Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive


University of


in 2009 with funding from
Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevi1975pana































































0'4



do t. 1 ~ 'CPL~I







G


TIs
overnor-PresidentA Editor, English Edition
-HARD L. HUNT ^ PANAMA (,,,. )CANAL
HARD L. HUNT A JOSE T. TURON H.
ue"ant o Unor Editor, Spanish Edition
eutenant Governor 1E Writers
Writers
NK A. BALDWIN Vic CANEL, FANNIE P. HERNA
'anal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication FRANKLIN CASTRELLON AND PANDOI
Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1.50, airmail $3, single copies 75 cents.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


RIC
Lie

FRA
Panama C


Contents


Our


Cover


Bateas
Panama's painted plates with
distinctive pre-Columbian de-
signs are favorite souvenirs.


Culinary Capers
Recipes for exotic drinks to
sip and savor and desserts
with a special flavor.


The "QE2" 1
Around-the-wtorld-in-80 days
cruise includes record break-
ing transit of the Panama
Canal.


What happened to the "Bremen? 22
The dramatic demise of a
history-making ship.


Horses 23
Hundreds of horse owners
find family fun and friendly
competition at local shows.


Oil 29
The smaller tanker plays a
vital role.

Credits: Photos by Kecin Jenkins (p. 6 batea de-
signs and p. 15 "QE2"), Robert Friar (p. 4
batea bowls), Don Goode (p. 16 "QE2" in
Gaillard Cut and horses p. 23, 24, 25, 27),
Sketch p. 29 by Carlos Mdndez.


- 8


Queen Elizabeth


The muted colors of the batea on our
front cover are the result of many years
of research by Diana Chiari, the orig-
inator of this Panamanian art form.
With plant pigments and clay, she has
been able to reproduce the colors which
appear on pre-Columbian clay pots and
plates, such as those in the foreground
of the photograph. A part of the collec-
tion of the 193d Infantry Brigade Mu-
seum at Fort Amador, these artfully
dccorateJ pieces were loaned for the
photograph by Irene Chan, curator of
the museum.
The original design on this batea,
which belongs to Dr. Horace Loftin,
of the Executive Planning Staff, came
from a pre-Columbian plate dug up in
Parita in Herrera Province. It depicts a
small fish who found a haven when the
three large fish chasing him ended up
chasing each other.
On the back cover are four bateas
painted by Dr. Leo M. Rettinger, who
uses acrylics to paint bateas that fea-
ture dramatic bright colors on a stark
white background. His designs, copies
of original ones found in museums, de-
pict alligators, snakes, and other animal
gods giving birth to small replicas of
themselves, which are symbolic of the
continuity of nature. The two plates at
the bottom are original clay plates
made by pre-Columbian potters. The
bateas are standing on ancient hand-
carved metates.
The cover photographs as well as all
others in this issue, unless otherwise
credited, are by Arthur L. Pollack.
0 0
In the centerspread of this issue is a
charcoal drawing by John Morton, of
the Executive Planning Staff, which
shows the Queen Elizabeth 2 in Mira-
flores Locks. It has been reproduced on
special paper and inserted so that it
can be easily removed for framing.


FALL 1975


~NDEZ,
RA ALEMNAN


HAROLD R. PARFITT


IV1 LLIE K. FRIAR


8 aii ,
X dr~r






A revival of an ancient art form,

Panama's distinctive bateas are a

colorful combination of

creativity and craftsmanship


P ANAMA'S BEAUTIFUL BATEAS
with their distinctive pre-Colum-
bian designs, make delightful decora-
tions and are among the most sought-
after souvenir items on the Isthmus.
As Panamanian as the pollera, the
mola and the mosqueta, these artistic-
ally painted wooden plates, which
come in various sizes and shapes, aie
the outgrowth of an ancient art form
revived some 40 ears ago bv Diana
Chiari, a well-known local artist.


Bate4




During a ceremony held last year at
the National Museum, Diana was pre-
sented the Order of Manuel Jose Hur-
tado, the Republic of Panama's highest
honor bestowed upon a teacher. The
award was in recognition of her in-
valuable contributions to the promotion
and appreciation of native creativity
and craftsmanship.
A display of her artistry that evening
included ceramic plates, textiles, a
number of other articles fashioned from
clay, and several bateas painted with
her original designs.
The idea for the batea of the type
popular today germinated in Diana's
mind after she began decorating the
primitive clay dishes used for making
tortillas in the interior of Panama.
Tourists admired her colorful clay
plates with the unusual designs but
hesitated to buy them as souvenirs
because they were heavy and easily
broken. To solve these problems, Diana
experimented with painting the same
designs on the wooden plates which are
considered an indispensable item in


manYv rural households. These plat,-:
with upturned edges called bateas, -ie
used for everything from carrying th1i
wash to and from the river and cle:k,-
ins rice to serving as dinner plates
As a vounI graduate of the Nor-nal
School in Panama City. Diana was .,:il
to La Arena. a potter's village in P ii,-
ama's interior, to teach school. Wi\iL,
employed there, she learned pott:,.'-
making from the mothers of her 'Ii-
dents who cane to the classroom to









By Fannie Hernaindez

teach the craft that had been a ce.i.-
munitv activity for centuries. Using tI,:
traditional, simple methods, she knead, I
and shaped the clay, went to the m :r
for the rounded stones used to pclil
the pottery and collected dried '.
dung from the fields for firing the cli,
Her enthusiasm and innate creativity .i
the use of the native elements was *,
keen that soon she was teaching the vI-
lagers. Women, children and men, li,
had previously shunned potter-i-m.J:-
ing, were inspired by her to learn n,i:.
methods for improving their techniqit-
without losing the traditional qual tv
and native touch.
Like Millet, the French peasant '..h
became a celebrated painter and ref-
erred to art as a "treating of the coii-
monplace with the feeling of the sub-
lime," Diana's sincere belief in the pulr
native art form rnbbed off on the
pottery makers, who began to take
pride in their creations. Gradually pot-
tery-making became the livelihood of
many of the villagers. Later, it became
a home industry and an art. Today, the


Bateas by Diana Chiari, originator of the
Panama art form.


TImE P.AN %\IA CANAL. REVIEWV






La Arena Ceramics Center, wh,.:h he
founded with the help of her bll:.ithrs
Gilberto and Carlos, is flourishing Tli-
beautifully made dishes and pottery are
attracting attention not only in Pallaii
but also abroad.
Diana's bateas also have caught the
r" evye of connoisseurs and are sought by
collectors, museums, art galleries and
others who appreciate the simplicity
and originality of native art.
In the United States they have been
exhibited at Macy's in New York City,
ait the University of Arkansas Museum,
the Stuhr Museum at Grand Island,
Nebr., and at the Art Center in Louis-
ville, Ky. The largest batea she has
ever made was 4 feet in diameter, the
smallest, 2 inches by 3 inches. In addi-
tonm to being decorative, bateas can be
used as table tops or serving trays and
.- .. are popular as gifts.
In the early stages of batea making,
Diana spent many hours at the newly
opened National Museum, carefully
sketching the designs painted on the


A contribution to Panama's cultural heritage...












L -- L
't~r ;A













Diana Chiari adds a finishing touch to one of her bateas. Using plants and earth,
she revived an art, gave character to a humble craft and pride to its creators.
Her bateas are sought by connoisseurs, museums and art galleries.
At left, is one displayed at the National Museum of Panama and above, are some
of her bowls and a fish-shaped batca.


FALL 1975






museum's collection of precious pre-
Columbian artifacts which had been
dug up in Coel6 Province and are
known as the "Cocl6 Culture." These
are considered particularly valuable
because of their fine quality and the
indelible nature of the colors, which
neither age nor humidity have de-
stroved.
Ijetermined to reproduce the authen-
tic muted designs of the ancient ce-
ramics, Diana began experimenting
with the plant pigments and clays em-
ployed by the primitive potters to color
their wares. She had quickly ruled out
commercial enamels and lacquers as
being too bright. After much trial and
error, she achieved what she believes
to be the original Indian colors which
are today the trademark of her bateas.
Everything she uses comes directly
from nature.
The revival of an art employing
plants and earth, the very essence of
nature, and giving this humble craft
character and stimulating pride in its
creators, are Diana's contribution to
Panama's cultural heritage.
Using plates made of "cedro espino"
of the mahogany family for her bateas.
Diana sands the wood until it is per-
fectlh smooth. Then, using a damp rag,
she applies a creamy, white colored
clay wash. When it has dried, using a
soft lead pencil, she sketches free hand
on its concave side the pre-Columbian,
highly-stylized design of an insect, bird,
alligator, or other animal, typical of the
early wares. Using nature's colors, she
paints the design and when it is
thoroughly dry, applies a protective
coat of alcohol and acid resistant lac-
quer to both sides of the plate.
Since Diana's bateas appeared, dec-
orating wooden plates has become one
of the most popular native household
arts on the Isthmus.


Isthmian residents, from preschoolers
to retirees, are enthusiastic students in
the various batea-painting classes held
at hobby shops and clubs. A well-known
batea painting instructor is Arthur
Mokrav, an Army civilian employee,
who has taught many Isthmians the
new art form. His articles on batea-
making can be found at the Canal
Zone Library.
Dr. Leo ML. Rettinger, who until his
retirement was Chief of the Outpatient
Clinic at Corgas Hospital, is an expert
batea-painter. He buys the wooden
plates from vendors on Kennedy Ave-
nue. sands them carefully and then
applies a wood filler solution to close
the pores. After preparing the surface
of the batea, he paints it a stark white,
contending that the original pre-
Columbian artifacts were white. When
the white background has dried, he
applies the design with a stencil. Using
acrylics, Dr. Rettinger paints bateas
that are deep colored and dramatically
beautiful.
Eddie J. Aanescn, a retired mer-
li ont marine captain, who was born in
Norway and went to sea as a young
lad. found batea painting a relaxing,
pleasant pastime in his sun-drenched


house in Santa Clara, prior to his
departure for the United States this
year. An Isthmian resident for more
than 30 years, Aanesen has taken an
avid interest in pre-Columbian art
based on the Coelk Culture and has
compiled a collection of 50 authentic
pre-Columbian designs in color which
he uses to decorate his bateas. In addi-
tion to these motifs, he specializes in
painting bateas with crests and insignia
including the seal of the Canal Zone.
Using plates of "lowland cedro," a
fine wood also of the mahogany family,
Aanesen dries the wood for a period of
6 to 7 weeks. When he is sure that the
wood is completely dry, he sands it and
seals the wood pores with a sanding
sealer. He then adds the first coat of
varnish. When it is dry, the batea gets
another sanding and is ready for the de-
sign. Following the Indian art of Cocl,.
which was always outlined in black, he
uses a soft black lead pencil to trace
the pattern onto the batea. Then very
carefully he paints the design and after
it has dried, processes the back of the
batea. When it is thoroughly dry, he
applies a plastic spray. A coat of varnish
is the final process in hatea-making.


A batea decorated with the Seal of the
Canal Zone, the creation of
Eddie J. Aanesen, is one of the most
sought after gifts for retirees.


TIlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






A popular local pastime, batea


painting appeals to all ages


Dr. Leo M. Rettinger puts the finishing touches on a batea
showing scrolls and serpent design adapted from the
Pre-Columbian plates found in Cocli Province.
Dr. Rettinger uses acrylics on a white background.


Pretty Karin Ann Folcy, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Foley
of Fort Clayton, sands a wooden plate in
a batca-making class, a part of the
Forl (layton Pre-Teen Activities Program.


Maggie Rodriguez, deputy circulation supervisor, and
Csair Ceville, student assistant, Canal Zone Library-Museum,
use a lunch break to trace batea designs from the collection of
Arthur NMokray available at the library to batea makers.


Mrs. Martha Jordan, instructor in the Fort Clayton
Pre-Teen Activities Program, helps Randy Harford
select a design and paints for his batea which has already
heen dried and sanded.


FALL 1975


0^_







4 'LIKE TO TRY IT?















SHere is a step-by-step method of
batea-decorating. (McIlhenney, Canal
Zone Library).
1. Dry the batea by placing it in a dry
closet for at least 10 days. (Do
not stand it on its edges as this
of t h may warp it.)
S2. Sand it until ver smooth, using first
a medium and then a fine sand-
paper.
3. Applr a mixture of 50 percent
Sander Sealer and 50 percent
lacquer. Give the batea at least
three coats, sanding lightly with
In the living room of her France Field home, Mrs. Beulah K. Smithson displays a few fine sandpaper between each
of the bateas she has made in the past 20 years. A nurse in the Medical Surgical Service coat.
at Coco Solo Hospital, Mrs. Smithson learned the art of batea-making in one of 4. Trace or draw the design on the
Arthur Mokray's evening classes at the Cristobal Woman's Club in 1954. batea with a soft lead pencil.
-. ., 5. Paint with Roger's Brushing Lac-
S. quer that comes in red, black,
Ss blue, white, brown and yellow.
To bleach a batea before painting,
p apply a solution made of 3 tablespoons
of lye in 1 quart of water. Let it stand
a few minutes and then brush with a
S. strong peroxide. Allow to dry and then
apply a second coat. Let it dry and
then paint. (Caution, lye is poison and
should be handled as such.)
The Canal Zone Library has a col-
-.- election of patterns laminated on card-
board for decorating bateas which
batea makers mav trace. The patterns,
t K g which also indicate the colors to use,
S senapi ,were prepared by Mokray.

PRESENTS...





No display of Panamanian arts and crafts
would be complete without the batea.
This exhibit at the Canal Zone
Library-Museum was arranged by the
F- Panamanian National Service for Crafts
and Small Industries (SENAPI).


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Culinary


ANYONE WHO CANNOT LOOK
back on childhood, remembering
the early-morning fragrance of freshly
ground coffee brewing on the back
burner, has missed an indescribable joy.
Caf6, kaffee, koffie, "cuppa Java," by
whatever name it is known, cascades
of it are consumed daily. As a panacea,
a pick-me-up, a stimulant, an instant
restorative, coffee is the national drink
of the western world, and well on the
wav to becoming the favorite universal
beverage.
For most, the dav begins with a
steaming cupful of the brew: and many
feel they cannot get through the day
without quite a few. The "coffee break"
has become a way of life at home and
in the business world.
Coffee drinkers in the United States
are downing approximately 500 million
cups a day-sipped, savored or gulped
in a hurry. Many who arc not drinking
it are using it in cooking or to add
subtle flavoring to dishes. The coffee
pot is brewing to the tune of millions
of dollars verified )v statistics that
show the United States imported coffee
valued at S1.5 billion in 1973.
The history of coffee and coffee-
drinkin is replete with colorful tales.
According to one concerning its dis-
covery, the founder of coffee was a
leIgedary mnollah. an Arabian monk,
who after observing the strange capers
and sleeplessness of his goats that had
fed on the berries of an evergreen
bush. tried some himself. Feeling stim-
ulated, he proclaimed the wondrous
properties of the sweetish, red berries.
The origin of coffee has been traced
to an area in southwest Ethiopia called
Kaffia, where the bushes were found
gTrowing wild and taken to Arabia about
500 A.D. That first "coffee break"


more than 1,000 years ago launched
a worldwide tradition which inspires
vigor, relieves fatigue, stimulates men-
tal activity, is a symbol of friendship
andl dominates the economy of many
countries.
Despite the efforts of the Arabs to
maintain a monopoly on the industry.
coffee drinking spread and was in-
troduced into Europe in the 16th cen-
turv. As with any novelty, it encoun-
tered the most absurd objections, fall-
ing in and out of favor, according to the
prevailing medical, political and reli-
gious customs and restrictions. In Eng-
land, where it first gained popularity.
those opposing the new drink called it
"syrup of soot" and "essence of old
shoes" and a women's petition against
its use claimed that it made men sterile.
Others extolled its stimulating effects.
A coffee advertisement in 1652, be-
lieved to le the very first and now\ on
display in a British museum, praised
its exhilarating properties, saving it was
"good for sore eves" and attributed to
it the power "to cire and prevent
dropsy, gout and scurvv."
Amid these ridiculous pros and cons,
coffee gained popularity at the inns
which were then turning into centers of
political, social and literary activities.
and were later to become the hub of
business dealings. Coffee was welcomed
bv the people of the working class.
whose libations of ale and wine in the
morning often rendered them a little
tipsy and unfit for work. It can be said
that coffee sobered up the populace.
Coffee drinking flourished in the
European countries; the French and
Italians welcomed it with fervor, and
it was introduced and accepted from
country to country.
There are several versions of how


and when coffee came to America. Ac-
cording to one source, the Spaniards
brought it from Africa to Cuba, from
\where it was introduced into Panama
as early as 1538 and then spread to
Central America.
Another story credits a French offi-
cer serving in Martinique with bring-
ing the first coffee plant to the Carib-
bean in 1720. Seedlings from that plant
were sent to nearby islands and from
there coffee cultivation spread to Brazil,
which today is this hemisphere's great-
est producer. The Dutch and the Eng-
lish are credited with taking coffee to
several South American countries. In
Colombia, also among the world's lead-
ing coffee producers, the first coffee
se-'ds are said to have been planted by
Jesuit missionaries, and coffee cultiva-
t'on on a large scale was started in
1821. Its cultivation spread throughout
tropical America and today, at least
14 countries grow coffee commercially.
in today's fast paced world, more
and more people are using instant
coffee, a dried extract of freshly roasted
coffee beans, the wonderful discovery
of a Guatemalan physician of German
origin named Dr. Federico Lehnhoff
Wvld. According to a recent article on
the subject in the "Amcricas" magazine,
by Guatemalan journalist Edgar A.


A veritable "United Nations" is
represented in this row of coffee mugs,
cups and deinitasses including a
carved wooden shepherd's cup from
Yugoslavia and a French silver mug
from which a Panamanian child drank
her first "cafe au lait" more than
100 years ago. Others are from China,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, England,
Greece, India, Ireland, Japan
and the United States.


FALL 1975


Capers





Ii i a_ -:, r


























.IVI



Ir-
w..
i.~


... to sip and savor and to add a subtle flavor.


T'lE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9


'ee


3-- zmj







r 9',
'I














Drop by drop,
boiling water is poured
through pulverized
coffee to make "tintura."
Shown are a few brands
of Panama coffee.


Nicolle, the doctor-researcher made the
discovery in the early 1900's quite by
chance, when he forgot to drink a cup
of coffee. Days later he found the liquid
gone and a fine powder remaining in
the cup. His scientific mind at work, he
poured boiling water over the coffee
grounds and presto! obtained a new
cup of coffee. Interestingly, the Pan-
ama Canal and soluble coffee were
being created at about the same time.
While the Canal was being constructed,
Dr. Lehnhoff Wyld was doing research
on his new process of dehydrating
liquid coffee to obtain a product whose
color, taste and aroma equaled the
original liquid coffee. He had to do
extensive research also to obtain the
machinery necessary to manufacture
the new product. After finding the
answer in the technical advancements
of German industry, he established a
company in Guatemala. Soluble coffee
was well accepted and soon large ship-
ments were sent to Europe. Another
company was established near Paris in
191.3 but the outbreak of worldd War I
caused the soluble coffee industry to
close do\n in 1915, mainly due to the
shortage of skilled workers, who went
off to war, and the lack of ships to
transport the coffee. (Soluble tea is also
the result of Dr. Lehnhoff's research.)
Since that time, soluble coffee or
"instant" as we call it today, has
achieved a perfection and popularity
far beyond the doctor's dreams.
The bulk of coffee for consumption
in l'Ianiana was imported from Costa
Ilica until recent years when the Lan-
dla framilY of Boquete and French and


Ill i R~.jii
Ijj L E. F
II~u


American coffee growers in that area
joined forces to develop the coffee in-
dustry. From 4,500 to 5,000 tons were
produced annually in the 1960's. To-
day, from 7 to 10 percent of all land
under cultivation in Panama is planted
in coffee. About 35,000 farms in just
about every province in the country
grow coffee, with about half of the
entire production grown in a few large
coffee plantations on the mountain
slopes in the Volcan region and the
IBoqiiete district of Chiriqui Province.
Ninety percent of Panama's export
coffee is grown in this belt of volcanic
soil ranging from 3,000 to 5,000 feet
in altitude. The mild Arabica type
coffee (one of the three principal species
cultivated for the coffee industry) pro-
duced in this area is well accepted in
the world market, with most of it going
to Germany, the Netherlands and the
United States. Of Panama's 1975 coffee
crop of 110,000 quintals (hundred
weight), Chiriqui Province produced
approximately 60,000 quintals. The re-
mainder was produced on small farms
in the highlands of Herrera, Code and
Veraguas, mainly near Santa Fe. An
even larger coffee crop is expected next
year, according to Panamanian coffee
experts.
More than two-thirds of the coffee
produced is consumed locally and a
quantity is sold to the Canal Zone for
resale in its retail outlets or to be served
in restaurants and other facilities. In
1974, the Panama Canal organization
purchased 36,942 pounds of Panama
coffee with a dollar value of nearly


$32,000 from Duran, Sitton and Toi -
S.A. of Colon, the principal coffee tl ri,
in the Republic.
The Coffee Institute, a Panama *i,' -
ernment agency, gives technical :' ad':
and purchases all coffee for export .,ld
handles export sales.
An important commodity in C.-ti.l
traffic, coffee moves through the *' .il-
way along international trade routes Lu
all parts of the world. A grand total of
558,000 long tons passed through the
Canal last year. An even greater
amount, 614,000 long tons moved
through the Canal in 1973.
Making coffee is not a slapdash busi-
ness. Coffee should be measured care-
fullv. A very clean coffee maker, rinsed
in hot water to remove any residue
from the last pot, is important. A true
coffee connoisseur will have a coffee
mill, as he knows that no coffee can
match that made from freshly ground
beans.
When preparing instant coffee, make
sure the water is boiling. Add the
coffee according to the strength desired
and stir. Cover it and let it simmer a
few minutes. This lets the coffee flavor
mellow.
There are dozens of exotic brews.
Among them: Italian Espresso, espe-
cially strong coffee, prepared by forcing
steam under pressure through pow-
dered coffee; the moisture falls into the
cup and condenses to form the bever-
age. Mocha, a mixture of coffee and
cocoa or chocolate; Syrian Coffee, sen'ed
with cracked cardamon seeds, strong
and sweet; Turkish Coffee, made in a
copper or brass pot, very strong and
sweet, as it goes through a process of
three boiling; Mexican Coffee, a mix-
ture of coffee and chocolate, whipped
or beaten to a froth with a wooden
stick called molinillo; Caf6 "Carretero,"
Cuban style coffee, presugared and
filtered through a cloth strainer; and
Panama's "tintura," an essence of coffee
made by filtration, using a fine cotton
bag fitted into the coffee pot. Boiling
water is poured through the pulver-
ized coffee, drop by drop. One tea-
spoon of this tintura to a cup of milk is
sufficient. It is not uncommon for Pan-
amanians to take a bottle along when
traveling abroad. Also common at the
Panamanian breakfast table is the
proper "cafe au lait," half hot milk, half
strong coffee, poured simultaneously.
On the following pages are a few
suggestions for special coffee beverages
that are bound to please coffee drinkers
and gain new members for the coffee
cult. F.H.

