Citation
Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ..

Material Information

Title:
Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ..
Alternate Title:
Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended .. ( 1914 )
Creator:
Isthmian Canal Commission (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Creation Date:
1914
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
9 v. : ill., maps (some col., folded) ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Canals, Interoceanic -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Navigation -- Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Dec. 1, 1905-June 30, 1914.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. for 1905-1906 report year ends Dec. 1; vol. for 1907-1914 fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note:
Reports for <1909/10-1911/12> each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
General Note:
Vol. for 1913/14 contain also the report of the governor of the Canal Zone.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
07782320 ( OCLC )
sn 86045158 ( LCCN )
026010281 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
W 73.1 ( sudocs )

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ...

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0







ANNUAL


REPORT


OF THE


T


H


M


A


A


N


A


0


M


M


0


N


AND


THE


ANAMA


CANAL


FOR THE


FISCAL
ENDED


YEAR


IUNE


1914


ERRATUM.
[Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1914.1


The use of the expression


report is erroneous.


" kilowatt volt ampere


The usual expression


"KVA,


" throughout this
" which was used


in the original manuscript. should have been printed.


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TABLE


OF


CONTENTS.


Page.
1


Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal ..
Organization .......... ----- - - -
C construction ................................---------------------------- -- -

Personnel --�-----� �-��--
Locks and dams----------- -
Gatun Locks - .--.....-------


Gatun
Gatun
Pedro
Mirafl
Mirafl
Lock
Gate
Miter


Spillway .........
Dam--------
Miguel Locks..-
ores Locks
ores Dam and Spill
gates .---.----.
machines ......


---- - - - -
--------------------------------------------------------------- --------------
------------- -----------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------- -----
way-------
-- ------ - - ------------------------------- -
- ---------------------------------------------------------- --


forcing machines__


Rising stemn valves --..-----------------------
Guard valves .-------------------------
Auxiliary culvert valves--- ---- ----------------
Cylindrical valve machines---- ----------------------
Chain fender machines ------------------------
Spillway gates ..-----------------------------
Towing-track material ------ --------- -----------


Towing locomotives ----
Illumination of the locks
Remote control ----
Hydroelectric plant
High-power transmission


a --- - -----a-----------------------------------------------------
-a--------------------------------------------------------------
a------------------------


line-


-- - -------------------
- a--- --- - a-- -


Cables


a-a------------------------------------------


Telephone system -


Emergency dams_
Floating caissons
Pontoon bridge ----
Operation of the locks
Electrical division -_
Municipal engineering
Meteorology and hydrO
General surveys --


- - a- -a---------------------------------------------------------------- - -
a~-- a---------------------------------------------------------------- -- -
-- - --------------------------- --------------------------------------------- -
a--- --------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------
- ------------------ ----
)graplly----------------------- ---a- - - --
- - - - ----------------------------------------------------------






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the governor of the Panama Canal-Continued.
Construction-Continued.
Division of terminals-Continued.
Cristobal coaling plant ---- -----.......... - ---- a .


Page.
40


Fuel-oil plants--- .....-- ---------
Quay walls and pier .----- - -- -
Ancon quarry--.. ...- ------- --
Sand service----- .. --. -------- --
Panama Railroad freight yards----
Colliers -.------- - -. ---
Tugs ----------- ---------------------
Floating cranes ....- -------


Balboa town site--
Radio station . .
Supply department......
Cost keeping ----......-- ---
Accounting department-----
Executive department ..
Customs service -----


Administration of estates-- -
Division of posts --
Division of schools ----- --
Police and fire division----

CourTimekeepings ------------
Timekeeping -...........-......


------ ------ -- -- -- -
------ --. ------- -
-- - -- - - - a- -

- -- a-- - ---------a- -

---------------------------------


-- - -------------------------------------------- -

- - - - -- - - ------------------------------------ ----- -- -
-------------------------
--- - a

------------------------- ----------------------------------

------ ------------------ -- ------ --- -----


a ---- -----a--a-a-- -
a- a-a-------------------------a-a-- - a
--- ----------------------------------------------- -----------------
-a - - - - - - - - - - -


Clubs and playgrounds .....------------
Canal Record.- ---------- ------------


Lawa ......----- .----------------------
Washington office ----------- ---- ----------------------
Operation and maintenance-- ----------------- ---
Sanitation --------..------------------------.-------..----
Division of hospitals and charities --------------
Sanitary division -. .- --------- ---- --------------------
Quarantine division .-------- -------------
FortiQcations ....d----------------------------------------------


APPENDIX A.


Report of the engineer of maintenance .a -. .-----------------.. -a
Lock gates and protective devices--- ..--.-- ----a.--- ---
Chain fenders - - ---- -------a- -a-a--a----.-----aa-a-.- ----
Chain - ---- --------------- ------ -------------------
Lock entrance caissons -----.-- ---------------------
Pontoon bridge ------------------------ ------------ ---
ro1T.fnvd nt tha - wnrlr __- ---






OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of maintenance--Continued.
Emergency dams -.-.-_-_-_-.______.................. z ..._.. _-
Electrical division _ ..-- - ...--.--....... -_____-_
Division office and designing force .....__
Operation of power plants_- .......... . - --.__
Operation of air compressor plants .. . . . . .
Maintenance of building and street lighting system.....
Transmission and distribution line construction and mainte-
nance work ......... -.--.-----... _ - __-_-_--_
Electrical work in permanent buildings_ a...--..-
Electrical work in new Balboa shopsops........
Operation and maintenance of electric cargo-handling cranes...
Miscellaneous....a ______ ....- ----� _��
Division of municipal engineering ...f.-.-....-__- ......
Office engineer.--..-. .---...------__--- ..
Section of meteorology and hydrography .----�.. .......-.--
Discharge at the spillway ...- ---__ -------
Leakage at spillway- -................- -. ---------- _
General surveys -..... .. ..-------............. ----__.-
Division of lig hthouses.. .. .. .......... ---------


Page.
85
85
86
86
87


APPENDIX A-1.


Report of electrical and mechanical engineer.


Erection work-Concrete -.a.---.
Gatun hydroelectric station- -.. .
Transmission line material..........
Gatun substation
Cristobal substation . ..
Miraflores substation_
Balboa substation .........
Darien substation ...
Gamboa substation.-------
Transmission line system-----


Track


span


bridges .


- --- ------


- -... ..... ... . _ 95


Jlm


Transmission


es a -.. . . ...


Transmission line strain and suspension insulators..


Lock machinery-


----- - a-- a - - - - - - -------- ---- - - - - ----- - a - a -


Rising stem gate valve machines-Mechanical equipment --
Rising stem gate valve machines---Electrical equipment ...
Operation a. _ a.a..- - .- .---------- - - - -
Operation of rising stem gate valve machines under full head
Cylindrical valve machines .-- --_........... -.-.--....


Auxiliary culvert valve machines ....
flnfrd vnlve mnihinps


TABLE


es_______







TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of electrical and mechanical engineer-Continued.


- s--a- -- - -- ---------- -- ---a -S-f--
- a ------------- a- ------------ - -
----- - ----- - -- - --- ------ ------
--------------- ---- ------ -a- --- -


Lock transformer-room equipment...- -- -.
Special transformer-room equipment- --
Insulated cable -.--- ----- ------- --- --
Chain-fender machines --- -- .------
Handrail-operating machines- -- -----
Chain-fender sump pumps-- -- ---
Drainage sump and culvert pumps and motors
Operating tunnel doors . .. --. . . .-----.
Illumination --------------------------
Lockages --- ------------------------------


Up lockage
Return lock
Lockage of
Lockages a
Lockages a
Lockage of
Lockage of


--------------------
----- ------ ----- --- -


-- - ---------------------- -- -
- - - - - - - - - - - -




----a-- --- ---a------


of tug Gatu. -- - - --n -.---. .--.----- ----- ---------*-------
age of tug Gatun from Gatun Lake to sea.-
steamship Allianca -.-.--..--.-
t Pedro Miguel ---------
t Miraflores Locks -----------


the Santa Clara_._..
the steamship Ancon----


Emergency dams- ----------------
Tests -------------------------
Telephone system --- --------
Telephone equipment .. -------
Lock-control switchboards .....
Sump pumps, for Cristobal and Balboa
Snubbing posts... --- --------------


-- ---M---h--- -----N
-------


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. - - - - - -


- ------------------------------- ------ --------- a
- a------------------------------- ------ --------

-------------------------------------------------------.- - -


substations_
--- - -----------------


--------- --- -


Towing locomotives---- -----
Distribution of locomotives- -
Spillway gate machines-.......---
Tests and operation --.


Pumps


motors


for cable


APPENDIX A-2.


Report of resident engineer, division of munici
Northern district--------------
Southern district - ----------
Waterworks for southern end of canal-
Operation of purification plants .. ....
D designs .-.......... .... .....-- ---- --


pal engineering-----
--- -- - - a--- - -

-- a ----- a- ---- ---

-- ------------------------ a-- - - -----


APPENDIX A--3.


Report of chief hydrographer, section of meteorology and hydrography_.


Personnel --.--------- - --------


------ ------------


Page.
109
109
110
110
110
110
111
112
113
113
114
114
114
115
115
115
116
117
118
118
119
119
119
120
120
122
124
124


crossovers ...-.






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of chief hydrographer, etc.-Continued.
Meteorology-Continued.
Seismology ..... .._-..........---- - -
Monthly rainfall on Isthmus of Panama-- ----
Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone-----_------
Monthly meteorological data-


Ancon, year
Oulebra, yea
Colon, year
Monthly evapora
Tidal conditions,


1913 . . . . . . -- --
r 1913 .. ----.
1913


tion,
yea


Seismograph records,


Hydrography ..-.
General .
Gatun -.--.
Gamboa --
Alhajuela ---
Vigia ----.-..
Rating station
Special investigation


Page.
144
145
146


- - --- - - ------------------------------------------------
----- ---------------------------------------------------------------


Canal Zone, years 1913,1914, and averages.
r 1913--------------
Ancon, fiscal year ------------


------------- ------ - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--- -
- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a


-----


Currents in Colon Harbor ----
Leakage at Gatun Spillway gates_


Seepage
Hydraul
Current
flores
Monthly
Monthly
and G
Principal
Data on
period
Data on


---------------------------------------------------------------a----------------------------------a
- a--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


west emergency dam pit, Miraflores Locks_


ic conditions below Miraflores Spill


observations


below


west


Locks .--.-..
discharge-Chagres River-
maximum, minimum, and
atun and Miraflores Lakes_
1 freshets


slopes
of Nov
slopes


lower


mean


way-


operating


elevations,


gates


Chagres


at Mira-


River


.i


Report of the engineer of terminal construction--
Organization .........------.
General ..-..--.
Design, drafting, and inspection
Permanent shops
Steelwork -
Closures ..............


ns-


of Chagres River and Gatun Lake during freshet
10--11, 1913
of Chagres River and Gatun Lake during freshet


period of May 21-22, 1914


APPENDIX B.






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of terminal construction-Continued.
Installation of mechanical division and shops---Continued.
Piping ... -... - _ _________. - ........- ......... - -_ ___-
Weight of steel, date of acceptance, and contract payments-Bal-
boa shop buildings .................. _.----..__-
Amount of tile erected on permanent shop buildings-_- ..- -
Amount of roof tile manufactured by American Cement Tile Co_
Amount of Barrett specification roofing erected in permanent
shop buildings -. ........ ..----�� .........-.......
Horsepower of motors and their distribution in Balboa shop
buildings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. .. _
Number and size of lights in Balboa shop buildings ...... ...
Calculated illumination in Balboa shop buildings-- .....-.-..- -
Per cent completion of electrical installations, Balboa shop build-
rin g s .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . -. ... -_. -
Floor area, in square feet, of various departments of permanent
shop buildings ................---- ----- -- -
Contracts placed for material for permanent shops _.. _


Page.
172

172
173

173



174
174
175

176

177
177


Old and new equipment
ling plants, dry docks,
Designs -.-.
Coaling plants. .
Military usefulness- -
Commercial usefulness
Canal usefulness.
Colliers -------..
Dry docks-----
Floating cranes --..
Pontoons ---.--..
Machinery --
Electrical equipment -


Lt install
floating


ed in Balboa shops- -.-. __- -
cranes, and radio stations


----- - ---� ------------------- -----






**


Erection -........- ----......
Radio stations- .. . . . . . . ..... . .. .
-oil plants- - - ---
and wharf construction-Pacific terminals.
General .a........-.....
Quay wall " G H I " and Pier No. 1 ----
Small-boat landings a....___________a
Quay walls "D E" and "E F "__----


-a --------
------------------------- --

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -


Unloader and reloader wharves


Tu-gs . . ...... --..
Dimensions of tugs__
Hull and machinery_
Roilers ani enwiins.


- - - a - - -----------------------------------------------------a - - -
a a - ---- -- -- - -- -- - -- -- aa a -- a


Fuel
Pier







TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of terminal construction-Continued.
Construction work-Pacific terminals---Continued.
Balboa coaling plant...--- ---------. --_...


Page.
203


Excavation -......-..---
Concrete -.---------
Filling and embankment---
Quay walls and piers. . .
Quay wall "G 0H I "....-...
Bulkhead quay wall "I J M
Pier No. 1.......-------
Quay wall " E F .---..--


Shops .----------
Machine foundationst-
Shops tunnel.......
Drainage ........
* Precise levels .
Panama Railroad yards.
Curundu River culvert.- -
Reclamation of land_


Remo
Naos
Ancox
Sand
Person
Work


or


,val of berm cranes fr
Breakwater.. .
i quarry -----.
service ------
nnel


done, Pacific terminals,


Excavation
Drilling, Pa
Dynamite u
Piles driven,
Reinforcing
Fixed steel,


1
C


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


N"


--- -- - -- -- -- --- -- -


- - - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- - - ----------------------------------
-- - - - - ---------------------------- ---- -
-- - -- - ----- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - - ------------------------------------------------ - - -
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------
- - - - - -------------------------------------------------- ----- -------------------------------


n Miraflores.


-a----------------------------- - - - -
- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -


- ------------------------------------ - - - - - - - - -


fiscal year ----.


)y steam shovels, Pacific terminals
ific terminals .- ------..-----


--------------------------------------------
- - - ------------------------------------
-------------- ----


sed, Pacific terminals-
, track laid, track removed, Pacific terminals.
steel, Pacific terminals ---------.--...
Pacific terminals ....--------.---.


----------
--- - ---- - -


- - - - - - -


Performance of steam shovels, Pacific terminals.....
Progress of caisson operations, Pacific terminals.
Concrete placed, Pacific terminals .------.---.
Material placed on Naos Island Breakwater ------.
Operations, Ancon quarry --------------
Sand unloaded from barges ...-. -- --------
Principal items of hand excavation, Pacific terminals


----- - ----- -
------------
--- ------- --
- - - - ---- - - - -
- ------------------------------------------
- -----------
- --- ------- -


Pile trestles constructed, Pacific terminals .. .. . .
Ditches dug, Pacific terminals - - ----------------------- -
Miscellaneous work done, Pacific terminals ...----------
Construction work-Pacific terminals-Balboa town-site subdivision


Balboa town site-- -.--------------
Drainage and sewerage .--


-----------------------
- ---------------------------------- -






OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of terminal construction---Continued.
Atlantic terminals-Construction-Continued.
Water transportation.--- --------
West breakwater, Colon ------.--------------
East breakwater -......- a..- ---....
Construction work-Atlantic terminals ------
Subdivision of Cristobal coaling plant------


Page.
226
227
227
229
229


APPENDIX C.


resident engineer, dredging division--------
on organization- - --- --- -. . .
re-edg-ing
Yardage removed, first district-
Pedro Miguel Locks to sea .-. ..---....- -.----..
Culebra Cut, Pedro Miguel Locks to Gaminboa Dike __
Yardage removed, second district. ....... ."


- - --------------
------ a a -
a a --- -----
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a -


First d
First d
Second
Dredging
Atlantii
Gatun
Culebra
Miraflo.
Pacific
Atlanti.


---
- - -


district (Pedro Miguel Locks to sea)
district (ulebra Cut)------
dis r c.. . . _.. . . . .


0

I
L
r

'I


operations --
entrance....
Lake -.----...-.
Cut ------
es Lake - .


..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................a ---- -
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------
----------------------------------------------- a - ----- - ------- a --------- -
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - - - -
S- ----------------------------------- -


eintrance - - - - ---------------------------------- -----------------------------^ --^^---.---.-.--
terminals - ---


Miscellaneous


Clearings and diversions------------------
Paraiso Wharf -------------------
Pontoon bridge --
Water hyacinths----------- -----
Dry excavation ------------------
Culebra Cut ------------------ ------

OfficSurveys -- - -aa--------------. ---
Offic __


241
241
.242


APPENDIX D.


Report of


superintendent-Mechanical


division.--


Balboa shops ....------ --------------- --
Cri stobal shops and dry dock --- ---- - ---------------------- --
P a raise shops -- - - - - -------------------------- - - --- -------------------------


TABLE


Report of
Divisi
D


Dredges retired for repairs and renewals
Subaqueous rock excavation --- ---






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of superintendent-Mechanical division-Continued.
Value of work performed by mechanical division, exclusive of Cristo-
bal Dry Dock shops and Paraiso shops, for individuals and cornm-
p a n ie s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... -. . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . .-_-.. . . . . . .
Value of work performed by Cristobal dry-dock shops-Abstract of
expenditures .....-------------
Value of work performed by Cristobal dry-dock shops for indi-
viduals and companies ...- .----------------- -
Value of work performed by Paraiso shops-Abstract of expenditures-
Value of work performed by Paraiso shops for individuals and conm-
paq ies-. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .-. .
Total overtime of Paraiso shops and Cristobal dry-dock shops, with
per cent of total pay roll- ------------------
Total overtime of Cristobal dry-dock shops, with per cent of total


pay rol
Total ove;
Actual sh
Applied sl
Output ar
Output an
Output an
Number c
Repairs r
Number o
Hostling


Page.



254

254

254
255


1__-


me of Paraiso shops,


op exp
lop exp
id cost
ad cost
d cost
>f repa
Lade to
f shop
cost-


with per cent of total pay roll...


?nse percentage, dry-dock shops and
iense percentage, dry-dock shops and
of brass castingsl- -----------
of iron castings....
of steel castings ..-....---.
irs to locomotives ------ ---- -
equipment other than locomotives a
and field repairs made to different c


.na


Paraiso shops
Paraiso shops.


nd cars---
:lasses of cars-


- - ----------------------------- ----------


APPENDIX E.


Report of superintendent, division of canal transportation


sion organization ....
Captains of the ports- ----
Board of local inspectors -.-.--
Lighthouse Service---- --
Board of admeasurement ---


Appendix - -- -----------
Report of board of local inspector
Organization and personnel
Navigation laws, etc-----
Accidents and investigations--
Steamboat inspection- ----


- - - - - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- -----
- - - -, a-----a------~--.
- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ----
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----
-----
S-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -
-
-
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Licenses
Chauffeu
Navigato
Licenses
Licenses


issued ------------------
ES--- - - - - - - --------------------------------------------
rs of motor boats .-.-
revoked ---- --------------
refused .- .--------------- --- -----------
1 /~f ^^n 1 Sinflfls dat' I aaicnA^r


---- ------------------ -- - ---
-- - --------------------------------
--- - -- - - --- - --
--- - -- - - -- - - - ---


Divi








Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department-Continued.
Quarters...... _ _aa-- a........ a aaaa-----...a - ..---...... .....
Zone sanitation.._ . --.--- .----.. ...------.-----------.--- -------
Corrals .... __-- a--a.- - a -- --.-----------a--------.--- -- ---
Building construction- ---- ..--- -------------.------- - --- -----
Material and supplies -.-------.---a..---------.------.-------.
Receipts a- ---- -.-----.------------------------------
Operations of stores .aa---aa.......----------a---
Mount Hope.. a .a.... a----a--..----..- ---.----
Paraiso ....._. . . - .-------------------------------------


Gatuna .a....... -------a --
Balboa .. ---------------
Generala..... a----------a-
Scrap ......____--- ........---.----a
Sales aaa _ _aaa --.. ......... -.------
Subsistence- ...----.....-----------
Commissary branch ._ --.._
EXHIBIT 1.-Force actually at work
EXHIBIT 2.-Force report, by months


-- - ------------------------------------- ---aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
a a-a------- a --- - a -- ---a
a- -a -a-a-a-a-a-- -- .-a- a-a- a- a
a--a-aa-a-aa---.-aaaa------a-a--
a a flaw -a a a- a -a aa Ca- a-a a a aa a
a aa a---a-a--a-a--a------- a--a
a 5--------------- ----------a-a-
June 30, l9l4a _- a----- ---
(Including contractors' forces),


fiscal year ..... .-- ------- ------------ -- ------
3.-High and low force records, December, 1906, to June 30,
1914 - a a..... -..- aa----aa- .-a....---..
4.-Contract laborers brought to Isthmus by Isthmian Canal
Commission-..---------------------.a.----aa------


EXHIBIT
EXHIBIT

EXHIBIT
EXHIBIT
EXHIBIT
EXHIBIT
EXHIBIT
EXHIBIT


EXHIBIT


5.-Analysis of
6.-Occupants
quarters,
7.-Application


transportation from the Isthmus ... ---
of Panama Canal and Panama Railroad
June 30, 1914 a ..---aa----------------.a
s for married quarters on file June 30,1914_


8.-Animals in corrals June 30, 1914 .---------a-a-
9.-Number of buildings on the Canal Zone June 30, 1914-
10.-New frame structures, fiscal year ....---..------.
11.-Buildings sold and demolished, fiscal year .....
12.-Value of material received during fiscal year on requisi-
tions of various departments- ..--a.---------a.-....
13.-Freight statement, fiscal year ....------- --- ---


EXHIBIT 14.-Important
30, 1914
EKHIBIT 15.-Important
of canal
EXHIBIT 16.-Important
EXHIBIT 17.-Classificati
June 30,


EXHIBIT 18.---Value oJ
EXHIBIT 19.-Rolling


items due on United States requisitions June
------------------------------------------------ - a
items of material purchased from inception
work, 1904 to June 30, 1914 ......
items of material received, fiscal year..
on of material in stock at storehouses,


1914_


- ----------- aaa- aa a aa- a------------
hiand at warehouses, June 30, 1914_-
1, 1914-- ..----------------------
A _. - - - t_ _ . j


TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Page.


EXHIBIT

EXHIBIT


! stock on 1
stock, Jul1
*





TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department-Continued.
APPENDIx.-Report of resident engineer, etc.-Continued.


Hydroelectri
Transmission
Gatun s
Miraflor
Cristoba
Balboa
Commissary
Commissary,
Shops office,
Fire station
Schoolhouse


station power plant ... _ ...a- -----. -. ---
line substations- .a.a. -..a..-----___
bstation --.... . ... - .- aa_ ....


es substation-___
I substation .
substation ----a.-
warehouse.
Balboa
Building No. 28.


--- -- --------------------- -- --- - --
------ - - ------------------------------------------ -- --


- - ------------------------------ -----U


n- n fl - ------------------------ -- ---


Radio stations .- -a----------- -.
Darien radio station.._._.
Colon radio station
Balboa radio station -...---
Lock control houses- .........
Ancon commissary --.-_ ......
Force . .. . . . . . . .


------ a
a - - -- -
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa - - - - - - - - -


Page.
314
315
316
316
317
318
318
319
.319
320
320
320
320
321
321
321
322


APPENDIX Gr


Report of auditor, accounting departmentL
Organization-.-------------
Permanent accounting system------..
Panama and Colon waterworks accounts


-------------------------- -- - -a
------
- ------------------a - -a


Miscell
Canal
Claims
Canal
Tables


aneous work -------...
Zone accounts......---.-..
for injuries and deaths-_
appropriations- --
submitted with report (for


- a - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ - - -
-------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------


index see p. 332)


--- ---------------------------- - - -
- -----a--a--n----


APPENDIX H.


Report of chief health officer, department of health (for index see p. 375)_


APPENDIX I-1.


Report of executive secretary, executive department .- ----------
Organization .-.--- .--..--.-----.----- a.-----.........------ --- --


Executive office------a------
Clerical bureau.-----------
Personal bureau ----------
Time-keeping bureau ... .
Cost-keeping bureau - .. .
Riirnu of clubs and nlaverounds....--


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --

----------------------- - - - -
-------------------------- a - - a

-------------------- a -






OF CONTENTS.


Report of executive secretary, executive department---Continued.
Organization-Continued.
Executive office-Continued.
Special attorney's office....-a-..a ....a..-------- -


Division of civil affairs-- ..
Licenses and taxes--
Customs service- ----
Administration of estates
Division of posts- --. . ---.
Division of schools..
Police and fire division- -..
Police and prisons-- -.
Fire protection_


C ourts _- .-...- .-..............
Marshal.....-
Relations with Panama and forei
Legislation ..- .-- ..--�.. .
Appendices to report (for table (


----- ----- ----- a -- - -- - -- -
- - - - - - - - ---- - - - - - - - - -- -


gn representatives.

)f contents, see n. 422)....


APPENDIX 1-2.


Report of cost-keeping account ant-- ...---- - -.......----- ----
EXHIBIT A.-Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1914_
Total cost by geographical divisions-----------
Percentage of surcharge over construction cost_--- -
Total construction cost for various units of work a-------
D ry excavation ......-...........a...-..
M asonry ....-................
Dry filling _
EXHIBIT B.-Detailed cost per unit of work .......


TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
EXHIBIT C.
TABLE
and
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE


1.-Dredging excavation
2.-Hydraulic excavation-
3.-Colon west breakwater


----- -- ----------------------
- ------------------------------a----------------------------------a a - a
- - ---------------------------------a--------------------------------------


4.-Stone production .....- a.a.a .aa
5.-Sand production --..--- -- - -----..... ....---
-Detailed cost to June 30, 1914_ ...------....
1.-Spillway gates, caissons, and machinery, lock gates
fender chains, emergency dams, hydroelectric power plant-
2.-Lock-operating machinery . -..- _ ..-.- --.-.-..


3.-Transmission system -
4.-Aids to navigation
5.-Cristobal terminals -
6.-Balboa terminals .
7.-Permanent town sites


- -------- - ----------- ------- - -
- - - - - - -------- ---- - - - - - - - - a - - a
- - a - ---------- - -------- - - - - - a


-- - - - -


TABLE


Page.
409


w -* f


]


m




TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


APPENDIX I1-3.


Report of special attorney_ -- ------
Legislation--- -.....-- -.. ....- --....
Organization-------- -. ----


Criminal


matters ..a .. ________ . - ....


Civil cases in the Canal Zone courts in which the United States and
the Panama Railroad Co. are interested_


Claims disposed


of without suit.....


APPENDIX J.


Report of


the general


purchasing


officer


chief


the Washington


office


APPENDIX K.


Tables showing increases in salaries and personnel_
Department of operation and maintenance -


Supply department ..
Accounting department
Department of health. .


Executive


department


Office of special attorney


Washington


office ..--


APPENDIX L.

Acts of Congress affecting the Panama Canal and Executive orders relat-
ing to the Canal Zone (for index see p. 553)----- -----


APPENDIX M.

Charts showing organization of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad


Co., July, 1914


63399


(for index see p. 603)-------------


14--n


Page.
511


- - - -- ----- ---- - -
- - - - - - - - a -- -




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LIST


OF


ILLUSTRATIONS.


APPENDIX A.


[Report of Engineer of Maintenance.]


Plate.


Pedro Miguel Lock.


East chamber, looking north.


All valves in east wall


fully open.


February 21, 1914.


Pedro Miguel Lock.


East chamber, looking north.


Discharge showing


cornm-


plete from the 11 culverts of east wall.
Operation of Miraflores Locks. S. S. Sat


February 21, 1914.


tta Clara in lower west chamber,


lock filling.


Looking south.


June 18, 1914.


Operation of Miraflores Locks.


S. S. Santa Clara in upper west chamber,


lock filling.


Operation


Looking south.


of Gatun


Locks.


June 18, 1914.
East emergency


dam


subjected


to head


50 feet of water. Look
Operation of Gatun Locks.


ing south from intermediate gates.


First boat through.


May 6,1914.


Tug Gatun entering lower


lock,


west chamber.


Looking


south


from


forbay.


September 26,1913.


'. Operation of Gatun Locks.


S. S. Ancon leaving upper west chamber and


entering the lake.


Gatun spillway dam completed, and hydroelectric station


under construc-


abutment.


December 30,


1913.


Gatun spillway dam completed and hydroelectric station under construe-


tion.


Looking south.


February 7


1914.


Gatun hydroelectric station.


Exterior of gatehouse.


Pedro Miguel Lock.
Pedro Miguel Lock.
Pedro Miguel Lock.


General view from Luisa Hill.
West chamber, illuminated.
Control house.


June 6,1914.


Operation of Miraflores Locks.


S. S. Santa Clara in upper west chamber.


Lock filling.


Looking south.


June 18, 1914.


Miraflores Locks.


Control board.


Following plates, 71 to 75 and 186, in portfolo.


Diagram


showing


area


cross


section


at different


points


filling


flU' s .rn.rrL,


A.--1-- A..JKN






XVIII


LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Plate.
76.

77.

78.

79.

80.

81.


APPENDIX A-1.

[Report of electrical and mechanical engineer.]

Following plates, 76 to 95, in portfolio.


Miraflores Locks. Head-to
machines.
Miter-gate moving machine.
and 32.
Miter-gate moving machine.
and 32.
Miter-gate moving machine.
and 32.
Miter-gate moving machine.
and 32.
Gatun Locks. Miter-gate
cycle for nonsimultaneous
31 and 32.


rque characteristics of rising stem gate-valve


Current-duty cycle for opening gates Nos. 31

Current-duty cycle for closing gates Nos. 31

Current-duty cycle for opening gates Nos. 31

Current-duty cycle for closing gates Nos. 31


moving machine.
operation of gates.


Maximum current of duty
. Opening miter gates Nos.


Gatun Locks. Miter-gate
cycle for nonsimultaneous
31 and 32.
Gatun Locks. Miter-gate m
for nonsimultaneous opera
Gatun Locks. Miter-gate mi


for nonsimultan
Miraflores Lock.
and descending


moving machine. Maximum current of duty
operation of gates. Closing miter gates Nos.


loving
ition o
loving


eous operation o
Towing locomo
incline at west v


machine. Maximum
f opening miter gati
machine. Maximum
if closing miter gate
tive. Current-duty
vall.


n strut compression
es Nos. 31 and 32.
n strut compression
s Nos. 31 and 32.
cycle for ascending


Gatun Locks.
1913.
Gatun Locks.
lamp stand
standard No


Gatun
Valu
side
Gatun
Valu
west


Gd


Locks.


Graphic


wattmeter


curve


power


demand.


November


Illumination. Cut-off distances for concrete reflectors of
rds, elevation of eye, 3 feet 6 inches above the rail. Lamp
. 194.
Illumination. Center-wall illumination with all lights on,


es taken at a point
of the middle level.
Locks. Illuminatio
es taken at a point
side of the middle


3 feet 6 inches
New, rough,
n. Center-wall
3 feet 6 inche
level. White


3 above rail on center wall, west
whitewashed reflectors.
I illumination with all lights on.
s above the rail on center wall,
washed reflectors, old and soiled.


itun Locks. Illumination. Profile of west wall giving illumination at
a point 3 feet 6 inches above rail, using whitewashed reflectors, old but
moderately clean. Lamp standard No. 280.


Gatun Locks
June 8, 191
fna twn Tnlcm.


Log tests


made


in towing


S. S. Allianca


through


locks.


4.


Mannlnroment nf rise nf wdlffes above seats nnder full head.


I


I






ULIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


APPENDIX A-2.


[Report of resident engineer, division of municipal engineering.]


Plate.


Agua Clara purification plant.


'. Mount


Hope


waterworks and


General view looking south.


purification


plant,


showing


April 4, 1913.
sedimentation


basin, aeration basin, and filter building.
Mount Hope waterworks and purification plant.


Front view filter build-


ing and pump station.


Miraflores


water-purification


plant.


Wash-water


tank.


Looking


south.


May 30, 1914.


Miraflores purification plant.


in portfolio.


Elevation plan and section.


. Miraflores


purification


plant.


and sections.


Filter


buildings,


general


location,


plans


Chlorine chart, Miraflores Lake.


APPENDIX


[Report of chief hydrographer,


A-3.


section of meteorology and hydrography.]


Following plates,
Plate.


99 to 112


, in portfolio.


Wind roses, year 1913.


Hydrograph of Gatun Lake.
Hydrograph of Miraflores Lake.
Mass curve of total yield, Gatun Lake.


Rainfall, runoff and percentage


runoff, Gatun Lake, year


1913.


Gatun Lake watershed.


Mass curves of total


yield,


net yield,


land area


yield, storage,


rainfall, and evaporation on lake surface.


Chagres River drainage basin.


Chagres River drainage


basin.


. Chagres River drainage basin.


Mass curve of discharge at Alhajuela.
Curve of discharge duration, Alhajuela.
Curve of discharge duration for 24 years,


Alhajuela.


Gatun


Spillway.


Changes due to operation of gates.


Gatun Spillway.
Gatun Spillway.
Miraflores Locks.


Leaka
Leaka


ge of gates.
ge of gates.


December


23 to 25


1913.


March 12 to 14, 1914.


Current observations taken below west lower operating


gates.


Hydrographs


showing


surge in Culebra


Cut at pontdon bridge on locking


water at Pedro


Miguel Lock.


APPENDIX B.

[Report of engineer of terminal construction.]


Plate.


-~1t A. C n 'S.. *.-fl a .5 -.- -. C * I C S SW


Following plates, 96 to 9


--h






LIST


Plate.
25.


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Balboa terminals. Condition of south wall of Dry Dock No. 1 after ex-
cavation by steam shovels to elevation -40. Slope taken is at natural
dip of rock. June 26, 1914.


Balboa terminals.
condition along in
Balboa terminals.
over coal pocket.
Balboa terminals.
Pier No. 1. June


East end of
line. June
Supporting
June 30, 19
Beam and
27, 1914.


north wall
26, 1914.
runway pie
14.
floor reinfo


of Dry Dock No. 1, showing


rs for coal rehandling cranes


rcement


in superstructure


Asphalt-concrete mixing plant at Balboa.
Making asphalt concrete roads at Balboa.


June 27, 1914.
June 27, 1914.


Cristobal coaling station, showing caissons in reloader foundations, look-
ing south. May 26, 1914.
Cristobal coaling station, showing east bridge tract wall and south end
of caissons under unloading wharf. Looking north. July 9, 1914.
East Breakwater, Limon Bay, Coco Solo storage yard, looking west from


east end. August 12, 1914.
Toro Point Breakwater, top view, looking out.
Toro Point Breakwater, sea slope, looking out.


April 21, 1914.
April 21, 1914.


Following plates, 113 to 128, in portfolio.


Balboa shops and yards.


General plan.


Dry Dock No. 1, Balboa. General plan and section.
Dry Dock No. 1, Balboa. Cross sections.
Balboa coaling plant. General plan.
Balboa coaling plant. Cross sections.
Balboa townsite. General plan.
Floating cranes Ajax and Hercules. Elevations.
Floating cranes Ajax and Hercules. Plan and sections.
Fuel-oil plant, Atlantic terminals. General plan.
Fuel-oil plant, Pacific terminals. General plan.
Cristobal coaling plant. General plan.
Cristobal coaling plant. Cross sections.
East Breakwater. General plan.
East Breakwater. Cross sections.


Type A tugs.
Type A tugs.


Deck plans.
Outboard profile.


APPENDIX C.

[Report of resident engineer, dredging division.]


Plate.


a lM . . 0 .. - . j i._ - _----------- _- _s- * _ - _ -- -- - - - - .4 Whf - --- -L -< -






LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Plate.


Culebra Cut, Culebra.


canal.


Looking north from east bank, showing bottom of


August 23, 1913.


Culebra Cut, Culebra.


Looking south from east bank.


Surface of water


72.3 feet above sea level.


October 30, 1913.


Culebra Cut, Empire.


Looking south from suspension bridge.


Surface of


water 72.3 feet above sea level.


October 30, 1913.


