Citation
Panama Canal review

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Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
23584335 ( ALEPH )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/detaiIs/panamacanalrevie1975pana














Ill

PANAMA CANAL



SPRVIENG 1975
SPRING 1975


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IVlU S. YPARKERL TIE VVILLIE K. rnrtl n
overnor-President C N Editor, English Edition
ANAMA CANAL JOSE T. TURON H.
HARD L. HUNT Editor, Spanish Edition
eutenant Governor Writers
ViNK A. BA N VC CANEL, FANNIE P. HERNA
NKh A. BALDW\ IN FRANKLIN CASTRELLON, DOLORE E
anal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication AND PANDORA G. ALEMAN
Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1, airmail $2, single copies 50 cents.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Contents


In the Wake of Drake 3
Transit of "Golden Hinde"
revives interest in the audaci-
ous Elizabethan.

Some Fancy Shirts From
Far-off Shores 9
A short shirt tale.

The Age of Aquarists 13
These fishermen give them an
aspirin and bring 'em back
alive.


A Horse in the House 19
By hand or with net, feeding
a seahorse requires finesse.


More Than A Book of Numbers 22
Phone directories reflect chang-
ing times from construction
days to present.


MU U ru
-i-. rc


Culinary Capers
A riot of rice recipes.


Shipping Notes


Nat, 32
Oldest town on the Isthmus
enters the industrial age.

Credits: Photos by Don Goode (p. 5 "Golden
Hinde" and p. 11 traffic controller), Kevin Jenkins
(p. 6), Mike Goode (p. 11 Ponamanian dancing
couple). Sketch p. 4 by Capt. Adrion Small.


i,

.-I mp


Our Cover

Photographing a galleon undri- ful ll
sail might sound simple but e-rttjIie the
shot of the Golden Hinde, \ hi.: 1. .q[ipc: ,
on the cover, was not an eas\ ta.k.
Intent on capturing the ship .I. Ith h.I:
sails unfurled, the photographer fal-
lowed her on a launch as she left B Ilb.ai
on her way to California.
As soon as she was free of the ~uie.
which had towed her through the C.na.il.
her crew set about the task of puttnii1 i'p
the sails.
But there were no strong winds and
the sails hung limply. Capt. Adrian
Small, master of the ship, decided to
start the small engine to help maneuvci
the vessel into a better position to .:t.: h
the wind. Of course, with the first tl,.l_,
of the motor, the 16th century atr.....
phere vanished in a puff of grey :;sn,.,k,
from the exhaust.
Finally, after much exertion on tche
part of the captain and crew, the lhp
was in just the right position, the wind
filled her sails, the engine was shut
down, the scene was perfect, but only
for a moment. The 20th century in-
tervened again when a small pl.irn
began flying back and forth ..lh-.:tl
above the ship.
At last, the plane flew out of .i.'lt but
a tropical rain shower caused .in'thle-
delay.
The Isthmus was fast fading. into thel
background as the ship mov,.ed al.ri.
under full sail. Hurriedly the pl.'..t.ori-
pher focused the camera just in time to
spot several small boats sailing in be-
tween the Golden Hinde and the launch.
Responding to much yelling and waving
of hands, the small boat owners moved
out of range and the photographer cap-
tured the scene on the cover only
seconds before an ominous black cloud
appeared overhead.
The cover photograph, as well as all
others in this issue, unless otherwise
credited, are by Arthur L. Pollack.


SPRING 1975


"'~~"


17TTT T I1 T' Tl" T" A Dn


NDLZ
S'.r,* 1 n








In thle




Wake





0 f







Willie K. Friar
IT WAS A STRANGE SIGHT-A
small 16th century galleon sailing
serenely past the modern gargantuan
tankers and container ships lying at
anchor off Balboa waiting their turn to
transit the Panama Canal.
The small sailing ship, her sails set
taut, was the Golden Hinde, a replica
of the ship on which Sir Francis Drake
circumnavigated the globe.
From the time the Golden Hinde
anchored off Portobelo early in Decem-
ber 1974 until she completed transit of
the Canal, she attracted unusual interest
on the Isthmus, where Drake has always
been an important part of the local
history.
Drake's victories over the Spanish
along the Las Cruces Trail are well
known and a lively interest in locating
the lead casket in which he is supposed
to have been buried at sea near Por-
tobelo has continued through the years.
An island in the vicinity is still known
as Drake's Island.
It was on the Isthmus that Drake,
after climbing to the top of a tree and
viewing both oceans, fell on his knees
and asked God to give him "life and
leave to sail an English ship in the South
Sea." His prayer was answered later
when he succeeded in circumnavigating
the world on the Golden Hinde.
On his trip in 1577, Drake took the
Golden Hinde through the treacherous
waters of the Strait of Magellan and
harassed Spanish ships along the Chilean
and Peruvian coasts before arriving in
California. The replica of the ship, en-
route from England where she was built,


K-


The "Golden Hinde" lies at anchor off Portohelo in the area where it is
believed that Drake was buried. The galleon also stopped briefly at Nombre de Dios.


Drake's Drum
Drake he's in his hammock an' a thousand mile away,
(Capten, art tha sleeping' there below?)
Slung atween the round shot in Nombre Dios Bay,
An' dreaming' arl the time o' Plymouth Hoe.
Yarnder lumes the Island, yarnder lie the ships,
Wi' sailor lads a-dancin' heel-an'-toe,
An' the shore-lights flashing an' the night-tide dashin',
He sees et arl so plainly as he saw et long ago.


to San Francisco where she will be on
permanent exhibit, took the shot cut
through the Panama Canal. The in-
surers of the ship, which is valued at a
million dollars, took a dim view of
having her go through the Strait of
Magellan.
Plans are to berth the ship at Fisher-
man's Wharf in San Francisco to com-
memorate Drake's voyage and his land-
ing on the west coast of America in 1579.
The Golden Hinde replica was de-
signed by Chris Norgaard, a Californian,
for a consortium of San Francisco busi-
nessmen including Albert D. Elledge,
president of a tugboat and harbor tour
line, and Art Blum, public relations
consultant.
The idea to build such a ship for San
Francisco germinated in the mind of
Art Blum, at least 10 years ago. Pre-


Henry Newbolt

liminarv designs were produced about
5 years later following considerable re-
search. Although often reported in the
press as "an exact replica," this would
be impossible as little is known about
the original Golden Hinde.
After studying every scrap of his-
torical evidence available, including
manuscripts which described Drake and
his ship and viewing paintings of the
period, Norgaard came to the conclu-
sion that the Golden Hinde was a classic
example of a mid 16th century warship.
It is believed that the ship was built in
France and was bought by John Hawk-
ins, Drake's uncle.
Norgaard was greatly influenced by
Nuito da Silva, the Portuguese pilot
captured hv Drake, who became his
navigator. He had a high opinion of the
ship and wrote: "The Capitana (flag-


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


I






The replica was

built to

commemorate

Drake's landing

on the coast of

California

in 1579


ship) is in a great measure stout and
strong. She has two sheathings, one as
perfectly finished as the other. She is
fit for warfare and is a ship of the French
pattern, well fitted out and furnished
with very good masts, tacke and double
sails. She is a good sailor and the rudder
governs her well She is. water-fast
when navigated with the wind astern
and not violent but when the sea is high
she labours and leaks not a little ."
It is interesting to learn that the new
Golden Hinde had the same problem.
(From the Captain's Notes a short time
after leaving England: "We have been
pestered with small leaks at bow and
stern, only apparent when the ship is in
a heavy sea.")
Since no detailed records of the de-
sign of the original ship existed, Nor-
gaard relied to some extent on the ratios
of lengths to depth and width, which is
the way shipbuilders of the 16th century
worked. Matthew Baker, an English
shipwright, working some years after the
supposed date of the construction of
Drake's ship, explained the process in a
unique manuscript preserved in the
Pepvs Library at Magdalene College,
Cambridge:
Proportiones for shipping
The bredth is arbitrarie, ye depth must never
he more then 1/2 ye bredth, nor less then 1/3,
The length never less then double ye bredth
nor more then treble .
The size of the Golden Hinde was
determined to a certain extent by the
known size of the dock at Deptford,
England, where the original vessel lay
for almost a century before she rotted
away. A brick wall was built around her
on the orders of Queen Elizabeth I to
help preserve her as a museum piece.
There was a somewhat whimsical
proposal at that time that she be hauled
to the top of the tower of the old
St. Paul's Cathedral and kept there per-
manently as a "reminder and treasure
for all Englishmen."


It was reported that she was also used
as a restaurant and Pepys wrote of
visiting the ship in 1662 and noting that
the timbers were rotting. About this
time the decision was made to break up
the ship. The only relics remaining
today are a chair of polished oak made
from the ship's timbers, which is in the
Bodleian Library at Oxford, and a table
in the Middle Temple in London.
From the information concerning the
Deptford berth of the original ship,
Norgaard estimated the Golden Hinde's
dimensions to be 75 feet on the water-
line; 102 feet overall (not including the
bowsprit); maximum breadth 20 feet;
extreme draft 13 feet, her mainmast
80 feet tall, her foremast 71 feet and
her mizzenmast 361/2 feet. The replica
carries a total of 4,150 square feet of
sail and displaces 290 tons.


The planning of other aspects of the
construction also required much atten-
tion to detail. The lower deck has 14
long-barrelled cannon, typical of a ship
of the period, complete with loading
and priming gear at each gun station.
Lanterns and small arms racks are also
fitted on this deck. In the hold are shot
and powder-kegs along with a store of
small arms, cooking utensils, barrels,
and tools of the period.
Beneath the afterdeck of the ship are
two cabins. First, Drakes, where he
"entertained" San Juan de Ant6n, the
captain of the famed treasure ship,
Nuestra Seiora de la Concepcidn (Our
Lady of the Conception) which was
called by the crew the Cacafuego. Drake
treated the captured captain in a gentle-
manly manner while he held him aboard
the Golden Hinde for the 3 days re-
quired to remove a fortune in gold,
silver, and jewels from the Spanish ship


and transfer it to the hold of the Golden
Hinde while the ships stood off the coast
of Peru. When Drake released the cap-
tain, he gave him a number of gifts in-
cluding a gilt corselet and 600 pounds
of iron as well as a letter of safe conduct
in case he should encounter other
English ships.
Drake's cabin is the most uncomfort-
able part of the ship during rough
weather. Beneath it is the Great Cabin,
complete with a beautifully carved oak
table capable of seating 10 people. Since
the furniture was recorded as being the
finest of the period, hand-carved replicas
in English oak were commissioned for
the ship.
On the poop deck is a "round house"
in which Drake spent many hours paint-
ing with his young nephew, John Drake.
The main deck, in front of the Great


Cabin, where Drake was knighted by
Queen Elizabeth 1 following his circum-
navigation of the world, has a crucifix
and a grog cask and on the fo'c'scle
forward of the main deck are two small
cannon.
Carving on the ship is limited to a
gilded figurehead representing a hind
(hind is spelled with an e in the name of
the ship because research revealed that
was the way it was spelled in Elizabe-
than times) and a gilded lion mounted
on top of the rudder-post.
Once the designer had completed his
plans, the search began to find someone
to build the ship. The owners finally
settled on J. Hinks & Sons, of Appledore
in North Devon, England. Hinks had
recently built a replica of the 17th cen-
tury ketch Nonsuch, the ship of the
Hudson's Bay Co., which is now in a
museum in Canada. The Hinks family
has constructed wooden sailing ships


SPRING 1975






since 1844 and the policy of the ship-
yard has been to continue the methods
of wooden shipbuilding that have been
used for hundreds of years.
They used old fashioned tools includ-
ing chisels, augers, and adzes for much
of the work but they also used modern
saws and electrical tools on some
structural features.
For rigging the ship, Hinks called on
two retired craftsmen, Joe and Oswald
Bennett. Both are over 70 and had
worked on some of the last square-rigged
ships sailing out of Appledore, the last
port in England to operate commercial
sailing ships.
It was decided that the timbers used
in the original ship were probably
English oak, elm, and pine and a search
for the right timbers included visits to
timber yards throughout the country.
Finding the tree for the mainmast of
the Golden Hinde involved visits to
estates as far afield as Scotland before a
suitable one was found on an estate in
Devon.
The keel was laid September 30, 1971
with the keel bolts driven home by the
Mayor of Plymouth and the Earl of
Mount Edgcumbe, the present owner of
Buckland Abbey, Drake's country home.
Two months later, the Duke of Edin-
burgh came by to watch the men at work
on the laying out of the ribs of the ship.
The launching, by the Countess of
Devon with a bottle of mead, took place
April 5, 1973. During the ceremony an
engraved Devon cider flagon containing
water drawn from the River Tavy near
Drake's former home was presented to
the owners to be carried to California
on the ship.
SAfter being on display in England,
the ship, with Capt. Adrian Small as
master, sailed from Plymouth, Septem-
ber 29, stopping at Falmouth, England;
Lisbon, Portugal; Bridgetown, Barba-
dos; Cartagena, Colombia; Nombre de
Dios and Portobelo, Panama; before
arriving at the Canal.
Driae's ship sailed out of Plymouth,
December 13, 1577. She was at that
tiriie ,nimed Pelican, but Drake changed
the nrme to Golden Hinde at the eastern
entrance to the Strait of Magellan to
honor his patron and good friend, Chris-
r topher HIadden. The figure of a hind or
.leer was a part of his crest. (While
Strnniting the Canal, a Panama Canal
laurich carrying a photographer ap-
proached the ship, the crew noted with
amusement that the name of the launch
w as Pelican.)
Most of the crew of 18 are seasoned
sqi'are rigger seamen, having sailed with
SCaptain Small on the replica of the
,vn,,such during her voyages around the


south coast of England and the Great
Lakes of Canada. Chris Daniel, the first
mate, of the National Maritime Museum
in London, is an expert in old naviga-
tional instruments and carried out a
number of experiments with old period
instruments during the voyage.
Talking with the captain and crew of
the Golden Hinde about their crossing
of the Atlantic and walking through her
narrow low passages one can well
imagine what life was like on the original
ship when Drake and at least 80 other
men were packed aboard her during the
circumnavigation. Records show that
they negotiated the Strait of Magellan
in a raging storm with at least 90 men
aboard since they had collected crew
members from other of Drake's ships.
Most of the men huddled together
in complete darkness below deck while
others lay on deck between the cannon
with the icy sea sloshing back and forth
over them with every roll of the ship.
They were a discontented lot, having
already spent more than 7 months away
from home and found no treasure, only
half naked natives who ate bloody raw
seal meat. They had resorted to eating
penguins themselves.
The stout little ship, however, was a
match for the raging storms in the Strait
and was able to make its way around the
world, after the historic landing on the
coast of California, and return to Ply-
mouth September 26, 1580, with what
some have estimated at today's valuation
as $50 million in silver and bullion taken
from Spanish ships. An exact accounting
was never made public so no one can be
sure of the value but all historians agree
it was a fortune.
Sixteenth century ships, like the
Golden Hinde, were not built with the
comfort of the crew in mind. The men
were expected to find places to hang
their hammocks among the guns and the
cargo.
The new Golden Hinde has narrow
wooden bunks built-in but because of
the dark cramped quarters below many
of the men prefer to sleep on the deck.
A few other modern additions in-
clude a generator to provide electric
lights and a radio as well as a small
auxiliary engine for maneuvering in and
out of harbors. Living conditions aboard
the ship, however, are Spartan and
everyone must be capable of performing
all the necessary tasks including climbing
the rigging.
There is little leisure time for the crew
while at sea. Much of the time during
the crossing of the Atlantic was spent
in maintaining the sails and wood
structures.
One of the worst jobs on a sailing ship


Oswald Bennett, who is 77 years old,
one of the riggers for the "Golden Hinde,
binds a rope-end.


A shipwright tightens a elamp on the
planking near the stem.


Pitching the seams to make
them watertight.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


























Gov. and Mrs. David S. Parker
welcome the ship's owners and officials of
the San Francisco Convention and Visitors
Bureau who, accompanied by
a group of other California businessmen,
flew to the Isthmus to transit the Canal
aboard the ship. Left to right are: Albert
Elledge, co-owner, Mrs. Parker, Dick
Buxton, Governor Parker, Harry Orchard,
and Art Blum.


Keeping alice

sailing ship

traditions


is tarring down the rigg!ni .\lor. '- ith
this hot and dirty work. there '. -.lso
the chipping off of old v.:rimih and the
revarnishing of masts and other wooden
parts.
Although food on the s.hp imclnde-
much of the type that Drake carr.ed
such as salt pork and beef, corned beet.
and dried fish, this is suppleierrnted It
canned food.
Throughout the voyage it .'. as (he cus
tom of the master to muNter .11i harndi on
the quarter deck for "d'. Ine ser.icie to
give thanks to the Almrrhl\ for a Nafe
passage." This was al:o c.-.tomin of
Drake, who was a devo:it Luitheran
Captain Small noted tt it o:n tithe .,p
they are trying to keep alive filingng i h;p
traditions, not specifically, thoie from
Elizabethan days.
It is not possible to repn-rit the lot\.
which is beautifully written n C.ptailr
Small's Spencerian script but theie Lrile
notes (printed at right i .hich it.h hur-
riedly made for the REveIE .'hile he
was in Panama give a first h ind .iccoiint
of what it was like crossing thi: Atliritic


A c re%, member holtdk Snjch "%%ho joined
the 4iip in England a' a ne%%1% born killen.

---n t.Groldpid HIpidc Thr lIg %.ill be
tuirnrid ovu'r t- the n'.iinrN at tFe end oI
the trip pIIt ,is Drake presvrtted his hlo
to (Q)itteii Elizaibuth I. UritOrturiateIk that
Ioo. 4. hiCh ciovrc-.t d ttIh11 '.'. '','do2t f c ircIin.
rni.'iv2i;tioi, a z rtal hiitc-ncda clociiirtrit,


(lie stri, Ic- of a tiji throuahoi it Ihe trari

.%fter sptridirg alur. '~i %e eks in BalI
L[.o. Nhe left Dec emberr 11.1 for NcapI lco,
ar.1 iriiZ there laniarp-. 5). The shir %il(I
heopenern d to (lie; pill-dic in ",.in FranciC; c.':
Noilnetuine in thie sprnniz.


At left: Members of the crew climb to the top of the masts for a good view of the Canal.
Below: The gilded carved figurehead of a hind is clearly visible on the
stern as the ship joins a tanker in Gatun Locks.


I,


SPRING 1975








Cotjninq the Affan+ic on



A 16AII Cen+wzt Gaeecan


Captain Small's notes:
Sailed Plymouth 29 September.
Put into Falmouth as did Drake's
small fleet of five ships. Sailed Fal-
mouth 1 October with fresh northerly
winds increasing to gale force. Vessel
ran before the gales and made very
good time, 130-150 miles per day.
Reached Lisbon in 6 days and 3 hours
(a total of 824 miles). Anchored at
Cascais Bay at mouth of Tagus River
as Drake had done on earlier voyages.
We spent 5 days in Lisbon taking
on provisions and water. Sailed Lis-
bon October 11 for the Atlantic cross-
ing for Barbados. Took the southern
route towards the Canaries and Cape
Verde Islands as the winds were still
strong from the north. Blew strong
gales as we approached Palma about
12 days out.
Palma is the westernmost of the
Canary Islands and was our last
sight of land for several weeks. It
served to establish our position from
which point we steered westwards.
Heavy seas and strong winds con-
tinued putting a great strain on the
hemp rigging and wooden masts.
About the 18th day, the weather im-
proved and the ship settled down to
a steady 3-4 knots in the northeast
trade wind. Everyday progress was
made towards our destination. Had
only two days of complete calm and
even so made about 40-50 miles.
Towards the West Indies, the trade
winds increased in strength and we
sighted Barbados 33 days out from
Lisbon all hands in good health.
ship undamaged, still plenty of
drinking water left.
The water ration started with
about 15 gallons per day for all hands
and for cooking but was later in-
creased to 20 and 25 as we were
making good time. It was Novem-
ber 13 when we arrived Barbados.
The only port is Bridgetown where
we tied up along with the luxury
cruise liners. The island is green and
beautiful. Watered ship and took on
fresh provisions (including 100 co-
conuts) and sailed after 5 days.
Enjoyable visit, very friendly people.
Next day we sailed close by St. Lu-
cia Island and into the Caribbean


Aboard the ship, Captain Small,
dressed in Elizabethan costume, talks
with Rev. Edwin C. Webster, Dean
of the Cathedral of St. Luke in Ancon.
Dean Webster is recognized as an
authority on Drake's local exploits.




THE MASTER OF THE "GOLDEN HINDE"
One of the few experienced sailing ship captains still active today, Capt. Adrian
Small, with his full red beard and pipe, dressed in Elizabethan costume, looks
the part of a 16th century sea captain.
Captain Small, who is 44 years old, began his career as an apprentice aboard
the Finnish four-masted Passat during her voyage around the world from 1946 to
1948 which included an eastward rounding of Cape Horn. After brief service in
the British Merchant Marine, he spent several years employed by the film in-
dustry, sailing the ships featured in "Billy Budd," "Damn the Defiant" and
Hawaii" among other productions. He was introduced to the movie business by
Capt. Alan Villiers in 1954 and served with him aboard the Pequod, the ship
used in the Hollywood version of "Moby Dick." He also served with Villiers in
1957 as his second mate on the Mayflower replica.
At the time that he was selected as captain of the Nonsuch, the replica of the
Hudson's Bay Co. ship, he was already one of the most experienced square-rig
sailors in the world.
When it was time to choose a master for the Golden Hinde, Captain Small, of
Brixham in Devon, was the obvious choice. In addition to his other qualifica-
tions, some insisted he even looked like Drake and the British thought it was
appropriate that he came from Drake's own part of the country.


Sea. Coasted the Spanish Main and
after 10 days put into Cartagena ...
a short visit of 2V days incredibly
ancient walled city with modern
Miami-type city spreading around the
shores of the Bay. After Admiral
Vernon's attack, the Boca Grande was
closed with a submerged breakwater.
We went in by Boca Chica... same
as Drake did.
Three days after leaving Cartagena
we dropped anchor at Nombre de
Dios. It was not a safe anchor-
age and I can well understand why
the Spaniards shifted their base to
Portobelo.
The shore looked inviting, green
hills and thick jungle I suppose, but
we had not time to explore. We
anchored at dusk and sailed at dawn.
No one, I think, had seen us.


Half a day's sail took us to Porto-
belo. We fell in love with the place
and did explore the town and ruined
forts. It reeks of history-the ghosts of
Spaniards and heaps of silver bars.
Anchored off the town, we used our
boats to explore the shore.
Regretfully we weighed anchor
and stood out of Portobelo on the
morning of December 5. Carrying a
fresh east wind we sailed along the
coast and shortly after noon were off
Cristobal harbor. We sailed through
the breakwater in fine style with all
sails set and Elizabethan banners
flying (also Stars and Stripes).
On the 7th of December we were
towed through the Canal to the Pacific
shores. Sailed approximately 5,300
miles from Plymouth, England to
Panama in 53 days.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Drake's Golden Hinde
Visited California
Almost 400 Years ago
The replica of the Golden Hinde was
built to commemorate Drake's landing in
California, June 17, 1579, where he spent
5 weeks overhauling his treasure-laden ship.
Several historical reports state that he
ordered "a plate of brass" (one report said
it was lead) to be engraved with a record of
his taking possession of the land for England
and naming it Nova Albion. Albion, white
land, was a Roman name for England.
While the extraordinarily friendly natives
watched, the plate was nailed to a post
along with a sixpence placed so that Queen
Elizabeth's head, which appeared on the
coin, showed through a hole that had been
made in the plate.
In 1936, a brass plate that fits this de-
scription was found near San Francisco but
although studied by many experts, its
authenticity has never been fully proved or
disproved.
A subject of controversy also is the exact
location of Drake's anchorage. Historians,
geographers, and anthropologists have at-


N-E vEnn An' r T pr


t of WE 'T' .'rI T r.
THE CGACE O(f cIDAnD in rHE .
The "Plae Ef B" now ZAy ETH oe Entrance o AtI Bint
Svat Berele. foRface hs in TAk E Pancl hom. B i
-IUGj,6IME wHftrf KIncG AP9 JJJ2LE f~LYf~EfiO
1rtEIRRIPIGHr ARD TITLE Ir THE WHOLE LA[1D vnroV HE
M Ai~fhfS' EEPEIl G. oL' A lnAE Jy m M fEAn r
flnWr[E ,rnim AtL 0mEn AS' 10lkPL~ir.O f




A f

The "Plate of Brass" now displayed near the entrance to the Ban:roft L brar
at Berkeley. A facsimile hangs in Drake's ancestral home. B ckland .]bbev.


tempted to solve the problem. The sites con-
sidered most likely are the areas now known
as Drake's Bay and San Francisco Bay.
Heated debates on the location of the


anchural .ir,,a ndi .1''LhtiII1,A I' NO the p'ldat
conltiuc I 1 ,r Lr.,tr. l.rL.lo't
logs of ri,. ir,:un~rla ,.11 gatir, 4ool tle th,
argumnk i


Exploration of Drake's Burial Site Planned


This spring, the Marine Archaeological
Project Panama will begin a search at Porto-
belo for several shipwrecks of great his-
torical importance.


Sidney Wignall holds the Duke of
Edinburgh Gold Medal awarded to him
hy Prince Philip for his expedition's
excavations of Spanish Armada ships.
His current expedition will work
off Portohelo for 6 months.


In the course of this exploration, Sydney
Wignall, the leader of the expedition, a his-
torian and marine archaeologist from Colyn
Bay in North Wales, will also search for the
lead coffin in which Sir Francis Drake was
reported to have been buried.
Drake's burial has been described as
follows:
"His interment was after this manner:
His corpse being laid into a coffin of lead,
he was let down into the sea, the trumpets
in doleful manner echoing out this lamenta-
tion for so great a loss, and all the cannons
in the fleet were discharged according to the
custom of all sea funeral obsequies."
Wignall believes it is possible that the
senior surviving officer, Col. Sir Thomas
Baskerville, scuttled English and Spanish
ships in the area where Drake was buried in
the bay and that the expedition, while
searching for these ships, might locate his
coffin. Wignall says that he knows the exact
weight of the lead sheathing and the loca-
tion of the Drake burial site within a margin
of error of not more than 300 meters.
If the coffin is located and it contains
human remains, a detailed anatomical exam-
ination will be carried nut by Professor
R. G. Harrison, of Liverpool University. He
is one of Europe's leading anatomical scien-
tists, whose examinations and blood tests of
the Pharaohs, Tutenkhamen and Smenkare,
recently aroused great interest.
The expedition is supported by the Coun-


cil for anh.ial A.rihaeolo of Grent
Britain .aniJ r ill opratc mi Parrnama nia
waters for nmounth %% il permits ,u,.l b'.
Panama
The .1 A P idl *,.ar,hl for a .:ara el
possibi: abarnioned at Porit-belo in 1503
by Chr.-.:.r-her C(olumb,0i r'. o Ehza.hl-thadl
ships, the Delight and the Elizabeth and
several Spanish frigates scuttled by Drake's
men following his death.
The expedition will work under the super-
vision of the Panama Government. A con-
servation laboratory, the first of its kind in
Central America, will be set up by the ex-
pedition and after completion of the project,
it and all recovered objects will be tuirncI
over to Panama.
The project is designed for scientific. arl
historical investigation only, with no inl.rt;t
in treasure wrecks. None of the ships the
expedition seeks contained treasure. Wignall
said that the goal is: "To strive to enrich the
sum of man's knowledge of his great mari-
time historical heritage."
He will produce a series of documentary
films for international distribution and xw il
write a book which will be published simul-
taneously in England and the United States.
With staff members from eight different
countries, including a number of leading
scientists, Wignall regards the project as
an opportunity for international oop,:ra.i or
in the fields of history and ,,:lrn,:c


SPRING 1975


I_








Some [ancy Shirts




[rom Far-Off Shores

(and some prefer

the local product)


By Vic Canel
FROM THE PHILIPPINE BARONG
tagalog to the Paraguayan ahoi toi
to the African dashiki and the Venezue-
lan liquelique, you're apt to see them all
in this tropical crossroads of the world.
Of course, there are also the classical
guayabera and Panama's own camisilla
and montuno, along with shirts from
China, India, Mexico, Guatemala, Nica-
ragua, and many other lands.
Social gatherings in the tropics often
tend to be informal and men wear fancy
or distinctive shirts instead of coat and
tie. And Panama's centric geographical
location and heterogeneous population
make it a great place for shirt watching.
Most often seen here and throughout
the Caribbean area is the guayabera or
variations of that four-pocket shirt with
vertical pleats at front and back. Derived
from the Spanish word "guayaba" (gua-
va), the guayabera originated in Cuba,
where it was worn chiefly by the "colo-
nos" or gentlemen farmers. The original
guayabera was made of fine linen and
was worn heavily starched and impec-
cably ironed. It had long sleeves and a
collar that could be buttoned and worn
with a black bow tie, which made it
acceptable dress at places where coat
and tie were required.
The price of a guayabera was deter-
mined by the number, size, and work-
manship of the tucks and the quality of
the linen. Even back in the late twenties
and early thirties, when prices were so
much lower than today's, affluent colo-
nos paid as much as $25 or $30 for a
fine guayabera.
In the Philippines, the barong taga-
log, an elaborately embroidered, long-
sleeved shirt with French cuffs and no
pockets, is worn as formal attire. With
open collar, it is equivalent in elegance
to wearing a dinner jacket, but button
the collar and it ranks with white tie
and tails.


