Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1974pana





[4






David S. Parker
Governor-President
Charles I. McGinnis
Lieutenant Governor
Frank A. Baldwin


Panama Cai


TIE
PANAMA CANAL


REkvEw


Willie K. Friar
Editor, English Edition
Jose T. Tufi6n
Editor, Spanish Edition
Writers
Vic Canel, Fannie P. Hern6ndez,


nal Information Officer Official Panama Canol Publication Franklin Castrell6n and Dolores E.
Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1, airmail $2, single copies 50 cents.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Suisman


Our


Contents

Panama's Pearls 3
Balboa, Elizabeth Taylor and
the inosqueta are all a part of
the history of the Pearl Island
pearls.

Consider the Crackowe 8
From the Duckbill to the
Sidewinder you can bet your
brogans it's style that counts
in the selection of shoes.

Culinary Capers 12
Fare from everywhere avail-
able at local restaurants.


Isthmus Turf Stars I
Local jockeys, horses make
racing history.

Disney World ]
A look behind the scenes at a
favorite vacation spot.

Babel on the Banks of the
Panama Canal 2
The student body at Canal
Zone College is as interna-
tional as the parade of ships
transiting the waterway.

Maritime Monickers 2
Whether named for a shell or
St. Nick, there's always a
story.

Three Decades Make a
Difference
The Balboa High School Class
of '43 returns for a nostalgic
look at the Isthmus.


18 { '




2





16


Ar,-iork-Petcr Gtrnet. p. 8 and 27; 1lctor Sin-
clair, pt. 10; Carlos 1tl6ndez, p. 26.





'-.
.La
* -- 2''
-be'''*


Cover


Sometimes findiri liut Ie- i11-h i l-
lustration for an article : in tli RHI.IE,.
becomes a story in it,:lf I,,l. ',.,, the
case in locating a phl..t..-,rph .:. Elz.,-
beth Taylor weariiii Par..l.r,:,. iI..',
famous pearl. The e-.ii'.h itli i,,-t-
ance from William I'. \ !. '.. .4 tlh-
Canal's M otion Pic r,1 .: I.: ...: l'r.'I.:. d
to such faraway pl..:i: ,: H-..nll .'ind
London before Bevei-I \\ hli.-i,....f li-he
Reference Section a.t the C:,in.il .i.,
Library. discovered th.-i Lif. l.d'J 1fa-
tured the actress wriii.,g tli.: pen-.l ii
cover story on her -!ith I.itithdi, The
photo, obtained froir. Ti.n-Li!.: rIP'..t..s
in New York, appeals .rn th, .:.pp, -.,lei
page.
The magnificent iii.. :,'l t. ..i. .-..r
cover and those us.id' I.. illij.ti.i.- tl'-.
story were loaned I.. th.: hIE,.'E 1\
Richard and Silvia \\Vi:ri:. n. .:i. ,,
Ricardo, the well I,... I i....: (I t,
jewelry store.
On the front cov.:r i, -he L.e itifill,,
sim ple traditional m ...'' .:t .i I i tlI It- .: i.
ter pearl surrounded I.'. cilrc : ..f pe irl.
interspersed with g, Id.
The back cover shows a mod.:ii .:-.
sion of a mosqueta, the desil ii: .,ii
variations of which are limited ...I', 1.\
the skill, ingenuity and artistry ..f te
jeweler.
Werner is known as Ricardce t.' i.:s-
idents of Panama, the Canal Zrc ..md
a worldwide clientele that :ittl,.:
many celebrities. He came to I', ..*m.,
on a visit in 1936 and settled. COn) .if
family of 13 jewelers, he begar In .. p-
prenticeship in his father's store ii. \leri-
na at the age of six. He worked ;:t C .i
Fastlich and Tahiti before ope:nin. hi.
own shop in 1947.
The \Verners shared their 1.t:...: ,id
knowledge of pearls and the !ii..I-. 'it
with REVIEW readers by pr..~'i.[g
much of the information in the story.
The cover photograph is by Arthur L.
Pollack.


HAUSTELLUM
5 3 1954


SPRING 1974








W. "" Y .












story of Panama. And the mosqueta,







history of Panama. And the mosqueta,
created by combining the two in an in-
tricate work of art, has become one of
the symbols of the country.
When a Panamanian girl pins her
grandmother's mosqueta on the pom
pom on the front of her pollera, the na-
tional dress of Panama, she may marvel
at the beauty of the gold and pearl
brooch and wonder how it happened to
be created. Many visitors, purchasing
them to take home, also express curiosity
about the origin of the design.
No one knows for sure when the first
mosqueta was created or who the de-
designer was. Buitt is fairl certain that
the gold and pearls of Panama were first
joined in the delicate beauty of the mos-
queta by jewelers from southern Europe
who migrated to Panama, bringing with
them their skill in gold filigree uork.
At that time, labor was cheap and pearls
from the Pearl Islands were plentiful.
There is a story that the brooches re-
minded the jewelers of a beautiful blos-
som and they began to call them "mos-
quetas," the Spanish name for the white
musk roses of the Mediterranean area.
These old mosquetas, fashioned of
the famous Pearl Island pearls, are
now treasured heirlooms passed down
through the generations. In more re-
cent times, they have inspired a com-
plete line of jewelry including rings, f
necklaces, and earrings.
So the mosqueta is really a final chap-
ter in the history of the Panama pearls,
a history that started as far back as Bal-
boa and ended allruptly in 1938 when Elizabeth Taylor wears Panama's most famous pearl, La Peregrina, as a drop pendant.
the Red Tide spread over the Bay of The pearl, which was found off the Pearl Islands more than 400 years ago,
Panama and destroyed the oyster beds was a gift from Richard Burton who paid $37,000 for it. (See story on p. 7)
near the Pearl Islands. Photo by Norman Parkinson.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








































INTRICATE WORKS OF ART-Nine magnificent mosquetas. In the top row
are three sizes of the traditional circles of pearls and filigree work. In the center and
bottom row, the mosquetas have been fashioned into a variety of forms. The number
of designs is limited only by the imagination of the jeweler.


Balboa was probably the first foreign-
er to know about the fabulous pearl
beds. Legend says that on reaching the
Pacific after his crossing of the Isthmus,
he was met by an Indian chief whose
scanty costume consisted mainly of
pearls. Even the chief's canoe paddles
were studded with pearls.
The Indians brought him pearls from
Panama Bay and told him of even more
wonderful pearl beds farther north, but
Balboa was unable to pursue the mat-
ter. He only made notes in his log.
When reports reached Spain of the
fabulous Panama pearl beds, other ex-
plorers with more interest in plunder
than Balboa arrived to look for them
and soon the riches of the Gulf of
Panama were on their way to Spain.
One of the most magnificent of all
the pearls found in Panama is "La Pe-
regrina," or wanderer, which has been
worn by a Spanish king, an English
queen, a French emperor and today
belongs to one of the most beautiful and
celebrated women of the world, Eliza-
beth Taylor.
When it was found in the Gulf of


Panama 400 years ago, it was considered
so magnificent that the Negro slave who
discovered it was rewarded with his
liberty and his owner was given a grant
of land and a title.
But, according to Joan Younger
Dickinson in "The Book of Pearls," the
large bulk of the pearls taken to Spain,
was reckoned by the pound, or marc,
and no records have been found describ-
ing the various sizes and types. It is
possible that great pearls arrived in
Spain by the bagful and were dispersed
along with quite ordinary ones. One
thing is certain, in the early days Pan-
ama was left mostly with the rejects.
One of the first mentions of the use
of pearls in jewelry in Panama is made
by a French engineer who visited the
Darien in 1821. He writes of women
celebrating independence from Spain
proudly wearing large gold combs and
earrings decorated with the "inexpen-
sive" pearls from the pearl fisheries of
Panama.
An English woman, Lady Emmeline
Stuart Worley, traveling through Cen-
tral America and Panama in 1849, men-


tions in her book seeing a nursem:,id
pass her room in Panama accompan:ng
a child whose dress was resplendent
with diamonds and pearls. "The peiirls
were wonderfully splendid," she added,
"because in this native water is a reg-
ular pearl industry. These treasures of
the deep are abundantly found around
the island and prove a profitable sour<:e
of employment to a considerable bod\
of men who follow the laborious oc:ui-
pation of divers."
And the occupation of the pearl di\-
ers was indeed laborious. In the e.rlv
days, slaves were sent to get the pearl
They descended into the cold, deep
waters of Panama Bay with stones ie-l
around their legs. Many of them died
of exposure to pressure, of cold and some
were killed by sharks.
By the early 19th century, the pearl
shells of Panama were to become more
in demand than the tiny pearls thev
might contain. The occasional pearl
that might bring $2,000 on the Paris
market was considered "gravy" to the
merchants who were shipping shell to
Germany to feed the largest mother of
pearl market in the world. As early a.
1888, Woldred Nelson tells in his book.
"Five Years in Panama" of the island of
San Miguel where he found a stone
church, the towers of which were <:ov-
ered with pearl shells. The pearl shells
that adorn the twin towers of the Pati-
ama Cathedral in Panama City, which
came from the Pearl Islands, are sttll
being admired by visitors.
By the time the European immigraits
were fashioning the early mosqiet.ir
with gold filigree work and pearls. the
Panama pearl already had a long history
The original handmade mosquet.i
and those produced later with crude
tools cannot compare to the magnifi:c:ert
mosquetas made today with their per-
fect cultured pearls and the finest fili-
gree wire. Nevertheless, these earlk
pieces, made with thick wire and thl.k
gold cups, are cherished heirlooms
Because the baroque pearl comes it
odd sizes and shapes, the old mosquetas
were mostly filigree work. The jeweler
who used 40 or 50 pearls in a moslquet.i
had to make a gold cup to fit ec.h
one, a tedious, time-consuming job tiot
economically feasible today.
Panama jewelers were not fic.ed
with the problem after 1938 be:.muise
the Red Tide killed the oyster beds. The
Red Tide, which occurs to some degree
at the end of each rainy season, is caused
by a half-plant, half-animal that the
biology books call Gymnodinium brevis.
It reproduces with incredible rapidity


SPRING 1974














The first mosquetas were

mostly filigree work but

local jewelers now

produce an infinite variety

of designs and sizes.


Arturo Garcia, left, and Guillermo Thomas, at work in the Ricardo Jewelry Store,
setting pearls into filigree gold that has been fashioned into pins and rings.


The filigree work completed and
the vari-sized pearls at hand, the jeweler
performs the delicate task of joining
pearls and gold to produce the
coveted mosqueta.


The traditional mosqueta was simply a center pearl surrounded by circles of pearls
interspersed with circles of gold. Modern versions of the mosqueta employ many variations
of filigree ornaments. This photograph shows a brooch before it has heen set with pearls.
Surrounding the brooch are the individual pieces that Panamanian filigrec workers,
employed at Ricardo, fashion from fine gold wire into delicate designs. The individual
pieces are then soldered into circlets of the desired figurations and size.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






causing vast stretches of the water to
be stained a reddish brown. After the
organisms die, they release a powerful
nerve poison that kills sea life by the
hundreds of tons.
Red Tide outbreaks are worse in
years of heavy rainfall, and the near
record 85.61 inches of rain in 1938 pre-
ceded the worst Red Tide in Panama's
history.
Since no pearls were available on the
Isthmus following the death of the oys-
ters, no mosquetas were made at all
until the early 1950's when cultured
pearls were first imported from Japan
and filigree wire, produced by machine,
was imported from Europe.
The few jewelers who started to make
mosquetas were not prepared for the
sudden overwhelming popularity of the
various pieces. To fill the demand, Pan-
ama imported more pearls from Japan
and they ordered the pearls to fit the
gold cups of the mosqueta rather than
making the cups to fit the pearls.
This reverse order in jewelry making
was made possible by the genius of the
Japanese pearl merchants, headed by
Kokochi Mikimoto. After a lifetime of
experimentation, he succeeded in dis-
covering a method for culturing pearls
in mass quantities. They are perfectly
shaped, come in various colors and in
anv size. In fact, there are so few natural
pearls available these days that when
pearls are mentioned they are usually
cultured pearls.
In creating the cultured pearl, man
imitates nature only insofar as he in-
serts the foreign object into the ovster
to start the flow of the protective secre-
tion, called nacre, which coats the ob-


Marilyn Pedroso, a
secretary in the
Personnel Bureau,
models mosqueta pin
and earrings made
in the traditional design
of a large center pearl
circled by increasingly
larger rows of pearls
and filigree.







ject and eventually forms a pearl. When
the oyster is about 2 years old, it is in-
jected with an antibiotic to prevent
infection and then an incision is made
to create a pocket to receive the pellet
which stimulates the flow of nacre. The
oyster does the rest.
The finest pearls in size and quality
are left in the ouster for 7 or 8 years
and consist of many coats of nacre.
A 14-inch strand of these matched
pearls might bring as much as $80,000.
Although the Japanese are credited
with the success of the cultured pearl
business, they needed a little help from
the United States and Australia. It was
found that the best foreign object that
could be used to start a pearl was made










Marilyn Escobar wears
the wedding pollera
with the traditional
mosqueta attached
to the porn porn.


of Mississippi River oyster shells. The
shells are cut into strips, then into cubes
and put into a gem tumbler to be ground
down for insertion into the oyster. Each
year nearly 6 tons of oyster shells are
exported from the United States to
Japan. The oysters in which the pearls
are cultured come from off the coast
of Australia.
While the natural pearl industry will
never be the same in Panama or any-
where else, there have been indications
recently that the pearl beds of Panama
may be regenerating.
Pearl divers are at work again and on
occasion find oysters containing pearls.
Like their ancestors, Pearl Island divers
remove the pearls, put them in a bag
and offer them for sale to visitors.
Nita Navarro Chiari de Lewis, wife
of Gabriel Lewis, who has developed
Contadora Island, recently purchased a
pear-shaped pearl measuring between
one-half and three-quarters of an inch.
It is bluish-grey green and Mrs. Lewis
felt that if she could find another, they
would make a beautiful pair of earrings.
While waiting to find a matching
pearl, she had her's appraised and was
dumbfounded to learn it was valued at
about $11,000.
Its discovery has not prompted a pearl
rush to the Islands, but Lewis feels that
it is something to consider. In the future,
he may take on the job of developing
Panama's pearl industry and it is con-
ceivable that Panama pearls may be
used again in the making of Panama's
famous mosquetas.


SPRING 1974








La et P n4

"La Peregrina," the beautiful costly
pearl that now belongs to lovely Eli-
zabeth Taylor was found in the Gulf of
Panama 400 years ago.
As were most gold and jewels ac-
quired in the New World, the pearl was
taken to Spain for King Philip II, whose
court jeweler described it as priceless.
When he married Mary Tudor, the
daughter of Henry VIII of England, the
incomparable pear-shaped gem was her
wedding gift.
Philip returned to Spain after Mary's
death in 1558 and, as she had requested,
he ordered La Peregrina set in the crown
of the Blessed Virgin of Guadalupe, a
crown famed for its great gems.
No one knows when the pearl was
removed from the Virgin's crown but it
was next heard of in 1605 when Mar-
garita of Spain wore it at the celebra-
tion of a peace treaty between Spain
and England.
Another pearl almost equal in size,
shape and luster was discovered in
American waters in 1790, and La Pere-
grina temporarily became one of a pair
of earrings formed of the two great
pearls.
Nearly a hundred years later, a visitor
to Spain told of seeing the pearl-per-
fectly shaped and bell-mouthed-hang-
ing on a clasp of diamonds in the folds
of the king's hat. When the king, Joseph
Bonaparte, abdicated the Spanish throne
in 1813, he took La Peregrina with him.
It passed on to his stepniece, Hortense,
who, in turn, left it to her son, Napo-
leon III, the Emperor of France. During
one of his many exiles in England, he
offered La Peregrina for sale in London,
and the Marquis of Abercorn bought it
for his wife.
Since the pearl had never been bored,
she lost it on several occasions, includ-
ing once at Buckingham Palace where
she was very distressed until she hap-
pened to spot it in the velvet train of
another woman, and at Windsor Castle
where, after much searching, it was
found in the upholstery of a sofa.
In 1913, the Abercorn family had the
great pearl polished and certified to
weigh 203.84 grains, and in 1938 it was
still in the family's possession.
The New York Times, in its issue of
July 24, 1969, reported that, "an an-
onymous buyer acquired from an an-
onymous owner at the Parke-Bernet Gal-
leries yesterday what has been called the
world's most famous pearl." The price


1




7
'5^


Elizabeth Taylor wore La Peregrina
when she appeared as an extra in
"Anne Of The Thousand Days" and, if not
the Panama pearl, one that closely
resembled it in these scenes from "Divorce"
(left) and "Ash Wednesday", featured
this spring at Panama Canal theaters.

was $37,000. The pearl, of course, was
Panama's La Peregrina.
Two days later, in another Times
story, Parke-Bernet's president Peregri-
ne Pollen (yes, that is his correct name
and yes, it is an amazing coincidence)
revealed that the anonymous buyer was
an agent for Richard Burton. And the
agent said he assumed the pearl was to
be Burton's gift to Miss Taylor on her
birthday.
Discussing La Peregrina with a re-
porter from the Ladies Home Journal,
Burton said, "The Peregrina pearl needs
no elaboration from me. Though it is
one of the least expensive things I've
given her, it really excites me. I like to
hold it and think of all the people who
wore it, from Mary Tudor on down. And
the fact that it is the Peregrina and
already has disappeared three times. It
means 'the wanderer' you know. Well,
Elizabeth only had it a week when it
disappeared completely then one
day, one of the Pekes was chewing on
what she thought was a bone in the
corner. It turned out to be the pearl, and
the dog's teeth marks are still on it."
At least two other pearls from the
Gulf of Panama became crown jewels.
The most famous was found not in an
oyster, but loose in the sea bed; hence
its name, Huerfana-"the orphan."
Another was the 26-carat Oviedo,
named for the Spanish historian Gonza-
lo de Oviedo y Valdes who purchased
it and recorded it as worth 650 times
its weight in pure gold.


Above: Baroque pearls found recently
near Contadora and a 1495 etching,
which shows divers in Panama Bay
and Spaniards bartering with the
Indians for pearls.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW












Consider




H -The Crackowe





) By Vie Canel


PHYSICIANS FROWN ON FAR
out fashions in footwear.
Those 5-inch heels and unyielding
platforms can cause the wearer all sorts
of problems-corns, calluses, bunions,
ingrown toenails and a host of other ail-
ments and discomforts including back-
aches and sore leg muscles, they say.
But it seems that folks have always
had a fetish for fashion and are willing
to suffer for style's sake.
Take the crackowe, for example, a
number that was fashionable among
people of high station in the 14th cen-
tury. It featured toes so long that a chain
was attached to each to allow the wearer
to hold them up as he walked along.
Presumably, this prevented stumbling
-but probably made people round-
shouldered.
Then there was the duckbill, which
became popular in England during the
time of Queen Marv. Its stylishness was
determined by its width and each suc-
ceeding model was wider. It must have
been like walking around in swim fins.
Finally, the madness was halted bv a law
which limited the width of shoes to
6 inches.
Current fashions, a revival of the
1940s styles, are also condemned by
Ralph Nader, who contends that the
heavy platform heels have caused
broken ankles, twisted knees and torn
ligaments. Furthermore, he says, many
designs impede driving and could cause
accidents.
But it's style, not safety, that sells
shoes.
Shoe manufacturers make in-depth
studies of trends and buying habits in
order to produce comprehensive man-
uals on the science of selling shoes.
One such manual received by the Bal-


boa Shoe Store classifies customers by
sex and age group and instructs sales-
men on what to expect from each. It
tells them how to deal with certain
situations, and offers tips on what to say,
what to stress and what not to mention
in making a sales pitch.
In this day of women's liberation, the
writer of this manual may well be tread-
ing on dangerous ground when he
(surely not she) offers salesmen a glos-
sary of words and phrases to be used
exclusively when selling to women.
"Use the language of fashion," it
urges. "Don't say red, blue or green-
use words like shade, hue, tint, cast, dual
tone, multicolor, etc., for this is how
women think of colors."
Shoes should not be described to wo-
men in prosaic terms, according to the
hook. You don't talk about the last of a
shoe, you refer to the shape, or, better
yet, the silhouette. And don't say toe
shape, say "toe expression." Other
phrases considered proper for use
when dealing with women are "heel
"contour," "hugging topline" and "sculp-
tured lines." Such language, the manual
points out, "dramatizes the fashion fea-
tures of the shoe in words that ring a
fashion bell with women."
The manual also includes advice on
selling to men, who are classified by
age and status.
According to the manual, high school
and college students tend to follow the
trend of their peers, while young work-
ing men are "not faddists but individual-
ists and highly style conscious."
Men over 30, salesmen are told, are
concerned with comfort and quality.
They are likely to ask for particular
brands and are willing to pay more for
their shoes.


When selling to men, don't emphasize
long wear, unless selling workshoes or
utility boots, and don't place emphasis
on price either, the book says-but, as
in dealing with women, do stress style.
Aware that parents of small children
are as interested in long wear as in
style, the manual gives some interesting
statistics to help a salesperson push
sturdy shoes. It points out that the aver-
age active child's shoe must take 20,000
flexings or bendings a day, and the same
active child will cover about 600 miles
(like walking from New York to Detroit)
during the lifetime of a pair of shoes.
George Menzies, who has worked in
Panama Canal shoestores for 23 years,
says that between 10 and 15 percent of
the men's shoes currently being sold at
the Balboa Shoe Store are the new high
heel platforms. Most sales are to young
military personnel who welcome this
dramatic change from their uniform
footwear.
Wilfred Adams, a supervisory supply
clerk who has worked in the shoe de-
partment for 16 of his 40 years with the
Canal organization, tells of one man who
admitted that he couldn't get used to
walking in high heels and came back
for a refund.
Another veteran of the shoestore
is Catalina Lopez, who is constantly
sought out by customers because of her
amazing ability to remember regular
customers' shoe sizes and to gage chil-
dren's shoe sizes on sight.
All the salespeople agree that women
buy more shoes than men, who usually
have only five to seven vairs in their
wardrobe and seldom buy more than
one pair at a time. Women, they point
out, buy shoes to go with dresses or
other accessories.