Culebra


looking


north


from


one-fourth


mile


south


of suspension


bridge at Empire.
. Culebra Cut, Empire.


Cut completed at bridge.


June 16, 1913.


Looking south from west bank near Cunette.


face of water 72.3 feet above sea level.


October 30, 1918.


Culebra Cut, Empire.


Looking south, showing suspension bridge.


Decem-


ber, 1913.


Culebra


Culebra.


Looking south from Contractors


Hill.


Cucaracha


slide in left center.
Culebra Cut, Culebra.


May


1913.


Looking north.


Lower part of Cucaracha slide on


. right.


Culebra C


Looking


August 18, 1913.
!ut. Cucaracha slide, from west bank south of Contractors Hill.
g north. October 16, 1913.


Culebra


Culebra.


Blasting


channel


through


Cucaracha


slide.


Looking north.


October 16, 1913.


Culebra


Culebra.


Looking


south


from


of Contractors


Hill.


Cucaracha slide to left.


December


1913.


Culebra


from


Contractors


Hill,


showing


ladder and


dipper dredges


working on toe of Cucaracha slide.


December 9, 1913.


Culebra Cut, Culebra.
in Cucaracha slide.


Culebra Cut.
150 feet.


. Culebra


Looking north from west bank.


December 9


Dredges operating


1913.


Looking north from west bank.


December
. Culebra.


Width of channel at slide,


18, 1913.


Seag


suction


dredge


Culebra


passing


Cuca-


racha slide.


January 20, 1914.


Culebra


Culebra.


Looking north


from


Contractors Hill.


June


1914.


Culebra


Culebra.


Looking south from


west bank,


showing dredges


working in Cucaracha slide.


June, 1914.


Gamboa


Dike.


Opening


the valves


flooding


Culebra


Water


coming through four pipes.
Blowing up Gamboa Dike.


October 1, 1913.


Looking north from


boat in


canal


south


dike.


October 10, 1913.


Aids to navigation. Beacons in Culebra Cut.
Naos Island Breakwater. Looking south from Sosa Hill.


Paraiso
March


pontoon


bridge.


Launching


pontoon


at Mount


Hope


shops.


1914.


Pnrniin


nontoon


hri A ra


Tnokine


nort-h


tfl'II IA nni Jli lIlc. rK.1.At.,. n Eli


showing


train


rnRsainr


annul


B 1 fI| I.I


.






XXII


LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


APPENDIX TO


APPENDIX F.


[Report of resident engineer, permanent building division, supply department.]


Plate.


New administration building, Balboa Heights.
New administration building, Balboa Heights.


North front.
South front.


68. Completed four-family house in the new village of Balboa.
69. The new village of Balboa from the administration building.
70. The transmission line substation at Miraflores.

APPENDIX M.
[Charts showing organization of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co., July, 1914.]

All plates in portfolio.


Plate.


. General organization.


Executive department.
Engineer of maintenance.
Division of terminal construction.
Dredging division.
Mechanical division.
Division of canal transportation.
Supply department.
Accounting department.
Health department.
Washington office.
Panama Railroad.












ANNUAL


REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION


AND


THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


THE PANAMA


CANAL,


OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR,


Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, 8S


ptember �0, 1914.


I have


construction,


honor to


operation


submit


maintenance,


annual


sanitation,


report


and


covering
protection


The Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914.

ORGANIZATION.


The organization


which


existed


at the close of the


previous fiscal


year and


was described in the


last annual report underwent a num-


changes


reduced


and


during


concentration


year,
what


construction


remained


seemed


work


desirable


was
and


advantageous.
All municipal engineering work in


formed


the construction


divisions,


Canal Zone


as well


as that


formerly per-
performed in


cities


Colon


and


Panama


division


public


works,


department of


civil administration,


was consolidated


effective


July


1913


Mr.


, forming


George


Wells


division
resident


municipal


engineer,


engineering,


reporting


under
chief


i-" Iv n� a I l


rE I tF I I





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


Balboa town site, independent of the division of municipal engineer-


ming.


While the


work of the first two


forces was directly under the


supervision


of the chief


engineer,


reduce


the cost of


administra-


.tion they were assigned to the quartermaster'


department; the force


of the


landscape


architect


was placed


under the second


division


the chief engineer


office.


Effective


central


October
division


1913


and


the time


cost


keeping


keeping


and


cost


keeping for


quartermaster


department
consolidated


were transferred


with


forces


the office of the chief


already


organized


under


engineer and


this


office


take care of the time keeping and cost keeping of


other branches of


the work.


With the admission of water into Culebra


Cut by the blowing up


of Gamboa Dike on


October


10, 1913,


the central division


was abol-


ished.


The


remaining


dry


excavation


in the


territory


covered


this division


was placed


under


a resident


engineer reporting to the


chief


engineer


all surveying work and


dredging were placed under


the sixth


division


of the chief


engineer


office,


and


transporta-


tion
were


forces,


with


concentrated


those of the first


under


fifth


superintendent


and fortification


divisions,


transportation


and


placed


with


the< second


division


of the


office


of the


chief


engineer;


the central division


property


accountability was transferred


to the


quartermaster


department.


Effective


October


1913


the concrete


work


remaining to


cornm-


plete the constriction of the locks at Gatun was transferred from the


Atlantic division to the first division,


which could do it in connection


with installation of the machinery and towing tracks with the same


supervisory


force


similar


unfinished


work


in connection


with


Pacific


Locks


was also


transferred


first


division


the same


time.


On January


1, 1914, all dry excavation still in progress in connec-


tion


with


Culebra


Cut


construction


Naos


Island


Breakwater, the sluicing operations on the east bank of the Cut north


of Gold Hill


relieve


pressure, and


the fill of the town site at


Balboa


were


Greenslade


i *ii n


consolidated


, general
In ahie r


and


placed


superintendent,


amannrr QQo


ofa


in charge


and


Thb


Mr.


constituted


auditinu


n'


. . . ..h . . ...


George
fourth


ronertv


*- -






REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


tion of the west breakwater and the operation of Porto Bello quarry


were transferred


to the second division of the chief engineer'


office


while the work remaining at Gatun Dam, El


Cano saddle, back fill


at Miraflores,
sluicing at Gold


Liraflores


Hill


spillway


were placed


channel


Ancon


quarry,


directly under the chief


and


engineer.


Effective April 1,


1914, by


Executive order and in conformity with


the Panama Canal act of August 24, 1912, the existing organization


was abolished and


the one contemplated


by the act was made effec-


tive.


Under this organizations


there


were created a


department


operation


and maintenance,


a purchasing


department, a supply


apartment, an accounting department,


a health


department,


an execu-


tive office


and a


Washington office of The Panama Canal.


The


department


operation


and


maintenance


was


placed


charge of the (
the department


governor and in


is assisted


the administration
r an engineer of m


of the affairs of
Maintenance and a


superintendent of canal transportation.


To provide for the remain-


ing construction


work as well as the


maintenance


and


operation


the canal


,the department was organized with the following divisions


The division


of terminal


the design, inspection


and


construction,


construction


which
dry


i embraces c
docks, shops,


iarge of
coaling


and fuel-oil


plants,


floating cranes, docks, and


other terminal facili-


ties


construction


transportation


rail


road


street


and


sewer


work in the new town of Balboa


and the breakwater construction at


the Atlantic terminal, reporting to the Governor.


The


division


erection


electrical


division;


division


municipal


engineering;


division


lighthouses,


until


June


1914,


when it was abolished


and the office engineer with his


forces,


were placed under the engineer of maintenance.


The dredging division,


fortification


division


mechanical


division,


and


remaining


construction


work


consisting


sluicing


in the


vicinity


Gold


Hill


, completion


Naos


Island


Breakwater,


cavation in the dry to relieve side pressure in the vicinity of Culebra,
and grading and filling at the locks and dams, combined in a general
construction division, report directly to the Governor.


The division
superintendent


canal


transportation,


transportation


under


reporting


supervision o
ie Governor,


a


-. 1U a r U * | � * � � *


q


m





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


The quartermaster'


department


and


subsistence


department,


as outlined in previous annual reports,


were consolidated to constitute


the supply dej
Wood as chief


artment,


which


quartermaster.


was placed in


charge of Capt.


R. E.


It has charge of the storing and dis-


tribution of all material and supplies for use of The Panama Canal


and


employees,


and


other


departments


on the


Isthmus


ana


their employees, and for vessels of the United States and other vessels


when


required.


operates


commissaries,


hotels,


and


messes;


charge of the maintenance of buildings,


the assignment of


quarters,


and care of grounds.


It recruit


and


distributes unskilled labor and


is in charge of the necessary animal transportation.


The accounting department,


as organized, consists of the auditor's,


the
mad


paymaster'


e


and


for administrative


collector's


offices.


purposes only


The


consolidation


was


order to secure economy,


auditor


having supervision


and


direction


entire


depart-


ment;


heads


the subdivisions,


however,


independent


their own particular spheres.


The department has charge of general


bookkeeping, auditing, and accounting for both money and property,


examination


pay


rolls


and


vouchers,


inspection


time


books and of money and property accounts, the administrative exami-


nation


and


of accounts
bursement


as required
f funds foi


law,


The


and


Panama


collection,


Canal


and


custody,
te Canal


Zone.


The


accounting


department


was


placed


charge


Mr.


H. A. A. Smith as auditor for The Panama Canal,


McLean as paymaster and Mr.


with Mr. John H.


L. Clear as collector.


The


health


department was organized


under the supervision


and


direction


a chief


health


officer,


Lieut.


Col.


Charles


Mason,


United States Army.


This department


is charged


with all matters


relating


maritime


sanitation


and


quarantine


ports


and


waters of the Canal Zone and in the harbors of the cities of Panama


and Colon


and with land sanitation in the Canal Zone and sanitary


matters
between


in the


terminal


United


cities


States


in conformity


and


Republic


with


canal'


Panama,


treaty


together


with all matters relating to hospitals and charities.
The civil functions of the Canal Zone were placed in charge of an


executive


secretary


who,


under


direction


Governor,


� -- - - - mil . a






REPORT OF


THE


GOVERNOR.


The scope of the work of the


Washington office remained about the


same as previously reported, Maj. F.
being continued in charge as general
office.


Boggs,


United States Army,


purchasing officer and chief


Executive order of May 20, 1914, a committee of six


members


was created to arrange and provide suitable ceremonies for the formal
and official opening of The Panama Canal, as is provided for in sec-


tion 4 of the Panama Canal act.


The committee is composed of per-


sons who were members of the Isthmian Canal Commission and is to
be known and referred to as the committee for the formal and official
opening of the Panama Canal.

CONSTRUCTIOiN.

PERSONNEL.


The central division


, embracing the same work as described in the


annual report for 1913, continued in charge of Lieut. Col.


D.D.


Gail


lard


, United States Army


as division engineer, until the division was


abolished on October 15,
leave from May 7, 1913,


1913.


During his absence on regular annual


to July 2,


1913


and


during the part of his


illness from


July


1913


October


work was


con-


ducted by


Resident Engineer


Zinn a


acting division engineer.


Subsequent to the abolition of the division and until January


1, 1914,


Mr. Zinn continued in charge of steam-shovel work which was under-


taken


to lighten the banks, of the approaches to the pontoon bridge,


and of the Naos Island Breakwater.
of a tumor on the brain, December 5,


Col. Gaillard died


as the result


1913.


The work


of dry excavation in


Culebra


Cut was divided into


two


districts


one


extended


from


Gamboa


Culebra,


which


continued


in charge of Mr. J


Hagan,


superintendent,


until


September


1913


when he was transferred


Naos Island Breakwater, relieving


Supt. W. T
remained in


under


The


Reynolds,


who


resigned


charge until the consolidation


fourth


breakwater


division,


was then


chief


placed


engineer


under


Mr.


on September


1913.


of the construction


office,
Will


January


work
1914.


Casey, general


foreman.


The


district


from


Culebra


Pedro


Miguel


Locks


con-


m -- A A m l m wm m I A --






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


April 1, 1914.


Maj


James P


. Jervey,


United States Army, resident


engineer,


continued


min charge


construction


work of the Gatun Locks until September 26,


1913.


Maj.


e masonry
George M.


Hoffman, United States Army, resident engineer, continued in charge


of the Gatun Dam and spillway until September 28, 1913.


On these


dates both the latter officers were relieved on account of the practical


completion o
States Army
construction


their


work.


Lieut.


Col.


William


Judson,


United


assistant division engineer, continued in charge of the


of the


breakwater at Toro


Point


and


the operation


Porto


Bello quarry until


the abolition


of the division,


when he


continued in


charge of the same


until April 1, 1914,
duty with the canal.


work as assistant division engineer


when, on his own request,


was relieved from


The


fifth


division,


chief


engineer'


office


continued


charge


Mr.


Cole


as resident


engineer,


and


had


charge


masonry


construction of the Pacific locks, dams, and spillway, the operation of


Ancon


quarry,


and


excavation


channel


between


Pedro


Miguel and Miraflores Locks until


October


1913


when


the locks


were transferred


to the first division, and he continued in charge of


the balance of the work until January 31, 1914,


when the amount of


work remaining necessitated a reorganization and he severed his con-


nection


with the canal.


Other


officials


connected


with


work


during


year


ferred to elsewhere in the report.
LOCKS AND DAMS.


Gatun Locks.-As noted in the last annual report,


the concrete work


of the locks assigned


to the Atlantic division


was


finished


June


1913,


with


buttons


and


the exception


mooring


of the lamp-post bases,


posts,


stairway


parapets,


bases


and


for snubbing
ie closing of


openings left for construction purposes.


During the year just ended


there were laid


525 cubic yard


of concrete in


the locks structure at


a division


calking


cost of $95.2529 per


concrete


previously


cubic


laid);


yard


min the


(including finishing
construction of the


and
con-


trol house


, 94 cubic yards at a division cost of $81.2796 per cubic yard,


and


9,785 cubic yards in connection


with


installation of the ma-






REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


sand


was handled


by the


unloading cableways


during the


year,


they were used for transferring material from


the stock piles to the


tunnel


hoppers and


unloading


coal


for use


on the


west


side


the locks.


The


back filling of the side


walls, made of material


tained


from


borrow


pits,


was


continued


until


December


1913


when the status of available money necessitated discontinuing further


work.


The amount placed during the year was 91,576 cubic yards at


a division cost of $1.4304


trial


used


back


per cubic yard.
mI to June 30,


The total amount of ma-


1914,


aggregated


2,119,406


cubic yards placed behind the
per cubic yard, and a total ol


side walls at a division cost of $0.5007
113,163 cubic yards placed in the cen-


wall


a division


cost


scrapers, locomotive cranes,


of $0.7692
and hand


cubic


labor were


yard.
used


back fill to final grade, at a cost for the year of $47,376.79.


Teams


and


> bring the
To the end


of the fiscal year a total of $56,673.61


was expended on


work for this


final


gradin


and the


The


concrete


Panama Railroad


paving


of the slope


was completed


between


during the year


at a


locks
total


cost of $10,726.54.


The


lamp-posts,


snubbing buttons,


and mooring


posts were completed in place.


The construction of the control house,


begun


in April,


1913,


was


continued


force


Atlantic


division
division


completed
door and


until


October


1913


when


it was taken


over


with other unfinished work in the Atlantic division.


by the close of


window


frames.


fiscal


The


year,


amount


with


the exception


expended


first


It was
of the


construc-


tion of the building


which i


of reinforced concrete


tile roof and tile


floors,


was $54,391.60.


Gatun


pillway.


-Work


on the


spillway


consisted


in completing


the fill of the openings of the valves in


the piers to full height,


the body of the dam, raising


setting the valves, and completing the bridge.


So far as the spillway proper is concerned, the structure


was finally


finished in


October


During the


year


7,047


cubic


yards


concrete


were


laid,


an average


making the total amount of


concrete


cost


$8.9005


placed in


cubic


the structure


yard,
31,179


cubic yards, at an average cost of $7


on either


side and


back fill


73 per cubic yard.


in connection


with


them


The steps
were com-


pleted by the supply department and finished in May, 1914.


jt~7 *~ - - - - - ~


i.xT ^--^


J-h 4-it La] aW


S j *'
n t'. fl fl-v a rJ - W~


,,.1 n n ... . . 1


*.rt~c5VI Jt]E I SIfltyJ -- ')l I** 1 lr 5th .|*. |, m �| | | ||| | IU *l* . h. 1. aI|** *| A 1I*||F ||o | *IY~J*fl|l * *I ,I





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


cost of $0.4033 per cubic yard.


Paving the upstream slope, as outlined


in the last annual report,


was completed in August,


1913, and


9,860


cubic


yards of large


riprap rock from


Sosa


Hill


and from excava-


tion


$2.0403


dry
cubic


dock
yard


Balboa


in place.


were
The


used
total


a division


amount


cost


large


and


crushed rock used for paving, therefore,


was 94,330 cubic yards, and


the average division cost was $1.4378 per cubic yard.


Permanent tracks


aggregating 5,780 feet in length


with


proper


continued
negligible.


grades


and


throughout


curves.


year.


were laid


with


Observations


Seepage


from


good rails and
for settlement


dam


ties,
were
been


At the close of the rainy season two small streams were


found


issuing


from


north


in the


west


portion


but with the advance of the dry season these ceased entirely


Sdam,
There


was no seepage of any kind apparent in the east portion of the dam.


Pedro


Miguel


Locks.-Masonry


construction


carried


on at


these


locks by the fifth division consisted of lamp-post bases, bases for snub-


bing buttons and posts, stairway wells, and the control house.


What


remained after October


1913


was taken


over


by the first division


in connection


with


concrete


that


was


placed


as an incident


installation


operating


machinery.


The


amount


con-


create
cost


laid in


the lock structure


2.3520


cubic


was


yard,


1,087


cubic


including


yards, at a


finishing


and


division
calking


concrete
592 cubic


previously 1l
yards, at a


aid; in t
division


construction


cost of $62.5423


control


cubic


yar


house,
1, and


10.961


cubic yards in


connection


with


the installation


of machinery,


at a division cost of $11.1332 per cubic yard.


As the machinery and


wiring


were


complete- the


installed,


work.


The


additional


total


concrete


amount


will


concrete


be required
laid at the


Pedro Miguel Locks (exclusive of that used in the construction of the


control


house)


from


beginning


of the


work to


close


of the


fiscal year was 928,326 cubic yards, and the division cost was $5.6575


per cubic yard.


Work on the control house was begun in May


1913,


and
the


was completed


doors,


windows


the close


and


plumbing.


year


The


with


amount


the exception


expended


on the


construction of the building,


which is of reinforced concrete, tile roof


and


floors,


was


$68,521.95.


The


back


filling


side


walls


XaG rn"mnlltttl in MTVroh 1.14- a n


tho fllinr of thi center wall in





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


Miraflores Locks.-At the close of the previous fiscal year the con-


create of the locks proper was completed,


bases for snubbing buttons and mooring posts,


except the lamp-post bases,


parapets around the


stairways,
During the


and


nosing


end


year just ended 2,844 cubic


south-approach


yards of


concrete


were


pier.
laid


locks structure at


(including


finishing


and


Sdivisio:
calking


cost of $20.6624


concrete


previously


per cubic yard


laid)


in the


construction


of the control house, 949 cubic yards at a division


cost


of $57.2407 per cubic yard, and 18,241 cubic yards in connection with


the installation


of the machinery


at a division


cost of $11.3685


cubic


yard.


stallation
building


Additional
machinery


of lamp-post


concrete


and


remained


wirinmg


bases on


placed,


were


as the


completed.


southeast wing wall


was


The
inter-


rupted by the necessity of transferring sand operations to Miraflores,


and


they remain


placed.


The


amount of


concrete


laid


the Miraflores Locks


(exclusive of that


used


the construction


the control house)


from


beginning


of the


work to


the close of


the fiscal year was 1,507,794 cubic yards at a division cost of $5.1695
per cubic yard.


The total amount of


concrete laid in


the Pacific Locks


(exclusive


of that


used in


fiscal


the construction


year


aggregated


of the control houses)


2,436,120


cubic


yards


at the close
an average


division cost of $5.3555 per cubic yard.


Backfilling


lock


walls


Miraflores


was


continued,


material


for the west side being obtained from a borrow pit on the northwest


side of
channel


Cocoli


Hill


and


discharging


on the east side


overflow


from


from


excavation


spillway


into


canal, from Diablo and Sosa Hills.


The backfilling of the side walls


was


completed


in May,


1914,


and


filling


of the


center


wall


March, 1914.


During the fiscal year 360,198 cubic yards of material


were


placed


behind


the side


walls at a division


cost of $0.6021


cubic yard,


and


92,244 cubic


yards in


the center wall


a division


cost of $0.52


per cubic yard.


The total amount of material


used


back fill


to June 30


, 1914,


was


2,366


52 cubic


yards


placed


behind


side


walls at


a division


cost


$0.3855


cubic


yard,


and 249,457


cubic yards placed in the center wall at a division


cost


n4 nor niihn var/I







in February, 1914.


THE PANAMA OANAL.
PDuring the year 98,424 cubic yards of material
During the year 98,424 cubic yards of material


(secured from a borrow pit on the northwest side of Cocoli Hill)
were placed in this dam at a division cost of $0.6431 per cubic yard.
The total amount of dry filling placed in the dam since the begin-


ning


of the


work is


1,758,423


cubic


yards,


a division


cost of


$0.4582 per cubic yard.
The design, construction, and inspection of the lock gates, chain


fenders, emergency


dams, operating machinery, and


electrical


stallations continued in charge of Col. H. F. Hodges, United States


Army, as assistant chief


engineer until April 1,


1914, and subse-


quently as engineer of maintenance.
Lock gates.-The construction and erection of the lock gates under
contract were continued and completed in accordance with the sup-
plemental articles of agreement entered into January 14, 1913. At
Gatun all the gates for the west flight were completed on September
24, 1913; all the gates for the east flight on December 30, 1913. At
Pedro Miguel all the gates for the east lock were completed Septem-


ber 30, 1913, and for the west lock on December 30, 1913.


At Mira-


flores the gates for the west flight were completed on September 30,


1913, and for the east flight on January 10, 1914.


All the gates were


completed


within


time specified in


the supplemental


contract,


the time at Miraflores being anticipated by about two months.


The


original contract provided that the contractor should paint the gates
with two coats of red lead, at his expense, and with a third coat of
some other pigment to be furnished by the Isthmian Canal Commis-


sion, applied to the gates at the contractor's cost.


To provide for


more complete protection, this agreement was modified and at Gatun
arrangement was made for an additional coat, making two of red


lead and two others, instead of one.


These additional coats consisted,


of United


States


Navy


anticorrosive


and


antifouling


paint, and were applied to those parts
locks which are constantly under water.


at Gatun two coats of equal


applied.


of the gates in the lower
On the remaining gates


parts of graphite and red lead were


It was intended that no red lead should be used at Pedro


Miguel except for the upper guard gates, the protection to consist


of three coats of damp-proof paint.


At Miraflores the gates in the


- __ -- I . -^^ -1... �.. � ann ai��- arm anw * *J-n d^ -l~ n- l-,nJ'H-tvnW^-�T/ -fJ rrrnn haif- ,rn-li'Tn SwVTnn





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


forces.
paints,


Due to
except


impurities in t
the bitumastic


water


which


of Gatun Lake, none of the


was


applied


directly


metal on small sections of several


of the gates at Gatun, has proved


satisfactory, and the paint on those parts which are constantly under


water is min
is entirely


very poor condition.


satisfactory,


The action


leakage


of the gates in service


quomn


and


miter


posts


being extremely


small.


The cost of the gates complete


was $6,471


806.99, of which $5,632,942


8 were paid


under the contract, and the


balance


$838,864.41


was


inspection,


painting,


recess


covers,


fixed steel, special tracks, and services furnished the contractor.


Gate


machines.-All


parts


mechanical


and


electrical


installation
emplaced.
February 2


The 40
8, 1914,


machines
machines


operating


required


24 machines at


Gatun


Pedro


miter


were


Miguel


gates


were


completed
on March


1914, and the 28 machines at Miraflores on May 28, 1914.


A number


tests


were


conducted


most satisfactory


determine


operation


might


conditions


obtained


under


and


which
results


obtained


which has
the other


show


very


advisability


little


reserve


an interval


reducing the


power,


approximately


duty


starting


gate


20 seconds.


te motor,
ahead of


The


benefit


derived


results


from


fact


that,


with


only


one


gate


operating,


when the gates are near the mitering position the entire area of the


chamber


is available


the storage of


water


displaced.


The


cost


miter-gate


moving


machines


complete


was


which $704,744.78 were expended under the contract,


$822,410.03, of
and the balance


for installation.


Miter-gate forcing machines.-


forcing machines on hand,


With the material of the miter-gate


their erection progressed with the comple-


tion


gates.


The


20 machines


required


Gatun


were


com-


pleted on February


14, 1914, the 12 at Pedro Miguel were completed


on March


27, 1914, and the 14 at Miraflores on March


26, 1914.


special


tests were conducted


during the year.


The total


cost of the


machines


was


00.16,


of which


,225


were


expended


under


the contract, and the balance for installation.


The machinery


for operating the hand rails on


the gates


was in-


stalled


complete during the year.


There are 36 machines at Gatun,


TPArnm


MNr f'innl


andi


Miraflores


Tho


oneration


. . .. .. . . . . .


s i satin-





THE


PANAMA


OANAL.


The


installation


electrical


appliances


operating


various


gate


machines


was


completed


during


year.


The


total


amount expended


was $207,653.42,


of which


$132,326 were


paid


under the contract and the balance for installation.


Rising stem valves.


-The placing of the valves, stems, roller trains,


and


crossheads


remaining to


done


close


last


fiscal


year was completed and the 116 machines required for their operation


were erected


and


the electrical installation


completed.


Of the ma-


chines placed during the year 5 were at Gatun and
making a total of 56 at Gatun, 24 at Pedro Miguel,


28 at Miraflores,
and 36 at Mira-


flores.


The


mechanical


and


electrical


work in


connection


with


installation


of these machines was completed at Gatun


on February


, 1914, at Pedro


Miguel


on March


1914, and at Miraflores on


March 30


1914.


Guard


ves.-At the end of the fiscal


year all guard valves and


machines were erected in


place at all the locks except at Miraflores.


The six at Gatun were completed on April


on June


,1914, six at Pedro Miguel


29, 1914, and those at Miraflores were 62 per cent completed


at the close of the fiscal


year.


The tests made of the guard


valves


showe
nally


d


that the machines would not operate satisfactorily


as origin[


designed, and a number of changes were made necessary.


The


most


important ones consisted in


providing an


outboard


bearing to


the pinion sh
of line with


aft,


which overcame the tendency of the pinion to get out


the main spur gear, and guide shoes for weights in the


counterweight pits to overcome the slight eccentric
weight of the roller train.


load


due to the


The


amount expended


on the


rising


stem


and


guard


valves


and


their


which


machines


$1,127,725.38


close


were


fiscal


paid


under


year was
contract


$1,508,735.59,


and


balance


for installation.


Auxiliary


culvert


valves.-The


mechanical


and


electrical


work


in connection


with


installation


these


valves


and


their


ma-


chines was completed


during the year, four machines being installed


Gatun


and


completed


on March


1914,


four


Pedro


Miguel


completed
March 31.


on March


1914.


, 1914,


and


four


The cost of the machines in


Miraflores


place


completed


was $22,805.80,


-2 ~ d�ia nan 04 ~ n,~2 ~ ~-k~ 4-~4-a- ,.<.~AI *k~ n-nfl





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


Miguel


on January


1914


and


on the 40


Miraflores


on Feb-


ruary


27, 1914.


Chain-fender machines.-After the tests had been completed on the


two


sample


chain-fender


machines,


results


indicated


that


they


would carry out the work for which they were designed and arrange-


ments were made to order the balance of the equipment.


Of the 16 to


be erected at Gatun


the mechanical work on 14


was completed


with


the exception of the chains; of the 16 at Pedro Miguel, the mechanical


work


on 7 was completed


with


the exception


of the chains;


and


Miraflores, of the


the mechanical


work on 1


was completed


with


the exception of the chains.


Work was in


progress on all


the units,


with


the exception


of the 4 lower one


at Miraflores,


where no


work


had been done.


The electrical work, so far as practicable, progressed


with


the mechanical


work.


The manufacture of chain for the fend-


ers has progressed rather slowly


but orders were placed


for all


chains


The


required,


total


with


amount


exception,


expended


thus


before


was


$661,140.30 was for payments under the contract


close


$830,726.89


for delivery


year.
which
of the


material, and $169,586.59 for erection.


The


cost


inspecting the


lock-operating


machinery


June 30,


1914,


was $167,92


6.06.


Spillway gate
the construction


.-The


divisions


spillway


gates


in connection


were
with


placed


in position


building the


spillway


dams.


The


mechanical


equipment


and


electrical


installation


were


completed
Miraflores


on the


14 machines at


mechanical


work


Gatun


was


on December


completed


on the


1913.


8 machines


on October


1913


and


the electrical


work


on June


1914.


The


spillway


gates at


Gatun have all


been


operated satisfactorily under


full
tion.


head


controlled


from


a switchboard


in the


The tests of the Miraflores gates indicated


hydroelectric
defects in the


sta-
me-


chanical
changes


total


work,
were ri


amount


expended
erection.


necessitating


completed


expended


under


was


contract,


overhauling
it the close


$337,529.11


and


and


correction.


fiscal


which


balance


year.


$236,045.26
r inspection


These


The
were


and


Towing-track


material.-


towing-track material


purchased


mnnram th, nr-rinanl Pnntrnet, wnas rlivprpd


nrpviniit t.n .Tnna Rf 1i1R





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


13,696


linear


feet
feet.


feet


linear


were


completed


Of the


feet completed


laid,


8,160


during


total


amount


feet


year,


to date.


concreted
or a total


be completed


Miraflores
i, making
) date of


54,365


Locks
9,104


4,007
linear


18,144 linear


linear


feet


99.3


per cent were completed at the close of the year.


Conductor-slot ma-


trial,
bracket


consisting


steel


and cover plates,


and


copper


conductor


rails,


was laid, and during the year


insulators,


12,485


feet


were completed,


or a complete total to date at Gatun Locks of 45,084


linear feet;


at Pedro


Miguel 21,760 feet during the


year,


or a


total


to date of 36,292 linear feet; and at Miraflores 22,232 feet during the


year,


or a total


date


of 28,162


linear


feet.


For


conductors


copper tee rails were


used for all


towing tracks, inclines, and


cross-


overs


, steel conductors being used on the return track.


The installa-


tion


single


and


during the year at all


double


crossovers


the locks.


The


and


total


turnouts
cost of


was


completed


towing-track


material


pended


installed


under


installation,


and


was


$1,1


e original
chipping


32,044.06,
contract


of the


which


and


$767,173.93


$414,870.13


were


inspection,


rack rails.


Towing


locomotives.-As noted in


last


annual


report,


a con-


tract was entered into


with


the General


Electric Co-


for furnishing


towing


locomotives


their


design


and


manufacture,


first


locomotive to be deliver
each month thereafter.


January


Twenty-one locomotive


,1914, and four locomotives


have been delivered


and
and


are in
there


operation.


have


been


The


total


expended


cost


under the contract is $527,015


$301,859.21


contract


and


$22,329.40


receipt.


Tests


erection
so far


and


alterations


made


actual


machines


service


have


after
been


their


suf-


ficient to warrant an announcement that they are entirely satisfactory.


Illumination of the


locks.-The exterior


lighting of the locks was


described in


previous annual report.


The exterior


lighting cir


cuts at


flores,


the locks


where the erection


were completed


of the


post


except foc
has been


posts at


Mira


delayed by the sand


operations


allow


which


for the


were


transferred


construction


this


terminal


point
docks.


from ]
There


Balboa
were


stalled at Gatun
at Pedro Miguel


-L � I _


206 standards, 116 single arm and


90 double arm;


130 standards, 80 single arm and 50 double arm; at


- __ 1 __ - _


.-__ - 1 . . .._ -- -


(N .~&


* Ji -t -vn ri n'-I t ni n1 * k-. -.. (N- r n - nf 0 , '- C tA fkt flu II S ri fi fli Il W' 0 ^ f, C' I f i Al l U fl 0 fi f-i fIli* f 1 -l ..


_l .--- 1





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


quired interlocking of the control switches.


The detail design of the


board


was left entirely to


approval


Commission


contractor,


inspector


work


in the


being


United


subject


States.


The switchboards are located on the second floor of the control houses


and


interlocking racks on


mezzanine


floor.


The board


designed to represent the locks in miniature, all machines being repre-


sented by individual control switches, and


operator


controlled


with


indicators


the machines in


know
s are


the exact
provided


the lock wall


position
which
tunnels.


wherever it is


important


machines


operate


With


being


in synchronism


exception


cylindrical


machines


valve


operator


, auxiliary ci
r is provided


ulvert
with


valve,
means


and
for


miter
having


forcing
definite


information with regard to the exact position of the valve or machine


being operated by means of synchronous indicators, electrically


nected


with


transmitting


devices


mechanically


connected


with


con-
the


large machines in the lock tunnels.


valve, auxiliary
by use of red an


The operation of the cylindrical


culvert valve, and miter forcing devices is indicated


green lamps on the control


board.


Arrangement


also


made


on the


switchboard


which


water


levels


in the


lock chambers are indicated to the operator.


The control board


was


completed


Gatun


on May 9,


1914


Pedro


Miguel


on June


1914;


and


at Miraflores on June 25


1914.


The


switchboards of all


locks


have


been


satisfactorily


used


remote


control


lock operations.


The total


cost of all lock-control switchboards was


$108,079.50,


which


$73,693.33


were


paid


under


contract


for the material, th
tion and inspection.


balance representing expenditures


for install


Hydroelectric


plant.-The


erection


hydroelectric


station


continued under the Atlantic division


until September 8,


1913


when


work


master'


was


transferred


department.


With


) the building
the exception


division


quarter-


of the doors and some of


the carpenter


fiscal


year


work,
a total


building


division


cost


was completed


of $328,457.0


close


The


of the


installation


of the equipment was continued during the year and was turned over


operating


force


made subsequently,


nlflrti


d-nnlr


naT~fn.


and


on June


, 1914,


after correction


A


-P ~


i-nfl


without


some
C, iflflrV W


tests,
of the
nvlne rdt4


which


defects
a.-. InIT


were


* * I l , | I * * I* . * I l l" * * *| | | j* * * * * t * | | *| r* *fl* *It | | % r* ^ ** .** U I * . i S | | i |


ld





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


As noted in


previous annual


report, it


was decided


install


for the transmission line an overhead system of 44,000 volts, extend-
ing from Balboa to Cristobal, and connecting the existing Miraflores


steam-power


station


with


Gatun


hydroelectric


station,


so that


they may


be operated separately


or in


parallel as necessary.


Four


substations are provided, located at Oristobal, Gatun, Miraflores, and


Balboa.


The


excavation


Gatun


substation


was


begun


November 26


1913


and


the steelwork, furnished and


erected


under


contract


, was completed


on February


1914.


The installation


the electrical


equipment of the


building


been


governed


by the


progress made in


building construction and at the close of the year


was 37


per cent completed.


The total amount thus far expended on


the building is $145,717.92


and


on the installation


of the machinery


$40,818.11.


The


Cristobal


substation


was


installed


for the


purpose


of furnishing power required by the coal-handling plant,


the Mount


Hope


pumping


plant,


and


miscellaneous


requirements


vicinity


Cristobal.


Excavation


for this


structure


was


begun


March 4, 1914, and the erection of the steelwork under contract was


completed on May
construction was


$8,557.96.


1914.


$111,858.01


The amount


and


The Miraflores substation is


expended


being


on the


electrical
installed


building


installation


for the


pur-


pose of


caring for the power requirements of Miraflores and Pedro


Miguel Locks, and also for the purpose of serving as a step up trans-


former station for Miraflores steam plant.


The foundation work was


commenced


completed
completed.
$103,509.04


on October


March


1914.


