Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1960
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
UF00097366_00016 ( sobekcm )
23584335 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
HE2830.P2 P3 ( lcc )
386/.445 ( ddc )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text


















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES



















Digitized by the Internet Archive


University


in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/detaiIs/panamacanalrevie137pana







PANAMA N CANAL


IN THIS ISSUE
Carnival!


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ROBERT J. FLEMING, JR., Governor-President
W. P. LEBER, Lieutenant Governor


Panar


PANAMAi;~~


FRANK A. BALDWIN Oficial Panama Canal Publication Editorial Assistants
ma Canal Information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. EUNC RICHARD, TOBI BITrEL, and TOMAS A. CUPAS
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z.
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.


pff
5r


Index


Carnival!_


3


Javier Fair--


4


"Sweeping" the Canal ----------_

Successful Suggesters_------ ______

Honor for Professors -----------


The Inter-American Highway -


W/ho?. Ie? .


Promotions and Transfers


Canal History


OF COURSE I'm going to the Carnival. Isn't everyone?
Carnival merrymakers probably could get along
without me and my kind, but it wouldn't be the same.
We're the spirit and symbols of gaiety, music, song,
and laughter, serpentine-wrapped and confetti-sprinkled.
Carnival, Mardi Gras, Saturnalia, Fasching, Fastnacht
S. .by whatever name such celebrations are known, they
date back to earliest history, are found in all civilizations,
all cultures. For centuries and centuries they've been
annual events to free mankind from cares of daily chores,
open avenues of mirth, mummery, dancing, singing.
Illusion becomes reality, dreams materialize, sorrow,
and worries are forbidden. Through King Momo in
Panama there reign 4 days dedicated to fuller enjoyment
of life. 1 tIglikhr, and, we're told, even some kisses.
The days of Carnival are historically for relief from
the workaday world's weights so all may return to
normal duties with renewed vigor, refreshed hope, and
rebalanced perspective.


Anniversaries --------

Canal Traffic, Transits, Trade -


Shipping


13


-14


- 16


ABOUT OUR FRONT COVER: Its water, he's perched
on an outrigger, and he has a line-but that isn't a new
type lure on it. It's a gadget devised to double check on
sonar devices used to inspect the bottom of the Canal
channel, electronically, for "lumps" or obstructions.
Manning the line is John Flynn, member of the technical
crew of the motor launch Shad of the Surveys Branch.
For more information on their work, see page 5.


FEBRUARY 1, 1963


8


S10


JOSEPH CONNOR, Acting Press Officer
Publications Editors
ROBERT D. KERR and JULIO E. BRICENO







C





A





R





n


IT'S CARNIVAL time in Panama once
again, and polleras and montunos, cos-
tumes and floats are being readied for
the festivities which this year start
Saturday, February 23, and close at
dawn Ash Wednesday, February 27.
While the Carnival celebration is
scheduled for the latter part of Feb-
ruary, the traditional music of Carnival
has been heard in Panama and in the
Canal Zone since the first days of
January. The first Carnival flag was
raised in Panama City on January 5 and
in the Canal Zone on January 9.
The Canal Zone Atlantic side Carnival
flag raising took place January 26, in
Margarita.
The Paraiso and Santa Cruz com-
munities raised the 1963 Carnival flag


People, people, people .


V


January 18, the first ceremony taking
place in Paraiso, followed by the Santa
Cruz flag raising.
In Rainbow City, the Carnival flag
went up on January 26.
An unusual note was introduced in
the Carnival flag raising ceremony at
Palo Seco Leprosarium on January 18.
The two queens who officiated are
mother and daughter. The 1962 Palo
Seco Carnival Queen, Angela Calder6n,
is the mother of the 1963 Palo Seco
Carnival Queen, Zenaida Avila.
Throughout January beautiful candi-
dates for Carnival Queen competed
for the coveted crown to be worn by
the representative of each respective
community and each social center.
Coronation Day for the Pacific Side


Colorfully bedecked floats bedecked with beauties, too.

*


&%4^ ''^


. testimonial to measures of merriment.


A L

Canal Zone Carnival Queen will be
February 15 and a Coronation Ball will
be held at the Tivoli Guest House on
February 21.
The Atlantic side Carnival Queen will
be crowned on Washington's Birthday,
February 22, at the Breakers Club, and
the Coronation Ball will follow the
ceremony.
Saturday, February 23, will be a busy
day for the Panama City Queen, whose
coronation will take place in the Olym-
pic Stadium, Panama City. During the
day, she will receive an official greeting
from Panama's Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and will be received in audience
by the President of the Republic of
Panama. The Pacific Side Canal Zone
Carnival Queen, the Queen of the
Chinese colony in Panama, and other
Queens will be received by Panama's
President at the same time.
Immediately afterward, Panama City's
Mayor will present the Queens the
"Keys to the City of Panama."
The night will be filled with music
and gaiety, with dances in all the hotels,
and social centers, in the open air dance
pavilions, and in clubs.
Traditional Pollera Day will be
Sunday, February 24, when the Pacific
Side Carnival Queen, accompanied by
King Momo and all the court, will
parade through the Canal Zone and
Panama, up to the Panama Golf Club,
where a dance will be held, attended
also by all the other Carnival Queens
and their courts.
The Carnival Classic is scheduled to
(See p. 4)






Carnival
(Continued from p. 3)
be held at the Rem6n Race Track in
Panama City Sunday afternoon. All the
Carnival Queens will be honored.
All during Sunday afternoon un-
official parades will be held on the
streets and roads of Panama City, with
groups dressed in Panama's pollera and
montuno winding in and out in a gay
kaleidoscopic scene of color and gaiety.
Pollera Day's events will close with a
dance at the Panama Architects' and
Engineers' Center.
Carnival Monday will be sprinkled
with confetti and looped with serpen-
tine from the "battles" by Carnival
merrymakers up and down Central
and other streets of Panama City.
The Canal Zone Queen on the Pacific
Side will make a tour of her domain
that evening, visiting clubs, hotels, and
social centers, impartially spreading the
music and color of Carnival through
civilian and military communities. She
also x ill attend the Carnival masque-
rade ball at the Panama Hilton Hotel,
where the Panama City Queen will
receive visiting royalty. The Canal Zone
Pacific Side Queen will be joined there
by the Chinese Colony Queen, and other
reigning beauties of the 1963 Carnival.
The climax of Carnival in Panama,
the most important day of all, is Car-
nival Tuesday, when the traditional
parade of floats is held in the afternoon.
Each Carnival Queen and her court
will ride on a gaily decorated float. The
Queens' bands of musicians and march-
ing bands will fill the air with melody,
while the groups of masqueraders will
compete for the prizes offered for the
most original, gayest, and noisiest.
The ascending note of gaiety reaches
a climax in the early hours of Ash Wed-
nesday mor "when it's so late it almost
seems early." The dance music changes
into a funeral march. Pallbearers carry
tiny coffins, in each of which lies a fish,
at the head of a candlelighted parade
that winds through the city's streets.
Now and then recalcitrant merrymakers
may burst into gaiety, but the majority,
bearing lighted candles, pretend to
weep at the sad end of Carnival,
although certain that it will be reborn
once again in another 11 months.
When the rosy fingers of dawn sweep
back the curtains of night, the merry-
makers abandon their masquerade,
dress once more in their everyday cos-
tumes and once again appear as serious
persons.
The rlli'.ii, go to church, before
taking up their everyday affairs, and
another Panama Carnival becomes a
] ..' in history.


Governor Fleming chats with the Reverend Juan D. Iriarte, center, Director of Colegio
Javier, and the Reverend Jesuis Hergueta, principal of the primary school, during last
year's Javier Fair.



Javier Fair Feb. 2-10


APPROXIMATELY 50,000 persons are
expected to visit the Javier Fair,
6th annual commercial, industrial, and
electrical exposition, to open at 7 p.m.,
Saturday, February 2, at the Colegio
Javier, Panama City.
Panama's Minister of Agriculture,
Commerce, and Industry, Dr. Felipe
Juan Escobar, will officially open the
Fair, which will continue through
February 10.
A number of Zonians will be among
those attending and the Panama Canal
will participate officially, having re-
served space in front of the swimming
pool and at the very entrance to the
school building.
About 50 local industries and com-
mercial concerns are taking part in this
year's Fair, and Colegio Javier students
will have displays of their own crafts
work and animals stuffed and mounted
by biology students.
February 3 will be "Friendship Day"
at the Fair in honor of the Canal Zone.
The Panama Canal exhibit stall will
feature a Selectrovision display, pictures
of Canal operations and points of in-
terest, models, and organ music by
Frank Azc~rraga, a member of the Canal
Zone Guide Service and well-known
Panamanian performer.
There will be a change of Fair
piogr im every night. President Roberto


F. Chiari will declare the Fair closed
on the final day and Canal Zone Gov-
ernor Fleming is among the dignitaries
invited to attend the exposition.
The Fair hours will be 4 p.m. until
midnight daily. Admission is 15 cents,
with a $1 ticket also available and valid
for all 9 days of the exposition.
Fair days themes are:
February 2-Typical Motif Day,
honoring the Minister of Agriculture,
Commerce, and Industry of Panama.
February 3-Friendship Day, honor-
ing the Canal Zone.
February 4-Panama City High
Schools' Day.
February 5-Jewish Night.
February 6-Spanish Night.
February 7-Gala Night.
February 8-Chinese Night.
February 9-Carnival Junta's Night.
February 10-Fair Closing Night.
Entertainment will include Spanish
dances, folk dancing, Jewish dances,
and a horse show by Fort Kobbe riders.
Colegio Javier is a Jesuit school for
boys, kindergarten through high school,
with an enrollment near 1,000. The Fair
is being held to raise funds with which
to complete construction of a $200,000
-\mr and a $150,000 church for the
school. Graduates from the school
receive diplomas as bachelor of science,
letters, and philosophy.


FEBRUARY 1, 1963

















All set, after only 5 minutes of preparation, and ready to go. The survey boat Shad prepares
to leave the dock in the early pre-dawn on its way to patrol the Canal channel bottom
between Gamboa and Pedro Miguel.


Before the Shad moves away from the dock
in Gamboa, an electronic "fish" is moved
out into place at the end of the outrigger.
A similar device is directly underneath the
boat and a third one on an outrigger on
the other side of the boat. With outriggers
spread, the sonar devices "sweep" a 40-foot
path. All three are 2 feet under the water
surface. The pointed object at bottom of
picture is one of the submerged "fish."






0











-
I'





I -






Armando de Sedda, foreground, and Ray-
mond Kielhofer, two of the trained cartog-
raphers aboard the survey boat Shad, check
recorder charts showing depth of the Canal
bottom.


'Sweeping

ANY MORNING at the crack of dawn,
early birds, worms, and any others in
the vicinity of Caillard Cut are likely
to find the Panama Canal motor launch
Shad making a patrol of this narrow part
of the Canal.
Festooned with red lights and decked
with red flags, the Shad moves up the
channel like a bloodhound following a
trail. It sniffs cautiously along the
channel centerline at about 8 knots, and
in sections where dredges have been at
work during the night, the launch circles
back, crosses the centerline, checks any
questionable area of the channel and
moves on.
A group of serious men bend over a
battery of electronic machines as the
craft proceeds down the Cut from
Gamboa to Pedro Miguel. Two out-
rigger devices extend from port and star-
board, thus accurately covering a width
of 40 feet, and a gasoline-operated gen-
erator, providing power for the delicate
machines, chugs away at the stern.
The men aboard the U.S.S. Shad are
not out fishing-nor are they looking for
gold. They are employees of the Hydro-
graphic Section of the Panama Canal
Surveys Branch checking the bottom of
Gaillard Cut for obstacles, "lumps," or
any other obstructions which might be
a hazard for shipping.
The "lumps" may simply be small
heaps of silt kicked up by deep draft
ships' propellor action. Or they could
be rock upheavals or drop-ins.
The dawn patrol is a daily operation
carried out by Canal engineers and
the Marine Bureau to provide the
safest possible conditions through the
waterway for world shipping.
The morning investigation with elec-
tronic devices was started early in the
1940's under supervision of the Chief
of the Hydrographic Section.


'The Canal

In former years, when few ships
passed through the Cut at night and
before extensive work of Cut widening
started, the task of checking the Canal
channel for obstructions was done with
a simple pipe drag at a known depth
if inspection of the banks indicated that
there had been some movement during
the night.
With the beginning of Cut widening
and the marked drop in lake level
because of increased ship traffic and
reduced water supply during the dry
season, the problem of obstructions in
the Cut became more serious.
The daily patrol now is conducted
with a launch fitted with three trans-
ducers or sonar devices, called "fish,"
which extend 2 feet below the water
surface and send electronic signals on
depth of the channel back to three
recorders installed inside the launch.
Each recorder is operated by a tech-
nician who watches it closely. Any
lumps rising above the safe depth of
42 feet below the surface are reported
immediately to the Dredging Division.
Accuracy of the work requires close
cycle control on power generation, con-
trolled to not more that two tenths of
a cycle variation from the 60 cycles
required.
One morning recently, when lake
level was slightly below 87 feet, the
highest lump encountered was 45 feet
below the water surface.
When an area needing immediate
attention is discovered, an emergency
call is made to the Dredging Division,
Port Captains at Cristobal and Balboa
are alerted, and reports made to the
Marine Director and Director of
Engineering and Construction.
The Dredging Division goes into
action first with a dredge to remove
(See p. 11)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW














SUCCESSFUL






SUGGESTERS


Annual recognition for the top award under the Panama Canal
Incentive Awards Program for 1962 brought gold watches to three
men, supplementing cash awards. Gov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr.,
is shown presenting the watches to (left to right): Cyrus W. Field,
Owen J. Corrigan, and Ray M. Smith.


SHARING top honors in the 1962
Panama Canal Incentive Awards Pro-
gram were three Industrial Division
employees: Cyrus W. Field, Ray M.
Smith, and Owen J. Corrigan. They
received $260 each for devising a new
and more economical procedure for
fabrication of 28-inch pontoon pipes,
adoption of the suggestion resulting in
estimated average annual savings of
$23,633.
Besides the savings, technical im-
provement and increase of productivity,
side effects were generated improving
Industrial Division shop efficiency and
thereby providing craftsmen for other
requirements.
Other top 1962 suggesters were:
Roy R. Burgener, Electrical Division,
with a $375 supplemental award for
conversion of microwave impulse re-
peaters for telephone circuits;
Vincent Biava, Dredging Division,
$250, for a new method for recondi-
tioning countershafts and bearings on
the dipper dredges;
Herman H. Keepers, Dredging Divi-
sion, $225. for a way to remachine and
adapt acetylene gas sun switches to
electrical operation.
These three ideas, besides netting the
suggesters extra folding money, repre-
sent an estimated total savings of
$15,000 per year in Canal operations.
In all, there were 57 incentive award
winners in 1962. Their ideas on new and
improved methods, product betterment
and savings in manpower, material and
time, and reduction of safety hazards
brought them more than $3,200 and are


expected to improve the Canal opera-
tion's financial status by more than
$52,000 a year.
Eighteen of the incentive awards
winners were Marine Bureau employees,
10 from the Engineering and Construc-
tion Bureau and 5 or more each from
the Civil Affairs Bureau, Supply and
Community Service Bureau, Health
Bureau and staff units.
"If each individual uses his imagina-
tion in a search for improvements, we
will draw on vast resources that will
bring fresh water to the well of prog-
ress," declared President John F. Ken-
nedy in a recent statement on vital
values in suggestion systems.
"To maintain our forward pace," he
said, "it is imperative that we have a
steady flow of constructive ideas di-
rected at all of our problems, large and
small, ranging from those needing the
attention of scholars and experts to those
needing the day-to-day knowledge of
the man on the job."
Here, scholars, experts, and men and
women on the job, were the other 1962
PanCanal incentive awards winners:
MARINE BUREAU
(Director's Office)
Ethel W. Brown, $25, Weekly flier for dry
cleaning.
Navigation Division
Richard A. McClean and William T. Lyons,
$25 each, Radio telephone handset
button guards.
John Chandler, Jr., $15, Messenger bags
for launches.
Frank V. Kerley, $15, Thatcher Ferry
Bridge ceremony.