10 FALL 1975















CAFE BRULOT
6 heaping tablespoons instant cofee
4 cups boiling water
Stir, cover and let set. Combine in a
chafing dish: 1 piece each of orange
and lemon peel cut into very thin strips,
4 pieces cinnamon stick, i tablespoon
cloves. 24 sugar cubes, % cup brandy.
Combine these ingredients, ignite and
let burn about half a minute. Stir care-
fully. Add coffee slowly and serve.
This makes enough for 12 demitasses
and is especially nice for a festive
occasion.


IRISH COFFEE

N4 cup Irish whiskey
8 teaspoons sugar
2% ctps hot, extra strong cofee
Whipped cream
Pour whiskey into 4 preheated
glasses or cups. Add sugar and coffee;
stir to dissolve the sugar. Float 2 table-
spoons whipped cream on top and
drink through the cream if you can.


THEi Pks\ S\MA (XCA\AL REVIEWs









COFFEE CUSTARD


6 eggs
Scuip sugar
V4 teaspoon salt
1 cup strong coffee
I can evaporated milk
2 tablespoons sherry wine
Beat eggs slightly; add remaining
ingredients and mix well. Pour into
sugar glazed mold. Set in a pan of hot
water and bake at 3500F, 40 to 45
minutes or until a silver knife inserted
in the custard comes out clean. Cool
before removing from the mold.
For the glaze: In a heavy saucepan
combine % cup sugar and 1 tablespoon I--
water and bring to a boil over low heat. W .
Increase the heat to moderately high
and cook the syrup, rotating the pan
gently, until it is a caramel color. Pour
into a 1,2 quart mold, turning to cover
the mold completely with the caramel
glaze. The glaze also may be made in ,
the mold if it is of heavy metal.







More Exotic Drinks and Desserts


VIENNESE COFFEE
'2 cup cream
1 tablespoon confectioner's sugar
V2 tablespoon vanilla
3 cups hot strong coffee
% teaspoon grated orange peel
4 cinnamon sticks
Combine sugar, cream and vanilla;
beat until stiff. Pour coffee into 4 cups.
Float the whipped cream on top and
garnish with orange peel. Put a cin-
namon stick in each cup. When using
instant, pour the water directly onto
the coffee.



COFFEE NECTAR FROM TRINIDAD
2 tablespoons instant coffee
2 cups cold water
1 tablespoon Angostura bitters
1 pint vanilla or coffee ice cream
Put ingredients in a blender and
whirl until very smooth and creamy.
Serve in tall, chilled glasses. Serves
three to four.


Here is a beverage sure to please
thirsty teenagers on a hot day:
MOCHA MILK SHAKE
4 tablespoons instant coffee
4 tablespoons instant cocoa
4 tablespoons sugar
/4 cup cold water
3 cups cold milk
1 pint vanilla ice cream
Put all the ingredients in the blender
and whirl about half a minute.


BRAZILIAN COFFEE
3 cups hot strong coffee
" cup creme de cacao
" cup whipped cream
Add the creme de cacao to the
coffee. Pour into four mugs. Top with
whipped cream.


COFFEE ICE CREAM
1 14-ounce can of condensed milk
3 tablespoons instant coffee, level
"8 teaspoon salt
s teaspoon almond extract
Combine ingredients and pour into
freezer tray. When soft-frozen, remove
to a bowl and whip to a thick smooth
consistency. Return to freezer tray.
Makes about a quart. Serve with pecan
sauce made by chopping 3i cup pecans
and adding them to 1 cup of maple
syrup; or use the ice cream to make the
following ice cream dessert:



ICE CREAM CAPPUCCINO
1% cups double strength coffee
/ cup apricot brandy
1 teaspoon cinnamon
Bring to a boil and remove from the
heat. Pour over scoops of coffee or
vanilla ice cream. Top with shaved
chocolate. Serves 6. For instant, use
1 teaspoon per cup of water.


FALL 1975





DIFFICULT TO BELIEVE THAT
this great Canal which was built
,o many years ago can transit a liner
thie size"; "a fascinating operation";
"amazing that it is in such good oper-
ating condition after so many years";
"a thrilling experience." These are a
few of the remarks made by some of
the 1,400 passengers aboard the Queen
Elizabeth 2 as she made her history
making transit, March 25.
A Panama Canal record that has
stood for 36 years was broken when
the QE2, as she is commonly known,
became the largest passenger ship to
transit the waterway. She made a
northbound transit following her arrival
from Acapulco on an around-the-world
cruise.
The Cunard liner, which is 963 feet
long and has a beam of 105 feet, broke
the record held by the German flag-
ship Bremen. which transited Feb-
ruary 15, 1939. The Bremen was
936.8 feet in length and had a beam
of 101.9 feet. The ship also broke the
Canal's toll record for passenger ships.
She paid $42,077.88, far surpassing the
Bremen's toll of $18,172.08.
Advance planning for the record
breaking transit began as early as Sep-
tember 21, 1973, with a meeting of
Marine Bureau personnel, R. A. Wood-
all, Chief Officer of the QE2, and
D. H. Morrison, Area Representative
of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co.,
agent for the ship.
At this meeting, the Cunard repre-
sentative emphasized that the ship had
never experienced any navigation diffi-
culties and had been able to dock in
New York, even in icy conditions, with-
out the use of tugs. He noted that
ordinarily the ship handled so well
that only one pilot was required for
docking and no problems of navigation
through the narrow confines of the
Canal were expected.
All eventualities were carefully con-
sidered even including the possibility
of an emergency which might require
the removal of a passenger by stretcher
at the locks. It was agreed that this
could be accomplished without any
difficulty.
Although it was recognized that the
QE2 would be a tight squeeze in the
1,000-foot by 110-foot locks, no unusual
problems were anticipated and the ship


Above: Control house eaves are folded
down to make room for the bridge of
the "QE2." At right: The giant liner
squeezes through Miraflores Locks.


would be handled in the same way as
other Panamax vessels. (Panamax ves-
sels are those of the maximum size
that can pass through the locks of the 3 '.
Canal). However, because the bridge -
of the ship extended 118 feet, plans
were made to fold down the eaves of
all of the control houses. Since this .
problem has been faced with other 'a
super ships having unusual protrusions,
the eaves are on hinges.
As the largest passenger ship still itij
active service and probably the most
widely publicized, the QE2 attracts a


The record breaking transit of





The QE2

By Willie K. Friar











.i ... .. -


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Q en El//4 Around the world in ei


@4 via the Panama Canal


ghty days


'Uei f-~r' "~r-Za~-
r~ad
OWN"

-~ K4


r rn pto


great deal of interest wherever she
goes. Since the liner has been the vic-
tim of a bomb threat and is a target
for terrorist attacks, Cunard requested
security measures for the ship be drawn
up well in advance and the Canal Pro-


\


Hong Kong




Vye


section Division began prepare
soon as the vessel's arrival t
confirmed.
With large crowds anticipate
locks on both sides of the Isth
QE2 was scheduled to transit
the west lane, which is farth
the spectator area, to minimize
problems. All center walls an
houses were declared off linit
tors and Canal employees ex
maintenance and operations
and a limited number of VIP
men and photographers. The
clouded representatives from
and several other countries a
UPI, AP, Newsweek, Time, ai
adian television film crew.
Crowds began gathering bef
on the day of the transit, ai
Zone policemen were assigned
fores Locks to handle train
regular parking lot at Mirafl
quickly filled and cars were
averted to all available area:
vicinity. A total of 1,291 visit
through the main gate at ,
between 6 and 8 a.m. but this


14 FALL 1975


Honoluu
Yokohama .
I Kobe.

S Los Angeles


SNew York
Acapulco Porn *
/ Everglades .
S Kngston.
Crieobal/ Bomba
aagena
Cortagena


Mae Seychelles
Mombasa


Salvador Bahia
RiodeJaneiro *


Durban
ap. To.wn
Cape Town
*c


nations as a small percentage of the actual num-
ime was her of spectators who could be spotted
atop even the highest hills along the
ed at the Canal, many with cameras and field
inus, the glasses.
through The local crowd had a much easier
est from time seeing the liner than the Japanese
e security when the ship came into port in Yoko-
d control haina. There, spectators not only stood
s to visi- in line for many hours but paid 30 yen
except for (about 10 cents) to walk by the ship.
personnel Directed by the port security force, the
's, news- line filed past the ship on a 24-hour
latter in- basis for the 3 days the ship was in
Panama port. One crewmember estimated that
s well as at least 250,000 Japanese viewed the
id a Can- ship in what he felt was a remarkably
disciplined operation.
ore dawn The liner, which was en route to
id Canal New York, arrived at the Balboa an-
to Mira- chorage at 4:35 a.m. and was boarded
fic. The shortly after 5 a.m. by II admeasurers.
ores was Nine of them left the ship at Cristobal
then di- but J. C. Baker and Richard J. Bjor-
s in the ncby remained on board until the ship
rs passed reached Port Everglades to finish the
liraflores measuring. The cooperation they re-
was only ceived on board was excellent and
made for a smooth and pleasant opera-
tion of probably the most difficult job
the admeasurers have had so far.
Passengers looked with curiosity at
the preoccupied men with tape meas-
ures who were hard at work through-
out the transit. Everyone was friendly
and helpful but Bjornebv reported one
discolicerting moment when after being
S asked to remove his shoes in the Turk-
ish bath, he was soon leaping about in
Singapore surprise as he discovered the floor was
S blistering hot.
*Colombo Four pilots were assigned to the QE2
as is routine for ships of this size. They
were control pilots, Capt. Furman D.
Saunders and Capt. Robert F. Boyd
and assisting pilots, Capt. Joseph J.
Schack and Capt. Paul L. Skrable.
The QE2 received routine handling
as far as all locks operations were con-
cerned and only eight towing loco-
motives were used.
Since the Bremen was not only the
largest ship to transit the Canal 36
years ago but also the first commercial
vessel of more than 50,000 gross tons
in the nearly 25 years of Canal opera-






Control pilots, Capt. Robert F. Boyd,
left, and Capt. Furman D. Saunders,
talk with Capt. Mortimer Hehir,
master of the "QE2."



tions, she received special handling
and many extra precautions were taken.
Fourteen locomotives were assigned to
the Bremen and there were five pilots,
one control pilot and four assistants.
It must be noted, however, that the
locomotives now in use are more power-
ful than those assigned to the Bremen.
In addition to the regular lockmaster,
a supervisor or lockmaster was at the
bow and stern of each wall at each of
the locks watching all operations and
read to handle any emergency. One
of the concerns, according to a local
newspaper account, was that since the
Bremen was a German ship, and World
War II was about to begin, it might be
involved in some attempt to sabotage
the Canal.
Also of concern was power failure
since 14 locomotives had never before
been used at one time on a lockage.
All went well however, and the ad-
measurers were able to finish their
work before reaching Balboa. The
Bremen was on a cruise around South
America and was making a southbound
transit.
After the tolls were computed, the


W 0


?


(tL


ship's owners protested the cost as
being too high and the Canal was later
called upon to explain some of the
charges. In a letter to the German
"Reichschiffsvermessungsamt," the di-
rector of admeasurement explained that
"all lobbies, vestibules, foyers or en-
trances which conjointly serve state-
rooms as well as public rooms do not
qualify as public rooms." These, they
noted, could not be exempted from
charges but the Canal agreed to exempt
"the shooting gallery," "the blacksmith


shop and copper smithy." A barbershop
which the ship's officials wished to
deduct as a public room was disallowed
because it was discovered that it was
used exclusively by the crew.
The total time for the Bremen's tran-
sit was slightly over 10 hours com-
pared to the S hours and 4 minutes
required for the QE2. The Bremen had
some problems with high winds.
The Cunard liner arrived at Mira-
flores at 6:27 a.m. and cleared Catun
at 2:31 p.m.


I




P ; "11._" -r"
..






',A'-'
'I

TH-. BM

THE "BREMEN"


L

.. ... ~
.. 3


THE "QUEEN ELIZABETH 2"


Both the "Bremen" and the "Queen Elizabeth 2" attracted large crowds when they arrived at the Canal. The "Bremen's"
February 15, 1939 transit set a record that was to stand until it was broken 36 years later by the Cunard liner.


THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW'


;9 s; i


1% 4






For passengers aboard the QE2, the
Canal transit was a high point of one
of the most luxurious cruises of modern
times. They ate their lunch on trays to
be able to watch the entire operation.
They were on the final leg of a cruise
labeled "Around-the-World in Eighty
Days" which had taken them to 24 of
the world's most exotic ports. This was
the first time since World War 11 that
Cunard had undertaken a world cruise
and during the voyage the ship
visited five continents and crossed three
oceans. Included among the many land
tours were African safaris and visits to
the Taj Majal, and Mainland China.
The longest stretch of ocean travel was
the 3,049 miles between Yokohama
and Honolulu and the shortest time
between two ports was the 44 miles
between the ports of Cristobal and
Balboa. The ship covered 31,000 miles
before the cruise terminated in New
York, March 31.
Providing all the comforts of a 13
story floating hotel, passengers' accom-
modations started at $5,400 per person
with the ultimate luxury being the two
penthouse suites which went for nearly
$100,000 each. For this price, the
occupants had two rooms arranged on
two decks, one above the other, an in-
side private staircase, two private
oceanfront decked patios, two private
bars, a day steward, night maid, and


the satisfaction of having the best.
The decor in the Trafalgar Suite was
inspired by Admiral Nelson's quarters
on his flagship H.M.S. Victory. There is
a replica of the Admiral's desk among
the furnishings and an oil painting of
Lady Hamilton. Both penthouses can
be set up so that either the upper or
lower level can become the bedroom or
sitting room. There are walk-in closets,
and the private patios on both decks
give a vantage point for viewing all of
the special portside activities that were
arranged for most stops along the way.
The other penthouse suite is similar
but decorated with Queen Anne period
furnishings including a painting of the
former British queen. Twenty other
suites have private patios.
About 1,100 crewmembers were
aboard to handle all the needs of the
1,400 passengers. Included in the staff
are some chefs and other staff members
from the France, which was withdrawn
from service.
In addition to all of the other social
activities aboard the ship, there was a
nightly cocktail party and dinner hosted
by Capt. Mortimer Hehir and his wife.
A different group was invited each
night making it possible for all of the
passengers to "sit at the Captain's table"
at least once during the cruise. Mrs.
Hehir said that she was allowed to


travel with her husband 3 months of
the year and therefore was able to go
on the 80-day around-the-world cruise.
She said the nightly dinner had made
it possible for her to get to know the
passengers which had added a great
deal to the pleasure of accompanying
her husband.
Aboard the QE2 at the time of her
transit were passengers of 18 nationali-
ties. Sixty-five percent of the 1,400 pas-
sengers were from the United States.
Among them was Lillian Gish, still well
known all over the world as the star of
more than 100 Hollywood silent films.
She came aboard at Capetown, South
Africa, and had been giving lectures
on the history of films from 1900 to
1928.
Luxurious dining aboard the ship is
provided by three restaurants which
feature a five-course breakfast and a
seven- and eight-course lunch and
dinner. Lending an international flavor
to the varied menus are dishes like
Roulade de Veau Bourguigonne, Can-
ard a l'Orange, Mousse au Chocolat,
and Crepes Flambe. The "wine cellar"
is stocked with 25,000 bottles.
Passengers can work out in the gym,
take a Turkish bath or sauna, play
table tennis, bridge, see the latest
movies, try their luck in the casino or
dance all night in several cabarets.


Aboard the QE2











i


'h ..


The "Queen Elizabeth 2" passes
through Gaillard Cut on her
northbound transit to New York
where the cruise terminated.


Chefs, bartenders, stewardesses, and other members of the crew line the forward rails
to get a close-up view of transit operations as the 105-foot beam of the
"QE2" is fitted into the 110-foot wide lock chamber at Miraflores.
Centerfold: Sketch of "QE2" in Miraflores Locks.


16 FALL 1975


































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There are three swimming pools, one
indoor and two outdoor, nine bars, two
main ballrooms, a shopping center, a
daily newspaper printed aboard the
ship, and all the other things you
would expect to find at an exclusive
resort.
As the most modern ship of its day,
the Bremen also printed a daily news-
paper aboard using a method similar to
that used on the QE2. At that time, a
new invention had made possible the
transmission by radio of complete
newspaper pages and transferring of
the material onto plates for reproduc-
tion on ordinary printing presses. The
process, which was tested on the
Bremen in the spring of 1932, was
created by Adalbert Gurth, of Switzer-
land, and was an important step in the
development of such services as the
transmission of photographs by wire.
Actually, the Bremen had one ca-
pability that the modern day QE2 does
not have. It could carry and launch an
airplane by use of a catapult located
between its two funnels. By using the
plane for the last 600 miles, mail could
be delivered between Europe and
America from 24 to 48 hours earlier
than was possible on regular ships.
But though it may not have its own
plane, the QE2 does provide a special
drive on/drive off service for the con-
venience of passengers. There is room


for 80 automobiles to be transported
in this way.
And although it does not have a
blacksmith shop as did the Bremen, it
has painters, plumbers, carpenters, and
all types of specialists to make sure the
ship is in perfect condition. For the
passengers there are expert teachers for
bridge, dancing, or most any subject
that a passenger might wish to pursue.
There is even a bomb disposal ex-
pert who was assigned to the ship after
the 1972 bomb scare when a bomb
threat required landing bomb disposal
personnel by parachute to search the
ship while it was far out at sea. This
incident is supposed to have inspired
the movie "Juggernaut." One crew-
member, who was aboard the ship at
the time, however, insisted the actual
incident was nothing like what was
shown in the movie.
After completing her transit of the
Canal at 2:31 p.m., the QE2 sailed for
Kingston, Cartagena, Port Everglades
and New York, where the voyage ter-
minated March 31.
Although the QE2 is the largest pas-
senger ship to pass through the water-
way, she is not the longest ship to tran-
sit. This record is held by the San Juan
Prospector, an ore-bulk-oil carrier,
which transited April 6, 1973. She is
972.8 feet long and has a beam of 106
feet. The record for the widest ships to


Jacob Baker, senior admeasurer,
computes Panama Canal net tonnage
for the "QE2."


transit is still held by the U.S. Navy
battleship New Jersey and her sister
ships. These vessels are 800 feet in
length and 108 feet in the beam.
Chances are good that the Queen
Elizabeth 2 will retain her title as the
largest passenger ship to transit the
Canal. She is the only oversize pas-
senger ship in service and daily Canal
traffic reflects a trend toward smaller
cruise ships.


Luxurious public rooms, such as this,
\verc deserted as passengers gathered
on (deck to watch the transit,
which took S hours and 4 minutes.


Many passengers arose before dawn and
selected vantage points where they
could watch operations in
air-conditioned comfort.


