maintenance). Worker. tor Ching, Detention Guard, Police HEALTH BUREAU Steven R. Ashby, Bell Boy to Utility .to Worker. division, to F firefighter, Fire Division. Julia E. Martin, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse Alfred J. Davis, Heavy Laborer, Locks ie L. Miller, Truck Driver, Dredging (Medicine and Sorgery), Gorgas losDivision, to Utility Worker. Di. sion, to Detention Guard, Police pital. Arthur Smith, Hugo Salazar, Pinsetter to Eliza W. Robinson, Counterwoman, Supply Utility Worker. Postal Division Division, to Nursing Assistant, Coco Solo Merdell B. Thompson, Utility Worker to Hospital. Counterwoman. iik 1. Brandom, Finance Branch SuperJos6 M. Santimateo, Railroad Trackman, Herbert Brown, Camilo Cordero, Alsay intendent to Relief Supervisor, Balboa. Railroad Division, to Laborer (HeavyThomas, Utility Worker to Counterman. .Iilton J. Valley, Relief Supervisor, Balboa, Pest Control), Division of Sanitation. Conrad S. Best, Utility Worker to Grocery to Finance Branch Superintendent. Gil Batista, Laborer (Cleaner), Comnuinity Attendant. Blernard J. Craig, Guard, Locks Division, Services Division. to Laborer (HeavyWilfort B. Gordon, Utility Worker to to Distribution Clerk, Substitute. Pest Control), Division of Sanitation. lleavy Laborer. Division of Schools MARINE BUREAU TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS Lson B. Dusold, Clerk-Stenographer from James M. Walsh, Towboat Naster, from BUREAU Pt'lice Division. liediu1 Divis TD Doris T. De Fowles, from Clerk-Typist to F n rk-Typist to Clrk. Terminals Division (Itrk-Stcnographer. Francois 0. Modestin, Supervisory Cargo Oforothv M. Darcy, Janet E. Jenner, SubIndustrial Division Clerk to Supervisory Cargo Tracer Clerk. titute Teacher to Teacher, Senior High Ievy Evelyn, Jr. Apprentice Welder (2d Frank Fox, Cargo Marker to Timekeeper. U'.S. Schools. ...Juan Sevillano, Dock Worker to Stevedore. Snidra Motta, Substitute Teacher to year), from Maintenance Division. Tcaclicr, Junior Ii-h U.S. Schools. Valentine .James, Helper Blacksnth R. Burnham, Cargo larker to Clerk ielen F. Jones, Joan NMachatton, Substitute (tHivv lires), to FoIundrv Chipper. CheBkr T achcr to Teacher, Elementary U.S Luis A. Fajardo. Heavy Laborer, to Helper Checker. NI oIni0t Jerry R. Escalona, Laborer Cleaner, Supply Division, to Cargo Marker. G.G.(INEERING AN) CONSTRUCTION Locks Division Clement S. McFarlane, Cargo Marker to Cargo Checker. BUREAU King J. Julie, Seymour A. Price, Clifford Noel A. Jones, Utility Worker, Supply DiviL. Stewart, Painter to Leader Painter. sion, to Cargo Marker. Electrical Division Marcelino Cerezo, Laborer, Dredin DiviSelwyn 0. Brown, Cargo Marker to Clerk. Alfred T. Marsh, Electrician to Test Opersion, to Asphalt or C(inent Worker. Jos6 IM. Maza, Laborer Cleaner, Supply ato-Foreman (Electrical-Power System). Marcos F. Del Rio. Ileavy Laborer, MainDivision, to Dock Worker. Allen C. Swicegood, Electrician to Senior tenance Division, to Line Handler. Earl R. Russell, Counterman, Supply DiviOperator (Cenrating Station). Juan Gundola, Laborer, Dredging Division, to Cargo Marker. Joseph M. Griffith, Railroad Trackman, sion, to Painter (Maintenance). Alfredo Garcia, Clerk, Terminals Division, I1ilroad Division. to Helper Machinist Leslie A. McLean, Line Handler to Helper to Cargo Clerk. (Mainteance). Lock Operator. Ruben Davis, Laborer Cleaner, Division of Mickell Williams, Helper Lock Operator to Schools, to Cargo Marker. Dredging Division Crane Hookman. .,. Railroad Division Basilio Acosta, Wiper (Floating Plant) to SUPPLY ANT) COMMUNITY Louro. Divtion Fireman (Floating Plant) Louis A. Atherton, Gornett H. Hartley, Ismael Fuentes, Heavy Laborer to Leader SERVICES BUREAU Clerk-Typist, to Supervisory Clerk. Il-iavv Laborer. Mary N. Orr, Secretary (StenographY), to Sidney Crawford, Oiler to Centrifuge Albert R. George, Utility Worker, Supply Administrative Services Assistant, Office Operator. Division, to Helper Machinist (Marine). of the Director. George M. Piggott, Helper Locomotive Faustino Martinez, Heavy Laborer to Marilyn B. Gayer, Clerk-Stenourapher Engineer to Brakeman. Boatman. from Accounting Division to Office of Albert Smith, Helper (General) to Painter Theophilus Peterkin, Clerk to Clerk-Typist. the Director. (Maintenance). Sidney Bennett, Irwin C. Boyce, Winston Rupert Clark, Laborer Cleaner to Laborer. Chambers, Samuel Pinz6n, Jr., NavigaSupply Division tional Aid Worker to Gas Navigation Roberta J. Paterson, Clerk-Typist, AdminMotor Transportation Division Litljt Serviceman, istrative Branch, to Accounting Clerk, Jorge Julian, Truck Driver to Truck Driver Office of General Manager. (Heavy). Engineering Division Bernice F. Smith, Clerk-Typist to File Ricardo R. Reefer, Deckhand, Navigation Lvdia Czapek, Engineering, Draftsman Clerk, Office of General Manager. Division, to Chauffeur. (Civil) to Physical Science Technician James N. Weeks, Stock Control Clerk to GCeolod). 'Accounting Clerk. OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not Virgilio F. Garcia, Illustrator (General) to John F. Williams, Warehouseman to involve changes of title: 1lllstrator. Guard. Thomas E. Spencer, General Claims ExamCalixto Villarreal, Dock Worker, Terminals Elias Gill, Laborer Cleaner to Sales Clerk. iner, General Audit Division, Office of Di\ iion to Surveyintg Aid. Eugene G. Wilson, Laborer to Sales Clerk. the Comptroller. 22 APRIL 5, 1963

