Citation
Panama Canal review

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Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARIES


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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


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David S. Parker
Governor-President
Charles I. McGinnis
Lieutenant Governor
Frank A. Baldwin
Ponoma Canal Information Officer


THE
PANAMA ,. CA NAL




Official Panama Canal Publication


Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer
Publications Editors
Willie K. Friar, Jose T. TuA6n
Writers
Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hern6ndez,
and Franklin Castrell6n


Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Subscriptians: $1 a year, airmail $2 a year; back copies (regular mail), 50 cents each. Published twice a year.
Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Othces are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Our


Contents


Panama's Winged Jewels 3
A benign climate and varied
vegetation assures a bounty of
butterflies for the serious col-
lector.

The Pollera 8
From a humble beginning
in the slave quarters, it has
become the much admired
national costume of Panama.

United Nations Visits
the Canal 12
United States U.N. Ambassa-
dor John Scali invites del-
egates to Miraflores Locks.

Culinary Capers 15
Natural tropical juices to
quench a thirst.

Origami 18
Only a thin sheet of paper is
needed to practice this ancient
art.

"San Juan Prospector" Breaks
Records 22
Jumboized ship squeezes
through in ballast.

Shipping 25
Life aboard today's super
ships is something like sub-
urbia.

Art on the Isthmus 31
Dynamic developments in the
Canal Zone and Panama.

Canal History 35


Cover


"You look very familiar, but I can't
recall your name." In human social
circles such an admission is embarrass-
ing. But in the world of butterflies it is
easy to understand why a beholder
would long remember the striking
beauty of these fragile, colorful crea-
tures while having trouble with their
names.
Be that as it may, the diagram below
will introduce you to the lovely Panama
specimens with the strange sounding
names that grace the cover of this issue
of THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW.
1. Rhetus arcius thia Mor.
2. Pierella incanescens ocreata Salv.
& Godm.
3. Phoebis argante Fabr.
4. Morpho granadensis polybaptus
Btlr.
5. Dismorphia amphione amphione
Cramer
6. Papilio protesilaus dariensis R.&J.
7. Dismorphia dejone Hew.
8. Hamadryas amphinome Linn.
9. Diaethria marchalii Gu6r
10. Nessaea aglaura Dbdy & Hew.
11. Anteros formosus micon Stich.
12. Thecla bitias Cramer
13. Anaea marthesia Cramer
14. Morpho cypris bugaba Stgr.
15. Phoebis philea Linn.
16. Heliconius doris eratonius Linn.
17. Parides childrenae childrenae
Grav
18. Morpho amathonte centralis Stgr.
19. Mesene phareus rubella Bates
20. Catonephele numilia esite Feld.
21. Thecla telemus Cramer


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17


SPRING 1973

























A benign climate, rich and varied vegetation

and great diversity of terrain have

combined to produce an extraordinary

abundance of butterfly life on the Isthmus.


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SPARKLING SAPPHIRES STUD-
ding the dark green forest canopy"
-Thus an enthralled newcomer to the
Isthmus described the dazzling spec-
tacle of blue Morpho butterflies viewed
from a low-flying light aircraft. Locally
known as "Royal Blues," these huge but-
terflies with wingspans up to 6 inches
are unique to the American tropics, and
rank among the most beautiful crea-
tures to be found in nature.
At least five distinct species of Mor-
pho make their home in the forests of
Panama. Males are frequent sights,


~~-,


With his net in hand, Charles Myers, of Margarita, holds a lonely vigil at Cerro Canpana, where the ruggedly varied terrain
is a favorite hunting area for butterfly collectors. Above: The fisheye lens captures a dramatic view of a butterfly
surrounded by Panama's jungle foliage.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Well over 1,100

species are known

in Panama.


flaunting their brilliant color over the
forest canopy and along trails and rivers.
Greatly prized by collectors are their
scarce and more somber mates, which
unobtrusively wend their way through
the foliage tending to egg laying chores.
In Brazil, Morphos are raised com-
mercially for the purpose of making
showy trays out of their wings. The
colors never fade, as they are produced
in a purely physical way by diffraction
of light in specialized scales in the
wings, rather than by pigmentation.
Splendid as are the Morphos, they
are rivalled on the Isthmus by many
hundreds of other species, attired in a
veritable kaleidoscope of colors and
patterns. Panama's benign climate,
rich and varied vegetation, and great
diversity of terrain have combined to
produce an extraordinary abundance of
butterfly life. Well over 1,100 species


Gordon B. Small. a teacher at Canal Zone College, looks
o'er his ex~enie collection of butterflies in his home in Diablo.
Butterflies from his collection appear on the co'cr
and ha'e been used in illuslraions throughout the article.


Six new species of butterflies discovered in Panama during the last 10 years,
four nf which are from the Canal Zone. Even in such relatively well known areas
as the Canal Zone, new species continue to he found.


:ire nloown, and probably more await
discovery Quitt an incredible number
when orn considers thtif less than 700
species a.e knIo.wT, ii the entire United
StItes. .1 counrtr with an area more
thin 125 times luger.
Due to Scales
Together %nith the moths, butterflies
are niembers of the group of insects
known as Lepidoptera. The term is
derned from the Greek words lepis
I sede and pteron wing and uidi-
c. ts thl.t these uisects .ar distin-
gulshed b\ the possession of scales on
theLr %u-igs. All the %aried color effects
of i butterfly's nlr.gs are due to these
Si ;lJes.
Nature does not really distinguish
butterflies from moths. \'anous struc-
tiuril differences can be c:it.-d to sepa-
r.te the trwo but exceptional cases are
all too frequent. It suffices to s.i that
most butterflies are bnghtlv colored and
ti\ u-i the bnght sunlight. whereas most
moths are dull and nocturnal.
As is well known, butterflies repre-
sent the adult phase of a creature thlit
has progressed through the stages of
egg, caterpillar, and pupa before re:,ch-
ing its final winged form. The caterpd-


SPRING 1973


3


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lars of butterflies are exceedingly vora-
cious and devote virtually every waking
moment to gorging themselves on the
leaves of their specialized food plants.
They store up so much energy that
feeding for the winged adult is hardly
necessary-more of a snack than a meal.
Fortunately for the human race, the
caterpillars of relatively few species
are addicted to plants of agricultural
or economic importance, and, of these,
even fewer are numerous enough to be
labeled "pests."
Most butterflies are closely associated
with a particular species of plant, on
which their caterpillars feed to the ex-
clusion of all others. Sir Winston Chur-
chill became aware of this when he en-
deavored to determine the particular
plants that it would be necessary to
grow in his garden to attract butterflies.
To the dismay of his gardener, it turned
out that several showy species could be
enticed only by beds of stinging nettles!
In the tropical forest, individual spec-
imens of a given plant often tend to
be widely separated from each other,
and consequently, the butterflies as-
sociated with these plants may seldom
be seen, even by experienced collec-
tors. In addition, the character of the
forest changes markedly as one ascends


At right: Long handled
nets are a necessity
for the capture of many
high flying species.
Here, Charles Myers
patiently stalks an
elusive specimen at
Cerro Campana.
Below right: Carefully
squeezing the butterfly
on the thorax to
immobilize it, Myers
captures a specimen in
a bait trap. Two other
specimens can also be
seen resting on the
netting. The container
on the platform holds
the concoction of
banana, sugar and rum
which attracts the
butterflies.


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Spreading the wings of butterflies for display is a time consuming
task demanding care and patience. Specially designed
spreading boards are used. The wings are coaxed into proper
positions with long sharp pins and held firmly in place
with thin pieces of slick paper.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW























Transparency is a remarkable feature
of some tropical butterflies. To
demonstrate their transparency, the
butterflies above were placed on a
magazine. These belong to three
different families, all of which are almost
invisible during flight.


The butterfly is a

hunted creature that

survives like the

master spy by

disguise and

intrigue.


Though appearing virtually identical,
these five butterflies are, in fact, five
distinct species, representing three
different families. They are members of
the dominant mimicry club found in the
Canal Zone. All are distasteful to
predators except the species in the lower
left hand corner.


mountains or travels to areas of different
geological characteristics. So, it is not
surprising that many of the butterfly
species found on the Isthmus, say, at
an elevation of 2,500 feet at El Valle,
are quite different from those in the
Madden Forest Preserve.
Bocas del Toro
Considering these factors, it is doubt-
ful that one man could ever succeed in
collecting all the species of even a
limited area like the Canal Zone; and
thus, the never ending search for rarities
is one of the fascinations of making a
collection. A number of the species
known from Panama are so scarce or
localized or elusive that only one or two
specimens have ever been captured.
Remote forested areas of the provinces
of Bocas del Toro and Darien are vir-
tually unexplored for insects, and hold
the lure of unknown species.
In the tropics, butterflies have rather
brief lives, most individuals probably
not surviving more than a month. But
a few hardy types of the temperate
zone can endure almost a full year,
hibernating through the hostile winter
months.
Flowers are visited by many butter-
flies in search of nectar, yet some
disdain flowers altogether, preferring
oozing sap or the juice of fermenting
fruit. Collectors capitalize on this pred-
ilection by preparing such recipes as
rotting bananas, molasses, and brown
sugar, spiked with a dash of rum. The
concoction is left to ferment for sev-
eral days, and then placed in specially
designed traps. In this way certain
magnificent and unusual denizens of
the forest canopy can be lured to
ground level and captured easily.
Delicate Ornaments
We are apt to regard butterflies as
delicate ornaments aimlessly flitting
about the countryside. Indeed, one ar-
dent naturalist of the Victorian era
declared that the presence of butter-
flies provided clear proof of the exist-
ence of God. What possible explanation
could there be for such resplendent,
fragile, useless creatures, other than
they were expressly created by the
Almighty simply to gladden the eye of
mankind!
Unfortunately for such romantic no-
tions, the butterfly is far from a care-
free creature. At all stages of his life,
he is beset by a multitude of perils, to
which the majority of his brethren
quickly succumb.
The winged adult is entrusted with
two vital missions-reproduction and


dispersal. Males often stake out terri-
tories which they defend belligerently,
viciously flying at potential rivals or
other insects which invade their do-
main. Should a female appear, she
is quickly courted, and after a short
display of feminine coyness, is usually
won over.
Far from being mere trappings, the
resplendent colors and striking patterns
of a butterfly's wings are the product
of millions of years of evolution through
the process of natural selection, and
play a vital role in his survival. For ex-
ample, eyespots are a conspicuous fea-
ture of the wings of many butterflies.
In the "owl butterflies" they are large
and conspicuous, and presumably serve
to startle potential predators. The drab
brown butterflies known as Satyrs,
which fly amid the gloom of the forest
floor, are equipped with a series of eye-
spots on the edges of the wings. There
is some evidence that these serve as a
kind of target for predators. A poten-
tial villain scoring a bull's-eye would
have nothing but a chunk of indigest-
ible wing to show for his markmanship.
Copies of Dry Leaves
Many species of butterflies are col-
ored so as to blend in with their sur-
roundings when at rest. Most spectac-
ular of these are a group of butterflies
that become faithful copies of dry
leaves when they alight on a twig. One
kind in particular has so perfected the
disguise that it not only appears iden-
tical to a dead leaf complete with stem
and veins, but also has several small
transparent areas in the forewing, sug-
gesting grubholes. The likeness to the
real thing is so uncanny that it seems
almost incredible that it could have
been brought about by natural proces-
ses. Even the most dispassionate scien-
tist must be given cause for wonder.
Another remarkable protective effect
is attained by certain small butterflies
known as "hairstreaks," because of the
fine hairlike lines on the undersides of
their wings. At the lower end of the
under surface of each hindwing is an
evespot together with a projecting pair
of thin filaments, suggesting antennae.
In this way a realistic false head effect
is produced when the insect is at rest.
Some hairstreaks have, in addition, dark
stripings that pass uninterrupted from
the upper wings to the lower wings.
and focus one's attention on the false
head area. As soon as the butterfly
alights, it moves its hindwings back
and forth, causing the dummy anten-
nae to twitch provocatively. Thus a po-
tential predator is prone to lunge at

6 SPRING 1973






the sham head, and the butterfly makes
a hasty exit with the loss of only a por-
tion of its wing, and perhaps a little
dignity.
In some butterflies, a bold striking
pattern and slow lazy flight are used to
advertise the fact that their bodies
contain noxious substances and that
they would make for a decidedly un-
savory gastronomic experience for a
predator. Benefitting by bitter experi-
ence, birds, for example, come to rec-
ognize particular patterns as a sort of
warning signal, and give their owners
wide berth. With admirable economy,
distasteful butterflies tend to standard-
ize into a few distinctive patterns-in do-
ing so, they gain the advantage that the
bird's learning process is simplified, and
so, fewer of their number are lost. Even
the birds benefit, for they then have less
unpleasant experiences. All gain, except
the befuddled lepidopterist, who finds
himself confronted by a multitude of
butterflies which all look very much the
same, but in reality are a composition of
many distinct species. Butterflies which
have adopted a common warning pat-
tern are said to form a "mimicry club,"
and their members are conspicuous
sights in the forests of the Isthmus.
The mimicry phenomenon is extreme-
ly complex and .fascinating. For ex-
ample, a few perfectly savory species of
butterflies have succeeded through the
process of natural selection in adopting
the warning pattern of the distasteful
butterflies of a mimicry club. They
have, so to speak, crashed the party.
The birds thus avoid them, assuming
they are noxious. Paradoxically, these
imposters must be rare, otherwise the
predators would not learn to associate
their particular pattern with distaste-
fulness.

Disguises and Mimicry
The butterfly is thus a hunted crea-
ture that survives like the master
spy-by disguises and intrigues and
mimicry. But the butterfly can go the spy
one better; he sometimes is invisible.
Deep in the shade of the forests are
found a number of butterflies which
have foregone color almost completely,
to the point where their wings are
largely transparent. Flitting ghostlike
through the dappled light and shade
they are almost impossible to follow
in flight.
It is fascinating to note that in trans-
parent species of different families,
nature has used different devices to
achieve the common goal of transpar-
ency. In the butterflies of one family,

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7


the scales are modified in shape, being
reduced to fine hairs; in another, the
scales retain normal shape, but are
greatly reduced in size; in yet another,
the scales are set up on edge, so that
light passes between them. These facts
supply the theorist of evolution with a
fine example of how a single effect,
transparency, can be brought about
by a wide variety of chance genetic
mutations and the process of natural
selections.

Subjects for Research
For the geneticist, then, butterflies
are excellent subjects for research, and
the tropics an ideal outdoor laboratory.
To the nonprofessional enthusiast as
well, the living insect soon becomes
even more intriguing than the dried
cabinet specimen. Consider, for ex-
ample the great migrating hordes of
black and green "butterflies" that sud-
denly appear in Panama from time to
time. Resembling butterflies both in ap-
pearance and behavior, certain struc-
tural peculiarities indicate that they
should be classed with the moths, in
the genus Urania. At times, during the
most recent large movement, in August
and September of 1969, dozens would
pass by a given point in a few moments.
All were traveling strongly and pur-
posefully in the same direction as if
with some single minded intent to
reach a definite destination.

Like Lemmings?
Why do they migrate? Where are
they headed? Are they, like lemmings,
fated to perish without ever reaching
a final destination?
Recent research by Dr. Neal Smith
of the Smithsonian Tropical Research
Institute has shed some light on ques-
tions such as these, but also poses even
more. His documented records indicate
that eastward movements involve a
great many more individuals and occur
at a different season of the year from
westward ones. Surprisingly, some
flights are accompanied by reproductive
activity, and others are not. In the first
case, an advantage could certainly ac-
crue to the species by disseminating its
eggs over a wide territory during migra-
tion. But what is gained by migrating
after the eggs have been laid?
Clearly, we still have much to learn
about the behavior of the migrating
Urania moths, but even if man succeeds
in unlocking all their secrets, a myriad
other mysteries will ensure that the
Lepidoptera will remain ever alluring
and fascinating.


The largest butterfly in Panama, the Owl,
is seen only at dusk and dawn. Its large
eyespots seem to frighten potential
predators when the butterfly is at rest.


A "dead leaf" butterfly at rest.
Note the stem and the line bisecting
the wing suggesting the midrib of a leaf.
Directly above this line are two
transparent spots imitating grubholes.


A hairstreak butterfly illustrating the
false head effect. The broad white bands
focus attention onto a brightly colored
area from which filaments protrude
suggesting antennae. A potential predator
is prone to lunge at this spot and miss
the real body which is some distance
from the provocative area.

















































By Jos6 T. Tufi6n
T HE APPAREL OF SLAVE WOM-
en and nursemaids during the
Spanish colonial era of the Isthmus has
become, with the passing of time, the
national costume of Panama and one of
the most beautiful and most admired
typical dresses of the world.
From its humble beginnings in the
servants' quarters of the wealthy of Old
Panama, the pollera gradually invaded
the refined drawing rooms of high so-
ciety, becoming a prized possession of
all Panamanian women, from the runlstic
maidens of the countryside to the high-
born ladies of the aristocracy.
There are those who claim that the
pollera had its beginning in Spain be-
cause of its similarity to the modest
dress worn by women in the small towns
of Spain in colonial days. And still others
will insist that the pollera originated
with fashionable ladies of Old Panama.


