Citation
Panama Canal review

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Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


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David S. Parker
Governor-President
Charles I. McGinnis
Lieutenant Governor
Frank A. Baldwin


Panama Can


rilE
PANAMA (f .) CANAL


REVIEW


Willie K. Friar
Editor, English Edition
Jos6 T. Tuii6n
Editor, Spanish Edition
Writers
Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hern6ndez,


ol Information Officer Official Panama Conal Publication Franklin Castrell6n and Dolores E.
Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit tu the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1, airmail $2, single copies 50 cents.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Suisman


Contents


The Golden Huacas of Panama
Treasures of a forgotten
people arouse the curiosity
of archeologists around the
world.
Snoopy Speaks Spanish
In the phonetics of the fun-
nies, a Spanish-speaking dog
doesn't say "bow wow."
Balseria
Broken legs are the name of
the game when the Guaymis
get together for this unique
contest.
Bicycling on the Isthmus
The unicycle may be the best
answer for complete equality
in the age of unisex.
To Russia with the Russians
From New York to Leningrad
with ballet, balalaikas and
borscht.
Shipping Notes
The style in cruising this year
is to the exotic and unusual
spot.
When Left Was Right
Driving rules were reversed
with hardly a hiitch-except
for the horses.
Salsipuedes
Everything from lizards to
love potions is sold in Pan-
ama's legend-shrouded street.
Culinary Capers
History


3





8




11





15




17 .

-


22




25




28 ,


32
35


Our Cover


Huaca fanciers will find their favor-
ites among the symbolic characters of
the warrior, rainbow, condor god, eagle
and alligator in this display of Pan-
ama's famous golden artifacts.
The huacas, copied from those recov-
ered from the graves of pre-Columbian
Carib Indians, were loaned to THE
REVIE-E by Neville Harte. The well
known local archeologist also provided
much of the information for the article
from his unrivaled knowledge of the
subject-the fruit of a 26-year-long love
affair with the huaca, and the country
and people of Panama, past and present.
Harte has made replicas of 109
different huacas-many from originals
he recovered himself-using the lost-
wax process of casting metal.
Because huacas are beautiful, rare,
valuable, or a combination of all three,
they are a major attraction for tourists
and residents who visit the Panama Mu-
seum to see the originals, or jewelry and
antique shops to buy the reproductions.
Two often asked questions about the
golden huaca are who discovered the
ancient lost-wax process and how did
the Indians mine gold. The explanations
are simple: The lost-wax process was
never lost and the Indians did not mine
gold.
The phrase "lost-wax process" does
not mean the technique was lost and
rediscovered; it simply means the wax
is lost in the process.
Gold in a relatively pure state was
plentiful in stream beds. It was bright
and shiny and caught the sun's rays and
thus the Indians' eyes. And they panned
rather than mined their gold.
Arthur L. Pollack produced the un-
usual three-dimensional effect necessary
to appreciate the intricate beauty of the
huacas by photographing them on a
sheet of plate glass suspended 3 inches
above a piece of red satin material.


FALL 1973


Artwork-Carlos Mendez, page 14, 32, 34;
IHector Sinclair, page 22; Peter Gurney,
paue 25.


tII 1~

~.. ;


L-






A CLUE TO THE MYSTERIES OF
a vanished people who inhabited
Panama during pre-Columbian times is
found in the "golden huacas," the pre-
cious artifacts which were buried with
them 1,000 years ago.
These people left no written history.
But the objects they made-jewelry,
weapons, tools and ornaments-give a
clue to their great culture and the skill
of their artisans.
In these archeological finds lies the
history of a great nation obscured by
time. Many facts are known, but even
they change according to the books read
or experts consulted. What is a huaca? Is
a huaca a tomb and a huaco an artifact
recovered from the tomb? Or is it the
other way around? Were huacas orna-
ments, offerings to the gods, good luck
charms, battle armor, coats of arms? Is
the word itself spelled huacal or guacal
or huaca or guaca? It matters little.
Here in Panama, "huacas" have come
to mean the artifacts removed from the
graves of the Indian tribes who pros-
pered on the rich and lovely lands of
the Isthmus until the Spaniards came
to plunder, kill and drive them from
their homes.
The golden huaca has traveled a long
journey over many lands. It was created
by the hands of the skilled Caribbean
goldsmith who fashioned a breast orna-
ment for a warrior and a strand of gold
beads for his lady. Placed in the tomb
with other items chosen to accompany
him on his journey to another life, the
gold ornaments remained sunbright for
hundreds of years.
Today, a replica of the golden huaca
is a small part of pre-Columbian history
that can be worn around the neck or on
the ears. Satisfying the current craving
for the unique and exotic, huacas are
growing in popularity as the gift that
everyone wants to own or to give. Fash-
ioned into pendants, bracelets, earrings,
even wedding rings-by jewelers in Pan-
ama and other countries of Central and
South America-they are favored as gifts
and cherished as souvenirs.
And the spell of the huaca is such
that it never becomes just a piece of
jewelry. Always its owner is aware of
its inpenetrable secrets of the stories
it would tell if it could.
In the late 1920's, following floods
that changed the river's course, natives
traveling along the Rio Grande de Co-
c16, just 100 miles from the Canal Zone,


had one of modern man's earliest
glimpses of this reminder of Panama's
ancient civilization. A glimmer that
proved to be the golden treasure of a
forgotten people that had been buried
with their dead.
The gold ornaments the natives un-
covered, along with bone fragments and
pottery, made their way from hand to
hand until they arrived in a Pan-
ama City antique shop, and eventually
aroused the curiosity of archeologists
around the world.
Following the accidental discovery
and the verification of its importance,
an expedition, led by the famed archeo-
logist Samuel K. Lothrop, was sent to
the site by the Peabody Museum of
Harvard University.
In one of his reports, Dr. Lothrop
tells of the complex story that began to
unfold when, while digging beneath the
top layer of pasture land, he brought to
light signs of ancient habitation. One
grave, only 12 feet by 14 feet in size,
yielded more than 2,000 objects. Ninety-
six of these were gold. There were
pendants set with semiprecious stones,
ornamental breast plates, necklaces of







Elsa Fifer, a
student assistant in the
General Audit Division,
wears a replica of an
Indian headband that
is adorned with a
golden alligator.


thousands of beads, heavily embossed
gold disks, wrist and ankle cuffs, and
earrings.
His studies during this and later ex-
peditions to Code Province convinced
Dr. Lothrop that the "civilization repre-
sented by these finds belonged to tribes
practically unknown today rich and
industrious peoples, skilled in working
clay, stone and metals."
The gold artifacts uncovered in these
ancient sites and at others in the prov-
inces of Chiriqui and Veraguas, and also
at Venado Beach in the Canal Zone, are
displayed in the Panama Museum and
in many museums in the United States
and Europe-a silent tribute to the mas-
ter craftsmen who reached a pinnacle
of artistry more than 1,000 years ago
in Panama.
Fashioned by a curious technique,
the gold figures portray stylized human
and animal forms or a combination of
the two. There are snakes with two
legs, men with crocodile heads, and
figures with a human head and shoulders
attached to the body of a snake, with
the projecting eyes of a crab, and the
recurring images of the alligator and


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






















































eagle which many believe have reli-
gious significance.
There is agreement among archeo-
logists that the superb gold relics in-
terred in the ancient graves represent
high aesthetic and technical achieve-
ment, and that the Code goldsmiths
were among the few in ancient America
sufficiently skilled to make hollow cast-
ings. There agreement ends. No one
seems sure how they were able to cast
these fabulous artifacts.
In a 1,200-year-old grave of a Carib
Indian goldsmith, Neville Harte, one
of the foremost local experts on the
golden huaca, believes he found the
ancient melting secret of what is called
the lost-wax method of casting.


Iluaca rings, earrings,
a pin, and a necklace
from Neville HIarte's
collection, are modeled
b% Dolores Fitch,
of the Office of the
Youth Advisor.

ll.irte, a retired employee of the
U S Army, has devoted weekends and
nationsion s in search of pre-Columbian
history. Since 1968 when he retired, he
ha, devoted most of his time to the study
,if ihe golden huacas. After finding the
,'ildsmith's grave, he spent 3 years on
a si,,ucessful project to reproduce these
i-llden relics using the techniques he
LItlhe'.es the ancient Carib craftsmen
used to produce the originals, and
another 17 years to perfect his methods.
Only recently has he created what he
considers satisfactory reproductions.
In reproducing replicas of the original
huacas, Harte makes a wax model of
the object he will cast in precious metal.
He adds long, thin threads of wax as
decorative details, and affixes a cone of
wax to the model's base which will serve
as a funnel-shaped pouring channel for
the molten metal. When the wax model
is complete, he covers it with powdered
charcoal to insure a smooth casting sur-
face. Then the model is covered with
an outer shell made of a mixture of
moist clay and crushed charcoal. After
the outer shell dries, the entire as-
sembly is fired to strengthen the mold
and burn out the wax to leave a cavity
of the same shape as the now-lost wax
model. The mold is then brought to red


heat and the molten metal poured in
When the metal solidifies, the mold is
broken away to expose the goldeni
huaca.
Many people have the idea that the
lost-wax process means the process was
lost and rediscovered. Rather it simply
means that the wax is lost in the process.
"The huaca and I are one," Harte
says, but it is neither the search for, nor
the finding of the golden treasures, nor
the scientist's successful pursuit of
knowledge, that challenges and gratifies
him most. It is telling the story of the
"golden huaca" of Panama to school
children.
In his introduction, he presents a
challenge: "The mythology of these
golden artifacts will test your skill and
imagination. For what man living today
can understand their meaning, and how
many conclusions can be drawn from
these golden effigies of over 1,000 years
ago?" The huacas that were buried in
Indian graves to accompany the dead
on their journey to another life are the
characters in a tale Harte weaves for
the children. The warrior, the storm
god, the north wind, the frog, alligator
and eagle all take part in the adventures
of a brave warrior who receives a mortal
wound in combat and must make the
long and dangerous journey to the valley
of the gods. The warrior's spirit is given
seven tests to complete within 28 days
if he is to gain entrance into the land
of the rainbow, eternal wine and honey.
He must conquer by wit or battle the
alligator god, tiger god, the gods of
hunger, fever, sickness and the storm.
He is guided and aided by the gods of
the winds and the golden frog and the
great white crane. Finally, his perilous
journey over, he is welcomed by the
Great North Wind to the land of ever-
lasting happiness.
These mythological stories over,
Harte tells real adventure stories-his
own.
The letters he receives from the young
students amaze him with their insight
and understanding.
One little fourth-grade girl saw
beyond the folk story. She summed up
in her letter: "I'm glad you kept some
things secret and encouraged us to be
archeologists. But I don't think you kept
too many things secret. I think you gave
away just enough to make it kind of mys-
terious. I think that huacas are like a
big mystery just sitting there waiting
to be solved."


FALL 1973




,'1


Neville Harte heats the tip of
a welding instrument as he prepares
to attach a pin to a huaca.


Reconstruction of steps followed
in casting a bird huaca hy Dudley
T. Easby, Jr. Drawings by Elizabeth
K. Easby, reprinted from "Natural
History Magazine."


9q-


A. This rough core, made of clay mixed
iith charcoal, %i\ll be broken up and re-
moved aft'r cast.ing. leaving the piece
hollow inside I hst saves gold and also
permits the making of hollow vessels.


B. The rough core is first covered with a
uniform coating of wax. The eyes, tal-
ons, suspension rings under the bill, and
decorative holes have been added in the
form of wax threads. The founder fin-
ishes the details on the wax model with
sharp tools. The three black bars are the
pegs to keep the core from slipping out
of position during the work.



THE PANAMlA CANAL REVIEW 5


C. The casting will be done in an invert-
ed position. Before enveloping the model
in clay, a cone of wax is added to pro-
vide a pouring channel. And four wax
rods have been added to provide air
vents when the metal is poured in.


D. This drawing represents a section
through the mold after the wax model
has been melted out. The colored portion
shows where the gold will flow between
the shell and the core. It will rise into the
air vents to form rods that will be later
cut off and burnished. The core is finally
broken and removed through the hollow
bill and the holes in the breast and the
back of the perch.


Trimming the wax mold before
it is cast is one of the many steps
necessary in producing a huaca.


fthm


Spencer Winstead, of Ancoo,
one of nine apprentices trained
by Harte, learns how to attach wax
filigree work to the main mold.


I1N I


00









*Do


By Vic Canel
EVER HEARD OF A LORENZO
sandwich or a Pil6n hamburger, or
seen Ramona's rolling pin bounce off
Pancho's head?
Sure you have, if you've ever fol-
lowed the funnies. But you probably
know the characters as Dagwood,
Wimpy, Maggie and Jiggs.
In the Spanish version, not only the
names, but the onomatopoeia of the
comics is different. Maggie's rolling pin
goes PUM instead of CONK and the
THUD of Jiggs hitting the deck is
CATAPLUM!
In the phonetics of the funnies, a
Spanish-speaking dog says CUAU
GUAU, while in English it's ARF ABF.
When the doorbell or phone rings, it's
TIN TIN or TILIN TILIN. An espe-
cially prolonged ring would be TIN-
TIRINTIN.
In many of the strips, however, where

PEPITA


( United Feature Syndicate


the onomatopoeia is an integral part of
the overall design of the panel, it is not
translated. As a result, comic book afi-
cionados, who read Batman, Superman
and many of the other adventure comics
in Spanish have added to their vocabu-
lary such words as ZONK, ZOOM,
BLAM AND BOOM.
Though comics as such originated in
Europe some 80 years ago, develop-
ment of many of the techniques, such
as the balloonn" and much of the par-
ticular symbolism of the comics, took
place in the United States.
Children almost everywhere know
that a saw cutting through a log over
a character's head, or a series of Z's
mean that he's asleep. A swirl of stars
and other celestial bodies about his
head means he has just received a blow
and is seeing stars, while a picture of
an electric light bulb signifies that the


character has just seen the light or
thought of a brilliant idea.
A series of exclamation and interroga-
tion marks interspersed with amper-
sands, asterisks, stars and other assorted
symbols indicates profanity in any lan-
guage. The reader is expected to use
his imagination in filling in the unprint-
able words in his own tongue and his
own choice of epithets.
Such symbolism is very much in
evidence in comic strips such as the
Katzenjammer Kids, originally pub-
lished December 12, 1897, in the New
York Journal. Later named Los Pilluelos
(The Little Rascals) in Spanish, the
strip was the creation of Rudolph Dirks.
When Dirks left Randolph Hearst's
paper and tried to take the strip with
him, the case was taken to court. The
final settlement did not come until 1912,
when the court ruled that Dirks had a


FALL 1973


"Good Grief, Carlitos,

Snoopy Speaks Spanish!"





iCONTWATOI





















SHall Syndicate


In Spanish when
the Cap'n of the
Katzenjammer
Kids snoozes, it is
not "z-z-z" but
"b-z-z" and
Dennis' dog never
says "bow wow."


right to draw the characters he had
created, but the title of the strip
remained Hearst property. Hearst
promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw
the Katzenjammer Kids, while Dirks
continued using the same format and
characters under the new title, The Cap-
tain and the Kids. So far as is known,
this is the only comic strip ever to have
been published in two separate versions.
There is an interesting sociological
phenomenon in the fact that Blondie
(Pepita in Spanish) and Dagwood, a
typically middle class American couple
are at the top of the popularity scale in
Latin America, where life styles are so
very different. One cannot help but
wonder how a character like Dagwood,
abused by his boss, Mr. Dithers (Sefior
FernAndez in Spanish), henpecked and
outsmarted by his wife Blondie, has
managed to be a success in a land where
"machismo" is the thing.
Dagwood was not always middle
class. His father, a railroad tycoon, was
a billionaire. But Dagwood was cut off
without a penny of the Bumstead


billions because he married the flighty
Blondie despite family opposition. Of
course, that was before the strip, which
appeared for the first time in the New
York American on September 15, 1930,
was widely syndicated and became
popular in Latin America. So, for
Spanish-speaking readers, Chic Young's
character Lorenzo has always been a
working class family man. Incidentally,
Bumstead in Spanish is "Parachoques"
which means bumper.
The first American comic strip to
appear in Spanish, according to the
records, is George iMcManus' creation,
Bringing up Father (Educando a Papa).
King Features sold it to papers in Bue-
nos Aires. Havana and Mexico about
50 years ago. Pancho and Ramona's
dialogue was translated into Spanish by
the papers that published the strip until
King Features established its foreign
department in 1928 and began to do all
translations at its New York head-
quarters.
With some exceptions, the names of
comic strip characters in Spanish turn


Known as Los Pica Piedra (the stone choppers, rock splitters?), the Flintstones are popular
is Enano (midget). "Knock knock" comes out "toc toc" in Spanish.

,5 /OCH/ ... I 1/A c/*2 TO P7AfREC6 RODRR/O, 4A19


out to be entirely different from and not
direct translations of English versions.
A notable example is Charles M.
Schultz' very popular Peanuts, distrib-
uted by United Feature Syndicate. In
Spanish, the strip is not called mani
(peanuts), as one might reasonably
expect, but Rabanitos, which means
little radishes. In Mexico and some
other countries, the strip is known as
"Carlitos" (obviously for Charlie Brown).
Among the pioneers of U.S. comics,
and indeed the man who has been
credited with developing the strip tech-
nique as it is known today, was the late
H. C. (Bud) Fisher, creator of Mutt
and Jeff. They are known in Latin
America as Benitin (Jeff) y Eneas (Mutt).
Evidently, whoever translated their
names gave Jeff top billing simply be-
cause it sounds better than Eneas v
Benitin. This is ironic, since Mutt started
out as the solo star of the strip when it
appeared for the first time in the San
Francisco Chronicle of November 15,
1907.
Soon after its appearance the strip

in Panama. Fred is Pedro and Barney


I Hanna Barhera Productions
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





















Pluto


El Pato Donald


"'- El Raton Miguelito


moved to the San Francisco Examiner,
where Jeff made his debut on March 29,
1908. Mr. Augustus Mutt, as he was
called, was on a visit to a mental institu-
tion where the inmates were about to
reenact a scene from a real life trial that
was taking place in San Francisco at the
time. Just then an insignificant little
runt by the name of Jeffries happened
to walk into the room and was promptly
pinned to the wall by the inmates.
Mr. Mutt rescued him from his plight,
shortened his name to Jeff and made
him his protege.
Now drawn by Al Smith and dis-
tributed by McNaught Syndicate, Be-
nitin y Eneas is still just as popular
as ever.
Another of the perennially popular
comic strip characters of old is Popeye,
pronounced Poh-peh-yeh in Spanish.
Unlike Jiggs and Dagwood, whose
comic appeal lav in the area of domestic
tribulations, Popeye emerged as a
strong, independent he-man type.
He first appeared in the New York
Evening Journal on January 27, 1929,
as an additional character in the strip
called "Thimble Theatre," created by
Elzie Crisler Segar. Preceding Popeye













\EA Sen-i
< \EA ServKi,


t Walt Disney Productions

among the players of the "Theatre"
were Olive Oyle, who in later years was
to be known to the Spanish speaking
world as Rosario, and her brother,
Castor. Shortly afterward came ham-
hurger-hound Wimpy (Pil6n in Latin
America), and still later came crawling
across the panel Popeye's adopted baby
son, little Swee'pea, known to Spanish
speaking readers as Cocoliso (Smooth
head).
For many years, Popeye's super-
human feats after ingesting a can of
strength giving spinach have been used
as a shining example by mothers in many
lands to induce children to eat their
vegetables.
While retaining the element of humor,
Popeye was probably the forerunner of
the more serious adventure strips in
which the featured character was a
strong, intrepid hero-an image to evoke
admiration and not laughter.
Among the early adventure comics-
and still very popular-was Edgar
Rice Burrough's Tarzan, first drawn by
Harold Foster. The simultaneous ap-
pearance of Tarzan and Buck Rogers on
January 7, 1929, marked the beginning
of the straight adventure stories in the


comics. Drawn by illustrators rather than
cartoonists, these strips were based on
stories written for the popular pulp
trade. Edgar Rice Burrough's story
"Tarzan of the Apes" first appeared in
1914 and was followed by many other
Tarzan adventures. Buck Rogers was
based on stories written for the science
fiction magazines by Philip Nowlan and
were drawn by Dick Calkins.
Tarzan (pronounced Tar-SAN in
Spanish) still stands among the most
popular adventure comics in Latin
America, along with Mandrake the
Magician, the Phantom and Superman.
While Superman is still Superman in
Spanish, the Phantom is called by the
literal Spanish translation of his name,
El Fantasma.
The list of adventure comics which
made their debut during the 1930's is
lengthy. In 1931, when the law was
finally catching up with Al Capone and
he was on the verge of being sent to
Alcatraz, came Chester Could's Dick
Tracy, still the top crime fighter in the
comic strip world.
During the month of January 1934,
King Features Syndicate launched three
new adventure strips in rapid succes-
sion-Secret Agent X-9, a police adven-
ture strip; Jungle Jim, obviously de-
signed to compete with Tarzan; and
Flash Gordon, King Features' answer to
Buck Rogers' space age adventures. All
three were drawn by one of the most
versatile artists of his time, Alex
Raymond.
In October 1934, a young artist
whose distinctive style was to be imitated
by other comic strip authors, in the fol-
lowing years launched his famous Terry
and the Pirates. Milton Caniff was
among the first artists to introduce


FALL 1973


1






cinematographic composition into the
comics. Working with brush and pen,
he achieved striking lighting effects,
made use of close-ups and violent black
and white contrasts.
While many of the humorous comic
characters have completely different
names in Spanish, adventure comic
heroes are known to Spanish speaking
readers by their English names, or a
rough Spanish equivalent. Thus, Milton
Caniff's Terry and the Pirates translates
to Terri y los Piratas, while Charles
Flander's Lone Ranger is called El
Llanero Solitario (The Lone Plainsman).
The demand for variety in comics
during the thirties was great. News-
papers began to call on magazine car-
toonists to put their characters in strip
form. Among these was Otto Soglow's
Little King (El Reyecito in Spanish),
which had been published as a single
panel feature in the New Yorker. Papers
also borrowed from animated cartoons.
Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse (El Rat6n
Miguelito), created in 1928, broke into
the newspaper comic strips in 1931 and
was followed later by Donald Duck, who
is called El Pato Donald in Panama,
but is known in some other Latin Amer-
ican countries as El Pato Pascual. Goofy,
by the way, is known to the Spanish
speaking world as Tribilin.
Another comic character who was to
gain popularity in Latin America under
the unlikely name of Trucut6 was Vince
Hamlin's prehistoric man, Alley Oop,
born in 1934.
World War II brought a great change
in the character of adventure comics.
Nearly all of them became involved in
fighting the enemy. If not as members
of the Armed Forces, like Terry, who
became a pilot in the Air Force, they
fought enemy agents and saboteurs on
the home front, like Dick Tracy.
Early in the war Milton Caniff was
asked to create a comic strip designed
to bolster GI morale. The result was a
strip called Male Call. featuring a curva-
ceous, scantillv clad heroine called
Miss Lace.
The war also produced other new
strips, such as Sad Sack, the creation of
Sgt. George Baker. Sad Sack was the
personification of the poor slob destined
to do all the dirty details.
Another satire of military life came
later with the appearance of Mort
Walker's Beetle Bailey in 1950. Though
also abused by his sergeant, Beetle,
unlike the uncomplaining Sad Sack, is a
crafty goldbricker.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9


Among post war comics that have
gained popularity in Latin America are
Dennis the Menace, by Hank Ketcham,
which made its appearance in 1951. In
Spanish the impish terror is called
Daniel el Travieso (Daniel the naughtyv).
A more recent addition to the comic
strip scene in Latin America is Dick
Browne's hard fighting Viking, Haggar
the Horrible, known to his Spanish
speaking fans as Olafo el Amargado
(Olaf the Bitter). This strip must be a
challenge to translators, since at least
in one recent installment which ap-
peared in La Estrella de Panama,
Haggar spoke all of his lines in verse.
Translators also must be careful in
their choice of words, since syndicates
distribute to all Spanish speaking coun-
tries and the meaning of certain words
may differ from country to country.
A perfectly good word in Panama, for
example, may be offensive in Argentina
or Uruguay.
One syndicate representative recalls

TO

Haggar the
Horrible rhymes
in either language
when he says:
"Every day seems
like Sunday in
July and it
makes the Vikings b
cry.