SPRING 1974






The new styles in men's shoes are
making many men more fashion con-
scious and they are beginning to accept
the colorful new numbers with red,
green and blue uppers-not just the
blacks, brown and cordovans. White
shoes always have been fairly popular
in the tropics.
Dexter Shoe Co. of Boston, one of the
companies that supplies the Canal Zone,
features a line of fancy boots with such
names as "Baron," "Mosaic," "Camelot,"
"Sentinel," and "Sidewinder."
Canal Zone shoe customers in con-
struction days weren't troubled by the
problem of making a selection from a
long line of styles and models. But wo-
men, in particular, had a problem of
another nature. Reminiscing about those
days, the August 15, 1939 edition of the
Panama American points out that local
shoemakers didn't realize that American
women had longer, narrower feet than
Panamanian women. The article relates
that one day Colonel Coethals asked
two young girls what was most needed
in the Zone. One said books, the other
said shoes. Colonel Goethals then
suggested she was vain. "No," she re-
sponded, "Not vain, just awfully uncom-
fortable."
Men's shoes of various types were
imported by the Canal organization
during construction days-both for sale
in the commissary and for issuing to
workers.
In his history of the Panama Canal
and the construction days, published in
1915, Ira E. Bennett writes of the "high
quality" shoes supplied to the Canal
workers by a Rochester, N.Y. firm, which
"made many shipments of shoes that
were used by the Canal officers and
heads of departments and their fam-
ilies." The laborers' heavier shoes were
furnished by other firms, he notes.
Records show that the Canal organi-
zation also bought quantities of expend-
able cloth shoes with rope soles called
"alpargatas" in Spanish, but which to-
day are referred to in sophisticated
sportswear circles by the French name,
"espadrilles." The humble alpargata,
which is still worn extensively in
Europe, particularly Spain, sold during
construction days for 15 or 20 cents a
pair and were issued to patients at
Corozal around 1914.
Still, the variety of shoes available
on the Isthmus during those early days
was anything but extensive. Shoes were
utilitarian, not stylish. As late as 1920,
the chief quartermaster of the Canal
Zone proposed that a standard line of
shoes be carried in the commissary for
men and another for women. Or at most,


9. *






,,.


:


Above: Standing tall on the steps of the Panama Canal Administration Building,
this stylish young man draws an approving look from a friend.

Below: Fashion forecasters say the high platform styles are on the way out
and pointed shoes with shaft heels are coming back.


TIlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







The Old Shoes


Colombian poet Luis C. L6pez likened the attachment a man feels for a pair of old shoes
to his affection for his native city, Cartagena. The poem was immortalized in this
unique monument by Emesto C. Martelo. At left: Sketches of shoes worn
during the construction days of the Panama Canal.


he was willing to concede that only four
styles be offered-one low price and one
medium price for each.
In those days, Army issue shoes were
evidently very much sought after for
their sturdy qualities. But wearing of
distinctive uniform items by civilians
was prohibited by the National Defense
Act of 1916. On April 2, 1918, the Star
& Herald reported that Canal Zone
police had stopped a man for wearing
Army shoes. The arresting officer, a
former soldier with the 29th Infantry
Regiment at Culebra, knew an Army
shoe when he saw one. The offender,
who had been a businessman during
construction days at Empire, was ab-
solved when the judge ruled that shoes
did not constitute a "distinctive" part
of the uniform. But he had to give up
the shoes anyway, because they bore the
mark of the Philadelphia Depot. Along
about the same time, at the request of
the military, the sale of olive drab flan-
nel shirts was discontinued at the com-
missaries.
Panama's shoe industry was born in
the mid-1920's and has grown rather
steadily since. Today, there are 10 fac-
tories plus a number of independent
shops which still produce shoes by hand.
Among the largest producers are Em-
presa Panamefia de Calzados, which for
the last few years has held a franchise
for the local manufacture of the U.S.-
designed Hush Puppies; Coda, S.A., La
Central; and Fabrica Nacional de Cal-
zado Francisco Pereira.
Only one of the Panama factories. La
Central, has ventured to produce the
new platform styles. Others look upon


the extreme styles as a passing fad and
don't feel it is worth the investment
required for retooling. American-made
lasts for those shoes alone cost about
$9 a pair, says Alberto Pereira, whose
father founded the factory in 1934.
Pereira manufactures the sort of
shoes our parents used to call "sensible"
-mostly for men. They also make school
shoes for boys and girls as well as work
boots with steel safety toes.
Leather used by most local man-
ufacturers is produced in Panama, which
has three tanneries-two in Panama
City and one in Chitr6. Synthetics are
imported, some from Europe, but mostly
from the United States.
The fuel crisis has affected the shoe
industry, since many of these synthetics
are byproducts of petroleum and have
become scarce, Pereira points out. Still,
his factory produces between 700 and
800 pairs a day.
Most experts in the industry agree
with Pereira about the heavy platforms
going out of style. Ads in a recent issue
of one of the trade publications, Foot-
wear News, show a nostalgic trend to-
ward the styles of the 30's-Yves St.
Laurent, Givenchy and Dior are going
back to the pointed toes and shaft heels.
And the few platforms illustrated are
much, much lower.
Whatever the future may hold, you
can bet your brogans that buyers will
continue to listen to the St. Laurents,
the Givenchy's and the Diors and not
to the medics or the Naders.
Just so they don't go back to the
crackowe.


SPRING 1974


~~ ~~.
J~H~ re


-1-A








Below: George Menzies arranges a display at the Balboa Shoe
Store. Between 10 and 15 percent of men's shoes sold at
this outlet are of the new high-heel style.


Above: Fitting children's shoes is a specialty with Catalina
L6pez, who after 18 years in the Balboa Shoe Store,
can gage sizes on sight.


Shoemaking in Panama


Most of the modern machinery used
by Panama manufacturers is leased from
U.S. firms. Only one of the Panama
factories has ventured to produce
the new platform styles.


Panama's shoe industry was born in the 1920's. Today there are 10 factories plus
a number of independent shops which still produce shoes by hand.
Pereira's plant manufactures between 600 and 700 pairs a day
and concentrates on utilitarian shoes for men, boys
and girls.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




















HE INTERNATIONAL FLAVOR
of Panama, busy crossroads of the
world, is reflected in a wide variety of
restaurants geared to please the palates
of a heterogeneous clientele.
Chinese food has a long tradition in
Panama, where Chinese restaurants
have existed for many years. Two of the
most luxurious are Palacio Lung Fung
and Panachina. The most popular, how-
ever, are older restaurants located in the
old part of the city. Among them are
Gran Oriente, Nuevo Gran Oriente,
Mandarin, Gran China and Taiwan.
Lung Fung and Panachina offer sim-
ilar menus and international fare. The
large variety of Chinese food includes
the famous sharkfin soup and a gour-
met's delight, whole corbina stuffed
with a mixture of ground peanuts and
almonds, Chinese parsley, water chest-
nuts and green onions, seasoned with
soy sauce and sesame oil.
Abalone with chicken is another spe-
cialty available in these two restaurants.
Very thin slices of abalone are combined
with chicken, water chestnuts, bamboo
shoots, soy sauce, "ve tsin" powder (a
Chinese condiment) and other ingre-
dients in this superb dish.
Triple Delicia Lung Fung, recently
introduced at Lung Fung, is a combi-
nation of chicken, roast pork and shrimp
cooked with Chinese seasonings, veg-
etables and oyster sauce.
Steamed corbina is another prestige
dish at Lung Fung.
The traditional dishes of Spain are
popular in Panama restaurants. The
famous paella, the cocido and the Span-
ish tortilla, prepared in a variety of
ways, are favorite dishes in a number
of eating places.
Paella, which gets its name from the
receptacle in which it is cooked, is made
in literally dozens of ways. It is a rice
dish combined with chicken, clams,
mussels, shrimp, Spanish sausage, squid,
artichoke hearts and a host of season-
ings that make it a veritable feast. The
Valencia version of paella is the most
popular in Panama.
Excellent Spanish food and seafood


Panama's



Restaurants

By Franklin Castrell6n

are found at Panamar, a picturesque
eating place with an open air tropical
garden, located on the shores of Pan-
ama Bay. El Dorado, a downtown res-
taurant, also serves an excellent paella.
Panamar's paella contains the seafood
of Panama waters and the traditional
ingredients of the Valencia dish, aspar-
agus, pimentos and olives.
Panamar also features the classic sea-
food dish, Cazuela de Catalufia which
combines lobster, oyster, clams, mussels,
shrimp, corbina and other seafood,
grilled in butter and served with a sauce
made of butter, curry powder, garlic,
salt and pepper.
Another delicious dish served at Pan-
amar is Corbina a la Sueca, Corbina
Swedish style, in which the fish is
topped with a mixture of chopped, hard-
boiled egg, "recado verde" (Panama-
nian herbs) and Panamar's own sauce.
Specialties at El Dorado are Corbina
a la Victoria, Salpicon de Langosta, Pul-
po a la Gallega and Langosta-filete.
In the corbina dish, the fillets are
flambeed in cognac and sherry and then
served with a sauce of butter, tomatoes,
bacon bits, garlic, and onion and sea-
soned with salt. The dish is garnished
with shrimp and served with potatoes
and a vegetable.
Good Spanish food is also found at


the Caballo de Hierro, genuine old Pan-
ama Railroad cars turned restaurants.
where the waitresses are attraclivekl
dressed in railroad-type uniform.., alnd
at Los Tarantos, where in addition to
good food, there is Spanish music and
decor.
Panama Sefiorial with its "Patio Pa-
namenfo" is one of Panama's best res-
taurants where international fare is
served in a beautiful garden atmos-
phere. Specialties are imported meats
and Panama seafood.
Excellent Spanish dishes also are
served at the restaurants of Pan.,n.a's
leading hotels.
The well-known lasagne, gnocci. ra-
violi, and a host of other popular dishes
are only a small part of the phenome-
non known as pastas. Italian rice dishes
are as delicious as the famous pastas
made of wheat flour. It is surprising to
note that Italy consumes more rice per
capital than most Western countries
Numerous Italian restaurants in Pan-
ama serve an endless variety of special-
ties. Among the better-known are Las
Americas, Sarti, Napoli, Capri. Rizzo
and Bigote.
The former Panazone Restaurant.
which opened in 1940 and later became
Las Americas, was famous for its pasta
dishes. It's clientele included well-
known personalities-among them Ar-
gentine President Juan Domingo Peron
and the late President Josh Remon Can-
tera of Panama.
A highly recommended rice dish
available at all of these restaurants. is
Risotto alla Milanesa. It is rice cooked
in chicken broth, flavored with saffron
and served with grated Parnesan
cheese.
A new Mexican restaurant, the Azte-
ca, is located in Las Cumbres. jaoout a
15-minute drive from downtor n Pan-
ama City. The wide variety of NMe\ican
dishes includes tacos, enchiladas, cha-
lupas, Mexican tamales, and nachos.
Most of these dishes are accompanied
by refried beans. The combination plate,
the Azteca Special, gives those unfa-
miliar with Mexican food an opportu-
nity to sample a variety of dishes.


SP RNG 1974


Capers






When avocados are in season the Az-
teca offers guacamole, a delicious mix-
ture of mashed avocado seasoned with r\0
lemon juice, chopped onion, tomato and
garlic. Also available is an excellent
sopa de mondongo, tripe soup, for those
who enjoy such fare.
The newly opened Kyoto Restaurant
serves a variety of Japanese dishes to
suit the most discriminating tastes.
Diners are served by waitresses in Ja-
panese garb, emulating the geishas.
There is a Japanese style dining room
for those who prefer to eat in the tradi-
tional Japanese manner. Among the
many Japanese dishes are Sukiyaki,
Tempura, shabushbu and makizuki.
Sukiyaki, beef with Japanese vegetables,
is perhaps the most familiar to Amer-
icans. It contains thin strips of meat,
vegetables, fried and flavored with soy -
sauce and sake, and served with very
thin rice noodles or rice.
The better-known restaurants serving
South American specialties are La
Fonda Antioquefia offering Colombian
dishes, and La Pampa, famous for its
charcoal cooked Argentine meats.
La Fonda offers several versions of
the Arepa Antioquefia and beans with
bacon rinds. The specialty of the house
is the typical Antioqueio Platter, that
consists of rice, ground meat, bacon ........
rinds, egg, patacones (fried green plan-
tain) and other Colombian goodies. La The Lung Fung



Fare From Everywhere

The Kyoto The Azteca


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




























ABOVE: An inviting
breezeway connects two old
Panama Railroad cars that
became the Caballo de
Hierro, one of Panama's
favorite restaurants where
Spanish food is served.
AT LEFT: Seviche,
sancocho, almojabanas and
tortillas are among
the typical foods of Panama
served at Don Samy II,
one of Panama's
most popular eating places.


Fonda also serves a delicious Colombian
style roast beef and pork.
La Pampa does honor to meat cooked
over charcoal and served with "chimi-
churry" sauce. In addition to charcoaled
meats, La Pampa serves charcoal cooked
fish and seafood.
The typical food of Panama should
not be overlooked. Such dishes as sevi-
che, the many other fish dishes, tortillas,
chicharrones (bacon rinds) almojabanas,
guacho and sancocho are good fare.
These dishes are found at El Gallo de
Oro (also known as Don Samy II), Don
Samy I and the Jor6n de Vista Hermo-
sa, La Tablita, El Bohio Turistico at
Old Panama and the Bohio Hipico.
Don Samy I, a standup, snack-type
eatery, whose origin dates back to 1945,
when its owners operated a beverage
pushcart, has been a favorite of the local
populace. Later, the pushcart was el-
evated to a kiosk and by 1945 the owner
was offering fried yucca, bean tarts, and
meat-on-a-stick.
A fire temporarily interrupted oper-
ations in early 1960 but it wasn't long
before Don Samv I was back in busi-


ness ser ini carirnaolas, andi more vuc-
ca specialties. The establishment pros-
pered and in 1968, additional typical
foods were added to the menu. There
was chicken soup at 100 a cup and
people from all walks of life stopped by
to have a quick snack. Among them, the
United States astronauts, President Fi-
gueres of Costa Rica, and various Hol-
lywood stars. Don Samy I is now operat-
ing as a cooperative in an area known
as the "Besodromo," a lover's lane.
El Gallo de Oro, the sitdown version
of Don Samy I, opened in 1969. The
menu features such Panamanian favor-
ites as the delicious sancocho and gallo
pinto.
Gallo pinto, misnamed because it con-
tains no fowl, is a soupy stew made of
rice and beans and pieces of pork tail,
served with a typical sauce.
A version of Sancocho Santefo is
served at the Jor6n de Vista Hermosa
where the cook adds pimento, celery,
sweet pepper, Chinese parsley, onion
and fried green plantain to Panama's
national dish.


SPRING 1974


h- "












































Local jockeys, horses

make racing history


By Jose T. Tufi6n
PANAMA RACE FANS HAD
their finest hour at 4 p.m. Decem-
ber 2, 1973 when a Panamanian bred
3-year-old named Montecarlo romped
home to win the 7th International Ca-
ribbean Classic at President Remon
Racetrack.
Ridden by Panamanian jockey Mar-
cel Zfliiga, Montecarlo, born in Pan-
ama, sired and foaled by Panamanian
stock, is the first native horse to win
the $50,000 classic.
The race was a thriller. Montecarlo
surged forward with a fantastic burst of
speed near the end of the 1,1-mile track
passing Karachi, a Colombian horse, by
312 lengths. Other horses included the
best racers from Mexico, Puerto Rico,
Panama, Venezuela and Colombia.
Twenty-five thousand spectators, who


Panama's proud
Montecarlo
and jockey
Marcel Zfiiga
head for the
winner's circle after
the running
of the Seventh
International
Caribbean Classic.


TH.E PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










-I



S


K


-'It-


- ~m ~-- -


At left: Laffit Pincay, Jr., the outstanding
Panamanian jockey who earned a
record $4 million in
purses while riding at U.S. tracks.

Below: Manuel Icaza, the first Panamanian
jockey to make the big time in
the United States.
He is now Panama's consul general
in New York.








crowded President Remon Racetrack,
stomped and cheered as the Panama-
nian horse crossed the finish line. Among
them probably were many oldtimers
who remembered when it was touch
and go for the sport of kings in Panama.
According to Julio Mercado, one of
the most distinguished horseracing afi-
cionados in Panama, the first horse races
were held about the turn of the century
on the Bella Vista Beach with horses
running between a site now occupied
by the Panama Yacht Club and the en-
trance of the Mataznillo River near Pai-
tilla Point. This area was used later for
many years as an exercise run for the
horses from Juan Franco Racetrack.
The races were held whenever the
spirit moved the horse owners but
usually there was a race on Sunday
when residents of Panama City would
make the long trip on foot from the
Cinco de Mayo Plaza near the Panama
Railroad Station to Bella Vista, which
was then a rural area.
In the dry season, races often were
held in Las Sabanas, a popular dry sea-
son resort area for Panama residents.
Only native horses took part in these
early races, but as the sport became
more popular, horses were imported
from Jamaica and other countries for
racing and breeding.
Race fans began to clamor for a per-
manent racetrack and official support
for their hobby. A site was chosen for
the racetrack, the clubhouse and grand-
stand at a former ranch called Juan
Franco.


Ironically, President Belisario Porras,
one of the most progressive and popular
of Panama's presidents, threw cold wa-
ter on the idea. He believed that the
newly nationalized lottery would suffer
if the state were to sponsor horse racing
which naturally involved betting.
It took the best efforts of a group of
influential citizens headed by the Pres-
ident's dear friends, Julio Mercado, and
Eduardo Chiari, to change the Pres-
ident's mind.
They finally convinced Dr. Porras
that the official support of racing in Pan-
ama would not only make thousands of
race fans happy but would create new
sources of employment and would not
interfere with the lottery. And it didn't.
The new racetrack was built at Juan
Franco, and in 1922, it was opened
formally with President Porras; Dr.
John G. South, U.S. Minister to Pan-
ama; Raul Espinosa, the first president
of the Jockey Club; and other officials
in attendance.
In addition to Don Raul, a number
of well known Panama residents con-
tributed to the success of the new Jockey
Club. Among them were Don Francisco
Arias Paredes; Don Ernesto "Neco" de
la Guardia; General Nicanor De Obar-
rio, owner of the land on which the
track was built; Carlos Muller; To-
mas Gabriel Duque; and David M.
Toledano.
Much credit for the success of the
club can be given to Don Raul, who
made trips to the United States on busi-
ness related to the operation of the race-
track and the purchase of horses. On
one occasion he bought 100 racehorses
and divided them among Panamanians
interested in racing. The recipients,
mostly West Indians, repaid Don Raul
with their winnings at the track.
Residents of the Canal Zone also took
an active part in the development of the
Panama Tockev Club and many owned
horses which they entered in the races.
Some of the younger Canal Zone youths
acted as jockeys and others exercised
horses on the Bella Vista sands just for
the fun of it.
Henry Makibbin, who recently re-
tired from the Panama Canal, was one
of the most enthusiastic. He spent much
of his spare time at the racetrack and
on several occasions went to the United
States to study horse training. He
bought his first horse in the 1940's. It
was a native Panamanian horse which
won several races.
Makibbin became so adept at train-
ing horses that he took over the care of
a mare named Catesaha, owned by Don
Julio Mercado, which had lost all the
races in which she was entered. He sur-

16 SPUINc 1974











SL,.


- ,%C


L- ~


-7- 7

-4..


Finishing at least 2 lengths ahead of his nearest rival in the Mothers Day Classic, December 8, 1972, is
Epistle, a product of the San Miguel ranch.


A Popular Sport Since Construction Days


mised that all the horse needed was a
little rest, and after several weeks at
pasture, he put the horse back in the
running. Lacking confidence, however,
in his own training ability, he bet on the
favorite. Gatesaba won the race. This
led him to remark that owners and
trainers should go after the purse and
leave the betting to others.
In 1946, all games of chance involving
betting were taken over by the Panama
Government and about the same time it
was decided that Panama needed a new
racetrack.
President Jose Antonio Remon, one of
the most avid of horseracing fans, pro-
moted the idea and plans were made for
construction of a track in an area on the
outskirts of the city where Charles Lind-
bergh had landed the Spirit of St. Louis
during a goodwill tour in 1928.
Ironically, President Remon was as-
sassinated at Juan Franco before the
new racetrack was completed, but it was
inaugurated and named for him in 1956,
during the administration of his succes-
sor, President Ricardo Arias Espinosa.
The new racetrack, which attracts
thousands of fans weekly, has all modern
facilities including two courses, an auto-
matic totalizator, ample parking space
and lighting for night races.
As predicted by the early founders of


Panama's Jockey Club, other sources of
employment and interest have grown
along with the sport. A number of Pan-
amanians have gone into the business of
horse breeding and Panamanian jockeys
have become prominent at racetracks in
the United States and in other nations.
Pioneers in the horse breeding busi-
ness are Carlos and Fernando Eleta,
well known Panama businessmen, who
started a horse farm in 1948 in the
highlands of Chiriqui Province. The Ele-
ta brothers bred a string of winning rac-
ers, including the fabulous Montecarlo,
from an Irish stallion named Keyhaven.
The money won by the descendents of
this fantastic horse has amounted to
more than a million dollars.
Another horse farm in the Chiriqui
highlands is owned by Mrs. Rosita de
Martinz, widow of the late Louis Mar-
tinz, whose home in Cerro Punta is a
showplace of Panama. Also in Chiriqui
is San Jose Farm, owned by Carlos Ju-
rado, well known Chiriqui businessman.
Perhaps the best known of the Pan-
ama jockeys are Manuel Icaza, at present
Panama Consul General in New York;
and Braulio Baeza, whose mounts won
both the Kentucky Derby and the Bel-
mont Stakes. Until his retirement Icaza
was considered one of the outstanding
jockeys in the United States. He has
ridden more than 2,000 winners which
earned some $15 million.


EUREKA

Race Book


Colon, 4th July, 1914

A Program of the Reeing Events, ac-
cording to the authorlaed list of the
Stewards and promoters.
ALSO
THE LATEST SONGS, JOKES AND
HUMOROUS SELECTIONS.
W I T H
the advertisements of the leading
Merchants and Commmercial
houses of Colon and Panama.

J. a. NAAR. COMPILER






The U.S. Independence Day racing event
heralded by this program took place in
Colon just a few weeks before the
Panama Canal opened. No one really
knows when the sport of kings
started in Colon or when it died out.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


it~j~


; _, I. 1 ;0!








DISNEY WORLD




A Look Backstage


By Willie K. Friar


_~ It


IIERE'S ENOUGH LAND IIERE
Sto hold all the ideas and plans
we can possibly imagine," said Walt
Disney back in 1964 as he discussed
his plans for Disney World. "With the
technical know-how of American in-
dustry anld the creative imagination
of the Disney organization, I am con-
fidents we can build a living show-
case that more people will talk about
and come to look at than any other area
in the world."
Disney World, which is moving up
to the top of the list of destitinations o
greatest interest to Panauma Canal em-
plolye'rs heading for family vacations in
the United States, is living up to all of
Walt Disney's 'xpectiations.
Located near Orlando, I]la., it is
not only a popular vacation spot lbut
it is at tracting architects and engi-
neers, who want to take a look behind
the scenes and see ]ihow it all works and
works so well. Thn'v come to learn ]howss
ecological problems have beeni sIl\ed,




At right: A special eflrets expert peers
around a candelabra in thie lnaunted
Mansion as lie performs a walk-through
inspection of the furnishings.
Center: An employee selects her costume
from the wardrobe department which
clothes mnre people oni a daily basis
than any other wardrnme department
in the world. Far right: A gardener waters
a moose. The mann topiary figures,
which decorate the gromuds, require
careful grooming and nurturing.