The idea most accepted, however, is
that the dress was inspired by the gar-
ment worn by the black slaves, later
becoming the dress of the women of
the populace, evolving into what it is
today, the national costume for women
and a symbol of Panamanian nationality.
There are three classes of polleras:
the formal dress known as the pollera
de gala; the pollera montuna, the every-
day dress: and the wedding pollera,
originally from the Ocu area.
According to Panamanian folklore,
the all white pollera was worn by the
nursemaids, while other female servants
wore the brightly colored calico skirt
that became the pollera montuna, the
everyday dress.
The Formal Pollera
The formal pollera for festive occa-
sions and holidays is made of fine white
linen, cambric or voile. At least 12 yards
of material go into its making. It must


be pure white to form a background for
the blended tints of embroidered de-
signs of flowers, birds, garlands or other
combinations of designs, preferably of
native origin and feeling. Exquisite de-
signs are made in cross-stitch or by the
use of a more elegant needlework
known as "talco en sombra," which is
characteristic of Panama. It consists of
two pieces of material sewn together.
A design is made on one piece of the
fabric, and the design is then carefully
cut out and its edges hemmed with tiny
invisible stitches.
The formal pollera consists of the
blouse (wider than the montuna blouse),
the skirt and the petticoat or petticoats,
as one to three are worn under the
gown. The blouse of all three polleras
is white and worn off the shoulder. For
the formal dress, the blouse has a neck-
band at the top of the bodice made of
the traditional "mundillo," the fine hand-
made bonelace made in the Interior, and
edged with lace. The band has openings
in the front and in the back, where wool
pompons are placed. The neckband is in-
terwoven with wool of the same color as
the pompons. Two ribbons, called "ga-
Ilardetes," hang from the waist, one in
front and one in the back, and match
the color of the wool. The heelless shoes,
soft slippers in velveteen or satin, also
are of the same color as the wool pom-
pons No stockings are worn.
A beautifully embroidered ruffle of
fine wide Valencian lace is attached to
the mundillo band and falls to the mid-
dle of the bodice. Another ruffle is added
under the first one an-1 this falls to the
waist, or to a little lower than the waist.
Both of these ruffles are exquisitely em-
broidered or worked in "talco."
The blouse has push-up sleeves with
an embroidered ruffle, also trimmed in
lace.
The skirt of the formal pollera is
always made of fine white maternal, fine
enough for the handwork on the petti-
coats to show through. It is loose. full
and long, reaching the ankles. The skirt
is two piece; the upper section comes
to the knees and is separated by an in-
sertion of mundillo lace, with the mate-
rial gathered in such a manner that it
can be spread out and be admired.
Twice as much fabric goes into the
lower part of the skirt, making a circle

Above: The intricate handwork on
the petticoat of the white wedding pollera
is displayed by Miss Marilyn Escobar
who is seen at right lighting a candle
in Panama's famous
Church of the Golden Altar.


SPRING 1973





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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9


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Participating in the folkloric dances
held at Old Panama during the dry season
is Miss Marta Vega
wearing the montuna.


Golden chains, including the t.picalh Panamanian "cadena chala." and other
gold jewelr,. such as coins in filigree frame.s are worn %iith the formal pollera.


The elaborate jewelry and combs, encrusted with pearls, are as impressive
from the back as from the front.


The edge of the skirt is trimmed with
about 25 yards of lace, 4 or 5 inches
wide. The magnificent skirt is gathered
at the waist and tied by four narrow
ribbons, two crossing in the front and


two in the back, running through the
button holes of two gold buttons at
either side of the waist.
The petticoats are handmade of very
fine white linen, as elaborate as the

10 SPRING 1973

























































Framed hy the modernistic sculpture which stands in front of the Pacific-Atlantic Bank in Panama, Leyda and Marilyn Escobar
display the magnificent skirts of their polleras. The unusual metal sculpture is by Adolfo Arias, Jr.


skirt, with laces, cutwork and em-
broidery. Usually two are worn with the
pollera. sometimes three.
The hairdress is an important part of
the pollera. The hair is parted in the
center and tightly pulled back behind
the ears, forming two braids. The braids
are covered with several pairs of "tem-
bleques," the glittering sprays of flower-
like filigree ornaments made of gold and
silver and pearls, their flexible stems
"trembling" as the wearer moves. Two

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11


kinds of combs are worn, one crested
with elaborate gold work, called "de
balc6n" as they resemble the design of
balcony railings. These are placed
toward the back of the head on either
side. The others are called "de perlas"
because the gold work is encrusted with
pearls. These are worn a little to the
front of the head. Earrings are large,
of various shapes, in gold or silver, with
rosettes of pearls or coral.
Several gold chains around the neck,


from four to eight, are part of the
jewelry worn with the formal dress.
These include coral and pearl rosaries,
gold coins in filigree frames on plain
gold chains, a gold cross on a chain or
a narrow black ribbon, gold cords with
religious emblems, scapularies, and the
"cadena chata," the flat chain with a
gold fish at the end. It is absolutely
Panamanian in significance and, accord-
ing to legend, in the old days, when a
(Please see p. 24)





V


U.N. Security iCouncil'


Visits the Panama Canal


"-








A..







Maintenance Division employees put up flags of the 15 nations,
participating in the Security Council meeting, along John F. Kennedy Avenue
near Panama's Legislative Palace.


I -
Gov. David S. Parker takes delegates on a tour of Miraflores Locks. Right to
left, are: Governor Parker; Kurt Waldheim, U.N. Secretary General;
John Scali, U.S. Ambassador to United Nations; Yakov Alexandrovich Malik,
U.S.S.R. Ambassador to United Nations; Sir Colin Crowe, U.K. Ambassador to
United Nations; Mrs. Waldheim; and Mrs. Malik.


NOT SINCE 1956, WHEN THE
Presidents of the American
States met in Panama, had so many of
the world's dignitaries visited the
Panama Canal in one day.
The day was March 15.
Delegates to the U.N. Security Coun-
cil, which met at Panama's Legisla-
tive Palace from March 15 through
March 21, were guests of John Scali,
the U.S. Ambassador to the United
Nations, during a tour of Miraflores
Locks, following the opening session of
the Council.
They were met at the locks and es-
corted to the Miraflores Theater, where
they were greeted by Gov. David S.
Parker. Here they were given a 40-
minute briefing on the Canal by Col.
A. L. Romaneski, Engineering and
Construction Bureau Director.
Governor Parker then led the dele-
gates on a tour of the control house and
they were taken through the tunnel in
the center wall before going aboard the
craneboat Atlas for lunch. The Atlas
was tied up at the east wall of the
upper lock chamber so that delegates
could have a vantage point for viewing
transiting ships. The Dredging and Nav-
igation Divisions and the Executive
Planning Staff were among the many
Canal units working closely together in
the planning and handling of all aspects
of the visit.
It was a clear sunny day and televi-
sion cameramen, shooting in color, had
a field day photographing the transit of
the Polar Paraguay, a sparkling white
German ship carrying refrigerated
cargo from Morocco to Ecuador, and
the bright red container ship Columbus
Australia, also a German-flag ship,
which was en route from. the east coast
of the United States to Australia.
The yacht Fiesta, which had set out
from Pier 18 in Balboa with an esti-
mated 530 guests of the Panamanian
Government aboard, came astern of the
Atlas about 2:45 p.m. and the delegates
and other guests went aboard her to
complete the tour which ended at Pedro
Miguel Locks.
Some of the delegates who visited the
Canal Zone were: U.N. Secretary Gen-
eral Kurt Waldheim, of Austria; Ambas-
sador Yakov Alexandrovich Malik, of
U.S.S.R.; Panama's Ambassador Aquili-
no E. Boyd; Ambassador Louis De
Guidirigaud, of France; Sir Laurence
McIntyre, Australia's Ambassador; In-
dian Ambassador Samarendranath Sen;
Ambassador Joseph Odero-Jowi, of Ken-
ya; Ambassador Chaidir Anwar Sani, of
Indonesia; and Ambassador Javier P6-
rez De Cubllar, of Per6.

12 SPRING 1973






Other high ranking officials on hand
at Miraflores included: Panama For-
eign Minister Juan Antonio Tack; Galo
Plaza Lasso, of Ecuador, Secretary
General of the Organization of Amer-
ican States; U.S. Ambassador to Pan-
ama Robert M. Sayre; British Ambas-
sador to Panama Dugald Malcolm;
Cuban Foreign Minister Raill Roa; and
Foreign Minister of Costa Rica Gonzalo
Facio.
In Panama for the Security Council
meeting, in addition to the 15 United
Nations ambassadors, were high rank-
ing officials from 38 other countries and
240 foreign newsmen.
Throughout the meeting, as well as
long before it opened, U.S. agencies on
the Isthmus worked in close coopera-
tion on arrangements for the visit to
the Canal.
Detailed plans were worked out to
assist the international press and to
accommodate the delegates and other
dignitaries. Days before the meeting,
newsmen began arriving in Panama
and documentary movies of the Canal
were filmed by television crews from
Russia, France, and the United States
to be shipped back for televising in
these countries prior to the meeting of
the Security Council.
The U.S. Information Service set up
a press center at the Panama Hotel
where press kits containing information
about the Canal were available. The
Panama Canal Information Office pro-
vided basic information about the Pan-
ama Canal in nine languages-Russian,
French, Italian, Spanish, Japanese,
Chinese, German, English, and Por-
tuguese.


Robert Emerick, of
the Executive
Planning Staff,
right, meets
Panama's Foreign
Relations Ministry
Advisor, Dr. Jorge
Illueca, and his
wife on their arrival
at Miraflores.


_-r -I


--r.
S








Kenya's
S Ambassador to the

United Nations,
F, Joseph Odero-
Jowi, and his wife
are escorted to the
Miraflores Theater

by Frank A.
Baldwin,
)I Information
Officer.


William De La
Mater, Protocol
Officer and Aide
to the Governor,
accompanies
India's
Ambassador to the
United Nations
Sanarendranath
Sen and his wife
on the tour of the
locks. Behind
them to the left
are India's
Ambassador to
Panama, P. M.
D'Souza and his
wife.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


L-CC


















THE PANAMA CANAL ,
^-


John F. Shea, of the Graphic Branch.
sets up movie equipment at Miraflores.


Booklets containing the briefing
given at Miraflores Locks were made
up in Spanish, French, and English and
distributed to newsmen and delegates
following completion of the tour.
Employees of the Translator's Office,
along with some part-time help brought
in for the project, did the translations
into French and Spanish and the Print-
S ing Plant staff worked long hours turn-
ing out the brochures in time for the
meeting.
Printing Plant employees work rou-
tinely with Spanish but the French pre-
sented some problems. Because of the
various diacritical marks peculiar to the
French language it could not be set on


the linotype. It was set instead on an
ancient monotype machine that dates
back to 1920, identical to one that was
used by the Canal during construction
days. The operator succeeded in doing
a good job of setting the type although
he had no knowledge of the French
language.
Another of the units of the Canal
organization having a hand in prepara-
tions for the meeting of the Security
Council was the Maintenance Division,
which was assigned the job of putting
up the flags of the 15 participating
countries along John F. Kennedy Ave-
nue near the Legislative Palace.


WI


Hamblin H. Sisnett, hand compositor,
makes up pages of a brochure,
"The Panama Canal in International
Commerce" which was distributed
to delegates and newsmen.


William O'Sullivan, official translator,
points out a correction in one
of the French brochures to Harold Lewis,
monotype operator.


Sandor Liptai, of the Canal Zone
Guide Service, hands out brochures
in three languages as the delegates
leave the "Atlas."


SPRING 1973














culinaryy




Capers



By Fannie P. Hernindez





To


Quench


A


Thirst


T TROPICAL FRUITS FOR MAKING
drinks have been ignored by na-
tives and newcomers alike who find it
easier to reach for a soda-type bever-
age than to avail themselves of natural
juices to quench a summer thirst. The
abundance and excellence of fruits on
the local market call for a redress of
this oversight and an upgrading of their
category on our list of drinkables.
We all know the gustatory pleasure
derived from a cold lemonade, and the
healthful qualities of orange and grape-
fruit juice. Most of us, however, have
little notion of the true qualities and
attributes of many local noncitrus fruits
as a source of delicious beverages.
Discovering a new beverage is always
a special pleasure, particularly if it is
readily available and reasonable. Let
us consider first the versatile coconut.
Who can pass up the cool, pure fresh-
ness of green coconut beverage, known
in Panama as "pipa" water, once having
tasted the sweet, clear liquid of the un-
ripe coconut! Always pure and cool in
the container that nature provided, the
liquid could well be that "nectar of the
gods" so often alluded to by one who
has just satisfied a raging thirst.
Fruit of the Palm
The refreshing and palatable drink is
from the fruit of the palm tree, the
constant supplier of food, shelter,
clothing, timber, wax and wine. Fur-
nishing tannin, dyeing agents, resin and
a host of minor products make it the
most valuable tree to the native popula-
tion in the tropics and one of the
world's most important crop trees.
The ripe fruit gives us the familiar
shredded coconut, and oil from it is
used in making soaps, shampoos, deter-
gents, oils, margarine, vegetable short-
ening, synthetic rubber, glycerine, hy-
draulic brake fluid and plasticizing for
safety glass
Mounds of green pipas and ripe
coconuts can be found throughout the
year at markets, at fruit stalls along the
highway, and in every town and village
in the Republic.
To enjoy the cool beverage, simply
cut off the top of the pipa and drink it
directly from the fruit or use a straw.
Or pour it into a pitcher, spoon out the
tender jelly-like pipa meat and add it
to the water. A little sugar to taste may
be added. For a more "spirited" bever-
age, add rum, gin or vodka.
Less known is the refreshing drink
made from the fruit of the tamarind
tree. Misnamed by Europeans who


Sipping through a straw, this young lady
enjoys "pipa" water, always pure
and cool in the container that
nature provided.

thought the brown pods were fruit of
the palm because the Arabians called
it "tamar hindi" or Indian date, the
tree is not a palm at all. It is a tall,
stately tree with lacy foliage that curls
up at sundown. A tamarind is often
planted near the house as a wind-
breaker.
The fruit is really a pod, from about

1


Maturing at different times,
a coconut palm may provide green "pipas"
for a refreshing and palatable drink
and ripe fruit for the familiar shredded
coconut we find on the grocer's shelf.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







1 inches to 8 inches long, often grow-
ing in clusters of three or four. The pods
are filled with seeds and an acid, juicy
pulp, dark brown in color. The beverage
is made by shelling the fragile, tree-
dried pods, removing the sticky pulp
from the seeds and mixing it with
water. The pulp is considered to have
laxative properties while the seeds are
astringent.

Chicha de Tamarindo
The popular native beverage is called
Chicha de Tamarindo and here is one
way to make it:
2 cups tamarind seeds, removed from the
pods
1 quart of water
1 cup of sugar, more or less
Place the shelled tamarinds in a large
bowl and add 2 cups of water. Using
your hands, rub the seeds to remove the
pulp. Strain through a sieve and repeat
the process using the remainder of the
water until all the pulp is removed from
the seeds. Add sugar to taste. Mix well
and serve very cold. This makes a strong
beverage. Dilute to your taste.
To make Tamarind Balls which can
be stored and used for making bever-
age, candy or sauce when tamarinds are
out of season, simply add about 3 cup
of sugar to 1 cup of tamarind pulp and
knead until you have a smooth dough.
Add no water. Make balls about the size
of a walnut. Roll in course sugar and
store in a tightly covered jar.
A beverage fruit relatively new on
the local scene is the naranjilla, in-
troduced to the Isthmus from Ecuador
by Fritz Collins, a well known fruit
grower in the highlands of Boquete in
Chiriqui Province. Naranjilla is also a
popular fruit in Colombia where it is
known as lulu. Colombians mix the
strained fruit juice with condensed
milk and call it "sorbete de lulu." The
fruit is about the size of a small orange,
the color of an orange and grows on a
bush similar to a tomato plant. Its thin,
smooth skin peels easily, much like
removing the skin from a ripe tomato
that has been dipped in hot water.
Naranjilla Beverage
To make naranjilla beverage, peel
three ripe naranjillas, cut them up and
place in a blender with two cups of
water and half a cup of sugar. Whirl for
about 2 minutes. Strain to remove the
tiny seeds. Serve over ice. Tastes a little
like fresh sweet apple cider.


One of the lesser known beverage
fruits is nance, a small tart, yellow
cherry-like fruit with a strong flavor and
penetrating scent. It is sold at markets
and along the highway in the Interior,
packed in water, usually in bottles. The
flavor of nance varies slightly from tree
to tree and generally requires an ac-
quired taste for most foreigners. Used
fresh with water and sugar as chichaa
fresca," it is a refreshing beverage. Fer-
mented, it becomes a potent chichaa
fuerte."

Chicha de Nance
Two species of nance are common
in Panama, nance colorado and nance
blanco. Both grow profusely in acid
soil. The bark of the nance colorado is
used by campesinos to treat fish nets
against mildew and fungus. It also is
used for medicinal purposes such as the
treatment of "athlete's foot" and other
skin fungus diseases. Wood of the nance
trees is highly in demand for firewood
as it burns leaving a fine white ash.
Nance is harvested by shaking the tree.
Come October you can buy a bottle of
those "yellow things" on your way to
the Interior and make Chicha de Nance
this way: Mash the contents of 1 bottle
of nance. Add about a quart of water.
Add sugar to taste and serve very cold
or over ice. It is a great thirst quencher.
Sorrel Beverage
Fruit beverages are good the year
around, but sorrel, the light, spicy con-


coction made from the bright, red
blossoms of a shrubby plant of the
ornamental hibiscus family, combined
with other flavorings, seems to be most
appropriate during the Christmas sea-
son, when it is available. Sorrel is also
related to the okra family. It is not
really a fruit but the petals of a flower.
The deep, red petals have a tangy
flavor similar to the cranberry. Make
sorrel beverage like this:
2 cups sorrel petals
i ounce crushed ginger root
2 cloves
1 small piece orange peel
% cup sugar
4 cups boiling water
Cut off the hard portion at the base
of the flower, discard the seed pod.
Wash the sorrel petals. Place in a large
bowl with the ginger, cloves and orange
peel. Add the boiling water and let it
steep overnight. The following day.
strain the liquid and add the sugar. Stir
well and serve cold or with ice. By
adding a dash of rum, you have a
delicious, heady beverage.


Cashew "apples," naranjillas, tamarind pods, a pineapple
and a guanabana, a few local fruits that make delicious beverages.


