Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevi1972pana








--
PANAMA )CAN








II--
'" -ME
ac







David S. Parker
Governor-President
Charles I. McGinnis
Lieutenant Governor
Frank A. Baldwin
Panama Canal Information Officer


THE
PANAMA CANAL




Official Panama Canal Publication


Margan E. Gaadwin, Press Officer
Publications Editors
Willie K. Friar, Jas6 T. Tui6n
Writers
Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hern6ndez,
and Franklin Castrell6n


Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Subscriptions: $1 a year, airmail $2 a year; back copies (regular mail), 50 cents each. Published twice a year.
Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Our


Contents


John F. Stevens 3
An amazing engineering ge-
nius, he knew there was more
to digging the Canal than
simply making the dirt fly.
Modish Molas 8
San Blas needlework is adding
a splash of color to clothing.
Funny Things Happen 12
For the men who put the
ships through, a day may in-
clude anything from platy-
puses to pigeons.
Culinary Capers 15
Whether Boquete oranges or
cashew-apples, Panama's fruits
make exquisite preserves and
sauces.
"Tokyo Bay" Topples Records 18
Largest container ship in the
world transits.
Mobile Masterpieces 20
Imaginative busdrivers deco-
rate their vehicles with por-
traits, pet names, and prov-
erbs.
South America on (?) a day 23
Coping with old and new
money is one of the hazards.
Medical Sleuths 26
Excellent medical resources
are available to students plan-
ning a career in medical
technology.
A Different Way to San Jos6 29
Travel off the beaten path.
Shipping 31
A look at the elegant cruise
ships which use the Canal.
Canal History 35


Cover


THE TOKYO BAY, THE L\I1;G.
est container ship in the world
and the largest ship to transit the Pan-
ama Canal, is a snug fit in Miraflores
Locks with her beam of nearly 106
feet. The 950-foot-long British flag
vessel, which transited April 19, 1972,
is the largest to go through the Canal
since the 936-foot Bremen, a German
passenger liner, made her only transit
in 1939.
The giant ship, like many other reg-
ular customers of the Canal, was de-
signed to fit neatly into the 110-foot
by 1,000-foot locks. Several ,c.ars ig.:.
the maximum size for ship irsini the
waterway was set at .ppr.:.\iinateil
800 feet for length and 1:i2 Ict K .: r
beam, but subsequent ch.ing.,:s in s5np
design and improvements ini C.mal
capacity have given shipowners and
designers a bonus.
The new Cunard liner, Queen Eliza.
beth II, was built with the idea of trran-
siting the Canal although her length is
963 feet. There was some hesitation on
the part of Canal officials not long ago
when the 990-foot United States was
scheduled to transit on a cruise. She
never did but the Canal has dci..-l.:d t.:i
give it a try on an experim:.ntal basis
if she does plan a transit in th,: frine
More photographs and th.: st.:.r ,. A
the transit of the Tokyo Bay .ipa,.ir or,
pages 18 and 19. The cover ph.:.i.:'tr.ilph
is by Melvin D. Kennedy, Jr


Artwork in this Issue: Toni McGrath
(page 3); Peter Gurney (pages 12 and 14);
Carlos Mindez (page 15); and Leslie High
(page 20).


FALL 1972


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John F. Stevens, an amazing engineering

genius used to the challenge of the frontier,

knew there i, l more to y.,,- C tl: Canal


than Ih. y makingg 1t1.


TN THE SUMMER OF 1905, AL-
though President Theodore Roose-
S} velt was telling everyone that he was
going to "make the dirt fly," privately
he was admitting that things on the
Isthmus were in a "hell of a mess."
John F. Wallace had just resigned as
chief engineer and the President was
seeking a successor. He chose John F.
Stevens, a forthright leader who
brought to the office a new vigor, cour-
o age and determination, which many
believe saved the Canal project.
The new chief engineer arrived in
Colon on July 25, 1905 and left imme-
diately on a tour of the work. What he




Stevens


dirt fly"


saw convinced him that the President
had not exaggerated the difficulties. The
challenge, however, did not dishearten
him. In Culebra Cut (later to be named
Gaillard Cut) he saw steam shovels
standing idle and seven work trains de-
railed and lying in a ditch while workers
milled about uncertain as to what they
were supposed to do.
He watched two laborers lift a wheel-
barrow, which they had loaded with
dirt, onto the head of a third man, who
balanced it precariously and solemnly
marched off to the dumping area.
As he looked over the broken down
undersized rolling stock of the Panama




By Willie K. Friar


F Vu .'" ,
Sandy Tompkins, art student at Balboa High School, puts finishing touches on her rendering of Stevens' Circle, which has become a favorite
site for art exhibits and a meeting place for teenagers. This monument to John F. Stevens stands in a small park in the center of Balboa on
the Pacific side of the Isthmus. In the background is the Administration Building of the Panama Canal.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Stevens halted all excavation and put men to work

paving streets, fighting yellow fever and malaria, building

piers, machine shops, hospitals, police stations, jails, churches .


Fumigation squads.


Railroad, someone pointed out proudly
that there had been no collisions for
some time. Stevens answered, "A colli-
sion has its good points as well as bad
ones. It indicates that there is something
moving on the railroad."
Stevens was 52, in 1905, when he
accepted the position of chief engineer.
Powerfully built and strikingly hand-
some, he was a man of commanding
presence and considerable physical cour-
age. He was not an "office engineer"
but a pioneer accustomed to facing the
challenge of the frontier. Like many
other engineers of that day he had never
received any formal training although
he had a long career building railroads.
The Apaches
Two stories are typical of his charac-
ter. In the 1870's while working on the
Arizona Railroad, a construction gang
was cut off by the Apaches and the fore-
man offered a reward of $500 to any-
one who could get through to them.
Stevens was the only man to volunteer.
He made the trip on foot through more
than a hundred miles of Apache
territory and led them to safety.
Ten years later, he set out from Mon-
tana with two Indian guides and a mule
to try to find a route for the Great
Northern Railroad across the Rockies.
The mule died and the guides deserted
but Stevens pushed on alone to discover
and survey the vital pass. Railroad men
and mapmakers wanted to call the pass
Stevens Pass, but he declined the honor.
He was used to working in the wilder-
ness with rugged men. On one occasion,
a gang of Italian laborers took a violent


Typical street scene in 1905.


dislike to him because he had ordered a
contractor to bur the carcass of a mule
that had died of disease. The men
claimed it for food and a crowd of them
chased him a half mile down the rail-
road track waving knives and clubs and
yelling wildly. Some of the irreverent
thought that it was a good joke on the
"old man." With these and many other
similar experiences behind him, Stevens
was not dismayed by the problems he
faced on the Isthmus.
He was the first to realize that the
Canal could not be built until certain
preparations were made and he set
about creating the fundamental organi-
zation under which the Canal was
constructed.
He realized that the needs were san-
itation, housing and feeding, transpor-
tation, and proper equipment, and he
ordered a halt at once to all Canal work
until a proper environment could be
created and all elements necessary to
the construction assembled.
Yellow Fever
He handled the problems of trans-
portation and equipment himself. For
the other fields he found the best men
available and put them in charge. He
recognized Gorgas for the expert that he
was and put him in charge of sanitation.
giving him all the supplies and men he
needed to cope with malaria and yellow
fever. Before this, Gorgas had met con-
stant frustration and had been told by
Adm. John G. Walker, Chairman of the
First Canal Commission, "the whole
idea of mosquitoes carrying fever is the
veriest balderdash."
He placed housing and feeding of
workers in the hands of Jackson Smith,


Laying brick at Railroad Station.


who had worked on large construction
projects in Mexico and Ecuador. One
of his first steps was to build a cold
storage plant, ice cream plant, bakery,
coffee roaster, and a laundry.
Stevens saw the need for a com-
missary system on arrival when he
heard of men going into the jungle for
bananas or into the swamps for sugar
cane because they were unable to afford
to buy food from the local merchants.
Eggs were selling for $1.50 a dozen.
Fish prices had risen because fishermen
refused to make two catches a week
having discovered that with the large
number of new arrivals competing for
the limited supply they could make as
much on one haul as on two.

No Refrigeration
There was no refrigeration service on
the Isthmus so he ordered cold storage
equipment installed on Panama Rail-
road steamers, a cold storage plant built
at Colon, and refrigerator cars procured
for the railroad.
Frozen products were brought t fr.:m
New York and deposited in cold sto:'r.c,
at Colon and daily deliveries of perish-
able food and ice were made at to:, ns
across the Isthmus.
At first there were problems ith
delivery and Stevens once wrote t.:. th,:
commissary manager, "I cannot im.-iine
why it should take so long to fill tlr
order, and if this is the way the Chi, :f
Engineer's requests are to be handled,
I cannot imagine what attention any
requests from any of my subordinates
would receive. I presume this can be
remedied and those requisitions filled
much more quickly than in this case; if
not, I would like to be advised."


FALL 1972






On another occasion he wrote, "Refer-
ring to the supplies which were ordered
Friday for my house, my attention was
called to the condition in which one of
the cans of ham was received, which
was, to say the least, terrible. This
morning it was not possible to get within
5 feet of it. 1 wish you would kindly see
that such supplies are not sent to me as
it only requires returning of same to the
commissary."
Between 1905 and 1907, he saw to it
that all the buildings required-quarters,
hospitals, school houses, churches, jails,
fire and police stations-were promptly
erected and put into service.
Tangles of Red Tape
Under his supervision, about 5,000
new buildings were built, old French
buildings were renovated, streets paved,
new harbor installations constructed, a
sewage disposal plant built, and water
mains put in. He installed a telephone
system that made it possible for him to
talk with any of the offices, however
small, along the Canal route.
When Stevens arrived on the Isthmus
few laborers seemed to know what they
were supposed to do, and those who
did had to cope with tangles of red
tape. One regulation, for instance,
required written permission to saw any
board more than 10 feet long. Stevens
began cutting away at the stream of
unnecessary paperwork.
Looking over the excavation sites, he
saw, at once, that more equipment was
needed and soon realized that the whole
procedure for purchasing had broken
down. His next step was to create a
machinery department to recommend


Workmen cooking beside the railroad track.


the particular type of equipment
needed.
Twenty-five years later, Stevens wrote:
"The Department of Machinery was of
the utmost importance. A quantity of
construction plant, tools and machinery
such as never before had been gotten
together in the history of the world was
planned, specified, requisitioned, pur-
chased and delivered to the site in
record time. This equipment consisted
of almost every mechanical device
which judgment and experience indi-
cated was best adapted to do quickly
and economically the vast work which
lay ahead of the engineers.
"Detailed specifications for individual
classes of machinery such as locomo-
tives, cars, steam shovels, etc., were
drawn up by the department. Cast steel
was substituted for iron, copper boiler
tubes for ones of iron and a like standard
of excellence was insisted on for the
entire list. The numbers involved were
enormous. I remember, for example,
purchasing on a single order 125 loco-
motives and 75 steam-shovels, and on
another 900 Lidgerwood dumpcars.
. .. Some French cars, locomotives and
dredges were, it is true, reconditioned
and put into service but 95 percent of
the equipment used in building the
canal was new; and of the immense
amount ordered during my time as
Chief Engineer, every single item, I am
told, was well-adapted to its job.
Nothing was wasted."
Stevens was one of the greatest rail-
road authorities of his day. From laying
track in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona
and finding and surveying routes in


One of the new mess halls at worksite.


Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, he had
gone on to become president of one of
the largest companies in the United
States. He saw at once that the Panama
Railroad, antiquated and rusty though
it was, must be made into the instru-
ment of disposal for the spoil from the
digging of the Canal.
Stevens was the first man to think of
using the Panama Railroad as a con-
vevor belt to move the soil that was dug
out. One of the big problems of the
French was how to transport the spoil
efficiently. By the end of 1906, Stevens
had rebuilt the railroad, recruited new
men from the United States to run it
and established a good working rela-
tionship between those who worked on
the Canal and those who worked on the
Railroad.

Greatest Single Factor
All material in Culebra Cut was waste
and had to be disposed of, and Stevens
designed a simple but extensive and
flexible system of trackage which proved
a success and was in use until the last
yard of material had been removed from
the Cut. Stevens said of the system:
"This was probably the greatest single
factor, in the nature of a machine, that
contributed to the successful building of
the Canal."
When he arrived on the Isthmus,
there were only 35 locomotives, 24
coaches and 560 flatcars. When he left
after 18 months, there were 293 loco-
motives, 52 coaches, 16 cold storage
cars, and 3,915 flatcars. In place of the
73 miles of light-weight track, there
were 350 miles of heavy relaid track.
The new railroad was the busiest in the


Dining room of Tivoli Hotel.


... houses, hotels, schools, mess halls, a cold


plant, bakery and laundry, and setting up a

commissary system.


THE PANAA CANAL REVIEW


storage
































world, running up to 570 trains a day
compared to 20 in the past. The trip
across the Isthmus had been cut from
532 to less than 2 hours.
Surveying the railroad system, Stevens
said, "I don't mind trying to make the
dirt fly, now that we have somewhere
to put it."
With the proper preparations made,
Stevens ordered excavation to begin in
Culebra Cut in early 1906. It was now
necessary to know what kind of Canal
was to be built-a sea-level or a lock
type. He had drawn up plans for both
but was convinced that the only prac-
tical plan was a lock type. Still he was
faced with the problem of convincing
Congress and the Senate. A subcommit-
tee of Congress voted in Mav 1906 in
favor of building the Canal at sea level.
Roosevelt had doubts and summoned
Stevens to Oyster Bay to get his opinion.
Of the meeting, Stevens said, "I talked
to Teddy like a Dutch uncle and
soon convinced him that a canal with
locks was the only possible answer."
The President was convinced but
not the Senate and Stevens was
forced to argue his case before a Senate
committee.
He had firsthand information of the
volume and the violence of the waters
of the Chagres River which had been
called "the lion in the path of a sea-level
canal," as well as all other problems
involved in the construction of such a
waterway.
He set about in a straightforward
manner to convince the committee,
though he hated the job of lobbyist.
After he outlined his plan, which in-
cluded an earth dam across the Chagres


at Gatun near the Caribbean end of the
Canal, one Senator was concerned
about whether or not it would be abso-
lutely safe and suggested it be rein-
forced with a masonry core. Stevens
considered this an unnecessary expense.
The Senator did not agree and said,
"I suggest you are too positive in your
opinions, Mr. Stevens."
"Well, I am a positive man."
"I suggest to you that this dam ought
to be made stronger."
"The dam is strong enough. This is
like killing a duck; when you kill him
he is dead; there is no use trying to kill
him deader."
Finally Stevens' plain speaking and
common sense prevailed. The Senate
voted 36 to 31 for a lock canal, and the
House followed suit.
Years later Stevens wrote in the
Journal of the Society of Civil Engi-
neers: "I have been privileged to do
some little service to my country, and
the greatest service I ever gave it was,
I am sure, the part I took in preventing
foreign votes from foisting a useless
thing-namely a sea-level canal as pro-
posed by the majority of the Consulting
Board-upon a too credulous American
people."
Roosevelt Visits
Stevens returned to the Canal Zone
and the work was continuing at a steady
pace when the President made his visit
in November. Stevens was with him
throughout his tour of the Canal con-
struction sites. Roosevelt saw and
approved the layout of the complex but
elastic trackage system on different
levels within the Culebra Cut, the effi-
cient coordination of train schedules
with excavation and the judicious choice
of dumping sites. He was photographed
in the driver's seat of a 95-ton steam
shovel while he watched how well the


system worked; that trains did not have
to wait for their loads; and shovels did
not stand idle for want of flatcars. He
then singled out Stevens for special
mention and commended him for "ad-
mirable results" and added that he
hoped that they would continue.
Stevens Resigns
But Stevens was not to continue with
the Canal. He suddenly resigned and
terminated his service March 31, 1907.
Why did he do it? There have been
many explanations but Stevens himself
refused to discuss the matter, except
after many years, when he wrote:
"Various reasons for my resignation
were given by irresponsible scribblers.
They all had points of similarity, as they
were all stupid and mendacious. In one
respect they were exactly alike; they
were all absolutely untrue. I resigned
for purely personal reasons, which were
in no way, directly related to the
building of the canal, or with anyone
connected with it in any manner."
Stevens stayed on only long enough
to transfer authority to Maj. George W.
Goethals, who had been appointed by
the President to replace him.
When Stevens left the Isthmus April 8,
the reception at Cristobal brought to-
gether almost every American in Cris-
tobal and as many as could be brought
from the rest of the Canal Zone in a
series of special trains. It was the largest
crowd that had ever gathered to say bin
voyage to a ship leaving Colon.
In a final ceremony at the ship,
Stevens was told that the men had sub-
scribed for some tokens of their regard.
These included a silver service, a watch
and a gold ring. Three gifts had been
selected because the men wanted him
to have something he could pass on to
each of his three sons.


~LT --'-


President Theodore Roosevelt, in white suit, is accompanied by Stevens, second from the
President's left, as he tours construction sites in November 1906.


FALL 1972






For many years, Stevens had worn a
plain gold ring of which he was par-
ticularly fond. It had been stolen and
the men had ordered one made up as
much like it as possible. They also pre-
sented petitions signed by more than
10,000 workers. The original petition
had read: "Please withdraw your res-
ignation and remain in charge of our
work. We will show our appreciation
and loyalty by working for you even
harder than we have up to this time."
A group of foremen suggested that the
wording be changed "for the men con-
sider that they can hardly promise to
work harder than they have been as
each and all of them have given their
entire efforts." They added however that
the sentiment toward Mr. Stevens "is
one of admiration and respect."
Just before he went aboard the SS
Panama, Stevens replied to the farewell
speech by W. G. Bierd. He said that
2 years before he was almost overawed
by the amount of preparation and con-
struction work required, but that con-
ditions were now such that he felt ab-
solutely assured the Canal would be
opened by January 1915. He asked the
men, as their sincere friend, to take any
little differences and complaints directly
to Colonel Goethals, for whom he asked
the same loyalty as heretofore had been
shown to himself. And in paying tribute
to Colonel Gorgas he said that until he
lifted the dark cloud which sanitary con-
ditions placed over the work, he was in
doubt as to success. But when this doubt
had been removed he knew that the
Canal would be pushed to completion.
Gen. George W. Goethals consistently
made a point of emphasizing his appre-
ciation of the work done by Stevens.
Typical were these remarks made at a
meeting of engineers in Portland, Oreg.


Stevens in the office which
he built at Culebra
overlooking the excavation
of what is now Gaillard Cut.
Not an "office engineer," he
spent much of his time
walking the Canal route and
talking with the men.
"There are three diseases on
the Isthmus," he told them,
"yellow fever, malaria,
and cold feet. And the worst
of these is cold feet."


The Chief Engineer on an outing with Mrs. Stevens, who
influenced him to accept the Canal position, telling him
that his whole career had been in preparation for this
great engineering command.


(Please see page 33)


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Stev ens moved the headquarters of th~e engineering organization from Panama to a new town which he built near the Culebra excavation site.
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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


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Photographs by
Arthur L. Pollack


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W HAT DO PEOPLE DO \\ITH
llljas?
\\'lile thL- Cun. '..omen i in P.inama'
S ,' Blas il.r, ds aire doing 1 .xactl
. h a, th.-\ .d'l.a, s did itih them-
.e.'iriue tliiir as L bl.imcs-mola fanclcrs
;n Panamai anjd the Canal Zonen- ar
ifishioning thcr, into re.r. tliin froii
." rs:-s t':' iripshI .dc
And th1r:- i n:. cenicrati ii .ip ,. icr-
t iir 1iic i, icoiccri,-rl Theit aj-- found
or. tihc s.1t iol iccna.iLers (r iin as e ll
ji the sktri of mothLliri's parit dri:s
Cr.iidmothir nai' hai. a n,.l-d,:-:c
iatted k'ijitirr,. ba. c hilI:- hcr er.ind-
daihtcr cirric' a m:ola i:.lildcr b-ie
Thl it L Jitioinail nimoli which h is piro in:z
o pop1i1l r v. ith amrati-ir rs ,.ell as; pro:
tc-fi:oi i i d] -cr s, i. s i cit.ini .ljar in
shl t .r-d .:,rists of thri:-e- to fi.c la'.,:-s
of ,Iiousi C ol..cd Co:':to,, clOt, Th,
Ih lihi..it? d.:-si ,S ai t ;hl-ion:rcd b', cut-
ting thri..lo h 1h l'.. .- I loth t.. i h
colo:.r J:1sieid jard the ol ,: :f the cl -
111 .3ic st*.'.r S.. thajl thi qtitchir, c ri-
not b,:- sc-ii The: techlirnijqu has be
d c1i 1I ,cd .,s "i:r v rsc .1 p 1i. 11c or
.% .,i 1 k nil tr ir .


iI'


Mrs. Sherry Holland, of Diablo, models a skirt which she designed to be worn opened up the side or the front.


FALL 1972






The Cuna seamstress makes no pre-
liminary drawing but starts out with a
picture idea and develops the design
as she goes along. A good mola may
take a month or two to make.
Custom-made molas may be or-
dered-at a slightly higher price. Just
show the inventive folk artists of the
San Bias a picture or sketch of the sub-
ject you want depicted and you'll have
a mola that is not only personalized, but
a unique conversation piece. Of course,
the results are sometimes surprising.
A likeness of your family dog, for exam-
ple, may be so highly stylized that he'll
come out looking like a giant anteater.
But no one else will have a mola like it.
Until recently molas were simply
framed on a background of colored
burlap and hung on a living room or
den wall, but they are now being given
new dimensions by imaginative people
with a propensity toward individualism.
On these pages are some of the inter-
esting ways molas are being used by
Isthmian residents with a flair for
fashion.


Zindy Wiggs and her colorful shoulder bag attract the attention of the Deakins twins,
Tim and Tom, as she strolls down the street in Gamboa.


'-- .


Viveca Kochman, Canal Zone College student, wears a brightly
colored traditional mola blouse with white bell-bottomed pants.

fl Y Y.-^ W ^ -:'.-.'7<


Mrs. Earl R. McMillin, of Gamboa, models mola-covered shoes.
At left is a handbag featuring the same colors as the shoes.