Russell A. Weade, 235, Lights on Las
Cruces dock.
Locks Division
Frank R. Costanzo, S2'. Uniform clothing
for Canal seaman and Locks Division
helpers.
Paul Badonsky, $15, Handbag hooks on
cafeteria tables.
John M. Klasovsky, $50, Cathodic Protec-
tion for miter gates.
John M. Klasovsky and C. V. Scheidegg,
$15 each, Locks divers safety.
Raymond L. Whitney, $15, Safety for
visitors at Miraflores Locks.
Everett White, $15, Uniform headgear.
Carlos Melhndez and Eliot J. Brathwaite,
$12.50 each, Fire extinguishers on locks
locomotives.
Raymond J. Dixon, $15, Phone number
index.
Industrial Division
Earl R. Boland, $25, Bulkhead sheathing.
Henry Heppenheimer and Richard F. Pen-
nington, $40 each, Redesign of welder.
Thomas V. Frost, $45, Improved balancing
machine.
Carl H. Starke, $125, 28-inch dredge pipe.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
(Director's Office)
Russell T. Wise, $25, Littering highways.
Contract and Inspection Division
Shirley Finlason, $125, Routine letters to
contractors.
Electrical Division
Delmas A. Swafford, $25, Littering high-
ways.
Maintenance Division
Owen W. Smith and George P. Fullman,
$15 each, Safety switch.
John W. Acker, $25, Abrasive wheels.


FEBRUARY 1, 1963


f

1-






Roderick N. Macdonald, $15, Nonskid
material for ladders.
De Leon Tschumy and William I. Hollo-
well, $40 each, floculator drive chain and
sprocket.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Fire Division
Calvin Shepherd, $20, Emergency light.
Library-Museum
Evelyn H. Howell, $15, Pencil stubs.
Police Division
Russell E. Oberholtzer, $25, School bus
recognition.
Anthony Malagutti, $20, Traffic regulations.
Morris E. Cherry, $15, Water.
John Kozar, $25, Sanitary protection for
policemen.
Postal Division
Joseph L. Sestito, $20, Box rent cards.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Supply Division
Cyrus A. Morris, $15 each, Improvement
of IBM room and substitution on form.
Warren D. Marquard, $100, Stock control.
Ashton D. Worrell, $15, Unloading ramp.
Eugene A. Johnson, $15, Accident protec-
tion.
George E. Shoemaker, $15, Self-checking
numbers.
HEALTH BUREAU
Gorgas Hospital
Margaret C. Yerkes, $25, Littering high-
ways.
Coco Solo Hospital
Alfredo Archibald, $20, Glo-colored vest.
Fred L. Workman, $25, Anti-panic lights
in elevators.
Earl L. McClean, $15, Bags.
Luis E. Wong, $25, Gamboa dispensary.
STAFF UNITS
Mabelle B. Walker, Administrative Branch,
$15, Decals of Canal Zone seal.
Joyce H. Boatwright, Executive Planning,
$15, Cafeteria conveniences.
Maria Hernindez, Office of the Governor,
$15, Pictures of governors in rotunda.
Eloise Smith, Office of the Secretary, $15,
Standard hole punching.
Henry M. Winter, Safety Branch, $15,
Soap tissues in first aid kits.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Railroad Division
Chris E. Haywood, $15, Gasoline station
hours.
Arthur B. Rigby, $15, Safety hazard at
Miraflores bridge.
Terminals Division
Joe R. Sanders, $25, Man overboard
ladders.
PERSONNEL BUREAU
(Director's Office)
Nina J. Jenkins, $20, Handling of national
emblem.
Carlos M. Garcia de Paredes, $15, Index to
new book titles.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
(Accounting Division)
Helen T. Kat, $20, Labor distribution.


I


"1





i

Faculty members of the Canal Zone Junior College pictured above are, front row, left to
right: Subert Turbyfill, Mrs. Mary Journeay, Dr. Dorothy Moody, Miss Margaret Gately,
and Kenneth Vinton; second row: Shephard Clark, Morris Finkelstein, Charles R. Bowen,
DeWitt Myers, Dr. Kenneth Lake, and Donald Musselman; back row: Dr. James Johnson,
Dr. Charles L. Latimer, Jr., Dean of the College, and Clarence Vosburgh. (Photo by
Scott Wellman.)




FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE FACULTY:




More Recognition


THE CANAL ZONE Junior College
has a distinction shared by only a
handful of colleges and universities:
Every full-time instructor has been
accepted for membership in the Amer-
ican Association of University Pro-
fessors. Few institutions share this
distinction, as requirements for AAUP
membership demand at least a mas-
ter's degree plus 3 years of teaching
experience at the college level.
The 100 percent acceptance is unique
evidence of the training of the faculty
members and also is recognition of the
high standards of selection for teachers
in the Canal Zone Junior College.
C.Z.J.C. has been accepted by the
American Association of Junior Colleges
since shortly after its establishment
almost 30 years ago. It was fully accred-
ited by the Middle States Association
of Colleges and Secondary Schools more
than 20 years ago. This latest honors
listing with the American Association of
University Professors stands as a third
type of recognition.
The association, a national ethical and
professional organization for teachers in


higher education, corresponds to the
American Medical Association for doc-
tors and to the American Bar Associa-
tion for lawyers. It is the recognized
national professional organization for
college teachers.
For some years a few of the faculty
members of the junior college have
been accepted as members of the
AAUP. Last March a Canal Zone
Chapter of the association was officially
launched when Lt. Gov. W. P. Leber
presented the charter from the national
organization. Officers of the Canal Zone
Chapter are: Mr. Turbyfill, president;
Mr. Bowen, vice president; and Miss
Gately, secretary.
The national association has head-
quarters in Washington, D.C. It is a
constituent member of the American
Council on Education and member of
the International Association of Univer-
sity Professors and Lecturers. Indepen-
dently and in cooperation with other
organizations, it has sought the formula-
tion, recognition, and observances of
principles and practices necessary to the
free quest for knowledge.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






1 "-? EVERY MONTH the Inter-American
^ > r^ Highway from Texas to the Canal moves
S 'o sa' w a notch nearer the goal: a hard-topped,
S, "' two-lane 3,142-mile road all the way
through Middle America.
Last fall, the U.S. Congress allocated
,' $32 million to be matched with $16
< I l 9 M million pledged by Guatemala, Nicara-
-A gua, Costa Rica, and Panama for com-
.. pYL 0* pleting some sections and paving others
.. rso to provide an all-weather road.
Year-round access already is an
accomplished fact. Some links are rough
and unpaved. Others are subject to
VED ROAD-CONRETE slides. Along some stretches vehicles
m mm IN coNSTRUCTI o travel by roads that will not be the
SIECT route of the finished highway.
SThe U.S. Bureau of Public Roads has
o. provided technical guidance for the
S, entire Inter-American project.
0 c/fOco One of the most troublesome links
put through in recent years was that in
Motorists entering Panama find a paved highway and beautiful new bridges from the Paso Costa Rica near the Panama border.
de Canoa frontier point to the town of Concepcion and on beyond the city of David in
Chiriqui Province. In the Puerto Escondido area, paving is under way, but traffic moves It required 44 modem bridges, includ-
daily. East of this vehicles must swing out to the scenic coast road which will be by-passed ing many with steel-truss spans. As late
when the shorter, official route is finished. At Santiago, concrete starts again, stretches as last May, motorists had to ford 19
all the way to the Canal. rivers. Now all streams are bridged,
either temporarily or permanently. But
an incomplete approach to one bridge
still requires a shallow ford.
Cars from Mexico, Canada, and Cali-

A Profile:



INTER-AMERICAN HIGHWAY


Travelers pause under the fresh-cut scaffolding providing temporary support for one of
the big new concrete-piered bridges in Costa Rica. fornia-to-Vermont have been rolling into
Panama from Costa Rica. They visit
tourist sites in the Interior and the
terminal cities, and on the Canal
Zone. Some motorists head straight for
Miraflores Locks on arrival.
Many Canal people already have
driven over all of the road or parts of
it, and others plan to do so.
Since 1937, when the "Road to the
States" became a committed project,
Canal employees have been among the
highway's pioneers at road-rut level,
and enthusiastic boosters in the United
States and elsewhere.
The Canal itself has lent encourage-
ment and informal aid to the venture.
Another Zone-based agency has con-
tributed steadily to the physical layout
of the highway. This is the Inter-
American Geodetic Survey, which has
headquarters at Fort Clayton. It is
attached to the U.S. Army Caribbean.
IAGS has made its mapping skills
available when called on to provide
Tn ,.terrain data often useful in the selection


FEBRUARY 1, 1963






of detailed routes, for bridges or road
grades.
Here's a profile on what the highway
is like today:
Of Panama's 321-mile stretch from
the capital city to Costa Rica, some 205
miles are paved with concrete. The
paved links on the eastern end are from
Panama City to Santiago, and on the
western end from the Costa Rican
border to a point in the Puerto Escon-
dido area (see map). This leaves, in
the central provinces, somewhat more
than 100 miles of rough-surfaced road
requiring slow vehicle speeds.
Part of the jiggly and often dusty
going follows the route of eventual
paving, but most of it lies along the
winding coastal route of the old National
Highway. This sector now has some
dramatically beautiful lookout points
toward mountains and sea. It will
become a secondary road when the new
and shorter route is built.
Some 28 miles of the new alinement
are neither under construction nor con-
tract. The United States commitment
made last fall included $7.2 million in
matching funds for building this, and
for paving another 35 miles now par-
tially constructed, but not open to
traffic, between Santiago and El Pajal.
The basic United States agreement
with the Central American countries and
Panama was to provide two-thirds of
the cost of a hard-surfaced (black-
topped) road.
In Costa Rica, surfacing with asphalt
will be done on more than 150 miles of
the that country's 410-mile link. About
206 miles already are paved. On the
17-mile section that rises to cross the
12,000-foot pass between San Isidro
General and Cartago, widening and
realinement are necessary, also removal
of slide areas, and stabilization of road-
bed. The United States allotment for
this work is $13.8 million.
In Nicaragua, only a final 28-mile
section remains to be paved of the total
238 miles. United States funds of
$1 million are earmarked.
In Honduras, the entire 97-mile link
is paved. The same is true of El
Salvador's 126 miles of highway.
In Guatemala, some $8.2 million of
the United States allocation will be
spent for 170 miles of roadwork. Most
of this will go into the 95 miles between
the Mexican border and San Cristobal.
In the past, this sector often has been
closed by slides. Work will involve
removing these, building revetments,
base construction, widening, and
eventual paving. Currently some 158
miles of Guatemala's 313-mile road are
paved.


11 0. .i .I .

k f' ILF I 'i I 4 I A

0-



..
M.. ... .


Spanning the Rio Chiriqui Viejo is this new 4-span structure which is one of the first
bridges crossed by tourists who enter Panama from Costa Rica.


Mexico has built all of her road
without foreign aid. Only some 60 miles
of the total 1,587-mile stretch between
Guatemala and Laredo, Tex., are not
black-topped or concrete.
Hotels, pensions, or motels are ade-
quate or better throughout Mexico
and in capital cities along the route.
Motorists are cautioned not to try to
make the trip too fast. And regardless
of maps, it is wise to check on local
conditions with the tourist commission
in each country visited-before any trip.
To the east of the Canal lies the last
uncut area dividing the road systems of
North and South America. This is the
Darien Gap in eastern Panama and
western Colombia, through which no
traffic can pass.
The United States has appropriated
$2 million of the $3 million cost of a
detailed engineering survey on which


the route most desirable for such a road
may be based, and to determine cost es-
timates. Preliminary studies reportedly
are to start this year.
No funds have been appropriated to
build roadways to span this approxima-
tely 450-mile gap through mountains
and river-slashed jungles. At rough pre-
liminary estimate, $100 million would
be required to do so.
To underline the usability of the
Inter-American Highway from the
Canal to the continental United States,
it is planned to assemble a bus motor-
cade in Panama in mid-April to trans-
port officials, businessmen, and others
along the road as far as Mexico City.
From there, the group is expected to
travel by plane to Detroit, New York,
and other centers before going to Wash-
ington for the ninth Pan American Road
Congress.


In good weather the Rio Corredo, in Costa Rica not far from the Panama border, is shallow
enough to be forded. But a year-round all weather crossing for the Inter-American Highway
required a steel-truss structure on foundations sturdy enough to withstand the freshets
that sweep down from the Talamanca Range.



~-LLI31.

1 ~ c- I*


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


:G
\I. "iJYk


,k *








PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS


EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between December 5 and January 5 are
listed here. Within-grade promotions
and job reclassifications are not listed.

ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Mercedes T. Palomeras, Clerk-Stenog-
rapher, from Balboa Bridge Project.
Stephen W. Thorne, Title Printer to Leader
(Printing).
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Police Division
Henry C. DeRaps, Police Sergeant, Class 3,
to Police Sergeant, Class 4.
Emmett A. Collins, Police Private to Police
Sergeant, Class 3.
Division of Schools
Lucile G. Feeney, Substitute Teacher to
Elementary and Secondary School
Teacher.
Wilfred G. Earle, Leader Heavy Laborer
to Leader Maintenanceman.
Stanley M. Hawkins, Roy Fleming, Leader
Laborer Cleaner to Lead Foreman
Laborer Cleaner.
NicolAs Barria, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Electrical Division
John B. Corliss, Jr., Electrician to Test
Operator-Foreman (Electrical Power
System).
Jose Dixon, Utility Worker, Supply Divi-
sion, to Helper Electrician.
Dredging Division
Scott J. McKay, Chief Engineer, Towboat
or Ferry, Navigation Division, to Chief
Engineer, Towboat.
Jesse De W. Tate, General Foreman Elec-
trician to Chief Foreman (Electrical
N.\ icrtion Aids).
Howard Green, Leader Navigational Aid
Maintenanceman to Leader Maintenance-
man (Distribution Systems).
LeRoy A. Cooper, Edmond C. Elliot, Clerk-
Typist to Supervisory Timekeeper.
Anderson G. Dow, Clerk to Procurement
Clerk.
Oscar S. Green, Clerk to Property Record
Clerk.
Sidney A. Richards, Harold G. Walkes,
Clerk-Typist to Timekeeper.
Everton R. Archbold, Bertram M. Ramsey,
Homer E. Welsh, Clerk to Timekeeper.
Rudolph A. Richards, Clerk to Launch
Dispatcher.
Luis G. Fields, Leader (General) to Leader
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems).
Victoriano Carri6n, Navigational Aid
Worker to Maintenanceman Distribution
Systems.
Maintenance Division
Agustin Carrera, Cement Finisher (Lim-
ited), Locks Division, to Cement Finisher.
Aureliano Bejarano, Heavy Laborer to
Pipelayer.
Dionisio Navas, Laborer Cleaner to Heavy
Laborer.