George Baker
probably should ]
have used a boa or
a fer-de-lance in
this Sad Sack
scene, since rattlers
would be a rarity
in Panama.
----- =XN


an incident which had Panama readers
calling the paper to protest the use of
an unprintable Spanish appelative for
prostitute. In the Spanish version of
Tillie the Toiler, she is Cuquita la Meca-
n6grafa (the typist). The strip, which
used to appear in La Estrella de Pan-
ama, one day included the word RUTA
(Route). But when it appeared in the
paper, the "R" had lost its descender
and was converted into a "P". The
newspaper relayed the protests to the
syndicate and complained bitterly about
the embarrassing situation in which it
had found itself. But the syndicate
produced proofs and tearsheets from
other newspapers which had carried the
same strip, showing that it had appeared
correctly.
Further investigation proved that the
"R" had been purposely modified as a
parting shot by a disgruntled shop em-
ployee at La Estrella who had been
given notice of dismissal.

DOS LOS DIAS DE JULIO PARECEN DOMIN-
)S...Y HACEN LLORAR A LOS VIKINGOS







-Don Winslow Saves the Panama Canal


A COUPLE OF SINISTER SABOTEURS WORKING
for an insidious enemy spy, called Scorpia, very nearly
blew up the Panama Canal in 1952. But they did not
reckon with the cunning of Comdr. Don Winslow, a veteran
U.S. Naval Intelligence Officer.
Don Winslow of the Navy was the title of a successful
adventure strip created by a real life Naval Intelligence
Officer called F. V. Martinek. The author served in the
Navy during World War I, then spent 4 years with the
FBI. So he was a stickler for authenticity.
In the Panama Canal adventure, for example, which ran
for nearly 3 months in the daily strip, he included some
characters from real life. One of the first contacts made by
the fictional Don Winslow upon his arrival in Panama was
with Capt. W. S. Parsons, USN, who actually was Captain
of the Port of Cristobal at the time.
A later sequence finds Winslow greeting his old friend Luis
Noli, of the Star & Herald, an English language news-
paper which carried the daily strip at that time.
Noli recalls that the late President Jose Antonio Rem6n,


I KNEW YOU'D WANT
W QTO KNOW ABOUT "TLIS
PLOT, COLONEL, BECAUSE OF -
YOUR SPLENDID COOPERATION YOU'LL
IN TUE PAST. r ALWAYS UAVE


In the September 24 strip the scene switches to the
enemy agents in Panama with Red Hawk saying to Banana
Hawk ". we still need a short time to perfect our plans."
The next installment shows Winslow meeting with Port
Captain Parsons. Their conversation is interrupted when a
West Indian by the name of Reginald reports that he saw
a mysterious man sending a radio message from one of the
tunnels at Fort San Lorenzo. As Reginald leads the officers
to the tunnel where he saw the man, he stops short of the
entrance when he spots a fer-de-lance snake. Winslow
immediately surmises that the snake was planted there to
keep out intruders. After disposing of the snake, Winslow
and his party approach the cave and eavesdrop on the
saboteurs.
It is revealed that they plan to blow up Gatun Dam and
the bridge at Gamboa, simultaneously. Pointing to a map,
one of the enemy says "this is Gatun Dam. It spans the
northern and lower end of a deep valley through which
the Chagres River formerly flowed to the sea." And in the
next panel: "Behind the dam is Gatun Lake, covering 165
By Frank V. Marlinrk


AMERICA MUST BE PROUD OF SUCH
MEN AS YOU, WINSLOW, PARSONS
AND CULLEN ...IORKING NIGHT
AND DAY TO PROTECT OUR
REPUBLICS AGAINST
OUR ENEMIES....
WE'LL IELP
YOU FIGNMT

.-' SABOTEURS.
%t


HOLY SOCKS! IT'S MY WINSLOW. WIUA-
OLD FRIEND, ARE YOU UP 'TO'
NEWSWOUND /WUY DIDN'T YO'
LU15 NOLI. TELL ME YOU WEPE
ON TWE PROC/L IN
S, PANAMA? I CASE.
ALL T"E -WAY
FROM PANAMA
CITY TO
CRISTOBAL
'TO SEE WiLUT
Y'OU WERE
\ DOING.


who was a follower of adventure comics, one day greeted
him at a presidential press conference with: "Hey Noli,
I saw you in Don Winslow of the Navy this morning!"
Martinek had met Noli and Captain Parsons during a
research trip to Panama and decided to make them a part
of the sequence for added realism.
The first installment in the story of the attempted sabo-
tage of the Panama Canal appeared in the Star & Herald
ui August 31, 1952. The scene opens with Winslow in a
confidential conversation with his commanding officer. In
the next panel an informer is caught eavesdropping at the
door. Upon questioning, he reveals Scorpia's plot to sabo-
tage the Canal and indicates that the enemy spy network
extends from New Orleans to the Canal Zone.
During a brief stop in New Orleans before flying to
Panama, enemy agents attacked and seriously injured Red
Pennington, one of Winslow's assistants. He then decides
to recruit another naval intelligence officer, Ross Pizzitola,
as a replacement for Pennington in the Panama operation.
Pizzitola, it happens, is aboard a ship called the SS Chi-
riqui, which is en route to Cristobal, but still a long way
from the Isthmus. So Don Winslow overtakes the ship and
lands his helicopter on deck to pick up his new assistant.


square miles. It is clear that if our plan works, all the water
will pour into the sea, draining the Panama Canal."
Don Winslow reports the plot to the police commissioner,
identified as Colonel Somar. As he is leaving he encounters
newsman Luis Noli. (See above.)
Saboteurs in frogman suits went out in two launches
and attached charges to the dam and to the bridge. Mean-
while, Winslow hovered above the launch at the dam,
where he ordered the saboteurs to jump into the water or
be blown up themselves. Parsons in another helicopter
blew up the saboteurs' launch as it attempted to detonate
the charge at the bridge.
Once the would be saboteurs were dealt with, Winslow
headed back to Fort San Lorenzo to capture the ringleaders,
who had heard the explosion and assumed that their nefari-
ous mission had been a success. They were celebrating
their victory with round after round of toasts when Wins-
low's men threw a grenade into the entrance and stormed
in and arrested them.
The Panama adventure ends with a celebration dinner
in Panama, where an unidentified official thanks Winslow
"for saving the belt that links the Americas in their fight
for peace."


FALL 1973




























-L
Recalling, perhaps, the grandeur of balseria in times gone by, this Guaymi in
his holiday hat and tiger-tooth collar epitomizes the valor of his Indian nation
that was not vanquished by the conquistadores.


N THE THEATER, ACTORS
about to go on stage are given en-
couragement bv fellow performers
with the expression "Break a leg!"
But when the Cuaymi Indians of
western Panama play the game of bal-
seria-a sort of choreographed mayhem
in which the players hop to the rhythm
of primitive instruments while hurling
balsa poles at their opponent's legs-
the words are taken quite literally.
This unique game, enjoyed 1v the
Cuavmi for hundreds of years, is still
the big event of the year for the present
day aborigines of Panama's Chiriqui,
Bocas del Toro and Veraguas provinces.
More than merely a game, the un-
usual contest provides participants
with a 3-day festival as well as a tradi-
tional way of settling disputes. A bal-
seria also may be organized to test the
physical agility and courage of various


groups or certain individuals, or simply
to enhance the prestige of the man who
has organized it.
The sport was first mentioned by
Friar Adrian de Santo Tomis who lived
among the Guaymi between 1622 and
1637, and described it as one of the few
amusements they had. More than 300
years later, Panamanian anthropologist
Dr. Reina Torres de Arauz said, "Balse-
ria continues to be played the same way
as described by the missionary who saw
it in action several times in the 1620's."
To better understand the role of bal-
seria in the life of the Guaymi, one
must comprehend their way of life,
customs, the ruggedness of the area in
which they live and their tenacious fight
for freedom and superiority.
Each family, or group of families,
lives in virtual isolation in large bohios
nestled in mountain clearings, protected


TIlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


i,


B



A



L



S



E


1.


A


By Jos6 T. Tufidn






At one Balseria there were


14 broken legs, 2 men suffered


fractures of both legs, and more


than 40 had cuts and bruises.


Contestants take turns throwing the
long thin sticks of balsa at each
other's legs.

by fences of big tree trunks, which fre-
quently root and grow into enormous
trees.
As a rule, when a daughter marries,
the husband comes to live with her
family. Another bohio (thatched roof
hut) is built near the large family bohio
and as other daughters wed a "caserio"
or village is formed.
The isolation of the Guaymi is more
pronounced during the rainy season
when the flooding rivers of Veraguas
and Chiriqui make travel difficult. Dur-
ing this period women stay indoors and
their social life is greatly restricted.
Thev seldom leave the confines of their
settlements.
But dry season is another matter. It
is the season to be happy, to renew
acquaintances, to visit one's neighbors.
It is the time for a balseria, to get to-
gether for a good time, to catch up on
all the news and to have a few drinks
... sometimes quite a few.


However, not everyone can organize
a balseria, for it is, above all, a contest
of superiority and physical aptitudes.
It is proof of solvency and of the re-
spect and esteem that the majority of
inhabitants have for the organizer of
the balseria.
A Cuaymi without these qualifica-
tions need not waste his time trying to
hold a balseria. "In reality, balseria is
the last in a series of steps by which a
man achieves great importance in
Guaymi society," said Dr. Philip Young,
in his book, "Traditions and Changes
of Western Guavmis of Panama."
When a man feels that he is ready
to sponsor a halseria, he first makes
sure that he has the full support of his
family and relatives, because one man
alone cannot bear the expense of food
and drink that the guests will consume
during the 3 days of the balseria, which
could bring together as many as 2,000
persons.
Great Quantities of Food
Great quantities of food and chichaa"
(a strong drink made from fermented
corn), to fortify the contestants and
guests, are prepared well in advance.
Cattle and pigs are slaughtered; women
work hard preparing mountains of rice
and other treats for the big party.
Preparations begin about 4 months
before the festivities. As soon as the
sponsor is sure of the cooperation of
his relatives, and that he really qualifies
as a "balsero," he sends an invitation
by messenger to an important man of
another district. The messenger carries
a knotted string, the knots indicating
the number of days remaining before
the balseria. If the opponent accepts,
he sends his own messenger back to
the sponsor with a similar knotted
string. Each day a knot is cut from the
string until it is time to travel to the
area where the balseria will be held.
The invitation is sent about 3 months
in advance.
Members of the sponsoring side cut
the balsa sticks 2 or 3 months before
the event so they will be light and dry
for the balseria. The sticks are 5 to 6


feet long, about 3 inches in diameter
on one end, 2 inches in diameter on
the other end, and rounded at both
ends. The wood of the balsa tree, which
is common in many parts of Panama,
is used because although very heavy
and spongy when wet, it is very light
but tough and strong when dried.
According to Rev. Ephraim Alphonse,
who is well versed on the subject, about
2 weeks before the event it is customary
for the Guavmi of Bocas del Toro to
blow on their conch shells, whose
blasts echo through the mountains and
valleys, informing the challenger, "I
am ready to defeat you," and back
across the mountain comes the sound
of the defender's conch shell, saying
"Come on, I am ready."
As often occurs at big parties, there
are spectators and gate crashers, who
unlike their counterparts in modern
society, bring their own food and drink.
Of course, the number of guests de-
pends upon the prestige, fame, and
affluence of the sponsor of the balseria.
Dressed in their very best, they come
from all over the mountains, the men
wearing headed collars (chaquiras), if
they have them, the women in their
Mother Hubbards, colored combs and
ribbons in their hair and numerous
strings of beads around their necks.
There is an air of festivity throughout
the mountains as they head for the lla-
no, the clearing where the balseria is
to be held. They bring ocarinas, flutes
of bone, and other musical instruments
made of steer horns, turtle shells, and
various kinds of wood.
According to eyewitnesses, the first
day of balseria is devoted to setting up
campsites and social intermingling. The
women and girls busy themselves serv-
ing food and chicha to the guests.
There is much eating and drinking.
Everybody is happy and the party lasts
until the wee hours of the morning,
when it is time to start the balseria.
Meanwhile, the balsa sticks have been
guarded all night to make sure they are
not touched before they are used.
The game begins with the opponent
leader throwing the first stick at the


FALL 1973



















Bedecked in holiday finery, including
a feather in his hat and a king-size
chaquira covering his shoulders, this
Guaymi child watches a game of balseria.



Sbi.


A typical abode of the Guaymi in Chiriqui and Bocas del Toro provinces. When
a daughter marries, the family gains a male member and another "bohio" is built
close to the big family "bohio."


.dW .


f,
li


Using a primitive mortar and pestle, a Guaymi mother and daughter remove chaff
from the rice that will be consumed by those attending the balseria.


With an ocelot as proof of his hunting
prowess, this Guaymi heads for a balseria.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


01 'r-


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A mannequin with painted face, bird
feathers in his hat, wearing his very best
and holding a balsa stick, represents a
Guaymi ready to participate in balseria.
The coneh shell hanging at his right
side is used to send blasts that echo far
off through the mountains and valleys
of Chiriqui.
(All photographs are from a recent dis-
play at the Panama National Museum).


sponsor, who in turn throws at the op-
ponent. Amid the shouting and cheer-
ing of the spectators, balseria is off to
a shin skinning start.
After the first two initiate the game,
all the men take part, as teams or as
individuals. Holding the stick near the
ends at chest level, the contestant
throws it at his opponent who has his
back turned to the thrower, trying to
look over his shoulder and guessing
when to leap out of the way of the stick.
If the opponent is still standing, he then
throws the stick at his rival. The game
goes on accompanied by music, sing-
ing and shouts of encouragement from
the spectators. As many as 150 teams
may be competing, throwing sticks and
aiming for legs below the knee. There
are hits and misses, and frequent acci-
dents with other parts of the body re-
ceiving the brunt of the hurtling stick.
The player's aim usually deteriorates in
direct relation to the flow of the potent
chicha, which is passed around gener-
ously. As is to be expected, there are
numerous casualties. According to Dr.
Luis Carlos Prieto, well known for his
work among the Indians and one of the
first outsiders to see a real balseria,
there were 14 broken legs, 2 with
fractures of both legs and more than
40 with cuts and bruises at an event
he attended.
Music, Singing and Chicha
The competition continues with mu-
sic, singing, and chicha for 2 days as
long as there are men able to throw
the sticks.
On the third day, there is visiting and
bartering. If there is any chicha left,
it is consumed and preparations are
made for the trip back home.
Bright and early on the fourth morn-
ing, the CGavmi start the trek back to
their villages taking with them food
enough for the journey and the glorious
memories of a great leg-smashing con-
test. Some men may be returning home
with more women than they brought
with them as some women opt to leave
their mates for more valiant ones.
Composed of some 43,000 people,
the Gnuami are the largest of the Pan-
amanian Indian nations and they still
maintain much of the daring and cour-
age they were noted for during the
Spanish conquest when their chiefs
faced the Spaniards and beat them
badly despite their horses and superior
arms.
Before the discovery of America,
their domain extended across the Isth-
mus from sea to sea but gradually they
were pushed by the conquistadors, and
those that followed, toward the mnnmn-


tains which served them as fortresses.
The Guavmni have been known
throughout Isthmian history for their
valor and particularly well known was
their famous chief, Urraca, once lord
and master over all the land that is
today the Province of Veraguas. After
defeating the Spaniards several times,
he was captured and taken in chains
to Nombre de Dios and from there to
Spain where he was displayed as a war
prisoner. But he managed to escape
and return to the Isthmus where he
assembled a sizeable army and inflicted
upon the invaders the greatest defeat
they ever suffered in Central America.

Signed Peace Pact
After this battle, which took place
near Nata de los Caballeros, Capt. Die-
go de Albitez signed a peace treaty
with Urraca. He was the only aborigine
of the New World with whom a cap-
tain of the Spanish Empire signed a
peace pact.
Later betrayed by the invaders,
Urraca again fought them, employing
guerrilla tactics, a type of warfare un-
known to the Spaniards. After suffer-
ing heavy losses, the Spaniards decided
to leave him in peace and Urraca died
in 1531, in his bohio, of natural causes.
Referring to the Guaymi in "An
Archeological Study of Central Amer-
ica," Dr. Samuel K. Lothrop states, "In
the opinion of many, the natives of Ve-
raguas should be ranked with the fa-
mous Araucanians of Chile as the out-
standing fighters of the New World, a
judgment shared by the Spaniards who
had served in both regions. The Arau-
canians had the advantage of rapidly
mastering cavalry tactics under great
leaders and learning how\ to make
leather armor: the Indians of Veraguas,
on account of their rugged country,
forced the Spaniards to fight on foot."

A Cherished Tradition
A cherished tradition of the valiant
Guaymi. then as now, was the fierce
balseria. But in 1962, the Mama Chichi
cult appeared in the mountains of Ve-
raguas and Chiriqui, led by a "prophet-
ess" known as Mama Chichi, bringing
changes in the moral and social code of
the Cuavmi. Included in the quasi-
mysterious new social order was the
banning of balseria.
But Mama Chichi died in 1964 and
her reforms were short lived. Balseria
once again is a part of the Guavmi way
of life and according to Dr. Reina de
Aranz, "All indications are that the
traditional force of balseria will triumph
and it will continue to be a sport with
ritual character and social importance."


FALL 1973































CYCLING AND RECYCLING ARE
both good for the ecology.
And although air on the Isthmus is
virtually pollution free, many ecology-
minded residents are helping to keep it
that way while pedaling pounds away.
With the price of gas going up and
fuel shortages looming, many local res-
idents are finding they can save money,
lose excess weight and fight pollution
if they leave their automobiles at home.
Bicycles are back and 10 speeds are
all the rage. Canal Zone retail stores
report that bicycle sales have increased
more than six-fold in the last 2 years.
In 1971, they sold 330 bikes. Last year
the figure was up to 2,122 and this year's
Christmas sales are expected to put the
1973 figure well above that.
Also making their appearance on the
local scene are the new trikess," the
adult three-wheelers that many find ideal
for shopping. And they're easy to park.
Doctors recommend bicycling for
good health. Some even practice it them-
selves, as evidenced by one of the pic-
tures on these pages. Even police patrols
are using bicycles on their nocturnal
rounds.



Framed by her bicycle,
Wisia Kaliszczak cools off
after a long ride to the end of
the Fort Amador causeway.


A favorite spot for bicycle enthusiasts
in the Canal Zone is the Fort Amador
causeway, where serious cyclers can
test their 10-speeds on a long straight-
away or pause to watch the weekend
fishermen wet their lines, or look at the
ships as they enter or leave the Pacific
end of the Canal.
And while sitting on the banks of the
Canal one can even see bicycles moving
about the decks of transiting ships. Deck
officers on large container ships, where
the space between bridge and bow is
more than 2 acres, have found bikes
convenient for making their rounds.


The popularity of bicycles among
Americans seems to rise and fall with
changing times, while remaining con-
stant among Europeans who have always
paid a higher price for fuel. In Latin
America, on the other hand, few adults
seem to ride bicycles except in races.
The present surge in the popularity
of cycling, along with the recycling of
many products is, as we have noted,
closely related to the new ecology con-
sciousness, which has caused changes in
the packaging of materials, the man-
ufacture of detergent, and changes in
other areas of industry. One mail order


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15


gig


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"l^t- ^ ^s? ::. :'

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Bicycles have always been a favorite form of transportation with Canal Zone children, as demonstrated by these students at Los Rios
Elementary School, but the recent surge in popularity is affecting all ages. Scenes around the Isthmus show Dr. Roberto Ocafia
taking his young son, Roberto Jose, for a ride around Ancon; Mrs. Ella K. Beck returning home from a shopping trip on her tricycle;
Dr. and Mrs. Kenneth Lake out for a ride along the Fort Amador causeway; Roseana Winford on her unicycle; and Police Officer
John V. Brown taking a call on his radio as he sets out on night patrol.


company is even offering a unique
calendar in which every page can be
recycled in one way or another. The
page corresponding to the month of
January, for example, is edible.
But back to bicycles. Lately, they too
have been the subject of discussion in
connection with another of the great
issues of our times-the fight against
sexual discrimination.
In a letter to the editor in a recent
issue of Ms. magazine, a male reader
who also happens to he an engineer,
reports that he made a study of women's
bicycles and found them inferior to
men's. Women's bikes have traditionally
been built with an open "U" frame for
the benefit of the rider who wears a
skirt, the reader points out. But upon


testing women's-style bikes, he reports
that he found that most were "not as
certain and sure for steering as men's
and not as fast, either."
The writer says he made inquiries of
several of the large bicycle manufac-
turers and none would admit that
women's bikes had a built-in putdown.
Some of the engineering people did
suggest, however, that men's bikes had
seen many more subtle improvements
over the years because 10 times as
many were sold.
Happily, however, he reports that
women's bikes are now being improved
in the matter of balance, angle of the
front wheel fork and other character-
istics.


Perhaps the best answer for complete
equality in the age of unisex fashions
is the unicycle.
With the ever increasing number of
bicycles on the road, Canal Zone Police
are intensifying their safety campaigns
with films and lectures on safe biking
practices. They are also enforcing traffic
regulations, which are the same for
cyclists as for motorists.
So far, there is no record of a cyclist
receiving a speeding ticket, but it can
happen. Some motorists have already
reported being outdistanced by a 10-
speed in a 25 m.p.h. zone and even in
a 40 m.p.h. zone. Of course, the motor-
ists did not report how fast they were
driving.


FALL 1973



































Jo6poe yrpo and JAO CBHAHamH
-Just two of the words you will learn if you choose to cruise
with the Russians on their new trans-Atlantic service from
New York to Leningrad. These words, which are written in
the cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language, are pronounced
DAW-bruh-yeh OO-truh and duh sv'i-DAH-n'uh. They mean
"good morning" and "so long" in English.
The language is only one of the intriguing things about the
trip. Like the intricately painted wooden eggs that Russians
give each other at Easter-nested inside each other and grow-
ing more interesting as they grow smaller-so each day on the
Soviet ship M/S Lermontov revealed more and more fascinat-
ing facets of the Russian culture.
Although vessels of the Soviet Union, including passenger
ships, are a familiar sight at the Panama Canal, the M/S Ler-
montov, with the hammer and sickle emblazoned on her red
and white funnel, caused quite a stir when she came into port
in New York this past summer.


The sleek new ship is the first Soviet cruise liner to call at
a United States port in 25 years.
A result of a recent trade agreement between the United
States and the Soviet Union, this new service gives Americans
an opportunity to sample Russian food and culture, and, for
those who go all the way to Leningrad, a chance to see the
city that has been called "the Venice of the North," take a
quick side trip to Moscow to visit the historic Kremlin, and
still make the return voyage on the ship.
The Russians are planning to help fill the void left by the
demise of the great trans-Atlantic cruise ships, but they are not
attempting to compete with the SS France and the Cunard's
Queen Elizabeth II, the sole survivors of the regular trans-
Atlantic service, in speed or size. They are, instead, concen-
trating on providing leisurely, friendly ambience, and enter-
tainment with a Russian flavor, including nightly shows of
classical ballet, Russian folk dancing, and opera, all performed
by an extraordinarily talented young crew.