1913


and


The electrical


The amount expended


were


trical installation.


building


The


steelwork
equipment


under


contract


cent


thus far is $155,532.20, of which


construction


Balboa substation


and


$52,023.16


was located


for the


elec-
pur-


pose of supplying power to


Balboa shops,


the air-compressor plant,


dry-dock pumping plant,


plant,


coal-handling plant,


as well as other local purposes.


and Ancon


Work was begun


pumping


on this sub-


station


on April


27, 1914, and


the steelwork


erected


under contract


was


completed


equipment
$49,173.84,


was


on June
installed.


which


1914.


The


$45,565.12


Four


total
were


cent


amount


electrical


expended


building


thus


construction


and


$3.608.72 for electrical installation.


In order to supply power to the





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


500-kilowatt


stepping


power
44,000


transformers


volt


and


transmission


line


necessary
pressure


equipment


down


9,200


volts.
High-power transmission line.-Under a contract dated March 31,


1913,


794 double-track span bridges and 20 single-track span bridges


were to be delivered


on the Isthmus.


These have all been erected in


place with the exception of five special towers which


will be required


at the Cristobal and Balboa


terminals, and


one bridge at Cristobal.


Under contract


there have


been


purchased


and received


to date


transmission


stranded


line


copper and


1,562,2
512,065


feet


of 2/0


Brown


Sharpe


gauge


feet of five-sixteenths inch copper-clad


wire.


At the close of the fiscal


year


1,408,443


feet of


2/0 conductor


cable were erected.


The total amount expended


on the transmission


line


was


$1,014,383.29,


which


$701


were


covered


con-


tracts and


the balance expended


on inspection and installation.


Cables.-The total amount of cable on order, received and installed


up to the end of the fiscal year was 2,659,403 feet,


of which 1,531,528


feet


is lead


sheathed


and


1,12


7,875


feet


is rubber


covered


double-


braid


wire and


lead-covered


feet


rubber


cable.
cable


covered


the close of the


had


had


been
been


pulled
used


fiscal


into


year
duct


1,462,684


and


conductor


feet


911,816


feeds


control connections, etc.
Telephone system.-An elaborate system


of telephone communica-


tion has
awarded
divisions
through


been designed for the operation
for the complete equipment. I


First


that


locks


required


second


that


of the locks and a contract
/ is to consist of three sub-


control


required


in the


vessels


upkeep


and


passing


main-


tenance


work in


lock tunnels


and


third,


that required


local


public service.


The total amount of the contract is $6,949.35.


Emergency dams.-The emergency


dam


at Gatun


were completed


before the close of the last fiscal year, but the final acceptance tests had


not been finished.


During the year the two dams at Gatun


were


cepted and the dams at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores were finished and


accepted,
second o


the first at
n October 1


Pedro


1913


Miguel


on September


Miraflores


first


, 1913
was


and


completed


and accepted January


, 1914, and the second


on February 7, 1914.


A test was made at Gatun in May, 1914; the dam was swung,


girders


F.,


---- v





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


of 950 cubic feet


per second.


This leakage


produced no


dangerous


current in the lock, and it would have been easy to close any


of the


lower


gates in


the face of the stream.


Another purpose of the test


was to determine whether the emergency


a caisson


for unwatering the


locks so


dam
as to


could


used in


lieu


permit access to


gates


painting,


but


leakage


was


great


dam,


as it at present stands, in lieu of the caisson.
made to devise a means of stopping the flow.


pended for the emergency


Experiments are being
The total amount ex-


dams was $2,206,984.67, of which $1,958,-


329.90 were covered by the contract for delivery


of the material and


erection,


and


$248,654.73


inspection


and


other


expenses


assumed by The Panama Canal under the contract.


Floating


entrance to


caissons.-A


locks,


description


including the


the caissons


pumping plant


for closing the
for unwatering


the lock


chambers,


was given in


the last annual


report.


Bids


were


invited


on May


1913,


furnishing


material,


constructing


and


delivering the caisson on


the Isthmus, and


there were


two bid-


ders, the lowest bidder offering to construct the two caissons and de-


liver them at Balboa for the sum


was given at $330,760.


of $648,300, and


A contract was entered inmt


the price for one
o for one caisson


under date of August 22, 1913.


Pontoon bridge.-In


order to maintain


communication


across the


canal with the west side, it was finally decided to construct a pontoon


bridge at Paraiso


carrying the


Panama Railroad.


This


was constructed at the expense of the Panama Railroad


design and construction were undertaken by Commission forces.


bridge
but the


The


approaches and abutments were built under the direction of Mr. A. S.


Zinn,


resident


engineer;


pontoon


and


superstructure


dredging division


under


Mr.


Comber; the track work by the


Panama Railroad Co.


, and the operating machinery by the first divi-


sion of the chief engineer's


office.


The bridge revolves about a pivot


point,


similar


pontoon


bridges


successfully


operated


many years on the upper Mississippi


plans for which were furnished


through
Chicago,


courtesy


Mr.


Loweth,


Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co.


chief


engineer


The pontoon is 378 feet


long over all, 55 feet wide,


and 6 feet 3 inches deep at the center line.


mlk.. ... _. Jt-.. --.1 : 0(0 J ..^J- . -L.--.. ,tk. 1L..j-. ... , LL - 1_ -t.... -.. fl . # _j






REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


around


an electrically


driven


wildcat


on the


deck


pontoon,


near the west end.


The mechanism for lifting the apron girders and


for turning the bridge, and also


latches


for operating the rail lift, the rail


, and the main latch -at the west pier, is operated from a cen-


tral


panel.


The


total


cost


bridge


June


1914,


was


$218,331.78.
Operation of locks.-The lockages made during the fiscal year gave


an opportunity to


out the locks and


their machinery


The first


one at Gatun


was made on September 26,


1913,


when


the tug Gatun


was put through the Gatun Locks, followed on October


14,1913,


when


a part


dredging


equipment


was


locked


through


Pacific


locks to the lake level.


From these dates throughout the year various


craft


belonging to


The Panama


Canal


were


passed


back


and


forth


as the necessities of the work required, in addition


the tows that


were


instituted


handling


freight


from


Balboa


terminals


Colon and


Cristobal


for the


Panama Railroad


towing


locomotives,


Panama


Railroad


steamers


Alliance


and


Ancon were locked through Gatun Locks and returned,


the courtesy of the agent of W. R.


and through


Grace & Co. the Santa Clara was


locked through the Pacific Locks and returned.


The operation


of the locks


has developed


certain


facts in


regard


the action


of flowing water which


had not been anticipated.


previously noted, the gates of the


upper


locks of


each flight and


the Pedro Miguel Locks are duplicated.


called
gates.


The upper pair of gate


the guard gates and the lower pair of the upper two the lock
At the lower end of the locks the upper pair of gates is called


the safety


gates and


the lower pair of the two the lock


gates.


The


space between the guard gates and


the lock gates is regulated by an


auxiliary


lower
upper


culvert


gates


while


is regulated


lock is low


and


the space between
bv a T culvert.


the valves are open


the safety
When the


gates and


water


in the


there is a sudden drop of


water


Miguel,


level


in the


forebay


This


is more


noticeable


Pedro


where the canal above the forebay is relatively narrow, than


it is at Gatun and Miraflores,


where the forebay


opens immediately


into the lake.


This drop is faster than can be followed by the water


the space between


the guard and upper gates, and the result is a





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


gate-maneuvering struts.


moving


culvert


were


side-wall


apparatus
partially


culvert


Due
such


closed,


and


possible


reverse


stress


choking


the space


danger of
the valves


communication


between


gates.


crippling
in the T


between
experi-


meeting, a degree of closure was reached which


caused the water in


the space


between


the culverts to


behind


water min


lock


when filling, and at the same time to fall rather more rapidly when


emptying.
the safety


this way a positive pressure was always kept against


gates.


With


both


side


and


center


wall


cul-


verts, as the rapidity with
is greatly increased, a differ


which the water level in the lock changes
rent adjustment will be necessary.


When the valves in the side culvert are raised and the water enters


the lock the flow


of water is greater through


those openings in


laterals which are nearest the middle wall than through those nearer


the side culvert.


As the water rises in greatest


volume next to


middle


wall,


there


results


a slight


slope


the surface


toward


side wall.


When both side and middle culverts are used no such ac-


tion


is noticeable.


The


first


gush


water


from


side


culverts


appears to come from the highest laterals and then successively from


the others.


So far as can be ascertained, however, it can not be stated


that the discharge is greatest from any one of the laterals.
In filling or emptying a small canal lock the water levels approach


each


other


with


a rapidity


depending upon


square


root


of the


diminishing


head.


Toward


the end


of the operation


the change


level


becomes


slower,


and


flow


water


is supposed


cease


either


just


before or


the equalization


levels.


Frequently


the gates are opened


with a


very slight head


against them to avoid


the loss of time involved in


waiting for the head to vanish


entirely.


filling


or emptying


locks


The


Panama


Canal


there


is a


noticeable overtravel


of the water, so that the water in the chamber


which


from
bers


filled


rises


slightly


higher


than


level


chamber


which the water is drawn, and the gates separating the cham-


become


subjected


a reverse


head.


Pedro


Miguel


noticed that the water rises from 0.3 to 0.6 of a foot higher than the


water in


forebay,


tending to


throw the


upper


gates open.


The


difference in head is of short duration


, but is very noticeable, and is


I. � i t 1 it I I 1 I1 S f* 4





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


that the overtravel of the water from the emptying lock into the tail
bay may result in continuing the flow of the fresh water through the


culvert
therefore


beyond


point


which


in obviating the danger of the


theory


resultant


should


cease


pressure.


and,
How-


ever, no


lower


roublee
gates.


is experienced


from


The difference in


below the gates is, however, noti
lower gates are opened the fresh


Sthe
densit


resulting pressure


Dy


of the


in another


water


way


against


above
When


and


water rushes out with considerable


velocity on the surface of the salt water below, and there is a corre-


spending rush


salt


water


along the


lower


strata.


This


current


continues for a considerable time and has a noticeable effect on


ves-


sels leaving the


lock, sheering them away


from


middle


wall as


soon as they pass the angle of the side wall.
The slope given to the water in the lock by use of the side culvert


has already been noted. The
of the lowest lock with fresh


same effect was noted during the filling


water when


the lower gates have


been


left open long enough to insure


is from the middle


alt water filling the lock.


wall so that the ship moves to the side


The slope
wall and


towing
lower


locomotives are


lock


during


unable
entire


hold


process


a large


filling


vessel


central


when


side


culvert only is used.
As noted in previous annual reports, in the formula for filling and


emptying the
real velocity,


locks


the coefficient of


was assumed at 0.65


flow


used


determine


, this being slightly more favorable


than


experience


other


locks


shown


readily


obtainable


but the nature of design and construction warranted the assumption.


From experiment


made at Pedro Miguel when the lake level was at


reference 84.8


and


water


in the


lock


was at


reference


50.9


value of C for the side culvert


, with both valves open,


was determined


to be 0.8


much more favorable than


was anticipated.


Similar ob-


servations,


using


only


valve,


were


made


both


Pedro


Miguel


and in the upper


lock at Gatun as a check, and


value of C wa


found
value


somewhat


1.177


and 1


coefficient
Favorable


72 at the two


emptying


than


that


locations, respectively.


lock


filling,


Pedro


The


Miguel


coefficient


the side culvert being found to be 0.804 when both


valves were used.


Gatun


and


Miraflores


where


culvert


s i turned


. - -- - --7 --.-- .---------- -.,- ----- .-I .--





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


ELECTRICAL DIVISION.


The


operation


various


power


plants


was


consolidated


April 1
United


to comprise the electrical division,


States


Army


includes


under Capt.


operation


and


H. Rose,


maintenance


of the steam-driven electric power plants at Gatun, Miraflores, Em-


pire,


and Balboa


and all the substations


, transmission, and distribu-


tion lines connected with the


power plants


the operation and main-


tenance


air-compressor


plants


Empire


and


Balboa;


con-


struction, operation, and maintenance of all building and street light-


systems


in the


Canal


Zone;


operation


and


maintenance


electric cargo-handling cranes on


the Panama Railroad


pier at Bal-


boa


installation


electrical


equipment of the


new


Balboa


shops of the mechanical division; and the construction of permanent
underground conduit systems for the permanent towns of the Canal
Zone.
One of the three 1,500 kilowatt vertical turbo generator sets and two


high-pressure


water tube


boilers were removed


from


the Gatun


station for installation at the Miraflores power plant.


The new unit


was completed into place on June 1


1914.


This gives the Miraflores


plant


a capacity


about


6,000


kilowatts


same


as the


hydro-


electric station.


The total amount of power in kilowatt hours gen-


rated during the year was:
6,824,556 kilowatt hours at Gatun, at a cost of $0.0175 per kilowatt hour.
16,352,732 kilowatt hours at Miraflores, at a cost of $0.0135 per kilowatt
. hour.
2,327,877 kilowatt hours at Empire, at a cost of $0.0240 per kilowatt hour.
138,143 kilowatt hours at Balboa, at a cost of $0.1503 per kilowatt hour.


The air-compressor plants operated


pire


and


Balboa,


and


Rio


Grande


during the year were


plant


was


operated


Em-
until


November


1913.


tion work at Culebra


They furnished


Rio Grande


division shops at Empire,


division


the work in


erection at Pe
the vicinity on


compressed


and Gold Hill


Balboa, and Paraiso;
Iro Miguel Locks, An<


SSosa Hill and


the new


air for the excava-
; for the mechanical
for the work of the


quarry, and for
Lrv dock at Bal-


boa.


The output of the air-compressor plant


in cubic feet of free


Qnsr rnmnr .r


... . . ....


pounds pressure.


was 2.739.650.533


nMhic


-fptef





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


completed,


one at


Miraflores and


one at


Balboa,


each


1,500


kilo-


watts capacity


11,000-volt transmission between these points.


May,
tween


1914,


another


Miraflores


11,000-volt


power


plant


transmission line


and


Cucaracha


was completed


, upplying


power


the relay pumps and


alterations


necessitated


the Gold Hill hydraulic plant.


a change


in the


pole


lines


Additions and
r construction,


amounting to about 15 miles.


power to the range


lights and


About 25 miles of pole line to supply
beacons of the lighthouse subdivision


were


constructed,


electrical


division


lighthouse
installing


subdivision


wires


erecting the


and


poles


transformers


and
and


making
armored


were


connections to


cables.


installed


the lights and


supplying


between


that


power


station


beacons.


Agua
and t


Duplicate


Clara


Gatun


pumping


2,200-volt


station


substation.


all about 12,900 feet of conduit,


having 83,000 feet of duct incased in


concrete


and


40 concrete


manholes were completed


during the


year


connection


Hotel,
with t


new


Balboa


done in connection


between


Pedro


administration


substation.


Miguel
building


A large


with the electrical


telephone


Balboa,


amount
work in


exchange,


and


conduit


Tivoli
latter


work was


permanent


build-


ings


and


Balboa


shops.


The


eight


4-ton


alternating


current


cargo-handling cranes, five 4-ton direct current cranes, and one 20-ton


direct current French crane


, all on the Panama Railroad pier at Bal-


boa,


tically
tion.


were


operated


and


commercial


The


total


number


maintained.


freight


These


crossing the


of vessels


loaded


cranes


Isthmus


handled
in either


unloaded


prac-
direc-


during the


year was 413.


For


further


details


concerning


various


matters


referred


above


, attention is invited to Appendixes A and A-1.


MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING.

As already noted, the division of municipal engineering was formed
by consolidating the division of public works and the municipal work


in the three construction divisions on July


1913


and


was placed


in charge of Mr. George M.


Wells as resident engineer.


The division


is divided into five principal section


The northern district embraces


all municipal


construction, maintenance, and


operation


work, exclu-


.-~ n '9
S n's. 9 a ..


A --


� R *..





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


analyses of all


Canal Zone


water supplies


and


the fifth subdivision


embraces all work of design for the division.


The improvements in the city


of Colon in progress at the close of


the pre'
made bl
August,
The ]


viOUS


fiscal


year


and


y Congress of $800,000,


1913
plant


being


paid


from


were completed


an appropriation


the early


part of


at a final cost of $520,212.57.


Gatun


manufacture


concrete


pipe


was


operated until May,


when the plant was closed down, there being suf-


ficient


on hand


purposes.


The


usual


maintenance


work


connection


with


reservoirs


northern


district


was


per-


formed


kept


and the level of the water in the Brazos Brook Reservoir was


about


water from


same


Gatun Lake


elevation
through


during the


the tunnel


season


constructed


by letting
during the


previous year.


The


new


purification


plant


located


Mount


Hope


and furnishing water to the city of Colon,


Cristobal, and adjacent dis-


trict was completed and placed in service in February, 1914, and has


been successfully operated since that date.
the plant was $292,198.10.


The total division cost of


addition


maintenance


work in


the southern


district,


a con-


siderable


amount


construction


work


was


undertaken


, including


streets


, water and sewer systems, and roads in the new silver town of


Boca, storm


sewers in


gold


town site


Balboa


water


and


sewer systems and streets at Pedro Miguel, the installation


of water


and sewer systems for the Darien radio station, and work in connec-


tion


with an addition to the city of Panama,


for which the Republic


of Panama made a special appropriation of $76,000.


The


question


water supply for the


providing


a permanent,


towns of the Canal


adequate,


Zone


from


and


Pedro


suitable
Miguel


south
were


been


under


greater than


could


consideration


some


be supplied


time.


Rio


The


Grande


demands


Reservoir,


and


with


depopulation


of the


Canal


Zone


which


contemplated


the elimination of all towns on the west side of the canal


, a plan was


prepared for
necting them


utilizing


by a


Camacho


pipe line,


and


Rio


Grande


Reservoirs,


and increasing the capacity


con-


of the Rio


Grande Reservoir by raising the dam


diverting the railroad for the


purpose.


With


the adoption


of the policy


quartering the troops


ii I � � ml 1 i "l* it 11 1 1 Sl 1 ill1





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


struction of a high-service reservoir on the side of Ancon Hill, all to


be based


on a nominal


maximum


capacity


12,000,000


gallons


filtered water per day.
water was considered,


At the time that the use of Miraflores Lake


the possible objection


was


advanced


that


chlorine content


, by reason of the operation of Miraflores Locks,


might


increase beyond 75 to 100 parts per million, but at the time it did not
seem possible that this would occur, at least for a period of years, on


assumption


that


intimate


diffusion


between


salt


water


mitted
rapid,


by the


locks


and


fresh


water


lake


would


more especially in view of the fact that water could be pumped


from one of the fresh


arms of the lake.


At any rate,


the enormous


saving that would result seemed to warrant adopting the Miraflores


Lake project.
In January, after the pumps from Cocolihad been


transferred


Miraflores


and


increased


in capacity


take


care


demand,


chlorine sampling stations were established


lake


and


was


discovered that with the continued operation of the locks the chlorine


content steadily rose.


By February it became apparent that constant


diffusion


was


taking place


throughout all areas of the lake


inm gen-


eral


, as well as its arms, and went as high as 15 per cent salt water.


In order to bring this down


a temporary pump station was installed


at Pedro Miguel and approximately 4,000 gallons of water per minute


were


pumped


from


Culebra


Cut


north


of the


locks


and


discharged


into Miraflores Lake


immediately


in front of the


temporary


pump-


ing station.


While this reduced


the chlorine content of water going


to Panama, it increased the turbidity of the water due to the condi-


tion in the Cut.


As the result of these observations, it became evident


that Miraflores Lake


would


impracticable


use as


a source of


water supply for the southern end of the canal, and it was therefore
decided to move the pumping station to the Chagres River at Gamboa,
the water to be taken from this point through 30-inch to 36-inch cast-
iron mains laid along the line of the Panama Railroad to the purifi-


cation
action


plant


in course


was taken


erection


an effort was


on Miraflores


made


Hill


Before


final


reduce the chlorine content


by drawing off the
and admitting fresh


water


from


Miraflores


water through Pedro


Lake


through


locks


Miguel Locks, but the re-


suits were not satisfactory


Work was commenced


a


on the


nnurifla-






26

works in the southern


THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


district was estimated at $1,261,000,


division


cost;


total


amount expended at the close of the


fiscal


$703,585.05.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix A-2.


year was


METEOROLOGY


AND


HYDROGRAPHY.


Until April 1, 1914,


the meteorological and hydrographic sections


continued under separate heads; on that date they were consolidated


into one division


under a chief hydrographer reporting to the engi-


neer of maintenance, and a reduction of three gold men


was effected.


But few changes were made during the year in the meteorological


stations operated.


Wind records were discontinued at Sosa Hill


January


1, 1914; the


wind station


was moved from


Guarapo


Island


the administration building at Gatun


on December


14, 1913; and


a new


wind


station


was


established


Gamboa


on November


1913.


Evaporation


records


Brazos


Brook


were


discontinued


April 1, 1914.


A rainfall station was established on the Siri branch


Trinidad


River in


January


1914


and


a similar station


was


established near the head


of the Gatun River branch of Gatun Lake


May,


1914.


Records


from


these


stations


were


obtained


in estimating the monthly rainfall over the lake watershed.


Seismic


disturbances


during


year were


I


in any previous year since American


aore numerous
occupation, 87


ana


severe


than


distincts shocks


being


recorded


Ancon.


Practically


shocks


seemed


originate in tl
approximately


shocks
stance


occurred


vicinity


miles


of the lower coast of Los Santos Province


southwest


on October 2


maximum


recording pens were


amplitude


thrown


, 1913, and


75+


The


Ancon.
May 28,


was


shock


The
1914


most


recorded,


of May


violent


in each in-


when


resulted


slight damage to the new a
erection at Balboa Heights,


administration building then in


but with


this exception


the ca


course of
lal works


suffered no damage from these shocks.


For use of the Fortification


Board, maximum and minimum


temperatures were


recorded


on the


Miraflores dumps.


Duplicate automatic tide registers were continued


at Balboa and Colon.


The


main


hydrographic


features


year


were


the filling of


w





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


recorded at Culebra on April 24 established a new
record at that station.


high temperature


The rainfall


Brazos


Brook,


during
Colon.


1913
and


was


Porto


below normal


Bello.


The


at all stations except


heaviest


precipitation


for the year was 171.19 inches at Porto


Bello


and the minimum


was


59.54 inches at Balboa.
The wind movement over the Canal Zone for the year was slightly


above


normal.


North


and


northwest


winds


prevailed.


March


was


the windiest month at all stations


and November the month of least


wind movement.


Between
rose from
controlled


the year it


June


and


plus 4


spillway


was


possible


December


84.7


gates


for the


1913


Since


between


first time


Gatun


the latter


85.14


and


Lake


date it has


84.13.


to determine


level
been


During
velocity


which would be caused in the canal prism at Gamboa by floods in the


upper Chagres.


feet


second


On May 26,
the velocity


with a discharge at Alhajuela of 16,000


Gamboa


Bridge


was


0.65


mile


hour, the


lake level being at 84.92 and rising to 84.98.


On June


with


a discharge at Alhajuela of


20,0


0 feet per second, the


velocity


Gamboa


to 84.86.


Bridge


was


1.05


miles


hour,


with


lake


For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix

GENERAL SURVEYS.


A-3.


In addition


to setting corner and grade stakes for building lot


Colon and Panama


, setting grades for fill in


Colon


, making


urveys


and


preparing maps of estates and parcels of land in


dispute before


joint land


commission


, making surveys and


inspections


department


of law,


and


performing


a considerable


amount of


mis-


cellaneous


work,


general-surveys


section


repaired


and


removed


certain Zone triangulation stations, made surveys and maps for other
departments of The Panama Canal, made locations for the radio sta-


tions being constructed for the Navy


Department,


took readings on


settlement


hubs


in the


Gatun


Dam,


and


performed


necessary


work


in connection


with


precise


level


ments for the tide-guage registers at Colon,


bench
Gatun


marks


and


monu-


and Miraflores.





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


light
which


was


had


rather


been


built


an elaborate


during the


structure


previous


founded


fiscal


year.


on a caisson


During


year just ended it was taken


the site


that


was to occupy


and,


in sinking it by admitting water through


valves at the bottom of the


caisson, the valves could not be controlled from above, it took a sheer,


and


the caisson sunk in


purpose


$8,601
The


intended


in the


.o2
total


amount


until


attempt,


a position
t could be


was


expended


which


prevented


straightened.


abandoned as wai
completing the


for the


After
s also
entire


expending
the design.
system of


beacons,


lights,


and


buoys


date


aggregate


$514,878.81,


exclusive


of general expenses.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix A.


DRY


EXCAVA TION.


The excavation for the canal prism in the dry,


uncompleted at the


close


previous


fiscal


year,


embraced


Culebra


Cut


from


Gamboa


Pedro


Miguel Locks,


the channel


between Pedro


Miguel


and Miraflores Locks, and the channel below Miraflores Locks to the
dike which excluded the waters of the Pacific. As noted in the pre-


vious annual report, a decision had been reached


the Cut by blowing up the dike at Gamboa on


admit


October


water to


10, 1913, and


to complete
end in view


the
the


excavation
excavation


that


remained


in Culebra


Cut


dredges.


was


carried


With


this


on during


July with an average of 40.74 steam shovels, in August with an aver-


34.65


steam


shovels,


and


in September


with


an average


14.62 steam shovels.


These shovels worked not only in the Cut proper


but on


the upper reaches in


side opposite Lirio.


from


5 to


2 shovel


After t
worked


the vicinity o
he water had


on both


f Culebra and
been admitted


the east


and


west


on the east
to the Cut


bank in


vicinity
bank wa


of Culebra so as to lighten the load.


continued until April 1,


1914, and


The work on


on the


the east


west bank inter-


mittently until June
able amount occurred


1914.


on the


The


last movement


west side at Culebra


of any


consider-


just as the steam


shovels


were


withdrawn.


There


were


removed


during


year


total


of 3,122,702 cubic yards of


material,


of which


2,205,847


cubic


yards were classified a


rock, at a division cost of $0.5661


per cubic


- - -in.. * * '1 I P. 1 1....


m





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


material removed in the dry from


Culebra


Cut


from


the beginning


American


cubic


yards


operations t
t a division


June


cost


1914


$0.7066


Saggregated


cubic


yard


61,883
f this


amount


25,206,100


cubic


yards


were


removed


because


slides


22.86


per cent.


This was an


increase


4,940,100 cubic


yards


over


that estimated


in the annual report


1912.


Steam-shovel


opera-


tions in


Cut


proper were


permanently


suspended


on September


1913


and at that time it was estimated


that 600,000 cubic yards


of material remained to be removed by


dredges from the Cut section


within


original


limits


canal,


exclusive


slides


and


inclines at the north


and south


ends of the


Cut.


Practically


this material lay between Cucaracha slide and a
between Culebra and Empire.


point about midway


prevent


possible


damage


canal


velocity


current caused


by the difference


in head


between


Gatun


Lake


level


and
pipe


the bottom of the Cut,


extending


into


water was admitted


lake


under


Gamboa


through


Dike,


these


the 24-inch


pipes


mining from


the old pumping plant located in


vicinity to take


care


drainage


water


north


divide.


This


was


done at 9 a. m. on October


Work on drilling the dike at Gamboa


preparatory to its demolition was begun in the latter part of August;


holes


were


loaded


and


were


fired


on October


accordance with an arrangement made two or three days beforehand,


blast


was fired


President


Woodrow


Wilson


Washington.


This was effected by using the land telegraph to Galveston,


Tex.


and


connecting it there


with


the Central


South


American


Cable Co.'


submarine cable and land lines,


which,


employing the company'


transisthmian


vicinity
current


was


cable


dike.


relayed


furnished a connection


When


from


President


point


point


to a local
depressed


along


circuit in


lever,


route


and


was


eventually transmitted


weight


attached


to the local circuit


handle


a switch.


, closing it and


The


weight


tripping a
threw the


switch, setting off the blast. �
opening 125 feet wide through


The result of the explosion was a clear
which water from Gatun Lake flowed


in sufficient volume to complete the filling of Culebra


Cut


from


dike


Cucaracha


slide


in about


two


hours'


time.


Prior


dyna-


miting the dike the water in the Cut was about 6 feet below the level





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


until
area


October


12 that a stream of water was gotten through and the


south


slide


began


The


dredges


reached


Cucaracha


slide


from


north


end


on October


and


from


south end on October 24.


The Gamboa Dike was attacked by dredges


immediately


after


explosion.


channel


was


finally


dredged


through


Cucaracha slide, so as


permit the


passage of the dredg-


ing fleet from


one side to the other, on December


With the ex-


ception


a small


pocket slide in


vicinity


of Cascadas,


the ad-


mission of water to the Cut has thus far had no bad effects; nor has
there been any perceptible tendency for the presence of water to pro-
duce slides.


In the central


division a total of 44.5 miles of track was removed


during the


period July


1 to


October


a total


33.7


miles were


laid, and a total of


294.81 miles shifted.


The sluicing operations to the north of Gold Hill and to the rear


of Cucaracha slide


were continued


during the


year


and


resulted in


the removal of 1,384,455 cubic yards of rock and earth, at an average


division


cost of $0.1997


per cubic


yard.


This material


was carried


by flumes into the valley to the east of the canal.


Material


different


removed


localities,


bulk


from


Culebra


going


Cut


Balboa


was


waste


wasted


dumps,


where 1,017,596 cubic yards were deposited, and


on the dumps along


the relocation
were placed.


of the


Panama


Railroad,


where


920,748


cubic


yards


The balance was used largely in fills at various points


south of the Cut.
South of Pedro Miguel Locks material amounting to 306,700 cubic


yards


was


excavated


fifth


division.


this,


20,510


cubic


yards were from the channel south of Pedro Miguel Locks and 286,190


cubic yards from the prism south of the Miraflores Locks.


The aver-


division


cost


was


$0.5134


cubic


yard.


The


material


was


used as a back fill to the locks and for sloping the Miraflores Dam.


On account of material recovered at the close of the


work, credit


was


given


excavation


aggregating about $79,000, so that the actual


during the


year was $0.7709


cubic


yard.


cost of dry
The total


amount


excavated


dry


from


Pedro


Miguel


since


beginning


work


aggregated


4,819,969


cubic


yards,


a .-*.- - .





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


channel.


The last remaining barrier at the Pacific end of the canal


was dynamited at 9.30 o'clock August 31


1913.


This dike, composed


of a
level


trestle fill


from


of rock and


entering


earth,


prevented the


steam-shovel


, 5,000


water from


feet


long,


the sea


feet


wide,


and


feet


below


mean


tide


, extending to


Miraflores


Locks.


The


Rio


Grande


diversion


was


turned


into


this


on August


bhe depth of
About 37,000


water


had


pounds


only


of 45


reached


about


cent and


feet


per cent


y August
dynamite


were used, the charge being placed in 541 holes at an average depth


30 feet.


time


of the explosion


water


in the


channel


south


of the


barrier was


nearly


at low


tide.


The


dynamite


tore


gap


dike about


100 feet


wide,


as the


bottom


of the


gap


was still at some height above the existing tide level, no water passed


through
minutes


until high
after the


inside channel


was


tide, at


water


1.35


first


that of


p. m.


began t<
Outside


At 3
flow


channel


o'clock,


over,


hour and


level


while


in the


gap


had


been widened to 400 feet or more.
As noted in previous annual reports,


there


were two


low places in


perimeter


Gatun


Lake


which


were


raised


in order


avoid
these


possibility


was


in the


vicinity


waters
Gatun,


lake


and


escaping.


an embankment


One


was


built


across it by the forces of the Atlantic division.


This was in a ravine


headwaters of Las


tion


was


85.7


feet


above


Guachas


Creek,


level.


where
about


natural


feet


long


eleva-


and


containing approximately


4,117


cubic


yards was


made


by means of


mule-team scrapers, borrowing from adjacent hills,


which raised the


surface to elevation 105


with a crown


width of 15 feet.


Under date


November


1913


a contract


was


made


building


an earth


dike at Cano Saddle No.


4, along a


ridge about


12 miles southwest


of Gatun


above
71.500


yard
The


raise


level.


cubic


rim


The


yards,


Gatun Lake at that


estimated


and


embankment measure.


amount


contract


price


point


material


was


involved


cents


The work was completed in May


payments to contractor will aggregate $48


,950.50.


feet
was


cubic
1914.


This saddle


between


headwaters


Siri


River,


a tributary


Trinidad


and


Lagarto


River,


which


flows


into


Caribbean


Sea.


The surface of the earth at the lowest point was 87.4 feet above


9





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


In the first district, between Pedro Miguel Locks and the sea, there


were
were


removed 5,364,816
taken from within


cubic yards, of which


the canal


prism


and


3,329,072 cubic


balance


was


yards
aux-


iliary work.


Of the amount removed from


1,186,432 cubic yards were of rock.


within


the canal


Of the rock excavated,


prism,
146,477


cubic yards


60,832


cubic


were drilled and


yards


remainder includes


were


blasted by the drill


broken


rock which


by
had


the
beer


rock


bre,


drilled


barge
aker F


Teredo and


ulean.


well


drills


The
and


blasted in previous years and material which could be handled by the


dredges without mining.
$0.2578 per cubic yard.


The average cost of prism excavation


Active operations began in


was


Culebra Cut on


October
3,432,363


1913


cubic


and


yards


continued


were


throughout


removed,


which


year


919,655


a total


cubic


yards


were


earth and


balance


rock.


The


average cost


was $0.5194


per cubic yard.


Of this amount,


865,015


cubic


yards of


earth


and


1,557


60 cubic yards of rock were removed from


an average cost of $0.4730 per cubic yard.


Cucaracha slide, at


Pipe-line dredges, with the


assistance of a relay, pumped over the west bank of the canal into the


Rio


Grande


Valley


684,514


cubic


yards


earth


and


77,880


cubic


yards of rock,


racha


slide


at an
Been


average cost of $0.2773


very


active


since


per cubic yard.


dredging


operations


Cuca-
started,


the daily movement averaging about 2�


feet.


On June 30, 1914, the


total area of the slide was 60.4 acres, 44.6 acres active and 15.8 acres


without motion.


Dredging wa


done during four months of the year


in Miraflores Lake, removing


159,817


cubic yards of


earth from


canal prism, at an average cost of $0.3179 per cubic yard.


the second


year, of which


district 6,544,192 cubic


yards


were


removed


3,692,576 cubic yards were removed


from


during
within


the canal prism,


574,630 cubic yard


Bay, and the balance was auxiliary v


from old French dump in Limon
york. The average cost of prism


and


French


dump


dredging


was


$0.1717


cubic


yard.


amount


removed


from


the canal


prism, 15


,994 cubic yards were of


rock.


Of the


total


amount


taken


there


were


removed


between


October, 1913,


and February, 1914. 507,195 cubic yards of earth and


5,035 cubic yards of rock from the canal prism just north of Gamboa
from what was formerly known as Point No. 1.


A J-1 r _ J.


. ----- -- 1-


I_ ~~.,]. - --


- n nfl a - a 3


al n I lh r1i r - r nfl a1r1nr11t1r arrt/V t LW * L5 * rT *_* 0El U I* � � rtjzL ELSIE aE'"a.S"/jjjn


A -


___',* I





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


d


thousand
304,411


basins, and


cubic yards were


placed in


the fill


for the substation and


cubic yards were placed in fills for bridge foundations,


yards at


coal


the coaling station.


At the Pacific terminals the dredges removed 1,919,003 cubic yards


cf earth and 7,964 cubic yards of rock, of which 1


of earth


31,711 cubic yards


were handled by pipe-line dredges and relays and placed in


fills for reclaiming swamp land.


$0.1655


The average cost of this work was


per cubic yard.


considerable


amount


of miscellaneous dredging


was also


done,


making


total


removed


entire


dredgin


fleet


Including


yardage of sand and gravel reclaimed, 15,341,371


cubic


yards.


The


fleet consisted of the seagoing suction dredges Caribbean and Culebra,


seagoing


ladder


dredge


Corozal


French


ladder


dredges


Badger, No. 1, No.


5, Gopher


Marmot, and Mole (the last abandoned


worn


Cardenas,


ut on September 2(
Chagres, and Mindi,


1913),


15-yard


5-yard


dipper


dredges


dipper dredges Gamboa


and Paraiso, and the pipe-line suction dredges No. 4, No.


No. 85, No. 86, and the


andpiper.


In connection with these dredges


there
scows.


were


employed


tugs,


launches


, 9 clapets,


and


dump


As noted in the previous annual report,


the Bucyrus Co.


for the construction


of two


contract
15-yard


was made with
dipper dredges


and


their delivery


at tidewater in


to be ready for towing to the


United States.