16 SPRING 197'






Chicha de Marafion
Plentiful on the local market, espe-
cially in the early part of the rainy
season, is the cashew apple, that is not
a true fruit. The real fruit of the cashew
are the roasted nuts we buy in cans.
The exceedingly juicy marafion, as the
cashew apple is called in Spanish, when
fully ripe makes an excellent drink. The
marafion tree is beautiful with its bright
red or orange colored "apples."
To make Chicha de Maraiion, cut up
the fleshy, fully ripe "fruit" and press
it in a food mill and then strain. Add
water and sugar to taste. Or better still,
whirl in a blender with water. Strain
and then add sugar. Serve cold or over
ice.
Chicha de Guanabana
Delicious beverages are made with a
combination of fruit pulp or juice, milk,
crushed ice and sugar, the amount of
sugar varying with the sweetness of the
fruit and one's taste. Topping the list
of these milk sherbert-like beverages is
Chicha de Guanabana or soursop bev-
erage. The fruit is large and dark green
and filled with soft, snowy white pulp
and deliciously flavored juice. It grows
on a small, slender tree, often growing
directly from the trunk. It should be
picked from the tree while it is still
firm and kept at room temperature until
ripe. Make it like this:
1 large ripe guanabana, 2 or 3 pounds
2 cups evaporated milk
2 cups water
1 cup sugar
Cut the guanabana in half. Cut out
the core and scoop out the pulp. Place
the pulp in a fruit press and squeeze
out the juice. Add a little water to the
pulp and squeeze again, repeating the
process until all the pulp is pressed out
and only the seeds are left. Add the
milk and sugar. Blend well and serve
cold, preferably over crushed ice. A
teaspoon of vanilla may be added.
The same process may be followed
to make milk-fruit beverages from ba-
nanas, papaya, mangoes and melon,
always removing the seeds first.
Chicha de Arroz con Pifia
Since it was first discovered by
Columbus on the West Indies Island
of Cuadeloupe in 1493, the pineapple
has been one of the world's favorite
fruits. In addition to using it as food
and beverage, the Caribs placed a pine-
apple on their doors as a sign of hospi-
tality. It was so highly esteemed by the
earliest settlers in the new world that
the pineapple motif soon became a
favorite European decoration.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17


Commercially, in addition to the fruit
and juice, the pineapple shells, ends,
and trimmings are processed to make
citrus acid used in making drugs, soft
drinks and foods. Even the enzymes
from the stumps of the mature plant
are used in the brewing of beer and as
a tenderizer. Many thousands of tons
of pineapples from Hawaii are carried
through the Canal each year en route to
world markets. Several varieties are
available in Panama during dry season
and the beginning of rainy season. Pan-
amanians will tell you that the world's
best pineapples come from the Island
of Taboga. One of the favorite bever-
ages in Panama is made from the peel
of the pineapple. Here is a recipe for
making Chicha de Arroz con Piiia:
1 pineapple
9 cup of rice
1 cup of evaporated milk
sugar to taste
Select a good sized pineapple. Wash
it thoroughly and peel it. Boil the peel
with the rice in water to cover. When
the rice is tender, discard the pecl and
strain. Add milk and sugar to the liquid
and serve very cold.
Here is another Panamanian favorite:
Cut off a pineapple about 1 inches
down from the top. Remove the core
being careful not to cut through the
bottom. Pour rum into the pineapple.
Put the top back on it and place in the
refrigerator overnight. The pineapple
absorbs the rum and the rum takes on
the pineapple flavor. You will have a
delicious rum drink. Slice the pineapple
and serve as a fruit course or use as a
garnish. (Especially good with ham.)





I

While her mother shops at the
Chinese garden in Curundu,
Digna Mercedes Tang, 3-year-old
daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Carlos M.
Tang, of Panama, samples
the juice of a coconut.


One of the most common of wild fruit
trees in Panama is the jobo, which
reaches a height of from 40 to 60 feet
and bears an abundance of fruit. The
ripe fruit, about 1V inches long and
% inch across, makes an excellent
beverage. It has a thin, bright yellow
skin and a soft juicy pulp around a
large seed. The flavor varies considcr-
ably from tree to tree, ranging from
sweet to sweet-tart. Harvesting the jobo
is easy as the fruit falls when it is ripe.
Pick it up from the ground before the
insects and birds get to it.
To make Chicha de Jobo: Wash the
ripe fruit and, using your hands, re-
move the pulp from the large seed.
Press it through a strainer. Dilute the
pulp with water to suit your taste. Add
sugar and serve over ice.
The flesh of the pulpy fruits is also
commonly used in making sauces, can-
dies and ice cream in Panama and all
tropical America.


































A VERIT.\BLE MENAGERIE OF
animals and birds covered the
table in the home of Mrs. Kanoko
Schear and her nimble fingers quickly
folded a sheet of paper and another
small crane was added to the collection.
Mrs. Schear was practicing the an-
cient art of paper folding, known as
origami to the Japanese. The classical
technique involves producing hand-
made artistic objects without the use of
scissors, knife, or glue. One simply
creases the paper to create the figures.
In Japan, the art is known to date
back to as early as 1336 but probably
was practiced even before that. In re-
cent years, there has been an upsurge
of interest with events such as San Fran-
cisco's International Paper Airplane
Contest attracting a great deal of public
attention. At this contest, a professor
from Brown University won the top
origami prize for his model of a super-
sonic transport plane.
And according to a story that ap-
peared in newspapers this year, there
may be profit as well as pleasure in the
practice of origami. A New York ad-
vertising executive who was folding
paper airplanes for his young son ap-
parently has inadvertently discovered a
whole new concept in aerodynamics.
He plans to market the new type plane
he folded as either a toy or a new
airplane design or perhaps both.
Mrs. Schear pointed out that since
no tools are needed and suitable paper
is readily available, origami is an art


:lmosn ain\m.ne of any .ge t.rn enloy.
licr son, Fiank, N.hOI. is .,nl) 7 years old.
has already become adept at the art and
has a box full of figures to prove it.
Three-year-old John has not taken it up
yet but is enthralled at watching a sheet
of paper quickly transformed into a
crane, turtle, or boat in the skilled
hands of his mother.
Origami paper from Japan, which is
sometimes available in shops in Pan-
ama, is used by Mrs. Schear for some
figures but she said that gift wrapping
paper or any thin crisp paper that will
take a sharp crease may be used. Even
brown paper bags can be used for larger
figures. Some models require paper that
is colored on both sides while for others
paper colored on one side and white on
the other is needed.
Came to Canal Zone
Mrs. Schear came to the Canal Zone
in 1964. She met her husband, Gerard
K. Schear, Administrative Officer in the
Administrative Services Division, at
Sophia University in Tokyo where he
was taking courses in Japanese and the
history of the Far East. They were
married in Ancon and now live in
Corozal.
Since she came to the Isthmus, Mrs.
Schear has served as interpreter and
volunteer guide for various Japanese
visitors to the Canal including members
of the Japanese Maritime Self Defense
Force, whose vessels make periodic
visits to this area. She also translated


21












Mrs. Kanoko Schear demonstrates how
to fold a sheet of gift wrapping paper
to make a crane, which is a
peace symbol in Japan.


18 SPRING 1973











Origami



Or i gah me


By Willie K. Friar


the basic information brochure of the
Panama Canal into Japanese for dis-
tribution to newsmen during the recent
United Nations Security Council meet-
ing in Panama, and is frequently called
on to act as interpreter for seamen who
are patients at Gorgas Hospital.
She whetted the appetite of more
than 100 fourth-graders at Balboa Ele-
mentary School, for more information
about Japan recently, when she was in-
vited to give a talk and an origami

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19


demonstration as a part of their Social
Studies course. The children came home
with a surprisingly sophisticated knowl-
edge of origami, much to the surprise
of many parents. Some gave their par-
ents demonstrations on how to fold a
special "tricky boat," a little paper boat
that, however you turn it, is always
right side up.
Practitioners of origami include peo-
ple of all professions but magicians, in
particular, are attracted to it. The Great


Houdini became so interested in it that
he wrote a book on the subject. Shari
Lewis, who is well known as a ventrilo-
quist and puppeteer, also practices it
and collaborated recently on an origami
book. More than 20 other books on the
subject have been published in the
United States in the last 10 years.
The most famous present day artist
is Akira Yoshizawa, of Tokyo, whose
clear directions on folding have become
the international language of origami.











The miniature parakeet at left
is only 3 inches long and requires
a multitude of folds. Photographed
close-up, perched on a tree limb,
he presents a remarkable life-like
appearance.




He has devoted his life to the art and
spent 23 years perfecting one of his
figures, a cicada.
On a goodwill tour in New Zealand,
Yoshizawa entertained mentally ill pa-
tients and illustrated how valuable the
art can be for therapists in mental in-
stitutions as well as in regular hospitals
where patients, though confined to beds,
can spend the time creatively learning
a new art.
Any babysitter, who is looking for a
means of keeping children happy, need
look no further. Children of all ages
respond immediately to watching the
magic of a square of paper being
changed into a bird, a turtle, a bat, or
even Whistler's Mother.
In addition to the fact that no tools
are necessary, there is another advan-
tage to origami as a hobby. One can
practice it anywhere as all that is
needed is a piece of paper. And if no
ordinary paper is readily available, one
can use a dollar bill, which is actually
ideal for origami. Even a devalued
dollar will do.








LIKE TO TRY IT?
Here are directions for
making a very simple bird,
not the rather complicated
one shown above. Fold the
paper by numerical order
and then draw in the eyes.


SPRING 1973










Ir By classical tradition, models are made


1 by folding only, no cutting, or pasting

S'


A0


Above: John, who is 3 years old,
lies in his mother's lap and plays with
the origami crane she just created,
while 7-year-old Frank displays a few
of the many figures he has fashioned from
varied colored paper. At right:
Laundry detergent and a mirror were
used by photographer Steve Bissell to
create this interesting landscape featuring
a penguin made by Mrs. Schear.




THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21


C,



- I


b


I'*i .

.u'
r
I
r,
~I'''
P


'







Jumboized

San Juan

Prospector

Sets New

Canal Records


Transited in Ballast


/ 2ft


2ft


\14ft


14ft/


ANAMA CANAL RECORDS FOR
size and tolls were broken in April
when the 972.68-foot bulk carrier San
Juan Prospector transited the Canal en
route from Trinidad to Peru.
It was the first transit for the bulk
carrier since she was jumboized in Japan
a few months ago. The transit was car-
ried out so smoothly that it paved the
way for future use of the Canal by both
the San Juan Prospector and her sister
ship the San Juan Pathfinder, due here
in the fall. Both are expected to make
several trips through the Canal each
year.
The two vessels are Marcona Corp.
bulk oil-ore carriers which were en-
larged by Japan's Mitsubishi Heavy In-
dustries from 75,000 deadweight tons to
108,500 tons by the addition of a mid-
section. When the Pathfinder is com-
pleted in July, she too will have a length
of 972.68 feet and a beam of 106 feet
which gives them about 12 feet on each
end and 2 feet on each side when they
go through the Panama Canal's 1,000-


foot-long locks. The lock chambers are
110 feet wide.
Tolls were computed at $40,951.44 on
a Panama Canal net tonnage of 56,877
which are record breakers on both
counts. Because of their size and depth,
the two ships probably will always tran-
sit in ballast which means they pay 72
cents on each Panama Canal net ton.
The 950-foot Tokyo Bay held the
record of being the longest ship to tran-
sit and the Hamburg Express paid the
record tolls of $40,936.50 up until the
arrival of the San Juan Prospector. Be-
cause they carried cargo-both ships
paid laden tolls of 90 cents per Panama
Canal net ton.
They are container ships operated by
the Trio Alliance, a consortium made
up of the Overseas Containers Ltd., the
British Ben Line, Hapag Lloyd A.G. of
Germany and the Japanese shipping
companies of Mitsui-OSK Lines and
Nippon Yusen Kaisha.
The record for the largest cargo to be
carried through the Canal is still held


Before and after. The "San Juan
Prospector," above, was one of the
largest ships to use the Canal in 1964
when she measured 835 feet in length.
Tnday again breaking records, with a
length of 972.68 feet, she slides through
Miraflores Locks on her first transit
after being jumboized in Japan.


22 SPRING 1973


~3~17
000~00


-








PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
First Half Fiscal Year


Commodity
Petroleum and products ______-
Manufactures of iron and steel-----
Lumber and products --_____ -
Ores, various_----------
Sugar, raw _______----------
Metals, various --------
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) ---
Pulpwood-------------- -------
Bananas ----_- __-____ _
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts --- ___-
Paper and paper products __-__--_____
Fishmeal -----
Salt--- -----__
Coffee------------
Sulfur---------------
All others ---------- ----
Total -------


1973
4,724,978
4,369,007
2,489,075
2,130,399
1,840,447
711,630
707,059
704,887
613,235
505,032
402,137
400,185
306,701
274,139
261,733
5,609,319
26,049,963


1972
1,731,721
4,348,321
2,459,417
1,904,119
2,049,777
661,657
582,861
538,071
524,546
374,115
249,684
883,880
317,247
237,451
405,538
5,161,490
22,429,895


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
1,024,347
466,312
1,785,375
519,996
1,235,175
566,481
394,842
249,504
565,876
8,147
49,806
N.A.
1,645
212,686
35,897
7,767,180
14,883,269


Atlantic to Pacific


First Half Fiscal Year


Commodity


Coal and coke --_ _-- __ ___-
Petroleum and products ---------
Corn
Phosphate ------_______-
Soybeans---------
Wheat ------------
Sorghum ------------
Ores, various ------
Metal, scrap ------. ________
Manufactures of iron and steel ----
Sugar, raw
Chemicals, unclassified-- ----
Rice-------------------- ---
Fertilizers, unclassified _- _- ____
Paper and paper products _------ _______..
All others --------- ------- ------
Total -------__.-------


1973
6,614,357
5,997,280
3,284,521
2,176,193
1,931,412
1,731.410
1,427,808
1,345,927
958,147
823,399
752,596
644,381
488,889
359,479
327,228
5,136,894
33,999,921


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S.


1972
6,145,377
6,756,597
1,382,153
1,936,286
1,950,607
960,417
455,315
1,515,296
675,010
600,334
709,746
422,509
133,730
297,365
381,768
4,801,174
29,123,684


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
2,925,019
5,484,146
636,706
1,046,645
735,645
335,771
N.A.
147,988
1,527,264
737,644
516,556
318,745
56,257
184,252
225,987
3,656,260
18,534,885


GOVERNMENT


First Half Fiscal Year


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing--------------
Small --------------
Total Commercial----------

U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing -------
Small '----_-- ----------

Total Commercial and
U.S. Government ---_ _---


1973
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total


3,429
121
3,550


6,897
261
7,158


Avg. No.
transit
1972 1961-65


Total Total


6,637
327
6,964


5,631
286
5,917


106 108 214 208 124
32 34 66 87 82

3,746 3,692 7,438 7,257 6,123


1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior lo July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited
free.


by the Arctic, a bulk carrier that brought
60,391 long tons of coal through the
Canal in March 1970 en route to Japan.
The San Juan Prospector broke a
Canal record for size when she made
her first transit in 1964 and measured
only 835 feet. She arrived here the last
time April 6 from Trinidad with a draft
of 33 feet and started transit at 5:45
a.m., April 7. She cleared Balboa at
4:20 p.m. The transit was made without
incident with the assistance of two tugs
at the locks.
Since the bridge is amidships, only
two Panama Canal pilots were required
to guide the big ship through the
Canal on her April 7 transit. They were
Capt. William Hopkins, Assistant Port
Captain in Cristobal, who had the
first control, and Capt. Chris Cunder-
sen, Navigation Division Marine Train-
ing Officer, who had control of the
last half of the passage. They were
joined at Gamboa, or halfway through,
by Capt. Robert J. Norman, Marine
Director; Rufus O'Neal, Chief Marine
Traffic Controller; E. E. Hamlin, Jr., Di-
rector of Admeasurement; and Richard-
son Selee, representative in Panama of
the Marcona Corp., owners of the ship.
Owners have explained that the deci-
sion to expand the two vessels' capacities
by jumboizing is based upon the short-
age of new building dockspace created
by the tremendous worldwide demand
for large tanker-type hulls, which has
stretched the backlog of orders at ship-
yards well beyond 1975. Also enlarged
is the Marcona's San Juan Exporter,
originally a 106,220 deadweight ton
ship, which has been converted to a
141,700 ton ore slurry carrier at Nippon
Kokan's Tsu Shipyard in Japan, where
she was originally built in 1967.
Largest of her kind when she was
launched, the vessel now is the world's
largest of a different type. She now has
an overall length of 996 feet, a draft of
57 feet and is the world's new front
runner among slurry carriers.
Jumboization of the San Juan Path-
finder and San Juan Prospector makes
it possible to use them in the highly
profitable Sumatra-California oil trade
in combination voyages and at the same
time maintain their current Peru-Japan
ore lifting capabilities. Conversion does
not increase fuel consumption, and
through addition of a bulbous bow, the
speed reduction resulting from the
10-foot increase in draft will be limited
to 0.3 knots.
In Panama. the ships are represented
by Boyd Bros., well known local
shipping agents.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23














Nationality
Belgian ---.-
British___ ...
Chilean ---
Chinese, Nat'l.._
Colombian .._
Cypriot ----
Danish ----
French------
German, West_
Greek ------
Honduran.---
Italian ------
Japanese-- -.
Liberian ----
Netherlands-_
Nicaraguan __.
Norwegian---
Panamanian ---
Peruvian ---
Philippine ---
South Korean--
Soviet._____--
Swedish --_---
United States--
All others ---


1973
No. of Tons
transit of cargo
64 251,90
666 6,247,37
65 864,59
83 701,08
128 223,89
84 537,26
182 1,107,90
101 465,25
409 2,104,17
475 5,251,91
76 78,04
141 595,38
696 5,676,54
909 13,472,97
230 1,517,10
42 72,46
617 8,014,00
463 2,956,78
81 662,86
45 288,30
66 430,09
137 789,66
213 1,483,89
595 3,931,28
329 2,336,41


TotaL.-- 6,897


60,061,16


1
4
0
1
6
6
5
1
6
6
2
4
1
0
16
2
10
3
19
6
13
19
0
13
1
5


OF VESSELS


1972
No. of Tons
transit of cargo
86 241,539
708 5,653,964
63 499,369
78 723,690
121 262,830
47 328,429
199 1,012,236
94 418,361
458 2,003,169
382 4,120,243
28 27,059
135 922,839
791 5,284,992
827 10,930,306
239 1,423,289
57 106,793
594 7,201,09C
454 1,981,516
87 588,082
44 332,415
42 231,575
65 422,459
193 1,327,234
519 3,649,546
326 1,860,554
6,637 51,553,579


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES
First Half Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
transit
Trade routes-(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) 1973 1972 1961-65
United States Intercoastal_--_--- ------- --------- 215 145 231
East coast of United States-West coast of South America_. 581 452 1,208
East coast of United States-West coast of Central America 324 311 241
East coast of United States-Far East_ ------ ----- 1,739 1,433 1,133
East coast of United States/Canada-Oceania--- _------- 189 187 171
Europe-West coast of United States/Canada ---------- 423 399 459
Europe-West coast of South America ..----------- 605 629 592
Europe-Oceania ------------------ 252 234 176
All others----------- ---2------ 2,569 2,847 1,420
Total ------------------------- 6,897 6,637 5,631

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars)!
Avg. No. Average
First Half transit First Half tools
Month 1973 1972 1961-65 1973 1972 1961-65
July .-------------------- 1,138 1,194 960 $8,518 $8,017 $4,929
August ...------- ___-- 1,221 1,197 949 9,522 8,513 4,920
September-------- --- 1,116 1,191 908 8,896 8,417 4,697
October --------------- 1,174 1,068 946 9,298 7,241 4,838
November------_------- 1,141 964 922 9,130 6,645 4,748
December.---- -------- 1,107 1,023 946 8,958 7,267 4,955
January----------------- ___- 1,179 903 --- 8,895 4,635
February----_ ----_ _-- 1,116 868 8,233 4,506
March..----------__ ---- 1,290 1,014 9,297 5,325
April--------_ ------- ___- 1,191 966 9,180 5,067
May -------_ --- --- _____ 1,261 999 _- 9,127 5,232
June ------ __ -- 1,092 954 7,933 5,013
Totals for fiscal year -- ---- 13,766 11,335 _-- $98,765 $58,865
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST 6 MONTHS
OF FISCAL YEAR 1973
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1973 1972
Commercial _------ 6,897 6,637
U.S. Government------ 214 206
Free --_---------- _17 31
Total ------- 7,128 6,874


TOLLS *
Commercial- $54,350,901
U.S. Govern-
ment__.-- 1,311,299
Total _- $55,662,200


SPRING 1973


$46,131,799
1,343,557
$47,475,356


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
First Half Fiscal Year


1961-65
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
22 77,724
632 4,124,334
64 451,191
41 301,600
129 209,189

154 725,383
66 364,357
558 1,687,827
316 3,077,249
105 80,942
97 561,167
433 2,542,668
458 4,416,239
294 1,346,865
28 41,772
695 5,078,587
221 959,816
58 296,697
33 135,090
4 24,027
6 48,219
181 1,026,269
877 5,259,746
159 581,196
5,631 33,418,154


(
1


CARGOoo (Oceangoing)
Commercial_. 60,049,885 51,553,579
U.S. Govern-
ment__-- 848.066 821,399
Free --__- 8,490 41,532
Total 60,906,441 52,416,510
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.