The elegant barong tagalog comes from the Philippines, while the sophisticated version
of the guayabera, below it, is a product of Puerto Rico.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW














V.


"Where did your


shirt come from?"


is often asked


question on the

Isthmus.



Traditionally, the intricate embroi-
dery on the barong tagalog is done by
women in the outlying towns or "barrios"
of the Philippines. Embroidering the
pre cut lengths of cloth is an exacting
chore, for the women must know exactly
where to place the embroidered designs
so that they are symmetrical when the
shirt is ultimately cut out and assembled.
The finer Philippine shirts are made
to order. The customer buys the embroi-
dered material and takes it to a tailor
who turns out the finished product.
Some shirts are entirely covered with
embroidery. These are referred to simply
as "all over shirts" and the material alone
may cost close to $200.
Similarly, the Paraguayan ahoi toi
(which in Guarani means fine cloth),
was originally embroidered in private
homes, then made into shirts or dresses.
At first they were made mainly as wed-
ding shirts, with a similar design for the
bride's gown. Today it is a big industry.
Shirts and dresses, made of new syn-
thetic materials, some even equipped
with the adhesive Velcro closures, are
now being exported.
Typical of Venezuela is the liquelique
which is not really a shirt, but a com-
plete costume consisting of a Mao-type
jacket with metal buttons and matching
trousers. The name is believed to be a
corruption of the French word liquette,
a synonym of shirt.
From Guatemala come brightly col-
ored homespun cotton shirts with bold
and distinctive designs woven into the
cloth. A favorite subject is a stylized
version of the quetzal, the bird that


At left, from top: Somewhat less formal than the barong tagalog is the short sleeve model,
also from the Philippines. From India, a high collared, intricately embroidered
long sleeve shirt which is available in Panama's Hindu shops. A stylized version of the
quetzal, Guatemala's national emblem and unit of currency, dominates most designs
from that country. A touch of distinction added to this guayabera is an embroidered
Aesculapian staff to proclaim the profession of its owner, Dr. R. R. Pierson,
of the Panama Canal Veterinary Medicine Division.
Above right: Made of unbleached muslin, Panama's montuno shirt is decorated with
a variety of cross-stitch designs.


SPRING 1975


serves as the country's national emblem
and lends its name to the unit of
currency.
The Nicaraguan version of the pop-
ular guayabera, produced in many col-
ors, usually features embroidered pas-
toral scenes paralleling the vertical tucks
in front. The embroidery is most com-
monly done with thread several shades
darker than the shirt material.
Increasingly popular on the Isthmus,
as with young people everywhere, are
the embroidered, light cotton shirts and
blouses from India. Made in short, long
and three quarter sleeves, they are worn
by both men and women. Most are em-
broidered with floral designs, some have
tiny mirrors sewn into the embroidery.
Hindu shops in Panama report that they
are currently among the fastest selling
items.
Also available in Panama shops are
richly embroidered shirts from Hong
Kong. Like the Philippine and Para-
guayan shirts, embroidery work is done
on lengths of cloth and the shirt assem-
bled later. In this case the cloth is hand
embroidered in China. The Hong Kong
shirts, still another variation of the gua-
yabera, have only two pockets below
and no breast pockets. Made mostly of
polyester and cotton, they come in
white and a variety of pastel colors.
The advent of black consciousness in
recent years has contributed to the pop-
ularity of the West African dashiki, a
loose fitting pullover shirt with a deep
slit neck and flowing sleeves. The bold
prints and brilliant colors of the dashiki
made their first appearance in the West-






em Hemisphere when they were adopted
b \ blacks in the United States, but are
no,-.' a common sight on the Isthmus and
are worn by all races.
The shirt industry in Panama produces
a wide variety of original designs under
internationally known labels. Famous
brands such as Arrow, Jayson, Manhat-
tan and Christian Dior are designed and
manufactured locally under franchise.
The Jayson and Christian Dior fran-
chises are held by a firm headed by
young Victor M. Azrak, whose late fa-
ther, Mois6s Azrak, founded the com-
pany in 1958. His mother is the chief de-
signer. The factory employs nearly 200
people and turns out more than 1,000
shirts a day. Specialized seamstresses
work on various components of the
shirts-some models requiring up to 45
separate operations.
Azrak obtained the Christian Dior
franchise about 2 years ago. Some of
the finer Dior models retail for as much
as $50.
Manhattan shirts are turned out in a
neighboring factory which also produces
about 1,000 a day. Here too, though
advice and technical assistance is pro-
vided by the parent factory, shirt
designs are exclusive.
Though Manhattan also has a line


At right: From West Africa comes this
colorful dashiki worn by Edmund F.
Johnson, an employee of the
Balboa Heights Post Office.
Below left: The traditional Panamanian
camisilla is correct attire for
the partner of a women wearing
the classical pollera.
Below right: Matching shirt and dress
embroidered with local scenes is the
pride of this square dancing couple,
Al and Anne Richardson,
of Gatun.


4

"-



-- i~~i'


L1P

~~r

k-p


Popular for Work or Play


William Bennett, control house operator at Miraflores Locks,
wears the typical Panamanian guayabera, considered by
many ideal for work in the tropics.


r ARM L

--



'". ...." .: '.,

Guayaberas for boys also are available locally. Wearing styles
in white and blue, Larry R. Rogers and his son, Larry, Jr.,
go for an outing in Balboa.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


)9







At left: Busy seamstresses turn out more
than 1,000 shirts a day at
this Panama factory.
Lower left: Expert cutters follow patterns
to produce the components that will
later be assembled by the seamstresses.
Left below: Buttons are the specialty
of this operator. Some shirt models
require up to 45 separate operations.
Below: Attractive packaging is an
important factor in modern shirt
marketing. Each garment is carefully
ironed and placed in cardboard-backed
cellophane sheaths.


-of women's wear, the local factory pro-
w I duces only men's shirts and trousers.
Materials are imported from Europe,
Japan and the United States. As pro-
tection for the local industry, manu-
facturers are exempt from import duty
on thread, buttons, snaps and other
accessories.
During his most recent visit to the
Panama factory, Herb Kay, technical
manager for the International Division
of Manhattan, who travels the world
over to offer advice and solve technical
problems, provided a preview of things
to come in men's shirt fashions. Solid
colors are in for next year, he says, and
ties are on the way out. The trend, he
says, is toward longer shirt collars, to
be worn open and overlapping the jacket
collar.
Packaging, Kay says, is among the
most important phases in shirt market-
ing and techniques have changed radi-
cally through the years. Shirts used to
be delivered to the retailer in bundles
and it was up to him to make the mer-
chandize appealing to the customer.
Now, each shirt is carefully ironed and

, .' < tt ___
-L< :


attractively packaged by the manu-
facturer.
Many locally manufactured shirts are
sold in Canal Zone retail stores today.
In the early days of the Canal, com-
missary customers did not have a very
wide selection of styles, though the
prices were considerably lower, as indi-
cated by this notice in the Panama
Canal Record of July 7, 1915: "Cata-
logue and samples of shirts from Yama-
toya Shirt Co. in Yokohama, Japan,
received. Shirts made to order are of
pongee, silk and crepe, and can be
ordered through the Depot Commissary,
Cristobal, at catalogue prices plus a sur-
charge. The listed price: 27 yen ($13.80)
per dozen and up."
Shirt styles vary widely. Collars
change in size and shape, sleeves may be
short, long, puffed or snug. But Pan-
ama's two traditional shirts, now worn
only on special festive occasions such
as carnival, have remained constant
through the years.
The most elaborate and colorful em-
broidery is found on the montuno. The
intricate cross stitching and distinctive
designs require many months of pains-
taking work. Bands of embroidered
figures, sometimes animals, sometimes
flowers, adorn the front of the shirt on
each side of the collar opening. These
are called pintas. Below the collar open-
ing is a large central design called "el
coraz6n"-the heart. A straight, almost
knee-length shirt with wide sleeves and
snug, embroidered cuffs, the montuno is
made of unbleached muslin. It ends in
a fringe raveled from the cloth itself.
The full montuno costume consists of
the shirt, calf-length trousers of the same
material, a hat woven from wild palm
fronds and a straw bag with shoulder
strap, called a chacara.
Somewhat more formal if less color-
ful is Panama's camisilla, a long sleeved,
pleated shirt of white linen with a man-
darin style collar and gold buttons. This
shirt worn with black trousers, is con-
sidered to be the correct costume for a
man accompanying a woman dressed in
Panama's elaborate pollera dress, a
multi-tiered, elaborately embroidered
gown enhanced by such accessories as
heavy gold necklaces and shimmering
head adornments called "tembleques."
Pictured on these pages are just a few
of the shirts from many lands collected
and worn by residents of the Isthmus,
where, along with the ships and the
products of the world, there is a constant
parade of fashions from afar.


SPRING 1975






A ANYONE WILL TELL YOU THE
Isthmus is a fisherman's paradise,
but of late local aquarists have given the !
old sport a new angle. Not content '" .
merely to keep the freshwater "tropical" *. '
aquarium fish that are available in any *
well-stocked hobby shop from New York t'.
to California, more and more Isthmian -
fish fanciers are going out to capture
lenizens of the deep, both freshwater
and marine, for their tanks.
Dr. Horace G. Loftin (Assistant for
Environment-Energy to the Chief of
the Executive Planning Staff) noted in
his Ph. D. dissertation, "The Geograph-
ical Distribution of Freshwater Fishes in
Panama," that in the 1850's a "Capt.
J. M. Dow, captain of the old Panama
Railway Co.'s steamer Guatemala, was
apparently the earliest serious collector
of Panamanian fishes." Many others, .
both scientists and amateurs, have fol- -.
lowed his lead. A.l- -. -"'
Carl Chapman, a music teacher at i,. .,
Curundu Junior High, makes frequent b '..' ".' .-.





TkB AP of A anoraAlea

By Pandora G. Aleman


trips to the interior and sometimes takes
students snorkeling up the as yet un-
tamed Bayano River. Since arriving in
Panama, Chapman has kept only native
fish. "Here I was, in the tropics," he
says, "so I thought I'd set up a real
tropical aquarium."
The enthusiasm is contagious. Gilber-
to Young, a systems analyst with the
Systems Division, used to go regularly
to rivers and streams near Chepo with
a friend who liked to catch and breed
his own fish, which he then sold in order
to buy more equipment. Young caught
the bug too, as a glance at his 50-gallon
tank will show.


Other zealous collectors can be found
at monthly meetings of the Canal Zone
Aquarium Society, headed this year yv
Robert E. Daisev. The group, which
boasts a membership of some 137 adults
and about an equal number of children,
last year sponsored expeditions to a rive"
near Chepo and to Portobelo.
The group has heard various speakers
including Dr. Donald L. Kramer, a
biologist with the Smithsonian Tropical
Research Institute who is studying the
feeding and air-breathing behavior of
freshwater tropical fish. He recommends
walking up a river or stream as one of
the best ways to see the jungle. There
are no ants and no bushes to clear, and
the sandy or granite stream bed makes
for easy walking.
His wife, Vanessa, who assists him in
catching fish and in keeping records,
wears long pants and a long-sleeved
shirt as well as sneakers and socks, so


mosquitos will have a hard time finding
a target.
Dr. Kramer suggests that the novice
will be more comfortable starting out in
clear streams where he can slip on face-
mask and snorkel and study the fish in
their natural habitat. He adds that in
swift-running streams, especially in un-
inhabited areas, there's little danger of
disease.
There mav be more danger of snake-
bite in the dry season, when the bush-
master and fer-de-lance come down to
streams to feed on frogs, he says, but
adds that his expeditions here have
netted him nothing worse than muddy
feet and some mosquito bites.
Chapman, who perhaps goes a bit
farther afield than most, has in the past
9 years seen one fer-de-lance and two
bushmasters-all verified, as he brought
back the heads for identification. Once,
out around Huile, he was passing his net


At left: This redlip blenny, perched in his favorite clump of lettuce coral, is the clown
of Dr. Melvin M. Boreham's saltwater aquarium. Above: This scene, difficult to
capture, features Dr. Boreham's large queen angel, at left, and a smaller one, at center.
At the base of the featherdusters, right, is a four-eyed butterfly fish. A dark stripe
camouflages its eyes and the dark spot toward its tail misleads any would-be predators.
The angelfish like to peck at the coral and at the "Caulerpa" plants, left foreground.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





under the overhanging roots of a tree
when a hissing sound alerted him that
he was the unwelcome intruder in a
crocodile's home.
But none of this seems to disturb the
dedicated ichthyophile greatly. David
Carlson, a student at Curundu Junior
High, isn't much bothered by the pros-
pect of running into snakes. After all, he
once had a pet boa.
Luckily, not all the exotic fish are
found in exotic places. About the only
place that isn't good for collecting fresh-
water fish is Gatun Lake, which since
1967 has been taken over by the
peacock bass. This beautifully marked,
delicious fish-not a bass at all, but a
species of cichlid-was brought in from
Colombia to stock a small man-made
lake. During the rainy season, the lake
overflowed and the fish found their way
to Gatun Lake, where they fed voraci-
ously on the small native fishes, now all
but extinct in those vast waters.
You don't need much in the wav of
equipment to enjoy the sport. Besides a
facemask and snorkel-Chapman savs
the "ping-pong ball" type is best in swift-
running streams-and a net of some
kind, it's a good idea to take along a
cooler or a bucket or two, with a battery-
operated aerator if you are far from
home. To transport his catch. Chapman
puts water and fish in large plastic bags
and adds a quarter of an aspirin to each
bag. This, he says, tranquilizes the fish,
which then require much less oxygen
than they normally would.
Dr. Kramer has a variety of nets at
his lab in an old bunker near Naos
Island. It takes two people to work the
seine, a net stretched between two
poles-basicallv like the common min-
now seine, but with heavier weights
along the bottom.
He also has a large square-bottomed
dip net on a long handle and an A-frame
net. a sort of scoop-like affair that works
like a one-person seine. He sometimes
uses the metal minnow traps commonly
used to catch live bait.
Chapman uses an apron of mosquito
netting to go after his fish. The apron
ties around the neck and has elastic at
the wrists and lead weights along the
bottom-another one-man seine. Using
mask and snorkel, he crawls upstream.
If he picks up a rock, anything hiding
under it or clinging to it finds itself in
the net. When he stands and brings his
arms up. he usually has a variety of fish
from which to choose.
Most fish captured locally are not as
colorful as their South American rela-
tives or those which have been specially
bred by aquarists, but with their varied


personalities they are no less fascinating
to watch. Through careful breeding and
crossbreeding, more colorful strains can
be developed-a challenge that a few
local aquarists have taken up.
The collector will find it easy to pick
up the wild molly, several of its near
relatives, and other live-bearers in his
seine.
This family of fish has long fascinated
aquarists because of its unique manner
of breeding. The male fertilizes fully
formed eggs in the female's egg duct;
the eggs hatch and the young grow in
the protection of the mother's body.
They are delivered one at a time, folded
head to tail, and soon straighten and
swim for refuge. A plus for the aquarist
is that these promiscuous fish multiply
rapidly without his having to play
Cupid. Chapman says a cross between


Asp! i n-' may


1h lp to


calm the


catch


the native molly and the more colorful
"store-bought" hybrid molly produces
offspring with the hardiness of the Pan-
ama molly and the fanciness of the
hybrid.
In the wild, several of these little fish
perform the very useful function of
eating the larvae of mosquitoes that
carry malaria and yellow fever. In
"Exotic Aquarium Fishes," William T.
Innes notes that "success in building and
maintaining the Panama Canal de-
pended partly on the solution of the
fever problem" and credits one member
of the Gambusia genus with helping to
make Panama habitable to foreigners.
The "mosquito fish" found here takes
its name not from its dietary habits but
from its size. According to Innes, it is the
smallest of the aquarium live-bearers,
with an overall length of about half an
inch.
The aquarist usually learns the hard
way not to tangle with one member of
the characin, or tetraa," family found
here in abundance. Members of the
Roeboides genus are nice to look at,
with their silvery body, reddish fins, and
black spot at the base of the tail. Their


sloping forehead gives rise to the nick-
name "humpbacked tetra." The fish
seems to have a lot to offer the aquarist-
but it's murder. Roeboides has a nasty
habit of ramming other fish with spikes
on his snout, knocking loose a scale or
two which he then dines on at his
leisure.
Another family of fish commonly
found in Panamanian streams is the,
cichlids. Innes says that "high-strung"
cichlids change colors rapidly, and this
is borne out by Chapman's observation
of color change after feeding-or even
when excited by a finger being wiggled
in water at the top of the aquarium.
They have the most personality of all
local freshwater fish, he says, being tem-
peramental and moody to the extent of
eating well one day and, the next, letting
even live baby guppies go unmolested.
Chapman says he found his fish liked
to dine on slivers of corbina roe. But
Sid, a blue cichlid (also known as blue
acara or chogorro) belonging to friends
of the Kramers, has a predilection for
cockroaches. There's no accounting for
tastes.
Dave Carlson has some zebra cichlids,
which he also calls "striped convicts,"
that have dark spots by day and stripes
by night. The female of the species has
most of the color, an oddity among
aquarium fishes.
Dave is rather proud of having caught
two of the elusive knife fish. These
graceful fish, relatives of the so-called
electric eel, propel themselves backward
or forward with equal ease, by the ripple
of a fin.
Chapman reports finding three mem-
bers of the broad-sole family, those
peculiar fish that lie on one side and in
maturity have both eyes on the upper
side, in the Ipate River. When these
relatives of the flounder undulate the
fins at the edges of their bodies they
glide horizontally like, as Innes says, "a
pancake being propelled through the
water."
The long, slender, delicate pipefish
is a marine specimen that here in the
tropics has moved into freshwater. Dave
Carlson found a small one, along with
what seems to be a freshwater eel of
respectable size, in a Corozal drainage
ditch. Looking at the slim pipefish, one
would never guess that it's related to
that marine charmer, the seahorse. In
both, the male carries the eggs in a
pouch until they hatch, and both have
difficult-to-please palates, preferring
live food of just the right size.
Even the hobbyist who doesn't fill his
aquarium with fish he has caught him-
self makes room for the local catfish,


SPRING 1975







Coral and plants provide hiding places


Dr. Boreham readies his camera and movie light and waits for a fish to swim into range. His 83-gallon marine aquarium,
which he built himself, is set up to resemble a coral reef in miniature.


valued as peaceful scavengers that help
to keep the tank clean.
The graceful Pimelodella, commonly
known as the striped catfish, and its
larger relative Rhamdia abound in Pan-
amanian streams. Hidden in the dorsal
(or back) and pectoral (or breast) fins
of the innocuous-looking Pimelodella are
three venomous spines that can leave
the unwary collector's finger smarting
for an hour or more.
The Plecostomus and the whiptails
are well-known local suckermouth ar-
mored catfish. (No catfish has scales;
the armored catfish are covered with
bony plates.) These fish use their sucker-
like mouths, located on the underside of
the head, to scrape algae and other
material from the aquarium bottom arnd
sides, plants and ornaments.
Plecostomus, light brown with dark
spots, tends like most catfish to hide or
lie quietly during the day. Dr. Kramer
says it is much easier to catch at night,


an assertion that most collectors are
reluctant to verify.
Two types of whiptail catfish are
found in Panama. In the smaller Lori-
caria, common in the Canal Zone area,
the "whip" appears only at the top of
the tail fin. Appropriately enough, the
male has a "beard" of short bristles.
David Carlson has one of the much
larger but still peaceful Sturisoma genus,
which has "whips" at the top and bottom
of its fin. It is found farther away, in the
Mamoni River of the Bayano basin and
the Ant6n River, Cocl6 Province.
Anyone who wants to can populate
his tanks with freshwater shrimp. Those
with small foreclaws are less likely to
annoy or damage the fish, though all are
fascinating to study as they scavenge,
picking up miniscule particles and trans-
ferring them from claw to claw until
they end up in the shrimp's tireless
mandibles.
Even the aquatic "weeds" proliferat-


ing in the waters of Gatun Lake are a
boon to the aquarist. Hydrilla and horn-
wort provide good hiding places for
small fish, and duckweed, a small float-
ing leaf, gives needed shade where an
aquarium gets too much overhead light.
Water lettuce, another floating plant,
has fluted, velvety, light green leaves
which add to the tank's beauty. And the
floating water hyacinth, which because
of its rapid propagation is probably a
greater threat to navigation than any
other plant, not only produces a beauty-
ful white, blue, or violet flower but has
blue-black bushy roots that according to
Innes are ideal for breeding fishes that
drop adhesive eggs near the surface-a
group that includes goldfish.
Fascinating as it can be, an aquarium
filled with local freshwater fish is to the
aquarium filled with marine, or salt-
water, fish what black-and-white is to
technicolor.
Many are those who head out to en-


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Fish fanciers find field

trips are half the fun


Above: David Carlson goes after a native cichlid in one of
several tanks he has in his hobby room. At right: Face down with
mask and hand net in a well-shaded stream near Gamboa,
he demonstrates one of many techniques used by hopeful
collectors. Fish captured go into the cooler at water's edge.


joy for a brief while the wonders of the
Panamanian seas-particularly the Carib-
bean coral reefs-but few attempt to
bring the beauties of those waters into
their living rooms, and rarer still are
the individuals who succeed.
Dr. Melvin M. Boreham of Coco Solo,
the medical entomologist with the San-
itation Division who works on mosquito
control research, might be called the
dean of local marine aquarists. His
aquarium is an outstanding example of
what can be done in creating a miniature
coral reef in the living room.
After coming here in 1966 he visited
the coral reefs and was fascinated by the
fish. He had previously had a 15-gallon
freshwater aquarium, and decided to try
his hand at the marine variety. He be-
gan with a 20-gallon tank and soon real-
ized that keeping saltwater fish was
quite different from maintaining a fresh-
water aquarium.
For one thing, freshwater fish are
much more adaptable than marine fish,
since they must adjust to variations in
water quality caused by the annual
rainy season-dry season cycle. On the
other hand, the environment provided
by Panamanian seas has remained rela-
tively constant since the Isthmian land
bridge between North and South Amer-
ica emerged from the ocean three or
four million years ago. According to
some experts, the coral reef is probably
the most stable environment on earth,
while the quality of seawater in an
aquarium is subject to rapid and drastic
changes.
To combat this, the aquarist should
begin with the largest tank he can man-


age. Secondly, he should thoroughly un-
derstand the importance of using the
right type and quantity of gravel and
a subgravel filter. A book by Stephen
Spotte, "Marine Aquarium Keeping," is
highly recommended by Dr. Boreham as
it covers setup of the tank in detail.
After having trouble with his 20-gal-
lon aquarium, Dr. Boreham built an 83-
gallon all-glass tank. (The metal com-
monly used to strengthen freshwater
tanks corrodes readily in the presence
of salt water.) On top of the subgravel
filter is 4 inches of 3/16-inch to ,-inch
gravel coral.
The importance of such a setup lies
in the fact that if the aquarium is prop-
erly seasoned before a large number of
fish are added, beneficial bacteria col-
lect on every surface of every piece of
gravel. As the aquarium water is drawn
through the gravel, the bacteria act on
the highly toxic ammonia which consti-
tutes the major waste product of the
fishes, transforming it first into nitrite
and finally into relatively nontoxic
nitrate.
Even with all this, Dr. Boreham ad-
vises the marine aquarist to change
10 to 25 percent of the water in the tank
monthly, either bringing new water from
the ocean in plastic 5-gallon "jerry cans"
or making up a new solution from syn-
thetic sea salts. This is to replace trace
elements and to reduce the nitrate level,
both of which benefit the fish.
An aid to the aquarist, freshwater or
marine, who wants to keep his pets free
of disease is an ultraviolet sterilizing
unit. Water is pumped through Dr.
Boreham's unit at the rate of 200 gallons


per hour, and harmful bacteria and
free-swimming stages of protozoan
parasites are killed.
In addition, Dr. Boreham tries to pro-
vide his fish the hiding places and "terri-
torial space" they need. Overcrowding
puts the fish under psychological stress,
making them more prone to disease.
Because marine fish have a strong
sense of territorial rights, Dr. Boreham
makes a practice of either rearranging
the coral when adding new fish or add-
ing the new fish at night, when the
others have eaten and are ready to retire
to their chosen niches.
He uses a timer on his aquarium lights
to control the day-night cycle, giving
the fish 12 hours of each. He says the
period of uninterrupted darkness is cru-
cial to the well-being of reef fish. They
get fidgety and squabble just before the
lights go out, as they get ready to set up
for the night. The smaller, more defense-
less fish, ever alert, ever wary, move
from their daytime hiding places to
different ones to elude potential enemies.
Proper food is important too. Dr.
Boreham, like many others, makes his
own, using gelatine, raw shrimp, water,
a good commercial flake food, and
spinach.
By speaking to the Aquarium Society
and other local groups about marine
aquariums, using slides and movies
taken of fish in his aquarium to illustrate
his points (he titled one talk "Under-
water Photography Without an Under-
water Camera Housing"), Dr. Boreham
has interested others in the hobby.
His neighbors, George and "Bobbie"
Egolf, were given encouragement on


SPRING 1975






the idea by Dr. Boreham who lent a
helping hand. Now they have built and
are operating a 112-gallon aquarium and
their son, Bruce, is becoming an accom-
plished collector and photographer of
coral reef fish.
The Daisey family of Corozal is an-
other example. Robert E. Daisey, a ma-
rine engineer with the Ports Division,
his wife Lori, and daughters Cheri,
Cindy, and Rena like doing things
together and are always ready to take
up a challenge.
The Daiseys' collection of saltwater
fishes started with Amigo, a damselfish
captured near San Carlos, on the Pa-
cific side. (Incidentally, they keep Pa-
cific and Atlantic specimens together in
water they get from the Pacific Ocean
at Fort Amador.) Now, not only do they
have two successful 30-gallon saltwater
tanks, but Cheri plans to get an A.S.
degree in marine biology at Canal Zone
College and may go on for further de-
grees after that. She would like to be a
crewmember of a seagoing laboratory
like Jacques Cousteau's.
The Daisevs have not hesitated to
innovate. Instead of gravel they use
crushed shell from Farfan Beach, which
they say helps maintain the water's
alkalinity. They siphon off and replace
about 10 percent of the water each
week. Using sea water in a special con-
tainer, they raise brine shrimp to adult-
hood to supplement their fishes' diet.
Bob Daisey installed an air com-
pressor with storage tanks that hold
enough air to keep the filtering-aerating
units going for 6 to 8 hours in the event
of electrical failure. Because the com-
pressor goes on and off automatically
and runs only about 10 minutes out of
every hour, he figures the unit both
saves them money and conserves energy.
The marine aquarist is rewarded with
more beautiful hunting grounds and
more spectacular quarry than his fresh-
water counterpart. No local dealer
stocks marine fish, so he must don mask,
snorkel, and flippers or tennis shoes and
either embark for or wade into his
chosen area. He can take along a copy
of the "Fishwatcher's Guide to West
Atlantic Coral Reefs," which is printe-l
on plastic pages so he can study the fish
he sees while submerged.
Tennis shoes are important to the
waders because they offer some protec-
tion from the long, sharp, venomous
spines of the black sea urchin. The col-
lector soon learns also to shun the in-
nocuous-looking fire coral and bright-
orange fire sponge, both capable of
inflicting nasty "burns."
As for barracuda, Dr. Boreham says


A local suckermouth armored catfish of the popular "Plecostomus" genus, shown
clinging to a plant leaf, shares one of the Daisey family's tanks with
some aristocratic black angelfish.


he knows of no unprovoked attack on
man in clear water, though in murky
water they may possibly mistake the
flash from a ring or a bracelet (so keep
jewelry covered with gloves) for fish.
His wife, Kathy, developed an aversion
to eels after an encounter with a 3-foot
specimen with a nasty temper. Dr.
Boreham reassuringly notes that local
eels are neither poisonous nor electric,
though they can bite. The closest call
the Daiseys have had was when a shark
moved in between Lori and daughter
Cheri. A friend yelled, "Shark! Freeze!"