Isthmus on


December


The
1913


first


was


and the


second


on January


1914.


The


first


dredge


was


accepted


Port


Richmond,


on February


reached


Isthmus


on March


, and was placed in operation on April 4, 1914.


The second dredge


was


accepted


on May


and


Port
went


Richmond


into


on April


commission


reached


Cucaracha


slide


Isthmus
on June


1914.


Due


failure


ciently strong to do the work,


1 the buckets,
an additional


which


were


delay was caused.


suffi-
The


failure to meet the stipulated dates of delivery resulted in


very sen-


ously


handicapping the


work at Cucaracha slide and


delayed secur-


a channel


sufficiently


deep


and


wide


permit


the canal


utilized for the passage of commerce before the close of the year.
The sum of $2,000 was authorized to be expended in the construc-


tion


of temporary


dikes on the


west side of the channel


where


I ,s r *a ,11 1 * Il i i





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


MECHANICAL DIVISION.


The


until July


that


mechanical


19, 1913,


date


and


division


when he


until


was


charge


Mr.


resigned from the service.


March


, 1914,


Lieut.


Col.


i. Robinson
Subsequent
3. Dickson,


United


States


ganization
under the


tendent.


and


Army,


performed


personnel,


supervision
)n January


while


Mr.


1914,


general


duties


operation


John


Eason


Mr.


relating t
the shops


as assistant


Nutting,


United


was


supern-


States


Navy, reporting for duty,


over


duties


was assigned


performed


Col.


as superintendent and


Dickson


in connection


took
with


this division.


The


establishments


Balboa


shop


under


operation


(including roundhouse


division


and


consisted


shops),


Cris-


tobal shops and


dock,


Paraiso shops,


Cristobal roundhouse,


small


hoisting


establishments


Gatun


, Empire,


and


Paraiso,


and


the car-inspecting establishments at Cristobal and Balboa.


The


Cristobal


shops


and


dock


have


been


charged


with


repairs to


floating equipment;


as this dock was the only


able when a dry dock was necessary, it was in practically


one avail-
continuous


use throughout the


year.


For the


purpose of


docking the


five sub-


marines
Corozal
Paraiso


repair


which


upper


shops


work


were


on duty
lock of tl


on the


east


reestablished


on the


dredging


Isthmus


flight


on October
equipment


and


Gatun


docking


was


, 1913,


operating


used.


take


The
care


in Culebra


Cut.


The


hostling


four


engines


operating


in this


vicinity


was


turned over to these shops on May 25,


1914, and is performed


under


the foreman machinist.


The Cristobal roundhouse


was turned


over


to the mechanical


division


on April


1, 1914, and all hostling


north


end


of the canal


was concentrated


there.


The establishment,


min addition


two


air compressors


per minute.


roundhouse


with


, comprises


a combined


The plant supplies air for


a small


capacity


boiler
about


plant
2,000


hostling purposes and


and
feet
also


for work on the new piers of the Panama Railroad.


A small hostling


plant
With


was


established i
establishment


Empire,


in the


the electrical


shops
division


vacated,


on April


March


1914,


the electrical


a
~.v, an r$Irt


plants at Empire, Miraflores, Gatun, and Balboa,


a n Lb -. . 1


a * a V.. - -~ -


-n -a


-I


a c~


pre-
- x


an fl4 a4 an


|| RI i | | �q a i> | It * | ** | I ! B * *IIfl |I |*|*_l * I f�** *** *J t.|E| tU *&1J3L N U t NEl fU E JLJI *E 1


t





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


chinery


and


caring for


locomotives engaged in


that vicinity.


They


were abandoned April 1


,1914, and the work transferred to Balboa and


Cristobal.


The Pedro


Miguel engine house


was abandoned


on Sep-


tember


to the Gold


1913,
Hill


and


engine


e greater
house and


portion


equipment


buildings turned


moved


over to


quartermaster
established at


department


Gold


ment employed in


Hill
iry e


and


torn


in September,


xcavation


north


down.


1913


engine


to care


of Gold


Hill


house


was


for the equip-
. The engine


house continued in operation until completion of the excavation work


and


was discontinued


on March 31


1914.


The air-compressor plant


at Rio Grande


on October
district pr


, which had been in operation since 1905,


1913


eviously


was shut down


, and such compressed air as was required in the


supplied


Rio


Grande


was


furnished


plant :
March


Empire.


', 1914,


centrated


The


when


Cristobal


they


Balboa


were


shops.


car shops
abandoned


When


were in


and


Balboa


operation
1 car work
roundhouse


until
con-


was


into


service


on April


, 1914,


Panama


roundhouse


Panama Railroad


was placed


out of use.


Throughout the year,


while the shops were in operation, two shifts


were


regularly


worked


Gorgona,


Empire,


Paraiso,


and


Balboa.


In addition to the double shift, emergencies continually


arose which


necessitated


large


amounts


overtime


work,


in order


that


equip-


ment might be kept in condition for use and to prevent delay in the


work of


other divisions.


For further details, as well as a statement showing the amount of


work done during the year by the
to Appendix D.


DIVISION


various shops, attention is invited


OF TERMINALS.


The


division


of terminal


construction


was


organized


on April


1914, under Mr. H. H.


Rousseau,


United States Navy, as engineer of


terminal


construction.


The


division


embraces


forces


former second division


inspection and


plants,


struction


, chief engineer':


construction


floating cranes,


transportation


of the


docks and


rail;:


office engaged in


y docks, shops,
other terminal


road,


street


coal


the design,


and


facilities


and


sewer


fuel-
con-
work


under


landscape


architect;


and


breakwater


construction


I' . ,' a -


A L u





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


which


was begun


on April


1913


protect


the entrance


of Dry


Dock No. 1, Dry


cavations,
Difficulty


Dock No. 2, the entrance basin, and coal-pocket ex-


was completed by placing 103,116 cubic yards of material.


was


experienced


through


a portion


double-track


trestle giving way


and moving outward after dumping from it had


commenced,


dumping


this


material


was overcome


from


barges


and


reinforcing 1
ie cofferdam


outer toe


was


completed.


The leakage through it is relatively small and can


be controlled by


pumps.


In excavating for Dry


Dock No. 1 and Dry


Dock No. 2


coal


pockets


forced


November,


and


work
when


entrance


basin,


be confined


they


were


the center


demolished


and


Balboa


and


machine


south


sides


last obstacle


shops
until


to ex-


cavation


was removed.


The total amount taken out from the site of


Dry Dock No. 1 during the year was 358,282 cubic yards, 48,838 cubic


yards of which were classified as earth and the balance a


rock, mak-


ing a total of 466,975 cubic yards excavated from this area up to the


close


of the


year.


The


division


cost


year


was $1.0250


cubic yard,
cubic yard.


and the average division cost of the total was $0.9946 per


From the site of Dry


Dock No. 2,


which is located


just


north of the entrance of Dry


Dock No. 1, there were removed during


the year 41,548 cubic yards of earth and


52,129 cubic yards of rock,


at an average division cost of $0.8129 per cubic yard.


Steam-shovel


operations


deepened


excavation


from


-13.5


final


grade


for the entire area of the approach basin inside of the cofferdam, and


a total
$1.0250


and for the


351,333


cubic
travel


cubic
yard.


yards


The


were


area


removed


required


a division


for the


of unloading towers measures 800


storage


cost


coal


feet in length


and


about 400


feet


in width,


measured


from


the outer


edge


of the


quay


wall.


The


total


amount


excavation


during


year


was


166,104 cubic y
balance rock.


rards,


79,837


cubic yards of which


were earth and the


The average division cost was $0.7984 per cubic yard.


The material excavated from the site of the dry docks, entrance basin,


and


coal


pocket


was


removed


means


steam


shovels,


three


which


were worked 8 hours a day until February, 1914,


of that


another


month


shovel


added.


shovels
These


were


placed


shovels


on a 12-hoi


worked


when on the
ir basis and


split


shifts,


I _ __ _ _ -1 . __


_ .. . . .1


- ..- 4.-j - -. -. - -. aJ.A .L. a aC,.I ^nC i-U.^ ..^.-. v ....


---- -- m A






REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


storage


pile,


and


will


support


Pacific


division


berm


cranes


which will be reerected to rehandle the coal.


The material was mixed


i-yard


mixer


close of the fiscal
pockets were up


and


year all


placed


locomotive


three of the


to the construction


joint,


crane.


piers over the deep


where


girders


the
coal


which


carry the rail are to be set.


The retaining wall between the high and


storage


pockets was


to elevation


for three-fourths


length.
storage


The


area


retaining wall


rubble


was


retaining


completed,


at the east end


wall


as well


on the


as a


south


part


of the high area.


There


side


small
were


rubble
placed


during the


year


1,330 cubic yards of concrete and 808 cubic yards of


rubble masonry at an average division cost of $7.4811


per cubic yard.


There


were also


placed


in the foundations for the berm cranes 2,620


cubic yards of concrete at a division cost,
of $7.4464 per cubic yard.


exclusive of reinforcements,


The total amount of excavation accomplished


for dry


including the


docks, entrance basin, coaling plant, shops, quay walls,


work
and


piers, aggregated 1,513,048 cubic yards, of which 1,477,843 cubic yards


were


placed


in fill


and


embankment


remainder


being


hand


excavation


wasted in


the excavation


foundations


shops,


orange-peel excavation thrown to one side during the excavation


foundations


wharves


and


piers.


The


excavated


material


was


used to bring the shops'


yard


to elevation 18


make the fill


hind the quay wall, piers, and the area to be occupied by the Panama


Railroad


yards,


which


east


head


wall


permanent


piers, for the Nao
Balboa dumps.


Island


Breakwater, and


part was wasted


on the


Shops.--Lieut.


Col.


Dickson,


United States Army, inspector


hops,


was in immediate charge of the design and


installation


machinery


was relieved


of the


from


new
duty


Balboa


with


shops


until


the canal.


March


1914


when


The steelwork was car-


ried on by contract and completed during the year.


The total amount


material


material


and


delivered


erection


was


11,657,429


in place


under


pounds,
contract


and


was


cost


$427,203.


The


work was completed.


The


tiles being manufactured


buildings


have


on the Isthmus and


cement


erected in


roofing, the
place under


- - a *


1





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


foundations of two of the buildings were interfered with by the sand


dock
tions,
barge


and


considerable


trouble


was


experienced


due to obstructions in the mud below low tide


and


other


French


equipment and


old metal


placing


founda-


, consisting of old


which


had


been


dumped into the area and subsequently covered up.


The


installation


of machine foundations


in the


various buildings


progressed rapidly as soon as it was possible to start work inside the


buildings.


this


connection


4,944-


cubic


yards


concrete


were


used.


The shop


i' tunnel,


which runs through the building and yard


parallel


axis


dry


dock,


was


completed.


proper


drainage system was provided over the entire area.
The mechanical division abandoned Gorgona in August,


1913


, and,


together with the foundry and planing mill, moved direct to Balboa.
The other shops were transferred temporarily to Empire, and, cornm-


mencing March 1, 1914, were gradually moved to Balboa.


At the close


of the year practically all of the machines were erected in the perma-


nent locations and in


operation.


The total amount expended


on the


shops, including the cost of moving and installing the machines,


$2,384,967.33.


The shops


office


building is


last one


under


was
con-


struction.


At the close of the


year the steel framework and cement


roofing


were


completed


and


construction


division


supply


department was putting in the walls and floors,


the completion of the building.
office building was $59,494.90.


and engaged in


The total amount expended


on the


Breakwaters.-As stated in the last annual report,


it was decided


to construct a detached breakwater on the east side of Colon Harbor
to protect the interior harbor against the waves caused by the trade
winds, its general direction extending out from Coco Solo to a point


2,000 feet east of the outer extremity


of the west breakwater.


The


breakwater,


as originally


approved,


was


7,200


feet


long,


inner end being 3,893 feet from the end


of the shore fill.


Investiga-


tions were made in various localities for the purpose of securing suit-


able core and armor rock for use in its construction,


with a


view to


doing
Upon


away


with


the examination


necessity


further


Porto


Bello.


of comparative estimates of costs bearing on


different sources of supply of rock to be used, it was decided to obtain


1 A. . . C. tT"I � j # Al * J *


q


Ilia


* lf �





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


harbor for the landing of launches and


tugs towing piles was exca-


vated by the dredge Sandpiper, necessitating the


cubic yards of sand.


6-inch


water main


was laid


removal


from


58,650
Mar-


garita


Point


main


Coco


Solo


turnout


and


a 50,000-gallon


storage tank was erected for watering locomotives and for additional


protection.


The Coco Solo


yard


was filled


in to elevation


plus


and


the approach


tracks for the


trestle


were


raised


to elevation


plus


14.5.


Practically


of the


tracks


have


been


ballasted


main line of the Panama Railroad


for which


64,506 cubic yards of


were used in addition to


11,512


cubic yards of gravel ballast and.


522 cubic yards of crushed-rock ballast.
With the abolition of the Atlantic division on February


1, the west


breakwater work in


Colon Harbor and the operation of Porto


Bello


quarry


were


transferred


division


terminal


construction.


Armor rock was procured from Porto


Bello on the old crushed-rock


quarry level above the two lower levels referred to in the last annual


report.


On December


1, 1913, the working hours in the quarry were


reduced from 12 hours to 8 hours a day, and on April 30 the operation


of the quarry ceased.


During the year 207,654 cubic yards of armor


rock
cubic


were


yard.


produced


and


Auxiliary


shipped


excavation


a division


steam


cost


shovels


$4.01


amounted


302,893 cubic yards,


which were wasted on the shore dump.


In May,


1914,


quarry


was closed


down


in s


a manner


that


can


reopened if found necessary later in connection


with


the east


break-


water.
162,951


Of the


207,654 cubic yards of rock shipped from Porto Bello,


cubic yards were


placed


by three


derrick


barges


and


44,703


cubic yards were placed by three cranes at a division cost of $0.9673


cubic


yard.


Rock removed


dredges


extent


cubic yards was placed in the breakwater.
in May, 1914, at a division cost of $3,492,78


cubic yards of material, consisting


of 669


The work was completed
.27. It contains 1,945,733
4 cubic yards of dredged


rock, 819,930 cubic yards of Toro Point rock, and 456,549 cubic yards
of Porto Bello rock.


Work


on the


Naos


Island


Breakwater


was continued


throughout


the year.


With the closing


down


of dry


excavation in


Culebra


Cut


on October


10, a borrow pit was opened


the side of Sosa Hill


from


action


breakwater


had


been


concluded


that





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


breakwater was plus 18.5 and it was finished to its full


width.


The


average settlement during the last two


weeks of the year was 0.075


foot with the exception of one stretch about 600 feet in length which


settled at the rate of about one-half an inch per day.


During a por-


tion of the last


three months of the year there


was a settlement of


about 2 feet a day at
north of Naos Island,


the south


end


of the


breakwater immediately


whereas the settlement at the end


of the year


at this point amounted to only 3B inches per day.


During the fiscal


year 652,587


cubic yards were placed at an average division


cost of


$0.6088 per cubic yard.


Cristobal


coaling


plant.-Drilling


and


blasting


channel


material


vicinity


Cristobal


coaling


plant


was


started


dredging division in July, 1913,


and the removal of the material by


a pipe-line


dredged


suction


material


dredge


was


was


pumped


continued


ashore


through


where


most


me year.
needed.


The


Being


largely clean coral rock and sand, it has been used to bring the area


which


coal


will


be stored


in the dry,


measuring


about


feet


1,200 feet,


up to elevation plus 2.


Work was pushed


on the con-


struction


trestles


in setting


6-foot


caissons,


and


the construction


of the two concrete walls supported on


piles, about


700 feet in length,


that carry the tracks for the stocking and reclaim-


bridges.


end


year


trestle


construction


was


about


cent


completed.


The


caissons


steel


6 feet


diameter,
set, and
advance ,


and
6 of


by the end


these


any


were


of the
driven


excavation.


The


year 78
to rock


total


of the cylinders


with


a steam


amount


had


been


hammer


concrete


placed


was 3,123 cubic yards, at an average division cost of $5.4986 per cubic
yard.
A contract was entered into for furnishing the materials, necessary


machinery,


and


erection


in place


coal-handling


plants.


The coal-handling plants are designed for the storage of 485,000 tons


at Cristobal and


215,000 tons at Balboa.


Of the former, 100,000 tons


are to be wet stora


and in the latter case 50,000 tons.


Fuel-oil


four


plant.--A


fuel-oil


contract


storage


tanks


was entered


feet


into


on October


diameter


and


L, 1912,
feet in


height, each having a capacity of 40,000 barrels, to be completed at a


.-w~ a a-C 4. L a na a a 'I a a a 4. a ~3 a 4. tEa - . w 4. 17 a a a a 4. .n a a-


nflh& ~-t eon onn





REPORT


THE


GOVERNOR.


necessary will be used as oil docks, and the tank field will be located


between the east diversion and
are suitable locations for 40 or


Mount


50 tanks.


Hope
The


I
-I


Road


where there


pumping plant


be located immediately east of the Mount Hope filtration plant.


the Pacific terminal there will be a berth for oil vessels 75


by about


will
At


feet wide


2,000 feet long immediately adjoining the canal channel and


south
which


deck


of the old


will


French


pier.


be constructed


supported


6-foot


will be located on


lowe


There


once,


concrete
r level


will


consisting
cylinders.


I
.4


three oil


steel


The


of Balboa dump,


cribs, two of


and


pumping


concrete


plant


opposite the oil


cribs.
dump.


The tank field has been laid out on the higher level of Balboa


An area has been reserved for the accommodation of 33


lots


each 200 feet square.


the end


of the


fiscal


year there


been


expended


on the


fuel-oil


plant


Pacific


terminal


$50,289.33,


including the cost of dredging berth for ships,


for which there were


removed


60,776 cubic


yards,


a division


cost of $0.0983


cubic


yard


and on that at the Atlantic terminal $49,694.15.


and


walls


pier


consist


and


pter


-Work


was


Pacific


reinforced-concrete


continued


canal


deck


during


supported


on the


quay


rae year.
cylinders


walls
These


sunk


rock.


When


completed


total


length


of the quay


wall


or wharf


will be 2,662.65 feet,


averaging 60 feet wide.


Of this amount 648.78


feet were


ported


built for the
the previous


Panama
annual


Railroad


report.


as a lumber


The


remaining


dock,


as re-


portions


wharf extend


north


rock


portion


and


the north and south


is supported


filled


with


upon


concrete,


cylindrical
reinforced


of this lumber dock.


concrete caissons


with


steel


rails.


The
sunk
The


cylinders themselves are reinforced concrete


7 feet 6 inches in diam-


eter,


with 8-foot bottom section 5 feet in length.


Of the section north


lumber


dock,


8.42


feet


16 caissons


remained


sunk


during the year, most of the substructure having been completed dur-


previous


year.


There


caissons


in this


dock.


The


superstructure consists


with


vitrified-brick


of reinforced


surface.


The


girders,


work


was


beams,
begun


and
in


floor slab


July,


1913,


and was completed on February


1, 1914.


The paving brick were laid


on a sand cushion.


There were 75,683 square feet of brick laid on the


floor of this dock, and it was completed on April 1, 1914.


Quay





PANAMA


CANAL.


The wharf south of the lumber dock is 775.45 feet in length,


a return 290 feet long, and,


with


as the work had to be performed in water,


the reinforced-concrete caissons used in the other dock were not suit-


able.


The caissons


for this portion


of the


work


are steel


cylinders


6 feet


diameter,


in sections


5 feet


long.


order to


permit


construction of this portion of the wharf it was necessary to remove
the sand-unloading cranes formerly used by the Pacific division, and


the sand


operations were


transferred


Miraflores


locks.


A ladder


dredge


tudinally


and


cleared


through


a double


trestle


handling


was constructed


caissons.


longi-
The


excavation inside the cylinders was performed by orange-peel buckets


as much


as possible,


material


overlying


hard


rock


was


so firm


that


greater


part


of the


excavation


had


done


hand
year


, using Star well drills as hoisting engines.
23 caissons had been sunk to rock.


At the close of the


The


bulkhead


is 303


feet


quay


wall


long and


, extending


built on


between


wharf


and


concrete cylinders sunk to


Pier
rock


in a manner similar to that at the


wharf north


of the lumber dock.


Rock was encountered


very much higher than on the greater part of


other


quay


walls,


and


was


necessary


considerable


rock


excavation in the caissons to get them


well below


-45.


Excavation


was done by


orange-peel


buckets operated by


locomotive cranes,


removal


required


dock.


hand


They


rock


and


excavation.


were


sunk


cleaning onu
Sixty-five


bottom


piers


rock


were


end


caissons


required fo
? February,


this


1914.


The superstructure was placed similar to that of the other docks.


similar


bulkhead


, extending


from


Pier


Pier


was


begun during the year.


The construction


of Pier


, 1,000


feet


length


and


feet


wide


, proceeded in a manner similar to


that of the


wharf


construe-


tion


, both as regards excavating in the caissons and placing the super-


structure.


rock


being


excavation in


Most


material


encountered


order to secure


excavated


upper


end


a foundation


was


, which


for the


soft


alluvial


necessitated


cylinders.


mud,
hand
Dur-


ing the year


184 piers were sunk to rock.


The division cost of this dock work in detail to date is as follows:


* I -I' 11 .1 U . * 1 1 -I 1 .- ". 1


i E A


Tlml2E





REPORT


GOVERNOR.


square


feet of brick paving were


laid, at


a division


cost of $0.3120


per square


foot.


This dock


was completed


during the


year


an area of 77,403 square


feet and


total


division


cost was $421,-


200.57


, or $5.4417 per square foot.


At the quay wall south of the lumber dock,


tory to the construction of this dock, 25
were removed, at a division cost of $0.46


in dredging prepara-


720 cubic yards of material


9 per cubic yard;


669 cubic


yards were excavated for and in the piers, at a division cost of $2


per cubic yard; in filling the caissons,


1,487


cubic yards of


concrete


were


placed,


a division


cost


$9.3277


cubic


yard.


close of the fiscal year there have been expended in


the construction


of this dock $107,956.


the construction


of the


bulkhead


quay


wall


, extending between


the wharf and Pier


No. 1,


7.83


5 cubic yards


of material were excavated in and for the piers, at a division cost of


$2.4612


cubic


yard.


construction


caisson


shells


1,657


cubic yards of concrete were used,


at a division cost of $17.3458


cubic


yard


cylinders,


3,563


cubic


a division


yards


cost


concrete


.9657


were
cubic


placed
yard.


within
There


were 2,462 cubic yards of


concrete


placed in


the concrete


floor


at a


division
concrete


cost of $16.3920 per cubic yard, and


balustrade,


a division


cost


cubic


$33.7429


yards in


cubic


yard.


Behind the structure, 2,313 cubic yards of back fill


division cost of $2.1406 per cubic yard.


were placed, at a


The total amount expended


on this quay wall to the end of the fiscal year was $130


06.14.


In the construction of the pier, 31,666 cubic yards of material were


excavated for and in


the cylinders, at a division


cost of $2.9495 per


cubic


yard.


construction


caisson


shells,


10,773


cubic


yards of concrete


yard,


and


13,346


were
cubic


used


at a division


yards


concrete


cost of $12


were


used


.5772 per cubic


filling


caissons, at a division cost of $6.7139 per cubic yard.


In connection


with


division


floor system


cost


there


of $1.4920


were
cubic


excavated


yard;


cubic


,222


cubic


yards,


yards


con-


create were


laid in


floor


at a


division cost of $16.1


per cubic


yard,


and 939 cubic yards of back fill were placed, at a division cost


of $1.9287


per cubic yard.


To the end


of the fiscal


year there


were


expended in the construction of this pier $511,749.14.


The total


1 1


* 1


- a - - a - - n '. .-. .-~ , n.. - a -- n fl t~ fl tw ,~ n * rn * ~ r * ~ 1 rt 1 r% fl .5 a * , r~ n a.. r n .r


-


Ski


J 1


o*


THE






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


crushers.


since


which


Two


time


in reserve.


shovels


one shovel


July,


1913


were


kept


been
bank


work


operated
under t


until


and


May,
other


crusher


1914,
held


building


gave way and threatened to carry away the lower part of the crusher


building and conveyor.


steam shovels,


working day


ie material in
and night, a]


the slide was excavated by
nd about 40,000 cubic yards


were removed and hauled to Miraflores locks for back filling and to the


Balboa town site.


During this time the crushers were run 12 hours


a day


until


danger


from


slide


was


stopped.


The


large


crusher was relined once


, the main shaft changed twice, and the main


eccentric changed twice in order to be rebabbitted.


The


larger


output


from


quarry


is designated


as rock


and the smaller as rock


No. 2.


The demand for the latter size


was


greater than formerly


and


the crusher


had


be arranged


to crush


rock


smaller,


centage of No.


screens


being


(


2 rock was produced.


hanged
The t


so that


a greater


otal amount of


per-


crushed


rock produced during the year was 502,798 cubic yards at an average


cost


$0.8974


cubic


yard.


addition


thereto


49,156


cubic


yards of screenings were


struction


and


repair


produced,


roads


and


which


were


utilized in


manufacture


the con-
concrete


blocks for construction of buildings.
Sand service.-The handling of sand


from


Chame to


Balboa


was


performed
continued


dredging


under


unloading


dredging


cranes


Balbc


division,


division
)a were


and


until
closed


unloading


February
down, o


Balboa


, 1914,
wing


when


necessity


of moving them off the temporary dock on


which they had


been installed.


The unloading operations were transferred to Mira-


flores on April 28, and unloading was performed by one of the berm


cranes still remaining at that


point.


A locomotive crane was subse-


quently added, and both machines worked during May and June.


total


199,319


cubic


yards of


sand


was


received


and


unloaded at


an average cost of $0.8233 per cubic yard.


Panama


Railroad


freight


yards.-The


Panama


Railroad


freight


yards,


extending


practically


from


Diablo


completed at the end


Hill


foot


of the year.


Sosa


Hill,


The filling and


were
exca-


ovation for these were performed by the division of terminal construc-


.5 * . C -' Lu - -u


j w �


- a


U U I- U . S


-- A


- m


* *





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


upon t
United


ability


States.


control


During


the
year


transportation


cost


water


coal


from


transportation


was $1.395


per ton.


The coal


is brought down


in foreign


bottoms.


The


conclusion


was


reached


early


in the consideration


coal


supply problem that advantages would result from the ownership by


The


Panama


Canal


or the


Panama


Railroad


colliers


bringing coal to


the Isthmus.


estimate


was therefore submitted


1912


that


would


permit


construction


by The


Panama


Canal


of two colliers
and would give


supply.


in accordance


with


latest


type of


The Panama Canal the desired control


The general plans were prepared by the Navy


naval


design


over its coal
Department,


and


bids


were


opened


their


construction


on February


1914.


On April 9,1914, a contract was entered into for the construction of the


two at $987,500 each.


Each collier is to have a coal-carrying capacity


of 12,000 tons and a speed of 14 knots per hour loaded to


full capac-


June


1914,


Secretary


War


decided


that


these


colliers when completed will be operated by the Panama Railroad Co.


The
tion,


company


has submitted


which amounts to 97


an estimate


cents a ton


of the


cost


of transporta-


Snot including depreciation


interest on the capital invested.


Tugs.-As stated


in the


previous


annual


report,


an estimate


was


included for the fiscal year 1913 for the purchase of four harbor tugs


suitable design


using


December,


canal
1913,


and
The


and


sufficient


plans


bids


power to


and


were


handle


specifications


invited


largest


were


a circular


vessel


approved
through


Washington office on January 6,


1914.


When the bids were received


it was decided to reduce the number from four to two, and the con-


tract was awarded and entered into on May 8,


Floating cranes.-A contract was entered


1914.


into on April 21,1913,


two


floating cranes of the


revolving type,


and


250 tons capacity


each, at a cost of approximately $837,500,


to be delivered and


corn-


pleted on the Isthmus within 580 days, or by December 2,1914.


These


crane
The


have


work


beei
has


1


given


progressed


names Ajax
satisfactorily,


and t
and


tercuh
the


respectively


pontoons


were


brought from Germany and arrived on the Isthmus in July.


Balboa


town


site.-Planning


permanent


town


Balboa,


together with the streets,


water and sewer systems,


was placed under


a -. S . - - * a . - -e





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


terminals; an area of 72j acres on the southwesterly slope of Ancon


Hill


which


been


named


"Balboa


Heights."


Employees


ing in the Administration Building will be housed in this area.


work-
The


third area, of about 55 acres, is on the low


ground


between the two


areas above mentioned, on which will be located buildings of a public


or semipublic


character,


as well


as quarters.


Construction


work


was started the latter part of August, and the progress has been gov-


earned to a considerable extent by the existing structures and


tracks.


Sewers
amount


and


struction


water


grading
' roads


systems


and


have


planting


asphaltic


been


work


concrete


installed


and


completed.


was


adopted


a considerable


For


as being


con-
more


economical.


The total amount expended on the work was $409,116.35.


Radio station'--In addition to the foregoing work, the building of


Darien


radio station


was


placed


in charge


of this division and


$74,756.88 were expended


during the year on its construction.


For further particulars, attention is invited to Appendix B.

SUPPLY DEPARTMENT.


The supply
combining th


department was organized, effective April 1, 1914,


quartermaster


and


subsistence


departments


the old organization, and was placed in charge of Capt. R. E.


under
Wood,


United


States


Army


as chief


quartermaster.


The


department


charge oj
buildings


fuel,
hotels


recruitment


labor


construction


and


repair


care, furnishing, and assignment of quarters; distributing


commissary


supplies,


and


distilled


water;


operation


, messes, and kitchens; requisitioning for supplies of all kinds,


together with the receipt and distribution of them on arrival; the cut-
I
ting of grass and disposal of night soil and garbage, as prescribed by
the health department.


During


than


that


year the


any


other


work


on the


department


Isthmus,


was


more


reason


arduous
frequent


changes in
construction


organization


new


due


building


consolidation
elimination <


' the
old


work,
towns


the
and


their transfer to new localities, and too much credit can not be given
to those who have had charge of the work.


The force employed on the canal


dropped steadily throughout the


1 r~tt flP'~'fl fla 4 fl4 .4 I An fl-a





REPORT


OF? THE


GOVERNOR.


in the


The shop


building


forces


force
made


construction


two transfers,


one


from


quarters,
Gorgona


offices,


Empire


and then from Empire to Balboa.


The dredging forces were shifted


from


the terminals at


Balboa and


Cristobal


Paraiso.


The trans-


portation
Balboa.


men


These


were


transferred


changes


were


from


made


Las


Cascada


necessary


and


Empire


waters


lake drowning out Gorgona


where the shops were


formerly


located


by the concentration of the dredging fleet in Culebra Cut, and by the
abandonment of Las Cascadas so that it might be all available for the


military.


At the close of the


fiscal


year there


was a total


17.938


men


, women,


and


children


canal


quarters,


as compared


with


23,184 men,


women


and


children


the close of the


previous fiscal


year


The greatest percentage of decrease


was among the American


and European employees.


A new town


La Boca


was erected


on the


Balboa dumps south of


Sosa


Hill


for the silver employees


that


will


eventually


required


for the permanent organization.


Houses which had to be abandoned


or moved


were


transferred and reerected at La Boca and


converted


into family quarters, and these apartments were rented.


ment has been a success and has accomplished


has afforded the families


The experi-


three good results


of silver employees comfortable houses at a


rental


city


of fully


of Panama


building


50 per cent less


it has enabled


which otherwise


little or nothing


and


than


they


would


the canal


would have


had


has enabled


have to


good


be abandoned


the canal


pay min the
advantage


or sold
a rea-


derive


sonable


return


from Gorgona,


from


Bas Obispo,


investment.
Las Cascada


Fifty-two


Diablo


buildings,


, Empire,


taken


Culebra


Porto Bello, Gatun,


Pedro Miguel, and Ancon Hospital,


were moved


and reerected at La Boca at a cost of $110,045.50, or an average cost


apartment


$266;


resulting


structures


accommodate


families.


The cost varied from $111


to $5


0 per apartment and the


rents


range


from


month.


Range


closets,


cook


sheds,


washhouses,


and


bathhouses


bachelor


and


married


employees


were erected at La


ment


Boca at a cost of $15,509.16.


Boca, silver


were thoroughly


quarters


overhauled


and


Paraiso,


repaired


and


Besides the settle-


Cristobal,


and


then rented.


Gatun
At the


close of the


year


houses,


with


736 apartments and


rooms,


were





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


izing $7,453.76, practically all French buildings.


The raising of the


lak
at


e


necessitated


Gorgona


and


removal,


Matachin


and


demolition, and


most


sale


buildings


buildings


in the


labor


camps


Chagres and Miraflores,


and


slides


caused


the demolition


and removal of some of the buildings at Culebra.


Of the 175 build-


ings taken


down,


have


been reerected and 22


were


in course of


erection on June 30.


The total cost of this work has been $308,310.63.


While experience has shown that buildings can be moved faster and
more economically when no alterations are made in the type, in view


of the fact that the buildings being reerected at Ancon


will


be used


for the


permanent


force,


was


concluded


that


some


alterations


should be made so as to afford greater comfort.


Work in connection


with
Navy


the erection


was


done


of buildings


supply


for the


Darien


department.


radio


The


station


total


amount


pended for this work wa
structed consisted of the


$53,314.72.


The permanent buildings con-


Hydroelectric station at


Gatun, the substa-


tions


Gatun,


Cristobal,


Miraflores,


and


Balboa


commissary


warehouse at Cristobal


Sthe Administration Building at Balboa, per
, the Administration Building at Balboa, per-


manent


family


quarters


concrete


blocks


four-family


and


two-family),the shops office building, commissary building at Balboa,


and the commissary building at Ancon.


The total amount expended


these


buildings,


exclusive


those


commissary,


close of the fiscal year aggregated $1,943,430.05.


The


policy


was


continued


limiting


stock


material


and


supplies as much as possible,


which necessitated


the placing of fre


quent orders for small amounts of material, increasing the


work of


the storekeepers and


United States


requisition


division and


difficulties


purchasing


office


Washington.


The


value


material received


during the year was $11,116,395.10; the local


pur


chases amounted to $2,293,144.66.


Of the local purchases, coal aggre-


gated


$929,176.57


McClintic-Marshall


, $863,206.66;


and


Construction


e purchase
, $40,000.


of tools from


There


was


decrease of 130,000 tons of


cement


but a


very


large increase in


amount


lumber


purchased.


Changed


conditions


work


necessitated the closing down of storehouses at various localities and


the concentration of material at the terminals.


The Gorgona store-


hou mc


was closed


on Annust


1.12


Miraflores


ots rehouse


. . .... ...


I,





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


963.28, as compared with $10,580,623 during the previous year.


value


stock


hand


Balboa


June


, 1914,


The
was


$1,098,143.49.


Scrap
sisted o


operations


were


collection,


continued


storage,


throughout


classification


and


year,
sale


and


con-


scrap.


Altogether a total


of 30,000 tons of rail and scrap


were


handled at


the scrap yard at Mount Hope.


Exclusive of the contract


with the


Chicago House


Wrecking Co.,


under which practically no shipments


were


made


during the


year, approximately $80,000


worth


scrap


was sold.


There is in addition scrap on hand at Mount Hope valued


at about $300,000 based


on present market prices.


The expenses of


scrap operations proper amounted


to approximately $25,000 for the


year.


Unloaders, steam shovels,


locomotives, spreaders, pile drivers,


and track shifters no


longer needed for the work were prepared for


storage, at a total cost of $14,222.84


this expenditure was necessary


in order to secure the highest possible prices for the material.


On June 30
Hotel Aspinw


,1914, the department was operating the Hotel Tivoli,


all


12 line hotels, and 10 laborers'


messes, a decrease of


4 hotels


and


messes


from


last


year.


The


hotels


Porto


Bello,


Gorgona,


were


closed.


Aspinwall
No. 6. Bas


were


closed


converted


Dump


mess


Taboga


Obispo,
and th


into


Bas


Obispo,


Ancon


Island


Culebra,
; common


a laborers'


were


Las
gold


opened.