All photos in this article
SWalt Disney Productions.


new ways of city planning, ahout gar-
bage collection and flood control.
One of the ideas in which there is
great interest is Disney World's hase-
inent which covers 8 acres. Disney
World. boasts that it has the largest
basement in Florida.
This vast service area, which spreads
Ienerath the entire park, is where all the
water, electric, and sewage lines are
concealed lbt located so that they are
readily accessible for repair. Disney
made sure that the sound of the jack
hammer, taking up pavement to repair
a broken water line, will never he heard
in tile Magic Kingdom.
Special supply-carrying tractors oper-
ate here so that no delivery trucks dis-
turb the atmosphere above. Illusions
can he preserved, since all costumes
and dressing rooms are located here
and visitors are spared the sight of a
spaceman or a frontier guide nishing
through thn wrong theme park en route
to his own. Ile can go thriounghl corridors
and up stairs directly ioto his particular


Itorse-drawn streetcars transport visitors from M1mrltt. I. S.A. to Cinderella's Castle Mickey Mouse greets Luz Sedda, of the Canal's Rates Brand.h and her family
which is 18 stories high. From this location, '. .i i, enter Adventureland, on their arrival at Disney World. At left are her husband, ttrnian, and Melissa,
Frontierland, Liberty Square, Fantasyland and .: ."rAl.nd and at right, Tony, David, and Ana Luisa.


18 SPeING 1974 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19






S 11


w -;;
=--aas-5 :!


~-- .~


----
I ~


area, whether it is Adventureland or
Land of Tomorrow.
More than 10,000 "actors" are cos-
tumed daily in the basement. This in-
cludes theme park employees, special
entertainers, the famous Disney charac-
ters and the audio-animatronic figures
in the eight major attractions that use
this new patented Disney invention. In
this system, voices, music, and sound
effects are electronically combined and
synchronized with the lifelike move-
ments of three-dimensional objects rang-
ing from birds and flowers to humans.
These figures wear out costumes rapid-
lv because of the many movements they
are programed to make. The 36 Pres-
idents of the United States in the Hall
of Presidents, for instance, stand, sit,
nod, turn and smile. Replacement parts
for their costumes are included in the
more than 1,000,000 different items in
the wardrobe department.
Visitors to the Magic Kingdom think
that it must be magical that no noisy
garbage trucks are seen anywhere. This
is made possible by the Swedish gar-
bage system which whisks refuse by vac-
uum tubes from 15 stations within the
park to a compacting plant hidden from
view outside the gates. Even the service
basement has no garbage trucks and
they will never be needed anywhere in
the theme park area. The system is cap-
able of handling 50 tons of refuse daily.
Architects think that this system could
he adapted for use in new suburban
areas now being developed.
Disney \Vorld's environmental pro-
tection operation is verve thorough con-
cerning air and water pollution control.
This falls under the supervision of a
former Governor of the Canal Zone.
William E. Potter, who has the title of
chairman of the Reedy Creek Improve-
ment District. Reedy Creek, controlled
by the Disney organization, sets air and
water pollution standards, and handles
many other diverse functions.
An enormous computer supervises
the whole operation and provides a fire
monitoring system that is tied into Dis-
nev World's own fire department. It also
monitors all rides and mechanical de-
vices throughout the park. automatical-
Iv shutting down any equipment that
malfunctions.
All of this, of course, is to support
the Magic Kingdom, the amusement




Hotels at Disney World are the
Contemporary, at top, the Polynesian
Village, center, and the
Golf Resort, at left.

20 SPRING 1974






park itself, and an important part of
maintaining its illusions is that every-
thing works and works well. There are
no blackouts and the trains, trams, and
boats all work efficiently and on time.
Although the daily volume of visitors
exceeds 50,000 people, who discard
about a pound and a half of litter each,
the streets stay clean.
Young visitors to Disnevland often
wish they could stay overnight in the
magical atmosphere. At Disney World
this is possible as there are three unique
hotels, the 1,057-room Contemporary
Resort Hotel, the 500-room Polynesian,
and the 151-room Golf Hotel.
Later, as part of a 5-year plan, several
other resorts will be added, including
themes from the Old West, Venice, Asia
and Persia. All will overlook the Seven
Seas Lagoon or 450-acre Bay Lake.
Most spectacular of the resorts is the
Contemporary, which has convention
and exhibit facilities, including restau-
rants and entertainment areas, shops,
nightclubs, beaches and a marina.
The Contemporary tower is an un-
usual building in many ways. It was
constructed of preassembled room units
overlooking an inner-concourse so vast
it is called the "Grand Canyvon."
The concourse is much like an out-
door park that has been moved indoors.
At its center is a four-sided tile mural
nine stories high, depicting the colors
and patterns of the Grand Canyon.
Called "The Pueblo Village" it covers
18,000 square feet, and is one of the
world's largest murals.
Through the heart of this busy con-
course travels the silent, all-electric
monorail carrying guests to the Magic
Kingdom, to the main parking area
and to the Polynesian Village.
At the Polynesian Village, guest
rooms are nestled in three-story "long-
houses" arranged around a picturesque
marina with quiet beaches, broad green
lawns, and swaying palms to complete
the island setting. Dining room menus
in the Papeete Bay Veranda, overlook-
ing the Seven Seas Lagoon, reflect the
French heritage of Tahiti.
Near the Polynesian Village is the
Golf Resort Hotel with two 18-hole
championship golf courses, the Magno-
lia and The Palm. Clubhouse, dining
room, practice green and driving range
are available. A third course is planned.
Still another major vacation attraction
is located on the south shore of Bay
Lake. The 600-acre Fort Wilderness
camping area has campsites nestled
among pines and long winding water-
ways.
Utility hookups, frontier store and


recreation centers are also among Fort
Wilderness facilities and nearby is a
private beach. Horseback riding is avail-
able at the Tri-Circle D Ranch with
miles of woodland trails.
Parades, spectacular water shows, and
holiday extravaganzas complete the total
entertainment concept. Its nightly fire-
works displays make Disney World the
largest user of fireworks in the world.
The gateway to Walt Disney World
is located 20 miles southwest of Orlan-
do on U.S. Highway 192, just west of
Interstate 4. Guests not staying at Dis-
ney hotels travel 4 miles across the Dis-
ney property to a day-visitor parking
area for 12,000 vehicles. Nearby is a
STOLport for short takeoff and landing
airplane service to areas in Florida.
Trams take guests from their cars
to the main entrance complex on the
south shore of the lagoon. This complex
includes the Kal Kan Kennel Club pet
motel where everything, from pet rac-
coons to pet lions, has been boarded,
and the guest relations offices.
Nearly a mile awav to the north can
be seen the Victorian-style station of the
Walt Disney World Railroad where
steam trains, trams or 500-passenger
ferryboats can be found.


But the most appealing single feature
of the whole operation is not me-
chanical. It is about 9,000 people, most
22 years old or younger, who make up
the staff, all extremely bright, good
looking, and eager to please. There
doesn't seem to be a sullen, disagree-
able employee in the lot and when they
greet new arrivals with "Have a Happy
Day," it tends to convince adults as well
as children that they have escaped into
a different world.
Other phases of the development of
the Disney property include a unique,
leisure-oriented residential community,
industrial parks and in the future,
EPCOT-the Experimental Prototype
Community of Tomorrow.
W\alt Disney envisioned EPCOT as a
living blueprint of the future-a com-
munity which could put into practical
use the newest innovations and systems
of American industry and technology.
Many of the Phase I developments are
already testing new ideas, forerunners
of the imagination and pioneering
spirit that perhaps one day will pro-
vide a model for a different type of
community.


---




A river boat cruises by Harper's Mill on Tom Sawyer Island. Disney World has
its own fleet of more than 200 vessels, including sternwheel steamboats.
canoes, rafts, and submarines.


THE ]ANAMA CANAL REVIEW


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Babel on the Banks of the Panama Canal


By Fannie P. Hernandez


Tilman Schlegelberger, a talented artist, sketches his sister, Felizitas, in the tropical garden atmosphere of the patio at the Embassy
residence in Panama City. Full-time students at Canal Zone College, Tilman is preparing for a medical career in Germany
and Felizitas, is studying to be an elementary school teacher. Both came to the Isthmus in 1972.


SPRING 1974


C;M-xxx-%1 c~oxt- COIC3114-4a







Q U'UBO! HI! HOLA! MOIM!
Kumusta Kayo! are informal
greetings that may be heard on the
campus of Canal Zone College where
the international character of the small
citadel of learning on the banks of the
Canal is as cosmopolitan as the legion
of ships that transit the waterway. The
greetings are the jargon of students of
Panama, the United States, Spain, Ger-
many and the Philippines.
Established in 1933 as a 2-year col-
lege to meet the needs of higher educa-
tion in the Canal Zone community, the
college expanded its curriculum in
1962 to offer a third-year program.
Student enrollment has been increased
since then by the many young people
and adults of the civilian and military
community who are taking advantage
of this opportunity to continue their
education.
Helping to create a truly internatio-
nal atmosphere are 50 students from
half as many countries who, in addition
to the U.S. and the Panamanian stu-
dents, make up the 1,400 members of
the student body.
Among these students are the chil-
dren of the diplomatic and consular
families accredited to Panama. Repre-
senting many lands are the young wives
of U.S. military personnel, who have
not completed their formal education
and find the college a convenient facility
for earning college credit while their
husbands serve a tour of duty. Others
enroll in the 1-year secretarial pro-
gram, take art courses, study English or
Spanish, or receive instruction in the
various sports offered in the physical
education program.
Personnel of the numerous banks that
have been established in Panama in re-
cent years, employees of shipping firms,
industries and development projects on
the Isthmus, are often found attending
evening classes to improve their Eng-
lish. Or they may be taking refresher
courses in economics, engineering,
mathematics or design.
The cultural background, national
origins and the experiences of these
students are as varied as the nations
they represent. They come from South
America, Central America, Europe, the
Far East and the Near East. Their per-
sonalities, interests and talents add a
touch of international flavor and geog-
raphy to the student body.
From the Near East, there is Simin
Ghomashchi of Teheran, who had pub-
lished a book of poetry and written
numerous novels of romance for wo-
men's magazines before she met Sgt.
Roy L. Dailev, who was stationed at the


B. ~! E r.r o ~l0;-j
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I


Wearing the typical dress of Cuzco, Flor de Herrer performs the huayno,
one of the traditional dances of the highlands of Peru, her native land.


U.S. Embassy in the Iranian capital. She
had completed 2 years of work in Ira-
nian literature, a proper curriculum for
the daughter of a wealthy merchant and
exporter of Persian rugs. Through an
American couple, who had leased one
of her father's houses, she met Dailey
and they were married after overcoming
the opposition of a tradition-bound
father and strict religious obstacles.
Mrs. Dailev recently completed the
1-year secretarial program at the college
and is currently taking courses in busi-
ness administration. In addition to her
native language, Farsi, she speaks Eng-
lish, Turkish and some Russian. Her


husband is a native of South Carolina
and is serving with the U.S. Army
Communications Command at Quarry
Heights. He also attends Canal Zone
College.
An actress and singer turned student,
Estrelita Howe, one of the four students
from the Philippines, recently com-
pleted courses in typing and shorthand.
Born in Manila, she grew up in Bataan,
site of the infamous World War II
death march.
During her movie career in the early
1960's, she was known as Lita Estrella
and appeared in a number of films
including "No Man Is An Island" with


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





































n .

the well known Hollywood actor, Jeffrey
Hunter, and "Twenty-seventh Cavalry"
with the beautiful German actress, Ur-
sula Andress. Both were war pictures
filmed in the Philippines.
She made many personal appearances
at fiestas and festivals throughout the
Philippines but it was while on a sing-
ing engagement in Japan that she met
and married Earl W. Howe, who was
serving there with the U.S. Navy. The
petite actress-singer and her husband,
who is assigned to Navy Communica-
tions in the 15th Naval District, have
three children.
Felizitas Schlegelberger, 21, and her
brother, Tilman, 20, who were born in
Bonn, Germany, came to the Isthmus
in 1972, when career diplomat, the late
Dr. Gunther Schlegelberger, their fa-
ther, was appointed West German Am-
bassador to Panama. They have lived in
Japan, Vietnam, the Philippines and
Switzerland, and in addition to their
native language, speak English, Span-
ish and French. Both are full-time stu-
dents. Felizitas is studying liberal arts
and education courses preparing to be
an elementary school teacher. Tilman is
taking courses in preparation for a med-
ical career he plans to pursue in Europe.
Both are delighted with the people and
climate of Panama where they are en-
joying swimming and tennis. Tilman, a


Estrelita Howe, who before her marriage
was Lita Estrella, the Philippine movie
actress of the early 1960's, poses in her
beautiful Philippine dress with the
"Maria Clara" sleeves. The wife of
a member of the U.S. Navy stationed
in the Canal Zone, Mrs. Howe has been
studying commercial courses at the college.




talented painter, is taking art classes
with Sinclair, one of Panama's leading
artists.
Another native of Germany attending
Canal Zone College is Michael Martin,
a 19-year-old enlisted man stationed at
Headquarters Company, Fort Clayton.
During the day, he is a parts order clerk
for Army vehicles, communications
equipment and weapons. In the eve-
nings, he studies sociology and psychol-
ogy and world civilization. Next semes-
ter he plans to take sketching and draw-
ing to prepare for a career as a designer
or commercial artist when he leaves the
service. Michael was born in Wiesba-
den. His mother is from East Germany
and his stepfather is a U.S. citizen in
the Armed Forces. He has lived in the
United States and the Far East and
has a deep appreciation for different
cultures.
Addy Weij, son of the Consul of the
Netherlands in Panama, was born in
Dusseldorf, Germany, and has lived in
Panama for the past 3 years. Prior to
coming to Panama, he had lived in
Stuttgart, Germany, and in Ghana, West
Africa, for 5 years. A full-time student,
Addy is taking courses that will be use-
ful to him when he goes to medical
school in Rotterdam. His college friends
call him the "Flying Dutchman" and he
is a little surprised to find himself the
only Dutch citizen at the college. There
had been a large group of Dutch stu-
dents at the private English school he
attended in Ghana. Addv is fluent in
Dutch, German, English and Spanish.
Zivota Pavlovich, of Yugoslavia, was
among those who recently completed a
refresher course for engineers preparing
for Canal Zone registration. Graduated
as a naval architect and mechanical en-
gineer from the University of Belgrade,
Pavlovich has been employed as a
mechanical engineering draftsman in
the Mechanical Branch of the Canal's
Engineering Division for the past 2
years. The road from his native land,


where he was employed as a naval
architect in a shipyard, to his present
position half a world away has been an
eventful one.
A little more than 8 years ago, Pav-
lovich designed a steel sailboat and
supervised its construction and then,
with three friends, he set out on a
round-the-world journey. When thev
arrived at the Panama Canal, Pavlovich
was so captivated by what he saw that
when the boat left 2 months later, he
staved behind.
Pavlovich was offered work by some
Yugoslavians who were farming in Chi-
riqui Province. Though he enjoys farm-
ing, his ambition was to work for the
Panama Canal and it mattered little to
him to begin at the bottom. His first job
with the Canal organization in 1969 was
with the Grounds Maintenance Branch,
raking leaves and cleaning the street
around the Administration Building at
Balboa Heights. After a short time he
was employed as a line handler and
locomotive helper at Pedro Miguel
Locks.
Then in Mav 1970, his perseverance
was rewarded and he returned to his
profession as a naval architect in the
Marine Bureau's Industrial Division at
Cristobal, the position he held prior to
joining the Engineering Division. Pav-
lovich is in the process of obtaining
Panamanian citizenship, and working
toward fulfilling his dream-a solo trip
around the world. He already has de-
signed two sailboats, a 24-foot and a
33-foot craft for this purpose.
From the Far East, Kim Hung Lau is
a 20-year-old, full-time student who
was born in Canton, China. She grew
up in Hong Kong and attended a Chi-
nese high school where she learned
some English. Kim came to the Isthmus
3 years ago with her mother to join her
father. She is studying business subjects
and trying to learn Spanish on her owvl.
Laura Antunez do Prado, of Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil, had a choice of either
entering college in Rio in the fall of
1970 or visiting her uncle who was a
Brazilian military officer instructing at
the School of the Americas at Fort Cu-
lick. She chose to come to Panama. Dur-
ing her visit, she attended a graduation
ceremony at the Alliance Francaise in
Colon and it was there that she met
Capt. Gary V. Cooper, whom she later
married. Mrs. Cooper, whose n:ltive
language is Portuguese, is a part-time
student studying English composition
and Spanish.
A sergeant in the U.S. Air Force
stationed at Albrook Air Force Base,


SPRING 1974







Fernando Concha, a Colombian, works
during the day as an electronics tech-
nician in the calibration laboratoriv,
calibrating and repairing electronic
equipment for the Army and the Pan-
ama Canal organization. In the eve-
nings, he takes engineering courses in
preparation for entrance into an engi-
neering school in the United States
when he leaves the service in about 2
years. Sergeant Concha is from Cali.
where he completed his "bachillerato"
at the Colegio Villegas. He also was
graduated from high school in New York
City, where he joined the Air Force.
Flor de Herrer, a full-time student in
business administration, is from Peru.
She has lived in Panama, where her
father is a scientist with the Gorgas
Memorial Laboratory, for the past 9
years and is a graduate of Balboa High
School. Born in Lima, Flor goes there
each year to visit her sister who is study-
ing medicine and her brother who is an
accountant. Completely bilingual, she
plans to continue her college education
in the United States next year. Her
favorite hobbies are swimming and
mountain climbing but most of all she
enjoys meeting people of different na-
tionalities. In addition to her studies,
she works at the Counselor's Office at
the college.
Christopher Davis was born in Chile
of a British father and Brazilian mother.
He left there many years ago but has
lived in so many countries he could be
called an international student. Chris-
topher's father is with a tobacco com-
pany in Panama and his business has
taken him to Brazil, Venezuela, Argen-
tina, Canada and England.
Enrolled in the 2-year program in
English and liberal arts, he plans a
future in political science and law. He
is a member of the Phi Theta Kappa
honor society, and has been employed
as a student assistant in the Canal's En-
gineering Division and at the college.
Laura Phlegar, the former Laura Re-
gina HernAndez, of Honduras, has been
a part-time student for the past 3 years.
She first came to the Isthmus when her
father was named Honduran Ambassa-
dor to Panama in 1955 and returned in
1964, when her father was reappointed
here. In the interim, she lived with her
family in Mexico City. She married
Emorv E. Phlegar, chief of the IAGS
Carto-Branch in 1966.
In addition to these students, there
are others from Costa Rica, Nicaragua,
Guatemala, Canada, Cuba, Spain and
France, who are either attending Canal
Zone College at this time or have
recently completed courses of study.


.-- -


The exotic beauty)
of Simin Dailey
is even more eloquent
in her native Iranian
headdress. A student in
business administration,
Mrs. Dailey met
her husband in
Teheran, when he was
stationed at the U.S.
Embassy there.


At left: Pondering
an engineering
problem is Sgt.
Fernando Concha
of the U.S. Air Force.
One of several
Colombians attending
Canal Zone College.
Below:
Christopher Davis,
born in Chile, and
Flor de Herrer,
from Peru, match
wits in a game of chess
while taking a break
from classes at Canal
Zone College.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW













Maritime




Monickers



H OW DO SHIPS GET NAMES
like Santa Claus or Arco Sag
River or China Bear. Who names them
and why? Such questions often come to
mind as one watches the international
parade of ships passing through the
Panama Canal.
When Santa Claus showed up at Bal-
boa the week before Christmas, the
Canal's weekly newspaper headlined the
event and, with tongue in cheek re-
ported, "Santa Claus transited the Canal.
She was headed north." In clarification,
the writer added that the ship was "no
relation to the good ole St. Nick."
A rebuttal from the Elpis Shipping
Co., of Greece, owners of the ship, ar-
rived immediately. Not so, said the pres-
ident. Santa Claus did indeed have a
relationship to St. Nick. She had been
named in honor of the patron saint of
Greek sailors, St. Nicholas. He added
that a retraction might be in order.
To the owners and to those who sail
on them, ships take on almost human
qualities. Unlike other vehicles of trans-
port, they seem to possess a special in-
dividuality. A great deal of thought is
given to the choosing of ships' names
and behind even the most ordinary ap-
pellation there is usually an interesting
story.
There would seem little to question
about an obvious name like Queen Eli-
zabeth II, Cunard's famous cruise ship,
but as soon as she was christened, the
company was besieged with calls asking
what the name meant.
The name selected for the liner was
a well-kept secret that had attracted at-
tention throughout Britain. More than
15,000 bets had been placed on a vari-
etv of names with the odds on Queen
Elizabeth the Second 14 to 1. Only four
peoples besides the Queen had been
told the name.


SPRING 1974































But, on the long awaited launching
day September 20, 1967, when Queen
Elizabeth stepped forward on the plat-
form at the shipyard and said, "I name
this ship Queen Elizabeth the Second,"
everyone was surprised, even the four
people who thought they knew the name
in advance. They had been told the
name would be Queen Elizabeth, but
at the last minute, the Queen had de-
cided to christen the ship, Queen Eliza-
beth the Second.
As surprised as everyone else at the
sudden change, Cunard officials were
faced with the problem of explaining it.
They were asked if it referred to Queen
Elizabeth the Second. (The first liner,
the largest passenger ship ever built,
was named for the wife of King George
VI.) Or was the name meant to imply
:hat this was the second Queen Eliza-
beth liner? The company first announced
that the ship was named as the second
liner of that name pointing out that the
originall Queen Elizabeth would soon
De out of service. Later, however, press
releases made it clear that the ship was
named for the British Queen.
The Cunard offices in London, South-
hampton, and Liverpool received more
than 500 telephone calls, within an hour
ifter the launching, congratulating them
ni the selection. Most people liked it
but a few complained, including one
woman who said that she was going out
immediately to sell all of her stock.
Another objection came from the
chairman of the Scottish Nationalist
Party who said, "It could not be a big-
ger insult to the people of Scotland."
The Scots consider the present Queen

rHIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 27


of England to be Elizabeth the First,
since they have never recognized the
Tudor Queen Elizabeth.
There is a well-knowvn story that the
naming of the Queen Mary was some-
thing of a surprise to Cunard officials
also. According to this story, a company
official told King George VI that he had
decided to name the liner for Britain's
greatest queen. The King said that he
thought it was a good idea and that he
was sure Queen Mary would be very
pleased. The official meant Queen Vic-
toria but after the incident, the ship
was duly named Queen Mlary.
By tradition, all Cunard Line ships,
except for the three Queens, have been
named after Roman countries ending in
"ia" such as lMauritania, Aquitania, Bri-
tannia, Media, Parthia, Franconia and
Carmania.