A pressman looks over the newspaper
which is printed daily aboard the
ship using a news service transmitted
by radio.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


t~ti



























W HAT HAPPENED TO THE
Bremen, the largest passenger
ship to transit the Canal until the QE2
toppled the record, March 25?
Some of the many rumors that cir-
culated during World War II are still
heard today-she was sunk by a British
submarine, she sank off Denmark with
15,000 German troops aboard, she was
scuttled by her master to avoid capture.
All of these stories are false but the
true story of what happened to the
Bremen after she completed her record
making transit February 15, 1939, is
equally dramatic.
Aware of the tense world situation
and with war an immediate possibility,
the crew of the Bremen was anxious to
return to Germany as quickly as
possible.
On reaching New York, the 1,600
cruise passengers quickly disembarked
and the ship was readied for departure
within 9 hours after her arrival. But
before she could get underway, Pres-
ident Franklin D. Roosevelt announced
that all ships of potentially belligerent
nations would be searched for arms or
other materials which might make it
possible to convert them into vessels of
war once they were at sea.
There were immediate protests from
the owners of the Bremen but to no
avail and the U.S. Steamship Inspec-
tion Service delayed the vessel for 36
hours while a careful search was made,
which included ordering the crew to
lower the lifeboats for inspection.
Finally, on August 30, the Bremen
was allowed to steam out of New York
Harbor only a few hours before German
tanks invaded Poland. With the band
playing "Deutschland iiber alles," and
the crew giving the Nazi salute, the
huge liner passed the Statue of Liberty
and headed for the open sea.


Five days after her departure, two
liferings from the Bremen were re-
covered off the coast of Massachusetts
and rumors spread that the ship had
been sunk by a submarine or had been
scuttled.
Actually, as soon as the ship was out
of sight of land, her captain ordered the
ship to be repainted to help camouflage
her. Lifeboats were lowered halfway
down the side of the ship. Seamen
stood in them and using long poles to
which they attached paint brushes,
they covered the giant liner with a coat
of dull grey paint.
As the ship continued at full speed,
lifeboat drills and other emergency pro-
cedures were constantly practiced and
everyone was alerted to be ready to


scuttle the vessel. However, in only
8 days the liner was safe in the Russian
port of Murmansk and the Nazi press
publicized the event as a "victory over
the British." Cartoons appeared pre-
tending to explain how it was done.
One showed the crew carefully stitch-
ing all the tablecloths together, then
hanging them over the side and paint-
ing a rowboat on them to disguise the
enormous liner.
In December 1939, the ship quietly
made the final dash for its home port
of Bremenhaven. Nothing more was
heard of her until March 17, 1941,
when the German radio announced that
the liner was afire. The beautiful luxury
liner burned for 8 days as all efforts to
save her failed and the firemen turned
their efforts to saving her sister ship,
the Europa, which was moored nearby
Although an investigation was held,
the cause of the fire was not dis-
covered Sabotage was suspected but
never proved.
Four years later, when the victori-
ous American troops arrived in Bre-
menhaven they found only three broken
sections of the hull lying in the water.
The rest of the ship had been cut up to
provide scrap metal for the armament
plants.
But the name of the Bremen re-
mained on the record books of the
Panama Canal and when she appeared
in the news this year many local people
nostalgically recalled her transit 36
years ago. \KF


: .. '
S,. ~..C
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-



? -

The German cruise ship "Bremen" passes through Gatun Locks on her southbound
record breaking transit, February 15, 1939, while the left lane was
out of service during locks overhaul.


FALL 1975







., ~


-7 a.'


Horses

By Lori Daisey


HOW TIME IS FIVE MINUTES
away, folks!" With these words
from the announcer's booth, Glenn
Heath casts a glance at the sky. Will
today be sunny or wet? Will he be
soaked with perspiration or with rain?
It will be touch and go, as he well
knows.
Glenn's running comments and humor
as he emcees horse show events in the
Canal Zone are a constant source of
amusement to the spectators. Little do
they know how many details he must
take care of and remember. The name
of every rider in every event (some-
times as many as a hundred). The
name or number of every horse that
enters the arena. He must keep these
on the tip of his tongue every second of
the full day ahead. He must describe
each event as it unfolds before the

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEw 23


spectators, outline the rules riders must
follow, and announce the results of
each event as soon as the judges make
their decisions.
In the fast-moving Pole Bending
event, a small girl, barely large enough
to climb upon a horse, comes flying
across the starting line. While timers'
clocks tick away, she must guide her
horse between the upright poles,
weaving in and out, turn, and repeat
the process without knocking a pole
over or missing one. The contestant
who achieves this in the fastest time
is the winner, and ribbons will be
awarded on down to 4th or 6th place.
In the exciting Barrels event, a spec-
tator favorite, a boy sitting deep in the
saddle, body stretched across his
horse's neck, races against the clock,
urging his mount into the tight turns


-r


:9, '


It's all family fun and

friendly competition for

horse owners and riders

at the local horse shows





around three positioned barrels. He
must not overturn one or miss one as
he flies through, around and back across
the finish line.
The Senior Division (for participants
over 18) may bring out a mom or dad
to imitate the youngsters, sometimes
performing well, and sometimes obvi-
ously out of their element.
These are familiar scenes in the
Canal Zone horse world where there
are hundreds of horse owners and
riders. Most belong to one of 10 riding
clibs conveniently located throughout
the area. On the Pacific side there are
Howard Riding Club, Albrook Riding
Club, Fort Clayton Riding Club, and
Pacific Saddle Club. About midway
across the Isthmus are Summit Riding
Club and Camboa Riding Club. The
Atlantic side has Gatun Saddle Club,
*Mindi Acres Riding Club, Fort Ran-
dolph Riding Club, and Atlantic Riding
Club.
These clubs and horse shows are suc-
cessful due to the efforts of many
"behind the scenes" heroes. The mother
who sat hunched over a sewing ma-
chine until 2 a.m. finishing costumes
for her participating family. The
grooms who help by walking and cur-
rying (brushing thle horses) and lo-
cating needed equipment. The children
who pitch in even though they may
not le in the show themselves. The
dad helping with the change from
westernn saddle and equipment to Eng-
lish equipment while his son or daugh-
ter is hurriedly changing to the appro-
priate riding apparel in a tack room or,
more often, trying to change in a car
or trailer, or behind a hastily hung
blanket. The instructor who is keeping
his fingers crossed that his pupils will
remember all he has tried to teach


Above: Kathy Molina on "Miracle."
























them. The farrier who properly shoed
that horse to help it make a good jump.
Fhe stablebov who has been responsible
for feeding the horse as instructed by
the rider or owner. The timer, the
judges, the officers of the hosting club,
all hoping to make participants and
ticket-purchasing spectators happy. The
list could go on and on.
For over 14 years, serving in sun or
rain, Karl Marohl has been one of the
best-loved and most-respected judges
of Canal Zone horse shows. His wife,
Barbara, has stood by his side as a
recorder, keeping track of his point
decisions on the participants, for the
same number of years and recently has
begun to judge shows as well. One
reason Karl and Barbara are in such
demand is that through the years they
have studied and adjusted their judging
as times and events changed. One of
the most difficult parts of judging in
the Canal Zone is that the judge almost
always knows and is a friend to all the
participants. Karl and Barbara, how-







gin


-I



' .

p, ,*- '. .


ever, have the ability to disassociate
themselves from this problem and fol-
low the rules of judging fairly and with
no partiality to anyone once they enter
the arena. It is combined work such as
this that has helped to nourish and im-
prove the Canal Zone horse shows.
Donating their time, Dick Conover
and Capt. Marshal Irwin have prac-
tically built a stable and club in their
off-duty hours. Under their guidance,
Pacific Saddle Club has grown from a
"smaller club" to one of the Zone's
finest. Through the efforts of these
men and other members, Pacific has
become what could well be called the
"heart" of the riding clubs today; it is
here that members of all Zone riding
clubs can find good feed, equipment,
vitamins, medicines and other items
needed to keep rider and horse in good
trim.
"It takes a lot of the time and
energy of the adult members to rin
and maintain a good riding club, but it
is well worth it when you see the over-


all results and such fine effects on the
children," says Capt. Al Gallin, pres-
ident of the Fort Clayton Riding Club.
Al, the members of his club, and the
members of all the riding clubs strive
to prevent the so-called generation gap,
and it very seldom occurs in the local
horse world.
For serious riders who wish to de-
velop the finer points, Bruce Harkness,
steward at Fort Clayton Riding Club,
conducts advanced classes. "This class
is strictly for the 100 percent devoted,
and no playtime; it is learning time
only," Bruce says goodnaturedly. Some
of his pupils, such as Kelley Nolan,
Nan Sullivan and Catherine Todd, are
already accomplished riders, but they
never cease practicing for perfection
and polish.
"Our club, Mindi Acres, made spe-
cial provision in its charter to permit
the teaching of young children who,
for various reasons are unable to own
a horse," savs Mrs. Sheila Heath, who
is president of the Canal Zone Horse


7-em


FALL 1975


"Down" but definitely not "out" was

Danielle Barriteau, when she took

this spill at the Gatun Horse Show.

Recovering her composure and

displaying the courage of a true

equestrian, she and her horse "Pepper"

were soon back in the competition.


i IF









\ --.:.


!I!Mjj


Association. Sheila has instructed some
very young Atlantic-siders, including
8-year-olds Kelly Colver and Beth
McDonnough, and Tito Motta, at age
4, the youngest of her students. These
youngsters will probably participate in
future shows. For the Heaths, the horse
world could be called "a family affair,"
with Sheila, daughters Cheryl, Cari
and Cynthia, and husband, Glenn, all
active.
When talk turns to the love of horses,
the person most likely to be mentioned
is Mrs. Berta Lewis. Berta owns four
horses: Pancho L6pez and Prince, both
16 years old, Nieve, 12, and Chief,
who is 38. To the best of anyone's
knowledge, Chief is the oldest horse at
anv riding club in the Canal Zone.
Berta bought him when he was 22 and
his previous owner considered him "too
old." Laughingly, Beita recalls that
"times have sure changed, because the
price on Chief then was $30, with two
saddles thrown in to boot!" She rode
him until 3 years ago, when she de-


cided it might do him more harm than
good. Still groomed daily, exercised by
running free in the pasture, and placed
in a clean stall at night at Fort Clayton
Riding Club, Chief enjoys his retire-
ment world. The children and Berta
give him a big birthday party on the
last Saturday in each September, rain
or shine. Berta has never considered
selling him or having him destroyed.
She says, "He will spend the rest of
his days receiving the same love, care
and devotion he gave me for over 16
years. You can't be too old for that!"
Berta is one of the beautiful people
"behind the scenes."
"No hooves, no horse" is a well-
known saying among the horse crowd.
"A horse's performance, whether in
pleasure riding or in a show ring, de-
pends strongly on whether his hooves
are correct," says Robert Fearon, the
Canal Zone's first licensed farrier, or
horseshoer. Bob attended the Univer-
sity of New Mexico on three separate
occasions to obtain his Certified Far-


rier's Certificate, his Master Farrier's
Certificate, and Instructor's Certificate.
He studied under R. I. Rassmussen,
one of two World Master Farriers alive
today.
If not satisfied with his work. Bob
will pull the shoes right back off the
horse and keep working until they meet
his standards of perfection. Research
shows that a horse applies pressure of
about 100 pounds per square inch to
his hoof, he says, so if even 1 inch is
wrong, the horse will not be able to
give his peak performance.
It is interesting to discover that con-
trarv to those Western films we see of
the old-time blacksmith heating up the
iron shoes, the "hot shoes" method is
no longer used. In fact, it has been
outlawed in many states as it was dis-
covered to be damaging to the horses'
hooves.
"The first horse I shoed took me four
hours. Now I can do one in an hour,"
says Mrs. Carol Myers, who has the
distinction of being the only woman


MAN

F.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


'i ~ i

~-,,










SThe riding clubs' goals


Share healthy horses


Sand good horsemanship


Cheryl Heath on "Lucero" jumped
as high as 4 feet 3 inches and
won the day's open jump puissance
pony esent at the Gatun show.






At right: Berta Lewis and "Chief,"
believed to be the oldest horse in
the Canal Zone.






Robert Fearon and Carol Meyers
provide professional shoeing for
local horses.


farrier in the Canal Zone. She attended
the Oklahoma Farrier College in Sper-
rv, Okla., where her instructor was Bud
Beaston, the only farrier in the United
States who has handmade shoes on
display at the Cowboy Hall of Fame
in Oklahoma City.
Carol, like Bob, does corrective shoe-
ing. One of her happiest moments was
the day she saw a horse that had been
foundered for many years, running free
in the pasture. The horse had barely
been able to walk because of the in-
tensely painful condition which affected
his feet, resulting in impaired circula-
tion. Carol used a soft acrylic padding
to cushion the hooves and prevent
bruising, and shaped a new hoof wall
with a hard acrylic. Now the horse is
not only running, libt kicking up his
heels and bucking.
By providing licensed, professional
care of horses' hooves, Carol and Bob
are helping to keep people in the
saddle, with fewer horses limping, off
the trails, or out of the show ring.
All Canal Zone horse shows are held


under Canal Zone Horse Association
rules and regulations, which are strictly
adhered to by participants and judges.
Years ago, each club set the rules for
its shows. As time passed and the clubs
grew, it became obvious that it would
be better to have a standard set of
rules, and the Canal Zone Horse Asso-
ciation (CZHA) came into being. Al-
though all shows are governed by the
CZHA, each riding club has its own
charter covering such things as stable
maintenance, sanitation and safety.
The Annual Junior Show of Cham-
pions, proceeds from which go to the
Shriners' Children's Hospital, is one of
the largest "all event" shows held in
the Canal Zone. Although it is a one-
dav show, it takes hundreds of people
to assure success. In charge of this
giant is Mrs. Betty Evans, and her co-
chairman working with the Shriners,
Mike Fears.
Riders and horses appearing in this
show spend a full year qualifying for
it. Points are kept by CZHA officials on
both rider and horse as they participate
in shows throughout the year at all 10
riding cluhs. Finally, the spectator sees
these selected competitors perform in
the Six-Bar (jumping), Equitation
(rider and horse performance), Poles,
Barrels, and many other events fea-
tured in the exciting Annual Junior
Show of Champions.
A breed of horse that has appeared
in manv Canal Zone horse shows in the
past few years is the Paso Fino. This
splendid animal, known for its endur-
ance, is becoming a favorite on the
trails and has been competing in and
taking ribbons in events not entered in
previous years. A Paso Fino is a horse
to ride in comfort, as it has what is
known as a four-beat gait. There is no
hbonce, but a "rocking-chair" type of
ride. It's gait makes it showy, yet it has
a fiiie temperament. Manv horse owners
are finding Pasos very good with chil-
dren. Persons viewing them in the
show ring always enjoy their perform-
ances.
For the spectators, show day at any
of the riding clubs usually begins
around 9:30 a.m. Not so for the par-
ticipants. After weeks or months of
preparation, these industrious people
very likely will be up before daylight.
grooming their horses, going over the
rules one more time, and helping each
other.
Horses have to be transported to
the various club grounds, which is fun
unless your horse dislikes trailers. In
that case, getting him in may involve


FALL 1975






frustrating moments, along with a few
softly spoken choice words. It is amus-
ing to watch a 4-foot child coaxing,
pleading with and sweet-talking a
14-hand horse (about 4'8" at the
shoulder) who has his front legs firmly
shoved forward in an "I don't want to
get in that thing" stance.
Riding club members well remem-
Ier the day a group of youngsters got
up at the crack of dawn to have their
horses ready to load in the big horse
transport van to participate in a show
on the Atlantic side, only to wait and
wait for the van. After the shmv hiad
begun, they discovered that the driver
had misunderstood his instructions and
had driven across the Isthmus "emptv,"
thinking he was to trailer the Atlantic,
horses to the Pacific side. Funny to
some, but a heartbreak to others.
Horse show participants must always
be prepared, and most especially while
in the arena on a show day. Even the
riders do not always know what will
happen. One incident well remembered
was the day a woman, magnificently
dressed out, was clearing jumps beau-
tifully and then, smiling with con-
fidence as she went over the last jump,
lost her seat, the horse stumbled, and
her wig fell off! Unhurt, but with a
red face, she left the arena with a smile
showing that good sportsmanship must
prevail.
A visit to the stable area at daybreak
on show day will find the participants
having coffee, ribbing each other, bor-
rowing and lending needed equipment,
all in a warm atmosphere of com-
panionship. As show time approaches,
there is a tightening of tension, ex-
pectancy, hope, and a near feeling of
panic. It's everyone for himself, at least
until the first event gets underway,
when an easing back to a somewhat
more relaxed atmosphere can be sensed.
Costume events may mean one mo-
ment spent in laughter, the next in awe
of beauty, and the next in respect for
originality as the participants parade
before the spectators. Some shows es-
tablish a theme, but a favorite costume
event is one which allows a partici-
pant's creativity free rein. This "use
your own imagination" event always
brings oohs and ahs as each contestant
enters the arena. One moment, there
is a headless horseman before your
eyes, next a pert ballerina or a lovely
Spanish lady, a horse with paper wings
(not too happy about it, either), angels,
devils, clowns, Indians, knights, queens
and here come Raggedy Ann and
Andy! Needless to say, these partici-


pants (or Mom) have spent many
hours designing and making these cos-
tumes. Many anxious eves watch the
skies and fingers are crossed in hopes
that no rain will spoil the hours of
plumnage preparation!
During this event, a spectator rarely
leaves his seat (except to take pic-
tures), and all the other show partici-
pants crowd around the arena fence.
Everyone, young or old, spectator or
participant, loves the costume event.
To be honest though, some of the
horses are a bit uncertain about this
event, until they adjust to their weird
adornments. Others, however, seem
aware of the added attention they are
receisinmg. Ears perk up, steps are
higher, and thev carry themselves
proudly.
Hunter Seat (English) Equitation is
a graceful and beautiful thing to see.
The appointments (apparel) required
in this event are a hunting cap, jodh-
purs or breeches, English-style boots
and a white shirt. Coat. stock ties or
chokers. unrovelled spurs and a crop
arn optional, depending upon the class
of competition. The tack (equipment)
consists of a snaflle (a plain, slender,
jointed bridle bit), with or without
dropped nosebands. Pelhams or full
bridles. The type of English saddle is
optional. Again, many of the tack re-
quirements depend on which division
the rider and the horse are entered in.
The placement of hands and feet
are very important in this event, and
the eagle eves of the judges will watch
this closely. The judge will very likely
call for a figure 8 to be done at a trot;
a gallop (extended canter) and pull-
up; backing of the horse; and dismount
and mount. This may not sound so diffi-
cult, but one must bear in mind that
each movement of rider and horse must
follow a certain set of rules. Hands
must be in the right place, feet must
be correctly positioned, and there must
be an appearance of fluid movement at
all times. There are many different
categories involved in the Hunter Seat
class, each with its own specific rules
for Equitation and Jumping.
Western Stock Seat Equitation also
requires proper seat and position of
hands and feet. A rider must be able
to back his horse ("Straight line back,
please!") and execute a figure 8. The
horse will also be judged at a walk, a
jog, and a lope. Like the English-
trained horse, a stock horse must re-
spond instantly and to all commands
of the rider.
Western appointments include west-


While the show goes on, Noreen Will
is in the stable carefully
grooming her horse.


' :' /Iq
Preparing for an event, Rhonda Bales
g,,ts help from her mother
in adjusting her choker.


The presentation of the colors
at the Gatun Horse Show
on the banks of the Canal.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Knights, queens, headless horsemen, angels


and devils may suddenly appear at the costume


event where creativity is given full rein.


Above: Kelly Colver, wearing her
rain bonnet, is an interested spectator.
Below: Participating in the costume
event, Lori Daisey, author of this story,
wears a Carmen Miranda type outfit.


Jr -U

pyI j


I


ern hat and boots and clean, workman-
like clothing. Tack requirements in-
clude a standard stock saddle and
western bit, with a rope (or reata)
carried on the free hand side. A curb
chain may be used, but it must be at
least 2 inch wide and lie against the
jaws of the horse. An added feature is
a neatly rolled bedroll (usually match-
ing the saddle blanket) tied behind the
saddle to enhance appearance.
A western stock horse will likely be
called upon to perform a rollback, in
which the horse comes forward, rears,
then when his front legs come down,
he should be facing the direction from
which he just came. He may also have
to come forward at a run, then stop by
placing his feet forward and sliding.
making no forward steps with his legs
or hooves.
It is rare to see a horse win ribbons
in both Hunter Seat Equitation and
Stock Seat Western Equitation. For
instance, in order to perform a sliding
stop. the rider will shift his weight
back in the saddle: that's fine if the
horse is in a Western event and a
sliding stop has been requested by the
judge. But one show comes to mind in
which a young girl entered her horse in
hoth Western and English. Unfortu-
natelv, while in the English class, she
shifted her weight, the horse slid to a
stop, and of course she was imme-
diately disqualified. This is why one
will see that a participant generally
will use two horses if he or she wishes
to enter both English and Western
events.
An exception to the nrle is Ricochet,
owned bv 13-vear-old Holly Coe of
Mindi Riding Club. Ricochet has been
showing well, and winning ribbons, in
both English and Western, a tribute
to the time and work his young mistress
has put into training him.
No one in the horse crowd ever
really relaxes on show day until the
final gun has sounded and the last


horse has been walked to cool down,
groomed, stalled, watered and fed. It
is then the tiredness moves in. This is
when one will hear a lot of "If I had
done this, or if I hadn't done that" con-
versation among the participants. But,
no matter how tired they are, and no
matter if thev failed to bring home a
ribbon or trophy this time, they will
always say, "That's okay, I know what
I did wrong, and maybe next time ..
They never lose hope, and they start
their campaign for the next show before
they have even left today's!
There are other sides to the wonder-
ful world of horse ownership. One may
see a very concerned mother out in a
pasture or arena in heels, nylons and
cocktail gown, walking a colicky horse,
the night out with dad suddenly set
aside because Suzie's horse is sick and
needs help. Or two sisters, both en-
tered in the same event and both
wanting very much to win, but each
not wanting to hurt the other. A new
foal born at one of the riding clubs and
members of the other clubs rushing
over for a look-see, for a foaling is a
pleasure for everyone to enjoy. A par-
ent trying to find the words to comfort
a youngster whose horse just died
and knowing there just aren't any
"right" words. Adults and young peo-
ple, covered with paint from head to
toe as they hold their Annual Clean-
Up the Stable Weekend, eating hot-
dogs happily at break time with paint-
smeared hands. Hearing the whoop
and scream as a young girl or boy wins
a vier first ribbon. Seeing a mom and
dad decide against buying a new color
television because Suzie needs a new
saddle.
These things, and many more, have
been the strength and backbone of thr'
riding clubs. All these people on the
scene and "behind the scenes" of the
Canal Zone riding clubs work towards
the same goals: healthy horses, good
horsemanship and companionship with
one another.