THE PINAN.A. CANAL RE\'IFx






Mrs. Charles Griffiths, wife of the Commander of the U.S. Naval
Forces Southern Command, who collects items with a
turtle motif, holds a turtle made from a mola which was given to
her by a friend as a souvenir of Panama. On the floor are a
few others from her collection. At right: A unique piano bench
cover made by Mrs. William H. Beeby, of Balboa Heights.


ffr67t r it. III
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The Classic Cuna Costume
_-

T HE CUNAS U
las to a blous
and one in back, usu
design and color. TJ
and a yoke edged w
blending color.


rSE TWO MO-
;e, one in front
ally of the same
hey add sleeves
ith borders of a


The early Cuna blouses were
knee length and were decorated with
a band of red at the bottom. As
colored cloth became more common
and as island traders brought in
needles, thread and scissors, in ex-
change for coconuts, the women ex-
panded their decoration, shortened


An attractive San Bias seamstress wears
the typical everyday costume of
the women of the Islands.


the blouse to waist length, and
gradually developed the technique
of cutting outlines of the desired
figures in the top layer of cloth
allowing the next layer to show the
design.
Not unlike fashion-conscious wom-
en all over the world, a San Bias
lady discards a blouse when the
colors get dull or when she feels the
need for a change in wardrobe.
Having discovered that tourists
will buy almost anything made of
molas, she usually offers the used
blouse for sale or rips it apart and
sells the two molas separately. Seri-
ous collectors are always on the
lookout for these as they know that
the Indian women save the best
ones for themselves and the used
molas, though faded, are often su-
perior in design and in needlework.


10 FALL 1972






Quite different from the traditional Cuna blouse is this one
made by Mrs. Holland. Around her waist is a mola necktie.


Thirty molas were needed to make this banquet-sized tablecloth
which Capt. Julius Grigore, USNR, took with him when he left
the Canal Zone following his retirement.


_~-a ,Ii


Anne Castles, Canal Zone College student,
wears a bikini which she made
from two molas.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






= From Platypuses to Pigeons



iunny TLhinrp tappn


Along the PanWaa Canaf
By Jose T. Tufi6n


SUPPLYING EARTHWORMS FOR
platypuses, coping with a phos-
phorus fire, removing a raccoon from a
towing locomotive, or being chased by
a barracuda, are not a part of the every-
day life of the people who keep the
ships moving through the Panama
Canal, but these and many other such
incidents illustrate that life is not
always routine along the waterway.
Although transiting ships often re-
quest unusual supplies, there was a
flurry of excitement in the 1950's when
it became necessary to fly in 10,000
earthworms from the United States to
supplement the diet of three platypuses
that were being taken from Australia
to a zoo in the United States.
About the same time that the earth-
worms were being flown to the Canal
Zone an unusual fire broke out aboard
a ship transiting the Canal. The ship
was carrying a cargo of phosphorus
which was destined to be made into
matchheads. Cristobal firemen wet the
cargo down, quenching the fire. A short
time later, they discovered, however,
that the phosphorus had gotten into
cargo nets and onto docks where once
it dried out, workmen walking through
it were starting new fires with every
step in the same way that a match
ignites when struck. Finally, all the
phosphorus was removed but not before
some of the men had gotten a "hot
foot."
Locks Division towing locomotive
operators like to tell of the time when
ship traffic was stymied at Miraflores for
2 hours by a "gato solo," a small raccoon
native to Central America. The animal
hid out in the interior of a towing loco-
motive making it necessary to dis-
connect electrical equipment while
everyone searched for him. As helping
hands approached, the frightened ani-
mal crouched deeper inside the mech-
anism. Finally, while ships' crews stood
by and visitors cheered, a fire hose was
used by locks employees to dislodge
their unwelcome guest.


Gatun Locks, which are located fur-
ther from civilization and closer to the
jungle than the locks on the Pacific side,
have had more than their share of
jungle visitors. There have been cai-
mans, snakes, small jungle animals and
birds. Then one day in 1952, lock em-
ployees were startled to see a deer
swimming in the channel just above
the locks. Linehandlers put out in a
rowboat to rescue the animal but the
deer drowned. The softhearted em-
ployees sadly lifted the body upon the
locks wall and tried to give it artificial
respiration, but in vain.
The crew of a transiting ship was
surprised one sunny morning, to see a
flock of pigeons taking off from the
lock wall at Miraflores. Seagulls, peli-
cans, sea terns-yes. But pigeons-hardly.
These birds were a special breed of
homing pigeons that had been shipped
to the Canal by their owner in the
United States. The idea was to set them


free at the Canal and let them find their
way back to San Antonio, Tex.
The flock of 19 pigeons had arrived
en Pan Am flight 401 consigned to
Frank A. Baldwin, Information Officer.
They were released 2 davs later by
Judy Frizell and Jane Holgerson, Canal
employees. Whether it was the weather
or the Canal that set their navigation
systems awry, no one knows. But 18
of the pigeons were never seen again.
The 19th turned up a few weeks later
when a resident of the interior of Pan-
ama near Santiago came by the Infor-
mation Office saying a pigeon had
taken up with his chickens and he
would like to present a bill for food to
its owner.
Linehandlers, who row out to in-
coming ships at the locks to take on
the ship's lines and connect them with
the towing locomotives, usually live a
fairly placid life. So imagine the sur-
prise of two boatmen on the sea side
of Gatun locks, when a huge barracuda
0


FALL 1972


II c~


7iiziL~~~T


S






leapt from the water with such force
that it landed in the rowboat. After a
few desperate attempts to kill the
monster, the men left the boat to the
barracuda, jumped out, and swam to
shore. Later they were able to pull the
boat in and kill the maneater. They
found that the fish weighed more than
54 pounds and had teeth measuring
3 inches.
Although the locks were built to
accommodate the largest ships in exist-
ence in 1914 and were expected to be
large enough for anything that would
be built for some time, it was only 14
years later that the U.S. Navy aircraft
carrier Lexington knocked down a
number of heavy concrete lampposts
at Catun and Miraflores Locks.
According to a newspaper account
of the passage, the U.S.S. Lexington
arrived in Balboa the afternoon of
March 26, 1928, little the worse for
the 12-hour trip through the Canal.
But four of the concrete lampposts were
missing from the locks and a handrail
on the Pedro Miguel Locks had been
smashed flat.
The Lexington took a toll of three
lampposts at the Catun Locks as she
was being stepped up to the lake level
and another at Pedro Miguel when
the vessel became slightly turned in
the channel and the prow struck the
post, crumbling it into rubble.
No one had thought that the Lexing-
ton would be much trouble since her
sister ship, the U.S.S. Saratoga, had
made the transit a short time earlier
without incident. They were the largest
ever to transit the 110- by 1,000-foot
locks up to that time. They were 888
feet in length and had beams of 107.9
feet.
Because of this accident, the Pan-
ama Canal removed the handsome
lampposts and replaced them with
metal ones located at a greater distance
from the wall of the locks. These in
turn were replaced by aluminum posts
in the 1960's after the aircraft carrier
Valley Forge knocked down the visitors'
pavilion at Miraflores and came within
inches of flattening the metal light posts.
The ornamental tops of the old lamp-
posts were not lost to posterity however.
They can still be seen these days along
streets in the Canal Zone and decorating
driveways and gardens in the Republic
of Panama.
The wealth of fish in the locks be-
came known to the Panama Canal em-
ployees as soon as one of the chambers
was unwatered for inspection and re-
pair not many years after the Canal was
opened to commerce.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13


J.%
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I~Sol


All the lampposts along the locks' wall are still in place as the U.S.S. "Saratoga" transits in
March 1928, but her sister ship, the U.S.S. "Lexington," which came along shortly afterward,
knocked down four of them at Miraflores and Gatun Locks.


(


10


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'U ;

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.-- -




The old lampposts were taken down and their decorative tops were used to line driveways
and as traffic bumpers. One of them offers a challenge to Luis Sullivan who takes a leap
while he waits for the schoolbus at Pedro Miguel.


F"

























Workmen found that the chambers
acted as huge fishbowls, and, with the
exception of a shark that followed a
ship from the Pacific into Miraflores
and died in the fresh waters of Mira-
flores Lake, they and transiting ships
lived in peaceful coexistence.
Many a snapper and snook captured
in the locks have been served at Canal
Zone dinner tables. During locks over-
hauls, employees often are seen going
home with loads of fresh fish slung over
their shoulders.
Not so welcome are some of the other
things that turn up or sink down in the
locks.


_) ( W


A large rope fender of the type used
on tugs was located in Miraflores Locks
recently by a diver, who was called
when one of the lock gates refused to
close. The wayward fender held up
traffic in the west lane for an hour and
47 minutes.
Recently, a truck ran off the bridge
crossing the lower end of Gatun Locks.
Traffic in the Canal was delayed while
a locomotive crane fished it out. Then
there was the boy who rode off a locks
wall at Miraflores on his bicycle. The
boy managed to swim to safety before
traffic was disrupted and the bike was
recovered a few hours later.


After a slide in Gaillard Cut September 21, 1915, this island came up from 30 feet of water.
Legend has it that a dipper dredge operator promptly planted a British flag on it.


Other debris found in the Canal and
the locks range from pieces of ships'
keels that somehow break off from the
larger vessels, logs of various sizes that
float in from flood-swollen rivers, and
once, a 10-ton boulder was found bv
a diver in the southern approach to
Miraflores Locks east chamber.
It also has been necessary from time
to time to fish people out of the locks,
particularly at locks overhaul time
when visitors, taking a look at the
floor, take a misstep and end up in a
sump hole.
During the early days of the Canal
operation, an island suddenly appeared
in the Canal channel following a slide
in Gaillard Cut. Oldtimers say that a
dipper tender sitting in the boom of
the dredge Paraiso "discovered" the
island and promptly placed a small
British flag on its top. The flag planter,
who tried to include Great Britain in
the Canal operation, was identified as
a native of Ireland, who said he did it
in the name of the "auld country."
Cristobal harbor held much excite-
ment in the early days of the Canal
and oldtimers still remember the whale
that moved into Limon Bay about 50
years ago. The 120-foot mammal,
weighing 125 tons, grounded in the
shallow waters east of the Canal prism
and remained there until it was killed
2 days later by a group of Canal em-
ployees who planned to render its
blubber at the Mount Hope abattoir.
The whale carcass was towed to
Pier 6 in Cristobal but the 75-ton loco-
motive crane was unable to lift it
from the water to the railroad flatcars
assembled for transportation to Mount
Hope.
When salvage efforts were abandoned
shortly after, the whale was towed
about 12 miles out to sea by a Panama
Canal tug where it was later bombed
and sunk by U.S. Navy planes from
Coco Solo. Thus was eliminated the
only whale ever known to menace the
navigation of the Panama Canal.
Still there are people living near the
Canal who remain oblivious to all of
the unusual happenings. Their attitude
is something like that of the old man
who during the last days of the con-
struction of the waterway was warned
that the rising waters of the newly made
Gatun Lake would soon flood his house,
and he must move. He sat calmly
beside his hut as the water began to
rise around his feet and said, "I've
heard that story before. The French
told my father that 30 years ago."


FALL 1972















uluinary




Capers




By Fannie Hernandez


SMANGO-NUT BREAD
rS N-I


C4
fis.
QP 4 O I
Ay4
BR S 40


IT IS COMMON THESE DAYS TO
regard with simple awe those people
who have the temerity to make their
own bread and marmalade.
But it is surprisingly easy and,
although it can be time consuming, the
smell that comes from the kitchen when
bread is baking or marmalade is cook-
ing is only slightly short of heaven.
Show me the man who can resist
a slice of warm homemade bread,
dripping with creamy butter and
smeared with homemade jam or mar-
malade and I will show you a cold-
hearted Scrooge with the bah and
humbug thrown in free for Christmas.
Bread can be made in a delightful
variety of ways anywhere but there are
few places in the world where the
ingredients for easily made marmalade
and preserves hang from a tree or a
bush nearly all year-around as they do
on the Isthmus.
Panama's citrus fruits could well hold
their own anywhere in the world.
Oranges, both sweet and sour varieties,
tangerines, grapefruit, limes-all tree-
ripened-are available the year-around
and most plentiful during the citrus
season from December through March.
It is not unusual to see golden oranges
and white orange blossoms on the trees
at the same time. The same occurs with
grapefruit.
Seedless Boquete oranges, about the
size of grapefruit and larger, are a beau-
tiful sight and delicious eating. The
common all-purpose oranges are sweet
and juicy, their natural sugar devel-
oping as they ripen on the trees.
Anyone with an orange tree on his
premises may find himself with more
than he can use and a good way to use
up the bonanza is to make orange mar-
malade. Here is a recipe for a marma-
lade similar to the English type:

SWEET-BITTER ORANGE
MARMALADE
8 oranges, quartered
2 small limes, quartered
8 cups sugar
' teaspoon baking soda
a dash of salt
Remove the spongy inner portion from
the peel of four oranges and with a
sharp knife, cut the peel into very thin
strips. Do the same with the limes. Put
in a cooking pot and add three cups
of water, the soda and salt. Cover and
simmer for 30 minutes, stirring occa-
sionally.
Separate the pulp from all the oranges
and limes, being careful to remove all


Cashew-Apples.

Most people who enjoy cashew nuts
are not aware that the nut is found
hanging from a pepper-shaped red or
yellow fruit called cashew apple. Very
common in Panama, cashew trees are
known as the fences that grow and bear
fruit in April and May. When farmers
need new fences they simply plant
cashew nuts, seedlings or pieces of
branches of the tree and in a few years
there is a fruit-bearing fence! In the
tropics, most fruit trees are not difficult
to grow. Simply plant a seed and let
nature do the rest. They need little
coaxing.
The attractive cashew-apple has a
spongy pulp which contains a milky
juice that is sweet with a tart aftertaste
when eaten fresh. It can be used for
making a delicious wine, candied, or
for making preserves. Here is one way
of making cashew-apple preserves that
are delicious on ice cream or served
with cream cheese as a dessert.

CASHEW-APPLE PRESERVES
Cut enough of the fruit into strips to
make four cups. Place in cooking pot
and add four cups sugar, one cup water
and one tablespoon lime juice. Cook over
a slow fire until the fruit is tender and
the liquid thickens. Put in sterilized
glasses. Keeps in the refrigerator for
months.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


the white part. Add the fruit pulp and
juice to the cooked peel. Heat to a boil
and stir in the sugar. Cook at a slow
rolling boil until the liquid begins to
thicken. This will take about an hour.
Remove any scum that may form on
the top. Let it set for a few minutes and
stir up. Put in sterilized jars and seal
with paraffin or let it cool and freeze in
containers. The marmalade also may be
put into sterilized jars or glasses and
placed in the refrigerator. It keeps fine
for months.


V| S v
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~ ._ -~ *^fc. r-*- -






~~-- -



MANGO-NUT BREAD
2' cups diced firm ripe mangoes Add the lime juice to the mangoes
1 tablespoon lime juice and set aside. Sift the dry ingredients
2 cups flour together and add the nuts and raisins.
1I teaspoons baking soda Mix lightly with a fork and then add
1' teaspoons cinnamon the sugar.
1- teaspoon salt In another bowl, beat the eggs, add
,' teaspoon salt the oil and beat to a froth. Add the
, cup ,hopped nus mangoes and then the flour mixture,
, cup raisins, soaked in brandy tossing lightly until it is all mixed.
13' cups brown sugar, not packed Line the pans with waxed paper and
3 eggs grease. Bake at 3250 for an hour or until
% cup vegetable oil clone. (Test with a toothpick.)
II-----


FALL 1972


For the cook who is not allergic to
lesser known fruits in the realm of trop-
ical cooking, we offer a few more reci-
pes that are sure to upgrade the acconm-
plishments of even the most versatile.
A favorite fruit of Panama is the
mango that grows in various shaps-
round, long, narrow and kidney-shaped.
Sizes vary from a large one the size of
a papaya to a small one about the size
of a peach. Mangoes have a smooth
skin that ranges in color from all shades
of yellow to orange and red, with a pale
yellow pulp running into orange. The
taste has been referred to as a delicate
combination of apricot and pineapple
Few items in the food world equal the
exquisite flavor of a cool, ripe, sliced
mango at the breakfast table.
After eating your fill and baking nies
and chutney, try making something A.
little different. Here is a recipe for a
delicious, moist, mango-nut bread tlhat
comes to Culinary Capers from Hax jii
through the courtesy of Emily Bolton.
president of the Balboa Women's Club.
and Mrs. Joseph Lockman of Panama.
who discovered the treat on a recent
trip to Hawaii. Mrs. Bolton added her
individual touch to the recipe b.
soaking the raisins in brandy, while
Mrs. Lockman substituted brown sugar
for the white sugar called for in tli
original recipe. The bread freezes beail-
tifully and the Balboa Women's Club
has been busy baking and freezing it for
the annual bazaar bake sale. This recipe
makes one large loaf and a small orn,

GROSELLA SAUCE
For a cranberry-like sauce to be used
as a relish for meats and fowl, try the
fruit of the grosella tree, a small, yellow-
ish fruit with a tiny seed and an acid
Juicy pulp. The fact that it turns rcd
when it is cooked makes it a perf,-ct
substitute for cranberry sauce. Here is
one way of making the grosella sauce
Clean and sort the grosellas anid
place in a pan with a little water. Cook
until tender, being careful they do not
scorch. Put them through the ricer and
measure the pulp. For each cup of
pulp, add one cup of sugar. Add a little
water. Cook until the sugar is dissol\h-d
and then boil rapidly until thickened.
stirring constantly. Add a dash of
powdered ginger. Put in sterilized
glasses and seal. Also keeps fine in htic
refrigerator for several months.


Panama's tree-ripened fruits give an
exquisite flavor to breads and preserves.






Reminiscent of


Grandmother '


K then



For those who have the time and do
not mind getting their hands in dough,
here is a recipe for homemade bread
that is reminiscent of grandmother's
kitchen and the good fragrance of bread
baking. Since the art of breadmaking
requires skillful kneading and what may
be considered "hard work," you might
as well make three loaves as one will
surely be eaten while it is still warm
from the oven.

CRUSTY HOMEMADE BREAD
2 tablespoons sugar
2 tablespoons lard or shortening
3X cups boiling water
3 teaspoons salt
2 packages dry yeast or 2 yeast cakes
1 cup lukewarm water
12 cups flour, sifted
In a large bowl, mix sugar, lard, salt,
and boiling water. In a small bowl,
sprinkle the yeast in lukewarm water
and let it set. When the boiling water
has cooled, stir up the yeast and add to
the water mixture in the big bowl. Add
six cups of flour and mix with a wooden
spoon. Add three more cups of flour
and mix. Then place the dough on a
wooden board and add the remaining
flour, kneading with the hands. Knead
until the dough no longer sticks to the
board and cover with a towel. Let it
rise in a warm part of the kitchen until
it doubles in bulk. Knead again and let
it rise again. Divide the dough into
three pieces and form into loaves. Place
in greased loaf pans. Let it rise again.
(About an hour should be enough.)
Bake in a preheated oven at 3750 for ^
about an hour or until the loaves are
golden brown and sound hollow when
tapped. Turn each loaf on its side to
cool. Try it with some of the orange
marmalade.


Three golden loaves of freshly baked bread .
and English type Bitter-Sweet Marmalade.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17


Boquete oranges.


wim-
s
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...... i .









TOKYO BA TOPPl[S RECORDS


THE TOKYO BAY, THE LARGEST
container ship in the world,
made Canal history in April 1972 when
she became the largest ship to transit
the Panama Canal. She also set a new
record for tolls, paying $40,045.50.
The vessel arrived at Cristobal the
day before her scheduled transit and
because of her size waited outside the
breakwater until dawn before she could
start up the Canal channel. She carried
four Canal pilots.
The 950-foot container vessel was a
snug fit in the Panama Canal locks with
her beam of nearly 106 feet. She was
the biggest thing to go through since
1939 when the 936-foot SS Bremen, a
German passenger liner, made her only
transit.
It is possible that the Tokyo Bay, and
four similar vessels being built in Europe
for the European Far East trade, will be
the largest ever to go through the Canal.
She and her sisters are to go on a reg-
ular schedule between European ports
and the Fai East and will pass through
the Canal on an average of one
each month.
The five container ships owned by
the Overseas Containers Ltd., have a
service speed of 26 knots and carry
more than 2,000 containers each. They
are members of the Trio Alliance, a cnn-
sortium of British, German, and Japa-
nese shipowners formed to promote con-
tainer service between Europe and the
Far East.
In addition to the Overseas Contain-
ers Ltd., other companies in the group
include the British Ben Line with three
ships; Hapag Lloyd A.G. with four
ships; Mlitsui-O.S.K. Lines with two;
and Nippon Yusen Kaisha with three.
By coincidence, another member of
the Trio Alliance transited the Canal
northbound at the same time that the
Tokyo Bay came south. She was the
882-foot Elbe Maru owned by Mitsui-
O.S.K. Lines of Japan making her
maiden voyage from the Far East to
Europe. The two vessels met in Gamboa
Reach. The Elbe Maru is a sister ship
of the Rhine Marti which made her first
transit in February 1972 and until the
arrival of the Tokyo Bay held the rec-
ord for paying the highest commercial
tolls.


The world's Ia cntainer ship moves through Gaillard Cut, where the 50-mile-long Canal crosses the Continental Divide.


f


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6


A LONG WAY UP-Two Panama Canal
deckhands chmb up the Jacob's ladder on
the side of the "Tokyo Bay," which is taller
than a seven-story building. The giant
vessel requires 24 decklands, two boat-
swains, and four Canal pilots for her trip
through the Isthmian waterway.


With only slightly more than 2 feet to spare on each d 25
feet on each end, the container ship "Tokyo Bay" Otes into
Gatun Locks at the beginning of her transit of the&lIThe
world's largest and most powerful container ship began transit
at 4:30 a.m. and cleared Canal waters at about 4:06) 4lthe
west chamber, dwarfed by the "Tokyo Bay," is the 'hticello
Victory," which is 736 feet long and has a beam i'"2 feet.
d~t eer.