Why Pick St. Nick?

"Santa Claus," named for the patron saint
of Greek sailors, passes under the bridge
that spans the Panama Canal.




But in 1971, the tradition was broken
with the naming of the ship, Cunard
Adventurer. The company explained
that marketing considerations exerted a
strong influence in the selection It was
felt that the name would immediately
identify the ship as a vacation cruise
ship built to take passengers on exciting
seagoing adventures.
Other departures from the 134-year
tradition are the new cruise ships now
under construction which will be named
Cunard Countess and Cunard Conquest.
The famed Queen Elizabeth II will
be seen at the Canal, March 26, 1975,
when she will stop in Balboa prior to
transiting the Canal on her first around-
the-world cruise. The 963-foot-long
liner will be the largest passenger ship
ever to transit the waterway.
Naming ships with standard suffixes
or prefixes is a common practice but one
American company, no longer in exist-
ence, selected names that began with
each letter of the alphabet. In 1927,
while involved in U.S. coastal trade, the
Alleghany, Berkshire, Chatham, and
Dorchester were the first four ships in
the fleet. Thev were named for coun-
ties in the states they served. Since
the company had only 20 ships, a few
letters were skipped but this was the
pattern followed.
The Dorchester will be remembered
as the ship on which the four U.S. cha-
plains gave up their lifebelts to others,
who had none, then joined arms and


0,/










4- 54
J

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The Swedish American Lines' famous
cruise ship, "Gripsholm," passes through
a fjord. She was named for the Gripsholm
Castle in Sweden, which is shown below
as it appears on the ship's menu cover.


L


went down with the ship when it was
sunk, February 3, 1943. One of the
great tragedies of World War II, 605
of its 904 passengers either drowned or
froze to death before a rescue ship
arrived.
The ship and her four heroic chap-
lains were honored with a number of
memorials including a 3-cent postage
stamp and the Four Chaplains Chapel
in Philadelphia. Two of the chaplains
were Protestant, one Jewish, and one
Catholic.
Some companies choose one letter of
the alphabet and select names that
begin with that. For instance, the names
of all ships of the Barber Lines, which
has its headquarters in Norway, have
names that start with "t."
Some of them are Tagaytay, named
for a town in the Philippine Islands;
Tagus, a river in Portugal, which flows
into the sea at Lisbon: Tai Ping, Chinese
for great peace and/or happiness: Ta-
merlane, Timur Leng (Timur the Lame)
the Mongol Emperor (1336-1405); Ta-
rantel, tarantella, a south Italian dance,
which was derived from the name of
the spider whose bite was supposed to


cause dancing mania; and Talbot III,
the name of the French engineer (1799-
1855) who built the first railway in
France and in 1847 made plans for a
canal between Alexandria and Suez.
Talbot I was the first steamship in the
fleet and originated the "t" nomen-
clature.
The Swedish words, Kungsholm and
Gripshobn, identify the two beautiful
cruise ships of the Swedish American
Line, which frequently pass through the
Canal.
In Sweden, the word holmm" means
"little island." Kungsholm means King's
Island. Ktngsholn was also. in the 15th
and 16th centuries, a castle in Stock-
holm. It was destroyed by fire but there
is still a borough in Stockholm which is
called Kungsholmen.
The Gripsholm is named for the
Gripsholm castle on Lake Malaren in
Sweden. The name in English is Griffin's
Island. It was named for a governor. Bo
Johnson Grip. The castle, one of the
most impressive Renaissance castles in
Scandinavia. is now a museum with a
fine portrait collection.
The present Kungsholm is the second


ship of that name. The first, was taken
over by the United States shortly after
the attack on Pearl Harbor. Renamed
the John Ericsson, she carried more Iharn
170,000 troops across the Atlanti, Then
in 1946, she was converted nin, a \ ar
bride ship complete with nurer\.. (.lie
kitchen and playroom and tr.anported
279 wives and 177 babies from Eur.pe
to the United States. She \1as repmr-
chased by the Swedish Ameri,:ai Line
in July 1947 and reconverted for 4:nnse
service.
The Norwegian American Line. srn:e
1910, has named its vessels after N,:.r\e-
gian fjords. Among them are the Sra.
vangerfjord, Oslofjord, Edifiord. and
Skiensfiord. In 1965, they added the Sa.
gafiord, a name created bv simpi. :cm-
bining a recognizable Norse %..rd.
"saga" with fjord. Vistafjord, a familiar
Canal customer, is a similar case where
a word was used to conjure up a mental
view of anticipated places and events.
Using the natural features of a coun-
try or countries for the names of ships
is a common practice. The Iceland
Steamship Co. (Elmskip) names its
ships for Icelandic waterfalls. The Ice-
landic word for waterfall is foss and the
flagship of the fleet is named Gullfoss,
the Golden Waterfall. This waterfall,
which plunges over rocks in a broad gla-
cial river into a deep gorge. is regarded
as one of the most beautiful in the
world. Along with the Great Geyser,
known in Icelandic as Gevsir, it is a
major tourist attraction. Incidentally. it
is from the Icelandic word gevsir that
the English word gevser, which has been
applied to spouting hot springs all over
the world, and to water heaters in Eng-
land. is derived.
With few exceptions, all Holland
America Line passenger and naqsenger-
cargo vessels carry the names of local-
ities in the Netherlands ending in "dam"
which is the same in Dutch as in Eng-


SPRING 1974


....... .. .... .. ......... .. ... .. ... .........*** *** *
W T." '_________-






lish. In the past, dams in various rivers
were stopover points or places for trans-
ferring cargo. Towns sprang up near
them and were named for them. Rotter-
dam was located near the dam in the
Route River and Amsterdam in the
Amstel River.
In 1901, when Holland America ac-
quired its first cargo ship, to distinguish
this type ship from the passenger ves-
sels, a series of "dijk" ships was begun
The word "dijk" means dike and with
the vast number of (likes in the Nether-
lands, there has been no scarcity of
names for freighters. The company,
however, prefers to revert to names it
has used before when new ships are put
into service.
The Turkish Maritime Line chooses
geographical names. It has named three
vessels for the seas surrounding the
coast of Turkey. In case you don't re-
cognize them, Akdeniz is the Mediterra-
nean Sea; Karadcniz is the Black Sea;
and Egc, the Aegean Sea. Other ships
are named for cities in Turkey.
The Pacific Steam Navigation Co.
has been well known on the Isthmus






.
*
_... *i~


since Cold Rush days and the construc-
tion of the Panama Canal. For the most
part, it uses ports, towns, villages and
provinces of either Spain or Latin Amer-
ica, the trade areas which it serves, for
the names of its ships.
Among the ships are Ordunia, a town
in the Basque Provinces of Spain: Or-
tega, a village in Colombia; and Orco-
ma, a district in Chile. An exception is
a tanker. \William Wlhechcright, which
is named for the founder of the com-
pany. At one time, the company had a
tanker named George Peacock, the name
of PSNC's first captain, a former Royal
Navv captain, who is believed by some
to le the first to plot the present route
of the Panama Canal. In Februarv 1842.
he sailed to Panama from England to
complete a survey he had started earlier.
He made a rough chart of the route and
left it with the British Consul of Panama
before he sailed for England.
The Italian Line. which runs a reg-
ular service through the Canal from Italy
to South America. honors famous Itali .i
artists and composers not only in the
naming of their vessels, but in the case


VOLUTA
23m NOVEMBER 1961


of artists, also displays their work aboard
the ships. The ships frequently seen at
the Canal include the Rossini, the Doni-
zetti, and the Verdi.
The Baltic Shipping Company names
its cruise ships for famous Russian lit-
erary figures. The Shota Rustccelli tran-
sits the Canal enroute to Australia while
the Mikhail Lerniontoc and the Alex-
ander Pushkin operate cruises to Europe
out of New York and Canada.
The names Varicella and Hleiitro-
chus aren't familiar to the average per-
son but a shell collector would recog-
nize them at once. These ships, which
are seen often at the Canal, belong to
Shell International Marine Limited, a
company, with a tradition (f naming its
ships for seashells.
Back in 1897. when lMarcus Samuel
took over his father's shop in London,
oriental shells and curios formed part
of the stock. As a sideline, he handled
kerosene and on seeing the advantages
of transporting it in bulk, ordered a fleet
of tankers. Since lie was an authority on
shells, Samuels decided to name the first
ship. lMurcx, for that type of shell. This
ship was destined to make history as the
first ship permitted to transit tlhe Suez
Canal. (The latest ship to carry this
traditional name was luilt in 1968.)
Conch, Clam. Turbo, Elax, and Neri-
ta were put into service shortly after-
ward and in 1899. when the company
had 14 tankers, the name of the com-
pany was changed to Shell Transport
and Trading Company with the Pectan
as it's symbol. Present day ships include
the Mlitra, Mhcdore, Mysia, and M.ange-
lia. For a number of years, each ship
has carried a specimen of the shell for
which it was named. In the case of very
rare shells which have been difficult to


Above: The Voluta shell and the plaque
which gives the launching date of the
ship named for it and a Pectan shell,
the symbol of Shell International Marine
Limited. At right: Shell's 195,900 d.w.t.
"Mitra," which was built in Denmark
in 1969.


'ILE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






obtain, a model of the shell has been
made for this purpose.
Ships of the Sitmar Line and its sis-
ter company, Sitmar Cruises, are reg-
ular Canal customers. The Fairstar and
the Fairsky pass through enroute from
the United Kingdom to Australia and
New Zealand while the Fairsea and the
Fairwind transit on cruises around Cen-
tral and South America.
The casual observer might conclude
that the ships' names refer to the fair
and agreeable atmospheric conditions
under which the ships sailed. But this
is not the case. A Sitmar official, when
asked how the tradition of naming the
ships "fair" developed, said, with a cer-
tain pride, "When the line, more than
a quarter of century ago, was formed
to operate passenger vessels it was
thought, and we can today state rightly
so, that over and above all efforts (con-
struction, manning, etc.) the main fac-
tor which should secure us the success
we were aiming at was the fairness to
all concerned, i.e., not only to our pas-
sengers, but to the travel industry, to our
general sales agents, to our port agents,
to the press, to our staff, and to anyone
else who could eventually be connected
with our trade."
It was subsequently decided to com-
bine the word "fair" with an element
of navigation, such as sea, sky, star,
and wind.
With its great involvement in trade
in Latin America, it was natural for the


United Brands Co. to name its vessels
for geographical and geological features
and political figures in those countries.
Among its ships are Chiriqui and Da-
rien, named for provinces in Panama;
Turrialba, a volcano in Costa Rica; Mag-
dalena, a river in Colombia; Leon, a city
in Nicaragua; Choluteca, a coffee pro-
ducing department in Honduras; Alot-
agua, a river in Guatemala; and Lempa,
a river in El Salvador. Some exceptions
to this policy are Fra Berlanga, named
for a Dominican friar, who was the first
to introduce the banana plant into the
West Indies during early Spanish Co-
lonial rule; and Aorazan, named for
General Francisco Morazan, a native of
Honduras and one of the great historical
figures in the creation of the Federation
of Central America.
When the new container ship, China
Bear, transited the Canal recently, it
raised the question "why name a ship
bear?" The explanation is simple. The
Pacific Far East Line, Inc., with head-
quarters in San Francisco, takes its sym-
bol and names for its ships from the
state of California seal which features
a bear. The names of its other vessels
are Canada Bear, Guam Bear, Hawaii
Bear, Japan Bear, Pacific Bear, and Phil-
ippine Bear. The prefix determined by
the countries in which the vessels call.
The name of the new tanker Arco
Sag River is familiar in Alaska but not
here. This huge oil tanker, which be-
longs to Atlantic Richfield Oil Co., gets


its name from the location of the con-
firmation oil well on the North Slope
in Alaska.
During its span of 100 years, the
China Navigation Co. has owned over
200 ships, which were traditionally
named for Chinese provinces. This tra-
dition was first broken when the com-
pany began operating a Moslem pilgrim
ship on charter to Malaya under the
name of Kuala Lumpur, and more re-
cently, in 1966, when four vessels oper-
ated by a subsidiary company in New
Guinea were renamed Chiefs (Papauan
Chief, Island Chief, etc.) The current
policy is to identify ships with a par-
ticular trade route. A vessel on the Asia
Australia Express Service, for instance,
is named Asian Express.
This company also manages John
Swire and Sons and Associated Compa-
nies' five bulk carriers named for Scot-
tish villages and lochs beginning with
"Er" and there is one ship named
Eraw an for the three-headed elephant
which in Hindu mythology' provides
intercelestial transportation for the g.Jd.
Indra.
The remaining vessel of this fleet is a
cruise liner named Coral Princess for ..
other reason than that it sounds Iithl
for cruising the coral islands and atolls
of the Pacific.
Since hundreds of Japanese ships
from Aiza Alaru to Zuiyo Manr are in
service, Panama Canal guides receive
most questions about the Maru suffix.