1 II


A 'T


REGULAR CUSTOMERS-The Soviet cruise liner, "Shota Rustaveli," sister ship of the "Lermontov," is tied up at the Balboa
pier, while two Russian cargo ships, the "Rodina" and the "Kharstal," transit south. The "Shota Rustaveli," which had a large group
of British tourists aboard, was en route from England to Australia.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17






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Capt. Aran Oganov, the 47-year-old skipper of the Ler-
niontov, commenting on the opening of the Leningrad-New
York route, said that it is considered a goodwill mission by the
Soviet Union and is not expected to pay for itself until some-
time in the future. He noted that the ship has a capacity of
700 passengers but was only half full. He said that it takes
at least 450 to make a profit.
Evidence of the goodwill theme was an exhibit of photo-
graphs along one corridor showing Americans and Russians
working together in such things as the space program. It was
entitled. "Peace Through International Cooperation."
What is it like to cruise with the Russians?
One writer found the atmosphere aboard the Lerniontot so
typically Russian that he described it as a good way to visit
Russia without setting foot oo Soviet soil.
A few hours aboard the Lernontov and there is a feeling
of being already in Russia. Someone is strumming a balalaika;
, i i.. I ,,,1.. tl. ir,,, .- .31... r.' 1 il 1 illct d. .cr prcl.ti.ir-
i- .... I. .. .. .. I il.,- .1. | .- ... .I- .. .., .-,,. t.
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',r, h, r 1. .... r. ,. I i" 1. .. .. I ,.I ,l .J
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drink might be, as well as Danish and German beer. Though
not available inside Russia, all kinds of American soft drinks
are on sale on the ship. Ice cream anl expresso are offered
hv the bar which operates in the heated, enclosed swimming
pool area.
Newspapers and magazines are strictly Soviet. There is no
current world news available as the small English language
newspaper, which is published every four days, contains
mainly biographical data on the crew and notes on tourist
attractions in Russia. Some found this a relief. Others felt
Frustrated and cut-off from the world.
At 10 o'clock each night. waitresses, bartenders and sailors
turn into beautifully costumed, skillful entertainers and put
on a show of professional quality in the music salon. The ballet
may be performed by your favorite bartender while the sales-
girl from the boutique turns out to be an excellent harpist, or
vou may spot the staff captain of the ship, dressed in peasant
hincp i p l.'inC tph bIlsl.iki in the ship's nrrhectrm
\ll r.- ri-.l.- ,,I il. ,.ir. t r'1i.. ll .n 1. I. n u lo. 1 ,1r.

.,, .. ,. ,r ,.)1. ...... L ,hI ,.i -, Il
n.. : ,,, ,.1 ,.. .. IJ.1.r.-,,. ,I ,,.1 I ...... ,,, I I,,.., ,. .,,, I ,
,,l, IIll 1 ... .1.1. J ,, ....f ..l .. ir .. ...I r... .., ._',,,-h ,I
:u r .I ,,- .,... ,, i [ -, ,, I ... .. i I-... .. .. II,.

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M.S.'MIKHAIL LERMON OV
A departure from R(lussian entertainment was bingo, a pas-
sion with some of the passengers even though the caller fre-
quently confused the I and the 0, causing the players to ask
them to be repeated. This lie patiently did in French. Russian,
and English before proceeding to the next number.
The laundry service, as several passengers noted, must be
the fastest in the world. Not onlv is everything returned within
a few hours, but even the socks are carefully ironed and the
smallest rip sewn up 1y hand.
Thoughtfully, an English translation of the laundry list is
provided for the benefit of passengers who have not learned
enough Russian to tell their shirts from their shorts. Rut most
are somewhat puzzled to read the strange warning at the bot-
toim: "No responsibility is accepted for the shrinkage or
damage to anym article or the washing out of colors of a
fugitive nature."
And for anyone who wants to sample Russian food, the
rmPnn ffrsh dlisbhe from ill ovr the qroipt ITenion It is not
, ..-, r... i..- r .i i .... r I . h,. .. ... ,1 I, TI L,1- .... :1
l, I I .. II I I .... .. ... h '.I h... I. I .....
. .. r .1.. .. .. i rI .I...1 1 .. r. .1 1I: ... ..l-


I' VI ,lt.,lil I "'.. m .,r,,., -.,l I .'.lI T .hl,, ..I ll.,t I tl b. L.1 l .lrtl /.)If l l, .1 ,Ri. Ii lt,
,.,,.,r. .f '.r '. .l... .l'.m. .v .I.I, m i ', Ir I t. l l ll L .. r, 1. 1 rr,.'l1il. re ir,1.. ".s
im l..r: r, .) t.k'....f .q .. ,,.i r, i..it. ', ,. .', : ..''; *L',ll. ." t .. .., .'r .J


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The "Lermontov's" chef holds a recipe
session for those passengers who wish
to learn Russian cuisine.


8 EWE


DINNER

nPOLUAJ bHbI1 O E .


JULY 20th, 1973


Black Caviar on Crackers
Shrimps Salad with Lettuce
Tongue in Jelly with Horse-radish
Orli Halibut, Tartare Sauce
Chicken Shnitzel Ministersky with Fruits
Cheese Board
Ice-Cream Cognac Aroma
Tea Coffee
Pastries
Mineral Water
Vodka Stolichnaya
Dry White Wine
Dry Red Wine



Typical of the daily dishes are these
included on the menu for the
farewell dinner.

for those who prefer other foods, there
is also steak and French fries, and a
variety of dishes from other countries.
There are no rubles aboard the ship.
The currency is the U.S. dollar and all
other currencies must he converted.


The chef samples a glass of Kvass,
a Russian beverage made from rye bread
and yeast, after giving passengers
the recipe.

This is handled at the ship's post office
where one may encounter a long line
of stamp collectors carefully making
selections from the great variety of
stamps available, some of which are
reproductions of the most famous works
of art in the Hermitage Museum. There
was one skeptical elderly gentleman
who had little faith in such beautiful
stamps and asked the post office attend-
ant, to her dismay, if she was sure "the
stamps will work."
An enthusiastic group gathered for
the wine and vodka tasting party where
carafes of water had been placed on the
table to drink after each sample had
been quaffed. One American student
took a sip of water, thought it over care-
fully, and solemnly announced that it
was excellent and that he recognized it
as coming from the Volga. Introducing
Ceorgian wines, the master of cer-
emonies suggested that the reason the
people from Georgia live so long (one
man has been reported to he 168 years
old) is that they drink the local wine.
Still the vodka, which was served'
straight, the Russian way, followed hv
mineral water, was the most popular
beverage of the evening.
Amateur night for passengers proved
that there were a number of uninhibited
passengers among the German, Cana-
dian, French, English, Russians, and
Americans on board, but not much
talent. Members of the crew, joining in
to liven up the program, stole the show
when a group of sailors and one of
the bar waiters, dressed in tutus, per-
formed an outlandish Swan Lake ballet
sequence.
Built in 1972 in Eastern Germany,
the Lermontov is the newest of five
sister ships. The others are the Alex-
ander Pushkin, the Shota Rustaveli, the
Taras Shvenchenko and the Ivan Fran-
ko, all of which, like the Lermontov, are
named for famous Russian literary fig-
ures. The Shota Rustaveli is seen fre-
quently at the Canal en route from Eng-
land to Australia; the Alexander Push-
kin has been providing service from
Montreal to Leningrad for the nast 7
vears: and the Taras Shvenchenko will


be coming to the Canal sometime dur-
ing the winter cruise season.
Flagship of the Baltic Steamship
Co., the Lcrmontov is 586 feet long,
has a beam of 78 feet, and a max-
imum draft of 26 feet. She is fitted with
stabilizers (anti-rolling devices) to pro-
vide a smooth ride even in rough seas.
A one-class ship, with 11 decks, 7 of
them for passenger accommodations,
she has a crew of 326.
Accommodations are available in 10
different types ranging from a deluxe
suite on the boat deck to a four-berth
cabin without bath on the third deck.
All cabins have individually controlled
air-conditioning and heating systems
and telephones as well as comfortable
modern furnishings with everything
kept spic and span by an army of ener-
getic young stewardesses.
The price is low. A two-berth cabin
is about $480 for the trip from New
York to Leningrad. For similar accom-
modations on the France to Southamp-
ton only, the cost is $803 and on the
Queen Elizabeth II, $870. The Lermon-
tov, however, is not a luxury ship of the
type to please the cruise passenger who
is looking for elaborate continental food
service, formal dress balls and casinos
like those found on the large cruise
liners. It is not a floating resort but a
comfortable, practical passenger ship
which can provide a cultural experience.
It takes 14 days for the Lermontov,
which has a top speed of 20 knots, to
make the trip to Leningrad, with stops
in England, France and Germany. This
is about half the speed of the moth-
balled SS United States. It is enough
time for passengers to relax, make
friends, and learn something about the
Russians while enjoying all those special
pleasures which cruising offers.
Even those taking the most casual
interest in things Russian were pleased
to flaunt hits of knowledge acquired
on the ship-such as that the Russian
word for "red" also means "beautiful"
and that it is from this meaning that
Red Square derived its name or that
Ivan the Terrible received his epithet
from an English translation of the Rus-
sian word that means "awesome" not
"awful."
Arrangements for travel on the Ler-
montov, which has three trips scheduled
during the summer months in 1974, can
be made through the Baltic Shipping
Co., 19 Rector St., Suite 3304, New
York, New York 10006.
A tourist must have a visa and each
city to be visited must he listed on it.
A visa is issued only after all hotel
accommodations have been confirmed.


FALL 1973















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er just like
could, he
Whev would


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WNE




(( OU WON'T HAVE TO PACK
1 and unpack or fight airport
crowds or meet tight schedules or deal
with reluctant taxis. This elegant ship
will be your hotel, easing you gently
away from one port to another and you
also will have a chance to observe the
Panama Canal in operation while loung-
ing on the sundeck." So reads the bro-
chure of one of the cruise ships calling
at Panama Canal ports during the winter
cruise season, and judging by the num-
ber of ships arriving daily at the Isth-
mus, more and more people are being
enticed by such suggestions and are
heading south by ship for their winter
vacations.
Although many of the ships travel-
ling south are the newest and most lux-
urious vessels afloat, others are old cus-
tomers that have been through the Ca-
nal many times. But old or new, most
are destined for exotic spots that stim-
ulate the spirit of adventure, such as
Easter Island, the Galapagos, Mombasa,
Kenva, Colombo, Ceylon, or the Straits
of Magellan.
In the past, the big cruise months for
Panama were December, January, and
February. But this year, the vessels
began arriving in early September.
Others now ignore the dry season alto-
gether and make their appearances
regularly in the late summer or early
spring on around-the-world voyages.
Some of the early arrivals this fall
were the Norwegian America Line
Sagafjord; the Royal Viking Sky, of the
Royal Viking Line; the Gripsholi and
Kungsholn, both owned by the Swed-
ish America Line; the Victoria, of the
Icres Line; and the Veendam, of the
Holland America Line. All arrived in
October.
Pacific Ford has the Ocean Monarch
on its spring cruise schedule listing
May 28 as its arrival at Balboa en
route to England.


notes


The Island Princess of the Princess
Cruises, featuring a lido deck with
sliding roof, will arrive January 23 from
San Francisco to the Caribbean and
return through the Canal March 26.
C. Fernie & Co., agents for this ship,
also are agents for a U.S.S.R.-flag cruise
ship, the Taras Schecclenko, due in
Cristobal January 27 and February 21
on Caribbean cruises. This agency also
handles the Russian Fedor Shalyapin,
the former Cunard Line Franconia,
which arrived in Cristobal early in De-
cember en route to Australia on a one-
way trip from Southampton, England.
After that she will make two Pacific
cruises.
The French Line represents the
Paquet Line's Mcrnmoz making 11 calls
in Cristobal on Caribbean and Mexican
cruises and the Renaissance due Jan-
uarv 22 on an around South America
cruise. The French Line's famous
France, which is too large to transit the
Panama Canal, will not come to Panama
this year but leaves New York January 4
on a 92-day luxury world cruise.


The SS Veendam, en route on an
around South America tour, is the
former SS Argentina of the Moore-
McCormack Line. The Royal Viking
Sky, newest addition to the Royal Viking
Line, was en route from the West Indies
to San Francisco. This vessel, along
with her sister ships, the Royal Viking
Star and Royal Viking Sea, are sched-
uled to make other transits through the
Canal during the cruise season. With the
exception of the Vecndamn, C. B. Fenton
is agent for these ships.
Pacific Ford, agent for the Vecndan,
has announced that it will arrive at
Balboa on a world cruise April 12, and
will be docking in Cristobal. This
agency also announced the arrival of
the Volendam on November 23 on a
Caribbean cruise and in Cristobal on
January 12 to transit the Canal on a
South Pacific, South America cruise.
The Volendam is the former Brasil
of the Moore-McCormack Line. The
23,000-ton vessel was extensively al-
tered for cruise service with her prom-
enade deck transformed completely.
In addition, her sundeck observation
cafe was renovated and a number of
new cabins added to her upper and
boat decks. New decor and carpeting
throughout the vessel completed her
multi-million dollar face lifting. She is
now designed to carry up to 500 vaca-
tioners plus a crew of about 350.
The Hanseatic, the former Hamburg
of the German Atlantic Line is due
March 23, 1974 on a Caribbean cruise
and the Shaw Savill Line's Northern
Star went south through the Canal in
November and will return northbound
May I.




This unusual
photo, taken with
a telephoto lens,
shows both
Pedro Miguel and
awn Miraflores Locks
as the "Royal
Viking Sky"
makes her first
transit of the
Canal on her
maiden voyage
from Europe to
U.S. west coast.


22 FALL 1973











Nationality
Belgian.__ ---_
Brazilian _----
British -__ ___
Chilean __----
Chinese, Nat'l. _
Colombian ____
Costa Rican ___
Cuban ------
Cypriot ----
Danish___ ___
Ecuadorean ___
Finnish ___-___
French -------
German, East._-
Cerman, West_
Creek ____-_
Honduran---
Indian __-___
Israeli _____ -
Italian ____-__
Japanese ---
Liberian.___.__
Mexican -____-
Netherlands -
Nicaraguan __.
Nornegian ___
Panamanian _
Peruvian ...
Philippine ___
Polish ------
Singaporean ___
Somali --
South Korean
Soviet _____--
Spanish -___
Swedish -----
United States
Yugoslavian ___
All others--..._
Total _


1973
No. of Tons
transits ot corgo
147 658,70
35 126,96
1,378 13,279,07
115 1,643,98
180 1,896,67
229 442,57
20 16,25
78 774,11
198 1,316,80
363 2,269,93
64 342,60
38 189,88
209 926,47
35 42,57
789 4,793,02
1,071 12,572,63
99 96,63
47 609,45
40 183,65
266 1,394,31
1,331 12,166,72
1,685 25,937,30
53 277,80
449 2,824,26
80 140,61
1,190 15,991,47
959 6,629,42
158 1,358,49
97 638,50
29 155,68
28 192,44
30 451,60
112 757,73
291 1,810,73
47 148,90
419 3,083,34
1,276 7,982,61
45 381,07
161 1,598,92
13,841 126,104,02


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1961-65


(Fiscal Years)
1972
No. of Tons
S transits of cargo
6 159 526,280
9 25 58,526
3 1,472 12,408,313
1 127 1,239,966
3 170 1,505,415
7 249 518,991
6 4 3,780
8 86 781,622
3 106 826,646
5 382 2,113,069
9 65 108,614
9 33 214,723
7 206 913,914
8 15 15,974
0 937 4,628,907
8 766 8,034,968
9 94 92,86S
5 60 827,066
1 45 293,796
4 273 1,670,300
1 1,533 11,572,991
7 1,700 22,453,442
1 68 391,101
2 524 3,017,077
3 131 230,759
9 1,239 14,790,317
0 898 4,012,173
9 153 991,264
8 92 654,583
0 24 92,117
5 22 103,964
1 2 17,500
2 90 667,389
8 174 985,690
4 70 105,735
9 410 2,795,999
5 1,165 7,740,111
2 81 792,230
2 116 1,035,545
9 13,766 109,233,725


Avg. No.
transit
46
2
1,294
120
81
256

3

307
42
24
144

1,122
632
197
1
65
190
835
951
25
621
52
1,436
461
119
70



10
23
13
336
1,708
13
136
11,335


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES
(Fiscal Years)
Avg. No.
transits
Trade routes-(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) 1973 1972 1961-65
United States Intercoastal (including Hawaii)------_ 436 377 445
East coast of United States-West coast of South America 1,083 980 2,355
East coast of United States-West coast of Central America 651 667 500
East coast of United States-Far East ____---- ----- 3,571 3,142 2,220
East coast of United States/Canada-Oceania -_--_ 334 326 321
Europe-West coast of United States/Canada .-------- 890 909 954
Europe-West coast of South America -_---------- 1,202 1,298 1,236
Europe-Oceania-- ---------- 529 518 397
All others ... -- ----- ----- -- -------- 5,145 5,549 2,907
Total ---- --------- 13.841 13,766 11,335
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars)1


Month
July ------------
August.. ___ --__ ___
September ___--------
October -_----
November -----_ _
December .----_------______
January ------
February-----------
March .------------_ _
April- _________
May --- __---- __---
June---- -----------


Totals for fiscal year __-
1 Before deduction of any operating


1973
1,138
1,221
1,116
1,174
1,141
1,107
1,176
1,037
1,231
1,133
1,160
1,207
13,841


g expenses.


1972
1,194
1,197
1,191
1,068
964
1,023
1,179
1,116
1,290
1,191
1,261
1,092
13,766


Avg. No.
transit
1961-65 1973
960 $8,518
949 9,522
908 8,896
946 9,298
922 9,130
946 8,958
903 9,703
868 8,328
1,014 9,916
966 9,507
999 9,378
954 9,878
11,335 $111,032


Average
tolls
1972 1961-65
$8,017 $4,929
8,513 4,920
8,417 4,697
7,241 4,838
6,645 4,748
7,267 4,955
8,895 4,635
8,233 4,506
9,297 5,325
9,180 5,067
9,127 5,232
7,933 5,013
$98,765 $58,865


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23


Avg. tons
of cargo
168,966
19,891
8,292,285
849,621
594,921
408,588

14,596

1,548,545
49,491
107,205
771,293

3,391,774
6,180,888
153,814
16,445
253,130
1,126,250
4,871,840
9,348,846
77,779
2,793,040
80,143
10,931,401
1,968,519
547,814
310,866



44,398
164,686
52,230
2,157,223
10,191,486
106,870
518,065
68,112,909


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FISCAL YEAR 1973
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1973 1972
Commercial _________ 13,841 13,766
U.S. Government _____ 373 413
Free _-- __-_____- _24 559
Total---- 14,238 14,238
TOLLS *
Commercial_ $111,091,606 $98.833,373
U.S. Govern-
ment___ 2,289,792 2.655,316
Total. __$113,381,398 $101.488,689
CARGO0O (Oceangoing)
Commercial_. 126,143,495 109,271,968
U.S. Govern-
ment____ 1,405,428 1,742,303
Free-___ 12,810 62,532
Total 127,561,733 111,076,803
0 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.



The P & O Line, represented here
by Norton Lilly, will have several ships
passing through the Canal during
the winter season. The Canberra is due
in Cristobal January 19 on an around-
the-world cruise and the Arcadia will
make two calls in Cristobal in January
and February. The Orsoca will arrive
from Southampton January 29 and the
Oriana is due in Balboa from Honolulu
March 23.
Norton Lilly also announced the
January 31 arrival of the 24,000-ton
Achille Lauro making an around South
America cruise. Passengers making this
trip will spend 4 days in Rio attending
the carnival festivities.
The Chandris America Line's Ellinis
arrived December 12 and is due again
March 6 on Caribbean cruises. Accord-
ing to Andrews & Co., the Australis
carrying 2,400 passengers is due in
Balboa both January 24 and March 26,
traveling northbound.
A lion's share of the local cruise busi-
ness is handled by C. B. Fenton & Co.
which lists a bumper crop of 25 visits
here bv cruise vessels of various nation-
alities. In addition to the five that
arrived here in October, Fenton is taking
care of six in December, seven in Jan-
uary, four in February and two in
March.
They include the Norwegian Saga-
fjord, the Swedish Gripsholm, the Dan-
ish Royal Viking Sky, the Norwegian
Southward, the Italian Costa Line
Angclina Lauro and the Danish Royal
Viking Star. The Angelina Lauro, which






made regular visits to the Isthmus last
year, will do so again this year sailing
every other Saturday from Port Ever-
glades and calling at Nassau, San Juan,
and several other Caribbean ports as
well as Cristobal.
Among the January arrivals are the
Vistafjord, flagship of the Norwegian
America Line making her second trip
through the Panama Canal on Jan-
uary 10 on an around-the-world cruise.
The ship, a running mate of the Saga-
fjord, has new style stabilizer fins which
brought her across the North Atlantic
early this year "sailing smoothly as a
swan" in the teeth of a heavy gale. The
elegantly appointed 25,000-ton vessel
was specifically designed for the Amer-
ican cruise market and among her dis-
tinguishing features is the Vista Dining
Room located on the upper deck to
afford passengers an ever changing view
of the sea. All of the 500 or more
passengers can be accommodated in a
single sitting.
With the recent acquisition by the
Orient Overseas Line of the American
President Line's President Wilson, only
five American passenger vessels remain
active and all operate out of the west
coast of the United States. They are the
Mariposa and Monterey, of the Pacific
Far East Line and Prudential Grace's
Santa Maria, Santa Mariana and Santa
Mercedes. According to Boyd Bros., the
Monterey is due to arrive at the Panama
Canal, later in the season, from Mexico
en route to Haiti and will return to San
Francisco passing through the Canal
July 5. Boyd also handles the Neptune
and Jason, two cruise vessels of the
Epirotiki Line, which will make Cris-
tobal a port of call during the winter
Caribbean cruise season.



With this issue, THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW loses a senior mem-
ber of its editorial staff. Eunice Rich-
ard, a veteran of more than 20 years
with the Panama Canal Information
Office, retires before the next issue.
A versatile writer and experienced
newswoman, she has contributed
articles on a wide variety of subjects,
and has made a speciality of ship-
ping news. Her farewell feature, a
nostalgic flashback to the days when
Panama's traffic moved on the left,
appears on page 25.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic


Commodity
Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)-
Manufactures of iron and steel----------
Lumber and products-------- ---------
Ores, various----------------
Sugar ----------------------------
Petroleum coke-----------------------
Pulpwood ------- --------------
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) --.
Metals, various ---- -- ---
Bananas---------------------
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts --- ---
Paper and paper products.---------
Sulfur_--------------------------
Coffee -----------------------------
Molasses-----------------
All others ---------.. ----------------
Total -- ----


Fiscal Year
5-Yr. Aug.
1973 1972 1961-65
S8,186,605 2,516,877 1,805,862
7,866,842 7,670,401 1,036,394
5,392,268 5,581,236 4,004,201
4,996,350 4,248,594 1,009,694
- 3,347,338 3,413,574 2,296,584
- 1,896,898 1,202,891 N.A.
S1,515,147 1,224,547 517,629
S1,493,521 1,393,292 898,880
1,343,699 1,385,442 1,187,362
1,304,070 1,133,869 1,161,381
1,030,364 849,408 17,302
754,815 614,945 200,598
742,701 675,864 98,508
S 555,034 510,146 419,012
517,495 576,281 154,220
11,766,388 13,584,804 15,886,953
52,709,535 46,582,171 30,694,580


Atlantic to Pacific
Fiscal Year


Commodity
Coal and coke- ------
Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)_
Corn-- -------------------
Phosphate---------------------
Soybeans --------------------
Metal, scrap --- -------------
Wheat ------ ----- --- ------
Sorghum ------ ------------
Ores, various -_-- -.------------
Sugar_____ -------------
Manufactures of iron and steel ----- _-
Chemicals, unclassified ------
Fertilizers, unclassified-----------
Rice------------ -----------
Paper and paper products --------------
All others and unclassified------
Total ---


1973
13,645,489
12,689,644
8,436,204
4,580,992
4,497,660
3,234,160
2,785,691
2,563,311
2,489,814
1,794,403
1,768,726
1,248,009
1,096,459
864,828
649,413
11,049,691
73,394,494


1972
14,114,249
13,448,955
3,795,678
4,208,082
3,770,267
1,392,742
2,049,840
1,149,158
2,477,926
1,777,025
1,475,152
895,085
810,969
603,711
743,305
9,939,410
62,651,554


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
6,061,195
11,384,781
1,501,869
2,137,487
1,449,114
2,663,773
565,795
N.A.
309,593
1,011,013
1,500,673
657,500
388,007
154,248
428,942
7,204,338
37,418,328


CANAL TRANSIT COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
Fiscal Year


1973 1972
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlontic Total Total


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing--------------
Small ---------------------
Total Commercial----------

U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing_---------------
Small '------------------


7,082
404
7,486

168
56


6,759 13,841
318 722
7,077 14,563


Aug. No.
transit
1961-65


Total


13,766 11,335
777 547
14,543 11,882


205 373 413 250
62 118 148 157


Total Commercial and
U.S. Government----- -- 7,710 7,344 15,054 15,104 12,289
1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited
free.


