Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1972pana




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IQ ?Q


P ANAMA" CANALCAAI~ i


ri
:r 4i


ji(







David S. Parker
Governor-President
Charles R. Clark
Lieutenant Governor
Frank A. Baldwin
Panama Canal Information Officer


THE
PANAMA CAL An



Official Panama Canal Publication


Morgan E. Goad win, Press Officer
Publications Editors
Willie K. Friar, Tom6s A. Cupas
Writers
Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hernindez,
Jase T. Tui6n and Luis C. Noli


Review articles may bereprinled without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Subsciptlions: $1 a year, airmail $2 a year; back copies (regular mail), 50 cents each. Published twice a year.
Make postal money orders payable to the Ponoma Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editonal Ofices are located in the Administration Building, Balboo Heights, C.Z. Printed at Ihe Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Contents


Art Contest
The building of the Canal
through the eyes of clhil-
dren

Taboga
New plans afoot for Pan-
ama's tranquil "Island of
Flowers"

What's In A Name?
Clues to a colorful past in
local place names

Painters Make Striking
Pictures
Dramatic photographs of
Thatcher Ferry Bridge
being made spic-span

Passing Parade of Ships
Vast armada reflects
changing times

Shipping Notes

Culinary Capers
Tropical treats for the
creative cook


3 t




6





10 -y




14




16O 14



22

24


Beer 28
Nine million gallons a
year flow from Panama's
breweries

History 31

Sketches in this issue by Carlos Min-
dez and cartoons by Peter Gurney.


EVERYONE HAS HEARD OF
wicked Captain Fokke who cursed
the Almightly one day 300 years ago
while beating against the wind as he
tried to round Cape Horn. He and his
phantom ship have sailed the seas ever
since haunting all honest mariners.
While assembling pictures of inter-
esting ships using the Panama Canal for
-4 the 6-page feature that appears in this
issue, it was found that nearly every
unusual ship, except the Flying Dutch-
man, has been here at least once.
The Tusitala of New York was no
Flying Dutchman but she was almost
as interesting. In 1929 when she was
'_L still making transits of the Panama
Canal, she was the only United States
flag sailing ship remaining in the trade
S between Atlantic and Pacific ports of
S the United States. In the picture taken
in 1927 showing her in Gatun Locks,
she was on a regular trade route be-
S tween Seattle and Baltimore and at that
time had on board a cargo of magnesite
and lumber.
The Tusitala was built in 1883 in
Greenock, Scotland, and was regarded
as a good example of the fine models
turned out at that time.
Painted a sparkling white and with
every stitch of canvas set taut, the
vessel presented a yacht-like appear-
ance which inspired pride in the hearts
of old sailors.
She was purchased by a group of
men in New York in 1923 and her name
changed to Tusitala or "Story Teller,"
a name conferred by Samoans upon
Robert Louis Stevenson, who spent the
last years of his life in the South Seas.
The formal change of flags was marked
in New York by a ceremony befitting
the occasion, according to an account
of the event. A bottle of champagne was
broken on the bell by \Vill H. Low,
artist, and old friend of "R. L. S.,"
and a few words of benediction were
spoken. Christopher Morley, who was
at the helm, read a letter from Joseph
Conrad addressed to the new owners.


SPRING 1972







With Bo Str4eu


And Bdqkt Co&u


A FLek New Lok at the


KIDS ARE FUNNY PEOPLE.
And their imagination, when
stirred only slightly, can produce some
pretty fantastic ideas. THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW set out to prove this
point by sponsoring a contest among
fifth and sixth grade students in Canal
Zone Schools.
The children were provided statistics
on such things as the amount of con-
crete used to build the locks, the volume
of material excavated from Gaillard Cut
and the number of holes perforated to
sink dynamite charges during the con-
struction of the Canal. Then they were
asked to use their imagination.
The results were just short of over-
whelming, despite the fact that classes
in the Latin American schools were
nearly over and there was not time to
obtain entries from them.
Renderings came in crayon, pen and
ink, oils and water colors, bright colors
and bold strokes. Many showed amaz-
ing ingenuity and quite a few revealed
a keen sense of humor in the young
artists. One child, obviously feeling
that President Theodore Roosevelt had
adequately summed up the story of
the Canal, painstakingly copied one of


Teddy's better-known quotations and
sent that along as her entry.
On the Covers
The work of the two first-place win-
ners appears on the front and back
covers. Author of the watercolor on the
front cover is 10-year-old Laura Otter,
daughter of Maj. and Mrs. Jason 1. Otter,
of Howard AFB. The back cover is a
crayon drawing by Ted Osborne, 11,
son of Mr. and Mrs. Theodore M.
Osborne of Panama City. Ted's father
is employed at Fort Amador. Though
both children have been on the Isthmus
less than a year, they have already
learned much about the Canal and its
history in school and through their own
research.
The first-place winners received a
plaque on which is mounted a piece of
rock from Gaillard Cut, a 3-month pass
to any Panama Canal movie theater,
and were taken on a comprehensive
tour of the printing plant, where they
learned about offset printing from real
experts.
Veteran lithographer Juan Fernmn-
dez V. explained to the children
how their original artwork was photo-


graphed, color separations and plates
made, before the printing process ac-
tually began. Laura and Ted were
given proofs of each of the four colors
used in printing the cover-red, yellow,
blue, and black-to show their class-
mates at school.
The workings of the offset press,
where the final product rolls off, were
explained by Mario B. Rivera.
Drawings and paintings selected for
second prize and those chosen for hon-
orable mention are reproduced on the
next two pages. Two hundred and fifty-
two students from both sides of the
Isthmus entered the contest. V. C.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Thed c+-hca k l

OU- o f'r-.CQono'lI
COu\d W&cld I

~~-





Grade 6, Ancon
^*:-,^. Nancy Rodr~ ^guez^


" ? EXCAVATED DIRT
F-ROI CANAL -
o700 TImrs
H-lIGHER THAN
7 CVEREST g





Jerri Love, Second Prize
Grade 5, Fort Gulick


Grade 6, Margarita


Grade 6, Balboa


Rodolfo Mon Connie Hallada
Grade 5, Margarita Grade 6, Diablo Heights


Kevin Brookhart
Grade 5. Fort Gulick


SPRING 1972





























Johnny Tate
Grade 6, Margarita


Grade 6, Gamboa


Gilbert Corrigan
Grade 5, Margarita


Mannd Olilai
Grade 5, Fort Gulick


/- -.






\d, -





----- 4





Teddy Haff
Grade 6, Los Rios


Grade 6, Balboa


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


* t






































Taboga


By Jos6 T. Tufi6n


irr
II
c/



.U. ~4-

~i ~Ji


Architectural drawing showing some of the 55 modern cabins to be constructed on the ad
cent island of El Morro as a part of the hotel complex that will include the Taboga Hot


LOSELY LINKED TO THE
colorful history of Panama. Ihhe
picturesque island of Taboga has kiiom n
the fury of marauding pirates, the intol-
erance of the Conquistadores, the bold-
ness of the Gold Rush adventurers, and
the glory of producing a saint. Through
it all the island has remained unsullied.
An idyllic hilly island in Panama Bay,
reminiscent of Capri, Taboga is only
about 12 nautical miles, or an hour by
launch, from Panama City. Its proximity
and its white sand beaches have made
it a prime candidate for further develop-
ment by the Republic of Panama Tourist
Bureau.
Plans are now afoot to build a hotel
complex which would include the pres-
ent Hotel Taboga and 55 modern cabins
to be constructed on El Morro, a small
adjacent island. It would be adminis-
tered bv the Hvatt International Hotel
chain.


Balboa
Although Vasco Niisez de Balboa, the
first Spaniard to set foot on the small
dot of land, called it St. Peter's Island,
the Indian name of the ruling cacique
prevailed and nearly 450 years after its
founding, the island still maintains the
simplicity and flavor of bygone days.
Typical of the Spanish colonial set-
tlements in the New World, the little
ja- town of Taboga sprang up around the
tel. church. Its narrow streets, now paved,


SPRING 1972


r.


............ ii;;


































are barely wide enough for the passage
of the few vehicles on the island.
The absence of traffic noises and ex-
haust fumes to pollute the clean sea
breezes and the magnificent view of
velvet sea and ships from far-off lands
waiting to enter the Canal have made
Taboga a favorite weekend retreat for
Panama and Canal Zone residents and
a year-round tourist attraction.
Quiet rural lanes fully skirted by a
profusion of bougainvillea and hibiscus
blooms in red, white, and pink, accen-
tuated by the fragrance of roses and
sweet jasmine, give Taboga the atmos-
phere of an eternal garden and the name
"Island of Flowers."
Spanish Conquest
During the Spanish conquest, Tabo-
ga's inhabitants were virtually elimi-
nated. When a decree by Charles V put
an end to slavery, only about 700 slaves
remained in Panama and its environs;
the majority of these had been brought
from Venezuela and Nicaragua. Among
them were a handful of native slaves
who became the settlers of Taboga.
A new village was founded in 1524
by Padre Hernando de Luque, dean of
the Panama cathedral. He built a com-
fortable house on the island and re-
mained there most of the time. It was
Padre Luque who provided funds and
blessed Francisco Pizarro and Diego de


No traffic noises disturb the


quiet of Panama's historic


"Island of Flowers"


El Morro played an important role in world shipping a little over 100 years ago when the
Pacific Steamship Navigation Co. established its Panama headquarters there. Many forty-
niners en route to California spent their "waiting" days in Taboga boarding houses.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








4%.


I-I- ~ c--I'- _~ J~i~...~


N-


Taking advantage of
low tide, visitors walk
over to the
island of El Morro,
where the U.S. Navy
had a "mosquito boat"
training base during
World War II.


Almagro before they set off from Ta-
boga on their conquest of the flourishing
Inca Empire.
In addition to his church duties, he
raised fruits and vegetables on the fer-
tile soil of Taboga, devoting much of
his time to his pineapple plantations.
S Padre Luque's pineapples could well be
the progenitors of the pineapple patches
that pepper the island today.
Taboganos still recall the venerable
priest by referring to a crystaline pool
in the folds of Picacho del Vigia, the
highest point on the island, as the
"Bishop's Pool."
Santa Rosa de Lima
They remember, too, that Santa Rosa
de Lima, the first saint of this hemi-
sphere, was conceived in Taboga. Ac-
cording to Don Manuel Pefiuela, for
many years a municipal official in Ta-
boga, the parents of the young girl who
.. ... "' was later to be canonized, had lived in
S a charming house on the beach, now
t. owned by Sefiora Abigail Pacheco de
Diez.
Taboga's wholesome, healthy atmos-
phere has been recognized since colo-
nial days when Panama City residents
flocked to the island during epidemics
or for a respite from the city heat. On
S several occasions, Taboga has been un-
officially the summer capital of Panama,
especially during the terms of President
._l Belisario Porras.
The Panama Tourist Bureau operates
An ancient anchor frames a scene of narrow flower-bordered lanes curving past small white a modern hotel on the island, which is
houses and Tahoga's historic church, where the little town sprang up during the Colonial era. the headquarters of numerous water


8 SPRING 1972






sports activities held during the year.
Pleasure boats from Panama and yachts
from all parts of the world may be seen
anchored in front of the hotel throughout
the year.
Hotel Chu, a two-story wooden struc-
ture built on the beach after the turn of
the century, offers adequate but not lux-
urious comfort and spectacular vistas of
Panama Bay.
Facing Hotel Taboga and linked to
the island at low tide by a sandbar, is
El Morro, a small rocky islet, where
at the end of the 17th century the
Spaniards established a fort to defend
Taboga.
Three Cannons
During the wars of Independence in
Latin America, it was the three cannons
on El Morro, manned by 10 Spanish
soldiers, that fought off the attacks of
John Illingworth, in 1819. During a
second attack, however, the invaders
took Taboga, the inhabitants fleeing to
the hills. Three of the invaders were
killed and buried by the villagers, who
marked their graves with wooden
crosses. With the passing of the years,
cast iron crosses embedded in a mortar
base, replaced the wooden markers. To
this day, Taboganos in the vicinity of
"Las Tres Cruces" never fail to light a
candle in memory of the three who
dared to disturb the peace of their little
island.
A little over 100 years ago, El Morro
played an important role in world ship-
ping. The Pacific Steamship Navigation
Co., an English company with ships ply-
ing between England and the Pacific
ports of South America, extended its
route to include Panama. Aware of the
abundance of supplies and potable
water and general healthy conditions on
the islet, the company purchased El
Morro. They built workshops, a ship
repair facility, supply stores and a coal-
ing station and brought over hundreds
of Irishmen to work in the supply base.
It was at about this time, too, that the
49'ers discovered the healthy aspects of
Taboga. many of them spending their
"waiting" days in boarding houses there.
A trace of Anglo-Saxon names can still
be seen on sparkling white tombstones
in the cemetery.
The Golden Age
Taboga was the seat of government
for all the islands in the Gulf of Panama,
including the Perlas Islands. Islanders
prospered and it was the Golden Age of
Taboga. Prosperity continued until sev-
eral years later when the Pacific Steam
transferred its shops to Callao, Peru.
Taboga Island had an important role


in the construction of the Canal. In
1883, during the French effort to con-
struct a Panama Canal, they built a
25-bed sanatorium on Taboga for ailing
and convalescing employees of the com-
pany. A few years later, in the grim
battle with disease, the French built a
50-bed, $400,000 sanatorium on the
island.
This building was taken over by the
United States in 1905 as a rest and
recuperation center for Canal construc-
tion workers. It served this purpose
until January 1915, when it became a
vacation resort for employees and
their families and was known as Hotel
Aspinwall.
The Aspinwall was converted into an
internment camp for German prisoners
during World War I. After the war it
was once again a hotel and recreation
center and was the hub of Taboga's
social life until 1945. The Aspinwall is
gone but many an Isthmian still recalls
this hotel on the beach at Taboga and
the part it played in social activities of
that bygone era.
Mosquito Boats
During World War II, the U.S. Navy
had a "mosquito boat" training base on
El Morro. The heroic record of these
boats in the Pacific theater of war
proved the efficiency of the officers and
sailors on El Morro.


Today, a modern aid to aerial naviga-
tion, at the top of Picacho del Vigia,
guides all aircraft to the Isthmus.
Numerous legends and romantic
myths have been woven into the tradi-
tions and folklore of the island. Among
these is the celebration of a water fes-
tival on July 16 in honor of the Virgin
of El Carmen, the patron saint of Tabo-
ga. A number of boats, usually led by
the most luxurious vacht of the Panama
Yacht and Fishing Club carrying a
statue of the Virgin, sail in a procession
around the island. The procession in-
cludes pleasure boats of all types and
sizes and pangas, the flat-bottom canoes
used by the fishermen, all beautifully
decorated for the occasion with the
occupants singing praises to their patron
saint.
According to Taboga lore, many
years ago, a pirate ship attempted to
attack the island and as the invaders
neared the beach, an enormous army
headed by a beautiful woman appeared,
ready to meet the onset. The pirates
were terrorized by the vision and fled
back to their boat. One who did make
it to the beach was even more mortified
when he learned that there was no such
army, much less a beautiful woman
leading it. To this day, Taboganos are
convinced that it was the Virgin of
El Carmen who saved them.


A popular swimming
hole is the "Bishop's
Pool," named for Father
Luque, the founder of
Taboga.


Taboganos often light
candles before the three
crosses which mark the
graves of invaders who
attacked the island in
the early 19th century.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW

















T HE ROOSEVELT CANAL, HAN-
na Locks I, II, and III, the Sea
of Hanna and Hanna Dam. Ever hear
of these places?
They might well have been the names
of the Panama Canal, Miraflores, Gatun,
and Pedro Miguel Locks, and Gatun
Lake and Dam, except for the consistent
spirited resistance of Gov. George W.
Davis, Gov. M. L. Walker, and others
who followed after them.
From the time the first shovelful of
dirt was turned, the Canal administra-
tion maintained a resolute policy of
preserving historic geographical names
despite repeated efforts to change them
to honor various individuals.
As early as June 28, 1904, John Bige-
low, of New York, in a letter carefully
written in Spencerian script, suggested
to President Theodore Roosevelt, that
all of the locks of the Canal be named
for "the late Senator Hanna, a statesman
and friend of the Isthmian Canal." He
also suggested that Gatun Lake be
called the Hanna Sea, and the port city
of Cristobal be known "simply as
Hanna."
The letter was forwarded to Cov.
George W. Davis, who, though at that
time much more concerned with the
building than with the naming of locks



ROGc VELT
CANAL


44N N



NN S


and towns, made it quite clear that he
was not in favor of changing well-known
local names. Expressing his opinion in a
letter to the President, he added, "After
the greatest engineering work of the
world is accomplished there will be time
enough, it seems to me, to decide upon
the names of the ports at its principal
entrances; the course that was followed
in respect to the Suez Canal."
But this was only the beginning of
efforts to rename the locks and Canal
Zone towns that continued until recent
years.
In April 1928, a joint resolution was
introduced in the House of Representa-
tives that Gatun Locks be named to
honor Maj. Gen. George W. Goethals,
chief engineer of the Panama Canal
from 1907 to 1912 and former Governor
of the Canal Zone; that Pedro Miguel
be named for John F. Stevens, chief en-
gineer from 1905 to 1907; and Mira-
flores be changed to Sibert to honor
Brig. Gen. William L. Sibert, division
engineer of the Atlantic Division, 1907
to 1914.
Little Jewel
The resolution also called for the
naming of the dam which was known
as "Alhajuela" for Congressman Martin
B. Madden, chairman of the Appropria-
tions Committee, which obtained the
funds for building it.
Local sentiment was against all of
the proposals and the names of the
locks remained the same, but the name
of the dam was changed to Madden
even though a local newspaper con-
ducted a campaign for retaining the
historic name, "Alhajuela" which means
little jewel.
In resisting the changes, Gov. M. L
Walker pointed out "It is proposed to
name Gatun Locks, which were built
by Sibert, after General Goethals, and
Miraflores Locks, which were built by
Mr. S. B. Williamson, after General
Sibert. General H. F. Hodges, who was
largely responsible for the design of all
the Locks is neglected."
Governor Walker recommended in-
stead of the suggested change of names
that a Panama Canal Memorial Hall be


built in the Canal Zone containing
tablets which would give the full his-
tory of American achievement on the
Isthmus and set forth the part played
by every individual prominently con-
nected with the work.
It was proposed in 1928 that the
name of the Canal be changed to honor
President Theodore Roosevelt. Gov-
ernor Walker expressed his disapproval
of this also and said, "The Panama
Canal has been so called since the
French Company first started work.
The Canal is so known throughout the
world. To change its name now will
prove very confusing and for many
years, even if the change of name is
made, the world will continue to refer
to it as the Panama Canal."
Culebra Cut
He mentioned as proof that names
are not easily changed that in 1915,
President Wilson signed an Executive
Order changing the name of Culebra
Cut, the excavation through the Con-
tinental Divide, to Gaillard Cut to honor
Lt. Col. David Gaillard, who was in
charge of the work there from 1907 to
1913. He pointed out that the name,
Culebra, which means snake, has per-
sisted. It is still used today by many
residents of the Canal Zone and Panama.
The Spanish names of the locks are
geographic ones, already in common
usage for these sites before the locks
were built, and looking into how the
areas happened to get their names leads
one far back into Isthmian history. In
the case of Gatun, on the Atlantic side
of the Isthmus evidence indicates that
it took its name from the river which
appears on Spanish maps as early as
1750.
On the Isthmus, as in other places, it
appears that names were first applied
to rivers and streams, often with a de-
scriptive adjective to characterize a
particular body of water.
This seems true with the Gatun River
which some believe was named for "el
gato," the cat, because of its smooth
running feline quality. (Records show
that beginning about 1882 the river
was called the Gatuncillo.) There are


SPRING 1972


What, In a nIae?