Gorgona,
laborers'


mess.


The


Cascadas,
employees


The


Miraflores


kitchen


gross


and
and


messes


and


Naos


revenue


Miraflores


Hotel
Dump
Bello


was
line


Porto


Island


from


hotels, restaurants, and messes was $1,032,189.51, a decrease of $202,


888.33 from last year,


856.92


decrease


hotels was


diately


a decrease


$18,944.49.


31,91
July


after


while the total


83,942.84,


The


total


a decrease


1913


cost of


making
number
208.732


European


operations wa
he profit $10,


meals


from


last


laborers'


served


year.


messes


s $1,021,


m line
Imme-


and


common laborers' kitchens were combined and called laborers'


messes.


The total number of rations served in these messes was 950,994, the


total number


of rations served


both messes and


kitchens during


the previous year being 1,396,972.


wages was $133,63


The net expense for salaries and


.81, as compared with $166,398.65 for the previous


year.


As the result of the year'


operations the line hotels and res-


w





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


work,


erred, and


hauling


material


the collection


new


garbage


buildings


in the city


and


those


Panama,


trans-
which


was transferred


to the health


department during the


year, all


Gov


eminent animals were worked


to the limit.


This overwork and the


fact that all mules except those purchased during the past 15 months


have averaged


over seven


years'


service on


Isthmus


resulted in


the death of 50 animals


, a considerably heavier loss than during the


previous year.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix F.
COST KEEPING.


No change


was made in the methods of


cost keeping adopted


construction


divisions


in January,


1910.


addition


those


reported


last


year,


cost


accounts


were


initiated


Cristobal


coaling


struction


plant,


of the


ie gravel-reclaiming
permanent concrete


plant at
buildings,


Balboa


and


con-


the accounts for the


latter being an


elaboration


of the system formerly


used.


The costs


are made up of the labor engaged in and the lhaterial applied to the


work, an arbitrary to absorb the cost of the plant, and a


portion


of the division


Canal


overhead


prorated


charges.
different


The general


parts


proper pro-
expenses of


work


and


must
costs.


be added


the division


engineers


cost


in order to determine the


necessarily


have


control


total


over


items which make


these


general


expenses,


the costs reported are


division


cost


except


when


noted


contrary


The


cost-


keeping accountant reports directly to the Governor.


In addition to


the duties enumerated in the last annual report, the cost accounting


for the


work under


jurisdiction


former


central


division


and that for the quartermaster'


department was transferred to this


office on October


division.


1, 1913, and


He has been


on June 1


engaged in


, 1914, that of the electrical


preparing permanent accounting


systems for the operation and maintenance of the canal since April
1, and to the close of the year most of this work had been completed


with the exception of minor detailed accounts,


as the necessity develops.


which will be initiated


At the close of the last fiscal year the pay


roll of the office


was about $3,000 per month, and


there


were trans-


ferred


with


the accounts of the


former central


division


and


�N U A I U U U - a


ma





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


Comparative costs are not given this year for all the units of con-
struction, as conditions due to the completion of the work make such


comparisons valueless as far as a large


struction is concerned.


portion


At the Ancon rock


of the units of


quarry there


con-


was a de-


crease of


185,503 cubic yards in


the quantity


duced'and an increase of $0.1179 per cubic yard,
operation of and repairs to the crushers.


crushed stone pro-
principally in the


The quantity of sand dredged from Chame Point decreased 246,339


cubic yards and the cost increased $0.1154 per cubic yard,
in the expense of dredging and towing to Balboa.


principally


The cost of the large rock in


place in the Colon


west breakwater


increased $0.4480 per cubic yard as compared


with last year, due to


increase in
decreased


the charge
quantity of


for
rock


plant a
placed


arbitrary,


made


necessary


breakwater


as compared


with the estimate.
There was an increase of $0.3154 per cubic yard in the cost of rock
placed in the Naos Island Breakwater, due to charging this account
with the expense of quarrying and transporting rock from Sosa Hill
and of transporting the rock secured from the excavation in the area
of the dry dock at Balboa.


To the end of the fiscal


year there had


been expended $440,483.46


construction


terminal


facilities


Cristobal


which


$390,789.31 w!
storage plant.
expended $6,6


as for the coaling plant and $49,694.15


for the fuel-oil


For the terminal facilities at Balboa there had


65,446.24, of which $1,108,773.31


been


were for surveys and


in the
harbor


preparation of
; $504,320.59 in


$592,971.66


the construction


in dredging


of the main


inner


dock; $78,


312.02 in the construction of the small dry dock, known as Dry


$287,269.17


in the


construction


coaling


plant;


Dock
$386,-


004.07


in excavating the entrance basin


$126.85


the construction


of the sea


wall


$2,444,462.23


in the construction


of the


permanent


shops, storehouses, and roundhouse


of the docks; and $50


12,917.01 min the construction


89.33 in the construction of the fuel-oil plant


and in dredging a berth for the oil ships.


expended


preparation
$132,539.23


of the


permanent


for the town


town


sites


there


have


been


for that


Balboa


and


$112,349.2


that


Pedro


Miguel,


a total


of La Boca, $409,116.35





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


dating the


time and


cost keeping


forces


the executive


office,


expense


having previously been borne by the construction divisions.


The remainder is principally


due to


heavy


charges for repatriation


of employees leaving the service or discharged for reduction of force,


and to the expense of moving the storehouses


at Gorgona and Empire.


For further details, attention is invited to Appendix I-2.
ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT.


The


accounting


department


was


organized


on April


, 1914,


accordance


with


provisions of the


Executive order putting into


effect the new organization, and consists of the auditor, Mr. H. A. A.


Smith,


who has supervision of the entire department and is in direct


charge of the auditing and accounting work; Mr. John H. McLean


is in direct


charge


disbursements


and


Mr.


Clear


collections.
An attempt was made to revise the system of accounting that has


been in effect during the construction


period so as to make it appli-


cable


operation


of the canal


. While


the canal


is primarily


for the purpose of passing ships, under authority of law provision is


made


for supplying vessel


with


fuel


, general supplies of all kinds,


including subsistence,


for repairs,


and various other facilities, so that


the system must be sufficiently elastic to take care of the various enter-


prises, and for the determination


of net profits as nearly as may be


done,


which,


under


law, must revert to


Treasury.


The


distance of the Treasury


Department was sought and two committees


visited


Isthmus,


result


which


was


approval


cer-


tain forms for use in connection with the rendition of public accounts.
A new classification of accounts has been established beginning with


the fiscal


year


1915.


Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama,


which requires


reimbursement


United


States


expenditures


curred in


connection


with


the construction, maintenance,


and


opera-


tion of waterworks, sewers, and pavements within the cities of Colon


and


Panama,


expenditures


June


, 1914,


city


Panama


were $1,761


,328


.49 and in the city of Colon $1,659,640.20, a


total


of $3,420,968.69, including accrued interest to date


the rate


of 2 per cent per annum on the capital cost balances and on


the pro-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


the sum of $2,888,437.50 was collected on the pay rolls for commis-
sary books issued to canal employees.
The periodical examination of the accounts of the 225 officers and
employees having the collection, custody, and disbursement of money
was made during the year.
The total disbursements on the Isthmus on account of salaries and


wages of emi
$27,749.135.69.


)loyees and


on account of


Disbursements


other


United


items
States


amounted
amounted


$14,614,403.71, or a total of $42,363,539.40.
The total collections during the year amounted to $8,106,469.42,
of which $4,718,024.30 were repaid to appropriations, $379,365.02 de-
posited as miscellaneous receipts, and $2,963,148.96 collected on ac-


count of Panama Railroad commissary.
collected for the account of the railroad


The balance, $27,931.14, was
, bonding company, and other


contractors.
The inspection of time books and the work of timekeepers in the
field was continued.
The property accounting was transferred to this department on


January


1, 1914, and for the six months that it had charge records


were maintained of purchases and sales of the quartermaster's stores,


and material and supplies were


received


a total


value of $7,


887,431.66, of which $4,840,245.92 were for stock and $3,047,185.74
were for material, supplies, and equipment delivered direct to the


construction


divisions.


During this period


the issues from store-


houses


amounted


$5,423,585.41,


and


amount


received


from


direct sales to outside interests totaled $142,377.56.
The separate business of the Canal Zone has reduced materially


during the year.


The amount of revenue derived from rentals, taxa-


tion, etc., decreased from $212,266.83 in 1913 to $168,076.64 in 1914.
The audited expenditures during the year amounted to $261,064.17.
In the operation of the post offices there was a decrease in the num-
ber of orders issued from 238,316 in 1913 to 198,009 in 1914.
The canal clubhouses received a total revenue of $132,624.05 and


expended $133,086.95.


The balance on June 30, 1914, in clubhouse


funds amounted to $26,513.96, with outstanding obligations of $10,-
534.53.
The provisions of the injury compensation act of May 30, 1908,





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


on account of long-continuing
of death claims.


periods


disability


nor


on account


' Congress has appropriated a total of $374,048,194.59 for the canal,


including


appropriation


continued


sundry


civil


proved August 1, 1914.


Of this amount $12,050,


5 were for fortifi-


cations


persons,


and


$22,508.01


so that


there


were
were


appropriated ft
$361,974,861.58,


relief


including


private
amount


covered by the sundry civil act of August 1, 1914, appropriated for
the construction of the canal and its adjuncts. Except for the por-


tion


used


in maintaining


and


operating


canal,


which


$161,-


608.52


were


charged,


and


$2,000,000


appropriated


colliers,


amount chargeable against the total authorized bond issue of $375,


200,900
collected


$359,813,253.06


and


returned


June


Treasury


1914


$6,254,203.37


as miscellaneous


were


receipts,


so that the cost of the canal, including the appropriation of August 1,
1914, stands at $353,559,049.69.


For


further details,


attention


is invited


Appendix


EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.


The executive


civil


department


administration.


Prior


is an outgrowth of ti
to the reorganization


department


on April


1 the


department


civil


administration


was


under


supervision


Mr. Richard L. Metcalfe,


who was appointed a member of the Isth-


mian Canal Commission on August 9,


1913


, succeeding Commissioner


M.H.


Thatcher.


He arrived on the Isthmus on August 7, 1913, and


was assigned


ment


became


to charge of the department on


effective.


Since


the date


reorganization


Mr.


his appoint-
Metcalfe has


been a member of the committee for the formal and


official opening


of The


1914.


Panama


The


Canal


department


created


embraces


Executive


general


order
office


dated


May


business


Governor, the work under the supervision of the executive secretary


as already outlined, the courts,


and the offices of the special attorney,


the district attorney, and the Canal Record.
C. A. McIlvaine, acting under the Governor.


It is in


charge of Mr.


Customs service.-During the year


280 vessels entered the port of


Balboa,


a total


tonnage of


569,681


and 277


vessels cleared, of





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


year, 323 were settled with the consular representatives in Panama of


countries


estates
persons


were
who


which


settled


had


direct


recovered


deceased


with


their


were
heirs,


sanity,


citizens
2 estates


and


or subjects,


were


estate


was


repaid


divided


rata


among


claimants.


The


total


amount


involved


was


$36,025.95.
Division


posts.-At


offices in operation,


close


year


there


were


post


6 of the 17 offices in existence at the close of the fis-


cal year 1913 having been discontinued,


while 2 new offices were estab-


lished.


The sale of postage stamps and


postal


cards, including the


revenue derived from the sale of stamp books, amounted to $90,590.63,


as compared with $100,485.54 for the previous fiscal year,


were collected for second-class


and $463.67


mail matter, as compared with $318.84


for t
were
pared


preceding


issued


with


year.


fees from
preceding


Money
Which


year


orders am
amounted


there


was


c


hunting to
to $19,048.:


a decrease


$4,029,364.83
11. As com-
e $854,259.30


in the
There


amount,


were


5.113


and


decrease


postal


savings


$3,93


account


in the


opened


fees


during


collected.


year,


2,180 of
$498,481.
nations


which
The


and


were
2.180


active


depositors


dependencies.


The


close


include
total


with


deposits


citizens


amount


aggregating


or subjects
deposits f


year
year.


was


$1,708,530,


addition


as compared


to the


postal


with


$1,601,616


savings accounts


previous


there


were on


posit at the close of the year $70,750.41 in the


form of money


orders


issued and drawn on Canal Zone post offices payable to the remitter.
This amount belongs almost exclusively to employees of The Panama
Canal and the Panama Railroad Co.


Division of schools.-The


schools opened on


October


1, 1913,


with


an enrollment


in that


month


2.167


children


, 1,109


white


schools


and


1,058


in the


colored


schools,


as compared


with


during the month of October,


1912.


The total enrollment during the


year was


1,270 in


the white schools and 1,492 in


the colored schools.


No new school buildings were constructed during the


year, although


one building was removed and reerected and several rooms added to


existing


and


Toro


building


Point


and


addition
colored


white


schools


schools


Gorgona


Gorgona
Matachin


reported


closed in


the report


for the


year


ended


June 30,


1913





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


ended


June


1913.


During


year


medical


inspection


white schools was continued, fire drills were inaugurated during the


year,


and


schools.


hand


chemical


public-school


extinguishers


athletic


league


were
was


installed
formed i


white


schools, and an annual meet of the league was held on June 12, 1914,


in the


canal


clubhouses


Balboa


, Corozal,


Empire,


Gatun,


and


Cristobal.


There were 198 participants.


Police


and


vision.-The division


police


and


prisons and


the division


under the
assistant


of fire


designation


chief


protection


were consolidated


"police and


police,


chief,


division."


and


on April


The


assistant


1914,


positions of


chief


were


abolished and


the position


of fire inspector created.


The station at


Gorgona


and


substation


Matachin


were


closed


on July


1913


and


these


towns


were


designated


as call


stations


with


police


protection


furnished


from


Bas Obispo station.


August


1913


, the call station at Matachin was abolished, and on December 15,


1913, the station at Bas Obispo was abolished.


call


station


Cucaracha


was


abolished.


On July 18
September


1913, the


1913,


the station at Miraflores was abolished


on December 15


the station at Las Cascadas


,1913, the necessary police protection being furnished


from the Empire station.


The Mount Hope station was abolished on


April 1
station
during
females


There
4,713


1914


Porto


station


Bello


year totaled


, as compared with


were
were


5,021


charges


on May


4,911


6,827
made


misdemeanors


Paraiso


on the


1914.


which


The


4,455


same


date,


number


were


males


and


arrests


and


arrests for the previous fiscal


against


and


persons


arrested,


felonies.


year.


which


total


number


persons


arrested


3,927


were


convicted.


There


were


convicts confined in
with 133 on June 30


the penitentiary


1913.


on June 30, 1914, as compared


All of the convicts,


with the exception of


a sufficient detail


to do the necessary work at the penitentiary,


were


employed


Road


continuously


The


value of th


on the
e labor


construction
performed,


Gamboa-Empire


on the


basis of


10 cents


an hour for each


convict


, was $21,615.45, and


the cost of their sub-


sistence


, guarding, and clothing amounted to $26,893.04.


The opera-


tion and supervision of the public markets of the Canal Zone and the


fld nicatPrhAm11ps


fly rnfl


+1 irnnA


oenra


nlim na


Ad t* io


... . .....


UtJK~~ft � Xl U�


vitceffe e





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


was closed


sired 1
them.
Porto
tively.


on April


military


30, 1914, and


authorities at


the apparatu


that


point


and


were


equipment de-
transferred to


The fire equipment was withdrawn from the Bas Obispo and


Bello


stations on


new


August


1913


stations were constructed


and


May


during the


, 1914,


respec-


year, nor


was


any


new


apparatus


purchased.


The


pump


and


turret


nozzle,


which were removed from the tug Bolivar during the preceding year,


were


installed


on Clapet


in August,


1913


provide


water


front and harbor fire protection at Balboa.


Fire protection


was


pro-


vided for the new


laying


a 6-inch


piers,


Nos.


water main


8 and


on the


9, at
piers,


Cristobal,


with


which


an ample


required


supply


mains and standpipes.


During the year


215 alarms were responded


to, 8 of which


property


were


of The


false


Panama


of the 207


Canal


actual


in Panama


98 occurred


Railroad


in the


property,


27 in private
Canal Zone.
of Colon, 1 i


property,
Of the fire


the city


and 68 in grass, rubbish, dumps, etc., on


s in


private property


of Panama


11 occurred in the city


at old Porto


Bello, in


public of Panama, and 14 in


the Canal Zone.


The largest fire in the


Canal Zone occurred


untreated


on January 3,


piling stored about


1914, min a


t


three-quarters of


pile of
a mile


creosoted
south ol


and


Ethe


shops at Balboa


where it was impossible to drive the


fire apparatus.


The


automobile


engine


was


loaded


on a railroad


and


hauled


to the scene.


The


total loss to


The Panama


Canal


resulting


from fire was $14,551.71.


Courts.-The


Supreme


Court


of the


Canal


Zone


held


sessions


and


disposed


29 cases-3 criminal,


civil


and


habeas corpus


case-and ceased to exist on June


30, 1914.


The Circuit Court of the


Third Judicial


its last criminal session on March


26, 1914.


Circuit at Cristobal held
At Ancon the last regu-


lar session of the Circuit Court of the First Judicial Circuit was held


on March


1914;


and


Empire


last


regular


session


Circuit Court of the Second Judicial


Circuit was held on March 31


1914.
mally


While
ordered


further


over to


business relating


new


district court


these


courts


on April


was


, they


con-


tinued to act on civil cases until May


1, pending the confirmation of


the appointment of tri
duirina the neriod Junlv


new


1913


district


. to May 1


judge.


circuit


courts


. 1914. there were 395 crimi-


-. k





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


the court.
amounted


The circuit courts held


$6,327.57.


The


district


sessions,


courts


and


were


collections


discontinued


April


1914.


During


period


July


there were 4,183 cases settled, 3,656 of which


rest civil.


There were pending on July 1, 1913.


1913


April


, 1914,


were criminal, and the
,35 civil and 3 criminal


cases, and there was pending on April 1,
1 civil case.


1914, when the court


closed


April


, 1914,


courts


Canal


Zone


ceased


pursuant to the provisions of the Executive order of March 12,


issued un
24, 1912,


der authority of the Panama Canal act
with the exception of the supreme court,


approved


which


exist,
1914,


August


went out of


existence on June 30, 1914.


The judiciary created by the act of Con-


gress above cited


courts.


The


dist


consists of
ict court


one district court


consist


two


and


division


two magistrates'
s, known as the


Balboa division and the Cristobal division.


The former includes all


that part of the Canal Zone which lies within the lines of the 10-mile
zone and extends from the south bank of the Chagres River and the


shore line of Gatun Lake, 87


feet above mean sea level


to the Pacific


Ocean.


The latter


includes all


of the


territory


within


lines


the 10-mile zone extending from the Balboa division to the Atlantic


Ocean and


area


Gatun Lake


beyond


lines of the


10-mile


zone up to the contour line of 100 feet above mean sea level and the


islands and


been


taken


peninsulas in and bordering on


by the


United


States


Gatun Lake


purposes of T


which have
he Panama


Canal.


There is a magistrate'


tobal and Balboa


court for each


of the towns of Cris-


, the jurisdiction of each covering that division,


into


which


the Canal Zone is divided as described for the district court,


in which the town is located.
The district court has original


jurisdiction


of all felony


cases, all


causes in


equity


and admiralty, all


cases at law involving principal


sums


exceeding


magistrates'


$300


courts.


and
The


all appeals
jurisdiction


from


judgments


in admiralty


rendered


district


court is the same as that exercised by the United States district courts


and the procedure and practice are also the same.


of Appeals of the Fifth Circuit of the


The Circuit Court


United States has jurisdiction


review, revise, modify, reverse, or affirm the final


*1 At ii 1 � i L . t ill- _ <-.1-.t A--1 I'-7^r_^ .,-,


judgments and


nfl a ; t~ ,.~ ~ -1


A m





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


and all violations of police regulations and ordinances and all actions
involving possession or title to personal property or the forcible entry


and


detainer of real


investigations


estate.


in charges of


The magistrates


felony,


and


also


commit


hold
or bail


preliminary
in bailable


cases to the district court.


district


court


under


new


judicial


system,


during


months of May
probate, and 77


and


June,


criminal.


1914, 206 cases were settled-9 civil


In the magistrates'


courts a total


of 1


cases were settled


, leaving 18 cases pending on July


1914.


Negotiations carried


on with the officials of the Republic of Pan-


ama included


following subjects


The enforcement of the quar-


antine regulations


the establishment of rates for the transportation


of passengers


automobile


between


point


in the


Canal


Zone and


points in


tary


the cities of Panama and


rules and regulations


Colon


the enforcement of sani-


use of revenue stamps on


bills sub-


mitted


Isthmian


Canal


Commission


and


Panama


Rail


road


Co. against the Government of Panama


street'cleaning and garbage removal in


interments
*


made


in the


who resided in the Republic


Canal


the city


Zone


the new


contract


of Panama


remains


charge
persons


water supply for the village of Taboga


certification


Panaman


consuls of manifests of ships clearing for


ports <(
islands


Canal


and


Gatun Lake


Zone


peninsulas
the sale in


jurisdiction


in the


Republic


the Republic of


United


formed


dynamite stolen


States


over


waters


from


The


Panama Canal


the collection of burial fees for interment


Zone cemeteries of indigent


from the Republic


in Canal


the assessment of a


commercial tax by the Republic on steamers of the Panama Railroad


Steamship Co.


Panama


improvements in the Chorrillo district of the city


misuse of transportation issued to employees of the Repub-


modification


existing


arrangement


purchase


postage stamps used in the Canal Zone; the sale of the old Adminis-


tration Building in the city of Panama


water supply for the section


of Panama


known as "El Hatillo"


cooperation


of Panama


health


officers with those of the Zone in an effort to prevent the introduction


plague


into


Panama


from


infected


ports


on the


west


coast


South America


enforcement of the exclusion law in the Canal Zone;


Canal


Zone


post


offices


United


States


postage-due





THE


tion in


PANAMA


CANAL.


the Republic of military trails at the expense of the


United


States; the segregation of stables in the city of Panama


within cer-


defined


areas


desirability


having


Panaman


Gov-


eminent cancel the licenses for five saloons near the Zone boundary


line in


Folks


River district;


the granting of


commissary privi-


leges to certain persons not connected with The Panama Canal or the


Panama


Panama


Railroad


Co.;


charged


with


deportation
fraudulently


an American in


representing


himself


the city


as an


attorney


tion


licensed


criminal


practice in


characters


the Canal Zone courts


from


Canal


Zone;


the deporta-
violation of


quarantine


regulations;


securing


statistics


concerning


health conditions in the interior towns of the Republic; the promul


gation


Panama


a resolution


with


reference


manifests


vessels arriving at ports of the Canal Zone with cargo for consignees


in the
stamps
stamps


Republic


Panama;


Republic


being


used


Canal


substitution


surcharged


Zone


properly


United


post offices;


States


installation


surcharged
postage-due


and


cost


of municipal improvements in the area in the city


of Colon set 'aside


for the erection of manufacturing plants; protection of the revenues


Panama


in connection


with


parcel-post


entries


into


Canal


Zone


and


admission


Ancon


Hospital,


as pay


patients,


Americans residing in


Republic of Panama


who,


on account of


the character of their employment, are not entitled to hospital privi-


leges.


The relations with the Republic of Panama and


with foreign


representatives continued satisfactory.


Time keeping.-During the fiscal


year the time-keeping work was


gradually
partments


centralized,


and


until


divisions,


at its


with


close


time


exception


keeping of
the Panama


Rail-


road Co.


, was being done by the time-keepin


bureau.


This work in-


eluded the entering of time on the time rolls, the preparation of pay


rolls and pay receipts, the issuing of


coupon books, and the keeping


of proper statistics and records of the work performed.


Clubs and


exist from July


tion,
were


it became
conducted


playgrounds.-The division


1913


hie bureau
under the


March 31, 1914,


>f clubs and
supervision


pla


clubhouses continued to
when, in the reorganiza-
ygrounds. Its activities


secretaries


furnished


tNt a


A S .5


F-.


n


.4 . -


, ,, k a.A s . *ir 1� . --- ..� t. a_ __S ___- a *__ *.-_- -- m* n- - � 1 ........--. I--_ n *


tainm


"Yr'


' m" q





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


Canal Record.-The Canal Record was continued
tion of the secretary of the commission, Mr. Joseph


under the direc-
Bucklin Bishop,


until


April


, 1914,


when


was


designated special


secretary


and


continued in charge until July


, when he resigned from the service.


The Canal Record


was on


this date transferred


to the charge of the


executive secretary.
For further particulars attention is invited


Appendix


I-1.


Law.-The


Feuille


until


department continued


April


when


in charge


reorganization


Judge


t


in conformity


Frank
with


section 4 of the Panama Canal act of August 24, 1912,


became effec-


tive.


Since April 1,


and under authority of the act of April 6, 1914,


Judge


Feuille


codifying


of the
sition


was continued


laws


United States


of lands


as special


Canal


before


Zone


joint land


in private ownership


which


attorney
and to


for the
defend t


commission in


being taken


purpose of
te interests
the acqui-


over


accordance with


the Executive order of December


1912.


number


Executive


orders


a legislative


character


were


issued during the year


the more important of which were the orders


prohibiting flights over the Isthmus by machines; providing punish-


ment
legal


deported


rates


persons


interest


returning


prohibiting


Canal


gifts


Zone


or gratuities


fixing


agents,


employees,


or servants


providing


punishment


for persons engaged


in the practice of hunting deer or other animals at night by the


lanterns


or torches


to establish


permanent


organization


the Canal Zone; and the order conferring power upon


the Governor


of the


Panama


Canal


Zone


remit


fines


and


forfeitures,


grant


pardons, reprieves, and commutations of sentences,
system of paroling prisoners.


and to establish a


The


joint


land


commission


, appointed


under


The


Panama


Canal


treaty


between


United


State


and


Republic of Panama,


was


in session


during the


fiscal


year from July


1 until about the middle


of September,


when one of the American commissioners resigned,


resignation


being


followed


that of the other


American


commis-


sioner not


long thereafter.


The land


commission


as then


organized


heard and disposed of 1,253 claims.


Of these 602 were dismissed and


awards


made


in 629


cases.


The


commission


disagreed


in 22


cases.


During the same period the law department settled 752 claims, aggre-


~+;~ +h0 ohm S ~&tQ E~~Q


nil-hniif fun ;nfarirnnf;nn ~j! +b~ t-A-a ~





THE


PANAMA


OANAL.


Samuel Lewis,


who served


on the


previous commission, and Messrs.


Levi Monroe


Kagy


and


David


Marks,


two


American members.


The work of the commission


was interrupted soon


thereafter by the


death of Commissioner Marks


July


, which occurred at Ancon Hospital on


1914.


All leases for


lots in


the Culebra and


Empire districts, including


the villages of Empire, New


Empire,


Camacho,


Golden


Green


New


Culebra, Cow


Pen


, and West Culebra,


were canceled on behalf of the


Panama Railroad
for Panama Railr


, effective June 30, 1914.


oad lots in the town


At the same time


of New Gatun


leases


were canceled,


but the cancellation did not become effective until after the close of


the fiscal


year.


For further details


as well as statements of civil and criminal mat-


ters


handled


department


law


courts


attention


invited to Appendix I-3.


WASHINGTON


OFFICE.


The


work


Boggs,


as previously


of the


United


reported


Washington


States


until


office


Army,
April


continued


and


charge


organization


1914.


that


of Maj.


remained


date,


under


the provisions of the Executive order of March


,1914, the office of


assistant
aminer c
bursing


auditor


accounts.


clerk,


and


was created


place


of the


office


assistant


Under the assistant auditor was placed a dis-


disbursing


office


was


abolished.


The


scope


of the work was about the same as previously reported,


except that


practically all of
located at points in


independent


United


inspection


forces


which


States outside of Washington


were
were


abolished


or greatly


reduced.


Due


a continued


effort


reduce


the supply


of material


on the


Isthmus to


a minimum,


work


purchasing


department


was even


greater


than


during


pre-


vious fiscal


year.


During


year


2,248


persons


within


United


States


were


tendered


employment for duty


on the Isthmus in grades above that


of laborer
classes of


; 1,429 accepted and
employment.


were appointed, covering 71


different


The


total


amount


purchase


orders


placed


was


$12,392,407.78.


a ..


- l . .. . - -L -_ --


fl.-


1 . . . ..� J- . . . _ . JL _ A .


J __ ._ __ _ ... _ . __ _ _* .__ *L _ _ .... _ .. .. JL





REPORT OF


THE


GOVERNOR.


$54,392.
explosives


Other principal items purchased included 2,490 pounds of


00,000


feet


lumber,


20,000


crossties


and


18,311


piles.


During the year 592,674 barrels of cement were purchased.


For further details, attention is invited to Appendix J


OPERATION


AND


MAINTENANCE.


already


1914,


outlined,


provided for a


organization


department of


made


operation


effective


and


April


maintenance un-


der the governor,


department


who was to be assisted in the administration of the


an engineer of maintenance and a superintendent of


canal
having
duty,


transportation.


been


Capt.


ordered


Hugh


Rodman


Secretary


United


Navy


States


Navy,


report


was appointed superintendent of canal transportation, and was


charged with the safe conduct of vessels through The Panama Canal,


except


captains,


the
the


locks.


board


was


local


also


given


inspectors,


supervision
pilots, the


of the port
operation of


lights


and


beacons


subsequent


June


and


inspection


and


admeasuring


of vessels.


The offices of the captains of the


ports at


Cristobal


and


Balboa


were


established


on May


and


they


were


charged
berthing


with
of


duty


vessels,


assignment


furnishing


pilot


wharves


service


, docking
shipping,


and
the


admeasurement


general


tions


supervision


relating


vessels


and


shipping.


transit


enforcement


Eight


pilots


through


canal
were


and


canal,
harbor


and


regula-


appointed-four


each end, and their services have been


utilized in


piloting vessels in


and


out of the


terminal


ports,


in connection


with


lightering


cargo


through the canal, in familiarizing themselves with the aids to navi-


gation and


with the canal route.


Due to the condition of affairs in Mexico and


the interruption of


the Tehuantepec route, demands upon the Panama Railroad for the


transshipment


institute


barge


freight
service


became


so great


through


that


canal


was


and


this


necessary


was


made


effective on May


when


the barges were towed


through


the canal


from


Colon


Balboa,


and


continued


rest


year.


Tolls


were paid by the Panama Railroad Co.,
$11,610.69.


and aggregated for the year


kifni-ntononoa


nrflrlr wn~


1 ~ a'-,-.


'2 N |s|su||*-*l.[a 1 gI | 1. IS EELS *5UEk&'l .S*EEU


nnraroA ni a...


S,


h





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


valve machines


, cylindrical


valve


machines, and


in lighting.


Work


was


also


done


in repainting


gates,


caissons


and


caring


machines of the spillways.
the amount above noted f(


There


were also expended $16,570.44 of


)r maintenance


in clearing vegetation and


pulling


trees


driftwood from


rom
the


canal


vicinity


channel


and


removing


timbers


and


of the locks.


For further details concerning the


transportation


division


of the


work, attention is invited


Appendix E.


SANITATION.


The


health


sanitation oa
department,


Canal


under


States Army, as chief health


Zone


was


Lieut.-Col.
officer, and


placed


Charles


in charge
'. Mason,


United


this department is charged


with


the care


vention


of the


disease


sick


in the


and


injured


of the


Canal Zone and


Canal


Zone,


the cities of Panama


pre-
and


Colon, street cleaning and garbage removal
all matters relating to quarantine. Lately,


in the latter cities, and
matters relating to char-


have


been


added


scope.


The


administration


divided


into


three divisions, each having its own


special


work to


perform-


the division of hospitals and charities,
quarantine division.


the sanitary division, and the


Division of


hospitals


and chart


ies.-This division maintains hos-


pitals
Tomas


Ancon


Hospital


and


Colon


in the city


and


assist


Panama.


maintaining


also


maintains


SSanto
institu-


tions for the care of the


insane


and lepers of both


Canal Zone


and


abled
and i
Canal


Republic


through
necessary
Zone is


Panama


injury. Ii
attendants
divided.


and


provides


in each of t
These district


or employees
a dispensary


districts


physicians


permanently


with


into
attend


dis-


a physician


which
i the


the
sick


within their districts, send


patients to the hospital, perform


vaccina-


tions, make inspections of schools, hotels, restaurants, Canal quarters,
etc., and report all births and deaths.


health


office


division.-The


Panama


sanitary
he health


division


office


three


Colon


sections-the


and


Canal


Zone section.


In the Canal Zone section each district has a sanitary


inspector,


with necessary foremen and


laborers, all


under the direct


Sanitary


f]


]




REPORT


THE


GOVERNOR.


disinfect pit and other closets, and disinfect buildings for contagious


diseases.


They


charged


with


enforcement


samnitary


regulations,


they


and


have


authority


violation


personally


of the


make


arrests


They


also


when
issue


burial permits, make interments of the dead


They keep chart


and care for cemeteries.


immediately


investigate


and


take


action


upon


any


increase


therein.


The work done by the health officers of Panama and


Colon is that


done


health


officers


everywhere.


addition,


they


have


charge


of street cleaning,


garbage


removal, grass and


brush


cutting, oiling


pools,


fumigation,


disinfection,


Their


duties


in enforcing


sanitary rules and regulations are extensive and include vaccinations,


control


infectious


and


contagious


disea


special


precau-


tions against quarantinable diseases prevailing in the Tropics, control


of burials, inspection
inspection of market,


of slaughterhouses and


of cattle


for slaughter,


enforcement of pure-food regulations, inspec-


tion


bakeries


and


dairies,


examination


milk,


inspection


stables, bottling works, and barber shops.


A large part of their time


to enforcement of the sanitary


pecially with reference to rat proofing as a


building regulations, es-
protection against plague.


Quarantine division.-The quarantine division is in


direct charge


a chief


quarantine


officer


and


maintains


large


establishments


each end of the canal-one for the cities of Panama and Balboa and


the others for the cities of Colon


and


Cristobal.


also


a quarantine officer at Bocas del Toro, for the control


maintains
quarantine


matters at that port.


This division


, already large,


is expected to in-


crease greatly in


proportions when


the canal


is open


traffic, and


will


include some


new


features in


the arrangement


for the


passage


of ships through the canal in quarantine.


A piece of ground on the


Balboa dump, fronting upon


the canal


and adjoining


Fort Amador


on the south and the radio station on the east, has been assigned as a
permanent site for the Panama quarantine station. A board has been
appointed to select a site for a permanent quarantine station at Cris-
tobal.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix H.

FORTIFICATIONS.


- a - - a - - -. - - a -


have witnessed a


regulations.


of the prevalence of malaria in their districts, and


is given





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


The work was in charge of Lieut.


Col. George R. Goethals, United


States Army, assisted by


Lieut.


H. Acher,


United States Army;


Lieut.


Garlington,


United


States


Army;


and


Mr.


Elder,


superintendent of construction.
The following appendixes are herewith:


Increases in salaries and


personnel,


submitted in compliance


with law, Ap-


pendix K.
Laws recently enacted affecting the canal, and Executive orders issued during
the fiscal year, Appendix L.
Charts showing the organization in effect July 1, 1914, Appendix M.
Respectfully submitted.


GEO.


. GOETHALS,


Colonel


, Corps of


Engineers, United States Army,
Governor


The Hon.


LINDLEY M. GARRISON,


Secretary of War,


Washington, D. C.













APPENDIX


REPORT


OF THE


ENGINEER


MAINTENANCE.