FALL 1973

























Recently, after threading his way through the labyrinth of detours caused by
the street and highway improvement projects in Balboa, one disoriented motorist
said, "There hasn't been so much confusion since the big changeover from left
to right hand driving in 1943."
The person who made this remark had to be an oldtimer. Few presently residing
on the Isthmus remember that traffic on the streets of Panama and the Canal
Zone once moved on the left hand side just as it presently does in England.
Thirty years and a million cars later, there are few things left to remind the
Isthmian motorist of the old drive to the left rules. Some of the changes were
simple. They included the switching of traffic signs from the left to the right side
of the roads to face right hand traffic. This was done in all towns and along all
highways. At Diablo Heights, the only change was the reversal of one-way traffic
around the parking area in front of the clubhouse and a change in the angle of
parking to conform to the right hand drive.
Direction of traffic was reversed in the five main traffic circles in Balboa and
Balboa Heights in accordance with the recommendations of the traffic com-
mittee. One-way traffic on the Prado in Balboa also was reversed with cars going
toward the Service Center on the right hand side from the direction of the
Administration Building and on the left hand side from the Service Center toward
the Building. Pier Street near the Terminal Building in Balboa has remained the
same to this day so as not to interfere with traffic of cars waiting for ships.






When left Was Right

By Eunice Richard


O NLY THE HORSES HAD TROU-
ble.
All other traffic switched from the left
to the right without incident the morn-
ing of April 15, 1943.
It was a red letter day for motorists
and operators of other types of vehicles
in the Canal Zone and Panama. It was
a day that had been in the planning and
discussion stage for more than 20 years.
Death and disaster on the highways and
bvways of the Isthmus had been pre-
dicted. Taxi drivers protested. Con-
firmed left hand drivers, resisting

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 25


change, had debated the question with
the Automobile Club. Ministers of the
Panama Government had called it il-
legal. Top police officials had argued it
out with highway experts. But with an
international highway under construc-
tion and World War II bringing in
hundreds of new workers accustomed
to the right hand drive, the change was
inevitable.
So after weeks of publicity in the local
press, pages of instructions to the traffic
police and the public, the big moment
finally came.


At 5 a.m. on April 15, the sirens and
fire whistles in Panama blew for 3 min-
utes. All vehicular traffic on the Isthmian
highways came to a complete stop. And
then like a slow ballet, everyone shifted
over to the right hand side of the road.
To the complete surprise of everyone,
the change from left to right hand drive
was made without any of the trouble
anticipated by civilian and military po-
lice in the Canal Zone and the national
police of Panama.
The local press reported the only
difficulty was with the horses that pulled
the little two-passenger coaches known
locally as "carramettas" (a corruption
of the Spanish word carromato which
means coach) in the cities of Panama
and Colon. They seemed unable to
understand why they could not go along
as they had always done. One coachman
on Fourth of July Avenue was seen
having considerable difficulty with his
horse that insisted on heading down the
left side of the road.
Officers stationed at traffic circles and
one-way streets where directions had
been reversed reported no difficulty on
the part of most drivers although one
officer had to whistle down a police cap-
tain who was entering a one-way street
from the wrong direction.
The only accident had nothing to do
with the change. It involved a police
officer who rammed into the back of a
garbage truck, causing about $60 worth
of damage to his own car.
On one Army truck, a soldier rode
on the right fender as a guide. The
truck started down the wrong side of
the road as it swung onto Fourth of
July Avenue from the military reserva-
tion entrance, but the soldier called to
the driver to pull onto the proper side
of the road before there were any com-
plications.
Much of the success of the switch
from left to right hand drive on the
streets of the Canal Zone and Panama
could be attributed to the careful plan-
ning by the two traffic departments and
the campaign in the newspapers which
even printed drawings of arrows on
which appeared "drive to the right" to
be pasted on drivers' windshields. Po-
lice warned about overconfidence after
a few days of driving on the right
hand side of the road and motorists
were cautioned about careless driving,
drunken driving and speeding.
As the police pointed out, there were
more complications than the simple
shift from the left to right hand side of
the road. Both the Canal Zone and Pan-
ama made many changes in traffic reg-
ulations as well as in the direction of






THOSE WERE THE DAYS when traffic was so light that it
didn't matter too much whether one drove to the right, to the left,
or straight down the middle of the road; but as time passed,
traffic picked up, and left hand driving produced safety hazards,
particularly for the motorcyclist with a sidecar. Today,
with the right hand driving rule now in effect for 20 years,
traffic moves efficiently down the hill from the
Administration Building at Balboa Heights under
the direction of the Canal Zone Police.


* 1\-- -

~- *


travel on streets, effective on the day
of the shift. A one month breaking-in
period called for reduced speed limits
for all vehicles to 12 miles per hour for
private automobiles and 10 miles per
hour for other types of vehicles. Luckily
for the police in 1943, traffic was light
and gasoline was being rationed.
Motorists were warned about the
obvious safety hazards and told what
to do if traffic approached on the wrong
side of the road. "Stop the car. If pos-
sible, drive off the road. Blow the horn.
Under no circumstances attempt to pass
the other car on the wrong side."
Keeping right after a left turn was
another hazard as there were pedes-
trians who had become confused and
watched for traffic approaching from
the wrong direction before stepping
from the curb. Pedestrians were urged
to cross the street at the end of the
block only and to use marked cross-
walks where provided.
Most Isthmian drivers came through
the ordeal in fine shape and with hardly
any bent fenders. And there was at least
one group of workers in the Canal Zone
that hardly noticed the change. They
were the employees at the third locks
site in Catin, where the right hand
drive rule had been in effect since the
work had begun more than 2 years
previously.
When work started on construction
of the third set of locks in 1940, a proj-
ect which was never completed, it was
decided that the right hand drive would
cause fewer traffic accidents in the con-
struction area, since practically all of
the truckdrivers were fresh from the
I united States.
In 1928, Panama and 13 other coun-
tries in the world had "drive to the left"
rules which are still in effect in Great
Britain, Ireland and several countries
where there has been British influence.
Some said that the original horse-cab
drivers in Panama were natives of the
British Caribbean islands and, despite
the growth of international touring and
the nopularitv of the American auto-
mobile built for right hand driving, the
custom persisted.
There were few roads on the Isthmus
when the United States started to con-
struct the Canal in 1904 and the side
of the road taken bv a horse and buggy
or the slow moving early motorcars
made little difference.
But by 1928, there were warnings of
serious traffic problems to come with
the increase in vehicular traffic and
the construction of the Inter-American
Highway. An article. in the Panama
American in 1931 said, "It is important

26 FALL 1973


;_~L~ C=


I-
r
-1-
~
y~~~






that the automobiles of Panama and the
Canal Zone be transferred to the right
side of the road before the Pan Amer-
ican Highway is opened if vehicular
confusion, approximating the linguistic
tangle encountered by the builders of
the Tower of Babel, was to be avoided.
"Should this strip on the through
route from Alaska to Patagonia retain
the left side drive, the interesting re-
sult would be signs notifying motorists
to transfer to the opposite side of the
road when crossing the Panamanian
border." The story predicted that this
would mean that for a few miles on
each side of the border garages estab-
lishe-I "to salvage the dozens of daily
wrecks" would do a thriving business.
Even without the Pan American
Highway, there were many accidents in
Panama in the 1930's which could be
attributed to the fact that U.S. man-
ufactured vehicles came with right
hand steering and drivers had to pull
out in the center of the road to see
ahead before passing a car. Driving
motorcycles with sidecars was espe-
cially hazardous. Some buses had exits
on the right side and passengers had to
disembark in the middle of the street.
Since the local bus and "chiva" driv-
ers had gone to considerable expense
to convert vehicles purchased in the
United States for driving to the left.
they objected to spending additional
money to again change the exits. Taxi
drivers were against the changeover
also but gave no reason.
Public opinion, influenced by the
newspapers and the Rotary Clubs in
Panama, began to favor the change-
over in the mid thirties when editorials
and articles began to appear in the local
papers. In 1936, the American Feder-
ation of Government Employees passed
a resolution in favor of a change in
traffic regulations to permit vehicular
traffic to use the right hand. Members
of the Panama Metal Trades Council
added their names to the ranks of Isth-
mian residents in favor of the change
to right hand drive. The Cristobal-
Colon Rotary Club went on record for
the fourth time in support of the traffic
change. One member objected, how-
ever. saving the left hand drive was a
thrill for the tourists.
There have been a number of the-
ories on how England came to adopt
the left hand drive system in the first
place.
Quoting the National Geographic,
one student of the problem wrote in the
Panana American in 1936 that the prac-
tice may have come from the habit of
the English coachman of sitting on

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 27


- A


'-- p.


-.
L^71


II -

q. *- M
in
K' '~ Ira-*
-'-


the right side of the driver's seat. "He
grasped the whip in his right hand. In
passing another coach, he wanted to
be in a position from which he could
best prevent a collision. So he passed
an oncoming coach on that coach's
right. From his seat on the right of his
coach he could see how near his wheels
came to those of the other vehicle."
On the continent, it was more fre-
quently the custom for a postilion, or
rider, to guide the horses instead of a
coachman. The postilion took his place
at the left of the lead team in order to
have his right hand free to grasp the
nearest bridle. He also wanted to avoid
collisions but being on the left, it was
better for him to turn his horses to the
right.
In the United States, it was sug-
gested, the right hand rule was adopted
because the oxen took the right side in
the old days. Oxen were the draft ani-
mals most used in the colonies and the
driver directed them by voice and whip.
He held the whip in his right hand and
trudged along on the left of the oxen.
In the National Geographic survey
of the situation in 1936, about 60 of
the nations and colonies of the world
favored the right side drive, 43 clung
to the left. The need for a uniform


Abore. "CarrJmetl.ti" line up I'r
p.assinriers al I he P'nrm ClI\
Railroad Station in 1906. Used
for transportation on the Isthmus
before automobiles were available,
they were always driven to the
left. At left: Cars adhering
to the left hand rule wait at the
Panama City crossing in 1930.
Lower left: Cars move along
Central Avenue in today's
bustling Panama City near
the site shown in the photo above.


rule was not so apparent in the
United States and Canada as in Europe.
The National Geographic commented,
"Consider the problem of a motorist
who tried to drive in those day from
Norway to Italy through the Dolomites.
He started bravely out from Oslo, keep-
ing to the right until he reached the
Swedish border. Thereupon he kept to
the left. Let him have his wits about
him because when he ferried over to
Denmark, he must again move over to
the right of the road. Germany was the
same. Back again to the left in Czech-
oslovakia. And just as the bewildered
autoist gets used to left driving in Aus-
tria. he must steel his nerves to switch
back to the right rule of the road in
Yugoslavia and Italy."
In England, where the vehicular
traffic kept to the left and the rule of
the sidewalk or pathway was to keep to
the right, there had been some confu-
sion before the English rule of the road
was made a law in 1835.
But before that date the following
poem appeared in an English journal:
"The law of the road is a paradox
quite
As you're driving your carriage along
If you go to the left you're sure to go
right."






/By Franklin Castrell6n
/ LSIPUEDES. OR, GET OUT IF But at nig
1 You Can. Not an order but the sipiiedes
name of one of the oldest and most to a ganm
legend-shrouded streets in the city of the lowes
Panana. was an un
SIt also is one of the few streets to whoever
S have kept its name during all the years at night i
S of its existence. Officially, it has been or any ki
East 13th Street since the early 1900's remained
b ut no one, except perhaps the city To venture
mapmaker, recognizes this fact. court deal
Going back into the mists of time- With li
*5^ Panama City was founded more than were in tt
300 ears ago-Salsipuedes was men- the centu
.',; tioned by historians as a cobble-stone Salsipned
lane lined with shops and houses owned and attri
S and inhabited mostly by Chinese. crimes to

S, following a series of mysterious deaths citizens.
i. and disappearances, some of them con- One of
nected with children. In fact, early res- an aristoc
idents of this section of the city and its man nam
environs used to scare their children whose pa:
"" with a Salsipuedes version of the perdition
bogeyman. the hand
SWhether or not these stories are true, whom he
the present street, with its hundreds of his wife. 1
S peddlers and stalls, is more like a was really
crowded, colorful country fair than a he took t
place to be feared, payment
Country Fair The be
';. According to Panama historian Juana as a gath
S Oller de Mulford, whose book on Pan- opium se
ama was published in the 1940's, Salsi- bv the fi
S pnedes was located outside of the old most of th
walled city which was entered by the sipuedes
S Puerta de Tierra near La Merced 7a. Six pri
Church on I0th Street. When night jail died i
fell, residents of the city of Panama men could
were careful to hurry home behind the firefightin
S walls as those unfortunate enough to be was the f(
caught outside after dark were liable to fire depar
S be murdered or robbed or both. Need- at the tin
less to say, it was the wealthy classes, also was
the government officials and other im- of Panam
portant people who lived within the
walled section. Salsinu
Panama in those days, as it is now, the history
was a meeting place of the Americas- ama. for i
the crossroads of the world. Outside the of the r
walls was one of the wildest collections Accordin
of outlaws, soldiers of fortune, and nuel Am:
vagabonds in the hemisphere. Some claimed t
were gold-hunting gringos headed for mus of
California. Others were looking for for- when the
tunes in Panama and, like the Chinese, harbored
t had settled on the Isthmus to open a criminate
shop, a restaurant, or an opium selling hombardi
establishment, most of which were an hour a
located then in Salsipuedes. into the
SIn addition to being the Chinatown resulted
1 of the Isthmus, the narrow street which gentleman
led to the docks and seawall of Panama home in
Swas a hive of activity during the day. dead in tl


,ht the hill down through Sal-
became a shadowy gateway
bling and drinking haven for
t types on the Isthmus. There
written law in those days that
found himself after 7 o'clock
n a gambling den, a cantina,
nd of a store in Salsipuedes,
where he was to save his life.
*e forth after that hour was to
th.
ghts low or nonexistent as they
he days preceding the turn of
iry, it was easy to imagine
es as the hellhole of the city
bute most of the notorious
demons in human form who
at night to prey on defenseless

Mrs. Oller's stories concerns
ratic but weak-willed gentle-
ed Don Francisco del Corral,
ssion for gambling led him to
and death in Salsipuedes at
s of a sinister foreigner to
had forfeited his fortune-and
-egend has it that the stranger
the devil in disguise and that
he soul of Don Francisco as
for his sins.
ginning of the end of the street
ering place for gamblers and
llers may have been signaled
re in 1884, which destroyed
ie wooden buildings from Sal-
to the present day Lottery Pla-
soners locked up in the old city
n the holocaust before the fire-
Id drag them to safety. The
g unit, formed 7 years earlier,
rerunner of Panama's modern
tment. Chief of the Bomberos
ne was Ricardo Arango, who
Governor of the Department
a, then a part of Colombia.
Ass Struck Dead
edes even played a part in
v of the new Republic of Pan-
t was there that the only blood
evolution of 1903 was shed.
g to official accounts, Dr. Ma-
ador Guerrero had just pro-
he Independence of the Isth-
Panama without bloodshed
SColombian gunboat Bogota,
in Panama Bay, began indis-
firing upon the city. This
ment which lasted only half
nd lobbed a mere dozen shells
city, was ineffective. But it
in two casualties-a Chinese
n who was eating dinner at his
Salsipuedes and an ass struck
he slaughterhouse.


FALL 1973


.,




'N














U-I




SALSIPUEDES'






















The hustle and bustle of Salsipuedes
seen from the top of the street at
the intersection of Central Avenue.
In the center is the Homsany store which
was the old Hotel Italia until 1894
and was later the luxurious residence
of a distinguished Panama family.
The roofs on the street venders' stalls
were added in 1969.


The house on the left in this old picture
obviously is devoted to the sale of opium.
It was run by Chinese and a great
majority of its customers also were
Chinese. After the fire of 1894,
this opium business was moved to the
intersection of 13th Stret and Avenue B.
At present the site is occupied by the
Bola de Oro bakery.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Pinatas, Toys, Ince


Bread or Herbs .


Oranges, Photos,


. . . .


f Y. FB-





Today's Salsipuedes is more like a colorful country fair than a place to be feared, and customers come from distant
points to shop amid its carnival atmosphere. This ancient camera, which has a pan of developing chemicals inside, usually
attracts a crowd when the sidewalk photographer reaches inside and pulls out a wet print.


Street \ endorse, called "buhoneros" in
Spanish, started moving into Salsipue-
des as a sort of adjunct to the big public
market, which was established in 1900.
At first there were only a few. By 1947
there were 20 or 25 "buhoneros" in
business along the narrow street. They
would set up tables and portable stands
on the sidewalk, forcing pedestrians to
walk in the street. Several attempts
were made to move the vendors to other
locations but they kept coming back.
The battle of the street peddlers and
the merchants and the Panama Munici-
pal Government finally ended in 1969
when former MNavor Eli6cer Alvarado
ordered the construction of permanent
stands all along the street and closed
the entire Salsipuedes area to vehicular
traffic all the wav from Central Avenue
to the market. Officially, it was named


Alcalde Alvarado Commercial Center,
but nobody ever calls it anything but
Salsipuedes.
At present there are about 250 street
vendors in Salsipuedes and neighboring
streets. Manv of them belong to a
union and they pay from $3 to $5 a
month to the municipal government in
taxes depending on the type of mer-
chandise they sell.
The street has been a major tourist
attraction for many years and even up-
stages the more luxurious shops and
shopping centers in other parts of the
city.
As one writer put it some years ago,
it is a place to buy anything from love
potions to lizards and lotions. There are
toys, ladies' lingerie, stainless steel,
roach poison, jewelry and gimcrackery
of every description. A cure for your


ailments, physical and otherwise, may
be found in little stalls selling herbs and
leaves. Some have exotic names and
cure everything from a sore throat to
liver trouble. There are second hand
shops selling tools, pipe, electrical fix-
tures, clothing and golf balls.
Despite the new supermarkets, the
old ways still persist in Salsipuedes,
where sooner or later all Panama passes
on the way to the market. When night
falls, however, the hubbub dies down
and the street goes back to another era.
With a little imagination, a visitor can
see the sinister shadows of its former
residents crossing from one sidewalk to
another. With a little more imagination
one can feel the icy fingers of fear that
must have touched the unfortunate
visitors who lost track of time and
remained outside the city wall after
nightfall.


FALL 1973











~,q


I:'


r N ,
'i""'i B ~


Panama
Portobelo Awakens
Real Panama Hat
Seviche
Panama's Money Trees
Orchids
All About the Mola
Modish Molas
Cane Cages Come in Many Shapes
From Panama's Primitive Past
Comes the Chaquira
Mobile Masterpieces
A Bird Watcher's Paradise
It's More Than Pot Luck at La Arena
The Pollera
Down in the Darien
Taboga
Panama-Focal Point of History
Flowering Trees
The Panama Canal

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


iL
IlI"LIL


Special Review Reprints Popular Panama Articles

NoiU is your chance to hace reprints of the most popular articles to appear
in recent issues of THiE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW. WheVther you are interested in
the mtola, the chaquira, the pollera, or recipes for seviche, you will find
them in this special edition of the REVIEW.
A list of the articles, which have been selected from issues published be-
tween 1965 and 1973, appears at left. Orders should be sent to THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW, Box Al, Balboa Ieights, Canal Zone. Each copy comes in a
special envelope with a gift card, which will be inscribed as you request. Single
copies, regular mail are $1 each, airmail $2. Check or money order should be
payable to the Panama Canal Company. The special edition is on sale also
at Panama Canal retail stores and military exchanges on both sides of the
Isthmus.
The regular edition of the REVIEW is available by subscription for $1 a year
regular or 52 airmail. You mail subscribe when you order the special edition.




r~. 7h


FALL 1973






Soup is a hospitable dish that can be
adapted to the whirlwind of modern day
living when members of the family are
on different schedules. A pregame bowl
of savory, bubbly soup will satisfy teen-
agers rushing off to sports events and
it's great, too, for an idle stay-at-home
Sunday evening. A pot of good soup is
worth its weight in gold for entertain-
ing that "petit comitd" of guests who
have been invited for holiday eggnog
or cocktails and decide to linger for a
gab fest. And what can be more hospi-
table than inviting the gang over for a
bowl of soup after one of those "on the
town" sprees or after a late, late New
Year's party.
In tropical Panama, it is traditional to
serve hot soup before the main course
at lunch and dinner. Based on meat,
poultry, fish, seafood or vegetables,
soups run the gamut from the simple
"caldo" to "sancocho," an entire meal.
Sancocho de Gallina
Sancocho, what may be called Pan-
ama's national dish, is robust enough to
be a meal in itself. It is often served as
such for Sunday dinner and on special
occasions. Like manv of the national
dishes it is a half soup, half stew, rich
and satisfying. Anyone who has eaten a
dish of chicken sancocho will concede
to its superiority. There are several ver-
sions, made with either meat or chicken
or a combination of both.
Here is one version of the great San-
cocho de Gallina:
a 4 or 5 pound stewing hen, cleaned,
dressed and cut up (a nice, big roaster
will do as well)
1 large onion
2 ripe tomatoes
2 green peppers
4 garlic cloves, mashed
4 quarts cold water
1 pound yucca
2 medium size otoes
I pound fiame
3 green plantains
32 pound zapallo (pumpkin)
3 ears of tender corn
I pound potatoes
salt and pepper
coriander and parsley
Place the cut-up hen in the cold
water with the herbs and salt and pep-
per and cook slowly until the hen is
ten er. While it is cooking, chop the
onion, tomatoes, peppers, and add to
the pot with the Earlic. Cut the corn
and plantains in IV-inch pieces and
add. Then chop the remaining veg-
etables (not too small) and add. Con-
tinue cooking until all the vegetables
are tender. Season to taste. For a little
more zip, add a bit of hot pepper. Serve

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


in large soup dishes. For meat sancocho
use 2 pounds of beef brisket or flank
steak (cut-up) and increase the quantity
of vegetables.
Caldillo
Caldillo, a fragrant tomato, onion and
egg combination, rings the bell as one
of the favorite of all soups served in
Panama. A gustful main dish soup, it
has become famous as the "after the
late party" soup and a bowl of fire-hot
caldillo at the Panama hotels or social
clubs is a must as a reviver of exhausted
carnival revellers after 3 days of party-
ing. Here is one way to make Caldillo:
3 green peppers
% cup chopped green onions
4 large ripe tomatoes, chopped
1 small can tomato paste (6 oz)


8 cups of consomme or chicken broth
cayenne pepper or aji chombo
salt and pepper
cream or evaporated milk
12 eggs
In a large heavy pot, saut6 the veg-
etables in a little butter for about 5 min-
utes, add the tomato paste, and cook
slowly until well blended and veg-
etables are soft. Add the cayenne pep-
per or aji chombo and salt and pepper
to taste. Add the consomme and bring
to a boil and simmer. About 10 minutes
before serving, break eggs separately
and add two at a time to the simmering
soup. As they set, remove the eggs to
six individual bowls containing about
I a cup of warm milk or cream and fill
the bowl with the caldillo.