Two of the largest ships ever to use the Panama Canal, the 950-foot
"Tokyo Bay," and the 882-foot "Elbe Maru," pass at Gamboa Reach
on their maiden transits. The "Tokyo Bay" was making a south-
bound transit and the "Elbe Maru" was going north. They are two
of the 17 giant ships being placed in service by the Trio Alliance.
Hundreds of Isthmian residents and Canal officials lined the banks
of the Canal on both sides of the Isthmus to see the two big ships.


The 855-foot-long "Rhine Maru," which for a short time held the
record for paying the highest commercial Panama Canal tolls,
passes Contractors' Hill on a recent northbound transit. The vessel
held the tolls record until the arrival, in April 1972, of the "Tokyo
Bay." A member of the Trio group of container ships, the "Rhine
Maru" travels between Europe and the Far East at a maximum
speed of 26 knots. The ship is owned by the Mitsui-O.S.K. Lines.


si qM FP





























MASTERPIECES

By Vic Canel


The artwork on Panama buses and "chivas"


is a colorful expression of individuality


F REE LOVE," "HOT PANTS,"
"Mr. Big Stuff," may sound like
titles for X-rated movies, but they're
not.
These, along with many proverbs,
sayings and catch phrases, are names
given to their vehicles by imaginative
Panamanian bus operators as an ex-
pression of their individuality. Usually
lettered on the rear of the bus in Old
English script with fancy flourishes and
capricious curlicues, the names are a
part of the colorful decorations that
makes Panama's buses unique.
The more elegantly decorated buses
have brightly colored paintings inside
and out, ball fringe on the windows,
religious figurines and fanciful touches
which may include gaily dressed dolls
or crocheted items.
Perhaps as a tribute to Panamanian
womanhood-or to womanhood in gen-
eral-a girl's name is often painted on
each of the side windows.
Naming buses is said to have started
when the first self-propelled public
conveyances made their appearances in
the cities, during the second decade of
the century. Those early vehicles,


called "chivas" (goats) were nothing
more than sedans or pickup trucks
with the after end removed and re-
placed by a wood and tin body. They
accommodated six or eight passengers
on lateral benches and the entrance was
at the rear.
The name "chiva" is said to be
derived from the fact that the solid
wheel vehicles jumped like mountain
goats when driven over Panama's cob-
blestone streets.
Samuel Lewis, a retired Panamanian
journalist and publisher, recalls that
among the early pioneers of public
transportation in Panama, circa 1911,
was a Jamaican chiva operator who for
reasons known only to himself, per-
mitted no women aboard his rattletrap
conveyance. He would drive down the
street soliciting passengers and shout-
ing: "Men Only!" But apparently his
male chauvinism was no obstacle to
success. Mr. Lewis says he prospered
and soon bought a second chiva.
Operators gave chivas pet names to
distinguish them from those of their
competitors. Their efforts at originality
produced some fairly spicy names and,


at one point, the mayor of Panaijmj
ordered names removed from all pu.blit
conveyances. The custom was liter
revived however and extended t,- Ithe
larger buses.
Some of the first chivas were chain-
drive Ford pickup trucks operirted h.
East Indians in turbans. Hindu.s '.ere
the principal operators of bus trarnspor-
tation in Panama before World \\War II
In the beginning, there was no .-r-
ganized transportation and rin larce
fleet operators. But enterprising ir-di-
viduals ran their own jitney ser ni.e I,
take employees to work. Among the first
was a Canal employee named H.irrn
Conley who had a small bus iin hic
he took coworkers from Ancon ht the
Administration Building and back dur-
ing the 1920's. But a great maj.,-rit olf
bus operators in the years that fiollo%'.d
were East Indians.
During World War II, whcn the
number of workers in the Zone m-
creased with the employment of addi-
tional personnel for defense projects,
concessions were granted to some 20
bus operators to provide service in the
Canal Zone, including military reserva-


FALL 1972







Vg


A bigger than life-size
portrait of Franco Nero, star
of Italian Western movies,
peers menacingly at
tailgating motorists from
the rear of this Chorrera
bus. The actor also is
featured in the interior
decorations which include a
cartoon reproduction over
the mirror that says
"Love is to travel with
Franco Nero every day."
The fancy sign on the
rearview mirror says
"I will always be for you."


tions. Most of the concessionaires and
their drivers were Hindus.
Gas and tire rationing and the un-
availability of spare parts combined to
make this service something less than
efficient. But it was not until 1952 that
the services were consolidated and a
single concession granted. The prin-
cipal stockholder was an East Indian
merchant, Gursan Singh Gill, who
owned two oriental stores in Panama
City, and most of the drivers, of course,
were Hindus.
Eventually, Gill bought out his five
partners and sold out to the present
operators of the Canal Zone bus service.
The 70 or 80 chivas still seen in Pan-
ama are destined to disappear as the
country streamlines its public transpor-
tation system and consolidates inde-
pendent operators and cooperatives
into two principal organizations, a co-

Bus paintings portray everything from
comic strip characters to figures of Greek
mythology. This bus, named "Prometheus
in Chains," features a painting of the titan
atop the Caucasus as well as a scene of
Panama City's Balboa Avenue.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21


pPOHlBIB A.
FUMAP


r ,








Teodoro "Billy" Madrifian has specialized
in painting scenes on buses since the 1940's.


pup-


_w-I--
lllL31'
c~5.40






operative known as the Cooperativa de
Transporte Metropolitano, and a cor-
poration called Corporaci6n Unica de
Transporte.
The evolution from the eight-pas-
senger chivas to the gaily painted 50-
passenger buses of today was gradual.
Chivas made from cars and pickups
were used until the early thirties. Then,
in 1934, a Colombian, the late Froilin
Arce, got the idea of buying ,i-ton
chassis and motors and building the
bodies locally.
Those chivas remained in service
until after World War II. Then, in 1946,
the first "busitos" made their appear-
ance. These are the small, 16-passenger
blue buses which at that time sold for
$3,600 complete or $900 for the chassis
and motor only.
In 1960, local operators began to
import 24- to 30-passenger buses and,
as the city grew and the demand for
public transportation increased, 40-
and 50-passenger buses costing $9,000-
$10,000, were placed in service.
But throughout, the chiva has sur-
vived and is patronized by faithful
passengers who usually ride the same
one each day and know each other as
well as members of a car pool.
Among the principal routes served
by today's chivas-mostly of 1952 vint-
age-is the one extending from down-
town Panama along Balboa Avenue to
the shanty town called Boca la Caja,
east of Paitilla Airport. The ride to the


end of the line costs 10 cents, but the
chiva will take you as far as Santo
Tomas Hospital for only a nickel.
One driver on this route, Juan Anto-
nio Olivares, has been behind the wheel
of chivas for 32 years. In addition to
the Chiva he drives on the Boca la
Caja route, he owns a small busito. As
a small fleet owner-five buses or less-
he belongs to an organization called El
Tercer Crupo (the third group), made
up of small independents who are not
affiliated with either the cooperative or
the corporation.
So there are basically three types of
buses in Panama-the venerable chivas,
the "busitos" and the larger buses.
Though the earlier chivas were painted
with bright and imaginative designs,
most of the surviving ones are plain.
The greatest profusion of artwork is
now found on the larger buses. There
are paintings of pastoral scenes, reli-
gious motifs, well-known landmarks
such as the bridge that spans the en-
trance to the Panama Canal, the ruins
of Old Panama, likenesses of film and
TV personalities and even comic strip
characters. A random sampling of
buses along busy Via Espafia or Cen-
tral Avenue during rush hour can be
an amusing pastime. One bus is named
"Marshal Dilo"-phonetically honoring
the character portrayed by James
Arness in the TV series "Gunsmoke."
Others are named "The Fugitive" and
"The Untouchable." Still others bear


phrases and sayings such as "Let's
Forget the Past"; "God Forgives, Not I";
"Forgive Them Lord"; "It's All In The
Game"; and "What You See Is What
You Get." A few of the signs are in
English.
Many of the buses have been lettered
and decorated by Teodoro "Billy" Ma-
drifnn, a former employee of the Pan-
ama Canal Dredging Division, who
began specializing in the art back in
the forties.
Billy says the custom of painting
scenes on buses got sta led when one
bus operator conceived the idea and it
was later noted that tourists were
stopping to photograph his bus. The
idea caught on quickly and soon oper-
ators were competing for originality.
As they did, the decorations became
more and more elaborate.
The cost of bus decorations' varies
according to how elaborate they are.
A simple scene on the back of the bus
may cost anywhere from $15 to $25.
A complete job, with paintings inside
and out, lettering of names, phrases
and girls' names in the windows can
cost up to $120.
Many Panama bus riders are likely
to view with nostalgia the passing of
this charming custom as the Panama
Government prepares to modernize its
public transportation system with shiny
new buses which have large picture
windows, but, alas, no expressions of
individuality.


Some "chivas" do double duty. Those that come from
the interior carrying produce, passengers and chickens are
popularly called "Chivas Gallineras" (Chicken Chivas).


'5I

m'a mIII I
CHp6 V,


-- 1 J_ .^-.


Paintings of Panama's famous flat arch bridge and its historic cathedral
along with a couple in typical dress help to publicize some of the
country's tourist attractions.


22 FALL 1972

















M ONEY, MONEY, MONEY-IT
goes further in South America,
so they say. But those preoccupied U.S.
tourists, counting on their fingers as
they wander from shop to shop in San-
tiago, Rio, or Buenos Aires, are prob-
ably uncertain just how far it is going
for they are bewildered at trying to
figure out the local exchange rate.
One tourist discovered that he was
getting excellent service from almost
everyone after he tipped a bellhop the
equivalent of $6 for opening the
windows.
It works the other way too. Try giving
a tip which amounts to several U.S.
cents.
Money exchange is one of the haz-
ards of modem air travel. Visitors go
from one country to another so quickly
that there is no time to obtain coin of
the realm let alone figure out its value
in relation to the U.S. dollar.
It gives a traveler a desolate feeling
to find he has purchased something, or
is about to purchase something, only to
discover that the money in his purse
has no more value than wampum.
Of course this happens only in small
shops, en route from an airport, or di-
rectly after arriving at a hotel when the
hall porter or a bellboy stands around
expectantly.
A Financial Wizard
In most hotels in South America, the
traveler can get his money exchanged
at the hotel desk. The question of how
much to tip comes next and unless one
is a financial wizard, there seems to be
no way to figure out the problem
quickly.
There are several dandy little books
put out by banks and tourist agencies
to help the hapless traveler on money
matters. But none of them can do much
for the person who tries to add up a
dinner bill which includes a cover
charge, a sales tax, a percentage for tips,
and sometimes a donation to the local
Red Cross.
Perhaps the most discouraged trav-
elers are those who return after a shop-
ping expedition and find that they have

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23


on (?) a day



paid more for their purchases than they
would have if they had obtained the
same items in a luxury store in New
York. This can happen easily when one
is not only figuring the exchange rate
but also sorting out "old and new
money" and determining the different
values of each.
In Argentina and Brazil, although
new currency was issued several years
ago, old bills and coins, as well as the
new, are in circulation. And shop-
keepers sometimes quote prices in the
old currency.
The Argentines and Brazilians seem
to accept it all as a matter of course,
but for the new arrival it boggles the
mind, especially if one is not only
counting Brazilian cruzeiros but trying
to figure out the difference between
Portuguese and Spanish.

Money Exchanges
In most countries of South America
there are regulations that money can
be changed only at the official rate
and at government authorized money
exchanges.
But a tourist with U.S. dollars to con-
vert may find himself surrounded with
self appointed money changers who
come in the form of maids, bellboys and
even hotel clerks who will come to
the hotel room, knock discreetly and
whisper the latest exchange rate on the
black market. In one country, standing
outside most banks and hotels are eager
looking young men carrying brief cases,
who are not businessmen but "un-
official" money changers who ask "cam-
bio?" in a discreet tone as anyone with
a camera around his neck approaches.
A Burglar
After the tour is over, there is still
another money problem for the tourist.
What to do with all those small bills and
coins that manage to hide in the bottom
of pocketbooks. The problem was solved
for one tourist when a burglar entered
her hotel room, snatched up the accumu-
lation and disappeared out the window.
The police recovered the loot and
solemnly read off the list of currency:













7-
d.



30 Peruvian soles; 15 Ecuadorean su-
cres; 20 Chilean escudos; 10 Para-
guayan guaranies; 4 Brazilian cruzeiros;
5 Argentinian pesos; and 4 Italian lire
(she had traveled South on an Italian
ship).
Sightseeing South American style is
fun. One only has to relax and enjoy it.
Traffic in most of the cities has to be
experienced to be believed. A taxi ride
is a wild experience and there is a fleet
of Volkswagen taxis in Rio that travels
at 120 kilometers an hour whose drivers
could qualify for the Indianapolis
Speedway.
According to the newspapers there
are frequent accidents, but most res-
idents seem to emerge unscathed after
a wild ride through the center of the
city with every other vehicle jockeying
for position on a three-lane throughway.
Most taxi drivers speak English, or a
reasonable facsimile of the language,
and like cab drivers everywhere they
are delighted to point out interesting
landmarks. They also like to expound


on local politics and their philosophy of
life. Most everyone seems to have an
uncle in New York, Miami, or Los
Angeles through whom they have accu-
mulated a vast store of information
about the United States.
Because of the age and size of many
of the taxis in some South American
cities, the number of passengers per taxi
is limited strictly by law. Woe unto
those who think they can get a party of
six into a five-passenger car. The taxi
driver will usually refuse to budge.
However, there was at least one case
where the driver was persuaded to take
a whole group when one member of the
party agreed to lie on the floor of the
car.
Oversize Veal Cutlet
Speaking of the floor of the car, in
Chile, some of the drivers fill the floor
of the passenger compartment with
sawdust on rainy days to soak up the
excess water that collects. It sounds like
a good idea but it is rather disconcerting
to discover that the last 3 or 4 inches of
one's trousers are coated with a layer
of the fine sawdust or that the jacket
you accidentally dropped on the floor
resembles an oversize breaded veal
cutlet.
Rates vary according to the city but
they also may change from one month
to the next. In this case, the taxi driver
will take the amount registered on the


meter plus an additional amount, which
he apparently figures out on a slide rule
and then adds a percentage for a tip
provided by law. (In one city, it was a
matter of reading the meter and then
doubling it.) He won't refuse an addi-
tional tip but then he won't stand
around with his hand out either. In
most cases, he is a polite fellow even
when faced with a group of confused
and excited visitors who aren't quite
sure where they are going or occasion-
ally even what city they are in (if they
are on the "Around South America
Quickie Tour"). Rio and Buenos Aires
seem to be confused most frequently as
demonstrated by one lady, who to the
consternation of the taxi driver, asked
him what the Brazilian embassy was
doing in Rio as he drove through Bue-
nos Aires pointing out the sites of
interest.
Rides into the country are in com-
parison, pretty tame affairs. During the
day the driver jogs along at an even
pace and is fairly good at repairing a
tire or making an ailing engine regain
its health. Many motorists either are
good mechanics or they have access to
good mechanics as a matter of necessity
since there are a large number of old
cars on the road. In Uruguay there are
early Model "T" Fords which qualify
as classic cars in the United States.
It is at night that the automobile
drivers of South America come into


24 FALL 1972





their own and the North American
visitors retire to the ranks reserved for
the children and those not fleet of foot.
In most places, there seems to be a
law that the headlights on a car are
illegal and that only dims or parking
lights are to be used even on the open
highways. This gives most visitors the
feeling that they are groping through
a London fog with a candle but the
local citizens have the art of night
driving down to a fine point. They bolt
along the country highways at a normal
daylight pace and turn on their lights
only when their radar warns them that
a similar darkened vehicle is approach-
ing in the other direction. This proce-
dure blinds both drivers but they pass
with room to spare and continue on in
darkness.

Hundreds of Fireflies
In many cities, automobiles travel
with dim lights. Drivers turn on the
brights only at street corners or when
they apparently want to get the lay of
the land. It gives an eerie impression
from a high building at night with the
lights of the moving vehicles blinking
off and on like hundreds of restless
fireflies.
Most visitors making either a lei-
surely tour or a fast swing by air through
the hospitable lands to the south will
compare notes and agree that travel is
indeed broadening. Some tourists mere-
ly groan and declare they are eating
their way through South America.
Whether travel is by ship or plane,
there is some kind of a conspiracy to
keep the passenger fat, dumb, and
happy while he is aboard. Unless one
boards a plane in the middle of the
night, food comes at regular intervals
which get closer if one passes a time
zone. Food may be anything from a
five-course meal to a light snack of
soup and several kinds of three-layer
sandwiches-with something sweet, of
course.

"Medias Lunas"
After leaving the plane or ship, the
tourist is introduced to the delight-
ful South American habit of eating five
or six times a day. The way South
Americans manage to pack five meals
into a day is easy. They are spaced
throughout the day. After breakfast,
which often includes tasty crusty crois-
sants in Argentina, which they whim-
sically call "medias lunas" or half
moons; a pre-lunch snack at 11 a.m.;
lunch at 2 p.m.; tea at 5; then comes
dinner up to midnight. And anyone who

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEw 25


Few visitors leave Paraguay without a
sample of the famous fanduti or spider-
web lace. It is made only by the women
and some items of intricate design take
up to 5 years to complete.

manages on less than three courses at
lunch, a full-course high tea, and a five-
course dinner is a piker.
Lunch and dinner are accompanied
by two or three kinds of wine and may
be preceded by cocktails and followed
by liqueurs. Because of the high cost
of imported gin or whisky, cocktails
usually are the delightful pisco sours
which taste innocuous but pack a wallop
as one group of visitors found to their
surprise. Pisco is a grape brandy, best
known in Peru, although it is served in
Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay.
Meat has traditionally been a staple
diet in Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay-
and by meat, they mean beef or beef-
steak. At present there are certain meat-
less days, weeks, or as in Uruguay 6
meatless months, which means that
during these periods beef is not served
in restaurants nor can it be purchased
in the public markets. Instead, the


Popular with tourists shopping in Peru are
llama and alpaca rugs, hoth the all white
and the brown and white styles, which
come in a variety of designs and shapes.


visitor is offered a menu which lists
such things as lamb, chicken, a wide
variety of seafood, and a dozen or so
other delicious dishes guaranteed to
make one forget the beef.
South Americans consider these meat-
less days a hardship and it may be for
those who have become accustomed to
a daily diet of beef but visitors are
happy with the substitutes and the
variety of delicious ways they are
prepared.
The Argentine's well-known love of
beef extends to almost every part of the
cow and it may come as a shock to dis-
cover exactly what that delicious little
tidbit you nibbled with your drink really
is. Those at all squeamish might be well
advised to skip reading the English
translation if there is one, because the
language there appears to have been
taken from a veterinarian's anatomy
textbook.

Meatless Days
If it is not a meatless day, one way
to tell when one has arrived in a South
American beef eating country, without
looking at the road signs is to stand in
the main plaza and sniff. The smell of
grilled beef fills the air as every res-
ident, whether he is roasting his lunch
on an open air fire or eating in a road-
side restaurant, has his noon meal. The
same thing happens at night and it may
in the morning, if anyone gets up early
enough to find out. But most South
Americans are continental breakfast
eaters unless the), have had a close
association with the British, whose
influence is still felt over the land.

Up There
The French also have left their in-
fluence on the cooking of South Amer-
ica and any visitor who thinks that he
can leave the groaning board with a cup
of black coffee is mistaken. Dessert or
"postre" is likely to come in the form
of French pastry or ice cream tortes
loaded with fresh whipped cream-none
of that synthetic dietetic stuff. Most
tourists make a mental note to go on a
diet when they get home and proceed
to dig in.
With such gustatory adventures and
a very favorable rate of exchange await-
ing them in South America, more and
more Isthmian residents are heading
that way and finding it fun, while on
vacation, instead of saying "down there
in the Canal Zone," to be able to say
"up there in the Canal Zone."
E. R. and W. F.











Medical Sleuths




Canal Zone College in joint program with

Gorgas Hospital trains medical technologists

to fill growing needs of modern medicine.


Er`FO']' | /7 / / m
Anna A. Haug, of David, is training to become a medical technologist. Here she does an
analytical test to find the hydrogen-ion concentration of an unknown
in chemistry class at Canal Zone College.


W WHILE AN ACCIDENT VIC-
tim lies in critical condition in
Gorgas Hospital's emergency room.
Cristina Quiros Bunyea swittl ana.lyzes
a blood sample to determine th: type so
that the blood transfusion th.t m.ay sJ\ e
the man's life can be admirnier,'d
immediately.
Since this is an emergency she puts
this particular job on her top priority
list. But across the hall, Aneeli Scott
and Diovelis Diaz can work v ith less
urgency. While one tests blood serum
for antibodies, the other ero'.\s a.id
identifies bacteria taken from a patient's
throat.
These top-level medical la.loratory
workers and their colleagues :.,1o .na-
lyze chemical composition of body
fluids and tissues, look for p.irasite.
examine urine specimens, run tcrts on
toxic substances and perform numerrous
chemical, microscopic, bacteriological
and other medical tests to help physi-
cians diagnose and treat disease.
They are medical technolo- sts, mem-
bers of one of the newest and fastest
growing associated medical profeslioi,
indispensable in the practice of modem
medicine. These medical leiidthi work
behind the scenes and ha-e sometJiei
to do with just about every patient '.lho
enters and leaves a hospital Their snr -
ices to humanity are available 24 hours
a day, 365 days a year.
Excellent medical resources in the
Canal Zone are available to students
planning a career in medical technolo-
gy. For the past several years, Canal
Zone College and the Gorgas Hospital
School of Medical Technology have
offered a joint program in the field. The
4-year program has been approved by
the Middle States Association of Col-
leges and Secondary Schools and the
Governor of the Canal Zone, giving the
college authority to grant the bachelor
of science in medical technology degree.
It was awarded for the first time in May
1970. Six bachelor of science in medical
technology degrees were conferred the
following year and eight medical tech-
nologists received their degrees last
May.
The training program consists of 3
years of studies at Canal Zone College.
mainly in chemistry and biology, and a
fourth year of internship at one of the
400 approved schools of medical tech-
nology in the Canal Zone, the United
States, or Puerto Rico. The training is
rigorous and demanding and due to the
advanced scientific nature of the stud-
ies, a student at the end of 3 or 4 years
is well prepared for professional train-


FALL 1972






At a Coulter Counter in the Hematology section of the Gorgas
Hospital Laboratory Service, Diovelis Diaz is
screening for blood diseases such as anemia and leukemia.
Miss Diaz is a May graduate of the
Canal Zone College-Gorgas Hospital Medical
Technology 4-year program.