FALL 1975






































By Pandora G. Aleman


THE "BELGULF ENTERPRISE"
would have been the perfect
"prison" for Philip Nolan, the character
in Edward Ex erett Hale's story "The
AMan Without a Country" who was
tried for treason and condemned to
spend his life on shipboard, wandering
the high seas far from his native land.
Although its home port is Antwerp, the
ship has not been within hailing
distance of Belgium for 3 years.
A link in the worldwide chain of
operations of the Gulf Oil Corp., the
ship has spent those years picking up
oil in Venezuela, where Culf owned the
.Mene Crande Oil Co. and a controlling
interest in the Venezuela Gulf Refining
Co., and delivering it to the Canal Zone
and the eastern United States.
Supertankers with a cargo-carrying
capacity of 250,000 deadweight tons
and over are the talk of the shipping
world these days. Still, less glamorous
vessels like the Belgulf Enterprise, with
her length of 561 feet, beam of 71 feet
an I summer deadweight tonnage of
18.651, play a vital role.
In fact, the Bclgulf Enterprise is in
some \ways representative of the tankers
that transit the Panama Canal. The
Canal's 40-foot maximum draft restric-
tion and its 1,000-foot by 110-foot locks
close it to the supertankers.


Weighing in at 8,942 Panama Canal
net tons (actually a measurement of
cargo space, each PC net ton repre-
senting 100 cubic feet of actual earning
capacity), she is somewhat under the
12,()009 PC-net-ton average of the 2,150
tanker transit made in fiscal vear 19714,
representing 15.3 percent of the total
oceangoing commercial transit.
The ship is a frequent visitor to
Canal waters, and during one recent
51-mile, 10-hour journey from sea to
sea, she offered an intimate look at
tankers and the Panama Canal-and the
people who make them go.
Typical of the vessel's brief stays in
no t was the 3612-hour stopover at
Balboa's pier 7, where 1,200 long tons
of marine diesel, 4,500 long tons of gas
oil (a light diesel), and 13,000 long
tons of Bunker "C" were offloaded.
Now in ballast, undocked and wait-
ing in the harbor, the ship was headed
back to the Atlantic, this time to drv-
do'-k at Norfolk, Va. Since her beam is
under 80 feet. she requires onl]' one
Panama Canal pilot, and so it was that
about 10 a.m. Capt. Ted Jablonski
made his way up a "Jacob's ladder" to
take control of Capt. Paul Poppe's ship.
The reason for the extra-casual dress
of officers and crew was immediately
apparent-the air-conditioning was on


the list of things to be repaired in
Norfolk. The Bclgulf Enterprise was
underway at 10:45, and Captain
Jablonski shed his sport coat soon after.
Many new vessels are automated,
with speed controlled from the bridge
Ib pIushbutton and the engine room
unmanned most of the day. Not so the
Belgulf Enterprise, built in 1962 by
Kawasaki at Kobi, Japan.
Captain Jablonski's "Half Ahead!"
"F'ull Astern!" "Stop Engines!" and other
commands were followed by a brief
buzzing from the time Third Officer
Michel Ferbeck moved the telegraph
lever to convey an order to the engi-
neers below until they responded, and
the helmsman echoed every command
as ie swung the wheel to the propel
position.
Even while the ship was underway.
there was time to talk on this hot,
sunny, late-dry-season day. Captain
Jablonski, who spent 17 years at sea
before joining the Panama Canal 15
years ago, talked about the business of
getting ships through the Canal.
Like other Panama Canal pilots, he
averages about 3 transits a week on an
animal basis, with each duty' tour aver-
aging about 12 hours. 1Dav transit
are easier, he says; night transits strain
both vision and concentration.


THEl PAN \MA CANAL REVIEW






What is the hardest part of taking a
ship through? Entering the three sets
of locks, each of which has its unique
problems. At Miraflores Locks, the first
set on the Pacific side, a 4-knot current
is produced when the heavier seawater
meets the fresh water of Miraflores
Lake. It is important to time the ship's
arrival at Pedro Miguel Locks just
right, for there may be a wind that will
take her sideways if she slows down
too much.
As the Belgulf Enterprise approached
the west chamber of Pedro Miguel
Locks about 12:30, Captain Jablonski
moved her toward the center wall. The
wind would help keep the ship off that
wall, he said. On the wing wall to port,
water spraying over the "knuckle"
fender reminded one of the party of
the incident that had inspired installa-
tion of that friction-reducing device in
all locks.



At left: Panama Canal pilot,
Capt. Ted Jablonski, radios Marine
Traffic Control that the
"Belgulf Enterprise" is ready to begin
her northbound transit.
Below left: Linehandlers board the
vessel as she approaches the locks.
Below: In ballast and riding high in the
water, the "Belgulf Enterprise"
moves into Miraflores Locks on the
first leg of her transit.


FALL 1975


\






One Mav evening in 1967, the 735-
foot-long, 102-foot-wide tanker Rebec-
ca, laden with 45,000 tons of jet fuel
and aviation gasoline, had brushed
against part of the northeast wing wall
at Miraflores Locks. Jet fuel spurted out
and caught fire, burning for nearly an
hour while Fire Division and tugboat
personnel played streams of water on
the blaze and the overheated hull.
Such incidents illustrate dramatically
the danger that hovers over tanker crew
members. Chief Officer Gustaaf ("Staf")
Beirnaert, who is responsible for safety
as well as general maintenance and the
cleaning and maintenance of tanks
when the ship is travelling in ballast,
said he emphasized fire prevention.
adding that it is better not to dwell on
the effects of an explosion.
A fire in the crew's quarters or in
the boiler room might be contained by
the ship's firefighting equipment. She



At right: Chief Officer "Staf" Beirnaert
is dwarfed by oil pipelines.

Below: Third Officer William Van
Hamme-De Smet, Chief Officer Beirnaert,
and Second Officer Serge Lampole
on deck at Pedro Miguel with a
Liberian tanker in the background.

Below right: In casual dress appropriate
to tropical climes, Capt. Paul Poppe
plots a departure course in
the chart room.


has portable extinguishers, a permanent
carbon dioxide installation, equipment
for steam smothering and spraying
water.
Because of the ever-present danger
and the short time in port, tanker crews
usually enjoy more leave and better
accommodations than their counter-
parts on general cargo ships. The offi-
cers of the Belgulf Enterprise chatted
easily-in fluent English, the interna-
tional language of the sea-about their
life on board, their occasional shore
visits, their vacations and their future
plans.
According to Belgian law, crew mem-
bers are entitled to 2 months of paid
vacation after 9 months of service, and
Gulf usually grants leave after 6
months.
Chief Officer Beirnaert is one of
those Captain Poppe called "the lucky
ones." Since the Beirnaerts have no
children, his wife Denise is able to
accompany him most of the time.
Sitting at lunch in the Captain's
dining room, by a flower box filled with
large cacti from Venezuela, the Beir-
naerts introduced their cat "Tarzan"
from Puerto La Cruz and spoke about
shipboard life. "Staf" said this was the
second time he had served for a full
year before taking vacation, and Denise
volunteered that during the past 13
months she had left only once, for a
4-day trip home to Ghent.
She has visited the ruins of Old
Panama, gone shopping, been to the
Church of the Golden Altar, and picked
up fresh vegetables at the Canal Zone's
"Chinese gardens." Still, in perhaps 50


stops at Cristobal, where the ship calls
more frequently than at Balboa, she
has gone ashore only about 5 times.
At the other end of the trip, Puerto
La Cruz is a commercial center of some
60,000 people located in the region
that makes Venezuela the largest pro-
ducer of oil in Latin America and third-
largest in the world. But the Beirnaerts
are able to enjoy few of its attractions.
When they put in to the terminal, they
stay only 20 to 24 hours, depending on
the cargo to be loaded, and unlike his
counterpart on a general cargo ship the
chief officer must be on hand at all
times.
Beirnaert acknowledges that it is
relaxing to have his wife on board and
be able to talk things over, and it is
also better for their marriage-senti-
ments that were echoed in one way or
another by others during the day.
Denise, with Rose Van Hamme-De


TI'E PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






















Panama Canal pilot Capt. Ted Jablonski
stays alert as he takes
a lonely meal on the bridge.


.4k VI
sl.u ~L


At the manifold, located amidships,
Chief Officer Beirnaert checks one of the
loading-offloading valves.


Some seamen may find time hangs heavy
on1 their hands, but "Tarzan,"
fiho shipped on with the
Beirnaerts in Puerto La Cruz, takes
pleasure in the simple things of life.


Sinet, the wile of one of the two third
officers on board, spent part of the day
at the swimming pool behind the deck-
house, as Captain Poppe says the crew
does regularly when at sea. He and the
other officers, who are all permanent
company employees, are permitted to
have their wives on board, but most
have responsibilities at home.
Captain Poppe's wife was in Brussels
with their three children, and after
4 months alone he was looking forward
to her joining him when school was
out. Third Engineer Frans DeRvck had
only been back on board 6 days after
a 5-month vacation at his home near
Antwerp. His wife had accompanied
him on his last 6-month stint, and lie
hoped she might rejoin him next month.
As for now, she was having a new
kitchen installed at home. And Chief
Engineer Roger De Grvse's wife, who
had lived aboard 4 months during his
last tour, was home with their grand-
children.
Besides swimming, sunbathing, play-
ing ping pon(g. cards and a dice game
called pitjcsbak, listening to the radio
and reading, members of the ship's
cominuniitv iinmcnt their own 'ii iiise-
menits. Dcnise Beirnaert is doing a
painting Iv numbers. Second Officer
Serge Lampole makes movies-last year,
one of the Canal.
Bachelor Lampole likes the sun and
likes being alone at sea, with time to
think. Still, after 3 years with Gulf, he
sometimes thinks life was more inter-
esting when lhe served on general cargo
ships. In those days, he traveled to
Africa, and because the ship was in
port for as long as a month there was
a chance to meet more people. Now,
he works 11 months straight, then takes
4 or 5 months' leave so he can study
for and take the exams that lead up
the ladder to a master's license.
As pleasant as life on board can be,
there are those who, like "Staf" Beir-
naert, look forward to something differ-
ent. He has been at sea 9 years, all
with Gulf, and says a person "must be
crazv" to stay at sea until he is 60. He
has iad his master's license for 3 years,
and for reasons which probably are
shared by most of the captains and
marine engineers who gave up going
to sea to work for the Panama Canal,
he would like one day to become a
pilot on the single-lock Belgian canal
which runs from Ghent to Terneuzen
and have more time with family and
friends.
From 1 to 3 p.m., the Bclgulf Enter-
prise was tied up at the northern end


of Pedro Miguel Locks to allow ships
with "clear cut" restrictions to complete
their southbound transit of Gaillard
Cut. (The "clear cut" restriction means
that because of its size or hazardous
cargo one ship cannot meet another in
the 500-foot-wide Cut.)
The Liberian tanker world d Industry,
whose length of 710 feet and beam of
over 96 feet required her to use two
Panamna Canal pilots, glided into the
east chamber shortly after 1 p.m. She
was followed about an hour later by the
Belgian bulk carrier E. R. Brabantia,
which with a length of 771 feet and a
beam ol 105 feet was carryillg four
pilots. Seeiing those ships at close hand,
one understood why they needed the
Cut to themselves, but it 'was harder
to see w\\h a third, the 226-foot by
:34-loot Mlaridan C, should have been
gi\eii such a wide berth-until Captain
Jablonski mentioned that she was car-
ryinmg Class "A" explosives.
Chief Officer Beirnaert took advan-
taigle of the stopover to conduct a tour
ol the ship, beginning with the well-
kept and attractive crew's quarters
below the bridge.
Out on deck, he briefly explained the
operation of the loading offloading
valves, located almost amidships. Pump-
man Germlin Lorenzo Magdaleno, one
of several Spanish crew members, was
on deck opening a hatch and preparing
to empty all the oil residue into one
tank so the others could he cleaned at
sea.
He led the way down to the aft
pump room. Yellow numbers on all
sides indicated where drydock repairs
were to be made. There were four big
cargo pumps to empty holds 3 through
8, used for "dirty" cargo. (The forward
pninproom discharges "clean" cargo
from holds 1 and 2.) During offloading,
Germin may work 36 hours straight.
This, coupled with the stifling heat of
the pump room in the tropical midday
stillness, made it easy to see how in
2 months he had dropped from 187
pounds to 143.
The tour moved up again, and down
into the engine room, where Third En-
gineer DeRvck andl Assistant Engineer
Rafael Vercauteren were enjoying a pot
of tea-broulght from above. The room
had a water cooler, which seemed only
fair since all water used on the ship is
distilled from seawater right there in
the engine room. They can distill 50
tons of water in 24 hours, but normal
daily usage is about 20 tons for the
boilers and 5 tons of potable water.
It seemed nothing short of miracu-

32 FALL 1975







An important link

in a worldwide chain


lous to be able to press a button and
drink cool, delicious water, since de-
spite the mechanical fans the wall
thermometer registered 118F. DeRyck,
a veteran of 36 years at sea, grinned
an:l said that when the ship is under-
way the temperature goes up to about
122 F on the Caribbean run; in the
Persian Gulf, a common tanker run,
engine room temperatures are even
higher.
The two boilers, built to operate at
a pressure of 600 pounds and a tem-
perature of 700'F, hum about 40 tons
of Bunker "C" daily, turning the dis-
tilled water into steam that runs the
turbine that drives the single enor-
mous propeller that moves the Belgulf
Enterprise.
At 3:04 the ship was underway
again, and for the next hour she
wended her way through the narrow
waters of Gaillard Cut, hacked through
the Continental Divide by the blood
and sweat of thousands of workers in
the French and U.S. Canal construction
davs. Captain Jablonski called out the
orders that kept the bow pointed
toward the large white markers on the
banks-the set with crosses to keep her
in the centerline if there was no ap-
proaching ship, the set with vertical
black lines when there was two-way
traffic.
After hours of unrelenting tropical
sun, the slight drizzle that began as the
Panamanian vessel Maritime Challenge
approached was more than welcome.
Captain Jablonski emphasized the
pilot's need for full help and coopera-
tion from the crew if all is to go well.
As an example, he pointed out that as
we passed the 608-foot by 85-foot
Maritime Challenge its bow wash
would send our bow toward starboard,

At right: Third Officer William Van
Hamme-De Smet and his wife Rose
take advantage of the stopover at
Pedro Miguel Locks to soak up some
Panama sunshine on the
"monkey bridge," or sundeck, above
the bridge. Waiting behind the
"Belgulf Enterprise" is the Greek vessel
"Maria P. Lemos," and at left rear,
southbound, is the 771-foot by 105-foot
Belgian bulk carrier "E. R. Brabantia."


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


stern toward port, and the helmsman
had to be ready to compensate.
The Belgulf Enterprise passed Cam-
boa and headed into the vast waters of
Gatun Lake at about 4 o'clock. She con-
tinued to snake along the channel,
marked to keep traffic away from shal-
low areas-hills submerged when the
Chagres River was dammed-and the
skeletons of partly submerged trees.
The sun was by this time falling in
the west, and Captain Jablonski found
himself looking almost directly into it
as he sought out the white markers
used to line up the ship. His remark
that "the Canal is heading the wrong
way" seemed apt. Because Panama is
shaped something like an S lying on
its side and the Canal has a southeast-
northwest orientation, the Atlantic ter-
minal, Cristobal Colon, is 27 miles far-
ther west than the Pacific terminal,
Balboa Panama City; and thus the ship
at times was heading almost due west.
More of the cosmopolitan company
that transited the Canal that dav-40
in all-trooped by: the Ibercille, out of
San Francisco, carrying deck cargo, and
behind her the seagoing oil rig, Seismic
Explorer.
Much of what one hears about the
ships that transit the Canal concerns
tonnage and tolls. But though Captain
Jablonski noted that the Belgulf Enter-
prise, like other Canal customers, would
pay not only her toll but also for the
linehandlers who boarded to take her
through the locks, launch hire and other
fees, no one on board seemed in the
least concerned about these matters,
leaving them to the ship's Canal Zone
agents.
Soon Captain Jablonski radioed Ma-
rine Traffic Control at Balboa that lie


In the captain's dining room,
Chief Steward Raymond Foucart
offers Chief Officer Gustaaf Beirnaert
and his wife Denise
a preview of the dinner menu.


Not exactly swimming the Canal, but
at least swimming "in transit,"
Denise Beirnaert enjoys the ship's
pool behind the bridge.


The bow of the 'Belgulf Enterprise,"
left, can be distinguished in the
night lighting as she
passes through Gatun Locks.








CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
Fiscal Year


1975
No. of Tons
Nationality transit of cargo
Belgian-..- 157 1,330,355
British __ 1,368 13,846,863
Chilean__ 140 1,661,221
Chinese, Natl. 144 1,864,655
Colombian __ 151 285,193
Cypriot ---_ 226 1,582,193
Danish 326 2,360,157
Ecuadorian 119 737,922
French 224 1,347,891
German, West 766 4,384,618
Creek ___ 1,142 16,435,493
Honduran--- 83 90,602
Italian 250 1,718,622
Japanese.._ 1,225 10,583,359
Liberian 1,950 34,912,321
Netherlands_ 420 1,837,536
Norwegian 832 12,845,855
Panamanian 1,050 7,682,773
Peruvian 194 2,013,166
Polish 96 510,147
South Korean- 121 791,289
Soviet _. 187 1,110,825
Swedish 373 3,587,244
United States 1,097 9,022,027
Yuitosla\ia 83 927,085
All other 885 6,632,047
Total. 13,609 140,101,459


1974
No. of Tons
transit of cargo
143 545,261
1,258 13,800,035
116 1,576,155
179 1,966,514
180 450,305
254 1,750,905
343 2,743,654
114 1,217,542
222 1,412,551
748 4,905,227
1,337 18,302.657
90 92,778
273 2,431,355
1,348 14,089,086
1,798 31,763,721
417 2,714,657
1,031 15,180,538
1.034 7,357,964
186 1,700,107
51 370,078
82 609,417
242 1,565,197
344 2,921,776
1,322 10,577,896
77 929,932
844 6,931,606
14,033 147,906,914


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES


7 rlde rolttrs--(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tolns or over)
East coast United States-Asia
Europe-\\'est coast South America
East coast United States-West coast South America
Europe-West coast United States/Canada
Europe-Asia
Europe-Ocania--
IEast coast Canada-Asia
United States Intercoastal (including Iawaii)
East coast South America-Asia
\est coast South America--West Indies
All other, .
Total


Fiscal Year
Arv. Vo.
transit
1975 1974 1965-69
2,956 3,467 2,715
1,241 1,071 1,356
1.319 1,274 1,713
823 871 1,004
871 790 224
515 508 420
299 350 173
404 457 505
262 255 201
303 408 282
4,616 4,582 3,910
13,609 14,033 12,503


MONTIILY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)


Transits
Avg. No.
transits
lMonth 1975 1974 1965-69
July 1,219 1,210 1,067
.Au\ust 1,121 1,127 1,044
September 1,095 1,125 1,015
October ._ 1,125 1,220 1,049
November 1,086 1,160 1,021
December 1.111 1,126 1,035
January 1,142 1,200 1,003
February 1,052 1,026 922
March --- 1.217 1,189 1,098
April l 1,142 1.202 1,087
May 1,209 1.229 1,110
line 1,090 1,219 1,052
Total 13,609 14,033 12,503
1 Betrfre deduction of any operating expenses.