Esteem for provincial food is shown in "Sancocho Santefio" prepared by Dr. Maria
Villalaz de Arias, Panamanian physician, whose recipe calls for a hen and the following
chopped vegetables: 2 pounds name; 1 green pepper; I large tomato; M pound cabbage;
1 big onion; 3 garlic cloves, mashed; 4 coriander leaves; Y2 teaspoon oregano; and salt
to taste. Put the hen in a pot of cold water to cover. When soup begins to boil, remove foam.
Add chopped tomato and onion. When the hen begins to get tender, add iiame and cabbage.
About 5 minutes before removing from fire, add coriander and salt. Serve with fluffy, white
rice and fried plantain.






















Shrimp Caldillo
An even more delicious version of the
life giving soup is Shrimp Caldillo made
this way:
Cook two pounds of raw shrimp in
6 cups of lightly seasoned water until
they turn pink. Strain and use this water
as the stock for the soup. Peel and de-
vein the shrimp, cut in pieces (not too
small), and add to the soup after it has
come to a boil. Simmer and correct sea-
sonings and continue with the rest of
the recipe.
Fish Soup
Hugged by two oceans, it is only
natural that Panama has fabulous fish
and seafood soups. They come in as
many varieties as there are fish in the
sea. Unlike meat soups, fish takes very
little cooking time. Here is a superb Fish
Soup that is simple to make with a few
ingredients:
2 pounds of white fish
1 large onion, sliced
6 sprigs of parsley
1 stalk celery or celery leaves
1 bay leaf
1 pound flame
salt and pepper
flour and lemon juice
6 cups of water
Clean and cut the fish in :t-inch
slices, reserving the heads and bones.
Sprinkle the slices with lemon juice and
dust with flour, salt and pepper. Fry
in olive oil until tender. Make a fish
stock bv cooking the heads and bones
in the water with the onion, parsley,
celery and bav leaf. Simmer for 1/2 hour.
Strain the stock and remove any edible
fish particles from the heads. Add these
to the stock with the fried fish and
ifame. Cook slowly until the fame is
tender. Correct the seasoning. A little
aji chombo may be added for a "hotter"
soup.
Clam Chowder
One of the most popular soups in Pan-
ama is made with fresh clams that are


available at the market 7 days a week.
Make excellent Panama Clam Chowder
this way:
4 cups fresh clams
1I, pounds name, peeled and cut into small
pieces
I medium onion, chopped
1 large tomato, chopped
1 street pepper, chopped
I coriander leaf
8 cups hot water
salt and pepper
Place clams in salted water for half
an hour. Remove and put into hot water
and cook until the clams open up. Drain
and save the water. When the clams
have cooled, remove from the shells and
clean. Cook the onion, tomato and pep-
per with the coriander in a little oil until
soft. Rinse the flame well. Strain into a
pot the water the clams were cooked in
to remove any sand. Add to this water
the cooked vegetables, the flame and
the clams. Simmer about 20 minutes or
until the flame is tender.

Guacho
A flavorful half soup, half stew type
meal for the heftier appetites is Cuacho.
It can be made with chicken, beef or
pork, combined with beans or guand6
and rice. Mention the word "guacho" to
a Panamanian and it will immediately
evoke the goodness of the melange.
Here is one way to make it:
1 pound red beans
1 pound rice, washed several times
1,2 pounds salt pork, cubed
1 pound yucca, cut up


1 pound flame, cut up
1 street pepper, chopped
I onion, chopped
1 stalk celery, chopped
3 or 4 cloves garlic, mashed
1 small can of tomato paste
Wash beans and put in a large pot
with plenty of water. Add 1 tablespoon
of salt, and boil until almost tender.
Add the salt pork and as the water
cooks away keep adding more until the
beans are cooked. Then add the rice,
blending it well with the beans and
meat. About half an hour later add
the yucca. In another half hour, add the
flame. When the flame is tender, the
guacho is ready to serve. While the gua-
cho is cooking, make a "refrito" with the
remaining vegetables and tomato paste.
Put a big tablespoonful of "refrito" on
top of each serving of guacho.
Avocado Soup
As a Christmas gift to the readers of
Culinary Capers, here are simple in-
structions for making a delicious Avo-
cado Soup when they are in season:
3 cups chicken consomme
2 avocados, mashed
I avocado, cubed
whipped cream or evaporated milk
Add the mashed avocados to warm
consomme and blend thoroughly. Cook
slowly, stirring constantly until the soup
comes to a boil. Remove from the fire
immediately and pour over the cubed
avocado in the soup bowls. Put a d. .ll.'p
of lightly salted whipped cream or .1 ht-
tle evaporated milk on top of the soup.
This recipe serves two or three.


What can he more satisfying than a dish of delicious fish soup made "quick and easy" witl
Panama's bounty from the sea!


34 FALL 197:












Catal



50 Years Ago
A COLLISION IN CRISTOBAL
Harbor between the SS Aban-
garez, of the United Fruit Company,
and the U.S. Submarine 0-5 proceeding
from Coco Solo to Balboa occurred in
October 1923. The submarine sank im-
mediately in 36 feet of water. The event
became one of the most pictorially doc-
umented stories of submarine salvage
ever made. An underwater diving record
was made when Sheppard J. Shreaves,
a Canal Zone diver in his rescue at-
tempts, made the longest dive up to that
time.
It also became the first attempt at
physically lifting any vessel the size of
the 420-ton 0-5 submarine off the ocean
bottom. When the surviving crewmem-
bers were mustered after the submarine
sank, it was found that five men were
missing. Efforts were started at once to
raise the sunken submarine by the Na'y
and the Panama Canal divers working
with the floating crane Ajax. The sub-
marine was brought to the surface :31
hours later on October 20 when two of
the missing men were taken out. The
bodies of two others were found floating
in the hav but one was never found.
The Isthmus was inundated by the
heavy rains that fell over Gatun water-
shed October 23 and 24, 1923. Since
this was 10 years before the construction
of Madden Dam, the runoff which went
directly into Gatun Lake was at the
highest rate in the history of the Canal.
It brought an interruption of Canal traf-
fic due in part to the strong current at
Damboa, where the waters of the Chag-
:es River reached the Canal channel,
and in part to the use of the lock cul-
,~erts to discharge excess water from Ga-
un Lake. Eleven gates of the spillway
,vere opened and when the flood was at
ts height, the sidewall culverts at Gatun
nd Pedro Miguel Locks also were
opened The rains started again October
24 but this time over the surface of the
lake. Again traffic was suspended while
the sidewall culverts at Gatun and Ped-
ro Miguel Locks were used to spill
,vater from the lake. All rainfall records
)n the Atlantic side for the complete
nonth of October were broken in only
I days from October 22 to 25.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 35


The SS Easterner which transited
the Canal August 15, had as part of her
cargo a veritable zoological garden con-
sisting of camels, kangaroos, opossums,
wombats, lions, emus, cockatoos, par-
rots, geese and a number of snakes, liz-
ards and turtles. The ship was en route
from Sydney, Australia, to New York.
Also on board were 12 tons of dried
ferns.

25 Years Ago
THE BILL EXTENDING THE
United States income tax to the Canal
Zone was introduced into the House of
Representatives in May 1948. News of
the tax bill was a surprise since informa-
tion from Washington, at the time the
measure was being drafted, was that it
was unlikely that it would be presented
before the next session of Congress.
Meanwhile news sources at Balboa
Heights expressed the belief that the
Selective Service bill, approved by the
U.S. Senate, would apply to the Canal
Zone and would require a local board
system to be established with a quota
to be filled from the Canal Zone.
Margarita Hospital, which had been
in operation for the past 6 years, was
closed and the patients were transferred


I I


ALMOST 60 YEARS AGO-Workmen dismantle the Governor's House in June 1914
preparatory to moving it to Balboa Heights. The house was originally located in the con-
struction-day town of Culebra on the banks of what is now Gaillard Cut. THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW is interested in hearing from readers who may have other old photographs
of the Governor's House as well as any items of furniture originally associated with it.


to Colon Hospital. Secretary of Defense
James Forrestal announced he was
streamliining medical services for the
U.S. Armed Forces and civilians in the
Canal Zone. Fort Gulick Hospital also
was closed.
U.S. Ambassador to Panama Mon-
nett N. Davis announced that the Board
of Directors of the Export Import Bank
had approved the application of a loan
for $2 million to be used toward the
construction of the Hotel El Panama
which was to be built by Hoteles Inter-
americanos, S.A. with the backing of the
Panama Government. It also was an-
nounced that when this hotel was com-
pleted, the Tivoli and Washington Ho-
tels would cater only to official U.S.
visitors.

10 Years Ago
THE COMPLICATED BUSINESS OF
moving the Panama Canal Printing
Plant from Mount Hope to La Boca
was carried out 10 years ago during the
months of October and November.
Overseeing the move, which involved
the transfer of hundreds of pieces of
equipment and the relocation of 61 em-
ployees were John B. Coffey, then Print-
ing Plant Superintendent, and W. R.
Price, foreman.
Three U.S. manufacturing companies
submitted bids on the furnishing and
installation at Miraflores of major com-
ponents of a steam generating unit
which was to add 22,000 kilowatts to
the electrical power generation poten-
tial of the Panama Canal power system.
It was to go into operation in approx-
imately 2 years.




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PAGE 2

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

PAGE 7

I m. i • #., w^ PANAMA p IE I *L. (Qfx -.a. '. m Uu *£*£

PAGE 8

David S. Parker Governor-President Charles I. McGinnis Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer Willie K Friar Editor, English Edition Jose T. Tunon Editor, Spanish Edition Writers Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hernandez, Official Panama Canal Publication Franklin Castrellon and Dolores E. Suisman Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit tu the Review will be appreciated. The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1, airmail $2, single copies 50 cents. For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Contents The Golden Huacas of Panama 3 Treasures of a forgotten people arouse the curiosity of archeologists around the world. Snoopy Speaks Spanish 8 In the phonetics of the funnies, a Spanish-speaking dog doesn't say "bow wow." Balseria 11 Broken legs are the name of the game when the Guaymis get together for this unique contest. Bicycling on the Isthmus 15 The unicycle may be the best answer for complete equality in the age of unisex. To Russia with the Russians 17 From New York to Leningrad with ballet, balalaikas and borscht. Shipping Notes 22 The style in cruising this year is to the exotic and unusual spot. When Left Was Right 25 Driving rules were reversed with hardly a hitch— except for the horses. Salsipuedes 28 Everything from lizards to love potions is sold in Panama's legend-shrouded street. Culinary Capers 32 History 35 Artwork— Carlos Mendez, page 14, 32, 34; Hector Sinclair, page 22; Peter Gurney, page 2.5. Our Cover Huaca fanciers will find their favorites among the symbolic characters of the warrior, rainbow, condor god, eagle and alligator in this display of Panama's famous golden artifacts. The huacas, copied from those recovered from the graves of pre-Columbian Carib Indians, were loaned to The Review by Neville Harte. The well known local archeologist also provided much of the information for the article from his unrivaled knowledge of the subject— the fruit of a 26-year-long love affair with the huaca, and the country and people of Panama, past and present. Harte has made replicas of 109 different huacas— many from originals he recovered himself— using the lostwax process of casting metal. Because huacas are beautiful, rare, valuable, or a combination of all three, they are a major attraction for tourists and residents who visit the Panama Museum to see the originals, or jewelry and antique shops to buy the reproductions. Two often asked questions about the golden huaca are who discovered the ancient lost-wax process and how did the Indians mine gold. The explanations are simple: The lost-wax process was never lost and the Indians did not mine gold. The phrase "lost-wax process" does not mean the technique was lost and rediscovered; it simply means the wax is lost in the process. Gold in a relatively pure state was plentiful in stream beds. It was bright and shiny and caught the sun's rays and thus the Indians' eyes. And they panned rather than mined their gold. Arthur L. Pollack produced the unusual three-dimensional effect necessary to appreciate the intricate beauty of the huacas by photographing them on a sheet of plate glass suspended 3 inches above a piece of red satin material. 2 Fall 1973

PAGE 9

A CLUE TO THE MYSTERIES OF a vanished people who inhabited Panama during pre-Columbian times is found in the "golden huacas," the precious artifacts which were buried with them 1,000 years ago. These people left no written history. But the objects they made— jewelry, weapons, tools and ornaments— give a clue to their great culture and the skill of their artisans. In these archeological finds lies the history of a great nation obscured by time. Many facts are known, but even thev change according to the books read or experts consulted. What is a huaca? Is a huaca a tomb and a huaco an artifact recovered from the tomb? Or is it the other wav around? Were huacas ornaments, offerings to the gods, good luck charms, battle armor, coats of arms? Is the word itself spelled huacal or guacal or huaca or guaca? It matters little. Here in Panama, "huacas" have come to mean the artifacts removed from the graves of the Indian tribes who prospered on the rich and lovelv lands of the Isthmus until the Spaniards came to plunder, kill and drive them from their homes. The golden huaca has traveled a long journey over manv lands. It was created by the hands of the skilled Caribbean goldsmith who fashioned a breast ornament for a warrior and a strand of gold beads for his lady. Placed in the tomb with other items chosen to accompanv him on his journey to another life, the gold ornaments remained sunbright for hundreds of years. Today, a replica of the golden huaca is a small part of pre-Columbian history that can be worn around the neck or on the ears. Satisfying the current craving for the unique and exotic, huacas are growing in popularity as the gift that evervone wants to own or to give. Fashioned into pendants, bracelets, earrings, even wedding rings— by jewelers in Panama and other countries of Central and South America-they are favored as gifts and cherished as souvenirs. And the spell of the huaca is such that it never becomes just a piece of jewelrv. Alwavs its owner is aware of its inpenetrable secrets ... of the stories it would tell if it could. In the late 1920's, following floods that changed the river's course, natives traveling along the Rio Grande de Code, just 100 miles from the Canal Zone, had one of modern man's earliest glimpses of this reminder of Panama's ancient civilization. A glimmer that proved to be the golden treasure of a forgotten people that had been buried with their dead. The gold ornaments the natives uncovered, along with bone fragments and pottery, made their way from hand to hand until they arrived in a Panama City antique shop, and eventually aroused the curiousity of archeologists around the world. Following the accidental discovery and the verification of its importance, an expedition, led by the famed archeologist Samuel K. Lothrop, was sent to the site by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. In one of his reports, Dr. Lothrop tells of the complex story that began to unfold when, while digging beneath the top layer of pasture land, he brought to light signs of ancient habitation. One grave, only 12 feet by 14 feet in size, yielded more than 2,000 objects. Ninetysix of these were gold. There were pendants set with semiprecious stones, ornamental breast plates, necklaces of Elsa Fifer, a student assistant in the General Audit Division, wears a replica of an Indian headband that is adorned with a golden alligator. thousands of beads, heavily embossed gold disks, wrist and ankle cuffs, and earrings. His studies during this and later expeditions to Code Province convinced Dr. Lothrop that the "civilization represented by these finds belonged to tribes practically unknown today . rich and industrious peoples, skilled in working clay, stone and metals." The gold artifacts uncovered in these ancient sites and at others in the provinces of Chiriqui and Veraguas, and also at Venado Beach in the Canal Zone, are displayed in the Panama Museum and in many museums in the United States and Europe— a silent tribute to the master craftsmen who reached a pinnacle of artistry more than 1,000 years ago in Panama. Fashioned by a curious technique, the gold figures portray stylized human and animal forms or a combination of the two. There are snakes with two legs, men with crocodile heads, and figures with a human head and shoulders attached to the body of a snake, with the projecting eyes of a crab, and the recurring images of the alligator and The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 10

eagle which many believe have religious significance. There is agreement among archeologists that the superb gold relics interred in the ancient graves represent high aesthetic and technical achievement, and that the Code goldsmiths were among the few in ancient America sufficiently skilled to make hollow castings. There agreement ends. No one seems sure how they were able to cast these fabulous artifacts. In a 1, 200-year-old grave of a Carib Indian goldsmith, Neville Harte, one of the foremost local experts on the golden huaca, believes he found the ancient melting secret of what is called the lost-wax method of casting. Huaca rings, earrings, a pin, and a necklace from Neville Harte's collection, are modeled by Dolores Fitch, of the Office of the Youth Advisor. Harte, a retired employee of the U.S. Army, has devoted weekends and vacations in search of pre-Columbian history. Since 1968 when he retired, he has devoted most of his time to the study of the golden huacas. After finding the goldsmith's grave, he spent 3 years on a successful project to reproduce these golden relics using the techniques he believes the ancient Carib craftsmen used to produce the originals, and another 17 years to perfect his methods. Only recently has he created what he considers satisfactory reproductions. In reproducing replicas of the original huacas, Harte makes a wax model of the object he will cast in precious metal. He adds long, thin threads of wax as decorative details, and affixes a cone of wax to the model's base which will serve as a funnel-shaped pouring channel for the molten metal. When the wax model is complete, he covers it with powdered charcoal to insure a smooth casting surface. Then the model is covered with an outer shell made of a mixture of moist clay and crushed charcoal. After the outer shell dries, the entire assembly is fired to strengthen the mold and burn out the wax to leave a cavity of the same shape as the now-lost wax model. The mold is then brought to red heat and the molten metal poured in, When the metal solidifies, the mold is broken away to expose the golden huaca. Many people have the idea that the lost-wax process means the process was lost and rediscovered. Rather it simply means that the wax is lost in the process. "The huaca and I are one," Harte says, but it is neither the search for, nor the finding of the golden treasures, nor the scientist's successful pursuit of knowledge, that challenges and gratifies him most. It is telling the story of the "golden huaca" of Panama to school children. In his introduction, he presents a challenge: "The mythology of these golden artifacts will test your skill and imagination. For what man living today can understand their meaning, and how many conclusions can be drawn from these golden effigies of over 1,000 years ago?" The huacas that were buried in Indian graves to accompany the dead on their journey to another life are the characters in a tale Harte weaves for the children. The warrior, the storm god, the north wind, the frog, alligator and eagle all take part in the adventures of a brave warrior who receives a mortal wound in combat and must make the long and dangerous journey to the valley of the gods. The warrior's spirit is given seven tests to complete within 28 davs if he is to gain entrance into the land of the rainbow, eternal wine and honey. He must conquer by wit or battle the alligator god, tiger god, the gods of hunger, fever, sickness and the storm. He is guided and aided by the gods of the winds and the golden frog and the great white crane. Finally, his perilous journev over, he is welcomed bv the Great North Wind to the land of everlasting happiness. These mythological stories over, Harte tells real adventure stories— his own. The letters he receives from the young students amaze him with their insight and understanding. One little fourth-grade girl saw bevond the folk story. She summed up in her letter: "I'm glad you kept some things secret and encouraged us to be archeologists. But I don't think you kept too many things secret. I think you gave awav just enough to make it kind of mysterious. I think that huacas are like a big mvstery just sitting there waiting to be solved." Fall 1973

PAGE 11

Neville Harte heats the tip of a welding instrument as he prepares to attach a pin to a huaca. Reconstruction of steps followed in casting a bird huaca by Dudley T. Easby, Jr. Drawings by Elizabeth K. Easby, reprinted from "Natural History Magazine." A. This rough core, m.idc of clay mixrd C. The casting will be done in an invertwilh charcoal, "ill be broken up and recd position. Before enveloping the model moved after casting, leaving the pine in clay, a cone of wax is added to prohollow inside Tins saves gold and also vide a pouring channel. And four wax permits the making of hollow vessels. rods have been added to provide air vents when the metal is poured in. Trimming the wax mold before it is cast is one of the many steps necessary in producing a huaca. B. The rough core is first covered with a uniform coating of wax. The eyes, talons, suspension rings under the bill, and decorative holes have been added in the form of wax threads. The founder finishes the details on the wax model with sharp tools. The three black bars are the pegs to keep the core from slipping out of position during the work. D. This drawing represents a section through the mold after the wax model has been melted out. The colored portion shows where the gold will flow between the shell and the core. It will rise into the air vents to form rods that will be later cut off and burnished. The core is finally broken and removed through the hollow bill and the holes in the breast and the back of the perch. Spencer Winstead, of Ancon, one of nine apprentices trained by Harte, learns how to attach wax filigree work to the main mold. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 12

By Vic Canel EVER HEARD OF A LORENZO sandwich or a Pilon hamburger, or seen Ramona's rolling pin bounce off Paneho's head? Sure you have, if you've ever followed the funnies. But you probablv know the characters as Dagwood, Wimpy, Maggie and Jiggs. In the Spanish version, not onlv the names, but the onomatopoeia of the comics is different. Maggie's rolling pin goes PUM instead of CONK and the THUD of Jiggs hitting the deck is CATAPLUM! In the phonetics of the funnies, a Spanish-speaking dog says GUAU GUAU, while in English it'sARF ARF. When the doorbell or phone rings, it's TIN TIN or TILIN TILIN. An especially prolonged ring would be TINTIRINTIN. In manv of the strips, however, where "Gooc/ Grief, Carlitos, Snoopy Speaks Spanish!" the onomatopoeia is an integral part of the overall design of the panel, it is not translated. As a result, comic book aficionados, who read Batman, Superman and manv of the other adventure comics in Spanish have added to their vocabulary such words as ZONK, ZOOM, BLAM AND BOOM. Though comics as such originated in Europe some 80 years ago, development of many of the techniques, such as the "balloon" and much of the particular symbolism of the comics, took place in the United States. Children almost everywhere know that a saw cutting through a log over a character's head, or a series of Z's mean that he's asleep. A swirl of stars and other celestial bodies about his head means he has just received a blow and is seeing stars, while a picture of an electric light bulb signifies that the United Feature Syndicate character has just seen the light or thought of a brilliant idea. A series of exclamation and interrogation marks interspersed with ampersands, asterisks, stars and other assorted symbols indicates profanity in anv language. The reader is expected to use his imagination in filling in the unprintable words in his own tongue and his own choice of epithets. Such symbolism is very much in evidence in comic strips such as the Katzenjammer Kids, originally published December 12, 1897, in the New York Journal. Later named Los Pilluelos (The Little Rascals) in Spanish, the strip was the creation of Rudolph Dirks. When Dirks left Randolph Hearst's paper and tried to take the strip with him, the case was taken to court. The final settlement did not come until 1912, when the court ruled that Dirks had a PEPITA P4 UNA GR.MJ < K nit; Features Syndicate Fall 1973