Dr. Boreham demonstrates inner workings
of an ultraviolet sterilizer which assists in
disease control within a saltwater or
freshwater aquarium.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Uninvited guests


often add interest


to the aquarium



but to her mother's dismay, Cheri kept
moving in for a closer look.
With all of this, there isn't a marine
fish fancier around who won't tell you
it's all worth it when he gets his prizes
home. Dr. Boreham's two brilliant blue
and gold queen angelfish are the pride
of his tank. His two redlip blennies are
clowns, playing games with the other
creatures and posing for him in a clump
of lettuce coral. The rock beauty, bright
gold with a large dark spot, and
the spectacular black-and-white spotted
drum, with its graceful, high-flying
dorsal fin, are among his favorites.
Adding to the beauty of his miniature
reef are the featherdusters, a type of
tubeworm attached to the no-longer-
living coral he uses in the tank. Its deli-
cate, feathery tentacles rise from the
tube in a spray of splendor, searching
for tiny food particles and delighting the
eve of the observer.
Uninvited guests sometimes come in
with his coral: sea urchins, crabs, bright-
colored sponges, sea stars, and once a
charming little fish known as a secretary
goby. The goby lived in a tiny cave in a
hunk of coral, and except at feeding
time only his alert little head could be
seen. Unfortunately, the little fellow
mysteriously disappeared when a baby
octopus made his entrance, unobserved,
in a later batch of coral.
The Daiseys are particularly proud of
their pair of red-and-white candv-
striped banded coral shrimp, their
orange starfish, and their adult seahorse,
Duke. (Mrs. Daisev's account of their
adventures with Duke follows on p. 19.)
The male shrimp sometimes posts
himself in a protective position above
his mate, and at feeding time, he carries
food to her. He also performs a valuable
service for the fish in the tank, including
the seahorse, by periodically removing
any microscopic parasites they have
picked up.
The rivers of Panama are many and
the oceans are wide. If you think you'd
like to join the fun, you'll find lots of
room and plenty of helping hands along
the way.


IN 11iE 1 l'ECI L COLOR SECTION
Ihe salla acr Aquarium
A royal gramma, left, and a queen angel are two of the 15 brilliantly
colored, darting fish supported by Dr. Boreham's miniature coral reef.
Another, a four-eved butterfly fish, can be seen behind one of the finger
corals. To create a natural as well as beautiful environment, Dr. Boreham
uses several types of aged coral and living plants such as the bush-like
Penicillus seen in the foreground. This photo and that of the seahorse on
the fourth page of the center section are by Arthur L. Pollack.

On The Coral Reefs
The underwater photographs in the centerfold, all taken on the local
coral reefs, show the diversity of spectacular fish, corals and marine crea-
tures available to the saltwater aquarist. The barracuda (5) was photo-
graphed by Dr. Greg Quick and the other subjects by Dr. Phillip Akers.
Both practice at Gorgas Hospital.

The diagram, below, will help to identify the various specimens:
1. Yellowtail Damselfish
2. Rock Beauties
3. Juvenile Grey Angelfish
4. School of Pacific Wrasse
5. Atlantic Barracuda
6. Secretary Goby in a coral head
7. Neon Gobies near their burrow in a polyp-covered rock
8. Flamingo Tongue Snail on a Gorgonian (soft coral)
9. Anemone colony.
10. Flower coral
11. A Crinoid
12. Serpulid Worms on brain coral
13. Queen Angelfish being cleaned of parasites by a smaller fish, a
common health practice among marine fishes which also occurs in saltwater
aquariums.


SPRING 1975





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WE HAVE A HORSE IN THE
Iouse!" Busy at work in the
kitclnic :,.id hearing that call from the
h1.i..2 roor-, some mothers might have
bcl.: .stu nied, but not me. My husband,
Pob. :ind daughters, Cheri, 17, Cindy,
15. ii rF.:na, 6, are all extremely active
*miil full of pranks. Nothing amazes me
|1n'. lio eI
EIteIIIL,, the living room and not
co.n-iug c e,'-to-eye with a hay-and-oats
eater, and hearing the laughter of my,
hiish ,i..1 sindl Cheri, I laughed also-from
pt.u re. hnii,it relief!
The, I s.tw the ice chest at their feet
i.Ir tli: bIattery-operated aerator going
*:-ind c u iit on to what they meant by
"1101 i'i "
.\ e.a igo at Christmas I had given
iiV,' hI'lI..1.,l one aquarium. During the
pi'at ,'<.i tie number had grown to 21.
\t Fiit ., c had been strictly freshwater


specimen. A friend had given him to
Cheri. When the temperature of the
water in the ice chest matched that of
the aquarium, we gently released him
into the aquarium. We kept a close
watch on him for the next 12 hours to
be certain that no other specimens in
the tank molested him.
We did not know that as beginner
marine aquarists we had taken on per-
haps more than we were ready for.
Dwarf seahorses are relatively easy to
raise, as they feed eagerly on brine
shrimp. Adult seahorses are another
matter.
Although Dynasta (as we called our
seahorse) appeared happy in his sur-
roundings, he refused any and all forms
of food we offered him. After the third
try, we knew we were in trouble.
We searched our library and dis-
covered that adult seahorses cannot see


the tiny brine shrimp but will eat baby
guppies or small shrimp. We released
several baby guppies into the tank,
hoping Dynasta would take them. He
never had a chance; the other fish got
them before he even knew they were
there.
During this time, we had made it a
point to place our hands in the tank,
handle Dynasta, let him curl his tail
around a little finger, and teach him that
the hand was not to be feared. This
helped us solve the first stage of our
feeding problem. Cheri took a live guppy
and, holding it by its tail, slowly lowered
it to Dvnasta. He looked it over very
carefully', and then-Snap!-he ate it.
She offered another, and again he ate it.
The next feeding time I offered the
guppy, and he took it. He had accepted
us, and he was now accepting food-
live-so long as we hand-fed him. But


A


By Lori Daisey


fi.sh mi:sers and breeders. When Cheri
co ii, snorkling and developed an in-
teresit ;, scuba diving and marine life,
'. c l'cg.in going as a family on field trips
to the beaches and reefs. We discovered
a whole new world. After joining the
Canal Zone Aquarium Society and hear-
ing talks and seeing films presented by
Dr. Phillip Akers, and Dr. Mel Boreham,
a medical entomologist, and being the
kind of family we are, we were well into
the challenges of marine aquarium
keeping.
Looking into the ice chest, I saw my
very first live adult seahorse. He was a
heautv, 632 inches long and a perfect





At left: Duke, the Daisey family's adult
seahorse, enters the net to feed on tiny
shrimp as the other inhabitants of the tank
investigate the proceedings. At left in
the aquarium is a French angel, to the rear,
a rather shy flame cardinal, and in the
right foreground, a pair of banded
coral shrimp.
At right: Neither Duke nor Frenchie
shies away as Cheri's hand
invades their domain.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


entj











"More, please."





I didn't like the idea of having to do this
3 to 4 times a day. Who wants to feel
like a murderer that often?
I felt we should find another source
of food for Dynasta. I telephoned Dr.
Boreham, who suggested I try seed
shrimp. I had none and they are avail-
able only near the Tarpon Club at the
Gatun spillway. Dr. Boreham, a real
friend in need, came all the way across
the Isthmus to bring me a supply from
his freezer.
I thawed out a very small portion of
the seed shrimp. Taking one; I offered it
to Dynasta. He looked at it, flipped his
tail and swam off. Well, I said, that's
that. However, as I took the seed shrimp
out of the water I noticed one of the
eyes was missing. Also, I realized that
the dead seed shrimp had naturally made
no movement. The guppy, of course,
always wiggled. I took another, making
sure it had both eves and no disfigure-
ment, and this time I moved my fingers
in a circle, making the shrimp appear to
be rolling and thrashing. Snap! Dvnasta
ate it. I repeated the process. Snap!
Again he took it. I was delighted.
At this stage you would assume we
would have been satisfied. But Dynasta,
one animal, was requiring at least an
hour a day to feed (seahorses eat slowly),
and after every feeding my hands and
arms were soaking wet. I decided to try
something else.
At the next feeding, I placed Dynasta's
food in a long-handled net. I waited until
he was close to the front glass and
slowly lowered the net on the other side
of him, so no fish could grab his food.
He gave it a good look, but he made no
move towards the food. I then gave the
net a slight back-and-forth movement.
causing the seed shrimp to appear to be
boiling around. Before I knew it,
Dvnasta was in the net and eating
greedily, and I was not soaking wet!
About this time we received a phone
call from another friend. He had a
couple of adult seahorses, both refusing
to eat. Would we help? Bob and Cheri
grabbed the ice chest, the battery-
operated aerator, a 5-gallon jug of salt
water (we keep 40 gallons on hand for
emergencies) and rushed out. About an


Dule. loo)k l in lririp ol er ,r1ll btlforc delitling Io line while e ihe
banded coral shrimp below move in to see what's going on.


hour later, they returned with two very
thin seahorses. My heart sank when
I saw them. They had both turned
black-a sure death sign.
Going by our previous experience with
Dynasta, we placed our hands in the ice
chest and gently massaged their leathery
backs, racing against time, hoping they
would quickly realize that the hand was
a friend.
Sadly, we lost one, a female, within an
hour. The other, however, let us pet his
back and showed no signs of panic. We
then offered, by hand, a live guppy.
Weakly, he looked it over, while we held
our breath. Snap! He took it, swallowed
it, and raised his little crown up towards
us as if to say "Thank you. More, please."
We offered him another, he took it, and
we began to have hopes of saving him.
For the next 24 hours we hand-fed
him in relays. As soon as he began to
move around on his own and show
strength enough to protect himself, we
gently put him in the aquarium with
Dvnasta. They were like two long-lost
friends. I have never seen such a beau-
tiful water ballet as they put on together
that day.
At the next feeding, I was concerned


over the new seahorse (which we now
called Duke). It would be his first "net
feeding" experience. Would our trick
work on him as it had on Dynasta?
The net was lowered, complete with
seed shrimp. Dynasta was into it like a
shot. Duke followed along and for a few
minutes just sat there, his tail hooked on
the rim of the net, his body only barely
inside. Dynasta was happily eating
away. Duke just looked things over.
I could see once again several months of
feeding problems ahead. Just when I was
about to give up, he stretched further
into the net, looked the shrimp over-
I gave the net a tiny wiggle-and he
struck! Down one went. He struck again,
down went another. Evidently Duke had
decided, if it's good enough for my
buddy, Dynasta, then I'll give it a try.
About a week later, I made a deadly
mistake. We had gone snorkeling at
Galeta Island and brought back some
finger coral. I put it in with Dvnasta an-
Duke to enhance the beauty of the tank.
That evening I found Dynasta with
his head caught in the jagged openings
of the coral, thrashing and trying to free
himself. While I held Dynasta, Bob
gradually applied pressure to the coral


SPRING 1975







































Duke snaps up a seed shrimp as Frenchie tries to figure
out how he can get his share. The proximity of food
brought even the normally nocturnal flame cardinal, left
foreground, out of hiding.

until it broke. I immediately released
Dynasta, who swam to his usual tree
plant. We looked him over closely, and
could see no external injury at all. But,
sadly, Dynasta refused his next feeding.
He never ate again, and he died.
Any of you who may consider keeping I -f
seahorses, please learn from our own ---
heartbreaking experience. Never place -' a L
any decorative item that has holes in it
in the aquarium housing your seahorses
regardless of how pretty you might think
it will make the aquarium look. It's not
worth the price you'll pay.
I am happy to say that Duke and our
other species are still thriving. We hope
in the near future to locate a mate for
Duke. Who knows? We may just end
up with an entire family of "horses in
the house!"


Now accustomed to net feeding, Duke shies away from the
handheld baby guppy offered by Cheri. The French angel,
at right, shows no interest in the proceedings.


Guest writer Lori Daisey is married to
Robert E. Daisey, a marine engineer with
the Ports Division. Her article "Can I Have
a Horse, Daddy?" about the family's paso
fil, horses appeared in Horse Lover's Maga-


Lori Daisey watches as daughter Cheri moves Duke from one part of the tank
to another. The Daiseys say almost all of their fish will allow
themselves to be handled.


Tln PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










iore


By Dolores E. Suisman


THE PANAMA CANAL telephone
directory is a gold mine of infor-
mation. It's an almanac, a history, and,
if one wishes to be prosaic, it can even
be used to look up a telephone number.
For 60 years, its size and content
have reflected the growth and organiza-
tion of the Company. The buildup of
services as they became necessary and
the decline of services as they became
available in the Republic of Panama and
through mail and freight service from the
United States are quickly visible. The
increase in personnel during wartime
and the decrease with the return of
peace are shown in its pages. In a very
real way, it tells the story of the Panama
Canal.
The first edition, published Decem-
ber 1, 1915, by the Panama Canal Press
at Mount Hope, was a modest 59-page
pamphlet-type publication bound in
Government-green paper.
It was divided into two sections: a
list of departments and divisions of the
Canal organization and branches of the
Army, and an alphabetical list of in-
dividuals. Out of a workforce of 26,897
employees, the 2,000 who had occasion
to use a telephone in the performance
of their duties were listed. Of these,
only 343 rated a residence phone.
The first name in the alphabetical
listing was Abston, J. M. and the last
was Zunder, F. F. Neither a familiar
namo.


o umers




of Numbers


But many of the names in the 60-
year-old book are well known today.
Cen. George W. Goethals, office phone
Balboa 230, residence phone Balboa
300, is one.
Other names in the 1915 book have
been in every edition from that day to
this.
One is Benny, W. E., Foreman,
Paraiso Shops, Mechanical Division,
whose son, Benny, W. L., and grand-
son, Benny, W. L., Jr., are in the 1974
book.
There was a Hummer, C. D., Wreck-
master (Hercules and Ajax), Mechanical
Division; the father of Hummer, C. W.,
whose name appeared in the 1925
directory, and the grandfather of
Hummer, C. W., Jr., Assistant Chief of
the Dredging Division.
In 1915, De La Mater, W. W., Audi-
tor's Office, Fortifications Division, was
listed. After he died, the '32 book added
De La Mater, Mrs. Ann, secretary to
the Superintendent of Schools. Today,
their son, William L. De La Mater, is
listed as Aide to the Governor.
Although telephones had been in use
in the Canal Zone since 1910, an official
directory provided a golden opportunity
to tell residents how to use a telephone;
which it did in great detail.
"To Make a Local Call," it read,
"Place the receiver to your ear and when
Central answers with the expression
'number' give the number. The operator


A Book


will repeat the number. If the party fails
to answer, the operator will say, 'They
don't answer'."
The section entitled "To Make a Call
to a Distant Exchange," included direc-
tions for calling such "distant" ex-
changes as Pedro Miguel.
Cross-referencing became more com-
plicated as the Panama Canal telephone
directory grew in size and scope.
Logically enough, in 1915 you turned
to T to find "Telephone Branch, Elec-
trical Division." But by 1916, in the big,
new 80-page directory, when you turned
to T you found "Telephone, see page
28," and on page 28, under E, you
found "Electrical Division, Telephones."
Looking under C for the number of
the Corral, you were referred to B for
Balboa Corral, G for Governor's Coach-
man, N for New Corral, or O for Old
Corral.
Suggestions played a minor part in
actually changing the directory. But
that didn't stop suggestions from flood-
ing in, often the same suggestion year
after year. There were suggestions that
maps be included, and that they be
deleted; that tide tables be included.
and that they be deleted; that vertical
index tabs be used and that horizontal
index tabs be used. There were sugges-
tions for looseleaf notebook directories
and for directories with wood covers
(from a man who made a wood cover
for his phone book every year). And for


SPRING 1975





60 '.I:rs including 1974, there were
siiL_>:st!i'siS that every listing include a
p..st ..tfi,.l: box number.
BHit it .'.as the cross-referencing that
el- ted ri,.ore suggestions and complaints
than lan, ..ther subject.
One: "To find the number of the Cen-
tral Labor Office, it is necessary to know
that it comes under the Personnel Bu-
reau, and to know that it is not listed
at all under Central Labor Office, the
name by which it is ordinarily known, 60
buit under Chief, Local Rate Employ-
nu: lit Branch."
Another: "To locate the telephone Years
number of the Administration Building IYears
Janitor, you have to look under Housing
Division, Balboa Heights: Housing
Office, Janitor Foreman; Basement,
Administration Building."
And from the most persistent sug-
gester: "It is suggested that in the future
editions of the phone directory that
credit unions be listed together in a
bunch. There are quite a bunch of them
by now and it would simplify matters
somewhat for subscribers. They don't
always know the exact name but they do
know the species of animal."
If suggestions did not change the di-
rectory, they convinced the Executive
Secretary there was a problem. In 1917,
he wrote to the Panama Canal office in
Washington, for a copy of the Washing-
ton, D.C., telephone directory "and in-

These odd-looking telephones in use when early Panama Canal
directories were published would be collector's items today
if any could be found.


With the only complete collection of Panama Canal directories
stacked high on his desk, James W. Riley, Communications
Manager, Central Office, thumbs through the latest edition.


The 1919 directory in this busy office meets original specifications
which included the requirement that a hole be punched in the
corner and a wire loop provided for hanging it on a hook.


[mw P, N NfN C NN NL :EV1E"%.

















Uf)` I


Adrien M. Bouche, retired Canal
employee, finds his name in the 1975
telephone book just as he did 60 years ago
when the first edition came out.

formation which may be obtained with-
out expense relative to the procedure
followed in collecting and compiling
telephone directory data."
The result was a 110-page "big-city"
type telephone directory with Panama
Canal activities, military activities, and
individuals in one alphabetical listing.
But if the problem of organization
was solved, cross-referencing was still
in its infancy.
The following year, an announcement
in THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD re-
ported a new directory in print and
tnat "cross references are used exten-
sively to assist in finding a number with
a minimum of research."
"Used extensively" was an under-
statement.
Now to find a military number, you
had to know you were to look under M
for "Military" where you were advised
to see A for Army, B for Bands, Army,
C for Camps, F for Forts, G for Guards,
N for Navy, T for Troops, or U for
U.S. Army.
The situation didn't improve with age.
Thirty years later, you could find four
and five consecutive listings, all fol-
lowed by a reference to another listing
where you might or might not find a
telephone number: Terminals Building
(see Port Captain); the Texas Company
(See Texas Petroleum); Ticket Offices
(see Railroad Division); Time Inspec-
tion (see Accounting Division); Time
Keepers (see Division concerned); ad
infinitum.
Every year the original little pamph-
let grew as personnel increased and
pages of information were added.
The 10th anniversary edition, pub-
lished in January 1925, introduced the
new and sensational automatic tele-
phones.
Now instead of jiggling the hook for
the operator, you were told to dial 112


for a fire, 113 for police, 114 for in-
formation or 0 for an ambulance or the
emergency operator.
Instructions for using the automatic
phones began with the exclamation
CAUTIONII! CAUTION!II centered at
the top of the page. Under this warning
were listed all ot the things you could
do wrong. The list ended with the dis-
quieting thought that "You will prob-
ably disconnect your telephone if you
hang up the receiver before you finish
talking."
Once an item was in the directory,
it took a declaration of war, subterfuge,
or a drastic budget cut to get it deleted.
The warning that you could disconnect
your phone by hanging up the receiver
was reprinted in every issue for 27 years.
It wasn't long before the information
pages included rates for long distance
telephone calls (all calls beyond Darien
cost 25 cents); hospital visiting hours,
business hours in the Administration
Building (8 to 12 and 1 to 4, except Sun-
days and holidays); business hours for
16 post offices, a complete restaurant
schedule and departure and arrival times
of a launch service to Taboga Island.
Then the tide tables that were to be-
come so controversial appeared, the
Panama Railroad timetable, hours of
business for commissaries and club-
houses; and later, hours of operation for
gasoline stations, banks, storehouses,
libraries and schools.
There was no end to the vital inform-
ative material that was added year
after year. Soon there were moonrise
and moonset tables, sunrise and sunset
tables, passenger connections from the
Canal Zone by ocean or air, an airmail
schedule (to Miami and Brownsville
four times weekly), sailings of the Pan-
ama Railroad ships.
And warnings. Subscribers were urged
to keep social calls on residence phones
to a minimum during business hours
and were told they must not use a Pan-
ama Canal telephone in any manner
whatsoever to request or transmit in-
formation concerning lottery numbers or
tickets, or any other business pertaining
to lotteries.
There were directories within the di-
rectory-a Directory of the Panama
Canal, a Directory of Officials of the
Panama Government, and a Directory
of the Diplomatic and Consular Corps
Accredited to the Republic of Panama.
There was even an 11-page alpha-
betical list of every steamship line that
had a representative on the Isthmus
with capsuled information about the
services it offered for subscribers who
had to know that "The Societe Fran-
caise d'Armement has a freight service


with steamship Alsace betv.een Le
Havre and Chilean Ports."
The additional pages of irdi.rnattion
and the needs of the employ ees in-
creased the size of the telephone dire.-
tory.
There were soon 17 retail commis-
saries listed, 9 clubhouses, 6 churches,
and 4 private clubs.
There was an abattoir, a bakery, a
coffee roasting plant, two ice cream
plants, and farms-the Corozal Hospital
Farm, Mindi Chicken Farm, Mount
Hope Hog Farm, New Chilibre Chicken
Farm, New Chilibre Truck Farm.
And a cattle industry with eight list-
ings-Caimito Pasture, Mandingo Pas-
ture, Frijoles Plantation, Juan Mina
Plantation, Miraflores Pasture, Mount
Hope Pasture, Paraiso Pastures and
Summit Plantations and Pastures.
The book continued to grow bigger,
the listings more numerous, the cross-
referencing more complex. But nothing
increased so much as the cost.
The price of printing 2,000 copies of
the first directory in 1915 was $145. By
1918, that figure had doubled. The
Army picked this unfortunate time to
reply to the annual request for updated
telephone listings with a request for
three Army lists-one alphabetical, an-
other classified, and a third to be in-
serted in the regular Panama Canal list-
ing. And, they asked, please print each
list on a different and distinctive colored
paper.
When apprised that this special treat-
ment would cost $600, they decided to
let well enough alone.
By the time the book was 5 years old,
the cost of printing had increased to
$1,435 for 4,000 copies, and a commit-
tee was formed to study the matter. For
2 years there had been an edition in
January and July. This luxury was the
first to go. But when the committee
found that telephone expenses were in
excess of revenue, they decided that 154
pages for a directory of a telephone sys-
tem with only 2,518 subscribers "seems
larger than necessary."
Although anxious to economize, com-
mittee members were unanimous in
their decision that employees could not
take their old phone books with them
when they moved because "it is not con-
sidered sanitary to carry the old books
along with the phone to new quarters."
After many meetings, the committee
wrote a report that ended: "The ques-
tion is largely whether the Canal wishes
to issue a first-class book, such as the
present one, or to issue a less attractive-
looking book." They compromised by
keeping the first-class book and adding


SPRING 1975





t, re. :rnt.,es. b selling the book to
.u b .cnber for 40 cents and allowing
ib .crilberi to the Panama and Colon
telephoit: s.rn ice to have their names
inserted in the Canal directory upon
pa rr:-rnt of $I.
Siiice jui.t about everyone wanted his
ninm: irneijtil,:l this brought about the
pri:bl:I of '.'.h.ht type of subscriber
could be listed without offending the
user of the directory.
Liquor companies were among others
not considered proper for inclusion in
Lthl Canal directory. It was 30 years
b: f:o,rt: a realistic Governor penciled the
note "no objection to any legitimate
business" on a memo and that ban was
lifted.
One of the few events that could and
did reduce the information pages of the
Canal directory was the advent of World
War II.
"Perhaps enemy countries should not
be listed as having diplomatic and con-
sular officials in Panama," someone sug-
-:-ted. Someone else wrote, "In view
O.f the existing international situation it
is extremely difficult to determine just
who should be included in our telephone
directory." And the diplomatic and con-
sular lists were never seen again.
The Army worried that "non-secret
telephone directories in general use
constitute a perfect means for enemy
agents to acquire complete information
concerning military units," and the
military disappeared from the directory.
Now changes often meant less rather
than more. The farms, the pastures, the
markets were long gone and, in 1952,
the directions for using automatic
telephones were at long last removed.
But the tide tables, which had stirred
more controversy than any other sub-
ject-pro and con-seemingly were to go
on forever. Then, in 1965, a daring deci-
sion was made, and a memo worthy of
war plans written: "Cleared with Gov-
ernor. He was informed of possible re-
percussions. Following is decision. Re-
move from telephone book. Put notice
in new directory. No SPILLWAY or any
other notice."
Some changes were more dramatic
than others. After the military was listed
in the directory for a few post-war years,
they were notified that the Canal could
no longer afford to carry their listings,
and a joint military-Panama Canal fea-
sibility study of a uniform format for
military and Panama Canal directories
resulted in the large book that first
appeared in 1958.
Staples became a big issue in 1959
when townsite maps appeared. If letters
from subscribers are to be believed, no
one ever looked for directions or a house


The Making of the Telephone Book 1975


Albert Farrell types card strips for new
entries and removes the old ones to
produce up-to-date pages for reproduction
at the printing plant.

number except to find that what they
were looking for was directly under
the staple.
The trust), old staples were thought
of almost fondly in 1974 when faulty
glue caused the directory to come apart
page by page after it was used a few
times.
For the most part over the past 20
years, the telephone book went unmo-
lested. Few people thought about chang-
ing it. In 1963, emergency numbers were
moved to an inside page and there was
an illustrated cover. A few years later
photographs appeared on the cover, and
a contest in 1970 resulted in a two-color
cover.
In 1972, the last big change: every
page of information was printed in both
English and Spanish.
A collection of the directories-and
there is only one-is an invaluable source
of information. Without it, we might not
know that Crede Calhoun was the first
Civil Affairs Director. That the sun rose
in Balboa at 6:11 a.m. on August 26,
1926. That the tide was high in Cris-
tobal at 2:22 a.m. on December 7, 1941.
This might have been lost forever if,
on September 25, 1914, the Executive
Secretary hadn't scribbled a note to the
"Supt. Telephone and Signals," asking
that "as soon as practicable, please get
up and have printed on cards a tele-
phone directory for this building."
That was yesterday. Today it is a
modern, color coded book with a 2-year
calendar, a map showing time zones and
area codes in the United States and an
explanation of civil defense warning
signals. And tomorrow-who knows.
Maybe tide tables.