HEALTH BUREAU
Dr. Edward W. Healey, Hospital Resident
(2d Year), Gorgas Hospital, to Medical
Officer (General Medicine and Surgery),
Coco Solo Hospital.
Elizabeth M. Hayden, Staff Nurse (Medi-
cine and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital, to
Head Nurse (Psychiatry), Corozal Hos-
pital.
Edward T. A. Sterrett, Laborer Cleaner,
Electrical Division, to Nursing Assistant
(Leprosy), Palo Seco Leprosarium.
Andr6s Barria, Laborer (Heavy-Pest Con-
trol), Division of Sanitation, to Animal
Caretaker, Division of Veterinary Medi-
cine.
Jorge Torres, Hospital Attendant to Ward
Service Aid, Gorgas Hospital.
MARINE BUREAU
Navigation Division
Andrew Stohrer, Pilot to Senior Assistant
Captain of the Port.
Kenneth S. Roscoe, Richard C. Sergeant,
Pilot to Assistant Captain of the Port.
Preston M. Trim, Jr., Marine Traffic Con-
troller to Supervisory Marine Traffic
Controller.
Carlos L. Irumluig, Seaman, from Dredg-
ing Division.
Dixie P. Bender, Towing Locomotive Oper-
ator to Lock Operator (Iron Worker-
Welder).
George N. Stone, Machinist to Lock Oper-
ator (Machinist).
Bernardino Berrio, Andres Bonilla, Luis A.
De Lo Rios, Melanio Moreno, Painter
(Maintenance) to Painter.
Carlos Ortega, Asphalt or Cement Worker
to Cement Finisher (Limited).
Humberto B. Stelle, Laborer Cleaner, Divi-
sion of Schools, to Line Handler.
Vincent A. Williams, Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Line Handler.
Industrial Division
Nathaniel A. Daley, Foundry Chipper to
Melter.
Alfred Braithwaite, Laborer Cleaner to
Laborer.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Diamantina E. Davis, Office Machine Oper-
ator to Bookkeeping Machine Operator,
Accounting Division.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Supply Division
Clarence W. Kilbey, Service Center Assist-
ant Superintendent to Service Center
Superintendent.
Henry J. Chase, Administrative Officer to
Service Center Assistant Superintendent.
Rutherford P. Rivet, Jr., Guard, Locks Di-
vision, to Service Center Supervisor.
George A. Mercier, Restaurant Manager
(Caterer), to Graduate Intern (Business
Administration).
Francisco A. Bravo, Clerk to Accounting
Clerk.
Gertrude M. Patten, Clerk-Typist to Clerk.
Clifton O. Bailey, Messenger to Time-
keeper.
Frederick D. Simmons, Utility Worker to
Cash Clerk.
George M. Weeks, Heavy Laborer to Clerk.
Robert C. Husband, Heavy Laborer to
Messenger.


Stanford M. Clement, Stanley W. Simmons,
Heavy Laborer to Warehouseman.
Ralph E. Holder, High Lift Truck Operator
to Heavy Leader Laborer.
McVin L. Gibbs, Utility Worker to Truck
Driver.
Phil E. Rowland, Utility Worker to Mes-
senger.
Alvin Girdwood Utility Worker to Counter-
man.
Harold C. Blackman, Utility Worker to
Sales Clerk.
Beryl Wright, Counterwoman to Food
Service Sales Checker.
Thelma F. Ward, Counterwoman to Sales
Clerk.
Carlton Dawkins, Waiter to Heavy Laborer.
Byron Dixon, Waiter to Counterman.
Clifford A. Hinds, Bus Boy to Utility
Worker.
Community Services Division
Concepci6n Barrios, Albert E. Watson,
Lead Foreman (Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator) to Lead Foreman
(Grounds).
Darrington A. Moss, Heavy Laborer to
Lead Foreman (Grounds).
Remigio Sanjur, Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator to Animal Care-
taker.
Florentino Duarte, Gregorio SAnchez,
Laborer to Animal Caretaker.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
DIVISION
Terminals Division
Glendora A. Dorsey, Cargo Claims Clerk
to Cargo Claims Assistant.
Theodore L. Kaufer, Liquid Fuels Gager
to Leader Liquid Fuels Wharfman.
Joseph F. De Costa, Stevedore to Leader
Dock Stevedore.
Teodomiro Erique, Water Service Man to
Leader Line Handler.
Leonard Baldonado, Line Handler to Car-
penter (Maintenance).
Oscar Aguilar, Luis C. Mark, Line Handler
to Stevedore.
Alfonso S. Aribo, Ernest L. Reid, Line
Handler to Water Serviceman.
Aubrey 0. Hall, Vincent J Hall Julio Val-
verde, Dock Worker to Stevedore.
Celestino Ramirez, Dock Worker to Line
Handler.
Leonard Richard, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Cargo Marker.
Napoleon B. Ashby, Service Station Attend-
ant, Supply Division, to Cargo Marker.
Motor Transportation Division
Cleveland H. James, Motor Vehicle Dis-
patcher to Supervisory Motor Vehicle
Dispatcher.
Antonio Flores, Helper Tire Rebuilder to
Truck Driver.

OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
W. Allen Sanders, Whitney E. Smith, Gen-
eral Attorney, Office of General Counsel.
Lawrence Barca, Jr., General Engineer,
Locks Division.
Robert L. Rankin, Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.

10 FEBRUARY 1, 1963





Ethel W. Brown, Statistical Clerk (Stenog-
raphy), Office of the Director, Marine
Bureau.
Doris J. Clendenon, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Accounting Division.
Dudley G. Jones, Gardener (Management),
Community Services Division.
Elaine E. Heyd, Clerk-Typist, Coco Solo
Hospital.
Ruby C. Smart, Clerk-Typist, Division of
Schools.
Calvin Thompson, Clerk-Typist, Terminals
Division.
Virginia A. Peterson, Clerk-Typist, Com-
munity Services Division.
Stephanie Gordon, Clerk-Typist, Supply
Division.
Cynthia Forbes, Clerk-Typist, General
Manager's Office, Supply Division.
Ernesto M. Stewart, Clerk-Typist, Dredg-
ing Division.
Reno G. Patrick, Lifeguard, Division of
Schools.
Alejandro Gerald, Hector F. H. McCarthy,
Haten C. Springer, Timekeeper, Locks
Division.
Alvin L. Cameron, Edwin P. Carson, Carl
DaCosta, Alberto H. Dogue, Cecil J.
Dutton, Herman G. Edwards, William
H. Foster, Aurelio J. Llorach, Pablo E.
Ramos, Randolph F. Simmons, Time-
keeper, Terminals Division.
Facundo Villarreal, Surveying Aid, Engi-
neering Division.



HOW TO DEVELOP

THAT GOOD IDEA
1. Don't try too hard. Don't over-
reach, trying to develop ideas in
areas with which you're unfamiliar.
2. Concentrate on small sugges-
tions. Big ideas are fine, but there
just aren't as many of them. And
smaller awards can count up fast.
3. Don't assume that someone else
has already thought of your idea.
Someone has to be first. Why not
you?
4. Jot down half thought-out ideas,
even if only sketchy notes. Other-
wise you may forget. You can work
out details later.
5. Check out your suggestion
thoroughly, especially if it involves
more than your area. There may be
problems you aren't aware of.
6. Supervisors can help develop
ideas fully. You may have only an
inkling of the scope. Your supervisor
can point out all possibilities.
7. Let your imagination go when
developing ideas.
8. Don't be afraid to turn in ideas
that come out of informal group
discussions. You can share the award,
but turn in the ideal

THE PANAA CANAL REVIEW 11


Two members of the survey boat crew lower a 9-foot pipe drag used to test the nature of
any obstruction found. Devices are on board to procure samples of bottom if necessary.


Sweeping


'The Canal


(Continued from p. 5)


the lump. Meanwhile, the obstacle is
reported to pilots guiding ships through
the Canal, and, if necessary, it is marked
with a buoy.
During rainy season, when the level of
Gatun Lake remains high, the morning
patrol from Gamboa to Pedro Miguel
on the centerline usually is sufficient.
In the dry season, when the lake level
is lower, there may be as many as three
or four trips during the day or night
covering the sailing lines on each side
of the channel as well as the area under
the centerline.
Information obtained is telephoned to
the Marine Bureau before shipping
enters the locks, usually at 7 a.m. In
order that the Shad crew can be sure
the recorders report the correct informa-
tion, they are checked out at regular
intervals by means of a strange looking
crow's foot device (see page 1). This
flat metal instrument was developed to
determine the accurate depth recorded
by the transducers. It is lowered to
approximate bottom at a known depth.


If there is a discrepancy, an adjustment
is made.
After the regular daily survey is com-
pleted, the men aboard the Shad have
by no means completed their day's
work. They return to the Survey Branch
headquarters at Pedro Miguel and carry
on other routine duties.
The survey boat with its battery of
electronic instruments also is used on
a st.irdb,' basis when there is blasting
in the Cut or when it is necessary to
measure the depth of the bottom of
the channel in any other part of the
Canal.
Not long ago, the equipment-laden
Shad was taken to Balboa Harbor to
help determine the position of a sand
barge which sank after a collision with
an oil tanker.
The work being done by the Shad is
so important that another Dredging
Division launch is being fitted with
similar equipment and will be used
during busy times as a spare or in
conjunction with the Shad.








CANAL



HISTORY


50 yea c4go
EXCAVATION FOR THE Atlantic
approach to the Gatun Locks disclosed,
at about 150 feet beyond the lower end
of the locks proper, a sharp dip in the
rock on which the center guide wall was
to rest. It was decided to build the wall
200 feet shorter than was proposed in
the original plans.
Rail traffic problems were of concern
as work progressed on excavation at
the site of Miraflores spillway. In spite
of new trackage, there remained 1,050
feet of single track from the south end
of Miraflores tunnel to Corozal.
Scheduling became a problem, with
approximately 175 trains to pass over




RETIREMENTS

REFTIHRElENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of December to the
employees listed below, with their posi-
tions at the time of retirement and years
of Canal service:
Eduardo Blandon, Stevedore, Terminals
Division; 3 years, 20 days.
Joseph M. Cooke, Supervisory General En-
gineer, Engineering Division; 7 years,
8 months, 9 days.
Felipe M. Divila, Painter, Maintenance
Division; 32 years, 10 months, 16 days.
Ralph Dugan, Jr., Police Private, Police
Division; 16 years, 6 months, 18 days.
Burnett Garero, Heavy Truck Driver, Main-
tenance, Division; 22 years, 10 months,
2 days.
Alfred R. Graham, Staff Nurse, Medicine
and Surgery, Gorgas Hospital; 18 years,
6 months, 25 days.
Gerald J. Jerome, Leader, Heavy Labor,
Dr,:Ji;rit Division; 46 years, 2 months,
11 days.
Jose Johnson, Washman, Ancon Laundry;
22 years, 18 days.
Harold Palmer, Clerk Checker, Railroad
Division; 33 years, 2 months, 11 days.
Albert L. Pope, Inspector, Carman, Wood,
and Steel, Railroad Division; 17 years,
1 month, 23 days.
Rudolph W. Rubelli, Pilot, Navigation Di-
vision; 22 years, 6 months, 18 days.
Anthony M. Smith, Extractor and Tumbler-
man, Ancon Laundry; 25 years, 4 months,
12 days.
Paul S. Stewart, Police Private, Police Divi-
sion; 25 years, 7 months, 6 days.
Joseph C. Stokes, Carman, Wood and Steel,
Railroad Division; 9 years, 1 month,
25 days.
Jasper Wilmoth, Helper Marine Machinist,
Dredging Division; 21 years, 8 months,
10 days.


the single track in 10 hours, a rate of
1 in less than 4 minutes. About 80 of
these were dirt trains, the rest passenger
and freight trains.
A train 940 feet long, traveling at
10 miles an hour, took not less than
48 seconds to pass clear of the single
track span, and successive trains in the
same direction could not pass over, with
safe headway, faster than one a minute.

25 year o4go
CANAL ZONE and Panama residents
-2,000 strong-crowded the hangar line
at Albrook Field to witness the history-
making arrival of six new U.S. Army Air
Force B-17 bombers known as "Flying
Fortresses." Under the command of
Lt. Col. Robert Olds, the bombers
were on the last lap of a goodwill flight
to South America which had taken them
to Buenos Aires, Chile, and Peru. They
had made the flight from Lima to Pan-
ama in only 9 hours. The planes re-
mained here 2 days for inspection and
then continued their flight to the U.S.
west coast.
In Washington, D.C., Adm. William
DuBose, Chief of the Bureau of Naval
Construction, stated that the Panama
Canal could accommodate battleships
up to 60,000 tons, 980 feet in length and
108 feet in beam. He indicated that a
United States fleet powerful enough to
repel simultaneous attacks against both
coasts may be achieved in 7 or 8 years.
Bills providing for widows' annuities
and for 30-year optional retirement for
Panama Canal employees were intro-
duced into the House of Representatives.
In Panama, the Fourth Central Amer-
ican and Caribbean Olympic Games
were held in the newly constructed
Olympic Stadium.


10 year c4o
PRICE REDUCTIONS on approxima-
tely 100 food and household items, to
represent an aggregate savings of
$200,000 for customers of the Canal
commissaries during 6 months, were
announced. Egg prices were to be 3 and
4 cents lower per dozen and beef and
sausage products were 1 to 5 cents a
pound lower.
A merger of the Office of the Comp-
troller and the Finance Bureau of the
Canal organization, with two divisions
and four staff groups, was announced.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti, was made a
regular port of call for Panama Line
ships. No change was made on days of
arrival and departure from Cristobal,
but the ships left New York a day earlier
southbound and arrived there a day
later on northbound trips.

One year d4o
An appeal was made to residents of
the Canal Zone to conserve electrical
energy because of the unusually dry
weather and increasingly heavy de-
mands for water for lockages and power
generation. Water levels of Gatun and
Madden Lakes were dropping much
faster than desirable because of dry
weather in the upper river areas
supplying the basin.
The first six new Japanese-built locks
towing locomotives were delivered to
Catun Locks for tests. More than twice
as powerful as the old locomotives, they
also are faster, an important factor in
increasing the number of lockages
possible in a day.
Work on construction of 30 family
units, the first of 119 family quarters
scheduled for Canal Zone Pacific side
communities, was started in Los Rios
and Corozal.


Be Careful--Not a Statistic


-ACCIDENTST
FOR
THIS MONTH
AND
THIS YEAR


DECEMBER

ALL UNITS
YEAR TO DATE


QUIET
FIRST AID HOSPITAL I ,
ZONE
x^- -
DAYS
CASES CASES ABSENT
'62 '61 '62 '61 '62 '61
243 259 9 4 2148 410
2940 3547(699) 128 131(4) 11163 19233(9s)
() Locks Overhaul injuries included in total.