-.-- -
_-----
--i -c -l~~-rR ~ ~ 1 Cp


~~~Y ~ _- _---L


-..-.


The Italian Line's policy of naming its ships for famous artists and composers
was followed in the naming of the "Leonardo Da Vinci," which has paintings
by the artist in its public rooms.


The "Ortega," which transits the Canal
regularly, is named for a village
in Colombia.

30 SPRING 1974


- iLl *_*_ I


*S>


21






The answer, unfortunately is that the
origin of the word is a mystery. There
are many explanations, but whether
they come from scholars or shipping
officials, they only suggest some of the
many possible origins of the tradition.
No one knows for sure. One popular
theory is that 16th century ships looked
like castles and the old Japanese char-
acter, which is still used on the ships,
means castle. Though ships no longer
look like castles, the use of the word
continues to be a tradition in the nam-
ing of Japanese ships.
Interestingly, ships are not feminine
in Japanese, as they are in most coun-
tries, and are always referred to in the
masculine gender.
The Panama Canal Company, has
only one ship, the Cristobal. It was
named for the Atlantic side terminal
port, which was originally named for
Columbus. In the past, when it had
many ships, operated by the Panama
Railroad, there was a general pattern
of naming the ships for areas on the
Isthmus. The Ancon, the first ship to
transit the Canal was named for the
Pacific side townsite of that name.
In the Middle Ages, when religious
zeal reached a peak, ships were usually
named for saints and no craft was sent
to sea without its shrine and idols.
Prudential Grace is one of the present
day lines which follows the practice of
naming ships for saints. The Santa Mer-
cedes, Santa Magdalena, and others are
well known locally.
Some names fit the ships perfectly.
What could be better for a wine carry-
ing ship than Bacchus, the god of wine
in classical mythology? This was the
name a French company gave the cargo
ship it converted in 1935 to carry wine
in bulk. The ship, which was put into
service between Algiers and Rouen,
transported as many as 30 different
varieties of wine at one time. Sunk dur-
ing the war, the first Bacchus was re-
placed in 1949 by another Bacchus. It
has 40 tanks for wine or alcohol.
It was once possible to distinguish
the type of U.S. Navy ships by their
names. For instance, submarines were
traditionally named for fish; aircraft car-
riers for battles and famous old ships;
destroyers, for well known military per-
sonnel; battleships for States and cnli-
sers for cities. This is no longer the
case. The first significant departure from
tradition was in the naming of subma-
rines. First, there was the Nautilus,
named for Jules Verne's mythical sub-
marine, and in more recent times, they
have been named for cities and pro-


Notionality
Belgian -____-
British ----------
Chilean ----
Chinese, Nat'l. -- ___
Colombian -__- _-
Cypriot -
Danish ----.----
Ecuadorean _.____.
French____
German, West -_____
Creek
Honduran _______
Italian __________..
Japanese -..----- -
Liberian -.--- ---
Netherlands _.___
Norwegian -------
Panamanian -._____
Peruvian __________
Philippine _____-
South Korean .__-_-
Soviet -----
Swedish --
United States ..__-
All others
Total -----


1974
No. of Tons
transits of cargo
78 279,717
638 6,924,670
43 665,614
104 1,146,805
94 230,816
107 649,689
175 1,362,868
46 509,732
113 663,295
378 2,516,863
701 9,478,162
56 56,990
135 1,025,817
643 6,923,312
894 15,417,105
229 1,334.531
518 7,636,929
505 3,256,365
90 838,128
47 364,991
50 302,761
132 822,350
163 1,248,731
616 5,045,671
413 3,520,445
6,968 72,222,357


1973
No. of Tons
transits of cargo
64 251,901
666 6,247,374
65 864,590
83 701,081
128 223,896
84 537.266
182 1,107,905
30 115,899
101 465,251
409 2,104,176
475 5,251,916
76 78,042
141 595,384
696 5,676,541
909 13,472,970
230 1,517,106
617 8,014,000
463 2,956,783
81 662,869
45 288,306
66 430,093
137 789,669
213 1,483,890
595 3,931,283
341 2,292,974
6,897 60,061,165


1965-69
Avg. No. Avg. tons
tronsits of cargo
39 100,725
679 5,072,872
60 406,198
57 443,818
117 225,971
7 50,000
198 1,137,816
33 41,799
107 421,446
590 2,063,139
255 2,606,268
104 64,648
110 743,021
468 3,431,691
674 8,920,295
257 1,086,592
739 7,171,883
261 1,215,812
79 387,875
46 216,694
14 87,421
27 207,691
225 1,462,003
823 4,602,063
273 1,400,953
6,242 43,568,694


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES
First Half Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
transits
Trade routes-(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) 1974 1973 1965-69
East coast United States-Asia --- ------------ 1,777 1,739 1,389
Europe-West coast South America. ---- -- ---- 547 605 651
East coast United States-West coast South America -_____ 640 581 895
Europe-West coast United States/Canada-------------- 422 423 484
Europe-Asia---------------- ----------- 374 377 107
Europe-Oceania-- _______------- 238 252 191
East coast Canada-Asia -- ------------- -- 226 226 99
United States Intercoastal (including Hawaii)---__- 206 215 258
East coast South America-Asia ----_--------------- 133 165 96
West coast South America-West Indies------------ 172 152 130
All others --_ ------------ --___________ 2,233 2,162 1,931
Total ____----------- ------ 6,968 6,897 6,231
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars)l
First Avg. No. First Average
half transits half tolls
Month 1974 1973 1965-69 1974 1973 1965-69
July ------------ 1,210 1,138 1,067 $9,697 $8,518 $6,322
August-- --- 1,127 1,221 1,044 9,663 9,522 6,298
September ------- 1,125 1,116 1,015 9,530 8,896 6,139
October -------- 1,220 1,174 1,049 10,170 9,298 6,387
November _----_--- 1,160 1,141 1,021 9,772 9,130 6,258
December------ 1,126 1,107 1,035 9,886 8,958 6,409
January__--- -- 1,176 1,003 ---- 9,703 6,167
February_------- ----- 1,037 922 ---- 8,328 5,654
March--- -- ---- 1,231 1,098 ---- 9,916 6,748
April ---- -_ 1,133 1,087 ---- 9,507 6,681
May -- --- 1,160 1,110 --- 9,378 6,854
June ---------- -------- 1,207 1,052 ---- 9,878 6,609
Totals for fiscal year-__ -- 13,841 12,503 -_--- $111,032 $76,526
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
First Half Fiscol Year















Commodity
Petroleum and products _-______-_---
Manufactures of iron and steel_____--
Ores, various ----- ------
Lumber and products ----__ -
Sugar -___ --------
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) -..
Pulpwood_ -----_-__- -
Bananas ______- ----------
Metals, various--- ___- _____
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts --------
Sulfur -_ -- ___________
Potash_ _---_._ ___ __---__ _-
Paper and products ------- ___ -
Molasses ____________________
Coffee -------__ ________
All others and unclassified-_ ___--_
Total --__--___ __ _____-


1974
5,843,529
3,401,890
3,074,279
2,640,783
1,832,808
813,758
809,518
764,270
475,767
461,982
401,777
281,906
244,083
241,241
232,473
5,510,593
27,030,657


1973
4,724,978
4,369,007
2,130,399
2,489,075
1,840,447
707,059
704,887
613,235
711,630
505,032
261,733
261,236
402,137
236,309
274,139
5,818,660
26,049,963


5-Yr. Arg.
1965-69
643,782
1,816,926
2,957,624
2,196,431
1,460,243
499,550
374,817
623,764
651,078
38,594
103,009
188,291
141,696
196,846
211,558
4,725,796
16,830,005


Atlantic to Pacific


First Half Fiscal Year


Commodity
Petroleum and products__ -----__
Coal and coke ---.
Corn ___ --________ ______
Wheat.__ _______ _. .___ _
Phosphate ________________________
Soybeans
Metal, scrap --- _--__- __. __--
Sorghum -__.
Ores, various _-___.. ...
Manufactures of iron and steel._______
Sugar --------------_______--
Chemicals, unclassified ____ ______.
Fertilizers, unclassified
Paper and products-----...-__.---------__
Metals. various (excluding scrap)- .-_____
All others and unclassified
Total


1974
8,749,089
8,262,531
5,675,008
3,301,650
2,545,084
2,065,802
1,994,046
1,458,630
1,250,883
805,054
715,768
712,419
642,653
383,702
362,340
6,267,041
45,191,700


1973
5,997,280
6,614,357
3,284,521
1,731,410
2,176,193
1,931,412
958,147
1,427,808
1,345,927
823,399
752,596
644,381
359,479
327,228
191,156
5,434,627
33,999,921


5-Yr. Avg.
1965-69
7,382,958
4,483,207
1,339,076
621,073
1,911,363
1,165,254
1,458,047
N.A.
816,530
907,176
406,555
428,399
218,304
349,756
661,758
4,589,233
26,738,689


GOVERNMENT


First Half Fiscal Year


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing-------------------
Small 1------
Total Commercial---__--_--

U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing -------- ----
Small I__________ ___--


1974 1973
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total Total


3,537
217
3,754


3,431
148
3,579


43 52
28 30


6,968
365
7,333


95
58


6,897
261
7,158


Avg. No.
transit
1965-69


Total


6,231
276
6,507


214 447
66 63


Total Commercial and
U.S. Government --_______ 3,825 3,661 7,486 7,438 7,017
1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited
free.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH TIE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
First Half Fiscal Year


SPRING 1974


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST 6 MONTHS
OF FISCAL YEAR 1974
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1974 1973
Commercial __ _____ 6,968 6,897
U.S. Government__. __ 95 214
Free_ ____ 10 17
Total -_-______ 7.073 7,128
TOLLS
Commercial S58,750,492 $54,347,575
U.S. Go\ern-
ment -__. 540.368 1,311.299
Total --$59,290,860 $55,658,874
CARGO** (Oceangoing)
Commercial_ 72,222,357 60,049,884
U.S. Go\ ern-
inent __. 258,436 848,066
Free -_.___ _________ 8.490
Total ._ 72,480,793 60,906,440
0 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.


minent men in U.S. history. Sonm '.,f
the newer names are Memphis, GC.orgc
Washington, Lewis and Clark, and \\ ill
Rogers.
Although the Navy seems to fell., ..
very flexible policy in the namnan:' t-
vessels, extensive research failed t.i ri.-
veal a ship of any type named f..,r a
woman.
During World War II, however, there
was a troop carrier named Susan B. An-
thony in honor of the famous suffragist.
The ship, sunk by the Germans, ".vas
originally the Grace Line's Santa Clara
which was renamed after she was takjr
over by the Government.
A number of ships are named for the
owner or members of his family as in
the case of the Lykes Steamship Co.,
which has 37 vessels named for family
members, but there is at least one re-
corded case where a man was named for
a ship.
On March 29, 1942, the ship, City of
New York, was struck by a torpedo off
Norfolk. On board was a pregnant
woman, Mrs. Desanka Mohorovicic, the
wife of a Yugoslavian consul in the
United States. Mrs. Mohorovicic and the
ship's surgeon were put into the cap-
tain's lifeboat as the ship began to sink.
Both of them had been injured while
abandoning ship but at 2:30 a.m. March
30, the doctor managed to deliver the
baby in the crowded lifeboat. The child
was kept warm under his mother's life-
jacket until a U.S. destroyer rescued
them. The mother's first question when
she was safe aboard the ship was to ask
the captain the name of the destroyer
because she wanted to name the baby
for it. And that is how Jesse Roper Mo-
horovicic got his name.-WKF


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S.















In smaller, more familiar things, memory .., ,.
weaves her strongest enchantments, holding -..-... -.......


us at her mercy with some trifle, some echo,
a tone of voice, a scent .
Freya Stark.

With the coming of the seventies, a wave of nostalgia has been
sweeping through the land. It has become a time of looking back to
the 40's and the 50's. The songs on the radio, the movies, the tele-
vision shows all reflect the longings for the days that used to be.
When members of the Balboa Graduating Class of 1943 came
to the Isthmus early this year for a 30th anniversary reunion, it
seemed a rare opportunity to look back with them; to find out
how the graduates had fared over the years; and to see their
reactions to changes on the Istlmus. One of our writers mingled
with them during their week's stay in Panama and gave this report.
The Editor.


Three




Decades




Make A




Difference


PANAMA PUT ON ITS TRAVEL-
poster face for the reunion of the
Balboa High School Class of 1943. The
kind of travel poster that evokes day-
dreams of tropical cruises when those
in more northerly lands glance at it
during a shivery January blizzard.
On February 1, 1974, the group ar-
rived at Tocumen Airport, which didn't
exist when they left. They came from
Alaska, Texas, Kentucky, New Jersey,
Vermont, New York, Georgia, Florida,
Louisiana, Maryland and Ohio.
The 24 graduates who traveled from
the States and the 27 who settled on
the Isthmus, had not been together
in a group since graduation night-June
4, 1943.
That was the day newspapers head-
lined war news: "U.S. Hits Three
Italian Battleships," "Marshall at Africa
Conference," "Soviets Striking Furious
Blows," and "Double Axis Defeat Seen
by Roosevelt."
It was the year of padded shoulders,
wedgies and ankle-strap shoes, of up-


sweep hairdos and uplift bras; the year
zoot suits and the drape shape were all
the rage in the United States.
It was the time of dancing to "Penn-
sylvania 6-5-0-0-0" and "Beer Barrel
Polka," of Helen O'Connel singing
"Green Eyes," of Tommy Dorsey play-
ing "I'll Never Smile Again," of Glenn
Miller, Frank Sinatra and the Andrews
Sisters.
The '43 graduates changed one word
of a wartime hit song and sang "Don't
sit under the mango tree with anyone
else but me."
The school paper, "The Parakeet,"
brought the war close to home with its
own headlines-"BHS Offers Tough
Aeronautics Course for Future Pilots,"
"69 Students Join Victory Corps," and
"Seniors Bid Farewell to BHS-Take
War Jobs."
And they learned a new vocabulary
-gas mask drill, blackouts, sugar ra-
tioning, censorship, manpower board,
Wake, Bataan, Corregidor and Gua-
dalcanal.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


yr" WS4OO vlY
sa pa
mo oest0


^y^ T'1!




















rum i IuI W I
,iE i III m1' R!R mm u
Eu. EMMuM.ME *

y ~ ~ ~ U -. l


But now 30 years later, members of
the Class of '43 felt a little like Rip Van
Winkle as they surveyed the changes
on the Isthmus. They discovered that
many of the old hangouts, the old res-
taurants of Panama, were gone and in
their places were high rise apartment
and office buildings.
On visiting the Canal Zone, they were
surprised that even the familiar old Bal-
boa Service Center, where their gradua-
tion ceremony was held, had been de-
molished to make way for a modern fa-
cility. But, for many, the greatest change
was the disappearance of the historic
Tivoli Guest House, a local landmark
since the early days of the Canal.
Others said they thought the biggest
change in the Canal Zone was the air-
conditioning. At the time they left, the
electrical current was 2.5 cycle and air-
conditioning was not to become prac-
tical until the 1950's when the system
was converted to 60 cycle. They recalled
that during their schooldays, slow mov-
ing, overhead electric fans provided
the only relief from the tropical heat
and humidity.
The group visiting Miraflores was
impressed with the great changes in
Canal traffic, particularly the large num-
ber of huge container ships squeezing
through the locks, quite a contrast to
the small freighters and military ships
of their high school days.
The reunion was the idea of William
Diez, Jr., of Houston, Tex. For a year,
he collected addresses and wrote letters
and asked people how they felt about
a 30th anniversary get-together. The
response was encouraging, but because
of other commitments he had to find
someone else to organize it. Charles V.
March, of New Jersey, agreed to do it,
James N. Kenealv became west coast


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A lime to Remember...


The daughters of Bill March, Jack Walter
and Betty Boyer-from left, Susan, Lisa
and Meredith-look at graduation pictures
copied from the BHS 1943 yearbook.

sold 50,000 sets when first marketed.
Isabelle Zemer Lively is account co-
ordinator for the largest printing firm
on the west coast. She often gives slide
presentations and lectures on Panama.
Ernie Pierce, an engineering executive
with the National Cash Register Co., is
a pioneer in postal automation.
Alejandro Bricefio is a prominent Pan-
ama City physician. Ilenry Townsend
owns his own business in Colon. Bill
March is a realtor who developed one
of the first condominium shopping cen-
ters in the United States.
Leon Dedeaux travels all over the
world as an engineering project officer
for General Electric. Jim Basque is a
veterinarian in a Vermont town of 300
head of cattle and 400 people.
Jack Walters is a manufacturing
specialist for Lockheed Aircraft, and
owns his own business as a secondary
construction-industrial consultant. He
has to write a lot of speeches and papers,
and said "I seldom start to write that I
don't remember Miss Schucbat. She
taught me how to use words." There
was a poignant moment when Miss
Schucbat, now the wife of Rabbi Nathan
Witkin, met the group at the Civil
Affairs Building, where the graduates
gathered for a trip to Miraflores Locks.
When her former students greeted her,
she was surprised and pleased that they
remembered her with such affection.
When the time came for everyone to
leave for home, goodbyes were said with
reluctance but everyone promised to at-
tend the next reunion which is scheduled
for 1979.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 35


Ernest (Bud) Pierce, class photographer
back in '43, takes up where he left off
and shoots pictures of the same old
gang 30 years later.





i h r t i t i t










Mrs. Robert O. Boyer, Canal Zone
representative for the reunion, worked
for a year on plans and keeps on working
in her room at La Siesta while others
get ready for the dinner-dance.


41 A Hl,H S HO










rA it iSI I


' ~r -. -. ,,-
.-, ,.: .- ...



Neil Ileitman (left), who with his wife
Joanne and two children traveled
from Alaska, revisits Balboa High School
and meets Clyde Willman, the principal.


L

L~


Mr. and Mrs. Charles WV. March
at the dinner-dance at La Siesta. March,
along with West Coast and Canal Zone
representatives, organized the reunion
after Bill Diez made the plans.


The class of '43 leaves Pedro Miguel for dinner and dancing to the music of Lucho
Azcirraga during a partial transit of the Canal aboard the launch "Las Cruces."


I-,




Full Text

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive in 2009 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1974pana

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w^& -?KJ;:'^.-^ V .^> ^^% 1' \' .^f^^ H t]

PAGE 8

David S. Parker Governor-President Charles I. McGinnis Lieutenant Governor Willie K. Friar Editor, English Edition Jose T. Tunon Editor, Spanish Edition Writers Vic Conel, Fannie P. Hernandez, Franklin Castrellon and Dolores E. Suisman Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication Review articles may be reprinted witliout furtlier clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1, airmail $2, single copies 50 cents. For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z, Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Contents Panama's Pearls 3 Balboa, Elizabeth Taylor and the mosqiieta are all a part of the history of the Pearl Island pearls. Consider the Crackowe 8 From the Duckbill to the Sidewinder you can bet your hrogans it's style that counts in the selection of shoes. Culinary Capers 12 Fare from everywhere available at local restaurants. Isthmus Turf Stars Local jockeys, racing history. 15 horses make Disney World 18 A look behind the scenes at a favorite vacation spot. Babel on the Banks of the Panama Canal 22 TJie student body at Canal Zone College is as international as the parade of ships transiting the waterway. Maritime Monickers 26 Whether named for a shell or St. Nick, there's always a story. Three Decades Make a Difference 33 The Balboa High School Class of '43 returns for a nostalgic look at the Isthmus. Artwork—Peter Gurnet/, p. 8 and 27; Hector Sinclair, p. 10; Carlos Mindez, p. 26. > 'r i". Haustellum 5 3 1954 Our Cover Sometimes finding just the right illustration for an article in tlie Review becomes a storv in itself. Such was the case in locating a photograph of Elizabeth Taylor wearing Panama's most famous pearl. The search, with assistance from William R. Mallorv, of the Canal's Motion Picture Service, spread to such faravvav places as Rome and London before Reverly Williams, of the Reference Section at the Canal Zone Library, discovered that Life had featured the actress wearing the pearl in a cover story on her 40th birthday. The photo, obtained from Time-Life Photos in New York, appears on the opposite page. The magnificent mosquetas on our cover and those used to illustrate the story were loaned to the Review by Richard and Silvia Werner, owners of Ricardo, the well known Panama City jewelrv store. On the front cover is the beautifully simple traditional mosqueta with its center pearl surrounded by circles of pearls interspersed with gold. The back cover shows a modern \'ersion of a mosqueta, the designs and variations of which are limited only by the skill, ingenuity and artistry of the jeweler. Werner is known as Ricardo to residents of Panama, the Canal Zoiie, and a worldwide clientele that includes many celebrities. He came to Panama on a visit in 1936 and settled. One of a family of 13 jewelers, he began his apprenticeship in his father's store in Vienna at the age of six. He worked at Casa Fastlich and Tahiti before opening his own shop in 1947. The Werners shared their love and knowledge of pearls and the mosqueta with Review readers bv providing much of the information in the storv. The co\'er photograph is by Arthur L. Pollack. 2 Spmng 1974

PAGE 9

/ ) B anama^ Pcani ficm La rcica'iina PEARLS AND GOLD HAVE played an important part in the history of Panama. And the mosqueta, created by combining the two in an intricate work of art, has become one of the symbols of the country. When a Panamanian girl pins her grandmother's mosqueta on the pom pom on the front of her pollera, the national dress of Panama, she may man'el at the beauty of the gold and pearl brooch and wonder how it happened to be created. Many visitors, purchasing them to take home, also express curiositv about the origin of the design. No one knows for sure when the first mosqueta was created or who the dedesigner was. But it is fairly certain that the gold and pearls of Panama were first joined in the delicate beauty of the mosqueta bv jewelers from southern Europe who migrated to Panama, bringing with them their skill in gold filigree work. At that time, labor was cheap and pearls from the Pearl Islands were plentiful. There is a storv that the brooches reminded the jewelers of a beautiful blossom and thev began to call them "mosquetas," the Spanish name for the white musk roses of the Mediterranean area. These old mosquetas, fashioned of the famous Pearl Island pearls, are now treasured heirlooms passed down through the generations. In more recent times, thev have inspired a complete line of jewelr\' including rings, necklaces, and earrings. So the mosqueta is reallv a final chapter in the historv of the Panama pearls, a historv that started as far back as Balboa and ended aljruptl\in 19.38 when the Red Tide spread o\'er the Ba\' of Panama and destroved the oyster beds near the Pearl Islands. Elizabeth Taylor wears Panama's most famous pearl, La Peregrina, as a drop pendant. The pearl, which was found off the Pearl Islands more than 400 years ago, was a gift from Richard Burton who paid $37,000 for it. (See story on p. 7) Photo by Norman Parkinson. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 10

INTRICATE WORKS OF ART-Nine magnificent mosquetas. In the top row are three sizes of the traditional circles of pearls and filigree work. In the center and bottom row, the mosquetas have been fashioned into a variety of forms. The number of designs is limited only by the imagination of the jeweler. Balboa was probably the first foreigner to know about the fabulous pearl beds. Legend says that on reaching the Pacific after his crossing of the Isthmus, he was met by an Indian chief whose scanty costume consisted mainly of pearls. Even the chief's canoe paddles were studded with pearls. The Indians brought him pearls from Panama Bay and told him of even more wonderful pearl beds farther north, but Balboa was unable to pursue the matter. He only made notes in his log. When reports reached Spain of the fabulous Panama pearl beds, other explorers with more interest in plunder than Balboa arrived to look for them and soon the riches of the Gulf of Panama were on their way to Spain. One of the most magnificent of all the pearls found in Panama is "La Peregrina," or wanderer, which has been worn by a Spanish king, an English queen, a French emperor and today belongs to one of the most beautiful and celebrated women of the world, Elizabeth Taylor. When it was found in the Gulf of Panama 400 years ago, it was considered so magnificent that the Negro slave who discovered it was rewarded with his liberty and his owner was given a grant of land and a title. But, according to Joan Younger Dickinson in "The Book of Pearls," the large bulk of the pearls taken to Spain, was reckoned by the pound, or marc, and no records have been found describing the various sizes and types. It is possible that great pearls arrived in Spain by the bagful and were dispersed along with quite ordinary ones. One thing is certain, in the early davs Panama was left mostly with the rejects. One of the first mentions of the \ise of pearls in jewelry in Panama is made bv a French engineer who visited the Darien in 1821. He writes of women celebrating independence from Spain proudly wearing large gold combs and earrings decorated with the "inexpensive" pearls from the pearl fisheries of Panama. An English woman, Ladv Emmeline Stuart Worley, traveling through Central America and Panama in 1849, mentions in her book seeing a nursemaid pass her room in Panama accompaning a child whose dress was resplendent with diamonds and pearls. "The pearls were wonderfully splendid," she added, "because in this native water is a regular pearl industry. These treasures of the deep are abundantly found around the island and prove a profitable source of employment to a considerable body of men who follow the laborious occupation of divers." And the occupation of the pearl divers was indeed laborious. In the early days, slaves were sent to get the pearls. They descended into the cold, deep waters of Panama Bay with stones tied around their legs. Many of them died of exposure to pressure, of cold and some were killed bv sharks. By the early 19th century, the pearl shells of Panama were to become more in demand than the tiny pearls they might contain. The occasional pearl that might bring $2,000 on the Paris market was considered "gravy" to the merchants who were shipping shells to Germany to feed the largest mother of pearl market in the world. As early as 1888, Woldred Nelson tells in his book, "Five Years in Panama" of the island of San Miguel where he found a stone church, the towers of which were covered with pearl shells. The pearl shells that adorn the twin towers of the Panama Cathedral in Panama City, which came from the Pearl Islands, are still being admired by visitors. By the time the European immigrants were fashioning the early mosquetas with gold filigree work and pearls, the Panama pearl already had a long history. The original handmade mosquetas and those produced later with crude tools cannot compare to the magnificent mosquetas made today with their perfect cultured pearls and the finest filigree wire. Nevertheless, these early pieces, made with thick wire and thick gold cups, are cherished heirlooms. Because the baroque pearl comes in odd sizes and shapes, the old mosquetas were mostlv filigree work. The jeweler who used 40 or 50 pearls in a mosqueta had to make a gold cup to fit each one, a tedious, time-consuming job not economicallv feasible today. Panama jewelers were not faced with the problem after 1938 because the Red Tide killed the oyster beds. The Red Tide, which occurs to some degree at the end of each rainy season, is caused by a half-plant, half-animal that the biology books call Gtjtnnodinium brcvis. It reproduces with incredible rapidity Spmng 1974

PAGE 11

The first mosquetas were mostly filigree work but local jewelers now produce an infinite variety of designs and sizes. Arturo Garcia, left, and Guillermo Thomas, at work in the Ricardo Jewelry Store, setting pearls into filigree gold that has been fashioned into pins and rings. The filigree work completed and the vari-sized pearls at hand, the jeweler performs the delicate task of joining pearls and gold to produce the coveted mosqueta. The traditional mosqueta was simply a center pearl surrounded by circles of pearls interspersed with circles of gold. Modem versions of the mosqueta employ many variations of filigree ornaments. This photograph shows a brooch before it has been set with pearls. Surrounding the brooch are the individual pieces that Panamanian filigree workers, employed at Ricardo, fashion from fine gold wire into delicate designs. The individual pieces are then soldered into circlets of the desired figurations and size. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 12