(Continued from p. 11)
wet nurse had successfully weaned a
baby, the mother presented her with a
cadena chata as a reward.
The montuna pollera with its colorful
skirt is worn with a Panama hat, known
as "pintao," that is made in the moun-
tain area of Cocl6 Province. The slippers
match the color of the pompons and rib-
bons. The blouse is similar to the pollera
blouse but much less elaborate and with
only one ruffle.
The wedding dress is similar to the
formal pollera, but always all white,
with the embroidery and applique work
done in white. The wool pompon and
wool woven in the top of the blouse is
usually a pale pink or light blue.
The petticoats, of course, are white,
magnificently embroidered and lace
encrusted.
Although many women make their
own polleras, spending months and per-
haps years to complete them, most of
the polleras are made by expert seam-
stresses in the Provinces of Herrera and
Los Santos, especially in Las Tablas.
These women may be seen sitting in
their doorways making mundillo or em-
broidering sections of material. A num-
ber of women may be working on one
pollera which may take a year to com-
plete and cost several hundred dollars,
depending on the work that has gone
into its elaboration. Polleras are heir-
looms, handed down from one genera-
tion to another, and very fortunate in-
deed is a young girl who inherits a
formal pollera and the jewels that go
with it.




















Smorgasbord and Wives Aboard


Keep Morale High on Super Ship



"No man will be a sailor who has contrivance enough to
get himself into a jail; for being in a ship is being in a jail
with the chance of being drowned .... A man in jail has
more room, better food, and commonly better company."
So wrote Dr. Samuel Johnson about the life of merchant
seamen in the 1700's. Typical food aboard ships was duff,
a mixture of flour and sea water, usually boiled; tough salt
beef; and beer because the stale drinking water soon filled
with wriggling organisms. By the 1800's life aboard ship
was so miserable that the British resorted to kidnapping men
to complete crews. This was one of the principal causes of
the War of 1812.
Floggings were the order of the day for even such minor
offenses as talking while on deck and because the ships
were small, little valuable space was allotted for the crew.
They were often issued hammocks and simply fitted in
around the cargo. There was always overcrowding as extra
crewmen were signed on in anticipation of the number that
would die before the voyage was completed.
As late as 1938, seamen were found to have such a high
death rate that the British Medical Journal commented that
"in many cases it is quite obvious that nobody has given
any serious thought to the comfort and convenience of
crews.
Fortunately, modern technology has changed all that.
Dr. Johnson could hardly have imagined the life of crews
aboard today's super tankers and giant container ships.
A writer for the REVIEW recently transited the Canal
aboard a container ship to report what life is like for the
crew when comfort and convenience are given top priority
in the designing and equipping of a ship.


By Eunice Richard

C APT. IVAL FALCK HUSUM,
master of the 902-foot Norwegian
container carrier Toyama, stood on the
bridge of his spanking new ship and
watched the tropic dawn break over the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge.
"I haven't been ashore in Panama
since 1957," he said, "and I don't expect
to while I am master of this vessel."
Although the Toyama was making
her second trip through the Panama
Canal, and is expected to transit every
few months in the future, the ship will
never stop here on her regular appointed
rounds.
Like the "Flying Dutchman" travel-
ing around and around the world-
doomed ever to sail the high seas, its
modem counterpart goes to sea and
sees the sea and not much else.
Twenty-four hours in the seven or
eight ports of call around the world is
the maximum time that most of the big
container ships can spend in harbor if
they are to operate economically and
competitively.
Victims of progress, the master and
crew of the Toyama are not exactly
birds in a gilded cage but they could
have been subject to boredom and
depression if the owners and operators
of the new fast cargo vessels had not
made sure that life aboard ship would
be made as attractive as possible.
When the Toyama arrived at Balboa
recently, she had just completed a trip
across the Pacific from Tokyo at a cruis-
ing speed of about 28 knots. She waited
outside Balboa until dawn the following
day in order to make a daylight transit.
She was to sail immediately from Cris-
tobal after transit for Rotterdam, Hol-
land, Giteborg, Sweden, and Hamburg,
Germany. Then she would be off again
around the world with brief stops at
Rotterdam, Singapore, Hong Kong,
Kobe and Tokyo. The Toyama can be
unloaded only in those ports that have
container ship handling facilities.
The 36 officers and crew of the big
ship are housed in comfortable air-
conditioned cabins which feature wall-
to-wall carpeting, thermostat control of
temperatures, private baths, a desk and
an easy chair for reading. Most cabins
have large windows instead of portholes
and there is a telephone in each cabin
to connect its occupant with the rest of
the ship. Because of the height of the
ship, there is an elevator to take crew-
members from deck to deck.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 25















""i """
T '


Capt. Louis NI. Pascavage, veteran Panama Canal pilot, takes control of the "Toyama"
as it approaches Miraflores Locks northbound. Two other pilots are standing
forward on the bow and a fourth will take the second half of the
transit as a control pilot.


On the bridge are some of the most
modem navigational instruments avail-
able. The equipment includes two radar
sets with data-radar which is a calcu-
lator with its own radar screen coupled
to the radar sets. There also is a com-
puter-controlled mechanism, part of an
integrated anti-collision, navigation and
autopilot combine. One of the most ex-
tensive data systems made for naviga-
tion of a cargo vessel, this equipment
takes care of the greatest part of naviga-
tion at sea. The plant receives positions
and weather via satellite about once an
hour.
All this makes work much easier and
more pleasant aboard the Toyama and
gives the crew leisure time for reading,
athletics, or other recreation.
The owners of the Japanese built
Norwegian giant were thinking not only
of the comfort of the crew when the
ship was designed but gave particular
emphasis to the general welfare and
interest of the Norwegians who make
up the majority of the crew and whc
are physical fitness buffs.
Just behind the deckhouse there is a
swimming pool that can be used in
nearly all kinds of weather. Not one of


Stewardess Gerd Hansen helps serve her
husband Second Engineer Ingod Johan
Hansen some of the Norwegian delicacies
that fill the luncheon table
aboard the "Toyama." Food for the entire
voyage is put aboard in Sweden.



26 SPRING 1971


a


....... .


I








-








-6





iii ::i --- -L _- "" ----: -" -- -, -"-



....... .. 'I...


... .'...


those boxes that are drained when the
vessel enters port, the pool looks more The "Toyama" at anchorage in Gatun Lake waiting her turn to transit
like the type that would be part of the Gatun Locks on her way to Cristobal and Europe. The "Toyama" is the largest
Lido dek on a cruise ship. ship in the Willh. Wilhelmsen fleet of cargo ships and the first
Lido deck on a cruise ship. all-container ship under the Norwegian flag.
Aft of this is an exercise area equipped
with a ping-pong table, stationary bi-
cycle machine, and a deck tennis court.
Movies are shown in the main lounge
several times each week, and a bar,
which is open to the crew on a regular
basis each day, is part of the combined
officers and crew dining area.
The transit started at 5 a.m. with
sandwiches and coffee served on the .
bridge for the crew on duty and for the
four Panama Canal pilots who were to
take the ship through the Canal. They
weren't ordinary sandwiches either.
They were hefty open-faced Scandina-
vian type snacks designed to keep a
husky man satisfied until breakfast,
which was served about 3 hours later.
Food is of prime concern to anyone
who goes to sea and a happy ship is one
that sets a good table. Chief Steward
Nils Olsen is proud of the compact
modern galley aboard the Toyama,
which is presided over by Chief Cook by
Arne Larsen and a cook apprentice, Leif
Erline Tjonsoy, two Norwegians who


First Officer Tor Odd Bierkeng charts
the course the ship will take
after leaving Cristobal for Europe.
Even though occasionally working
overtime, the men have much leisure
time aboard a modern ship.


TmE PANAi CANAL REVIEw 27


















At right: An afternoon swim in the ship's
pool is an attraction for a large number ol
the crew of the "Tovama." The pool is an
all weather facility situated between the
cabins and the containers on the deck

Below: Some of the crew members aboard
the "Tovama" act like tourists and take
pictures as the ship moves through Mlra-
flores Locks on her way from Tokyo. Japan.
to Hamburg, GermanN


,mow--)




I'


believe in serving hearty food in an
attractive manner.
The officers and crew joint dining
salon is filled with serve-yourself de-
vices which make a meal a sort of super
cafeteria with a smorgasbord atmos-
phere. Breakfast, for instance, features
such conventional things as boiled eggs
and cornflakes along with Scandinavian
specialties of tinned fish, and an assort-
ment of cheese. Bread is made aboard
ship along with rolls and pastry and
several different beverages are available.
The officers and crew come to the
dining area when they can during the
hour or so that the meal is served. Two
attractive stewardesses take care of the
tables, the dishes, and the food supplies.
Both are wives of crewmembers.
Chief Steward Olsen, who also han-
dles the bar and the supplies, said that
because of the speed of the ship, stores
put aboard in Sweden are sufficient to
last the entire voyage. Less cold storage
space is needed on this ship than on the
older slower vessels and only a small
addition of fresh fruit or vegetables is
needed en route.
Traveling around the world in an
easterly direction at 28 knots has
caused some problems never considered
by the owners, operators and builders
of the Toyama. The stewards' depart-
ment, as well as the officers on the
bridge, find it a little disconcerting to
lose an average of an hour every other

28 SPRING 1973


















At left: Not very many people can bicycle
through the Panama Canal. This "Toyama"
crcwmember gets his exercise on the sports
" deck and watches the Miraflores control
- *_tower pass by.
Below: Capt. Ival Falck Husum proudly
surveys his domain from the decks of the
new container ship "Toyama" which he
commands on her second voyage through
the Panama Canal.


day only to gain it all back in one fell-
swoop when the ship crosses the inter-
national dateline.
When the men and women aboard
the Toyama are not eating or working,
or playing, they may be found in their
comfortable cabins, sleeping, reading,
writing or studying. Taking great pride
in their wall-to-wall carpeting, most
members of the crew leave their shoes
outside the door to their cabins in the
Japanese style in order to keep the car-
peting from being soiled by grease or
oil from the decks or enginerooms.
Even the smallest cabins have arm-
chairs. a desk, lamps instead of berth
lights, and a sofa-type bed giving the
living quarters a studio-type effect.
Some cabins, especially those of the cap-
tain and the senior officers, are over-
sized in order to permit wives to come
aboard for a voyage or two. Since the
men never get home while on a tour of
duty, the wives, who are not on board,
meet their husbands in Holland or
Sweden whenever it can be arranged.
This rather isolated way of life is
relieved somewhat by the fact that by
company rules, the officers can work
9 months and take off 3. A Norwegian
law now being passed will provide most
with a tour of 6 months at sea and
6 months at home with pay.
The Toyama bears a Japanese name
partly because it was built by the Mit-
sui Shipbuilding Co. Ltd. in Japan and
partly because all the ships of the Wilh.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 29


CC J
11 mow -- -. -



1~


I" I- Vj9_..,2_


2~




























Typical of the trend toward comfortable accommodations is this spacious crew recreation room aboard the "Toyama," where
crewmembers can gather during off-duty hours for reading, playing chess, or other activities.


Wilhelmsen Line of Norway have
names beginning with "T." "Toyama"
means rich mountain in Japanese and
there is a mountain by that name in
Japan.
Part of the ScanDutch Consortium,
the Toyama is the largest in the Wilh.
Wilhelmsen fleet of cargo ships and the
first all-container ship under the Nor-
wegian flag. Two smaller vessels will be
added to the consortium by the com-
pany later.
Other members of the group operat-
ing between Europe and the Far East
are the East Asiatic Co. of Denmark
with two ships, the Sealandia and


Jutlandia; and Koninklijke Nedlloyd of
Holland with two under construction in
Germany; and the East Asiatic Co. of
Sweden with the Nihon. All are Panama
Canal customers.
C. B. Fenton & Co., a well-known
local shipping agency, represents the
Toyama and all other ships in the Scan-
Dutch Consortium at the Canal.
The increased use of the Panama
Canal by the big container ships is
regarded by Arne Hauge, manager of
the company on the Pacific side, as a
reflection of a growth of the container
trade following a worldwide trend with
the emergence of the simple but revolu-


tionary concept of cargo handling and
carriage in containers.
Most shipping companies have in-
vested recently in the big box ships
because it means greater transport
speed, lower shipping costs, and less
intermediate handling and exposure of
products consigned to overseas markets.
The container ships carry no ma-
chinery for loading or unloading. The
big boxes are handled by huge dock-
side gantry cranes. The Toyama carries
2,208 containers of the 20-foot size in
the holds and stacked on deck. One of
the eight holds is designed for refriger-
ated boxes.


Mrs. Gerd Hansen, an attractive Norwegian lass employed
as one of two stewardesses, relaxes in her comfortable
cabin aboard the "Toyama" when she is off duty.


Nils Olsen, Chief Steward on the "Toyama," relaxes
in his comfortable and attractive cabin. Windows facing
forward give view of Canal as "Toyama" transits.


SPRING 1973












By Vic Canel


"Art is a human activity having for its purpose the
transmission to others of the highest and best
Feelings to which men have risen."

--TOLSTOI


SIERE HAVE BEEN GOOD
artists on the scene in Panama
since long before the Republic was born.
But only in recent years has the local
art community shown strong signs of
developing the elements that can make
it an important art center.
The problem in the past, most artists
agree, is that there were no galleries to
exhibit and sell their work. There was
no competition, little incentive for an
artist to develop his talents.
Attempts by individuals to establish
art galleries failed for lack of support.
A few of today's well known Pan-
amanian artists like Carlos Arboleda,
Guillermo Sinclair and others who stud-
ied art in Europe began returning to
Panama in the early 1960's. Perhaps this
was the prelude to the slow but steady
development of Panama's art commu-
nity, which today has some good things
going for it.
Perseverance on the part of a few art
lovers ultimately resulted in support by
government and private organizations.
Credit for the development of Pan-
ama in the art world is shared by indi-
viduals and institutions who have strug-
gled long and hard to attain interna-
tional recognition for Panama's artists.
Foremost among the art patrons in
Panama is Dr. Felipe O. Perez, prom-
inent lawyer, journalist, art critic and
collector. Dr. P6rez started his collec-
tion in 1925, when he purchased a
painting by Epifanio Garay. He has sub-
sequently acquired paintings-mostly by
Panamanian artists-which have been
taken on extended exhibition tours of
the United States.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 31


NEW ERA DAWNING FOR



PALADINS OF PALETTE


Viewed through the contours of a piece of sculpture, a group of students work
on macrame at the Art and Cultural Center, a branch of Panama's Ministry of Education.





I


P p+.

h
i.r

UC


Whimsical hardware sculpture made from scrap parts is the specialty of Ken Pinkerton, an engineer with the Panama Canal
organization. The young customer's fancy was caught by the funny little men with the spring legs and the ball bearing tummies.

Stevens' Circle, in the Canal Zone, serves as an open air art gallery during
the dry season. Usually sponsored by the National League of American Pen Women,
the sales provide a ready outlet for Panama and Canal Zone artists.


Outdoor art sales at Stevens' Circle often find native artists like Uriel Diaz,
a Cuna Indian from the San Bias Islands, offering paintings with local motifs, wood
carvings or the popular "molas"-the typical apliqu6 work of the Cuna Women.


Crowds gather early on a Saturday
morning to browse for bargains
among the many displays.
32 SPRING 197"


I _


'~



































Above: Brothers Eugenio and Jorge Dunn, of Panama City,
arrange their paintings for display during a sale
at Stevens' Circle. Below: Snoozing in the morning sun,
this tyke takes ten while pop poses for a portrait
by Canal Zone artist Al Sprague.