Tolls (In thousands of dollors)l


1975
$11,834
12,254
11,928
11,855
11,150
11,487
12,081
10,682
12,607
11,773
12,966
11,281
$141,898


1974
$9,697
9,663
9,530
10,170
9,772
9,886
10,574
8,988
10.137
10,016
10,417
10,573
$119,423


Average
tolls
1965-69
$6,322
6,298
6,139
6,387
6,25S
6,409
6,167
5,654
6,748
6,681
6,854
6,609
$76,526


1965-69
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
79 206,416
1,371 10,125,323
113 749,126
113 850,945
218 453,484
17 143,032
385 2,222,146
69 87,104
227 914,145
1,216 4,205,430
505 5,197,097
199 118,498
230 1,535,099
916 7.004,351
1,370 18,579,528
529 2,341,708
1,462 14,579,194
540 2.576,955
152 730,427
16 149,809
32 175,915
65 442,410
433 2,825,670
1,631 9,003,618
26 303,403
589 2.957,751
12.503 88,478,584


FALL 1975


PAAN.\IA CANAL TIIAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FISCAL YEAR 1975
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1975 1974
Commercial 13,609 14,033
U.S. Government 170 248
Free --- -- 7 23
Total _- -_ 13,786 14,304
TOLLS o
Commercial S141.950,585 $119,482,081
U.S. Govern-
ment 1,408.053 1,834,876
Total $143.358,638 5121.316,957
CARGO*0 (Oceangoing)
Commercial 140,101,459 147,906,914
U.S. Govern-
ment 526,497 1.748,963
Total 140,627,956 149,655,877
Includes tolls on all essels, oceangoing
and small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.



would be at Gatun Locks anchorage
within half an hour, and shortly there-
after Captain Poppe invited his guests
below for dinner-all except the pilot.
One of the drawbacks of being the only
pilot aboard is that you are never off
duty; so Captain Jablonski took a some-
what lonely meal on the bridge.
At the Captain's table, Chief Engi-
neer De Gryse joined the group for a
repast served in style by Chief Steward
Raymond Foucart. The food was good,
and sounded even better in French, as
it appeared on the menu-card. Fried
fish was "poisson frit," served with
"sauce tartare." The lowly potato be-
came "pomines rissolees." There were
"viandes froides" (doesn't that sound
better than "cold cuts"?) and, to top it
off, "creme glac6e."
A bottle of Norwegian beer had
made an unexpected appearance at
lunch. Where does a Belgian ship oper-
ating out of Venezuela come by such
an exotic brew? In the Colon Free
Zone, according to Steward Foucart,
who said the ship's stores are bought
in either Venezuela or Panama.
At dinner, De Crvse explained that
9 of the 13 officers aboard were engi-
neers, 2 of whom are usually in the
engine room when the ship is under-
way. If the ship's one engine develops
trouble, an alarm sounds, the fires are
banked or the boilers shut down; the
engineers determine what is wrong;
and they try to fix it right then and
there.
An emergency generator that runs
on diesel fuel gives enough power to
keep lights on, run necessary pumps
and keep the steering gear functioning.
The engineers try to patch things up
and get to port for repairs. Here the







Belgulf Enterprise has it all over her
"super" sisters, which may have to
search far and wide for a drydock large
enough to accommodate them.
The sun set during dinner. Back up
on the starboard bridge wing, one
could survey Gatun Locks from the en-
trance to the southwest chamber, where
the Belgulf Enterprise had once again
tied up. Ahead was the Christopher
Lykes, which had made local headlines
when involved in a collision at sea.
Now she was inching through the locks,
a gaping hole in her side. Coming out
through the east chamber after her
50-minute-or-so trip through the three
chambers, nearly a mile long, was the
container ship Westfalia, out of Ham-
burg.
All was quiet, save for the peculiar
sound of the winches taking up slack
in the lines stretching from the ship to
the "mules"-there would be four loco-
motives, with two lines each. All lights
at the bridge level had been extin-
guished for better visibility, and the
moon casting its light on the waters
and the balmy breeze coming in from
sea claimed as much attention as the
locks operation itself.
There was so little vibration from
the engine that it prompted a comment
to Captain Poppe, who said the vibra-
tion was considerably more noticeable
at sea, at higher speeds. After 3 years
on the Belgulf Enterprise, he said he
might like a ship with the bridge
amidships.
At the end of her run through Gatun
Locks, the ship swept smoothly out
into the saltwater, moving full ahead
into the eerie loneliness of a giant
jungle "river" with faintly lighted banks
under the cool light of the moon,
slipping in and out of the clouds.
Captain Poppe pointed to the green
light at the buoy where his guests
would debark. Soon, the operator of
the launch Dorado nudged her bow up
to the hull of the Belgulf Enterprise
and kept his craft steady in the rolling
waves while Captain Jablonski and his
companions made their way down the
ladder.
As they were whisked off to the Cris-
tobal Boat House, the Belgulf Enter-
prise, now back under Captain Poppe's
control, moved in her stately fashion
out past the breakwater. Out she went
to open sea, where with one man on
watch, one on lookout and the auto-
matic steering taking over, she would
set course for Norfolk and a 15-day
rest before once again taking up her
C(inlilea.n rounds.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)

Pacific to Atlantic
Fiscal Year


Commodity
Manufactures of iron and steel __- _
Petroleum and products__--_____- _____
Ores, various ---___________________ _
Lumber and products_______________ ____
Sugar_ __-----_-_ ____________________
Pulpwood ___________-_________________-
Metals, various-_________ ______________
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas)__ __
Bananas-
Coal and coke _______________
Sulfur___ ________________________ ____
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts_____ ___-
Fishmeal --._____ _____-_______.______.
Paper and products ___________ ____
Molasses_ __-_--_-.___________._______
Allother_ _____________ ___________
Total ________


1975
9,530,091
8,191,574
6,415,646
3,453,054
2,854,950
2,004,175
1,808,735
1,683,656
1,682,417
1,515,379
1,130,092
1,004,534
846,388
654,007
504,648
12,729,947
56,009,293


1974
6,735,503
13,712,405
5,995,347
5,585,984
3,228,719
1,716,430
1,047,209
1,692,552
1,486,585
619,215
925,242
946,291
346,779
499,707
505,419
11,532,012
56,575,399


5-Yr. Acg.
1965-69
3,668,309
1,262,685
5,702,654
4,716,145
2,547,028
813,937
1,274,872
1,164,560
1,297,688
166,948
221,134
96,271
1,502,000
292,053
354,071
9,457,239
34,537,594


Atlantic to Pacific
Fiscal Year


Commodity
Coal and coke_------------------
Petroleum and products -_________.______
Corn_ -----_-__-____-__-__ __
Phosphate .- --._-- ---___ --- --___..
Wheat _____
Soybeans_ ---____.- .____________.____
Ores, various ..
Metal, scrap -______________________-____
Sorghum ___- ------
Manufactures of iron and steel_____ ____
Sugar _____-_ ___________________
Fertilizers, unclassified -_______ _____
Chemicals, unclassified .________________
Machinery and equipment (excluding autos,
trucks, accessories and parts)__ _______
Metals, various (excluding scrap)___ ______
All other..___ _
Total_


CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing
Small _--
Total ___-


1975
24,787,965
15,713,222
6,725,887
5,263,193
4,342,133
3,472,908
2,229,713
2,140,969
2,033,457
1,706,312
1,398,277
1,180,229
889,850

690,409
651,564
10,866,078
84,092,166


1974
18,232,977
18,254,937
10,919,757
5,194,576
4,418,231
4,348,814
2,300,563
3,456,625
2,872,474
2,051,215
1,860,653
1,348,859
1,491,644

584,885
560,104
13,435,201
91,331,515


5-Yr. Avg.
1965-69
10,370,494
15,342,941
2,696,185
3,824,274
931,528
2,148,905
1,561,932
2,490,084
N.A.
1,829,850
842,298
485,060
843,470

582,402
1,079,017
8,912,550
53,940,990


AND U.S. GOVERNMENT


Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
transit
1975 1974 1965-69


Total Total


14,033
826
14,859


12,503
569
13,072


Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total


---_--- 6,750
--_---__ 491
- -_ ___--__-_ 7,241


6,859
313
7,172


13,609
804
14,413


U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing ___ __________ 81 89 170 248 927
Small -____-__ ________ ___ 55 55 110 110 117
Total ____-- ___----- ____ 136 144 280 358 1,044
Total Commercial and
U.S. Government --_-----____ 7,377 7,316 14,693 15,217 14,116-
1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951. Government-operated ships transited
free.


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HAROLD R. PARFITT Governor-President RICHARD L. HUNT Lieutenant Governor ^^ PANAMA ^^^1 CANAL ^ WILLIE K. FRIAR Editor, English Edition JOSE T. TUNON H. Editor, Spanish Edition OfFicial Panama Canal Publication Writers Vic Canel, Fannie P. Hernandez, Franklin Castrellon and Pandora Aleman FRANK A. BALDWIN Panama Canal Information Officer Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1.S0, airmail $3, single copies 75 cents. For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Contents Bateas 3 Panama's painted plates with distinctive pre-Columbian designs are favorite souvenirs. Culinary Capers 8 Recipes for exotic drinks to sip and savor and desserts with a special flavor. The "QE2" 13 Around-the-icorld-in-80 days cruise includes record breaking transit of the Panama Canal. What happened to the "Bremen? 22 The dramatic demise of a history-making ship. Horses 23 Hundreds of horse owners find family fun and friendly competition at local shows. Oil 29 The smaller tanker plays a vital role. Credits: Photos by Kevin lenkins ( p. 6 batea designs and p. 15 "QE2"), Robert Friar (p. 4 batea bnuls), Don Goode (p. 16 "QE2" in Gaillard Cut and horses p. 23, 24, 25, 27), Sketch i>. 29 by Carlos Mindez. OurC over The muted colors of the batea on our front cover are the result of many years of research by EHana Chiari, the originator of this Panamanian art form. \Vith plant pigments and clay, she has been able to reproduce the colors which appe;uon pre-Columbian clay pots and plates, such as those in the foreground of the photograph. A part of the collection of the 19.3d Infantry Brigade Museum at Fort Amador, these artfully decorated pieces were loaned for the photograph by Irene Chan, curator of the museum. The original design on this batea, which belongs to Dr. Horace Loftin, of the E.xecutive Planning Staff, came from a pre-Columbian plate dug up in Parita in Herrera Province. It depicts a small fish who found a haven when the three large fish chasing him ended up chasing each other. On the back cover are four bateas painted by Dr. Leo M. Hettinger, who uses acrylics to paint bateas that feature dramatic bright colors on a stark white background. His designs, copies of original ones found in museums, depict alligators, snakes, and other animal gods giving birth to small replicas of themselves, which are symbolic of the continuity of nature. The two plates at the bottom are original clay plates made by pre-Columbian potters. The bateas are standing on ancient handcar\'ed metates. The cover photographs as well as all others in this issue, unless otherwise credited, are by Arthur L. Pollack. o a o In the centerspread of this issue is a charcoal drawing by John Morton, of the Executive Planning Staff, which shows the Queen Elizabeth 2 in Miraflores Locks. It has been reproduced on special paper and inserted so that it can be easily removed for framing. 2 Fall 1975

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A revival of an ancient art form, Panama's distinctive bateas are a colorful combination of creativity and craftsmanship PANAMA'S BEAUTIFUL BATEAS with their distinctive pre-Columbian designs, make delightful decorations and are among the most soughtafter souxenir items en the Isthmus. As Panamanian as the pollera, the mola and the mosqueta, these artisticalK' painted wooden plates, which come in various sizes and shapes, are the outgrowth of an ancient art form re\ived some 40 years ago by Diana Chiari, a well-known local artist. nian\rural households. These plates with upturned edges called bateas, are used for evervthing from carrving the \\ ash to and from the ri\er and cleaning rice to sening as dinner plates. As a voung graduate of the Normal School in Panama Citv, Diana was sent to La Arena, a potter's village in Panama's interior, to teach school. While cniploved there, she learned potterymaking from the mothers of her students who came to the classroom to Bateas During a ceremony held last year at the National Museum, Diana was presented the Order of Manuel Jose Hurtado, the Republic of Panama's highest honor bestowed upon a teacher. The award was in recognition of her in\aluable contributions to the promotion and appreciation of native creativity and craftsmanship. A display of her artistn' that evening included ceramic plates, textiles, a number of other articles fashioned from clay, and sexeral bateas painted with her original designs. The idea for the batea of the type popular toda\' germinated in Diana's mind after she began decorating the primitixc clay di.shes used for making tortillas in the interior of Panama. Toinnsts admired her colorful clay plates with the unusual designs but hesitated to buv them as souvenirs because thev were heavy and easily broken. To solve these problems, EMana experimented with painting the same designs on the wooden plates which are considered an indispensable item in By Fannie Hernandez teach the craft that had been a community activity for centuries. LLsing the traditional, simple methods, she kneaded and shaped the clav, went to the river for the rounded stones used to polish the pottery and collected dried cow dung from the fields for firing the clay. Her enthusiasm and innate creativity in the use of the native elements was .so keen that soon she was teaching the villagers. Women, children and men, who had previously shunned pottery-making, were inspired by her to learn new methods for impro\ing their techniques without losing the traditional quality and nati\ e touch. Like Millet, the French peasant who became a celebrated painter and referred to art as a "treating of the commonplace with the feeling of the sublime," Diana's sincere belief in the pure native art form nibbed off on the pottenmakers, who began to take pride in their creations. Gradually potterv-making became the livelihood of man\' of the villagers. Later, it became a home industiv and an art. Todav, the Bateas by Diana Chiari, originator of the Panama art form. TiiK Panama Canal Review

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I < La Arena Ceramics Center, which she founded with the help of her brothers Gilberto and Carlos, is flourishing. The beautifully made dishes and pottery are attracting attention not only in Panama but also abroad. Diana's bateas also ha\'e caught the eye of connoisseurs and are sought by collectors, museums, art galleries and others who appreciate the simplicity and originality of native art. In the United States they have been exhibited at Macy's in New York City, at the University of Arkansas Museum, the Stuhr Museum at Grand Island, Xebr., and at the Art Center in Louis\ille, Ky. The largest batea she has e\er made was 4 feet in diameter, the smallest, 2 inches by 3 inches. In addit.on to being decorative, bateas can be used as table tops or serving trays and are popular as gifts. In the early stages of batea making, Diana spent many hours at the newly opened National Museum, carefully sketching the designs painted on the A contribution to Panama's cultural heritage . >'.-4i! Diana Chiari adds a finishing touch to one of her bateas. Using plants and earth, she revived an art, gave character to a humble craft and pride to its creators. Her bateas are sought by connoisseurs, museums and art galleries. At left, is one displayed at the National Museum of Panama and above, are some of her bowls and a fish-shaped batea. Fall 1975

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]iiuseiiin's collection of precious preCioluinhian artifacts which had been dug up in Code Province and are known as the "Code Culture." These are considered particularly valuable because of their fine quality and the indelible natiue of the colors, which neither age nor humidit\' have destroyed. Determined to reproduce the authentic muted designs of the ancient ceramics, Diana began experimenting with the plant pigments and clays emplo\ed bv the primitive potters to color their wares. She had quickly mled out commercial enamels and lacquers as being too ])right. After much trial and error, she achie\'ed what she believes to be the original Indian colors which are today the trademark of her bateas. E\er\thing she uses comes directly from nature. The revival of an art employing plants and earth, the very essence of nature, and giving this humble craft character and stimulating pride in its creators, are Diana's contribution to Panama's cultural heritage. Using plates made of "cedro espino" of the mahogany family for her bateas, Diana sands the wood until it is perfectly smooth. Then, using a damp rag, she applies a creamy, white colored clay wash. When it has dried, using a soft lead pencil, she sketches free hand on its concave side the pre-Columbian, highlv-stvlized design of an insect, bird, alligator, or other animal, typical of the early wares. Using nature's colors, she paints the design and when it is thoroughly dry, applies a protective coat of alcohol and acid resistant lacquer to both sides of the plate. Since Diana's bateas appeared, decorating wooden plates has become one of the most popular native household arts on the Isthmus. A batea decorated with the Seal of the Canal Zone, the creation of Eddie J. Aanesen, is one of the most sought after gifts for retirees. Isthmian residents, from preschoolers to retirees, are enthusiastic students in the various batea-painting classes held at hobbv shops and clubs. A well-known liatea painting instructor is Arthur Moki'av, an Armv civilian employee, who has taught many Isthmians the new art form. His articles on bateamaking can be found at the Canal Zone Library. Dr. Leo M. Rettinger, who until his ictirement was Chief of the Outpatient Clinic at Gorgas Hospital, is an expert butea-painter. He buys the wooden plates from vendors on Kennedy Avenue, sands them carefully and then applies a wood filler solution to close the pores. After preparing the surface of the batea, he paints it a stark white, contending that the original pref'olumbian artifacts were white. When the white background has dried, he applies the design with a stencil. Using acrylics. Dr. Rettinger paints bateas til at are deep colored and dramatically l)ea\itiful. Eddie I. Aancscn, a retired mer< hint marine captain, who was bom in Norway and went to sea as a young lad, found batea painting a relaxing, pleasant pastime in his sun-drenched house in Santa Clara, prior to his departure for the United States this year. An Isthmian resident for more than .30 years, Aanesen has taken an a\'id interest in pre-Columbian art based on the Code Culture and has compiled a collection of 50 authentic pre-Colinnbian designs in color which he uses to decorate his bateas. In addition to these motifs, he specializes in painting bateas with crests and insignia including the seal of the Canal Zone. Using plates of "lowland cedro," a fine wood also of the mahogany family, Aanesen dries the wood for a period of 6 to 7 weeks. When he is sure that the wood is completely di^v, he sands it and seals the wood pores with a sanding sealer. He then adds the first coat of \arnish. When it is dry, the batea gets another sanding and is ready for the design. Following the Indian art of Code, which was always outlined in black, he uses a soft black lead pencil to trace the pattern onto the batea. Then very carefully he paints the design and after it has dried, processes the back of the batea. When it is thoroughly dn', he applies a plastic spray. A coat of varnish is the final process in batea-making. The P.anama Canal Review

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A popular local pastime, batea painting appeals to all ages Dr. Leo M. Rettinger puts the finishing touches on a batea showing scrolls and serpent design adapted from the Pre-Columbian plates found in Code Province. Dr. Rettinger uses acrylics on a white background. Maggie Rodriguez, deputy circulation supervisor, and Cesar Ceville, student assistant, Canal Zone Library-Museum, use a lunch break to trace batea designs from the collection of Arthur Mokray available at the library to batea makers. Pretty Karin .4nn Foley, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Foley of Fort Clayton, sands a wooden plate in a batca-making class, a part of the Fori Clayton Pre-Teen Activities Program. Mrs. Martha Jordan, instructor in the Fort Clayton Pre-Teen Activities Program, helps Randy Harford select a design and paints for his batea which has already been dried and sanded. 6 Fall 1975

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le living room of her France Field home, Mrs. Beulah K. Smithson displays a tew of the bateas she has made in the past 20 years. A nurse in the Medical Surgical Service at Coco Solo Hospital, Mrs. Smithson learned the art of batea-making in one of Arthur Mokray's evening classes at the Cristobal Woman's Club in 1954. senapi PRESENTS... LIKE TO TRY IT? Here is a step-by-step method of batea-decorating. (Mcllhenney, Canal Zone Library). 1. Dry the batea by placing it in a dry closet for at least 10 days. (Do not stand it on its edges as this may warp it.) 2. Sand it until very smooth, using first a medium and then a fine sandpaper. 3. Apply a mixture of 50 percent Sander Sealer and 50 percent lacquer. Give the batea at least three coats, sanding lightly with fine sandpaper between each coat. 4. Trace or draw the design on the batea with a soft lead pencil. 5. Paint with Roger's Brushing Lacquer that comes in red, black, blue, white, brown and yellow. To bleach a batea before painting, apply a solution made of 3 tablespoons of lye in 1 quart of water. Let it stand a few minutes and then brush with a strong pero.xide. Allow to dry and then apply a second coat. Let it dry and then paint. (Caution, lye is poison and should be handled as such.) The Canal Zone Library has a collection of patterns laminated on cardboard for decorating bateas which batea makers may trace. The patterns, which also indicate the colors to use, were prepared by Mokray. No display of Panamanian arts and crafts would be complete without the batea. This exhibit at the Canal Zone Library-Museiun was arranged by the Panamanian National Service for Crafts and Small Industries (SENAPI). The P.\xam.\ C^nal Review