By Willie K. Friar






still some local people, however, who
insist that the name came from "gatu-
nero," seller of smuggled meat, since
the area around Gatun was once known
as a place where stolen cattle were
brought for sale to travelers.
Of the three locks, the name of Pedro
M\l~,ul, pronounced "Peter Magill" by
most Americans living in the Canal
Zone, arouses the most curiosity and
provokes numerous arguments and dis-
cussions.
Pedro Miguel's Cabin
One oldtimer reports that he remem-
bers well the story he heard while still
a boy that Pedro Miguel was the name
of a railroad section foreman. There
was no town there in the old days and
the stop on the Panama Railroad was
known simply as "Pedro Miguel's
Cabin." Others insist that the name was
originally San Pedro Miguel-St. Peter
Michael-the name the Spanish gave the
river which is near the town.
An 1867 history of the Panama Rail-
road refers to the river as "a narrow
tidewater tributary of the Rio Grande"
which the railroad crossed on an iron
bridge. Others say that the area was
named by the French to honor a saint
and then translated into Spanish.
But further research indicates that
the name goes back still farther in his-
tory. Early accounts of the conquista-
dores in Panama mention a soldier
named Pedro Miguel, a contemporary
of De Soto, and a 1729 Spanish map
shows a hill named Cerro Pedro Miguel
as well as the river, Rio Miguel.
Miraflores, which means "look at
flowers" was not chosen because flowers
were growing where the Pacific side
locks are located. It was actually a
desolate swampland.
The name dates far back in Isthmian
history but a check of old records gives
no clue as to how, why, or when the
name was first applied to this area. It is
a common Spanish surname and chances
are that Miraflores was named for an
individual during Spanish colonial days.
There are several South American coun-
tries with towns of this name.
Canal Builders
Many other place names date far
back in the history of the Isthmus and
retaining them in the face of campaigns
by congressmen and others bent on
honoring builders of the Canal has not
been an easy task.
Most Canal Zone towns are still called
by their original names. There was an
attr-mpt by a congressman to change the
hisftric name of Gamboa to Goethals.


= ^~-- A.

Lynn Niswander, student assistant with the Canal organization, points out a river named
Miguel on a 1729 map in a book of Spanish maps at the Canal Zone Library. Early Spanish
maps of Panama show that many local geographic names can be traced far back in the
history of the Isthmus. A hill named Cerro Pedro Miguel also appears on this map.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
















Gamboa, the home of the Canal's
Dredging Division, which first came to
prominence when the French Company
began excavation, is the Spanish name
of a fruit tree of the quince family. It is
also a well-known surname still found
today in Panama and Spain. Since the
tree is not native to Panama, it seems
likely that the name goes back to some
of the early Spanish explorers.
Ancon, an old Pacific side settlement,
is considered by many to be the most
sonorous of Canal Zone names. The
name, which goes back hundreds of
years in Isthmian history, means anchor
age. In 1545, Pizarro, seeking to control
the Isthmus of Panama and its rich
ports, sent two expeditions from Peru.
The first pillaged the old city of Pan-
ama before it was recalled. The second
was divided into forces, one of which,
under Rodrigo de Carbajal, landed at
"Ancon, a small cove 2 leagues from
Panama." Later, Ancon was particularly
known for the French hospital located
there.
Margarita, on the Atlantic side of


the Isthmus, got its name from the little
island which is now Fort Randolph, but
where the island originally got its name
is lost in history.
Next to Colon, on a coral reef, the
French dumped spoil from their canal
and on this artificial plateau they built
warehouses, shops, round houses, office
buildings, and quarters. They named
this section Christophe Colomb, or
Christopher Columbus. It was an easy
step from the French "Christophe" to
the Spanish "Cristobal."
The Pacific terminus of the Canal was
not called Balboa until 1909. The name
was suggested by the Peruvian Minister
to Panama, who advanced the idea that
the southern terminal of the Panama
Canal should honor the discoverer of
the Pacific Ocean, just as the northern
terminal honored the discoverer of the
new world. Up to that time, the two
Pacific side settlements at the southern
end of the Canal were known as Old
La Boca and New La Boca, which
means the mouth.
Some of the new Canal Zone towns


got their names by popular vote. Among
these are Curundu, Rainbow City, and
Los Rios.
The area now known as Curundu was
once called Skunk Hollow. But some
residents decided that it should be
changed and suggested Jungle Glen as
a more fitting name. Others were for
keeping the name of Skunk Hollow.
Skunk Glen
An editorial in The Star & Herald of
March 18, 1943, was in favor of retain-
ing the name stating: "Friends of tradi-
tion and Skunk Hollow need to arouse
themselves if they want to save the
name. They deserve encouragement.
This world tends to become a dreary
and orthodox place. Whatever piquancy
and humor is inherent in the name of
Skunk Hollow should be preserved for
the coming generations. They, to
whom the old place has the associations
of home and friends, cling to the old
name. They might agree that a rose by
any other name would smell as sweet
but not Skunk Hollow."
A letter to the Panama American
urged compromise. The writer said:
"We do not suggest that the warring
factions compromise by agreeing to
such a name as Jungle Hollow, although
something might be said for such a
name. But we see no reason why every-
one could not at once agree to the adop-
tion of the name Skunk Glen. This
would retain the saltiness of the original
name and would preserve the memories
of the oldtimers. At the same time it
would constitute a decided concession
to the aesthetes. Let's make it Skunk
Glen and return to the business of
winning the war."
The problem was solved by ballot
and a headline announced the result,
"Skunk Glenners Vote Overwhelmingly
for Name Curundu." Curundu was the
name of the little river nearby. It is a
historic name, which has been spelled
a variety of ways, but the exact meaning
is not known.
By Popular Ballot
The new town of Los Rios was named
by popular ballot in 1954 with Sibert
and Alhajuela being considered also as


SPRING 1972


Pedro Miguel 6boa /


F'






possible choices. The streets had already
been named for local rivers and it was
decided that it would be fitting to call
the town, "the rivers."
Rainbow City was named following
a contest, sponsored by the PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW. The name was sug-
gestcd because of the pastel or rainbow
colors of the houses. Even the sewage
disposal plant is a cheerful pale green.
Paraiso, near Pedro Miguel Locks,
which means paradise, was a stop on
the "dry season trail" between the At-
lantic and Pacific and early Canal Zone
legend has it that Sir Henry Morgan
first saw Old Panama from a hilltop
near Paraiso. It was also a headquarters
for one of the working sections of the
French Canal Company.
During the 1850's when surveyors
and engineers were laying out the rail-
road line, they found a pass which led
into what F. N. Otis, a few years later.
described as "the beautiful undulating
valley of Paraiso, or Paradise, sur-
rounded by high conical hills where
Nature in weird profusion seems to have
expended her choicest wealth."
Middle of 16th Century
The Pacific side community of Diablo
Heights can be traced as far back as
the middle of the 16th century. Accord-
ing to Isthmian histories, the narrow
Isthmus of Panama was terrorized by
bands of Cimarrones, runaway Negro
slaves, who preyed upon the treasure
trains on the Camino Real. They be-
came such a threat to life and property
that the Spanish viceroy sent expedi-
tions to clean them out. They managed
to evade their attackers and in 1552
were granted recognition by the Gov-
ernor of the Province.
At that time, they had three main
villages, one of which was called Diablo
or Devil. It was located near the present
site of Diablo Heights. In 1940, the
Canal Zone director of posts objected
to the decision to name the post office,
which was located there until March 31,
1961, Diablo Heights pointing out there
was already considerable confusion over
Balboa and Quarry Heights which were
often written as "Q Heights" and
"B Heights." He suggested Cerro Dia-
blo which would retain the name but
put it all in Spanish, but the Governor
decided to keep the name and Diablo
Heights it remains.
Mapmaker's Mistake
Names sometimes are the result of
mistakes or misunderstandings. A good
example of this in the United States
is Nome, Alaska, which received its
name because a mapmaker misunder-


stood the note his supervisor had placed
on the map. Not knowing the name of
the place, he had written the question,
"Name?" and the mapmaker misread it
and wrote in Nome.
Darien, which once was the name of
the entire Isthmus, but now identifies a
province of the Republic of Panama,
was an Indian word misunderstood by
Balboa. When Balboa arrived at the
coast of the Isthmus he came upon a
river whose name the Spaniards phonet-
ically translated as "Tarona." The tend-
ency to change the letter "T" to "D"
changed the name to Dariena and
Darven. Due to the consistent substitu-
tion of the letter "i" for the letter "y"
in words which have the latter in their
center, it finally became Darien. The in-
correct name was immortalized in the
famous although historically inaccurate
stanza of Keats "Endymion" "Cortez
with eagle eyes silent on a peak in
Darien."
There are still sporadic attempts to
change the names of the locks, town-
sites, and streets of the Canal Zone but
chances seem good that the long-time
policy of the Canal Zone to maintain
historical place names will continue.
Spirited Arguments
And it is likely that there will still be
spirited arguments concerning such
place names as Red Tank, Empire, Ta-
bernilla (little tavern), Ahorca Lagarto
(hang an alligator), and Matachin.
Matachin had already become such
a subject of discussion that Governor
Davis took time out from the business of
running the Canal Zone to discuss it in
the Canal Record of December 25, 1907.
He wrote: "It may seem almost heart-
less to shatter and destroy the beliefs of
the oldest as well as the youngest Isth-


-7-








mian inhabitants respecting the history
of the name of Matachin, which is
known to all Panamanians as that of a
station on the line of the Panama
Railroad."
Although many local people insisted
that it meant "Kill a Chinaman," the
Governor went on to debunk the story,
still told today, that the name denoted
the site of a camp for Chinese railroad
workers who committed suicide by
drowning, hanging and throwing them-
selves in front of passing locomotives.
Then referring to a map published in
1684 "more than 200 years before the
Chinese tired of life on the Isthmus (if
they ever did)," he pointed out that a
place of that name was known to the
Buccaneers. It may have been the stop-
ping place where the butcher, whose
occupation it designates, supplied the
weary travelers with fresh meat.
It has been said of Panama that there
are few other places on earth where so
much of the history of the civilized
world has been enacted with so little
trace of it remaining. But clues are
there, for the observant, in the names of
places along the Canal and through-
out the Isthmus where historical names
abound.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









pr Jr..- ri .
-- a- *


By Vic Canel
O UR PHOTOGRAPHER GOT HIGH
recently. High on the Thatcher
Ferry Bridge to get some dramatic pic-
tures of painting crews as they tackled
the annual dry season project.
More than 300 feet above the Canal's
Pacific entrance, he walked the 12-inch-
wide beams without a hint of acropho-
bia, as painters worked on the second
half of the cantilever arch to complete
the last phase of the 5-year painting
cycle.
The bridge is painted in sections: First
the underside from the east embank-
ment to the center span; then the under-
side from the west embankment to the
center span; then the trolley under the
bridge; and finally the cantilever arch is
painted in two installments.
Each section is given two coats of
aluminum paint and it takes about 1,050
gallons-enough to paint about 1,400
average size bedrooms-should anyone

IIIK Ur


Up for a breath of fresh air-or to enjoy
the spectacular view, painter
Alberto Caballero takes a short break
from his chore of painting
the inside of this steel beam on the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge.


Tied in a boatswain's chair, a painter
works on one of the upright steel beams
high above the Pacific entrance
of the Canal.


be interested in an aluminum bedroom.
In addition, about 750 gallons of red
lead are used each vear to prevent
rusting.
Preparations for the dry season paint
job begin in December, when 20 men
are hired on a temporary basis to pre-
pare the rigging and scaffolding. Then,
in January, another 30 men are hired to
do the chipping, scraping and actual
painting, which usually is completed
about the end of April. Annual cost of
the bridge maintenance is close to a
quarter of a million dollars.
Strict safety rules are enforced and
each workday starts with a safety meet-
ing. "You only make one mistake up
there," says Robert E. Budreau, general
foreman, buildings, who has been re-
sponsible for the job from the start of
the present 5-year cycle.
Despite 25- to 35-mile-an-hour winds,
no worker has ever fallen from the
bridge, Budreau says-not even a pho-
tographer.


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SPRING 1972


HIGH OV[R TH[ I




Sa!2ANAMA CANA












Painters Make Striking Pictures


\


The dramatic photos on these pages are
the work of Arthur L. Pollack,
who was snapped by
a coworker as he walked the
beams high atop the Thatcher Ferry
Bridge in search of
unusual camera angles.


Silhouetted against a clear dry season sky,
workers apply aluminum paint
to a "forty five"-the big 45-degree
steel beams in the bridge superstructure.


Traffic across Thatcher Ferry Bridge moves along in two lanes
nearly 200 feet below as workmen Alvin J. Staples,
in white T-shirt, and Jos6 G. GonzAlez
proceed with dry season painting.

These two men are responsible for
keeping the bridge shipshape.
They are veteran Canal employees
Robert E. Budreau, left,
general foreman, buildings, and
Dallas Thornton,
lead foreman, painter.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






9"


missing Parade of Ship,


GRACEFUL SAILING SHIPS NO
longer transit the Panama Canal
with the frequency they did in 1914.
The little plodding tankers and cargo
ships that took on coal at Cristobal, and
made their way stolidly across the Pa-
cific, have been replaced by 825-foot
tankers and container ships that travel
at more than 25 knots.
Ship traffic through the Panama
Canal has reflected the progress of the
world from the horse and buggy age,
when ships sailed with the wind, to the
atomic age, when a nuclear power plant
may be the source of energy.
Sailing vessels, palatial yachts, sturdy
tugs, whaling fleets, offshore oil drilling
rigs and ships on scientific expeditions
all have been a part of the great stream
of traffic which has moved through the
Panama Canal or visited the terminal
ports during the 57 years that the Canal
has been opened to world traffic. During
that time there have been more than
458,000 transits.


The war "to make the world safe for
democracy" was just beginning in 1914
when the SS Ancon made her initial
transit through the newly opened
waterway at Panama. The huge cranes
Ajax and Hercules, manufactured in Ger-
many, barely made their way across
the Atlantic before Germany and Britain
closed the sea to shipping. Transports
filled with British troops from down
under came north as the war began
and returned as the war ended.
The Pacific Fleet returned through
the Canal at the end of hostilities and
an expedition led by Rear Adm. Richard
E. Byrd came south on its way to dis-
cover the frozen Antarctic. The U.S.
Navy frigate Constitution, launched in
1797 and famed in history as "Old
Ironsides," arrived at Cristobal in 1932
on a public inspection trip to the West
Coast. Old Ironsides was towed through
the Canal in 9 hours and 23 minutes
and spent time in drydock in Balboa in


Prom Steam

preparation for the trip to California.
As the traffic through the Canal grew
during the years before and after World
War II, improvements in the Canal
facilities resulted in channel lighting,
widening in the Gaillard Cut area, and
new towing locomotives.
Almost as important as the first full
transit of the Canal in 1914 was the
first nighttime transit of the 665-foot
bulk carrier Allen D. Christensen early
in 1966. This was the largest commer-
cial vessel ever to make the complete
transit after dark.
The longest ship to transit the Canal
was the old German American Line
cruise ship Bremen that passed through
the Canal southbound in February
1939. Her overall length of 936.8 feet
has never been surpassed. The widest
ship was the U.S. Missouri which tran-
sited in September 1952. Her measure-
ments were 888 feet in length with
beam of 108 feet.


I 3E`N m -cxxxx 660XN tx 40.azxxall tc


Nov.


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The passage of 33 vessels of the Pacific Fleet, 30 of them in only
2 days, July 24 and 25, 1919, constituted the largest operation in the
Canal up to that date. The ships, many recently from the war zone,
were handled in groups with a Canal pilot in charge of three de-
stroyers. Before transit, they took on large orders of coal and fuel oil.


MIN

The USN "Hayes," one of the first catamarans operated by the U.S.
Navy Sealift Command under the sponsorship of the Naval Research
Laboratory, passes through en route from California in September
1971. Constructed specifically to conduct acoustic research for anti-
submarine warfare application, it has space for bulky equipment.


SPRING 1972


M~Ize f~Xa3XM3L 4


An


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'lects Progress




omic Exnergy

One of the most complicated and
costly transits was made by a fleet of
inactive floating U.S. Navy drydocks
moving from the Pacific to the Atlantic.
Since they were too wide to fit the locks
thev were turned on their sides at the
former Mechanical Division in Balboa
and towed through the Canal by Pan-
ama Canal tugs. Even on their sides,
the drydocks got a clearance in the
locks chambers of only 6 feet 9 inches.
All of the five drydocks had to be re-
turned to a horizontal position in Cris-
tobal and prepared for sea.
In recent years, the Panama Canal
has made efforts to accommodate almost
any type of vessel that can be fitted into
or over the locks. Plans were made last
November to take care of a proposed
catamaran drilling rig so large that it
would fit in two lock lanes simultane-
ously and straddle the control houses as
it was locked through. The Canal
authorities were game and gave the

-From the


green light to a U.S. west coast ship
building corporation that had made
plans to build the gargantuan vessel.
The builders, however, have postponed
plans for the time being.
Already beginning service are a fleet
of container ships, some up to 950 feet
in length that will travel between
Europe and the Far East at a service
speed of 26 knots. The first, the Kama-
kura Maru of the NYK Line, went
through in January.
Not all ships that pass through the
Panama Canal these days are outsized.
Recently a whole fleet of mini-freight-
ers, newest of the growing number of
small highly automated cargo ships,
started passing through the waterway
from Corinto, Nicaragua to New Or-
leans by way of Turbo, Colombia and
Pensacola, Fla. They measure in at 215
feet in length and have a cargo capacity
of 3,000 tons in containers or bulk cargo.