CULEBRA, CANAL ZONE, July 15, 1914.
Sm: I have the honor to make the following report of the opera-
tions during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, for the work under
my general supervision.
At the beginning of the fiscal year this work was organized as the
first division of the office of the chief engineer, and consisted of sub-
divisions charged with (a) design of lock gates and protective de-
vices, including inspection of construction and erection under con-
tract; (b) design of operating machinery and electrical installation,
including inspection and erection; (c) design of emergency dams,
including inspection of construction and of erection under contract;
and (d) design and construction of aids to navigation.
On October 15, 1913, the work remaining to complete the locks,


with the exception of the bs
tic division and fifth division
having the lock gates and en
main work during the year
concerned with the design 4
trical machinery on April I
S* -* - n


On April 1, 1l
of erection and
the division of
division and the
ology and hydr
report to the un
of the fiscal yeai
ized as follows:
The division
and mechanical
of the structures


ck fill


n
ie


14, the first
the division


was trans


to the fir
rgency d'
1


st divi
ams in


and were m
nd erection
and January
division was
of lighthou


rge
of t


ferred from the Atlan-
sion. The subdivisions
charge completed their
d with the subdivision
he operating and elec-


S31, 1914,r
reorganized
ses. These.


esp<
as
to


municipal engineering, the newly create
office engineer, with the sections engaged
ography, and on general surveys, were
designed as engineer of maintenance.
r the work under my general supervision


of erectioi
engineer, i
of the loc


n, under
n charge
ks and sp


testing, operation, and care of lock
+nn/�4iwrnr *rit'lKir T * +b0o /nnnrv n r o^T n nr^^ \


actively.
the division
gether with
d electrical
I on meteor-
ordered to
At the close
was organ-


the supervision of the electrical
of the completion and operation
illways, the installation, erection,
and spillway operating and pro-
nnrnr Ynm^XTT vTn+c? atfi +rn ornc*4-cA a^r n ^ \


'I





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


LOCK


GATES


AND


PROTECTIVE DEVICES.


This subdivision
Goldmark, design
A. Mason, assistant
The inspection of
States was under
assistant engineer
United States was
engineer. On the
of the chain fend
the lock gates.


The
comply
tract
21, 19
report
The


i was under the in
ing engineer, assisi
Lt engineer, and the
the lock gates and
the immediate cha
. The inspection
under the charge o
Isthmus Mr. E. H.


ers, and


Mr.


Georg


mediate
ted in the


c


necessary
the chain f
rge of Mr.
of the floi
f Mr. Lewi
Baughmai
re F. Guvn


harge of Mr. Henry
office by Mr. Lewis
draftsmen and clerk.
enders in the United
Johannes Hammer,
eating caisson in the
s A. Mason, assistant
n was chief inspector
m of the erection of


continued
under the
., dated
in the an


and
con-
June
nual


ion under the


supplemental contract of May 20, 1913, and the dates on which the
gates were actually completed according to the terms of that contract:


Gates.


Lower guard gates, Gatun..............
Upper guard gates, Gatun.............
All other west side gates, Gatun.......
All other east side gates, Gatun........
Upper guard gates, Pedro Miguel.......
Lower guard gates, Pedro Miguel......
All other east side gates, Pedro Miguel.
All other west side gates, Pedro Miguel.
Upper guard gates, Miraflores..........
Lower guard gates, Miraflores..........
All other west side gates, Miraflores....
All other east side gates, Miraflores.....


Contract
dates of
completion.


June
Oct.
.....do
Jan.
June
June
Oct.
Jan.
June
Sept.
Oct.
Mar.


15,1913
1,1913
.i;i.ii
1,1913
15,1913
1,1913
1,.1914
15,1913
1,1913
1, 1913
1,1914


Dates of
actual
completion.


June 14,1913


construction and erection of the lock gates was
eted during the period covered by this report,
with the McClintic-Marshall Construction C(
10, and the supplemental contracts mentioned
for 1913.
following table gives the dates for complete


tion of the same, except in the new town of Balboa; of the operation
and maintenance of pump stations and water purification plants;
of the inspection of plumbing; of the construction and maintenance
of sanitary ditches; and of the design and construction of the new
waterworks and purification plants for the two ends of the canal;
it also has charge of the municipal work and the collection of moneys
from water rents within the cities of Colon and Panama.
The office engineer.
The section of meteorology and hydrography.
The section of general surveys.


I


J






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.
$


per cent was required in order to complete the work. All <
leaves in the west chamber at Gatun and the east chamber at
Miguel had been stepped on their pintles, and all the leaves
west chamber at Miraflores except the two leaves of the ope
gate in the lower chamber. The guard gates in both chambers
locks were also in place.
The work was pushed with so much energy that all gates nee
for locking a vessel through on one side of the twin locks wern
pleted prior to October 1, 1913.
The gates were first used for locking at Gatun September 26
and at Miraflores and Pedro Miguel October 14, 1913.
The original contract provided for the painting of the ga


the contractor with three coats, two o
furnish material and labor; the third
contractor to furnish the labor and the
In order to provide more complete


modify this arrangement.
At Gatun it was decided 1
two additional coats. In th
which were constantly under
anticorrosive and one coat c
the red lead. On the rest of ti


paint, consisting of
applied.
At Pedro Miguel
gates, the covering
proof paint.


At Miraflo
the bottom,
of anticorros
gates were g
sisting of a I
On account
intended for
were painted
versely a fe
proof paint.
the Commiss
paint require
all the gates
at Gatun we
to the metal
possible.


about equal


essary
e cornm-


, 1913,

tes by


f red lead, the contractor to
of some other pigment, the
Commission the material.
protection, it was decided to


use two coats of red-lead paint and
part of the gates in the lower lock
ater, one coat of United States Navy
antifouling paint were applied over
States at Gatun two coats of graphite
parts of graphite and red lead, were


no red lead was used, except in the upper guard
consisting of three coats of an approved damp-


-


a -


'res the gates in the lower lock, from elevation -6 to
were given two coats of red lead, followed by one coat
ive and one coat of antifouling paint. All the other
iven three coats of an approved proprietary paint con-
hydrocarbon mixture.
t of the delay in the receipt of the damp-proof paints
use at Pedro Miguel, some of the Pedro Miguel gates
I with hydrocarbon paint from Miraflores, and con-
v of the Miraflores gates were coated with the damp-
The third and fourth coats were in all cases applied by
ion forces, the contractor furnishing all the red-lead
d and also the labor for applying the first two coats on
of the canal. A small portion of several of the gates
re coated with bitumastic compounds applied directly
work, which had been cleaned and scraped as far as






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


The office


work on


lock gates consisted of the preparation of


plans for metal shields to be placed on the top girder for protecting
the electrical and mechanical equipment from injury by water, and
of various minor plans for painter's scaffolds, etc. A complete set
of record plans showing the gates as actually built was also made.
These drawings, 22 in number, are of the standard size. They include
a general drawing of each of the gates, as well as enlarged plans
showing the sheathing, horizontal girders, and all important details,
both in the gates and in the anchorages, and other fixed irons em-
bedded in the masonry.
A report was also prepared giving the methods of calculation em-
ployed in determining the strength of the gates and a complete state-
ment of the stresses in the principal members. These were recalcu-
lated to conform with the actual weights and dimensions of the gates
as built.


CHAIN


FENDERS.


A somewhat detailed description of the chai
in the annual report for 1911 and an account of
termine the best form of resistance valve in the


The additional tests, referred to min tl
quired in order to determine the most
the valves, were carried out in February
the apparatus was quite similar to th
Fender machine No. 812 at Gatun was u,
connected with a wire rope to a lidgerwc
and put under strain by the winding e
mometer was added for measuring the i
the unloader. Indicator cards were t
dynamometer and at the upper cylinder
indicator in the fender pit and the re
connected to the upper cylinder, so that
ing between the cylinder and the valve w
at the dynamometer gave directly the
of the hawse pipe, while a comparison ol
responding pressures in the cylinder ga


resistances. The pull on
lock wall, so that the cha
second series of observati
wall, introducing hawse-i
resistance, including the
constant for all pressures.


TT^. P-Vi11/A i-ri h0 nnnrnvW


Sthe
in did


Lons
pipe
wei
In
imnin


tt
f
g
t


chain wa:
Snot touc
he pull w
riction.
ht of the
he second
lir -nrnnnT


he last
suitable
r, 1914.
at used
sed; the
hod unlo
engine.
)ull in t
taken si
in the i


n fenders was given
the tests made to de-
report for 1912.
annual report, as re-
pressure for setting
The arrangement of
in last year's tests;
chain was, as before,
ader on the lock wall
An hydraulic dyna-
/he wire rope close to
multaneously at the
ender machine. The


distance valve were directly
the loss of head in the pip-
as eliminated. The readings
tension in the chain outside
these readings with the cor-
-e a measure of the frictional
s first exerted at 90� to the
h the hawse pipe, while in a
as at an angle of 25� to the
In the first case, the internal
intermediate cylinder, was
case, the hawse-pipe friction
if.lnnnl f.n f.hft yvlinler nrs.s-


1






REPORT


On June
been deliver
Miguel and


OF ENGINEER


30 the machinery, pumps,
red on the Isthmus for all
Miraflores.


OF MAINTENANCE.


and electric equipment had
fenders at Gatun and Pedro


The erection has been somewhat delayed by
the close of the fiscal year all fenders at Gatu:
complete and the electrical was progressing
Miguel seven fenders were mechanically complex
one fender was mechanically complete. The
progressing as rapidly as the mechanical work
Chain.-The manufacture of the chain for t
ceeded rather slowly.
As noted in the report for 1913, the chain use


for testing the resistance


the final test when the
about 630 pounds per sc
pull on the chain of 178
or about 213,000 pounds,
of the moving cylinder
There were doubtless son
to the test reports, sever
fully a breaking load of
a proof test of 242,000 p
in the chain had occurred
was made at the Boston
tion tested consisted of
360,000 pounds. Analy,
cent, indicating that th


A second set
long manufactu
Boston, and by
showed breaking
470,000 pounds
the same for th
On the basis


of tests
red espei
Messrs. ]
g strength
for the
3 two ma
of these


for the manufacture
been ordered.


valve in machine roor


pressure in
iuare inch.
,600 pound
if a prope
and the i


ne add


itio


al double
over 457,
ounds. E
d in a bad
Navy Ya
45 links.
sis gave as
e material
was made
cially for
Bradlee &
hs of 400
stud-link
kes of cha
and other


nal secondary stresses
ts of this chain had s
000 pounds, and the


xammnat
weld.


slow


deliveries.


were mechanically
ipidly. At Pedro
, and at Miraflores
ectrical work was
would permit.
o fenders has pro-


d in the experiments
n 813 was broken in


. According
tood success-
whole section


ion showed that the break
A test of the broken chain


rd June 9 and 11, 1913. The
It broke under a tensile stores


Carbon content of 0.1
Swas steel and not wr
with sample chains ab
this purpose by the n
Co., of Philadelphia.
,000 pounds for the op
type, the results being
in.
tests, a specification w


remaining


chains, and 1


I


18 of 1
ought i
)out 35
ivy yar
These t
en-link


sec-
s of
per
ron.
feet
d at
;ests
and


practically


as prepared
hains have


LOCK-ENTRANCE


A description of the caissons foi
including the pumping plant for u
given in the annual report for 191
As stated in that report, an ii
778) was issued on May 21, 1913..


CAISSONS.


r closing the entrance to the locks,
inwatering the lock chambers, was
3.
invitation for proposals (Circular
Although a special effort was made


the upper cylinder had reached
This pressure corresponds to a
s, without allowance for friction,
r addition is made for the weight
internal friction of the machine.






'SS TH:

ber and has proceeded at a
caisson will be completed li
General and detail plans
to be used for closing the
These plans have not been


PANAMA


CANAL.


Satisfactory rate. It is believed that the
ttle, if at all, behind the contract date.
were also prepared for a floating caisson
entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 at Balboa.
finally checked and approved.


PONTOON


BRIDGE.


-m . ..


Considerable time was devoted to the preparation of the general
and detailed plans for a movable bridge across the canal at Paraiso.
The work of construction was done by the forces of other divisions,
this office acting in a consulting capacity. The detailed plans of the
mechanism for lifting the apron girders and for turning the pontoon
were made under the direction of the electrical and mechanical en-
gineer.
The adopted design provides for a floating bridge revolving about
i pivot at one end, similar to pontoon bridges successfully used for


many years on me upper �ivnssissippi. rians oT tnese ridages were
furnished by the courtesy of Mr. C. F. Loweth, chief engineer of the
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co.
The general plan of the bridge is shown on plate 136. It consists
essentially of a timber barge, supporting a continuous framed trestle
for carrying the railroad and highway floor. Steel apron girders
connect the trestle with concrete piers on each bank. The shore ap-
proaches are pile trestles.
The pivot about which the bridge turns is a heavy steel tube
fastened to the east pier, and the pontoon when closed is secured to
the west pier by an automatic latch. In order to give a clear channel
of 300 feet when the bridge is open, the pontoon was made 378 feet
long overall. It is 55 feet wide and 6 feet 3 inches deep at the center
line. The frame spacing is 24 inches, the floor timbers being 4 by
12 inches, the rake timbers 4 by 12 inches, and the deck beams 4 by 10
inches. At intervals of 14 feet there are trussed frames consisting
of three ordinary frames bolted together and braced with steel rods
1 inches in diameter. The trestle sills are carried on these special
frames. Six solid longitudinal bulkheads of 8-inch timber extend
the entire length of the pontoon. The base of rail is about 33 feet
above the bottom of the barge or 30 feet above the water level. Its
height was fixed so as to give a moderate gradient on the approaches.
The trestle bents consist of a 12 by 14 inch sill 40 feet long, six 12 by
12 inch posts and 12 by 14 inch caps, 18 feet long. The outer and
intermediate posts are heavily battered, distributing the weight over
.l &1 1 , 1J1 - _- i- __ ..- -. ....1 - - - - ..... -.. .- - I.-_ -* -


E






REPORT


OF ENGINEER


OF MAINTENANCE.


with upset ends and
in each direction in
horizontal girts and
outer post on each
mately equal amoun
exterior and interior
neum, applied cold.
bars to stiffen the fr
pontoon below the a
The apron girders


tion of about 6 feet in
long, consisting of spar
at both ends. When 1
clear of the concrete p
temporarily supported
bridge is revolved by


turnbuckles.
each truss.


a d
side
t of
r su
It


ouble b
. The
Dougl
rrfaces
was fo


aming and


There are two diagona
The trestle is further


racing of 3 by 10 inch tin
timber used consisted of
as fir and long-leaf yellow
were coated with Avenar
rund necessary to add bra
prevent distortion of the


approach aprons.
at each end provide automatic


the water level of the canal


'e lock-gate
big


the
iers
by
me


each bank, which passes
the deck of the pontoon
lifting the apron girders,
operating the rail lift, the
pier, is operated from a c
It takes 10 minutes to


make a complete
and relocking.


k

f


e
1i
in


brid
by a
bloc]
ans o


around
near
and f
rail la


enti
tur


operation,


parts, and rest
is turned, thes
electrically drive
g on the ends


(-2
a
tI aI
the
or
tch


1-inch ancho
n electrically
west end.
turning the I
es, and the m


(

(


ally


* The3
on hing
girder
en mec
f the 1


r chain
driven
The mec
)ridge, a
ain latch


al panel.
n the bridge and about
including unlocking, oi


nemn


ils per panel
stiffened by
fibers on the
an approxi-
v pine. All
ius carboli-
ces and hog
ends of the

for a varia-
r are 64 feet
;ed supports
s are lifted
hanism and
barge. The
fastened at
wild cat on
Shanism for
nd also for
Sat the west


minutes to
ig, closing,


TRANSFER OF THE WORK.


On April 1 the mai
on April 15 the orgal
pletion of its remain]
and floating caissons,
sion of erection.


force of this subdivision was disbanded, and
ation was entirely terminated, and the cornm-
work, consisting mainly of the chain fenders
as turned over to the newly organized divi-


OPERATING


MACHINERY


AND


ELECTRICAL
ERECTION.


INSTALLATION,


DIVISION


The mech
October 15,
was under
the first di
reorganized
been under
electrical ai


anical and electrical installation
1913, the completion of the 1
the electrical and mechanical
vision until April 1, 1914, w
as the division of erection. T
the immediate supervision of
nd mechanical engineer, assist


m, to which
ocks, except


was added on
the back fill,


engineer's subdivision of
hen this subdivision was
throughoutt the year it has
Mr. Edward Schildhauer.


Led in the


office by


J
Asst.
a


e
n






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


CONCRETE.


In
were


completing the lou
placed during the


cks


a total


43,358 cubic yards of


concrete


year.


HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING


STATION.


The


building


and


equipment


were


turned


over


permanent


operating force on June


1914.


TRANSMISSION


The erection of track span bridge
line was completed during the year,
near the terminals which required s]


LINE.


s and wiring of the transmission
with the exception of six bridges
special treatment; 794 double and


20 single-track span bridges have been placed. The finished part
of the line is 44.46 miles long and is in duplicate, having 266 miles
of 2/0 stranded copper conductor and 88 miles of copper-clad ground
wire.


LOCK MACHINERY.


The installation and wiring of the lock-operating machinery was
completed during the year except for the chain fender machines and
some electrical work on the valve machines. The entire number of


machines
machines,


have


been


placed


in service,


except


chain


fender


as follows:


136 rising-stem
120 cylindrical
12 auxiliary ct
18 guard valve


valve
valve


machines.
machines.


ilvert valve machines.
machines.


92 gate-moving machines.
46 miter forcing machines.


80 hand-rail


machines.


Twenty-one


order
the lc


and


wer


the
lock


towing
track


locomotives


work


Miraflores


have


been


for whi


been


finished
ch the


delivered


out of


40 on


d, except for a part
material is ordered 1


yet delivered.


SPILLWAY


MACHINES.


The


spillway-gate


machines


have


The gates of Gatun, 14 in number,


the electrical


division


been


erected


and


wired.


have been tested and turned over


operation.


The


tests of the eight ma-


a , a 1 1 1 J




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PAGE 1

!*; -O, Q •"; WNUAL REPORT OF THE IAN CANAL iMMISSION AND £ PANAMA CANAL FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 1914 WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHCE 1914

PAGE 2

1 r! *?>v3('-tl* .-.:.'( ''/^i^^H€^ V^^;^'•v• "> T,« .i'> \

PAGE 4

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofis1914isth

PAGE 5

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION AND THE PANAMA CANAL FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 1914 ERRATUM. (Azmoal report of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914.1 The use of the expression " kilowatt volt ampere" throughout this report is erroneous. The usual expression *'KVA,'' which was used in the original manuscript, should have been printed. 63399°— 14 WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE I9I4

PAGE 7

TABLE OF OOISTTENTS. Paee. Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal 1 Organization 1 Construction 5 Personnel 5 Locks and dams 6 Gatun Locks 6 Gatun Spillway 7 Gatun Dam 7 Pedro Miguel Locks 8 Miraflores Locks 9 Miraflores Dam and Spillway 9 Lock gates 10 Gate machines 11 Miter forcing machines 11 Rising stem valves 12 Guard valves 12 Auxiliary culvert valves : 12 Cylindrical valve machines 12 Chain fender machines 13 Spillway gates 13 Towing-track material 13 Towing locomotives .: 14 Illumination of the locks 14 Remote control 14 Hydroelectric plant 15 High-power transmission line 17 Cables 1'^ Telephone system 17 Emergency dams 1^ Floating caissons 18 Pontoon bridge 18 Operation of the locks 19 Electrical division -^ Municipal engineering 23 Meteorology and hydrography 26 General surveys 2.^ Aids to navigation 27 . Dry excavation 28 Q-l Dredging Mechanical division "^^ Division of terminals ^^ Dry docks ^ Balboa coaling station ^^ Shops ^"^ Breakwaters ^-^'^ III

PAGE 8

IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. Report of the governor of the Panama Canal — Continued. Construction — Continued. Division of terminals — Continued. Page. Cristobal coaling plant — : 40 Fuel-oil plants 40 Quay vpalls and pier 41 Ancon quarry 43 Sand service 44 Panama Railroad freight yards 44 Colliers 44 Tugs 45 Floating cranes 45 Balboa town site 45 Radio station 46 Supply department 46 Cost keeping 50 Accounting department 52 Executive department 54 Customs service 54 Administration of estates 54 Division of posts 55 Division of schools 55 Police and fire division 5G Courts 57 Timekeeping 60 Clubs and playgrounds 60 Canal Record 61 Lavp 61 Washington office 62 Operation and maintenance 63 Sanitation 64 Division of hospitals and charities 64 Sanitary division 64 Quarantine division 65 Fortifications 65 APPENDIX A. Report of the engineer of maintenance 67 Lock gates and protective devices 6S Chain fenders "^^ Chain 71 Lock entrance caissons 71 Pontoon bridge "^2 Transfer of the work 't^ Operating machinery and electrical installation — Division of erection73 Concrete '^'^ Hydroelectric generating station 'i'4 Transmission line "^^ Lock machinery '^'^ Spillway machines "74 Control board '^'^ Lockages '^'^ Hydraulics of the locks '^^

PAGE 9

TABLE OF CONTENTS. V Report of the engineer of maintenance — Continued. Page. Emergency dams 85 Electrical division 85 Division office and designing force 86 Operation of power plants 86 Operation of air compressor plants 87 Maintenance of building and street lighting system 88 Transmission and distribution line construction and maintenance vv'ork 88 Electrical work in permanent buildings 89 Electrical work in new Balboa shops 89 Operation and maintenance of electric cargo-handling cranes 89 Miscellaneous 90 Division of municipal engineering 90 Office engineer 91 Section of meteorology and hydrography 91 Discharge at the spillway 91 Leakage at spillway 92 General surveys 92 Division of lighthouses 93 APPENDIX A-1. Report of electrical and mechanical engineer 95 Erection work — Concrete 96 Gatun hydroelectric station 96 Transmission line material 96 Gatun substation 97 Cristobal substation 99 Miraflores substation 99 Balboa substation 100 Darien substation 100 Gamboa substation . 100 Transmission line system 100 Track span bridges 100 Transmission lines 101 Transmission line stiain and suspension insulators 101 Lock machinery 102 Rising stem gate valve machines — Mechanical equipment 102 Rising stem gate valve machines — Electrical equipment 102 Operation 102 Operation of rising stem gate valve machines under full head 102 Cylindrical valve machines 103 Auxiliary culvert valve machines 104 Guard valve machines 104 Tests on guard valves 304 Miter-gate moving machines 105 Miter-gate moving machine tests 106 Miter-gate forcing machines 107 Tests on miter gate-forcing machines 108 Towing track material 108 Rack track 108 Conductor-slot material 108 Conductor slots 109 Crossovers and turnouts 109

PAGE 10

VI TABLE OF CONTENTS, Report of electrical and mechanical engineer — Continued. Page. Towing locomotives 109 Distribution of locomotives 109 Spillway gate macliines 110 Tests and operation 110 Lock transformer-room equipment 110 Special transformer-room equipment 110 Insulated cable 111 Cbain-fender machines 112 Handrail-operating machines 113 Chain-fender sump pumps 113 Drainage sump and culvert pumps and motors 114 Operating tunnel doors 114 Illumination 114 Lockages 115 Up lockage of tug Gatun 115 Return lockage of tug Gatun from Gatun Lake to sea 115 Lockage of steamship Allianca 116 Lockages at Pedro Miguel 117 Lockages at Miraflores Locks 118 Lockage of the Santa Clara 118 Lockage of the steamship Ancon 119 Emergency dams 119 Tests 119 Telephone system 120 Telephone equipment 120 Lock-control switchboards 122 Sump pumps, for Cristobal and Balboa substations 124 Snubbing posts 124 Pumps and motors for cable crossovers 125 APPENDIX A-2. Report of resident engineer, division of municipal engineering 127 Northern district 128 Southern district 129 Waterworks for southern end of canal 132 Operation of purification plants 136 Designs 138 APPENDIX A-3. Report of chief hydrographer, section of meteorology and hydrography — 141 Personnel 141 Meteorology 141 Precipitation 142 Temperature 142 Wind 143 Atmospheric pressure 143 Relative humidity 144 Cloudiness 144 Evaporation 144 Fogs 144 Sea temperature 144 Tidal conditions 144

PAGE 11

TABLE OF CONTENTS, VIT Report of chief hydrographer, etc. — Continued. Meteorology— Continued. Page. Seismology 144 Monthly rainfall on Isthmus of Panama 145 Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone 146 Monthly meteorological data — Ancon, year 1913 147 Culebra, year 1913 148 Colon, year 1913 149 Monthly evaporation. Canal Zone, years 1913, 1914, and averages. 150 Tidal conditions, year 1913 1.50 Seismograph records, Ancon, fiscal year 150 Hydrography 154 General 154 Gatun : 155 Gamboa 156 Alhajuela 156 Vigia 156 Rating station 156 Special investigations 156 Currents in Colon Harbor 156 Leakage at Gatun Spillway gates 157 Seepage west emergency dam pit, Miraflores Locks 158 Hydraulic conditions below Miraflores Spillway 158 Current observations below west lower operating gates at Mii-aflores Locks 159 Monthly discharge — Chagres River 161 Monthly maximum, minimum, and mean elevations, Chagres River and Gatun and Miraflores Lakes 162 Principal freshets 163 Data on slopes of Chagres River and Gatun Lake during freshet period of Nov. 10-11, 1913 164 Data on slopes of Chagres River and Gatun Lake during freshet period of May 21-22, 1914 164 APPENDIX B. Report of the engineer of terminal construction 165 Organization 165 General 166 Design, drafting, and inspection 166 Permanent shops 100 Steelwork 167 Closures 167 Roofing 16S Power and lighting distribution 168 Motors 169 Foundations 170 Flooring 171 Installation of mechanical division and shops 171 Shops oflice 171 Contracts 171 Equipment installed ., 171 Surface drainage 171

PAGE 12

Vni TABLE OF CONTENTS. Report of the engineer of terminal construction — Continued. Installation of mechanical division and shops — Continued. Page. Piping 172 Weight of steel, date of acceptance, and contract payments — Balboa shop buildings 172 Amount of tile erected on permanent shop buildings 173 Amount of roof tile manufactured by American Cement Tile Co__ 173 Amount of Barrett specification roofing erected in permanent shop buildings 173 Horsepower of motors and their distribution in Balboa shop buildings 174 Number and size of lights in Balboa shop buildings 174 Calculated illumination in Balboa shop buildings 175 Per cent completion of electrical installations, Balboa shop buildings 176 Floor area, in square feet, of various departments of permanent shop buildings 177 Contracts placed for material for permanent shops 177 Old and new equipment installed in Balboa shops 179 Coaling plants, dry docks, floating cranes, and radio stations 180 Designs 180 Coaling plants 180 Military usefulness 1S7 Commercial usefulness 187 Canal usefulness 187 Colliers 188 Dry docks 1 189 Floating cranes 190 Pontoons 191 Machinery 191 Electrical equipment 191 Erection 192 Radio stations 192 Fuel-oil plants 194 Pier and wharf construction — Pacific terminals 195 General 195 Quay wall " G H I " and Pier No. 1 196 Small-boat landings 190 Quay walls "D E" and "E F" 196 Unloader and reloader wharves 197 Tugs 197 Dimensions of tugs 199 Hull and machinery 199 Boilers and engines 199 Inspection 199 Construction work — Pacific terminals 19".' Pacific terminal construction 200 General 200 Steam-shovel excavation 200 Cofferdam 200 Dry Dock No. 1 201 Dry Dock No. 2 202 Entrance basin 202

PAGE 13

TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX Report of the engineer of terminal construction — Continued. Construction work — Pacific terminals — Continued. Page. Balboa coaling plant 203 Excavation 203 Concrete 203 Filling and embankment 203 Quay walls and piers 204 Quay wall " G H I " 204 Bulkhead quay wall "I J M N" 204 Pier No. 1 205 Quay wall " E F " 205 Shops 1 206 Machine foundations 206 Shops tunnel 206 Drainage 206 . Precise levels 207 Panama Railroad yards 207 Curundu River culvert 207 Reclamation of land 207 Removal of berm cranes from Miraflores 207 Naos Breakwater 207 Ancon quarry 208 Sand service 209 Personnel 209 Work done, Pacific terminals, fiscal year 209 Excavation by steam shovels, Pacific terminals 210 Drilling, Pacific terminals 211 Dynamite used. Pacific terminals 212 Piles driven, track laid, track removed, Pacific terminals 212 Reinforcing steel. Pacific terminals 213 Fixed steel. Pacific terminals 214 Performance of steam shovels. Pacific terminals 214 Progress of caisson operations, Pacific terminals 215 Concrete placed. Pacific terminals 216 Material placed on Naos Island Breakwater 217 Operations, Ancon quarry 218 Sand unloaded from barges 218 Principal items of hand excavation. Pacific terminals 239 Pile trestles constructed, Pacific terminals 221 Ditches dug, Pacific terminals 221 Miscellaneous work done, Pacific terminals 222 Construction work— Pacific terminals— Balboa town-site subdivision^ 223 Balboa town site 223 Drainage and sewernge 224 Water supply and fire protection 224 Paving 224 Light and power 225 Location of subsurface structures 225 Plant propagation 225 Other work 225 Balboa town-site work completed, fiscal year 225 Atlantic terminals — Construction 226 General 226 Breakwater quarry, Porto Bello 226

PAGE 14

X TABLE OP CONTENTS. Report of the engineer of terminal construction — Continued. Atlantic terminals — Construction — Continued. Page. Water transportation 226 West brealiwater, Colon 227 East breakwater 227 Construction work — Atlantic terminals 229 Subdivision of Cristobal coaling plant 229 APPENDIX C. Report of resident engineer, dredging division 233 Division organization 233 Dre
PAGE 15

TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI Report of superintendent — Mechanical division — Continued. Page. Value of worli performed by mechanical division, exclusive of Cristobal Dry Dock shops and Paraiso shops, for individuals and companies 254 Value of work performed by Cristobal dry-dock shops — Abstract of expenditures 254 Value of work performed by Cristobal dry-dock shops for individuals and companies 254 Value of work performed by Paraiso shops — ^Abstract of expenditures. 255 Value of work performed by Paraiso shops for individuals and companies 255 Total overtime of Paraiso shops and Cristobal dry-dock shops, with per cent of total pay roll 255 Total overtime of Cristobal dry-dock shops, with per cent of total pay roll 256 Total overtime of Paraiso shops, with per cent of total pay roll 256 Actual shop expense percentage, dry-dock shops and Paraiso shops__ 256 Applied shop expense percentage, dry-dock shops and Paraiso shops__ 257 Output and cost of brass castings 257 Output and cost of iron castings 258 Output and cost of steel castings 258 Number of repairs to locomotives 259 Repairs made to equipment other than locomotives and cars 259 Number of shop and field repairs made to different classes of cars__ 259 Hostling cost 260 APPENDIX B. Report of superintendent, division of canal transportation 261 Division organization 261 Captains of the ports 261 Board of local inspectors 262 Lighthouse Service 262 Board of admeasurement 262 Appendix 263 Report of board of local inspectors 263 Organization and personnel 263 Navigation laws, etc 263 Accidents and investigations 263 Steamboat inspection 264 Licenses issued 265 Chauffeurs 265 Navigators of motor boats 266 Licenses revoked 266 Licenses refused 266 Exhibit 1 — Officers' licenses issued 266 Exhibit 2 — Inspection made and revenues received 267 APPENDIX F. Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department 269 Organization 269 Personnel 270 Labor 270

PAGE 16

xn TABLE OF CONTENTS. Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department — Continued. Quarters Zone sanitation Corrals Building construction Material and supplies Receipts Operations of stores Mount Hope Paraiso Gatun Balboa General Scrap Sales Subsistence Commissary branch Exhibit 1. — Force actually at work June 30, 1914 Exhibit 2. — Force report, by months (including contractors' forces), fiscal year Exhibit 3. — High and low force records, December, 1906, to June 30, 1914 4. — Contract laborers brought to Isthmus by Isthmian Canal Commission 5. — Analysis of transportation from the Isthmus 6. — Occupants of Panama Canal and Panama Railroad quarters, June 30, 1914 7. — Applications for married quarters on file June 30, 1914_ 8. — Animals in corrals June 30, 1914 9. — Number of buildings on the Canal Zone June 30, 1914__ Exhibit 10. — New frame structures, fiscal year ___ Exhibit 11. — Buildings sold and demolished, fiscal year Exhibit 12. — Value of material received during fiscal year on requisitions of various departments Exhibit 13. — Freight statement, fiscal year Exhibit 14. — Important items due on United States requisitions June 30, 1914 Exhibit 15. — Important items of material purchased from inception of canal work, 1904 to June 30, 1914 Exhibit 16. — Important items of material received, fiscal year Exhibit 17. — Classification of material in stock at storehouses, June 30, 1914 Exhibit 18. — Value of stock on hand at warehouses, June 30, 1914___ Exhibit 19. — Rolling stock, July 1, 1914 Exhibit 20. — Important items of equipment sold Exhibit 21.— Pending sales of important items of equipment, June 30, 1914 Exhibit 22. — Statement of rail sold Exhibit 23. — Operation of Hotel Tivoli, fiscal year Exhibit 24. — Summary of operations, line hotels, restaurants, and European laborers' messes Appendix. — Report of resident engineer, permanent building divisionAdministration building Permanent quarters Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Paee. 271 273 273 274 277 277 277 279 280 280 280 281 281 284 288 290 292 293 293 294 295 297 297 297 298 298 299 300 302 302 302 303 304 305 305 306 307 307 308 309 311 312 313

PAGE 17

TABLE OF CONTENTS. . XIH Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department— Continued. Appendix. — Report of resident engineer, etc. — Continued. Page. Hydroelectric station power plant 314 Transmission line substations 315 Gatun substation 316 Miraflores substation 316 Cristobal substation 317 Balboa substation 318 Commissary warehouse 318 Commissary, Balboa 319 Shops office. Building No. 28 . 319 Fire station 320 Schoolhouse 320 Radio stations 320 Darien radio station 320 Colon radio station 321 Balboa radio station 321 Lock control houses 321 Ancon commis.sary 322 Force 322 APPENDIX G. Report of auditor, accounting department 323 Organization 323 Permanent accounting system 324 Panama and Colon waterworks accounts 326 Miscellaneous work 326 Canal Zone accounts 328 Claims for injuries and deaths 329 Canal appropriations 330 Tables submitted with report (for index see p. 332) 332 APPENDIX H. Report of chief health officer, department of health (for index see p. 375) _ 375 APPENDIX I-l. Report of executive secretary, executive department 403 Organization 403 Executive office 404 Clerical bureau 405 Personal bureau 405 Time-keeping bureau 405 Cost-keeping bureau 405 Bureau of clubs and playgroimds 405 Changes in buildings 405 New activities 406 Membership 406 Entertainments 407 Physical work and athletics 407 Religious work 408 Educational work 408 Boys' work 408 Finances 408

PAGE 18

XIV TABLE OF CONTENTS. Report of executive secretary, executive department — Continued. Organization — Continued. Executive office — Continued. Page. Special attorney's oftice 409 Division of civil affairs 409 Licenses and taxes 409 Customs service 409 Administration of estates 410 Division of posts 410 Division of schools 412 Police and fire division 413 Police and prisons 413 Fire protection 415 Courts __• 417 Marshal 419 Relations with Panama and foreign representatives 419 Legislation 421 Appendices to report (for table of contents, see p. 422) 422 APPENDIX 1-2. Report of cost-keeping accountant 443 Exhibit A. — Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1914_ 443 Total cost by geographical divisions 444 Percentage of surcharge over construction cost 444 Total construction cost for various units of work 444 Dry excavation 445 Masonry 446 Dry filling 447 Exhibit B. — Detailed cost per unit of work 448 Table 1. — Dredging excavation 448 Table 2. — Hydraulic excavation 449 Table 3. — Colon west breakwater 449 Table 4. — Stone production 449 Table 5. — Sand production 450 Exhibit C. — Detailed cost to June 30, 1914 450 Table 1. — Spillway gates, caissons, and machinery, lock gates and fender chains, emergency dams, hydroelectric power plant450 Table 2. — Lock-operating machinery 450 Table 3. — Transmission system — 452 Table 4. — Aids to navigation 452 Table 5. — Cristobal terminals 452 Table 6. — ^Balboa terminals 453 Table 7. — Permanent town sites 454 Table 8. — Permanent buildings 454 Table 9. — Cost of buildings erected by supply department and charged to other units of construction 455 Exhibit D. — Comparative statement of administrative and general expenses for fiscal year 455 Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p. 456) 456

PAGE 19

TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV APPENDIX 1-3. Page. Report of special attorney 511 Legislation 511 Organization 514 Criminal matters 517 Civil cases in the Canal Zone courts in which the United States and the Panama Railroad Co. are interested 521 Claims disposed of without suit 523 APPENDIX J. Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office 525 APPENDIX K. Tables showing increases in salaries and personnel 531 Department of operation and maintenance 531 Supply department 545 Accounting department 547 Department of health 548 Executive department 548 Office of special attorney 550 Washington office 551 APPENDIX L. Acts of Congress affecting the Panama Canal and Executive orders relating to the Canal Zone (for index see p. 553) 553 APPENDIX M. Charts showing organization of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co., July, 1914 (for index see p. 603) 603 63399° 14— u

PAGE 21

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. APPENDIX A. [Report of Engineor of Maintenance.] Plate. 1. Pedro Miguel Tjock. East chamber, looking north. All valves In east wall fully open. February 21, 1914. 2. Pedro Miguel Lock. East chamber, looking north. Discharge showing complete from the 11 culverts of east wall. February 21, 1914. 3. Operation of Miraflores Locks. S. S. Santa Clara in lower west chamber, lock filling. Looking south. June 18, 1914. 4. Operation of Miraflores Locks. S. S. Santa Clara in upper west chamber, lock filling. Looking south. June 18, 1914. 5. Operation of Gatun Locks. East emergency dam subjected to head of 50 feet of water. Looking south from intermediate gates. May 6, 1914. 6. Operation of Gatun Locks. First boat through. Tug Gatun entering lower lock, west chamber. Looking south from forbay. September 26, 1913. 7. Operation of Gatun Locks. S. S. Ancon leaving upper west chamber and entering the lake. 9. Gatun spillway dam completed, and hydroelectric station under construcabutment. December 30, 1913. 9. Gatun spillway dam completed and hydroelectric station under construction. Looking south. February 7, 1914. 10. Gatun hydroelectric station. Exterior of gatehouse. 11. Pedro Miguel Lock. General view from Luisa Hill. June 6, 1914. 12. Pedro Miguel Lock. West chamber, illuminated. 13. Pedro Miguel Lock. Control house. 14. Operation of Miraflores Locks. S. S. Santa Clara in upper west chamber. Lock filling. Looking south. June 18, 1914. 15. Miraflores Locks. Control board. Following plates, 71 to 75 and 1S6, in portfolio. 71. Diagram showing area of cross section at different points of filling culverts. 72. Pedro Miguel Lock. Characteristics of side-wall culvert. Filling curve for 900-foot lock through east culvert, using two valves. 73. Pedro Miguel Lock. Characteristics of side-wall culvert. Filling curve for 900-foot lock through east culvert, using one valve. 74. Pedro Miguel Lock. Oscillations of water level in forebay after opening filling valves in one culvert. 75. Pedro Miguel Lock. Oscillations of water level in forebay after opening filling valves in two culverts. 136. Pontoon bridge at Paraiso. XVII

PAGE 22

XVIII LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS. APPENDIX A-1. [Report of electrical and mechanical mgineer.] Following plates, 76 to 95, in portfolio. Plate. 76. Miraflores Locks. Head-torque characteristics of rising stem gate-valve machines. 77. Miter-gate moving machine. Current-duty cycle for opening gates Nos. 31 and 32. 78. Miter-gate moving machine. Current-duty cycle for closing gates Nos. 31 and 32. 79. Miter-gate moving machine. Current-duty cycle for opening gates Nos. 31 and 32. 80. Miter-gate moving machine. Current-duty cycle for closing gates Nos. 31 and 32. 81. Gatun Locks. Miter-gate moving machine. Maximum current of duty cycle for nonsimultaneous operation of gates. Opening miter gates Nos. 31 and 32. 82. Gatun Locks. Mlter-gate moving machine. Maximum current of duty cycle for nonsimultaneous operation of gates. Closing miter gates Nos. 31 and 32. 83. Gatun Locks. Miter-gate moving machine. Maximum strut compression for nonsimultaneous operation of opening miter gates Nos. 31 and 32. 84. Gatun Locks. Miter-gate moving machine. Maximum strut compression for nonsimultaneous operation of closing miter gates Nos. 31 and 32. 85. Miraflores I^ock. Towing locomotive. Current-duty cycle for ascending and descending incline at west wall. 86. Gatun Locks. Graphic wattmeter curve power demand. November 18, 1913. 87. Gatun Locks. Illumination. Cut-off distances for concrete reflectors of lamp standards, elevation of eye, 3 feet 6 inches above the rail. Lamp standard No. 194. 88. Gatun Locks. Illumination. Center-wall illumination with all lights on. Values taken at a point 3 feet 6 inches above rail on center wall, west side of the middle level. New, rough, whitewashed reflectors. 89. Gatun Locks. Illumination. Center-wall illumination with all lights on. Values taken at a point 3 feet 6 inches above the rail on center wall, west side of the middle level. Whitewashed reflectors, old and soiled. 90. Gatun Locks. Illumination. Profile of west wall giving illumination at a point 3 feet 6 inches above rail, using whitewashed i-eflectors, old but moderately clean. Lamp standard No. 280. 91. Gatun Locks. Log tests made in towing S. S. Allianca through locks. June 8, 1914. 92. Gatun Locks. Measurement of rise of wedges above seats under full head, emergency Dam A. 93. Gatun Locks. Curves of horizontal deflection of downstream chord of the horizontal truss of emergency Dam A. 94. Gatun Locks. Curves of vertical deflection of downstream chord of the horizontal truss of emergency Dam A. 95. Gatun Locks. Leakage of emergency Dam A.