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Culinary IfctfOlBi f? -^ffliANYONE WHO CANNOT LOOK back on childhood, remembering the earlv-moming fragrance of freshly ground coffee brewing on the back Ijurner, has missed an indescribable joy. Cafe, kaffee, koffie, "cuppa Java," bv whatever name it is known, cascades of it are consumed daily. As a panacea, a pick-me-up, a stimulant, an instant restorative, coffee is the national drink of the western world, and well on the way to becoming the favorite uni\'ersiil be\'erage. For most, the day begins with a steaming cupful of the brew; and man\feel they cannot get through the da\' without quite a few. The "coffee break" has become a wav of life at home and in the business world. Coffee drinkers in the United States are downing approximately 500 million cups a day— sipped, savored or gulped in a hun-y. Many who are not drinking it are using it in cooking or to add subtle flavoring to dishes. The coffee pot is brewing to the tune of millions of dollars \'crified by statistics that show the United States imported coffee valued at SI, .5 billion in 197.3. The histoiy of coffee and coffeedrinking is replete with colorful tales. According to one concerning its disco\erv, the founder of coffee was a legendary moUah. an Arabian monk, who after obser\ing the strange capers and sleeplessness of his goats that had fed on the berries of an evergreen l)usli, tried some himself. Feeling stimulated, he proclaimed the wondrous properties of the sweetish, red berries. The origin of coffee has been traced to an area in southwest Ethiopia called Kaffia. where the hushes were found growing wild and taken to Arabia about 500 A.D. That first "coffee break" more than 1,000 years ago launched a worldwide tradition which inspires vigor, relieves fatigue, stimulates mental acti\itv, is a symbol of friendship and dominates the economy of many countries. Despite the efforts of the Arabs to maintain a monopoly on the industry, coffee drinking spread and was introduced into Europe in the 16th century. As with any novelty, it encountered the most absurd objections, falling in and out of favor, according to the prevailing medical, political and religious customs and restrictions. In England, where it first gained popularity, those opposing the new drink called it "svnip of soot" and "essence of old shoes" and a women's petition against its use claimed that it made men sterile. Others e.xtolled its stimulating effects. A coffee advertisement in 1652, believed to be the \ery first and now on display in a British museum, praised its exhilarating properties, saving it was "good for sore eyes" and attributed to it the power "to cure and prexent dropsy, gout and scur\'y." Amid these ridiculous pros and cons, coffee gained popularity at the inns which were then turning into centers of political, social and literary activities, and were later to become the hub of business dealings. Coffee was welcomed by the people of the working class, whose libations of ale and wine in the morning often rendered them a little tipsy and unfit for work. It can be said that coffee sobered up the populace. Coffee drinking flourished in the European countries; the French and Italians welcomed it with fcnor. and it was introduced and accepted from country to country. There are several x-ersions of how and when coftee came to America. According to one source, the Spaniards brought it from Africa to Cuija, from where it was introduced into Panama as early as 15.38 and then spread to Ontral America. Another story credits a French officer serving in Martinique with liringing the first coffee plant to the Caribbean in 1720. Seedlings from that plant were sent to nearby islands and from there coffee cultivation spread to Brazil, which today is this hemisphere's greatest producer. The Dutch and the English are credited with taking coftee to several South American countries. In Colombia, also among the world's leading coffee producers, the first coffee se:.'ds are said to have been planted bv Jesuit missionaries, and coffee cultivat'on on a large scale was started in 1821. Its culti\ation spread throughout tropical America and today, at least 14 coimtries grow coffee commercialK'. In today's fast paced world, more and more people are using instant coffee, a dried extract of freshly roasted coffee beans, the wonderful discovenof a Cuatemalan physician of Cerman orig'n named Di\ Federico Lehnhoff \\'\ld. According to a recent article on the subject in the "Americas" magazine, bv Cuatemalan journalist Edgar A. A veritable "United Nations" is represented in this row of coffee mugs, cups and deniitasses including a carved wooden shepherd's cup from Yugoslavia and a French silver mug from which a Panamanian child drank her first "cafe au lait" more than 100 years ago. Others are from China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, England, Greece, India, Ireland, Japan and the United States. 8 Fall 1975

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. . to sip and savor and to add a subtle flavor. fiiE Panama Canal Review

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Drop by drop, boiling water is poured through pulverized coffee to make "tintura." Shown are a few brands of Panama coffee. \icolle, the doctor-reseaicher made the discoxeiy in the early 190O's quite by chance, when he forgot to drink a cup of coffee. Days later he found the liquid gone and a fine powder remaining in the cup. His scientific mind at work, he poured boiling water over the coffee grounds and presto! obtained a new cup of coffee. Interestingly, the Panama Canal and soluble coffee were being created at about the same time. While the Canal was being constiiicted. Dr. Lehnhoff W'yld was doing research on his new process of dehydrating liquid coffee to obtain a product whose color, taste and aroma equaled the original liquid coffee. He had to do extensi\e research also to obtain the machinery necessaiy to manufacture the new product, .\fter finding the answer in the technical advancements of German industry, he established a company in Guatemala. Soluble coffee was well accepted and soon large shipments were sent to Emope. Another company was established near Paris in 191.3 l)ut the outbreak of World War I caused the soluljle coffee industiv to close down in 191.5, mainly due to the shortage of skilled workers, who went off to war, and the lack of ships to transport the coffee. (Soluble tea is also the result of Dr. Lehnhoff's research.) Since that time, soluble coffee or "instant" as we call it today, has acliieved a perfection and popularity iar l)e\'ond the doctor's dreams. rhe bulk of coffee for consumption in Panama was imported from Costa Hiea until recent years when the Landau family of Boquete and French and American coffee growers in that area joined forces to de\elop the coffee industry. From 4, .500 to 5,000 tons were produced annualhin the 1960's. Today, from 7 to 10 percent of all land under cultivation in Panama is planted in coffee. About 35,000 farms in just about e\ery province in the countr)' grow coffee, with about half of the entire production grown in a few large coffee plantations on the mountain slopes in the N'olcan region and the boquete district of Chiriqui Province. Ninety percent of Panama's export coffee is grown in this belt of volcanic soil ranging from 3,000 to 5,000 feet in altitude. The mild Arabica type coffee (one of the three principal species culti\ated for the coffee industr^) produced in this area is well accepted in the world market, with most of it going to Germany, the Netherlands and the United States. Of Panama's 1975 coffee crop of 110,000 quintals (hundred weight), Chiriqui Pro\-ince produced approximately 60,000 quintals. The remainder was produced on small farms in the highlands of Herrera, Code and \'eraguas, mainly near Santa Fe. An e\en larger coffee crop is expected next vear, according to Panamanian coffee experts. More than two-thirds of the coffee produced is consumed locally and a quantity is sold to the Canal Zone for resale in its retail outlets or to be ser\ed in restauiants and other facilities. In 1974, the Panama Canal organization purchased 36,942 pounds of Panama coffee with a dollar \-alue of nearly ^32,000 from Duran, Sitton and Tome. S.A. of Colon, the principal coffee firms in the Republic. The Coffee Institute, a Panama government agency, gi\es technical ad\-ice and purchases all coffee for export and handles export sales. An important commodity in Canal traffic, coffee mo\es through the waterway along international trade routes to all parts of the world. A grand total of 558,000 long tons passed through the Canal last year. An even greater amount, 614,000 long tons moved through the Canal in 1973. Making coffee is not a slapdash business. Coffee should be measured carefully. A \eiy clean coffee maker, rinsed in hot water to remo\-e any residue from the last pot, is important. A taie coffee connoisseur will have a coffee mill, as he knows that no coffee can match that made from freshly ground beans. \\'hen preparing instant coffee, make sure the water is boiling. Add the coffee according to the strength desired and stir. Cover it and let it simmer a few minutes. This lets the coffee flavor mellow. There are dozens of exotic brews. .•\mong them: Italian Espresso, especially strong coffee, prepared by forcing steam under pressure through powdered coffee; the moisture falls into the cup and condenses to form the beverage. Mocha, a mixture of coffee and cocoa or chocolate; Syrian Coffee, served with cracked cardamon seeds, strong and sweet; Turkish Coffee, made in a copper or brass pot, very strong and sweet, as it goes through a process of three boilings; Mexican Coffee, a mixture of coffee and chocolate, whipped or beaten to a froth with a wooden stick called molinillo; Cafe "Carretero," Cuban style coffee, presugared and filtered through a cloth strainer; and Panama's "tintura," an essence of coffee made by filtration, using a fine cotton bag fitted into the coffee pot. Boiling water is poured through the puKerized coffee, drop by drop. One teaspoon of this tintura to a cup of milk is sufficient. It is not uncommon for Panamanians to take a bottle along when tra\eling abroad. Also common at the Panamanian breakfast table is the proper "cafe au lait," half hot milk, half strong coffee, poured simultaneously. On the following pages are a few suggestions for special coffee be\erages that are bound to please coffee drinkers and gain new members for the coffee cult. F.H. 10 Fall 1975

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CAFE BRULOT 6 heaping tablespoons instant coffee 4 cups boiling water Stir, cover and let set. Combine in a chafing dish: 1 piece each of orange and lemon peel cut into verv thin strips, 4 pieces cinnamon stick, 1 tablespoon cloves, 24 sugar cubes, % cup brandy. Combine these ingredients, ignite and let burn about half a minute. Stir carefully. Add coffee slowly and serve. This makes enough for 12 demitasses and is especially nice for a festi\'e occasion. IRISH COFFEE /4 Clip Irish whiskey 8 teaspoons stigar S^'i Clips hot, extra strong coffee Whipped cream Pour whiskey into 4 preheated glasses or cups. Add sugar and coffee; stir to dissolve the sugar. Float 2 tablespoons whipped cream on top and drink through the cream if you can. Tin; Pas \M..\ Canal Revikw 11

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COFFEE CUSTARD 6 eggs Vz cup sugar Vi teaspoon salt 1 cup strong coffee 1 can evaporated milk 2 tablespoons sherry wine Beat eggs slightly; add remaining ingredients and mix well. Pour into sugar glazed mold. Set in a pan of hot water and bake at 350F, 40 to 45 minutes or until a silver knife inserted in the custard comes out clean. Cool before removing from the mold. For the glaze: In a heavy saucepan combine ^ cup sugar and 1 tablespoon water and bring to a boil over low heat. Increase the heat to moderately high and cook the syrup, rotating the pan gently, until it is a caramel color. Pour into a VA quart mold, turning to cover the mold completely with the caramel glaze. The glaze also may be made in the mold if it is of heavy metal. More Exotic Drinks and Desserts VIENNESE COFFEE V2 cup cream 1 tablespoon confectioner's sugar V2 tablespoon vanilla 3 cups hot strong coffee Vz teaspoon grated orange peel 4 cinnamcm sticks Combine sugar, cream and vanilla; beat until stiff. Pour coffee into 4 cups. Float the whipped cream on top and garnish with orange peel. Put a cinnamon stick in each cup. When using instant, pour the water directly onto the coffee. COFFEE NECTAR FROM TRINIDAD 2 tablespoons instant coffee 2 cups cold water 1 tablespoon Angostura bitters 1 pint vanilla or coffee ice cream Put ingredients in a blender and whirl until very smooth and creamy. Serve in tall, chilled glasses. Serves three to four. Here is a beverage sure to thirsty teenagers on a hot day. MOCHA MILK SHAKE please 4 tablespoons instant coffee 4 tablespoons instant cocoa 4 tablespoons sugar V4 cup cold water 3 cups cold milk 1 pint vanilla ice cream Put all the ingredients in the blender and whirl about half a minute. BRAZILIAN COFFEE 3V4 cups hot strong coffee % cup creme de cacao % Clip whipped cream Add the creme de cacao to the coffee. Pour into four mugs. Top with whipped cream. COFFEE ICE CREAM 1 14-ounce can of condensed milk 3 tablespoons instant coffee, level ',8 teaspoon salt Vg teaspoon almond extract Combine ingredients and pour into freezer tray. When soft-frozen, remove to a bowl and whip to a thick smooth consistency. Return to freezer tray. Makes about a quart. Serve with pecan sauce made by chopping M cup pecans and adding them to 1 cup of maple syrup; or use the ice cream to make the following ice cream dessert: ICE CREAM CAPPUCCINO 1% cups double strength coffee '/4 cup apricot brandy 1 teaspoon cinnamon Bring to a boil and remove from the heat. Pour over scoops of coffee or vanilla ice cream. Top with shaved chocolate. Serves 6. For instant, use 1 teaspoon per cup of water. 12 Fall 1975

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DIFFICULT TO BELIEVE THAT this great Canal which was built so many years ago can transit a liner this size"; "a fascinating operation"; "amazing that it is in such good operating condition after so many years"; "a thrilling experience." These are a few of the remarks made by some of the 1,400 passengers aboard the Queen Elizabeth 2 as she made her history making transit, March 25. A Panama Canal record that has stood for .36 years was broken when the QE2, as she is commonly known, became the largest passenger ship to transit the waterway. She made a northbound transit following her arrival from Acapulco on an around-the-world cruise. The Canard liner, which is 963 feet long and has a beam of 10.5 feet, broke the record held by the German flagship Breinen, which transited February' 15, 1939. The Bremen was 936.8 feet in length and had a beam of 101.9 feet. The ship also broke the Canal's toll record for passenger ships. She paid $42,077.88, far surpassing the Bremen's toll of $18,172.08. Advance planning for the record breaking transit began as early as September 21, 1973, with a meeting of Marine Bureau personnel, R. A. Woodall, Chief Officer of the QE2, and D. H. Morrison, Area Representative of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co., agent for the ship. At this meeting, the Cunard representative emphasized that the ship had never experienced any navigation difficulties and had been able to dock in New York, even in icy conditions, without the use of tugs. He noted that ordinarily the ship handled so well that onlv one pilot was required for docking and no problems of navigation through the narrow confines of the Canal were expected. All eventualities were carefully considered even including the possibility of an emergency which might require the remo\'al of a passenger by stretcher at the locks. It was agreed that this could be accomplished without any difficultv. Although it was recognized that the QE2 would be a tight squeeze in the 1,000-foot bv 110-foot locks, no unusual problems were anticipated and the ship Above: Control house eaves are folded down to make room for the bridge of the "QE2." At right: The giant liner squeezes through Miraflores Locks. would be handled in the same way as other Panamax vessels. (Panamax vessels are those of the maximum size that can pass through the locks of the Canal). However, because the bridge of the ship extended 118 feet, plans were made to fold down the eaves of all of the control houses. Since this problem has been faced with other super ships having unusual protrusions, the ea\es are on hinges. As the largest passenger ship still ih acti\'e sers'ice and probably the most widely publicized, the QE2 attracts a The record breaking transit of The By Willie K. Friar The Panama Canal Review 13

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^rnpto^ great deal of interest wherever she goes. Since the liner has been the victim of a bomb threat and is a target for tenorist attacks, Cunard requested security measures for the ship be drawn up well in advance and the Canal Pro,• Los Angeles Acapuico • Port Everglades \Cri Cartagena ^c, Salvador Bahia Rrode Janeiro Around the world in eighty days via the Panama Canal tection Division began preparations as soon as the vessel's arrival time was confirmed. With large crowds anticipated at the locks on both sides of the Isthmus, the QE2 was scheduled to transit through the west lane, which is farthest from the spectator area, to minimize security problems. All center walls and control houses were declared off limits to \isitors and Canal employees except for maintenance and operations personnel and a limited number of VIP's, newsmen and photographers. The latter included representatives from Panama and several other countries as well as UPI, AP, Newsweek, Time, and a Canadian television film crew. Crowds began gathering before dawn on the day of the transit, and Canal Zone policemen were assigned to Mirafiores Locks to handle traflBc. The regular parking lot at Miraflores was quickly filled and cars were then diverted to all available areas in the vicinity. A total of 1,291 visitors passed through the main gate at Miraflores between 6 and 8 a.m. but this was only Yokohama 4 Hong Kong at^ Bombay Mahe Seychelles a small percentage of the actual number of spectators who could be spotted atop even the highest hills along the Canal, many with cameras and field glasses. The local crowd had a much easier time seeing the liner than the Japanese when the ship came into port in Yokohama. There, spectators not only stood in line for many hours but paid 30 yen (about 10 cents) to walk by the ship. Directed by the port security force, the line filed past the ship on a 24-hour basis for the 3 days the ship was in port. One crewmember estimated that at least 250,000 Japanese \iewed the ship in what he felt was a remarkably disciplined operation. The liner, which was en route to New York, arrived at the Balboa anchorage at 4:35 a.m. and was boarded shortly after 5 a.m. by 11 admeasurers. Nine of them left the ship at Cristobal but J. C. Baker and Richard J. Bjorneby remained on board until the ship reached Port Everglades to finish the measuring. The cooperation they received on board was excellent and made for a smooth and pleasant operation of probably the most difficult job the admeasurers have had so far. Passengers looked with curiosit\at the preoccupied men with tape measures who were hard at work throughout the transit. Everxone was friendlv and helpful but B]orneb\' reported one disconcerting moment when after being asked to remove his shoes in the Turkish bath, he was soon leaping about in surprise as he discovered the floor was blistering hot. Four pilots were assigned to the QE2 as is routine for ships of this size. The\' were control pilots, Capt. Furman D. Saunders and Capt. Robert F. Bo\d and assisting pilots, Capt. Joseph J. Schack and Capt. Paul L. Skrable. The QE2 received routine handling as far as all locks operations were concerned and onh' eight towing locomotives were used. Since the Bremen was not onhthe largest ship to transit the Canal 36 vears ago but also the first commercial vessel of more than 50,000 gross tons in the nearl\25 vears of Canal opera14 Fall 1975

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Control pilots, Capt. Robert F. Boyd, left, and Capt. Furman D. Saunders, talk with Capt. Mortimer Hehir, master of the "QE2." tions, she received special handling and many extra precautions were taken, 'fourteen locomotives were assigned to the Bremen and there were five pilots, one control pilot and four assistants. It must be noted, however, that the locomotives now in use are more powerful than those assigned to the Bremen. In addition to the regular lockmaster, a supervisor or lockmaster was at the bow and stern of each wall at each of the locks watching all operations and ready to handle any emergency. One of the concerns, according to a local newspaper account, was that since the Bremen was a German ship, and World War II was about to begin, it might be involved in some attempt to sabotage the Canal. Also of concern was power failure since 14 locomotives had never before been used at one time on a lockage. -All went well however, and the admeasiuers were able to finish their work l^efore reaching Balboa. The Bremen was on a cruise around South America and was making a southbound transit. After the tolls were computed, the ship's owners protested the cost as being too high and the Canal was later called upon to explain some of the charges. In a letter to the German "Reichschiffsvermessungsamt," the director of admeasurement explained that "all lobbies, vestibules, fo\ers or entrances which conjointh' serve staterooms as well as public rooms do not qualif\as public rooms. These, the\noted, could not be exempted from charges but the Canal agreed to exempt "the shooting gallery," "the blacksmith shop and copper smithy." A barbershop which the ship's officials wished to deduct as a public room was disallowed because it was discovered that it was used exclusively by the crew. The total time for the Bremen's transit was slightlv over 10 hours compared to the 8 hours and 4 minutes required for the QE2. The Bremen had some problems with high winds. The Cunard liner arrived at Miraflores at 6:27 a.m. and cleared Gatun at 2:31 p.m.

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For passengers aboard the QE2, the Canal transit was a high point of one of the most luxurious cruises of modern times. They ate their lunch on trays to be able to watch the entire operation. They were on the final leg of a cruise labeled "Around-the-World in Eighty Days" which had taken them to 24 of the world's most exotic ports. This was the first time since World War II that Cunard had undertaken a world cniise and during the voyage the ship visited five continents and crossed three oceans. Included among the many land tours were African safaris and visits to the Taj Majal, and Mainland China. The longest stretch of ocean travel was the 3,049 miles between Yokohama and Honolulu and the shortest time between two ports was the 44 miles between the ports of Cristobal and Balboa. The ship covered .31,000 miles before the cruise terminated in New York, March 31. Providing all the comforts of a 13 story floating hotel, passengers' accommodations started at $.5,400 per person with the ultimate luxury being the two penthouse suites which went for nearly $100,000 each. For this price, the occupants had two rooms arranged on two decks, one above the other, an inside private staircase, two private oceanfront decked patios, two private bars, a day steward, night maid, and the satisfaction of having the best. The decor in the Trafalgar Suite was inspired by Admiral Nelson's quarters on his flagship H.M.S. Victory. There is a replica of the Admiral's desk among the furnishings and an oil painting of Lady Hamilton. Both penthouses can be set up so that either the upper or lower level can become the bedroom or sitting room. There are walk-in closets, and the private patios on both decks give a vantage point for viewing all of the special portside activities that were arranged for most stops along the way. The other penthouse suite is similar but decorated with Queen Anne period furnishings including a painting of the former British queen. Twenty other suites have private patios. About 1,100 crewmembers were aboard to handle all the needs of the 1,400 passengers. Included in the stafl[ are some chefs and other staff members from the France, which was withdrawn from service. In addition to all of the other social activities aboard the ship, there was a nightiv cocktail party and dinner hosted by Capt. Mortimer Hehir and his wife. A different group was invited each night making it possible for all of the passengers to "sit at the Captain's table" at least once during the cruise. Mrs. Hehir said that she was allowed to travel with her husband 3 months of the year and therefore was able to go on the 80-day around-the-world cniise. She said the nightly dinner had made it possible for her to get to know the passengers which had added a great deal to the pleasure of accompanying her husband. Aboard the QE2 at the time of her transit were passengers of 18 nationalities. Sixty-five percent of the 1,400 passengers were from the United States. Among them was Lillian Gish, still well known all over the world as the star of more than 100 Hollywood silent films. She came aboard at Capetown, South Africa, and had been giving lectures on the history of films from 1900 to 1928. Luxurious dining aboard the ship is provided by three restaurants which feature a five-course breakfast and a sevenand eight-course lunch and dinner. Lending an international flavor to the varied menus are dishes like Roulade de Veau Bourguigonne, Canard a rOrange, Mousse au Chocolat, and Crepes Flambe. The "wine cellar" is stocked with 2.5,000 bottles. Passengers can work out in the gym, take a Turkish bath or sauna, play table tennis, bridge, see the latest movies, try their luck in the casino or dance all night in several cabarets. Aboard the 0E2 The "Queen Elizabeth 2" passes through Caillard Cut on her northbound transit to New York where the cruise terminated. I' f ^ *, Chefs, bartenders, stewardesses, and other members of the crew line the forward rails to get a close-up view of transit operations as the 105-foot beam of the "QE2" is fitted into the 110-foot wide lock chamber at Miraflores. Centerfold: Sketch of "QE2" in Miraflores Locks. 16 Fall 1975