FEBRUARY 1, 1963








ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Carl W. Hoffmeyer
Clerk, Mail Handling
Unit
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Hubert C. A
Painter
Alfredo C. C
Paver
MARINE B U
Noble A. Phillips
Planner and Estimato
Christian S. Sk
Towing Lo m ator
Charles H. Ar n
Guard


OFFICE OF THE
COMPTROLLER
George T. Darnall, Jr.
Valuation Engineer, General
Wilmer L. Downing
Payroll Systems Officer
Richard W. Fuller
AMBwhe General Claims


TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Donald O. Zobel
Truck Driver


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Fitz A. Barnes
Photographic Laboratory
Technician
Crispin S. Mayers
Detention Guard
John H. West
Senior High Teacher, Latin
American Schools
Daniel Pineda
Laborer Cleaner

ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Leslie 0. Anderson
Supervisory Construction
Representative (General)
Marguerite Runck
Clerical Assistant, Typing
Robert H. Elliott
Launch Operator
Laureano Hidalgo
Boatman
Ernesto Pomare
Boiler Tender
Tomis Velisquez
Seaman

HEALTH BUREAU
Amy McFarlane
Formula Room Attendant
Emilio Rodriguez
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
and Surgery
Syble M. Taitt
Pantry Worker, Special Diets
Edna C. Tullis
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
and Surgery
Marquesa H. Francis
Cook

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


MARINE BUREAU
Everett White
Guard
Bernardino Berrio
Maintenance Painter
Joseph Butcher
Helper Lock Operator
Thomas Carr
Deckhand
Vernon A. Charles
Helper Machinist
Manuel Cobo
Boatman
Granville E. Downer
Deckhand Boatswain
Calixto Goliz
Ilper Lock a peor
sn hpC. t
ne an er t

ec can B atswain

elper Lok operator
rrington M s

a Morales
Helper Lock Operator
Jos6 M. Ozuna
Helper Lock Operator
Andrds Payin
Deckhand
Virgilio Portillo
Helper Lock Operator
Stanley Price
Deckhand
Leofanor Renterias
Launch Seaman
Jorge Urriola
Painter
Paul H. Zimmerman
Lead Foreman, Marine
Machinist


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Luis E. Ceballos
Service Center Supervisor
Martindale Coombs
Utility Worker
Doris I. Corbin
Baker
Maria D. Gil
Garment Presser
Hildred G. Gooden
Utility Worker
Enid E. Herbert
Utility Worker
Hubert G. Hunter
Laborer Cleaner
Clover Jamieson
Shirt Presser
Mary L. John
Counterwoman
Emily R. Malcolm
Retail Store Sales Checker
Ella Jean Maynard
Sales Section Head
Lucille McLeod
Counterwoman
Myrtle E. Monrose
Stock Control Clerk
Manuel T. Mosquera
Garbage Collector
Angela L. Price
Sales Clerk
Alberto Torres
Laborer Cleaner
Victor Valdes
Garbage Collector
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Herbert W. Rose
Engineer, Locomotive Yard
Alejandro Blanco
Truck Driver
Edgar C. Erskine
Cargo Checker






TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
Avg. No.
1963 1962 Transits
1951-55
United States intercoastal ---- ------------ 101 118 162
East coast of United States and South America --- 621 618 427
East coast of United States and Central America --- 112 88 143
East coast of United States and Far East -------- 531 621 257
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia ---- 81 68 55
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada.. 232 234 160
Europe and South America ------ ------------ 300 272 116
Europe and Australasia ------ -------------- 92 92 80
All other routes ---- _------------------- 683 653 374
Total traffic------- ------- 2,753 2,764 1,774

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal Years)
Gross Tolls *
MonTransits (In thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1963 1962 Transits 1963 1962 Tolls
1951-55 1951-55
July 1962- - 978 931 557 $4,980 $4,776 $2,432
August- ------ -- 950 934 554 4,926 4,749 2,403
September--_------ 909 892 570 4,617 4,523 2,431
October-- ------- 882 935 607 4,411 4,646 2,559
November- -- -- -- 924 891 568 4,684 4,443 2,361
December -------- 947 938 599 4,983 4,870 2,545
January 1963 ----- 580 2,444
February -__--- 559 2,349
March ----- 632 2,657
April___- __--- 608 2,588
May--- -- 629 2.672
June - - 599 2.52
Total for
6 months 5,590 5.521 3.455 $2S 601 28 K:n)17 $14,731
Fiscal year_ 11,149 7,062 I $57,290 $29,969
SBefore deduction of any operating expenses.

CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
1963 1962 1951-55
Nationality
Number Tons i Number Tons Average Average
of of of of number tons
transits cargo transits cargo transits of cargo
British- ---- 308 2,117,230 316 1,915,980 301 1,874,647
Chilean - 31 174,882 38 2SR 785 11 66,740
Chinese- -- 24 185,755 21 171 821 6 38,938
Colombian 63 91,331 69 110,841 38 46,028
Danish-- _- 72 397,934 84 372,067 58 213,240
Ecuadoran --.. 16 12,890 13 16,367 36 24,934
French -------.--- 37 189,364 33 236,800 33 147,569
German- ---_- 280 1,000,528 261 764,020 44 92,509
Greek- -- 122 1,180,611 197 1,828,709 26 219,932
Honduran .---.. 79 53,146 22 27,757 96 120,854
Israeli- -_ -- 26 57,516 18 103,985
Italian ------ 39 166,776 59 354,089 36 185,937
Japanese ----- 221 1,333,398 211 1,204,759 67 406,764
Liberian------ 192 1,653 114 208 1,688,347 43 260,602
Netherlands --- 169 586.,05 135 741,115 32 151,485
Nicaraguan _-- 16 1S. 58- i 6 4,648
Norwegian __- 366 2, 14,62 366 2,590,858 193 747,864
Panamanian___ 104 452,875 106 491,125 115 604,619
Peruvian------ 17 91,168 28 169,320 7 13,512
Philippine-.... 18 55 3; 21 109,732 5 28.
Swedish --__ 91 534 SF1i 85 440,441 43 175 551
United States -_ 419 2 22 577 426 2,560,797 539 3,225,627
All others..... 43 198,113 47 230,561 39 146,209
Total-- 375 1; 4.S.577 21.7 16.-41r 27 1.774 8.797 124


"United States" Returning
THE HUGE luxury liner United States
will make her second visit to the Canal
February 28 as part of a Caribbean
cruise. The big ship docked in Cristobal
last cruise season without any trouble
and spent the day while her hundreds
of passengers took tours of both sides
of the Isthmus. With her 990-foot
length, the United States takes up most
of one of the Cristobal piers.
Other cruise ships due here in Feb-
ruary are the Homeric of the Home Line
on February 10; the Hanseatic of the
Hamburg Atlantic Line on February 6
and 25; the Bremen of the North
German Line on February 28; and the
Stella Polaris on February 28.
The Canadian Pacific luxury liner
Empress of England arrived for a day's
visit in Cristobal yesterday. This was
the second trip to the Canal for the
Empress of England. The first was made
last year when she was on a Caribbean
cruise similar to the one she is making
this year.

New Shipping Service
WITH the inauguration of a new service
of the Columbus Line between Aus-
tralia and the eastern ports of the
United States, a number of new ships
will become regular Canal customers.
According to an announcement made in
New York, the Columbus Line will start
the new service with the sailing of the
Cap Vilano, a fast modern motor vessel,
from New York the middle of February.
The Cap Vilano % ill be followed by
the sailing of its sister ship, the Cap
Norte, 1 month later, followed by the
Cap Frio and then the Cap Blanco. With
these four vessels, the Columbus Line
will offer a monthly sailing.

Too Big For The Canal
A JAPANESE shipbuilding company
recently completed another tanker
which never will be able to transit the
Canal. It is the Nissho Maru, which was
launched last July and started her
maiden voyage to Kuwait in October.
With a deadweight tonnage of more
than 130,000 tons, the ship is the largest
oil tanker in the world and is considered
to be of the maximum possible size for
safe operation at existing terminals. She
is 954 feet long, has a beam of 141 feet,
a gross tonnage of 56,431, and despite
her size, can travel at 16 knots.

14 FEBRUARY 1, 1963






Automated Freighters
TWO OF THE world's most automated
cargo liners are making regular trips
through the Canal these days on speedy
voyages between Japan, the U.S. west
coast and New York. They are the
Kinkasan Maru and the Kasugasan
Maru, sister ships of the Mitsui Line.
The Kinkasan Maru was built last
year as the world's first automated cargo
liner of her size. The Kasugasan Maru,
which returned through the Canal in
December on the second leg of her
maiden voyage, has automation facilities
which have been developed on a far
wider scale. The ship has full automotive
facilities at all three major systems;
deck, engine, and electric, making it
possible to operate with a crew of fewer
than 35 men.
Both ships have been chopping time
off the run between Japan and New
York and have broken a few records for
this voyage. The United Fruit Co.,
which handles ships of this line, says
that they stop here for bunkers and
sometimes for cargo.

Liners To Be Converted
THE PASSENGER liners Himalaya and
Orcades of the P & O-Orient Lines will
be converted this year into one-class
vessels, according to reports from ship-
ping circles. The Himalaya will make
her first voyage after conversion in
November 1963 and the Orcades early
in 1964. Both passenger liners make
occasional trips through the Canal on
round-the-world voyages.



TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN DECEMBER
1962 1961
Commercial............... 947 938
U.S. Government.......... 40 8


Free. ....................


9 7


Total.............. 996 953

TOLLS
Commercial .... $4,984,677 $4,871,708
U.S. Government 194,245 28,487

Total.... $5,178,922 $4,900,195

CARGO"*
Commercial.... 5,422,391 5,901,604
U.S. Government 78,760 20,914
Free.......... 39,354 49,576

Total.... 5,540,505 5,972,094
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
**Cargo figures are in long tons.


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

Second Quarter, Fiscal Year
Avg. No
1963 1962 Transits.
_1951-55
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic
Commercial vessels:
Ocean-going - - - 1,439 1,314 2,753 2,764 1,774

Total commercial-- _--__ ... 1,484 1,357 2,841 2,892 2,041
U.S. Government vessels: *
Ocean-going - - 46 49 95 43 148
Small - - - 24 15 39 52 71
Total Government _---------- 70 64 134 95 219
Total commercial and U.S. Gov- =
ernment --_ ___ __ 1,554 1,421 2,975 2,987 2,260
"Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL

Pacific to Atlantic

(All cargo figures in long tons)

I Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963


Commodity


Ores, various -----__ _-- __ _- _--_-
Lumber ____________________--
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) --
Wheat- ----___________-___- ___
Sugar- -_----------------- ---___
Canned food products__- - -
Nitrate of soda_ __ _ _
Fishmeal --_ --- _______________
Bananas __------------------------
Metals, various ___--- -____ ______-
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit)------------------------
Coffee ------------_
Oilseeds and products --------
Iron and steel manufactures ____
Pulpwood and products ---_ _____
All others ___-- ___ ____
Total -


1963

1.q45 254
S7-5.65
575,719
113,073
598,046
264,583
168,545
252,397
24C.4.0'
276 :'07

224,456
98,424
100,870
216,169
102,450
1,271,490
7,232,922


1962

1,932,940
770,143
523,315
407,950
476,042
241,010
221,011
282,305
288,566
161,645
89,389
72,178
94,200
114,560
1,608,328
7,283,582


Average
1951-55
1,033,433
880,696
149,132
439,626
205,431
327,338
327,635
199,495
184,663
125 Irhl
5 757,,
21,015
47,896
46,525
743,080
4,790,382


Atlantic to Pacific


Commodity


Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)_ __
Coal and coke -_-- --
Iron and steel manufactures ----___
Phosphates _-----_________
Corn ____
Soybeans -----
Metal, scrap -
Wheat --------- ...
Cotton -----_______._____. ____.
Paper and paper products- ---___
Ores, various -_ -- ---- ____
Machinery __________
Flour_-- __ _______
Chemicals, unclassified_-------------
Metals, various --- _______
All others -_ ________
Total- -------------____


Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963


1963

2 573.492
1.204 04 4
315 2'95
505,660
352,986
539,320
369,570
159,931
108,596
96,737
186,129
116,912
79,708
126,187
128,044
1 'i,3.01 4
8,255.655


1962

2,201,928
1,657,415
412.24S5
4 11.623
120,832
374,596
1 067.321
192 6534
98,388
100,993
205,717
99,754
49,717
155,971
101,511
1 S'3 3 1120
9.132.693


Average
1951-55
901,706
594,946
415,441
181,170
31.271,
128,551
14,645
26,711
70,788
97,333
17 25'
74,76,
13,442
4- 132
42,135
1,352,444
4,006,741


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






SHIPPING


Tolls: Biggest, Littlest


Super tanker Orion Hunter transited early
in January 1962, en route to California.
The 860-foot ship has a beam of 104 feet
and displacement during transit was 60,300
tons. Toll was a record high $30,446.10.


PANAMA CANAL records for calendar
year 1962 show it was notable in other
ways besides recording of the largest
and smallest tolls (see pictures). The
largest commercial cargo was listed for
October 13 when the Ore Meteor trans-
ited, 44,900 long tons, with iron ore en
route from Chile to Baltimore.
Tolls for this amounted to only
$10,836, however, contrasted with the
record $30,000-plus for the Orion
Hunter, because the Canal tolls formula
is based on ships' earning capacity, with
no charge for such space as the large
ballast area around a heavy, compact
ore load.
The year also saw introduction of
super bulk carriers, designed to carry
coal one way, to Japan, and iron or
grain from the west coast on the return
trip. Two such ships are the Nini and
Sonic, each of which transited with 40
to 45 thousand tons of coal, more than
double most earlier large coal cargoes.
The surplus of shipping in the wake
of the Suez crisis is evident in the load
factor of ships transiting the Canal being
the lowest since 1936. During the first
6 months of fiscal year 1963 traffic and
tolls were up approximately 4 percent
in spite of a drop in cargo of nearly
6 percent.
Before the Orion Hunter's transit, the
top toll for a commercial ship was


$28,021.50 for the Sinclair Petrolore on
December 20, 1959. Largest toll charge
on record for a naval ship is the $28,838
for the battleship Missouri. The liner
Bremen still ranks as the largest ship
in gross tonnage ever to transit the
Canal, at 51,731.
The Orion Hunter's gross is 39,287.
On August 6 the Seatown, of Refine-
ria Panama, S.A., made two transits in
a single day, one with a load of gasoline
and one in ballast.
And in November the first ship trans-
ited with crude oil from Venezuela
bound for the new refinery which went
on stream in Nicaragua.
The Ore Meteor retained listing as
having had the largest commercial cargo
for only 3 months, until her Liberian
flag sister ship, the Ore Saturn, transited
January 15 at 46,265 long tons, also with
iron ore en route from Chile to
Baltimore.
The Ore Saturn's draft depth also was
the deepest on record for commercial
vessels, measuring 37 feet 1 inch for-
ward and 37 feet 3 inches aft, vs. a
draft figure of 35 feet 3 inches for the
Ore Meteor. Standard maximum draft
for ships transiting the Canal is 36 feet
6 inches. Ore Saturn still was not at
capacity on load, for she is capable of
carrying approximately 50,000 tons of
cargo.


Swimmer Albert H. Oshiver transited from
Gatun Locks to Gamboa December 29-30,
1962. The 42-year-old Washington, D.C.,
oceanographer was listed for 5-feet-5 inch
length, 1-foot 3-inch beam, 1-foot depth
and displacement of approximately one-
tenth of a ton. Toll was 45 cents, smallest
ever collected by the Canal, on a minimum
1 net ton charge, with half of the 90-cent
fee rebated because he didn't go through
any locks. Admeasuring Mr. Oshiver, above,
is Chief Admeasurer Robert E. Medinger.


-(AVERAGE 1951-1955)-
^.