Mrs. Judith Holder. Electrical Division
Administrative Officer, delivers page
panels of the 1975 directory to Juan
Fernmndez, left, and Rafael Camargo,
right, who make the plates for
printing the directory.


Roy Goreng checks uncut pages of
townsite maps as they come off the press.


After the famous faulty-glue fiasco of 1974,
Jose Aguilar makes sure the stapling job
on the 1975 book is done to perfection.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





Culinary
Capers


SPRING 1975





IT HAS BEEN USED TO PAY
t.T.c., debts and wages, and to
pe'ppe' tIhe bride for good luck. It has
s.., cmd millions from starvation and today
p:.ri'. ;id half of the world's population
. ith 2I prcr'ent of its calories. More rice
;i coiiii.med throughout the world than
:ir, other food.
The tiny, but mighty, little grain has
been around for a long, long time-about
5,000 years-and it has had an important
role in the history of mankind. Early)
Asian historical records show that, in
China, in 2,500 B.C., it was so highly
regarded that only the Emperor was
privileged to grow it. It had a place in
religious rites, as a temple offering, and
was a symbol of happiness and abun-
dance.
The cultivation of rice spread slowly
to the Mediterranean civilization. The
Egyptians were growing it in the 4th
century B.C. It was cultivated by the
Greeks and the Romans and much later
the Moors took it to Spain from where
it was introduced into the New World
with the conquest.
In the United States, South Carolina
was the first to grow it and after the
Civil War, Louisiana became the rice
center. Now it is grown also in Missis-
sippi, Arkansas, Texas and California
with Louisiana and Mississippi produc-
ing mainly the long-grain type and Cal-
ifornia growing the round-grain, known
also as Japanese rice.
According to a 1964 study by the In-
terrnaitional Rice Research Institute,
there are more than 9,779 varieties of
rice and many different types, shapes,
and colors cultivated throughout the
world. The two main types are upland
rice, which is grown in ordinary soil, and
aquatic or lowland rice, grown in hot
marshy regions or irrigated fields. It is
prepared for sale as brown, unpolished,
polished, or coated. What we call wild
rice is not a true rice at all, but the grains
of a perennial grass native to North
America.
The lowly grain has been assimilated
into the cooking of nearly every region
on the globe with many countries pro-
ducing at least one rice dish that has
become universally known.
The Spanish have combined rice with
seafood and vegetables to give us paella;
in Italy, where surprisingly more rice
than pasta is consumed, rice is cooked in
chicken broth to produce the delicious
risotto; the Mideastern countries saut6
rice in, butter, olive oil and onion (often
addiig slivered almonds) and produce
p'l!al And so it goes, each country eating
rice plain, boiled or sauteed, in soups, as
i irr.n dish combined with seafood,


poultry or meat, with vegetables, and as
a dessert.
An important staple in the Panama-
nian diet, rice usually is served twice a
day and in large quantities. Per capital
consumption averages 320 grams a day
which amounts to about 220 pounds a
year, and, in comparison with other
Latin American countries, only Surinam
and Guyana, with a daily per capital con-
sumption of 600 grams, eat more rice
than Panama.
From 100,000 to 110,000 hectares of
Panama's soil is devoted to the cultiva-
tion of rice and the 1973-74 crop pro-
duced approximately 3,574.600 quintals
hundredweightt) of unhulled rice, yield-
ing 60 percent of this amount in polished


and cook for 14 minutes. (Do not stir or
disturb while it is cooking.) Remove
from heat and serve. For a fluffier rice
leave cover on an additional 10 minutes
and let it steam.

Sauteed Rice
Melt 1 tablespoon butter in heavy pot.
Saut6 1 medium chopped onion over
medium heat until golden. Add 1 cup
rice and stir until each grain glistens.
Add 2 cups water or chicken broth and
1 teaspoon salt. Bring to a boil and
continue as for boiled rice.
One of the most delicious rice dishes
made in Panama is rice cooked in coco-
nut milk.


By Fannie P. Hernandez


rice. The province with the highest
yield is Chiriqui, where 46 percent of
the entire crop is produced. Cocl6 Prov-
ince ranks second and Veraguas, third.
The three principal varieties produced
in Panama are: Nilo 1 and Nilo 2, the
extra-long grain rices which constitute
from 70 to 80 percent of the crop,
which originated in Surinam and were
developed in El Salvador in Central
America; and a variety known as CICA
4, developed in Colombia.
Though there are many theories on
the methods of cooking rice, two simple
methods which produce fluffy well-
cooked grains are boiling it in water or
other liquid and sauteing raw rice in
butter or oil and then steaming it. Two
things should be remembered in cooking
rice: It should be cooked in only as much
liquid as it can absorb to preserve its
valuable vitamins and a heavy saucepan
or pot with tight-fitting cover is a must.

Boiled Rice
To make 3 cups of rice, put 1 cup of
raw rice, 2 cups of water, 1 teaspoon
salt and 1 tablespoon butter in a heavy,
2-quart saucepan. Bring to a boil over
high heat and tiwn heat to low. Stir it
once with a fork, cover with a tight lid


Arroz con Coco
(Coconut Rice)
1%2 cups rice
1 coconut, grated
1 cup boiling water
1,2 teaspoon salt
I teaspoon butter
3 cups water
Pour boiling water over the grated
coconut, let it set a few minutes. When
it is cool enough to handle, squeeze the
coconut to obtain the milk. Add the
3 cups of water to the grated coconut
and set it aside. Put the milk in a heavy
pot and let it cook down until coco
butter forms and is a little toasted. Add
the rice and stir until it is golden color.
Squeeze the grated coconut again and
add this water to the rice with the salt
and butter. When the liquid has been
absorbed, turn heat to low, cover
tightly and cook from 15 to 20 minutes.
A sweet rice that is not a dessert is
rice with raisins, often cooked in coco-
nut milk, but water will do fine. Delici-
ous with ham.

Rice with raisins, one of Panama's
favorite rice dishes, is shown at left.
The recipe appears on the next page.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


re ~iee




k *;a~i~



























The cooking of rice, basis for many dishes,
requires careful measuring and a heavy
pot with a tight fitting cover.


Rice with guand6, one of Panama's
traditional rice dishes, has a flavor all its
own. While cooking, guand6 exudes a
pleasing bouquet, made even more
appetizing when coconut milk is used
for the liquid.


Arroz con Pasas
(Rice With Raisins)
2 cups rice
4 cups water or coconut milk
1 cup raisins
7i lb butter
2 sticks cinnamon
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup brown sugar (not packed)
Cook raisins in butter until plump.
Remove with slotted spoon. Add rice to
butter and stir until grains are golden.
Add liquid, salt and the raisins. Boil
briskly until liquid is just about all ab-
sorbed. Sprinkle the brown sugar on top


and when it has melted and almost dry,
cover, lower heat to as low as possible,
and cook 20 minutes. Remove from heat.
With a big spoon stir up from bottom of
pan and mix carefully.
As typical of Panama as the Panama
hat is rice with guandt, a pea which
resembles a small bean and has a unique
flavor. Guand6, also called pigeon peas,
are available in bunches or shelled at
the market when in season or in cans at
the supermarkets.
Arroz con Guandd
(Rice With Guandri)
,' cup guandui
1 cup rice
1 teaspoon salt
1 coconut, grated
4 cups hot water
Put the grated coconut in water. Let
it set a few minutes, then squeeze to
obtain the milk. Cook the guandti in
the liquid until it is reduced to 2 cups.
Add rice and salt. Cook over high heat
until liquid is absorbed. Cover and
steam for 14 minutes. (A delicious aroma
will permeate the kitchen.)
Arroz con Polio came from Spain to
Mexico, then Peru, Colombia and Cuba,
and each country has its own version.
Panama has several. Here is one:
Arroz con Polio
(Chicken With Rice)
1 3-lb chicken, cut up
1 cups rice
3 cup olive oil
3I teaspoon salt
pincl of pepper
3 pimientos cut in strips
2 large ripe tomatoes, cut up
1 clove garlic
1 teaspoon oregano
2 peppercorns
hot water or hot chicken stock
I teaspoon capers
12 black olives
In a mortar, pound garlic, salt, pepper-
corns, pepper and oregano in a little
oil. Rub chicken pieces with this mix-
ture and let it season a few minutes. In
a heavy pan (or paila), brown chicken
in the oil. Add tomatoes, capers, olives,
2 of the pimientos. Cook until chicken
is almost tender. Add rice and hot liquid
to cover about an inch. Cover and
simmer until the liquid has been ab-
sorbed and rice is tender. Garnish with
remaining pimiento strips. Some cooks
add a cup of cooked peas just before
serving.
With an abundance of seafood avail-
able in Panama, there are dozens of
recipes combining rice with one sea-
food or several. Here is one that is
served in many Panamanian homes.


Arroz con Cjaiaronel
(Rice With Shrw p i
I onion, chopped
2 tomatoes
2 cloves garlic
2 pounds shrimp
1 small can tomato past.e
2 tablespoons olive ,oil
2 cups rice
4 cups water
olives and capers I.- ria ,.
Fry the onion, tcniarnee; a.nrd iM.ii c iln
oil. Add the cleaned ra," ,;hlrnp Add
4 cups hot water and :ook fior 5 ininute;
Remove the shrimp .dd thi ni.e r,, the
liquid and cook until irce is rellderi Add
the shrimp, capers and ,.l-i.es and mix
carefully with a fork C'*.. : and rd remn\:
from heat. Serve after 5-101 nuijrte .
Rice is used in rP:iarini.iian Jeeertn;.
too, in either a rice pudding, similar tr
our old-fashioned rice pudding. .,
favorite rice dessert made with c..<-.:.rit
milk and chocolate.

Arroz con Cacao
(Chocolate Rice)
L4 cup rice
1 cup water
1 cup coconut milk
4 sticks cinnamon
1 can condensed milk
I small can chocolate syrup
a cup sugar
Soak the rice overnight iI einoigh
water to cover. Add coconut milk id
cinnamon sticks to rice. Sinmmer lril it
has dissolved, adding more cx.,li- it
milk to maintain a soft c.:r.ns;ist; :' R:-
move cinnamon sticks. Add sugar, con-
densed milk and syrup. Cook stirring
constantly over low heat until custard
like. Cool. Serve with coconut cream.
Not a Panamanian recipe, this ver-
sion of rice pudding comes from Brazil.

Arroz con Caf6
(Coffee With Rice)
L- cup rice
2 cups strong coffee (made with instant or
brewed)
3 tablespoons butter
3 eggs, well beaten
' cup Karo (dark)
, cup sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla
'~ teaspoon salt
1,2 cups milk
Cook the rice in the coffee for 20
minutes. Add butter. Combine the eggs
with remaining ingredients and add to
the rice and coffee. Pour into a buttered
baking dish. Set the dish in a pan of
water and bake 30 minutes. Serve warm
with milk or cream.


SPRING 1975







Shipping


-- 4


V' --
*1',




7t


Notes


ADMIRAL SAMUEL E. MORISON,
Pulitzer Prize winning author, best
known for his books "The European Dis-
cover) of America: The Northern Voy-
ages" and his latest book "The European
Discovery of America: The Southern
Voyages" was aboard the SS Santa Mer-
cedes this year when she sailed from Los
Angeles around South America. Morison
was selected by the Prudential Lines to
retell the adventures of the famed navi-
gator, who first discovered the Strait of
Magellan in 1520. The Santa Mercedes
took only 2 days to transit the Strait com-
pared to the 37-day voyage of Magellan.
During the cruise, the ship called at
Balboa, NManzanillo, Acajutla, Cartage-
na, Curacao, La Guaira, Rio de Janeiro,
Santos and Buenos Aires before transit-
ing the Strait at the height of what is the
summer season in that area.
Morison, who is now 87 years old, is
a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at
Harvard and winner of every prize for
history and belles lettres in the United
States (among them the Pulitzer Prize
twice and the Emerson-Thoreau medal).
He is also a mariner who has recon-
noitered and often duplicated the well
known voyages made in the age of
discovery.
Morison could add another dimen-
sion to the trip through the Strait be-
cause of his vast knowledge concerning
Magellan's original voyage.


The "Royal Viking Sky," one of the
three cruise ships of the Royal Viking
Line, passes through Gaillard Cut.


In his book "The Southern Voyages,"
he points out, for instance, that Magellan
put to sea on the first voyage around the
world with the full knowledge that three
Spanish captains on his fleet planned to
murder him.
It was on Palm Sunday at St. Juliin
in Patagonia that the mutineers finally
attempted to put their plan into effect.
They seized three of Magellan's ships
and demanded his surrender. Magellan,
however, through audacity and extra-
ordinary seamanship managed to recap-
ture his fleet with only one loyal man
injured. Since mutiny was a capital
offense, Magellan had one captain drawn
and quartered, the second hanged, and
the third one was marooned.
As cruise passengers relaxed in com-
fort dining on choice foods, they could
not but be awed by the accomplishments
of Magellan under such hardship con-
ditions. Morison reported that food be-
came so scarce on the first long haul
across the Pacific that rats were sold for
food at $1.16 gold and sailors often
resorted to eating the leather chafing
gear off the yards.


The Santa Mercedes and her sister
ships, the Santa Mariana, Santa Maria,
and Santa Magdalcna, make regular
visits to the Isthmus on their sailings
from west coast ports to Canada, Mexico
Central America, the Caribbean and
around South America every 14-16 days
throughout the year.

Trans-Canal Cruises
More and more cruise ships are fea-
turing trips through the Panama Canal.
During 1975, approximately 8,000
passengers will sail with Royal Viking
Line on 16 Trans-Canal cruises, originat-
ing from both coasts and including one
from New Orleans.
In its promotional material, Royal
Viking Line writes of the Canal:
"Time was, a trip through the Panama
Canal suggested banana boats, steaming
jungles and small bands of intrepid
travelers determined to reach a distant
port in faraway South America, or even
points beyond. Today. things are differ-
ent, passengers have a front-row seat for
the trip, in a choice of air-conditioned
lounges."
Royal Viking ships offer all first-
class accommodations (with 94 percent
having an ocean view) for approximately
500 passengers with spacious staterooms
and public area. The decor is Scandi-
navian, with artwork by the area's finest
artists. Dining is international with na-
tive specialties from some ports of call
included in daily menus. As on the
Prudential trip around South- Amer-
ica, guest lecturers provide information
about the various ports of call.
One of their lecturers was Irving
Stone, author of "The Agony and the
Ecstasy," .The President's Lady" and
"Lust for Life." He was on the Royal
Viking Sea when she transited the Canal
on January 12 during a 96-day around-
the-world cruise.
Although the Royal Viking Line is
only a few years old, its three ships, the


.. .. ... ..
IL 'I r
.J" '


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


D
P
I rl

i












Nationality
Belgian---------
British ---------
Chilean------
Chinese Nat'l. ___--
Colombian--------
Cypriot--------
Danish-----------
Ecuadorian- --_-
French- ----
German, West -----
Greek---------
Italian -----------
Japanese ----------
Liberian----------
Netherlands ------
Nicaraguan -----
Norwegian -------
Panamanian ----
Peruvian---------
Polish -------
South Korean __
Soviet_-----
Swedish--------
United States ----
Yugoslavia _------__
All other -- _--
Total -----


1975 1974
No of Tons--


No. of Tons
transits of cargo
71 535,377
638 7,030,475
68 828,951
80 1,050,329
70 148,780
136 911,080
151 1,204,269
50 419,881
123 733,936
379 2,303,193
633 9,410,121
116 743,403
646 6,042,448
950 17,812,491
207 921,077
42 75,266
428 6,815,866
509 3,825,363
97 1,012,647
45 288,509
56 384,599
76 487,638
171 1,753,471
538 4,649,986
43 468,751
434 3,399,216
6,757 73,257,123


Trade routes-(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over)
East coast United States-Asia _.__----_-___ ----_
Europe-West coast South America -_------- -
East coast United States-West coast South America------
Europe-West coast United States/Canada --___-_
Europe-Asia _________-----_ -_-___----_ _---_
Europe-Oceania __ ___-----------
East coast Canada-Asia -------- -__--
United States Intercoastal (including Hawaii)--__--------
East coast South America-Asia --_ ___---_-------.
West coast South America-West Indies___ --_
All others .___. .__ _____ __.__ -._ __ .
Total_ _________


Month
July -----
August _
September-
October ---
November--
December--
January--.
February-
March .---.
April __
May--
June --
Totals for fis


No. of Tons
transits of cargo
78 279,717
638 6,924,670
43 665,614
104 1,146,805
94 230,816
107 649,689
175 1,362,868
46 509,732
113 663,295
378 2,516,863
701 9,478,162
135 1,025,817
643 6,923,312
894 15,417,105
229 1,334,531
37 68,318
518 7,636,929
505 3,256,365
90 838,128
20 92,909
50 302,761
132 822,350
163 1,248,731
616 5,045,671
34 448,961
425 3,332,238
6,968 72,222,357


1965-69
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
39 100,725
679 5,072,872
60 406,198
57 443,818
117 225,971
7 50,000
198 1,137,816
33 41,799
107 421,446
590 2,063,139
255 2,606,268
110 743,021
468 3,431,691
674 8,920,295
257 1,086,592
36 55,717
739 7,171,883
261 1,215,812
79 387,875
7 56,174
14 87,421
27 207,691
225 1,462,003
823 4,602,063
12 134,854
368 1,435,550
6,242 43,568,694


1975
1,595
540
624
389
435
250
163
200
132
132
2,297
6,757


19 74
1,777
547
640
422
374
238
226
206
133
172
2,233
6,968


Avg. No.
transit
1965-69
1,389
651
895
484
107
191
99
258
96
130
1,931
6,231


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars)1
First Avg. No. First Average
holf transits half tolls
1975 1974 1965-69 1975 1974 1965-69
--- 1,219 1,210 1,067 $11,834 $9,697 $6,322
1,121 1,127 1,044 12,254 9,663 6,298
-- 1,095 1,125 1,015 11,928 9,530 6,139
---- 1,125 1,220 1,049 11,855 10,170 6,387
--- 1,086 1,160 1,021 11,150 9,772 6,258
1,111 1,126 1,035 11,487 9,886 6,409
1,200 1,003 --__ 10,574 6,167
1,026 922 _--_ 8,988 5,654
---- --- 1,189 1,098 -- 10,137 6,748
----- -- 1,202 1,087 -- 10,016 6,681
1,229 1,110 10,417 6,854
----1,219 1,052 -- 10,573 6,609
:al year__ __ 14,033 12,503 -- $119,423 $76,526


1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
First Half Fiscal Year


SPRING 1975


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST 6 MONTHS
OF FISCAL YEAR 1975
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1975 1974
Commercial----------_ 6,757 6,968
U.S. Government_---- 107 95
Free__-----------____ 2 10
Total _--_----_ 6,866 7,073
TOLLS o
Commercial ..$70,533,506 $58,750,924'
U.S. Govern-
ment ------ 882,164 540,368
Total-_ $71,415,670 $59,291,292'
CARGOe (Oceangoing)
Commercial 73,257,123 72,222,357
U.S. Govern-
ment -----. 348,541 258,436
Free- ------
Total_. 73,605,664 72,480,793
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
** Cargo figures are in long tons.
1 Revised.


Royal Viking Star, Royal Viking Sea,
and Royal Viking Sky have attracted un-
usual attention because of their beauty
and Norwegian style.
Many visiting the ships at the Canal
have expressed curiosity concerning the
origin of the stylized bird on the ships'
stacks.
When the Royal Viking Line set out
to develop a total design system for its
ships, it began with the emblem, which
was inspired by a symbol of the ancient
Norsemen.
From history and folklore, ancient
tapestries and stone rubbings, the line
gathered information about birds and
their role in the Viking Age (800-1000
A.D.). The Vikings paid great homage
to heraldic birds and eagles. Tradi-
tionally, the eagle was a divine and wise
creature, closely associated with Odin,
the one-eyed chief god of the North who
lived in Valhalla. Norse kings, vikings,
and great deities were envisaged and
symbolized as eagles.
Prophesies of the era told of a forth-
coming struggle between the gods and
powers of evil, predicting that the cock
of Valhalla would crow to awaken Odin's
warriors, and that it would be "omi-
nously echoed by the soot-red cock of
hell."
The Royal Viking Line revived this
venerable symbol of the Vikings in 1970
when three Norwegian steamship com-
panies joined forces to form this new
cruise line.

Fertilizer for the Arabs

The first shipment of liquified manure
passed through the Panama Canal re-
cently enroute to Lake St. Charles, La.,
where it was pumped aboard an oil
tanker for shipment to Bahrain and
Dubai on the Persian Gulf. The 850,000


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES
First Half Fiscal Year






gallon shipment originated in Tacoma,
Wash.
It is being shipped to the Middle East
for a billion-dollar desert reclamation
project financed by Arab oil money.
Plans are to mix it with pulverized wood
chips, spread it on the desert sands, and
plant grass to build soil and prevent
wind erosion. The two Arab states have
contracted for 50,000 metric tons a year,
according to an official of Worldwide
Brokers, of Galliano, La. The North-
west quota is 250,000 gallons a month,
according to a local contractor.
Since the dairy business is suffering
from the recession, this new project is
considered a life saver for the industry.
As one farmer said, "We have been
operating $3,000 a month in the red.
Now we can make up to $4,000 a
month on manure. It seems like a fairy
tale."

The Use of English

New value has recently been given to
English by its official adoption by the
International Maritime Consultative Or-
ganization as the common sea language,
according to a report in Fairplay Inter-
national Shipping Weekly.
In commenting on this, Fairplay
noted:
"In a world in which a misunderstood
message or order could result, say in
the destruction of most of the beaches
of north-west Europe by a wrecked very
large crude carrier, the importance of an
internationally accepted means of com-
munication is clear enough, and the
English speakers of the world may well
feel grateful that it is their language
which has been chosen. Those who be-
lieve that they speak the tongue of
Shakespeare, however, may well raise
an eyebrow at some of the words which
are said nowadays to be theirs-doppler,
mach number, coriolis, isogriv and VOR-
TAC, for example, the latter being
defined as "a co-location of VOR and the
distance-measuring element of a TACAN
ground beacon."

Largest Ship Afloat
The American Bureau of Shipping
has recently classed the largest vessel
afloat. It is the 476,292 dead weight
tonnage Globtik London. The vessel, of
British registry, is approximately 1,181
feet long, 203 feet wide, and 118 feet
in height from the keel to the main deck.
During 1974, the ABS classified seven
other tankers of over 250,000 dead
weight tonnage.-WKF


Commodity
Manufactures of iron and steel- __
Petroleum and products________________
Ores, various_______________ _
Sugar _____ -- ------_ _-__-____________
Lumber and products____________________
Pulpwood _____________________ ______
Coal and coke _-- ___________________
Metals, various ---------.__-__-_______
Bananas ------__ ---_.___ ____________ -
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas). --
Sulfur --........__ ............._
Fishmeal_ ------_________ --__________
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts--____-__
Paper and products -________
Chemicals, unclassified __________
All other__________________ _____
Total -__---_ ________


1975
4,832,370
4,385,673
3,117,063
1,842,260
1,674,555
919,416
881,163
834,817
789,980
714,949
686,437
537,532
509,580
353,146
245,251
6,377,983
28,702,175


1975
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total


3,335
194
3,529


3,422
160
3,582


6,757
354
7,111


1974
3,401,890
5,843,529
3,074,279
1,832,808
2,640,783
809,518
297,038
475,767
764,270
813,758
401,777
232,146
461,982
244,083
153,874
5,583,155
27,030,657


5-Yr. Avg.
1965-69
1,816,926
643,782
2,957,624
1,460,243
2,196,431
374,817
95,051
651,078
623,764
499,550
103,009
754,400
38,594
141,696
118,463
4,354,577
16,830,005


Atlantic to Pacific
First Half Fiscal Year


Commodity


Coal and coke ---------_
Petroleum and products __________
Corn --------.____________
Phosphate---- ----._______
Wheat __ --- _____- _
Soybeans ----___-__---________________
Ores, various -----------______________-
Sorghum -_
Manufactures of iron and steel ______
Metal, scrap --__
Sugar ___ __
Fertilizers, unclassified ____________
Metals, various (excluding scrap)_______
Chemicals, unclassified ____________
Paper and products ------ ----_____
All other --------------
Total- __-----_---------____..


CANAL TRANSITS-COIMMERCIAL


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing _-_____ ________
Small 1 ________
Total Commercial-__-_____---

U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing________ ______
Small 1 -----___


1975
13,019,920
7,577,168
3,392,113
2.826,222
2,738,492
1,911,300
1,232,583
1,183,903
1,050,553
1,036,239
756,192
636,954
503,338
466,329
378,770
5,844,872
44,554,948


1974
8,262,531
8,749,089
5,675,008
2,545,084
3,301,650
2,065,802
1,250,883
1,458,630
805,054
1,994,046
715,768
642,653
362,340
712,419
383,702
6,267,041
45,191,700


5-Yr. Aug.
1965-69
4,483,207
7,382,958
1,339,076
1,911,363
621,073
1,165,254
816,530
N.A.
907,176
1,458,047
406,555
218,304
661,758
428,399
349,756
4,589,233
26,738,689


Avg. No.
transits
1974 1965-69


Total Total


6,968
365
7,333


6,231
276
6,507


53 54 107 95 447
24 33 57 58 63


Total Commercial and
U.S. Government ------ 3,606 3,669 7,275 7,486 7,017
1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited
free.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)

Pacific to Atlantic
First Half Fiscal Year


AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
First Half Fiscal Year


































-. -, .
-'~' .1 a~


Pastoral But Progressive

By Jos6 T. Tufi6n


N EARLY 1520, MORE THAN 100
years before the Pilgrims landed at
Plymouth Rock, a small group of Spanish
colonials founded Nata de los Caballe-
ros, the oldest city on the Isthmus. Its
predecessors, Santa Maria la Antigua
and Nombre de Dios, in Darien, were
burned by Drake in 1595 and Morgan
destroyed Old Panama in 1671.
Nati served as an outpost for the con-
quest and colonization of the western
part of Panama and for 300 years, until
1820, was the capital city for western
Panama.
Its inhabitants engaged in farming
and cattle raising activities and in the


later part of the 16th century they lived
mainly from the profits of corn sent to
Panama for feeding the mules and slaves
that carried goods between Panama and
Nombre de Dios.
For many years Nata remained a
sleepy, interior rural community. Its in-
habitants eked out a living using primi-
tive farming methods. With the excep-
tion of the ancient church with the
colonial facade and the old tower, and
a sterling silver pelican, a treasure rem-
iniscent of past glories, which attracted
tourists who ventured to the interior.
Nata had little impact on the remainder
of the Republic after the colonial era.


But in 1938, when Compaflia Pa-
namefia de Alimentos, S.A. (Panama
Foods Co.) established a milk processing
plant there, Nati and the surrounding
areas gradually were revitalized from a
centuries-old lethargy. The plant's tall
chimney, visible from a distance, signi-
fies that Nata has entered the industrial
era and once more is playing an impor-
tant role in the destiny of her country.
Beginning modestly with an annual
production of 519,000 liters of milk,
Panama Foods has experienced a pro-
gressively increasing rate of growth.
Today's annual milk production of 20
million liters is evidence of the com-
pany's tremendous impact on farming
and cattle raising in the Central Pro-
vinces of Panama. In addition to pro-
ducing evaporated and condensed milk,
the company has expanded its activities
to include the processing of other foods
that are produced in the area and is
today the most important commercial
canning industry in the country.
In 1947, the farmers of Nata wit-
nessed the beginning of a new project
that would soon make possible their
entry into the modern marketplace.
The company, using new technology,
began experimenting with the growing,
processing, and marketing of toma-
toes. Two years later with the fruition
of much research and development,
408,611 pounds of tomatoes were pro-
cessed by the company and the well-
known Maggi products, including paste,
sauce, juice and catsup were produced
in Nati and sold on the local market.
Company agriculture experts advise
tomato growers on the control of dis-
eases in tomato plants, a major problem
in the tropics, and teach them how to
improve the quality of the product. The
company has established a 50-hectare
experimental field near Rio Hato in
Cocld Province, where these experts are
continuously experimenting with irriga-
tion methods, various insecticides, fer-
tilizers and herbicides in their efforts to
produce the best quality tomato varieties
for industrial purposes. Plans are to
attempt to increase production to 80
million pounds a year, and to export
these products.
At another experimental tomato field
in Rio Grande, an area about 40 kilo-
meters from Rio Hato, technicians are
experimenting with tomato varieties
resistant to fungi, bacteria, and other
soil-born diseases that cause tomatoes to
wilt in unfavorable environments such
as that caused by flooding in that area.
Tomato wilt has been one of the most
bothersome problems to tomato growers.
Experimenting with a variety of seeds
brought from all over the world by the

32 SPRING 1975


Above: Showing the ravages of time is one of the two bells that called worshipers
to mass at the old Church of Nati during colonial days. The bells, which were
cast in Lima in 1690, are currently displayed at the Museum of Colonial Religious Art
at the old Santo Domingo Chapel in Panama City.