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XIX APPENDIX A-2. [Report of resident engineer, division of municipal engineering.] Plate. 16. Agua Clara purification plant. General view looking south. April 4, 1913. 17. Mount Hope waterworks and purification plant, showing sedimentation basin, aeration basin, and filter building. 18. Mount Hope waterworlis and purification plant. Front view filter building and pump station. 19. Miraflores water-purification plant. Wash-water tank. Looking south. May 30, 1914. Following plates, 96 to 98, in portfolio. 96. Miraflores purification plant. Elevation plan and section. 97. Mir;iflores purification plant. Filter buildings, general location, plans and sections. 98. Chlorine chart, Miraflores Lake. APPENDIX A-3. [Report of chief hydrographer, section of meteorology and liydrography.] Following plates, 99 to 112, in portfolio. Plate. 99. Wind roses, year 1913. 100. Hydrograph of Gatun Lake. 101. Hydrograph of Miraflores Lake. 102. Mass curve of total yield, Gatun Lake. 103. Rainfall, runoff and percentage runoff, Gatun Lake, year 1913. 104. Gatun Lake watershed. Mass curves of total yield, net yield, land area yield, storage, rainfall, and evaporation on lake surface. 105. Chagres River drainage basin. Mass curve of discharge at Alhajuela. 106. Chagres River drainage b:isin. Curve of discharge duration, Alhajuela. 107. Chagres River drainage basin. Curve of discharge duration for 24 years, Alhajuela. 108. Gatun Spillway. Changes due to operation of gates. 109. Gatun Spillway. Leakage of gates. December 23 to 25, 1913. 110. Gatun Spillway. Leakage of gates. March 12 to 14, 1914. 111. Miraflores Locks. Current ob.servations taken below west lower operating gates. 112. Hydrographs showing surge in Culebra Cut at pontOon bridge on locking water at Pedro Miguel Lock. APPENDIX B. [Report of engineer of terminal construction.] Plate. 20. Pacific terminals. Balboa Plain and Balboa Heights, looking northeast from top of Sosa Hill. July 1, 1914. 2L Balboa terminals. Pouring concrete in quay wall (g, h, i). November 26, 1913. 22. Balboa terminals. Looking from quay wall (g, h, i) along line of bulkhead wall of No. 1 slip, showing caissons sunk to rock and forms being started to receive superstructure. January 27, 1914. 23. Balboa terminals. Brick paving, east end of quay wall (g, h, i). March 18, 1914. 24. Balboa terminals. Interior of boiler shop. January 27, 1914.

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XX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Plate. 25. Balboa terminals. Condition of south wall of Dry Dock No. 1 after excavation by steam shovels to elevation —40. Slope taken is at natural dip of rock. June 26, 1914. 26. Balboa terminals. East end of north wall of Dry Dock No. 1, showing condition along incline. June 26, 1914. 27. Balboa terminals. Supporting runway piers for coal rehandling cranes over coal pocket. June 30, 1914. 28. Balboa terminals. Beam and floor reinforcement in superstructure on Pier No. 1. June 27, 1914. 29. Asphalt-concrete mixing plant at Balboa. June 27, 1914. 30. Making asphalt concrete roads at Balboa. June 27, 1914. 31. Cristobal coaling station, showing caissons in reloader foundations, looking south. May 26, 1914. 32. Cristobal coaling station, showing east bridge tract wall and south end of caissons under unloading wharf. Looking north. July 9, 1914. 33. East Breakwater, Limon Bay, Coco Solo storage yard, looking west from east end. August 12, 1914. 34. Toro Point Breakwater, top view, looking out. April 21, 1914. 35. Toro Point Breakwater, sea slope, looking out. April 21, 1914. Following plates, 113 to 128, in portfolio. 113. Balboa shops and yards. General plan. 114. Dry Dock No. 1, Balboa. General plan and section. 115. Dry Dock No. 1, Balboa. Cross sections. 116. Balboa coaling plant. General plan. 117. Balboa coaling plant. Cross sections. 118. Balboa townsite. General plan. 119. Floating cranes Ajax and Hercules. Elevations. 120. Floating cranes Ajax and Hercules. Plan and sections. 121. Fuel-oil plant, Atlantic terminals. General plan. 122. Fuel-oil plant. Pacific terminals. General plan. 123. Cristobal coaling plant. General plan. 124. Cristobal coaling plant. Cross sections. 125. East Breakwater. General plan. 126. East Breakwater. Cross sections. 1 27. Type A tugs. Deck plans. 128. Type A tugs. Outboard profile. APPENDIX C. [Report of resident engineer, dredging division.] Plate. 36. Culebra Cut, looking south from a point near present 1726. January 25, 1905. 37. Culebra Cut, between Gold and Contractors Hills, in 1890. Looking south. 38. Culebra Cut, between Gold and Contractors Hills, in 1890. Looking north. 39. Culebra Cut, looking north from Contractors Hill. December 28, 1907. 40. Culebra Cut, looking south from Contractors Hill (excavation completed south of Cucaracha slide). July 19, 1913. 41. Culebra Cut, looking south from Empire suspension bridge (lower shovels working on bottom of canal). June 16, 1913. 42. Culebra Cut, looking south from east bank half way between Culebra and Empire. June, 1913.

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LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. XXI Plate. 43. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Looking north from east bank, showing bottom of canaL August 23, 1913. 44. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Looking south from east bank. Surface of water 72.3 feet above sea level. October 30, 1913. 45. Culebra Cut, Empire. Looking south from suspension bridge. Surface of water 72.3 feet above sea level. October 30, 1913. 46. Culebra Cut, looking north from one-fourth mile south of suspension bridge at Empire. Cut completed at bridge. June 16, 1913. 47. Culebra Cut, Empire. Looking south from west bank near Cunette. Surface of water 72.3 feet above sea level. October 30, 1913. 48. Culebra Cut, Empire. Looking south, showing suspension bridge. December, 1913. 49. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Looking south from Contractors Hill. Cucaracha slide in left center. May 25, 1933. 50. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Looking north. Lower part of Cucaracha slide on right. August 18, 1913. 51. Culebra Cut. Cucaracha slide, from west bank south of Contractors Hill. Looking north. October 16, 1913. 52. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Blasting a channel through Cucaracha slide. Looking north. October 16, 1913. 53. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Looking south from top of Contractors Hill. Cucaracha slide to left. December 3, 1913. 54. Culebra Cut, from Contractors Hill, showing ladder and dipper dredges working on toe of Cucaracha slide. December 9, 1913. 55. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Looking north from west bank. Dredges operating in Cucaracha slide. December 9, 1913. 56. Culebra Cut. Looking north from west bank. Width of channel at slide, 150 feet. December 18, 1913. 57. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Seagoing suction dredge Culehra passing Cucaracha slide. January 20, 1914. 58. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Looking north from Contractors Hill. June 12, 1914. 59. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Looking south from west bank, showing dredges working in Cucaracha slide. June, 1914. 60. Gamboa Dike. Opening the valves and flooding Culebra Cut. Water coming through four pipes. October 1, 1913. 61. Blowing up Gamboa Dike. Looking north from boat in canal south of dike. October 10, 1913. 62. Aids to navigation. Beacons in Culebra Cut. 63. Naos Island Breakwater. Looking south from Sosa Hill. 64. Paraiso pontoon bridge. Launching pontoon at Mount Hope shops. March 25, 1914. 65. Paraiso pontoon bridge. Looking north, showing train crossing canal. May 15, 1914. Following plates, 129 to 135, in portfolio. 129. Prism at Cucaracha. October 20, 1913. 130. Prism at Cucaracha. February, 1914. 131. Prism at Cucaracha. June, 1914. 132. Cucaracha slide. January 14, 1914. 133. Cucaracha slide. February 28, 1914. 134. Cucaracha slide. April 9, 1914. 135. Cucaracha slide. May 8, 1914.

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XXn LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS. APPENDIX TO APPENDIX F. [Report of resident engineer, permanent building division, supply department.] Plate. 66. New administration building, Balboa Heights. North front 67. New administration building, Balboa Heights. South front. 68. Completed four-family house in the new village of Balboa. 69. The new village of Balboa from the administration building. 70. The transmission line substation at Miraflores. APPENDIX M. [Charts showing organization of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co., July, 1914.] All plates in portfolio. Plate. 337. General organization. 138. Executive department. 139. Engineer of maintenance. 140. Division of terminal construction. 141. Dredging division. 142. Mechanical division. 143. Division of canal transportation. 144. Supply department. 145. Accounting department. 146. Health department. 147. Washington office. 148. Panama Railroad.

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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION AND THE PANAMA CANAL. The Panama Canal, Office of the Governor, Balboa Heights^ Canal Zone^ September W, 1914Sm: I have the honor to submit the annual report covering the construction, operation, maintenance, sanitation, and protection of The Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended Jime 30, 1914. ORGANIZATION. The organization which existed at the close of the previous fiscal year and was described in the last annual report underwent a number of changes during the year, as the construction work was reduced and concentration of what remained seemed desirable and advantageous. All municipal engineering work in the Canal Zone formerly performed by the construction divisions, as well as that performed in the cities of Colon and Panama by the division of public works, department of civil administration, was consolidated, effective July 16, 1913, forming the division of municipal engineering, under Mr. George M. Wells, resident engineer, reporting to the chief engineer. For the design of the buildings for the new town of Balboa, an architectural force was organized on the Isthmus, as well as a force under a resident engineer for the erection of the new administration building and quarters for officers and employees, in accordance with plans which had been prepared and approved. In addition, a force under a landscape architect was gathered together to lay out the grounds and construct streets, water and sewer systems for the 63399°— 14 1 1

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2 THE PANAMA CANAL. Balboa town site, independent of the division of municipal engineering. While the work of the first two forces was directly under the supervision of the chief engineer, to reduce the cost of administration they were assigned to the quartermaster's department ; the force of the landscape architect was placed under the second division of the chief engineer's office. Effective October 1, 1913, the time keeping and cost keeping for the central division and the cost keeping for the quartermaster's department were transferred to the office of the chief engineer and consolidated with the forces already organized under this office to take care of the time keeping and cost keeping of other branches of the work. With the admission of water into Culebra Cut by the blowing up of Gamboa Dike on October 10, 1913, the central division was abolished. The remaining dry excavation in the territory covered by this division was placed under a resident engineer reporting to the chief engineer; all surveying work and dredging were placed under the sixth division of the chief engineer's office, and the transportation forces, with those of the first, fifth, and fortification divisions, were concentrated under a superintendent of transportation and placed with the second division of the office of the chief engineer; the central division's property accountability was transferred to the quartermaster's department. Effective October 15, 1913, the concrete Avork remaining to complete the construction of the locks at Gatun was transferred from the Atlantic division to the first division, which could do it in connection with installation of the machinery and towing tracks with the same supervisory force; similar unfinished work in connection with the Pacific Locks was also transferred to the first division at the same time. On January 1, 1914, all dry excavation still in progress in connection with the Culebra Cut, the construction of the Naos Island Breakwater, the sluicing operations on the east bank of the Cut north of Gold Hill to relieve the pressure, and the fill of the toAvn site at Balboa were consolidated and placed in charge of Mr. George A. Greenslade, general superintendent, and constituted the fourth division of the chief engineer's office. The auditing of property returns and the making of test checks of property were transferred from the chief quartermaster to the examiner of accounts. The remaining work in the Atlantic and fifth divisions having reached such a stage as not to justify the administrative charges that the existing organizations called for, these two divisions were abolished on February 1. Their property accountability was transferred to the quartermaster's department and their records turned over to the fourth division, office of the chief engineer. The construe-

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 3 tion of the west breakwater and the operation of Porto Bello quarry were transferred to the second division of the chief engineer's office, while the work remaining at Gatun Dam, El Cano saddle, back fill at Miraflores, Miraflores spillway channel, Ancon quarry, and the sluicing at Gold Hill were placed directly under the chief engineer. Effective April 1, 1914, by Executive order and in conformity with the Panama Canal act of August 24, 1912, the existing organization was abolished and the one contemplated by the act was made effective. Under this organizations there were created a department of operation and maintenance, a purchasing department, a supply department, an accounting department, a health department, an executive office, and a Washington office of The Panama Canal. The department of operation and maintenance was placed in charge of the Governor and in the administration of the affairs of the department he is assisted by an engineer of maintenance and a superintendent of canal transportation. To provide for the remaining construction work as well as the maintenance and operation of the canal, the department was organized with the following divisions : The division of terminal construction, which embraces charge of the design, inspection and construction of dry docks, shops, coaling and fuel-oil plants, floating cranes, docks, and other terminal facilities; construction transportation by rail; road, street, and sewer work in the new town of Balboa ; and the breakwater construction at the Atlantic terminal, reporting to the Governor. The division of erection; the electrical division; the division of municipal engineering; the division of lighthouses, until June 16, 1914, when it was abolished; and the office engineer with his forces, were placed under the engineer of maintenance. The dredging division, fortification division, mechanical division, and the remaining construction work consisting of sluicing in the vicinity of Gold Hill, completion of Naos Island Breakwater, excavation in the dry to relieve side pressure in the vicinity of Culebra, and grading and filling at the locks and dams, combined in a general construction division, report directly to the Governor. The division of canal transportation, under the supervision of a superintendent of transportation reporting to the Governor, is charged' with the safe conduct of vessels through the canal. The port captains, the board of local inspectors, the pilots, and the admeasurers of vessels, and, since June 16, 1914, the care and operation of lights and beacons are directly in charge of the superintendent of transportation. Col. H. F. Hodges, United States Army, was designated as engineer of maintenance, Mr. H. H, Rousseau, United States Navy, as engineer of terminal construction, and Capt. Hugh Rodman, United States Navy, as superintendent of transportation.

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4 THE PANAMA CANAL. The quartermaster's department and the subsistence department, as outlined in previous annual reports, were consolidated to constitute the supply department, which was placed in charge of Capt. R. E. Wood as chief quartermaster. It has charge of the storing and distribution of all material and supplies for use of The Panama Canal and its employees, and for other departments on the Isthmus and their employees, and for vessels of the United States and other vessels when required. It operates commissaries, hotels, and messes; has charge of the maintenance of buildings, the assignment of quarters, and care of grounds. It recruits and distributes unskilled labor and is in charge of the necessary animal transportation. The accounting department, as organized, consists of the auditor's, the paymaster's, and the collector's oflSces. The consolidation was made for administrative purposes only in order to secure economy, the auditor having supervision and direction of the entire department; the heads of the subdivisions, however, are independent in their own particular spheres. The department has charge of general bookkeeping, auditing, and accounting for both money and property, the examination of pay rolls and vouchers, the inspection of time books and of money and property accounts, the administrative examination of accounts as required by law, and the collection, custody, and disbursement of funds for The Panama Canal and the Canal Zone. The accounting department was placed in charge of Mr. H. A. A. Smith as auditor for The Panama Canal, with Mr. John H. McLean as paymaster and Mr. T. L. Clear as collector. The health department was organized under the supervision and direction of a chief health officer, Lieut. Col. Charles F. Mason, United States Army. This department is charged with all matters relating to maritime sanitation and quarantine in the ports and waters of the Canal Zone and in the harbors of the cities of Panama and Colon, and with land sanitation in the Canal Zone and sanitary matters in the terminal cities in conformity with the canal treaty between the United States and the Republic of Panama, together with all matters relating to hospitals and charities. The civil functions of the Canal Zone were placed in charge of an executive secretary who, under the direction of the Governor, has supervision of all matters relating to the keeping of the time of emplo3^ees, to post offices, customs, taxes and excises, excepting the collection thereof, police and prisons, fire protection, land offices, schools, clubs, and law library, the custody of files and records, and the administration of estates of deceased and insane employees. He conducts all correspondence and communications between the authorities of the Canal Zone and the Government of the Republic of Panama, and the diplomatic representatives from other countries. Mr. C. A. Mcllvaine was appointed executive secretary.

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 5 The scope of the work of the Washington office remained about the same as previously reported, Maj. F. C. Boggs, United States Army, being continued in charge as general purchasing officer and chief of office. By Executive order of May 20, 1914, a committee of six members was created to arrange and provide suitable ceremonies for the formal and official opening of The Panama Canal, as is provided for in section 4 of the Panama Canal act. The committee is composed of persons who were members of the Isthmian Canal Commission and is to be known and referred to as the committee for the formal and official opening of the Panama Canal. CONSTRUCTION. PERSONNEL. The central division, embracing the same work as described in the annual report for 1913, continued in charge of Lieut. Col. D. D. Gaillard, United States Army, as division engineer, until the division was abolished on October 15, 1913. During his absence on regular annual leave from May 7, 1913, to July 2, 1913, and during the part of his illness from July 29, 1913, to October 15, 1913, the work was conducted by Resident Engineer A. S. Zinn as acting division engineer. Subsequent to the abolition of the division and until January 1, 1914, Mr. Zinn continued in charge of steam-shovel work which was undertaken to lighten the banks, of the approaches to the pontoon bridge, and of the Naos Island Breakwater. Col. Gaillard died, as the result of a tumor on the brain, December 5, 1913. The work of dry excavation in Culebra Cut was divided into two districts; one extended from Gamboa to Culebra, which continued in charge of Mr. J. M. Hagan, superintendent, until September 14, 1913, when he was transferred to Naos Island Breakwater, relieving Supt. W. T. Reynolds, who resigned on September 13, 1913. He remained in charge until the consolidation of the construction work under the fourth division, chief engineer's office, January 1, 1914. The breakwater was then placed under Mr. Will B. Casey, general foreman. The district from Culebra to Pedro Miguel Locks continued in charge of Mr. M. W. Tenny, superintendent, until December 31, 1913. The transportation division continued in charge of Mr. A. Sessions until he resigned, on October 13, 1913, when all the transportation on the Pacific side of the canal was concentrated. The Atlantic division, embracing the same construction work as described in the last annual report, continued in charge of Lieut. Col. William L. Sibert, United States Army, as division engineer, until February 1, 1914, when the division was abolished. He continued on duty as a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission until

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6 THE PANAMA CANAL. April 1, 1914. Maj. James P. Jervey, United States Army, resident engineer, continued in charge of the construction of the masonry work of the Gatun Locks until September 26, 1913. Maj. George M. Hoffman, United States Army, resident engineer, continued in charge of the Gatun Dam and spillway until September 28, 1913. On these dates both the latter officers were relieved on account of the practical completion of their work. Lieut. Col. William V. Judson, United States Army, assistant division engineer, continued in charge of the construction of the breakwater at Toro Point and the operation of the Porto Bello quarry until the abolition of the division, when he continued in charge of the same work as assistant division engineer until April 1, 1914, when, on his own request, he was relieved from duty with the canal. The fifth division, chief engineer's office, continued in charge of Mr. H. O. Cole as resident engineer, and had charge of masonry construction of the Pacific locks, dams, and spillway, the operation of the Ancon quarry, and excavation of the channel between Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks until October 15, 1913, when the locks were transferred to the first division, and he continued in charge of the balance of the work until January 31, 1914, when the amount of work remaining necessitated a reorganization and he severed his connection with the canal. Other officials connected with the work during the year are referred to elsewhere in the report. LOCKS AND DAMS. Gatun Locks. — As noted in the last annual report, the concrete work of the locks assigned to the Atlantic division was finished June 14, 1913, with the exception of the lamp-post bases, bases for snubbing buttons and mooring posts, stairway parapets, and the closing of openings left for construction purposes. During the year just ended there were laid 525 cubic yards of concrete in the locks structure at a division cost of $95.2529 per cubic yard (including finishing and calking concrete previously laid) ; in the construction of the control house, 94 cubic yards at a division cost of $81.2796 per cubic yard, and 9,785 cubic yards in connection with the installation of the machinery, at a division cost of $10.7015 per cubic yard. The construction-plant mixers ceased operation on August 16, 1913. The construction cableways handled 4,111 cubic yards of concrete and were utilized for the transfer of material across the locks after the removal of the bridges used by the contractors in the erection of the gates. The amount of all concrete laid in the Gatun Locks, exclusive of that used in the construction of the control house, from the beginning of the work to the close of the fiscal year, aggregated 2,067,731 cubic yards at an average division cost of $7.2122 per cubic yard. No rock or

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 7 sand was handled by the unloading cableways during the year, but they were used for transferring material from the stock piles to the tunnel hoppers and for unloading coal for use on the west side of the locks. The back filling of the side walls, made of material obtained from borrow pits, was continued until December 19, 1913, when the status of available money necessitated discontinuing further work. The amount placed during the year was 91,576 cubic yards at a division cost of $1.4304 per cubic yard. The total amount of material used for back fill up to June 30, 1914, aggregated 2,119,406 cubic yards placed behind the side walls at a division cost of $0.5007 per cubic yard, and a total of 113,163 cubic yards piaced in the center wall at a division cost of $0.7692 per cubic yard. Teams and scrapers, locomotive cranes, and hand labor were used to bring the back fill to final grade, at a cost for the year of $47,376.79. To the end of the fiscal year a total of $56,673.61 was expended on work for this final grading. The concrete paving of the slope between the locks and the Panama Eailroad was completed during the year at a total cost of $10,726.54. The lamp-posts, snubbing buttons, and mooring posts were completed in place. The construction of the control house, begun in April, 1913, was continued by the forces of the Atlantic division until October 15, 1913, when it was taken over by the first division with other unfinished work in the Atlantic division. It was completed by the close of the fiscal year, with the exception of the door and window frames. The amount expended for the construction of the building, which is of reinforced concrete, tile roof and tile floors, was $54,391.60. Gatun spillway. — Work on the spillway consisted in completing the fill of the openings of the valves in the body of the dam, raising the piers to full height, setting the valves, and completing the bridge. So far as the spillway proper is concerned, the structure was finally finished in October of 1913. During the year 7,047 cubic yards of concrete were laid, at an average cost of $8.9005 per cubic yard, making the total amount of concrete placed in the structure 231,179 cubic yards, at an average cost of $7.5273 per cubic yard. The steps on either side and the back fill in connection witTi them were completed by the supply department and finished in May, 1914. Gatun Dam. — Work on the dam consisted in placing material on the portions east and west of the spillway to bring the dam to fuU height, in bringing the slopes generally to final grade, completing the fill around and over the core wall connecting the dam with the locks, paving the upstream slope, and in laying such permanent tracks as it was deemed advisable to maintain in order to make quick repairs in case of necessity. For this purpose two steam shovels were at work until March, 1914, borrowing material from north of the dam, principally red clay, and in accomplishing the grading and completion of the fill ; 314,160 cubic yards were handled at a division

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8 THE PANAMA CANAL. cost of $0.4033 per cubic yard. Paving the upstream slope, as outlined in the last annual report, was completed in August, 1913, and 9,860 cubic yards of large riprap rock from Sosa Hill and from excavation for the dry dock at Balboa were used at a division cost of $2.0403 per cubic yard in place. The total amount of large and crushed rock used for paving, therefore, was 94,330 cubic yards, and the average division cost was $1.4378 per cubic yard. Permanent tracks aggregating 5,780 feet in length were laid with good rails and ties, with proper grades and curves. Observations for settlement were continued throughout the year. Seepage from the dam has been negligible. At the close of the rainy season two small streams were found issuing from the north toe in the west portion of the dam, but with the advance of the dry season these ceased entirely. There was no seepage of any kind apparent in the east portion of the dam. Pedro Miguel Locks. — Masonry construction carried on at these locks by the fifth division consisted of lamp-post bases, bases for snubbing buttons and posts, stairway wells, and the control house. What remained after October 1, 1913, was taken over by the first division in connection with the concrete that was placed as an incident to the installation of the operating machinery. The amount of concrete laid in the lock structure was 1,087 cubic yards, at a division cost of $22.3520 per cubic yard, including finishing and calking concrete previously laid; in the construction of the control house, 592 cubic yards, at a division cost of $62.5423 per cubic yard, and 10,961 cubic yards in connection with the installation of machinery, at a division cost of $11.1332 per cubic yard. As the machinery and wiring were not all installed, additional concrete will be required to complete the work. The total amount of concrete laid at the Pedro Miguel Locks (exclusive of that used in the construction of the control house) from the beginning of the work to the close of the fiscal year was 928,326 cubic yards, and the division cost was $5.6575 per cubic yard. Work on the control house was begun in May, 1913, and was completed by the close of the year with the exception of the doors, windows, and plumbing. The amount expended on the construction of the building, which is of reinforced concrete, tile roof and tile floors, was $68,521.95. The back filling of the side walls was completed in March, 1914, and the filling of the center wall in February, 1914. During the fiscal year 27,750 cubic yards of material were placed behind the side walls, at a division cost of $1.1146 per cubic yard, and 5,619 cubic yards in the center wiill, at a division cost of $1.6139 per cubic yard. The total amount of material used for back fill up to June 30, 1914, aggregated 834,288 cubic yards placed behind the side walls, at a division cost of $0.4131 per cubic yard and 220,768 cubic yards placed in the center wall, at a division cost of $0.4777 per cubic yard.

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EEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 9 Mirajiores Locks. — At the close of the previous fiscal year the concrete of the locks proper was completed, except the lamp-post bases, bases for snubbing buttons and mooring posts, parapets around the stairways, and the nosing at the end of the south-approach pier. During the year just ended 2,844 cubic yards of concrete were laid in the locks structure at a division cost of $20.6624 per cubic yard (including finishing and calking concrete previously laid) ; in the construction of the control house, 949 cubic yards at a division cost of $57.2407 per cubic yard, and 18,241 cubic yards in connection with the installation of the machinery at a division cost of $11.3685 per cubic yard. Additional concrete remained to be placed, as the installation of machinery and the wiring were not completed. The building of lamp-post bases on the southeast wing wall was interrupted by the necessity of transferring sand operations to Miraflores, and they remain to be placed. The amount of all concrete laid in the Miraflores Locks (exclusive of that used in the construction of the control house) from the beginning of the work to the close of the fiscal year was 1,507,794 cubic yards at a division cost of $5.1695 per cubic yard. The total amount of concrete laid in the Pacific Locks (exclusive of that used in the construction of the control houses) at the close of the fiscal year aggregated 2,436,120 cubic yards at an average division cost of $5.3555 per cubic yard. Backfilling the lock walls at Miraflores was continued, material for the west side being obtained from a borrow pit on the northwest side of Cocoli Hill and on the east side from the excavation of a channel for discharging the overflow from the spillway into the canal, from Diablo and Sosa Hills. The backfilling of the side walls was completed in May, 1914, and the filling of the center wall in March, 1914, During the fiscal year 360,198 cubic yards of material were placed behind the side walls at a division cost of $0.6021 per cubic yard, and 92,244 cubic yards in the center wall at a division cost of $0.5273 per cubic yard. The total amount of material used for back fill up to June 30, 1914, was 2,366,252 cubic yards placed behind the side walls at a division cost of $0.3855 per cubic yard, and 249,457 cubic yards placed in the center wall at a division cost of $0,5846 per cubic yard, Mirafores Dam and spillway. — During the present fiscal year the total amount of concrete laid in the spillway was 10,112 cubic yards, of which 9,570 cubic yards were plain concrete at a division cost of $8.3510 per cubic yard, and 542 cubic yards were reinforced concrete at a division cost of $11.8730 per cubic yard. The total amount of concrete laid in the spillway to June 30, 1914, was 74,254 cubic yards at a division cost of $6,2160 per cubic yard! The last concrete was laid in February, 1914. Dry filling on the west dam was completed

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10 THE PANAMA CANAL. in February, 1914. During the year 98,424 cubic yards of material (secured from a borrow pit on the northwest side of Cocoli Hill) were placed in this dam at a division cost of $0.6431 per cubic yard. The total amount of dry filling placed in the dam since the beginning of the work is 1,758,423 cubic yards, at a division cost of $0.4582 per cubic yard. The design, construction, and inspection of the lock gates, chain fenders, emergency dams, operating machinery, and electrical installations continued in charge of Col. H. F. Hodges, United States Army, as assistant chief engineer until April 1, 1914, and subsequently as engineer of maintenance. Lock gates. — The construction and erection of the lock gates imder contract were continued and completed in accordance with the supplemental articles of agreement entered into January 14, 1913. At Gatun all the gates for the west flight were completed on September 24, 1913; all the gates for the east flight on December 30, 1913. At Pedro Miguel all the gates for the east lock were completed September 30, 1913, and for the west lock on December 30, 1913. At Miraflores the gates for the west flight were completed on September 30, 1913, and for the east flight on January 10, 1914. All the gates were completed within the time specified in the supplemental contract, the time at Miraflores being anticipated by about two months. The original contract provided that the contractor should paint the gates with two coats of red lead, at his expense, and with a third coat of some other pigment to be furnished by the Isthmian Canal Commission, applied to the gates at the contractor's cost. To provide for more complete protection, this agreement was modified and at Gatun arrangement was made for an additional coat, making two of red lead and two others, instead of one. These additional coats consisted, one of United States Navy anticorrosive and one of antifouling paint, and were applied to those parts of the gates in the lower locks which are constantly under water. On the remaining gates at Gatun two coats of equal parts of graphite and red lead were applied. It was intended that no red lead should be used at Pedro Miguel except for the upper guard gates, the protection to consist of three coats of damp-proof paint. At Miraflores the gates in the lower lock from elevation —6 to the bottom were to be given two coats of red lead, followed by one coat of anticorrosive and one coat of antifouling paint. All the other gates were to be given three coats of a proprietary paint consisting of a hydrocarbon mixture. On account of delay in receipt of the damp-proof paints intended for use on the Pedro Miguel gates, some of these were painted with hydrocarbon paint from Miraflores and, conversely, a few of the Miraflores gates were painted with damp-proof paint. In all of these cases the third and fourth coats were applied by the Commission

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EEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 11 forces. Due to impurities in the water of Gatun Lake, none of the paints, except the bitumastic which was applied directly to the metal on small sections of several of the gates at Gatun, has proved satisfactory, and the paint on those parts which are constantly under water is in very poor condition. The action of the gates in service is entirely satisfactory, the leakage at the quoin and miter posts being extremely small. The cost of the gates complete was $6,471,806.99, of which $5,632,942.38 were paid under the contract, and the balance of $838,864.41 was for inspection, painting, recess covers, fixed steel, special tracks, and services furnished the contractor. Gate machines. — All the parts for the mechanical and electrical installation of the machines for operating the miter gates were emplaced. The 40 machines required at Gatun were completed on February 28, 1914, the 24 machines at Pedro Miguel on March 28, 1914, and the 28 machines at Miraflores on May 28, 1914. A number of tests were conducted to determine the conditions under which the most satisfactory operation might be obtained, and the results obtained show the advisability of reducing the duty of the motor, which has very little reserve power, by starting one gate ahead of the other by an interval of approximately 20 seconds. The benefit derived results from the fact that, with only one gate operating, when the gates are near the mitering position the entire area of the chamber is available for the storage of water displaced. The cost of the miter-gate moving machines complete was $822,410.03, of which $704,744.78 were expended under the contract, and the balance for installation. Miter-gate forcing machines. — With the material of the miter-gate forcing machines on hand, their erection progressed with the completion of the gates. The 20 machines required at Gatun were completed on February 14, 1914, the 12 at Pedro Miguel were completed on March 27, 1914, and the 14 at Miraflores on March 26, 1914. No special tests were conducted during the year. The total cost of the machines was $57,200.16, of which $40,225.88 were expended under the contract, and the balance for installation. The machinery for operating the hand rails on the gates was installed complete during the j^ear. There are 36 machines at Gatun, 20 at Pedro Miguel, and 24 at Miraflores. The operation is satisfactory, both on local and remote control circuits. The total amount expended was $29,652.32, of which $17,078.58 were paid out under the contract and the balance for installation. The installation of the pumps for unwatering the gates was completed during the year. There are 40 pumps at Gatun, 24 at Pedro Miguel, and 28 at Miraflores. The total amount expended was $28,516.31, of which $18,979.98 were paid out under the contract and the balance for installation.