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN


MONTHS


I100
N
U
1000 M
B
E
900 R
0
F
800
T
R
700 A
N
S
600
T
S
0


/


FEBRUARY 1, 1963


1963

1962


"" "


L













Date Due

Due Returned Due Returned







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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 04820 4829







Full Text

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.s s

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBR A R IES

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www~archiveorg/details/panarnacanalrevie1 37pana

PAGE 7

N THIS ISSUE -e----Carnival! Successful Suggesters "Sweepi n' TW-6lto Inter-A -e igh <9i S7 He s C e F I k T He s

PAGE 8

PAN ALJOSEPH CONNOR, Acting Press Officer HOBERT J. FLEMING, JR., Governor-President 1 Publications Editors W. P. LEBER, Lieutenant Governor ROBERT D. KERR and JULio E. BRICENO FR.ANK A. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal Publication Editorial Assistants Panama Canal Information Oficer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. EUNICE RICHARD, TORI BITTEL, and TOMAS A. CUPAS Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z. On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each. Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each. Postal ni-myNv orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights. C.Z. Index Carnival! 3 Jav ier F air ------------------------------4 Sweeping" the Canal 5 Successful Suggesters -6 Honor for Professors----------------------7 The Inter-American Highway---------------8 W*t o ? te. Promotions and Transfers ------------------10 Canal History ---------------------------12 OF COURSE I'm going to the Carnival. Isn't everyone? Carnival merrymakers probably could get along Anniversaries ---13 without me and my kind, but it wouldn't be the same. Canal Traffic, Transits, Trade-14 We're the spirit and symbols of gaiety, music, song, and lattghter, serpentine-wrapped and confetti-sprinkled. Shipping --------------16 Carnival, Mardi Gras, Saturnalia, Fasching, Fastnacht ...by whatever name such celebrations are known, they date back to earliest history, are found in all civilizations, all cultures. For centuries and centuries they've been annual events to free mankind from cares of daily chores, open avenues of mirth, mummery, dancing, singing. Illusion becomes reality, dreams materialize, sorrow, ABOUT OUR FRONT COVER: It's water, he's perched atnd orriss are forbidden. Through King Momo in o an outrigger, and he has a line-but that isn't a new Panamai~ there reign 4 days dedicated to fuller enjoyment type lure on it. It's a gadget devised to double check on of -fo, Lauihtr, ind, we're told, even some kisses. sonar devices used to inspect the bottom of the Canal 'hli davs of Crnival are historically for relief from channel, electronically, for "lumps" or obstructions. thli workida y world's wei ghts so all imay return to Manning the line is John Flynn, member of the technical lii nt nnal ditics with renewed vigor, refreshed hope, and crew of the motor launch Slhad of the Surveys Branch. rxiiaiie,'d )trspective. For more information on their work, see page 5. FEBRUARY 1, 1963

PAGE 9

C AA People, people, people ...testimonial to measures of merriment. n IV A L IT'S CARNIVAL tine in Panama once Januarv 18, the first ceremony taking Canal Zone Carnival Queen wxill he again, and polleras and montunos, cosplace in Paiaiso, followed by the Santa FebIriar 15 and a Coronation Ball will tomes and floats are being readied for Cruz flag raisiig. b held at the Tixoli Guest House oi the festivities which this year start In Rainbow Citx, the Carnixval flag Fbriaiiiy 21. Saturday, February 23, and close at wcnt up on January 26. The Atlantic side Cat nix al Queen will dawn Ash Wednes-a, February 27. he copied on Washingtons Birthday. Ali 11nusual note w\as intr-Odc ee in Fbur 2 tteBekr lb n While the Carnival celebration is the CarniNal flag raising toc at Fclriarx 22. at thu Breakers Club, and scheduled for the latter part of Febtht the Coonation Ball will follow the se d rthe ditional mus of Carnil Palo Seco Leprosarium on january 18. 01 x ruarx, the traditional music of Carnival The txxwo ueciis xxho officiated arax has been heard in Panama and in the mother and daugliter. The 1962 Palo Sat rda Februar 23, will be a huse Canal Zone since the first days of Sco aerial ueen Angela Calderthe Panaa it Queen, whose cooaIn wNill take place im the Ok ymJanuary. The first Carnival flag xwas is the mother of the 1963 Palo Seco raised in Panama City on January 5 and Carnival Queen, Zenaida Axila. pic Stadium, Panama City. During the in the Canal Zone on January .Throughout JanuarN beaitiful candida\, she will reecixe an official greeting from Panamia's Moustryi of ForeiLgn The Canal Zone Atlantic side Carnival dates for Carnixal Queen competed Affais and ill be received in audience flag raising took place January 26, in for the coveted croxn to be worn by \tfdt i re Repablietic Margarita. the representati of ach respective Ic 'Panaia. The Pacifie Side Canal Zone The Paraiso and Santa Cruz comcommuniitx and each social center. Carni.a uen the Can one munities raised the 1963 Carnival flag Coronation Day for the Pacific Side Chinese colo in Panana, and other Cl en wi i lon x r i e b Panama i s e Colorfully bedecked floats bedecked with beauties, too. Queens xxill be received bx Panama's piresideint at the satie timet. Immediately afterward, Panama City's Mayor xill present the Queens the 'Kex s to the Citx of Panama." The night w\ill be filled with music and gaiety, with dances in all the hotels, and social centers, in the open air dance pavilions, and in clubs. -Traditional Pollcra Dav will be i Sunday, February 24. when the Pacific Side Carnival Queen. accompanied by King omoii and all the court, wxill parade through the Canal Zone and Paam, tip o the Panama Golf Club, where a dance xxill be held, attended also by all the other Catrnixal Queens and their courts. The Carnixal Classic is scheduled to Sc p). 4)

PAGE 10

Carnival (Continued from 1). 3) b, hIa d at the Reim'in Race Track in Pania ma City SUnday afternoon. All the C Arnial QuIells Will be honored. All during Sunday afternoon tillofficial parades will be held on the strtets and roads of Panama City, with g iolps dressted in Panama's pollera and Inltnlo xo winding in and out in a gav kalidoscopic scene of color and gaiety Pollcra Day's events will close with a danclIe at the Panama Architects' and Engineers' Center. carnival monday will be sprinkled with confetti and looped with serpentile from the "battles" by Carnival meriiakers up and down Central ad 'other streets of Panama City The Canal Zone Queen on the Pacific Side will make a tour of her domain that e, ening, v isiting clubs, hotels, and s( ii. ial centers, impartially spreading the mlsic and color of Carnival through civilian andi military communities. She Governor Fleming chats with the Reverend Juan D. Iriarte, center, Director of Colegio also will attelid the Carnival mnasqueJaxier, and the Reverend Jesus llergueta, principal of the primary school, during last rade ball at the Panama Hilton Hotel, year's Javier Fair. whre the Panama Cit\ Queen will receli e S isiting royalty. The Canal Zone Pa ific Side Queen wxill be joilled thwer by the Chinese Colony Queen, and other riginlig beauties of the 1963 Carnival. The climax of Carnix al in Panama, tle m5ost ilmportaut day of all, is CarAPPROXIMATELY 50,000 persons are F. Chiari will declaie the Fair closed Ii al Tuesdayv, when the traditional expected to visit til javicr Fair, oil the final day and Canal Zone Govpa1ade of floats is hold in the afternoon. 6th annual commercial, industrial, and rtior Fle'in g i among the dignitaries Each Carl lival Queen and her cort electrical exposition, to open at 7 p.m., invited to attend the exposition. Sill ride Ol a1 gailx deorated float. The Saturdax, Februar 2, at the Colegio The Fair h oirs will be 4 p.m. until ba1nd111Ics of muciidian s auid marchin l f)lbads will fill the air maithielchJaxier, i Panama Citx .midniight daii. Admission is 15 cents, Panama's Niiiis ter of Agrictiltlie., xith a 1 ti ket also available and valid whii' the~ girlps of masqcraders wiii Commerce, and Industrx, Dr. Felipe for all 9 da\s of tie exposition. compete for thc prizes offered for the Juan Escobar, will officially openi the Fair daxs themes are: mi ost original ay.est. and loisiest. Fair, which will continue through Februarv 2-Tvpical Motif Day. The a1sCetig(lii note of iiiety reaches Febriarx 10. honoring thi' NIinister of Agriculture, a (liiax in the early hours of Ash WedA imlnber of Zonians will e among Cmmimce, and Industry of Panama. ntsday \ iorn "lien it's so late it almost those attending and the Panama Cana Ft)r1iar 3-Friendsfip D honoi st11ms ,arly." Th dance music changes ii participal' officially, having Itig the Can Z1/e, into a folierall march. Pallbearers carry Sisr'ed space in front of 'the swinning Febrar 4-Panama City High tin\ coffils, ii) Iach of itch lies a fish, pool and at the x irY entrance to the Schools' DaY. at tihe liead of a candlielighted parade school buildinI. F('bruarV 5-Jtewish Night. that witds throigi till' city's streets. Aboiit 50 local industries an comFet'ruarx 6-Spanish Night. Ntlw and then r'c'alitrant mt'rrxvnakers mercial concerns are taking part ill this Fcbrar 7-Gala Nitght. Iay burist into galii'ty, blt the majority %car's Fair, and Colegio jaxicr students Februarx 8-Chinese Night. waiiiig IlitId c andles, pretend to xwill have displays of their own crafts Febrilair5 9-Carnival Junta's Night. i p t tiO sild end of Cariiaxh work and animals stuffed and niitcd Flebruar 10-Fair Closing Night. Althoudi co rtaIill that it will be reborn by biology students. Entertainent wxill include Spanish 'lhe agaill il anothitr 11 moth itls. Febri Iary 3 N' ill be "Frieidship Day\ dancis, folk dancing, Jewish dances, WIi thi ros *v fiiigi Is of dawx n swep at thc Fair in holler of tilt' Calnal Zone. aiitd a horsI' show ) ,xy Fort Kobbe riders. I rk th' il taills of night, the merr\ -The Panama Caial exhibit stall wx ill Colegio Jax il'r is a Jesuit school foir m11A k .i a 1don their lmlasqlerade, feature a Stlectrovision display, picture s hoys. kindergarten through high school, drss ocI mor ill their eerxyday cosof Canal operations and points of in\x ith aln enrolhinent near 1,000. The Fair ti o Ii againil appar Is seriols terest, imodels, and organ iimusic by is being held to raise fulds with which pFss Friaii k Az ra i g -ra iai, a 111 miiibeif tlift le C o al f t I l c1t to cop tte construction of a S200,000 I' l i i to Ihorlh, befor( Zone G ;iduil Servicx it ind xx Ieli-klioxx w '_'m illild a $150,000 chiirch for the I ig up th i i ix .tfairs 1and Panamanian perforir. sthooh Graidiates from tile school M Ohl Iaam Carnivald becomes li There w ill bc a ebiange of Fair recei% e diplomas as bachelor of science, S In hIsr progr 1m every night Pr'sident Roberto Itters, and philosophy. 4 FEBEVABY 1, 1963

PAGE 11

All set after only 5 minutes of preparation, and ready to go. The survey boat Shad prepares to leave the dock in the early pre-dawn on its way to patrol the Canal chanmel bottom between Gamboa and Pedro Miguel. 'Zweeping' The Canal ANY IOHNINGC at the crack of daw, li former years, whel few ships calls birds, worms, and aII others in passed through the' Cut at night and thevicinitv of Gaillard Cut are likely before cxteisive work of Cut widening to find the Panama Canal motor launch start,] the task of clicking the Canail Before the Shad moves away from the dock Shad making a patrol of this narrow part chance or i obstriuctions \\,as dnce wtxith in Gamboa, an electronic "fish" is moved of the Canal. a simple pipe drag at a knon depth out into place at the end of the outrigger. Festooned w% ith red lights and dck-ed if inspectioii of the hanks indicated that A similar device is directly underneath the with red flags, til Shad inves up the there had be-n some movemtlt during boat and a third one on an outrigger on channel iike a hloodhointl following a thu night. the other side of the boat. With outriggers spread, the sonar devices "sweep" a 40-foot trail. It siliffs cauitioush aloig the \\'itlh tie bginig of Cut widenillg path. All three are 2 feet under the water chanoul c-itcrline at about 8 knots, aid and the marked diop in liku level surface. The pointed object at bottom of in sections where dredges have been at because of increased ship traffic and picture is one of the submerged "fish.k urig th ight launch circles duc water supp ring th dr back, crosses the ccnterline, checks any season, the problem of obstructions ill questionable arta of the chaniil and the Cut becamuw more serious. IoiiVt nIl. Tie daily\ patrol Ill)\w is coliducted A group of serious men bend ovcr a with a lanilch fitted with three traosbatttrY of electronic machines as the duccirs oir sonar devic-s, called "'fish," craft proceeds cow the Cot from w hich extt-nd 2 feet below the watur (;amboa to Pcdro Nligiil. Tw\o outsurface and send electronic swinals on rigger cdelsices extend from port and stardepth of the channel back to three board, thus accurately covering a width record -rs installed inside th launch. of 40 feet, and a gasolin-operated genEach iccorder is op-rated by a t-chirator, providing power for the delicate nician who watches it closy. Alis machines, chugs away at the stern. lumps rising above the safe depth of Fi mn abOard the U.S.S. Shad are 2 feet blliw the siiIface are rport-td not out fishing-nor are they looking for immediately to the d Di-ci Divisioni. gold. They are employees of the lydroAcciiracy of the work riequires close graphic Section of the Panamra Canal cycIe control 10 powcgeneration, c-(itnSiirvevs Branch checking the bottom of trolled to not more that two tenths of Gaillard Cut for obstacles, "iimps," or a c-cic variation froimi the 60 c-syce-its als\ other obstructions which might be euieired. a Lazard for shipping. One morning recently, wheii like Tiie "lumps" may simply be small level was slightly below 87 feet, the heaps of silt kicked up by' deep draft highest lump encountered was 45 feet ships' propellor action. Or they could ltow tic watcr surface. be rock upheavals or drop-ins. When ain area itedii ing imimliat Tilth daw\n patrol is a daily operation attention is discoveied, an i-mcrget-nc carried out bV Canal engineers aiid call is macldto the Drd-gill Dixision the Marine Bureai to provide the Port Captaiins at Cristobal and Baiha safest possible conditions through the are alerted, and reports milled to the waterways for world shipping. Marine Director and Director (f Armando de Sedda, foreground, and RavThe morning investigation with clecEnginetring and Construction. mond Kielhofer, two of the trained cartogtronic devices was started carly in thu Thu Drclging Division gocs into rappers aboard the survey boat Shad, check I94U's uindr sui>ervisin of t-iChief ictin first with a drtdge ti rcmive recorder charts showing depth of the Canal 1S0c .11) bottom. of tii' HyIdrographic Section. See p I I TIE PANAMA CANAL REvIEW 5