Anxcoin to txhe


Quite a contrast to the record cargo of
60,391 long tons on board the Arctic
transiting March 1970.
Then there was the smallest boat
ever to transit. Appropriately named
Ancon II, a shipshape 3-foot-long model
cruiser went northbound May 23, 1970.
The radio-controlled craft was guided
by a chase boat manned by Air Force
Maj. Kenneth Thomas, her owner-
builder, and veteran Panama Canal
Pilot Capt. William T. Lyons. The pas-
sage through the Canal was guided at
all times by the Marine Traffic con-
trollers in Balboa. The Canal's smallest
customer took more than 12 hours to
transit and paid 72 cents in tolls.
Of the world fleet of ships, which
numbers over 19,000 vessels of 1,000
gross tons and over, more than 800 are
too wide to fit into the locks and over
500 more oversize ships are under
construction or on order. E. R.

AstroxnaLut-


Officially opening the Panama Canal, August 15, 1914, the old SS
"Ancon" nears midway point in her 50-mile journey. The ship had
been used as a cement carrier during construction days and after
the Canal was opened was converted into a transport for Canal
employees. It ran between Cristobal and New York via Haiti.


:.- '.. .. ...

United States Lines' Lancer class "American Astronaut," one of 16
mammoth high-speed container ships in the company's fastest tri-
continent services returns from the Far East to the Port of New
York. The trim giant transports her full share of the line's inven-
tory of over 20,000 freight containers filled with general cargo.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






The Canal Takes All Types


Round-shaped or egg-shaped


As long as they are shipshape



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A strange craft named "Sea Egg" by its
owner-skipper John C. Riding, went through
the Canal in September 1967 on its way
around the world. The "Sea Egg" has an
overall length of only 11.9 feet and a 5.3-
foot beam.


Assisted by a Panama Canal tug, a large Coast Guard navigational buoy known as a LNB,
moves through Miraflores Locks. It represents a new generation of highway markers for
marine traffic. The hull supports a 38-foot tower which has a 7,500 candlepower light.


One of the most complicated transits was made hy a fleet of floating U.S. Navy drydocks
moving from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Too wide to fit in the locks, thev were
turned on their sides and towed through the Canal. When they reached Cristobal,
they were righted and again made ready to put out to sea and continue their journey.


36-inch SS "Ancon II" chugs north through
Miraflores Locks. The radio controlled 3-foot
model cruiser is the smallest vessel to transit.


SPRING 1972


_i ,----- --
The amphibious jeep "Tortuga" is dwarfed by the tanker "Cristobal" as it is locked
through Pedro Miguel in May 1955. The "Tortuga," owned by Frank and Helen Schreider
of Alaska, was en route to the southern tip of South America via highway and sea. The jeep
was given the same service as a full fledged commercial ship up to and including a pilot.
Capt. Robert Rennie sits on top of the small seagoing vehicle for lack of a bridge.













j A


Three pieces of floating equipment-one drilling rig and two deep sea drilling ships with rigs
towering from 204 to 208 feet above the waterline arrived here in February 1970. They
were the "Glomar Challenger," one of the newest and largest of the vessels conducting ocean
bottom research; the "Big John," an oil drilling rig being towed to Borneo from Texas; and
the giant deep water drilling vessel "Navigator," which was en route from Texas to Australia.


Under tow of a seagoing tug, the derrick
barge "Choctaw" squeezes through Mira-
flores Locks with only 2 feet to spare. It
made its first transit August 9, 1969, on its
way to a drilling project near Australia.


,rt ft~ i


t~ g f


One of the most unusual ships to transit the Canal was the American flag cable ship "Long
Lines," the largest cable laying and repair ship in the world. It is the first commercially
owned and operated cable laying ship sailing under the flag of the United States.


A Russian cruise liner "Shota Rustaveli" ties up at Balboa with British cruise passengers
aboard. The vessel was one of five Soviet ships that transited the Canal one weekend early
in March of this year. She has made several trips through the waterway in recent months.


Chugging along through Gaillard Cut is the
side paddlewheel steam tug "Eppleton
Hall," one of the last survivors of her type.


The Spanish training ship "Juan Sebastian
Elcano" with more than 100 cadets aboard,
moves north through Miraflores Locks.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








fi














The U.S. Navy frigate "Constitution,"
launched in 1797 and famed in the history
of the United States as "Old Ironsides,"
arrived at Cristobal the evening of Decem-
ber 22, 1932, from Washington, D.C., via
Guantanamo. After a 4-day stay at Cristo-
bal, the vessel transited on December 27.


Lashed to the U.S. "Bittern," the German
Submarine U-88 moves through Pedro Mi-
guel Locks. One of five surrendered sub-
marines taken to the United States for ex-
hibition, it arrived at Cristobal August 6,
1919, en route to San Diego for display.








L .* l I '2" <


j,.i1


The New Zealand transport "Willoera" dis-
plaied this strange zebra-like camouflage
when it went through Gaillard Cut in 1919
with a load of New Zealand troops. This
type of protective painting seems strange
today as methods of camouflage have
changed radically since World War I.


Submarines C-I to C-5 comprising the First
Division of the U.S. Navy submarine flotilla
which had been stationed at Cristobal since
December 12, 1913, were placed in drydock
in the east chamber of the upper level
of Catun Locks Monday, March 9, 1914.


Four catchers of the Norwegian whaling
fleet that transited in 1951, lock down
together in Pedro Miguel. The 14 catchers
and their 22,000-ton mother ship, "Thor-
shovi," transited October 17. They carried
565 men. The mother ship with a crew
of 285 and each catcher a crew of 20.


U.S. Naval personnel and a number of their
dependents perch on the deck of the U.S.
Nasy's newest Polaris Missile submarine
"Daniel Boone" as it passes through Mira-
flores Locks. The nuclear powered sub was
the first of its type to use the Panama Canal.


The NS "Savannah," the world's first nuclear powered merchant ship, arrived at Cristohal
September 16, 1962, for a history-making transit of the Canal en route to the Seattle World's
Fair. Her nuclear reactor has the capacity to take her around the world 14 times without
refueling. She was built by the United States to demonstrate peaceful use of atomic energy.


The "La Valley," the first steam vessel to
pass from ocean to ocean through the Canal
leaves Miraflores lower chamber January 7,
1914. before the Canal was officially opened.


SPRINc 1972










T.?







.x


The Belgian flag ship "Temse," the largest commercial vessel to transit since the passenger
liner "Bremen," which still holds the record, moves on her way from Rotterdam to Chile in
December 1971. She measures 875 feet in length and has a beam of 104 feet. Traveling in
ballast, she paid only $22,333.68 in tolls. She was en route to Peru to pick up bulk ore.


Two Italian passenger liners pass in Gatun Lake. The Lloyd Tries-
tino Line "Galileo Galilei," in the foreground, is a 27,906-ton ship
that makes regular transits through the Canal carrying about 1,500
passengers on round-the-world voyages. The Italian Line "Leo-
nardo da Vinci," in the background, has made only one transit.


Looking like a ship without a superstructure, the "St. John Carrier,"
one of the world's largest newsprint barges, lies at dock at Balboa.


A

i .
*.. .


The North German Lloyd trans-Atlantic
liner "Bremen," the largest commercial
vessel to transit, moves through Pe-
dro Miguel Locks. Tolls were $15,243.


Breaking the Canal cargo record for the second time, the super
carrier "Arctic" moves south through Miraflores Locks with a cargo
of 60,391 long tons of coal. The "Arctic" measures 848.8 feet in
length and 105.85 in beam and used the maximum draft allowance
of 39 feet 6 inches on this trip. She was carrying coal to Japan.


The British flag ship "Diklara," a new type container ship, made her
first trip through the Canal last November on her maiden voyage.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










Shipping



Notes



Cruise Ship "Hamburg"

THE NEWEST WEST GERMAN
passenger liner TS Hamburg has
made five trips through the Panama
Canal this year and will make one more
at the end of June before her present
cruise season is completed. She is the
fourth German flag vessel to carry the
name Hamburg since the turn of the
century.
The 24-million dollar luxury liner,
the flagship of the German Atlantic
Line, was launched at the Howaldts-
werke-Deutsche Werft AG shipyard in
Hamburg in 1968.
Known for the amount of space set
aside for both public and private rooms,
she has 319 spacious cabins including
20 deluxe apartments for a full com-
plement of cruise passengers totaling
some 600.
The sleek vessel has a cruising speed
of 23 knots. Her unusual funnel sup-
ports a 32-foot diameter circular plate
designed to lift fumes and smoke up
and away from the sun and sports
decks.


The "Other Woman"

When the winter winds blow up
north and the trade winds blow in the
tropics, yachts and other small boats
converge by the dozens on the Panama
Canal. There have been an unusual
number of pleasure craft through the
Canal this year, some of them in the
million dollar class and others strictly
on a shoestring. Some are being used
just to transport their owners from here
to there, and it is a good way to go if
one happens to like the open sea in a
small boat.
One of these was the Other Woman,
a fitting name for a sailing craft being
used by her owner for a 2-year trip
around the world without wife and
family. Canadian Douglas Reed, with
a crew of four, arrived at the Canal in
February from the Bahamas aboard
the 39-foot auxiliary sailing yacht. The
craft made the transit and continued on
her 28,000-mile journey by way of the
Galapagos and the South Seas. It is the


1972


Nationality
Belgian-------
British -------
Chilean--------
Chinese, Nat'l. ---
Colombian ----.--
Cypriot -------
Danish-------
French ---------
German, West --
Greek ------.
Italian ---------
Japanese --------
Liberian ___---_---
Netherlands ------
Nicaraguan -----
Norwegian -.--.....
Panamanian -...-
Peruvian --------
Philippine-------
South Korean --__-
Soviet _-
Swedish----------
United States .
Yugoslavian __.
All others
Total-


No. of
transit
86
708
63
78
121
47
199
94
458
382
135
791
827
239
57
594
454
87
44
42
65
193
519
43
311
- 6,637


Tons
of cargo
241,539
5,653,964
499,369
723,690
262,830
328,429
1,012,236
418,361
2,003,169
4,120,243
922,839
5,284,992
10,930,306
1,423,289
106,793
7,201,090
1,981,516
588,082
332,415
231,575
422,459
1,327,234
3,649,546
352,896
1,534,717
51,553,579


1971
No. of Tons
transit of cargo
52 148,539
768 7,210,259
82 770,444
75 696,617
107 280,146
108 746,285
233 1,058,567
124 518,233
520 2,453,782
274 3,751,158
112 717,665
710 6,745,230
751 12,614,997
240 1,365,557
52 92,391
589 7,990,290
423 1,912,895
87 578,220
52 451,528
34 248,259
50 320,642
234 1,625,259
680 4,267,046
44 619,868
390 2,525,306
6,791 59,709,183


1961-65
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
22 77,724
632 4,124,334
64 451,191
41 301,600
129 209,189

154 725,383
66 364,357
558 1,687,827
316 3,077,249
97 561,167
433 2,542,668
458 4,416,239
294 1,346,865
28 41,772
695 5,078,587
221 959,816
58 296,697
33 135,090
4 24,027
6 48,219
181 1,026,269
877 5,259,746
7 53,543
257 608,595
5,631 33,418.154


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
First Half Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
transits
Trade routes-(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) 1972 1971 1961-65
United States Intercoastal ------------- 145 156 231
East coast of United States and South America ---------- ---- 452 566 1,208
East coast of United States and Central America ----_----- 311 330 241
East coast of United States and Far East ------------- 1,433 1,706 1,133
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia .---------. 187 217 171
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada ---- 399 484 459
Europe and South America--------------------- ------ 629 594 592
Europe and Australasia ------ --- ------ ----- 234 249 176
All other routes --------------- ------------- 2,847 2,489 1,420
Total traffic--------------- ------------6,637 6,791 5,631

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)
Tronsits 1 Tolls (In thousands of dollars)


Month
July -------
August ---- -----
September ---___-------
October -----
November -----------_-
December ---- --___---__
January --- __ _
February .--------________
March _-------__________
April_____ -----_----_
May----------- --
June_ ______________
June ----------.-----------
Totals for fiscal year -__
1 Before deduction of any operation


First Half
1972 1971
1,194 1,174
1,197 1,176
1,191 1,108
1,068 1,167
964 1,064
1,023 1,102
S 1,119
1,144
1,295
S 1,214
1,237
1,220
14,020
g expenses.


Avg. No.
transit
1961-65
960
949
908
946
922
946
903
868
1,014
966
999
954
11,335


First Half
1972 1971
8,016 8,118
8,513 8,221
8,418 7,979
7,242 8,095
6,645 7,362
7,267 7,690
8,157
7,815
--- 8,929
8,349
8,422
.- 8,243
97,380


Average
tolls
1961-65
4,929
4,920
4,697
4,838
4,748
4,955
4,635
4,506
5,325
5,067
5,232
5,013
58,865


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF
VESSELS
First Half Fiscal Year


SPRING 1972







PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
First Half Fiscal Year


Commodity
Manufactures of iron and steel ------
Lumber and products
Sugar .-------------------------
Ores, various ---------
Petroleum and products ----------------
Fishmeal---- ------------------
Metals, various -------------
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) ---
Pulpwood----------------------------
Bananas ------------------------------
Sulfur------------------------------
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts. _-____-
Molasses-------------------------- -
Canned food products ----------------
Salt __----- ----------------
All other -___-----_ _-- ------------
Total __--_..- ------_------_


1972
4,348,321
2,459,417
2,049,777
1,904,119
1,731,721
883,880
661,657
582.861
538,071
524,546
405,538
374,115
317,556
321,705
317,247
4,979,36-1
22,429,895


1971
3,122,147
2,249,879
2,056,415
3,227,970
1,030,230
680,844
794,595
587,121
590,363
505,408
206,373
244,603
246,515
330,968
164,864
5,349,853
21,388,148


5-Yr. Aug.
1961-65
466,312
1,785,375
1,235,175
519,996
1,024,347
N.A.
566,481
394,842
249,504
565,876
35,897
8,147
80,782
517,232
1,645
7,381,658
14,883,269


Atlantic to Pacific


First Half Fiscal Year


Commodity
Petroleum and products ------------ -
Coal and coke ---- ----
Soybeans___---- ------- -----
Phosphate --------- ---------
Ores, various -- ------ --
Corn ----- -------------
Wheat _---------------- -
Sugar --------------------------------
Metal, scrap-------------
Manufactures of iron and steel -- ---
Sorghum.----------------------------
Chemicals, miscellaneous------------
Paper and products--- ---------
Autos, trucks, accessories, and parts-----
Caustic soda ------------------
All other-------------
Total- -----------------


1972
6,756,597
6,145,377
1,950,607
1,936,286
1,515,296
1,382,153
960,417
709,746
675,010
600,334
455,315
422,509
381,768
303,992
303,082
4,625,195
29,123,684


1971
6,222,106
11,618,552
2,140,465
1,997,012
1,275,943
2,269,647
626,096
1,359,027
1,771,295
965,651
1,352,348
466,818
435,345
314,744
176,850
5,329,136
38.321,035


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
5,484,146
2,925,019
735,645
1,046,645
147,988
636,706
335,771
516,556
1,527,264
737,644
N.A.
318,745
225,987
160,582
N.A.
3,736,187
18,534,885


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing----------------
Small I_---- ------------
Total Commercial-----------

U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing----------------
Small 1----- ---------- -


3,316
190
3,506


106
34


3,321
137
3,458


6,637
327
6,964


6,791
247
7,038


5,631
286
5,917


100 206 311 124
53 87 67 82


Total commercial and
U.S. Government----------- 3,646 3,611 7,257 7,416 6,123
1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited
tree.


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR 6 MONTHS OF
FISCAL YEAR 1972
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1972 1971
Commercial.----------.. 6,637 6,791
U.S. Government _------ 206 311
Free---____- ----- -- 31 60
Total------------ 6,874 7.162
TOLLS O
Commercial __$46,133,275 $47,483,685
U.S. Government 1,343,557 1,886,257
Total__$47,476,832 $49,369,942
CARGO0 (Oceangoing)
Commercial.... 51.553,579 59,709,183
U.S. Government 821,399 1,345,737
Free --_--_ 41,532 90,215
Total.__ 52,416,510 61,145,135
0 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
S0 Cargo figures are in long tons.



first attempt by a Canadian registered
yacht with a Canadian captain to circle
the globe.


Soviet Vessels

Russian flagships are not new to the
Panama Canal but there was a surge
of them early in March when three
freighters, one scientific trawler, and a
cruise ship with more than 600 pas-
sengers passed through the waterway.
The passenger vessel Shota Rustaveli,
owned by the Black Sea Steamship Co.
and chartered by the Charter Travel
Club of London, arrived in Balboa
March 11 with a crew of 354 and 665
passengers who had boarded the ship
in Australia. The vessel tied up in Bal-
boa in the morning and the passengers
went sightseeing. The ship transited
northbound in the afternoon en route
to Southampton via Curacao.
Also transiting northbound the same
day was the Vysokogorsk, a cargo ship
traveling from Manchurian ports to
Cuba.
Three of the vessels went through
the Canal almost at the same time
March 11. In fact they met in Mira-
flores Locks. They were the freighter
Novocolynsk traveling from New Zea-
land to Dunkirk with wool and general
cargo; the Akademik Knipovich, a
Soviet government-owned scientific
fishing trawler en route from Val-
paraiso, Chile, to Las Palmas, Canary
Islands; and the Parkhomenko, south-
bound from New York to Guayaquil.
C. Fernie & Co. represents all the
vessels except the Parkhomenko which
was handled on this transit by Pacific
Ford.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
First Half Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
transit
1972 1971 1961-65
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total Total Total














Culinary




Capers




By Eunice Richard


AS THE U.S. ARMY TROPICAL
Survival School in the Canal Zone
has learned, there is very little growing
or living in the jungles of Panama that
cannot be used as food.
Some of the animals, vegetables, and
fruits may even be used to make gour-
met dishes, Mrs. Gladys R. Graham, an
enterprising young American housewife
discovered some 25 years ago when she
came to the Isthmus and spent several
years living in the Interior of Panama.
She learned to prepare a number of
succulent dishes with native foods and
before she left the Isthmus, wrote and
published a cookbook, "Tropical Cook-
ing," which, sadly, is no longer in cir-
culation. The Canal Zone Library has
only one copy left and it is dog-eared,
worn, and stained from years of use by
curious cooks. But it is to be published
again soon by the Isthmian Anthro-
pological Society and will be on sale
later this vear.
Meanwhile, Culinary Capers offers a
few of Mrs. Graham's more unusual
recipes. Perhaps some Isthmian house-
wife will look for the ingredients in the
local Panama market or have her hus-
band go hunting in the jungle if only to
give her family a change from frozen
foods.
As Mrs. Graham says, one day some-
one will bring home a freshly killed
armadillo and swear that he has heard
it is edible. It is!