--














At Gorgas Hospital, Ignacio Scope, who received a
bachelor of science degree in medical technology last May,
works on an analysis which gives the results of six
different tests at 1-minute intervals-glucose, creatinine,
potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride.
A newer and more sophisticated machine at the
hospital does 12 tests.

ing in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy,
optometry, nursing, veterinary science,
chemistry and biology.
In addition to the general education
requirements in English, social science,
humanities, science, mathematics, and .A
physical education, medical technology
students are required to take zoology,
anatomy, microbiology, histology and
parasitology, in the biological field. In
the physical sciences, they are required
to complete laboratory and lecture
courses in general chemistry, organic
chemistry, qualitative analysis, quan-
titative analysis and general physics. w
During the fourth year of internship,
the student completes courses in hema-
tology, clinical chemistry, clinical bac-
teriology, clinical parasitology, serology,
blood bank, urinalysis, histopathology,
mycology and clinical microscopy. At
Gorigas, he receives 52 weeks of train-
nmg. rotating in the different depart-
ments of the hospital's Laboratory
Serx ice.
The. majority of candidates from A recent graduate of the Canal Zone College-Gorgas Hospital School of Medical
Carjal Zone College have interned at Tcchnology 4-year program, Ena Archibold de MendizAbal,
C.,rgas,. but since the number of quali- differentiates white blood cells.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIvE 27







With increased emphasis on

research in medicine and in industry

the demand for qualified technicians far exceeds

the supply


fled candidates exceeds the capacity of
Corgas, several have gone to approved
hospital schools in the United States.
Most of the medical technologists em-
ployed at Corgas Hospital have been
trained under the joint Canal Zone
College-Corgas Hospital School of
Medical Technology Program.
Following successful completion of
the internship year, they are eligible to
register for the national board examina-
tion administered by the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists. Upon
successful completion of the examina-
tion, they are ready for employment as
registered medical technologists.



Roberto Beverly, left, and Annie Fifer
are distilling water during a
chemistry laboratory class at Canal
Zone College.



Canal Zone College has formal agree-
ments with Tampa General Hospital;
Baptist Memorial Hospital, Jackson-
ville, Fla.; University of Puerto Rico
Medical School; Berkshire Medical
Center, Pittsfield, Mass.; Veterans Ad-
ministration Hospital, and Jackson Me-
morial Hospital, Miami, Fla. Candi-
dates are also eligible to apply to any of
the other approved schools.
The cost of training to the student is
modest. Tuition is paid for only the first
3 years and the fourth year of study is
free of charge. Most of the schools of
medical technology in which Canal
Zone College candidates have been
accepted pay the student a small sti-
pend. Gorgas Hospital is currently pro-
viding each student with a stipend of
$1,300 per year and Tampa General
Hospital is paying $1,620 a year. There
are no fees or charges of any kind at
these two institutions. Some of the


schools provide room and board and a
few have additional fringe benefits.
During the current year, medical
technology has been selected as the
major field of study by 70 students
attending Canal Zone College. High
school preparation for medical tech-
nology majors should include at least
3 years of mathematics and 2 years of
science.





. & .. .i "' ;7 j


A close working relationship exists
between the Canal Zone College science
faculty and the Corgas Hospital lab-
oratory staff. Honorary faculty rank was
conferred this year on Dr. Gordon
Flake, Dr. Carolina White and Dr. Jerry
L. Harris, three Corgas doctors who
serve as instructors of the fourth-year
classes and supervise the laboratory
work of the intern students. DeWitt
Myers, chairman of the science depart-
ment of the Canal Zone College, is the
educational advisor to the Gorgas Hos-
pital laboratory staff. The college has a
medical technology advisory committee
composed of Dr. Harris Meyers, Dean
Glen E. Murphy and Norman Alten-
berg, college registrar. Ricardo Valla-
rino, supervisory medical technologist
at Corgas Hospital, is the college in-


structor for the first year course on the
introduction to medical technology.
Medical technology as a profession is
said to have originated in 1896 at J.h'lrns
Hopkins University in Baltimore but it
was not until World War 1 that medical
laboratory science began to be recog-
nized as a specialty. Today, it is a highly
sophisticated profession, invaluable to
health specialists. Due to population


growth and the increasing complexity of
medical science, the demand for med-
ical technologists is constantly expand-
ing. More and more people are using
hospitals, laboratory tests are routine in
physical checkups, and more hospitals
are being built. Medical technologists
are needed also in industrial medical
laboratories, in medical research pro-
grams, and other areas of development
and research. The ever increasing em-
phasis on research in medicine and in-
dustry offers the medical technologist
unlimited opportunities for promotion
to supervisory and chief technologist
positions. As the demand for qualified
technicians far exceeds the supply, the
outlook for employment opportunities is
bright indeed. F. H.


FALL 1972


I







A DIFFERENT WAY




- to Saim Jle -


T HE TW1ST MAY BE DEAD AS
a dance, but its memory lives on
in Sixaola, Costa Rica.
That's the nickname for a gasoline-
powered conveyance that runs on a
narrow gauge railroad between this tiny
town on the Panama border and Fields,
Costa Rica, some 20 miles away. And
if you ever ride it or watch it sway as
it rumbles down the track, you'll know
how it got its name.
Few Canal Zone or Panama City
residents enter Costa Rica at that point.
Most fly directly to San Jose or take the
Pan-American Highway on the Pacific
side of the country. But, if you like
beautiful scenery and the adventures of
traveling off the beaten path, take a
train to San Jos6.
The entire trip cannot be made by
rail, but a good portion of it can. In
fact, it combines air, bus, rail and water
transportation, which makes the ad-
venture even more interesting. And it
can be done over a long weekend, if
you fly back.
Shifting of holidays to Mondays will
provide Panama Canal employees with
no less than eight 3-day weekends in
1973 and a good opportunity to visit
many of the interesting spots that lie
within easy reach.
The charming Costa Rican capital,
with its pleasant springlike weather,
has always been a favorite destination
for Isthmian residents on brief holi-
days. But by the circuitous route, getting
there is half the fun.
The highlight of the trip is a spec-
tacular, 6-hour train trip from Puerto
Lim6n, Costa Rica's busy' Atlantic sea-
port, up to San Jos6.
Bill Hall and Al Jenkins, of the
Comptrollers Office, made the trip last
spring. Though they took 4 days, it
can be completed within a 3-day week-
end, as was done a few weeks later by
a Canal Zone couple.
Hall and Jenkins started their trip at
7 a.m. with a COPA flight from Tocu-
men International Airport that took
them first to the island capital of Bocas
del Toro Province and, after a brief stop,
on to Changuinola. During the hour
and a quarter flight from Panama to
Bocas, COPA serves the Panamanian

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 29


version of a continental breakfast-
coffee and a tasty empanada.
The low-level flight from Bocas to
Changuinola offers a view of the
seemingly endless orderly rows of ba-
nana trees and the railroad bridge over
the Changuinola River.
If you are lucky, the flight to Chan-
guinola will get you there in time to
catch the passenger train that leaves
each morning at 9 a.m. for the 8-mile
run to Guabito, on the Costa Rican
border. If you miss the train, as usually
happens, a taxi will take you there for
$5 over a dirt road that parallels the
tracks, though not always on the same
side. Hall and Jenkins had allotted
one day for visiting the banana planta-
tions. They overnighted at the Chan-
guinola Hotel which is just a short walk
from the airport. The couple who made
the trip later missed the train by about
5 minutes, but beat it to Guabito in
a cab.
Formalities for exiting Panama and
entering Costa Rica at this point are
not at all complicated. You show Pan-
amanian officials your Canal Zone exit
permit, then walk a narrow pedestrian
plank across the railroad bridge that
spans the Sixaola River, which marks
the boundary between the two coun-
tries. At Sixaola you check in with
Costa Rican immigration authorities.
A simple tourist card or a visa is the
only document required.
"The Twist" is a yellow truck with
flanged wheels which pulls a small
passenger coach and an open freight
wagon along the narrow gauge track. It
runs on a rather erratic schedule which
bears little relationship to the official
looking timetable posted in the immi-
gration office. Speculation on arrival
and departure times seems to be a
popular local pastime. When the Canal
Zone couple arrived in Sixaola they
took note of the posted timetable and
sat down to wait for the 10:30 a.m.
departure. When the scheduled time
had come and gone, they were told
that "The Twist" had had some me-
chanical trouble the day before and
would be delayed for an indefinite
period. Shortly after noon a man walked
up to them and gravely volunteered


the information that "The Twist" would
not operate at all that day. Five min-
utes later it appeared on the horizon.
An alternate means of transportation
from Sixaola to Puerto Lim6n is pro-
vided by not one, but two (count them)
air taxi services which also will take
you all the way to San Jos6 should you
despair and decide to forego train
travel altogether. The train ride from
Lim6n to San Jos4 should not be missed,
however. And those trains do operate
on a strict schedule.
Even flying from Sixaola to Lim6n
involves a short rail trip. Transporta-
tion of passengers and luggage to the
landing strip is accomplished on a
small flatcar-drawn by a burro.
But those who elect to take their
chances on "The Twist" will be re-
warded with an interesting, scenic
trip. The 20-mile ride to Fields costs
3 colones or the equivalent of 40 cents.
The railway serves as main street for
the towns of Daytonia, Paraiso and
Margarita, and houses in these towns
line both sides of the track.
All along the route the air is filled
with the strong, sweet smell of fer-
menting cacao pods and occasionally,
"The Twist" will stop at one of the
many plantations to pick up a load of
beans. The fruit has been harvested by
independent farmers since 1969, when
the fruit company withdrew from the
cacao business.
Fields is the end of the line and here
most travelers on this route begin to
feel the need for nourishment. There
is a small restaurant featuring simple
native dishes. Knowledgeable visitors
will stake out a table and put in their


















If you tire of waiting for "The Twist"
and opt for an air taxi flight
from Sixaola to Lim6n, you are
taken to the airfield in a
burro-powered railcar.


.,.fi\





Expert hoatmen pole passengers
across the Estrella River to
Penhurst, Costa Rica, to board the
train to Puerto Lim6n.


food order as soon as possible, since a
full "Twist-load" of hungry passengers
frequently is more than the restaurant
can handle.
The next leg of the trip, from Fields
to the banks of the Estrella River, is
usually made in a fairly comfortable
bus. The couple who followed Hall and
Jenkins made the 25-mile trip in a stake
body truck, which perhaps offered an
even better view of rich tropical jungle
scenery as it lumbered along the hilly,
dirt road. Roughly midway, at Cahuita,
there is a brief rest stop with just about
enough time to buy a soft drink at the
general store and take a short walk
down one of the town's grass-covered
streets, leading down to a beautiful
beach. Fare for this leg of the trip,
whether by bus or truck, is 7 colones,
or about 90 cents.
When passengers alight at the edge
of the Estrella River, a horde of small
boys swarms around them vying for
the right to carry their luggage while
the adult cayuco operators beckon them
toward their dugouts. It costs only 1
col6n, or 13 cents to cross the river
into Penhurst.
If the food ran out before you got
your order in back at Fields you'll
probably be ready to try the candle-lit
restaurant across from the Penhurst
railroad station before train time.
The train for Lim6n leaves at 7:30
p.m. The trip takes 3 hours and costs
3 colones. There is one kerosene-lit
passenger coach and a number of
freight cars loaded mostly with cacao.
By the time the train arrives in Puer-
to Lim6n, one is ready to bed down
for the night. There is a choice of three
moderately priced hotels within walk-
ing distance of the railroad station-
the Caribe, the Park, and the Lincoln,
all about equal in quality and price.
Rates run between $3 and $4 per
person. The Caribe and the Park should
by rights switch names, for the Caribe
overlooks the park and the Park over-
looks the Caribbean.
Puerto Lim6n bears a striking like-
ness to Col6n or to practically an)' port
city in Central America, for that matter.
If you decide to tarry there, there are
a few interesting sights. Among the
favorite pastimes for visitors is to go to
the teeming piers and watch the load-
ing and unloading of ships. There is a
well-kept park with walks shaded by
West Indian laurel trees. A half hour
away by bus is the Balneario Portete,
where there is a small bathing beach
and restaurant. The road to Portete
follows the coast and offers some
beautiful scenery.


But whatever you do, or howe'.cr
long you stay in Lim6n, be sure tc. hbu
your ticket for the train to Cost.i Ri,-i
as far in advance as possible. St.a s are
limited. The best train to San I'-,se is
the Pacheco, which leaves promptt\ I
at 6:10 a.m. Get to the station early
and sit on the left side to enjoy the spec-
tacular view. The fare is $2.10 and for
a few extra colones you can reserve a
seat in the "carro sal6n."
The scenery changes rapidly as you
travel toward San Jose. First you are
going through cacao country. Early in
the journey you come to a junction
called La Junta, where a spur line called
Linea Vieja (Old Line) comes in from
the left. This was originally intended
to go all the way to San Jos6, but the
route was changed when it was found
it was impossible to circle around the
west side of the volcanoes into the cen-
tral plateau. But the spur proved use-
ful anyway and has been in operation
ever since. Here you will see many
people making connection with the
main line.
During most of the trip, the railroad
follows the raging Reventaz6n River
as it courses between cliffs alive with
jungle growth.
En route, you will see two volcanoes,
Turrialba and famed Iraz6. And the
scenery gets more and more spectacular
as the train climbs higher. In the
30-mile stretch from the city of Turrial-
ba to Cartago, just 12 miles out of San
Jose, you climb 3,000 feet. The air is
crisp and filled with the sweet scent
of pines.
You arrive in San Jos6 shortly after
noon, just in time for lunch. And you
will probably be ready to eat unless
you were tempted to buy some of the
empanadas, hard-boiled eggs, ice cream
and other offerings hawked by small
boys at each of the train stops.
On the hour-long flight back to Pan-
ama one might look back on the long
overland trip with the satisfaction of
having experienced an adventure that
the ordinary tourist does not enjoy.
Once you have made the trip, you
probably will never make it again, but
chances are you'll never regret having
made it.

*********************************

Those who have made the trip de-
scribed in this article recommend that
you take along a book or magazine to
read, perhaps a package of cookies to
nibble on, a canteen of drinking water,
and, to better endure the long periods
on wooden seats, an inflatable cushion.


FALL 1972









Cruise


Ships

W INTER AND SUMMER CRUIS-
es are becoming more pop-.
ular than ever as travelers discover the
joys of living at sea under the same
luxurious conditions that the), would
rnd at a first-class hotel with such things
as sightseeing tours, gourmet meals, or-
chestras, entertainment, and superb t
service thrown in for good measure.
In addition, man)' cruises can be
combined with air or rail transportation
for a more varied vacation. Tourists V
now can travel from Europe by air and -
return by ship or go from the U.S. east \ ,
coast by train to California and catch a
ship that will take them back to the
east coast via coastal ports and the
Caribbean Islands. Many of these hand- The P & O Line luxury liner "Canberra" has been passing through the Canal since 1963.
She is the biggest passenger liner to be built in England since the "Queen Elizabeth" and
some cruise ships make regular trips is one of the largest commercial liners to use the Canal. She is passing through Miraflores
through the Canal and often stop long Locks with a few of her 1,000 passengers on top deck watching operations. While transiting
enough to let their passengers enjoy the the Canal, luncheon is served on deck and the P & O menu includes everything from kanga-
many interesting sights on the Isthmus. roo tail soup and cumquats to Halibut Cutlet Baron Brisse and Cromesques Toulousaine.


New in looks and new in design was the
passenger liner "Southern Cross" when she
made her first visit to Canal waters in
April 1955. Built in Belfast, Northern Ire-
land, primarily for low-cost travel, she
has accommodations for 1,600 passengers.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 31


A sleek addition to the list of cruise ships passing through the Canal is the German vessel
"Hamburg" which was completed in 1968 in Germany. The vessel, which is the fourth
German ship to carry the name Hamburg since the beginning of the century, makes a
southbound transit while the west lane at Miraflores Locks is out of service for overhaul.
Known for the amount of space set aside for both public and private rooms, she has
319 spacious cabins including 20 deluxe apartments which accommodate 600 passengers.





















-ow
-~ ..
p v "

-nr~ I~


The Holland America cruise liner "Rotterdam" enters the Panama Canal from the Pacific entrance passing under the bridge that crosses
the Canal at Balboa. The big ship is escorted by two tugs and usually docks at Balhoa before continuing on her cruise schedule. The
"Rotterdam" is a regular visitor to the Canal during the winter cruise season. She has accommodations for 1,369 passengers.









..... ..- ...


Framed by tropical trees and plants that grow in profusion along the banks of the Panama
Canal, one of the Norwegian America Line's luxury cruise ships, the SS "Sagafjord" sails
majestically through Miraflores Lake after completing a southbound transit through Pedro
Miguel Locks. Filled with carefree cruise passengers, the vessel is on her way from New
York to the South Seas on a leisurely 3-month trip. This vessel makes several visits to the
Canal each winter. During the summer she spends her time carrying passengers on tours
of the North Sea and Scandinavia. She has been a Panama Canal customer since 1965.


The "Ocean Monarch," formerly the Cana-
dian Pacific Line "Empress of England,"
passes through the Panama Canal on her
first trip under her new name. She has
accommodations for more than 1,300 pas-
sengers and a crew of 488. She made a
cruise through the South Pacific recently

32 FALL 1972


a.~,: "lerql~-- .......... -














Commodity
Manufactures of iron and steel --------- --
Ores, various -___ _________________
Boards and planks ---------___ --__
Sugar ____________________
Petroleum and products -------_________
Fishmeal -- ---- __-___ __
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) ..
Metals, various --_ _-
Plywood and veneers _____________
Pulpwood -- -- ___ ___ _____
Petroleum coke----- ____ ___
Bananas-- _______________
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts ____
Sulfur --------_____
Paper and paper products -- ---------
All others ..----
Total -


Commodity


Coal and coke _____ _____
Petroleum and products -___
Phosphate -
Corn ___ -- ___-
Soybeans --
Ores, various __
Wheat --- ___
Sugar --- ___ ___________-
Manufactures of iron and steel ----__-_-
Metal, scrap -- __ __ -- -_
Sorghum -------_ ______ __ __
Chemicals, unclassified _----__
Fertilizers, unclassified --- __- __
Paper and paper products --------______-
Rice----------------------------
All others ----__----
Total -------


1972
7,670,401
4,248,594
4,158,423
3,413,574
2,516,877
1,873,132
1,393,292
1,385,442
1,303.417
1,224,547
1,202,891
1,133,869
849,408
675,864
614,945
12,917,495
46,582,171


1972
14,114,249
13,448,955
4,208,082
3,795,678
3,770,267
2,477,926
2,049,840
1,777,025
1,475,152
1,392,742
1,149,158
895,085
810,969
743,305
603,711
9,939,410
62,651,554


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S.


1971
6,390,378
5,909,419
3,918,208
3,316,900
2,037,958
1,382,121
1,407,252
1,560,293
1,027,132
1,296,941
1,100,950
1,079,486
567,275
421,434
534,226
12,332,879
44,282,852


1971
21,830.573
13,798,082
4,472,230
3,990.748
3,732,349
2,348,902
1,572,287
2,662,311
1,858,700
2,646,667
2,171,498
889,756
877,249
828,517
648,432
10,015,753
74,344,054


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
1,036,394
1,009,694
N.A.
2,296,584
1,805,862
N.A.
898,880
1,187,362
N.A.
517,629
N.A.
1,161,381
17,302
98,508
200,958
20,464,026
30,694,580


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
6,061,195
11,384,781
2,137,487
1,501,869
1,449,114
309,593
565,795
1,011,013
1,500,673
2,663,773
N.A.
657,500
388,007
428,942
154,248
7,204,338
37,418,328


GOVERNMENT


Fiscal Year


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing ------ -__ _______
Small 1 ------
Total Commercial----

U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing ------
Small --1------


1972

Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total

6,955 6,811 13,766
451 326 777
7,406 7,137 14,543


219 194 413
59 89 148


Total Commercial and
U.S. Government------_ 7,684 7,420 15,104


Avg. No.
transit
1971 1961-65


Total Total


14,020
581
14,601


11,335
547
11,882


503 250
123 157


15,227 12,289


1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited
free.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Fiscal Year


TtE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FISCAL YEAR 1972
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1972 1971
Commercial______-- __ 13,766 14,020
U.S. Government______ 413 503
Free_ __-___ 59 94
Total..-_______ 14,238 14,617
TOLLS *
Commercial. $98,833,373 $97,418,550
U.S. Govern-
ment 2.655,316 3,147.987
Total .$101,488,689 $100,566,537
CARGO"O (Oceangoing)
Commercial 109,271,968 118,634,184
U.S. Govern-
ment ___ 1,742,303 2,236,627
Free 62.532 139,843
Total 111,076,803 121,010,654
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.