PAGE 13

I Hall Syndicate right to draw the characters he had created, but the title of the strip remained Hearst property. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw the Katzenjammer Kids, while Dirks continued using the same format and characters under the new title. The Captain and the Kids. So far as is known, this is the onlv comic strip ever to have been published in two separate versions. There is an interesting sociological phenomenon in the fact that Blondie (Pepita in Spanish) and Dagwood, a typically middle class American couple are at the top of the popularity scale in Latin America, where life styles are so very different. One cannot help but wonder how a character like Dagwood, abused bv his boss, Mr. Dithers (Sefior Fernandez in Spanish), henpecked and outsmarted bv his wife Blondie, has managed to be a success in a land where "machismo" is the thing. Dagwood was not always middle class. His father, a railroad tycoon, was a billionaire. But Dagwood was cut off without a penny of the Bumstead In Spanish when the Cap'n of the Katzenjammer Kids snoozes, it is not "z-z-z" but "b-z-z" and Dennis' dog never savs "bow wow." billions because he married the flighty Blondie despite family opposition. Of course, that was before the strip, which appeared for the first time in the New York American on September 15, 1930, was widely syndicated and became popular in Latin America. So, for Spanish-speaking readers, Chic Young's character Lorenzo has always been a working class family man. Incidentally, Bumstead in Spanish is "Parachoques" which means bumper. The first American comic strip to appear in Spanish, according to the records, is Ceorge McManus' creation. Bringing up Father (Educando a Papa) King Features sold it to papers in Buenos Aires, Havana and Mexico about 50 years ago. Pancho and Ramona's dialogue was translated into Spanish bv the papers that published the strip until King Features established its foreign department in 1928 and began to do all translations at its New York headquarters. With some exceptions, the names of comic strip characters in Spanish turn out to be entirely different from and not direct translations of English versions. A notable example is Charles M. Schultz' very popular Peanuts, distributed by United Feature Syndicate. In Spanish, the strip is not called mani (peanuts), as one might reasonably expect, but Rabanitos, which means little radishes. In Mexico and some other countries, the strip is known as "Carlitos" (obviously for Charlie Brown). Among the pioneers of U.S. comics, and indeed the man who has been credited with developing the strip technique as it is known today, was the late H. C. (Bud) Fisher, creator of Mutt and Jeff. They are known in Latin America as Benitin (Jeff) y Eneas (Mutt). Evidently, whoever translated their names gave Jeff top billing simplv because it sounds better than Eneas v Benitin. This is ironic, since Mutt started out as the solo star of the strip when it appeared for the first time in the San Francisco Chronicle of November 15, 1907. Soon after its appearance the strip Known as Los Pica Piedra (the stone choppers, rock splitters?), the Flintstones are popular in Panama. Fred is Pedro and Barney is Enano (midget). "Knock knock" comes out "toe toe" in Spanish. @SA tVOCNS . fj\c?<2Ug T£ P/?XeC£ ZODRIGOj a ma < H.tnna Barbera Productions The Panama Canal Review

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El Pato Donald El Raton Miguelito moved to the San Francisco Examiner, where Jeff made his debut on March 29, 1908. Mr. Augustus Mutt, as he was called, was on a visit to a mental institution where the inmates were about to reenact a scene from a real life trial that was taking place in San Francisco at the time. Just then an insignificant little runt by the name of Jeffries happened to walk into the room and was promptly pinned to the wall by the inmates. Mr. Mutt rescued him from his plight, shortened his name to Jeff and made him his protege. Now drawn by Al Smith and distributed by McNaught Syndicate, Benitin y Eneas is still just as popular as ever. Another of the perennially popular comic strip characters of old is Popeve, pronounced Poh-peh-yeh in Spanish. Unlike Jiggs and Dagwood, whose comic appeal lav in the area of domestic tribulations, Popeve emerged as a strong, independent he-man tvpe. He first appeared in the New York Evening Journal on January 27, 1929, as an additional character in the strip called "Thimble Theatre," created bv Elzie Crisler Segar. Preceding Popeve Walt Disney Productions among the players of the "Theatre" were Olive Oyle, who in later years was to be known to the Spanish speaking world as Rosario, and her brother, Castor. Shortly afterward came hamburger-hound Wimpy (Pilon in Latin America), and still later came crawling across the panel Popeye's adopted baby son, little Swee'pea, known to Spanish speaking readers as Cocoliso (Smooth head). For many years, Popeye's superhuman feats after ingesting a can of strength giving spinach have been used as a shining example bv mothers in many lands to induce children to eat their vegetables. While retaining the element of humor, Popeve was probablv the forerunner of the more serious adventure strips in which the featured character was a strong, intrepid hero— an image to evoke admiration and not laughter. Among the earlv adventure comics— and still very popular— was Edgar Rice Burrough's Tarzan, first drawn by Harold Foster. The simultaneous appearance of Tarzan and Buck Rogers on January 7, 1929, marked the beginning of the straight adventure stories in the \EA Service comics. Drawn by illustrators rather than cartoonists, these strips were based on stories written for the popular pulp trade. Edgar Rice Burrough's story "Tarzan of the Apes" first appeared in 1914 and was followed by many other Tarzan adventures. Buck Rogers was based on stories written for the science fiction magazines by Philip Nowlan and were drawn by Dick Calkins. Tarzan (pronounced Tar-SAN in Spanish) still stands among the most popular adventure comics in Latin America, along with Mandrake the Magician, the Phantom and Superman. While Superman is still Superman in Spanish, the Phantom is called by the literal Spanish translation of his name, El Fantasma. The list of adventure comics which made their debut during the 1930's is lengthy. In 1931, when the law was finally catching up with Al Capone and he was on the verge of being sent to Alcatraz, came Chester Gould's Dick Tracv, still the top crime fighter in the comic strip world. During the month of January 1934, King Features Syndicate launched three new adventure strips in rapid succession—Secret Agent X-9, a police adventure strip; Jungle Jim, obviously designed to compete with Tarzan; and Flash Gordon, King Features' answer to Buck Rogers' space age adventures. All three were drawn by one of the most versatile artists of his time, Alex Raymond. In October 1934, a young artist whose distinctive style was to be imitated by other comic strip authors, in the following years launched his famous Terry and the Pirates. Milton Caniff was amons the first artists to introduce 8 Fall 1973

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cinematographic composition into the comics. Working with brush and pen, he achieved striking lighting effects, made use of close-ups and violent black and white contrasts. While many of the humorous comic characters have completely different names in Spanish, adventure comic heroes are known to Spanish speaking readers by their English names, or a rough Spanish equivalent. Thus, Milton CanifFs Terry and the Pirates translates to Terri y los Piratas, while Charles Flander's Lone Ranger is called El Llanero Solitario (The Lone Plainsman). The demand for variety in comics during the thirties was great. Newspapers began to call on magazine cartoonists to put their characters in strip form. Among these was Otto Soglow's Little King (El Reyecito in Spanish), which had been published as a single panel feature in the New Yorker. Papers also borrowed from animated cartoons. Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse (El Raton Miguelito), created in 1928, broke into the newspaper comic strips in 1931 and was followed later by Donald Duck, who is called El Pato Donald in Panama, but is known in some other Latin American countries as El Pato Pascual. Goofv, by the way, is known to the Spanish speaking world as Tribilin. Another comic character who was to gain popularity in Latin America under the unlikely name of Trucutu was Vince Hamlin's prehistoric man, Alley Oop, born in 1934. World War II brought a great change in the character of adventure comics. Nearly all of them became involved in fighting the enemv. If not as members of the Armed Forces, like Terrv, who became a pilot in the Air Force, thev fought enemy agents and saboteurs on the home front, like Dick Tracy. Early in the war Milton Caniff was asked to create a comic strip designed to bolster GI morale. The result was a strip called Male Call, featuring a curvaceous, scantillv clad heroine called Miss Lace. The war also produced other new strips, such as Sad Sack, the creation of Sgt. George Baker. Sad Sack was the personification of the poor slob destined to do all the dirty details. Another satire of military life came later with the appearance of Mort Walker's Beetle Bailey in 1950. Though also abused by his sergeant, Beetle, unlike the uncomplaining Sad Sack, is a crafty goldbricker. Among post war comics that have gained popularity in Latin America are Dennis the Menace, by Hank Ketcham, which made its appearance in 1951. In Spanish the impish terror is called Daniel el Travieso (Daniel the naughty). A more recent addition to the comic strip scene in Latin America is Dick Browne's hard fighting Viking, Haggar the Horrible, known to his Spanish speaking fans as Olafo el Amargado (Olaf the Bitter). This strip must be a challenge to translators, since at least in one recent installment which appeared in La Estrella de Panama, Haggar spoke all of his lines in verse. Translators also must be careful in their choice of words, since syndicates distribute to all Spanish speaking countries and the meaning of certain words may differ from country to country. A perfectly good word in Panama, for example, may be offensive in Argentina or Uruguay. One syndicate representative recalls an incident which had Panama readers calling the paper to protest the use of an unprintable Spanish appelative for prostitute. In the Spanish version of Tillie the Toiler, she is Cuquita la Mecanografa (the typist). The strip, which used to appear in La Estrella de Panama, one day included the word RUTA (Route). But when it appeared in the paper, the "R" had lost its descender and was converted into a "P". The newspaper relayed the protests to the syndicate and complained bitterly about the embarrassing situation in which it had found itself. But the syndicate produced proofs and tearsheets from other newspapers which had carried the same strip, showing that it had appeared correctly. Further investigation proved that the "R" had been purposely modified as a parting shot by a disgruntled shop employee at La Estrella who had been given notice of dismissal. Haggar the Horrible rhymes in either language when he says: "Every day seems like Sunday in July . and it makes the Vikings cry." TODOS LOS DIAS DE JULIO PARECEN DOMIN" G0S...Y HACEN LLCRAR A LOS VIKINGOS DJ7 ROjTE! foW DUTY George Baker probably should have used a boa or a fer-de-lance in this Sad Sack scene, since rattlers would be a rarity in Panama. Syndicate The Panama Canal Review

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i — Don Winslow Saves the Panama Canal A COUPLE OF SINISTER SABOTEURS WORKING for an insidious enemy spy, called Scorpia, very nearly blew up the Panama Canal in 1952. But they did not reckon with the cunning of Comdr. Don Winslow, a veteran U.S. Naval Intelligence Officer. Don Winslow of the Navy was the title of a successful adventure strip created by a real life Naval Intelligence Officer called F. V. Martinek. The author served in the Navy during World War I, then spent 4 years with the FBI. So he was a stickler for authenticity. In the Panama Canal adventure, for example, which ran for nearly 3 months in the daily strip, he included some characters from real life. One of the first contacts made by the fictional Don Winslow upon his arrival in Panama was with Capt. W. S. Parsons, USN, who actually was Captain of the Port of Cristobal at the time. A later sequence finds Winslow greeting his old friend Luis Noli, of the Star & Herald, an English language newspaper which carried the dailv strip at that time. Noli recalls that the late President Jose Antonio Remon, In the September 24 strip the scene switches to the enemy agents in Panama with Red Hawk saying to Banana Hawk; ". . we still need a short time to perfect our plans." The next installment shows Winslow meeting with Port Captain Parsons. Their conversation is interrupted when a West Indian by the name of Reginald reports that he saw a mysterious man sending a radio message from one of the tunnels at Fort San Lorenzo. As Reginald leads the officers to the tunnel where he saw the man, he stops short of the entrance when he spots a fer-de-lance snake. Winslow immediately surmises that the snake was planted there to keep out intruders. After disposing of the snake, Winslow and his partv approach the cave and eavesdrop on the saboteurs. It is revealed that they plan to blow up Gatun Dam and the bridge at Gamboa, simultaneously. Pointing to a map, one of the enemy says "this is Gatun Dam. It spans the northern and lower end of a deep valley through which the Chagres River formerly flowed to the sea." And in the next panel: "Behind the dam is Gatun Lake, covering 165 DON \f INSLO W M< nilif r or Ihr I'rcs. I KNEW you'd want TO KNOW ABOUT TUIS^ PLOT,. COLONEL, BECAUSE OF YOUR SPLENDID COOPERATION IN TUE PAST. Bv Frank V. Martin. V ^AMERICA MUST BE PROUD OF SUCH^ MEN AS YOU. WINSLOW. PARSONS AND CULLEN ... WORKING NIGHT AND DAY TO PROTECT OUR REPUBLICS AGAINST OUR ENEMIES.... WE'LL HELP YOU FlGMT THESE SCORPlOM SABOTEURS who was a follower of adventure comics, one day greeted him at a presidential press conference with: "Hey Noli, I saw you in Don Winslow of the Navy this morning!" Martinek had met Noli and Captain Parsons during a research trip to Panama and decided to make them a part of the sequence for added realism. The first installment in the storv of the attempted sabotage of the Panama Canal appeared in the Star & Herald of August 31, 1952. The scene opens with Winslow in a confidential conversation with his commanding officer. In the next panel an informer is caught eavesdropping at the door. Upon questioning, he reveals Scorpia's plot to sabotage the Canal and indicates that the enemy spy network extends from New Orleans to the Canal Zone. During a brief stop in New Orleans before flying to Panama, enemy agents attacked and seriously injured Red Pennington, one of Winslow's assistants. He then decides to recruit another naval intelligence officer, Ross Pizzitola, as a replacement for Pennington in the Panama operation. Pizzitola, it happens, is aboard a ship called the SS Chiriqui, which is en route to Cristobal, but still a long way from the Isthmus. So Don Winslow overtakes the ship and lands his helicopter on deck to pick up his new assistant. square miles. It is clear that if our plan works, all the water will pour into the sea, draining the Panama Canal." Don Winslow reports the plot to the police commissioner, identified as Colonel Somar. As he is leaving he encounters newsman Luis Noli. (See above.) Saboteurs in frogman suits went out in two launches and attached charges to the dam and to the bridge. Meanwhile, Winslow hovered above the launch at the dam, where he ordered the saboteurs to jump into the water or be blown up themselves. Parsons in another helicopter blew up the saboteurs' launch as it attempted to detonate the charge at the bridge. Once the would be saboteurs were dealt with, Winslow headed back to Fort San Lorenzo to capture the ringleaders, who had heard the explosion and assumed that their nefarious mission had been a success. They were celebrating their victory with round after round of toasts when Winslow's men threw a grenade into the entrance and stormed in and arrested them. The Panama adventure ends with a celebration dinner in Panama, where an unidentified official thanks Winslow "for saving the belt that links the Americas in their fight for peace." 10 Fai.l 1973

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B A S E I A Recalling, perhaps, the grandeur of balseria in times gone by, this Guaymi in his holiday hat and tiger-tooth collar epitomizes the valor of his Indian nation that was not vanquished by the conquistadores. By Jose T. Tunon The Panama Canal Review 11 IN THE THEATER, ACTORS about to go on stage are given encouragement by fellow performers with the expression "Break a leg!" But when the Guaymi Indians of western Panama play the game of balseria— a sort of choreographed mayhem in which the players hop to the rhythm of primitive instruments while hurling balsa poles at their opponent's legs— the words are taken quite literally. This unique game, enjoyed by the Guavmi for hundreds of years, is still the big event of the year for the present day aborigines of Panama's Chiriqui, Bocas del Toro and Veraguas provinces. More than merely a game, the unusual contest provides participants with a 3-day festival as well as a traditional wav of settling disputes. A balseria also may be organized to test the physical agilitv and courage of various groups or certain individuals, or simply to enhance the prestige of the man who has organized it. The sport was first mentioned bv Friar Adrian de Santo Tomas who lived among the Guaymi between 1622 and 1637, and described it as one of the few amusements they had. More than 300 vears later, Panamanian anthropologist Dr. Reina Torres de Arauz said, "Balseria continues tn be played the same way as described bv the missionary who saw it in action several times in the 1620's." To better understand the role of balseria in the life of the Guaymi, one must comprehend their way of life, customs, the ruggedness of the area in which thev live and their tenacious fight for freedom and superiority. Each family, or group of families. lives in virtual isolation in large bohios nestled in mountain clearings, protected

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Contestants take turns throwing the long thin sticks of balsa at each other's legs. bv fences of big tree trunks, which frequently root and grow into enormous trees. As a rule, when a daughter marries, the husband comes to live with her family. Another bohio (thatched roof hut) is built near the large family bohio and as other daughters wed a "caserio" or village is formed. The isolation of the Guaymi is more pronounced during the rainv season when the flooding rivers of Veraguas and Chiriqui make travel difficult. During this period women stav indoors and their social life is greatly restricted. Thev seldom leave the confines of their settlements. But dry season is another matter. It is the season to be happv, to renew acquaintances, to visit one's neighbors. It is the time for a balseria, to get together for a good time, to catch up on all the news and to have a few drinks . sometimes quite a few. At one Balseria there were 14 broken legs, 2 men suffered fractures of both legs, and more than 40 had cuts and bruises. However, not everyone can organize a balseria, for it is, above all, a contest of superiority and physical aptitudes. It is proof of solvency and of the respect and esteem that the majority of inhabitants have for the organizer of the balseria. A Guaymi without these qualifications need not waste his time trying to hold a balseria. "In reality, balseria is the last in a series of steps by which a man achieves great importance in Guaymi society," said Dr. Philip Young, in his book, "Traditions and Changes of Western Guavmis of Panama." When a man feels that he is ready to sponsor a balseria, he first makes sure that he has the full support of his family and relatives, because one man alone cannot bear the expense of food and drink that the guests will consume during the 3 davs of the balseria, which could bring together as many as 2,000 persons. Great Quantities of Food Great quantities of food and "chicha" (a strong drink made from fermented corn), to fortifv the contestants and guests, are prepared well in advance. Cattle and pigs are slaughtered; women work hard preparing mountains of rice and other treats for the big party. Preparations begin about 4 months before the festivities. As soon as the sponsor is sure of the cooperation of his relatives, and that he really qualifies as a "balsero," he sends an invitation by messenger to an important man of another district. The messenger carries a knotted string, the knots indicating the number of days remaining before the balseria. If the opponent accepts, he sends his own messenger back to the sponsor with a similar knotted string. Each dav a knot is cut from the string until it is time to travel to the area where the balseria will be held. The invitation is sent about 3 months in advance. Members of the sponsoring side cut the balsa sticks 2 or 3 months before the event so thev will be light and dry for the balseria. The sticks are 5 to 6 feet long, about 3 inches in diameter on one end, 2 inches in diameter on the other end, and rounded at both ends. The wood of the balsa tree, which is common in many parts of Panama, is used because although very heavy and spongy when wet, it is very light but tough and strong when dried. According to Rev. Ephraim Alphonse, who is well versed on the subject, about 2 weeks before the event it is customary for the Guavmi of Bocas del Toro to blow on their conch shells, whose blasts echo through the mountains and valleys, informing the challenger, "I am ready to defeat you," and back across the mountain comes the sound of the defender's conch shell, saving "Come on, I am ready." As often occurs at big parties, there are spectators and gate crashers, who unlike their counterparts in modern society, bring their own food and drink. Of course, the number of guests depends upon the prestige, fame, and affluence of the sponsor of the balseria. Dressed in their verv best, they come from all over the mountains, the men wearing beaded collars (chaquiras), if thev have them, the women in their Mother Hubbards, colored combs and ribbons in their hair and numerous strings of beads around their necks. There is an air of festivity throughout the mountains as thev head for the llano, the clearing where the balseria is to be held. Thev bring ocarinas, flutes of bone, and other musical instruments made of steer horns, turtle shells, and various kinds of wood. According to eyewitnesses, the first day of balseria is devoted to setting up campsites and social intermingling. The women and girls busv themselves serving food and chicha to the guests. There is much eating and drinking. Everybody is happv and the party lasts until the wee hours of the morning, when it is time to start the balseria. Meanwhile, the balsa sticks have been guarded all night to make sure they are not touched before they are used. The game begins with the opponent leader throwing the first stick at the 12 Fall 1973

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A typical abode of the Guaymi in Chiriqui and Bocas del Toro provinces. When a daughter marries, the family gains a male member and another "bohio" is built close to the big family "bohio." Bedecked in holiday finery, including a feather in his hat and a king-size chaquira covering his shoulders, this Guaymi child watches a game of balseria. Using a primitive mortar and pestle, a Guaymi mother and daughter remove chaff from the rice that will be consumed by those attending the balseria. With an ocelot as proof of his hunting prowess, this Guaymi heads for a balseria. The Panama Canal Review 13

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A mannequin with painted face, bird feathers in his hat, wearing his very best and holding a balsa stick, represents a Guaymi ready to participate in balseria. The conch shell hanging at his right side is used to send blasts that echo far off through the mountains and valleys of Chiriqui. I All photographs are from a recent display at the Panama National Museum). sponsor, who in turn throws at the opponent. Amid the shouting and cheering of the spectators, balseria is off to a shin skinning start. After the first two initiate the game, all the men take part, as teams or as individuals. Holding the stick near the ends at chest level, the contestant throws it at his opponent who has his back turned to the thrower, trying to look over his shoulder and guessing when to leap out of the way of the stick. If the opponent is still standing, he then throws the stick at his rival. The game goes on accompanied by music, singing and shouts of encouragement from the spectators. As many as 150 teams mav be competing, throwing sticks and aiming for legs below the knee. There are hits and misses, and frequent accidents with other parts of the bodv receiving the brunt of the hurtling stick. The player's aim usually deteriorates in direct relation to the flow of the potent chicha, which is passed around generouslv. As is to be expected, there are numerous casualties. According to Dr. Luis Carlos Prieto, well known for his work among the Indians and one of the first outsiders to see a real balseria, there were 14 broken legs, 2 with fractures of both legs and more than 40 with cuts and bruises at an event he attended. Music, Singing and Chicha The competition continues with music, singing, and chicha for 2 davs as long as there are men able to throw the sticks. On the third day, there is visiting and bartering. If there is anv chicha left, it is consumed and preparations are made for the trip back home. Bright and early on the fourth morning, the Guaymi start the trek back to their villages taking with them food enough for the journey and the glorious memories of a great leg-smashing contest. Some men may be returning home with more women than thev brought with them as some women opt to leave their mates for more valiant ones. Composed of some 43,000 people, the Guaymi are the largest of the Panamanian Indian nations and thev still maintain much of the daring and courage they were noted for during the Spanish conquest when their chiefs faced the Spaniards and beat them badly despite their horses and superior arms. Before the discoverv of America, their domain extended across the Isthmus from sea to sea but gradually thev were pushed bv the conquistadores, and those that followed, toward the mountains which served them as fortresses. The Guaymi have been known throughout Isthmian historv for their valor and particularly well known was their famous chief, Urraca, once lord and master over all the land that is todav the Province of Veraguas. After defeating the Spaniards several times, he was captured and taken in chains to Nombre de Dios and from there to Spain where he was displayed as a war prisoner. But he managed to escape and return to the Isthmus where he assembled a sizeable army and inflicted upon the invaders the greatest defeat they ever suffered in Central America. Signed Peace Pact After this battle, which took place near Nata de los Caballeros, Capt. Diego de Albitez signed a peace treaty with Urraca. He was the only aborigine of the New World with whom a captain of the Spanish Empire signed a peace pact. Later betraved by the invaders, Urraca again fought them, employing guerrilla tactics, a type of warfare unknown to the Spaniards. After suffering heavy losses, the Spaniards decided to leave him in peace and Urraca died in 1531, in his bohio, of natural causes. Referring to the Guaymi in "An Archeological Studv of Central America," Dr. Samuel K. Lothrop states, "In the opinion of main', the natives of Veraguas should be ranked with the famous Araucanians of Chile as the outstanding fighters of the New World, a judgment shared bv the Spaniards who had served in both regions. The Araucanians had the advantage of rapidlv mastering cavalry tactics under great leaders and learning how to make leather armor; the Indians of Veraguas, on account of their rugged country, forced the Spaniards to fight on foot." A Cherished Tradition A cherished tradition of the valiant Guavmi. then as now, was the fierce balseria. But in 1962, the Mama Chichi cult appeared in the mountains of Veraguas and Chiriqui, led bv a "prophetess" known as Mama Chichi, bringing changes in the moral and social code of the Guavmi. Included in the quasimysterious new social order was the banning of balseria. But Mama Chichi died in 1964 and her reforms were short lived. Balseria once again is a part of the Guavmi wav of life and according to Dr. Reina de Arauz. "All indications are that the traditional force of balseria will triumph and it will continue to be a sport with ritual character and social importance." 14 Fall 1973