PAGE 12

SUCCESSFUL A mN SUGGES TERS Annual recognition for the top award under the Panama Canal Incentive Awards Program for 1962 brought gold watches to three aen, supplementing cash awards. Gov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., is shown presenting the watches to (left to right): Cyrus W. Field, Owen J. Corrigan, and Ray NI. Smith. SHA ING top honors in th 19 62 xpectcd to impt urov' thit C'anal operaRussell A. Weade, $25, Lights on Las Panama Canal Inc -ntixe Awards Piotioni's financial stattus hi\ riore than Cruces dock. gram wrc thrc e Industrial Dinision si852,00 a ear. Locks Division empnel ces: Crnus W. Fitld, lia M. Eilghtee of the itii awrds Frank R. Costanzo, $20, Uniform clothing Smith, and 6lxxii J. C(oriigan. The \ \\ diners w\ ert' Marine Billrau imploy ts, for Canal saman and Locks Division Yeceiv d S260 taib lor dex isn a ne 10 frou tht' Eiginierinig and onstrueIielIpe'rs. Paul Badonskv, '15, Handbag hooks on and morc economical proc'duir' for tion Buiau and 5 or moie cati hom lAul B adoas fabrication of "s-inch pontoon pipes, the Ck Affairs B au, uppIy ant1 John NI. Klasovsky, $50, Cathodic Protecadoption of the suigge'lstion resulting ill Commuimt Service Bureau, Health tion for miter gates. estimated axciate annual saxingis of Bureat an(1 staff units. John I. Klasovsky and C. V. Scheidegg, $23,3. "If eachtit iixidutal uses his imag -$15 each, Locks divers safety. Besides tht saxiogs. tcutical imtionl in a search for imptroemteits, we Raymond L. Whitney, $15, Safety for prove mni t and incrtase of pioductivit\, \\ill drawx on 'ast ir'sirces that ill \61 itOrs at Miriflores Locks. side tfects wer getnceratd improving rng Illi t x atcr to the well tof progEverett White, $15, Uniform headgear. Industrial Dixisiot i shop efficiency and re'ss, dtclartd President john F. KellCarlos MIelndez and Eliot J. Brathwaite, thereby)v >rovidin g craftsmen for othei ndx itn a retnt statement on vital $12.50 each, Fire extinguishers on locks requireticuts. x\atllies inl silt t'ctiioli sx stcas. locomtiotix es. reqirmets v us n ugesio ss1ms', Raymond J. Dixon, S15, Phione number Other top 1962 sugoesters wrt: "o maintain otir forward paca he Rox R. Burgener, Electrical Division, said, "it is itiiperatixe that wxe ha x Industrial Division with a S375 supplemental award for steady flow of constructive ideas di I.ndustrial ivisio conxcrsion of microwave impulse rerected at all of our problems, large and Earl 1. Bolandi $2, Bulkhead sheathing. stuall Henry' Ileppenheimner and Richard F. Penpeattrs for telephone circuits: smalh ranginig froim those needing the nington. $40 each, Redesign of welder. Vincent Biava, Dredging Division, attention of scholars and experts to those Thomas V. Frost, $45. Improved balancing $250, for a new method for recondineeding the day-to-day knowlcdgt of machine. tioning countershafts and btarings on the mat ot the job." Carl 11. Starke, $125, 28-inch dredge pipe. the dipper dredges; Here, scholars, experts, and mitt and ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION Herman H. Keepers, Dredging DivixxOmen ott the lob, xwere the other 1962 BUREAU sion, $225, for a xxax to remachine and PanCanal incentive awards winners: .i(1ipt uit]sxx(Director's Office) adapt acetylenle gas Sill switches to MARINE BUREAU(Drco'Ofie acet\ri egasn. itchestor's to MARINRussell T. Wise, $25, Littering highways. Thes three ideas, besides netting therc Contract and Inspection Division Ethel W. Brown, $25, \\'eek flitr for dry Shirley Finlason, $125, Routine letters to slig_,,estcrs extra folding moneyv, reprecleanlinlscrnt tl t estimated total savings of Navigation Division lct. .is. $15,000 per year itt Canal operations. Richard A. MsClean and William T. Lyons, EematAcal $25,sion Itn all, there were 57 incentive award $25 tach. Radio telephone hattdset Delas A. Swafford, S25, Littering xxinnis itn 1962. Their ideas ot new and button guards. Wa improved methods, product betterment John Chandler, Jr., $15, Messenger bags Maintenance Division aln] sax ings itn matipower, material and for launches. Owen W. Smith and George P. Fullman, titne, and reductiti of safety hazards Frank V. Kerley, $15, Thatcher Ferry $15 each, Safety switch. broiglt them more than $3,260 and are Bridge ceremony. John W. Acker, $25, Abrasive wheels. 6 FEBRUARY 1, 1963

PAGE 13

Roderick N. Macdonald, $15, Nonskid material for ladders. De Leon Tschumy and William I. Hollowell, $40 each, floculator drive chain and sprocket. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Fire Division Calvin Shepherd, $20, Emergency light. Library-Museum Evelyn H. Howell, $15, Pencil stubs. Police Division Russell E. Oberboltzer, $25, School bus recognition. Anthony Malagutti, $20, Traffic regulations. Morris E. Cherry, $15, Water. John Kozar, $25, Sanitary protection for policemen. Postal Division Joseph L. Sestito, $20, Box rent cards. SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Supply Division Cyrus A. Morris, $15 each, Improvement Faculty members of the Canal Zone Junior College pictured above are, front row, left to of IBM room and substitution on form. right: Subert Turbyfill, Mrs. Mary Journeay, Dr. Dorothy Moody, Miss Margaret Gately, Warren D. Marquard, $100, Stock control. and Kenneth Vinton; second row: Shephard Clark, Morris Finkelstein, Charles R. Bowen, Ashton D. Worrell, $15, Unloading ramp. DeWitt Myers, Dr. Kenneth Lake, and Donald Musselman; back row: Dr. James Johnson, Eugene A. Johnson, $15, Accident protecDr. Charles L. Latimer, Jr., Dean of the College, and Clarence Vosburgh. (Photo by tion.Scott Wellman.) tion. George E. Shoemaker, $15, Self-checking numbers. HEALTH BUREAU Gorgas Hospital FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE Margaret C. Yerkes, $25, Littering highFACULTY: ways. Coco Solo Hospital Alfredo Archibald, $20, Gbo-colored vest. Fred L. Workman, $25, Anti-panic lights ore R recognition Earl L. McClean, $15, Bags. Luis E. Wong, $25, Gamboa dispensary. STAFF UNITS Mabelle B. Walker, Administrative Branch, THE CANAL ZONE Junior College higher education, corresponds to the $15, Decals of Canal Zone seal, has a distinction shared by only a American Medical Association for docJoyce H. Boatwright, Executive Planning, handful of colleges and universities: tors and to the American Bar Associa$15, Cafeteria conveniences. Every full-time instructor has been tion for lawyers. It is the recognized Maria HernAndez, Office of the Governor, $15, Pictures of governors in rotunda, accepted for membership in the Amernational professional organization for Eloise Smith, Office of the Secretary, $15, ican Association of University Procollege teachers. Standard hole punching. fessors. Few institutions share this For some iears a few of the facultY Henry M. Winter, Safety Branch, $15, distinction, as requirements for AAUP members of the junior college have Soap tissues in first aid kits. membership demand at least a mnasbeen accepted as members of the TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS ter's degree plus 3 years of teaching AAUP. Last March a Canal Zone BUREAU experience at the college level. Chapter of the association was officially Railroad Division The 100 percent acceptance is unique launched when Lt. Gov. W. P. Leber Chris E. Haywood, $15, Gasoline station evidence of the training of the faculty presented the charter from thc national hours. members and also is recognition of the organization. Officers of the Canal Zone Arthur B. Rigby, $15, Safety hazard at high standards of selection for teachers Chapter are: Mr. Turbyfill, president; Miraflores bridge. in the Canal Zone Junior College. Mr. Bowen, vice president; and Miss Terminals Division C.Z.J.C. has been accepted by the Gately, secretary. Joe R. Sanders, $25, Man overboard American Association of Junior Colleges The national association has headladders. since shortly after its establishment quarters in Washington, D.C. It is a PERONNEL BUREAU almost 30 years ago. It was fully accredconstituent member of the American (Director's Office) ited by the Middle States Association Council on Education and member of Nina J. Jenkins, $20, Handling of national of Colleges and Secondary Schools more the International Association of Univeremblem. than 20 years ago. This latest honors sity Professors and Lecturers. IndepenCarlos M. Garcia de Paredes, $15, Index to listing with the American Association of dently and in cooperation with other new book titles. University Professors stands as a third organizations, it has sought the formulaOFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER type of recognition. tion, recognition, and observances of (Accounting Division) The association, a national ethical and principles and practices necessary to the Helen T. Kat, $20, Labor distribution. professional organization for teachers in free quest for knowledge. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7

PAGE 14

EVERY MONTH the Inter-American Highway from Texas to the Canal moves a notch nearer the goal: a hard-topped, t two-lane 3,142-mile road all the way through Middle America. Last fall, the U.S. Congress allocated $32 million to be matched wNith $16 million pledged by Guatemala, Nicaraglia, Costa Rica, and Panama for completing some sections and paving others to provide an all-weather road. Year-round access already is an accomplished fact. Some links are rough and unpaved. Others are subject to slides. Along some stretches vehicles trax el by roads that will not be the roitt of the finished highway. The UT.S. Bureau of Public Roads has provided technical guidance for the 5? entire Inter-American project. One of the most troublesome links put through in recent years wvas that in io'orists entering Panama find a paved highnvay and beautiful new bridges from the Paso Custa i rear wa tn a d de Canoa frontier point to the town of Concepcion and on beyond the city of David i Costa Rica near the Panama border. Chiriqui Province. In the Puerto Escondido area, paving is under way, but traffic moves It rc quired 44 modern bridges, includdailv. East of this vehicles must swing out to the scenic coast road which will be by-passed in, inany with steel-truss spans. As late when the shorter, official route is finished. At Santiago, concrete starts again, stretches as last Mav, motorists had to ford 19 all the way to the Canal. rixrs. Now' all streams are bridged, either temporarily or permanently. But an incomplete approach to one bridge still requires a shallows ford. Cais frm MIexico, Canada, and CaliA Profile: INTER-AMERICAN HIGHWAY Travelers pause under the fresh-cut scaffolding providing temporary support for one of the big new concrete-piered bridges in Costa Rica. forinia-to-Vermont have been rolling into Panama from Costa Rica. They visit tourist sites in the Interior and the terminal cities, and on the Canal Z7et. Some motorists head straight for liiaflores Locks on arrival. Iany Canal people already have driven over all of the road or parts of it, and others plan to do so. Since 1937, when the "Road to the ____ States" became a committed project, Canal employees have been among the highwav's pioneers at road-rut level, and enthusiastic boosters in the United States and elsewhere. The Canal itself has lent encouragement and informal aid to the venture. Another Zone-based agency has contributtd steadily to the physical layout of the highwxav. This is the InterAmerican Ceodetic Survev, which has headquarters at Fort Clayton. It is attached to the U.S. Army Caribbean. IAGS has made its mapping skills available when called on to provide terrain data often useful in the selection S FEBRUARY 1, 1963

PAGE 15

of detailed routes, for bridges or road grades. Here's a profile on what the highway is like today: Of Panama's 321 -mile stretch from the capital city to Costa Rica, some 205 miles are paved with concrete. The paved links on the eastern end are from Panama City to Santiago, and on the wx estern end from the Costa Rican border to a point in the Puerto Escondido area (see map). This leaves, in the central provinces, somewhat more than 100 miles of rough-surfaced road requiring slow vehicle speeds. Part of the jiggly and often dusty going follows the route of eventual w in astal rout of t ld a>iona Spanning the Rio Chiriqui V'iejo is this new 4-span structure which is one of the first M' .bridges crossed by tourists who enter Panama from Costa Rica. Highway. This sector now has some dramatically beautiful lookout points toward mountains an(d sea. It will Nlxico has built all of her road the route most desirable for Such a road become a secondary road xwhen the nex without foreign aid. Only some 60 milcs may be based, and to determine cost esand shorter route is built. of the total 1,587-mile stretch bctwecii timates. Prlimiiary studies reportedly Some 28 miles of the n.w alinement Guatemala and Laredo, Tex., are not are to start this year. are neither cnder constrction nor nt black-topped or concrete. No funds have been appropriated to tract. The United States commitment Hotels, pensiones, or motels are adebuild roadways to span this approximatra t ae UnitedStae co.mmitnt quate Or better throughout Mexico tely 450-mile gap through mountains made last fall inlcledl S-12 million~ in i o u a houhuoutii m building thus, and and in capital cities along the route. and river-slashed jungles. At rough premrahing fundstfor 3mes wpr Motorists are cautioned not to try to lininary estimate, 100 million would fcir xiy n te, 35 miles noxt p art m ake the trip too fast. And regardless be required toi d ) so. tially constructed, but not open to traffic, between Santiago and El Pajal. of maps, it is xwise to heck on local To underline the usabilitx of the conditions xxith the tourist commission Inter-Amcrican Hii lix ax from the The basic United States agreement .ti.IIU 1S with the Central American countries and in each country visited-before any trip. Canal to the continental tmted States, Panama was to provide two-thirds of TO the east of the Canal lies the last it is planned to assemble a bus motorthe cost of a hard-surfaced (blackuncut arca dividing the road systems of cade in Panaina in mid-April to transtopped) road. North and South America. This is the port officials, businessmen, and others ..Darien Gap ii eastern Panana and along the road as far as Mtexico Citx .illse ona, morfe g wxthwestern Colombia, through which no Fri n there, the group is ixpectcd to will be done on more than 150 miles of traffic cal pass. travel bY >lane to letroit, New York, the that country's 41it-mile link. About trfi cnp. tiae hpietoI)tri.c-x'rk The United States has appropriated and other centers before going to WVash2)06 miles already are paved. Ois the 17-mileseonhay are p d cro the $2 million of the 83 million cost of a ington for thc ninth Pan American Road 1 7mile section that rises to cross the detailed engineering survy on which Congress. 12,000-foot pass between San Isidro -1 General and Cartago, xvidening and In good weather the Rio Corredo, in Costa Rica not far from the Panama border, is shallow realinement are necessary, also removal enough to be forded. But a year-round all weather crossing for the Inter-American Highway required a steel-truss structure on foundations sturdy enough to withstand the freshets of slide areas, and stabilization of roadthat sweep down from the Talamanca Range. bed. The United States allotment for this work is 813.8 million. In Nicaragua, only a final 28-mnile section remains to be paved of the total 238 miles. United States funds of 81 million are earmarked. In Honduras, the entire 97-mile link is paved. The same is true of El Salvador's 126 miles of highway. In Guatemala, some 88.2 million of b the United States allocation Will be spent for 170 miles of roadwork. Most of this will go into the 95 miles between the Mexican border and San Cristobal. In the past, this sector often has been closed by slides. Work xvill involve removing these, building revetments, base construction, widening, and eventual paving. Currently some 158 miles of Guatemala's 313-mile road are paved. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9