(Continued from page 7)
"Do you know that there is nothing
so annoying to me as the statement so
generally made in my presence that I am
the 'Genius of the Panama Canal.' I do
not like it. Frankly, it is a fact that
Stevens devised, designed, and made
provision for practically every contin-
gency connected with the construction
and subsequent operation of the stupen-
dous project and when he turned over
the office of Chief Engineer to me,
everything was in the very best working
order or ready for the successful pros-
ecution of the work-my effort was to
see that the project, as conceived de-
signed, laid out, and duly recorded, was
carried out accordingly; submit required
reports, approve expenditures, fill va-
cancies. It is therefore to him, much
more than to me, that justly belongs the
honor of being the actual 'Genius of the
Panama Canal;' no; not me."
Stevens and Goethals remained good
friends throughout the years and
Stevens said of him, "I felt well assured
that the work which had been so near
my heart, had been given into com-
petent hands, as the future proved in
ever way to be the case."
After returning to the United States,
Stevens spent many years in active rail-
road administration and then 6 years as
a consulting engineer and 2 as president
of the Hill Lines' subsidiaries in the
Pacific Northwest.
He was sent by the U.S. Government
to Russia during World War I, when he
was 64 years old, where the Russian
government under Alexander Feodoro-
vitch Kerensky was attempting to re-
organize the country and restore order


Atlantic to Pacific
Fiscal Year






CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC


1972


Natio
Argentir
Belgian
Braziliar
British
Chilean
Chinese
Colombi
Cypriot.
Cuban
Danish.
Ecuador
Finnish
French
German
Greek
Hondura
Indian-
Israeli _
Irish- .
Italian
Japanes
Liberiar
Mexican
Netherli
Nicarag
Norweg
Panama
Peruvia
Philippi
Polish
South K
Soviet .
Spanish
Swedish
Singapo
United
Yugosla'
All othe


Tra
United
East coa
East coa
East coa
East coa
Europe-
Europe-
Europe-
All othe


BY NATIONALITY
Fiscal Year


1971


OF VESSELS


1961-65


No. of Tons No. of Tons Avg. No. Aug. tons
nalitj transits of cargo transit of cargo transits of cargo
e ---- --------- 21 45,167 2 1,710
159 526,280 129 307,260 46 168,966
---- 25 58,526 22 62,720 2 19,891
1,472 12,408,313 1,558 14,288,579 1,294 8,292,285
127 1,239,966 156 1,463,656 120 849,621
,Nat'l... 170 1,505,415 155 1,497,313 81 594,921
ian -- 249 518,991 225 539,744 256 408,588
.-- 106 826,646 183 1,340,478 -
-. ---- 86 781,622 86 842,313 3 14,596
S- 382 2,113,069 454 2,055,308 307 1,548,545
ean -- 65 108,614 63 98,767 42 49.491
33 214,723 45 352,262 24 107,205
206 913,914 259 1,023,723 144 771,293
West_ 937 4,628,907 1,069 4,918,407 1,122 3,391,774
-_--- 766 8,034,968 629 7,735,546 632 6,180,888
an---- 94 92,868 94 64,712 197 153,814
---- 60 827,066 45 767,813 1 16,445
---- 45 293,796 65 413,454 65 253,130
27 431,520 20 354,363 5 55,527
S 273 1,670,300 237 1,395,979 190 1,126,250
e---- 1,533 11.572,991 1,462 13,541,685 835 4,871,840
-__- 1,700 22,453,442 1,587 25,201,391 951 9,348,846
--__-- 68 391,101 48 336,610 25 77,779
ands-.. 524 3,017.077 494 2,648,769 621 2,793,040
uan..- 131 230,759 106 190,654 52 80,143
ian _- 1,239 14,790,317 1,202 16,011,868 1,436 10,931,401
nian -- 898 4,012,173 948 3,699,065 461 1,968,519
n_____ 153 991,264 199 1,247,065 119 547,814
ne---- 92 654,583 105 861,164 70 310,866
--- 24 92,117 25 109,747 --- -----
orean 90 667,389 82 639,812 10 44,398
- 174 985,690 126 859,443 23 164,686
70 105,735 49 166,209 13 52,230
--.--- 410 2,795,999 479 3,366,568 336 2,157,223
rean -- 22 103,964 28 134,779 ---- --
States__ 1,165 7,740,111 1,368 8,246,308 1,708 10,191,486
vian __- 81 792,230 74 1,075,103 13 106,870
rs _- 110 641,279 123 723,102 129 460,828
rotal___ 13,766 109,233,725 14,020 118,626,906 11,335 68,112,909
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES
Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
transit
de routes-(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) 1972 1971 1961-65
States Intercoastal (including Hawaii) 377 359 445
ist of United States-West coast of South America _. 980 1,123 2,355
st of United States-West coast of Central America 667 732 500
st of United States-Far East ------------ 3,142 3,374 2,220
Ist of United States/Canada-Oceania-------- 326 386 321
-West coast of United States/Canada------------ 909 1,040 954
-West coast of South America----------___ 1,298 1,240 1,236
-Oceania---------------------------- 518 555 397
rs ---------- ----- ---- 5549 5,211 2.907
rotal ---------------------------- 13,766 14,020 11,335
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars)


Month 1972
July- --------- 1.194
August __----- 1,197
September------------- 1,191
October-------- ------ 1,068
November ---- -------_ 964
December------------- 1,023
January--- ----------- 1,179
February-- ----------- 1,116
March ------------- 1,290
April--------------------- 1,191
May -------------1,261
June ------------- 1,092
Totals for fiscal year -. 13,766
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.


1971
1,174
1,176
1,108
1,167
1,064
1,102
1,119
1,144
1,295
1,214
1,237
1,220
14,020


Avg. No. Average
transit tolls
1961-65 1972 1971 1961-65
960 $8,017 $8,118 $4,929
949 8,513 8,221 4,920
908 8,417 7,979 4,697
946 7,241 8,095 4,838
922 6,645 7,363 4,748
946 7,267 7,690 4,955
903 8,895 8,157 4,635
868 8,233 7,814 4,506
1,014 9,297 8,929 5,325
966 9,180 8,349 5,067
999 9,127 8,422 5,232
954 7,933 8,243 5,013
11,335 $98,765 $97,380 $58,865


out of the chaos following the collapse
of the Czar's regime. Rasll". srx ce
was essential to success arld the United
States sent a transport ..,'aid to assist
the Russian officials in their oi-tlrts.
An Inter-Allied Techiic.-l Board of
eight nations including China. (.r-at
Britain, France, Italy, Czechliosloakia,
Japan, Russia, and the Unrit,:d States
attempted to keep oprn the Trans-
Siberian Railway. Steenis .as thie
United States member and chairman.
About as much tact vwas ,-reuir:d to
handle the Inter-Allied B :),d as to cop,
with problems of the Siberianr Railka',.
Stevens not only was successful but
achieved greatness in this position.,
probably the most difficult undertaking
of his life. The railway onrilinrli-nt .,d
the military protecting it ithdirj: in
1921 but Stevens, with onl', ore o r t o
assistants, continued in an, ad\ i;,r\
capacity until 1923.
Stevens lived to be 90 \ears .old .ind
his career spanned more ti.han 5S ',ars,
including railroading in the l'lited
States; work on the Panama Canal: and
his Russian service from 1917 to. 1923.
He kept an active inlirest in all 'ia
his work and a keen sense of humor He
returned a number of tinimes to sre the
Canal in operation and in 1933 % her
he was asked for a photograph to. be
placed in the Governor's offcI-c he wrote
that he was sending one taken several
years before, adding "I would d inot like
to be shown by a vert recent photo
which of course could onl' depict how
age has robbed me of my former manl'
beauty."

The 5-Cent Stamp
Plans had been put forward to issue
a 5-cent stamp honoring himr bul t t as
discovered that living persons could nrot
be depicted on Canal Zone stamps and
in 1936 a letter was written telling him
this. He answered, "The old P. 0. stamp
matter seems to be having trouble.
Well, I am sorry for it, but I an not
going to willingly die to please LTncle
Sam or adjust myself to his regulations '
In his "recollections" as he called
them, Stevens wrote a chapter of ad\ ice
to "young engineers who must carry
on." It contains a revealing glimpse into
his character.
He wrote: "While the rewards are iot
always in the shape of great material
wealth as the world regards i alth,
they will come in the knovw.ledlge that i %e
can leave a good name to our posterity.
and that we have contributc-d some-
thing to the comfort and happiness of
succeeding generations."

34 FALL 1972















Cud




T HE ROARING 20's WERE OFF
to a good start in the Canal Zone
50 years ago. The Panama Canal had
been in operation nearly 10 years and
World War 1, with the resulting difficul-
ties for Canal traffic, was over. Ships
were beginning to use the Canal on a
peacetime basis and some of the larger
passenger and cargo ships made transits.
One of the first was the steamer Em-
press of Australia owned by the Canadi-
an Pacific Railroad, which arrived at the
Canal July 1, 1922, from Hamburg and
made the transit July 6 after receiving
repairs at the Cristobal shops. She was
conspicuous in Canal waters because of
her size, according to the CANAL REC-
ORD, and was one of the largest ships to
have made the transit up to that time.
She was 590 feet long with a 75-foot
beam and a registered gross tonnage of
21,447 tons. The Empress was built in
Germany as the Tirpitz and was on her
way to enter the transpacific service.
A high record for tons of cargo car-
ried through the Canal was set in July
1922 by the steamer Marore of the Ore
Steamship Corp. She made the transit
July 19 with 20,000 tons of iron ore
bound from Cruz Grande, Chile, to New
York. The previous record was set by a
sister ship, the Bethore, making the
transit in May with 19,000 tons of ore.
The Tivoli Hotel, center of the social
scene in the Canal Zone, was condemned
as a firetrap by the Canal Zone Fire Di-
vision. To eliminate this hazard, auto-
matic sprinklers were installed through-
out the hotel by a New York firm at a
reported cost of $27,688.40.
Some people on the Isthmus were
worried about flaming youth in 1922.
The Star and Herald published a fea-
ture story saying that flappers were not
popular in the Canal Zone. "Bobbed
haired girls who powder their knees
must play second fiddle to their more
conservative sisters who wear their hair
long and don't roll their stockings," the
paper said.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 35


25 Years Ago
AN OUTBREAK OF INFANTILE
paralysis in Panama and the Canal Zone
had health authorities worried both on
the Isthmus and in Washington, D.C.
25 years ago. Officials of the U.S. Public
Health Service and other agencies ob-
served the epidemic closely and assured
local authorities that they stood ready
to do everything in their power to limit
the spread of the disease.
Meanwhile it was announced in the
local newspapers that a $1 million ob-
stetrical building would be built for
Gorgas Hospital as part of a long-range
plan for improvement of medical facili-
ties at this Canal Zone institution. Funds
for the building were to be provided in
an appropriation bill signed in August
1947 by President Truman.
A steady employment level for the
next 2 years, followed by an increase in
the number of Panama Canal employees,
was predicted in 1947 by Canal person-
nel officials. The prediction was based


SS "Empress of Australia" in south end of Gaillard Cut near Paraiso. Equipment, at right,
belonged to the Panama Canal Dredging Division, which was based at Paraiso before the
construction of new headquarters in Gamboa.


on the fact that the Canal was approach-
ing normal peacetime operations for the
first time since 1939 and on the belief
that Congress would approve some type
of construction for enlargement of Canal
facilities. The Canal's peak employment
was reached in 1942 when construc-
tion on the third locks was in progress.

70 Years Ago
THE CANAL ZONE GUIDE SERV-
ice, an elite corps of multilingual men
and women who lecture aboard ships
and escort visitors to the locks, Gaillard
Cut, and other points of interest in the
Canal Zone, was organized 10 years ago.
Taking a personal interest in providing
information for tourists and local res-
idents on the engineering and natural
wonders of the Canal Zone, former Gov.
Robert J. Fleming, Jr. was most instru-
mental in the formation of the service
which has been popular from the start.
During the first fiscal year, 84,688
visitors took a look at the locks installa-
tions under the supervision of the Canal
Zone Guide Service. By 1971, the
millionth person had visited the locks
since the inauguration of the service
with more than 100,000 touring the
locks each year. These figures do not
include the hundreds of persons who
took advantage of the Guide Service for
tours to other points of interest.
The program also included the instal-
lation of attractive "Center of Interest"
signs in both English and Spanish along
the streets and highways of the Canal
Zone. Similar signs were erected to mark
recreation sites.




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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by the Internet Arcinive in 2009 witin funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevi1972pana

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^{J

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David S. Parker Governor-President Charles I. McGinnis Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer PANAMA CANAL Rivftw Official Panama Canal Publication Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer Publications Editors Willie K. Friar, Jose T. Tunon Writers Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hernandez, and Franklin Castrellon Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. Subscriptions: $1 a year, airmoil SS a year; back copies (regular mail), 50 cents each. Published twice a year. Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Bolboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. \ Contents John F. Stevens An amazing engineering genius, he knew there ivas more to digging the Canal than simphj making the dirt fly. Modish Molas San Bias needlework is adding a splash of color to clothing. Funny Things Happen For the men who put the ships through, a day may include anything from platypuses to pigeons. Culinary Capers Whether Boquete oranges or cashew-apples, Panama's fruits make exquisite preserves and sauces. "Tokyo Bay" Topples Records Largest container ship in the world transits. Mobile Masterpieces Imaginative husdrivers decorate their vehicles with portraits, pet names, and proverbs. South America on (?) a day Coping with old and new money is one of the hazards. Medical Sleuths Excellent medical resources are available to students planning a career in medical technology. A Different Way to San Jose Travel off the beaten path. Shipping A look at the elegant cruise ships which use the Canal. Canal History 12 15 18 20 23 26 29 31 35 OurC over THE TOKYO BAY, THE LARGest container ship in the world and the largest ship to transit the Panama Canal, is a snug fit in Miraflores Locks with her beam of nearly 106 feet. The 950-foot-Iang British flag vessel, which transited April 19, 1972, is the largest to go through the Canal since the 936-foot Bremen, a German passenger liner, made her only transit in 1939. The giant ship, like many other regular customers of the Canal, was designed to fit neady into the 110-foot by 1,000-foot locks. Several years ago, the maximum size for ships using the waterway was set at appro.ximately 800 feet for length and 102 feet for beam, but subsequent changes in ship design and improvements in Canal capacitv have given shipowners and designers a bonus. The new Cunard liner. Queen Elizabeth II, was built with the idea of transiting the Canal although her length is 963 feet. There was some hesitation on the part of Canal officials not long ago when the 990-foot United States was scheduled to transit on a cruise. She never did but the Canal has decided to give it a try on an experimental basis if she does plan a transit in the future. More photographs and the story of the transit of the Tokyo Bay appear on pages 18 and 19. The cover photograph is by Melvin D. Kennedy, Jr. — Q^ 4/ kji Artwork in this Issue: Toni McGrath (page 3); Fcter Gurneij (pages 12 and 14); Carlos Mendez (page 15); and Leslie High (page 20). Fall 1972

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John F. Stevens, an amazing engineering genius used to the challenge of the frontier, knew there was more to digging the Canal than simply "making the dirt fly" J N THE SUMMER OF 1905, ALI though President Theodore Roosevelt was telling everyone that he was going to "make the dirt fly," privately he was admitting that things on the Isthmus were in a "hell of a mess." John F. Wallace had just resigned as chief engineer and the President was seeking a successor. He chose John F. Stevens, a forthright leader who brought to the office a new vigor, courage and determination, which many believe saved the Canal project. The new chief engineer arrived in Colon on July 25, 1905 and left immediately on a tour of the work. What he saw convinced him that the President had not exaggerated the difficulties. The challenge, however, did not dishearten him. In Culebra Cut (later to be named Gaillard Cut) he saw steam shovels standing idle and seven work trains derailed and lying in a ditch while workers milled about uncertain as to what they were supposed to do. He watched two laborers lift a wheelbarrow, which they had loaded with dirt, onto the head of a third man, who balanced it precariously and solemnly marched off to the dumping area. As he looked over the broken dcywn undersized rolling stock of the Panama Stevens By Willie K. Friar Sandy Tompkins, art student at Balboa High School, puts finishing touches on her rendering of Stevens' Circle, which has become a favorite site for art exhibits and a meeting place for teenagers. This monument to John F. Stevens stands in a small park in the center of Balboa on the Pacific side of the Isthmus. In the background is the Administration Building of the Panama Canal. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 10

Stevens halted all excavation and put men to work paving streets, fighting yelloiv fever and malaria, building piers, machine shops, hospitals, police stations, jails, churches . .-f-,-T7-"iewi=f^-^'T^''mi!^ Fumigation squads. Typical street scene in 1905. Laying brick at Railroad Station. Railroad, someone pointed out proudly that there had been no collisions for some time. Stevens answered, "A collision has its good points as well as bad ones. It indicates that there is something moving on the railroad." Stevens was 52, in 1905, when he accepted the position of chief engineer. Powerfully built and strikingly handsome, he was a man of commanding presence and considerable physical courage. He was not an "office engineer" but a pioneer accustomed to facing the challenge of the frontier. Like many other engineers of that day he had never received any formal training although he had a long career building railroads. The Apaches Two stories are typical of his character. In the 1870's while working on the Arizona Railroad, a construction gang was cut off by the Apaches and the foreman offered a reward of $500 to anyone who could get through to them. Stevens was the only man to volunteer. He made the trip on foot through more than a hundred miles of Apache territory and led them to safety. Ten years later, he set out from Montana with hvo Indian guides and a mule to try to find a route for the Great Northern Railroad across the Rockies. The mule died and the guides deserted but Stevens pushed on alone to discover and survey the vital pass. Railroad men and mapmakcrs wanted to call the pass Stevens Pass, but he declined the honor. He was used to working in the wilderness with rugged men. On one occasion, a gang of Italian laborers took a violent dislike to him because he had ordered a contractor to bum the carcass of a mule that had died of disease. The men claimed it for food and a crowd of them chased him a half mile down the railroad track waving knives and clubs and yelling wildlv. Some of the irreverent thought that it was a good joke on the "old man." With these and many other similar experiences behind him, Stevens was not dismayed by the problems he faced on the Isthmus. He was the first to realize that the Canal could not be built until certain preparations were made and he set about creating the fundamental organization under which the Canal was constructed. He realized that the needs were sanitation, housing and feeding, transportation, and proper equipment, and he ordered a halt at once to all Canal work until a proper environment could be created and all elements necessary to the construction assembled. Yellow Fever He handled the problems of transportation and equipment himself. For the other fields he found the best men available and put them in charge. He recognized Gorgas for the expert that he was and put him in charge of sanitation, giving him all the supplies and men he needed to cope with malaria and yellow fever. Before this, Gorgas had met constant frustration and had been told by Adm. John G. Walker, Chairman of the First Canal Commission, "the whole idea of mosquitoes carrying fever is the veriest balderdash." He placed housing and feeding of workers in the hands of Jackson Smith, who had worked on large construction projects in Mexico and Ecuador. One of his first steps was to build a cold storage plant, ice cream plant, bakery, coffee roaster, and a laundry. Stevens saw the need for a commissary system on arrival when he heard of men going into the jungle for bananas or into the swamps for sugar cane because they were unable to afford to buy food from the local merchants. Eggs were selling for $1.50 a dozen. Fish prices had risen because fishermen refused to make two catches a week having discovered that with the large number of new arrivals competing for the limited supply they could make as much on one haul as on two. No Refrigeration There was no refrigeration service on the Isthmus so he ordered cold storage equipment installed on Panama Railroad steamers, a cold storage plant built at Colon, and refrigerator cars procured for the railroad. Frozen products were brought from New York and deposited in cold storage at Colon and daily deliveries of perishable food and ice were made at towns across the Isthmus. At first there were problems with delivery and Stevens once \vTote to the commissary manager, "I cannot imagine why it should take so long to fill this order, and if this is the way the Chief Engineer's requests are to be handled, I cannot imagine what attention any requests from any of my subordinates would receive. I presume this can be remedied and those requisitions filled much more quicklv than in this case; if not, I would like to be advised." Fall 1972

PAGE 11

On another occasion he wrote, "Referring to the supplies which were ordered Friday for my house, mv attention was called to the condition in which one of the cans of ham was received, which was, to say the least, terrible. This morning it was not possible to get within 5 feet of it. I wish vou would kindly see that such supplies are not sent to me as it only requires returning of same to the commissary." Between 1905 and 1907. he saw to it that all the buOdings required— quarters, hospitals, school houses, churches, jails, fire and police stations— were promptly erected and put into service. Tangles of Red Tape Under his supervision, about 5,000 new buildings were built, old French buildings were renovated, streets paved, new harbor installations constructed, a sewage disposal plant built, and water mains put in. He installed a telephone system that made it possible for him to talk with any of the oflSces, however small, along the Canal route. When Stevens arrived on the Isthmus few laborers seemed to know what they were supposed to do, and those who did had to cope with tangles of red tape. One regulation, for instance, required written permission to saw any board more than 10 feet long. Stevens began cutting away at the stream of unnecessary paperwork. Looking over the excavation sites, he saw, at once, that more equipment was needed and soon realized that the whole procedure for purchasing had broken douTi. His next step was to create a machinery' department to recommend the particular type of equipment needed. Twent\'-fi\'e years later, Stevens wrote: "The Department of Machinery was of the utmost importance. A quantity of construction plant, tools and machinery' such as never before had been gotten together in the history of the world was planned, specified, requisitioned, purchased and deli\ered to the site in record time. This equipment consisted of almost ever)mechanical device which judgment and experience indicated was best adapted to do quickly and economically the \'ast work which lay ahead of the engineers. "Detailed specifications for individual classes of machinery such as locomotives, cars, steam shovels, etc., were drawn up by the department. Cast steel was substituted for iron, copper boiler tubes for ones of iron and a like standard of excellence was insisted on for the entire list. The numbers involved were enormous. I remember, for example, purchasing on a single order 125 locomoti\'es and 75 steam-shovels, and on another 900 Lidgerwood dumpcars. . Some French cars, locomotives and dredges were, it is true, reconditioned and put into ser\ice but 95 percent of the equipment used in building the canal was new; and of the immense amount ordered during my time as Chief Engineer, every single item, I am told, was well-adapted to its job. Nothing was wasted." Stevens was one of the greatest railroad authorities of his day. From laying track in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona and finding and surveying routes in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, he had gone on to become president of one of the largest companies in the United States. He saw at once that the Panama Railroad, antiquated and rusty though it was, must be made into the instrument of disposal for the spoil from the digging of the Canal. Stevens was the first man to think of using the Panama Railroad as a convex'or belt to move the soil that \\'as dug out. One of the big problems of the French was how to transport the spoil efEcientlv. B\' the end of 1906, Stevens had rebuilt the railroad, recruited new men from the United States to nin it and established a good working relationship between those who worked on the Canal and those who worked on the Railroad. Greatest Single Factor All material in Culebra Cut was waste and had to be disposed of, and Stevens desis;ned a simple but extensive and flexible s\stem of trackage which proved a success and was in use until the last \'ard of material had been removed from the Cut. Stevens said of the system: "This was probablv the greatest single factor, in the nature of a machine, that contributed to the successful building of the Canal." When he arrived on the Isthmus, there were onh' 35 locomotives, 24 coaches and 560 flatcars. When he left after 18 months, there were 293 locomotives, 52 coaches, 16 cold storage cars, and 3,915 flatcars. In place of the 73 miles of light-weight track, there were 350 miles of hea\ v relaid track. The new railroad was the busiest in the Workmen cooking beside the railroad track. One of the new mess halls at worksite. Dining room of Tivoli Hotel. . houses^ hotels, schools, mess halls, a cold storage plant, bakery and laundry, and setting up a commissary system. The Panama Canal Review 5