ARMADILLO
In Brazil the armadillo is often
cleaned, seasoned, and baked in his own
shell with a generous portion of minced
parsley added to the rest of the season-
ing. In the southwest of the United
States the meat, at its best during the
winter months, is treated much the
same as raccoon and opossum. It can
be successfully fried like chicken or
roasted. In any event BE SURE to
remove the kernels (glands) from under
the forelegs and in the fleshy part of the
hindlegs and back. There are seven of
them. Do it as soon as possible.


Tropical



Treats


24 SPRING 1972


ROAST ARMADILLO
1 armadillo
2 tablespoons salt
L4 teaspoon black pepper
I onion
3 carrots
1 cup broth or bouillon
Clean armadillo and remove fat. Par-
boil 1 hour in water with other ingredi-
ents, except the broth. Place in a roast-
ing pan, add the broth and roast un-
covered 2 hours at 375 degrees. Serves
eight.

CONEJO
If there are no hunters in the family,
most people can get this excellent meat
in the Panama market if one talks to a
butcher and places an order. Conejo
means rabbit in English. But the Pan-
amanian conejo is more of a rodent,
with longer hairless tail, head like a rat
and small ears. He is a member of the
kangaroo family and grows up to 30 or
40 pounds. The tender white meat is
somewhat dry and should be larded or
roasted in the skin to preserve the
juices. Clean the conejo and stuff with
apple or sausage and apple dressing.
Roast at 350 degrees until tender. Baste
with orange juice or wine.

CONEJO PINTADO
Mrs. Graham says that the conejo pin-
tado is not the same animal as conejo for
it refers to the South American Paca.
The meat is white and sweet. Roast him
whole, stuck with cloves and basted with
orange juice and your family and guests
will want to desert the meat markets
and take to the woods for provender.

BREADFRUIT
This delicious fruit or vegetable is
plentiful in Panama but few people
seem to use it. Mrs. Graham says it is
more popular in song and story than it
is on tables in Central America, but that
may be the loss of those who do not





eat it. If potato is not available, bread-
fruit is a delightful substitute. Some
oldtimers prefer it to potatoes. It has a
tangy, tantalizing piney fragrance.
She says there are several ways to
prepare breadfruit. Some insist it should
be boiled when it is mature but still
green. They prefer it either hot, mashed
like potatoes, or boiled, sliced, dipped
in beaten egg, and fried. Others insist it
should be allowed to ripen until it is a
rich brown and just turning soft. Then
they bake it whole, exactly like potato,
and remove the seed before bringing it
steaming hot to the table. There its
sweet balsam flavor calls only for a little
salt and pepper and lots of butter.
Cooked this way, the breadfruit should
be put into an oven at 375 to 400
degrees for 45 minutes to an hour. The
next day it can be diced and used in
stews or soups.

CHAYOTE
One of the most versatile of the Isth-
mian fruits and vegetables is the cha-
vote also known as chocho. Mrs. Graham
says it is the answer to a cook's prayer.
If one wants a root to serve instead of
potatoes, boil it. If one needs a green
salad, peel the fruit and shred it with
other green stuff. If you want a substi-
tute for spinach, strip the leaves from
the vine. The entire chayote plant can
he used in one way or another.
The fruit, something like summer
squash in flavor, is slightly pear-shaped
and a delicate green, with slight grooves
along the sides. Some are spiny, and
some, when past the youngest stages of
tenderness, have a bit of a center seed
and a few root sprouts showing at the
bottom. They run from the size of a
fist to half again as large and all parts
are edible except the skin.

FRIED CHAYOTE
Peel three chavotes and cut in %-inch
slices crosswise. Dip in beaten egg, then
in cracker crumbs and fry to a golden
brown in hot fat. Drain on paper, then
sprinkle salt and pepper and keep in the
oven until time to serve. Serve as soon
as possible. It is superior to eggplant.
Mrs. Graham said that it is excellent
stuffed also and gave this recipe.
Wash and simmer three large cha-
yotes till tender (about 40 minutes).
Cut in half, scoop out the pulp and mash
it with salt, pepper, grated cheese and
a small amount of grated onion. Top
with more grated cheese or buttered
toasted crumbs. Pop into the oven for
10 or 15 minutes and serve.


Breadfruit has been a popular food in the Western Hemisphere ever since 1793 when bread-
fruit trees were brought from Tahiti to the West Indies by Captain Bligh of "Mutiny on the
Bounty" fame. The breadfruit is one of the many trees introduced to the Isthmus from the
West Indies. A large specimen of the tree is located on Corgas Road in the Canal Zone.


These delicate green chavotes are among the many tropical vegetables and fruits found at
Chinese gardens in the Canal Zone. All parts of the chayote are edible except the skin.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





HOW TO OPEN A COCONUT
Those who are new to the tropics will
find there are two kinds of coconuts in
the markets. In addition to the ripe coco-
nut well known in the north, there is the
green coconut, which in Panama is
called a "pipa." Mrs. Graham recom-
mends whacking off the top with a ma-
chete and drinking the clear water inside
with a straw. One can pour it into a
pitcher and serve it as a beverage. It is
the purest beverage available and
always cool. If the pipa is green, one can
scoop out some of the soft rich meat
just developing inside the shell. As the
meat hardens, the water takes on more
of a coconut flavor and by the time the
thick husk is golden brown on the
outside, the water has become milk.
Mrs. Graham had no problem re-
moving the meat from a ripe coconut.
She said to punch the eyes in with an
ice pick or similar tool, drain off the
liquid and then tap briskly around and
around the shell with a hammer. It will
split approximately in half. Another way
is to put the whole coconut in a hot
oven for 10 minutes, tap with the ham-
mer and the meat will all come out in
one or two pieces, ready to use. Be
careful not to lose the liquid.

COCONUT CREAM
Grate all the meat from one whole
coconut into a pan or bowl and pour
about a quart of hot water over the pulp.
When the liquid has cooled just a little,
stir it and mash against the sides of the
bowl with a spoon or your hands. The
pulp may be squeezed out by hand or
the whole thing strained through a
cloth. After it has been cooled and pos-
sibly chilled overnight in the refriger-
ator, the top cream can be whipped and
used instead of whipped cream.

CHICKEN IN COCONUT
Mrs. Graham says this is a Philippine
dish and it sounds wonderful for a
tropical treat, glamorous and tasty.
1 young chicken
salt, pepper
1 large or several small coconuts
Biscuit dough
Parboil the chicken about 25 minutes,
then disjoint it. With a sharp heavy knife
or small saw, cut off the top of the coco-
nut neatly. Pour the milk into a bowl
and with a fork score and partially shred
the meat that clings to the shell. Salt
and pepper the chicken heavily, rubbing
the seasonings into the flesh; pack the
pieces tightly into the coconut shell.
Add the shreds of meat and milk. Re-
place the top and seal it with biscuit


SPRING 1972






dough. Bake in a moderate oven 1 hour.
Instead of one large coconut, several
small ones can be used to serve each
guest individually.

PEJIBAYE OR PIVA
This is another good thing that grows
on a palm tree in the tropics. In the
local markets or along the side of the
road to the Interior are found huge
clusters of red and yellow fruits in
bunches like grapes, each fruit about an
inch and a half through. They are the
fruit of a palm tree growing fairly com-
monly throughout Central America.
Mrs. Graham recommends that they be
boiled for 30 minutes in sea water or
salted water. They are as good as sweet
potatoes or chestnuts and are well
adapted to meat and poultry stuffings
and as snacks with cold drinks.

PAPAYA
Mrs. Graham says that most people
have to develop a taste for papaya, a
most healthful fruit, which also is used
as a meat tenderizer. She says that many
people prefer the red or pink papaya
to the yellow. There are some more
strongly flavored with pepsin than
others. If you get the fruit while it is
still half-green, "score" it lengthwise in
a half dozen places using the tines of a
fork. The strong tasting milk will ooze
right out and leave the bled fruit much
milder. But remember that the milk is
.1 stomach aid and if there is a dyspeptic
in the house, give it to him with all the
healing pepsin in his portion.
If there is an unusually tough piece
of meat to stew or pot roast, dice a
couple of 2-inch pieces of green or
nearly ripe papaya or a portion of a
large leaf right in with the meat and
seasonings. It won't flavor anything but
it will take the toughness and determi-
nation right out of the meat fibers. Or
wrap the meat in a couple of washed
green papaya leaves and leave it in the
refrigerator for a few hours.

BAKED PAPAYA
Papaya is great just as it is served
cold like a melon but it also is good as
a vegetable. Mrs. Graham says to cut
mature but green papaya into individual
portions. Take out the seeds but don't
peel it. Dot with butter, sprinkle with
sugar and cinnamon, bake in a casserole
or pan with ,i inch of water in the
bottom for 35 minutes in a moderate
oven. Some people substitute lemon
juice and salt for sugar and spice. Others
insist that a sprinkle of grated cheese
adds zest and sparkle.


F~ ~2 __
---- --~ -
~u
-- -.-.'-


Chayote, pineapple, yucca, coconut, and many other familiar and not so familiar vegeta-
bles and fruits are available for the creative cook to adapt to her favorite recipe.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW











Beer


More Than Nine Million Gallons of Suds

Stream From Panama Breweries Each Year
By Luis C. Noli


AKEEN TASTE FOR FOAMY
beer has made brewing one of
Panama's largest industries.
Two official statistics suffice to pro-
vide an indication of the size of the beer
industry and its role in the national
economy:
In 1970, beer sales in the Republic,
which has a population of 1.4 million
inhabitants, amounted to 36,099,190
liters (approximately 9.5 million gal-
S lons). That same year, the industry paid
$2.913,500 into the National Treasury
in production taxes alone. Ten years
ago, the figure was 20,270,358 liters
(just over 5 million gallons).
Four breweries, two of which are
subsidiaries, account for Panama's beer
production. The oldest and largest is
Cerveceria Nacional, S.A. (National
Brewery, Inc.), whose subsidiary, Cer-
veceria Chiricana, S.A., operates in
David, Chiriqui Province. The other
parent brewery is Cerveceria del Baru,
S.A. (Baru Brewery, Inc.), which was
established in David and subsequently
set up a subsidiary in Panama City,
Cerveceria PanamA, S.A., that operates
the company's main plant.
It may come as a surprise to many
people that the brewing industry in


Panama will mark its 63d anniversary
this year.
Thirty-five Panamanian and Amer-
ican investors joined in launching the
country's first brewery-the Panama
Brewing and Refrigerating Company-
on October 15, 1909. The first Panama-
made beer, named for Balboa, the dis-
coverer of the Pacific Ocean, was put
on the market on September 1, 1910.
Some of the country's most prominent
names-Duque, Preciado, de Obarrio,
Espinosa-were associated with that first
brewery. An American, Theodore Mc-
Ginnis, was appointed general manager
-and he proved the company's best
public relations man. He became so
identified with the new beer, that he
came to be known as the Duke of Bal-
boa. There is a story that he and his
wife went on a European tour in the
early 1930's and everywhere were re-
ceived with special deference-he was
signing the hotel registers as the Duke
and Duchess of Balboa.
The Balboa Brewery, as the pioneer
company became popularly known, was
alone in the field until 1926, when the
Atlantic Brewing and Refrigerating
Company was founded in Colon by an-
other group of Panamanian and Amer-


SPRING 1972





ican investors. The new company, too,
got its popular name from its product
brand-Atlas beer. It soon shifted oper-
ations to Panama City.
The man in the forefront was Henri
DeJan, a former employee of United
Fnrit Co. With him were such promi-
nent Panamanian businessmen as Car-
los Eleta and Pedro J. Ameglio as well
as some well-known Americans, Ernest
C. Fearon, Bert L. Atwater and Theo-
dore A. Aanstoos.
A third brewery-the German Pa-
cific Brewery-appeared on the scene
in 1927. Its beer was named Milwaukee.
Again, popular usage of the name was
such that the company eventually
changed its corporate designation to
Milwaukee Brewery. Oscar Terin was
the first chairman of the board. Among
the company's founders were members
of the Herbruger family.
The three breweries competed fierce-
ly. So fiercely, in fact, that by 1938
it became evident to the directors of
the three companies that there was only
one way out-a merger. Negotiations
were completed and on March 7, 1939,
the Cerveceria Naaional, S.A., came
into being. The merger brought to-
gether the country's most powerful
businessmen, making the new com-
pany one of the most solid firms in
the Republic.
One prominent Panamanian name-
Duque-has been associated through
three generations with the country's
brewing industry since its start. Jos6
Gabriel Duque was among the founders
of the first brewery, the Panama Brew-
ing and Refrigerating Company and, in
fact, was its first president; his eldest
son, T. Gabriel Duque, served as Pres-
ident of the Cerveceria Nacional from
1943 until his death in 1965; another
son, Alejandro A. Duque, Sr., is the
incumbent Vice President of the Board
of Directors; and a grandson, Alejandro
A. Duque, Jr., is the incumbent Assist-
ant General Manager.
In 1957, Cerveceria Nacional com-
pleted construction of a new plant at
what is now the intersection of Via
Bolivar (the downtown portion of the
Transisthmian Highway) and the re-
cently opened Via Ricardo J. Alfaro.
With a production capacity of 30 mil-
lion liters a year, Cerveceria Nacional
manufactures Balboa, Atlas and Tap
beers; it also manufactures Canada Dry
beverages, soft drinks and Malta Vigor,
a malt extract.
The present officers of Cerveceria Na-
cional are Dr. Roberto Alemin, Pres-
ident; Alejandro A. Duque, Sr., Vice
President; Rodolfo F. Herbruger, Treas-

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 29


A


ltwl. '!I q U s jA-l!MW


Above: The National Brewery's plant on the Transisthmian Highway. On opposite
page: Panama Brewery in San Cristohal Industrial Park. I


urer; Alfredo Aleman, Jr., Secretary;
Alberto Arias E., Assistant Treasurer;
and Samuel Lewis Galindo, General
Manager. Other members of the board
are Rail Arias, Antonio Zubieta, Juan
B. Arias, Roberto Heurtematte and
Enrique Jimenez, Jr.
Cerveceria del Bari, S.A., manufac-
turers of Panama and Cristal beers, was
founded in David in 1958 and began
operations in that city in July 1959.
A year ago, the bulk of its operations
was transferred to its handsome new
plant at San Cristobal Industrial Park,
off the Transisthmian Highway, and its
subsidiary, Cerveceria PanamA, S.A.,
was organized. The production capacity
of the new plant is 10 million liters a
year. Besides beer, Cerveceria del Bari,
S.A., manufactures Polaris beverages.
The company's board of officers in-
cludes Harry Strunz, Jr., President;


Eduardo Gonzilez, First Vice President;
Ratl C. Paredes, Second Vice President;
J. J. Vallarino, Jr., Treasurer; Aristides
Abadia, Secretary; and Bolivar Vallari-
no and Carlos Eleta, Directors. J. J.
Vallarino, Jr., is also the General
Manager.
Man's taste for beer dates back to
earliest history. There is recorded evi-
dence that in Mesopotamia 6,000 years
ago, beer was made with a specially-
baked bread which was mashed with a
barley malt and allowed to ferment.
Beer also was drunk in ancient Egypt,
Greece and Rome. Cuneiform writings
on a clay tablet found in ancient
Nineveh indicate that beer was among
the provisions on Noah's Ark.
Today, the popularity of beer is en-
hanced by improved brewing processes.
Consumption figures are evidence that
Panama's product is no exception.


L.


Chemists test every step of the brewing process. Some 350 tests are carried out before
the beer reaches the consumer.


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Malting barley, the basic ingredient of beer,
is imported from Europe, Canada and the
United States. A special type of rice grown
in Panama is used as a cereal adjunct.














Yeast is to beer what oxygen is to man-a
vital element. Its digestive enzymes con-
vert the malt sugars into alcohol and
carbon dioxide gas.


A fully automatic bottling set-up fills and caps hundreds of bottles
per minute. Every step of the process is inspected.


In the brewhouse, the ground malt and rice are first cooked separately in huge kettles. The
malt mash is known as wort, which after mixing with the cooked rice, is boiled with hops.
After the boiling process, the hopped wort goes through a strainer to separate the hops
from the wort which is transferred immediately to coolers. The next step is fermentation.
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The wort ferments in huge tanks for at least a week. The brew is then transferred to storage
or aging tanks and after about 8 weeks to finishing tanks, ready for bottling and barrelng.
All of the equipment, tanks and kettles are subject to the most rigorous sanitary standards.
Well trained employees carefully monitor each phase of the brewing process.

AM~-.


A young couple samples the local product at the Pub, a popular
gathering spot for the Canal Zone's college students.


30 SPRING 1972






50 Years Ago
T TERRIBLY SHAKEN UP AS A
result of the beastly condition of
the cow trail, footpath, towpath or
whatever name could be used to de-
scribe the only means of communication
between Panama City and the Interior,
members of the Panama Rotary Club
returned from their trip to La Chorrera
satisfied with the experience and more
than ever resolved to keep hammering
away on the fact that a central road
should and must be constructed from
Panama City out to the Interior." This
was the report in the English language
Star & Herald in April 1922 after a
group of Panama Rotarians attended
the annual fair in the town of La Cho-
rrera. The report said that the members
of the club started at 9:35 a.m. in a
truck furnished by Harry Nichols and
made the 29-mile trip to Chorrera after
'2 hours of body racking jolts.
The Panama Metal Trades Council
joined the fight against the plan for
Canal employees to pay rent for their
housing. But it was a losing battle after
the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in
New Orleans denied the petition sent
by H. A. McConaughey, president of
the Council, for an injunction restraining
the U.S. Government from collecting
rents.
The cornerstone for St. Luke's Cathe-
dral in Ancon was laid April 23, 1922,
in a ceremony led by the Masonic orga-
nizations in the Canal Zone and attended
by President Porras, the Governor of
the Canal Zone, U.S. Ambassador South
and many other prominent residents.