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Miay V. Adonican, Bookkeeping Machine Operator, Accounting Division, Office of the Comptroller. Ernesto 0. Achon, Accounting Clerk, Supply Division, Office of General Manager. C. Lammerts van Bueren, Canal Zone Guide (Interpreter), Panama Canal Information Office Canal Zone Guide Service. Frank A. Venture, Storekeeping Clerk, Printing Plant, Mount Hope. Hedwig ChAvez, Clerk-Typist, Navigation Div ision. William R. Bailey, Gerald W. Coffey, Marine Traffic Controller, Navigation Division. Joseph Kendall, Aurelio Newball, Clerk, Navigation Division. Hubert H. Vickers, Joseph C. Ward, Clerk, Railroad Division Peter A. Ellis, Clerk, Railroad Division, and Theater Usher. Highroaders (Continued from p. 4) journey to San Jose, Costa Rica. That was when they took the name Highroaders. Some who were on that trip urged that Mr. Carlson arrange a reunion of those on the Costa Rica tour. He replied he wouldn't stage it unless they'd agree to go to Costa Rica for the reunion dinner. They replied, "Let's go" -and they did, and came on to Panama. En route, they were said also to have been the first trailer caravan to visit the Yucatan peninsula. One member of the party, Bud Blakeley, had been through the Canal on a Navy ship during World War 1. Another, Henry Gustafson, had helped machine the Canal lock gates at Wheeling, W. Va. One of the male Caravaners labeled the group, "The craziest people in the ANYONE WHO'S SPENT a little time with the ivory cubes knows that three's world with the most sense." a loser for the man handling the dice. But it's a winner in the current oral polio Home for the Highroaders is in vaccine program in the Canal Zone-and that's not a gambling matter. widely scattered parts of the United States, and they were looking forward In fact, the only way you can gamble and lose in the oral polio vaccine to spending some time with their famprogram is to fail to get three-all three doses, that is. ilies upon their return. But, already, the club has announced a new tour. This The first dose already has been given in Gamboa and will be administered time it will be around the world by way in the rest of the Canal Zone this month. Then, in May, the second dose will of the Far East and Australia. be given. And the third dose, the real clincher to the treatment, will be given Officers of the Tourist Bureau of at a still unannounced date. Panama extended their cooperation to the Caravan and advised them that any All three doses are necessary for complete protection. Taking one dose and request for tourist information or plans skipping the other two, or taking two and skipping the third one doesn't give for organizing similar caravans to Panama should be addressed to: you complete protection. Instituto Panamefno de Turismo, Box So don't gamble. Shoot for three in the oral polio vaccine program. All it 4421, Panama, Republic of Panama, or r to Wendell P. Colton Division, Wesley rluires is eating three cubes (made of sugar, not ivory), and what couhl be Associates, Inc., 630 Fifth Avenun, easier than that? Play the game of health with three as your point-and have New York 20, N.Y. complete protection. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23