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— — "* Be*' Lov.H'ghHooorUpo" STEVENS EXIOatB ASiGEISlOAL I II I III Ertd by 1 Man ^Nho 1>' oppo'"'""!'--* world, running up to 570 trains a day compared to 20 in the past. The trip across the Isthmus had been cut from 5)2 to less than 2 hours. Surveying the railroad svstem, Stevens said, "I don't mind trying to make the dirt fly, now that we have somewhere to put it." With the proper preparations made, Stevens ordered excavation to begin in Culebra Cut in earlv 1906. It was now necessar\' to know what kind of Canal was to be built— a sea-level or a lock type. He had drawn up plans for both but was convinced that the onlv practical plan was a lock type. Still he was faced with the problem of convincing Congress and the Senate. A subcommittee of Congress voted in Mav 1906 in favor of building the Canal at sea level. Roosevelt had doubts and summoned Stevens to Oyster Bay to get his opinion. Of the meeting, Stevens said, "I talked to Teddy like a Dutch uncle . and soon convinced him that a canal with locks was the only possible answer." The President was convinced but not the Senate and Stevens was forced to argue his case before a Senate committee. He had firsthand information of the volume and the violence of the waters of the Chagres River which had been called "the lion in the path of a sea-level canal," as well as all other problems involved in the construction of such a waterwav. He set about in a straightforward manner to convince the committee, though he hated the job of lobbyist. After he outlined his plan, which included an earth dam across the Chagres at Gatun near the Caribbean end of the Canal, one Senator was concerned about whether or not it would be absolutely safe and suggested it be reinforced with a masonry core. Stevens considered this an unnecessary expense. The Senator did not agree and said, "I suggest you are too positive in your opinions, Mr. Stevens." "Well, I am a positive man." "I suggest to vou that this dam ought to be made stronger." "The dam is strong enough. This is like killing a duck; when you kill him he is dead; there is no use trying to kill him deader." Finally Stevens' plain speaking and common sense prevailed. The Senate voted 36 to 31 for a lock canal, and the House followed suit. Years later Stevens wrote in the Journal of the Society of Civil Engineers: "I have been privileged to do some little service to my country, and the greatest service I ever gave it was, I am sure, the part I took in preventing foreign votes from foisting a useless thing— namely a sea-level canal as proposed bv the majoritv of the Consulting Board— upon a too credulous American people." Roosevelt Visits Stevens returned to the Canal Zone and the work was continuing at a steady pace when the President made his visit in November. Stevens was with him throughout his tour of the Canal construction sites. Roosevelt saw and approved the layout of the complex but elastic trackage svstem on different levels within the Culebra Cut, the efiRcient coordination of train schedules with excavation and the judicious choice of dumping sites. He was photographed in the driver's seat of a 95-ton steam sihovel while he watched how well the system worked; that trains did not have to wait for their loads; and shovels did not stand idle for want of flatcars. He then singled out Stevens for special mention and commended him for "admirable results" and added that he hoped that they would continue. Stevens Resigns But Stevens was not to continue with the Canal. He suddenly resigned and terminated his service March 31, 1907. Why did he do it? There have been many explanations but Stevens himself refused to discuss the matter, except after manv \ears, when he wrote: "Various reasons for mv resignation were given by irresponsible scribblers. They all had points of similarity, as they were all stupid and mendacious. In one respect they were exactly alike; they were all absolutely untrue. I resigned for purely personal reasons, which were in no way, directly related to the building of the canal, or with anyone connected with it in any manner." Stevens stayed on onlv long enough to transfer authority to Maj. George W. Goethals, who had been appointed bv the President to replace him. When Stevens left the Isthmus April 8, the reception at Cristobal brought together almost every American in Cristobal and as many as could be brought from the rest of the Canal Zone in a series of special trains. It was the largest crowd that had ever gathered to say bon voyage to a ship leaving Colon. In a final ceremony at the ship, Stevens was told that the men had subscribed for some tokens of their regard. These included a silver service, a watch and a gold ring. Three gifts had been selected because the men wanted him to have something he could pass on to each of his three sons. r**^^^^^^.^ President Theodore Roosevelt, in white suit, is accompanied by Stevens, second from the President's left, as he tours construction sites in November 1906. 6 Fall 1972

PAGE 13

For many years, Stevens had worn a plain gold ring of which he was particularly fond. It had been stolen and the men had ordered one made up as much like it as possible. They also presented petitions signed by more than 10,000 workers. The original petition had read: "Please withdraw your resignation and remain in charge of our work. We will show our appreciation and loyalty by working for you even harder than we have up to this time." A group of foremen suggested that the wording be changed "for the men consider that they can hardly promise to work harder than they have been as each and all of them have given their entire efforts." They added however that the sentiment toward Mr. Stevens "is one of admiration and respect." Just before he went aboard the SS Panama, Stevens replied to the farewell speech by W. G. Bierd. He said that 2 years before he was almost overawed by the amount of preparation and construction work required, but that conditions were now such that he felt absolutely assured the Canal would be opened by January 1915. He asked the men, as their sincere friend, to take any little differences and complaints direcdy to Colonel Goethals, for whom he asked the same loyalty as heretofore had been shown to himself. And in paying tribute to Colonel Gorgas he said that until he lifted the dark cloud which sanitary conditions placed over the work, he was in doubt as to success. But when this doubt had been removed he knew that the Canal would be pushed to completion. Gen. George W. Goethals consistendy made a point of emphasizing his appreciation of the work done by Stevens. Typical were these remarks made at a meeting of engineers in Pordand, Oreg. Stevens in the office which he buih at Culebra overlooking the excavation of what is now Caillard Cut. Not an "office engineer," he spent much of his time walking the Canal route and talking with the men. "There are three diseases on the Isthmus," he told them, "yellow fever, malaria, and cold feet. And the worst of these is cold feet." The Chief Engineer on an outing with Mrs. Stevens, who influenced him to accept the Canal position, felling him that his whole career had been in preparation for this great engineering command. (Please see page 33) • em ;cfi-. ^. Ns5^,aP^-.-r _, j-^ l *\ •^v <*^ ji;-'*• .*. .AWJl^aC -F* ; mam ifh ^"^J^SStevens moved the headquarters of the engineering organization from Panama to a new town which he built near the Culebra excavation site. The Panama Canal Review 7

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Photographs by Arthur L. Pollack WHAT DO PEOPLE DO WITH molas? While the Cuna women in Panama's San Bias Islands are doing exactly what the\' always did witli themwearing them as blouses— mola fanciers in Panama and the Canal Zone are fashioning them into everything from purses to lampshades. And there is no generation gap where their use is concerned. They are found on the seat of teenagers' jeans as well as the skirt of mother's party dress. Grandmother may have a mola-decorated knitting bag while her granddaughter carries a mola shoulder bag. The traditional mola which is proving so popular with amateur as well as professional designers, is rectangular in shape and consists of three to five layers of various colored cotton cloth. The intricate designs are fashioned by cutting through the layers of cloth to the color desired and the edges of the design are sewn so that the stitching cannot be seen. The technique has been described as "reverse applique" or "cutwork stitcherv." Mrs. Sherry Holland, of Diablo, models a skirt which she designed to be worn opened up the side or the front. 8 Fall 1972

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The Cuna seamstress makes no preliminarv drawing but starts out with a picture idea and develops the design as she goes along. A good mola may take a month or two to make. Custom-made molas may be ordered—at a slightly higher price. Just show the inventive folk artists of the San Bias a picture or sketch of the subject you want depicted and vou'll have a mola that is not only personalized, but a unique conversation piece. Of course, the results are sometimes surprising. A likeness of your familv dog, for example, may be so highh' st\lized that he'll come out looking like a giant anteater. But no one else will have a mola like it. Until recently molas were simply framed on a background of colored burlap and hung on a living room or den wall, but thev are now being given new dimensions by imaginative people with a propensity toward individualism. On these pages are some of the interesting ways molas are being used by Isthmian residents with a flair for fashion. Zindy Wiggs and her colorful shoulder bag attract the attenHon of the Deakins twins, Tim and Tom, as she strolls down the street in Gamboa. Viveca Kochman, Canal Zone College student, wears a brightly colored traditional mola blouse with white bell-bottomed pants. Mrs. Earl R. McMillin, of Gamboa, models mola-covered shoes. At left is a handbag featuring the same colors as the shoes. The Panama Canal Review

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Mrs. Charles Griffiths, wife of the Commander of the U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command, who collects items with a turtle motif, holds a turtle made from a mola which was given to her by a friend as a souvenir of Panama. On the floor are a few others from her collection. At right: A unique piano bench cover made by Mrs. William H. Beeby, of Balboa Heights. The Classic Cuna CostumeTHE CUNAS USE TWO MOlas to a blouse, one in front and one in back, usually of the same design and color. Thev add sleeves and a yoke edged with borders of a blending color. The earlv Cuna blouses were knee length and were decorated with a band of red at the bottom. As colored cloth became more common and as island traders brought in needles, thread and scissors, in exchange for coconuts, the women expanded their decoration, shortened An attractive San Bias seamstress wears the typical everyday costume of the women of the Islands. the blouse to waist length, and gradually developed the technique of cutting outlines of the desired figures in the top laver of cloth allowing the next layer to show the design. Not unlike fashion-conscious women all over the world, a San Bias lad)' discards a blouse when the colors get dull or when she feels the need for a change in wardrobe. Having discovered that tourists will buy almost anvthing made of molas, she usuallv offers the used blouse for sale or rips it apart and sells the two molas separately. Serious collectors are alwavs on the lookout for these as thev know that the Indian women save the best ones for themselves and the used molas, though faded, are often superior in design and in needlework. 10 Fall 1972

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Quite different from the traditional Cuna blouse is this one made by Mrs. Holland. Around her waist is a mola necktie. Thirty molas were needed to make this banquet-sized tablecloth which Capt. Julius Grigore, USNR, took with him when he left the Canal Zone following his retirement. :j&j^3^^^ '^tj^ Iff, ** ^~y x*4 Anne Castles, Canal Zone College student, wears a bikini which she made from two molas. The Panama Canal Review 11

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From Platypuses to Pigeons ^^ 1"MHHU TklH^> TiappcH A^CHA tL Panama Canat onci tnc r anama By Jose T. Tufion s SUPPLYING EARTHWORMS FOR platypuses, coping with a phosphorus fire, removing a raccoon from a towing locomotive, or being chased by a barracuda, are not a part of the everyday hfe of the people who keep the ships moving through the Panama Canal, but these and many other such incidents illustrate that life is not always routine along the waterway. Although transiting ships often request unusual supplies, there was a fluny of excitement in the 1950's when it became necessary to fly in 10,000 earthworms from the United States to supplement the diet of three platypuses that were being taken from Australia to a zoo in the United States. About the same time that the earthworms were being flown to the Canal Zone an unusual fire broke out aboard a ship transiting the Canal. The ship was carrying a cargo of phosphorus which was destined to be made into matchheads. Cristobal firemen wet the cargo down, quenching the fire. A short time later, they discovered, however, that the phosphorus had gotten into cargo nets and onto docks where once it dried out, workmen walking through it were starting new fires with every step in the same way that a match ignites when struck. Finally, all the phosphorus was removed but not before some of the men had gotten a "hot foot." Locks Division towing locomotive operators like to tell of the time when ship traflSc was stymied at Miraflores for 2 hours by a "gato solo," a small raccoon native to Central America. The animal hid out in the interior of a towing locomotive making it necessary to disconnect electrical equipment while everyone searched for him. As helping hands approached, the frightened animal crouched deeper inside the mechanism. Finally, while ships' crews stood by and visitors cheered, a fire hose was used by locks employees to dislodge their unwelcome guest. Gatun Locks, which are located further from civilization and closer to the jungle than the locks on the Pacific side, have had more than their share of jungle visitors. There have been caimans, snakes, small jungle animals and birds. Then one day in 1952, lock employees were startled to see a deer swimming in the channel just above the locks. Linehandlers put out in a rowboat to rescue the animal but the deer drowned. The softhearted emplo\ees sadlv lifted the bod\upon the locks wall and tried to give it artificial respiration, but in vain. The crew of a transiting ship was surprised one sunnv morning, to see a flock of pigeons taking off from the lock wall at Miraflores. Seagulls, pelicans, sea terns— yes. But pigeons— hardly. These birds were a special breed of homing pigeons that had been shipped to the Canal b\' their owner in the United States. The idea was to set them free at the Canal and let them find their way back to San Antonio, Tex. The flock of 19 pigeons had arrived en Pan Am flight 401 consigned to Frank A. Baldwin, Information Ofiicer. They were released 2 davs later bv Judy Frizell and Jane Holgerson, Canal emplovees. Whether it was the weather or the Canal that set their navigation systems awr\', no one knows. But 18 of the pigeons were never seen again. The 19th turned up a few weeks later when a resident of the interior of Panama near Santiago came bv the Information Office saying a pigeon had taken up with his chickens and he would like to present a bill for food to its owner. Linehandlers, who row out to incoming ships at the locks to take on the ship's lines and connect them with the towing locomotives, usually live a fairly placid life. So imagine the surprise of two boatmen on the sea side of Gatun locks, when a huge barracuda 12 Fall 1972

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leapt from the water with such force that it landed in the rowboat. After a few desperate attempts to kill the monster, the men left the boat to the barracuda, jumped out, and swam to shore. Later thev were able to pull the boat in and kill the maneater. They found that the fish weighed more than 54 pounds and had teeth measuring 3 inches. Although the locks were built to accommodate the largest ships in existence in 1914 and were expected to be large enough for an\thing that would be built for some time, it was only 14 years later that the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier Lexington knocked down a number of heavy concrete lampposts at Gatun and Miraflores Locks. According to a newspaper account of the passage, the U.S.S. Lexington arrived in Balboa the afternoon of March 26, 1928, little the worse for the 12-hour trip through the Canal. But four of the concrete lampposts were missing from the locks and a handrail on the Pedro Miguel Locks had been smashed flat. The Lexington took a toll of three lampposts at the Gatun Locks as she was being stepped up to the lake level and another at Pedro Miguel when the vessel became slightlv turned in the channel and the prow struck the post, crumbling it into rubble. No one had thought that the Lexington would be much trouble since her sister ship, the U.S.S. Saratoga, had made the transit a short time earlier without incident. Thev were the largest ever to transit the 110by 1,000-foot locks up to that time. They were 888 feet in length and had beams of 107.9 feet. Because of this accident, the Panama Canal removed the handsome lampposts and replaced them with metal ones located at a greater distance from the wall of the locks. These in turn were replaced bv aluminum posts in the 1960's after the aircraft carrier Valley Forge knocked down the visitors' pavihon at Miraflores and came within inches of flattening the metal hght posts. The ornamental tops of the old lampposts were not lost to posteritv however. They can still be seen these days along streets in the Canal Zone and decorating driveways and gardens in the Republic of Panama. The wealth of fish in the locks became known to the Panama Canal employees as soon as one of the chambers was imwatered for inspection and repair not many years after the Canal was opened to commerce. ^iii^W^-f" All the lampposts along the locks' wall are still in place as the U.S.S. "Saratoga" transits in March 1928, but her sister ship, the U.S.S. "Lexington," which came along shortly afterward, knocked down four of them at Miraflores and Gatun Locks. %^^*\1 -^^^^--s^ U' '•^' The old lampposts were taken down and their decorative tops were used to line driveways and as traffic bumpers. One of them offers a challenge to Luis Sullivan who takes a leap while he waits for the schoolbus at Pedro Miguel. The Panama Canal Review 13

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Workmen found that the chambers acted as huge fishbowls, and, with the exception of a shark that followed a ship from the Pacific into Miraflores and died in the fresh waters of Miraflores Lake, they and transiting ships lived in peaceful coexistence. Many a snapper and snook captured in the locks have been served at Canal Zone dinner tables. During locks overhauls, employees often are seen going home with loads of fresh fish slung over their shoulders. Not so welcome are some of the other things that turn up or sink dou-n in the locks. A large rope fender of the tvpe used on tugs was located in Miraflores Locks recentl}' by a diver, who was called when one of the lock gates refused to close. The wa\'ward fender held up traffic in the west lane for an hour and 47 minutes. Recently, a truck ran off the bridge crossing the lower end of Gatun Locks. Traffic in the Canal was delaved while a locomotive crane fished it out. Then there was the boxwho rode off a locks wall at Miraflores on his bic\cle. The bo\' managed to swim to safety before traffic was disrupted and the bike was recovered a few hours later. After a slide in Caillard Cut September 21, 1915, this island came up from .30 feet of water. Legend has it that a dipper dredge operator promptly planted a British flag on it. Other debris found in the Canal and the locks range from pieces of ships' keels that somehow break off from the larger vessels, logs of various sizes that float in from flood-swollen rivers, and once, a 10-ton boulder was found hv a diver in the southern approach to Miraflores Locks east chamber. It also has been necessary from time to time to fish people out of the locks, particularlyat locks overhaul time when visitors, taking a look at the floor, take a misstep and end up in a sump hole. During the earl\da\s of the Canal operation, an island suddenly appeared in the Canal channel following a slide in Caillard Cut. Oldtimers sav that a dipper tender sitting in the Isoom of the dredge Paraiso "discovered" the island and promptly placed a small British flag on its top. The flag planter, who tried to include Creat Britain in the Canal operation, was identified as a native of Ireland, who said he did it in the name of the "auld country." Cristobal harbor held much excitement in the early days of the Canal and oldtimers still remember the whale that moved into Limon Bay about 50 \ears ago. The 120i-foot mammal, weighing 125 tons, grounded in the shallow waters east of the Canal prism and remained there until it was killed 2 days later by a group of Canal em' ployees who planned to render its blubber at the Mount Hope abattoir. The whale carcass was towed to Pier 6 in Cristobal but the 75-ton locomotive crane was unable to lift it from the water to the railroad flatcars assembled for transportation to Mount Hope. When salvage efforts were abandoned shortlx' after, the whale was towed about 12 miles out to sea by a Panama Canal tug where it was later bombed and sunk by U.S. Navv planes from Coco Solo. Thus was eliminated the only whale ever known to menace the navigation of the Panama Canal. Still there are people living near the Canal who remain oblivious to all of the unusual happenings. Their attitude is something like that of the old man who during the last davs of the construction of the waterway was warned that the rising waters of the newly made Gatun Lake would soon flood his house, and he must move. He sat calmly beside his hut as the water began to ,, rise around his feet and said, "I've heard that story before. The French told my father that 30 years ago." 14 Fall 1972

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*-) ulinary Capers By Fannie Hernandez MANGO-NUT BREAD G^O' ,S^^^^ sx^ .\3C^ -^-^-1^^ ^^Gt ^SN^^^'^N^^ANi^ ^Hu. STy HOAf^ 't:Ai "^t^t: % 4D c\s^^ J.VJ .XYY^-^ Yt^tS^ r^Vt-S IT IS COMMON THESE DAYS TO regard with simple awe those people who have the temerity to make their own bread and marmalade. But it is surprisingly easy and, although it can be time consuming, the smell that comes from the kitchen when bread is baking or marmalade is cooking is only slightly short of heaven. Show me the man who can resist a slice of warm homemade bread, dripping with creamy butter and smeared with homemade jam or marmalade and I will show you a coldhearted Scrooge with the bah and humbug thrown in free for Christmas. Bread can be made in a delightful variety of ways anywhere but there are few places in the world where the ingredients for easily made marmalade and preserves hang from a tree or a bush nearly all year-around as they do on the Isthmus. Panama's citrus fruits could well hold their own anywhere in the world. Oranges, both sweet and sour varieties, tangerines, grapefruit, limes— all treeripened— are available the year-aroimd and most plentiful during the citrus season from December through March. It is not unusual to see golden oranges and white orange blossoms on the trees at the same time. The same occurs with grapefruit. Seedless Boquete oranges, about the size of grapefruit and larger, are a beautiful sight and delicious eating. The common all-purpose oranges are sweet and juicy, their natural sugar developing as they ripen on the trees. Anyone with an orange tree on his premises may find himself with more than he can use and a good way to use up the bonanza is to make orange marmalade. Here is a recipe for a marmalade similar to the English type: SWEET-BITTER ORANGE MARMALADE 8 oranges, quartered 2 small limes, quartered 8 cups sugar a teaspoon baking soda a dash of salt Remove the spongy inner portion from the peel of four oranges and with a sharp knife, cut the peel into very thin strips. Do the same with the limes. Put in a cooking pot and add three cups of water, the soda and salt. Cover and simmer for 30 minutes, stirring occasionally. Separate the pulp from all the oranges and limes, being careful to remove all the white part. Add the fruit pulp and juice to the cooked peel. Heat to a boil and stir in the sugar. Cook at a slow rolling boil until the liquid begins to thicken. This will take about an hour. Remove any scum that may form on the top. Let it set for a few minutes and stir up. Put in sterilized jars and seal with paraffin or let it cool and freeze in containers. The marmalade also may be put into sterilized jars or glasses and placed in the refrigerator. It keeps fine for months. Most people who enjoy cashew nuts are not aware that the nut is found hanging from a pepper-shaped red or yellow fruit called cashew apple. Very common in Panama, cashew trees are known as the fences that grow and bear fruit in April and May. When farmers need new fences they simply plant cashew nuts, seedlings or pieces of branches of the tree and in a few years there is a fruit-bearing fence! In the tropics, most fruit trees are not difficult to grow. Simply plant a seed and let nature do the rest. They need little coaxing. The attractive cashew-apple has a spongy pulp which contains a milky juice that is sweet with a tart aftertaste when eaten fresh. It can be used for making a delicious wine, candied, or for making preserves. Here is one way of making cashew-apple preserves that are delicious on ice cream or served with cream cheese as a dessert. CASHEW-APPLE PRESERVES Cut enough of the fruit into strips to make four cups. Place in cooking pot and add four cups sugar, one cup water and one tablespoon lime juice. Cook over a slow fire until the fruit is tender and the liquid thickens. Put in sterilized glasses. Keeps in the refrigerator for months. The Panama Canal Review 15