25 Years Ago
HOUSING WAS THE CONCERN OF
the 12 members of the House Merchant
Marine and Fisheries Committee who
spent several days in the Canal Zone in
May 1947 looking into Zone affairs "as
a prelude to enactment of legislation for
Canal improvement and expansion."
Upon their return to Washington, they
announced that housing improvement
was needed but that in order to do so
rents must be increased.
\ .t t- the Panama Line ships loaded
Srlli C final employees who had not had
i: 1i vacation since the beginning of
\\orll War II, the AFGE started a
m:ok.: to charter planes to fly employees
to trl, United States. In the spring of
I'l 17 lome 1,300 persons were waiting
p.I..Issge on the Panama Line ships.


The Board of Consultants for the
Isthmian Canal Studies, composed of
eminent engineers in several different
fields, met for a week at Diablo Heights
early in 1947 to discuss work progress.
Reports were heard from a party of 19
engineers who had spent 17 days in the
Darien jungle making surveys along the
proposed Caledonia route.

70 Years Ago
A 70-FOOT STEEL BEAM, THE
connecting link joining the two sections
of Thatcher Ferry Bridge, was bolted
into place temporarily May 16, 1962
as work on the bridge across the Canal


neared completion. The placing of the
connecting steel beam was accompanied
by the cheers of Canal and bridge work-
men and the tooting of Panama Canal
tugs. The bridge was opened formally
in October of that year.
In February 1962 the first six new
Japanese built towing locomotives were
delivered to Gatun Locks for tests. More
than twice as powerful as the old loco-
motives, they also are faster, an impor-
tant factor in increasing the number of
lockages. The first three were shipped
to the Canal aboard the Pioneer Myth
and unloaded directly onto the east wall
return tracks at Gatun Locks. The
second three arrived 2 weeks later and
were set up on the center wall at Gatun.
While the engineers and Japanese in-
spectors prepared the new locomotives


for their task of towing ships through
the locks, a training program was started
for all employees operating and main-
taining the new mules.

One Year Ago
THE TIVOLI GUEST HOUSE, ONE
of the landmarks of the Isthmus, quietly
closed its doors last year after more
than a half century of service. Its guests
departed, the furniture was put up for
sale, and Gov. David S. Parker pulled
the newly installed security doors to-
gether at 5 p.m., April 15, officially
closing the famous old hotel. The only
event scheduled after the closing was a


HISTORY


party) for the staff, some of whom had
worked 30 to 40 years at the Tivoli.
There was a change in personnel in
the Canal Zone's top level job last year.
Gov. and Mrs. WV. P. Leber bid farewell
to the Canal Zone and the new Gov-
ernor. Maj. Gen. David S. Parker, and
Mrs. Parker arrived. This is Governor
Parker's third tour of duty in the Canal
Zone. He has served as Military Assist-
ant to the Governor and Lieutenant
Governor.
Last vear marked the end of service
as a passenger vessel for the venerable
SS Cristobal which was converted to a
12-passenger freighter. Arrangements
were made with Braniff International
for charter flights to provide transpor-
tation for Panama Canal employees
during the summer months.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




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PAGE 2

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2009 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1972pana

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1 /

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David S. Parker Governo r-President Charles R. Clark Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer Publications Editors Willie K. Friar, Tomas A. Cupas Writers Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hernandez, Jose T. Tufion and Luis C. Noli Review articles may bereprinled willioul fuilher clearance. Credit lo the Review will be appreciated. Subscriptions: $1 a year, airmail $2 a year,back copies (regular mail), 50 cents each. Published twice a year. Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, Lo Boca, C.Z. Contents Art Contest 3 The building of the Canal through the eyes of children Taboga 6 New plans afoot for Panama's tranquil "Island of Flowers" What's In A Name? 10 Clues to a colorful past in local place names Painters Make Striking Pictures 14 Dramatic photographs of Thatcher Ferry Bridge being made spic-span Passing Parade of Ships 16 Vast armada reflects changing times Shipping Notes 22 Culinary Capers 24 Tropical treats for the creative cook Beer 28 Nine million gallons a year flow from Panama's breweries History 31 Sketches in this issue by Cados Mendez and cartoons bij Peter Curneij. EVERYONE HAS HEARD OF wicked Captain Fokke who cursed tlie Almightly one day 300 years ago while beating against the wind as he tried to round Cape Horn. He and his phantom ship have sailed the seas ever since haunting all honest maiiners. While assembling pictures of interesting ships using the Panama Canal for the 6-page feature that appears in this issue, it was found that nearly every unusual ship, except the Fhjing Dutchman, has been here at least once. The Tusitala of New York was no Flying Dutchman but she was almost as interesting. In 1929 when she was still making transits of the Panama Canal, she was the only United States flag sailing ship remaining in the trade between Atlantic and Pacific ports of the United States. In the picture taken in 1927 showing her in Gatun Locks, she was on a regular trade route between Seattle and Baltimore and at that time had on board a cargo of magnesite and lumber. The Tusitala was built in 1883 in Greenock, Scotland, and was regarded as a good example of the fine models turned out at that time. Painted a sparkling white and with every stitch of canvas set taut, the vessel presented a yacht-Uke appearance which inspired pride in the hearts of old sailors. She was purchased by a group of men in New York in 1923 and her name changed to Tusitala or "Story Teller," a name conferred by Samoans upon Robert Louis Stevenson, who spent the last years of his life in the South Seas. The formal change of flags was marked in New York by a ceremony befitting the occasion, according to an account of the event. A bottle of champagne was broken on the bell by Will H. Low, artist, and old friend of "R. L. S.," and a few words of benediction were spoken. Christopher Morley, who was at the helm, read a letter from Joseph Conrad addressed to the new owners. Spring 1972

PAGE 9

And Boi^ ColfrU A Fiik Ne# L(Hvlt at tke Buiidlna ol tke Canal, KIDS ARE FUNNY PEOPLE. And their imagination, when stirred onlv shghtly, can produce some prett)' fantastic ideas. The Panama Canal RE\^Ew set out to prove this point by sponsoring a contest among fifth and si.xth grade students in Canal Zone Schools. The children were provided statistics on such things as the amount of concrete used to build the locks, the volume of material excavated from Gaillard Cut and the number of holes perforated to sink dvTiamite charges during the construction of the Canal. Then they were asked to use their imagination. The results were just short of overwhelming, despite the fact that classes in the Latin American schools were nearly over and there was not time to obtain entries from them. Renderings came in crayon, pen and ink, oils and water colors, bright colors and bold strokes. Many showed amazing ingenuity and quite a few revealed a keen sense of humor in the young artists. One child, obviously feeling that President Theodore Roosevelt had adequately summed up the story of the Canal, painstakingly copied one of Teddy's better-known quotations and sent that along as her entry. On the Covers The work of the two first-place winners appears on the front and back covers. Author of the watercolor on the front cover is 10-vear-old Laura Otter, daughter of Maj. and Mrs. Jason I. Otter, of Howard AFB. The back cover is a crayon drawing by Ted Osborne, 11, son of Mr. and Mrs. Theodore M. Osborne of Panama City. Ted's father is emploved at Fort Amador. Though both children have been on the Isthmus less than a year, they have already learned much about the Canal and its history in school and through their own research. The first-place winners received a plaque on which is mounted a piece of rock from Gaillard Cut, a 3-month pass to any Panama Canal movie theater, and were taken on a comprehensive tour of the printing plant, where they learned about offset printing from real experts. Veteran lithographer Juan Fernandez V. explained to the children how their original artwork was photographed, color separations and plates made, before the printing process actually began. Laura and Ted were given proofs of each of the four colors used in printing the cover— red, yellow, blue, and black— to show their classmates at school. The workings of the offset press, where the final product rolls off, were explained by Mario B. Rivera. Drawings and paintings selected for second prize and those chosen for honorable mention are reproduced on the next two pages. Two hundred and fiftytvvo students from both sides of the Isthmus entered the contest. V. C. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 10

Grade 6, ^"^ ^.%^^^ W. EXCAVATED OIRT ^ROn CANAL 7000 TinES HIGHER THAN ^'rC\/ER£ST Jerri Love, Second Prize Grade 5, Fort Gulick 0U+0V4-n{tCQnQl I \Nancy Rodriguez Grade 6, Ancon Aailk The. H.SOO.OCX) Cubic qcrds o\ Ce,nen+ u'ieJ +0 build +he locks ujouli *^i\l l%n,1U,i:)4 W our HqI(^ GcxUon MUk ton+oiiner?. Marj' Kelleher, Second Prize Grade 6, Balboa Rodolfo Mon Grade 5, Margarita Connie Hallada Grade 6, Diablo Heights Daphne Downing Grade 6, Margarita Grade 5, Fort Gulick Spring 1972

PAGE 11

Johnny Tate Grade 6, Margarita \,rrf Charles Bowen Grade 6, Gamboa tfrf Gilbert Corrigan Grade 5, Margarita PANAHA CAHAL 211000,000. C.i.cYc.cl, EXCAVATED DIRT ?? ^'j. ^ Manny Olivaz Grade 5, Fort Gulick /T

PAGE 12

Tabo By Jose T. Tufion 3.K> ; Architectural drawing showing some of ttie 55 modem cabins to be constructed on the adjacent island of El Morro as a part of the hotel complex that will include the Taboga Hotel. CLOSELY LINKED TO THE colorful history of Panama, the picturesque island of Taboga has known the fury of marauding pirates, the intolerance of the Conquistadores, the boldness of the Gold Rush adventurers, and the glory of producing a saint. Through it all the island has remained unsullied. An idyllic hilly island in Panama Bay, reminiscent of Capri, Taboga is only about 12 nautical miles, or an hour by launch, from Panama City. Its proximity and its white sand beaches have made it a prime candidate for further development by the Republic of Panama Tourist Bureau. Plans are now afoot to build a hotel complex which would include the present Hotel Taboga and 55 modem cabins to be constructed on El Morro, a small adjacent island. It would be administered by the Hyatt International Hotel chain. Balboa Although Vasco Nvmez de Balboa, the first Spaniard to set foot on the small dot of land, called it St. Peter's Island, the Indian name of the ruling cacique prevailed and nearly 450 years after its founding, the island still maintains the simplicity and flavor of bygone days. Tvpical of the Spanish colonial settlements in the New World, the little town of Taboga sprang up around the church. Its narrow streets, now paved, 6 Spring 1972

PAGE 13

are barely wide enough for the passage of the few vehicles on the island. The absence of traffic noises and exhaust fumes to pollute the clean sea breezes and the magnificent view of velvet sea and ships from far-off lands waiting to enter the Canal have made Taboga a favorite weekend retreat for Panama and Canal Zone residents and a year-round tourist attraction. Quiet rural lanes fully skirted by a profusion of bougainvillea and fiibiscus blooms in red, white, and pink, accentuated by the fragrance of roses and sweet jasmine, give Taboga the atmosphere of an eternal garden and the name "Island of Flowers." Spanish Conquest During the Spanish conquest, Taboga's inhabitants were virtually eliminated. When a decree by Charles V put an end to slavery, only about 700 slaves remained in Panama and its environs; the majority of these had been brought from Venezuela and Nicaragua. Among them were a handful of native slaves who became the settlers of Taboga. A new village was founded in 1524 by Padre Hernando de Luque, dean of the Panama cathedral. He built a comfortable house on the island and remained there most of the time. It was Padre Luque who provided funds and blessed Francisco Pizarro and Diego de No traffic noises disturb the quiet of Panama's historic ''Island of Flowers'' El Morro played an important role in world shipping a Uttle over 100 years ago when the Pacific Steamship Navigation Co. established its Panama headquarters there. Many fortyniners en route to California spent their "waiting" days in Taboga boarding houses. The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 14

Taking advantage of low tide, visitors walk over to the island of El Morro, where the U.S. Navy had a "mosquito hoat" training base during World War 11. An ancient anchor frames a scene of narrow flower-bordered lanes curving past small white houses and Taboga's historic church, where the little town sprang up during the Colonial era. Almagro before they set off from Taboga on their conquest of the flourishing Inca Empire. In addition to his church duties, he raised fruits and vegetables on the fertile soil of Taboga, devoting much of his time to his pineapple plantations. Padre Luque's pineapples could well be the progenitors of the pineapple patches that pepper the island today. Taboganos still recall the venerable priest by referring to a crystaline pool in the folds of Picacho del Vigia, the highest point on the island, as the "Bishop's Pool." Santa Rosa de Lima They remember, too, that Santa Rosa de Lima, the first saint of this hemisphere, was conceived in Taboga. According to Don Manuel Pefiuela, for many years a municipal official in Taboga, the parents of the young girl who was later to be canonized, had lived in a charming house on the beach, now owned by Sefiora Abigail Pacheco de Diez. Taboga's wholesome, healthy atmosphere has been recognized since colonial days when Panama City residents flocked to the island during epidemics or for a respite from the city heat. On several occasions, Taboga has been unofficially the summer capital of Panama, especially during the terms of President Belisario Porras. The Panama Tourist Bureau operates a modem hotel on the island, which is the headquarters of numerous water 8 Spbing 1972

PAGE 15

sports activities held during the year. Pleasure boats from Panama and vachts from all parts of the world may be seen anchored in front of the hotel throughout the year. Hotel Chu, a two-story wooden structure built on the beach after the turn of the centurv, offers adequate but not Ulxurious comfort and spectacular vistas of Panama Bay. Facing Hotel Taboga and linked to the island at low tide hv a sandbar, is El Morro, a small rock>' islet, where at the end of the 17th centur\' the Spaniards established a fort to defend Taboga. Three Cannons During the wars of Independence in Latin America, it was the three cannons on EI Morro, manned by 10 Spanish soldiers, that fought off the attacks of John Illingworth, in 1819. During a second attack, however, the invaders took Taboga, the inhabitants fleeing to the hills. Three of the invaders were killed and buried by the villagers, who marked their graves with wooden crosses. With the passing of the years, cast iron crosses embedded in a mortar base, replaced the wooden markers. To this day, Taboganos in the vicinit)' of "Las Tres Cruces" never fail to light a candle in memory of the three who dared to disturb the peace of their little island. A little over 100 years ago. El Morro played an important role in world shipping. The Pacific Steamship Navigation Co., an English company with ships plving between England and the Pacific ports of South America, e.vtended its route to include Panama. Aware of the abundance of supplies and potable water and general healthy conditions on the islet, the company purchased El Morro. They built workshops, a ship repair facility, supply stores and a coaling station and brought over hundreds of Irishmen to work in the supply base, ft was at about this time, too, that the 49'ers discovered the healthy aspects of Taboga. many of them spending their "waiting" days in boarding houses there. A trace of Anglo-Saxon names can still be seen on sparkling white tombstones in the cemeter)'. The Golden Age Taboga was the seat of government for all the islands in the Gulf of Panama, including the Perlas Islands. Islanders prospered and it was the Golden Age of Taboga. Prosperity continued until several years later when the Pacific Steam transferred its shops to Callao, Peru. Taboga Island had an important role in the constinjction of the Canal. In 1883, during the French effort to construct a Panama Canal, they built a 25-bed sanatorium on Taboga for ailing and convalescing employees of the company. A few years later, in the grim battle with disease, the French built a 50-bed, $400,000 sanatorium on the island. This building was taken over by the United States in 1905 as a rest and recuperation center for Canal construction workers. It served this purpose until January 1915, when it became a vacation resort for employees and their families and was known as Hotel .\spinwall. The .\spinwall was converted into an internment camp for German prisoners during W'orld War I. After the war it was once again a hotel and recreation center and was the hub of Taboga 's social life until 1945. The Aspinwall is gone but many an Isthmian still recalls this hotel on the beach at Taboga and the part it played in social activities of that bygone era. Mosquito Boats During \\'orld War II, the U.S. Naw had a "mosquito boat" training base on El Morro. The heroic record of these boats in the Pacific theater of war proved the efficiency of the officers and sailors on El Morro. Today, a modern aid to aerial navigation, at the top of Picacho del Vigia, guides all aircraft to the Isthmus. Numerous legends and romantic myths ha\-e been woven into the ti'aditions and folklore of the island. Among these is the celebration of a water festi\al on July 16 in honor of the Virgin of El Carmen, the patron saint of Taboga. A number of boats, usually led by the most lu.vairious yacht of the Panama Yacht and Fishing Club carrying a statue of the Virgin, sail in a procession around the island. The procession includes pleasure boats of all t\^es and sizes and pangas, the flat-bottom canoes used by the fishermen, all beautifully decorated for the occasion with the occupants singing praises to their patron saint. According to Taboga lore, many years ago, a pirate ship attempted to attack the island and as the invaders neared the beach, an enormous army headed by a beautiful woman appeared, ready to meet the onset. The pirates were terrorized by the vision and fled back to their boat. One who did make it to the beach was even more mortified when he learned that there was no such army, much less a beautiful woman leading it. To this day, Taboganos are convinced that it was the Virgin of El Carmen who saved them. A popular swimming hole is the "Bishop's Pool," named for Father Luque, the founder of Taboga. Taboganos often light candles before the three crosses which mark the graves of invaders wlio attacked the island in the early 19th century. The Panama Canal Review 9