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CYCLING AND RECYCLING ARE both good for the ecology. And although air on the Isthmus is virtually pollution free, many ecologyminded residents are helping to keep it that way while pedaling pounds awav. With the price of gas going up and fuel shortages looming, many local residents are finding they can save money, lose excess weight and fight pollution if thev leave their automobiles at home. Bicycles are back and 10 speeds are all the rage. Canal Zone retail stores report that bicvcle sales have increased more than six-fold in the last 2 years. In 1971, they sold 330 bikes. Last year the figure was up to 2, 122 and this year's Christmas sales are expected to put the 1973 figure well above that. Also making their appearance on the local scene are the new "trikes," the adult three-wheelers that manv find ideal for shopping. And they're easy to park. Doctors recommend bicycling for good health. Some even practice it themselves, as evidenced by one of the pictures on these pages. Even police patrols are using bicycles on their nocturnal rounds. A favorite spot for bicycle enthusiasts in the Canal Zone is the Fort Amador causeway, where serious cyclers can test their 10-speeds on a long straightaway or pause to watch the weekend fishermen wet their lines, or look at the ships as they enter or leave the Pacific end of the Canal. And while sitting on the banks of the Canal one can even see bicycles moving about the decks of transiting ships. Deck officers on large container ships, where the space between bridge and bow is more than 2 acres, have found bikes convenient for making their rounds. The popularity of bicycles among Americans seems to rise and fall with changing times, while remaining constant among Europeans who have always paid a higher price for fuel. In Latin America, on the other hand, few adults seem to ride bicvcles except in races. The present surge in the popularity of cycling, along with the recycling of many products is, as we have noted, closely related to the new ecology consciousness, which has caused changes in the packaging of materials, the manufacture of detergent, and changes in other areas of industry. One mail order Framed by her bicycle, Wisia Kaliszczak cools off after a long ride to the end of the Fort Amador causeway. The Panama Canal Review 15

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Paika*;, VcaicK, ana Vyttcni But Ai>o Dcuivon
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The "Lermontov's" chef holds a recipe session for those passengers who wish to leam Russian cuisine. DINNER nPOUIAJIbHblM OBEX! JULY 20th, 1973 Black Caviar on Crackers Shrimps Salad with Lettuce Tongue in Jelly wilh Horse-radish Orli Halibut, Tartare Sauce Chicken Shnitzel Ministersky with Fruits Cheese Board Ice-Cream Cognac Aroma Tea Coffee Pastries Mineral Water Vodka Stolichnaya Dry White Wine Dry Red Wine Typical of the daily dishes are these included on the menu for the farewell dinner. for those who prefer other foods, there is also steak and French fries, and a variety of dishes from other countries. There are no rubles aboard the ship. The currency is the U.S. dollar and all other currencies must be converted. The chef samples a glass of Kvass, a Russian beverage made from rye bread and yeast, after giving passengers the recipe. This is handled at the ship's post office where one may encounter a long line of stamp collectors carefully making selections from the great variety of stamps available, some of which are reproductions of the most famous works of art in the Hermitage Museum. There was one skeptical elderly gentleman who had little faith in such beautiful stamps and asked the post office attendant, to her dismay, if she was sure "the stamps will work." An enthusiastic group gathered for the wine and vodka tasting partv where carafes of water bad been placed on the table to drink after each sample had been quaffed. One American student took a sip of water, thought it over carefully, and solemnly announced that it was excellent and that he recognized it as coming from the Volga. Introducing Georgian wines, the master of ceremonies suggested that the reason the people from Georgia live so long (one man has been reported to be 168 years old) is that thev drink the local wine. Still the vodka, which was served" straight, the Russian way, followed bv mineral water, was the most popular beverage of the evening. Amateur night for passengers proved that there were a number of uninhibited passengers among the German, Canadian, French, English, Russians, and Americans on board, but not much talent. Members of the crew, joining in to liven up the program, stole the show when a group of sailors and one of the bar waiters, dressed in tutus, performed an outlandish Swan Lake ballet sequence. Built in 1972 in Eastern Germany, the Lcrmontov is the newest of five sister ships. The others are the Alexander Pushkin, the Shota Rustaveli. the Taras Shvcnchcnko and the Ivan Franco, all of which, like the Lermontov, are named for famous Russian literary figures. The Shota Rustaveli is seen frequently at the Canal en route from England to Australia; the Alexander Pushkin has been providing service from Montreal to Leningrad for the nast 7 years; and the Taras Shvenehcnko will be coming to the Canal sometime during the winter cruise season. Flagship of the Baltic Steamship Co., the Lcrmontov is 586 feet long, has a beam of 78 feet, and a maximum draft of 26 feet. She is fitted with stabilizers (anti-rolling devices) to provide a smooth ride even in rough seas. A one-class ship, with 11 decks, 7 of them for passenger accommodations, she has a crew of 326. Accommodations are available in 10 different types ranging from a deluxe suite on the boat deck to a four-berth cabin without bath on the third deck. All cabins have individually controlled air-conditioning and heating systems and telephones as well as comfortable modern furnishings with everything kept spic and span by an army of energetic young stewardesses. The price is low. A two-berth cabin is about $480 for the trip from New York to Leningrad. For similar accommodations on the France to Southampton only, the cost is $803 and on the Queen Elizabeth II, $870. The Lermontov, however, is not a luxury ship of the type to please the cruise passenger who is looking for elaborate continental food service, formal dress balls and casinos like those found on the large cruise liners. It is not a floating resort but a comfortable, practical passenger ship which can provide a cultural experience. It takes 14 days for the Lermontov, which has a top speed of 20 knots, to make the trip to Leningrad, with stops in England, France and Germany. This is about half the speed of the mothballed SS United States. It is enough time for passengers to relax, make friends, and learn something about the Russians while enjoying all those special pleasures which cruising offers. Even those taking the most casual interest in things Russian were pleased to flaunt bits of knowledge acquired on the ship— such as that the Russian word for "red" also means "beautiful" and that it is from this meaning that Red Square derived its name or that Ivan the Terrible received his epithet from an English translation of the Russian word that means "awesome" not "awful." Arrangements for travel on the Lermontov, which has three trips scheduled during the summer months in 1974, can be made through the Baltic Shipping Co., 19 Rector St., Suite 3304, New York, New York 10006. A tourist must have a visa and each city to be visited must be listed on it. A visa is issued only after all hotel accommodations have been confirmed. 20 Fall 1973

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Since the Soviet Union stretches almost halfway around the earth, only a small portion can be seen in a brief visit, but the Lermontov's 4 days in port afford enough time for a look at Leningrad and Moscow. The ship's schedule provides enough time for a hrief look at London, Le Havre and Bremerhaven before arriving at Leningrad, the sea gateway to Russia. There is time to see only a small part of the wealth of art in this city, which has 40 museums, including the Hermitage with its 1,020 rooms, known the world over for the masterpieces on exhibit there. It has been said that if a person spent onlv a few minutes in front of each painting, it would take 20 years to view every one of them. The Hermitage collection, which is housed in five buildings including the Winter Palace, is considered by many to be the greatest art collection in the world. It has 3 million objects including 38 Rembrandts, 40 Rubens, a Leonardo da Vinci, a priceless collection of gold objects 2,500 vears old and five or six rooms of Impressionist and Post Impressionist paintings. One has to walk 15 miles to visit each of the 322 galleries. From Leningrad, one can leave the ship and go by train or plane to visit the Kremlin, with its five exquisite churches, and the Armorv which contains the crown jewels, carriages and other artifacts from the age of the czars, and see Red Square and the world famous St. Basil's Cathedral, with its 9 onion domes, each with its own unique style and color. It was commissioned in the 16th century, to commemorate Ivan the Terrible's victory over the Tartars. There is a legend that when the cathedral was completed Ivan asked the two architects, who designed it, if they could create another just like it and when thev said thev could, he ordered their eves put out so thev would not be able to do so. Scenes in Moscow and Leningrad— Colossal statues supporting the porte-cochere at one of the entrances to the Hermitage Museum; chandeliers and the decorative ceiling in a Moscow subway station; St. Basil's Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow; gilded columns and wall panels in the Winter Palace; and the Church of the Assumption, where czars of Russia were crowned, erected inside the Kremlin Wall in 1326 The Panama Canal Review 21

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y aV7"OU WON'T HAVE TO PACK X and unpack or fight airport crowds or meet tight schedules or deal with reluctant taxis. This elegant ship will be vour hotel, easing you gently away from one port to another and you also will have a chance to observe the Panama Canal in operation while lounging on the sundeck." So reads the brochure of one of the cruise ships calling at Panama Canal ports during the winter cruise season, and judging bv the number of ships arriving dailv at the Isthmus, more and more people are being enticed bv such suggestions and are heading south bv ship for their winter vacations. Although manv of the ships travelling south are the newest and most luxurious vessels afloat, others are old customers that have been through the Canal many times. But old or new, most are destined for exotic spots that stimulate the spirit of adventure, such as Easter Island, the Galapagos, Mombasa, Kenya, Colombo, Ceylon, or the Straits of Magellan. In the past, the big cruise months for Panama were December, January, and February. But this year, the vessels began arriving in earlv September. Others now ignore the drv season altogether and make their appearances regularly in the late summer or earlv spring on around-the-world voyages. Some of the early arrivals this fall were the Norwegian America Line Sagafjord; the Royal Viking Sky, of the Royal Viking Line; the Gripsholm and Kungsholm, both owned by the Swedish America Line; the Victoria, of the Icres Line; and the Veendam, of the Holland America Line. All arrived in October. Pacific Ford has the Ocean Monarch on its spring cruise schedule listing May 28 as its arrival at Balboa en route to England. The Island Princess of the Princess Cruises, featuring a lido deck with sliding roof, will arrive January 23 from San Francisco to the Caribbean and return through the Canal March 26. C. Fernie & Co., agents for this ship, also are agents for a U.S.S.R.-flag cruise ship, the Taras Schecchcnko, due in Cristobal January 27 and February 21 on Caribbean cruises. This agency also handles the Russian Fedor Shalyapin, the former Cunard Line Franconia, which arrived in Cristobal early in December en route to Australia on a oneway trip from Southampton, England. After that she will make two Pacific cruises. The French Line represents the Paquet Line's Mermoz making 11 calls in Cristobal on Caribbean and Mexican cruises and the Renaissance due January 22 on an around South America cruise. The French Line's famous France, which is too large to transit the Panama Canal, will not come to Panama this year but leaves New York January 4 on a 92-dav luxury world cruise. The SS Veendam, en route on an around South America tour, is the former SS Argentina of the MooreMcCormack Line. The Royal Viking Sky, newest addition to the Royal Viking Line, was en route from the West Indies to San Francisco. This vessel, along with her sister ships, the Royal Viking Star and Royal Viking Sea, are scheduled to make other transits through the Canal during the cruise season. With the exception of the Veendam, C. B. Fen ton is agent for these ships. Pacific Ford, agent for the Veendam, has announced that it will arrive at Balboa on a world cruise April 12, and will be docking in Cristobal. This agency also announced the arrival of the Volcndam on November 23 on a Caribbean cruise and in Cristobal on January 12 to transit the Canal on a South Pacific, South America cruise. The Volendam is the former Rrasil of the Moore-McCormack Line. The 23,000-ton vessel was extensively altered for cruise service with her promenade deck transformed completely. In addition, her sundeck observation cafe was renovated and a number of new cabins added to her upper and boat decks. New decor and carpeting throughout the vessel completed her multi-million dollar face lifting. She is now designed to carry up to 500 vacationers plus a crew of about 350. The Hanseatic, the former Hamburg of the German Atlantic Line is due March 23, 1974 on a Caribbean cruise and the Shaw Savill Line's Northern Star went south through the Canal in November and will return northbound May 1. This unusual photo, taken with a telephoto lens, shows both Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks as the "Royal Viking Sky" makes her first transit of the Canal on her maiden voyage from Europe to U.S. west coast. 22 Fall 1973

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

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made regular visits to the Isthmus last year, will do so again this year sailing every other Saturday from Port Everglades and calling at Nassau, San Juan, and several other Caribbean ports as well as Cristobal. Among the January arrivals are the Vistafjord, flagship of the Norwegian America Line making her second trip through the Panama Canal on January 10 on an around-the-world cruise. The ship, a running mate of the Sagafjord, has new style stabilizer fins which brought her across the North Atlantic early this year "sailing smoothly as a swan" in the teeth of a heavy gale. The elegantly appointed 25,000-ton vessel was specifically designed for the American cruise market and among her distinguishing features is the Vista Dining Room located on the upper deck to afford passengers an ever changing view of the sea. All of the 500 or more passengers can be accommodated in a single sitting. With the recent acquisition by the Orient Overseas Line of the American President Line's President Wilson, only five American passenger vessels remain active and all operate out of the west coast of the United States. They are the Mariposa and Monterey, of the Pacific Far East Line and Prudential Grace's Santa Maria, Santa Mariana and Santa Mercedes. According to Boyd Bros., the Monterey is due to arrive at the Panama Canal, later in the season, from Mexico en route to Haiti and will return to San Francisco passing through the Canal July 5. Boyd also handles the Neptune and Jason, two cruise vessels of the Epirotiki Line, which will make Cristobal a port of call during the winter Caribbean cruise season. With this issue, The Panama Canal Review loses a senior member of its editorial staff. Eunice Richard, a veteran of more than 20 years with the Panama Canal Information Office, retires before the next issue. A versatile writer and experienced newswoman, she has contributed articles on a wide variety of subjects, and has made a speciality of shipping news. Her farewell feature, a nostalgic flashback to the days when Panama's traffic moved on the left, appears on page 25. PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL ( All cargo figures in long tons ) Pacific to Atlantic Fiscal Year 5-Yr. Avg. Commodity 1973 1972 1961-65 Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt )__ 8,186,605 2,516,877 1,805,862 Manufactures of iron and steel 7,866,842 7,670,401 1,036,394 Lumber and products 5,392,268 5,581,236 4,004,201 Ores various __ 4,996,350 4,248,594 1,009,694 Suea'r — — 3,347,338 3,413,574 2,296,584 Petroleumcoke 1,896,898 1,202,891 N.A. Pulpwood 1,515,147 1,224,547 517,629 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 1,493,521 1,393,292 898,880 Metals, various 1,343,699 1,385,442 1,187,362 Bananas 1,304,070 1,133,869 1,161,381 Autos, trucks, accessories and parts 1,030,364 849,408 17,302 Paper and paper products 754,815 614,945 200,598 Sulfur --742,701 675,864 98,508 Coffee L 555,034 510,146 419,012 Molasses 517,495 576,281 154,220 All others 11,766,388 13,584,804 15,886,953 Total 52,709,535 46,582,171 30,694,580 Atlantic to Pacific Fiscal Year 5-Yr. Avg. Commodity 1973 1972 1961-65 Coal and coke 13,645,489 14,114,249 6,061,195 Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)__ 12,689,644 13,448,955 11,384,781 Com — --_— 8,436,204 3,795,678 1,501,869 Phosphate 4,580,992 4,208,082 2,137,487 Soybeans 4,497,660 3,770,267 1,449,114 Metal, scrap 3,234,160 1,392,742 2,663,773 Wheat 2,785,691 2,049,840 565,795 Sorghum 2,563,311 1,149,158 N.A. Ores, various 2,489,814 2,477,926 309,593 Sugar 1,794,403 1,777,025 1,011,013 Manufactures of iron and steel 1,768,726 1,475,152 1,500,673 Chemicals, unclassified 1,248,009 895,085 657,500 Fertilizers, unclassified 1,096,459 810,969 388,007 Rice 864,828 603,711 154,248 Paper and paper products 649,413 743,305 428,942 All others and unclassified 11,049,691 9,939,410 7,204,338 Total 73,394,494 62,651,554 37,418,328 CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT Fiscal Year Avg. No. transits 1973 1972 1961-65 Atlantic Pacific to to Pacific Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial vessels: Oceangoing 7,082 6,759 13,841 13,766 11,335 Small 1 404 318 722 777 547 Total Commercial 7,486 7,077 14,563 14,543 11,882 U.S. Government vessels: 2 Oceangoing 168 205 373 413 250 Small 1 56 62 118 148 157 Total Commercial and U.S. Government 7,710 7,344 15,054 15,104 12,289 1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. 2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Governmentoperated ships transited free. 24 Fall 1973

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Recently, after threading his way through the labyrinth of detours caused by the street and highway improvement projects in Balboa, one disoriented motorist said, "There hasn't been so much confusion since the big changeover from left to right hand driving in 1943." The person who made this remark had to be an oldtimer. Few presently residing on the Isthmus remember that traffic on the streets of Panama and the Canal Zone once moved on the left hand side just as it presently does in England. Thirty years and a million cars later, there are few things left to remind the Isthmian motorist of the old drive to the left rules. Some of the changes were simple. They included the switching of traffic signs from the left to the right side of the roads to face right hand traffic. This was done in all towns and along all highways. At Diablo Heights, the onlv change was the reversal of one-way traffic around the parking area in front of the clubhouse and a change in the angle of parking to conform to the right hand drive. Direction of traffic was reversed in the five main traffic circles in Balboa and Balboa Heights in accordance with the recommendations of the traffic committee. One-way traffic on the Prado in Balboa also was reversed with cars going toward the Service Center on the right hand side from the direction of the Administration Building and on the left hand side from the Service Center toward the Building. Pier Street near the Terminal Building in Balboa has remained the same to this day so as not to interfere with traffic of cars waiting for ships. When Left Was Right By Eunice Richard ONLY THE HORSES HAD TROUble. All other traffic switched from the left to the right without incident the morning of April 15, 1943. It was a red letter dav for motorists and operators of other types of vehicles in the Canal Zone and Panama. It was a day that had been in the planning and discussion stage for more than 20 years. Death and disaster on the highways and byways of the Isthmus had been predicted. Taxi drivers protested. Confirmed left hand drivers, resisting change, had debated the question with the Automobile Club. Ministers of the Panama Government had called it illegal. Top police officials had argued it out with highway experts. But with an international highway under construction and World War II bringing in hundreds of new workers accustomed to the right hand drive, the change was inevitable. So after weeks of publicity in the local press, pages of instructions to the traffic police and the public, the big moment finally came. At 5 a.m. on April 15, the sirens and fire whistles in Panama blew for 3 minutes. All vehicular traffic on the Isthmian highways came to a complete stop. And then like a slow ballet, everyone shifted over to the right hand side of the road. To the complete surprise of everyone, the change from left to right hand drive was made without any of the trouble anticipated by civilian and military police in the Canal Zone and the national police of Panama. The local press reported the only difficulty was with the horses that pulled the little two-passenger coaches known locally as "carramettas" (a corruption of the Spanish word carromato which means coach) in the cities of Panama and Colon. They seemed unable to understand why they could not go along as they had always done. One coachman on Fourth of July Avenue was seen having considerable difficulty with his horse that insisted on heading down the left side of the road. Officers stationed at traffic circles and one-way streets where directions had been reversed reported no difficulty on the part of most drivers although one officer had to whistle down a police captain who was entering a one-way street from the wrong direction. The only accident had nothing to do with the change. It involved a police officer who rammed into the back of a garbage truck, causing about $60 worth of damage to his own car. On one Armv truck, a soldier rode on the right fender as a guide. The truck started down the wrong side of the road as it swung onto Fourth of July Avenue from the military reservation entrance, but the soldier called to the driver to pull onto the proper side of the road before there were anv complications. Much of the success of the switch from left to right hand drive on the streets of the Canal Zone and Panama could be attributed to the careful planning bv the two traffic departments and the campaign in the newspapers which even printed drawings of arrows on which appeared "drive to the right" to be pasted on drivers' windshields. Police warned about overconfidenee after a few days of driving on the right hand side of the road and motorists were cautioned about careless driving, drunken driving and speeding. As the police pointed out, there were more complications than the simple shift from the left to right hand side of the road. Both the Canal Zone and Panama made many changes in traffic regulations as well as in the direction of The Panama Canal Review 25

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THOSE WERE THE DAYS when traffic was so light that it didn't matter too much whether one drove to the right, to the left, or straight down the middle of the road; hut as time passed, traffic picked up, and left hand driving produced safety hazards, particularly for the motorcyclist with a sidecar. Today, with the right hand driving rule now in effect for 20 years, traffic moves efficiently down the hill from the Administration Building at Balboa Heights under the direction of the Canal Zone Police. travel on streets, effective on the day of the shift. A one month breaking-in period called for reduced speed limits for all vehicles to 12 miles per hour for private automobiles and 10 miles per hour for other types of vehicles. Luckily for the police in 1943, traffic was light and gasoline was being rationed. Motorists were warned about the obvious safetv hazards and told what to do if traffic approached on the wrong side of the road. "Stop the car. If possible, drive off the road. Blow the horn. Under no circumstances attempt to pass the other car on the wrong side." Keeping right after a left turn was another hazard as there were pedestrians who had become confused and watched for traffic approaching from the wrong direction before stepping from the curb. Pedestrians were urged to cross the street at the end of the block onlv and to use marked crosswalks where provided. Most Isthmian drivers came through the ordeal in fine shape and with hardly anv bent fenders. And there was at least one group of workers in the Canal Zone that hardly noticed the change. They were the emplovees at the third locks site in Gatun, where the right hand drive rule had been in effect since the work had begun more than 2 vears previously. When work started on construction of the third set of locks in 1940, a project which was never completed, it was decided that the right hand drive would cause fewer traffic accidents in the construction area, since practically all of the truck-drivers were fresh from the United States. In 1928, Panama and 13 other countries in the world had "drive to the left" rules which are still in effect in Great Britain, Ireland and several countries where there has been British influence. Some said that the original horse-cab drivers in Panama were natives of the British Caribbean islands and, despite the growth of international touring and the Dopularitv of the American automobile built for right hand driving, the custom persisted. There were few roads on the Isthmus when the United States started to construct the Canal in 1904 and the side of the road taken by a horse and buggy or the slow moving early motorcars made little difference. But by 1928, there were warnings of serious traffic problems to come with the increase in vehicular traffic and the construction of the Inter-American Highway. An article in the Panama American in 1931 said, "It is important 26 Fall 1973

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that the automobiles of Panama and the Canal Zone be transferred to the right side of the road before the Pan American Highway is opened if vehicular confusion, approximating the linguistic tangle encountered bv the builders of the Tower of Babel, was to be avoided. "Should this strip on the through route from Alaska to Patagonia retain the left side drive, the interesting result would be signs notifying motorists to transfer to the opposite side of the road when crossing the Panamanian border." The storv predicted that this would mean that for a few miles on each side of the border garages established "to salvage the dozens of daily wrecks" would do a thriving business. Even without the Pan American Highway, there were many accidents in Panama in the 1930's which could be attributed to the fact that U.S. manufactured vehicles came with right hand steering and drivers had to pull out in the center of the road to see ahead before passing a car. Driving motorcycles with sidecars was especiallv hazardous. Some buses had exits on the right side and passengers had to disembark in the middle of the street. Since the local bus and "chiva" drivers had gone to considerable expense to convert vehicles purchased in the United States for driving to the left. thev objected to spending additional monev to again change the exits. Taxi drivers were against the changeover also but gave no reason. Public opinion, influenced bv the newspapers and the Rotarv Clubs in Panama, began to favor the changeover in the mid thirties when editorials and articles began to appear in the local papers. In 1936, the American Federation of Government Emplovees passed a resolution in favor of a change in traffic regulations to permit vehicular traffic to use the right hand. Members of the Panama Metal Trades Council added their names to the ranks of Isthmian residents in favor of the change to right hand drive. The CristobalColon Rotarv Cub went on record for the fourth time in support of the traffic change. One member objected, however, saving the left hand drive was a thrill for the tourists. There have been a number of theories on how England came to adopt the left hand drive system in the first place. Quoting the National Geographic, one student of the problem wrote in the Panama American in 1936 that the practice may have come from the habit of the English coachman of sitting on Above: "Carramettas" line up for passengers at the Panama City Railroad Station in 1906. Used for transportation on the Isthmus before automobiles were available, thev were always driven to the left. At left: Cars adhering to the left hand rule wait at the Panama City crossing in 1930. Lower left: Cars move along Central Avenue in today's bustling Panama City near the site shown in the photo above. the right side of the driver's seat. "He grasped the whip in his right hand. In passing another coach, he wanted to be in a position from which he could best prevent a collision. So he passed an oncoming coach on that coach's right. From his seat on the right of his coach he could see how near his wheels came to those of the other vehicle." On the continent, it was more frequently the custom for a postilion, or rider, to guide the horses instead of a coachman. The postilion took his place at the left of the lead team in order to have his right hand free to grasp the nearest bridle. He also wanted to avoid collisions but being on the left, it was better for him to turn his horses to the right. In the United States, it was suggested, the right hand rule was adopted because the oxen took the right side in the old davs. Oxen were the draft animals most used in the colonies and the driver directed them by voice and whip. He held the whip in his right hand and trudged along on the left of the oxen. In the National Geographic survey of the situation in 1936, about 60 of the nations and colonies of the world favored the right side drive, 43 clung to the left. The need for a uniform rule was not so apparent in the United States and Canada as in Europe. The National Geographic commented, "Consider the problem of a motorist who tried to drive in those dav from Norwav to Italv through the Dolomites. He started bravely out from Oslo, keeping to the right until he reached the Swedish border. Thereupon he kept to the left. Let him have his wits about him because when he ferried over to Denmark, he must again move over to the right of the road. Germanv was the same. Back again to the left in Czechoslovakia. And just as the bewildered autoist gets used to left driving in Austria, he must steel his nerves to switch back to the right rule of the road in Yugoslavia and Italy." In England, where the vehicular traffic kept to the left and the rule of the sidewalk or pathway was to keep to the right, there had been some confusion before the English rule of the road was made a law in 1835. But before that date the following poem appeared in an English journal: "The law of the road is a paradox quite As vou're driving your carriage along If vou go to the left you're sure to go right." The Panama Canal Review 27