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I •••MANGO-NUT BREAD 2% cups diced firm ripe mangoes 1 tablespoon lime juice 2 cups flour I'a teaspoons baking soda iJz teaspoons cinnamon 'i teaspoon salt 14 cup chopped nuts 'i cup raisins, soaked in brandy Hi cups brown sugar, not packed 3 eggs % cup vegetable oil Add the lime juice to the mangoes and set aside. Sift the dry ingredients together and add the nuts and raisins. Mix lightly with a fork and then add the sugar. In another bowl, beat the eggs, add the oil and beat to a froth. Add the mangoes and then the flour mixture, tossing lightly until it is all mixed. Line the pans with waxed paper and grease. Bake at 325 for an hour or until done. (Test with a toothpick.) ••-A-AFor the cook who is not allergic to lesser known fruits in the realm of tropical cooking, we offer a few more recipes that are sure to upgrade the accomplishments of even the most versatile. A favorite fruit of Panama is the mango that grows in various shapesround, long, narrow and kidney-shaped. Sizes vary from a large one the size of a papaya to a small one about the size of a peach. Mangoes have a smooth skin that ranges in color from all shades of yellow to orange and red, with a pale yellow pulp running into orange. The taste has been referred to as a delicate combination of apricot and pineapple. Few items in the food world equal the exquisite flavor of a cool, ripe, sliced mango at the breakfast table. After eating your fill and baking pies and chutney, try making something a little different. Here is a recipe for a delicious, moist, mango-nut bread that comes to Culinaiy Capers from Hawaii through the courtesy of Emily Bolton, president of the Balboa Women's Club, and Mrs. Joseph Lockman of Panama, who discovered the treat on a recent trip to Hawaii. Mrs. Bolton added her individual touch to the recipe by soaking the raisins in brandy, while Mrs. Lockman substituted brown sugar for the white sugar called for in the original recipe. The bread freezes beautifully and the Balboa Women's Club has been busy baking and freezing it for the annual bazaar bake sale. This recipe makes one large loaf and a small one. GROSELLA SAUCE For a cranberry-like sauce to be used as a relish for meats and fowl, try the fruit of the grosella tree, a small, yellowish fruit with a tiny seed and an acid juicy pulp. The fact that it turns red when it is cooked makes it a perfect substitute for cranberry sauce. Here is one way of making the grosella sauce. Clean and sort the grosellas and place in a pan with a little water. Cook until tender, being careful they do not scorch. Put them through the ricer and measure the pulp. For each cup of pulp, add one cup of sugar. Add a little water. Cook until the sugar is dissolved and then boil rapidly until thickened, stirring constantly. Add a dash of powdered ginger. Put in sterilized glasses and seal. Also keeps fine in the refrigerator for several months. Panama's tree-ripened fruits give an exquisite flavor to breads and preserves. i 16 Fall 1972

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(f^emlitidcent of Qranamotker 3 Kitclten For those who have the time and do not mind getting their hands in dough, here is a recipe for homemade bread that is reminiscent of grandmother's kitchen and the good fragrance of bread baking. Since the art of breadmaking requires skillful kneading and what may be considered "hard work," you might as well make three loaves as one will siu'ely be eaten while it is still warm from the oven. CRUSTY HOMEMADE BREAD 2 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons lard or shortening 3/2 cups boiling water 3 teaspoons salt 2 packages dry yeast or 2 yeast cakes 1 cup lukewarm water 12 cups flour, sifted In a large bowl, mix sugar, lard, salt, and boiling water. In a small bowl, sprinkle the yeast in lukewarm water and let it set. When the boiling water has cooled, stir up the yeast and add to the water mixture in the big bowl. Add six cups of flour and mix with a wooden spoon. Add three more cups of flour and mix. Then place the dough on a wooden board and add the remaining floiir, kneading with the hands. Knead until the dough no longer sticks to the board and cover with a towel. Let it rise in a warm part of the kitchen until it doubles in bulk. Knead again and let it rise again. Divide the dough into three pieces and form into loaves. Place in greased loaf pans. Let it rise again. (About an hour should be enough.) Bake in a preheated oven at 375 for about an hour or until the loaves are golden brown and sound hollow when tapped. Turn each loaf on its side to cool. Try it with some of the orange marmalade. Three golden loaves of freshly baked bread and English type Bitter-Sweet Marmalade. Boquete oranges. The Panama Canal Review 17

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fOm MV WPKS RECORDS THE TOKYO BAY, THE LARGEST container ship in the world, made Canal history in April 1972 when she became the largest ship to transit the Panama Canal. She also set a new record for tolls, pa)ing $40,045.50. The ves'iel arrived at Cristobal the day before her scheduled transit and because of her size waited outside the breakwater until dawn before she could start up the Canal chaimel. She carried four Canal pilots. The 950-foot container vessel was a snug fit in the Panama Canal locks with her beam of nearly 106 feet. She was tlie biggest thing to go through since 1939 when the 936-foot SS Bremen, a German passenger liner, made her only transit. It is possible that the Tokyo Bay, and four similar vessels being built in Europe for the European Far East trade, will be the largest ever to go through the Canal. She and her sisters are to go on a regular schedule between European ports and the Far East and will pass through the Canal on an average of one each month. The five container ships owned by the Overseas Containers Ltd., have a seiv'ice speed of 26 knots and carry more than 2,000 containers each. They are members of the Trio Alliance, a consortium of British, Cennan, and Japanese shipowners formed to promote container service between Europe and the Far East. In addition to the Overseas Containers Ltd., other companies in the group include the British Den Line with three ships; Hapag Lloyd A.G. witli four ships; Mitsui-O.S.K. Lines with two; and Nippon Yusen Kaisha with three. By coincidence, another member of the Trio Alliance transited the Canal northbound at the same time that the Tokyo Bay came south. She was the 882-foot Elbe Maru owned bv MitsuiO.S.K. Lines of Japan making her maiden vo\'age from the Far East to Europe. The two \'essels met in Gamboa Reach, The Elbe Maru is a sister ship of the Rhine Maru which made her first transit in February1972 and until the arrival of the Tokyo Bay held the record for paying the highest commercial tolls. A LONG WAY UP-Two Panama Canal deckhands cbmb up the Jacob's ladder on the side of the "Tokyo Bay," which is taller than a seven-stonbuilding. The giant vessel requires 24 deckhan
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mOBILE niASTERPIECES I By Vic Canel The artwork on Panama buses and '^chivas^'' is a colorful expression of individuality FREE LOVE," "HOT PANTS," "Mr. Big Stuff," may sound like titles for X-rated movies, but they're not. These, along with many proverbs, sayings and catch phrases, are names given to their vehicles by imaginative Panamanian bus operators as an expression of their individuality. Usually lettered on the rear of the bus in Old English script with fancy flourishes and capricious curlicues, the names are a part of the colorful decorations that makes Panama's buses unique. The more elegantly decorated buses have brightly colored paintings inside and out, ball fringe on the windows, religious figurines and fanciful touches which may include gaily dressed dolls or crocheted items. Perhaps as a tribute to Panamanian womanhood— or to womanhood in general—a girl's name is often painted on each of the side windows. Naming buses is said to have started when the first self-propelled public conveyances made their appearances in the cities, during the second decade of the century. Those early vehicles, called "chivas" (goats) were nothing more than sedans or pickup trucks with the after end removed and replaced by a wood and tin body. They accommodated sLx or eight passengers on lateral benches and the entrance was at the rear. The name "chiva" is said to be derived from the fact that the solid wheel vehicles jumped like mountain goats when driven over Panama's cobblestone streets. Samuel Lewis, a retired Panamanian journalist and publisher, recalls that among the early pioneers of public transportation in Panama, circa 1911, was a Jamaican chiva operator who for reasons known onlv to himself, permitted no women aboard his rattletrap conveyance. He would drive down the street soliciting passengers and shouting: "Men Only!" But apparently his male chauvinism was no obstacle to success. Mr. Lewis says he prospered and soon bought a second chiva. Operators gave chivas pet names to distinguish them from those of their competitors. Their efforts at originalitv produced some fairly spicy names and, at one point, the mayor of Panama ordered names removed from all public conveyances. The custom was later re\'ived however and extended to the larger buses. Some of the first chivas were chaindrive Ford pickup trucks operated by East Indians in turbans. Hindus were the principal operators of bus transportation in Panama before World War IL In the beginning, there was no organized transportation and no large fleet operators. But enterprising individuals ran their own jitney service to take employees to work. Among the first was a Canal employee named Harry Conley who had a small bus in which he took coworkers from Ancon to the Administration Building and back during the 1920's. But a great majority of bus operators in the years that followed were East Indians. During World War II, when the number of workers in the Zone increased with the employment of additional personnel for defense projects, concessions were granted to some 20 bus operators to provide service in the Canal Zone, including military reserva20 Fall 1972

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A bigger than life-size portrait of Franco Nero, star of Italian Western movies, peers menacingly at tailgating motorists from the rear of this Chorrera bus. The actor also is featured in the interior decorations which include a cartoon reproduction over the mirror that says "Love is ... to travel with Franco Nero every day." The fancy sign on the rearview mirror says "I will always be for you." tions. Most of the concessionaires and their drivers were Hindus. Gas and tire rationing and the unavailability of spare parts combined to make this service something less than efficient. But it was not until 1952 that the services were consolidated and a single concession granted. The principal stockholder was an East Indian merchant, Gursan Singh Gill, who owned two oriental stores in Panama City, and most of the drivers, of course, were Hindus. Eventually, Gill bought out his five partners and sold out to the present operators of the Canal Zone bus service. The 70 or 80 chivas still seen in Panama are destined to disappear as the country streamlines its public transportation system and consolidates independent operators and cooperatives into two principal organizations, a coBus paintings portray everything from comic strip characters to figures of Greek mythology. This bus, named "Prometheus in Chains," features a painting of the titan atop the Caucasus as well as a scene of Panama City's Balboa Avenue. PPOHIBIDD FUMAR i.TP*'*^'^' -fh ytm^\ Teodoro "Billy" Madrifian has specialized in painting scenes on buses since the 1940's. tA # •"Mli* .;> 6 !M y^' J* '.Ik I / \wJ The Panama Canal Review 21

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operative known as the Cooperativa de Transporte Metropolitano, and a corporation called Corporacion Unica de Transporte. The evolution from the eight-passenger chivas to the gaily painted 50passenger buses of today was gradual. Chivas made from cars and picknps were used until the early thirties. Then, in 1934, a Colombian, the late Froilan Arce, got the idea of buying )2-ton chassis and motors and building the bodies locally. Those chivas remained in service until after World War II. Then, in 1946, the first "busitos" made their appearance. These are the small, 16-passenger blue buses which at that time sold for $3,600 complete or $900 for the chassis and motor only. In 1960, local operators began to import 24to 30-passenger buses and, as the city grew and the demand for public transportation increased, 40and 50-passenger buses costing $9,000$10,000, were placed in service. But throughout, the chiva has survived and is patronized by faithful passengers who usually ride the same one each day and know each other as well as members of a car pool. Among the principal routes served by today's chivas— mostly of 1952 vintage—is the one extending from downtown Panama along Balboa Avenue to the shanty town called Boca la Caja, east of Paitilla Aii-port. The ride to the end of the line costs 10 cents, but the chiva will take you as far as Santo Tomas Hospital for only a nickel. One driver on this route, Juan Antonio Olivares, has been behind the wheel of chivas for 32 years. In addition to the Chiva he drives on the Boca la Caja route, he owns a small busito. As a small fleet owner— five buses or lesshe belongs to an organization called El Tercer Grupo (the third group), made up of small independents who are not affiliated with either the cooperative or the corporation. So there are basically three types of buses in Panama— the venerable chivas, the "busitos" and the larger buses. Though the earlier chivas were painted with bright and imaginative designs, most of the surviving ones are plain. The greatest profusion of artwork is now found on the larger buses. There are paintings of pastoral scenes, religious motifs, well-known landmarks such as the bridge that spans the entrance to the Panama Canal, the ruins of Old Panama, likenesses of film and TV personalities and even comic strip characters. A random sampling of buses along busy Via Espana or Central Avenue during rush hour can be an amusing pastime. One bus is named "Marshal Dilo"— phonetically honoring the character portrayed by James Arness in the TV series "Gunsmoke." Others are named "The Fugitive" and "The Untouchable." Still others bear phrases and sayings such as "Let's Forget the Past"; "God Forgives, Not I"; "Forgive Them Lord"; "It's All In The Game"; and "What You See Is What You Get." A few of the signs are in English. Many of the buses have been lettered and decorated by Teodoro "Billy" Madriiian, a former employee of the Panama Canal Dredging Division, who began specializing in the art back in the forties. Billy says the custoi of painting scenes on buses got stai.ed when one bus operator conceived the idea and it was later noted that tourists were stopping to photograph his bus. The idea caught on quickly and soon operators were competing for originality. As they did, the decorations became more and more elaborate. The cost of bus decorations' varies according to how elaborate they are. A simple scene on the back of the bus may cost anywhere from $15 to $25. A complete job, with paintings inside and out, lettering of names, phrases and girls' names in the windows can cost up to $120. Many Panama bus riders are likely to view with nostalgia the passing of this charming custom as the Panama Government prepares to modernize its public transportation system with shiny new buses which have large picture windows, but, alas, no expressions of individuality. Some "chivas" do double duty. Those that come from the interior carrying produce, passengers and chickens are popularly called "Chivas Gallineras" (Chicken Chivas). '•••tj& ^^^"^ Paintings of Panama's famous flat arch bridge and its historic cathedral along with a couple in typical dress help to publicize some of the country's tourist attractions. 22 Fall 1972

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MONEY, MONEY, MONEY-IT goes further in South America, so they say. But those preoccupied U.S. tourists, counting on their fingers as they wander from shop to shop in Santiago, Rio, or Buenos Aires, are probably uncertain just how far it is going for they are bewildered at trying to figure out the local exchange rate. One tourist discovered that he was getting excellent service from almost everyone after he tipped a bellhop the equivalent of $6 for opening the windows. It works the other way too. Try giving a tip which amounts to several U.S. cents. Money exchange is one of the hazards of modem air travel. Visitors go from one country to another so quickly that there is no time to obtain coin of the realm let alone figure out its value in relation to the U.S. dollar. It gives a traveler a desolate feeling to find he has purchased something, or is about to purchase something, only to discover that the money in his purse has no more value than wampum. Of course this happens only in small shops, en route from an airport, or directly after arriving at a hotel when the hall porter or a bellboy stands around expectantly. A Financial Wizard In most hotels in South America, the traveler can get his money exchanged at the hotel desk. The question of how much to tip comes next and unless one is a financial wizard, there seems to be no way to figure out the problem quickly. There are several dandy little books put out by banks and tourist agencies to help the hapless traveler on money matters. But none of them can do much for the person who tries to add up a dinner bill which includes a cover charge, a sales tax, a percentage for tips, and sometimes a donation to the local Red Cross. Perhaps the most discouraged travelers are those who return after a shopping expedition and find that they have The Panama Canal Review 23 on (?) a day paid more for their purchases than they would have if they had obtained the same items in a luxury store in New York. This can happen easily when one is not only figuring the exchange rate but also sorting out "old and new money" and determining the different values of each. In Argentina and Brazil, although new currency was issued several years ago, old bills and coins, as well as the new, are in circulation. And shopkeepers sometimes quote prices in the old currency. The Argentines and Brazilians seem to accept it all as a matter of course, but for the new arrival it boggles the mind, especially if one is not only counting Brazilian cruzeiros but trying to figure out the difference between Portuguese and Spanish. Money Exchanges In most countries of South America there are regulations that money can be changed only at the official rate and at government authorized money exchanges. But a tourist with U.S. dollars to convert may find himself surrounded with self appointed money changers who come in the form of maids, bellboys and even hotel clerks who will come to the hotel room, knock discreetly and whisper the latest exchange rate on the black market. In one country, standing outside most banks and hotels are eager looking young men carrying brief cases, who are not businessmen but "unofficial" money changers who ask "cambio?" in a discreet tone as anyone with a camera around his neck approaches. A Burglar After the tour is over, there is still another money problem for the tourist. What to do with all those small bills and coins that manage to hide in the bottom of pocketbooks. The problem was solved for one tourist when a burglar entered her hotel room, snatched up the accumulation and disappeared out the window. The police recovered the loot and solemnly read off the list of currency:

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30 Peruvian soles; 15 Ecuadorean sucres; 20 Chilean escudos; 10 Paraguayan guaranies; 4 Brazilian cruzeiros; 5 Argentinian pesos; and 4 Italian lire (she had traveled South on an Italian ship) Sightseeing South American style is fun. One only has to relax and enjoy it. TraiRc in most of the cities has to be experienced to be believed. A taxi ride is a wild experience and there is a fleet of Volkswagen taxis in Rio that travels at 120 kilometers an hour whose drivers could qualify for the Indianapolis Speedway. According to the newspapers there are frequent accidents, but most residents seem to emerge unscathed after a wild ride through the center of the city with every other vehicle jockeying for position on a three-lane throughway. Most taxi drivers speak English, or a reasonable facsimile of the language, and like cab drivers everywhere they are delighted to point out interesting landmarks. They also like to expound on local politics and their philosophy of life. Most everyone seems to have an uncle in New York, Miami, or Los Angeles through whom they have accumulated a vast store of information about the United States. Because of the age and size of many of the taxis in some South American cities, the number of passengers per taxi is limited strictly by law. Woe unto those who think they can get a party of six into a five-passenger car. The taxi driver will usually refuse to budge. However, there was at least one case where the driver was persuaded to take a whole group when one member of the party agreed to lie on the floor of the car. Oversize Veal Cutlet Speaking of the floor of the car, in Chile, some of the drivers fill the floor of the passenger compartment with sawdust on rainy days to soak up the excess water that collects. It sounds like a good idea but it is rather disconcerting to discover that the last 3 or 4 inches of one's trousers are coated with a layer of the fine sawdust or that the jacket you accidentally dropped on the floor resembles an oversize breaded veal cutlet. Rates vary according to the city but they also may change from one month to the next. In this case, the taxi driver will take the amount registered on the meter plus an additional amount, which he apparently figures out on a slide rule and then adds a percentage for a tip provided by law. ( In one city, it was a matter of reading the meter and then doubling it. ) He won't refuse an additional tip but then he won't stand around with his hand out either. In most cases, he is a polite fellow even when faced with a group of confused and excited visitors who aren't quite sm-e where they are going or occasionally even what city they are in (if they are on the "Around South America Quickie Tour" ) Rio and Buenos Aires seem to be confused most frequendy as demonstrated by one lady, who to the consternation of the taxi driver, asked him what the Brazilian embassy was doing in Rio as he drove through Buenos Aires pointing out the sites of interest. Rides into the country are in comparison, pretty tame affairs. During the day the driver jogs along at an even pace and is fairly good at repairing a tire or making an ailing engine regain its health. Many motorists either are good mechanics or they have access to good mechanics as a matter of necessity since there are a large number of old cars on the road. In Uruguay there are early Model "T" Fords which qualify as classic cars in the United States. It is at night that the automobile drivers of South America come into 24 Fall 1972

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their own and the North American visitors retire to the ranks reserved for the children and those not fleet of foot. In most places, there seems to be a law that the headlights on a car are illegal and that only dims or parking lights are to be used even on the open highways. This gives most visitors the feeling that they are groping through a London fog with a candle but the local citizens have the art of night driving down to a fine point. They bolt along the country highways at a nonnal daylight pace and turn on their lights only when their radar wams them that a similar darkened vehicle is approaching in the other direction. This procedure blinds both drivers but they pass with room to spare and continue on in darkness. Hundreds of Fireflies In many cities, automobiles travel with dim lights. Drivers turn on the brights only at street comers or when they apparently want to get the lay of the land. It gives an eerie impression from a high building at night with the lights of the moving vehicles blinking off and on like hundreds of restless fireflies. Most visitors making either a leisurely tour or a fast swing by air through the hospitable lands to the south will compare notes and agree that travel is indeed broadening. Some tourists merely groan and declare they are eating their way through South America. Whether travel is by ship or plane, there is some kind of a conspiracy to keep the passenger fat, dumb, and happy while he is aboard. Unless one boards a plane in the middle of the night, food comes at regular intervals which get closer if one passes a time zone. Food may be anything from a five-course meal to a light snack of soup and several kinds of three-layer sandwiches— with something sweet, of course. "Medias Lunas" After leaving the plane or ship, the toiirist is introduced to the delightful South American habit of eating five or six times a day. The way South Americans manage to pack five meals into a day is easy. They are spaced throughout the day. After breakfast, which often includes tasty crusty croissants in Argentina, which they whimsically call "medias lunas" or half moons; a pre-Iunch snack at 11 a.m.; lunch at 2 p.m.; tea at 5; then comes dinner up to midnight. And anyone who Few visitors leave Paraguay without a sample of the famous nanduti or spiderweb lace. It is made only by the women and some items of intricate design take up to 5 years to complete. manages on less than three courses at lunch, a full-course high tea, and a fivecourse dinner is a piker. Lunch and dinner are accompanied by two or three kinds of wine and may be preceded bv cocktails and followed by liqueurs. Because of the high cost of imported gin or whisky, cocktails usually are the delightful pisco sours which taste innocuous but pack a wallop as one group of visitors found to their surprise. Pisco is a grape brandy, best known in Peru, although it is sei-ved in Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay. Meat has ti-aditionally been a staple diet in Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay— and by meat, they mean beef or beefsteak. At present there are certain meatless days, weeks, or as in Uruguay 6 meatless months, which means that during these periods beef is not served in restaurants nor can it be purchased in the public markets. Instead, the Popular with tourists shopping in Peru are Uama and alpaca rugs, both the all white and the brown and white styles, which come in a variety of designs and shapes. visitor is offered a menu which lists such things as lamb, chicken, a wide variety of seafood, and a dozen or so other delicious dishes guaranteed to make one forget the beef. South Americans consider these meatless days a hardship and it may be for those who have become accustomed to a daily diet of beef but visitors are happy with the substitutes and the variety of delicious ways they are prepared. The Argentine's well-known love of beef extends to almost eveiy part of the cow and it may come as a shock to discover exactly what that delicious litde tidbit you nibbled with vour drink really is. Those at all squeamish might be well advised to skip reading the English translation if there is one, because the language there appears to have been taken from a veterinarian's anatomy textbook. Meatless Days If it is not a meatless day, one way to tell when one has arrived in a South American beef eating country, without looking at the road signs is to stand in the main plaza and sniff. The smell of grilled beef fills the air as every resident, whether he is roasting his lunch on an open air fire or eating in a roadside restaurant, has his noon meal. The same thing happens at night and it may in the morning, if anyone gets up early enough to find out. But most South Americans are continental breakfast eaters unless they have had a close association with the British, whose influence is still felt over the land. Up There The French also have left their influence on the cooking of South America and any visitor who thinks that he can leave the groaning board with a cup of black coffee is mistaken. Dessert or "postre" is likely to come in the form of French pastry or ice cream tortes loaded with fresh whipped cream— none of that synthetic dietetic stuff. Most tourists make a mental note to go on a diet when they get home and proceed to dig in. With such gustatory adventures and a very favorable rate of exchange awaiting them in South America, more and more Isthmian residents are heading that way and finding it fun, while on vacation, instead of saying "down there in the Canal Zone," to be able to say "up there in the Canal Zone." E. R. and W. F. The Panama Canal Review 25