Vc~7W


A customer looks over a collection of paintings, pen and ink
drawings and etchings depicting local landmarks
and historical sites. The ruins of Old Panama and the bridge
that spans the Pacific entrance to the Canal are favorite subjects
of many local artists.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


.~L



























:: s.-i^ '-^^cp^-'^^^^-*-a ef:1fccpfc~frp^^ ^ ^
Below: Carlos Arbolcda, one of Panama's
most noted sculptors and the director
of the Art and Cultural Center of Panama's
Ministry of Education, instructs student
Ivonne J. de Bustamente.
T +I '- lo' 1 1 T T ri?? ? l 4 11 *:4 ? I 1 Tf 1: f


Today, Dr. Perez' collection is valued
at more than a quarter of a million
dollars. Virtually every square foot of
wall space in his three-story house in
Panama is covered by paintings and
etchings. In addition, there are pieces of
sculpture on the porch and on every floor
of the house. Paintings which have
found no room on the walls are stacked
along the baseboards. Others, as vet un-
framed, are stacked in portfolios. But
Dr. Pdrez knows exactly where each one
is, and where, when and by whom it was
painted.
Recently, he loaned about a fourth of
his collection for an exhibit in the lobby
of the Chase Manhattan Bank main
office in downtown Panama. The paint-
ings and sculptures on exhibit were
insured for $100,000.
But it takes more than art lovers and
collectors like Dr. Perez to create an
important art center.
The Instituto Panameiio de Arte was
founded in February 1963 by a group
of Panama art patrons headed hv Patri-
cia de Picard Ami. who served as its
first president. Other charter members
were Graciela de Eleta. Gabriela de
Motta, Aida de Guizado, Estela Haseth.
Maria de Canel6pulos and Edna de
Alfaro.
The institute survived solely on con-
tributions from its members and patrons
until 1968, when it was granted a
$5,000 yearly subsidy by the Panama
government. A driving force behind the
institute today is Olga Zubieta de Oiler.
Though a mother of five, she devotes
much time to organizing exhibits and
managing the center, which lately has
held many international shows.
Past presidents of the Instituto Pana-
mefio de Arte, in addition to Mrs. Patri-
cia de Picard Ami, have been Adolfo
Arias Espinosa, the late Isaias Garcia,


Part of the extensive art collection
owned by Dr. Felipe O. P&rez,
prominent Panama attorney, is displayed
in the lobby of the Chase Manhattan Bank.
The total collection, valued at $250,000,
includes works hy all
of the country's top artists.


Ral6 Rodriguez Porcell, Julio Bricefio,
who served for 3 years, and Di6genes
de la Rosa, who has served since 1971.
Among other art centers of Panama
which serve as training centers for the
development of new talent as well as
for the exhibition of works by estab-
lished artists are the Centro de Arte y
Cultura. a department of the Ministry
of Education under the direction of
Carlos Arboleda, and the Escuela de
Artes Plasticas.
Providing a link between the Panama
and Canal Zone art communities is the
National Leaguc of American Pen
Women, in which United States and
Panama artists collaborate in organizing
art exhibits in both jurisdictions.
Everyone connected with the art
world in Panama agrees, however, that
the greatest boost to Panama's develop-
ment in the art world has been the
yearly contest sponsored by Xerox,
which started in 1969. On even years,
starting in 1974, the contest will be in-
ternational in scope. For the past 5
years it has been confined to entries
from Panama and the Canal Zone but
has become the most important artistic
event of the vear.
Commenting on the Xerox contest in
the 1972 program, Dr. Felipe O. P6rez
pointed out that the company has
achieved its basic purpose "to bring
together the trend makers and the
promising younger talents."
Panama's only commercial gallery, a
recent addition to the local art scene,
was opened in partnership by Octavio
M6ndez Guardia, an architect; Antonio
J. Alfaro, a young businessman; and
Juan C. Marcos, a painter.
Called Nova Art Gallery, it repre-
sents some of Panama's better known
artists. Among those registered with
the gallery are Guillermo Trujillo, Al-
fredo Sinclair. Eudoro Silvera, Luis
Aguilar Ponce, Alicia Viteri, Manuel
Vasquez, Antonio Alvarado, and Nessim
Bassan.
Of the painters represented at Nova,
Sinclair, Trujillo and Bassan have been
first prize winners in past Xerox
contests.


SPRING 1973


















50 Years Ago
THE 172-FOOT SEAGOING DIE-
sel yacht Ohio, reportedly the
largest American built diesel yacht,
arrived at the 9-year-old Panama Canal
easily in 1923 on her way from New
York to San Diego. She was the property,
of newspaper publisher E. W. Scripps
and cost $220,556. She was only a few
months old when she arrived at the
Canal for the first time but during the
subsequent 3 years of operation, she
cruised 96,992 miles. The Ohio was
particularly designed for extended off-
shore cruising. In addition to commodi-
ous accommodations for the owner and
guests, provision was made for quar-
ters for a clerical staff so Scripps could
handle urgent business matters by radio
while cruising.
The maneuvers of the combined At-
lantic and Pacific United States fleets
were an impressive sight off the Panama
Pacific coast 50 years ago. In March
1923, the two fleets lay at anchor in
Panama Bay off the Fortified Islands
and some of the smaller craft were
anchored within the harbor.
Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby
arrived March 12 to witness the maneu-
vers, which highlighted tactical exer-
cises and special firing, terminating in
the sinking by gunfire March 22 of the
dismantled battleship Iowa.
The Secretary went on board the
U.S.S. Maryland after he made the
Canal transit aboard the U.S.S. Hen-
derson. The Maryland was the flagship
of Adm. Hilary P. Jones, commanding
the combined fleets. Members of the
Congressional party and newspapermen
went aboard the various battleships to
witness the maneuvers.
According to an account in the Pan-
ama Canal Record, the Iowa fitted with
radio devices which permitted distant
control of its engines and steering gear,
was sent to the bottom by guns of the
battleship U.S.S. Mississippi. The firing
was spread over 2 days. On the first
day, March 21, 108 5-inch and 80

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEw 35


fl~t



14-inch shells were fired. These projec-
tiles were designed to explode on con-
tact and do as little damage as possible
to the ship. When firing ceased, the
bow of the Iowa was 3 feet under
water, but the special radio apparatus
was still intact, and it was possible to
keep the vessel afloat until the follow-
ing day. On March 22, the practice
concluded with nine salvos from six
14-inch guns firing regulation armor-
piercing shells. The ninth salvo was
fired at 4:13 p.m. and the Iowa sank
4 minutes later in 75 fathoms of water
approximately 55 miles south of Balboa.

25 Years Ago
CONSTRUCTION OF A SEA LEVEL
canal at Panama as soon as possible was
recommended to the House Foreign
Relations Committee by Senator Mike
Mansfield, of Montana, on his return
to Washington from an Isthmian visit.
The Canal Zone became a haven in
April 1948 for more than 200 men,
women and children who were flown
here from Bogota after the Ninth Inter-
American Conference was interrupted
hv rioting which followed the assas-
sination of liberal leader Jorge Eli6cer
Gaitin.
Early in 1948, the first step in the
formation of the present Panama Canal
Company was taken when Gov. Joseph


FIFTY YEARS AO-Ships of the United States fleets anchored in the harbor at Balboa.
FIFTY YEARS ACO-Ships of the United States fleets anchored in the harbor at Balboa.


Mehaffey left for Washington to attend
hearings on the bill providing for re-
incorporation of the Panama Railroad
Company.
Panama Canal employees learned in
May 1948 that a general tax revision
bill in preparation by the House Ways
and Means Committee proposed the
extension of full income taxes to all
civilian and military personnel sta-
tioned in possessions of the United
States as well as the Canal Zone, Puerto
Rico, the Virgin Islands and the Pacific
islands.
Canal Zone school officials announced
plans to establish a junior unit of the
ROTC at Balboa High School. The unit
was organized at the beginning of the
school year with more than 100 cadets.

10 Years Ago
CONSTRUCTION OF 83 APART-
ments in the townsite of Pedro Miguel
was started in February 1963 by the
Panama firm of Diaz & Guardia which
made a low bid of $1,064,593 on the
project. This was the second group of
quarters included in a long-range plan
for replacement housing.
The Panama Canal went on a per-
manent 24-hour operation on May 12,
1963, for more efficient handling of the
gradually increasing number of ships
transiting the waterway.
The 22,000-ton nuclear powered ship
Sacannah arrived at the Canal for the
second time early in 1963 from the
west coast and was docked at Balboa.
Visitors were allowed on board during
the 3-day stay in port.
The Panama Canal Division of the
National Maritime Union of America
was extended official recognition by the
Panama Canal in accordance with the
executive order providing for employee-
management cooperation in the Federal
service.




Full Text

PAGE 2

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

PAGE 3

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2009 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1973pana

PAGE 8

David S. Parker Governor-President Charles I. McGinnis Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer Publications Editors Willie K. Friar, Jose T. Tuiion Writers Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hernandez, and Franklin Caslrellon Ravitw artielet may be reprinted without (urthei clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. Subicriplionj; $1 a year, airmail IS a year; back eopiei (reoular mail), 50 centi each. Published twice a year. Make postal money orders payable lo the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C,Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.ZContents Panama's Winged Jewels 3 A benign climate and varied vegetation assures a bounty of butterflies for the serious collector. The Pollera 8 From a humble beginning in the slave quarters, it has become the much admired national costume of Panama. United Nations Visits the Canal 12 United States U.N. Ambassador John Scali invites delegates to Miraflores Locks. Culinary Capers 15 Natural tropical juices to quench a thirst. Origami 18 Only a thin sheet of paper is needed to practice this ancient art. "San Juan Prospector" Breaks Records 22 Jumboized ship squeezes through in ballast. Shipping 25 Life aboard today's super ships is something like suburbia. Art on the Isthmus 31 Dynamic developments in the Canal Zone and Panama. Canal History 35 Our Cover "You look very familiar, but I can't recall your name." In human social circles such an admission is embarrassing. But in the world of butterflies it is easy to understand why a beholder would long remember the striking beauty of these fragile, colorful creatures while having trouble with their names. Be that as it may, the diagram below will introduce you to the lovely Panama specimens with the strange sounding names that grace the cover of this issue of The Panama Canal Review. 1 Rhetus arcius thia Mor. 2. Pierella incanescens ocreata Salv. & Godm. 3. Phoebis argante Fabr. 4. Morpho granadensis polybaptus Btlr. 5. Dismoq)hia amphione amphione Cramer 6. Papilio protesilaus dariensis R.&J. 7. Dismorphia dejone Hew. 8. Hamadiyas amphinome Linn. 9. Diaethria marchalii Gu6r 10. Nessaea aglaura Dbdy & Hew. n. Anteros formosus micon Stich. 12. Thecia bitias Cramer 13. Anaea marthesia Cramer 14. Morpho cypris bugaba Stgr. 15. Phoebis philea Linn. 16. Hehconius doris eratonius Linn. 17. Parides childrenae childrenae Grav 18. Morpho amathonte centrahs Stgr. 19. Mesene phareus rubella Bates 20. Catonephele numilia esite Feld. 21. Thecia telemus Cramer Co J-\/i Offv '^"^^ Spring 1973

PAGE 9

n A benign climate, rich and varied vegetation and great diversity of terrain have combined to produce an extraordinary abundance of butterfly life on the Isthmus. cmcunc^^ SPARKLING SAPPHIRES STUDding the dark green forest canopy" —Thus an enthralled newcomer to the Isthmus described the dazzling spectacle of blue Morpho butterflies viewed from a low-flying light aircraft. Locally known as "Ro\al Blues," these huge butterflies with wingspans up to 6 inches are unique to the American tropics, and rank among the most beautiful creatures to be found in nature. At least five distinct species of Morpho make their home in the forests of Panama. Males are frequent sights. With his net in liand, Charles Myers, of Margarita, holds a lonely vigil at Cerro Campana, where the ruggedly varied terrain is a favorite hunting area for butterfly collectors. Above: The fisheye lens captures a dramatic view of a butterfly surrounded by Panama's jungle foliage. The Panama Canal Review 3

PAGE 10

Well over 1,100 species are known in Panama. flaunting their brilliant color over the forest canopy and along trails and rivers. Greatly prized by collectors are their scarce and more somber mates, which unobtrusively wend their way through the foliage tending to egg laying chores. In Brazil, Morphos are raised commercially for the purpose of making showy trays out of their wings. The colors never fade, as they are produced in a purely physical way by difiFracticm of light in specialized scales in the wings, rather than by pigmentation. Splendid as are the Morphos, they are rivalled on the Isthmus by many hundreds of other species, attired in a veritable kaleidoscope of colors and patterns. Panama's benign climate, rich and varied vegetation, and great diversity of terrain have combined to produce an extraordinary abundance of butterfly life. Well over 1,100 species Gordon B. Small, a teacher at Canal Zone College, looks over his extensive collection of butterflies in his home in Diablo. Butterflies from his collection appear on the cover and have been used in illustrations throughout the article. Six new species of butterflies discovered in Panama during the last 10 years, four of which are from the Canal Zone. Even in such relatively well known as the Canal Zone, new species continue to he found. are known, and probably more await discovery. Quite an incredible number when one considers that less than 700 species are known in the entire United States, a country with an area more than 125 times larger. i Due to Scales | Together with the moths, butterflies are members of the group of insects known as Lepidoptera. The term is derived from the Greek words lapis (scale) and pteron (wing) and indicates that these insects are distinguished by the possession of scales on their wings. All the varied color efiFects of a butterfly's wings are due to these scaJes. Nature does not really distinguish butterflies from moths. Various structural difi^erences can be cited to separate the two but exceptional cases are all too frequent. It suflBces to say that most butterflies are brightly colored and fly in the bright sunlight, whereas most moths are dull and nocturnal. As is well known, butterflies represent the adult phase of a creature that has progressed through the stages of ( egg, caterpillar, and pupa before reach| ing its final winged form. The caterpilSpring 1973

PAGE 11

lars of butterflies are exceedingly voracious and devote virtually every waking moment to gorging themselves on the leaves of their specialized food plants. They store up so much energy that feeding for the winged adult is hardly necessarv— more of a snack than a meal. Fortunately for the human race, the cateipillars of relatively few species are addicted to plants of agricultural or economic importance, and, of these, even fewer are numerous enough to be labeled "pests." Most butterflies are closely associated with a particular species of plant, on which their caterpillars feed to the exclusion of all others. Sir Winston Churchill became aware of this when he endeavored to determine the particular plants that it would be necessary to grow in his garden to attract butterflies. To the dismav of his gardener, it turned out that several showy species could be enticed only by beds of stinging nettles! In the tropical forest, individual specimens of a given plant often tend to be widely separated from each other, and consequently, the butterflies associated with these plants may seldom be seen, even by experienced collectors. In addition, the character of the forest changes markedly as one ascends At right: Long handled nets are a necessity for the capture of many high flying species. Here, Charles Myers patiently stalks an elusive specimen at Cerro Campana. Below right: Carefully squeezing the butterfly on the thorax to immobilize it, Myers captures a specimen in a bait trap. Two other specimens can also be seen resting on the netting. The container on the platform holds the concoction of banana, sugar and rum which attracts the butterflies. Spreading the wings of butterflies for display is a time consuming task demanding care and patience. Specially designed spreading boards are used. The wings are coaxed into proper positions with long sharp pins and held firmly in place with thin pieces of slick paper. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 12

Transparency is a remarkable feature of some tropical butterflies. To demonstrate their transparency, the butterflies above were placed on a magazine. These belong to three different families, all of which are almost invisible during flight. The butterfly is a hunted creature that survives like the master spy by disguise and intrigue. Though appearing virtually identical, these five butterflies are, in fact, five distinct species, representing three different families. They are members of the dominant mimicry club found in the Canal Zone. All are distasteful to predators except the species in the lower left hand corner. mounitains or travels to areas of different geological characteristics. So, it is not surprising that many of the butterfly species found on the Isthmus, say, at an elevation of 2,500 feet at El Valle, are quite different from those in the Madden Forest Preserve. Bocas del Tore Considering these factors, it is doubtful that one man could ever succeed in collecting all the species of even a limited area like the Canal Zone; and thus, the never ending search for rarities is one of the fascinations of making a collection. A number of the species known from Panama are so scarce or localized or elusive that only one or two specimens have ever been captured. Remote forested areas of the provinces of Bocas del Toro and Darien are virtually unexplored for insects, and hold the lure of unknown species. In the tropics, butterflies have rather brief lives, most individuals probably not surviving more than a month. But a few hardy types of the temperate zone can endure almost a full year, hibernating through the hostile winter months. Flowers are visited by many butterflies in search of nectar, yet some disdain flowers altogether, preferring oozing sap or the juice of fermentine fiTjit. Collectors capitalize on this predilection by preparing such recipes as rotting bananas, molasses, and brown sugar, spiked with a dash of rum. The concoction is left to ferment for several days, and then placed in speciallv designed traps. In this wav certain magnificent and unusual denizens of the forest canopy can be lured to ground level and captured easily. Delicate Ornaments We are apt to regard butterflies as delicate ornaments aimlessly flitting about the countryside. Indeed, one ardent naturalist of the Victorian era declared that the presence of butterflies provided clear proof of the existence of God. What possible explanation could there be for such resplendent, fragile, useless creatures, other than they were expressly created by the Almighty simply to gladden the eye of mankind! Unfortunately for such romantic notions, the butterfly is far from a carefree creature. At all stages of his life, he is beset by a multitude of perils, to which the majority of his brethren quickly succumb. The winged adult is entrusted with two vital missions— reproduction and dispersal. Males often stake out territories which they defend belligerendy, viciously flying at potential rivals or other insects which invade their domain. Should a female appear, she is quickly courted, and after a short displav of feminine coyness, is usually won over. Far from being mere trappings, the resplendent colors and striking patterns of a butterfly's wings are the product of millions of years of evolution through the process of natural selection, and play a vital role in his survival. For example, eyespots are a conspicuous feature of the wings of many butterflies. In the "owl butterflies" they are large and conspicuous, and presumably serve to startle potaitial predators. The drab brown butterflies known as Satyrs, which fly amid the gloom of the forest floor, are equipped with a series of eyespots on the edges of the wings. There is some evidence that these serve as a kind of target for predators. A potential villain scoring a bull's-eye would have nothing but a chunk of indigestible wing to show for his markmanship. Copies of Dry Leaves Many species of butterflies are colored so as to blend in with their surroundings when at rest. Most spectacular of these are a group of butterflies that become faithful copies of dry leaves when they alight on a twig. One kind in particular has so perfected the disguise that it not only appears identical to a dead leaf complete vdth stem and veins, but also has several small transparent areas in the forewing, suggesting grubholes. The likeness to the real thing is so uncanny that it seems almost incredible that it could have been brought about by natural processes. Even the most dispassionate scientist must be given cause for wonder. Another remarkable protective effect is attained by certain small butterflies known as "hairstreaks," because of the fine hairlike lines on the undersides of their wings. At the lower end of the under surface of each hindwing is an evespot together with a projecting pair of thin filaments, suggesting antennae. In this way a realistic false head effect is produced when the insect is at rest. Some hairstreaks have, in addition, dark stripings that pass uninterrupted from the upper wings to the lower wings, and focus one's attention on the false head area. As soon as the butterfly alights, it moves its hindwings back and forth, causing the dummy antennae to twitch provocatively. Thus a potential predator is prone to lunge at 6 Spring 1973