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K \ i \ i ess SALSIPUEDES By Franklin SALSIPUEDES. OR, GET OUT IF You Can. Not an order but the name of one of the oldest and most legend-shrouded streets in the city of P;inama. It also is one of the few streets to have kept its name during all the years of its existence. Officially, it has been East 13th Street since the early 1900's but no one, except perhaps the city mapmaker, recognizes this fact. Going back into the mists of timePanama Citv was founded more than 300 vears ago— Salsipuedes was mentioned bv historians as a cobble-stone lane lined with shops and houses owned and inhabited mostly by Chinese. The name seems to have come about following a series of mysterious deaths and disappearances, some of them connected with children. In fact, early residents of this section of the city and its environs used to scare their children with a Salsipuedes version of the bogeyman. Whether or not these stories are true, the present street, with its hundreds of peddlers and stalls, is more like a crowded, colorful country fair than a place to be feared. Country Fair According to Panama historian Juana Oiler de Mulford, whose book on Panama was published in the 1940's, Salsipuedes was located outside of the old walled city which was entered by the Puerta de Tierra near La Merced Church on 10th Street. When night fell, residents of the city of Panama were careful to hurry home behind the walls as those unfortunate enough to be caught outside after dark were liable to be murdered or robbed or both. Needless to sav, it was the wealthy classes, the government officials and other important people who lived within the walled section. Panama in those days, as it is now, was a meeting place of the Americas— the crossroads of the world. Outside the walls was one of the wildest collections of outlaws, soldiers of fortune, and vagabonds in the hemisphere. Some were gold-hunting gringos headed for California. Others were looking for fortunes in Panama and, like the Chinese, had settled on the Isthmus to open a shop, a restaurant, or an opium selling establishment, most of which were located then in Salsipuedes. In addition to being the Chinatown of the Isthmus, the narrow street which led to the docks and seawall of Panama was a hive of activity during the day. Castrellon But at night the hill down through Salsipuedes became a shadowy gateway to a gambling and drinking haven for the lowest tvpes on the Isthmus. There was an unwritten law in those days that whoever found himself after 7 o'clock at night in a gambling den, a cantina, or any kind of a store in Salsipuedes, remained where he was to save his life. To venture forth after that hour was to court death. With lights low or nonexistent as they were in the davs preceding the turn of the centurv, it was easy to imagine Salsipuedes as the hellhole of the city and attribute most of the notorious crimes to demons in human form who came out at night to prey on defenseless citizens. One of Mrs. Oiler's stories concerns an aristocratic but weak-willed gentleman named Don Francisco del Corral, whose passion for gambling led him to perdition and death in Salsipuedes at the hands of a sinister foreigner to whom he had forfeited his fortune— and his wife. Legend has it that the stranger was reallv the devil in disguise and that he took the soul of Don Francisco as pavment for his sins. The beginning of the end of the street as a gathering place for gamblers and opium sellers may have been signaled bv the fire in 1884, which destroved most of the wooden buildings from Salsipuedes to the present day Lottery Plaza. Six prisoners locked up in the old city jail died in the holocaust before the firemen could drag them to safety. The firefighting unit, formed 7 years earlier, was the forerunner of Panama's modern fire department. Chief of the Bomberos at the time was Ricardo Arango, who also was Governor of the Department of Panama, then a part of Colombia. Ass Struck Dead Salsipuedes even plaved a part in the historv of the new Republic of Panama, for it was there that the onlv blood of the revolution of 1903 was shed. According to official accounts, Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero had just proclaimed the Independence of the Isthmus of Panama without bloodshed when the Colombian gunboat Bogota, harbored in Panama Bav, began indiscriminate firing upon the citv. This bombardment which lasted only half an hour and lobbed a mere dozen shells into the citv, was ineffective. But it resulted in two casualties— a Chinese gentleman who was eating dinner at his home in Salsipuedes and an ass struck dead in the slaughterhouse. 28 Fall 1973

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The hustle and bustle of Salsipuedes seen from the top of the street at the intersection of Central Avenue. In the center is the Homsany store which was the old Hotel Italia until 1894 and was later the luxurious residence of a distinguished Panama family. The roofs on the street venders' stalls were added in 1969. The house on the left in this old picture obviously is devoted to the sale of opium. It was run by Chinese and a great majority of its customers also were Chinese. After the fire of 1894, this opium business was moved to the intersection of 13th Stret and Avenue B. At present the site is occupied bv the Bala de Oro bakery. The Panama Canal Review 29

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Pinatas, Toys, Incense, Oranges, Photos, Bread or Herbs HT 1 r i L Today's Salsipuedes is more like a colorful country fair than a place to be feared, and customers come from distant points to shop amid its carnival atmosphere. This ancient camera, which has a pan of developing chemicals inside, usually attracts a crowd when the sidewalk photographer reaches inside and pulls out a wet print. Street vendors, called "buhoneros" in Spanish, started moving into Salsipuedes as a sort of adjunct to the big public market, which was established in 1900. At first there were only a few. Bv 1947 there were 20 or 25 "buhoneros" in business along the narrow street. Thev would set up tables and portable stands on the sidewalk, forcing pedestrians to walk in the street. Several attempts were made to move the vendors to other locations but thev kept coming back. The battle of the street peddlers and the merchants and the Panama Municipal Government finally ended in 1969 when former Mayor Eliecer Alvarado ordered the construction of permanent stands all along the street and closed the entire Salsipuedes area to vehicular traffic all the wav from Central Avenue to the market. Officially', it was named Alcalde Alvarado Commercial Center, but nobodv ever calls it anything but Salsipuedes. At present there are about 250 street vendors in Salsipuedes and neighboring streets. Many of them belong to a union and thev pay from $3 to $5 a month to the municipal government in taxes depending on the type of merchandise they sell. The street has been a major tourist attraction for manv years and even upstages the more luxurious shops and shopping centers in other parts of the city. As one writer put it some vears ago, it is a place to buv anything from love potions to lizards and lotions. There are toys, ladies' lingerie, stainless steel, roach poison, jewelrv and gimcrackerv of even' description. A cure for vour ailments, physical and otherwise, may be found in little stalls selling herbs and leaves. Some have exotic names and cure everything from a sore throat to liver trouble. There are second hand shops selling tools, pipe, electrical fixtures, clothing and golf balls. Despite the new supermarkets, the old ways still persist in Salsipuedes, where sooner or later all Panama passes on the wav to the market. When night falls, however, the hubbub dies down and the street goes back to another era. With a little imagination, a visitor can see the sinister shadows of its former residents crossing from one sidewalk to another. With a little more imagination one can feel the icy fingers of fear that must have touched the unfortunate visitors who lost track of time and remained outside the city wall after nightfall. 30 Fall 1973

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Panama Portobelo Awakens Real Panama Hat Seviche Panama's Money Trees Orchids All About the Mola Modish Molas Cane Cages Come in Many Shapes From Panama's Primitive Past Comes the Chaquira Mobile Masterpieces A Bird Watcher's Paradise It's More Than Pot Luck at La Arena The Pollera Down in the Darien Taboga Panama— Focal Point of History Flowering Trees The Panama Canal A > J Special Review Reprints Popular Panama Articles Noic is your chance to have reprints of the most popular articles to appear in recent issues of The Panama Canal Review. Whether you are interested in the mola, tlic chaquira, the pollera, or recipes for seviche, you will find them in this special edition of the Review. A list of the articles, which have been selected from issues published between 1965 and 1973, appears at left. Orders should be sent to The Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. Each copy comes in a special envelope with a gift card, which will be inscribed as you request. Single copies, regular mail are $1 each, airmail $2. Check or money order should be payable to the Panama Canal Company. The special edition is on sale also at Panama Canal retail stores and military exchanges on both sides of the Isthmus. The regular edition of the Review is available by subscription for $1 a year regular or $2 airmail. You may subscribe when you order the special edition. The Panama Canal Review 31

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•Culinary Capers By Fannie P. Hernandez S &r % %> \P y0> ^*. •** FROM EARLIEST TIMES, SOUP, THE LIQUID FOOD, HAS HELD AN important place in mankind's nourishment. Where other food was often lacking, or in short supply, there usually was a bowl of soup made with yesterday's leftovers. In times of disaster, soup has fed large masses of people who would otherwise have gone hungry. And "adding water to the soup" has saved the dav for many a housewife who has been faced with unexpected guests at mealtime. A caldron or soup kettle, dispersing aromatic vapors from simmering pieces of meat, fish, edible scraps, bone and herbs, has been a familiar sight on the kitchen range or hearth since antiquity. Not so many years ago, every kitchen had a coalor wood-burning stove and the simmering soup kettle was as much a part of the scene as the brewing coffeepot. With the advent of gas and electric ranges, soup making became a forgotten art, and in these days of rapid-pace living and eating, the can opener has displaced the soup pot. However, with the skyrocketing prices of food, especially meat, the housewife would do well to restore the past art of the freshly homemade soup, giving reign to her imagination and to the use of fresh local ingredients. It is said that a good honest, homemade soup can make a meal or save a meal. When the fare is skimpy, add a soup; when there are remains of unconsumed edibles in the refrigerator, invent a soup. As an appetizer, a whiff of an aromatic soup can stimulate the palate. As a main course, a hearty soup, containing ingredients of plant and animal origin, supplies a high degree of man's daily food requirements. Because of their digestive and nutritional qualities, soups are essential in the diets of infants, the elderly and the ailing. Stew is related to soup and so is pudding. One of the earliest references to soup in the English language describes it as "kind of sweet pleasant broth, made rich with fruit or vegetables and spices." These sweetened soups gradually thickened into puddings. Down through the ages, everv civilization, every country or regional area has enjoyed and been sustained by its own particular version of soup. The French housewife has fed her family a sturdy soup of meat and vegetables known as pot-au-feu, literally "pot on the fire:" Italian monks kept a pot of minestrone simmering on the hearth clay and night to feed hungry, wears' travelers who might be stopping by the abbey; the Spanish have puchero and the lavish cocido in the style of the pot-au-feu, with the broth served first separately followed by the meat and vegetables; Russian cooks combine beets, cabbage, leeks and parsnips, their most popular vegetables, with meat to concoct their specialty known as borsch, which thev serve with a big, boiled white potato and thick slabs of dark brown bread; Scandinavians have preferred fruit soups often made of dried fruits and served before the main dish or as a dessert; the Greeks, a soup flavored with lemon; the early settlers in the United States learned from the American Indians how to make chowder; Panama has sancocho, a banquet in itself. As to be expected, it was the French who perfected the art of soup making and it is estimated that ten thousand soups originated in Paris kitchens alone. Knowing the basics, soup making has no limits. Recipes can be changed, given a new twist, or discarded altogether. & 0 t 'A? ri* so ,tf* 32 Fall 1973

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Soup is a hospitable dish that can be adapted to the whirlwind of modern day living when members of the family are on different schedules. A pregame bowl of savory, bubbly soup will satisfy teenagers rushing off to sports events and it's great, too, for an idle stay-at-home Sundav evening. A pot of good soup is worth its weight in gold for entertaining that "petit comite" of guests who have been invited for holiday eggnog or cocktails and decide to linger for a gab fest. And what can be more hospitable than inviting the gang over for a bovl of soup after one of those "on the town" sprees or after a late, late New Year's party. In tropical Panama, it is traditional to serve hot soup before the main course at lunch and dinner. Based on meat, poultry, fish, seafood or vegetables, soups run the gamut from the simple "caldo" to "sancocho," an entire meal. Sancocho de Callina Sancocho, what may be called Panama's national dish, is robust enough to be a meal in itself. It is often served as such for Sunday dinner and on special occasions. Like many of the national dishes it is a half soup, half stew, rich and satisfying. Anyone who has eaten a dish of chicken sancocho will concede to its superiority. There are several versions, made with either meat or chicken or a combination of both. Here is one version of the great Sancocho de Gallina: a 4 or 5 pound stewing hen, cleaned, dressed and cut up (a nice, big roaster will do as well) 1 large onion ripe tomatoes green peppers garlic cloves, mashed quarts cold water 1 pound yucca 2 medium size otoes 1 pound name 3 green plantains 'A pound zapallo (pumpkin) 3 ears of tender corn 1 pound potatoes salt and pepper coriander and parsley Place the cut-up hen in the cold water with the herbs and salt and pepper and cook slowly until the hen is tender. While it is cooking, chop the onion, tomatoes, peppers, and add to the pot with the garlic. Cut the corn and plantains in 1%-inch pieces and add Then chop the remaining vegetables (not too small) and add. Continue cooking until all the vegetables are tender. Season to taste. For a little more zip, add a bit of hot pepper. Serve in large soup dishes. For meat sancocho use 2 pounds of beef brisket or flanksteak (cut-up) and increase the quantity of vegetables. Caldillo Caldillo, a fragrant tomato, onion and egg combination, rings the bell as one of the favorite of all soups served in Panama. A gustful main dish soup, it has become famous as the "after the late party" soup and a bowl of fire-hot caldillo at the Panama hotels or social clubs is a must as a reviver of exhausted carnival revellers after 3 days of partying. Here is one way to make Caldillo: 3 green peppers 'A cup chopped green onions 4 large ripe tomatoes, chopped 1 small can tomato paste (6 oz) 8 cups of consomme or chicken broth cayenne pepper or aji chombo salt and pepper cream or evaporated milk 12 eggs In a large heavy pot, saute the vegetables in a little butter for about 5 minutes, add the tomato paste, and cook slowly until well blended and vegetables are soft. Add the cayenne pepper or aji chombo and salt and pepper to taste. Add the consomme and bring to a boil and simmer. About 10 minutes before serving, break eggs separately and add two at a time to the simmering soup. As they set, remove the eggs to six individual bowls containing about i/ 3 cup of warm milk or cream and fill the bowl with the caldillo. Esteem for provincial food is shown in "Sancocho Santeno" prepared by Dr. Maria Villalaz de Arias, Panamanian physician, whose recipe calls for a hen and the following chopped vegetables: 2 pounds name; 1 green pepper; 1 large tomato; Vz pound cabbage; 1 big onion; 3 garlic cloves, mashed; 4 coriander leaves; Vz teaspoon oregano; and salt to taste. Put the hen in a pot of cold water to cover. When soup begins to boil, remove foam. Add chopped tomato and onion. When the hen begins to get tender, add name and cabbage. About 5 minutes before removing from fire, add coriander and salt. Serve with fluffy, white rice and fried plantain. The Panama Canal Review 33

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Shrimp Caldillo An even more delicious version of the life giving soup is Shrimp Caldillo made this wav: Cook two pounds of raw shrimp in 6 cups of lightly seasoned water until thev turn pink. Strain and use this water as the stock for the soup. Peel and devein the shrimp, cut in pieces (not too small ) and add to the soup after it has come to a hoil. Simmer and correct seasonings and continue with the rest of the recipe. Fish Soup Hugged bv two oceans, it is only natural that Panama has fabulous fish and seafood soups. They come in as manv varieties as there are fish in the sea. Unlike meat soups, fish takes very little cooking time. Here is a superb Fish Soup that is simple to make with a few ingredients: 2 pcnmds of white fish 1 large onion, sliced 6 sprigs of parsley 1 stalk celery or celery leaves 1 hay leaf 1 pound name salt ami pepper flour and lemon juice 6 cups of water Clean and cut the fish in 3 4-inch slices, reserving the heads and bones. Sprinkle the slices with lemon juice and dust with flour, salt and pepper. Frv in olive oil until tender. Make a fish stock bv cooking the heads and bones in the water with the onion, parsley, celerv and bav leaf. Simmer for v i hour. Strain the stock and remove anv edible fish particles from the heads. Add these to the stock with the fried fish and name. Cook slowlv until the name is tender. Correct the seasoning. A little aji chombo mav be added for a "hotter" soup. Clam Chowder One of the most popular soups in Panama is made with fresh clams that are available at the market 7 days a week. Make excellent Panama Clam Chowder this way: 4 cups fresh clams l',i pounds name, peeled and cut into small pieces 1 medium onion, chopped 1 large tomato, chopped 1 sweet pepper, chopped 1 coriander leaf 8 cups hot water salt and pepper Place clams in salted water for half an hour. Remove and put into hot water and cook until the clams open up. Drain and save the water. When the clams have cooled, remove from the shells and clean. Cook the onion, tomato and pepper with the coriander in a little oil until soft. Rinse the name well. Strain into a pot the water the clams were cooked in to remove anv sand. Add to this water the cooked vegetables, the name and the clams. Simmer about 20 minutes or until the name is tender. Guacho A flavorful half soup, half stew tvpe meal for the heftier appetites is Guacho. It can be made with chicken, beef or pork, combined with beans or guandu and rice. Mention the word "guacho" to a Panamanian and it will immediately evoke the goodness of the melange. Here is one wav to make it: 1 pound red beans 1 pound rice, washed several times J/i pounds salt pork, cubed 1 pound yucca, cut up 1 pound name, cut up 1 sweet pepper, chopped 1 onion, chopped 1 stalk celery, chopped 3 or 4 cloves garlic, masfwd 1 small can of tomato paste Wash beans and put in a large pot with plentv of water. Add 1 tablespoon of salt, and boil until almost tender. Add the salt pork and as the water cooks awav keep adding more until the beans are cooked. Then add the rice, blending it well with the beans and meat. About half an hour later add the vucca. In another half hour, add the name. When the name is tender, the guacho is ready to serve. While the guacho is cooking, make a "refrito" with the remaining vegetables and tomato paste. Put a big tablespoonful of "refrito" on top of each serving of guacho. Avocado Soup As a Christmas gift to the readers of Culinary Capers, here are simple instructions for making a delicious Avocado Soup when thev are in season: 3 cups chicken consomme 2 avocados, mashed 1 avocado, cubed whipped cream or evaporated milk Add the mashed avocados to warm consomme and blend thoroughlv. Cook slowlv. stirring constantly until the soup comes to a boil. Remove from the fire immediately and pour over the cubed avocado in the soup bowls. Put a dollop of lightlv salted whipped cream or a little evaporated milk on top of the soup. This recipe serves two or three. What can be more satisfying than a dish of delicious fish soup made "quick and easy" wit! Panama's bounty from the sea! 34 Fall 1973

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Canal fllitowj, 50 Years Ago A COLLISION IN CRISTOBAL Harbor between the SS Abangarez, of the United Fruit Company, and the U.S. Submarine 0-5 proceeding from Coco Solo to Balboa occurred in October 1923. The submarine sank immediately in 36 feet of water. The event became one of the most pictoriallv documented stories of submarine salvage ever made. An underwater diving record was made when Sheppard J. Shreaves, a Canal Zone diver in his rescue attempts, made the longest dive up to that time. It also became the first attempt at physically lifting anv vessel the size of the 420-ton 0-5 submarine off the ocean bottom. When the surviving crewmembers were mustered after the submarine sank, it was found that five men were missing. Efforts were started at once to raise the sunken submarine by the Navy and the Panama Canal divers working with the floating crane Ajax. The submarine was brought to the surface 31 hours later on October 20 when two of the missing men were taken out. The bodies of two others were found floating in the bay but one was never found. The Isthmus was inundated bv the heavy rains that fell over Gatun watershed October 23 and 24, 1923. Since this was 10 years before the construction of Madden Dam, the runoff which went directly into Gatun Lake was at the highest rate in the history of the Canal. It brought an interruption of Canal traffic due in part to the strong current at Samboa, where the waters of the Chag'es River reached the Canal channel, ind in part to the use of the lock culverts to discharge excess water from Gatun Lake. Eleven gates of the spillway were opened and when the flood was at ts height, the sidewall culverts at Gatun md Pedro Miguel Locks also were spened. The rains started again October 24 but this time over the surface of the lake. Again traffic was suspended while the sidewall culverts at Gatun and Pedro Miguel Locks were used to spill >vater from the lake. All rainfall records )n the Atlantic side for the complete nonth of October were broken in onlv i days from October 22 to 25. The SS Easterner which transited the Canal August 15, had as part of her cargo a veritable zoological garden consisting of camels, kangaroos, opossums, wombats, lions, emus, cockatoos, parrots, geese and a number of snakes, lizards and turtles. The ship was en route from Sydney, Australia, to New York. Also on board were 12 tons of dried ferns. 25 Years Ago THE BILL EXTENDING THE United States income tax to the Canal Zone was introduced into the House of Representatives in May 1948. News of the tax bill was a surprise since information from Washington, at the time the measure was being drafted, was that it was unlikely that it would be presented before the next session of Congress. Meanwhile news sources at Balboa Heights expressed the belief that the Selective Sendee bill, approved bv the U.S. Senate, would applv to the Canal Zone and would require a local board svstem to be established with a quota to be filled from the Canal Zone. Margarita Hospital, which had been in operation for the past 6 vears, was closed and the patients were transferred to Colon Hospital. Secretary of Defense James Forrestal announced he was streamlining medical services for the U.S. Armed Forces and civilians in the Canal Zone. Fort Gulick Hospital also was closed. U.S. Ambassador to Panama Monnett N. Davis announced that the Board of Directors of the Export Import Bank had approved the application of a loan for $2 million to be used toward the construction of the Hotel El Panama which was to be built bv Hoteles Interamericanos, S.A. with the backing of the Panama Government. It also was announced that when this hotel was completed, the Tivoli and Washington Hotels would cater onlv to official U.S. visitors. 10 Years Ago THE COMPLICATED BUSINESS OF moving the Panama Canal Printing Plant from Mount Hope to La Boca was carried out 10 years ago during the months of October and November. Overseeing the move, which involved the transfer of hundreds of pieces of equipment and the relocation of 61 employees were John B. Coffey, then Printing Plant Superintendent, and W. R. Price, foreman. Three U.S. manufacturing companies submitted bids on the furnishing and installation at Miraflores of major components of a steam generating unit which was to add 22,000 kilowatts to the electrical power generation potential of the Panama Canal power system. It was to go into operation in approximately 2 vears. ALMOST 60 YEARS AGO-Workmen dismantle the Governor's House in June 1914 preparatory to moving it to Balboa Heights. The house was originally located in the construction-day town of Culebra on the banks of what is now Gaillard Cut. The Panama Canal Review is interested in hearing from readers who may have other old photographs of the Governor's House as well as any items of furniture originally associated with it. The Panama Canal Review 35

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