Natiji..il Agriculture Institute, the Min-
isrry .4 Agricultural Development and
Lv P:in. ma University, several varieties
h.,,e bLen developed that seem to be
reL, trat to wilt.
At harvest time, as many as 150 to-
mato pickers are employed and there
are plans to mechanize the operation to
reduce the high cost of production and
ultimately benefit both the growers and
the company.
In addition to processing milk and to-
matoes, Panama Foods cans guandu, a
small pea-like legume which grows on
vines about 6 feet high, often referred to
as "pigeon peas" by the English speak-
ing population on the Isthmus. The
guand6's distinctive flavor and pleasing
aroma while cooking make it a favorite
food of Panama, where erroneously it is
often considered a product grown only
in this country. Actually, guand6 is
popular in Puerto Rico, the Dominican
Republic, Jamaica, Brazil, Trinidad and
in Kenya and Uganda in Africa.
In the past, Puerto Rico was one of
the main producers, but due to the high
cost of harvesting, its cultivation has
fallen off and today the Dominican
Republic is the main exporter.
Aware of the nutritional value of
guandu, the United Nations has dis-
patched dietary experts to India and
Cevlon (now known as Sri Lanka) to
if.'rni the inhabitants of these famine-
plagued areas of the merits of guand6
and to encourage its local cultivation.
In general, the main problem in the
cultivation of guand6, which requires
very little care in the field, is the high
cost of harvest and the shelling of the
pods, which is done by hand. In Panama,
where it is largely a home production,


with the farmer planting his own guandu
fields, then selling the yield to the com-
pany, it has so far been economically
successful.
Benefitting from the industrialization
of this legume are approximately 400
families, mainly in the areas around
La Atalaya in Veraguas Province. They
are supplying Panama Foods approxi-
mately 1,600,000 pounds of guand6 a
year. The company would like to triple
guandu production in the next 2 years,
with hopes of obtaining a market for
this product in the United States.
Although the Panama Foods installa-
tion at NatA processes products grown
only in that area, the impact of the in-
dustry extends to the provinces of Cocl6,
Los Santos, Herrera and Veraguas, with
a total population of about half a
million.
In 1970, now producers of Nestle,
Maggi and Libby products in Panama,
the company extended its sphere of
activities to the fertile lands of Chiriqui
Province and took over the manage-
ment of the Chiriqui Milk Co. in Boque-
r6n. Here it processes powdered milk,
fruit juices and vegetables that are
grown in the cooler areas of that
province.
But one of the principal functions
of the Boquer6n installation is found
41 kilometers northeast of there, at San
Andr6s, more than 400 meters above sea
level, near the Costa Rican border. It is
a pineapple plantation of the finest in-
dustrial quality and constitutes one of
the company's most important projects.
The fertile volcanic soil of the region and
the infrared rays of the sun at that par-
ticular altitude give the pineapple the
ideal flavor for industrial use, according


a .'::


F
1


A chemist tests the purity of Panama
Food Company products at a modem
laboratory in the Nati installation.




Revitalized from

a centuries-old


lethargy


A field of grain and a dairy herd that supplies milk to the Chiriqui Milk Plant in Boquer6n form a scene of tranquil beauty.


FHi PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


'I


-.1111111
aw *AWAM
. .. ...




,gu!I


/ I

t t


, t


Employees of the Boquer6n processing
plant check beet slices prior to canning.
Fruits and vegetables of the area are
processed at this plant.


A smiling employee operates a machine
which extracts juice from the delicious
oranges grown in the Boquer6n area.


Cans are manufactured at the Panama
Foods Company plant at Nati. These
will be used for evaporated milk.


II -~.


Cans of diced beets are
packed in cartons at the
Nata plant. Also shown are
cases of maracuya juice.





I


to Juan Wintgens, head of the Agricul-
ture Department of the company. Com-
menting on the excellent quality of
another variety of pineapple produced
S in Panama, the delectable "water pine-
S apple" grown in Taboga, \Vintgens ex-
plained that it is perhaps the most tasty
fresh pineapple, but it is not suitable
- for canning.
S The San Andres pineapple field covers
22 hectares, each hectare containing
40,000 pineapple plants. Slips have been
S imported from Martinique and Hawaii,
with superior results from the "smooth
Cayenne" variety from Hawaii.
Pineapple cultivation requires a large
investment, extensive fumigation, weed-
ing, fertilizers and constant care. This
project is in its infancy and large scale
production will depend on the ability of
4 individual growers to supply the com-
pany with sufficient fruit.
Located at the pineapple plantation,
and appearing a little out of place in
S this environment, is a row of stables
I housing several dozen high-grade cal. ei
They are part of 2,000 purebrd-'l that
the company is planning to dirnbule
among its milk suppliers to impr-. r I he
quality and quantity of milk with rrult -
ing benefits for the company ari-d Ih-
suppliers. The calves will be sold t r, he
cattle raisers at a nominal cost, .'.hch

Shown are two varieties of tomatoes
that seem to be resistant to wilt, one of
the most bothersome problems to tomato
growers coping with the tropical
environment.


SPRING 19'75


-- i-'F"






.\AritIllure expert Alberto Dclgado, at
ilhli. di.tusscs the characteristics of the
pinie.ppk that make it suitable for canning
with Jean P. Robert, left and Juan
Wintgens, engineers working with the
Panama Foods Company.




Passion fruit is


popular new


local product


can be deducted from their payments
for supplying milk. Dairy experts also
will continue to offer technical assistance
in matters of feeding and disease control.
A short distance from the pineapple
plantation, the company has a 2-hectare
plot planted with granadilla, one of
several varieties of passion fruit, com-
monly known as maracuya. The fruit,
about the size and shape of a small pear,
has a tough hull and the inside contains
small black seeds surrounded by aro-
matic, yellow pulp. Its taste somewhat
resembles the peach with a tinge of
apricot and the exotic tang of guava.
A little juice goes a long way as it has a
penetrating flavor but it is ideal for
mixing with pineapple and other fruit,
in cocktails, punch and for flavoring fruit
desserts. Since it is said that the taste
lingers like a happy memory, it is in
great demand. The plant, a vine, needs
very little care and hardly any invest-
ment. It is a matter of planting, putting
a stick in the ground for it to climb on,
and waiting for the fruit to fall when
it is ripe. Because of these attributes
Panama Foods is encouraging the cul-
tivation of maracuva.
The overall economic impact of Pan-
ama Foods on the five provinces where
the company operates is difficult to
determine. However, in purchases, serv-
ices and salaries, the company's output
is approximately $15 million a year.
And benefits derived from its numerous
experimental projects and the technical
assistance offered to the hundreds of dirt
farmers and cattle raisers are incal-
culable.


A field of maraeuya, a
species of passion fruit, in
San Andr6s, Chiriqui
Province. Juice of the
maracuya is in great demand
internationally.


Part of the herd of 2,000
purebred calves to be
distributed to their milk
suppliers by the Chiriqui
Milk Company to improve
the quality and quantity
of milk.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW














































































i.


















Date Due


-Dun,,,,,. Rurned


Duc Rcournnd


AI~i a -:

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3 1262I 00097 8931
3 1262 00097 8931


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2009 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1975pana

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PANAMA C^l CANAL HevIeV SPRING 1975

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DAVID S. PARKER Governor-President RICHARD L. HUNT Lieutenant Governor OFficial Panama Canal Publication WILLIE K. FRIAR Editor, Engli.'ih Edition JOSE T. TU5JON H. Editor, Spanish Edition Writers Vic Canel, Fannie P. Hernandez, Franklin Castrellon, Dolores E. Suisman AND Pandora G. Aleman FRANK A. BALDWIN Panama Canal Information Officer Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1, airmail $2, single copies 50 cents. For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Office Is located In Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Contents In the Wake of Drake 3 Transit of "Golden Hinde" revives interest in the audacious Elizabethan. Some Fancy Shirts From Far-off Shores 9 A short shirt tale. The Age of Aquarists 13 These fishermen give them an aspirin and bring 'em back alive. A Horse in the House 19 B[i hand or icith net, feeding a seahorse requires finesse. More Than A Book of Numbers 22 Phone directories reflect changing times from construction days to present. Culinary Capers A riot of rice recipes. Shipping Notes 26 29 Nata 32 Oldest totvn on the Isthmus enters the industrial age. Credits: Photos by Don Coodc (p. 5 "Colden Hinde" and p. 11 traffic controller j, Kevin Jenkins (p. 6), Mike Goode (p. 11 Panamanian dancing couple). Sketch p. 4 by Capt. Adrian Small. Our Cover Photographing a galleon under full sail might sound simple but getting the shot of the Golden Hinde, which appears on the cover, was not an easy task. Intent on capturing the ship with her sails unfurled, the photographer followed her on a launch as she left Balboa on her way to California. As soon as she was free of the tug, which had towed her through the Canal, her crew set about the task of putting up the sails. But there were no strong winds and the sails hung limply. Capt. Adrian Small, master of the ship, decided to start the small engine to help maneuvei the vessel into a better position to catch the wind. Of course, with the first throb of the motor, the 16th centuiy atmosphere vanished in a puff of grey smoke from the exhaust. Finally, after much e.xertion on the part of the captain and crew, the ship was in just the right position, the wind filled her sails, the engine was shut down, the scene was perfect, but only for a moment. The 20th century intervened again when a small plane began flying back and forth directly above the ship. At last, the plane flew out of sight but a tropical rain shower caused another delay. The Isthmus was fast fading into the background as the ship moved along under full sail. Hurriedly the photographer focused the camera just in time to spot several small boats sailing in between the Golden Hinde and the launch. Responding to much yelling and waving of hands, the small boat owners moved out of range and the photographer captured the scene on the cover onlv seconds before an ominous black cloud appeared overhead. The cover photograph, as well as all others in this issue, unless otherwise credited, are by Arthur L. Pollack. 2 Spring 1975

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In ike of Dtaktf WilUe K. Friar IT WAS A STRANGE SIGHT-A small 16th century galleon sailing serenely past the modern gargantuan tankers and container ships lying at anchor off Balboa waiting their turn to transit the Panama Canal. The small sailing ship, her sails set taut, was the Golden Hinde, a replica of the ship on which Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe. From the time the Golden Hinde anchored off Portobelo early in December 1974 until she completed transit of the Canal, she attracted unusual interest on the Isthmus, where Drake has always been an important part of the local history. Drake's victories over the Spanish along the Las Cruces Trail are well known and a lively interest in locating the lead casket in which he is supposed to have been buried at sea near Portobelo has continued through the years. An island in the vicinity is still known as Drake's Island. It was on the Isthmus that Drake, after climbing to the top of a tree and viewing both oceans, fell on his knees and asked God to give him "life and leave to sail an English ship in the South Sea." His prayer was answered later when he succeeded in circumnavigating the world on the Golden Hinde. On his trip in 1577, Drake took the Golden Hinde through the treacherous waters of the Strait of Magellan and harassed Spanish ships along the Chilean and Penivian coasts before arriving in California. The replica of the ship, enroute from England where she was built. The Panama Canal Review 3 The "Golden Hinde" lies at anchor off Portobelo in the area where it is believed that Drake was buried. The galleon also stopped briefly at Nombre de Dios. Drake s Drum Drake he's in his hammock an' a thousand mile away, (Capten, art tha sleepin there beloiv?) Shmg ativeen the round shot in Nombre Dios Bay, An dreainin arl the time d Plymouth Hoe. Yarnder lumes the Island, i/arnder lie the ships, Wi' sailor lads a-dancin heel-an'-toe. An the shore-lights fiashin, an the night-tide dashin. He sees et arl so plainly as he saw et long ago. Henry Newbolt to San Francisco where she will be on permanent exhibit, took the short cut through the Panama Canal. The insurers of the ship, which is valued at a million dollars, took a dim view of havinCT her go through the Strait of Magellan. Plans are to berth the ship at Fisherman's ^Vharf in San Francisco to commemorate Drake's voyage and his landing on the west coast of America in 1579. The Golden Hinde replica was designed bv Chris Norgaard, a Califomian, for a consortium of San Francisco businessmen including Albert D. Elledge, president of a tugboat and harbor tour line, and Art Blum, public relations consultant. The idea to build such a ship for San Francisco germinated in the mind of Art Blum, at least 10 years ago. Preliminary designs were produced about 5 years later following considerable research. Although often reported in the press as "an exact replica," this would be impossible as little is known about the original Golden Hinde. After studying every scrap of historical evidence available, including manuscripts which described Drake and his ship and viewing paintings of the period, Norgaard came to the conclusion that the Golden Hinde was a classic example of a mid 16th century warship. It is i)elieved that the ship was built in France and was bought by John Hawkins, Drake's uncle. Norgaard was greatly influenced by Nuiio da Silva, the Portuguese pilot captured bv Drake, who became his na\igator, He had a high opinion of the ship and wrote: "The Capitana (flag-

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The replica was built to commemorate Drake's landing on the coast of California in 1579 ship) is in a great measure stout and strong. She has two sheathings, one as perfectly finished as the other. She is fit for warfare and is a ship of the French pattern, well fitted out and furnished with \er\' good masts, tacke and double sails. She is a good sailor and the rudder governs her well . She is. water-fast when na\igated with the wind astern and not \-ioIent but when the sea is high she labours and leaks not a little . ." It is interesting to learn that the new Golden Hinde had the same problem. (From the Captain's Notes a short time after leaving England: "We have been pestered with small leaks at bow and stem, only apparent when the ship is in a heavy sea.") Since no detailed records of the design of the original ship existed, Norgaard relied to some extent on the ratios of lengths to depth and width, which is the way shipbuilders of the 16th century worked. Matthew Baker, an English shipwright, working some years after the supposed date of the construction of Drake's ship, explained the process in a unique manuscript preserved in the Pepys Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge: Proportiones for shippinge The hredth is arbitrarie, ye depth must never be more then 1^ ye bredth, nor less then 1/^, The length never less then double ye bredth nor more then treble . The size of the Golden Hinde was determined to a certain extent bv the known size of the dock at Deptford, England, where the original vessel lav for almost a century before she rotted awav. A brick wall was built around her on the orders of Queen Elizabeth I to help preserve her as a museum piece. There was a somewhat whimsical proposal at that time that she be hauled to the top of the tower of the old St. Paul's Cathedral and kept there permanently as a "reminder and treasure for all Englishmen." It was reported that she was also used as a restaurant and Pepys wrote of visiting the ship in 1662 and noting that the timbers were rotting. About this time the decision was made to break up the ship. The only relics remaining today are a chair of polished oak made from the ship's timbers, which is in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and a table in the Middle Temple in London. From the information concerning the Deptford berth of the original ship, Norgaard estimated the Golden Hinde's dimensions to be 75 feet on the waterline; 102 feet overall (not including the bowsprit); maximum breadth 20 feet; extreme draft 13 feet, her mainmast 80 feet tall, her foremast 71 feet and her mizzenmast 36V2 feet. The replica carries a total of 4,150 square feet of sail and displaces 290 tons. and transfer it to the hold of the Golden Hinde while the ships stood off the coast of Peru. When Drake released the captain, he gave him a number of gifts in1 eluding a gilt corselet and 600 pounds of iron as well as a letter of safe conduct ^ in case he should encounter other | English ships. Drake's cabin is the most uncomfortable part of the ship during rough weather. Beneath it is the Great Cabin, complete with a beautifully carved oak table capable of seating 10 people. Since the furniture was recorded as being the finest of the period, hand-carved replicas in English oak were commissioned for the ship. On the poop deck is a "round house" in which Drake spent many hours painting with his young nephew, John Drake. The main deck, in front of the Great The planning of other aspects of the construction also required much attention to detail. The lower deck has 14 long-barrelled cannon, typical of a ship of the period, complete with loading and priming gear at each gun station. Lanterns and small arms racks are also fitted on this deck. In the hold are shot and powder-kegs along with a store of small arms, cooking utensils, barrels, and tools of the period. Beneath the afterdeck of the ship are two cabins. First, Drakes, where he "entertained" San Juan de Anton, the captain of the famed treasure ship, Nuestra Sehora de la Concepcion (Our Lady of the Conception) which was called bv the crew the Cacafuego. Drake treated the captured captain in a gentlemanly manner while he held him aboard the Golden Hinde for the 3 days required to remove a fortune in gold, silver, and jewels from the Spanish ship Cabin, where Drake was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I following his circumnavigation of the world, has a crucifix and a grog cask and on the fo'c'scle forward of the main deck are two small cannon. Carving on the ship is limited to a gilded figurehead representing a hind (hind is spelled with an e in the name of the ship because research revealed that was the way it was spelled in Elizabethan times) and a gilded lion mounted on top of the rudder-post. Once the designer had completed his plans, the search began to find someone ^ to build the ship. The owners finally settled on J. Hinks & Sons, of Appledore in North Devon, England. Hinks had recently built a replica of the 17th century ketch Nonsuch, the ship of the Hudson's Bay Co., which is now in a museum in Canada. The Hinks family has constructed wooden sailing ships Spmng 1975

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since 1844 and the policy of the shipyard has been to continue the methods of wooden shipbuilding that have been used for hundreds of years. They used old fashioned tools including chisels, augers, and adzes for much of the work but they also used modern saws and electrical tools on some structural features. For rigging the ship, Hinks called on two retired craftsmen, Joe and Oswald Bennett. Both are over 70 and had worked on some of the last square-rigged ships sailing out of Appledore, the last port in England to operate commercial sailing ships. It was decided that the timbers used in the original ship were probably English oak, elm, and pine and a search for the right timbers included visits to timber yards throughout the country. Finding the tree for the mainmast of the Golden Hinde involved visits to estates as far afield as Scotland before a suitable one was found on an estate in Devon. The keel was laid September 30, 1971 with the keel bolts driven home by the Mayor of Plymouth and the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, the present owner of Buckland Abbey, Drake's countiy home. Two months later, the Duke of Edinburgh came by to watch the men at work on the laying out of the ribs of the ship. The launching, by the Countess of Devon with a bottle of mead, took place April 5, 1973. During the ceremony an engraved Devon cider flagon containing water drawn from the River Tavy near Drake's former home was presented to the owners to be carried to California on the ship. r After being on display in England, the ship, with Capt. Adrian Small as master, sailed from Plymouth, September 29, stopping at Falmouth, England; Lisbon, Portugal; Bridgetown, Barbados; Cartagena, Colombia; Nombre de Dios and Portobelo, Panama; before arriving at the Canal. Drake's ship sailed out of Plymouth, December 13, 1577. She was at that time named Pelican, but Drake changed the name to Golden Hinde at the eastern entrance to the Strait of Magellan to honor his patron and good friend, Chris^ topher Hadden. The figure of a hind or deer was a part of his crest. (While ( transiting the Canal, a Panama Canal launch carrying a photographer approached the ship, the crew noted with amusement that the name of the launch was Pelican. ) • Most of the crew of 18 are seasoned square rigger seamen, having sailed with "> Captain Small on the replica of the Nonsuch during her voyages around the south coast of England and the Great Lakes of Canada. Chris Daniel, the first mate, of the National Maritime Museum in London, is an expert in old navigational instruments and carried out a number of experiments with old period instnmients during the voyage. Talking with the captain and crew of the Golden Hinde about their crossing of the Atlantic and walking through her narrow low passages one can well imagine what life was like on the original ship when Drake and at least 80 other men were packed aboard her during the circumnavigation. Records show that they negotiated the Strait of Magellan in a raging storm with at least 90 men aboard since they had collected crew members from other of Drake's ships. Most of the men huddled together in complete darkness below deck while others lay on deck between the cannon with the icy sea sloshing back and forth o\er them with every roll of the ship. They were a discontented lot, having already spent more than 7 months away from home and found no treasure, only half naked nati\'es who ate bloody raw seal meat. They had resorted to eating penguins themselves. The stout little ship, however, was a match for the raging storms in the Strait and was able to make its way around the world, after the historic landing on the coast of California, and return to Plymouth September 26, 1580, with what some have estimated at today's valuation as .$50 million in silver and bullion taken from Spanish ships. An exact accounting was never made public so no one can be sure of the value but all historians agree it was a fortune. Sixteenth century ships, like the Golden Hinde, were not built with the comfort of the crew in mind. The men were expected to find places to hang their hammocks among the guns and the cargo. The new Golden Hinde has narrow wooden bunks built-in but because of the dark cramped quarters below many of the men prefer to sleep on the deck. A few other modem additions include a generator to provide electric lights and a radio as well as a small auxiliary engine for maneuvering in and out of harbors. Living conditions aboard the ship, however, are Spartan and everyone must be capable of performing all the necessary tasks including climbing the rigging. There is little leisure time for the crew while at sea. Much of the time during the crossing of the Atlantic was spent in maintaining the sails and wood structures. One of the worst jobs on a sailing ship Oswald Bennett, who is 77 years old, one of the riggers for the "Golden Hinde, binds a rope-end. A shipwright tightens a clamp on the planking near the stem. ritthing the seams to make them watertight. The Panama Canal Review

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I Gov. and Mrs. David S. Parker welcome the ship's owners and officials of the San Francisco Convention and Visitors Bureau who, accompanied by a group of other California businessmen, flew to the Isthmus to transit the Canal aboard the ship. Left to right are: Albert Elledge, co-owner, Mrs. Parker, Dick Buxton, Governor Parker, Harry Orchard, and Art Blum. Keeping alive sailing ship traditions is tarring down the rigging. Along with this hot and dirty work, there was also the chipping off of old varnish and the revamishing of masts and other wooden parts. Although food on the ship includes much of the type that Dralce carried such as salt pork and beef, corned beef, and dried fish, this is supplemented by canned food. Throughout the voyage it was the custom of the master to muster all hands on the quarter deck for "divine services to give thanks to the Almighty for a safe passage." This was also a custom of Drake, who was a devout Lutheran. Captain Small noted that on the ship they are trying to keep alive sailing ship traditions, not specifically those from Elizabethan days. It is not possible to reprint the log, which is beautifully written in Captain Small's Spencerian script, but these brief notes (printed at right) which he hurriedly made for the Review while he was in Panama give a first hand account of what it was like crossing the Atlantic A crewmember holds "Snatch" who joined the ship in England as a newly bom kitten. on the Golden Hinde. The log will be turned over to the owners at the end of the trip just as Drake presented his log to Queen Elizabeth I. Unfortunately that log, which covered the voyage of circumnavigation, a great historical document, was never seen again. Because the Golden Hinde required the service of a tug throughout the transit of the Canal, she paid $6,000 in tolls. After spending almost 2 weeks in Balboa, she left December 20 for Acapulco, arriving there January 5. The ship will be opened to the public in San Francisco sometime in the spring. Spring 1975

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Cio^Hn^ the A I6tlt Cmi Captain Small's notes : Sailed Plymouth 29 September. Put into Falmouth as did Drake's small fleet of five ships. Sailed Falmouth 1 October with fresh northerly wmds increasing to gale force. Vessel ran before the gales and made very good time, 130-150 miles per day. Reached Lisbon in 6 days and 3 hours (a total of 824 miles). Anchored at Cascais Bay at mouth of Tagus River as Drake had done on earlier voyages. W'e spent 5 days in Lisbon taking on provisions and water. Sailed Lisbon October 1 1 for the Atlantic crossing for Barbados. Took the southern route towards the Canaries and Cape Verde Islands as the winds were still strong from the north. Blew strong gales as we approached Palma about 12 days out. Palma is the westernmost of the Canary Islands and was our last sight of land for several weeks. It served to establish our position from which point we steered westwards. Heavy seas and strong winds continued putting a great strain on the hemp rigging and wooden masts. About the 18th day, the weather improved and the ship settled down to a steady 3-4 knots in the northeast trade wind. Everyday progress was made towards our destination. Had only two days of complete calm and even so made about 40-50 miles. Towards the West Indies, the trade winds increased in strength and we sighted Barbados 33 days out from Lisbon ... all hands in good health, ship undamaged, still plenty of drinking water left. The water ration started with about 15 gallons per day for all hands and for cooking but was later increased to 20 and 25 as we were making good time. It was November 13 when we arrived Barbados. The only port is Bridgetown where we tied up along with the luxury cruise liners. The island is green and beautiful. Watered ship and took on fresh provisions (including 100 coconuts) and sailed after .5 davs. Enjoyable visit, very friendly people. Next day we sailed close bv St. Lucia Island and into the Caribbean U1U Gail ic on con Aboard the ship. Captain Small, dressed in Elizabethan costume, talks with Rev. Edwin C. Webster, Dean of the Cathedral of St. Luke in Ancon. Dean Webster is recognized as an authority on Drake's local exploits. THE MASTER OF THE "GOLDEN HINDE" One of the few experienced sailing ship captains still active today, Capt. Adrian Small, with his full red beard and pipe, dressed in Elizabethan costume, looks the part of a 16th centurj' sea captain. Captain Small, who is 44 years old, began his career as an apprentice aboard the Finnish four-masted Passat during her voyage around the world from 1946 to 1948 which included an eastward rounding of Cape Horn. After brief service in the British Merchant Marine, he spent se\'eral years employed bv the film industry, sailing the ships featured in "Billy Budd," "Damn the Defiant" and Hawaii" among other productions. He was introduced to the movie business by Capt. Alan Villiers in 1954 and served with him aboard the Pequod, the ship used in the Hollywood version of "Moby Dick." He also served with Villiers in 1957 as his second mate on the Mayfkuver replica. At the time that he was selected as captain of the Nonsuch, the replica of the Hudson's Bay Co. ship, he was already one of the most experienced square-rig sailors in the world. When it was time to choose a master for the Golden Hinde, Captain Small, of Brixham in Devon, was the obvious choice. In addition to his other qualifications, some insisted he even looked like Drake and the British thought it was appropriate that he came from Drake's own part of the country. Sea. Coasted the Spanish Main and after 10 days put into Cartagena . a short visit of 'IVz days . incredibly ancient walled city with modem Miami-type city spreading around the shores of the Bay. After Admiral \'emon's attack, the Boca Grande was closed with a submerged breakwater. We went in by Boca Chica . same as Drake did. Three days after leaving Cartagena we dropped anchor at Nombre de Dios. It was not a safe anchorage and I can well understand why the Spaniards shifted their base to Portobelo. The shore looked inviting, green hills and thick jungle I suppose, but we had not time to explore. We anchored at dusk and sailed at dawn. No one, I think, Jiad seen us. Half a day's sail took us to Portobelo. We fell in love with the place and did explore the town and ruined forts. It reeks of history— the ghosts of Spaniards and heaps of silver bars. Anchored off the town, we used our boats to explore the shore. Regretfully we weighed anchor and stood out of Portobelo on the morning of December 5. Carrying a fresh east wind we sailed along the coast and shortly after noon were off Cristobal harbor. We sailed through the breakwater in fine style with all sails set and Elizabethan banners flying (also Stars and Stripes) On the 7th of December we were towed through the Canal to the Pacific shores. Sailed approximately 5,300 miles from Plymouth, England to Panama in 53 days. Fhe Panama Canal Review