PAGE 16

v/nai> ]n a namci By Willie K. Friar THE ROOSEVELT CANAL, HANna Locks I, II, and III, the Sea ot Hamia and Hanna Dam. Ever hear of these places? They might well have been the names of the Panama Canal, Miraflores, Gatun, and Pedro Miguel Locks, and Gatun Lake and Dam, except for the consistent spirited resistance of Gov. George W. Davis, Gov. M. L. Walker, and others who followed after them. From the time die first shovelful of dirt was turned, the Canal administration maintained a resolute policy of preserving historic geographical names despite repeated efforts to change them to honor various individuals. As early as June 28, 1904, John Bigelow, of New York, in a letter carefully written in Spencerian script, suggested to President Theodore Roosevelt, that all of the locks of the Canal be named for "the late Senator Hanna, a statesman and friend of the Isthmian Canal." He also suggested that Gatun Lake be called the Hanna Sea, and the port city of Cristobal be known "simply as Hanna." The letter was forwarded to Gov. George W. Davis, who, though at that time much more concerned with the building than with the naming of locks and towns, made it quite clear that he was not in favor of changing well-known local names. Expressing his opinion in a letter to the President, he added, "After the greatest engineering work of the world is accomplished there will be time enough, it seems to me, to decide upon the names of the ports at its principal entrances; the course that was followed in respect to the Suez Canal." But this was only the beginning of efforts to rename the locks and Canal Zone towns that continued until recent years. In April 192S, a joint resolution was introduced in the House of Representatives that Gatun Locks be named to honor Maj. Gen. George W. Goethals, chief engineer of the Panama Canal from 1907 to 1912 and former Governor of the Canal Zone; that Pedro Miguel be named for John F. Stevens, chief engineer from 1905 to 1907; and MiraHores be changed to Sibert to honor Brig. Gen. William L. Sibert, division engineer of the Atlantic Division, 1907 to 1914. Little Jewel The resolution also called for the naming of the dam which was known as "Alhajuela" for Congressman Martin B. Madden, chairman of the Appropriations Committee, which obtained the funds for building it. Local sentiment was against all of the proposals and the names of the locks remained the same, but the name of the dam was changed to Madden even though a local newspaper conducted a campaign for retaining the historic name, "Alhajuela" which means little jewel. In resisting the changes. Gov. M. L Walker pointed out "It is proposed to name Gatun Locks, which were built by Sibert, after General Goethals, and Miraflores Locks, which were built by Mr. S. B. Williamson, after General Sibert. General H. F. Hodges, who was largely responsible for the design of all the Locks is neglected." Governor Walker recommended instead of the suggested change of names that a Panama Canal Memorial Hall be built in the Canal Zone containing tablets which would give the full history of American achievement on the Isthmus and set forth the part plaved by every individual prominently connected with the work. It was proposed in 1928 that the name of the Canal be changed to honor President Theodore Roosevelt. Governor Walker expressed his disapproval of this also and said, "The Panama Canal has been so called since the French Company first started work. The Canal is so known throughout the world. To change its name now will prove very confusing and for many vears, even if the change of name is made, the world will continue to refer to it as the Panama Canal." Culebra Cut He mentioned as proof that names are not easily changed that in 1915, President Wilson signed an Executive Order changing the name of Culebra Cut, the excavation through the Continental Divide, to Gaillard Cut to honor Lt. Col. David Gaillard, who was in charge of the work there from 1907 to 1913. He pointed out that the name, Culebra, which means snake, has persisted. It is still used today by many residents of the Canal Zone and Panama. The Spanish names of the locks are geographic ones, already in common usage for these sites before the locks were built, and looking into how the areas happened to get their names leads one far back into Isthmian history. In the case of Gatun, on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus evidence indicates that it took its name from the river which appears on Spanish maps as early as 1750. On the Isthmus, as in other places, it appears that names were first applied to rivers and streams, often with a descriptive adjective to characterize a particular body of water. This seems true with the Gatun River which some believe was named for "el gato," the cat, because of its smooth running feline quality. (Records show that beginning about 1882 the river was called the Gatuncillo.) There are 10 Spring 1972

PAGE 17

still some local people, however, who insist that the name came from "gatunero," seller of smuggled meat, since the area around Gatun was once knowii as a place where stolen cattle were brought for sale to travelers. Of the three locks, the name of Pedro Miguel, pronounced "Peter Magill" by most Americans living in the Canal Zone, arouses the most curiosity and provokes numerous arguments and discussions. Pedro Miguel's Cabin One oldtimer reports that he remembers well the story he heard while still a boy that Pedro Miguel was the name of a railroad section foreman. There was no town there in the old days and the stop on the Panama Railroad was known simply as "Pedro Miguel's Cabin." Others insist that the name was originally San Pedro Miguel— St. Peter Michael— the name the Spanish gave the river which is near the town. An 1867 history of the Panama Railroad refers to the river as "a narrow tidewater tributarv of the Rio Grande" which the railroad crossed on an iron bridge. Others say that the area was named bv the French to honor a saint and then translated into Spanish. But further research indicates that the name goes back still farther in historv. Early accounts of the conquistadores in Panama mention a soldier named Pedro Miguel, a contemporary of De Soto, and a 1729 Spanish map shows a hill named Cerro Pedro Miguel as well as the river, Rio Miguel. Miraflores, which means "look at flowers" was not chosen because flowers were growing where the Pacific side locks are located. It was actually a desolate swampland. The name dates far back in Isthmian histor\' but a check of old records gives no clue as to how, why, or when the name was first applied to this area. It is a common Spanish surname and chances are that Miraflores was named for an individual during Spanish colonial days. There are several South American countries with tov\Tis of this name. Canal Builders Many other place names date far back in the history of the Isthmus and retaining them in the face of campaigns by congressmen and others bent on honoring builders of the Canal has not been an easy task. Most Canal Zone towns are stiU called by their original names. There was an attempt by a congressman to change the historic name of Gamboa to Goethals. r^^./Vf"^'*'^^^ Lynn Nis\vander, student assistant with the Canal organization, points out a river named Miguel on a 1729 map in a book of Spanish maps at the Canal Zone Library. Early Spanish maps of Panama show that many local geographic names can be traced far back in the history of the Isthmus. A hill named Cerro Pedro Miguel also appears on this map. The Panama Canal Review 11

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Gamboa, the home of the Canal's Dredging Division, which first came to prominence when the French Company began excavation, is the Spanish name of a fruit tree of the quince family. It is also a well-known surname still found today in Panama and Spain. Since the tree is not native to Panama, it seems likely that the name goes back to some of the early Spanish explorers. Ancon, an old Pacific side settlement, is considered by many to be the most sonorous of Canal Zone names. The name, which goes back hundreds of years in Isthmian history, means anchor age. In 1545, Pizarro, seeking to control the Isthmus of Panama and its rich ports, sent two expeditions from Peru. The first pillaged the old city of Panama before it was recalled. The second was divided into forces, one of which, under Rodrigo de Carbajal, landed at "Ancon, a small cove 2 leagues from Panama." Later, Ancon was particularly known for the French hospital located there. Margarita, on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, got its name from the little island which is now Fort Randolph, but where the island originally got its name is lost in history. Next to Colon, on a coral reef, the French dumpyed spoil from their canal and on this artificial plateau they built warehouses, shops, round houses, office buildings, and quarters. They named this section Christophe Colomb, or Christopher Columbus. It was an easy step from the French "Christophe" to the Spanish "Cristobal." The Pacific terminus of the Canal was not called Balboa until 1909. The name was suggested by the Peruvian Minister to Panama, who advanced the idea that the southern terminal of the Panama Canal should honor the discoverer of the Pacific Ocean, just as the northern terminal honored the discoverer of the new world. Up to that time, the two Pacific side settlements at the southern end of the Canal were known as Old La Boca and New La Boca, which means the mouth. Some of the new Canal Zone towns got their names by popular vote. Among these are Curundu, Rainbow City, and Los Rios. The area now known as Curundu was once called Skunk Hollow. But some residents decided that it should be changed and suggested Jimgle Glen as a more fitting name. Others were for keeping the name of Skunk Hollow. Skunk Glen An editorial in The Star & Herald of March 18, 1943, was in favor of retaining the name stating: "Friends of tradition and Skunk Hollow need to arouse themselves if they want to save the name. They deserve encouragement. This world tends to become a dreary and orthodox place. Whatever piquancy and humor is inherent in the name of Skimk Hollow should be preserved for the coming generations. They, to whom the old place has the associations of home and friends, cling to the old name. They might agree that a rose by any other name would smell as sweet but not Skunk Hollow." A letter to the Panama American urged compromise. The writer said: "We do not suggest that the warring factions compromise by agreeing to such a name as Jungle Hollow, although something might be said for such a name. But we see no reason why everyone could not at once agree to the adoption of the name Skunk Glen. This would retain the saltiness of the original name and would preserve the memories of the oldtimers. At the same time it would constitute a decided concession to the aesthetes. Let's make it Skimk Glen and return to the business of winning the war." The problem was solved by ballot and a headline announced the result, "Skunk Glenners Vote Overwhelmingly for Name Curundu." Curundu was the name of the little river nearby. It is a historic name, which has been spelled a \'ariety of ways, but the exact meaning is not known. By Popular Ballot The new town of Los Rios was named by popular ballot in 1954 with Sibert and Alhajuela being considered also as 12 Spring 1972

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possible choices. The streets had ab-eady been named for local rivers and it was decided that it would he fitting to call the town, "the rivers." Rainbow City was named following a contest, sponsored by the Panama Canal Review. The name was suggested because of the pastel or rainbow colors of the houses. Even the sewage disposal plant is a cheerful pale green. Paraiso, near Pedro Miguel Locks, which means paradise, was a stop on the "dry season trail" between the Atlantic and Pacific and early Canal Zone legend has it that Sir Henry Morgan first saw Old Panama from a hilltop near Paraiso. It was also a headquarters for one of the working sections of the French Canal Company. During the 1850's when surveyors and engineers were laying out the railroad line, they found a pass which led into what F. N. Otis, a few years later, described as "the beautiful undulating valley of Paraiso, or Paradise, surrounded by high conical hills where Nature in weird profusion seems to have expended her choicest wealth." Middle of 16th Century The Pacific side community of Diablo Heights can be traced as far back as the middle of the 16th century. According to Isthmian histories, the narrow Isthmus of Panama was terrorized by bands of Cimarrones, runaway Negro slaves, who preyed upon the treasur. trains on the Camino Real. They became such a threat to life and property that the Spanish viceroy sent expeditions to clean them out. They managed to evade their attackers and in 1552 were granted recognition by the Governor of the Province. At that time, they had three main villages, one of which was called Diablo or Devil. It was located near the present site of Diablo Heights. In 1940, the Canal Zone director of jx)Sts objected to the decision to name the f)ost office, which was located there until March 31, 1961, Diablo Heights pointing out there was already considerable confusion over Balboa and Quarry Heights which were often written as "Q Heights" and "B Heights." He suggested Cerro Diablo which would retain the name but put it all in Spanish, but the Governor decided to keep the name and Diablo Heights it remains. Mapmaker's Mistake Names sometimes are the result of mistakes or misunderstandings. A good example of this in the United States is Nome, Alaska, which received its name because a mapmaker misunderstood the note his supervisor had placed on the map. Not knowing the name of the place, he had written the question, "Name?" and the mapmaker misread it and wrote in Nome. Darien, which once was the name of the entire Isthmus, but now identifies a pro\ince of the Republic of Panama, was an Indian word misunderstood by Balboa. When Balboa arrived at the coast of the Isthmus he came upon a river whose name the Spaniards phonetically translated as "Tarona." The tendency to change the letter "T" to "D" changed the name to Dariena and Darven. Due to the consistent substitution of the letter "i" for the letter "y" in words which have the latter in their center, it finally became Darien. The incorrect name was immortalized in the famous although historically inaccurate stanza of Keats "Endymion" . "Cortez with eagle eyes . silent on a peak in Darien." There are still sporadic attempts to change the names of the locks, townsites, and streets of the Canal Zone but chances seem good that the long-time policy of the Canal Zone to maintain historical place names will continue. Spirited Arguments And it is likely that there viill still be spirited arguments concerning such place names as Red Tank, Empire, Tabernilla (litrie tavern), Ahorca Lagarto (hang an alligator), and Matachin. Matachin had already become such a subject of discussion that Governor Davis took time out from the business of running the Canal Zone to discuss it in the Canal Record of December 25, 1907. He wrote: "It may seem almost heartless to shatter and destroy the beliefs of the oldest as well as the youngest Isthmian inhabitants respecting the history of the name of Matachin, which is known to all Panamanians as that of a station on the line of the Panama Railroad." Although many local people insisted that it meant "Kill a Chinaman," the Governor went on to debunk the story, still told today, that the name denoted the site of a camp for Chinese railroad workers who committed suicide by drowning, hanging and throwing themselves in front of passing locomotives. Then referring to a map published in 1684 "more than 200 years before the Chinese tired of life on the Isthmus (if they ever did)," he pointed out that a place of that name was known to the Buccaneers. It may have been the stopping place where the butcher, whose occupation it designates, supplied the weary travelers with fresh meat. It has been said of Panama that there are few other places on earth where so much of the history of the civilized world has been enacted with so little trace of it remaining. But clues are there, for the observant, in the names of places along the Canal and throughout the Isthmus where historical names abound. The Panama Canal Review 13

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Up for a breath of fresh air— or to enjoy the spectacular view, painter Alberto Caballero takes a short break from his chore of painting the inside of this steel beam on the Thatcher Ferry Bridge. Tied in a boatswain's chair, a painter works on one of the upright steel beams high above the Pacific entrance of the Canal. By Vic Canel OUR PHOTOGRAPHER GOT HIGH recently. High on the Thatcher Ferry Bridge to get some dramatic pictures of painting crews as thev tackled the annual dr\' season project. More than 300 feet above the Canal's Pacific entrance, he walked the 12-inchwide beams without a hint of acrophobia, as painters worked on the second half of the cantilever arch to complete the last phase of the .5-year painting cycle. The bridge is painted in sections: First the underside from the east embankment to the center span; then the underside from the west embankment to the center span; then the trolley under the bridge; and finally the cantilever arch is painted in two installments. Each section is given two coats of aluminum paint and it takes about 1,050 gallons-enough to paint about 1,400 average size bedrooms-should anyone be interested in an aluminum bedroom. In addition, about 750 gallons of red lead are used each vear to prevent rusting. Preparations for the drv season paint job begin in December, when 20 men are hired on a temporar\' basis to prepare the rigging and scaffolding. Then, in January, another 30 men aire hired to do the chipping, scraping and actual painting, which usually is completed about the end of April. Annual cost of the bridge maintenance is close to a quarter of a million dollars. Strict safety rules are enforced and each workday starts with a safety meeting. "You only make one mistake up there," says Robert E. Budreau, general foreman, buildings, who has b^n responsible for the job from the start of the present 5-year cycle. Despite 25to 35-mile-an-hour winds, no worker has ever fallen from the bridge, Budreau says— not even a photographer. 4 ^^ ***** 14 Spbing 1972

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Painters Make Striking Pictures Traffic across Thatcher Ferry Bridge moves along in two lanes nearly 200 feet below as workmen Alvin J. Staples, in white T-shirt, and Jos6 G. Gonzilez proceed with dry season painting. These two men are responsible for keeping the bridge shipshape. They are veteran Canal employees Robert E. Budreau, left, general foreman, buildings, and Dallas Thornton, lead foreman, painter. The dramatic photos on these pages are the work of Arthur L. Pollack, who was snapped by a coworker as he walked the beams high atop the Thatcher Ferry Bridge in search of unusual camera angles. Silhouetted against a clear dry season sky, workers apply aluminum paint to a "forty five"— the big 45-degree steel beams in the bridge superstructure. The Panama Canal Review 15

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Passing Parade of Ship^ GRACEFUL SAILING SHIPS NO longer transit the Panama Canal with the frequency they did in 1914. The little plodding tankers and cargo ships that took on coal at Cristobal, and made their way stolidly across the Pacific, have been replaced by 825-foot tankers and container ships that travel at more than 25 knots. Ship traffic through the Panama Canal has reflected the progress of the world from the horse and buggy age, when ships sailed with the wind, to the atomic age, when a nuclear power plant may be the source of energy. Sailing vessels, palatial yachts, sturdy tugs, whaling fleets, offshore oil drilling rigs and ships on scientific expeditions all have been a part of the great stream of traffic which has moved through the Panama Canal or visited the terminal ports during the 57 years that the Canal has been opened to world traffic. During that time there have been more than 458,000 transits. The war "to make the world safe for democracy" was just beginning in 1914 when the SS Ancon made her initial transit through the newly opened waterway at Panama. The huge cranes Ajax and Hercules, manufactured in Germany, barely made their way across the Atlantic before GeiTnany and Britain closed the sea to shipping. Transports filled with British troops from down under came north as the war began and returned as the war ended. The Pacific Fleet returned through the Canal at the end of hostilities and an expedition led by ReaiAdm. Richard E. Byrd came south on its way to discover the frozen Antarctic. The U.S. Navy frigate Canstitntion, launched in 1797 and famed in history as "Old Ironsides," arrived at Cristobal in 1932 on a public inspection trip to the West Coast. Old Ironsides was towed through the Canal in 9 hours and 23 minutes and spent time in drj'dock in Balboa in preparation for the trip to California. As the traffic through the Canal grew during the years before and after World War II, improvements in the Canal facilities resulted in channel lighting, widening in the Gaillard Cut area, and new towing locomotives. Almost as important as the first full transit of the Canal in 1914 was the first nighttime transit of the 665-foot bulk carrier Allen D. Christensen early in 1966. This was the largest commercial \essel ever to make the complete transit after dark. The longest ship to transit the Canal was the old German American Line cruise ship Bremen that passed through the Canal southbound in Februarv 1939. Her overall length of 936.8 feet has never been surpassed. The widest ship was the U.S. Missouri which transited in September 1952. Her measurements were 888 feet in length with beam of 108 feet. rom. €. CSsLTcrt /If i The passage of 33 vessels of the Pacific Fleet, 30 of them in only 2 days, July 24 and 25, 1919, constituted the largest operation in the Canal up to that date. The ships, many recently from the war zone, were handled in groups with a Canal pilot in charge of three destroyers. Before transit, they took on large orders of coal and fuel oil. The USN "Hayes," one of the first catamarans operated by the U.S. Navy Sealift Command under the sponsorship of the Naval Research Laboratory, passes through en route from California in September 1971. Constructed specifically to conduct acoustic research for antisubmarine warfare application, it has space for bulky equipment. 16 Spmng 1972