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0*>eet^ /r

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p There are three swimming pools, one indoor and two outdoor, nine bars, two main balhooms, a shopping center, a daily newspaper printed aboard the ship, and all the other things you would expect to find at an exclusive resort. As the most modem ship of its day, the Bremen also printed a daily newspaper aboard using a method similar to that used on the QE2. At that time, a new invention had made possible the transmission by radio of complete newspaper pages and transferring of the material onto plates for reproduction on ordinary printing presses. The process, which was tested on the Bremen in the spring of 1932, was created by Adalbert Gurth, of Switzerland, and was an important step in the de\elopment of such services as the transmission of photographs by wire. Actually, the Bremen had one capability that the modern day QE2 does not have. It could carry and launch an airplane by use of a catapult located between its two funnels. By using the plane for the last 600 miles, mail could be delivered between Europe and America from 24 to 48 hours earlier than was possible on regular ships. But though it may not have its own plane, the QE2 does provide a special drive on, 'drive off service for the convenience of passengers. There is room for 80 automobiles to be transported in this way. And although it does not have a blacksmith shop as did the Bremen, it has painters, plumbers, carpenters, and all types of specialists to make sure the ship is in perfect condition. For the passengers there are expert teachers for bridge, dancing, or most any subject that a passenger might wish to pursue. There is even a bomb disposal expert who was assigned to the ship after the 1972 bomb scare when a bomb threat required landing bomb disposal personnel by parachute to search the ship while it was far out at sea. This incident is supposed to have inspired the movie "Juggernaut." One crewmember, who was aboard the ship at the time, however, insisted the actual incident was nothing like what was shown in the movie. Aker completing her transit of the Canal at 2:31 p.m., the QE2 sailed for Kingston, Cartagena, Port Everglades and New York, where the voyage terminated March 31. Although the QE2 is the largest passenger ship to pass through the waterway, she is not the longest ship to transit. This record is held bv the San Juan Prospector, an ore-bulk-oil carrier, which transited April 6, 1973. She is 972.8 feet long and has a beam of 106 feet. The record for the widest ships to Jacob Baker, senior admeasurer, computes Panama Canal net tonnage for the "QE2." transit is still held by the U.S. Navy battleship New Jersey and her sister ships. These vessels are 800 feet in length and 108 feet in the beam. Chances are good that the Queen Elizabeth 2 will retain her title as the largest passenger ship to transit the Canal. She is the only oversize passenger ship in service and daily Canal traffic reflects a trend toward smaller cruise ships. I.tiMirious piihlic rooms, micIi as this, \s(.'rc deserted as passengers gathered on deck to watch the transit, wliich took S hours and 4 minutes. Many passengers arose before dawn and selected vantage points where they could watch operations in air-conditioned comfort. A pressman looks over the newspaper which is printed daily aboard the ship using a news service transmitted by radio. The Panama Canal Review 21

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WHAT HAPPENED TO THE Bremen, the largest passenger ship to transit the Canal until the QE2 toppled the record, March 25? Some of the manv rumors that circulated during World War II are still heard today— she was sunk by a British submarine, she sank off Denmark with 15,000 German troops aboard, she was scuttled by her master to avoid capture. All of these stories are false but the tme stoiT of what happened to the Bremen after she completed her record making transit February 15, 1939, is equally dramatic. Aware of the tense world situation and with war an immediate possibility, the crew of the Bremen was anxious to return to Germany as quickly as possible. On reaching New York, the 1,600 cruise passengers quickly disembarked and the ship was readied for departure within 9 hours after her arrival. But before she could get underway. President Franklin D. Roose\elt announced that all ships of potentially belligerent nations would be searched for arms or other materials which might make it possible to convert them into vessels of war once they were at sea. There were immediate protests from the owners of the Bremen but to no avail and the U.S. Steam.ship Inspection Ser^ice delayed the vessel for 36 hours while a careful search was made, which included ordering the crew to lower the lifeboats for inspection. Finally, on August 30, the Bremen was allowed to steam out of New York Harbor only a few hours before German tanks invaded Poland. With the band playing "Deutschland iiber alles," and the crew giving the Nazi salute, the huge liner passed the Statue of Liberty and headed for the open sea. Five days after her departure, two liferings from the Bremen were recovered off the coast of Massachusetts and iiimors spread that the ship had been sunk by a submarine or had been scuttled. Actually, as soon as the ship was out of sight of land, her captain ordered the ship to be repainted to help camouflage her. Lifeboats were lowered halfway down the side of the ship. Seamen stood in them and using long poles to which they attached paint brushes, they covered the giant liner with a coat of dull grey paint. As the ship continued at full speed, lifeboat drills and other emergency procedures were constantly practiced and e\'er\'one was alerted to be ready to scuttle the vessel. However, in only 8 days the liner was safe in the Russian port of Murmansk and the Nazi press publicized the event as a "victory over the British." Cartoons appeared pretending to explain how it was done. One showed the crew carefully stitching all the tablecloths together, then hanging them over the side and painting a rowboat on them to disguise the enormous liner. In December 1939, the ship quietlv made the final dash for its home port of Bremenhaven. Nothing more was heard of her until March 17, 1941, when the German radio announced that the liner was afire. The beautiful luxury liner burned for 8 days as all efforts to sa\e her failed and the firemen turned their efforts to saving her sister ship, the Eiiropa, which was moored nearby Although an investigation was held, the cause of the fire was not discovered. Sabotage was suspected but never proved. Four years later, when the victorious American troops arrived in Bremenhaven they found only three broken sections of the hull lying in the water. The rest of the ship had been cut up to provide scrap metal for the armament plants. But the name of the Bremen remained on the record books of the Panama Canal and when she appeared in the news this year many local people nostalgically recalled her transit 36 years ago. WKF i lEii! Am jPrrr XffThe German crui.se ship "Bremen" passes through Catun Locks on her southbound record breaking transit, February 15, 1939, while the left lane was out of service during locks overhaul. 22 Fall 1975

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KSEASirS.' Horses SHOW TIME IS FIVE MINUTES away, folks!" With these words from the announcer's booth, Glenn Heath casts a glance at the sky. Will today he sunny or wet? Will he be soaked with perspiration or with rain? It will be touch and go, as he well knows. Glenn's running comments and humor as he emcees horse show events in the Canal Zone are a constant source of amusement to the spectators. Little do they know how many details he must take care of and remember. The name of every rider in every event (sometimes as many as a hundred ) The name or number of every horse that enters the arena. He must keep these on the tip of his tongue every second of the full day ahead. He must describe each event as it unfolds before the By Lori Daisey spectators, outline the rules riders must follow, and announce the results of each event as soon as the judges make their decisions. In the fast-moving Pole Bending e\ent, a small girl, barely large enough to climb upon a horse, comes flying across the starting line. While timers' clocks tick away, she must guide her horse between the upright poles, wea\'ing in and out, turn, and repeat the process without knocking a pole over or missing one. The contestant who achie\-es this in the fastest time is the winner, and ribbons will be awarded on down to 4th or 6th place. In the e.xciting Barrels event, a spectator favorite, a boy sitting deep in the saddle, body stretched across his horse's neck, races against the clock, urging his mount into the tight turns It's all family fun and friendly competition for horse owners and riders at the local horse shows around three positioned barrels. He must not o\erturn one or miss one as he flies through, around and back across the finish line. The Senior Division (for participants over 18) may bring out a mom or dad to imitate the youngsters, sometimes performing well, and sometimes obviously out of their element. These are familiar scenes in the Canal Zone horse world where there are hundreds of horse owners and riders. Most belong to one of 10 riding clubs con\eniently located throughout the area. On the Pacific side there are Howard Riding Club, Albrook Riding Club, Fort Clayton Riding Club, ancl Pacific Saddle Club. About midwa\' across the Isthmus are Summit Riding Club and Gamboa Riding Club. The Atlantic side has Gatun Saddle Club, Mindi Acres Riding Club, Fort Randolph Riding Club, and Atlantic Riding Club. These clubs and horse shows are successful due to the efi^orts of man\"behind the scenes" heroes. The mother who sat hunched o\'er a sewing machine until 2 a.m. finishing costumes for her participating family. The grooms who help bv walking and curr\-ing (brushing the horses) and locating needed ecjuipment. The children who pitch in even though thev ma\' not be in the show themselves. The dad helping with the change from Western saddle and equipment to English etiuipment while his son or daughter is hurriedly changing to the appropriate riding apparel in a tack room or, more often, trying to change in a car or trailer, or behind a hastily hung blanket. The instructor who is keeping his fingers crossed that his pupils will remember all he has tried to teach Above: Katlv.f Molina on "Miracle.' The Panama Canal Review 23

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"Down" but delinitelj not "out" was Danielle Barriteau, when she took this spill at the Gatun Horse Show. Recovering her composure and displaying the courage of a true equestrian, she and her horse "Pepper" were soon back in the competition. them. The farrier who properly shoed that horse to help it make a good jump, rhe stablebov who has been responsible for feeding the horse as instructed by the rider or owner. The timer, the judges, the officers of the hosting club, all hoping to make participants and ticket-purchasing spectators happy. The list could go on and on. For over 14 years, serving in sun or rain, Karl Marohl has been one of the best-loved and most-respected judges of Canal Zone horse shows. His wife, Barbara, has stood by his side as a recorder, keeping track of his point decisions on the participants, for the same number of years and recently has begun to judge shows as well. One reason Karl and Barbara are in such demand is that through the years they have studied and adjusted their judging as times and events changed. One of the most difficult parts of judging in the Canal Zone is that the judge almost always knows and is a friend to all the participants. Karl and Barbara, however, have the ability to disassociate themselves from this problem and follow the rules of judging fairly and with no partiality to anyone once they enter the arena. It is combined work such as this that has helped to nourish and impro\'e the Canal Zone horse shows. Donating their time, Dick Conover and Capt. Marshal Irwin have practically built a stable and club in their off-duty hours. Under their guidance. Pacific Saddle Club has grown from a "smaller club" to one of the Zone's finest. Through the efforts of these men and other members, Pacific has become what could well be called the "heart" of the riding clubs today; it is here that members of all Zone riding clubs can find good feed, equipment, vitamins, medicines and other items needed to keep rider and horse in good trim. "It takes a lot of the time and energy of the adult members to run and maintain a good riding club, but it is well worth it when vou see the overall results and such fine effects on the children," says Capt. Al Gallin, president of the Fort Clayton Riding Club. Al, the members of his club, and the members of all the riding clubs strive to prevent the so-called generation gap, and it very seldom occurs in the local horse world. For serious riders who wish to develop the finer points, Bruce Harkness, steward at Fort Clayton Riding Club, conducts advanced classes. "This class is strictly for the 100 percent devoted, and no playtime; it is learning time only," Bruce says goodnaturedly. Some of his pupils, such as Kelley Nolan, Nan Sullivan and Catherine Todd, are already accomplished riders, but they never cease practicing for perfection and polish. "Our club, Mindi Acres, made special provision in its charter to permit the teaching of young children who, for xarious reasons are unable to own a horse," says Mrs. Sheila Heath, who is president of the Canal Zone Horse I '. v 24 Fall 1975

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Association. Sheila has instructed some \erv voung Atlantic-siders, including 8-year-olds Kellv Colver and Beth McDonnough, and Tito Motta, at age 4, the youngest of her students. These youngsters wUl probably participate in future shows. For the Heaths, the horse world could be called "a family affair," with Sheila, daughters Cheryl, Cari and Cvnthia, and husband, Glenn, all active. WTien talk turns to the love of horses, the person most likely to be mentioned is NIrs. Berta Lewis. Berta owns four horses: Pancho Lopez and Prince, both 16 years old, Nieve, 12, and Chief, who is 38. To the best of anyone's knowledge. Chief is the oldest horse at anv riding club in the Canal Zone. Berta bought him when he was 22 and his pre\'ious owner considered him "too old." Laughingly, Berta recalls that "times have sure changed, because the price on Chief then was $30, with two saddles thrown in to boot!" She rode him until 3 years ago, when she decided it might do him more harm than good. Still groomed daOy, exercised by running free in the pasture, and placed in a clean stall at night at Fort Clayton Riding Club, Chief enjoys his retirement world. The children and Berta give him a big birthday party on the last Saturday in each September, rain or shine. Berta has never considered selling him or having him destroyed. She savs, "He will spend the rest of his davs receiving the same love, care and devotion he gave me for over 16 vears. You can't be too old for that!" Berta is one of the beautiful people "behind the scenes." "No hooves, no horse" is a wellknown saying among the horse crowd. "A horse's performance, whether in pleasure riding or in a show ring, depends strongly on whether his hooves are correct," says Robert Fearon, the Canal Zone's first licensed farrier, or horseshoer. Bob attended the Uni\ ersity of New Mexico on three separate occasions to obtain his Certified Farrier's Certificate, his Master Farrier's Certificate, and Instructor's Certificate. He studied under R. L Rassmussen, one of two World Master Farriers alive today. If not satisfied with his work. Bob will pull the shoes right back off the horse and keep working until they meet his standards of perfection. Research shows that a horse applies pressure of about 100 pounds per square inch to his hoof, he says, so if even 1 inch is wrong, the horse will not be able to give his peak performance. It is interesting to discover that contrarv to those Western films we see of the old-time blacksmith heating up the iron shoes, the "hot shoes" method is no longer used. In fact, it has been outlawed in many states as it was discovered to be damaging to the horses' hooves. "The first horse I shoed took me four hours. Now I can do one in an hour," says Mrs. Carol Myers, who has the distinction of being the only woman The Panama Canal Review 2.5

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The riding clubs' goals are health} horses and good horsemanship Cheryl Heath on "Lucero" jumped as high as 4 feet 3 inches and won the day's open jump puissance pony event at the Gatun show. At right; Berta Lewis and "Chief," beh'eved to be the oldest horse in the Canal Zone. Robert Fcaron and Carol Meyers provide professional shoeing for local horses. fairier in the Canal Zone. She attended tlie Oklahoma Farrier College in Sperry, Okla., where her instructor was Bud Beaston, the only farrier in the United States who has handmade shoes on display at the Cowbov Hall of Fame in Oklahoma City. Carol, like Bob, does corrective shoeing. One of her happiest moments was the day she saw a horse that had been foundered for many years, running free in the pasture. The horse had barely lieen able to walk because of the intensely painful condition which affected his feet, resulting in impaired circulation. Carol used a soft acrylic padding to cu.shion the hooyes and prevent bnnsing, and shaped a new hoof wall with a hard acrylic. Now the horse is not only running, but kicking up his heels and bucking. By providing licensed, professional care of horses' hooves, Carol and Bob are helping to keep people in the saddle, with fewer horses limping, off the trails, or out of the show ring. .All Canal Zone horse shows are held under Canal Zone Horse Association rules and regulations, which are strictly adhered to by participants and judges. Years ago, each club set the rules for its shows. As time passed and the clubs grew, it became obvious that it would be better to have a standard set of rules, and the Canal Zone Horse Association (CZHA) came into being. Although all shows are governed by the CZHA, each riding club has its own charter coyering such things as stable maintenance, sanitation and safety. The Annual Junior Show of Champions, proceeds from which go to the Shriners' Children's Hospital, is one of the largest "all event" shows held in the Canal Zone. Although it is a oneday show, it takes hundreds of people to assure success. In charge of this giant is Mrs. Betty Evans, and her cochairman working with the Shriners, Mike Fears. Riders and horses appearing in this show spend a full year qualifying for it. Points are kept by CZH.A officials on both rider and horse as they participate in shows throughout the year at all 10 riding clubs. Finally, the spectator sees these selected competitors perform in the Six-Bar (jumping). Equitation (rider and horse performance), Poles, Barrels, and many other e\ents featured in the exciting Annual Junior Show of Champions. A breed of horse that has appeared in many Canal Zone horse shows in the past few years is the Paso Fino. This splendid animal, known for its endurance, is becoming a favorite on the trails and has been competing in and taking ribbons in events not entered in pre\ious years. A Paso Fino is a horse to ride in comfort, as it has what is known as a four-beat gait. There is no boiuice, but a "rocking-chair" type of ride. It's gait makes it showy, yet it has a fine temperament. Many horse owners are finding Pasos very good with children. Persons viewing them in the show ring always enjoy their performances. For the spectators, show day at any of the riding clubs usually begins around 9;. 30 a.m. Not so for the participants. After weeks or months of preparation, these industrious people \er\likt'lv will be up before daylight, grooming their horses, going over the rules one more time, and helping each other. Horses have to be transported to the \arious club grounds, which is fun unless your horse dislikes trailers. In that case, getting him in may involve 26 Fall 1975

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(riistrating moments, along with a few softlv spoken choice words. It is amusing to watch a 4-foot child coaxing, pleading with and sweet-talking a i4-hand horse (about 4'8" at the shoulder) who has his front legs firmly sho\ed fonvard in an "I don't want to get in that thing stance. Riding club members well remember the dav a group of youngsters got up at the crack of dawn to ha\c theii' horses readv to load in the big horse transport \an to participate in a show on the Atlantic side, onlv to wait and wait for the van. After the show had begun, they discovered that the driver had misunderstood his instnictions and had dri\en across the Isthmus "empt\-," thinking he was to trailer the .\tlanti^ horses to the Pacific side. Funn\to some, but a heartbreak to others. Horse show participants must alwavs be prepared, and most especiallv while in the arena on a show dav. Even the riders do not alwavs know what will happen. One incident well remembered was the dav a woman, magnificentlv dressed out, was clearing jumps beautifullv and then, smiling with confidence as she went over the last jump, lost her seat, the horse stumbled, and her wig fell off! Unhurt, but with a red face, she left the arena with a smile showing that good sportsman.ship must pre\ail. A \isit to the stable area at davbreak on show dav will find the participants having coffee, ribbing each other, borrowing and lending needed equipment, all in a wann atmosphere of companionship. As show time approaches, there is a tightening of tension, expectancy, hope, and a near feeling of panic. It's everyone for himself, at least until the first e\ent gets underway, when an easing back to a somewhat more relaxed atmosphere can be sensed. Costume events may mean one moment spent in laughter, the next in awe of beauty, and the next in respect for originality as the participants parade before the spectators. Some shows establish a theme, but a favorite costume e\ent is one which allows a participant's creati\'ity free rein. This "use your own imagination" event alwavs brings oohs and ahs as each contestant enters the arena. One moment, there is a headless horseman before your eyes, next a pert ballerina or a lovely Spanish ladv, a horse with paper wings (not too happy about it, either), angels, devils, clowns, Indians, knights, queens and here come Raggedv Ann and Andv! Xeedless to say, these participants ( or Mom ) have spent many hours designing and making these costumes. Many anxious eyes watch the skies and fingers are crossed in hopes that no rain will spoil the hours of plumage preparation! During this event, a spectator rarely lea\es his seat (e.xcept to take pictures), and all the other show participants crowd around the arena fence. E\eryone, young or old, spectator or participant, loxes the costume event. To lie honest though, some of the horses are a bit uncertain about this event, until they adjust to their weird adornments. Others, however, seem aware of the added attention they are recei\ ing. Ears perk up, steps are higher, and the\' carrsthemselves proudK'. Hiniter Seat (English) Equitation is a graceful and beautiful thing to see. The appointments (apparel) required in this event are a hunting cap, jodhpurs or breeches, English-style boots and a white shirt. Coat, stock ties or chokers, imrowelled spurs and a crop arc optional, depending upon the class of competition. The tack (equipment) consists of a snafHe (a plain, slender, jointed bridle bit), with or without dropped nosebands, Pelhams or full bridles. The type of English saddle is optional. .Again, many of the tack requirements depend on which division the rider and the horse are entered in. The placement of hands and feet are \ery important in this exent, and the eagle eyes of the judges will watch this closely. The judge will \enlikeKcall for a figure 8 to be done at a trot; a gallop (extended canter) and pullup; b;icking of the horse; and dismount and mount. This may not sound so difficult, Iiut one must bear in mind that each mo\-ement of rider and horse must follow a certain set of rules. Hands must be in the right place, feet must be correctly positioned, and there must be an appearance of fluid movement at all times. There are many different categories in\olved in the Hunter Seat class, each with its own specific rules for Equitation and Jumping. Western Stock Seat Equitation also requires proper seat and position of hands and feet. A rider must be able to liack his horse ("Straight line back, please!") and execute a figure 8. The horse will also be judged at a walk, a jog, and a lope. Like the Englishtrained horse, a stock horse must respond instantly and to all commands of the rider. Western appointments include westWhile the show goes on, Noreen Will is in the stable carefully grooming her horse. Preparing for an event, Rhonda Bales gits help from her mother in adjusting her choker. The presentation of the colors at the Gatun Horse Show on the banks of the Canal. The Panama Canal Review 27