PAGE 16

PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred HEALTH BUREAU Stanford M. Clement, Stanley W. Simmons, between December 5 and January 5 are Dr. Edward W. Healey, Hospital Resident Heav .Laborer to Warehouseman. listed here. Within-grade promotions (2d Year), Gorgas Hospital, to Medical Ralph E. Holder, High Lift Truck Operator andjobreeassfictiiisarenotlised Officer (General Medicine and Surgery), to Heavy Leader Laborer, and job reclassifications are not listed, Coco Solo Hospital. MeVin L. Gibbs, Utility Worker to Truck Elizabeth NI. Hayden, Staff Nurse (MediDriver. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH cine and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital, to Phil E. Rowland, Utility Worker to MesMercedes T. Palomeras, Clerk-StenogHead Nurse (Psychiatry), Corozal Hossenger. rapher, from Balboa Bridge Project. pital. Alvin Girdwood Utility Worker to CounterStephen W. Thorne, Title Printer to Leader Edward T. A. Sterrett, Laborer Cleaner, man. (Printing). Electrical Division, to Nursing Assistant Harold C. Blackman, Utility Worker to (Leprosy), Palo Seco Leprosarium. Sales Clerk. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Andr6s Barria, Laborer (Hleavy-Pest ConBeryl Wright, Counterwoman to Food Police Division trol), Division of Sanitation, to Animal Service Sales Checker. Caretaker, Division of Veterinary MediThelma F. Ward, Counter-woman to Sales Henry C. DeRaps, Police Sergeant, Class 3, cine. Clerk to Police Sergeant, Class 4. Jorge Torres, Hospital Attendant to Ward Crk. Emmett A. Collins, Police Private to Police Service Aid, Gorgas Hospital. Carlton Dawkins, Waiter to Heavy Laborer. Sergeant. Class 3. Byron Dixon, Waiter to Counterman. Dirg sion C f Schol MARINE BUREAU Clifford A. Hinds, Bus Boy to Utility Division of Schools Navigation Division Worker. Lucile G. Feeney, Substitute Teacher to Andrew Stohrer, Pilot to Senior Assistant Community Services Division Elementary and Secondary School Cai of the PCrtD Teacher. Kenne S Roscoe Richard C. Sergeant, Concepci6n Barrios, Albert E. Watson, Wilfred G. Earle, Leader Heavy Laborer Pilot to Assistant Captain of the Port. Lead Foreman (Grounds Maintenance to Leader Maintenanceman. Preston M. Trim, Jr., Marine Traffic ConEquipment Operator) to Lead Foreman Stanley M. Hawkins, Roy Fleming, Leader troller to Supervisory Marine Traffic (Grounds). Laborer Cleaner to Lead Foreman Controller. Darrington A. Moss, Heavy Laborer to Laborer Cleaner. Carlos L. Irumluig, Seaman, from DredgLead F oreman ((,rounds). NicolAs Barria, Utility Worker, Supply ing Division. Remigio Sanjur, Grounds Maintenance Division, to Laborer Cleaner. Dixie P. Bender, Towing Locomotive OperEquipment Operator to Animal Careator to Lock Operator (Iron Workertaker. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION Welder). Florentino Duarte, Gregorio Sinchez, BUREAU George N. Stone, Machinist to Lock OperLaborer to Animal Caretaker. Electrical Division ator (MIachinist). Bernardino Berrio, Andres Bonilla, Luis A. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS John B. Corliss, Jr., Electrician to Test De Lo Rios, Melanio Moreno, Painter DIVISION Operator-Foreman (Electrical Power (Maintenance) to Painter. Terminals Division System). Carlos Ortega, Asphalt or Cement Worker Glendora A. Dorsey, Cargo Claims Clerk Jose Dixon, Utility Worker, Supply Divito Cement Finisher (Limited). to Cargo Claims Assistant. sion, to Helper Electrician. Humberto B. Stelle, Laborer Cleaner, Divitodo lams Listantg son of Schools, to Line Handler. Theodore L. Kaufer, Liquid Fuels Gager Dredging Division Vincent A. Williams, Utility Worker, to Leader Liquid uels man. Scott J. McKay, Chief Engineer, Towboat Supply Division, to Line Handler. Joseph F. De Costa, Stevedore to Leader or Ferry Navigation Division, to Chief Industrial Division T S Stevedore. Engineer. TIowboast. IdsraDisonTeodomiro Erique, Water Service Man to Jesse De W. Tate, General Foreman ElecNathaniel A. Daley, Foundry Chipper to Leader Line Handler. trician to Chief Foreman (Electrical Melter. Leonard Baldonado, Line Handler to CarNavigation Aids). Alfred Braithwaite, Laborer Cleaner to peter (Maintenaice). Howard Green, Leader Navigational Aid Laborer. Oscar Aguilar, Luis C. Mark, Line Handler Maintenanceman to Leader MaintenanceOFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER to Stevedore. man (Distribution Systems). Diamantina E. Davis, Office Machine OperAlfonso S. Aribo, Ernest L. Reid, Line LeRoy A. Cooper, Edmond C. Elliot, Clerkator to Bookkeeping Machine Operator, Handler to Water Serviceman. Typist to Supervisory Timekeeper. Accounting Division. Aubrey 0. Hall, Vincent J. Hall, Julio ValAnderson G. Dow, Clerk to Procurement SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY CVerde, Dock Worker to Stevedore. Clerk. Celestino Ramirez, Dock Worker to Line car SERVICE BUREAU Handler. OscarS. Green, Clerk to Property Record Supply Division Leonard Richard, Utility Worker, Supply Clerk. Sidnev A. Richards, Harold G. Walks, Clarence W. Kilbey, Service Center AssistDivision, to Cargo Marker. Clerk-Typist to Timekeeper. ant Superintendent to Service Center Napoleon B. Ashby, Service Station AttendEverton R. Archbold, Bertram M. Ramsey, Superintendent ant, Supply Division, to Cargo Marker. Homer E. Welsh, Clerk to Timekeeper. Henry J. Chase, Administrative Officer to Motor Transportation Division E. WlshCler Ti epr Service Center Assistant Superintendent. Rudolph A. Richards, Clerk to Launch Rutherford P. Rivet, Jr. Guard, Locks DiCleveland H. James, Motor Vehicle DisDispatcher. vision, to Service Center Supervisor. patcher to Supervisory Motor Vehicle Luis G. Fields, Leader (General) to Leader George A. Mercier, Restaurant Manager Dispatcher. Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems). (Caterer), to Graduate Intern (Business Antonio Flores, Helper Tire Rebuilder to Victoriano Carri6n, Navigational Aid Administration). Truck Driver. Worker to Maintenancenan Distribution Francisco A. Bravo, Clerk to Accounting Systems. Clerk. OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not Maintenance Division Gertrude M. Patten, Clerk-Typist to Clerk, involve changes of title: Agustin Carrera, Cement Finisher (LimClifton 0. Bailey, Messenger to TimeW. Allen Sanders, Whitney E. Smith, Genited), L.ocks Division, to Cement Finisher. Frederick D. Simmons, Utility Worker to eral Attorney, Office of General Counsel. Aureliano Bejarano, Heavy Laborer to Cash Clerk. Lawrence Barca, Jr., General Engineer, Pipelaver. George M. Weeks, Heavy Laborer to Clerk. Locks Division. Dionisio Navas. Laborer Cleaner to Heavy Robert C. Husband, Heavy Laborer to Robert L. Rankin, Marine Traffic ConLaborer. Messenger. troller, Navigation Division. 10 FEBRUARY 1, 1963

PAGE 17

Ethel W. Brown, Statistical Clerk (Stenography), Office of the Director, Miarine Bureau. Doris J. Clendenon, Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting Division. Dudley G. Jones, Gardener (Management), Community Services Division. Elaine E. Heyd, Clerk-Typist, Coco Solo Hospital. Ruby C. Smart, Clerk-Typist, Division of Schools. Calvin Thompson. Clerk-Typist, Terminal. Di\ ision. Virginia A. Peterson, Clerk-Typist, Community Services Division, Stephanie Gordon, Clerk-Typist, Supply Di\ ision. Cynthia Forbes, Clerk-Typist, General Nianager's Office, Supply Division. Ernesto M. Stewart, Clerk-Typist, Dredming Di\ ision. Reno G. Patrick, Lifeguard, Division of Schools. Alejandro Gerald, Hetor F. HI. McCarthyr hlaten C. Springer, Timekeeper, Locks Division. Alvin L. Cameron, Edwin P. Carson, Carl DaCosta. Alberto H. Dogue, Cecil J. Dutton, Herman G. Edwards. William H. Foster, Aurelio J. Llorach, Pablo E. Ramos, Randolph F. Simmons, Timekeeper, Terminals Division. Two members of the survey boat crew lower a 9-foot pipe drag used to test the nature of Facundo Villarreal, SurveyNing Aid, Engiany obstruction found. Devices are on board to procure samples of bottom if necessary neering Division. HOW TO DEVELOP THAT GOOD IDEA Oweeping 1 Don't trY too hard. Don't ox cireach, trying to develop ideas in (Continued from p. 5) areas with which you're unfamiliar. 2. Concentrate on small suggestions. Big ideas are fine, but there the lump. Meanwhile, the obstacle is If tii, is a disciepancy, an adjustient just aren't as many of them. And reported to pilots guiding ships through is imade. smaller awards can count up fast. the Canal, and, if necessary', it is marked After the regular daily sir vev is conm3. Don't assume that someone ulse with a buox .pleted, the in-mi aloaid the Shad hax c has already thought of y-our idea. During rain season, xw hen the lcvel of b no means completed their da's Someone has to be first. Why not Gatun Lake remains high, the morning work. The return to the Sur cv Bri anch you? patrol from Gamhoa to Pedid Miguel headquarters at Pedro Miguel and carr 4. Jot down half thought-out ideas, on the centerline usually is sufficient. ol other routine dutis. even if only sketclix notes. OtherIn the drx season, when the lake level The surv boat xxith its battery of xvise you may forget. You can work is lower, there max be as many as three elcctroic instruments also is used on out details later. or four trips during the dav or night a stand*v basis when there is blasting 5. Check out your suggestion covering the sailing lines on each side in the Cut or xw hen it is necessary to thoroughly, especially if it involves of the channel as well as the area under measure the depth of the bottom of more than xour area. There max be the centerline. the chainnl in any other part of the problems you aren't aware of. Information obtained is telephoned to Canal. 6. Supervisors can help develop the Marine Bureau before shipping Not loig ago, the equipment-laden ideas fully. You max have onl\ an enters the locks, usually at 7 ai. lin Shad wxas taken to Balboa Harbor to inkling of'the scope. Your super visor order that the Shad cr c b he sure help deteirinie the position of a sand can point out all possibilities. the recorders report the correct informabarge which sank after a collision wxith 7. Let your imagination go \N hen tion, they are checked out at regular an oil tanker. developing ideas. intervals by means of a strange looking The work being done hx the Shad is 8. Don't be afraid to turn in ideas crow's foot device (see page 1). This so important that another Dredging that come out of informal group flat metal instrument was developed to Diision launch is being fitted with discussions. You can share the award, determine the accurate depth recorded similar equipment and will be used but turn in the idea! by the transducers. It is loxw'ered to during busy times as a spare or in approximate bottom at a known depth. conjunction with the Shad. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11

PAGE 18

the single track in 10 hours, a rate of 1 in less than 4 minutes. About 80 of 10 YearJ 4go these were dirt trains, the rest passenger PRICE REDUCTIONS on approximaand freight trains. telv 100 food and household items, to A train 940 feet long, traveling at represent an aggregate savings of 10 miles an ]iour, took not less than $200,000 for customers of the Canal H4 seconds to pass clear of the single commissaries during 6 months, were track span, and successive trains in the announced. Egg prices were to be 3 and same direction could not pass over, with 4 cents lower per dozen and beef and 50 Yeari 4go safe headway, faster than one a minute. salisage products were 1 to 5 cents a pound lower. EXCAVATION FOR THE Atlantic A merger of the Office of the Compapproach to the Gatun Locks disclosed, 25 l/eari 4go troller and the Finance Bureau of the at about 150 feet beyond the lower end Canal organization, with two divisions of the locks Roperr, a sharp dip in the C ANAL ZONE and Panama residents and four staff groups, was announced. rock on which the center guide wall was -2,000 strong-crowded the hangar ine Port-au-Prince, Haiti, was made a to rest. It was decided to build the wall at Albrook Field to witness the history200 feet shorter than was proposed in making arrival of six new U.S. Ar my ir sigport of ca f Pmad Lin the original plans. Force B-17 bombers known as "Fl ing ships Noangdepasr made oClsofa 11 Mlival and departure from Cristobal, Rail traffic problems were of concern Fortresses." Under the command of but the ships left New York a dav earlier as work progressed on excavation at Lt. Col. Robert Olds, the bombers southbound and arrived there a day the site of Miraflores spillway. In spite were on the last lap of a goodwill flight later on northbound trips. of new trackage, there remained 1,050 to South America which had taken them feet of single track from the south end to Buenos Aires, Chile, and Peru. They of Miraflores tunnel to Corozal. had made the flight from Lima to PanScheduling became a problem, with ama in only 9 hours. The planes reAn appeal was made to residents of approximately 175 trains to pass over gained here 2 days for inspection and the Canal Zone to conserve electrical then continued their flight to the U.S. energv because of the unusually dry west coast. weather and increasingly heavy deIn Washington, D.C. Adm. William mands for watur for blockages and power RETIR N DuBose, Chief of the Bureau of Naval ge ncration. Water levels of Gatun and REIREM ENTSConstruction, stated that the Panarma ladden Lakes were dropping much Canal could accommodate battleships faster than desireable because of dry RETIREMENT certificates were preup to 60,000 tons, 980 feet in length and weather in) the upper river areas sented at the end of December to the 108 feet in beam. He indicated that a supply ing the basin. enmployeeslisted below, with their posiUnited States fleet powerful enough to The first six new Japanese-built locks tionms at the tr lie of retireriment and ears repel simultaneous attacks against both towxing locomotives were delivered to of Caial sir \icc: coasts mav be achieved in 7 or 8 vears. Gatirn Locks for tests. More than twice Eduardo Blandon, Stet edore, 'emninals .s powerful as the old locomotives, thev Di\ iqq i, : ears, 20 days. Bills pioiding for wxidows annuities also are faster, an important factor in Joseph N1. Cooke, Super\ isory Gencral Enarid for 30-y\ear optional retirement for increasing the number of lockages gineer, Engineering Division; 7 years, Panama Canal employees wec intro8 months, 9 days. possible in a day Felipe M. DA-ila, Painter, Mlaintenance ducedintothe Hocseof Represertatvcs. Work on construction of 30 family Division. 32 years, 10 months, 16 days. lin Panama, the Fourth Central Aerncunits, the first of 119 family quarters Ralph Iugan, Jr.s lice Prixate, Police ican and Caribbean Ohmpic Garncs scheduled for Canal Zone Pacific side Dix i.m ii; 16 years. 6 months, 18 daiys. Burnett Garero, Heavy Truck Driver, Mlainxverc held in the newly constricted communities, was started in Los Rios tenancy Division, 22 vears, 10 months, Oly mpic Stadium. and Corozal. 2 da\ s Alfred R. Graham, Staff Nurse. medicine a.d Surgcirv. Gorgias Hospital; 18 Years, herald J. Jerome, Leader, Heavy Labor, Be Careful--Not a Statistic Drcdginmg Divi sion; 46 xears, 2 nimoiths, 11 days. Jose Johnson, Washmian, Ancon Laundry -ACCIDENTS 22 years, 18 days. Harold Palmer, Clerk Checker, Railroad FOR Division 33 years, 2 months, 11 days. Albert L. Pope, Inispector, Carman. Wood T H IS MONTH and Steel, Railroad Diisiion 17 ears, rIMOT I month, 23 dasH Rudolph V. Rubelli, Pilot, Navigation DiAND FIRST AID HOSPITA L sioii: 22 years, 6 months, 18 davs. ZONE Anthons NI. Smith, Extrat or and TumblerTHIS YEAR man, Arin Laundrv: 25 years, 4 months, 12 dLxs. Paul S. Stewart. Police Private, Police DiviCASES A DAYS sion0 25 Nears, 7 months, 6 das. DECEMBER CASES ABSENT Joseph C. Stokes, Carian, Wood and Steel, Railroad Division, 9 \ears, 1 n tl '62 '61 '62 '61 '62 '61 25 1ix ALL UNITS 243 259 9 4 2148 410 Jasper Wilmoth, Helper lMarine \lachinist, Dred4gii. Diisiorn 21 vears, 8 months., YEAR TO DATE 2940 3547(699) 128 131(4) 11163 19233 95) 10 da ( ) Locks Overhaul injuries included in total. 12 FEBRUARY 1, 196:3