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oo sit! lects Progress of World oxxxlc XSxi^x-sy One of the most complicated and costly transits was made by a fleet of inactive floating U.S. Navy drj'docks moving from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Since they were too wide to fit the locks thev were turned on their sides at the former Mechanical Division in Balboa and towed through the Canal by Panama Canal tugs. Even on their sides, the drydocks got a clearance in the locks chambers of only 6 feet 9 inches. All of the five drydocks had to be returned to a horizontal position in Cristobal and prepared for sea. In recent years, the Panama Canal has made efforts to accommodate almost any type of vessel that can be fitted into or over the locks. Plans were made last November to take care of a proposed catamaran drilling rig so large that it would fit in two lock lanes simultaneously and straddle the control houses as it was locked through. The Canal authorities were game and gave the green light to a U.S. west coast ship building corporation that had made plans to build the gargantuan vessel. The builders, however, have postponed plans for the time being. Already beginning service are a fleet of container ships, some up to 950 feet in length that will travel between Europe and the Far East at a service speed of 26 knots. The first, the Kamakiira Mam of the NYK Line, went through in January. Not all ships that pass through the Panama Canal these days are outsized. Recently a \\'hole fleet of mini-freighters, newest of the growing number of small highly automated cargo ships, started passing through the waterway from Corinto, Nicaragua to New Orleans b\way of Turbo, Colombia and Pensacola, Fla. They measme in at 21.5 feet in length and have a cargo capacit)' of 3,000 tons in containers or bulk cargo. Quite a contrast to the record cargo of 60,391 long tons on board the Arctic transiting March 1970. Then there was the smallest boat ever to transit. Appropriately named Ancon II, a shipshape 3-foot-long model cruiser went northbound May 23, 1970. The radio-controlled craft was guided by a chase boat manned by Air Force Maj. Kenneth Thomas, her ownerbuilder, and veteran Panama Canal Pilot Capt. William T. Lyons. The passage through the Canal was guided at all times by the Marine Traffic controllers in Balboa. The Canal's smallest customer took more than 12 hours to transit and paid 72 cents in tolls. Of the world fleet of ships, which numbers over 19,000 vessels of 1,000 gross tons and over, more than 800 are too wide to fit into the locks and over 500 more oversize ships are under construction or on order. E. R. Officially opening the Panama Canal, August 15, 1914, the old SS "Ancon" nears midway point in her 50-miIe journey. The ship had been used as a cement carrier during construction days and after the Canal was opened was converted into a transport for Canal employees. It ran between Cristobal and New York via Haiti. United Slates Lines' Lancer class "American Astronaut," one of 16 mammoth high-speed container ships in the company's fastest tricontinent services returns from the Far East to the Port of New York. The trim giant transports her full share of the line's inventory of over 20,000 freight containers filled with general cargo. The Panama Canal Review 17

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The Canal Takes All Types A strange craft named "Sea Egg" by its owner-skipper John C. Riding, went through the Canal in September 1967 on its way around the world. The "Sea Egg" has an overall length of only 11.9 feet and a 5.3foot beam. Round-shaped or egg-shaped As long as they are shipshape The amphibious jeep "Tortuga" is dwarfed by the tanker "Cristobal" as it is locked through Pedro Miguel in May 1955. The "Tortuga," owned by Frank and Helen Schreider of Alaska, was en route to the southern tip of South America via highway and sea. The jeep was given the same service as a full fledged commercial ship up to and including a pilot. Capt. Robert Rennie sits on top of the small seagoing vehicle for lack of a bridge. Assisted by a Panama Canal tug, a large Coast Guard navigational buoy known as a LNB, moves through Miraflores Locks. It represents a new generation of highway markers for marine traffic. The hull supports a .38-foot tower which has a 7,500 candlepower light. One of the most complicated transits was made by a fleet of floating U.S. Navy drjdoeks moving from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Too wide to 6t in the locks, they were turned on their sides and towed through the Canal. When they reached Cristobal, they were righted and again made ready to put out to sea and continue their journey. Dwarfed by merchant ship "Neder Elbe," the 36-inch SS ".\ncon II" chugs north through Miraflores Locks. The radio controlled 3-foot model cruiser is the smallest vessel to transit. 18 Spring 1972

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Three pieces of floating equipment— one drilling rig and two deep sea tWIling ships with rigs towering from 204 to 208 feet above the waterline arrived here in February 1970. They were the "Glomar Challenger," one of the newest and largest of the vessels conducting ocean bottom research; the "Big John," an oil drilling rig being towed to Borneo from Texas; and the giant deep water drilling vessel "Navigator," which was en route from Texas to Australia. Under tow of a seagoing tug, the derrick barge "Choctaw" squeezes through Miraflores Locks with onlv 2 feet to spare. It made its first transit .\ugust 9, 1969, on its way to a drilling project near Australia. One of the most unusual ships to transit the Canal was the American flag cable ship "Long Lines," the largest cable laying and repair ship in the world. It is the first commercially owned and operated cable laying ship sailing under the flag of the United States. Chugging along through Gaillard Cut is the side paddlewheel steam tug "Eppleton Hall," one of the last survivors of her type. A Russian cruise liner "Shota Rustaveli" ties up at Balboa with British cruise passengers aboard. The vessel was one of five Soviet ships that transited the Canal one weekend early in March of this year. She has made several trips through the waterway in recent months. The Spanish training ship "Juan Sebastian Elcano" with more than 100 cadets aboard, moves north through Miraflores Locks. The Panama Canal Review 19

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The U.S. Navy frigate "Constitution," launched in 1797 and famed in the history of the United States as "Old Ironsides," arrived at Cristobal the evening of December 22, 1932, from Washington, D.C., via Guantanamo. After a 4-day stay at Cristobal, the vessel transited on December 27. Lashed to the U.S. "Bittern," the German Submarine U-88 moves through Pedro Miguel Locks. One of five surrendered submarines taken to the United States for exhibition, it arrived at Cristobal August 6, 1919, en route to San Diego for display. The New Zealand transport "Willocra" displayed this strange zebra-like camouflage when it went through Gaillard Cut in 1919 with a load of New Zealand troops. This type of protective painting seems strange today as methods of camouflage have changed radically since World War I. Submarines C-1 to C-5 comprising the First Division of the U.S. Navy submarine flotilla which had been stationed at Cristobal since December 12, 1913, were placed in drydock in the east chamber of the upper level of Gatun Locks Monday, March 9, 19H. Four catchers of the Norwegian whaling fleet that transited in 1951, lock down together in Pedro Miguel. The 14 catchers and their 22,000-ton mother ship, "Thorshovi," transited October 17. They carried 565 men. The mother ship with a crew of 285 and each catcher a crew of 20. U.S. Naval personnel and a number of their dependents perch on the deck of the U.S. Navy's newest Polaris Missile submarine "Daniel Boone" as it passes through Miraflores Locks. The nuclear powered sub was the first of its type to use the Panama Canal. The NS "Savannah," the world's first nuclear powered merchant ship, arrived at Cristobal September 16, 1962, for a history-making transit of the Canal en route to the Seattle World's Fair. Her nuclear reactor has the capacity to take her around the world 14 times without '•^fueling. She was built by the United States to demonstrate peaceful use of atomic energy. The "La Valley," the first steam vessel to pass from ocean to ocean through the Canal leaves Miraflores lower chamber January 7, 191 4. before the Canal was officially opened. 20 Spring 1972

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V V? The Belgian flag ship "Temse," the largest commercial vessel to transit since the passenger liner "Bremen," which still holds the record, moves on her way from Rotterdam to Chile in December 1971. She measures 875 feet in length and has a beam of 104 feet. Traveling in ballast, she paid only $22,333.68 in tolls. She was en route to Peru to pick up bulk ore. The North German Lloyd trans-Atlantic liner "Bremen," the largest commercial vessel to transit, moves through Pedro Miguel Locks. Tolls were $15,243. Two Italian passenger liners pass in Gatun Lake. The Lloyd Triestino Line "Galileo Galilei," in the foreground, is a 27,906-ton ship that makes regular transits through the Canal carrying about 1,500 passengers on round-the-world voyages. The Italian Line "Leonardo da Vinci," in the background, has made only one transit. Breaking the Canal cargo record for the second time, the super carrier "Arctic" moves south through Miraflores Locks with a cargo of 60,391 long tons of coal. The "Arctic" measures 848.8 feet in length and 105.85 in beam and used the maximum draft allowance of 39 feet 6 inches on this trip. She was carrying coal to Japan. Looking like a ship without a superstructure, the "St. John Carrier," one of the world's largest newsprint barges, lies at dock at Balboa. The British flag ship "Diklara," a new type container ship, made her first trip through the Canal last November on her maiden voyage. The Panama Canai. Review 21

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Shipping Notes Cruise Ship "Hamburg" THE NEWEST WEST GERMAN passenger liner TS Hamburg has made five trips through the Panama Canal this \ear and will make one more at the end of June before her present cruise season is completed. She is the fourth German flag vessel to carry the name Hamburg since the turn of the century. The 24-million dollar luxury liner, the flagship of the German Atlantic Line, was launched at the Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG shipyard in Hamburg in 1968. Known for the amount of space set aside for both public and private rooms, she has 319 spacious cabins including 20 deluxe apartments for a full complement of cruise passengers totaling some 600. The sleek vessel has a cruising speed of 23 knots. Her unusual fuimel supports a 32-foot diameter circular plate designed to lift fumes and smoke up and away from the sun and sports decks. The "Other Woman" ^Vhen the winter winds blow up north and the trade winds blow in the tropics, yachts and other small boats converge by the dozens on the Panama Canal. There have been an unusual number of pleasure craft through the Canal this year, some of them in the million dollar class and others strictly on a shoestring. Some are being used just to transport their owners from here to there, and it is a good way to go if one happens to like the open sea in a small boat. One of these was the Other Woman, a fitting name for a sailing craft being used by her owner for a 2-year trip around the world without wife and family. Canadian Douglas Reed, with a crew of four, arrived at the Canal in Februaryfrom the Bahamas aboard the 39-foot auxiliary sailing yacht. The craft made the transit and continued on her 28,000-mile journey bv way of the Galapagos and the South Seas. It is the CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS First Half Fiscal Year 1972 1971 1961-65 No. of Nationality transits Belgian 86 British 708 Chilean 63 Chinese, Nat'l 78 Colombian 121 Cjpriot 47 Danish 199 French 94 German, West 458 Greek 382 Italian 135 Japanese 791 Liberian 827 Netherlands 239 Nicaraguan 57 Norwegian 594 Panamanian 454 Peruvian 87 Philippine 44 South Korean 42 Soviet 65 Swedish 193 United States 519 Yugoslavian 43 All others 311 Tom of cargo 241,539 5,653,964 499,369 723,690 262,830 328,429 1,012,236 418,361 2,003,169 4,120,243 922,839 5,284,992 10,930,306 1,423,289 106,793 7,201,090 1,981,516 588,082 3.32,415 231,575 422,459 1,327,234 3,649,546 .352,896 1,534,717 No. of transits 52 768 82 75 107 108 233 124 520 274 112 710 751 240 52 589 423 87 52 34 50 234 680 44 390 Ton) of cargo 148,539 7,210,259 770,444 696,617 280,146 746,285 1,058,567 518,233 2,453,782 3,751,158 717,665 6,745,230 12,614,997 1,365,557 92,391 7,990,290 1,912,895 578,220 451,,528 248,259 320,642 1,625,259 4,267,046 619,868 2,525,306 Avg. No. transits 22 632 64 41 129 154 66 558 316 97 433 458 294 28 695 221 58 33 4 6 181 877 7 257 Avg. tons of cargo 77,724 4,124,.334 451,191 .301,600 209,189 725,383 364,357 1,687,827 3,077,249 561,167 2,542,668 4,416,239 1,346,865 41,772 5,078,587 959,816 296,697 135,090 24,027 48,219 1,026,269 5,259,746 53,543 608,595 Total 6,637 51,553,579 6,791 59,709,183 5,631 33,418,154 TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES First Half Fiscal Year Trade routes— (Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) 1972 United States Intercoastal 145 East coast of United States and South America 452 East coast of United States and Central America 311 East coast of United States and Far East 1,433 United States/Canada east coast and Australasia 187 Europe and west coast of United States/Canada 399 Europe and South America 529 Europe and Australasia £34 All other routes 2 847 Avg. No. transits 1971 1961-65 156 566 330 1,706 217 484 594 249 2,489 231 1,208 241 1,133 171 459 592 176 1,420 Total trafiic 6,637 6,791 5,631 MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 net tons or over— (Fiscal years) Transits iTolU fin thousands of dollars) Month First Half 1972 1971 July i_i94 1174 August 1J97 1J76 September 1491 i_io8 October i,068 1,167 November 954 1,064 December i_023 1,102 January j ,19 February 1144 March April May June 1,295 1,214 1,237 1,220 Avg. No. transits 1961-65 960 949 908 946 922 946 903 868 1,014 966 999 954 First Half 1972 8,016 8,513 8,418 7,242 6,645 7,267 Totals for fiscal year 1 Before deduction of any operating expenses. 1971 8,118 8,221 7,979 8,095 7,362 7,690 8,157 7,815 8,929 8,349 8,422 8,243 Average tolls 1961-65 4,929 4,920 4,697 4,838 4,748 4,955 4,635 4,506 5,325 5,067 5,232 5,013 14,020 11,3.35 97,380 58,865 22 Spring 1972

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PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic First Half Fiscal Year S-Yr. Atjg. Commodity 1972 1971 1961-65 Manufachires of iron and Steel 4,348,321 3,122,147 466,312 Lumber and products 2,459,417 2,249,879 1,785,375 Sugar __ 2,049,777 2,056,415 1,235,175 Ores various 1,904,119 3,227,970 519,996 Petroleum and products 1,731,721 1,030,230 1,024,347 Fishmeal 883,880 680,844 N.A. Metals, various 661,657 794,595 566,481 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 582,861 587,121 394,842 Pulpwood 538,071 590,363 249,504 Bananas 524,546 505,408 565,876 Sulfur 405,538 206,373 35,897 Autos, trucks, accessories and parts 374,115 244,603 8,147 Molasses 347,556 246,515 80,782 Canned food products 321,705 330,968 517,232 Salt 317.247 164,864 1,645 All other 4,979,364 5,349,853 7,381,658 Total 22,429,895 21,388,148 14,883,269 Atlantic to Pacific First Half Fiscal Year S-Yr. Avg. Commodity 1972 1971 1961-65 Petroleum and products 6,756,597 6,222,106 5,484,146 Coal and coke 6,145,377 11,618,552 2.925,019 Soybeans 1,950,607 2,140,465 735,645 Phosphate 1,936,286 1,997,012 1,046,645 Ores various 1,515,296 1,275,943 147,988 Com' 1,382,153 2,269,647 636,706 Wheat 960,417 626,096 335,771 Suear 709,746 1,359.027 516,556 Metal, scrap 675,010 1,771,295 1,527,264 Manufactures of iron and steel 600,334 965,651 737,644 Sorghum 455,315 1,352,348 N.A. Chemicals, miscellaneous 422,509 466,818 318,745 Paper and products 381,768 435,-345 225,987 Autos, trucks, accessories, and parts .303,992 314,744 160,582 Caustic soda 303,082 176,850 N.A. All other 4,625,195 5,329,1.36 3,736,187 Total 29,123,684 38,.321,035 18,534,885 CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT First Half Fiscal Year 1972 1971 Avg. No. transits 1961-65 Atlantic Pacific to to Pacific Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial vessels: Oceangoing 3,316 3,321 6,637 6,791 5,631 Small! 190 137 327 247 286 Total Commercial 3,506 3,458 6,964 7,038 5,917 U.S. Government vessels: Oceangoing 106 100 206 311 124 Small! 34 53 87 67 82 Total commercial and U.S. Government 3,646 3,611 7,2.57 7,416 6,123 1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. 2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited tree. PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC STATISTICS FOR 6 MONTHS OF FISCAL YEAR 1972 TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels) 1972 1971 Commercial 6,637 6,791 U.S. Government 206 311 Free 31 60 Total 6,874 7.162 TOLLS* Commercial ___S46, 133,275 $47,483,685 U.S. Government 1,343,557 1,886,257 Total___S47.476,832 $49,369,942 CARGO" (Oceangoing) Commercial 51,553,579 59,709,183 U.S. Government 821,399 1.345,737 Free 41,532 90,215 Total. __ 52,416,510 61,145,135 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and smalt. Cargo figures are in long tons. first attempt by a Canadian registered yacht with a Canadian captain to circle the globe. Soviet Vessels Russian flagships are not new to the Panama Canal but there was a surge of them early in March when three freighters, one scientific trawler, and a cruise ship with more than 600 passengers passed through the waterway. The passenger vessel Shota Rustaveli, owned by the Black Sea Steamship Co. and chartered by the Charter Travel Club of London, arrived in Balboa March 11 with a crew of 354 and 665 passengers who had boarded the ship in Australia. The vessel tied up in Balboa in the morning and the passengers went sightseeing. The ship transited northbound in the afternoon en route to Southampton via Curacao. Also transiting northbound the same day vvas the Vtjsokogorsk, a cargo ship traveling from Manchurian ports to Cuba. Three of the vessels went through the Canal almost at the same time March 11. In fact they met in Miraflores Locks. They were the freighter Novovohjnsk traveling from New Zealand to Dunkirk with wool and general cargo; the Akademik Knipovich, a Soviet government-owned scientific fishing trawler en route from Valparaiso, Chile, to Las Palmas, Canary Islands; and the Parkhomenko, southbound from New York to Guayaquil. C. Fernie & Co. represents all the vessels except the Parkhomenko which was handled on this transit by Pacific Ford. The Panama Canal Review 23

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Culinary Capers By Eunice Richard AS THE U.S. ARMY TROPICAL Survival School in the Canal Zone has learned, there is very little growing or living in the jungles of Panama that cannot be used as food. Some of the animals, vegetables, and fruits may even be used to make gourmet dishes, Mrs. Gladys R. Graham, an enterprising young American housewife discovered some 25 years ago when she came to the Isthmus and spent several years living in the Interior of Panama. She learned to prepare a number of succulent dishes with native foods and before she left the Isthmus, wrote and published a cookbook, "Tropical Cooking," which, sadly, is no longer in circulation. The Canal Zone Library has only one copy left and it is dog-eared, worn, and stained from years of use bv carious cooks. But it is to be published again soon by the Isthmian Anthropological Society and will be on sale later this vear. Meanwhile, Culinary Capers offers a few of Mrs. Graham's more unusual recipes. Perhaps some Isthmian housewife will look for the ingredients in the local Panama market or have her husband go hunting in the jungle if only to give her family a change from frozen foods. As Mrs. Graham says, one day someone will bring home a freshly killed armadillo and swear that he has heard it is edible. It is! ARMADILLO In Brazil the armadillo is often cleaned, seasoned, and baked in his own shell with a generous portion of minced parsley added to the rest of the seasoning. In the southwest of the United States the meat, at its best during the winter months, is treated much the same as raccoon and opossum. It can be successfully fried like chicken or roasted. In any event BE SURE to remove the kernels (glands) from under the forelegs and in the fleshy part of the hindlegs and back. There are seven of them. Do it as soon as possible. ROAST ARMADILLO 1 armadillo 2 tablespoons salt /2 teaspoon black pepper 1 onion 3 carrots 1 cup broth or bcniillon Clean armadillo and remove fat. Parboil 1 hour in water with other ingredients, except the broth. Place in a roasting pan, add the broth and roast uncovered 2 hours at 375 degrees. Serves eight. CONEJO If there are no hunters in the family, most people can get this excellent meat in the Panama market if one talks to a butcher and places an order. Conejo means rabbit in English. But the Panamanian conejo is more of a rodent, with longer hairless tail, head like a rat and small ears. He is a member of the kangaroo family and grows up to -30 or 40 pounds. The tender white meat is somewhat dry and should be larded or roasted in the skin to pweserve the juices. Clean the conejo and stuff with apple or sausage and apple dressing. Roast at 350 degrees until tender. Baste with orange juice or wine. CONEJO PINTADO Mrs. Graham says that the conejo pintado is not the same animal as conejo for it refers to the South American Paca. The meat is white and sweet. Roast him whole, stuck with cloves and basted with orange juice and your family and guests will want to desert the meat markets and take to the woods for provender. BREADFRUIT This delicious fruit or vegetable is plentiful in Panama but few people seem to use it. Mrs. Graham says it is more popular in song and stor\than it is on tables in Central America, but that may be the loss of those who do not Tropical Treats 24 Spring 1972