PAGE 13

the sham head, and the butterfly makes a hasty exit with the loss of only a portion of its wing, and perhaps a little dignity. In some butterflies, a bold striking pattern and slow lazy flight are used to advertise the fact that their bodies contain noxious substances and that they would make for a decidedly unsavory gastronomic experience for a predator. Benefitting by bitter experience, birds, for example, come to recognize particular patterns as a sort of warning signal, and give their owners wide berth. With admirable economy, distasteful butterflies tend to standardize into a few distinctive patterns— in doing so, they gain the advantage that the bird's learning process is simplified, and so, fewer of their number are lost. Even the birds benefit, for they then have less unpleasant experiences. All gain, except the befuddled lepidopterist, who finds himself confronted by a multitude of butterflies which all look very much the same, but in reality are a composition of many distinct species. Butterflies which have adopted a common warning pattern are said to form a "mimicry club," and their members are conspicuous sights in the forests of the Isthmus. The mimicry phenomenon is extremely complex and fascinating. For example, a few perfectly savory species of butterflies have succeeded through the process of natural selection in adopting the warning pattern of the distasteful butterflies of a mimicry club. They have, so to speak, crashed the party. The birds thus avoid them, assuming they are noxious. Paradoxically, these imposters must be rare, otherwise the predators would not learn to associate their particular pattern with distastefulness. Disguises and Mimicry The butterfly is thus a hunted creature that survives like the master spy— by disguises and intrigues and mimicry. But the butterfly can go the spy one better; he sometimes is invisible. Deep in the shade of the forests are found a number of butterflies which have foregone color almost completely, to the point where their wings are largely transparent. Flitting ghostlike through the dappled light and shade they are almost impossible to follow in flight. It is fascinating to note that in transparent species of different families, nature has used different devices to achie\e the common goal of transparency. In the butterflies of one familv. The Panama Canal Review 7 the scales are modified in shape, being reduced to fine hairs; in another, the scales retain normal shape, but are greatly reduced in size; in yet another, the scales are set up on edge, so that light passes between them. These facts supply the theorist of evolution with a fine example of how a single effect, transparency, can be brought about by a wide variety of chance genetic mutations and the process of natural selections. Subjects for Research For the geneticist, then, butterflies are excellent subjects for research, and the tropics an ideal outdoor laboratory. To the nonprofessional enthusiast as well, the living insect soon becomes even more intriguing than the dried cabinet specimen. Consider, for example the great migrating hordes of black and green "butterflies" that suddenly appear in Panama from time to time. Resembling butterflies both in appearance and behavior, certain structural pecuharities indicate that they should be classed with the moths, in the genus Urania. At times, during the most recent large movement, in August and September of 1969, dozens would pass by a given point in a few moments. All were traveling strongly and purposefully in the same direction as if with some single minded intent to reach a definite destination. Like Lemmings? Why do they migrate? Where are they headed? Are they, like lemmings, fated to perish without ever reaching a final destination? Recent research by Dr. Neal Smith of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute has shed some light on questions such as these, but also poses even more. His documented records indicate that eastu'ard movements involve a great many more individuals and occur at a different season of the year from westward ones. Surprisingly, some flights are accompanied by reproductive activity, and others are not. In the first case, an advantage could certainly accrue to the species by disseminating its eggs over a wide territorv during migration. But what is gained bv migrating after the eggs have been laid? Clearly, we still have much to learn about the behavior of the migrating Urania moths, but even if man succeeds in unlocking aU their secrets, a myriad other mysteries will ensure that the Lepidoptera will remain ever alluring and fascinating. The largest butterfly in Panama, the Owl, is seen only at dusk and dawn. Its large eyespots seem to frighten potential predators when the butterfly is at rest. A "dead leaf butterfly at rest. Note the stem and the line bisecting the wing suggesting the midrib of a leaf. Directly above this line are two transparent spots imitating grubholes. A hairstreak butterfly illustrating the false head effect. The broad white bands focus attention onto a brightly colored area from which filaments protrude suggesting antennae. A potential predator is prone to lunge at this spot and miss the real body which is some distance from the provocative area.

PAGE 14

By Jose T. Tunon THE APPAREL OF SLAVE WOMen and nursemaids during the Spanish colonial era of the Isthmus has become, with the passing of time, the national costume of Panama and one of the most beautiful and most admired typical dresses of the world. From its humble beginnings in the servants' quarters of the wealthy of Old Panama, the pollera gradually invaded the refined drawing rooms of high society, becoming a prized possession of all Panamanian women, from the rustic maidens of the countryside to the highbom ladies of the aristocracy. There are those who claim that the pollera had its beginning in Spain because of its similarity to the modest dress worn by women in the small towns of Spain in colonial days. And still others will insist that the pollera originated with fashionable ladies of Old Panama. The idea most accepted, however, is that the dress was inspired by the garment worn by the black slaves, later becoming the dress of the women of the populace, evolving into what it is today, the national costume for women and a svmbol of Panamanian nationality. There are three classes of polleras: the formal dress known as the pollera de gala; the pollera montuna, the everyday dress: and the wedding pollera, originally from the Ocu area. According to Panamanian folklore, the all white pollera was worn by the nursemaids, while other female servants wore the brightly colored calico skirt that became the pollera montuna, the everyday dress. The Formal Pollera The formal pollera for festive occasions and holidays is made of fine white linen, cambric or voile. At least 12 yards of material go into its making. It must be pure white to form a background for the blended tints of embroidered designs of flowers, birds, garlands or other combinations of designs, preferably of native origin and feeling. Exquisite designs are made in cross-stitch or by the use of a more elegant needlework known as "talco en sombra," which is characteristic of Panama. It consists of two pieces of material sewn together. A design is made on one piece of the fabric, and the design is then carefully cut out and its edges hemmed with tiny invisible stitches. The formal pollera consists of the blouse (wider than the montuna blouse), the skirt and the petticoat or petticoats, as one to three are worn under the gown. The blouse of all three polleras is white and worn off the shoulder. For the formal dress, the blouse has a neckband at the top of the bodice made of the traditional "mundillo," the fine handmade bonelace made in the Interior, and edged with lace. The band has openings in the front and in the back, where wool pompons are placed. The neckband is interwox'en with wool of the same color as the pompons. Two ribbons, called "gaUardetes," hang from the waist, one in front and one in the back, and match the color of the wool. The heelless shoes, soft slippers in velveteen or satin, also are of the same color as the wool pompons No stockings are worn. A beaut if ullv embroidered ruffle of fine wide ^''alerloian lace is attached to the mundillo band and falls to the middle of the bodice. Another ruffle is added under the first one and this falls to the waist, or to a little lower than the waist. Both of these ruffles are exquisitely embroidered or \vorked in "talco." The blouse has push-up sleeves with an embroidered ruffle, also trimmed in lace. The skirt of the formal pollera is always made of fine white material, fine enough for the handwork on the petticoats to show through. It is loose, full and long, reaching the ankles. The skirt is two piece; the upper section comes to the knees and is separated by an insertion of mundillo lace, with the material gathered in such a manner that it can be spread out and be admired. Twice as much fabric goes into the lower part of the skirt, making a circle. Above: The intricate handwork on the petticoat of the white wedding pollera is displayed by Miss Marilyn Escobar who is seen at right lighting a candle in Panama's famous Church of the Golden Altar. 8 Spmng 1973

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The Panama Canal Review

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Participating in the folkloric dances held at Old Panama during the dry season is Miss Marta Vega wearing the montuna. & Ciolden chains, including the typically Panamanian "cadena chata," and other gold jewelr)-, such as coins in filigree frames, are worn with the formal pollera. The elaborate jewelry and combs, encrusted with pearls, are as impressive from the back as from the front. The edge of the skirt is trimmed with about 25 yards of lace, 4 or 5 inches wide. The magnificent skirt is gathered at the waist and tied by four narrow ribbons, two crossing in the front and two in the back, running through the button holes of two gold buttons at either side of the waist. The petticoats are handmade of very fine white linen, as elaborate as the 10 Spring 1973

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Framed by the modernistic sculpture which stands in front of the PacificAtlantic Bank in Panama, Leyda and Marilyn Escobar display the magnificent skirts of their poUeras. The unusual metal sculpture is by Adolfo Arias, Jr. skirt, with laces, cutwork and embroidery. Usually two are worn with the poUera. sometimes three. The hairdress is an important part of the pollera. The hair is parted in the center and tightly pulled back behind the ears, forming two braids. The braids are covered with several pairs of "tembleques," the glittering sprays of flowerlike filigree ornaments made of gold and silver and pearls, their flexible stems "trembling" as the wearer moves. Two kinds of combs are worn, one crested with elaborate gold work, called "de balcon" as they resemble the design of balcony railings. These are placed toward the back of the head on either side. The others are called "de perlas" because the gold work is encrusted with pearls. These are worn a little to the front of the head. Earrings are large, of various shapes, in gold or silver, with rosettes of pearls or coral. Se\'eral gold chains around the neck. from four to eight, are part of the jewelry worn with the formal dress. These include coral and pearl rosaries, gold coins in filigree frames on plain gold chains, a gold cross on a chain or a narrow black ribbon, gold cords with religious emblems, scapularies, and the "cadena chata," the flat chain with a gold fish at the end. It is absolutely Panamanian in significance and, according to legend, in the old days, when a (Please see p. 24) The Panama Canal Review 11

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U.N. Security Council Visits the Panama Canal Maintenance Division employees put up flags of the 15 nations, participating in the Security Council meeting, along John F. Kennedy Avenue near Panama's Legislative Palace. Gov. David S. Parker takes delegates on a tour of Miraflores Locks. Right to left, are: Go>emor Parker; Kurt Waldheim, U.N. Secretary General; John Scali, U.S. Ambassador to United Nations; Yakov Alexandrovich Malik, U.S.S.R. Ambassador to United Nations; Sir Colin Crowe, U.K. Ambassador to United Nations; Mrs. Waldheim; and Mrs. Malik. NOT SINCE 1956, WHEN THE Presidents of the American States met in Panama, had so many of the world's dignitaries visited the Panama Canal in one day. The day was March 15. Delegates to the U.N. Security Council, which met at Panama's Legislative Palace from March 15 through March 21, were guests of John Scali, the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, during a tour of Miraflores Locks, following the opening session of the Council. They were met at the locks and escorted to the Miraflores Theater, where they were greeted by Gov. David S. Parker. Here they were given a 40minute briefing on the Canal by Col. A. L. Romaneski, Engineering and Construction Bureau Director. Governor Parker then led the delegates on a tour of the control house and they were taken through the turmel in the center wall before going aboard the craneboat Atlas for lunch. The Atlas was tied up at the east wall of the upper lock chamber so that delegates could have a vantage point for viewing transiting ships. The Dredging and Navigation Divisions and the Executive Planning Staff were among the many Canal units working closely together in the planning and handling of all aspects of the visit. It was a clear sunny day and television cameramen, shooting in color, had a field day photographing the transit of the Polar Paraguay, a sparkling white German ship carrying refrigerated cargo from Morocco to Ecuador, and the bright red container ship Columbus Australia, also a German-flag ship, which was en route from the east coast of the United States to Australia. The yacht Fiesta, which had set out from Pier 18 in Balboa with an estimated 530 guests of the Panamanian Government aboard, came astern of the Atlas about 2:45 p.m. and the delegates and other guests went aboard her to complete the tour which ended at Pedro Miguel Locks. Some of the delegates who visited the Canal Zone were: U.N. Secretary General Kurt Waldheim, of Austria; Ambassador Yakov Alexandrovich Malik, of U.S.S.R.; Panama's Ambassador Aquilino E. Boyd; Ambassador Louis De Guidirigaud, of France; Sir Laurence Mclntyre, AustraUa's Ambassador; Indian Ambassador Samarendranath Sen; Ambassador Joseph OderoJowl, of Kenya; Ambassador Chaidir Anwar Sani, of Indonesia; and Ambassador Javier Perez De Cuellar, of Peru. 12 Spring 1973

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Other high ranking oflScials on hand at Miraflores included: Panama Foreign Minister Juan Antonio Tack; Galo Plaza Lasso, of Ecuador, Secretary General of the Organization of American States; U.S. Ambassador to Panama Robert M. Sayre; British Ambassador to Panama Dugald Malcolm; Cuban Foreign Minister Raul Roa; and Foreign Minister of Costa Rica Gonzalo Facio. In Panama for the Security Council meeting, in addition to the 15 United Nations ambassadors, were high ranking officials from 38 other countries and 240 foreign newsmen. Thioughout the meeting, as well as long before it opened, U.S. agencies on the Isthmus worked in close cooperation on arrangements for the visit to the Canal. Detailed plans were worked out to assist the international press and to accommodate the delegates and other dignitaries. Days before the meeting, newsmen began arriving in Panama and documentary movies of the Canal were filmed by television crews from Russia, France, and the United States to be shipped back for televising in these countries prior to the meeting of the Security Council. The U.S. Information Service set up a press center at the Panama Hotel where press kits containing information about the Canal were available. The Panama Canal Information Office provided basic information about the Panama Canal in nine languages— Russian, French, Italian, Spanish, Japanese, Chinese, German, English, and Portuguese. Robert Emerick, of the Executive Planning Staff, right, meets Panama's Foreign Relations Ministry Advisor, Dr. Jorge Illueca, and his wife on their arrival at Miraflores. Kenya's Ambassador to the United Nations, Joseph OderoJowi, and his wife are escorted to the Miraflores Theater by Frank A. Baldwin, Information Officer. William De La Mater, Protocol Officer and Aide to the Governor, accompanies India's Ambassador to the United Nations Saniarendranath Sen and his wife on the tour of the locks. Behind them to the left are India's Ambassador to Panama, P. M. D'Souza and his wife. The Pana-ma Canal Review 13

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EL CANAL DE PANAMA b UMCwioi Vd* C^Ute*1> <:,iJ^ (ik' (m 1903 Pc"*"^ P*!^ ^,1*,, to.™"""' oL *!"* ~""'!,!w'li ol bo V ', ^twP'K"*" ""<(; i.it: '"%, ^o?'N i^.:!^ THE PANAMA CANAL rn ISM, ChMTtn V (i4 Spain ordrmJ th. bit ninry 0* a FVopoaol anaJ foul* Uiro-.gh tha Inhmu, a( p,n. aina Mora (haa ihnv nnlunn paaaad bafofa iha flnt uaifUuattoB IS80. but diaaaia and fioaooal paoblami dtrfaatad diam In lS(n Faaaina gunad lb indapandencx {nm Colombia Shoatlv ihaiaallai. Panama and tba Unllad Stalia ilpinj a tical> m which ihc I'niiad Slalai guar anlaad Panama 1 mdapaodantr and paid hai 110 mJ boo On May *. mw, A, Umtad Suiaa fauThasad iba Fraaich Canal f janpanv nghu and piopartiai lor MO RilUkm and hajan ivnalmnion Tb* huge proiati wai conplaKd in 10 yraii at a ci nl about UST miUUm Tile SS Anfcm mada the flnt o&ial onan-tiymaD tianiH on Aupial 15, 1014 In Gacal yi 197! ibaac wan IMSt mnalU, ulh*tetly dmaaion Tha Canal Zona otxuple* 1 np of land 10 milta yyida-5 milea on auh Uda hnn Iha eantei ol the wiinuiay Tha Atlantic antaanca U appnjumatah' !~ mllej ail ol the Pacific aitaania A ihip entering the Canal from tha Atlantic lall. at Ka leye! Ifotn Crulobal Harboa to Caiun Locki a dutanca ol : milea It u then lilted 85 leal In Catun Lake In three lockage, or flepi From Gahio it nlll S3 lea< above wa level, to Podro Miguel, a diataoca o* 31 mllaiA mgla loc^ga at Pedro Ml(nd lo-aaa Iha ihlp John F. Shea, of the Graphic Branch, sets up movie equipment at Miraflores. Booklets containing the briefing given at Miraflores Locks were made up in Spanish, French, and English and distributed to newsmen and delegates following completion of the tour. Employees of the Translator's Office, along with some part-time help brought in for the project, did the translations into French and Spanish and the Printing Plant staff worked long hours turning out the brochures in time for the meeting. Printing Plant employees work routinely with Spanish but the French presented some problems. Because of the various diacritical marks peculiar to the French language it could not be set on the linotype. It was set instead on an ancient monotype machine that dates back to 1920, identical to one that was used by the Canal during construction days. The operator succeeded in doing a good job of setting the type although he had no knowledge of the French language. Another of the units of the Canal organization having a hand in preparations for the meeting of the Security Council was the Maintenance Division, which was assigned the job of putting up the flags of the 15 participating countries along John F. Kennedy Avenue near the Legislative Palace. Hamblin H. Sisnett, hand compositor, makes up pages of a brochure, "The Panama Canal in International Commerce" wluch was distributed to delegates and newsmen. William O'Sullivan, official translator, points out a correction in one of the French brochures to Harold Lewis, monotype operator. Sandor Liptai, of the Canal Zone Guide Service, hands out brochures in three languages as the delegates leave the "Atlas." 14 Spring 1973

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'Culinary Capers By Fannie P. Hernandez To Quench A Thirst TROPICAL FRUITS FOR MAKING drinks have been ignored by natives and newcomers alike who find it easier to reach for a soda-type beverage than to avail themselves of natural juices to quench a summer thirst. The abundance and excellence of fruits on the local market call for a redress of this oversight and an upgrading of their category on our list of drinkables. We all know the gustatory pleasure derived from a cold lemonade, and the healthful qualities of orange and grapefruit juice. Most of us, however, have hitle notion of the true qualities and attributes of many local noncitrus fruits as a source of delicious beverages. Discovering a new beverage is always a special pleasure, particularly if it is readily available and reasonable. Let us consider first the versatile coconut. Who can pass up the cool, pure freshness of green coconut beverage, known in Panama as "pipa" water, once having tasted the sweet, clear liquid of the unripe coconut! Always pure and cool in the container that nature provided, the liquid could well be that "nectar of the gods" so often alluded to by one who has just satisfied a raging thirst. Fruit of the Palm The refreshing and palatable drink is from the fruit of the palm tree, the constant supplier of food, shelter, clothing, timber, wax and wine. Furnishing tannin, dyeing agents, resin and a host of minor products make it the most valuable tree to the native population in the tropics and one of the world's most important crop trees. The ripe fruit gives us the familiar shredded coconut, and oil from it is used in making soaps, shampoos, detergents, oils, margarine, vegetable shortening, synthetic rubber, glycerine, hydraulic brake fluid and plasticizing for safety glass! Mounds of green pipas and ripe coconuts can be found throughout the year at markets, at fruit stalls along the highway, and in every town and village in the Republic. To enjoy the cool beverage, simply cut ofif the top of the pipa and drink it direcdy from the fruit or use a straw. Or pour it into a pitcher, spoon out the tender jelly-like pipa meat and add it to the water. A litde sugar to taste may be added. For a more "spirited" beverage, add rum, gin or vodka. Less known is the refreshing drink made from the fruit of the tamarind tree. Misnamed by Europeans who Sipping through a straw, this young lady enjoys "pipa" water, always pure and cool in the container that nature provided. thought the brown pods were fruit of the palm because the Arabians called it "tamar hindi" or Indian date, the tree is not a palm at all. It is a tall, stately tree with lacy foliage that curls up at sundown. A tamarind is often planted near the house as a windbreaker. The fruit is really a pod, from about Maturing at different times, a coconut palm may provide green "pipas" for a refreshing and palatable drink and ripe fruit for the familiar shredded coconut we find on the grocer's shelf. The Panama Canal Review 15