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Drake's Golden Hinde Visited California Almost 400 Years ago The replica of the Golden Hinde was built to commemorate Drake's landing in California, June 17, 1579, where he spent 5 weeks overhauling his treasure-laden ship. Several historical reports state that he ordered "a plate of brass" (one report said it was lead) to be engraved with a record of his taking possession of the land for England and naming it Nova Albion. Albion, white land, was a Roman name for England. While the extraordinarily friendly natives watched, the plate was nailed to a post along with a sixpence placed so that Queen Elizabeth's head, which appeared on the coin, showed through a hole that had been made in the plate. In 1936, a brass plate that fits this description was found near San Francisco but although studied by many ex'perts, its authenticity has never been fully proved or disproved. A subject of controversy also is the exact location of Drake's anchorage. Historians, geographers, and anthropologists have atm THE ^^ACE DfCoDAnD .n THE n^^^^ t jrnawnE vrrm ah men As novf\ALffiforT., r The "Plate of Brass" now displayed near the entrance to the Bancroft Library at Berkeley. A facsimile hangs in Drake's ancestral home, Buckland Abbey. tempted to solve the problem. The sites considered most likely are the areas now known as Drake's Bay and San Francisco Bay. Heated debates on the location of the anchorage and the authenticity of the plate continue. Probably onlv Drake's long-lost logs of the circumnavigation could settle the arguments. Exploration of Drake's Burial Site PlannedThis spring, the Marine Archaeological Project Panama will begin a search at Portobelo for several shipwrecks of great historical importance. Sidney Wignall holds the Duke of Edinburgh Gold Medal awarded to him by Prince Philip for his expedition's excavations of Spanish Armada ships. His current expedition will work off Portobelo for 6 months. In the course of this exploration, Sydney Wignall, the leader of the expedition, a historian and marine archaeologist from CoKti Bay in North Wales, will also search for the lead coffin in which Sir Francis Drake was reported to have been buried. Drake's burial has been described as follows: "His interrment was after this manner: His corpse being laid into a coffin of lead, he was let down into the sea, the trumpets in doleful manner echoing out this lamentation for so great a loss, and all the cannons in the fleet were discharged according to the custom of all sea funeral obsequies." Wignall believes it is possible that the senior surviving officer, Col. Sir Thomas Baskerville, scutded English and Spanish ships in the area where Drake was buried in the bay and that the expedition, while searching for these ships, might locate his coffin. Wignall savs that he knows the exact weight of the lead sheathing and the location of the Drake burial site within a margin of error of not more than 300 meters. If the coffin is located and it contains human remains, a detailed anatomical examination will be carried out b\' Professor R. G. Harrison, of Liverpool University. He is one of Europe's leading anatomical scientists, whose examinations and blood tests of the Pharaohs, Tutenkhamen and Smenkare, recently aroused great interest. The expedition is supported by the Council for Nautical Archaeology of Great Britain and will operate in Panamanian waters for 6 months with permits issued by Panama. The M.A.P.P. will search for a caravel possibly abandoned at Portobelo in 1503 by Christopher Columbus, two Elizabethan ships, the Delight and the Elizabeth and several Spanish frigates scuttled by Drake's men following his death. The expedition will work under the super\ision of the Panama Government. A conservation laboratory, the first of its kind in Central America, will be set up by the expedition and after completion of the project, it and all recovered objects will be turned over to Panama. The project is designed for scientific and historical investigation only, with no interest in treasure wrecks. None of the ships the expedition seeks contained treasure. Wignall .said that the goal is: "To strive to enrich the sum of man's knowledge of his great maritime historical heritage." He will produce a series of documentar\' films for international distribution and wi'l write a book which will be published simultaneousKin England and the United States. With staff members from eight different countries, including a nmiiber of leading scientists, Wignall regards the project as an opportunity for international cooperation in the fields of history and science. 8 Spmnc 1975

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Some Fancy Shirts From Far-Off Shores (and some prefer the local product) By Vic Canel FROM THE PHILIPPINE BARONG tagalog to the Paraguayan ahoi toi to the African dashiki and the \'enezuelan Hquehque, you're apt to see them all in this tropical crossroads of the world. Of course, there are also the classical guayabera and Panama's own camisilla and montuno, along with shirts from China, India, Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and many other lands. Social gatherings in the tropics often tend to be informal and men wear fancy or distinctive shirts instead of coat and tie. And Panama's centric geographical location and heterogeneous population make it a great place for shirt watching. Most often seen here and throughout the Caribbean area is the guayabera or \'ariations of that four-pocket shirt with vertical pleats at front and back. Derived from the Spanish word "guayaba" (guava), the guayabera originated in Cuba, where it was worn chieflv by the "colonos" or gentlemen farmers. The original guayabera was made of fine linen and was worn hea\ily starched and impeccably ironed. It had long sleeves and a collar that could be buttoned and worn with a black bow tie, which made it acceptable dress at places where coat and tie were required. The price of a guayabera was determined bv the number, size, and workmanship of the tucks and the quality of the linen. Even back in the late twenties and early thirties, when prices were so much lower than today's, affluent colonos paid as much as $2.5 or $30 for a fine guavabera. In the Philippines, the barong tagalog, an elaboratelv embroidered, longsleeved shirt with French cuffs and no pockets, is worn as formal attire. With open collar, it is equivalent in elegance to wearing a dinner jacket, but button the collar and it ranks with white tie and tails. The Panama Canal Review 9 The elegant barong tagalog conies from the Philippines, while the sophisticated version of the guayabera, below it, is a product of Puerto Rico.

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* -> "Where did your shirt come from?' is often asked question on the Isthmus. Traditionally, the intricate embroidery on the barong tagalog is done by women in the outlying towns or "barrios" of the Philippines. Embroidering the pre cut lengths of cloth is an exacting chore, for the women must know exactly where to place the embroidered designs so that they are symmetrical when the shirt is ultimately cut out and assembled. The finer Philippine shirts are made to order. The customer buys the embroidered material and takes it to a tailor who turns out the finished product. Some shirts are entirely covered with embroidery. These are referred to simply as "all over shirts" and the material alone may cost close to $200. Similarly, the Paraguayan ahoi toi ( which in Guarani means fine cloth ) was originally embroidered in private homes, then made into shirts or dresses. At first they were made mainly as wedding shirts, with a similar design for the bride's gown. Today it is a big industrs'. Shirts and dresses, made of new synthetic materials, some even equipped with the adhesi\'e Velcro closures, are now being exported. Typical of Venezuela is the liquelique which is not really a shirt, but a complete costume consisting of a Mao-type jacket with metal buttons and matching trousers. The name is belie\'ed to be a corruption of the French word liquette, a synonym of shirt. From Guatemala come brightly colored homespun cotton shirts with bold and distinctive designs woven into the cloth. A favorite subject is a stylized version of the quetzal, the bird that serves as the country's national emblem and lends its name to the unit of currency. The Nicaraguan version of the popular guayabera, produced in many colors, usually features embroidered pastoral scenes paralleling the vertical tucks in front. The embroidery is most commonly done with thread several shades darker than the shirt material. Increasingly popular on the Isthmus, as with young people everywhere, are the embroidered, light cotton shirts and blouses from India. Made in short, long and three quarter sleeves, they are worn by both men and women. Most are embroidered with floral designs, some have tiny mirrors sewn into the embroidery. Hindu shops in Panama report that they are currently among the fastest selling items. Also available in Panama shops are richly embroidered shirts from Hong Kong. Like the Philippine and Paraguayan shirts, embroidery work is done on lengths of cloth and the shirt assembled later. In this case the cloth is hand embroidered in China. The Hong Kong shirts, still another variation of the guayabera, ha\e only two pockets below and no breast pockets. Made mostly of polyester and cotton, they come in u'hite and a variety of pastel colors. The advent of black consciousness in recent years has contributed to the popularity of the West African dashiki, a loose fitting pullover shirt with a deep slit neck and flowing sleeves. The bold prints and brilliant colors of the dashiki made their first appearance in the West/ At left, from top: Somewhat less formal than the barong tagalog is the short sleeve model, also from the Philippines. From India, a high collared, intricately embroidered long sleeve shirt which is available in Panama's Hindu shops. A stylized version of the quetzal, Guatemala's national emblem and imit of currency, dominates most designs from that country. .\ touch of distinction added to this guayabera is an embroidered Aesculapian staff to proclaim the profession of its owner, Dr. R. R. Pierson, of the Panama Canal Veterinary Medicine Division. Above right: Made of unbleached muslin, Panama's montuno shirt is decorated with a variety of cross-stitch designs. 10 Spring 1975

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em Hemisphere when they were adopted by blacks in the United States, but are now a common sight on the Isthmus and are worn by all races. The shirt industry in Panama produces a wide variety of original designs under internationally known labels. Famous brands such as Arrow, Jayson, Manhattan and Christian Dior are designed and manufactured locally under franchise. The Jayson and Christian Dior franchises are held bv a firm headed by voung Victor M. Azrak, whose late father, Moises Azrak, founded the company in 19.58. His mother is the chief designer. The factory employs nearly 200 people and turns out more than 1,000 shirts a day. Specialized seamstresses work on various components of the shirts— some models requiring up to 4.5 separate operations. Azrak obtained the Christian Dior franchise about 2 years ago. Some of the finer Dior models retail for as much as $50. Manhattan shirts are turned out in a neighboring factory which also produces about 1,000 a day. Here too, though advice and technical assistance is provided by the parent factory, shirt designs are exclusive. Though Manhattan also has a line At right: From West Africa comes this colorful dashiki worn by Edmund F. Johnson, an employee of the Balboa Heights Post 0£Bce. Below left: The traditional Panamanian camisilla is correct attire for the partner of a women wearing the classical pollera. Below right: Matching shirt and dress embroidered with local scenes is the pride of this square dancing couple, .\1 and Anne Richardson, of Gatim. .Popular for Work or Play. \,-\^'^:-'%''^"'"'H^ William Bennett, control house operator at Miraflores Locks, wears the tj-pical Panamanian guayabera, considered by many ideal for work in the tropics. Guavaberas for boys also are available locally. Wearing styles in white and blue, Larry R. Rogers and his son, Larry, Jr., go for an outing in Balboa. The Panama Canal Review 11

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r%s^ At left: Busy seamstresses turn out more than 1,000 shirts a day at this Panama factory. Lower left: Expert cutters follow patterns to produce the components that will later be assembled by the seamstresses. Left below: Buttons are the specialty of this operator. Some shirt models require up to 45 separate operations. Below: Attractive packaging is an important factor in modem shirt marketing. Each garment is carefully ironed and placed in cardboard-backed cellophane sheaths. of women's wear, the local factory produces only men's shuts and trousers. Materials are imported from Europe, Japan and the United States. As protection for the local industry, manufacturers are exempt from import duty on thread, buttons, snaps and other accessories. During his most recent visit to the Panama factory, Herb Kay, technical manager for the International Division of Manhattan, who travels the world over to oflFer advice and solve technical problems, provided a preview of things to come in men's shirt fashions. Solid colors are in for next year, he says, and ties are on the way out. The trend, he says, is toward longer shirt collars, to be worn open and overlapping tlie jacket collar. Packaging, Kay says, is among the most important phases in shirt marketing and techniques have changed radically through the years. Shirts used to be delivered to the retailer in bundles and it was up to him to make the merchandize appealing to the customer. Now, each shirt is carefully ironed and attractively packaged by the manufacturer. Many locally manufactured shirts are sold in Canal Zone retail stores today. In the early days of the Canal, commissary customers did not have a very wide selection of styles, though the prices were considerably lower, as indicated by this notice in the Fanama Canal Record of July 7, 1915: "Catalogue and samples of shirts from Yamatoya Shirt Co. in Yokohama, Japan, received. Shirts made to order are of pongee, silk and crepe, and can be ordered through the Depot Commissary, Cristobal, at catalogue prices plus a surcharge. The listed price: 27 yen ($13.80) per dozen and up." Shirt styles vary widely. Collars change in size and shape, sleeves may be short, long, puffed or snug. But Panama's two traditional shirts, now worn only on special festive occasions such as carnival, have remained constant through the years. The most elaborate and colorful embroidery is found on the montuno. The intricate cross stitching and distinctive designs require many months of painstaking work. Bands of embroidered figures, sometimes animals, sometimes flowers, adorn the front of the shirt on each side of the collar opening. These are called pintas. Below the collar opening is a large central design called "el coraz6n"-the heart. A straight, almost knee-length shirt with wide sleeves and snug, embroidered cuffs, the montuno is made of unbleached muslin. It ends in a fringe raveled from the cloth itself. The full montuno costume consists of the shirt, calf-length trousers of the same material, a hat woven from wild palm fronds and a straw bag with shoulder strap, called a chacara. Somewhat more formal if less colorful is Panama's camisilla, a long sleeved, pleated shirt of white linen with a mandarin style collar and gold buttons. This shirt worn with black trousers, is considered to be the correct costume for a man accompanying a woman dressed in Panama's elaborate pollera dress, a multi-tiered, elaborately embroidered gown enhanced by such accessories as heavy gold necklaces and shimmering head adornments called "tembleques." Pictured on these pages are just a few of the shirts from many lands collected and worn by residents of the Isthmus, where, along with the ships and the products of the world, there is a constant parade of fashions from afar. 12 Spmng 1975

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ANYONE WILL TELL YOU THE Isthmus is a fisherman's paradise, but of late local aquarists have given the old sport a new angle. Not content merely to keep the freshwater "tropical" aquarium fish that are available in any well-stocked hobby shop from New York to California, more and more Isthmian fish fanciers are going out to capture lenizens of the deep, both freshwater and marine, for their tanks. Dr. Horace G. Loftin (Assistant for Environment-Energy to the Chief of the Executive Planning Staff) noted in his Ph. D. dissertation, "The Geographical Distribution of Freshwater Fishes in Panama," that in the 18.50's a "Capt. |. M. Dow, captain of the old Panama Railway Co.'s steamer Guatemala, was apparently the earliest serious collector of Panamanian fishes." Many others, both scientists and amateurs, have followed his lead. Carl Chapman, a music teacher at Curundu Junior High, makes frequent TKe A^^ of AcjMatUi* By Pandora G. Aleman trips to the interior and sometimes takes students snorkeling up the as yet untamed Bayano River. Since arriving in Panama, Chapman has kept only native fish. "Here I was, in the tropics," he says, "so I thought I'd set up a real tropical aquarium." The enthusiasm is contagious. Gilberto Young, a systems analyst with the Systems Division, used to go regularly to rivers and streams near Chepo with a friend who liked to catch and breed his own fish, which he then sold in order to buy more equipment. Young cauu;ht the bug too, as a glance at his 50-gallon tank will show. Other zealous collectors can be found at monthly meetings of the Canal Zone Aquarium Society, headed this year hv Robert E. Daisev. The group, which boasts a membership of some 137 adults and about an equal number of children, last year sponsored expeditions to a rive" near Chepo and to Portobelo. The group has heard various speakers including Dr. Donald L. Kramer, a biologist with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute who is studying the feeding and air-'breathing behavior of freshwater tropical fish. He recommends walking up a river or stream as one of the best ways to see the jungle. There are no ants and no bushes to clear, and the sandy or granite stream bed makes for easy walking. His wife, Vanessa, who assists him in catching fish and in keeping records, wears long pants and a long-sleeved shirt as well as sneakers and socks, so mosquitos will have a hard time finding a target. Dr. Kramer suggests that the novice will be more comfortable starting out in clear streams where he can slip on facemask and snorkel and study the fish in their natural habitat. He adds that in swift-running streams, especially in uninhabited areas, there's little danger of disease. There mav be more danger of snakebite in the dry season, when the bushmaster and fer-de-lance come down to streams to feed on frogs, he says, but adds that his expeditions here have netted him nothing worse than muddy feet and some mosquito bites. Chapman, who perhaps goes a bit farther afield than most, has in the past 9 years seen one fer-de-lance and two bushmasters— all verified, as he broiight back the heads for identification. Once, out around Huile, he was passing his net At left: This redlip blenny, perched in his favorite clump of lettuce coral, is the clown of Dr. Melvin M. Boreham's saltwater aquarium. Above: This scene, difficult to capture, features Dr. Boreham's large queen angel, at left, and a smaller one, at center. At the base of the featherdusters, right, is a four-eyed butterfly fish. A dark stripe camouflages its eyes and the dark spot toward its tail misleads any would-be predators. The angelfish like to peck at the coral and at the "Caulerpa" plants, left foreground. The Panama Canal Review 13

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under the overhanging roots of a tree when a hissing sound alerted him that he was the unwelcome intruder in a crocodile's home. But none of this seems to disturb the dedicated ichthyophile greatly. David Carlson, a student at Curundu Junior High, isn't much bothered bv the prospect of running into snakes. After all, he once had a pet boa. Luckily, not all the exotic fish are found in exotic places. About the only place that isn't good for collecting freshwater fish is Gatun Lake, which since 1967 has been taken over by the peacock bass. This beautifuUv marked, delicious fish— not a bass at all, but a species of cichlid— was brought in from Colombia to stock a small man-made lake. During the rainy season, the lake overflowed and the fish found their way to Gatun Lake, where they fed voraciously on the small native fishes, now all but extinct in those vast waters. You don't need much in the way of equipment to enjov the sport. Besides a facemask and snorkel— Chapman says the "ping-pong ball" tvpe is best in swiftrunning streams— and a net of some kind, it's a good idea to take along a cooler or a bucket or two, with a batteryoperated aerator if you are far from home. To transport his catch. Chapman puts water and fish in large plastic bags and adds a quarter of an aspirin to each bag. This, he savs, tranquilizes the fish, which then require much less oxygen than thev normally would. Dr. Kramer has a variety of nets at his lab in an old bunker near Naos Island. It takes two people to work the seine, a net stretched between two poles— basically like the common minnow seine, but with heavier weights along the bottom. He also has a large square-bottomed dip net on a long handle and an A-frame net. a sort of scoop-like aff'air that works like a one-person seine. He sometimes uses the metal minnow traps commonly used to catch live bait. Chapman uses an apron of mosquito netting to go after his fish. The apron ties around the neck and has elastic at the wrists and lead weights along the bottom— another one-man seine. Using mask and snorkel, he crawls upstream. If he picks up a rock, anything hiding imder it or clinging to it finds it<;elf in the net. When he stands and brincrs his arms up. he usually has a variety of fish from which to choose. Most fish captured locally are not as colorful as their South American relatives or those which have been specially bred by aquarists, but with their varied personalities they are no less fascinating to watch. Through careful breeding and crossbreeding, more colorful strains can be developed— a challenge that a few local aquarists have taken up. The collector will find it easy to pick up the wild molly, several of its near relatives, and other live-bearers in his seine. This family of fish has long fascinated aquarists because of its unique manner of breeding. The male fertilizes fully formed eggs in the female's egg duct; the eggs hatch and the young grow in the protection of the mother's body. Thev are delivered one at a time, folded head to tail, and soon straighten and swim for refuge. A plus for the aquarist is that these promiscuous fish multiply rapidly without his having to play Cupid. Chapman says a cross between Aspirin may help to calm the catch the native molly and the more colorful "store-bought" hybrid molly produces offspring with the hardiness of the Panama molly and the fanciness of the hybrid. In the wild, several of these little fish perform the very useful function of eating the larvae of mosquitoes that carry malaria and yellow fever. In "Exotic Aquarium Fishes," William T. Innes notes that "success in building and maintaining the Panama Canal depended partly on the solution of the fever problem" and credits one member of the Gambusia genus with helping to make Panama habitable to foreigners. The "mosquito fish" found here takes its name not from its dietary habits but from its size. According to Innes, it is the smallest of the aquarium live-bearers, with an overall length of about half an inch. The aquarist usually learns the hard way not to tangle with one member of the characin, or "tetra," family found here in abundance. Members of the Roeboides genus are nice to look at, with their silvery body, reddish fins, and black spot at the base of the tail. Their sloping forehead gives rise to the nickname "humpbacked tetra." The fish seems to ha\-e a lot to offer the aquarist— but it's murder. Roeboides has a nasty habit of ramming other fish with spikes on his snout, knocking loose a scale or two which he then dines on at his leisure. Another family of fish commonly found in Panamanian streams is the, cichlids. Innes says that "high-strung" cichlids change colors rapidly, and this is borne out by Chapman's observation of color change after feeding— or even when excited by a finger being wiggled in water at the top of the aquarium. They have the most personality of all local freshwater fish, he says, being temperamental and moody to the extent of eating well one day and, the next, letting even live baby guppies go unmolested. Chapman says he found his fish liked to dine on slivers of corbina roe. But Sid, a blue cichlid (also known as blue acara or chogorro) belonging to friends of the Kramers, has a predilection for cockroaches. There's no accounting for tastes. Dave Carlson has some zebra cichlids, which he also calls "striped convicts," that have dark spots by day and stripes by night. The female of the species has most of the color, an oddity among aquarium fishes. Dave is rather proud of having caught two of the elusive knife fish. TTiese graceful fish, relatives of the so-called electric eel, propel themselves backward or forward with equal ease, by the ripple of a fin. Chapman reports finding three members of the broad-sole family, those peculiar fish that lie on one side and in maturity have both eyes on the upper side, in the Ipate River. When these relatives of the flounder imdulate the fins at the edges of their bodies they glide horizontally like, as Innes savs, "a pancake being propelled through the water." The long, slender, delicate pipefish is a marine specimen that here in the tropics has moved into freshwater. Dave Carlson found a small one, along with what seems to be a freshwater eel of respectable size, in a Corozal drainage ditch. Looking at the slim pipefish, one would never guess that it's related to that marine charmer, the seahorse. In both, the male carries the eggs in a pouch until they hatch, and both have difficult-to-please palates, preferring live food of just the right size. Even the hobbyist who doesn't fill his aquarium with fish he has caught himself makes room for the local catfish. 14 Spmng 1975

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Coral and plants provide hiding places Di-. Boreham readies his camera and movie light and waits for a fish to swim into range. His 83-gallon marine aquarium, which he buih himself, is set up to resemble a coral reef in miniature. valued as peaceful scavengers that help to keep the tank clean. The graceful Pimelodella, commonly known as the striped catfish, and its larger relative Rhamdia abound in Panamanian streams. Hidden in the dorsal (or back) and pectoral (or breast) fins of the innocuous-looking Pimelodella are three venomous spines that can leave the unwary collector's finger smarting for an hour or more. The Plecostomus and the whiptails are well-known local suckermouth armored catfish. (No catfish has scales; the armored catfish are covered with bonv plates. ) These fish use their suckerlike mouths, located on the underside of the head, to scrape algae and other material from the aquarium bottom and sides, plants and ornaments. Plecostomus, light brown with dark spots, tends like most catfish to hide or lie quietly during the day. Dr. Kramer says it is much easier to catch at night. an assertion that most collectors are reluctant to verify. Two types of whiptail catfish are found in Panama. In the smaller Loricaria, common in the Canal Zone area, the "whip" appears only at the top of the tail fin. Appropriately enough, the male has a "beard" of short bristles. David Carlson has one of the much larger but still peaceful Sturisoma genus, which has "whips" at the top and bottom of its fin. It is found farther away, in the Mamoni River of the Bayano basin and the Anton River, Code Province. Anyone who wants to can populate his tanks with freshwater shrimp. Those with small foreclaws are less likelv to annoy or damage the fish, though all are fascinating to study as they scavenge, picking up miniscule particles and transferring them from claw to claw until they end up in the shrimp's tireless mandibles. Even the aquatic "weeds" proliferating in the waters of Gatun Lake are a boon to the aquarist. Hydrilla and hornwort provide good hiding places for small fish, and duckweed, a small floating leaf, gives needed shade where an aquarium gets too much overhead light. Water lettuce, another floating plant, has fluted, velvetv, light green leaves which add to the tank's beauty. And the floating water hyacinth, which because of its rapid propagation is probably a greater threat to navigation than any other plant, not only produces a beautyful white, blue, or violet flower but has blue-black bushy roots that according to Innes are ideal for breeding fishes that drop adhesive eggs near the surface— a group that includes goldfish. Fascinating as it can be, an aquarium filled with local freshwater fish is to the aquarium filled with marine, or saltwater, fish what black-and-white is to technicolor. Many are those who head out to enThe Panama Canal Review 15

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Fish fanciers find field trips are half the fun Above: David Carlson goes after a native cichlid in one of several tanks he has in his hobby room. At right: Face down with mask and hand net in a well-shaded stream near Gamboa, he demonstrates one of many techniques used by hopeful collectors. Fish captured go into the cooler at water's edge. joy for a brief while the wonders of the Panamanian seas— particularly the Caribbean coral reefs-but few attempt to bring the beauties of those waters into their living rooms, and rarer still are the individuals who succeed. Dr. Melvin M. Boreham of Coco Solo, the medical entomologist with the Sanitation Division who works on mosquito control research, might be called the dean of local marine aquarists. His aquarium is an outstanding e.\ample of what can be done in creating a miniature coral reef in the living room. After coming here in 1966 he visited the coral reefs and was fascinated by the fish. He had previously had a 15-gallon freshwater aquarium, and decided to trv his hand at the marine variety. He began with a 20-gallon tank and soon realized that keeping salUvater fish was quite different from maintaining a freshwater aquarium. For one thing, freshwater fish are much more adaptable than marine fish, since they must adjust to variations in water quality caused by the annual rainy season-dry season cycle. On the other hand, the environment provided by Panamanian seas has remained relatively constant since the Isthmian land bridge between North and South America emerged from the ocean three or four million years ago. According to some e.xperts, the coral reef is probably the most stable environment on earth, while the qualitv of seawater in an aquarium is subject to rapid and drastic changes. To combat this, the aquarist should begin with the largest tank he can manage. Secondly, he should thoroughly understand the importance of using the right type and quantity of gravel and a subgravel filter. A book by Stephen Spotte, "Marine Aquarium Keeping," is highly recommended by Dr. Boreham as it covers setup of the tank in detail. After having trouble with his 20-gallon aquarium. Dr. Boreham built an 83gallon all-glass tank. (The metal commonly used to strengthen freshwater tanks corrodes readily in the presence of salt water.) On top of the subgravel filter is 4 inches of 3/16-inch to Ji-inch gravel coral. The importance of such a setup lies in the fact that if the aquarium is properly seasoned before a large number of fish are added, beneficial bacteria collect on every surface of every piece of gravel. As the aquarium water is drawn through the gravel, the bacteria act on the highly to.xic ammonia which constitutes the major waste product of the fishes, transforming it first into nitrite and finally into relatively nontoxic nitrate. Even with all this. Dr. Boreham advises the marine aquarist to change 10 to 25 percent of the water in the tank monthly, either bringing new water from the ocean in plastic 5-gallon "jerry cans" or making up a new solution from synthetic sea salts. This is to replace trace elements and to reduce the nitrate level, both of which benefit the fish. An aid to the aquarist, freshwater or marine, who wants to keep his pets free of disease is an ultraviolet sterilizing unit. Water is pumped through Dr. Boreham's unit at the rate of 200 gallons per hour, and harmful bacteria and free-swimming stages of protozoan parasites are killed. In addition. Dr. Boreham tries to provide his fish the hiding places and "territorial space" they need. Overcrowding puts the fish under psychological stress, making them more prone to disease. Because marine fish have a strong sense of territorial rights. Dr. Boreham makes a practice of either rearranging the coral when adding new fish or adding the new fish at night, when the others have eaten and are ready to retire to their chosen niches. He uses a timer on his aquarium lights to control the day-night cycle, giving the fish 12 hours of each. He says the period of uninterrupted darkness is crucial to the well-being of reef fish. They get fidgety and squabble just before the lights go out, as thev get ready to set up for the night. The smaller, more defenseless fish, ever alert, ever wary, move from their daytime hiding places to different ones to elude potential enemies. Proper food is important too. Dr. Boreham, like many others, makes his own, using gelatine, raw shrimp, water, a good commercial flake food, and spinach. By speaking to the Aquarium Society and other local groups about marine aquariums, using slides and movies taken of fish in his aquarium to illustrate his points (he titled one talk "Underwater Photographv Without an Underwater Camera Housing"), Dr. Boreham has interested others in the hobby. His neighbors, George and "Bobbie" Egolf, were given encouragement on 16 Spring 197.5