causing vast stretches of the water to be stained a reddish brown. After the organisms die, they release a powerful nerve poison that kills sea life by the hundreds of tons. Red Tide outbreaks are worse in years of heavy rainfall, and the near record 85.61 inches of rain in 1938 preceded the worst Red Tide in Panama's history. Since no pearls were available on the Isthmus following the death of the oysters, no mosquetas were made at all until the early 1950's when cultured pearls were first imported from Japan and filigree wire, produced by machine, was imported from Europe. The few jewelers who started to make mosquetas were not prepared for the sudden overwhelming popularity of the various pieces. To fill the demand, Panama imported more pearls from Japan and they ordered the pearls to fit the gold cups of the mosqueta rather than making the cups to fit the pearls. This reverse order in je^velry making was made possible bv the genius of the Japanese pearl merchants, headed bv Kokochi Mikimoto. After a lifetime of experimentation, he succeeded in discovering a method for culturing pearls in mass quantities. Thev are perfectly shaped, come in various colors and in anv size. In fact, there are so few natiual pearls available these davs that when pearls are mentioned thev are usually cultured pearls. In creating the cultured pearl, man imitates nature only insofar as he inserts the foreign object into the ovster to start the flow of the protective secretion, called nacre, which coats the obMarilyn Pedroso, a secretary in the Personnel Bureau, models mosqueta pin and earrings made in the traditioqal design of a large center pearl circled by increasingly larger rows of pearls and filigree. ject and eventually forms a pearl. When the ovster is about 2 years old, it is injected with an antibiotic to prevent infection and then an incision is made to create a pocket to receive the pellet which stimulates the flow of nacre. The ovster does the rest. The finest pearls in size and quality are left in the oyster for 7 or 8 years and consist of many coats of nacre. A 14-inch strand of these matched pearls might bring as much as $80,000. Although the Japanese are credited with the success of the cultured pearl business, they needed a little he]p from the United States and Australia. It was foinid that the best foreign object that could be used to start a pearl was made Marilyn Escobar wears the wedding pollera with the traditional mosqueta attached to the pom pom. of Mississippi River oyster shells. The shells are cut into strips, then into cubes and put into a gem tumbler to be ground down for insertion into the oyster. Each year nearly 6 tons of oyster shells are exported from the United States to Japan. The oysters in which the pearls are cultured come from off the coast of Australia. While the natural pearl industry will never be the same in Panama or anywhere else, there have been indications recently that the pearl beds of Panama may be regenerating. Pearl divers are at work again and on occasion find oysters containing pearls. Like their ancestors. Pearl Island divers remove the pearls, put them in a bag and offer them for sale to visitors. Nita Navarro Chiari de Lewis, wife of Gabriel Lewis, who has developed Contadora Island, recently purchased a pear-shaped pearl measuring between one-half and three-quarters of an inch. It is bluish-grey green and Mrs. Lewis felt that if she could find another, they would make a beautiful pair of earrings. While waiting to find a matching pearl, she had her's appraised and was dumbfounded to learn it was valued at about $11,000. Its discoveiT has not prompted a pearl rush to the Islands, but Lewis feels that it is something to consider. In the future, he may take on the job of developing Panama's pearl industry and it is conceivable that Panama pearls may be used again in the making of Panama's famous mosquetas. 6 Spbing 1974

PAGE 13

La Pc cicctiina s "La Peregrina," the beautiful costly pearl that now belongs to lovelv Elizabeth Taylor was found in the Gulf of Panama 400 vears ago. As were most gold and jewels acquired in the New World, the pearl was taken to Spain for King Philip II, whose court jeweler described it as priceless. When he married Marv Tudor, the daughter of Henry VIII of England, the incomparable pear-shaped gem was her wedding gift. Philip returned to Spain after Marv's death in 15.58 and, as she had requested, he ordered La Peregrina set in the crown of the Blessed Virgin of Guadalupe, a crown famed for its great gems. Xo one knows when the pearl was removed from the Virgin's crown but it was ne.xt heard of in 1605 when Margarita of Spain wore it at the celebration of a peace treaty between Spain and England. Another pearl almost equal in size, shape and luster was discovered in American waters in 1790, and La Peregrina temporarily became one of a pair of earrings formed of the two great pearls. Nearly a hundred vears later, a visitor to Spain told of seeing the pearl— perfectly shaped and bell-mouthed— hanging on a clasp of diamonds in the folds of the king's hat. When the king, Joseph Bonaparte, abdicated the Spanish throne in 1813, he took La Peregrina with him. It passed on to his stepniece, Hortense, who, in turn, left it to her son. Napoleon III, the Emperor of France. During one of his manv exiles in England, he offered La Peregrina for sale in London, and the Marquis of Abercorn bought it for his wife. Since the pearl had never been bored, she lost it on several occasions, including once at Buckingham Palace where she was very distressed until she happened to spot it in the velvet train of another woman, and at Windsor Castle where, after much searching, it was found in the upholstery of a sofa. In 191.3, the Abercorn familv had the great pearl polished and certified to weigh 203.84 grains, and in 1938 it was still in the family's possession. The New York Times, in its issue of July 24, 1969, reported that, "an anonymous buyer acquired from an anonymous owner at the ParkeBernet Galleries yesterday what has been called the world's most famous pearl." The price Elizabeth Taylor wore La Peregrina when she appeared as an extra in "Anne Of The Thousand Davs" and, if not the Panama pearl, one that closely resembled it in these scenes from "Divorce" (left) and "Ash Wednesday", featured this spring at Panama Canal theaters. was $37,000. The pearl, of course, was Panama's La Peregrina. Two days later, in another Times stor)', Parke-Bernet's president Peregrine Pollen (yes, that is his correct name and yes, it is an amazing coincidence) revealed that the anonymous buver was an agent for Richard Burton. .And the agent said he assumed the pearl was to be Burton's gift to Miss Taylor on her birthday. Discussing La Peregrina with a reporter from the Ladies Home Journal, Burton said, "The Peregrina pearl needs no elaboration from me. Though it is one of the least expensive things I've given her, it really excites me. I like to hold it and think of all the people who wore it, from Mary Tudor on down. And the fact that it is the Peregrina and already has disappeared three times. It means 'the wanderer' vou know. Well, Elizabeth only had it a week when it disappeared completely . then one day, one of the Pekes was chewing on what she thought was a bone in the corner. It turned out to be the pearl, and the dog's teeth marks are still on it." At least two other pearls from the Gulf of Panama became crown jewels. The most famous was found not in an oyster, but loose in the sea bed; hence its name, Huerfana— "the orphan." Another was the 26-carat Oviedo, named for the Spanish historian Gonzalo de Oviedo y Valdes who purchased it and recorded it as worth 6.50 times its weight in pure gold. Above: Baroque pearls found recently near Contadora and a 1495 etching, which shows divers in Panama Bay and Spaniards bartering with the Indians for pearls. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 14

Consider The Crackowe PHYSICIANS FROWN ON FAR out fashions in footwear. Those 5-inch heels and unyielding platforms can cause the wearer all sorts of problems— corns, calluses, bunions, ingrown toenails and a host of other ailments and discomforts including backaches and sore leg muscles, they say. But it seems that folks have always had a fetish for fashion and are willing to suffer for style's sake. Take the crackowe, for example, a number that was fashionable among people of high station in the 14th century. It featured toes so long that a chain was attached to each to allow the wearer to hold them up as he walked along. Presumably, this pre\ented stumbling —but probably made people roimdshouldered. Then there was the duckbill, which became popular in England during the time of Queen Mary. Its stylishness was determined by its width and each succeeding model was wider. It must haye lieen like walking around in swim fins. Finally, the madness was halted by a law which limited the width of shoes to 6 inches. Current fashions, a re\iyal of the 1940s styles, are also condemned by Ralph Nader, who contends that the heavy platform heels have caused broken ankles, twisted knees and torn ligaments. Furthermore, he says, many designs impede dri\ing and could cause accidents. But it's style, not safety, that sells shoes. Shoe manufacturers make in-depth studies of trends and buying habits in order to produce comprehensive manuals on the science of selling shoes. One such manual received by the Balboa Shoe Store classifies customers by sex and age group and instructs salesmen on what to expect from each. It tells them how to deal with certain situations, and offers tips on what to say, what to stress and what not to mention in making a sales pitch. In this day of women's liberation, the writer of this manual mav well be treading on dangerous groimd when he (svuelv not she) offers salesmen a glossary of words and phrases to be used exclusi\ely when selling to women. "Use the language of fashion," it urges. "Don't sav red, blue or greenuse words like shade, hue, tint, cast, dual tone, multicolor, etc., for this is how women think of colors." Shoes should not be described to women in prosaic terms, according to the book. You don't talk about the last of a shoe, you refer to the shape, or, better yet, the silhouette. And don't say toe shape, say "toe expression." Other phrases considered proper for use when dealing with women are "heel "contour," "hugging topline" and "sculptured lines." Such language, the manual points out, "dramatizes the fashion features of the shoe in words that ring a fashion bell with women." The manual also includes acKice on selling to men, who are classified by age and status. According to the manual, high .school and college students tend to follow the trend of their peers, while young working men are "not faddists but individualists and highly style conscious." Men over 30, salesmen are told, are concerned with comfort and quality. They are likely to ask for particular brands and are willing to pay more for their shoes. By Vic Canel N\'hen selling to men, don't emphasize long wear, unless selling workshoes or utility boots, and don't place emphasis on price either, the book says— but, as in dealing with women, do stress style. Aware that parents of small children are as interested in long wear as in style, the manual gives some interesting statistics to help a salesperson push sturd\shoes. It points out that the average active child's shoe must take 20,000 flexings or bendings a day, and the same active child will cover about 600 miles (like walking from New York to Detroit) during the lifetime of a pair of shoes. George Menzies, who has worked in Panama Canal shoestores for 23 years, says that between 10 and 1.5 percent of the men's shoes currently being sold at the Balboa Shoe Store are the new high heel platforms. Most sales are to young military personnel who welcome this dramatic change from their uniform footwear. Wilfred Adams, a supervisory supply clerk who has worked in the shoe department for 16 of his 40 years with the Canal organization, tells of one man who admitted that he couldn't get used to walking in high heels and came back for a refund. Another veteran of the shoestore is Catalina Lopez, who is constantly sought out by customers because of her amazing ability to remember regular customers' shoe sizes and to gage children's shoe sizes on sight. All the salespeople agree that women buy more shoes than men, who usually have only five to seven pairs in their wardrobe and seldom buy more than one pair at a time. Women, they point out, buy shoes to go with dresses or other accessories. 8 Spring 1974

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The new styles in men's shoes are making many men more fashion conscious and thev are beginning to accept the colorful new numbers with red, green and blue uppers— not just the blacks, brown and cordovans. White shoes always have been fairly popular in the tropics. Dexter Shoe Co. of Boston, one of the companies that supplies the Canal Zone, features a line of fancy boots with such names as "Baron," "Mosaic," "Camelot," "Sentinel," and "Sidewinder." Canal Zone shoe customers in construction days weren't troubled by the problem of making a selection from a long line of styles and models. But women, in particular, had a problem of another nature. Reminiscing about those days, the August 15, 1939 edition of the Panama Ariicrican points out that local shoemakers didn't realize that American women had longer, narrower feet than Panamanian women. The article relates that one day Colonel Goethals asked two young girls what was most needed in the Zone. One said books, the other said shoes. Colonel Goethals then suggested she was vain. "No," she responded, "Not vain, just awfully uncomfortable." Men's shoes of various types were imported by the Canal organization during construction days— both for sale in the commissary and for issuing to workers. In his history of the Panama Canal and the construction days, published in 1915, Ira E. Bennett writes of the "high quality" shoes supplied to the Canal workers by a Rochester, N.Y. firm, which "made many shipments of shoes that were used by the Canal officers and heads of departments and their families." The laborers' heavier shoes were furnished by other firms, he notes. Records show that the Canal organization also bought quantities of expendable cloth shoes with rope soles called "alpargatas" in Spanish, but which today are referred to in sophisticated sportswear circles by the French name, "espadrilles." The humble alpargata, which is still worn extensively in Europe, particularly Spain, sold during construction days for 15 or 20 cents a pair and were issued to patients at Corozal around 1914. Still, the variety of shoes available on the Isthmus during those early days was anything but extensive. Shoes were utilitarian, not stylish. As late as 1920, the chief quartermaster of the Canal Zone proposed that a standard line of shoes be carried in the commissary for men and another for women. Or at most, Above: Standing tall on the steps of the Panama Canal Administration Building, this stylish young man draws an approving look from a friend. Below: Fashion forecasters say the high platform styles are on the way out and pointed shoes with shaft heels are coming back. The Panama Canal Review

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T Colombian poet Luis C. Lopez likened the attachment a man feels for a pair of old shoes to his affection for his native city, Cartagena. The poem was immortalized in this unique monument by Ernesto C. Martelo. At left: Sketches of shoes worn during the construction days of the Panama Canal. he was willing to concede that only four styles be offered— one low price and one medium price for each. In those days, Army issue shoes were evidently very much sought after for their sturdy qualities. But wearing of distinctive uniform items bv civilians was prohibited bv the National Defense Act of 1916. On April 2, 1918, the Star if Herald reported that Canal Zone police had stopped a man for wearing Armv shoes. The arresting officer, a former soldier with the 29th Infantry Regiment at Culebra, knew an Army shoe when he saw one. The offender, who had been a businessman during construction days at Empire, was absolved when the judge ruled that shoes did not constitute a "distincti\'e" part of the uniform. But he had to give up the shoes anywav, because thev bore the mark of the Philadelphia Depot. Along about the same time, at the request of the military, the sale of olive drab flannel shirts was discontinued at the commissaries. Panama's shoe industry was born in the mid-1920's and has grown rather steadily since. Today, there are 10 factories plus a number of independent shops which still produce shoes bv hand. Among the largest producers are Empresa Panameiia de Calzados, which for the last few years has held a franchise for the local manufacture of the U.S.designed Hush Puppies; Coda, S.A., La Central; and Fabrica Nacional de Calzado Francisco Pereira. Only one of the Panama factories. La Central, has ventured to produce the new platform styles. Others look upon the extreme styles as a passing fad and don't feel it is worth the investment required for retooling. American-made lasts for those shoes alone cost about $9 a pair, says Alberto Pereira, whose father founded the factory in 1934. Pereira manufactures the sort of shoes our parents used to call "sensible" —mostly for men. They also make school shoes for boys and girls as well as work boots with steel safety toes. Leather used by most local manufacturers is produced in Panama, which has three tanneries— two in Panama City and one in Chitre. Synthetics are imported, some from Europe, but mostly from the L'nited States. The fuel crisis has affected the shoe industry, since many of these synthetics are byproducts of petroleum and have become scarce, Pereira points out. Still, his factory produces between 700 and 800 pairs a day. Most experts in the industry agree with Pereira about the heavy platforms going out of style. Ads in a recent issue of one of the trade publications. Footwear News, show a nostalgic trend toward the styles of the 30's— Y\es St. Laurent, Gi\enchy and Dior are going back to the pointed toes and shaft heels. And the few platforms illustrated are much, much lower. Whatever the future may hold, you can bet your brogans that buyers will continue to listen to the St. Laurents, the Givenchy's and the Diors and not to the medics or the Naders. Just so they don't go back to the crackowe. 10 Spring 1974

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Below: George Menzies arranges a display at the Balboa Shoe Store. Between 10 and 15 percent of men's shoes sold at this outlet are of the new high-heel style. Above: Fitting children's shoes is a specialty with Catalina Lopez, who after 18 years in the Balboa Shoe Store, can gage sizes on sight. Shoemaking in Fanama-Most of the modem machinery used by Panama manufacturers is leased from U.S. firms. Only one of the Panama factories has ventured to produce the new platform styles. Panama's shoe industry was bom in the 1920's. Today there are 10 factories plus a number of independent shops which still produce shoes by hand. Pereira's plant manufactures between 600 and 700 pairs a day and concentrates on utilitarian shoes for men, boys and girls. The Panama Canal Review 11

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THE INTERNATIONAL FLAVOR of Panama, busy crossroads of the world, is reflected in a wide variety of restaurants geared to please the palates of a heterogeneous clientele. Chinese food has a long tradition in Panama, where Chinese restaurants have existed for many years. Two of the most luxurious are Palacio Lung Fung and Panachina. The most popular, however, are older restaurants located in the old part of the city. Among them are Gran Oriente, Nuevo Gran Oriente, Mandarin, Gran China and Taiwan. Lung Fung and Panachina offer similar menus and international fare. The large variety of Chinese food includes the famous sharkfin soup and a gourmet's delight, whole corbina stuffed with a mixture of ground peanuts and almonds, Chinese parsley, water chestnuts and green onions, seasoned with soy sauce and sesame oil. Abalone with chicken is another specialty available in these two restaurants. Very thin slices of abalone are combined with chicken, water chestnuts, bamboo shoots, soy sauce, "ve tsin" powder (a Chinese condiment) and other ingredients in this superb dish. Triple Delicia Lung Fung, recently introduced at Lung Fung, is a combination of chicken, roast pork and shrimp cooked with Chinese seasonings, vegetables and oyster sauce. Steamed corbina is another prestige dish at Lung Fung. The traditional dishes of Spain are popular in Panama restaurants. The famous paella, the cocido and the Spanish tortilla, prepared in a variety of ways, are favorite dishes in a number of eating places. Paella, which gets its name from the receptacle in which it is cooked, is made in literally dozens of ways. It is a rice dish combined with chicken, clams, mussels, shrimp, Spanish sausage, scjuid, artichoke hearts and a host of seasonings that make it a veritable feast. The Valencia version of paella is the most popular in Panama. E.xcellent Spanish food and seafood Panama^ Restaurants By Franklin Castrellon are found at Panamar, a picturescjue eating place with an open air tropical garden, located on the shores of Panama Bay. El Dorado, a downtown restaurant, also serves an excellent paella. Panamar's paella contains the seafood of Panama waters and the traditional ingredients of the Valencia dish, asparagus, pimentos and olives. Panamar also features the classic seafood dish, Cazuela de Catalufia which combines lobster, oyster, clams, mussels, shrimp, corbina and other seafood, grilled in butter and served with a sauce made of butter, curry powder, garlic, salt and pepper. Another delicious dish served at Panamar is Corbina a la Sueca, Corbina Swedish style, in which the fish is topped with a mixture of chopped, hardboiled egg, "recado verde" (Panamanian herbs) and Panamar's own sauce. Specialties at El Dorado are Corbina a la Victoria, Salpicon de Langosta, Pulpo a la Gallega and Langosta-filete. In the corbina dish, the fillets are flambeed in cognac and sherry and then served with a sauce of butter, tomatoes, bacon bits, garlic, and onion and seasoned with salt. The dish is garnished with shrimp and served with potatoes and a vegetable. Good Spanish food is also found at the Caballo de Hierro, genuine old Panama Railroad cars turned restaurant, where the waitresses are attractively dressed in railroad-type uniforms, and at Los Tarantos, where in addition to good food, there is Spanish music and decor. Panama Seiiorial with its "Patio Panameiio" is one of Panama's best restaurants where international fare is served in a beautiful garden atmosphere. Specialties are imported meats and Panama seafood. Excellent Spanish dishes also are ser\ed at the restaurants of Panama's leading hotels. The well-known lasagne, gnocci, ravioli, and a host of other popular dishes are only a small part of the phenomenon known as pastas. Italian rice dishes are as delicious as the famous pastas made of wheat flour. It is surprising to note that Italy consumes more rice per capita than most Western countries. Numerous Italian restaurants in Panama ser\'e an endless variety of specialties. Among the better-known are Las Americas, Sarti, Napoli, Capri, Rizzo and Bigote. The former Panazone Restaurant, which opened in 1940 and later became Las Americas, was famous for its pasta dishes. It's clientele included wellknown personalities— among them Argentine President Juan Domingo Peron and the late President Jose Remon Cantera of Panama. A highly recommended rice dish, available at all of these restaurants, is Risotto alia Milanesa. It is rice cooked in chicken broth, flavored with saffron and served with grated Parmesan cheese. A new Mexican restaurant, the Azteca, is located in Las Cumbres, about a 1.5-minute drive from downtown Panama City. The wide variety of Mexican dishes includes tacos, enchiladas, chalupas, Mexican tamales, and nachos. Most of these dishes are accompanied by refried beans. The combination plate, the Azteca Special, gives those unfamiliar with Me,xican food an opportunity to sample a variety of dishes. 12 Spring 1974

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When avocados are in season the Azteca offers guacamole, a delicious mixture of mashed avocado seasoned with lemon juice, chopped onion, tomato and garlic. Also available is an excellent sopa de mondongo, tripe soup, for those who enjov such fare. The newly opened Kyoto Restaurant serves a variety of Japanese dishes to suit the most discriminating tastes. Diners are served by waitresses in Japanese garb, emulating the geishas. There is a Japanese style dining room for those who prefer to eat in the traditional Japanese manner. Among the many Japanese dishes are Sukivaki, Tempura, shabushbu and makizuki. Sukivaki, beef with Japanese vegetables, is perhaps the most familiar to Americans. It contains thin strips of meat, vegetables, fried and flavored with sov sauce and sake, and served with very thin rice noodles or rice. The better-known restaurants serving South American specialties are La Fonda Antioquena offering Colombian dishes, and La Pampa, famous for its charcoal cooked Argentine meats. La Fonda offers several versions of the Arepa Antioquena and beans with bacon rinds. The specialty of the house is the typical Antioqueno Platter, that consists of rice, ground meat, bacon rinds, egg, patacones (fried green plantain) and other Colombian goodies. La The Lung Fung Fare From Everywhere The Kyoto The Azteca The Panama Canal RE\aEW 13

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ABOVE: An inviting breezeway connects two old Panama Railroad cars that became the Caballo de Hierro, one of Panama's favorite restaurants where Spanish food is served. AT LEFT: Seviche, sancocho, almojabanas and tortillas are among the typical foods of Panama served at Don Samy II, one of Panama's most popular eating places. Fonda also serves a delicious Colombian style roast beef and pork. La Pampa does honor to meat cooked over charcoal and served with "chimichurry" sauce. In addition to charcoaled meats. La Pampa serves charcoal cooked fish and seafood. The typical food of Panama should not be overlooked. Such dishes as seviche, the many other fish dishes, tortillas, chicharrones (bacon rinds) almojabanas, guacho and sancocho are good fare. These dishes are found at El Gallo de Oro (also known as Don Samy II) Don Samy I and the Joron de Vista Hermosa. La Tablita, El Bohio Turistico at Old Panama and the Bohio Hipico. Don Samy I, a standup, snack-type eatery, whose origin dates back to 1945, when its owners operated a beverage pushcart, has been a favorite of the local populace. Later, the pushcart was elevated to a kiosk and by 1945 the owner was offering fried yucca, bean tarts, and meat-on-a-stick. A fire temporarily interrupted operations in early 1960 but it wasn't long before Don Samv I was back in business serving carimanolas, and more yucca specialties. The establishment prospered and in 1968, additional typical foods were added to the menu. There was chicken soup at IO0 a cup and people from all walks of life stopped by to have a quick snack. Among them, the United States astronauts. President Figueres of Costa Rica, and various Hollywood stars. Don Samy I is now operating as a cooperative in an area known as the "Besodromo," a lover's lane. El Gallo de Oro, the sitdown version of Don Samy I, opened in 1969. The menu features such Panamanian favorites as the delicious sancocho and gallo pinto. Gallo pinto, misnamed because it contains no fowl, is a soupy stew made of rice and beans and pieces of pork tail, served with a typical sauce. A version of Sancocho Santefio is served at the Joron de Vista Hermosa where the cook adds pimento, celery, sweet pepper, Chinese parslev, onion and fried green plantain to Panama's national dish. \ 14 Sphing 1974

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r Isthmus Turf Stars Km