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1% inches to 8 inches long, often growing in clusters of three or four. The pods are filled with seeds and an acid, juicy pulp, dark brown in color. The beverage is made by shelling the fragile, treedried pods, removing the sticky pulp from the seeds and mixing it with water. The pulp is considered to have laxative properties while the seeds are astringent. Chicha de Tamarindo The popular native beverage is called Chicha de Tamarindo and here is one way to make it: 2 cups tamarind seeds, removed from the pods 1 quart of water 1 cup of sugar, more or less Place the shelled tamarinds in a large bowl and add 2 cups of water. Using your hands, rub the seeds to remove the pulp. Strain through a sieve and repeat the process using the remainder of the water until all the pulp is removed from the seeds. Add sugar to taste. Mix well and serve very cold. This makes a strong beverage. Dilute to your taste. To make Tamarirul Balh which can be stored and used for making beverage, candy or sauce when tamarinds are out of season, simply add about % cup of sugar to 1 cup of tamarind pulp and knead until you have a smooth dough. Add no water. Make balls about the size of a walnut. Roll in course sugar and store in a tightly covered jar. A beverage fruit relatively new on the local scene is the naranjilla, introduced to the Isthmus from Ecuador bv Fritz Collins, a well known fruit grower in the highlands of Boquete in Chiriqui Province. Naranjilla is also a popular fruit in Colombia where it is known as lulu. Colombians mix the strained fruit juice vwth condensed milk and call it "sorbete de lulu." The fruiit is about the size of a small orange, the color of an orange and grows on a bush similar to a tomato plant. Its thin, smooth skin peels easily, much like removing the skin from a ripe tomato that has been dipped in hot water. Naranjilla Beverage To make naranjilla beverage, peel three ripe naranjillas, cut them up and place in a blender with two cups of water and half a cup of sugar. Whirl for about 2 minutes. Strain to remove the tiny seeds. Serve over ice. Tastes a little like fresh sweet apple cider. One of the lesser known beverage fruits is nance, a small tart, yellow cherry-like fruit with a strong flavor and penetrating scent. It is sold at markets and along the highway in the Interior, packed in water, usually in bottles. The flavor of nance varies slightly from tree to tree and generally requires an acquired taste for most foreigners. Used fresh with water and sugar as "chicha fresca," it is a refreshing beverage. Fermented, it becomes a potent "chicha fuerte." Chicha de Nance Two species of nance are common in Panama, nance Colorado and nance bianco. Both grow profusely in acid soil. The bark of the nance Colorado is used by campesinos to treat fish nets against mildew and fungus. It also is used for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of "athlete's foot" and other skin fungus diseases. Wood of the nance trees is highly in demand for firewood as it bums leaving a fine white ash. Nance is harvested by shaking the tree. Come October you can buy a bottle of those "vellow diings" on your way to the Interior and make Chicha de Nance this way: Mash the contents of 1 bottle of nance. Add about a quart of water. Add sugar to taste and ser\'e very cold or over ice. It is a great thirst quencher. Sorrel Beverage Fruit beverages are good the year around, but sorrel, the light, spicy concoction made from the bright, red blossoms of a shrubby plant of the ornamental hibiscus family, combined with other flavorings, seems to be most appropriate during the Christmas season, when it is available. Sorrel is also related to the okra family. It is not really a fruit but the petals of a flower. The deep, red petals have a tangy flavor similar to the cranberry. Make sorrel beverage like this: 2 cups sorrel petals J Js ounce crushed ginger root | 2 cloves 1 small piece orange peel % cup sugar 4 cups boiling water Cut off the hard portion at the base of the flower, discard the seed pod. Wash the sorrel petals. Place in a large bowl with the ginger, cloves and orange peel. Add the boiling water and let it steep overnight. The following day, strain the liquid and add the sugar. Stir well and serve cold or with ice. By adding a dash of rum, you have a delicious, heady beverage. Cashew "apples," naranjillas, tamarind pods, a pineapple and a guanabana, a few local fruits that make delicious beverages. 16 Spring 1973

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Chicha de Maranon Plentiful on the local market, especially in the early part of the rainy season, is the cashew apple, that is not a true fruit. The real fruit of the cashew are the roasted nuts we buy in cans. The exceedingly juicy maraiion, as the cashew apple is called in Spanish, when fully ripe makes an excellent drink. The mai-aiion tree is beautiful with its bright red or orange colored "apples." To make Chicha de Maranon, cut up the fleshy, fully ripe "fruit" and press it in a food mill and then strain. Add water and sugar to taste. Or better still, whirl in a blender with water. Strain and then add sugar. Ser\'e cold or over ice. Chicha de Cuanabana Dehcious beverages are made with a combination of fruit pulp or juice, milk, crushed ice and sugar, the amount of sugar varying with the sweetness of the fruit and one's taste. Topping the list of these milk sherbert-like beverages is Chicha de Guanabana or soursop beverage. The fruit is large and dark green and filled with soft, snowy white pulp and deliciously flavored juice. It grows on a small, slender tree, often growing directly from the trunk. It should be picked from the tree while it is still firm and kept at room temperatiu-e until ripe. Make it like this: 1 large ripe guanabana, 2 or 3 pounds 2 cups evaporated milk 2 cups water 1 cup sugar Cut the guanabana in half. Cut out the core and scoop out the pulp. Place the pulp in a fruit press and squeeze out the juice. Add a little water to the pulp and squeeze again, repeating the process until all the pulp is pressed out and only the seeds are left. Add the milk and sugar. Blend well and serve cold, preferably over crushed ice. A teaspoon of vanilla may be added. The same process may be followed to make milk-fruit beverages from bananas, papaya, mangoes and melon, always removing the seeds first. Chicha de Arroz con Piiia Since it was first discovered by Columbus on the West Indies Island of Guadeloupe in 1493, the pineapple has been one of the world's favorite fruits. In addition to using it as food and beverage, the Caribs placed a pineapple on their doors as a sign of hospitality. It was so highly esteemed by the earliest settlers in the new world that the pineapple motif soon became a favorite European decoration. Commercially, in addition to the fniit and juice, the pineapple shells, ends, and trimmings are processed to make citrus acid used in making drugs, soft drinks and foods. Even the enzymes from the stumps of the mature plant are used in the brewing of beer and as a tenderizer. Many thousands of tons of pineapples from Hawaii are carried through the Canal each year en route to world markets. Several varieties are available in Panama during dry season and the beginning of rainy season. Panamanians will tell you that the world's best pineapples come from the Island of Taboga. One of the favorite beverages in Panama is made from the peel of the pineapple. Here is a recipe for making Chicha de Arroz con Piiia: 1 pineapple J cup Off rice 1 cup of evaporated milk sugar to taste Select a good sized pineapple. Wash it thoroughly and peel it. Boil the peel with the rice in water to cover. When the rice is tender, discard the peel and strain. Add milk and sugar to the liquid and serve very cold. Here is another Panamanian favorite: Cut off a pineapple about IVz inches down from the top. Remove the core being careful not to cut through the bottom. Pour rum into the pineapple. Put the top back on it and place in the refrigerator overnight. The pineapple absorbs the rum and the rum takes on the pineapple flavor. You will have a delicious rum drink. Slice the pineapple and serve as a fruit course or use as a garnish. (E.specially good with ham.) While her mother shops at the Chinese garden in Curundu, Digna Mercedes Tang, 3-year-old daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Carlos M. Tang, of Panama, samples the juice of a coconut. One of the most common of wild fruit trees in Panama is the jobo, which reaches a height of from 40 to 60 feet and bears an abundance of fruit. The ripe fruit, about IVi inches long and % inch across, makes an excellent beverage. It has a thin, bright yellow skin and a soft juicy pulp aroimd a large seed. The flavor varies considerably from tree to tree, ranging from sweet to sweet-tart. Harvesting the jobo is easy as the fruit falls when it is ripe. Pick it up from the ground before the insects and birds get to it. To make Chicha de Jobo: Wash the ripe fruit and, using your hands, remove the pulp from the large seed. Press it through a strainer. Dilute the pulp with water to suit yovu taste. Add sugar and serve over ice. The flesh of the pulpy fruits is also commonly used in making sauces, candies and ice cream in Panama and all tropical America. The Panama Canal Review 17

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t I I I • • •_! A VERITABLE MENAGERIE OF animals and birds covered the table in the home of Mrs. Kanoko Schear and her nimble fingers quickly folded a sheet of paper and another small crane was added to the collection. Mrs. Schear was practicing the ancient art of paper folding, known as origami to the Japanese. The classical technique involves producing handmade artistic objects without the use of scissors, knife, or glue. One simply creases the paper to create the figiu-es. In Japan, the art is known to date back to as early as 1336 but probably was practiced even before that. In recent years, there has been an upsurge of interest with events such as San Francisco's International Paper Airplane Contest attracting a great deal of pubUc attention. At this contest, a professor from Brown University won the top origami prize for his model of a supersonic transport plane. And according to a story that appeared in newspapers this yeai-, there may be profit as well as pleasure in the practice of origami. A New York advertising executive who was folding paper airplanes for his young son apparently has inadvertently discovered a whole new concept in aerodynamics. He plans to market the new type plane he folded as either a toy or a new airplane design or perhaps both. Mrs. Schear pointed out that since no tools are needed and suitable paper is readily available, origami is an art almost anyone of any age can enjoy. Her son, Frank, who is only 7 years old, has already become adept at the art and has a box full of figures to prove it. Three-year-old John has not taken it up yet but is enthralled at watching a sheet of paper quickly transformed into a crane, turtle, or boat in the skilled hands of his mother. Origami paper from Japan, which is sometimes available in shops in Panama, is used by Mrs. Schear for some figures but she said that gift wrapping paper or any thin crisp paper that wiU take a sharp crease may be used. Even brown paper bags can be used for larger figures. Some models require paper that is colored on both sides while for others paper colored on one side and white on the other is needed. Came to Canal Zone Mrs. Schear came to the Canal Zone in 1964. She met her husband, Gerard K. Schear, Administrative Officer in the Administrative Services Division, at Sophia University in Tokyo where he was taking courses in Japanese and the history of the Far East. Thev were married in Ancon and now live in Corozal. Since she came to the Isthmus, Mrs. Schear has served as interpreter and volunteer guide for various Japanese visitors to the Canal including members of the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force, whose vessels make periodic visits to this area. She also translated I I I • I • — ^ Hv. I • Mrs. Kanoko Schear demonstrates how to fold a sheet of gift \vrapping paper to make a crane, which is a peace symbol in Japan. 18 Spring 1973

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By WiUie K. Friar ,,,1111 1 ll- T^^ i t \ .r..ij- '!-• the basiic information brochure of the Panama Canal into Japanese for distribution to newsmen during the recent United Nations Securitv Council meeting in Panama, and is frequently called on to act as interpreter for seamen who are patients at Gorgas Hospital. She whetted the appetite of more than 100 fourth-graders at Balboa Elementary School, for more information about Japan recently, when she was invited to give a talk and an origami demonstration as a part of their Social Studies course. The children came home with a surprisingly sophisticated knowledge of origami, much to the surprise of many parents. Some gave their parents demonstrations on how to fold a special "tricky boat," a little paper boat that, however you turn it, is always right side up. Practitioners of origami include people of all professions but magicians, in particular, are attracted to it. The Great Houdini became so interested in it that he wrote a book on the subject. Shari Lewis, who is well known as a ventriloquist and puppeteer, also practices it and collaborated recendy on an origami book. More than 20 other books on the subject have been published in the United States in the last 10 years. The most famous present day artist is Akira Yoshizawa, of Tokyo, whose clear directions on folding have become the international language of origami. The Panama Canal Review 19

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The miniature parakeet at left is only 3 inches long and requires a multitude of folds. Photographed close-up, perched on a tree limb, he presents a remarkable life-like appearance. He has devoted his life to the art and spent 23 years perfecting one of his figures, a cicada. On a goodwill tour in New Zealand, Yoshizawa entertained mentally ill patients and illustrated how valuable the art can be for therapists in mental institutions as well as in regular hospitals where patients, though confined to beds, can spend the time creatively learning a new art. Any babysitter, who is looking for a means of keeping children happy, need look no further. Children of all ages respond immediately to watching the magic of a square of paper being changed into a bird, a turtle, a bat, or even Whisder's Mother. In addition to the fact that no tools are necessary, there is another advantage to origami as a hobby. On can practice it anywhere as all that is needed is a piece of paper. And if no ordinary paper is readily available, one can use a dollar bill, which is actually ideal for origami. Even a devalued dollar will do. LIKE TO TRY IT? Here are directions for making a very simple bird, not the rather complicated one shown above. Fold the paper by numerical order and then draw in the eyes. 20 Spring 1973

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Bj classical tradition, models are made by folding only, no cutting, or pasting Above: John, who is 3 years old, lies in his mother's lap and plays with the origami crane she just created, while 7-year-old Frank displays a few of the many figures he has fashioned from varied colored paper. At right: Laundry detergent and a mirror were used by photographer Steve Bissell to create thu interesting landscape featuring a penguin made by Mrs. Schear. The Panama Canal Review 21

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Jumboized San Juan Prospector Sets New Canal Records Transited in Ballast Before and after. The "San Juan Prospector," above, was one of the largest ships to use the Canal in 1964 when she measured 835 feet in length. Today again breaking records, with a length of 972.68 feet, she slides through Miraflores Locks on her first transit after being jumboized in Japan. PANAMA CANAL RECORDS FOR size and tolls were broken in April when the 972.68-foot bulk carrier San Juan Prospector transited the Canal en route from Trinidad to Peru. It was the first transit for the bulk carrier since she was jumboized in Japan a few months ago. The transit was carried out so smoothly that it paved the way for future use of the Canal by both the San Juan Prospector and her sister ship the San Juan Pathfinder, due here in the fall. Both are expected to make several trips through the Canal each year. The two vessels are Marcona Corp. bulk oil-ore carriers which were enlarged by Japan's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries from 75,000 deadweight tons to 108,500 tons by the addition of a midsection. When the Pathfinder is completed in July, she too will have a length of 972.68 feet and a beam of 106 feet which gives them about 12 feet on each end and 2 feet on each side when they go through the Panama Canal's 1,000foot-long locks. The lock chambers are 110 feet wide. Tolls were computed at $40,951.44 on a Panama Canal net tonnage of 56,877 which are record breakers on both counts. Because of their size and depth, the two ships probably will always transit in ballast which means they pay 72 cents on each Panama Canal net ton. The 950-foot Tokyo Bay held the record of being the longest ship to transit and the Hamburg Express paid the record tolls of $40,936.50 up until the arrival of the San Juan Prospector. Because they carried cargo— both ships paid laden tolls of 90 cents per Panama Canal net ton. They are container ships operated by the Trio Alliance, a consortium made up of the Overseas Containers Ltd., the British Ben Line, Hapag Lloyd A.G. of Germany and the Japanese shipping companies of Mitsui-OSK Lines and Nippon Yusen Kaisha The record for the largest cargo to be carried through the Canal is still held 22 Spring 1973

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PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic First Half Fiscal Year Commodity 1973 Petroleum and products 4,724,978 Manufactures of iron and steel 4,369,007 Lumber and products 2,489,075 Ores, various 2,130,399 Sugar, raw 1,840,447 Metals, various 711,630 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 707,059 Pulpwood 704,887 Bananas 613,235 Autos, trucks, accessories and parts 505,032 Paper and paper products. 402,137 Fishmeal 400,185 Salt 306,701 Coffee 274,139 Sulfur 261,733 All others 5,609,319 Total 26,049,963

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS First Half Fiscal Year 1973 1972 1961-65 No. of Tons Nationality transits of cargo Belgian. 64 251,901 British 666 6,247,374 Chilean 65 864,590 Chinese, Nat'l... 83 701,081 Colombian. 128 223,896 Cypriot 84 537,266 Danish 182 1,107,905 French 101 465,251 German, West__ 409 2,104,176 Greelc 475 5,251,916 Honduran. 76 78,042 Italian 141 595,384 Japanese 696 5,676,541 Liberian. 909 13,472,970 Netherlands 230 1,517,106 Nicaraguan 42 72,462 Norwegian617 8,014,000 Panamanian 463 2,956,783 Peruvian. 81 662,869 Philippine 45 288,306 South Korean— 66 430,093 Soviet 137 789,669 Swedish 213 1,483,890 United States 595 3,931,283 All others 329 2,336.411 Total— 6,897 60,061,165 No. of