PAGE 23

the idea by Dr. Boreham who lent a helping hand. Now they have built and are operating a 112-gallon aquarium and their son, Bruce, is becoming an accomplished collector and photographer of coral reef fish. The Daisey family of Corozal is another example. Robert E. Daisey, a marine engineer with the Ports Division, his wife Lori, and daughters Cheri, Cindy, and Rena like doing things together and are alwa\'s ready to take up a challenge. The Daiseys' collection of saltwater fishes started with Amigo, a damselfish captured near San Carlos, on the Pacific side. (Incidentally, they keep Pacific and Atlantic specimens together in water they get from the Pacific Ocean at Fort Amador. ) Now. not onlv do thev haxe two successful 30-gallon saltwater tanks, but Cheri plans to get an A.S. degree in marine biology at Canal Zone College and may go on for further degrees after that. She would like to be a crewmember of a seagoing laboratory like Jacques Cousteau's. The Daisevs have not hesitated to innovate. Instead of gravel they use crushed shell from Farfan Beach, which they say helps maintain the water's alkalinity. They siphon off and replace about 10 percent of the water each week. Using sea water in a special container, they raise brine shrimp to adulthood to supplement their fishes' diet. Bob Daisey installed an air compressor with storage tanks that hold enough air to keep the filtering-aerating units going for 6 to 8 hours in the event of electrical failure. Because the compressor goes on and off automatically and runs only about 10 minutes out of every hour, he figures the unit both sa\'es them money and conserves energy. The marine aquarist is rewarded with more beautiful hunting grounds and more spectacular quarry than his freshwater counterpart. No local dealer stocks marine fish, so he must don mask, snorkel, and flippers or tennis shoes and either embark for or wade into his chosen area. He can take along a copy of the "Fishwatcher's Guide to West Atlantic Coral Reefs," which is p^inte^ on plastic pages so he can study the fish he sees while submerged. Tennis shoes are important to the waders because they offer some protection from the long, sharp, venomous spines of the black sea urchin. The collector soon learns also to shun the innocuous-looking fire coral and brightorange fire sponge, both capable of inflicting nasty 'TDums." As for barracuda. Dr. Boreham says A local suckermouth armored catfish of the popular "Plecostomus" genus, shown clinging to a plant leaf, shares one of the Daisey family's tanks with some aristocratic black angelfish. he knows of no unprovoked attack on man in clear water, though in murky water they may possibly mistake the flash from a ring or a bracelet (so keep jewelry covered with gloves) for fish. His wife, Kathy, developed an aversion to eels after an encounter with a 3-foot specimen with a nasty temper. Dr. Boreham reassuringly notes that local eels are neither poisonous nor electric, though thev can bite. The closest call the Daisevs have had was when a shark moved in between Lori and daughter Cheri. A friend yelled, "Shark! Freeze!" Dr. Boreham demonstrates inner workings of an ultra\iolet sterilizer which assists in disease control within a saltwater or freshwater aquarium. The Panama Canal Review 17

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Uninvited guests often add interest to the aquarium hut to her mother's dismay, Cheri kept moving in for a closer look. ^V'ith all of this, there isn't a marine fish fancier around who won't tell you it's all worth it when he gets his prizes home. Dr. Boreham's two brilliant blue and gold queen angelfish are the pride of his tank. His two redlip blennies are clowns, playing games with the other creatures and posing for him in a clump of lettuce coral. The rock beauty, bright gold with a large dark spot, and the spectacular black-and-white spotted drum, with its graceful, high-flying dorsal fin, are among his favorites. Adding to the beautv of his miniature reef are the featherdusters, a type of tubevvorm attached to the no-longerliving coral he uses in the tank. Its delicate, feathery tentacles rise from the tube in a spray of splendor, searching for tiny food particles and delighting the eye of the obser\'er. Unin\'ited guests sometimes come in with his coral: sea urchins, crabs, brightcolored sponges, sea stars, and once a charming little fish known as a secretary goby. Tlie goby lived in a tinv cave in a hunk of coral, and except at feeding time only his alert little head could be seen. Unfortunately, the little fellow mysteriously disappeared when a babv octopus made his entrance, unobserved, in a later batch of coral. The Daiseys are particularly proud of their pair of red-and-white candvstriped banded coral shrimp, their orange starfish, and their adult seahorse, Duke. (Mrs. Daisev's account of their adventures with Duke follows on p. 19. ) The male shrimp sometimes posts himself in a protective position above his mate, and at feeding time, he carries food to her. He also performs a valuable service for the fish in the tank, including the seahorse, by periodically removing any microscopic parasites they have picked up. The rivers of Panama are many and the oceans are wide. If you think you'd like to join the fun, you'll find lots of room and plenty of helping hands along the way. IN THE SPECIAL COLOR SECTION The Saltwater Aquarium A royal gramma, left, and a queen angel are two of the 15 brilliantly colored, darting fish supported bv Dr. Boreham's miniature coral reef. Another, a four-eyed butterfly fish, can be seen behind one of the finger corals. To create a natural as well as beautiful environment. Dr. Boreham uses several types of aged coral and living plants such as the bush-like Penicilhis seen in the foreground. This photo and that of the seahorse on the fourth page of the center section are by Arthur L. Pollack. On The Coral Reefs The undei-water photographs in the centerfold, all taken on the local coral reefs, show the diversity of spectacular fish, corals and marine creatures available to the saltwater aquarist. The barracuda (5) was photographed by Dr. Greg Quick and the other subjects by Dr. Phillip Akers. Both practice at Gorgas Hospital. The diagram, below, will help to identify the various specimens: 1. Yellowtail Damselfish 2. Rock Beauties 3. Juvenile Grey Angelfish 4. School of Pacific Wrasse 5. Atlantic Barracuda 6. Secretaiy Goby in a coral head 7. Neon Gobies near their burrow in a polyp-covered rock 8. Flamingo Tongue Snail on a Gorgonian (soft coral) 9. Anemone colony. 10. Flower coral 11. A Crinoid 12. Serpulid Wonns on brain coral L3. Queen Angelfish being cleaned of parasites by a smaller fish, a common health practice among marine fishes which also occurs in saltwater aquariums. @ 18 Spring 1975

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WE HAVE A HORSE IN THE house!" Busy at work in the kitchen and hearing that call from the li\ing room, some mothers might have been stunned, but not me. My husband. Bob, and daughters, Cheri, 17, Cindy, 15, and Rena, 6, are aU extremely active and full of pranks. Nothing amazes me anymore. Entering the living room and not coming eve-to-ev'e with a hay-and-oats eater, and hearing the laughter of my husband and Cheri, I laughed also— from pure, honest relief! Then 1 saw the ice chest at their feet with the batter\'-operated aerator going and caught on to what they meant by "horse." A vear ago at Christmas I had given my husband one aquarium. During the past year the number had grown to 21. At first we had been strictly freshwater specimen. A friend had given him to Cheri. When the temperature of the water in the ice chest matched that of the aquarium, we gently released him into the aquarium. We kept a close watch on him for the ne.xt 12 hours to be certain that no other specimens in the tank molested him. We did not know that as beginner marine aquarists we had taken on perhaps more than we were ready for. Dwarf seahorses are relatively eas^' to raise, as they feed eagerlv on brine shrimp. Adult seahorses are another matter. Although Dviiasta (as we called our seahorse) appeared happy in his surroundings, he refused any and all forms of food we offered him. After the third trv. we knew we were in trouble. We searched our libran.' and discovered that adult seahorses cannot see AH the tiny brine shrimp but will eat baby guppies or small shrimp. We released se\"eral baby guppies into the tank, hoping Dynasta would take them. He ne\"er had a chance; the other fish got them before he even knew they were there. During this time, we had made it a point to place our hands in the tank, handle D>'nasta, let him curl his tail around a little finger, and teach him that the hand was not to be feared. This helped us solve the first stage of our feeding problem. Cheri took a live gupp)' and, holding it by its tail, slowly lowered it to Dvnasta. He looked it over very carefully, and then— Snap!— he ate it. She offered another, and again he ate it. The next feeding time I offered the guppv, and he took it. He had accepted us, and he was now accepting food— live— so long as we hand-fed him. But ciH m inc ti cuyc By Lori Daisey fish raisers and breeders. When Cheri began snorkling and developed an interest in scuba diving and marine life, we began going as a family on field trips to the beaches and reefs. We discovered a whole new world. After joining the Canal Zone Aquarium Society and hearing talks and seeing films presented by Dr. Phillip Akers, and Dr. Mel Boreham, a medical entomologist, and being the kind of family we are, we were well into the challenges of marine aquarium keeping. Looking into the ice chest, I saw my verv first live adult seahorse. He was a beauty, 6)2 inches long and a perfect At left: Duke, the Daisey family's adult seahorse, enters the net to feed on tiny shrimp as the other inhabitants of the tank investigate the proceedings. At left in the aquarium is a French angel, to the rear, a rather shy flame cardinal, and in the right foreground, a pair of banded coral shrimp. At right: Neither Duke nor Frenchie shies away as Cheri's hand invades their domain. The P.\nama Canal Review 19

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'More, please. I didn't like the idea of having to do this 3 to 4 times a day. Who wants to feel like a murderer that often? I felt we should find another source of food for Dynasta. I telephoned Dr. Boreham, who suggested I try seed shrimp. I had none and they are available only near the Tarpon Club at the Gatun spillway. Dr. Boreham, a real friend in need, came all the way across the Isthmus to bring me a supply from his freezer. I thawed out a very small portion of the seed shrimp. Taking one,1 offered it to Dynasta. He looked at it, flipped his tail and swam off. Well, I said, that's that. However, as I took the seed shrimp out of the water I noticed one of the eyes was missing. Also, I realized that the dead seed shrimp had naturally made no movement. The guppy, of course, always wiggled. I took another, making sure it had both eves and no disfigurement, and this time I moved my fingers in a circle, making the shrimp appear to be rolling and thrashing. Snap! Dvnasta ate it. I repeated the process. Snap! Again he took it. I was delighted. At this stage you would assume we would have been satisfied. But Dynasta, one animal, was requiring at least an hour a day to feed (seahorses eat slowly), and after every feeding mv hands and arms were soaking wet. I decided to tr\' something else. At the next feeding, I placed Dvnasta's food in a long-handled net. I waited until he was close to the front glass and slowly lowered the net on the other side of him, so no fish could grab his food. He gave it a good look, but he made no move towards the food. I then gave the net a slight back-and-forth movement, causing the seed shrimp to appear to be boiling around. Before I knew it. Dvnasta was in the net and eating greedily, and I was not soaking wet! About this time we received a phone call from another friend. He had a couple of adult seahorses, both refusing to eat. Would we help? Bob and Cheri grabbed the ice chest, the batteryoperated aerator, a 5-gallon jug of salt water (we keep 40 gallons on hand for emergencies) and rushed out. About an Duke looks the tiny shrimp over well before deciding to dine while the banded coral shrimp below move in to see what's going on. hour later, they returned with two very thin seahorses. My heart sank when I saw them. They had both turned black— a sure death sign. Going by our previous experience with Dynasta, we placed our hands in the ice chest and gently massaged their leathery backs, racing against time, hoping thev would quickly realize that the hand was a friend. Sadly, we lost one, a female, within an hour. The other, however, let us pet his back and showed no signs of panic. We then offered, by hand, a live guppy. Weakly, he looked it over, while we held our breath. Snap! He took it, swallowed it, and raised his little crown up towards us as if to say "Thank you. More, please." We offered him another, he took it, and we began to have hopes of saving him. For the next 24 hours we hand-fed him in relays. As soon as he began to move around on his own and show strength enough to protect himself, we gently put him in the aquarium with Dynasta. They were like two long-lost friends. I have never seen such a beautiful water ballet as they put on together that day. At the next feeding, I was concerned over the new seahorse (which we now called Duke). It would be his first "net feeding" experience. Would our trick work on him as it had on Dynasta? The net was lowered, complete with seed shrimp. Dynasta was into it like a shot. Duke followed along and for a few minutes just sat there, his tail hooked on the rim of the net, his body only barely inside. Dynasta was happily eating away. Duke just looked things over. I could see once again several months of feeding problems ahead. Just when I was about to give up, he stretched further into the net, looked the shrimp over— I gave the net a tiny wiggle— and he struck! Down one went. He struck again, down went another. Evidently Duke had decided, if it's good enough for my buddy, Dynasta, then I'll give it a try. About a week later, I made a deadly mistake. We had gone snorkling at Galeta Island and brought back some finger coral, I put it in with Dvnasta an'l Duke to enhance the beautv of the tank. That evening I found Dynasta with his head caught in the jagged openings of the coral, thrashing and trying to free himself. While I held Dvnasta, Bob gradually applied pressure to the coral 20 Spring 1975

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Duke snaps up a seed shrimp as Frenchie tries to figure out how he can get his share. The proximity of food brought even the normally nocturnal flame cardinal, left foreground, out of hiding. until it broke. I immediately released Dynasta, who swam to his usual tree plant. We looked him over closely, and could see no external injury at all. But, sadly, Dynasta refused his next feeding. He never ate again, and he died. Any of you who may consider keeping seahorses, please learn from our own heartbreaking experience. Never place anv decorati\e item that has holes in it in the aquarium housing your seahorses regardless of how pretty you might think it will make the aquarium look. It's not worth the price you'll pay. I am happy to say that Duke and our other species are still thriving. We hope in the near future to locate a mate for Duke. Who knows? We mav just end up with an entire familv of "horses in the house!" Guest writer Lori Daisey is married to Robert E. Daisey, a marine engineer with the Ports Division. Her article "Can I Have a Horse, Daddy?" ahmit the family's paso fino horses appeared in Horse Lover's Magazine. Now accustomed to net feeding, Duke shies away from the handheld baby guppy offered by Cheri. The French angel, at right, shows no interest in the proceedings. Lori Daisey watches as daughter Cheri moves Duke from one part of the tank to another. The Daiseys say almost all of their fish will allow themselves to be handled. The Panama Canal Review 21

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Hore Than By Dolores E. Suisman THE PANAMA CANAL telephone directory is a gold mine of information. It's an almanac, a history, and, if one wishes to be prosaic, it can even be used to look up a telephone number. For 60 \ears, its size and content have reflected the growth and organization of the Company. The buildup of services as thev became necessarv and the decline of services as they became available in the Republic of Panama and through mail and freight service from the United States are quickly visible. The increase in personnel during wartime and the decrease with the return of peace are shown in its pages. In a very real way, it tells the story of the Panama Canal. The first edition, published December 1, 1915, by the Panama Canal Press at Mount Hope, was a modest 59-page pamphlet-type publication bound in Government-green paper. It was divided into two sections: a list of departments and divisions of the Canal organization and branches of tlic Army, and an alphabetical list of individuals. Out of a workforce of 26,897 emplo\ ees, the 2,000 who had occasion to use a telephone in the performance of their duties were listed. Of these, onlv 343 rated a residence phone. The first name in the alphabetical listing was Abston, J. M. and the last was Zunder, F. F. Neither a familiar But many of the names in the 60)ear-old book are well known today. Gen. George W. Goethals, office phone Balboa 230, residence phone Balboa 300, is one. Other names in the 1915 book have been in every edition from that day to this. One is Benny, W. E., Foreman, Paraiso Shops, Mechanical Division, whose son, Benny, W. L., and grandson, Benny, W. L., Jr., are in the 1974 book. There was a Hummer, C. D., Wreckmaster (Hercules and Ajax), Mechanical Division; the father of Hummer, C. W., whose name appeared in the 1925 directory, and the grandfather of Hummer, C. W., Jr., Assistant Chief of the Dredging Division. In 1915, De La Mater, W. W., Auditor's Office, Fortifications Division, was listed. After he died, the '32 book added De La Mater, Mrs. Ann, secretary to the Superintendent of Schools. Today, their son, William L. De La Mater, is listed as Aide to the Governor. Although telephones had been in use in the Canal Zone since 1910, an official directory provided a golden opportunity to tell residents how to use a telephone; which it did in great detail. "To Make a Local Call," it read, "Place the receiver to your ear and when Central answers with the expression 'number' give the number. The operator will repeat the number. If the party fails to answer, the operator will say, 'They don't answer'." The section entitled "To Make a Call to a Distant Exchange," included directions for calling such "distant" exchanges as Pedro Miguel. Cross-referencing became more complicated as the Panama Canal telephone directory grew in size and scope. LogicalKenough, in 1915 you turned to T to find "Telephone Branch, Electrical Division." But bv 1916, in the big, new 80-page directory, when you turned to T \ou found "Telephone, see page 28," and on page 28, under E, you found "Electrical Division, Telephones." Looking under C for the number of the Corral, \ou were referred to B for Balboa Corral, G for Governor's Coachman, N for New Corral, or O for Old Corral. Suggestions played a minor part in actually changing the directory. But that didn't stop suggestions from flooding in, often the same suggestion year after \'ear. There were suggestions that maps be included, and that thev be deleted; that tide tables be included, and that thev be deleted; that vertical index tabs be used and that horizontal index tabs be used. There were suggestions for looseleaf notebook directories and for directories with wood covers (from a man who made a wood cover for his phone book every year). And for 22 Spmng 1975

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60 \ears, including 1974, there were suggestions that every hsting include a post office box number. But it was the cross-referencing that elicited more suggestions and complaints than any other subject. One: "To find the number of the Central Labor Office, it is necessary to know that it comes under the Personnel Bureau, and to know that it is not listed at all under Central Labor Office, the name bv which it is ordinarily known, but under Chief, Local Rate Employment Branch." Another: "To locate the telephone number of the Administration Building Janitor, vou have to look under Housing Di\ision, Balboa Heights; Housing Office, Janitor Foreman; Basement, Administration Building." And from the most persistent suggester: "It is suggested that in the future editions of the phone directory that credit unions be listed together in a bunch. There are quite a bunch of them bv now and it would simplify matters somewhat for subscribers. They don't always know the exact name but they do know the species of animal." If suggestions did not change the directory, they convinced the Executive Secretary there was a problem. In 1917, he wrote to the Panama Canal office in Washington, for a copy of the Washington, D.C., telephone directory "and in60 Years With the onlv complete collection of Panama Canal directories stacked high on his desk, James W. Riley, Communications Manager, Central Office, thumbs through the latest edition. These odd-looking telephones in use when early Panama Canal directories were published would be collector's items today if any could be found. The 1919 directory in this busy office meets original specifications which included the requirement that a hole be punched in the comer and a wire loop provided for hanging it on a hook. The Panama Canal Review 23

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Adrien M. Bouche, retired Canal employee, finds his name in the 1975 telephone book just as he did 60 years ago when the first edition came out. formation which may be obtained without expense relative to the procedure followed in collecting and compiling telephone directory data." The result was a 110-page "big-city" type telephone directory with Panama Canal activities, military activities, and individuals in one alphabetical listing. But if the problem of organization was solved, cross-referencing was still in its infancy. The tollowmg year, an announcement in The Panama Canal Record reported a new directory in print and tnat "cross references are used extensively to assist in finding a number with a minimum of research." "Used extensively" was an understatement. Now to find a militaiy number, you had to know you were to look under M for "Military" where you were advised to see A for Army, B for Bands, Army, C for Camps, F for Forts, G for Guards, N for Navy, T for Troops, or U for U.S. Army. The situation didn't improve with age. Thirty years later, you could find four and five consecutive listings, all followed by a reference to another listing where you might or might not find a telephone number: Terminals Building (see Port Captain); the Texas Company (See Texas Petroleum); Ticket Offices (see Railroad Division); Time Inspection (see Accounting Division); Time Keepers (see Division concerned); ad infinitum. Every year the original little pamphlet grew as personnel increased and pages of information were added. The 10th anniversary edition, published in January 192.5, introduced the new and sensational automatic telephones. Now instead of jiggling the hook for the operator, you were told to dial 112 for a fire, 113 for police, 114 tor information or for an ambulance or the emergency operator. Instmctions for using the automatic phones began with ttie exclamation CAUTIONII! CAUTlONIl! centered at the top of the page. Under this warning were listed all ot the things you coula do wrong. The list ended with the disquieting thought that "You will probably discoimect your telephone it you hang up the receiver before you finish talking." Once an item was in the directory, it took a declaration of war, subterfuge, or a drastic budget cut to get it deleted. The warning that you could disconnect your phone by hanging up the receiver was reprinted in every issue for 27 years. It wasn't long before the information pages included rates for long distance telephone calls ( all calls beyond Darien cost 25 cents); hospital visiting hours, business hours in the Administration Building (8 to 12 and 1 to 4, except Sundays and holidays ) ; business hours for 16 post offices, a complete restaurant schedule and departure and arrival times of a launch service to Taboga Island. Then the tide tables that were to become so controversial appeared, the Panama Railroad timetable, hours of business for commissaries and clubhouses; and later, hours of operation for gasoline stations, banks, storehouses, libraries and schools. There was no end to the vital informative material that was added year after year. Soon there were moonrise and moonset tables, sunrise and sunset tables, passenger connections from the Canal Zone by ocean or air, an airmail schedule (to Miami and Brownsville four times weekly), sailings of the Panama Railroad ships. And warnings. Subscribers were urged to keep social calls on residence phones to a minimum during business hours and were told they must not use a Panama Canal telephone in any manner whatsoever to request or transmit information concerning lottery numbers or tickets, or any other business pertaining to lotteries. There were directories within the directory—a Directory of the Panama Canal, a Directory of Officials of the Panama Government, and a Directory of the Diplomatic and Consular Corps Accredited to the Republic of Panama. There was even an 11 -page alphabetical list of every steamship line that had a representative on the Isthmus with capsuled information about the services it offered for subscribers who had to know that "The Societe Francaise d'Armement has a freight service with steamship Alsace between Le Havre and Chilean Ports." The additional pages of information and the needs ot the employees increased the size of the telephone directory. There were soon 17 retail commissaries listed, 9 clubhouses, 6 churches, and 4 private clubs. There was an abattoir, a bakery, a coffee roasting plant, two ice cream plants, and farms— the Corozal Hospital Farm, Mindi Chicken Farm, Mount Hope Hog Farm, New Chilibre Chicken Farm, New Chilibre Truck Farm. And a cattle industry with eight Ustings— Caimito Pasture, Mandingo Pasture, Frijoles Plantation, Juan Mina Plantation, Miraflores Pasture, Mount Hope Pasture, Paraiso Pastures and Summit Plantations and Pastures. The book continued to grow bigger, the listings more numerous, the crossreferencing more complex. But nothing increased so much as the cost. The price of printing 2,000 copies of the first directory in 1915 was $145. By 1918, that figure had doubled. The Army picked this unfortunate time to reply to the annual request for updated telephone listings with a request for three Army lists— one alphabetical, another classified, and a third to be inserted in the regular Panama Canal listing. And, they asked, please print each list on a different and distinctive colored paper. When apprised that this special treatment would cost $600, they decided to let well enough alone. By the time the book was 5 years old, the cost of printing had increased to $1,435 for 4,000 copies, and a committee was formed to study the matter. For 2 years there had been an edition in January and July. This luxury was the first to go. But when the committee found that telephone expenses were in excess of revenue, they decided that 154 pages for a directory of a telephone system with only 2,518 subscribers "seems larger than necessary." Although anxious to economize, committee members were unanimous in their decision that employees could not take their old phone books with them when they moved because "it is not considered sanitary to carry the old books along with the phone to new quarters." After many meetings, the committee wrote a report that ended: "The question is largely whether the Canal wishes to issue a first-class book, such as the present one, or to issue a less attractivelooking book." They compromised by keeping the first-class book and adding 24 Spmng 1975

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to revenues by selling the book to subscribers for 40 cents and allowing subscribers to the Panama and Colon telephone service to have their names inserted in the Canal directory upon payment of $1. Since just about e\'er\'one wanted his name inserted, this brought about the problem of what type of subscriber could be listed without offending the user of the directory. Liquor companies were among others not considered proper for inclusion in the Canal directory. It was 30 vears before a realistic Governor penciled the note "no objection to any legitimate business" on a memo and that ban was lifted. One of the few events that could and did reduce the information pages of the Canal directory was the ad\-ent of \\'orld War II. "Perhaps enemy countries should not be listed as having diplomatic and consular officials in Panama," someone suggested. Someone else wTote, "In view of the existing international situation it is e.xtremely difficult to determine just who should be included in our telephone directory." And the diplomatic and consular lists were never seen again. The Army worried that "non-secret telephone directories in general use constitute a perfect means for enemy agents to acquire complete information concerning military units," and the military disappeared from the directory. Now changes often meant less rather than more. The farms, the pastures, the markets were long gone and, in 1952, the directions for using automatic telephones were at long last removed. But the tide tables, which had stirred more controversy than anv other subject—pro and con— seemingly were to go on forever. Then, in 1965, a daring decision was made, and a memo worthy of war plans written: "Cleared with Governor. He was informed of possible repercussions. Following is decision. Remove from telephone book. Put notice in new directory. No Spillway or any other notice." Some changes were more dramatic than others. After the military was listed in the directory for a few post-war vears, they were notified that the Canal could no longer afford to carry their listings, and a joint military-Panama Canal feasibility study of a uniform format for military and Panama Canal directories resulted in the large book that first appeared in 1958. Staples became a big issue in 1959 when townsite maps appeared. If letters from subscribers are to be believed, no one ever looked for directions or a house of the Telephone Book 197S Albert Farrell tj-pes card strips for new entries and removes the old ones to produce up-to-date pages for reproduction at the printing plant. number except to find that what they were looking for was directly under the staple. The trusty old staples were thought of almost fondly in 1974 when faulty glue caused the directory to come apart page by page after it was used a few times. For the most part o\er the past 20 years, the telephone book went unmolested. Few people thought about changing it. In 1963, emergency numbers were nio\'ed to an inside page and there was an illustrated cover. A few years later photographs appeared on the cover, and a contest in 1970 resulted in a t\yo-color co\er. In 1972, the last big change: eveiy page of information was printed in both English and Spanish. A collection of the directories— and there is only one— is an invaluable source of information. \\'ithout it, we might not know that Crede Calhoun was the first Civil Affairs Director. That the sun rose in Balboa at 6:11 a.m. on .\ugust 26, 1926. That the tide was high in Cristobal at 2:22 a.m. on December 7, 1941. This might have been lost forever if, on September 25, 1914, the Executive Secretary' hadn't scribbled a note to the "Supt. Telephone and Signals," asking that "as soon as practicable, please get up and have printed on cards a telephone directory for this building." That was yesterday. Today it is a modern, color coded book with a 2-year calendar, a map showing time zones and area codes in the United States and an explanation of civil defense warning signals. And tomorrow— who knows. Maybe tide tables. Mrs. Judith Holder, Electrical Division Administrative Officer, delivers page panels of the 1975 directorN' to Juan Fernandez, left, and Rafael Camargo, right, who make the plates for printing the directory. Roy Goreng checks uncut pages of townsite maps as they come off the press. After the famous faultj'-glue fiasco of 1974, Jose Aguilar makes siu'e the stapling job on the 1975 book is done to perfection. The Panama Canal Review 25