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eat it. If potato is not available, breadfruit is a delightful substitute. Some oldtimers prefer it to potatoes. It has a tangv', tantalizing piney fragrance. She sa\s there are several \va> s to prepare breadfmit. Some insist it should be boiled when it is mature but still green. They prefer it either hot, mashed like potatoes, or boiled, sliced, dipped in beaten egg, and fried. Others insist it should be allowed to ripen until it is a rich brown and just turning soft. Then they bake it whole, exactly like potato, and remove the seed before bringing it steaming hot to the table. There its sweet balsam flavor calls only for a little salt and pepper and lots of butter. Cooked this way, the breadfruit should be put into an oven at 375 to 400 degrees for 45 minutes to an hour. The next day it can be diced and used in stews or soups. CHAYOTE One of the most versatile of the Isthmian fniits and vegetables is the chayote also knowm as chocho. Mrs. Graham says it is the answer to a cook's prayer. If one wants a root to serve instead of potatoes, boil it. If one needs a green salad, peel the fruit and shred it with other green stuff. If you want a substitute for spinach, strip the leaves from the vine. The entire chayote plant can be used in one way or another. The fruit, something like summei squash in flavor, is slightlv pear-shaped and a delicate green, with slight grooves along the sides. Some are spiny, and some, when past the youngest stages of tenderness, have a bit of a center seed and a few root sprouts showing at the bottom. Thev run from the size of a fist to half again as large and all parts are edible except the sldn. FRIED CHAYOTE Peel three chaxotes and cut in V2-inch slices crosswise. Dip in beaten egg, then in cracker crumbs and fry to a golden brown in hot fat. Drain on paper, then sprinkle salt and pepper and keep in the oven until time to serve. Serve as soon as possible. It is superior to eggplant. Mrs. Graham said that it is excellent stuff^ed also and gave this recipe. Wash and simmer three large chayotes till tender (about 40 minutes). Cut in half, scoop out the pulp and mash it with salt, pepper, grated cheese and a small amount of grated onion. Top with more grated cheese or buttered toasted crumbs. Pop into the oven for 10 or 15 minutes and serve. Breadfruit has been a popular food in the Western Hemisphere ever since 1793 when breadfruit trees were brought from Tahiti to the West Indies by Captain Bligh of "Mutiny on the Bounty" fame. The breadfruit is one of the many trees introduced to the Isthmus from the West Indies. A large specimen of the tree is located on Gorgas Road in the Canal Zone. These delicate green chavotes are among the many tropical vegetables and fruits found at Chinese gardens in the Canal Zone. All parts of the chayote are edible except the skin. The Panama Canal Review 25

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HOW TO OPEN A COCONUT Those who are new to the tropics will find there are two kinds of coconuts in the markets. In addition to the ripe coconut well known in the north, there is the green coconut, which in Panama is called a "pipa." Mrs. Graham recommends whacking off the top with a machete and drinking the clear water inside with a straw. One can pour it into a pitcher and serve it as a beverage. It is the purest beverage available and always cool. If the pipa is green, one can scoop out some of the soft rich meat just developing inside the shell. As the meat hardens, the water takes on more of a coconut flavor and by the time the thick husk is golden brown on the outside, the water has become milk. Mrs. Graham had no problem removing the meat from a ripe coconut. She said to punch the eyes in with an ice pick or similar tool, drain off^ the liquid and then tap briskly around and around the shell with a hammer. It will split appro.ximately in half. Another way is to put the whole coconut in a hot oven for 10 minutes, tap with the hammer and the meat will all come out in one or two pieces, ready to use. Be careful not to lose the liquid. COCONUT CREAM Grate all the meat from one whole coconut into a pan or bowl and pour about a quart of hot water over the pulp. When the liquid has cooled just a little, stir it and mash against the sides of the bowl with a spoon or your hands. The pulp may be squeezed out by hand or the whole thing strained through a cloth. After it has been cooled and possibly chilled overnight in the refrigerator, the top cream can be whipped and used instead of whipped cream. CfflCKEN IN COCONUT Mrs. Graham says this is a Philippine dish and it sounds wonderful for a tropical treat, glamorous and tastv. 1 young chicken salt, pepper 1 large or several small coconuts Biscuit dough Parboil the chicken about 25 minutes, then disjoint it. With a sharp heavy knife or small saw, cut off the top of the coconut neatly. Pour the milk into a bowl and with a fork score and partially shred the meat that clings to the shell. Salt and pepper the chicken heavily, rubbing the seasonings into the flesh; pack the pieces tightly into the coconut shell. Add the shreds of meat and milk. Replace the top and seal it with biscuit 26 Spring 1972

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dough. Bake in a moderate oven 1 hour. Instead of one large coconut, several small ones can be used to serve each guest individually. PEJIBAYE OR PIVA This is another good thing that grows on a palm tree in the tropics. In the local markets or along the side of the road to the Interior are found huge clusters of red and yellow fruits in bunches like grapes, each fruit about an inch and a half through. They are the fruit of a palm tree growing fairly commonlv throughout Central America. Mrs. Graham recommends that they be boiled for 30 minutes in sea water or salted water. They are as good as sweet potatoes or chestnuts and are well adapted to meat and poultry stuffings and as snacks with cold drinks. PAPAYA Mrs. Graham says that most people have to develop a taste for papaya, a most healthful fruit, which also is used as a meat tenderizer. She says that many people prefer the red or pink papaya to the \ellow. There are some more stronglv flavored with pepsin than others. If you get the fruit while it is still half-green, "score" it lengthwise in a half dozen places using the tines of a fork. The strong tasting milk will ooze right out and leave the bled fruit much milder. But remember that the milk is .1 stomach aid and if there is a dyspeptic in the house, give it to him with all the healing pepsin in his portion. If there is an unusually tough piece of meat to stew or pot roast, dice a couple of 2-inch pieces of green or nearly ripe papaya or a portion of a large leaf right in with the meat and seasonings. It won't flavor anything but it will take the toughness and determination right out of the meat fibers. Or wrap the meat in a couple of washed green papaya leaves and leave it in the refrigerator for a few hours. BAKED PAPAYA Papaya is great just as it is served cold like a melon but it also is good as a vegetable. Mrs. Graham says to cut mature but green papaya into individual portions. Take out the seeds but don't peel it. Dot with butter, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon, bake in a casserole or pan with Jz inch of water in the bottom for 3.5 minutes in a moderate oven. Some people substitute lemon juice and salt for sugar and spice. Others insist that a sprinkle of grated cheese adds zest and sparkle. Chayote, pineapple, yucca, coconut, and many other familiar and not so familiar vegetables and fruits are available for the creative cook to adapt to her favorite recipe. The Panama Canal Review 27

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More Than Nine Million Gallons of Suds Stream From Panama Breweries Each Year A KEEN TASTE FOR FOAMY beer has made brewing one of Panama's largest industries. Two official statistics suffice to provide an indication of the size of the beer industry and its role in the national economy: In 1970, beer sales in the Republic, which has a population of 1.4 million inhabitants, amounted to 36,099,190 liters (approximately 9.5 million gallons). That same year, the industry paid $2,913,500 into the National Treasury in production ta.\es alone. Ten years ago, the figure was 20,270,358 liters (just over 5 million gallons). Four breweries, two of which are subsidiaries, account for Panama's beer production. The oldest and largest is Cerveceria Nacional, S.A. (National Brewery, Inc.), whose subsidiary, Cerveceria Chiricana, S.A., operates in David, Chiriqui Province. The other parent brewery is Cerveceria del Baru, S.A. (Baru Brewery, Inc.), which was established in David and subsec(uently set up a subsidiary in Panama City, Cerveceria Panama, S.A., that operates the company's main plant. It may come as a surprise to many people that the brewing industry in By Luis C. Noli Panama will mark its 63d anniversary this year. Thirty-five Panamanian and American investors joined in launching the country's first brewery— the Panama Brewing and Refrigerating Company— on October 15, 1909. The first Panamamade beer, named for Balboa, the discoverer of the Pacific Ocean, was put on the market on September 1, 1910. Some of the country's most prominent names— Duque, Preeiado, de Obarrio, Espinosa— were associated with that first brewery. An American, Theodore McGinnis, was appointed general manager —and he proved the company's best public relations man. He became so identified with the new beer, that he came to be known as the Duke of Balboa. There is a stor\' that he and his wife went on a European tour in the early 1930's and everywhere were received with special deference— he was signing the hotel registers as the Duke and Duchess of Balboa. The Balboa Brewery, as the pioneer company became popularly known, was alone in the field until 1926, when the Atlantic Brewing and Refrigerating Company was founded in Colon bv another group of Panamanian and Amer28 Spring 1972

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ican investors. The new conipanv, too, got its popular name from its product brand— Atlas beer. It soon shifted operations to Panama City. The man in the forefront was Henri Dejan, a former employee of United Fniit Co. With him were such prominent Panamanian bvisinessmen as Carlos Ele1:a and Pedro J. Ameglio as well as some well-known Americans, Ernest C. Fearon, Bert L. Atwater and Theodore A. Aanstoos. A third brewery— the German Pacific Brewery— appeared on the scene in 1927. Its beer was named Milwaukee. Again, popular usage of the name was such that the company eventualh' changed its corporate designation to Milwaukee Brewen'. Oscar Teran was the first chairman of the board. Among the compan\'s founders were members of the Herbrugeifamily. The three breweries competed fiercely. So fierceK-, in fact, that bv 1938 it became evident to the directors of the three companies that there was only one way out— a merger. Negotiations were completed and on March 7, 1939, the Cerveceria Naciional, S.A., came into being. The merger brought together the country's most powerful businessmen, making the new company one of the most solid firms in the Republic. One prominent Panamanian name— Duque— has been associated through three generations with the country's brewing industry since its start. Jose Gabriel Duque was among the founders of the first brewery, the Panama Brewing and Refrigerating Company and, in fact, was its first president; his eldest son, T. Gabriel Duque, served as President of the Cerveceria Nacional from 1943 until his death in 1965; another son, Alejandro A. Duque, St., is the incumbent Vice President of the Board of Directors; and a grandson, Alejandro A. Duque, Jr., is the incumbent Assistant General Manager. In 1957, Cerveceria Nacional completed construction of a new plant at what is now the intersection of Via Bolivar (the downtown portion of the Transisthmian Highway) and the recently opened Via Ricardo J. Alfaro. With a production capacity of 30 million liters a year, Cerveceria Nacional manufactures Balboa, Atlas and Tap beers; it also manufactures Canada Dry beverages, soft drinks and Malta Vigor, a malt extract. The present officers of Cerveceria Nacional are Dr. Roberto Aleman, President; Alejandro A. Duque, Sr., Vice President; Rodolfo F. Herbruger, TreasAbove: The National Brewery's plant on the Transisthmian Highway. On opposite page: Panama Brewery in San Cristobal Industrial Park. urer; Alfredo Aleman, Jr., Secretary; Alberto Arias E., Assistant Treasurer; and Samuel Lewis Galindo, General Manager. Other members of the board are Raiil Arias, Antonio Zubieta, Juan B. Arias, Roberto Heurtematte and Enrique Jimenez, Jr. Cerveceria del Barii, S.A., manufacturers of Panama and Cristal beers, was founded in David in 1958 and began operations in that city in July 1959. A year ago, the bulk of its operations was transferred to its handsome new plant at San Cristobal Industrial Park, off the Transisthmian Highway, and its subsidiary, Cerveceria Panama, S.A., was organized. The production capacity of the new plant is 10 million liters a year. Besides beer, Cerveceria del Bani, S.A., manufactures Polaris beverages. The company's board of officers includes Harry Strunz, Jr., President; Eduardo Gonzalez, First Vice President; Raul G. Paredes, Second Vice President; J. J. Vallarino, Jr., Treasurer; Aristides Abadia, Secretary; and Bolivar Vallarino and Carlos Eleta, Directors. J. J. V^Ularino, Jr., is also the General Manager. Man's taste for beer dates back to earliest history. There is recorded evidence that in Mesopotamia 6,000 years ago, beer was made with a speciallybaked bread which was mashed with a barley malt and allowed to ferment. Beer also was drunk in ancient Eg\pt, Greece and Rome. Cuneiform writings on a clay tablet found in ancient Nineveh indicate that beer was among the provisions on Noah's Ark. Today, the popularity of beer is enhanced by improved brewing processes. Consumption figures are evidence that Panama's product is no exception. Chemists test every step of the brewing process. Some 350 tests are carried out before the beer reaches the consumer. The Panama Canal Revie'w 29

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Panama Beer Industry In Sixty-third Year Mailing barley, the basic ingredient of beer, is imported from Europe, Canada and the United States. A special type of rice grown in Panama is used as a cereal adjunct. In the brewhouse, the ground malt and rice are first cooked separately in huge kettles. The malt mash is known as wort, which after mixing with the cooked rire, is boiled with hops. After the boiling process, the hopped wort goes through a strainer to separate the hops from the wort which is transferred immediately to coolers. The next step is fermentation. Yeast is to beer what oxygen is to man— a vital element. Its digestive enzymes convert the malt sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. The wort ferments in huge tanks for at least a week. The brew is then transferred to storage or aging tanks and after about 8 weeks to finishing tanks, ready for bottling and barreling. All of the equipment, tanks and kettles are subject to the most rigorous sanitary standards. Well trained employees carefull)monitor each phase of the brewing process. 'mM^ A fully automatic bottling set-up fills and caps hundreds of bottles per minute. Every step of the process is inspected. A young couple samples the local product at the Pub, a popular gathering spot for the Canal Zone's college students. 30 Spring 1972

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50 Years Ago TERRIBLY SHAKEN UP AS A result of the beastly condition of the cow trail, footpath, towpath or whatever name could be used to describe the only means of communication between Panama City and the Interior, members of the Panama Rotary Club returned from their trip to La Chorrera satisfied with the experience and more than ever resolved to keep hammering away on the fact that a central road should and must be constructed from Panama City out to the Interior." This was the report in the English language Star & Herald in April" 1922 after a group of Panama Rotarians attended the annual fair in the town of La Chorrera. The report said that the members of the club started at 9:35 a.m. in a truck furnished bv Harrv Nichols and made the 29-mile trip to Chorrera after 2^2 hours of body racking jolts. The Panama Metal Trades Council joined the fight against the plan for Canal employees to pay rent for their housing. But it was a losing battle after the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans denied the petition sent by H. A. McConaughey, president of the Council, for an injunction restraining the U.S. Government from collecting rents. The cornerstone for St. Luke's Cathedral in Ancon was laid April 23, 1922, in a cercmonv led by the Masonic organizations in the Canal Zone and attended by President Porras, the Governor of the Canal Zone, U.S. Ambassador South and many other prominent residents. 25 Years Ago HOUSING WAS THE CONCERN OF the 12 members of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee who spent several days in the Canal Zone in May 1947 looking into Zone affairs "as a prelude to enactment of legislation for Canal improvement and expansion." Upon their return to Washington, they announced that housing improvement was needed but that in order to do so rents must be increased. With the Panama Line ships loaded with Canal employees who had not had a real vacation since the beginning of World War II, the AFGE started a move to charter planes to fly employees to the LInited States. In the spring of 1947 some 1,300 persons were waiting passage on the Panama Line ships. The Board of Consultants for the Isthmian Canal Studies, composed of eminent engineers in several different fields, met for a week at Diablo Heights early in 1947 to discuss work progress. Reports were heard from a party of 19 engineers who had spent 17 da)-s in the Darien jungle making surveys along the proposed Caledonia route. 10 Years Ago A 70-FOOT STEEL BEAM, THE connecting link joining the two sections of Thatcher Ferry Bridge, was bolted into place temporarily May 16, 1962 as work on the bridge across the Canal CAMAl neared completion. The placing of the connecting steel beam was accompanied bv the cheers of Canal and bridge workmen and the tooting of Panama Canal tugs. The bridge was opened formally in October of that year. In February 1962 the first six newJapanese built towing locomotives were delivered to Gatun Locks for tests. More than twice as powerful as the old locomotives, they also are faster, an important factor in increasing the number of lockages. The first three were shipped to the Canal aboard the Pioneer Myth and unloaded directly onto the east wall retiuTi tracks at Gatun Locks. The second three arrived 2 weeks later and were set up on the center wall at Gatun. While the engineers and Japanese inspectors prepared the new locomotives for their task of towing ships through the locks, a training program was started for all cmploN'ees operating and maintaining the new mules. One Year Ago THE TIVOLI GUEST HOUSE, ONE of the landmarks of the Isthmus, quietly closed its doors last year after more than a half century of service. Its guests departed, the furnihn-e was put up for sale, and Gov. David S. Parker pulled the newly installed security doors together at 5 p.m., April 15, officially closing the famous old hotel. The only event scheduled after the closing was a HISTORY party for the staff, some of whom had worked 30 to 40 years at the Tivoli. There was a change in personnel in the Canal Zone's top level job last year. Gov. and Mrs. W. P. Leber bid farewell to the Canal Zone and the new Governor, Maj. Gen. David S. Parker, and Mrs. Parker arrived. This is Governor Parker's third tour of duty in the Canal Zone. He has seived as Military Assistant to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor. Last year marked the end of service as a passenger vessel for the venerable SS Cristobal which was converted to a 12-passcnger freighter. Arrangements were made u'ith BranifF International for charter flights to provide transportation for Panama Canal employees during the summer months. The Panama Canal Review 31

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