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^— IT At left: Laffit Pincay, Jr., the outstanding Panamanian jockey who earned a record $4 million in purses while riding at U.S. tracks. Below: Manuel Icaza, the first Panamanian jockey to make the big time in the United States. He is now Panama's consul general in New York. crowded President Remon Racetrack, stomped and cheered as the Panamanian horse crossed the finish line. Among them probably were many oldtimers who remembered when it was touch and go for the sport of kings in Panama. According to Julio Mercado, one of the most distinguished horseracing aficionados in Panama, the first horse races were held about the turn of the century on the Bella Vista Beach with horses running between a site now occupied by the Panama Yacht Club and the entrance of the Mataznillo River near Paitilla Point. This area was used later for many years as an exercise run for the horses from Juan Franco Racetrack. The races were held whenever the spirit moved the horse owners but usually there was a race on Sunday when residents of Panama City would make the long trip on foot from the Cinco de Mayo Plaza near the Panama Railroad Station to Bella Vista, which was then a rural area. In the dry season, races often were held in Las Sabanas, a popular dry season resort area for Panama residents. Only native horses took part in these early races, but as the sport became more popular, horses were imported from Jamaica and other countries for racing and breeding. Race fans began to clamor for a permanent racetrack and official support for their hobby. A site was chosen for the racetrack, the clubhouse and grandstand at a former ranch called Juan Franco. Ironically, President Belisario Porras, one of the most progressive and popular of Panama's presidents, threw cold water on the idea. He believed that the newly nationalized lottery would suffer if the state were to sponsor horse racing which naturally involved betting. It took the best efforts of a group of influential citizens headed by the President's dear friends, Julio Mercado, and Eduardo Chiari, to change the President's mind. They finally convinced Dr. Porras that the official support of racing in Panama would not only make thousands of race fans happy but would create new sources of employment and would not interfere with the lottery. And it didn't. The new racetrack was built at Juan Franco, and in 1922, it was opened formally with President Porras; Dr. John C. South, U.S. Minister to Panama; Raul Espinosa, the first president of the Jockey Club; and other officials in attendance. In addition to Don Raul, a number of well known Panama residents contributed to the success of the new Jockey Club. Among them were Don Francisco Arias Paredes; Don Ernesto "Neco" de la Guardia; General Nicanor De Obarrio, owner of the land on which the track was built; Carlos Muller; Tomas Gabriel Duque; and David M. Toledano. Much credit for the success of the club can be given to Don Raul, who made trips to the United States on business related to the operation of the racetrack and the purchase of horses. On one occasion he bought 100 racehorses and divided them among Panamanians interested in racing. The recipients, mostly West Indians, repaid Don Raul with their winnings at the track. Residents of the Canal Zone also took an active part in the development of the Panama Tockev Club and manv owned horses which they entered in the races. Some of the vounger Canal Zone youths acted as jockeys and others exercised horses on the Bella Vista sands just for the fun of it. Henry Makibbin, who recently retired from the Panama Canal, was one of the most enthusiastic. He spent much of his spare time at the racetrack and on several occasions went to the Unitd States to study horse training. He bought his first horse in the 1940's. It was a native Panamanian horse which won several races. Makibbin became so adept at training horses that he took over the care of a mare named Gatesaba, owned by Don Julio Mercado, which had lost all the races in which she was entered. He sur16 Spuing 1974

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Finishing at least 2 lengths aliead of his nearest rival in the Mothers Day Classic, December 8, 1972, is Epistle, a product of the San Miguel ranch. A Popular Sport Since Construction Days niised that all the horse needed was a little rest, and after several weeks at pasture, he put the horse back in the ninning. Lacking confidence, however, in his own training ability, he bet on the favorite. Gatesaba won the race. This led him to remark that owners and trainers should go after the purse and leave the betting to others. In 1946, all games of chance involving betting were taken over by the Panama Government and about the same time it was decided that Panama needed a new racetrack. President Jose Antonio Remon, one of the most avid of horseracing fans, promoted the idea and plans were made for construction of a track in an area on the outskirts of the citv where Charles Lindbergh had landed the Spirit of St. Louis during a goodwill tour in 1928. Ironically, President Remon was assassinated at Juan Franco before the new racetrack was completed, but it was inaugurated and named for him in 1956, during the administration of his successor. President Ricardo Arias Espinosa. The new racetrack, which attracts thousands of fans weekly, has all modern facilities including two courses, an automatic totalizator, ample parking space and lighting for night races. As predicted by the early founders of Panama's Jockey Club, other sources of employment and interest have grown along with the sport. A number of Panamanians have gone into the business of horse breeding and Panamanian jockeys have become prominent at racetracks in the United States and in other nations. Pioneers in the horse breeding business are Carlos and Fernando Eleta, well known Panama businessmen, who started a horse farm in 1948 in the highlands of Chiriqui Province. The Eleta brothers bred a string of winning racers, including the fabulous Montecarlo, from an Irish stallion named Keyhaven. The money won by the descendents of this fantastic horse has amounted to more than a million dollars. Another horse farm in the Chiriqui highlands is owned bv Mrs. Rosita de Martinz, widow of the late Louis Martinz, whose home in Cerro Punta is a showplace of Panama. Also in Chiriqui is San Jose Farm, owned by Carlos Jurado, well known Chiriqui businessman. Perhaps the best known of the Panama jockevs are Manuel Icaza, at present Panama Consul General in New York; and Braulio Baeza, whose mounts won both the Kentucky Derby and the Belmont Stakes. Until his retirement Icaza was considered one of the outstanding jockevs in the United States. He has ridden more than 2,000 winners which earned .some $L5 million. EUREKA Race Book Colon, 4th July, 1914 A Program of the Racing Events, according; to the authorized list of the Stewards and promoters. ALSO THE LATEST SONGS, JOKES AND HUMOROUS SELECTIONS. WITH the advertisements of the leading Merchants and Commmerclal houses of Colon and Panama. J. A. NAAR, CMriLEi The U.S. Independence Day racing event heralded by this program took place in Colon just a few weeks before the Panama Canal opened. No one really knows when the sport of kings started in Colon or when it died out. The Panama Canal Review 17

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DISNEY WORLD A Look Backstage By Willie K. Friar THERE'S ENOUGH LAND HERE to hold all the ideas and plans wc can possibly imaf^ine," said Walt Disney hack in 1964 as he disciisscd his plans for Disney World. "With the technical know-how of American industry and the creative ima);ination of the Disney organization, I am confident we can bnild a living showcase that more people will talk ahout and conjc to look at than any other area in the world," Disney World, which is moving np to the top of the list of destinations of greatest interest to Panama f'anal employees heading for family vacations in the United States, is living up to all of Walt Disney's expectations. Located near Orlando, Fla., it is not only a popular vacation spot hut it is attracting architects and engineers, who want lo take a look hchiud the scenes and see how it all works and works so well. They come to learn how ecological prohlem.s have been solved. At right: A special effects expert peers around a candelabra in the Haunted Mansion as he performs a walk-through inspection of the funilshings. Center: An employee selects her costume from the wardrobe department which clothes more people on o daily basis than tmy other wardrobe department in the world. For right: A gardener woters a moose. The many topiary figures^ which decorate the grounds, require careful grooming and nurturing. new ways of city planning, about garbage tiillcction and flood control. One of the ideas in which there is great interest is Disney World's basement which covers 8 acres. Disney World, boasts that it has the largest basement in Florida. 'ITiis vast service area, which spreads beneath the entire park, is where all the water, electric, and sewage lines are concealed but located so that thev are readily accessible for repair. Disney made sure that the soimcl of the jack hammer, taking up pavement to repair a broken water line, will never be heard in the iMagic Kingdom. Special supplv-carrving tractors operate here so that no delivery tnicks disturb the atmosphere above. Illusions c;in be preserved, since all costumes and dressing rooms are located here and visitors arc spared the sight of a spaceman or a frontier guide nishing through the wrong theme park en route to his own. He can go through corridors and up stairs directly into his particular Horse-drawn streetcars transport visitors from Mj|lr*el, U.S.A. to Cinderella's Castle which is 18 stories high. From this location, gu
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aiea, whether it is Adventureland or Land of Tomorrow. More than 10,000 "actors" are costumed daily in the basement. This includes theme park employees, special entertainers, the famous Disney characters and the audio-animatronic figures in the eight major attractions that use this new patented Disney invention. In this system, voices, music, and sound effects are electronically combined and synchronized with the lifelike movements of three-dimensional objects ranging from birds and flowers to humans. These figures wear out costumes rapidly because of the many movements they are programed to make. The 36 Presidents of the United States in the Hall of Presidents, for instance, stand, sit, nod, turn and smile. Replacement parts for their costumes are included in the more than 1,000,000 different items in the wardrobe department. Visitors to the Magic Kingdom think that it must be magical that no noisy garbage trucks are seen anywhere. This is made possible by the Swedish garl>age system which whisks refuse bv vacuum tubes from 15 stations within the park to a compacting plant hidden from \iew outside the gates. Even the service basement has no garbage trucks and they will never be needed anywhere in the theme park area. The system is capable of handling .50 tons of refuse daily. Architects think that this system could be adapted for use in new suburban areas now being developed. Disney World's environmental protection operation is very thorough concerning air and water pollution control. TTiis falls under the super\'ision of a former Governor of the Canal Zone. William E. Potter, who has the title of chairman of the Reedy Creek Improvement District. Reedy Creek, controlled by the Disney organization, sets air and water pollution standards, and han^lles manv other diverse functions. An enormous computer supervises the whole operation and provides a fire monitorine system that is tied into Disnev World's own fire department. It also monitors all rides and mechanical de\'ices throughout the park, automaticalIv shutting down anv equipment that malfunctions. All of this, of course, is to support the Magic Kingdom, the amusement Hotels at Disney World are the Contemporary, at top, the Polynesian Village, center, and the Golf Resort, at left. 20 Spmng 1974

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park itself, and an important part of maintaining its illusions is that everything works and works well. There are no blackouts and the trains, trams, and boats all work efficiently and on time. Although the daily volume of visitors exceeds 50,000 people, who discard about a pound and a half of litter each, the streets stay clean. Young visitors to Disneyland often wish they could stay overnight in the magical atmosphere. At Disney World this is possible as there are three unique hotels, the 1,0.57-room Contemporary Resort Hotel, the .500-room Polynesian, and the 151-room Golf Hotel. Later, as part of a 5-year plan, several other resorts will be added, including themes from the Old West, Venice, Asia and Persia. All will overlook the Seven Seas Lagoon or 450-acre Bay Lake. Most spectacular of the resorts is the Contemporary, which has convention and e.xhibit facilities, including restaurants and entertainment areas, shops, nightclubs, beaches and a marina. The Contemporary tower is an unusual building in many ways. It was constructed of preassembled room units overlooking an inner-concotirse so vast it is called the "Grand Canvon." The concourse is much like an outdoor park that has been moved indoors. At its center is a four-sided tile mural nine stories high, depicting the colors and patterns of the Grand Canyon. Called "The Pueblo Village" it covers 18,000 square feet, and is one of the world's largest murals. Through the heart of this busy concourse travels the silent, all-electric monorail carrying guests to the Magic Kingdom, to the main parking area and to the Polynesian Village. At the Polynesian Village, guest rooms are nestled in three-story "longhouses" arranged around a picturesque marina with quiet beaches, broad green lawns, and swaying palms to complete the island setting. Dining room menus in the Papeete Bay Veranda, overlooking the Seven Seas Lagoon, reflect the French heritage of Tahiti. Near the Polynesian Village is the Golf Resort Hotel with two 18-hole championship golf courses, the Magnolia and The Palm. Clubhouse, dining room, practice green and driving range are available. A third course is planned. Still another major vacation attraction is located on the south shore of Bay Lake. The 600-acre Fort Wilderness camping area has campsites nestled among pines and long winding waterways. Utility hookups, frontier store and recreation centers are also among Fort Wilderness facilities and nearby is a private beach. Horseback riding is available at the Tri-Circle D Ranch with miles of woodland trails. Parades, spectacular water shows, and holiday extravaganzas complete the total entertainment concept. Its nightly fireworks displays make Disney World the largest user of fireworks in the world. The gateway to Walt Disney World is located 20 miles southwest of Orlando on U.S. Highway 192, just west of Interstate 4. Guests not staying at Disney hotels travel 4 miles across the Disney property to a day-visitor parking area for 12,000 vehicles. Nearby is a STOLport for short takeoff and landing airplane service to areas in Florida. Trams take guests from their cars to the main entrance complex on the south shore of the lagoon. This complex includes the Kal Kan Kennel Club pet motel where everything, from pet raccoons to pet lions, has been boarded, and the guest relations offices. Nearly a mile awav to the north can be seen the Victorian-style station of the Walt Disney World Railroad where steam trains, trams or 500-passenger ferryboats can be found. But the most appealing single feature of the whole operation is not mechanical. It is about 9,000 people, most 22 years old or younger, who make up the staff, all extremely bright, good looking, and eager to please. There doesn't seem to be a sullen, disagreeable employee in the lot and when they greet new arrivals with "Have a Happy Day," it tends to convince adults as well as children that they have escaped into a different world. Other phases of the development of the Disney property include a unique, leisure-oriented residential community, industrial parks and in the future, EPCOT-the Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow. Walt Disney envisioned EPCOT as a living blueprint of the future— a community which could put into practical use the newest innovations and systems of American industry and technology. Many of the Phase I developments are already testing new ideas, forerunners of the imagination and pioneering spirit that perhaps one day will provide a model for a different type of community. A river boat cruises by Harpers Mill on Tom Sawyer Island. Disney World has its own fleet of more than 200 vessels, including stemwheel steamboats, canoes, rafts, and submarines. The Panama Canal Review 21

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iOXK c;oii< Babel on the Banks of the Panama Canal By Fannie P. Hernandez Tilman Schlegelberger, a talented artist, sketches his sister, Felizitas, in the tropical garden atmosphere of the patio at the Embassy residence in Panama City. Full-time students at Canal Zone College, Tilman is preparing for a medical career in Germany and Felizitas, is studying to be an elementary school teacher. Both came to the Isthmus in 1972. 22 Spmng 1974

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OurUBO! HI! HOLA! MOIM! Kumusta Kayo! aire informal greetings that mav be heard on the campus of Canal Zone College where the international character of the small citadel of learning on the banks of the Canal is as cosmopolitan as the legion of ships that transit the waterway. The greetings are the jargon of students of Panama, the United States, Spain, Germany and the Philippines. Established in 1933 as a 2-\ear college to meet the needs of higher education in the Canal Zone community, the college expanded its curriculum in 1962 to offer a third-vear program. Student enrollment has been increased since then by the many young people and adults of the civilian and military community who are taking advantage of this opportunity to continue their education. Helping to create a trul\international atmosphere are 50 students from half as many countries who, in addition to the U.S. and the Panamanian students, make up the 1,400 members of the student body. Among these students are the children of the diplomatic and consular families accredited to Panama. Representing many lands are the young wives of U.S. military personnel, who have not completed their formal education and find the college a convenient facility for earning college credit while their husbands serve a tour of duty. Others enroll in the 1-year secretarial program, take art courses, studv English or Spanish, or receive instruction in the various sports offered in the phvsical education program. Personnel of the numerous banks that have been established in Panama in recent years, employees of shipping firms, industries and development projects on the Isthmus, are often found attending evening classes to improve their English. Or they may be taking refresher courses in economics, engineering, mathematics or design. The cultural background, national origins and the experiences of these students are as varied as the nations they represent. They come from South America, Central America, Europe, the Far East and the Near East. Their personalities, interests and talents add a touch of international flavor and geography to the student body. From the Near East, there is Simin Ghomashchi of Teheran, who had published a book of poetry and written numerous novels of romance for women's magazines before she met Sgt. Ro\L. Dailev, who was stationed at the -^ y ^ Wearing the typical dress of Cuzco, Flor de Herrer performs the huayno, one of the traditional dances of the highlands of Peru, her native land. U.S. Embassy in the Iranian capital. She had completed 2 years of work in Iranian literature, a proper curriculum for the daughter of a wealthy merchant and exporter of Persian rugs. Through an American couple, who had leased one of her father's houses, she met Dailey and they were married after overcoming the opposition of a tradition-bound father and strict religious obstacles. Mrs. Dailev recently completed the 1-year secretarial program at the college and is currently taking courses in business administration. In addition to her native language, Farsi, she speaks English, Turkish and some Russian. Her husband is a native of South Carolina and is serving with the U.S. Army Communications Command at Quarry Heights. He also attends Canal Zone College. An actress and singer turned student, Estrelita Howe, one of the four students from the Philippines, recently completed courses in typing and shorthand. Born in Manila, she grew up in Bataan, site of the infamous World War II death march. During her movie career in the early 1960's, she was known as Lita Estrella and appeared in a number of films including "No Man Is An Island" with The Panama Canal Review 23

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the well known Hollywood actor, Jeffrey Hunter, and "Twentv-seventh Cavalry" with the beautiful German actress, Ursula Andress. Both were war pictures filmed in the Philippines. She made manv personal appearances at fiestas and festivals throughout the Philippines but it was while on a singing engagement in Japan that she met and married Earl W. Howe, who was serving there with the U.S. Navv. The petite actress-singer and her husband, who is assigned to Navv Communications in the 15th Naval District, have three children. Felizitas Schlegelberger, 21, and her brother, Tilman, 20, who were bom in Bonn, Germany, came lo the Isthmus in 1972, when career diplomat, the late Dr. Gunther Schlegelberger, their father, was appointed West German Ambassador to Panama. They have lived in Japan, Vietnam, the Philippines and Switzerland, and in addition to their native language, speak English, Spanish and French. Both are full-time students. Felizitas is studying liberal arts and education courses preparing to be an elementary school teacher. Tilman is taking courses in preparation for a medical career he plans to pursue in Europe. Both are delighted with the people and climate of Panama where they are enjoying swimming and tennis. Tilman, a Estrelita Howe, who before her marriage was Lita Estrella, the Philippine movie actress of the early 1960's, poses in her beautiful Philippine dress with the "Maria Clara" sleeves. The wife of a member of the U.S. Navy stationed in the Canal Zone, Mrs. Howe has been studying commercial courses at the college. talented painter, is taking art classes with Sinclair, one of Panama's leading artists. Another native of Germany attending Canal Zone College is Michael Martin, a 19-vear-old enlisted man stationed at Headquarters Company, Fort Clayton. During the day, he is a parts order clerk for Armv vehicles, communications equipment and weapons. In the evenings, he studies sociology and psychologv and world civilization. Next semester he plans to take sketching and drawing to prepare for a career as a designer or commercial artist when he leaves the service. Michael was born in Wiesbaden. His mother is from East Germany and his stepfather is a U.S. citizen in the Armed Forces. He has lived in the United States and the Far East and has a deep appreciation for different cultures. Addv Weij, son of the Consul of the Netherlands in Panama, was born in Dusseldorf, Germanv, and has lived in Panama for the past 3 years. Prior to coming to Panama, he had lived in Stuttgart, Germany, and in Ghana, West Africa, for 5 vears. A full-time student, Addv is taking courses that will be useful to him when he goes to medical school in Rotterdam. His college friends call him the "Flving Dutchman" and he is a little surprised to find himself the onlv Dutch citizen at the college. There had been a large group of Dutch students at the private English school he attended in Ghana. Addv is fluent in Dutch, German, English and Spanish. Zivota Pavlovich, of Yugoslavia, was among those who recentlv completed a refresher course for engineers preparing for Canal Zone registration. Graduated as a naval architect and mechanical engineer from the Universitv of Belgrade, Pavlovich has been emplo\ed as a mechanical engineering draftsman in the Mechanical Branch of the Canal's Engineering Division for the past 2 vears. The road from his native land. where he was emploved as a naval architect in a shipyard, to his present position half a world awav has been an eventful one. A little more than 8 years ago, Pavlovich designed a steel sailboat and supervised its construction and then, with three friends, he set out on a round-the-world journey. When thev arrived at the Panama Canal, Pavlovich was so captivated bv what he saw that when the boat left 2 months later, he staved behind. Pavlovich was offered work bv some Yugoslavians who were farming in Chiriqui Province. Though he enjoys farming, his ambition was to work for the Panama Canal and it mattered little to him to begin at the bottom. His first job with the Canal organization in 1969 was with the Grounds Maintenance Br.inch, raking leaves and cleaning the street around the Administration Building at Balboa Heights. After a short time he was emploved as a line handler and locomotive helper at Pedro Miguel Locks. Then in Mav 1970, his perseverance was (ewarded and he returned to his profession as a naval architect in the Marine Bureau's Industrial Division at Cristobal, the position he held prior to joining the Engineering Division. Pavlovich is in the process of obtaining Panamanian citizenship, and working toward fulfilling his dream— a solo trip around the world. He already has designed two sailboats, a 24-foot and a .3.3-foot craft for this purpose. From the Far East, Kim Hung Lau is a 20-vear-old, full-time student who was born in Canton, China. She grew up in Hong Kong and attended a Chinese high school where she learned some English. Kim came to the Isthmus 3 vears ago with her mother to join her father. She is studying business subjects and trying to leam Spanish on her owni. Laura Antunez do Prado, of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, had a choice of either entering college in Rio in the fall of 1970 or visiting her uncle who was a Brazilian military officer instructing at the School of the Americas at Fort Gulick. She chose to come to Panama. During her visit, she attended a graduation ceremony at the Alliance Francaise in Colon and it was there that she met Capt. Gary V. Cooper, whom she later married. Mrs. Cooper, whose native language is Portuguese, is a part-time student studying English composition and Spanish. A sergeant in the U.S. Air Force stationed at Albrook Air Force Base, 24 Spring 1974

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Fernando Concha, a Colombian, works during the dav as an electronics technician in the calibration laboratory, calibrating and repairing electronic equipment for the Armv and the Panama Canal organization. In the evenings, he takes engineering courses in preparation for entrance into an engineering school in the United States when he leaves the service in about 2 years. Sergeant Concha is from Cali. where he completed his "bachillerato" at the Colegio X'illegas. He also was graduated from high school in New York Cit\', where he joined the Air Force. Flor de Herrer, a full-time student in business administration, is from Peru. She has lived in Panama, where her father is a scientist with the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, for the past 9 years and is a graduate of Balboa High School. Bom in Lima, Flor goes there each vear to visit her sister who is studying medicine and her brother who is an accountant. Completely bilingual, she plans to continue her college education in the United States next year. Her favorite hobbies are swimming and mountain climbing but most of all she enjoys meeting people of different nationalities. In addition to her studies, she works at the Counselor's Office at the college. Christopher Davis was bom in Chile of a British father and Brazilian mother. He left there many years ago but has lived in so many countries he could be called an international student. Christopher's father is with a tobacco company in Panama and his business has taken him to Brazil, Venezuela, Argentina, Canada and England. Enrolled in the 2-year program in English and liberal arts, he plans a future in politicial science and law. He is a member of the Phi Theta Kappa honor society, and has been employed as a student assistant in the Canal's Engineering Division and at the college. Laura Phlegar, the former Laura Regina Hernandez, of Honduras, has been a part-time student for the past 3 vears. She first came to the Isthmus when her father was named Honduran Ambassador to Panama in 195.5 and retumed in 1964, when her father was reappointed here. In the interim, she lived with her family in Mexico City. She married Emory E. Phlegar. chief of the lAGS Carto-Branch in 1966. In addition to these students, there are others from Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Canada, Cuba, Spain and France, who are either attending Canal Zone College at this time or have recently completed courses of study. The exotic beauty of Simin Dailey is even more eloquent in her native Iranian headdress. A student in business administration, Mrs. Dailey met her husband in Teheran, when he was stationed at the U.S. Embassy there. At left: Pondering an engineering problem is Sgt. Fernando Concha of the U.S. Air Force. One of several Colombians attending Canal Zone College. Below; Christopher Davis, bom in Chile, and Flor de Herrer, from Peru, match wits in a game of chess while taking a break from classes at Canal Zone College. The Panama Canal Review 25