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Culinary 26 Spring 1975

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IT HAS BEEN USED TO PAY taxes, debts and wages, and to pepper the bride for good luck. It has saved millions from starvation and today provides half of the world's population with 80 percent of its calories. More rice is consumed throughout the world than an\ other food. The tin\-, but mighty, little grain has been around for a long, long time— about 5,000 \ears— and it has had an important role in the history of mankind. Early Asian historical records show that, in China, in 2,500 B.C., it was so highhregarded that onh' the Emperor was privileged to grow it. It had a place in religious rites, as a temple offering, and was a svmbol of happiness and abundance. The cultivation of rice spread slowly to the Mediterranean civilization. Tfie Eg\ptians were growing it in the 4th centurv B.C. It was cultivated by the Greeks and the Romans and much later the Moors took it to Spain from where it was introduced into the New World with the conquest. In the United States, South Carolina was the first to grow it and after the Civil War, Louisiana became the rice center. Now it is grown also in Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas and California with Louisiana and Mississippi producing mainh' the long-grain tvpe and California growing the round-grain, known also as Japanese rice. According to a 1964 studxbv the International Rice Research Institute, there are more than 9,779 varieties of rice and many different types, shapes, and colors cultivated throughout the world. The two main types are upland rice, which is grown in ordinarv soil, and aquatic or lowland rice, grown in hot marshv regions or irrigated fields. It is prepared for sale as brown, unpolished, polished, or coated. What we call wild rice is not a true rice at all, but the grains of a perennial grass native to North America. The lowlv grain has been assimilated into the cooking of nearly every region on the globe with manv countries producing at least one rice dish that has become imiversally known. The Spanish have combined rice with seafood and vegetables to give us paella; in Italv, where surprising^' more rice than pasta is consumed, rice is cooked in chicken broth to produce the delicious risotto; the Mideastem countries saute rice in butter, olive oil and onion (often adding slivered almonds) and produce pilaf. And so it goes, each countrv eating rice plain, boiled or sauteed, in soups, as a main dish combined with seafood. poultry or meat, with vegetables, and as a dessert. An important staple in the Panamanian diet, rice usually is served twice a day and in large quantities. Per capita consumption averages 320 grams a day which amounts to about 220 pounds a year, and, in comparison with other Latin American countries, only Surinam and Guyana, with a daOy per capita consumption of 600 grams, eat more rice than Panama. From 100,000 to 110,000 hectares of Panama's soil is devoted to the cultivation of rice and the 1973-74 crop produced approximatelv 3,574,600 quintals (hundredweight) of unhulled rice, vielding 60 percent of this amount in poHshed and cook for 14 minutes. (Do not stir or disturb while it is cooking.) Remove from heat and serve. For a fluffier rice leave cover on an additional 10 minutes and let it steam. Sauteed Rice Melt 1 tablespoon butter in heavy pot. Saute 1 medium chopped onion over medium heat until golden. Add 1 cup rice and stir until each grain glistens. Add 2 cups water or chicken broth and 1 teaspoon salt. Bring to a boil and continue as for boiled rice. One of the most delicious rice dishes made in Panama is rice cooked in coconut milk. rice. The province with the highest vield is Ghiriqui, where 46 percent of the entire crop is produced. Code Province ranks second and Veraguas, third. The three principal varieties produced in Panama are: Nilo 1 and Nilo 2, the extra-long grain rices which constitute from 70 to 80 percent of the crop, which originated in Surinam and were developed in El Salvador in Central America; and a varietv known as GIGA 4, developed in Colombia. Though there are many theories on the methods of cooking rice, two simple methods which produce fluffy wellcooked grains are boiling it in water or other liquid and sauteing raw rice in butter or oil and then steaming it. Two things should be remembered in cooking rice: It should be cooked in only as much liquid as it can absorb to preserve its valuable vitamins and a heavy saucepan or pot with tight-fitting cover is a must. Boiled Rice To make 3 cups of rice, put 1 cup of raw rice, 2 cups of water, 1 teaspoon salt and 1 tablespoon butter in a heavy, 2-quart saucepan. Bring to a boil over high heat and turn heat to low. Stir it once with a fork, cover with a tight lid By Fannie P. Hernandez Arroz con Coco (Coconut Rice) I'i cups rice 1 coconut, grated 1 cup boiling water P/i teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon butter 3 ctips water Pour boiling water over the grated coconut, let it set a few minutes. When it is cool enough to handle, squeeze the coconut to obtain the milk. Add the 3 cups of water to the grated coconut and set it aside. Put the milk in a heavy pot and let it cook down until coco butter forms and is a little toasted. Add the rice and stir until it is golden color. Squeeze the grated coconut again and add this water to the rice with the salt and butter. When the liquid has been absorbed, turn heat to low, cover tightU' and cook from 15 to 20 minutes. A sweet rice that is not a dessert is rice with raisins, often cooked in coconut milk, but water will do fine. Delicious with ham. Rice with raisins, one of Panama's favorite rice dishes, is shown at left. The recipe appears on the next page. The Panama Canal Review 27

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The cooking of rice, basis for many dishes, requires careful measuring and a heavy pot with a tight fitting cover. Rice with guandii, one of Panama's traditional rice dishes, has a flavor all its own. While cooking, guandii exudes a pleasing bouquet, made even more appetizing when coconut milk is used for the liquid. Arroz con Pasas (Rice With Raisins) 2 cups rice 4 cups water ar coconut milk 1 cup raisins % lb butter 2 sticks cinnamon 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup brown su^ar (not packed) Cook raisins in butter until plump. Remove with slotted spoon. Add rice to butter and stir until grains are golden. Add li(|uid, salt and the raisins. Boil brisklv until liquid is just about all absorbed. Sprinkle the brown sugar on top and when it has melted and almost dry, cover, lower heat to as low as possible, and cook 20 minutes. Remove from heat. With a big spoon stir up from bottom of pan and mix carefully. As t\-pical of Panama as the Panama hat is rice with guandii, a pea which resembles a small bean and has a unique flavor. Guandu, also called pigeon peas, are available in bunches or shelled at the market when in season or in cans at the supermarkets. Arroz con Guandu {Rice With Guandu) % cup guandu 1 cup rice 1 teaspoon salt 1 coconut, grated 4 cups hot water Put the grated coconut in water. Let it set a few minutes, then squeeze to obtain the milk. Cook the guandii in the liquid until it is reduced to 2 cups. Add rice and salt. Cook over high heat until liquid is absorbed. Cover and steam for 14 minutes. (A delicious aroma will permeate the kitchen.) Arroz con Polio came from Spain to Mexico, then Peru, Colombia and Cuba, and each countrv has its own version. Panama has several. Here is one: Arroz con Polio (Chicken With Rice) 1 3-lb chicken, cut up la cups rice a cup olive oil I'i teaspoon salt pinch of pepper 3 pimientos cut in strips 2 large ripe tomatoes, cut up 1 clove garlic 1 teaspoon oregano 2 peppercorns hot water or hot chicken stock 1 teaspoon capers 12 black olives In a mortar, pound garlic, salt, peppercorns, pepper and oregano in a little oil. Rub chicken pieces with this mixture and let it season a few minutes. In a heavy pan (or paila), brown chicken in the oil. Add tomatoes, capers, olives, 2 of the pimientos. Cook until chicken is almost tender. Add rice and hot liquid to cover about an inch. Cover and simmer until the liquid has been absorbed and rice is tender. Garnish with remaining pimiento strips. Some cooks add a cup of cooked peas just before serving. With an abundance of seafood available in Panama, there are dozens of recipes combining rice wth one seafood or se\eral. Here is one that is served in man\' Panamanian homes. Arroz con Camarones (Rice With Shrimp) 1 onion, chopped 2 tomatoes 2 cloves garlic 2 pounds shrimp 1 small can tomato paste 2 tablespoons olive oil 2 cups rice 4 cups water olives and capers to taste Fr\the onion, tomatoes and garlic in oil. Add the cleaned raw shrimp. Add 4 cups hot water and cook for 5 minutes. Remove the shrimp. Add the rice to the liquid and cook until rice is tender. Add the shrimp, capers and olives and mix carefulKwith a fork. Cover and remove from heat. Serve after 5-10 minutes. Rice is used in Panamanian desserts, too, in either a rice pudding, similar to our old-fashioned rice pudding, or a favorite rice dessert made with coconut milk and chocolate. Arroz con Cacao J (Chocolate Rice) 'i cup rice 1 cup water 1 cup coconut milk 4 sticks cinnamon 1 can condensed milk 1 small can chocolate syrup '/i cup sugar Soak the rice overnight in enough water to cover. Add coconut milk and cinnamon sticks to rice. Simmer until it has dissolved, adding more coconut milk to maintain a soft consistencv. Remove cinnamon sticks. Add sugar, condensed milk and s\Tup. Cook stirring constantl\over low heat until custard like. Cool. Serve with coconut cream. Not a Panamanian recipe, this version of rice pudding comes from Brazil. Arroz con Cafe (Coffee With Rice) a cup rice 2 cups strong coffee (made with instant or brewed) 3 talAespoons butter 3 eggs, well beaten !'j cup Kara (dark) 'i cup sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla a teaspoon salt I'i cups milk Cook the rice in the coffee for 20 minutes. Add butter. Combine the eggs with remaining ingredients and add to the rice and coffee. Pour into a buttered baking dish. Set the dish in a pan of water and bake 30 minutes. Serve warm wifli milk or cream. 28 Spring 1975

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Shipping Notes ADMIRAL SAMUEL E. MORISON, L. Pulitzer Prize winning author, best known for his books "The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages" and his latest book "The European Discovery of America: The Southern Voyages" was aboard the SS Santa Mercedes this year when she sailed from Los Angeles around South America. Morison was selected by the Prudential Lines to retell the adventures of the famed na\'igator, who first discovered the Strait of Magellan in 1520. The Santa Mercedes took only 2 days to transit the Strait compared to the 37-day voyage of Magellan. During the cruise, the ship called at Balboa, Manzanillo, Acajutla, Cartagena, Curacao, La Guaira, Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Buenos Aires before transiting the Strait at the height of what is the summer season in that area. Morison, who is now 87 years old, is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Har\ard and winner of everv prize for histor\' and belles lettres in the United States (among them the Pulitzer Prize twice and the Emerson-Thoreau medal) He is also a mariner who has reconnoitered and often duplicated the well known voyages made in the age of discovery. Morison could add another dimension to the trip through the Strait because of his vast knowledge concerning Magellan's original voyage. The "Royal Viking Sky," one of the three cruise ships of the Royal Viking Line, passes through Gaillard Cut. In his book "The Southern Voyages," he points out, for instance, that Magellan put to sea on the first vovage around the world with the full knowledge that three Spanish captains on his fleet planned to murder him. It was on Palm Sunday at St. Julian in Patagonia that the mutineers finallv attempted to put their plan into effect. Thev seized three of Magellan's ships and demanded his surrender. Magellan, however, through audacitv and extraordinary seamanship managed to recapture his fleet with only one loyal man injured. Since mutiny was a capital offense, Magellan had one captain drawn and quartered, the second hanged, and the third one was marooned. As cruise passengers relaxed in comfort dining on choice foods, thev could not but be awed by the accomplishments of Magellan under such hardship conditions. Morison reported that food became so scarce on the first long haul across the Pacific that rats were sold for food at $1.16 gold and sailors often resorted to eating the leather chafing gear off the yards. The Santa Mercedes and her sister ships, the Santa Mariana, Santa Maria, and Santa Magdalena, make regular visits to the Isthmus on their sailings from west coast ports to Canada, Mexico Central America, the Caribbean and around South America every 14-16 days throughout the year. Trans-Canal Cruises More and more cruise ships are featuring trips through the Panama Canal. During 1975, approximately 8,000 passengers will sail with Royal Viking Line on 16 Trans-Canal cruises, originating from both coasts and including one from Xew Orleans. In its promotional material, Roval \'iking Line writes of the Canal: "Time was, a trip through the Panama Canal suggested banana boats, steaming jungles and small bands of intrepid travelers determined to reach a distant port in farawa\' South America, or even points bevond. Todav. things are different, passengers ha\e a front-row seat for the trip, in a choice of air-conditioned lounges." Roval Viking ships offer all firstclass accommodations (with 94 percent having an ocean \iew) for approximately 500 passengers with spacious staterooms and public area. The decor is Scandinavian, with artwork by the area's finest artists. Dining is international with native specialties from some ports of call included in daily menus. As on the Prudential trip around SouthAmerica, guest lecturers provide information about the various ports of call. One of their lecturers was Irving Stone, author of "The Agony and the Ecstasy," "The President's Lady" and "Lust for Life." He was on the Royal Viking, Sea when she transited the Canal on January 12 during a 96-day aroundthe-world cruise. Although the Royal X'iking Line is onlv a few years old, its three ships, the The Panama Canal Review 29

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS First Half Fiscal Year 197S 1974 1965-69 Nationality Belgian British Chilean Chinese Nat'l — Colombian Cypriot Danish Ecuadorian French German, West Greek Italian Japanese Liberian Netherlands Nicaraguan Norwegian Panamanian Peruvian Polish South Korean Soviet Swedish United States Yugoslavia All other No. of transits 71 638 68 80 70 136 151 50 123 379 633 116 646 950 207 42 428 509 97 45 56 76 171 538 43 434 Tons of cargo 535,377 7,030,475 828,951 1,050,329 148,780 911,080 1,204,269 419,881 733,936 2,303,193 9,410,121 743,403 6,042,448 17,812,491 921,077 75,266 6,815,866 3,825,363 1,012,647 288,509 384,599 487,638 1,753,471 4,649,986 468,751 3,399,216 No. of transits 78 638 43 104 94 107 175 46 113 378 701 135 643 894 229 37 518 505 90 20 50 132 163 616 34 425 Tons of cargo 279,717 6,924,670 665,614 1,146,805 230,816 649,689 1,362,868 509,732 663,295 2,516,863 9,478,162 1,025,817 6,923,312 15,417,105 1,334,531 68,318 7,636,929 3,256,365 838,128 92,909 302,761 822,350 1,248,731 5,045,671 448,961 3,332,238 Aug. No. transits 39 679 60 57 117 7 198 33 107 590 255 110 468 674 257 36 739 261 79 7 14 27 225 823 12 368 Avg. tons of cargo 100,725 5,072,872 406,198 443,818 225,971 50,000 1,137,816 41,799 421,446 2,063,139 2,606,268 743,021 3,431,691 8,920,295 1,086,592 55,717 7,171,883 1,215,812 387,875 56,174 87,421 207,691 1,462,003 4,602,063 134,854 1,435,550 Total 6,757 73,257,123 6,968 72,222,357 6,242 43,568,694 TR.\FFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES First Half Fiscal Year Trade routes-darge commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) East coast United States-Asia Europe-West coast South America East coast United StatesWest coast South America EuropeWest coast United States/Canada Europe— Asia Europe— Oceania East coast Canada— Asia United States Intercoastal (including Hawaii) East coast South America— Asia West coast South AmericaWest Indies All others TotaL

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gallon shipment originated in Tacoma, Wash. It is being shipped to the Middle East for a billion-dollar desert reclamation project financed by Arab oil money. Plans are to mix it with pulverized wood chips, spread it on the desert sands, and plant grass to build soil and prevent wind erosion. The two Arab states have contracted for 50,000 metric tons a year, according to an official of Worldwide Brokers, of Galliano, La. The Northwest quota is 2.50,000 gallons a month, according to a local contractor. Since the dairy business is suffering from the recession, this new project is considered a life saver for the industry. As one farmer said, "We have been operating $3,000 a month in the red. Now we can make up to $4,000 a month on manure. It seems like a fairy tale." The Use of English New value has recently been given to English by its official adoption by the International Maritime Consultative Organization as the common sea language, according to a report in Fairplay International Shipping Weekly. In commenting on this, Fairplay noted: "In a world in which a misunderstood message or order could result, say in the destruction of most of the beaches of north-west Europe bv a wrecked verv large crude carrier, the importance of an internationally accepted means of communication is clear enough, and the English speakers of the world may well feel grateful that it is their language which has been chosen. Those who believe that they speak the tongue of Shakespeare, however, may well raise an eyebrow at some of the words which are said nowadays to be theirs— doppler, mach number, coriolis, isogriv and VORTAC, for example, the latter being defined as "a co-location of VOR and the distance-measuring element of a TACAN ground beacon." Largest Ship Afloat The American Bureau of Shipping has recently classed the largest vessel afloat. It is the 476,292 dead weight tonnage Globtik London. The vessel, of British registry, is approximatelv 1,181 feet long, 203 feet wide, and 118 feet in height from the keel to the main deck. EXiring 1974, the ABS classified seven other tankers of over 250,000 dead weight tonnage.— WKF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic First Half Fiscal Year Commodity 1975 Manufactures of iron and steel 4,832,370 Petroleum and products 4,385,673 Ores, various 3,117,063 Sugar l'842',260 Lumber and products 1,674,555 Pulpwood '919!416 Coal and coke 881,163 Metals, various 834,817 Bananas 789!980 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 714,949 Sulfur 686,437 Fishmeal 537,532 Autos, trucks, accessories and parts 509,580 Paper and products 353,146 Chemicals, unclassified 245,251 All other 6,377^983 Total 28,702,175 1974 3,401,890 5,843,529 3,074,279 1,832,808 2,640,783 809,518 297,038 475,767 764,270 813,758 401,777 232,146 461,982 244,083 153,874 5,583,155 5-Yr. Aug. 2965-69 1,816,926 643,782 2,957,624 1,460,243 2,196,431 374,817 95,051 651,078 623,764 499,550 103,009 754,400 38,594 141,696 118,463 4,354,577 27,030,657 16,830,005 Atlantic to Pacific First Half Fiscal Year Commodity 1975 Coal and coke 13,019,920 Petroleum and products 7,577,168 Corn 3,392,113 Phosphate 2,826,222 Wheat 2,738,492 Soybeans 1,911,300 Ores, various 1,232,583 Sorghum 1,183,903 Manufactures of iron and steel 1,050,553 Metal, scrap 1,036,239 Sugar 756,192 Fertilizers, unclassified 636,954 Metals, various (excluding scrap) 503,338 Chemicals, unclassified 466,329 Paper and products 378,770 All other 5,844,872 Total 44,554,948 1974 8,262,531 8,749,089 5,675,008 2,545,084 3,301,650 2,065,802 1,250,883 1,458,630 805,054 1,994,046 715,768 642,653 362,340 712,419 383.702 6,267,041 5-Yr. Aug. 1965-69 4,483,207 7,382,958 1,339,076 1,911,363 621,073 1,165,254 816,530 N.A. 907,176 1,458,047 406,555 218,304 661,758 428,399 349,756 4.589,233 45,191,700 26,738,689 CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT First Half Fiscal Year Aug. No. transits 1975 1974 1965-69 Atlantic Pacific to to Pacific Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial vessels: Oceangoing 3,335 3,422 6,757 6,968 6,231 Small! ^94 jgQ 354 ggg 276 Total Commercial 3,529 3,582 7,111 7,333 6,507 U.S. Government vessels: ^ Oceangoing 53 54 107 95 447 Small' 24 33 57 58 63 Total Commercial and U.S. Government 3,606 3,669 7,275 7,486 7,017 1 Vessels under 300 net Ions or 500 displacement tons. 2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited free. The Panama Canal Review 31

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Pastoral But Progressive By Jose T. Tunon IN EARLY 1520, MORE THAN 100 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, a small group of Spanish colonials founded Nata de los Caballeros, the oldest city on the Isthmus. Its predecessors, Santa Maria la Antigua and Nombre de Dios, in Darien, were burned bv Drake in 1595 and Morgan destroyed Old Panama in 1671. Nata served as an outpost for the conquest and colonization of the western part of Panama and for 300 years, until 1820, was the capital city for western Panama. Its inhabitants engaged in farming and cattle raising activities and in the later part of the 16th century they lived mainlv from the profits of corn sent to Panama for feeding the mules and slaves that carried goods between Panama and N'ombre de Dios. For many years Nata remained a sleepy, interior rural community. Its inhabitants eked out a living using primitive farming methods. With the exception of the ancient church with the colonial facade and the old tower, and a sterling silver pelican, a treasure reminiscent of past glories, which attracted tourists who ventured to the interior, Nata had little impact on the remainder of the Republic after the coloiiial era. Above: Showing the ravages of time is one of the two bells that called worshipers to mass at the old Church of Nata during colonial days. The bells, which were cast in Lima in 1690, are currently displayed at the Museum of Colonial Religious Art at the old Santo Domingo Chapel in Panama City. But in 1938, when Compariia Panamefia de Alimentos, S.A. (Panama Foods Co. ) established a milk processing plant there, Nata and the surrounding areas gradually were revitalized from a centuries-old lethargy. The plant's tall chimney, visible from a distance, signifies that Nata has entered the industrial era and once more is playing an important role in the destiny of her country. Beginning modestly with an annual production of 519,000 liters of milk, Panama Foods has experienced a progressively increasing rate of growth. Todav's annual milk production of 20 million liters is evidence of the company's tremendous impact on farming and cattle raising in the Central Provinces of Panama. In addition to producing evaporated and condensed milk, the companv has expanded its activities to include the processing of other foods that are produced in the area and is today the most important commercial canning industry in the country. In 1947, the farmers of Nata witnessed the beginning of a new project that would soon make possible their entrv into the modem marketplace. The company, using new technology, began experimenting with the growing, processing, and marketing of tomatoes. Two years later with the fruition of much research and development, 408,611 pounds of tomatoes were processed bv the companv and the wellknown Maggi products, including paste, sauce, juice and catsup were produced in Nata and sold on the local market. Company agriculture experts advise tomato growers on the control of diseases in tomato plants, a major problem in the tropics, and teach them how to improve the quality of the product. The company has established a 50-hectare experimental field near Rio Hato in Code Province, where these experts are continuosly experimenting with irrigation methods, various insecticides, fertilizers and herbicides in their efforts to produce the best quality tomato varieties for industrial purposes. Plans are to attempt to increase production to 80 million pounds a year, and to export these products. At another experimental tomato field in Rio Grande, an area about 40 kilometers from Rio Hato, technicians are experimenting with tomato varieties resistant to fungi, bacteria, and other soil-born diseases that cause tomatoes to wilt in unfavorable environments such as that caused by flooding in that area. Tomato wilt has been one of the most bothersome problems to tomato growers. Experimenting with a variety of seeds brought from all over the world by the 32 Spring 1975

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National Agriculture Institute, the Ministry of Agricultural Development and by Panama University, several varieties ha\e been developed that seem to be resistant to wilt. At harvest time, as many as 150 tomato pickers are emploved and there are plans to mechanize the operation to reduce the high cost of production and ultimately benefit both the growers and the company. In addition to processing milk and tomatoes, Panama Foods cans guandu, a small pea-like legume which grows on vines about 6 feet high, often referred to as "pigeon peas" by the English speaking population on the Isthmus. The guandu's distinctive flavor and pleasing aroma while cooking make it a favorite food of Panama, where erroneouslv it is often considered a product grown onlv in this country. Actually, guandu is popular in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Brazil, Trinidad and in Kenva and Uganda in Africa. In the past, Puerto Rico was one of the main producers, but due to the high cost of harvesting, its cultivation has fallen off and today the Dominican Republic is the main exporter. Aware of the nutritional value of guandu, the United Nations has dispatched dietary experts to India and Ceylon (now known as Sri Lanka) to inform the inhabitants of these famineplagued areas of the merits of guandu and to encourage its local cultivation. In general, the main problem in the cultivation of guandu, which requires very little care in the field, is the high cost of har\'est and the shelling of the pods, which is done by hand. In Panama, where it is largely a home production. with the farmer planting his own guandu fields, then selling the yield to the company, it has so far been economicallv successful. Benefitting from the industrialization of this legume are approximately 400 families, mainly in the areas around La Atalaya in Veraguas Province. They are supplying Panama Foods approximately 1,600,000 pounds of guandu a year. The company would like to triple guandu production in the next 2 years, with hopes of obtaining a market for this product in the United States. Although the Panama Foods installation at Nata processes products grown only in that area, the impact of the industry extends to the provinces of Code, Los Santos, Herrera and Veraguas, with a total population of about half a million. In 1970, now producers of Nestle, Maggi and Libby products in Panama, the company extended its sphere of acti\ities to the fertile lands of Chiriqui Province and took over the management of the Chiriqui Milk Co. in Boqueron. Here it processes powdered milk, fruit juices and vegetables that are grown in the cooler areas of that province. But one of the principal functions of the Boqueron installation is found 41 kilometers northeast of there, at San Andres, more than 400 meters above sea level, near the Costa Rican border. It is a pineapple plantation of the finest industrial quality and constitutes one of the company's most important projects. The fertile volcanic soil of the region and the infrared rays of the sun at that particular altitude give the pineapple the ideal flavor for industrial use, according A chemist tests the purity of Panama Food Company products at a modem laboratory in the Nata installation. Revitalized from a centuries-old lethargy A field of grain and a dairy herd that supphes milJc to the Chiriqui Milk Plant in Boqueron form a scene of tranquil beauty. rHi; Panama Canal Revizw 33

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-, \ 1 "^'<^ k Employees of the Boqueron processing plant check beet slices prior to canning. Fruits and vegetables of the area are processed at this plant. A smiling employee operates a machine which extracts juice from the delicious oranges grown in the Boqueron area. Cans of diced beets are packed in cartons at the Nat^ plant. Also shown are cases of maracuya juice. fc-^^'i^ ^ Cans are manufactured at the Panama Foods Company plant at Nata. These will be used for evaporated milk. to Juan Wintgens, head of the Agriculture Department of the company. Commenting on the excellent quality of another variety of pineapple produced in Panama, the delectable "water pineapple" grown in Taboga, Wintgens explained that it is perhaps the most tasty fresh pineapple, but it is not suitable for canning. The San Andres pineapple field covers 22 hectares, each hectare containing 40,000 pineapple plants. Slips have been imported from Martinique and Hawaii, with superior results from the "smooth Cayenne" variety from Hawaii. Pineapple cultivation requires a large investment, extensive fumigation, weeding, fertilizers and constant care. This project is in its infancy and large scale production will depend on the ability of individual growers to supply the companv with sufficient fruit. Located at the pineapple plantation, and appearing a little out of place in this environment, is a row of stables housing several dozen high-grade calves. They are part of 2,000 purebreds that the companv is planning to distribute among its milk suppliers to improve the qualitv and quantitv of milk with resulting benefits for the company and the suppliers. The calves will be sold to the cattle raisers at a nominal cost, which Shown are two varieties of tomatoes that seem to be resistant to wilt, one of the most bothersome problems to tomato growers coping with the tropical environment. 34 Spring 1975

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Agriculture expert Alberto Delgado, at right, discusses the characteristics of the pineapple that make it suitable for canning willi Jean P. Robert, left and Juan Wintgens, engineers working with the Panama Foods Company. Passion fruit is popular neiv local product can be deducted from their payments for supplying milk. Dairy experts also will continue to offer technical assistance in matters of feeding and disease control. A short distance from the pineapple plantation, the company has a 2-hectare plot planted with granadilla, one of several varieties of passion fruit, commonly known as maracuva. The fruit, about the size and shape of a small pear, has a tough hull and the inside contains small black seeds surrounded by aromatic, yellow pulp. Its taste somewhat resembles the peach with a tinge of apricot and the exotic tang of guava. A little juice goes a long way as it has a l^enetrating flavor but it is ideal for mixing with pineapple and other fruit, in cocktails, punch and for flavoring fruit desserts. Since it is said that the taste lingers like a happy memorv, it is in great demand. The plant, a vine, needs \er\' little care and hardlv an\' in\'estment. It is a matter of planting, putting a stick in the ground for it to climb on, and waiting for the fruit to fall when it is ripe. Because of these attributes Panama Foods is encouraging the cultivation of maracuva. The o\'erall economic impact of Panama Foods on the fi\e provinces where the company operates is difficult to determine. However, in purchases, ser\ices and salaries, the company's output is approximately $15 million a year. .'Vnd benefits derived from its numerous experimental projects and the technical assistance offered to the hundreds of dirt farmers and cattle raisers are incalculable. ft.A field of maracuva, a species of passion fruit, in San Andres, Chiriqui Province. Juice of the maracuya is in great demand internationally. Part of the herd of 2,000 purebred calves to be distributed to their milk suppliers by the Chiriqui Milk Company to improve the quality and quantity of milk. The P.^n'ama Canal Review 35

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