PAGE 19

ANNIVERSARIES --(On the basis of total Federal Service) CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU OFFICE OF THE Carl W. Hoffmeyer COMPTROLLER Clerk, Mail Handling George T. Darnall, Jr. Unit Valuation Engineer, General ENGINEERING AND Wilmer L. Downing CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Payroll Sy stems Officer Hubert C. A Richard W. Fuller Painter e v General Claims I TRAT BRANC Alfredo C. Ca J. a lo Paver TPPLY TI) COMMUNITY t>ing le Printing MARINE B U B R AU ant Noble A. Phillips Warren D. M q ard Planner and Estimato Commissa S re \lanaer Christian S. Sk I irietta NI tin Towing Lo mi p ator I N C ker Charles H. Ari on i .Orville Guard Garment Presser TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Donald 0. Zobel Truck Driver CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU MARINE BUREAU SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY Fitz A. Barnes Everett White SERVICE BUREAU Photographic Laboratory Guard Luis E. Ceballos Technician Bernardino Berrio Service Center Supervisor Crispin S. Mayers Maintenance Painter fartindale Coombs Detention Guard Joseph Butcher Utility Worker John H. West Ilelper Lock Operator Doris I Corbin Senior High Teacher, Latin Thomas Carr Baker American Schools Deckhand Maria D. Gil Daniel Pineda Vernon A. Charles Garment I resr Laborer Cleaner Helper Machinist H tili d Gor e Manuel Cobo Enid E.'Herbert ENGINEERING AND Boatman Utilitv Worker CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Granville E. Downer Hubert G. Hunter Deckhand Boatswain Laborer Cleaner Leslie 0. Anderson Calixto Goliz Clover Jamieson Supervisory Construction 1per Lock a or Shirt Presser Representative (General) nd h C. nt Mary L. John Marguerite Runck 'ie -an er Counterwonan Clerical Assistant, Typing Car s .N Nee Emily R. Malcolm Robert H. Elliott e B tswain Betail Stoire Sales Checker Launch Operator c un B Ella Jean Maynard Laureano Hidalgo elper L 'k perator Sales Section Head Boatman Lucille McLeod Ernesto Pornare rrngton I s Con terw ons Boiler Tender and Myrtle E. Monrose Tomis asquMorales Stock Control Clerk Seaman Helper Lock Operator Manuel T. Mosquera Jos6 M. Ozuna Garbage Collector Helper Lock Operator Angela L. Price HEALTH BUREAU Andr6s Pavin Sales Clerk Amy McFarlane Deckhand Alberto Torres Formula Boom Attendant Virgilio Portillo Laborer Cleaner Emilio Rodriguez Helper Lock Operator Victor Vald6s Nursing Assistant, Medicine Stanley Price Garba-ge Collector and Surgery Deckhand TRANSPORTATION AND Syble NI. Taitt Leofanor Renterias TERMINALS BUREAU Pantry Worker, Special Diets Launch Seaman Herbert W. Rose Edna C. Tullis Jorge Urriola Engiineer, Locomotive Yard Nursing Assistant, Medicine Painter Alejandro Blanco and Surgery Paul H1. Zimmerman Truck Driver Marquesa H1. Francis Lead Foreman, Marine Edgar C. Erskine Cook Machinist Carpo Checker THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13

PAGE 20

TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES "United States" Returning The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net THE HUGE luxury liner United States tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: h .. -_ I = )will make her second visit to the Canal Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963 February 28 as pait of a Caribbean Avg. NO cruise. The big ship docked in Cristobal 1963 962 iTransits 1963 1962 1951 last cruise season without any trouble t -and spent the day while her 'hundreds United States intercoastal ---------_ ---------101 1 118 162 East coast of United States and South America -_ _ 621 618 427 of passengers took tours of both sides East coast of United States and Central America _ 112 88 143 of the Isthmus. With her 990-foot East coast of United States and Far East --_ ------531 621 257 United States Canada east coast and Australasia s1 68 5 length, the United Stats takes up most Europe and west coast of United States Canada ---_ -232 234 160 of one of the Cristobal piers. Europe and South America 300 272 116 Europe and Australasia --_ -------_ -----_ 92 92 80 Other cruise ships due here in FebAll other routes ------_ ---683 653 374 ruarx are the Homeric of the Home Line Total traffic -_ 753 I 2,764 1 774 on February 10; the Hanseatic of the lambiurg Atlantic Line on February 6 MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS and 25; the Brinmn of the North Vessels of 300 tons net or over Gernan Line on February 28; and the (Fiscal Years) St'1/a Polaris on February 28. Gross Tolls *Th Canadian Pacific luxury liner Transits (In thousands of dollars Eniprcss of England arrived for a day's Agonth --, Avrage isit in Cristobal yesterday. This was 1963 1962 Tinsas 1963 1962 Tolls. t sod rip t the Canal for the 193s1ss ist-l -~~1 --mpress of England. The first was made July 1962 9 7S 931 557 84,980 $4,776 $2,432 August---------950 934 554 4,926 4,749 2,403 last ycar when she \N as on a Caribbean September------909 892 570 4,617 4,523 2,431 cruise similar to the one she is making October_ ----882 935 607 4,411 4,646 2,559 this year. November --------924 891 568 4,684 4,443 2,361 December --947 938 599 4,983 4,870 2,545 January 1963 580 2,444 New Shipping Service February ---559 2,34') Narch 632 2,657 WIT H the inauguration of a new service April 608 2,588 of the Columbus Line between Auslay629 2,672 -n599 2,528 trahia and the eastern ports of the Total for United States, a number of new ships 6 nionths 5,590 5,521 3,455 $28,601 $28,007 _$14731 will become regular Canal customers. Fiscal \eir 11.49 7,062 $57,290 $29.969 According to an announcement made in Before deduction of any operating expenses. N ork, the Columbus Line will start the new service with the sailing of the CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY Cap Xilaoo, a fast modern motor vessel, --from N\xw York the middle of February. nd Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963 The Cap) Vilano will be followed bv 1963-1-9 -1951-55 the sailing of its sister ship, the Cal) ubr Tns Number Tis Ax erag Aer Noit, I month later, followed by the S caro rfiiit r t t of c" Cap Frio and then the Cap Blanco, With trmits c argo tranisits c arg, tranits i of Cargo -_ _---_--_these four vessels, the Columbus Line British----_-_-_-_-3o8 2 117,230 316 1,915,980 301 1,874647 ill idler i minthlx sailing. Chilean ---31 174,8"2 38 286.785 11 66,740 .s Chinese--24 185.755 21 171.820 6 38,938 Colo~mbiain --63 91,331 69 110,841 .38 46,028 To BiFrTh Caa Danish Too Big For The Canal Ecuadoran 16 12890 13 16.367 36 2493-4 A JAPANESE shipbuilding company French 37 189,361 33 2 36, 0 33 147,569 German-----280 1.000 528 261 764.020 44 92,500 recetly completed another tanker Greek ------122 1,180,611 197 1 ,28,709 26 219,932 which never will be able to transit the Honduran 79 5, 146 22 27,757 96 120C854 lsraeli ---26 57.516 18 103,985 Cinal. It is the Niaslio Mrn. xxhich xxas Itaihan ---19 166,776 59 354.089 36 185,937 launched last Jily and started her lapanese 221 133:3,98 211 1.204,759 67 406,764 maiden voyage to Kuwait in October. 1I berian ---192 1.65:3,114 2 08 1.688,347 43 260,602 Netherlands --169 3586,005 135 741,115 32 151,485 With a deadweight tonnage of more Nicariaguan 16 1 35_8 6 4.648 than 1.30,000 tons, the ship is the largest Norwegian 3 66 2,314,62:3 366 2.590.85S 193 747,864 Panamanian --1o14 152,753 106 491, 125 115 604,6 19 oih tatlsem in the xorld .unw is considered Perx ian_ -_ _ 17 91 168 28 169.320 7 1:3,512 to be of the maximum possible size for Plilippine --1 --l s 53 323 21 109,7 32 5 28,915 safe operation at existing terminals. She Swedish --5-31 -)sO 85 440.441 43 175,551 united States 419 2 622,377 426 2560 797 5:39 3,225,627 is 954 feet long, has a beam of 141 feet, All others --43 198 .113 47 230.361 39 146.2))l a gross tonnage of S6,431, and despite Total ---2 733 15.48.5 77 2,764 16 416 275 1,774 8,797 124 her size, can travel at 16 knots. 14 FEBUARY 1, 196:3

PAGE 21

Automated Freighters CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT TWO OF THE world's most automatt-d Se 0111d QUarter. Fiscal )*car car go liners are making regular trips through the Canal these days on speedy, I962 agits vovages between Japan, the U.S. west A 1951 55 coast and New York. They, are thc to to Total Total Total Kinkasan Maru and th Ks gasan K_ Pacific Atlantic Maru, sister ships of the Mitsui Line. Co mercial vessels: The Kinkasan Mari was built last Ocean-going ---------------1439 1,314 2,753 2,76-1 1774 ear as the world's first automated carlt Small* -------------------45 43 88 128 267 liner of her size. The Kasngasan Mau, Total commercial ----------1 484 1.357 2.841 2.592 2,041 which returned through the Canal inU. S. Gov ernment vessels: 0 December on the second leg of Ii Ocsas--going -* -------46 49 95 4:3 148 maiden voyage, has automation facilities Small _ _ 24 15 39 52 71 whliich have been tlloptd onl a I ai Total Government 70 64 134 95 1 1 wider scale. The ship has full automatic Total commercial and U.S. Govfacilities at all threc major systems; ernment -------1,554 1,421 2,975 2,987 2,26o deck, engine, and electric, making it 0Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. possible to operate \\ ith a crew of feser 0**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 19.51, (; erinmiit-operitd than 35 men. ships transited free. Both ships have been chopping tiloff the run between Japan and Nesw PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL lork and have broken a few records for this vovage. The United Fruit Co., Pacific to Atlantic which handles ships of this line,' v (All cargo figures in long tons) that they stop lere for bunkers and sometimes for cargo. Secinl Quarter, Fital Yeasr 1963 Commoditv Liners To Be Converted 1 962 1951-55 THE PASSENGER liners Himalaiya and Ores, various --------------------I 845,'54 1 932 J40 10 143. Orcades of the P & O-Orient Lints will Lumber--------------------875.659 770 143 5*0.6% Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt -575,719 523.315 149,132 >e converted this y\am into on-class Wheat --113,073 407,950 439 626 vessels, according to reports from shipSugar ---------598,046 476,042 205,431 ping circles. The Himalaa will makc Camned food products -----------------264583 241.010 327.338 Nitrate of soda--168.545 221, 11 327.6 35 her first voyage after conversion n Fiihllal 252.397 November 1963 and the Orcades early Bananas ------------------------249,481 28235 199,495 in 1964. Both passenger liners make Netals, var --s 276,307 I 8, 5 66 184,663 Food products in refrigeration (except fresh occasional trips through the Canal on fruit -----214456 161,645 125660 round-the-world voyages. Coffee 98,424 89,38) 55,757 Oilseeds and products -10.8s70 72.178 24,t Iron and steel manufactures --216,169 94,200 47,896 Pulpw od and products102,450 114,560 46,525 All others 1,271 490 1,608325 743,O8) TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING Total----------------------232,922 ,283,582 4,790,382 VESSELS IN DECEMBER 19,, 19 61 Commercial. .947 938 Atlantic to Pacific U.S. Govern ent .40 8 Free .e. 9 7 S < nd Quarter. Fiscal ar 1963 Commodity Avera Total. .-.-. ..-.996 95:3 1>63 1962 1951-55 TOLLS Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt '71 182 2 1, 92S 901 706 Coal and coke -----1,2(4.084 1,615 594,946 Commercial ....S4,984,677 S4,871.708 Iron and steel manufactures :315 2)5 412248 413,441 S. Government 194,245 Phosphates --505.6) 4 10.62 3 181,170 28487 Corn --3 52916 1201)812 31 270 Soybeans --539,320 374,i 128 ,51 Total. ...S5,178,922 S4,900,193 \letil, s:r 369.370 1.067321 14 647 CI \heat 151.9 31 92 (5 26 11 CARGO" Cotton 10, 596 988 -0 ,5 Commercial ....5.422,391 5911.6(4 P.iper antl paper products 96,737 10)) 99 97 3 Ore, \,iriou, 186 129 20 .17 17 a U.S. Government 78,760 20 914 \lachinerv ----16 912 99754 4 76, Free. .39,354 49,576 Flour 79,708 41)-717 13.44 Chemicals, unclassified --126,157 155.0~1 44 132 Total 4 Metals, various I25)044 10 1 5 1 42,1 3 Tota,405 5,972,094 All others 1,3o)3,014 1,883)20 1,352_444 *hIcludes t lls 'mal ve'spels ocepan-goinv aInd -1.11--argo figures are in g r,,T--------n s.55.655 9'1 6o)) 4,0W 741 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15

PAGE 22

SHIPPING Tolls: Biggest, Littlest r jPANAMA CANAL records for calendar $28,021.50 for the Sinclair Petrolore on 1$Ayear 1962 show it was notable in other December 20, 1959. Largest toll charge ay\s besides recording of the largest on record for a naval ship is the $28,838 aid smallest tolls (see pictures). The for the battleship Missouri. The liner largest commercial cargo was listed for Bremen still ranks as the largest ship October 1:3 when the Or Meteor transin gross tonnage ever to transit the ited, 44,900 long tons, with iron ore en Canal, at 51,731. ioite from Chile to Baltimore. The Orion Hunter's gross is 39,287. olls for this a mounted to onl v On August 6 the Seatown, of Refine$10,836, however, contrasted with the ria Panama, S.A., made two transits in record $30,000-plus for the Orion a single dav, one with a load of gasoline Hinter, because the Canal tolls formula nd oine in ballast. is based oil ships' earning capacity, with And it) November the first ship transno charge for suchl space as the large itcd with crude oil from Venezuela -~ ~ ~ ~ n wals raaon ev, opat bndfrthe new refinery which went Ore load. o stream in Nicaragua. Super ta rOrion HTnter transited early The sar also saw introduction of The Or, Meteor retained listing as in January 1962, en route to California. super bulk carriers, designed to carry having had the largest commercial cargo The 860-foot ship has a beam of 104 feet coal one way, to Japan, and iron or for only 3 months, until her Liberian and displacement during transit was 60,300 graii from the west coast on the return flag sister ship, the Or' Saturn, transited tons. Toll was a record high $30,446.10. trip. Two such ships are the Vini and January 15 at 46,265long tons, also with Sonic, each of which transited with 40 irlli1 ore en route from Chile to to 45 thousand tons of coal, more than Baltimore. double most earlier large coal cargoes. The Or, Saturn's draft depth also was The supiluis of shipping in the wake the deepestt oil record for commercial Of the Suez crisis is evident in the load sessels, measuring 37 feet 1 inch forfactoi of ships transiting the Canal being sward and 37 feet 3 inches aft, vs. a 'Vthe lowest since 19:36. During the first draft figure of :35 feet :3 inches for the 6 months of fiscal sear 1963 traffic and Ore .1cteor. Standard maximum draft tolls w'ere Ill) approxiiately 4 percent fOr ships transiting the Canal is 36 feet il spite of a dIrop inl cargo of icarly 6 inches. Or' Satitrn still was not at 6 percent capacity oil load, for she is capable of Before the Oron JHunter's transit, the caryillg approxiiatelv 50,000 tons of top toll for a commercial ship was calgo. -100 N U 1000 M B E 962-----900 R 0 F 800 T R 700 A SwN iiimmer Albert 11. Oshiv r transited fromN Gatun Locks to Gamboa December 29-30, s 1962. The 42-year-old Washington, D.C., oceanographer was listed for 5-feet-5 inch -(AVERAGE 1951-1955) 600 length, 1-foot 3-inch beanie, 1-foot depth T and displacement of approximately oneS tenth of a ton. Toll was 45 cents, smallest ever collected by the Canal, on a minimum 0 1 net ton charge, with half of the 90-cent JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN fee rebated because he didn't go through any locks. Adneasuring Mr. Oshiver, above, is Chief Adneasurer Robert E. Medinger. MONTHS 16 FEBRUARY 1, 1963

PAGE 26

Date Due Due Returned Due Returned L 71 __

PAGE 27

!ATIN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 04820 4829


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