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Medical Sleuths Canal Zone College in joint program with Gorgas Hospital trains medical technologists to fill growing needs of modem medicine. Anna A. Haug, of David, is training to become a medical technologist. Here she does an analytical test to find the hydrogen-ion concentration of an unknown in chemistry class at Canal Zone College. WHILE AN ACCIDENT Victim lies in critical condition in Gorgas Hospital's emergency room, Cristina Quiros Bunyea swiftly analyzes a blood sample to determine the type so that the blood transfusion that may save the man's life can be administered immediately. Since this is an emergency, she puts this particular job on her top priority list. But across the hall, Angela Scott and Diovelis Diaz can work with less urgency. While one tests blood serum for antibodies, the other grows and identifies bacteria taken from a patient's throat. These top-level medical laboratory workers and their colleagues also analyze chemical composition of body fluids and tissues, look for parasites, examine urine specimens, run tests on toxic substances and perform numerous chemical, microscopic, bacteriological and other medical tests to help physicians diagnose and treat disease. They are medical technologists, members of one of the newest and fastest growing associated medical professions indispensable in the practice of modem medicine. These medical sleuths work behind the scenes and have something to do with just about every patient who enters and leaves a hospital. Their services to humanity are available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Excellent medical resources in the Canal Zone are available to students planning a career in medical technolo. gy. For the past several years. Canal Zone College and the Gorgas Hospital School of Medical Technology have offered a joint program in the field. The 4-year program has been approved by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and the Governor of the Canal Zone, giving the college authority to grant the bachelor of science in medical technology degree. It was awarded for the first time in May 1970. SLx bachelor of science in medical technologv degrees were conferred the following year and eight medical technologists received their degrees last May. The training program consists of 3 years of studies at Canal Zone College mainly in chemistry and biology, and a fourth year of internship at one of the 400 approved schools of medical technology in the Canal Zone, the United States, or Puerto Rico. The training is rigorous and demanding and due to the advanced scientific nature of the studies, a student at the end of 3 or 4 years is well prepared for professional train26 Fall 1972

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At a Coulter Counter in the Hematology section of the Gorgas Hospital Laboratory Service, Diovelis Diaz is screening for blood diseases such as anemia and leukemia. Miss Diaz is a May graduate of the Canal Zone College-Gorgas Hospital Medical Technology 4-year program. At Gorgas Hospital, Ignacio Scope, who received a bachelor of science degree in medical technology last May, works on an analysis which gives the results of six different tests at 1-minute intervals— glucose, creatinine, potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride, A newer and more sophisticated machine at the hospital does 12 tests. ing in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, nursing, veterinary science, chemistry and biology. In addition to the general education requirements in English, social science, humanities, science, mathematics, and physical education, medical technology students are required to take zoology, anatomy, microbiology, histology and parasitology, in the biological field. In the physical sciences, they are rec[uired to complete laboratory and lecture courses in general chemistry, organic chemistry, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis and general physics. Ehiring the fourth vear of internship, the student completes courses in hematology, clinical chemistry, clinical bacteriology, clinical parasitology, serology, blood bank, urinalysis, histopathology, mvcologv and clinical microscopy. At Gorgas, he receives 52 weeks of training, rotating in the different departments of the hospital's Laboratory Service. The majority of candidates from Canal Zone College have interned at Gorgas, but since the number of qualiA recent graduate of the Canal Zone College-Gorgas Hospital School of Medical Technology 4-year program, Ena Archibold de Mendiz^bal, differentiates white blood oelk. The Panama Canal Review 27

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With increased emphasis on research in medicine and in industry the demand for qualified technicians far exceeds the supply Bed candidates exceeds the capacity of Gorgas, several have gone to approved hospital schools in the United States. Most of the medical technologists employed at Gorgas Hospital have been trained under the joint Canal Zone College-Gorgas Hospital School of Medical Technology Program. Following successful completion of the internship year, they are eligible to register for the national board examination administered by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists. Upon successful completion of the examination, they are ready for employment as registered medical technologists. Roberto Beverly, left, and Annie Fifer are distilling water during a chemistry laboratory class at Canal Zone College. Canal Zone College has formal agreements with Tampa General Hospital; Baptist Memorial Hospital, Jacksonville, Fla.; University of Puerto Rico Medical School; Berkshire Medical Center, Pittsfield, Mass.; Veterans Administration Hospital, and Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Fla. Candidates are also eligible to apply to any of the other approved schools. The cost of training to the student is modest. Tuition is paid for only the first 3 years and the fourth year of study is free of charge. Most of the schools of medical technology in which Canal Zone College candidates have been accepted pay the student a small stipend. Gorgas Hospital is currently providing each student with a stipend of $1,300 per year and Tampa General Hospital is paying $1,620 a year. There are no fees or charges of any kind at these two institutions. Some of the schools provide room and board and a few have additional fringe benefits. During the current year, medical technology has been selected as the major field of study by 70 students attending Canal Zone College. High school preparation for medical technology majors should include at least 3 years of mathematics and 2 years of science. structor for the first year course on the introduction to medical technology. Medical technology as a profession is said to have originated in 1896 at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore but it was not until World War I that medical laboratory science began to be recognized as a specialty. Today, it is a highly sophisticated profession, invaluable to health specialists. Due to population A close working relationship exists between the Canal Zone College science faculty and the Gorgas Hospital laboratory staff. Honorary faculty rank was confened this year on Dr. Gordon Flake, Dr. Carolina White and Dr. Jerry L. Hanis, three Gorgas doctors who serve as instructors of the fourth-year classes and supei-vise the laboratory work of the intern students. DeWitt Myers, chairman of the science department of the Canal Zone College, is the educational advisor to the Gorgas Hospital laboratory staff. The college has a medical technology advisory committee composed of Dr. Harris Meyers, Dean Glen E. Mui-phy and Norman Altenberg, college registrar. Ricardo Vallarino, supervisory medical technologist at Gorgas Hospital, is the college ingrowth and the increasing complexity of medical science, the demand for medical technologists is constantly expanding. More and more people are using hospitals, laboratory tests are routine in physical checkups, and more hospitals are being built. Medical technologists are needed also in industrial medical laboratories, in medical research programs, and other areas of development and research. The ever increasing emphasis on research in medicine and industry offers the medical technologist unlimited opportunities for promotion to supervisory and chief technologist positions. As the demand for qualified technicians far exceeds the supply, the outlook for employment opportunities is bright indeed. F. H. 28 Fall 1972

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A DIFFERENT WAY by Sott Jfrie — THE TWIST MAY BE DEAD AS a dance, but its memonlives on in Sixaola, Costa Rica. That's the nickname for a gasolinepowered conveyance that runs on a narrow gauge railroad between this tiny town on the Panama border and Fields, Costa Rica, some 20 miles away. And if \ou ever ride it or watch it sway as it rumbles down the track, you'll know how it got its name. Few Canal Zone or Panama City residents enter Costa Rica at that point. Most fly directly to San Jose or take the Pan-American Highway on the Pacific side of the country. But, if you like beautiful scenery and the adventures of traveling off the beaten path, take a train to San Jose. The entire trip cannot be made bv rail, but a good portion of it can. In fact, it combines air, bus, rail and water transportation, which makes the adventure even more interesting. And it can be done over a long weekend, if you fly back. Shifting of holidays to Mondays will provide Panama Canal employees with no less than eight 3-day weekends in 1973 and a good opportunity to visit many of the interesting spots that lie within easy reach. The charming Costa Rican capital, with its pleasant springlike weather, has alwa\s been a favorite destination for Isthmian residents on brief holida\ s. But bv the circuitous route, getting there is half the fun. The highlight of the trip is a spectacular, 6-hour train trip from Puerto Limon, Costa Rica's busy Atlantic seaport, up to San Jose. Bill Hall and Al Jenkins, of the Comptrollers Office, made the trip last spring. Though thev took 4 days, it can be completed within a 3-dav weekend, as was done a few weeks later b\' a Canal Zone couple. HaU and Jenkins started their trip at 7 a.m. with a COPA flight from Tocumen International Aii^port that took them first to the island capital of Bocas del Toro Province and, after a brief stop, on to Changuinola. During the hour and a quarter flight from Panama to Bocas, COPA serves the Panamanian The Panama Canal Review 29 version of a continental breakfastcoffee and a tasty empanada. The low-level flight from Bocas to Changuinola offers a view of the seemingly endless orderly rows of banana trees and the railroad bridge over the Changuinola River. If you are lucky, the flight to Changuinola will get \ou there in time to catch the passenger train that leaves each morning at 9 a.m. for the 8-mile run to Guabito, on the Costa Rican border. If vou miss the train, as usuallv happens, a taxi will take you there for $5 over a dirt road that parallels the tracks, though not al\va\'s on the same side. Hall and Jenkins had allotted one day for visiting the banana plantations. They o\'ernighted at the Changuinola Hotel which is just a short walk from the airport. The couple who made the trip later missed the train by about •5 minutes, but beat it to Guabito in a cab. Formalities for exiting Panama and entering Costa Rica at this point are not at all complicated. You show Panamanian officials your Canal Zone exit permit, then walk a narrow pedestrian plank across the railroad bridge that spans the Sixaola River, which marks the boundary betvveen the two countries. At Sixaola vou check in with Costa Rican immigration authorities. A simple tourist card or a visa is the onh' document required. "The Twist" is a vellow truck with flanged wheels which pulls a small passenger coach and an open freight wagon along the narrow gauge track. It runs on a rather erratic schedule which bears little relationship to the official looking timetable posted in the immigration office. Speculation on arrival and departure times seems to be a popular local pastime. When the Canal Zone couple arrived in Sixaola thev took note of the posted timetable and sat down to wait for the 10:30 a.m. departure. When the scheduled time had come and gone, thev were told that "The Twist" had had some mechanical trouble the day before and would be delayed for an indefinite period. Shortly after noon a man walked up to them and gravely volunteered m

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If you fire of waiting for "The Twist" and opt for an air taxi flight from Sixaola to Limon, you are taken to the airfield in a burro-powered railcar. At Sixaola, Costa Rica, just across the Panama border, you take "The Twist" for the 20-mile rail trip to Fields. Expert boatmen pole passengers across the Estrella River to Penhurst, Costa Rica, to board the train to Puerto Limon. food order as soon as possible, since a full "Twist-load" of hungry passengers frequently is more than the restaurant can handle. The nejct leg of the trip, from Fields to the banks of the Estrella River, is usually made in a fairly comfortable bus. The couple who followed Hall and Jenkins made the 25-mile trip in a stake body truck, which perhaps offered an even better view of rich tropical jungle scenery as it lumbered along the hilly, dirt road. Roughly midway, at Cahuita, there is a brief rest stop with just about enough time to buy a soft drink at the general store and take a short walk down one of the town's grass-covered streets, leading down to a beautiful beach. Fare for this leg of the trip, whether by bus or truck, is 7 colones, or about 90 cents. When passengers alight at the edge of the Estrella River, a horde of small boys swarms around them vying for the right to carry their luggage while the adult cayuco operators beckon them toward their dugouts. It costs only 1 colon, or 13 cents to cross the river into Penhurst. If the food ran out before vou got your order in back at Fields you'll probably be ready to try the candle-lit restaurant across from the Penhurst railroad station before train time. The train for Limon leaves at 7:30 p.m. The trip takes 3 hours and costs 3 colones. There is one kerosene-lit passenger coach and a number of freight cars loaded mostly vidth cacao. By the time the train airives in Puerto Limon, one is ready to bed down for the night. There is a choice of three moderately priced hotels within walking distance of the railroad station— the Caribe, the Park, and the Lincoln, all about equal in quality and price. Rates run between $3 and $4 per person. The Caribe and the Park should by rights switch names, for the Caribe overlooks the park and the Park overlooks the Caribbean. Puerto Limon bears a striking likeness to Colon or to practically any port city in Central America, for that matter. If you decide to tarry there, there are a few interesting sights. Among the favorite pastimes for visitors is to go to the teeming piers and watch the loading and unloading of ships. There is a well-kept park with v/alks shaded by West Indian laurel trees. A half hour away by bus is the Balneario Portete, where there is a small bathing beach and restaurant. The road to Portete follows the coast and offers some beautiful scenery. But whatever you do, or however long you stay in Limon, be sure to buy your ticket for the train to Costa Rica as far in advance as possible. Seats are limited. The best train to San Jose is the Pacheco, which leaves (prompdy) at 6:10 a.m. Get to the station early and sit on the left side to enjoy the spectacular view. The fare is $2.10 and for a few extra colones you can reserve a seat in the "carro salon." The scenery changes rapidly as you travel toward San Jose. First you are going through cacao country. Early in the journey you come to a junction called La Junta, where a spur line called Linea Vieja (Old Line) comes in from the left. This was originally intended to go all the way to San Jose, but the route was changed when it was found it was impossible to circle around the west side of the volcanoes into the central plateau. But the spur proved useful anyway and has been in operation ever since. Here you will see many people making connection with the main line. During most of the trip, the railroad follows the raging Reventazon River as it courses between cliffs alive with jungle growth. En route, you will see two volcanoes, Turrialba and famed Irazii. And the scenery gets more and more spectacular as the train climbs higher. In the 30-mile stretch from the city of Turrialba to Cartago, just 12 miles out of San Jose, you climb 3,000 feet. The air is crisp and filled with the sweet scent of pines. You arrive in San Jose shortly after noon, just in time for lunch. And you will probably be ready to eat unless you were tempted to buy some of the empanadas, hard-boiled eggs, ice cream and other offerings hawked by small boys at each of the train stops. On the hour-long flight back to Panama one might look back on the long overland trip with the satisfaction of having experienced an adventure that the ordinary tourist does not enjoy. Once you have made the trip, you probably will never make it again, but chances are you'U never regret having made it. Those who have made the trip described in this article recommend that you take along a book or magazine to read, perhaps a package of cookies to nibble on, a canteen of drinking water, and, to better endure the long periods on wooden seats, an inflatable cushion. 30 Fall 1972

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Cruise Ships WINTER AND SUMMER CRUISes are becoming more popular than ever as travelers discover the jo\s of living at sea under the same luxurious conditions that they would find at a first-class hotel with such things as sightseeing tours, gourmet meals, orchestras, entertainment, and superb service throvm in for good measure. In addition, many cruises can be combined with air or rail transportation for a more varied vacation. Tourists now can travel from Europe by air and return b\ship or go from the U.S. east coast bv train to California and catch a ship that will take them back to the east coast via coastal ports and the Caribbean Islands. Manv of these handsome cruise ships make regular trips through the Canal and often stop long enough to let their passengers enjoy the many interesting sights on the Isthmus. The P & O Line luxury liner "Canberra" has been passing through the Canal since 1963. She is the biggest passenger liner to be built in England since the "Queen Elizabeth" and is one of the largest commercial liners to use the Canal. She is passing through Miraflores Locks with a few of her 1,000 passengers on top deck watching operations. While transiting the Canal, luncheon is served on deck and the P & O menu includes everything from kangaroo tail soup and cumquats to Halibut Cutlet Baron Brisse and Cromesques Toulousaine. New in looks and new in design was the passenger liner "Southern Cross" when she made her first visit to Canal waters in April 1955. Built in Belfast, Northern Ireland, primarily for low-cost tiavei, she has accommodations for 1,600 passengers. A sleek addition to the list of cruise ships passing through the Canal is the German vessel 'Hamburg' which was completed in 1968 in Germany. The vessel, which is the fourth German ship to carry the name Hamburg since the beginning of the century, makes a southbound transit while the west lane at Miraflores Locks is out of service for overhauL Known for the amoimt of space set aside for both public and private rooms, she has 319 spacious cabins including 20 deluxe apartments which accommodate 600 passengers. The Panama Canal Review 31

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The Holland America cruise liner "Rotterdam" enters the Panama Canal from the Pacific entrance passing under the bridge that crosses the Canal at Balboa. The big ship is escorted by two tugs and usually docks at Balboa before continuing on her cruise schedule. The "Rotterdam" is a regular visitor to the Canal dvu-ing the winter cruise season. She has accommodations for 1,.369 passengers. <

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PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Adantic Commodity 1972 Manufactures of iron and steel 7,670,401 Ores, various 4,248,594 Boards and planks 4,158,423 Sugar 3,413,574 Petroleum and products 2,516,877 Fishmeal 1,873,132 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 1,393,292 Metals, various 1,385,442 Plywood and veneers 1,303,417 Pulpwood 1,224,547 Petroleum coke 1,202,891 Bananas 1,133,869 Autos, trucks, accessories and parts 849,408 Sulfur 675,864 Paper and paper products 614,945 Allothers 12,917,495 Total 46,582,171 Fiscal Year

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CANAL CONfVIERCIAL TRAFFIC

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Canat tit4t(na THE ROARING 20's WERE OFF to a good start in the Canal Zone 50 years ago. The Panama Canal had been in operation nearly 10 \ears and World War I, with the resulting difficulties for Canal traffic, was over. Ships were beginning to use the Canal on a peacetime basis and some of the larger passenger and cargo ships made transits. One of the first was the steamer Empress of Australia owned by the Canadian Pacific Railroad, which arrived at the Canal July 1, 1922, from Hamburg and made the transit July 6 after receiving repairs at the Cristobal shops. She was conspicuous in Canal waters because of her size, according to the Canal Record, and was one of the largest ships to ha\'e made the transit up to that time. She was 590 feet long with a 75-foot beam and a registered gross tonnage of 21,447 tons. The Empress was built in Germany as the Tirpitz and was on her way to enter the transpacific service. A high record for tons of cargo carried through the Canal was set in July 1922 by the steamer Marore of the Ore Steamship Corp. She made the transit July 19 with 20,000 tons of iron ore bound from Cruz Grande, Chile, to New York. The previous record was set by a sister ship, the Bethore, making the transit in May with 19,000 tons of ore. The Tivoli Hotel, center of the social scene in the Canal Zone, was condemned as a firetrap by the Canal Zone Fire Division. To eliminate this hazard, automatic sprinklers were installed throughout the hotel by a New York firm at a reported cost of $27,688.40. Some people on the Isthmus were worried about flaming youth in 1922. The Star and Herald published a feature story saying that flappers were not popular in the Canal Zone. "Bobbed haired girls who powder their knees must play second fiddle to their more conservative sisters who wear their hair long and don't roll their stockings," the paper said. The Panama Canal Review 35 25 Years Ago .\N OUTBREAK OF INFANTILE paralysis in Panama and the Canal Zone had health authorities worried both on the Isthmus and in Washington, D.C. 25 )ears ago. Officials of the U.S. Public Health Ser\'ice and other agencies observed the epidemic closely and assured local authorities that they stood ready to do evePi'thing in their power to limit the spread of the disease. Meanwhile it was announced in the local newspapers that a $1 million obstetrical building would be built for Gorgas Hospital as part of a long-range plan for improvement of medical facilities at this Canal Zone institution. Funds for the building were to be provided in an appropriation bill signed in August 1947 by President Truman. A steady employment level for the ne.xt 2 years, followed bv an increase in the number of Panama Canal employees, was predicted in 1947 by Canal personnel officials. The prediction was based on the fact that the Canal was approaching normal peacetime operations for the first time since 1939 and on the belief that Congress would approve some type of construction for enlargement of Canal facilities. The Canal's peak employment was reached in 1942 when construction on the third locks was in progi-ess. 10 Years Ago THE CANAL ZONE GUIDE SERVice, an elite corps of multilingual men and women who lecture aboard ships and escort visitors to the locks, Gaillard Cut, and other points of interest in the Canal Zone, was organized 10 years ago. Taking a personal interest in providing information for tourists and local residents on the engineering and natural wonders of the Canal Zone, former Gov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr. was most instrumental in the formation of the service which has been popular from the start. During the first fiscal year, 84,688 visitors took a look at the locks installations under the supervision of the Canal Zone Guide Senice. By 1971, the millionth person had visited the locks since the inauguration of the service with more than 100,000 touring the locks each year. These figures do not include the hundreds of persons who took advantage of the Guide Service for tours to other points of interest. The program also included the installation of attractive "Center of Interest" signs in both English and Spanish along the sti-eets and highways of the Canal Zone. Similar signs were erected to mark recreation sites. SS "Empress of .Australia" in south end of Gaillard Cut near Paraiso. Equipment, at right, belonged to the Panama Canal Dredging Division, which was based at Paraiso before the construction of new headquarters in Gamboa.

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