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Smorgasbord and Wives Aboard Keep Morale High on Super Ship "No man will be a sailor who has contrivance enough to get himself into a jail; for being in a ship is being in a jail with the chance of being drowned. ... A man in jail has more room, better food, and commonly better company." So wrote Dr. Samuel Johnson about the life of merchant seamen in the 1700' s. Typical food aboard ships was duff, a mixture of flour and sea water, usually boiled; tough salt beef; and beer because the stale drinking water soon filled with wriggling organisms. By the 1800' s life aboard ship was so miserable that the British resorted to kidnaping men to complete crews. This was one of the principal causes of the War of 1812. Floggings were the order of the day for even such minor offenses as talking while on deck and because the ships were small, little valuable space was allotted for the crew. They were often issued hammocks and simply fitted in around the cargo. There teas always overcrowding as extra crewmen were signed on in anticipation of the number that would die before the voyage was completed. As late as 1938, seamen were found to have such a high death rate that the British Medical Journal commented that "in many cases it is quite obvious that nobody has given any serious tliought to the comfort and convenience of crews. Fortunately, modern technology has changed all that. Dr. Johnson could hardly have imagined the life of crews aboard todays super tankers and giant container ships. A tvriter for the Review recently transited the Canal aboard a container ship to report what life is like for the crew when comfort and convenience are given top priority in the designing and equipping of a ship. By Eunice Richard CAPT. IVAL FALCK HUSUM, master of the 902-foat Norwegian container carrier Toyama, stood on the bridge of his spanking new ship and watched the tropic dawn break over the Thatcher Ferry Bridge. "I haven't been ashore in Panama since 1957," he said, "and I don't expect to while I am master of this vessel." Although the Toyama was making her second trip through the Panama Canal, and is expected to transit every few months in the future, the ship will never stop here on her regular appointed rounds. Like the "Flying Dutchman" traveling around and around the worlddoomed ever to sail the high seas, its modem counterpart goes to sea and sees the sea and not much else. Twenty-four hours in the seven or eight ports of call around the world is the maximum time that most of the big container ships can spend in harbor if they are to operate economically and competitively. Victims of progress, the master and crew of the Toyama are not exactly birds in a gilded cage but they could have been subject to boredom and depression if the owners and operators of the new fast cargo vessels had not made sure that life aboard ship would be made as attractive as possible. When the Toyama arrived at Balboa recently, she had just completed a trip across the Pacific from Tokyo at a cruising speed of about 28 knots. She waited outside Balboa until dawn the following day in order to make a daylight transit. She was to sail immediately from Cristobal after transit for Rotterdam, Holland, Goteborg, Sweden, and Hamburg, Germany. Then she would be off again around the world with brief stops at Rotterdam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Kobe and Tokyo. The Toyama can be unloaded only in those ports that have container ship handling facilities. The 36 officers and crew of the big ship are housed in comfortable airconditioned cabins which feature wallto-wall carpeting, thermostat control of temperatures, private baths, a desk and an easy chair for reading. Most cabins have large windows instead of jxjrtholes and there is a telephone in each cabin to connect its occupant with the rest of the ship. Because of the height of the ship, there is an elevator to take crewmembers from deck to deck. The Panama Canal Review 25

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Capt. Louis M. Pascavage, veteran Panama Canal pilot, takes control of the "Toyama" as it approaches Miraflores Locks northbound. Two other pilots are standing forward on the bow and a fourth will take the second half of the transit as a control pilot. On the bridge are some of the most modem navigational instruments available. The equipment includes two radar sets with data-radar which is a calculator with its own radar screen coupled to the radar sets. There also is a computer-controlled mechanism, part of an integrated anti-collision, navigation and autopilot combine. One of the most extensive data systems made for navigation of a cargo vessel, this equipment takes care of the greatest part of navigation at sea. The plant receives positions and weather via satellite about once an hour. All this makes work much easier and more pleasant aboard the Toyama and gives the crew leisure time for reading, athletics, or other recreation. The owners of the Japanese built Norwegian giant were thinking not orJy of the comfort of the crew when the ship was designed but gave particular emphasis to the general welfare and interest of the Norwegians who make up the majority of the crew and who are physical fitness buffs. Just behind the deckhouse there is a swimming jxk>1 that can be used in nearlv all kinds of weather. Not one of Stewardess Gerd Hansen helps serve her husband Second Engineer Ingod Johan Hansen some of the Norwegian delicacies that fill the luncheon table aboard the "Toyama." Food for the entire voyage is put aboard in Sweden. 26 Spring 1973

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I II *-r,. those boxes that aie drained when the vessel enters port, the pool looks more like the type that would be part of the Lido deck on a cruise ship. Aft of this is an exercise area equipped with a ping-pong table, stationary bicycle machine, and a deck tennis court. Movies are shown in the main lounge several times each week, and a bar, which is open to the crew on a regular basis each day, is part of the combined ofiBcers and crew dining area. The transit started at 5 a.m. with sandwiches and coffee served on the bridge for the crew on duty and for the four Panama Canal pilots who were to take the ship through the Canal. They weren't ordinary sandwiches either. They were hefty open-faced Scandinavian type snacks designed to keep a husky man satisfied until breakfast, which was served about 3 hours later. Food is of prime concern to anyone who goes to sea and a happy ship is one that sets a good table. Chief Steward Nils Olsen is proud of the compact modem galley aboard the Toyama, which is presided over by Chief Cook Ame Larsen and a cook apprentice, Leif Erline Tjonsoy, two Norwegians who First Officer Tor Odd Bjerkeng charts the course the ship will take after leaving Cristobal for Europe. Even though occasionally working overtime, the men have much leisure time aboard a modem ship. The "Toyama" at anchorage in Catun Lake waiting her turn to transit Gatun Locks on her way to Cristobal and Europe. The "Toyama" is the largest ship in the Willi. Wilhelmsen fleet of cargo ships and the first all-container ship under the Norwegian flag. The Panama Canal Review 27

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At right: An afternoon swim in the ship's pool is an attraction for a large number of the crew of the "Toyama." The pool is an all weather facility situated between the cabins and the containers on the deck. Below: Some of the crewmembers aboard the "Toyama" act like tourists and take pictures as the ship moves through Miraflores Locks on her way from Tokyo, Japan, to Hamburg, Germany. believe in serving hearty food in an attractive manner. The officers and crew joint dining salon is filled with serve-yourself devices which make a meal a sort of super cafeteria with a smorgasbord atmosphere. Breakfast, for instance, features such conventional things as boiled eggs and cornflakes along with Scandinavian specialties of tinned fish, and an assortment of cheese. Bread is made aboard ship along with rolls and pastry and several different beverages are available. The officers and crew come to the dining area when they can during the hour or so that the meal is served. Two attractive stewardesses take care of the tables, the dishes, and the food supplies. Both are wives of crewmembers. Chief Steward Olsen, who also handles the bar and the supplies, said that because of the speed of the ship, stores put aboard in Sweden are sufficient to last the entire voyage. Less cold storage space is needed on this ship than on the older slower vessels and only a small addition of fresh fruit or vegetables is needed en route. Traveling around the world in an easterlv direction at 28 knots has caused some problems never considered by the owners, operators and builders of the Toyama. The stewards' department, as well as the officers on the bridge, find it a little disconcerting to lose an average of an hour every other 28 Spring 1973

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At left: Not very many people can bicycle through the Panama Canal. This "Toyama" crewmember gets his exercise on the sports deck and watches the Miraflores control tower pass by. Below: Capt. Ival Falck Husum proudly surveys his domain from the decks of the new container ship "Toyama" which he commands on her second voyage through the Panama Canal. day only to gaiji it all back in one fellswoop when the ship crosses the international dateline. When the men and women aboard the Tot/ama are not eating or working, or plaving, they may be found in their comfortable cabins, sleeping, reading, writing or studying. Taking great pride in their wall-to-wall carpeting, most members of the crew leave their shoes outside the door to their cabins in the Japanese style in order to keep the carpeting from being soiled by grease or oil from the decks or enginerooms. Even the smallest cabins have armchairs, a desk, lamps instead of berth lights, and a sofa-type bed giving the living quarters a studio-type effect. Some cabins, especially those of the captain and the senior officers, are oversized in order to permit wives to come aboard for a voyage or two. Since the men never get home while on a tour of dutv, the wives, who are not on board, meet their husbands in Holland or Sweden whenever it can be arranged. This rather isolated way of life is relieved somewhat by the fact that by company rules, the officers can work 9 months and take off 3. A Norwegian law now being passed will provide most with a tour of 6 months at sea and 6 months at home with pay. The Toyama bears a Japanese name partly because it was built by the Mitsui Shipbuilding Co. Ltd. in Japan and partly because all the ships of the Wilh. The Panama Canal Review 29

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Typical of the trend toward comfortable accommodations is this spacious crew recreation room aboard the "Toyama," where crewmembers can gather during off-duty hours for reading, playing chess, or other activities. Wilhelmsen Line of Norway have names beginning with "T." "Toyama" means rich mountain in Japanese and there is a mountain by that name in Japan. Part of the ScanDutch Consortium, the Toyama is the largest in the WOh. Wilhelmsen fleet of cargo ships and the first all-container ship under the Norwegian flag. Two smaller vessels will be added to the consortium by the company later. Other members of the group operating between Europe and the Far East are the East Asiatic Co. of Denmark with two ships, the Sealandia and Jutlandia; and Koninklijke Nedlloyd of Holland with two under construction in Germany; and the East Asiatic Co. of Sweden with the Nihon. All are Panama Canal customers. C. B. Fenton & Co., a well-known local shipping agency, represents the Toyama and all other ships in the ScanDutch Consortium at the Canal. The increased use of the Panama Canal by the big container ships is regaided by Anie Hauge, manager of the company on the Pacific side, as a reflection of a growth of the container trade following a worldwide trend with the emergence of the simple but revolutionary concept of cargo handling and carriage in containers. Most shipping companies have invested recently in the big box ships because it means greater transport speed, lower shipping costs, and less intermediate handling and exposure of products consigned to overseas markets. The container ships carry no machinery for loading or unloading. The big boxes are handled by huge dockside gantry cranes. The Toyama carries 2,208 containers of the 20-foot size in the holds and stacked on deck. One of the eight holds is designed for refrigerated boxes. Mrs. Gerd Hansen, an attractive Norwegian lass employed as one of two stewardesses, relaxes in her comfortable cabin aboard the "Toyama" when she is off duty. Nils Olsen, Chief Steward on the "Toyama," relaxes in his comfortable and attractive cabin. Windows facing forward give view of Canal as "Toyama" transits. 30 Spring 1973

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By Vic Canel TIERE HAVE BEEN GOOD artists on the scene in Panama since long before the Repubhc was bom. But only in recent years has the local art communitv shown strong signs of developing the elements that can make it an important art center. The problem in the past, most artists agree, is that there were no galleries to exhibit and sell their work. There was no competition, little incentive for an artist to develop his talents. Attempts by individuals to establish art galleries failed for lack of support. A few of today's well known Panamanian artists like Carlos Arboleda, Guillermo Sinclair and others who studied art in Europe began returning to Panama in the early 1960's. Perhaps this was the prelude to the slow but steady development of Panama's art community, which toda\' has some good things going for it. Perseverance on the part of a few art lovers ultimately resulted in support by government and private organizations. Credit for the development of Panama in the art world is shared by individuals and institutions who have struggled long and hard to attain international recognition for Panama's artists. Foremost among the art patrons in Panama is Dr. FeUjje O. Perez, prominent lawyer, journalist, art critic and collector. E>r. Perez started his collection in 1925, when he purchased a painting by Epifanio Garay. He has subsequently acquired paintings— mostly by Panamanian artists— which have been taken on extended exhibition tours of the United States. NEW EI^A DAWNING FOK PALADINS OF PALETTE Viewed through the contours of a piece of sculpture, a group of students work on macrame at the Art and Cultural Center, a branch of Panama's Ministry of Education. The Panama Canal Review 31

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Whimsical hardware sculpture made from scrap parts is the specialty of Ken Pinkerton, an engineer with the Panama Caoal organization. The young customer's fancy was caught by the funny little men with the spring legs and the ball bearing tummies. Stevens' Circle, in the Canal Zone, serves as an open air art gallery during the dry season. Usually sponsored by the National League of American Pen Women, the sales provide a ready outlet for Panama and Canal Zone artists. Outdoor art sales at Stevens' Circle often find native artists like Uriel Diaz, a Cuna Indian from the San Bias Islands, offering paintings with local motifs, wood carvings or the popular "molas"— the typical apliqu^ work of the Cuna Women. Crowds gather early on a Saturday morning to browse for bargains among the many displays. 32 Spring 1973

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Above: Brothers Eugenio and Jorge Ehinn, of Panama Citv, arrange their paintings for display during a sale at Stevens' Circle. Below: Snoozing in the morning sun, this tyke takes ten while pop poses for a portrait by Canal Zone artist Al Sprague. A customer looks over a collection of paintings, pen and ink drawings and etchings depicting local landmarks and historical sites. The ruins of Old Panama and the bridge that spans the Pacific entrance to the Canal are favorite subjects of many local artists. The Panama Canal Review 33

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cfc.cfccfccT3:tjici3cfccfocfcci>icfocp:fccn43cfcci3cfcctjcR43^43 fci Below: Carlos Arboleda, one of Panama's most noted sculptors and the director of the Art and Cultural Center of Panamas Ministry of Education, instructs student Ivonne J. de Bustamente. fi3 dr Ci3 C13 C13 Ct) C^ 03 03 Cj3 C^ CJ3 Cp Cf3 1^ C^ Cp (^ C|3 Cf3 Cp Cp Ci3 Cp t^ Cj3 <-|^ Today, Dr. Perez' collection is valued at more than a quarter of a million dollars. Virtually every square foot of wall space in his three-story house in Panama is covered by paintings and etchings. In addition, there are pieces of sculpture on the porch and on every floor of the house. Paintings which have found no room on the walls are stacked along the baseboards. Others, as yet unframed. are stacked in portfolios. But Dr. Perez knows exactly where each one is, and where, when and bv whom it was painted. Recendv, he loaned about a fourth of his collection for an exhibit in the lobby of the Chase Manhattan Bank main office in downtown Panama. The paintings and sculptures on exhibit were insured for $100,000. But it takes more than art lovers and collectors like Dr. Perez to create an important art center. The Instituto Panamefio de Arte was founded in Februarv 1963 bv a group of Panama art patrons headed bv Patricia de Picard Ami. who served as its first president. Other charter members were Graciela de Eleta, Gabriela de Motta, Aida de Cuizado, Estela Haseth, Maria de Canelopulos and Edna de Alfaro. The institute survived solelv on contributions from its members and patrons until 1968, when it was granted a $5,000 vearlv subsidy by the Panama government. A driving force behind the institute today is Olga Zubieta de Oiler. Though a mother of five, she devotes much time to organizing exhibits and managing the center, which lately has held many international shows. Past presidents of the Instituto Panamefio de Arte, in addition to Mrs. Patricia de Picard Ami, have been Adolfo Arias Rspinosa, the late Isaias Garcia, (t cfc (is CT^ cp :i3 cp i cp cp cp cp :p cp cp :p cp cp cp cp qo cfc cp ^ 03 CD cp Part of the extensive art collection owned bv Dr. Felipe O. P^rez, prominent Panama attorney, is displayed in the lobby of the Chase Manhattan Bank. The total collection, valued at $250,000, includes works by all of the coimtry's top artists. cp ep Cj3 C(3 ip


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Caitai {llit(v^ 50 Yzars Ago THE 172-FOOT SEAGOING DIEsel yacht Ohio, reportedly the largest American built diesel yacht, arrived at the 9-year-old Panama Canal eaiK in 1923 on her way from New York to San Diego. She was the property of newspaper publisher E. W. Scripps and cost 8220,556. She was only a few months old when she arrived at the Canal for the first time but during the subsequent 3 years of operation, she cruised 96,992 miles. The Ohio was particularly designed for extended offshore cruising. In addition to commodious accommodations for the owner and guests, provision was made for quarters for a clerical staff so Scripps could handle urgent business matters by radio while cruising. The maneuvers of the combined Atlantic and Pacific United States fleets were an impressive sight ofiF the Panama Pacific coast 50 years ago. In March 1923, the two fleets lay at anchor in Panama Bav off the Fortified Islands and some of the smaller craft were anchored within the harbor. Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby airived March 12 to witness the maneuvers, which highlighted tactical exercises and special firing, terminating in the sinking by gunfire March 22 of the dismantled battleship lotca. The Secretary went on board the U.S.S. Maryland after he made the Canal transit aboard the U.S.S. Henderson. The Maryland was the flagship of Adm. Hilary P. Jones, commanding the combined fleets. Members of the Congressional party and newspapermen went aboard the various battleships to witness the maneuvers. According to an account in the Panama Canal Record, the Icnva fitted with radio devices which permitted distant control of its engines and steering gear, was sent to the bottom by guns of the battleship U.S.S. Mississippi. The firing was spread over 2 days. On the first day, March 21, 108 5-inch and 80 14-inch shells were fired. These projectiles were designed to explode on contact and do as little damage as possible to the ship. When firing ceased, the bow of the Iowa was 3 feet under water, but the special radio apparatus was still intact, and it was possible to keep the vessel afloat until the following day. On March 22, the practice concluded with nine salvos from six 14-inch guns firing regulation armorpiercing shells. The ninth salvo was fired at 4:13 p.m. and the Iowa sank 4 minutes later in 75 fathoms of water approximately 55 miles south of Balboa. 25 Years Ago CONSTRUCTION OF A SEA LEVEL canal at Panama as soon as possible was recommended to the House Foreign Relations Committee by Senator Mike Mansfield, of Montana, on his return to Washington from an Isthmian visit. The Canal Zone became a haven in .April 1948 for more than 200 men, \\omen and children who were flown here from Bogota after the Ninth InterAmerican Conference was interrupted hv rioting which followed the assassination of liberal leader Jorge Eliecer Gaitan. Early in 1948, the first step in the formation of the present Panama Canal Company was taken when CrO\-. Joseph Mehaffey left for Washington to attend hearings on the bill providing for reincorporation of the Panama Railroad Company. Panama Canal employees learned in May 1948 that a general tax revision bill in preparation by the House Ways and Means Committee proposed the extension of fuU income taxes to all civilian and military personnel stationed in possessions of the United States as well as the Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and the Pacific islands. Canal Zone school officials announced plans to establish a junior unit of the ROTC at Balboa High School. The unit was organized at the beginning of the school year with more than 100 cadets. 10 Years Ago CONSTRUCTION OF 83 APARTments in the townsite of Pedro Miguel was started in February 1963 by the Panama firm of Diaz & Guardia which made a low bid of $1,064,593 on the project. This was the second group of quarters included in a long-range plan for replacement housing. The Panama Canal went on a permanent 24-hour operation on May 12, 1963. for more efficient handling of the gradualh' increasing number of ships tiansiting the waterway. The 22,000-ton nuclear powered ship Savannah arrived at the Canal for the second time early in 1963 from the west coast and was docked at Balboa. \'isitors were allowed on board during the 3-day stay in port. The Panama Canal Division of the National Maritime Union of America was extended official recognition by the Panama Canal in accordance with the executive order providing for employeemanagement coo{>eration in the Federal ser\'ice. FIFTY YEARS AC.O-Ships of the United States fleets anchored in the harbor at Balboa. The Panama Canal Review 35

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