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Bremen at Cristobal Ti N T N Easter Cruise THE FIFTH IN a line of famous \ THE HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE'S ocean liners of the same name, the Rotterdam is due to transit the Canal North German Lloyd's 32,335-gross-ton northbound April 9 on her way back to Bremen, is shown tied up at a pier in i New York following an 80-day roundCristobal during a recent visit to the the-world cruise. She is reported to have Canal as a part of a cruise to the Caribon board a number of passengers from bean. Members of the crew can be seen the U.S. west coast who are travelling taking advantage of the sunny dry to Europe on the ship with a stop in season Isthmian weather to paint the New York to view the annual Easter ship's side and lower the lifeboats for 1 Parade. full overhaul and painting. On her way to the Canal, the RotterThis Bremen is the former French dam will call at Acapulco. In New York, liner Pasteur, built in St. Nazaire in I she will (lock for 3 days before sailing 1938 and used during the war as a m .for Europe. Passengers may use the troop transport. She was purchased in frErp.Psegr a s h 19 7 bp r N orth eran L ad an ship as a floating hotel during the New 1957 byNorth German Lloyd ,n York stay. completely refitted for the North Atlantic trade and winter cruises. On her regular run she can carry 1,127 passenHorses-Horses gers in first and tourist classes, but on NOT LONG AGO 11 horses went cruises the ship can accommodate 700. through the Canal as passengers aboard Her public rooms are completely air the Gulf & South American Steamship conditioned. According to her agents, ~ Company's Gulf Merchant. It is not the Continental Shipping Co., this War II came through the Canal on a unusual to find horses listed as part of Bremen has been visiting the Canal on cruise in February 1939 and still holds a ship's cargo but these were Chilean winter cruises since 1960. the record as the largest passenger vessel race horses worth $20,000 each. AccordThe most famous of the five North to transit. She had a registered gross ing to an item in the Port of Mobile German Lloyd's Brenns, lost in World tonnage of 51,730 tons, was 898.7 feet News, the valuable animals arrived in length and had a beam of 102 feet. in Mobile safe and sound and were Painters at work near bow; lifeboat lowered She was built in 1929. The first Bremen delivered to N. B. Hunt, the son of a to dock level for overhaul, painting. went into service between Germany and prominent Texas oilman. Ten of them the United States in 1858, the second were brood mares: the 11th, Miss in 1897, and the third in 1922. Therese, will race as a 4-year-old. The Gulf Merchant, represented Frozen Cargo Ship here by Panama Agencies,' is one of a THE SHAW SAVILL LINE'S newest fleet of merchant ships plying between motor liner, the Megantic, is a glutton west coast South American ports and when it comes to carrying chilled and the gulf area. frozen cargo. The sleek new freighter, which returned to England early in France Has Birthday March on the last leg of her maiden voyage to New Zealand, had most THE LUXURIOUS French liner of her 665,000 cubic feet of cargo France, which docked in Cristobal space filled with New Zealand prodMarch 25, recently completed its first ucts. Eighty-five percent of cargo year of operation. The vessel went into accommodations is insulated. active service in the North Atlantic in -All holds and upper and lower teenn February 1962 and since then has made decks are arranged for frozen cargo. 44 crossings, one cruise to the Canary Wing compartments are intended for Islands, and two to the West Indies. carrying chilled meat. Two deep tanks The French Line reported that during at the forward end of the No. 4 hold the year the ship carried more than are suitable for edible oils. The ship 65,000 passengers, and sailed 158,000 will make regular trips through the miles. With a length of 1,033 feet, the Canal in the future, according to vessel is the world's longest. She was W. Andrews & Co., agents for the docked at Pier 9 in Cristobal during line here. this first visit to the Canal. 24 APRIL 5, 1963

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s

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Date Due Due Returned Due Returned "IT 03r ________ __________ L ____

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LATIN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 04820 4829