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ilaritime Monickers How DO SHIPS GET NAMES like Santa Claus or Arco Sag River or China Bear. Who names them and why? Such questions often come to mind as one watches the international parade of ships passing through the Panama Canal. When Saiita Claus showed up at Balboa the week before Christmas, the Canal's weekly newspaper headlined the event and, with tongue in cheek reported, "Santa Claus transited the Canal. She was headed north." In clarification, the writer added that the ship was no relation to the good ole St. Nick." A rebuttal from the Elpis Shipping Co., of Greece, owners of the ship, arrived immediately. Not so, said the president. Santa Claus did indeed have a relationship to St. Nick. She had been named in honor of the patron saint of Greek sailors, St. Nicholas. He added that a retraction might be in order. To the owners and to those who sail on them, ships take on almost human qualities. Unlike other vehicles of transport, they seem to possess a special individuality. A great deal of thought is given to the choosing of ships' names and behind even the most ordinary appellation there is usually an interesting story. There would seem little to question about an obvious name like Queen Elizabeth II, Cunard's famous cruise ship, but as soon as she was christened, the company was besieged with calls asking what the name meant. The name selected for the liner was a well-kept secret that had attracted attention throughout Britain. More than 1.5,000 bets had been placed on a varietv of names with the odds on Queen Elizabeth the Second 14 to I. Only four peoples besides the Queen had been told the name. 26 Spring 1974

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But, on the lon<' awaited launching day September 20, 1967, when Queen Elizabeth stepped forward on the platform at the shipyard and said, "I name this ship Queen Elizabeth the Second," e\eryone was surprised, e\en the four people who thought the\knew the name in advance. Thev had been told the name would be Queen Elizabeth, but at the last minute, the Queen had decided to christen the ship. Queen Elizabeth the Second. As sui-prised as ever\-one else at the sudden change, Cunard officials were faced with the problem of explaining it. They were asked if it referred to Queen Elizabeth the Second. (The first liner, the largest passenger ship ever built, was named for the wife of King George VL ) Or was the name meant to implv that this was the second Queen Ehizabeth liner? The company first announced that the ship was named as the second liner of that name pointing out that the Driginal Queen Elizabeth would soon be out of service. Later, however, press releases made it clear that the ship was named for the British Queen. The Cunard offices in London, Southhampton, and Liverpool received more than .500 telephone calls, within an hour ifter the launching, congratulating them 3n the selection. Most people liked it but a few complained, including one woman who said that she was going out immediately to sell all of her stock. Another objection came from the chairman of the Scottish Nationalist Party who said, "It could not be a bigger insult to the people of Scotland." The Scots consider the present Queen of England to be Elizabeth the First, since they have nexer recognized the Tudor Queen Elizabeth. There is a well-known stor\' that the naming of the Queen Mary was something of a surprise to Cunard officials also. According to this storv, a company official told King George VI that he had decided to name the liner for Britain's greatest queen. The King said that he thought it was a good idea and that he was sure Queen Mary would be very pleased. The official meant Queen \'ictoria but after the incident, the ship was duly named Queen Mary. Bv tradition, all Cunard Line ships, except for the three Queen.^, ha\e been named after Boman countries ending in "ia" such as Mauritania, Aquitania, Britannia, Media, Parthia, Franconia and Carmania. Why Pick St, Nick? "Santa Claus," named for the patron saint of Greek sailors, passes under the bridge that spans the Panama Canal. But in 1971, the tradition was broken with the naming of the ship, Cunard Adventurer. The company e.xplained that marketing considerations exerted a strong influence in the selection It was felt that the name would immediately identify the ship as a vacation cruise ship built to take passengers on exciting seagoing ad\entures. Other departures from the 134-year tradition are the new cruise ships now imder construction which will be named Cunard Countess and Cunard Conquest. The famed Queen Elizabeth II will be seen at the Canal, March 26, 1975, when she will stop in Balboa prior to transiting the Canal on her first aroundthe-world cmise. The 963-foot-long liner will be the largest passenger ship e\er to transit the waterway. Naming ships with standard sufiBxes or prefixes is a common practice but one -American company, no longer in existence, selected names that began with each letter of the alphabet. In 1927, while invohed in U.S. coastal trade, the Alleghany, Berkshire, Chatham, and Dorchester were the first four ships in the fleet. The\' were named for counties in the states they served. Since the company had onh' 20 ships, a few letters were skipped but this was the pattern followed. The Dorchester will be remembered as the ship on which the four U.S. chaplains ga\e up their lifebelts to others, who had none, then joined arms and F Fhe Panama Canal Review 27

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The Swedish American Lines' famous cruise ship, "Gripsholm," passes through a fjord. She was named for the Gripsholm Castle in Sweden, which is shown below as it appears on the ship's menu cover. l^lllir-. went down with the ship when it was sunk, February 3, 1943. One of the great tragedies of World War II, 605 of its 904 passengers either drowned or froze to death before a rescue ship arrived. The ship and her four heroic chaplains were honored with a number of memorials including a 3-cent postage stamp and the Four Chaplains Cha])el in Philadelphia. Two of the cha))lains were Protestant, one Jewish, and one Catholic. Some companies choose one letter of the alphabet and select names that begin with that. For instance, the names of all ships of the Barber Lines, which has its headquarters in Norway, have names that start with "t." Some of them are Tagai/tai/, named for a town in the Philippine Islands; Tagiis, a river in Portugal, which flows into the sea at Lisbon; Tai Ping, Chinese for great peace and/or happiness; Tamerlane, Timur Leng (Timur the Lame) the Mongol Emperor (13.36-140.5); Tarantcl, tarantella, a .south Italian dance, which was derived from the name of the spider whose bite was supposed to cause dancing mania; and Talbot III, the name of the French engineer ( 17991855) who built the first railway in France and in 1847 made plans for a canal between Alexandria and Suez. Talbot I was the first steamship in the fleet and originated the "t" nomenclature. The Swedish words, Ktmgsholm and Gripsholm, identifv the two beautiful cruise ships of the Swedish American Line, which frequently pass through the Canal. In Sweden, the word "holm" means "little island." Kungshohn means Kind's Island. Kungsholm was also, in the 1.5th and 1 6th centuries, a castle in Stockholm. It was destroyed bv fire but there is still a borough in Stockholm which is called Kung.sholmen. The Gripsholm is named for the C.ripsholm castle on Lake Malarcn in Sweden. The name in English is Griffin's Island. It was named for a governor. Bo Johnson Grip. The castle, one of the most impressive Renaissance castles in Scandinavia, is now a museum with a fine portrait collection. The present Kungsholm is the second ship of that name. The first, was taken over by the United States shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Renamed the John Ericsson, she carried more than 170,000 troops across the Atlantic. Then in 1946, she was converted into a war bride ship complete with nursery, diet kitchen and playroom and transported 279 wives and 177 babies from Europe to the United States. She was repurchased by the Swedish American Line in July 1947 and reconverted for cruise service. The Norwegian American Line, since 1910, has named its vessels after Norwegian fjords. Among them are the Sfavangerfjord, Oslofjord, Edifjord, and Skicn.<^iord. In 1965, they added the Sagafjord, a name created by simply combining a recognizable Norse word, "saga" with fjord. Vistafjord, a familiar Canal customer, is a similar case where a word was used to conjure up a mental view of anticipated places and events. Using the natural features of a country or countries for the names of ships is a common practice. Tlie Iceland Steamship Co. (Elmskip) names its ships for Icelandic waterfalls. The Icelandic word for waterfall is foss and the flagship of the fleet is named Gullfoss, the Golden Waterfall. This waterfall, which plunges over rocks in a broad glacial river into a deep corge. is regarded as one of the most beautiful in the world. Along with the Great Gevser, known in Icelandic as Gevsir, it is a major tourist attraction. Incidentally, it is from the Icelandic word gevsir that the English word gevser, which has been applied to spouting hot springs all over the world, an'l to water heaters in England, is derived. With few exceptions, all Holland America Line passenger and rias<;pngerrargo vessels carry the names of localities in the Netherlands ending in "dam" which is the same in Dutch as in Eng28 Spring 1974

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lish. In the past, dams in \aii()us rixers were stopo\er points or places for transferring cargo. Towns sprang up near them and were named for them. Rotterdam was located near the dam in the Route Ri\er and Amsterdam in the Amstel River. In 1901, when Holland America acquired its first cargo ship, to distinguish this t\pe ship from the passenger vessels, a series of "dijk" ships was begun The word "dijk" means dike and with the \ast numher of dikes in the Netherlands, there has lieen no .scarcity of names for freighters. The company, howe\er, prefers to revert to names it has used before when new ships are put into ser\ice. The Turkish Maritime Line chooses geographical names. It has named three vessels for the seas surrovmding the coast of Turkey. In case vou dont recognize them, Akdcniz is the Mediterranean Sea; Karadcniz is the Black Sea; and £ge, the Aegean Sea. Other ships are named for cities in Turkey. The Pacific Steam Navigation Co. has been well known on the Isthmus mi,r-,m \V' VOLUTA 23 NOVEMBER 1961 Above: The Voluta shell and the plaque which gives the launching date of the ship named for it and a Pectan shell, the sjmbol of Shell International Marine Limited. At right: Shell's 195,900 d.w.t. "Mitra," which was built in Denmark in 1969. since CJold Rush days and the construction of the Panama Canal. For the most part, it uses ports, towns, \ illages and proN inces of either Spain or Latin America, the trade areas which it senes, for the names of its ships. Among the ships are Onhina, a town in the Bas(jue Pro\inces of Spain; Ortega, a village in Colombia; and Orcoma, a district in Chile. An exception is a tanker, William Wliccliiri^ht. which is named for the founder of the company. At one time, the company had a tanker named Ccorgc Peacock, the name of PSXC's first captain, a former Royal Na\\' captain, who is believed by some to be the first to plot the present route of the Panama Canal. In February 1842, he sailed to Panama from England to complete a sur\ev he had started earlier. He made a rouiih chart of the route and left it with the British Consul of Panama before he sailed for Eniiland. The Italian Line, which runs a regular senice through the Canal from Italy to South .America, honors famous Ttali.m artists and composers not onlv in ihc naming of their vessels, but in the case of artists, also displays their work aboard the ships. The ships frequently seen at the Canal include the Rossini, the Donizetti, and the Verdi. The Baltic Shipping Company names its cruise ships for famous Russian literary figures. The Shota RiistcvcUi transits the Canal enroute to Australia while the Mikhail Lcrmontov and the Alexander Pusltkin operate cruises to Evnope out of New York and Canada. The names Varicella and Hcniitrocluis aren't familiar to the average person but a shell collector would recognize them at once. These ships, which are seen often at the Canal, belong to Shell International Marine Limited, a company with a tradition oi naming its ships for seashells. Back in 1897, when Marcus Samuel took oxer his father's shop in London, oriental shells and curios formed part of the stock. As a sideline, he handled kerosene and on seeing the advantages of transporting it in bulk, ordered a fleet of tankers. Since he was an ;iulhoritv on shells, Samuels decided to name tlie first ship, Mtirex, for that tvpe of shell. Tliis ship was destined to make history as the first ship permitted to transit the Suez Canal. (The latest ship to carry this traditional name was built in 1968. ) Condi. Clam. Turbo, Elax, and Ncrita were put into serxice shortly afterward and in 1899, when the company had 14 tankers, the name of the company x\as changed to Shell Transport and Trading Company xvith the Pectan as it's symbol. Present day ships include the Mitra. Medorv. Mi/sia, and MangeUa. For a number of years, each ship has carried a specimen of the shell for which it xvas named. In the case of xerv rare shells xvhich haxe been difficult to The Panama Canal Review 29

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obtain, a model of the shell has been made for this purpose. Ships of the Sitmar Line and its sister company, Sitmar Cruises, are regular Canal customers. The Fairstar and the Fairsky pass through enroute from the United Kingdom to Australia and New Zealand while the Fairsea and the Faincind transit on cruises around Central and South America. The casual observer might conclude that the ships' names refer to the fair and agreeable atmospheric conditions under which the ships sailed. But this is not the case. A Sitmar official, when asked how the tradition of naming the ships "fair" developed, said, with a certain pride, "When the line, more than a quarter of century ago, was formed to operate passenger vessels it was thought, and we can today state rightly so, that over and above all efforts (construction, manning, etc.) the main factor which should secure us the success we were aiming at was the fairness to all concerned, i.e., not only to our passengers, but to the travel industry, to our general sales agents, to our port agents, to the press, to our staff, and to anyone else who could eventually be connected with our trade." It was subsequently decided to combine the word "fair" with an element of navigation, such as sea, sky, star, and wind. With its great involvement in trade in Latin America, it was natural for the United Brands Co. to name its vessels for geographical and geological features and political figures in those countries. Among its ships are Chiriqui and Darien, named for provinces in Panama; Turrialba, a volcano in Costa Rica; Magdalena, a river in Colombia; Leon, a city in Nicaragua; Choluteca, a coffee producing department in Honduras; Motagua, a river in Guatemala; and Lempa, a river in El Salvador. Some exceptions to this policy are Fra Berlanga, named for p Dominican friar, who was the first to introduce the banana plant into the West Indies during early Spanish Colonial rule; and Morazan, named for General Francisco Morazan, a native of Honduras and one of the great historical figures in the creation of the Federation of Central America. When the new container ship, China Bear, transited the Canal recently, it raised the question "why name a ship bear?" The explanation is simple. The Pacific Far East Line, Inc., with headquarters in San Francisco, takes its symbol and names for its ships from the state of California seal which features a bear. The names of its other vessels are Canada Bear, Guam Bear, Haivnii Bear, Japan Bear, Pacific Bear, and Philippine Bear. The prefix determined by the countries in which the vessels call. The name of the new tanker Arco Sag River is familiar in Alaska but not here. This huge oil tanker, which belongs to Atlantic Richfield Oil Co., gets its name from the location of the confirmation oil well on the North Slope in Alaska. During its span of 100 years, the China Navigation Co. has owned over 200 ships, which were traditionally named for Chinese provinces. This tradition was first broken when the company began operating a Moslem pilgrim ship on charter to Malaya under the name of Kuala Lumpur, and more recently, in 1966, when four vessels operated by a subsidiary company in New Guinea were renamed Chiefs (Papauan Chief, Island Chief, etc.) The curient policy is to identify ships with a particular trade route. A vessel on llie Asia Australia Express Service, for instance, is named Asian Express. This company also manages John Swire and Sons and Associated Companies' five bulk carriers named for Scottish \illages and lochs beginning with "Er" and there is one ship named Erawan for the three-headed elephant which in Hindu mythology provides intercelestial transportation for the god, Indra. The remaining vessel of this fleet is a cruise liner named Coral Princess for no other reason than that it sounds right for cruising the coral islands and atolls of the Pacific. Since hundreds of Japanese ships from Aiza Maru to Zuiyo Maru are in service, Panama Canal guides receive most questions about the Maru suffix. The Italian Line's policy of naming its ships for famous artists and composers was followed in the naming of the "Leonardo Da Vinci," which has paintings by the artist in its public rooms. The "Ortega," which transits the Canal regularly, is named for a village in Colombia. 30 Spring 1974

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The answer, unfortunately is that the origin of the word is a mystery. There are many explanations, but whether thev come from scholars or shipping officials, thev only suggest some of the many possible origins of the tradition. No one knows for sure. One popular theory is that 16th century ships looked like castles and the old Japanese character, which is still used on the ships, means castle. Though ships no longer look like castles, the use of the word continues to be a tradition in the naming of Japanese ships. Interestingly, ships are not feminine in Japanese, as thev are in most countries, and are always referred to in the masculine gender. The Panama Canal Company, has only one ship, the Cristobal. It was named for the Atlantic side terminal port, which was originallv named for Columbus. In the past, when it had many ships, operated bv the Panama Railroad, there was a general pattern of naming the ships for areas on the Isthmus. The Ancon, the first ship to transit the Canal was named for the Pacific side townsite of that name. In the Middle Ages, when religious zeal reached a peak, ships were usually named for saints and no craft was sent to sea without its shrine and idols. Prudential Grace is one of the present day lines which follows the practice of naming ships for saints. The Santa Mercedes, Santa Mag,dalena, and others are well known locally. Some names fit the ships perfectly. What could be better for a wine carrying ship than Bacchus, the god of wine in classical mythology? This was the name a French company gave the cargo ship it converted in 19.3.5 to carry wine in bulk. The ship, which was put into service between Algiers and Rouen, transported as many as 30 different varieties of wine at one time. Sunk during the war, the first Bacchus was replaced in 1949 by another Bacchus. It has 40 tanks for wine or alcohol. It was once possible to distinguish the type of U.S. Navy ships by their names. For instance, submarines were traditionally named for fish; aircraft carriers for battles and famous old ships; destroyers, for well known military personnel; battleships for States and cniisers for cities. This is no longer the case. The first significant departure from tradition was in the naming of submarines. First, there was the Nautilus, named for Jules Verne's mythical submarine, and in more recent times, they have been named for cities and proCANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS First Half Fiscal Year 1974 1973 1965-69 Nationality Belgian British Chilean Chinese, Nat'l. _. Colombian C\priot Dani.sh Ecuadorean French German, West_. Greek Honduran Italian Japanese Liberian Netherlands Norwegian Panamanian Peruvian Philippine South Korean ._. Soviet Swedish United States .Vll others No. of transits 78 638 43 104 94 107 173 46 113 378 701 56 135 643 894 229 518 505 90 47 50 132 163 616 413 To as of cargo 279,717 6,924,670 665,614 1,146,805 230,816 649,689 1,362,868 509,732 663,295 2,516,863 9,478.162 56,990 1,025,817 6,923,312 15,417,105 1,. 3.34.531 7,636,929 3,256,365 8.38,128 .364,991 302,761 822,3.50 1,248,731 5,045,671 3,520,445 No. of transits 64 666 65 83 128 84 182 30 101 409 475 76 141 696 909 230 617 463 81 45 66 137 213 595 341 Tons of cargo 251,901 6,247,374 864,.590 701,081 223,896 5.37,266 1,107,905 115,899 465,251 2,104,176 5,251,916 78,042 595,384 5,676,541 13,472,970 1,517,106 8,014,000 2,956,783 662,869 288,306 430,093 789,669 1,483,890 3,931,283 2,292,974 Avg. No. transits 39 679 60 57 117 7 198 33 107 590 255 104 110 468 674 257 739 261 79 46 14 27 225 823 273 Avg. tons of cargo 100,725 5,072,872 406,198 443,818 225,971 50,000 1,137,816 41,799 421,446 2,063,139 2,606,268 64,648 743,021 3,431,691 8,920,295 1,086,592 7,171,883 1,215,812 387,875 216,694 87,421 207,691 1,462,003 4,602,063 1,400,953 Total 6,968 72,222,357 6,897 60,061,165 6,242 43,568,694 TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES First Half Fiscal Year Avg. No. transits 1974 1973 1965-69 1,777 1,739 1,389 547 605 651 640 581 893 422 423 484 374 377 107 238 252 191 226 226 99 206 215 258 133 165 96 172 152 130 2,233 2,162 1,931 Total 6,968 6,897 6,231 MONTHLY COMMERCI.\L TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 net tons or over— {Fiscal years) Transits Tolls (In thousands of doUars)l Trade routes— (Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) East coast United States— Asia Europe— West coast South America East coast United States— West coast South America Europe— West coast United States/Canada Europe— Asia Europe— Oceania East coast Canada— Asia United States Intercoastal (including Hawaii) East coast South America— Asia West coast South America— West Indies All others Month July August September October November December January February March April May June Totals for fiscal year_ First half 1974 1,210 1,127 1,125 1,220 1,160 1,126 1973 1,1.38 1,221 1,116 1,174 1,141 1,107 1,176 1,037 1,231 1,133 1,160 1,207 Avg. No. transits 1965-69 1,067 1,044 1,015 1,049 1,021 1,035 1,003 922 1,098 1,087 1,110 1,052 First half 1974 $9,697 9,663 9,530 10,170 9,772 9,886 1973 $8,518 9,522 8,896 9,298 9,130 8,958 9,703 8,328 9,916 9,507 9,.378 9,878 Average tolls 1965-69 $6,322 6,298 6,139 6,387 6,258 6,409 6,167 5,654 6,748 6,681 6,854 6,609 13,841 12,503 $111,032 $76,526 1 Before deduction of any operating expenses. The Panama Canal Review 31

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PRINCIPAL CONIMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL ( All cargo figures in long tons ) Pacific to Atlantic First Half Fiscal Year Commodity 1974 Petroleum and products 5,843,529 Manufactures of iron and steel 3, 101, 890 Ores, various 3,074,279 Lumber and products 2,640,783 Sugar 1,832,808 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 813,758 Pulpwood 809,518 Bananas 764,270 Metals, various 475,767 Autos, trucks, accessories and parts 461,982 Sulfur 401,777 Potash 281,906 Paper and products 244,083 Molasses 241,241 Coffee 232,473 All others and unclassified 5,510,593 Total 27,030,657

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BLDEBERRY HILl" KIVOVV " -. V...1 > ,.. In smaller, more familiar things, memory weaves her strongest enchantments, holding us at her mercy with some trifle, some echo, a tone of voice, a scent . Freya Stark. With the coming of the seventies, a wave of nostalgia has been sweeping through the land. It has become a time of looking back to the 40's and the 50's. The songs on the radio, the inovies, the television shows all reflect the /ongings for the days that used to be. When members of the Balboa Graduating Class of 1943 came to the Isthmus early this year for a 30th anniversary reunion, it seemed a rare opportunity to look back with them; to find out how the graduates had fared over the years; and to see their reactions to changes on the Isthmus. One of our writers mingled with them during their week's stay in Panama and gave this report. The Editor. ^ 0— a--.. Three Decades A Difference PANAMA PUT ON ITS TRAVELposter face for the reunion of the Balboa High School Class of 1943. The kind of travel poster that evokes daydreams of tropical cruises when those in more northerly lands glance at it during a shivery January blizzard. On February 1, 1974, the group arrived at Tocumen Airport, which didn't exist when they left. They came from Alaska, Texas, Kentucky, New Jersey, Vermont, New York, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Maryland and Ohio. The 24 graduates who traveled from the States and the 27 who settled on the Isthmus, had not been together in a group since graduation night— June 4, 1943. That was the day newspapers headlined war news: "U.S. Hits Three Italian Battleships," "Marshall at Africa Conference," "Soviets Striking Furious Blows," and "Double Axis Defeat Seen by Roosevelt." It was the year of padded shoulders, wedgies and ankle-strap shoes, of upsweep hairdos and uplift bras; the year zoot suits and the drape shape were all the rage in the United States. It was the time of dancing to "Pennsylvania 6-.5-0-0-0" and "Beer Barrel Polka," of Helen O'Connel singing "Green Eves," of Tommy Dorsey playing "I'll Never Smile Again," of Glenn Miller, Frank Sinatra and the Andrews Sisters. The '43 graduates changed one word of a wartime hit song and sang "Don't sit under the mango tree with anyone else but me." The school paper, "The Tarakeet," brought the war close to home with its own headlines— "BHS Offers Tough Aeronautics Course for Future Pilots," "69 Students Join Victory Corps," and "Seniors Bid Farewell to BHS— Take War Jobs." And they learned a new vocabulary —gas mask drill, blackouts, sugar rationing, censorship, manpower board, Wake, Bataan, Corregidor and Guadalcanal. /&J, 5-r The Panama Canal Review 33

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k Time to Remember . BAI BOA HIGH SCHOOL >f!-ff 'II!'!! The daughters of Bill March, Jack Walter and Betty Boyer— from left, Susan, Lisa and Meredith— look at graduation pictures copied from the BHS 1943 yearbook. sold 50,000 sets when first marketed. Isabelle Zemer Lively is account coordinator for the largest printing firm on the west coast. She often gives slide presentations and lectures on Panama. Ernie Pierce, an engineering executive with the National Cash Register Co., is a pioneer in postal automation. Alejandro Briceiio is a prominent Panama City physician. Henry Townsend owns his own business in Colon. Bill March is a realtor who dexeloped one of the first condominium shopping centers in the United States. Leon Dedeaux tra\els all over the world as an engineering project officer for General Electric. Jim Basque is a veterinarian in a \'ermont town of 300 head of cattle and 400 people. Jack Walters is a manufacturing specialist for Lockheed Aircraft, and owns his own business as a secondary construction-industrial consultant. He has to write a lot of speeches and papers, and said "I seldom start to write that I don't remember Miss Schucbat. She taught me how to use words." There was a poignant moment when Miss Schucbat, now the wife of Rabbi Nathan Witkin, met the group at the Civil Affairs Building, where the graduates gathered for a trip to Miraflores Locks. WTien her former students greeted her, she was surprised and pleased that thev remembered her with such affection. When the time came for everyone to leave for home, goodbves were said with reluctance but everv'one promised to attend the next reunion which is scheduled for 1979. Ernest (Bud) Pierce, class photographer back in '43, takes up where he left off and shoots pictures of the same old gang 30 years later. Mrs. Robert O. Boyer, Canal Zone representative for the reunion, worked for a year on plans and keeps on working in her room at La Siesta while others get ready for the dinner-dance. Neil Heitman (left), who with liis wife Joanne and two children traveled from Alaska, revisits Balboa High School and meets Clyde Willman, the principal. Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. March at the dinner-dance at La Siesta. March, along with West Coast and Canal Zone representatives, organized the reunion after Bill Diez made the plans. The class of '43 leaves Pedro Miguel for dinner and dancing to the music of Lucho Azcarraga during a partial transit of the Canal aboard the launch "Las Cruces." The Panama Canal Review 35

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