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P^ J^SL P Knights, queens, headless horsemen, angels and devils may suddenly appear at the costume event where creativity is given full rein. Above: Kelly Colver, wearing her rain bonnet, is an interested spectator. Below: Participating in the costume event, Lori Daisey, author of this story, wears a Carmen Miranda type outfit. <^^n ern hat and boots and clean, workmanlike clothing. Tack requirements include a standard stock saddle and western bit, with a rope (or reata) carried on the free hand side. A curb chain may be used, but it must be at least ',2 inch wide and lie against the jaws of the horse. An added feature is a neatlv rolled bedroll (usually matching the saddle blanket) tied behind the saddle to enhance appearance. A western stock horse will likeh' be called upon to perform a rollback, in which the horse comes fonvard, rears, then when his front legs come down, he should be facing the direction from which he just came. He mav also have to come forward at a run, then stop b\' placing his feet fonvard and sliding, making no forward steps with his legs or hooves. It is rare to see a horse win ribbons in both Hunter Seat Equitation and Stock Seat Western Equitation. For instance, in order to perform a sliding stop, the rider will shift his weight back in the saddle; that's fine if the horse is in a Western event and a sliding stop has been requested bv the judtrp. But one show comes to mind in which a voung girl entered her horse in both Western and Engli.sh. Unfortunatelv, while in the English class, she shifted her weight, the horse slid to a stop, and of course she was immediatelv disqualified. This is whv on.e will see that a participant generally will use two horses if he or she wishes to enter both English and Western events. An exception to the nile is Ricochet, owned bv 1.3-vear-old Hollv Coe of Mindi Riding Club. Ricochet has been showing well, and winning ribbons, in both English and Western, a tribute to the time and work his young mistress has put into training him. No one in the horse crowd ever really relaxes on show day until the final gun has sounded and the last horse has been walked to cool down, groomed, stalled, watered and fed. It is then the tiredness moves in. This is when one will hear a lot of "If I had done this, or if I hadn't done that" conversation among the participants. But, no matter how tired they are, and no matter if they failed to bring home a ribbon or trophv this time, they will always say, "That's okay, I know what I did wrong, and mavbe next time . ." They never lose hope, and they start their campaign for the next show before they have even left today's! There are other sides to the wonderful world of horse ownership. One may see a very concerned mother out in a pasture or arena in heels, nvlons and cocktail gown, walking a colicky horse, the night out with dad suddenly set aside because Suzie's horse is sick and needs help. Or two sisters, both entered in the same event and both wanting very much to win, but each not wanting to hurt the other. A new foal born at one of the riding clubs and members of the other clubs rushing over for a look-see, for a foaling is a pleasure for even-one to enjoy. A parent trying to find the words to comfort a yoimgster whose horse just died and knowing there just aren't any "right" words. Adults and young people, covered with paint from head to toe as they hold their Annual Cleanup the Stable Weekend, eating hotdogs happily at break time with paintsmeared hands. Hearing the whoo]-) and scream as a young girl or boy wins a very first ribbon. Seeing a mom and dad decide against buying a new color television because Suzie needs a new saddle. These things, and many more, have been the strength and backbone of the riding clubs. All these people on the 5cene and "behind the scenes" of the Canal Zone riding clubs work towards the same goals: healthy horses, good horsemanship and companionship with one another. 28 Fall 197.5

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Bv Pandora G. Alenian THE "BELGULF ENTERPRISE" would ha\e been the perfect "prison" for Philip Nolan, the character in Edward E\ erett Hale's stoiy "Tlie Man Without a Country" who was tried for treason and condemned to spend his life on shipboard, wandering the high st'as far from his native land. Although its home port is Antwerp, the ship has not been within hailing distance of Belgium for 3 years. A link in the worldwide chain of operations of the Gulf Oil Corp., the ship has spent those vears picking up oil in \'enezuela, where Gulf owned the Mene Grande Oil Co. and a controlling interest in the Venezuela Gulf Refining Co.. and delivering it to the Canal Zone and the eastern United States. Supertankers with a cargo-carrving capacity of 2.50,000 deadweight tons and o\er are the talk of the shipping world these days. Still, less glamorous \essels like the Bclf^ulf Enfrrprisc, with her length of .561 feet, beam of 71 feet anl summer deadweight tonnage of lS.fi.51, play a \ital role. In fact, the Belgulf Enterprise is in some ways representati\e of the tankers that transit the Panama Canal. The Canal's 40-foot maximum draft restriction and its 1.000-foot bv 110-foot locks close it to the supertankers. Weighing in at 8,942 Panama Canal net t
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What is the hardest part of taking a ship through? Entering the three sets of locks, each of which has its unique problems. At Miraflores Locks, the first set on the Pacific side, a 4-knot current is produced when the heaxier seawater meets the fresh water of Miraflores Lake. It is important to time the ship's arri\'al at Pedro Miguel Locks just right, for there may be a wind that will take her sideways if she slows down too much. As the Belgulf Enterprise approached the west chamber of Pedro Miguel Locks about 12:30, Captain Jablonski moved her toward the center wall. The wind would help keep the ship off that wall, he said. On the wing wall to port, water spraying over the "knuckle" fender reminded one of the party of the incident that had inspired installation of that friction-reducing device in all locks. At left: Panama Canal pilot, Capt. Ted Jablonski, radios Marine Traffic Control that the "Belgulf Enterprise" is ready to begin her northbound transit. Below left: Linehandlers board the vessel as she approaches the locks. Below: In ballast and riding high in the water, the "Belgulf Enterprise" moves into Miraflores Locks on the first leg of her transit. Fall 1975

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One Mav e\ening in 1967, the 735foot-long, 102-foot-wide tanker Rebccca, laden with 45,000 tons of jet fuel and aviation gasoline, had brushed against part of the northeast wing wall at Miraflores Locks. Jet fuel spurted out and caught fire, burning for nearlv an hour while Fire Division and tugboat personnel plaved streams of water on the blaze and the overheated hull. Such incidents illustrate dramatically the danger that ho\'ers o\er tanker crew members. Chief Officer Gustaaf ("Staf") Beimaert, who is responsible for safety as well as general maintenance and the cleaning and maintenance of tanks when the ship is travelling in ballast, said he emphasized fire prexention. adding that it is better not to dwell on the effects of an explosion. \ fire in the crew's quarters or in the boiler room might be contained b\' the ship's firefighting equipment. She At right: Chief Officer "Staf" Beimaert is dwarfed by oil pipelines. Below: Third Officer William Van Hamme-De Sniet, Chief Officer Beimaert, and Second Officer Serge Lampole on deck at Pedro Miguel with a Liberian tanker in the background. Below right: In casual dress appropriate to tropical climes, Capt. Paul Poppe plots a departure course in the chart room. has portable extinguishers, a permanent carbon dioxide installation, equipment for steam smothering and spraying water. Because of the ever-present danger and the short time in port, tanker crews usuallv enjov more leave and better accommodations than their counterparts on general cargo ships. The officers of the Bel^ulf Enterprise chatted easilv— in fluent English, the international language of the sea— about their life on board, their occasional shore visits, their vacations and their future plans. According to Belgian law, crew members are entitled to 2 months of paid vacation after 9 months of senice, and Gulf usuallv grants leave after 6 months. Chief Officer Beirnaert is one of those Captain Poppe called "the luckv ones. Since the Beirnaerts have no children, his wife Denise is able to accompanv him most of the time. Sitting at lunch in the Captain's dining room, b\' a flower box filled with large cacti from \'enezuela, the Beirnaerts introduced their cat "Tarzan" from Puerto La Cruz and spoke about .shipboard life. "Staf" said this was the second time he had served for a full vear before taking \acation, and Denise volunteered that during the past 1-3 months she had left onlv once, for a 4-dav trip home to Ghent. She has visited the niins of Old Panama, gone shopping, been to the Church of the Golden Altar, and picke'l up fresh vegetables at the Canal Zone's "Chinese gardens." Still, in perhaps 50 stops at Cristobal, where the ship calls more frequently than at Balboa, she has gone ashore only about 5 times. At the other end of the trip, Puerto La Cruz is a commercial center of some 60,000 people located in the region that makes Venezuela the largest producer of oil in Latin America and thirdlargest in the world. But the Beirnaerts are able to enjoy few of its attractions. \\'hen they put in to the terminal, they stay only 20 to 24 hours, depending on the cargo to be loaded, and unlike his counterpart on a general cargo ship the chief officer must be on hand at all times. Beirnaert acknowledges that it is relaxing to have his wife on board and be able to talk things over, and it is also better for their marriage— sentiments that were echoed in one way or another by others during the day. Denise, with Rose Van Hamme-De The Panama Canal Review 31

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Panama Canal pilot Capt. Ted Jablonski stays alert as he takes a lonely meal on the bridge. J^ A At tlic manifold, located amidships. Chief Officer Beimaert checks one of the loading-offloading valves. Some seamen may find time hangs heavy on their hands, but "Tarzan," wlu) shipped on with the Beirnacrts in Puerto La Cruz, takes pleasure in the simple things of life. Smet, the wife of one of the two tliird officers on board, spent part of the day at the swimming pool behind the deckhouse, as Captain Poppe says the crew does regularly when at sea. He and the other officers, who are all permanent company employees, are permitted to ha\e their wives on board, but most have responsibilities at home. Captain Poppe's wife was in Brussels with their three chikfi-en, and after 4 months alone he was looking forward to her joining him when school was out. Third Engineer Frans DeRyck had onlv been back on board 6 days after a 5-month vacation at his home near Antwerp. His wife had accompanied him on his last 6-month stint, and he hoped she might rejoin him next month. As for now, she was basing a new kitchen installed at home. And Chief Engineer Roger De Gryse's wife, who had li\ed aboard 4 months during his last tour, was home with their grandchildren. Besides swimming, sunbathing, playing ping pong, cards and a dice game called pitjcsbak, listening to the radio and reading, members of the ship's comniunitv invent their own anuisenients. Denise Beirnaert is doing a painting b\' numbers. Second Officer Serge Lampole makes movies— last year, one of the Canal. Bachelor Lampole likes the sun and likes being alone at sea, with time to think. Still, after .3 years with Gulf, he sometimes thinks life was more interesting when he served on general cargo ships. In those davs, he traveled to Africa, and because the ship was in port for as long as a month there was a chance to meet more people. Now, he works 11 months straight, then takes 4 or o months' leave so he can study for and take the exams that lead up the ladder to a master's license. As pleasant as life on board can be, there are those who, like "Staf" Beirnaert, look forward to something different. He has been at sea 9 years, all with Gulf, and says a person "must be crazv" to stav at sea until he is 60. He has had his master's license for 3 vears, and for reasons which probably are shared by most of the captains and marine engineers who gave up going to sea to work for the Panama Canal, he would like one day to become a pilot on the single-lock Belgian canal which runs from Ghent to Terneuzen and have more time with family and friends. From 1 to 3 p.m., the Belgulf Enterprise was tied vip at the northern end of Pedro Miguel Locks to allow ships with "clear cut" restrictions to complete their southbound transit of Gaillard Cut. (The "clear cut" restriction means that because of its size or hazardous cargo one ship cannot meet another in the .5()()-foot-wide Cut.) The Liberian tanker World Industrij, whose length of 710 feet and beam of o\er 96 feet recjuired her to use two Panama Canal pilots, glided into the east chamber shortlv after 1 p.m. She was followed about an hour later bv the Belgian bulk carrier E. R. Brabantia, which with a length of 771 feet and a lieam ot 1(15 feet was carrying four piliits. Seeing those ships at close hand, one understood whv they needed the Cut to themsebes, but it was harder to sec why a third, the 226-foot by 34-foot Maridan C, should have been gi\ en such a wide berth— until Captain jablonski mentioned that she was cariNing Class "A" explosives. Cliief Officer Beirnaert took advantage of the stopo\'er to conduct a tour of the ship, beginning with the wellkept and attractive crew's quarters lielow the bridge. Out on deck, he briefly explained the ()p..'ration of the loading offloading \ al\es, located almost amidships. Pumpman German Lorenzo Magdaleno, one of se\eral Spanish crew members, was on deck opening a hatch and preparing to empty all the oil residue into one tank so the others could be cleaned at sea. He led the wav down to the aft pimip room. Yellow numbers on all sides indicated where drvdock repairs were to be made. There were four big cargo pumps to empty holds 3 through 8, used for "dirty" cargo. (The foivvard pmnproom discharges "clean" cargo from holds 1 and 2. ) EHiring offloading, German may work 36 hours straight. This, coupled with the stifling heat of the pump room in the tropical midday stillness, made it easy to see how in 2 months he had dropped from 187 pounds to 143. The tour mo\"ed up again, and dow u into the engine room, where Third Engineer DeRyck and Assistant Engineer Rafael Vercauteren were enjoying a pot of tea— brought from above. The room had a water cooler, which seemed only fair since all water used on the ship is distilled from seawater right there in the engine room. They can distill 50 tons of water in 24 hours, but normal daily usage is about 20 tons for the boilers and 5 tons of potable water. It seemed nothing short of miracu32 F.\LL 1975

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An important link in a worldwide ciiain lous to be able to press a button and drink cool, delicious water, since despite the mechanical fans the wall thermometer registered 118F. DeRyck, a \eteran of 36 years at sea, grinned and said that when the ship is underway the temperature goes up to about 122 "F on the Caribbean run; in the Persian Gulf, a common tanker run, engine room temperatures are e\en higher. The two boilers, built to operate at a pressure of 600 pounds and a temperature of 700 'F, burn about 40 tons of Bunker "C" daily, turning the distilled water into steam that runs the turbine that drives the single enormous propeller that moves the Belgulf Enterprise. At 3:04 the ship was underway again, and for the next hour she wended her way through the narrow waters of Gaillard Cut, hacked through the Continental Divide bv the blood and sweat of thousands of workers in the French and U.S. Canal construction days. Captain Jablonski called out the orders that kept the bow pointed toward the large white markers on the banks— the set with crosses to keep her in the centerline if there was no approaching ship, the set with vertical black lines when there was two-way traflRc. After hours of unrelenting tropical sun, the slight drizzle that began as the Panamanian \'essel Maritime Challenge approached was more than welcome. Captain Jablonski emphasized the pilot's need for full help and cooperation from the crew if all is to go well. As an example, he pointed out that as we passed the 608-foot bv 85-foot Maritime Challenge its bow wash \\ould send our bow toward starboard. At right: Third Officer William Van Hamnie-De Smet and his wife Rose take advantage of the stopover at Pedro Miguel Locks to soak up some Panama sunshine on the "monkey bridge," or sundeck, above the bridge. Waiting behind the "Belgulf Enterprise" is the Greek vessel. "Maria P. Lemos," and at left rear, southbound, is the 771 -foot by 105-foot Belgian bulk carrier "E. R. Brabantia." stern toward port, and the helmsman had to be ready to compensate. The Belgulf Enterprise passed Gamboa and headed into the vast waters of Gatun Lake at about 4 o'clock. She continued to snake along the channel, marked to keep traffic away from shallow areas— hills submerged when the Chagres Ri\er was dammed— and the skeletons of partly submerged trees. The sun was by this time falling in the west, and Captain Jablonski found himself looking almost directly into it as he sought out the white markers used to line up the ship. His remark that "the Canal is heading the wrong way" seemed apt. Because Panama is shaped something like an S lying on Its side and the Canal has a southeastnorthwest orientation, the .Atlantic terminal, Cristobal Colon, is 27 miles farther west than the Pacific terminal, Balboa Panama City; and thus the ship at times was heading almost due west. More of the cosmopolitan company that transited the Canal that day-40 in all— trooped by: the Iberville, out of San Francisco, carrying deck cargo, and behind her the seagoing oil rig. Seismic Explorer. Much of what one hears about the ships that transit the Canal concerns tonnage and tolls. But though Captain Jablonski noted that the Belgulf Enterprise, like other Canal customers, would pay not only her toll but also for the linehandlers who boarded to take her through the locks, launch hire and other fees, no one on board seemed in the least concerned about these matters, lea\ing them to the ship's Canal Zone agents. Soon Captain Jablonski radioed Marine Traffic Control at Balboa that he In the captain's dining room, Chief Steward Raymond Foucarl offers Chief Officer Gustaaf Beimaert and his wife Denise a preview of the dinner menu. Not exactly swimming the Canal, but at least swimming "in transit, Denise Beimaert enjoys the ship's ])()ol behind the bridge. The bow of the 'Belgulf Enterprise," left, can be distinguished in the night lighting as she passes through Gatun Locks. The P.a.\am.\ Canal Review 33

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS Fiscal Year yotionality Belgian British Chilean Chinese, Natl. Colombian C\'priat Danish Ecuadorian French German, West Greek Honduran Italian Japanese Liberian Netherlands Norwegian Panamanian.Peruvian Polish South Korean.. Soviet Swedish United States Yui;osla\ia All other Total _ TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES trade rniila—iLorfie commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) East coast United States— Asia __ Europe— West coast South America East coast United States— West coast South America^ „ Europe— West coast United States/Canada . Europe— Asia Europe— Oceania East coast Canada— Asia _ United States Intercoastal (including Hawaii) East coast South America— Asia __ West coast South America— A\'est Indies All others __ _ Total __ _ 13,609

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Bclgulj Enterprise has it all over her "super" sisters, which may have to search far and wide for a drydock large enough to accommodate them. The sun set during dinner. Back up on the starboard bridge wing, one could survey Gatun Locks from the entrance to the southwest chamber, where the Bclgulj Enterprise had once again tied up. Ahead was the Christopher Lijkcs, which had made local headlines when involved in a collision at sea. Now she was inching through the locks, a gaping hole in her side. Coming out through the east chamber after her 5()-niinute-or-so trip through the three chambers, nearly a mile long, was the container ship Wesffalia, out of Hamburg. All was quiet, save for the peculiar sound of the winches taking up slack in the lines stretching from the ship to the "mules"— there would be four locomotives, with two lines each. All lights at the bridge level had been extinguished for better visibility, and the moon casting its light on the waters and the balmy breeze coming in from sea claimed as much attention as the locks operation itself. There was so little vibration from the engine that it prompted a comment to Captain Poppe, who said the vibration was considerably more noticeable at sea, at higher speeds. After .3 vears on the Belgulf Enterprise, he said he might like a ship with the bridge amidships. At the end of her run through Gatun Lxjcks, the ship swept smoothly out into the saltwater, moving full ahead into the eerie loneliness of a giant jungle "river" with faintly lighted banks under the cool light of the moon, slipping in and out of the clouds. Captain Poppe pointed to the green light at the buoy where his guests would debark. Soon, the operator of the launch Dorado nudged her bow up to the hull of the Belgulf Enterprise and kept his craft steady in the rolling wa\'es while Captain Jablonski and his companions made their way down the ladder. As they were whisked off to the Cristobal Boat House, the Belgulf Enterprise, now back under Captain Poppe's control, mo\'ed in her stately fashion out past the breakwater. Out she went to open sea, where with one man on watch, one on lookout and the automatic steering taking over, she would set course for Norfolk and a 15-day rest before once again taking up her Caribbean rounds. PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (.All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic Fiscal Year Commodity 1975 Manufactures of iron and steel 9,530,091 Petroleum and products 8,191,574 Ores, various 6,415!&16 Lumber and products 3,453,054 Sugar 2,854,950 Pulpwood 2,004,175 Metals, various 1,808,735 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) l'683!656 Bananas 1,682,417 Coal and coke 1,515,379 Sulfur I,'l30,'o92 Autos, trucks, accessories and parts 1,004,534 Fishmeal 846,388 Paper and products 654,007 .Molasses 504,648 All other 12,729,947 Total 56,009,293 Atlantic to Pacific 6,735,503 13,712,405 5,995,347 5,585,984 3,228,719 1,716,430 1,047,209 1,692,552 1,486,585 619,215 925,242 946,291 346,779 499,707 505,419 11,532,012 5-Yr. Avg. i965-69 3,668,309 1,262,685 5,702,654 4,716,145 2,547,028 813,937 1,274,872 1,164,560 1,297,688 166,948 221,134 96,271 1,502,000 292,053 354,071 9,457,239 56,575,399 34,5.37,594 Fiscal Year Commodity 1975 Coal and coke 24,787,965 Petroleum and products 15,713,222 Corn 6,725',887 Phosphate 5,26.3,193 Wheat 4,342,1.33 Soybeans 3,472,908 Ores, various 2,229,713 Metal, scrap 2,14o!969 Sorghum 2,033,457 Manufactures of iron and steel 1,706,312 Sugar 1,398,277 Fertilizers, unclassified 1,180,229 Chemicals, unclassified 889,850 Machinery and equipment (excluding autos, trucks, accessories and parts) 690,409 Metals, various (excluding scrap) 651,564 All other 10,866,078 Total 84,092,166 1974 18,232,977 18,254,9.37 10,919,757 5,194,576 4,418,231 4,348,814 2,300,563 3,456,625 2,872,474 2,051,215 1,860,653 1,348,859 1,491,644 584,885 560,104 13,435,201 5-Yr. Avg. 1965-69 10,370,494 15,342,941 2,696,185 3,824,274 931,528 2,148,905 1,561,932 2,490,084 N.A. 1,829,850 842,298 485,060 843,470 582,402 1,079,017 8,912,550 91,331,515 53,940,990 CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCI.\L AND U.S. GOVERNMENT Fiscal Year 1975 1974 Atlantic Pacific to to Pacific Atlantic Total Total Commercial vessels: Oceangoing 6,750 6,859 13,609 14,033 Small! 491 3^3 gQ4 gjg Total 7,241 7,172 14,413 14,859 U.S. Go\emment vessels: ^ Oceangoing 81 89 170 248 Small 1 55 55 110 110 Total 136 144 280 358 Total Commercial and U.S. Government 7,.377 7,316 14,693 15,217 1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. 2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships free. Avg. No. transits 1965-69 Total 12,503 569 13,072 927 117 1,044 14,116transited Thi; Panama Canal Review 35

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