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12 THE PANAMA CANAL. The installation of the electrical appliances for operating the various gate machines was completed during the year. The total amount expended was $207,653.42, of which $132,326 were paid out under the contract and the balance for installation. Rising stem valves. — The placing of the valves, stems, roller trains, and crossheads remaining to be done at the close of the last fiscal year was completed and the 116 machines required for their operation were erected and the electrical installation completed. Of the machines placed during the year 5 were at Gatun and 28 at Miraflores, making a total of 56 at Gatun, 24 at Pedro Miguel, and 36 at Miraflores. The mechanical and electrical work in connection with the installation of these machines was completed at Gatun on February 12, 1914, at Pedro Miguel on March 30, 1914, and at Miraflores on March 30, 1914. Guard valves. — At the end of the fiscal year all guard valves and machines were erected in place at all the locks except at Miraflores. The six at Gatun were completed on April 25, 1914, six at Pedro Miguel on June 29, 1914, and those at Miraflores were 62 per cent completed at the close of the fiscal year. The tests made of the guard valves showed that the machines would not operate satisfactorily as originally designed, and a number of changes were made necessary. The most important ones consisted in providing an outboard bearing to the pinion shaft, which overcame the tendency of the pinion to get out of line with the main spur gear, and guide shoes for weights in the counterweight pits to overcome the slight eccentric load due to the weight of the roller train. The amount expended on the rising stem and guard valves and their machines to the close of the fiscal year was $1,508,735.59, of which $1,127,725.38 were paid under the contract and the balance for installation. Auxiliary culvert valves. — ^The mechanical and electrical work in connection with the installation of these valves and their machines was completed during the year, four machines being installed at Gatun and completed on March 10, 1914, four at Pedro Miguel completed on March 5, 1914, and four at Miraflores completed on March 31, 1914. The cost of the machines in place was $22,805.80, of which $16,062.84 were paid under the contract and the balance for installation. Cylindrical-valve machines. — The setting of all the cylindrical valves was completed during the previous fiscal year and 41.6 per cent of the electrical work had been finished. The total cost for the machines aggregated $228,222.04, of which $161,290.79 were in payment of contracts for furnishing material and the balance for installation. During the year the remaining electrical work was completed on the 60 at Gatun on Ma rch 30, 1914 ; on the 20 at Pedro

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EEPORT OP THE GOVEENOK. 13 Miguel on January 27, 1914; and on the 40 at Miraflores on February 27, 1914. Chain-fender machines. — After the tests had been completed on the two sample chain-fender machines, the results indicated that they would carry out the work for which they were designed and arrangements were made to order the balance of the equipment. Of the 16 to be erected at Gatun, the mechanical work on 14 was completed with the exception of the chains ; of the 16 at Pedro Miguel, the mechanical work on 7 was completed with the exception of the chains; and at Miraflores, of the 16, the mechanical work on 1 was completed with the exception of the chains. Work was in progress on all the units, with the exception of the 4 lower ones at Miraflores, where no work had been done. The electrical work, so far as practicable, progressed with the mechanical work. The manufacture of chain for the fenders has progressed rather slowly, but orders were placed for all the chains required, with one exception, before the close of the year. The total amount expended thus far was $830,726.89, of which $661,140.30 was for payments under the contract for delivery of the material, and $169,586.59 for erection. The cost of inspecting the lock-operating machinery to June 30, 1914, was $167,926.06. Spillway gates. — The spillway gates were placed in position by the construction divisions in connection with building the spillway dams. The mechanical equipment and electrical installation were completed on the 14 machines at Gatun on December 18, 1913. At Miraflores the mechanical work was completed on the 8 machines on October 13, 1913, and the electrical work on June 5, 1914. The spillway gates at Gatun have all been operated satisfactorily under full head, controlled from a switchboard in the hydroelectric station. The tests of the Miraflores gates indicated defects in the mechanical work, necessitating overhauling and correction. These changes were not completed at the close of the fiscal year. The total amount expended was $337,529.11, of which $236,045.26 were expended under the contract, and the balance for inspection and erection. Towing-track material. — All the towing-track material purchased under the original contract was delivered previous to June 30, 1913. During the year tests with the locomotives brought out the fact that it was necessary to provide additional rack sections at the top and bottom of all inclines at the locks, and 606 feet of additional rack sections were made at the Balboa shops. At Gatun Locks 1,182 linear feet of rack section were laid, 3,438 linear feet concreted in, and a total of 4,082 linear feet completed, making a total completed to date of 22,185 linear feet. At the Pedro Miguel Locks 1,518 linear feet of track were laid, 3,901 linear feet concreted in, making a total

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14 THE PANAMA CANAL. of 13,696 linear feet completed to date. At Miraflores Locks 4,007 linear feet were laid, 8,160 feet concreted in, making 9,104 linear feet completed during the year, or a total to date of 18,144 linear feet. Of the total amount to be completed, 54,365 linear feet, 99.3 per cent were completed at the close of the year. Conductor-slot material, consisting of steel and copper conductor rails, insulators, brackets, and cover plates, was laid, and during the year 12,485 feet were completed, or a complete total to date at Gatun Locks of 45,084 linear feet; at Pedro Miguel 21,760 feet during the year, or a total to date of 36,292 linear feet; and at Miraflores 22,232 feet during the year, or a total to date of 28,162 linear feet. For the conductors copper tee rails were used for all towing tracks, inclines, and crossovers, steel conductors being used on the return track. The installation of single and double crossovers and turnouts was completed during the year at all the locks. The total cost of all towing-track material installed was $1,182,044.06, of which $767,173.93 were expended under the original contract and $414,870.13 for inspection, installation, and chipping of the rack rails. Towing locomotives. — As noted in the last annual report, a contract was entered into with the General Electric Cofor furnishing 40 towing locomotives of their design and manufacture, the first locomotive to be delivered by January 15, 1914, and four locomotives each month thereafter. Twenty-one locomotives have been delivered and are in operation. The total cost under the contract is $527,015 and there have been expended $301,859.21 on the contract and $22,329.40 for erection and alterations to the machines after their receipt. Tests so far made by actual service have not been sufficient to warrant an announcement that they are entirely satisfactory. Illumination of the locks. — The exterior lighting of the locks was described in the previous annual report. The exterior lighting circuits at all the locks were completed except for five posts at Miraflores, where the erection of the posts has been delayed by the sand operations which were transferred to this point from Balboa to allow for the construction of the terminal docks. There were installed at Gatun 206 standards, 116 single arm and 90 double arm; at Pedro Miguel, 130 standards, 80 single arm and 50 double arm; at Miraflores, 163 standards, 96 single arm and 67 double arm. Suitable sockets, with lights, were installed for illuminating the operating tunnels and valve wells. The total amount expended to June 30, 1914, on the electrical lighting equipment of the locks was $126,234.52. Remote control. — The General Electric Co. was awarded the contract for furnishing the lock-control switchboards for Gatun, Pedro Miguel, and Miraflores Locks. The original specifications of the Commission were departed from as to the general construction of the board and also with regard to the method of accomplishing the re-

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REPORT OF THE GOVEENOK. 15 quired interlocking of the control switches. The detail design of the board was left entirely to the contractor, the work being subject to the approval of the Commission's inspector in the United States. The switchboards are located on the second floor of the control houses and the interlocking racks on the mezzanine floor. The boards are designed to represent the locks in miniature, all machines being represented by individual control switches, and wherever it is important tor the operator to know the exact position of the machines being controlled indicators are provided which operate in synchronism with the machines in the lock wall tunnels. With the exception of the cylindrical valve, auxiliarj^ culvert valve, and miter forcing machines the operator is provided with means for having definite information with regard to the exact position of the valve or machine being operated by means of synchronous indicators, electrically connected, with transmitting devices mechanically connected with the large machines in the lock tunnels. The operation of the cylindrical valve, auxiliary cuh^ert valve, and miter forcing devices is indicated by use of red and green lamps on the control board. Arrangement is also made on the switchboard by which the water levels in the lock chambers are indicated to the operator. The control board was completed at Gatun on May 9, 1914; at Pedro Miguel on June 26, 1914; and at Miraflores on June 25, 1914. The switchboards of all the locks have been satisfactorily used for remote control of the lock operations. The total cost of all lock-control switchboards was $108,079.50, of which $73,693.33 were paid out under the contract for the material, the balance representing expenditures for installation and inspection. Hydroelectric plant. — The erection of the hydroelectric station continued under the Atlantic division until September 8, 1913, when the work was transferred to the building division of the quartermaster's department. With the exception of the doors and some of the carpenter work, the building was completed at the close of the fiscal year at a total division cost of $328,457.08. The installation of the equipment was continued during the year and was turned over to the operating force on June 18, 1914, without tests, which were made subsequently, and after correction of some of the defects the plant took over the load from the Gatun steam plant on July 13, 1914. The amount expended on the installation of the machinery was $300,355.60. In connection with the power-transmission system there were constructed underground duct lines from the hydroelectric power house at Gatun to the locks and to the transformer substation at the point, at a division cost of $78,688.08 ; and from the Miraflores transformer substation to the Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks at a division cost of $108,005.82.

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16 THE PANAMA CANAL. As noted in the previous annual report, it was decided to install for the transmission line an overhead system of 44,000 volts, extending from Balboa to Cristobal, and connecting the existing Miraflores steam-power station with the Gatun hydroelectric station, so that they may be operated separately or in parallel as necessary. Four substations are provided, located at Cristobal, Gatun, Miraflores, and Balboa. The excavation for the Gatun substation was begun on November 26, 1913, and the steelwork, furnished and erected under contract, was completed on February 19, 1914, The installation of the electrical equipment of the building has been governed by the progress made in building construction and at the close of the year was 37 per cent completed. The total amount thus far expended on the building is $145,717.92 and on the installation of the machinery $40,818.11. The Cristobal substation was installed for the purpose of furnishing power required by the coal-handling plant, the Mount Hope pumping plant, and the miscellaneous requirements in the vicinity of Cristobal. Excavation for this structure was begun on March 4, 1914, and the erection of the steelwork under contract was completed on May 6, 1914. The amount expended on the building construction was $111,858.01 and on the electrical installation $8,557.96. The Miraflores substation is being installed for the purpose of caring for the power requirements of Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks, and also for the purpose of serving as a step up transformer station for Miraflores steam plant. The foundation work was commenced on October 29, 1913, and the steelwork under contract completed March 9, 1914. The electrical equipment is 22 per cent completed. The amount expended thus far is $155,532.20, of which $103,509.04 were for building construction and $52,023.16 for electrical installation. The Balboa substation was located for the purpose of supplying power to Balboa shops, the air-compressor plant, dry-dock pumping plant, coal -handling plant, and Ancon pumping plant, as well as other local purposes. Work was begun on this substation on April 27, 1914, and the steelwork erected under contract was completed on June 27, 1914. Four per cent of the electrical equipment was installed. The total amount expended thus far is $49,173.84, of which $45,565.12 were for building construction and $3,608.72 for electrical installation. In order to supply power to the power house of the Darien wireless station, being constructed by the canal authorities for the Navy Department, arrangements have been made to install a small substation of 400-kilowatt capacity, tapping the transmission line and stepping the voltage down to 440 volts. Change in the location of the pumping plant from Miraflores to Gamboa has necessitated the installation of a substation at this location. In order to supply the necessary power in connection with the pumping plant, arrangements were made for the installation of two

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 17 500-kilowatt power transformers and the necessary equipment for stepping the 44,000 volt transmission line pressure down to 2,200 volts. High-power transmission line. — Under a contract dated March 31, 1913, 794 double-track span bridges and 20 single-track span bridges were to be delivered on the Isthmus. These have all been erected in place with the exception of five special towers which will be required at the Cristobal and Balboa terminals, and one bridge at Cristobal. Under contract there have been purchased and received to date for the transmission line 1,562,208 feet of 2/0 Brown & Sharpe gauge stranded copper and 512,065 feet of five-sixteenths inch copper-clad wire. At the close of the fiscal year 1,408,443 feet of 2/0 conductor cable were erected. The total amount expended on the transmission line was $1,014,383.29, of which $701,222.62 were covered by contracts and the balance expended on inspection and installation. Cables. — The total amount of cable on order, received and installed up to the end of the fiscal year was 2,659,403 feet, of which 1,531,528 feet is lead sheathed and 1,127,875 feet is rubber covered, doublebraid wire and cable. At the close of the fiscal year 1,462,684 feet of lead-covered cable had been pulled into the ducts and 911,816 feet of rubber covered had been used for the conductor slot feeds, control connections, etc. Telephone system. — An elaborate system of telephone communication has been designed for the operation of the locks and a contract awarded for the complete equipment. It is to consist of three subdivisions: First, that required for the control of vessels passing through the locks; second, that required in the upkeep and maintenance work in the lock tunnels; and third, that required for local public service. The total amount of the contract is $6,949.35. Emergency dams. — The emergency dams at Gatun were completed before the close of the last fiscal year, but the final acceptance tests had not been finished. During the year the two dams at Gatun were accepted and the dams at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores were finished and accepted, the first at Pedro Miguel on September 16, 1913, and the second on October 17, 1913; at Miraflores the first was completed and accepted January 14, 1914, and the second on February 7, 1914. A test was made at Gatun in May, 1914 ; the dam was swung, girders and gates lowered, and the pipes driven to close the spaces between the ends of the gates. The upper lock was then filled with water to lake level, the upper guard gates and upper operating gates were opened, and the intermediate and lower gates of the lock closed. The upper lock was emptied through the culverts until the water level was below the guard-gate sill. This brought the full head of 47f feet on the emergency dam, which was found to have a leakage 63399°— 14 2

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18 THE PANAMA CANAL. of 950 cubic feet per second. This leakage produced no dangerous current in the lock, and it would have been easy to close any of the lower gates in the face of the stream. Another purpose of the test was to determine whether the emergency dam could be used in lieu of a caisson for unwatering the locks so as to permit access to the gates for painting, but the leakage was too great to use the dam, as it at present stands, in lieu of the caisson. Experiments are being made to devise a means of stopping the flow. The total amount expended for the emergency dams was $2,206,984.67, of which $1,958,329.90 were covered by the contract for delivery of the material and its erection, and $248,654.73 for inspection and other expenses assumed by The Panama Canal under the contract. Floating caissons. — A description of the caissons for closing the entrance to the locks, including the pumping plant for unwatering the lock chambers, was given in the last annual report. Bids were invited on May 21, 1913, for furnishing the material, constructing and delivering the caisson on the Isthmus, and there were two bidders, the lowest bidder offering to construct the two caissons and deliver them at Balboa for the sum of $648,300, and the price for one was given at $330,760. A contract was entered into for one caisson under date of August 22, 1913. Pontoon bridge. — In order to maintain communication across the canal with the west side, it was finally decided to construct a pontoon bridge at Paraiso for carrying the Panama Railroad. This bridge was constructed at the expense of the Panama Railroad Co., but the design and construction were undertaken by Commission forces. The approaches and abutments were built under the direction of Mr. A. S. Zinn, resident engineer; the pontoon and superstructure by the dredging division under Mr. W. G. Comber; the track work by the Panama Railroad Co., and the operating machinery by the first division of the chief engineer's office. The bridge revolves about a pivot at one point, similar to pontoon bridges successfully operated for many years on the upper Mississippi, plans for which were furnished through the courtesy of Mr. C. F. Loweth, chief engineer of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co. The pontoon is 378 feet long over all, 55 feet wide, and 6 feet 3 inches deep at the center line. The base of the rail is 33 feet above the bottom of the barge, or 30 feet above the water level. The apron girders are 64 feet long, resting on hinged supports at both ends, and consist of spare lock gate parts. Arrangement is made at each end of the girder for automatically providing for a variation of 6 feet in the water level of the canal. When the bridge is turned the girders are lifted clear of the concrete piers by an electrically driven mechanism and temporarily supported by blocking on the ends of the barge. The bridge is revolved by means of a 1-inch anchor chain fastened at each bank, which passes

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EEPORT OP THE GOVERNOR. 19 around an electrically driven wildcat on the deck of the pontoon, near the west end. The mechanism for lifting the apron girders and for turning the bridge, and also for operating the rail lift, the rail latches, and the main latch at the west pier, is operated from a central panel. The total cost of the bridge to June 30, 1914, was $218,331.78. Operation of locks. — The lockages made during the fiscal year gave an opportunity to try out the locks and their machinery. The first one at Gatun was made on September 26, 1913, when the tug Gatun was put through the Gatun Locks, followed on October 14, 1913, when a part of the dredging equipment was locked through the Pacific locks to the lake level. From these dates throughout the year various craft belonging to The Panama Canal were passed back and forth as the necessities of the work required, in addition to the tows that were instituted for handling freight from the Balboa terminals to Colon and Cristobal for the Panama Railroad Co. To try out the towing locomotives, the Panama Railroad steamers Allianca and Ancon were locked through Gatun Locks and returned, and through the courtesy of the agent of W. R. Grace & Co. the Santa Clara was locked through the Pacific Locks and returned. The operation of the locks has developed certain facts in regard to the action of flowing water which had not been anticipated. As previously noted, the gates of the upper locks of each flight and of the Pedro Miguel Locks are duplicated. The upper pair of gates is called the guard gates and the lower pair of the upper two the lock gates. At the lower end of the locks the upper pair of gates is called the safety gates and the lower pair of the two the lock gates. The space between the guard gates and the lock gates is regulated by an auxiliary culvert, while the space between the safety gates and the lower gates is regulated by a T culvert. When the water in the upper lock is low and the valves are open there is a sudden drop of the water level in the forebay. This is more noticeable at Pedro Miguel, where the canal above the forebay is relatively narrow, than it is at Gatun and Miraflores, where the forebay opens immediately into the lake. This drop is faster than can be followed by the water in the space between the guard and upper gates, and the result is a reverse head on the guard gates, causing them to open at the miter. This reverse head lasts but a short time. In the first lockages the T culvert regulating the space between the lower and safety gates was in free communication with the side wall culvert near its lower end, but above the lower valves. When the upper valves were raised the water in the space between these gates rose faster than in the lock; consequently there was a reverse pressure on the safety gates, causing them to open at the miter, the pressure being sufficiently great to compress fully the springs in the

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20 THE PANAMA CANAL. gate-maneuvering struts. Due to the possible danger of crippling the moving apparatus by such reverse stress, the valves in the T culvert were partially closed, choking the communication between the side-wall culvert and the space between the gates. By experimenting, a degree of closure was reached which caused the water in the space between the culverts to lag behind the water in the lock when filling, and at the same time to fall rather more rapidly when emptying. In this way a positive pressure was always kept against the safety gates. With the use of both side and center wall culverts, as the rapidity with which the water level in the lock changes is greatly increased, a different adjustment will be necessary. When the valves in the side culvert are raised and the water enters the lock the flow of water is greater through those openings in the laterals which are nearest the middle wall than through those nearer the side culvert. As the water rises in greatest volume next to the middle wall, there results a slight slope of the surface toward the side wall. When both side and middle culverts are used no such action is noticeable. The first gush of water from the side culverts appears to come from the highest laterals and then successively from the others. So far as can be ascertained, however, it can not be stated that the discharge is greatest from any one of the laterals. In filling or emptying a small canal lock the water levels approach each other with a rapidity depending upon the square root of the diminishing head. Toward the end of the operation the change in level becomes slower, and the flow of water is supposed to cease either just before or at the equalization of the levels. Frequently the gates are opened with a very slight head against them to avoid the loss of time involved in waiting for the head to vanish entirely. In filling or emptying the locks of The Panama Canal there is a noticeable overtravel of the water, so that the water in the chamber which is filled rises slightly higher than the level in the chamber from which the water is drawn, and the gates separating the chambers become subjected to a reverse head. At Pedro Miguel it is noticed that the water rises from 0.3 to 0.6 of a foot higher than the water in the forebay, tending to throw the upper gates open. The difference in head is of short duration, but is very noticeable, and is taken as an indication of the instant when the apparatus for opening the gates should be put in motion. This acts as a safety device to the motors which operate the gates. In the annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for 1911 is described the method used for overcoming differences in pressure on the lower gates at the lower lock at Miraflores and Gatun, due to the difference in density of the water above and below the gates, in consequence of which the culverts were turned up at the outer end so as to reduce the pressure to a manageable quantity. It is possible

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REPOBT OP THE GOVERNOR. 21 that the overtravel of the water from the emptying lock into the tail bay may result in continuing the flow of the fresh water through the culvert beyond the point at which in theory it should cease and, therefore, in obviating the danger of the resultant pressure. However, no trouble is experienced from the resulting pressure against the lower gates. The difference in density of the water above and below the gates is, however, noticeable in another way. When the lower gates are opened the fresh water rushes out with considerable velocity on the surface of the salt water below, and there is a corresponding rush of salt water along the lower strata. This current continues for a considerable time and has a noticeable effect on vessels leaving the lock, sheering them away from the middle wall as soon as they pass the angle of the side wall. The slope given to the water in the lock by use of the side culverts has already been noted. The same effect was noted during the filling of the lowest lock with fresh water when the lower gates have been left open long enough to insure salt water filling the lock. The slope is from the middle wall so that the ship moves to the side wall and the towing locomotives are unable to hold a large vessel central in the lower lock during the entire process of filling when the side culvert only is used. As noted in previous annual reports, in the formula for filling and emptying the locks the coefficient of flow C, used to determine the real velocity, was assumed at 0.65, this being slightly more favorable than experience at other locks has shown to be readily obtainable, but the nature of design and construction warranted the assumption. From experiments made at Pedro Miguel when the lake level was at reference 84.8 and the water in the lock was at reference 50.9, the value of C for the side culvert, with both valves open, was determined to be 0.886, much more favorable than was anticipated. Similar observations, using only one valve, were made both at Pedro Miguel and in the upper lock at Gatun as a check, and the value of C was found to be 1.177 and 1.272 at the two locations, respectively. The value of the coefficient for emptying the lock at Pedro Miguel is somewhat less favorable than that for filling, the coefficient C for the side culvert being found to be 0.804 when both valves were used. At Gatun and Miraflores, where the culvert is turned up at the discharge, the coefficient of flow for emptying the lower lock is about 8 per cent less than through the level discharge at Pedro Miguel. Wlien the middle wall culvert is used in combination with the side culvert the time of operation is greatly reduced. The Pedro Miguel Lock can be filled or emptied in about eight minutes without causing too great a disturbance in the chamber. Observations have not yet been made with the middle culverts at Gatun and Miraflores.

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22 THE PANAMA CANAL. ELECTRICAL DIVISION. The operation of the various power plants was consolidated on April 1 to comprise the electrical division, under Capt. W. H. Rose, United States Army, It includes the operation and maintenance of the steam-driven electric power plants at Gatun, Miraflores, Empire, and Balboa, and all the substations, transmission, and distribution lines connected with the power plants; the operation and maintenance of the air-compressor plants at Empire and Balboa; construction, operation, and maintenance of all building and street lighting systems in the Canal Zone; operation and maintenance of the electric cargo-handling cranes on the Panama Railroad pier at Balboa; the installation of all electrical equipment of the new Balboa shops of the mechanical division ; and the construction of permanent underground conduit systems for the permanent towns of the Canal Zone. One of the three 1,500 kilowatt vertical turbo generator sets and two 410 high-pressure water tube boilers were removed from the Gatun station for installation at the Miraflores power plant. The new unit was completed into place on June 1, 1914. This gives the Miraflores plant a capacity of about 6,000 kilowatts, the same as the hydroelectric station. The total amount of power in kilowatt hours generated during the year was : 6,824,556 kilowatt hours at Gatun, at a cost of $0.0175 per kilowatt hour. 16,352,732 kilowatt hours at Miraflores, at a cost of $0.0135 per kilowatt hour. 2,327,877 kilowatt hours at Empire, at a cost of $0.0240 per kilowatt hour. 138,143 kilowatt hours at Balboa, at a cost of $0.1503 per kilowatt hour. The air-compressor plants operated during the year were at Empire and Balboa, and the Rio Grande plant was operated until November 1, 1913. They furnished compressed air for the excavation work at Culebra, Rio Grande, and Gold Hill ; for the mechanical division shops at Empire, Balboa, and Paraiso; for the work of the division of erection at Pedro Miguel Locks, Ancon quarry, and for the work in the vicinity of Sosa Hill and the new dry dock at Balboa. The output of the air-compressor plants, in cubic feet of free air compressed to 105 pounds pressure, was 2,739,650,533 cubic feet at Balboa, at a cost of $0.0484 per thousand feet; 2,908,900,165 cubic feet at Empire, at a cost of $0.0351 per thousand feet; and 372,393,512 cubic feet at Rio Grande, at a cost of $0.0282 per thousand feet. The removal and reerection of wooden buildings from various points along the line to the Ancon-Balboa district necessitated the removal of the wires and fixtures, and later rewiring, of a total of 178 buildings. In February, 1914, two temporary substations were

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EEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 23 completed, one at Miraflores and one at Balboa, each of 1,500 kilowatts capacity, for 11,000-volt transmission between these points. In May, 1914, another 11,000-volt transmission line was completed between Miraflores power plant and Cucaracha, supplying power to the relay pumps and the Gold Hill hydraulic plant. Additions and alterations necessitated a change in the pole lines for construction, amounting to about 15 miles. About 25 miles of pole line to supply power to the range lights and beacons of the lighthouse subdivision were constructed, the lighthouse subdivision erecting the poles and the electrical division installing the wires and transformers and making connections to the lights and beacons. Duplicate 2,200-volt armored cables, supplying power to Agua Clara pumping station, were installed between that station and the Gatun substation. In all about 12,900 feet of conduit, having 83,000 feet of duct incased in concrete, and 40 concrete manholes were completed during the year for connection between Pedro Miguel telephone exchange, Tivoli Hotel, the new administration building at Balboa, and the latter with the Balboa substation. A. large amount of conduit work was done in connection with the electrical work in the permanent buildings and the Balboa shops. The eight 4-ton alternating current cargo-handling cranes, five 4-ton direct current cranes, and one 20-ton direct current French crane, all on the Panama Railroad pier at Balboa, were operated and maintained. These cranes handled practically all commercial freight crossing the Isthmus in either direction. The total number of vessels loaded and unloaded during the year was 413. For further details concerning the various matters referred to above, attention is invited to Appendixes A and A-1. MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. As already noted, the division of municipal engineering was formed by consolidating the division of public works and the municipal work in the three construction divisions on July 16, 1913, and was placed in charge of Mr. George M. Wells as resident engineer. The division is divided into five principal sections : The northern district embraces all municipal construction, maintenance, and operation work, exclusive of the operation of filtration plants, from and including Colon to Darien, a distance of 25,27 miles; the southern district embraces similar work from Darien to Balboa, including the city of Panama, a distance of 22.34 miles ; the waterworks for the southern end of The Panama Canal embrace the construction of the purification works at Miraflores, pumping stations at Gamboa, Miraflores, and Ancon, reservoirs, and the laying of new mains; the fourth subdivision embraces the operation and care of purification plants and the care and

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24 THE PANAMA CANAL. analyses of all Canal Zone water supplies; and the fifth subdivision embraces all work of design for the division. The improvements in the city of Colon in progress at the close of the previous fiscal year and being paid for from an appropriation made by Congress of $800,000, were completed in the early part of August, 1913, at a final cost of $520,212.57. The plant at Gatun for the manufacture of concrete pipe was operated until May, when the plant was closed down, there being sufficient on hand for all purposes. The usual maintenance work in connection with the reservoirs of the northern district was performed, and the level of the water in the Brazos Brook Reservoir was kept at about the same elevation during the dry season by letting water from Gatun Lake through the tunnel constructed during the previous year. The new purification plant located at Mount Hope and furnishing water to the city of Colon, Cristobal, and adjacent district was completed and placed in service in February, 1914, and has been successfully operated since that date. The total division cost of the plant was $292,198.10. In addition to maintenance work in the southern district, a considerable amount of construction work was vmdertaken, including streets, water and sewer systems, and roads in the new silver town of La Boca, storm sewers in the gold town site of Balboa, water and sewer systems and streets at Pedro Miguel, the installation of water and sewer systems for the Darien radio station, and work in connection with an addition to the city of Panama, for which the Republic of Panama made a special appropriation of $76,000. The question of providing a permanent, adequate, and suitable water supply for the towns of the Canal Zone from Pedro Miguel south has been under consideration for some time. The demands were greater than could be supplied by the Rio Grande Reservoir, and with the depopulation of the Canal Zone, which contemplated the elimination of all towns on the west side of the canal, a plan was prepared for utilizing Camacho and Rio Grande Reservoirs, connecting them by a pipe line, and increasing the capacity of the Rio Grande Reservoir by raising the dam, diverting the railroad for the purpose. With the adoption of the policy of quartering the troops on the west side of the canal, utilizing the old canal buildings for the purpose, together with the fact that the rainfall had not been sufficient to raise the level of the water in the reservoir to its full height, the whole subject was taken up anew in March, 1913. Five projects were presented, the cheapest of which contemplated the use of water from Miraflores Lake, and this was adopted. It contemplated the laying of the necessary mains, the construction of a purification plant of the rapid mechanical gravity type on Miraflores Hill, and the con-

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 25 struction of a high-service reservoir on the side of Ancon Hill, all to be based on a nominal maximum capacity of 12,000,000 gallons of filtered water per day. At the time that the use of Miraflores Lake water was considered, the possible objection was advanced that the chlorine content, by reason of the operation of Miraflores Locks, might increase beyond 75 to 100 parts per million, but at the time it did not seem possible that this would occur, at least for a period of years, on the assumption that intimate diffusion between the salt water admitted by the locks and the fresh water of the lake would not be rapid, more especially in view of the fact that water could be pumped from one of the fresh arms of the lake. At any rate, the enormous saving that would result seemed to warrant adopting the Miraflores Lake project. In January, after the pumps from Cocoli had been transferred to Miraflores and increased in capacity to take care of the demand, chlorine sampling stations were established in the lake, and it was discovered that with the continued operation of the locks the chlorine content steadily rose. By February it became apparent that constant diffusion was taking place throughout all areas of the lake in general, as well as its arms, and went as high as 15 per cent salt water. In order to bring this down, a temporary pump station was installed at Pedro Miguel and approximately 4,000 gallons of water per minute were pumped from Culebra Cut north of the locks and discharged into Miraflores Lake immediately in front of the temporary pumping station. While this reduced the chlorine content of water going to Panama, it increased the turbidity of the water due to the condition in the Cut. As the result of these observations, it became evident that Miraflores Lake would be impracticable for use as a source of water supply for the southern end of the canal, and it was therefore decided to move the pumping station to the Chagres River at Gamboa, the water to be taken from this point through 30-inch to 3C-inch castiron mains laid along the line of the Panama Railroad to the purification plant in course of erection on Miraflores Hill. Before final action was taken an effort was made to reduce the chlorine content by drawing off the water from Miraflores Lake through the locks and admitting fresh water through Pedro Miguel Locks, but the results were not satisfactory. "Work was commenced on the purification plant located on Miraflores Hill on August 1 and steam-shovel and hand excavation was completed on January 28 by the removal of 91,233 cubic yards at a division cost of $0.4933 per cubic yard. For the high-service reservoir at Ancon there were laid 1,477 cubic yards of reinforced concrete at a division cost of $30.1455 per cubic yard, and in the purification plant on Miraflores Hill there were laid 5,656 cubic yards of reinforced concrete at a division cost of $24.6506 per cubic yard. The total amount to be expended for the new water

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26 THE PANAMA CANAL. works in the southern district was estimated at $1,261,000, division cost; the total amount expended at the close of the fiscal year was $703,585.05. For further details attention is invited to Appendix A-2. METEOROLOGY AND HYDROGRAPHY. Until April 1, 1914, the meteorological and hydrographic sections continued under separate heads ; on that date they were consolidated into one division under a chief hydrographer reporting to the engineer of maintenance, and a reduction of three gold men was effected. But few changes were made during the year in the meteorological stations operated. Wind records were discontinued at Sosa Hill on January 1, 1914; the wind station was moved from Guarapo Island to the administration building at Gatun on December 14, 1913; and a new wind station was established at Gamboa on November 11, 1913. Evaporation records at Brazos Brook were discontinued on April 1, 1914. A rainfall station was established on the Siri branch of the Trinidad River in January, 1914, and a similar station was established near the head of the Gatun River branch of Gatun Lake in May, 1914. Records from these stations were obtained for use in estimating the monthly rainfall over the lake watershed. Seismic disturbances during the year were more numerous and severe than in any previous year since American occupation, 87 distincts shocks being recorded at Ancon. Practically all of the shocks seemed to originate in the vicinity of the lower coast of Los Santos Province, approximately 115 miles southwest of Ancon. The most violent shocks occurred on October 2, 1913, and May 28, 1914; in each instance a maximum amplitude of 75+ was recorded, when the recording pens were thrown off. The shock of May 28 resulted in slight damage to the new administration building then in course of erection at Balboa Heights, but with this exception the canal works suffered no damage from these shocks. For use of the Fortification Board, maximum and minimum temperatures were recorded on the Miraflores dumps. Duplicate automatic tide registers were continued at Balboa and Colon. The main hydrographic features of the year were the filling of Gatun and Miraflores Lakes and the subsequent control of their water levels by means of spillway gates, auxiliary culvert valves, etc. The total yield of the Gatun Lake watershed for the calendar year 1913 was 77 per cent of the yearly mean since May, 1908, and 70.3 per cent of the mean for the 24-year period 1890-1913. There were no large freshets during the year. The average temperature for the calendar year 1913 was slightly above normal. April was the warmest month at Ancon and Culebra and June was the warmest month at Colon. A temperature of 98° F.

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 27 recorded at Ciilebra on April 24 established a new high temperature record at that station. The rainfall during 1913 was below normal at all stations except Brazos Brook, Colon, and Porto Bello. The heaviest precipitation for the year was 171.19 inches at Porto Bello, and the minimum was 59.54 inches at Balboa. The wind movement over the Canal Zone for the year was slightly above normal. North and northwest winds prevailed. March was the windiest month at all stations, and November the month of least wind movement. Between June 27 and December 27, 1913, the Gatun Lake level rose from plus 48.22 to plus 84.7. Since the latter date it has been controlled by the spillway gates between 85.14 and 84.13. During the year it was possible for the first time to detemiine the velocity which would be caused in the canal prism at Gamboa by floods in the upper Chagres. On May 26, with a discharge at Alhajuela of 16,000 feet per second, the velocity at Gamboa Bridge was 0.65 mile per hour, the lake level being at 84.92 and rising to 84.98. On June 30, with a discharge at Alhajuela of 20,050 feet per second, the velocity at Gamboa Bridge was 1.05 miles per hour, with the lake at 84.88 to 84.86. For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix A-3. GENERAL SURVEYS. In addition to setting corner and grade stakes for building lots in Colon and Panama, setting grades for fill in Colon, making surveys and preparing maps of estates and parcels of land in dispute before the joint land commission, making surveys and inspections for the department of law, and performing a considerable amount of miscellaneous work, the general-surveys section repaired and removed certain Zone triangulation stations, made surveys and maps for other departments of The Panama Canal, made locations for the radio stations being constructed for the Navy Department, took readings on settlement hubs in the Gatun Dam, and performed the necessary work in connection with the precise level bench marks and monuments for the tide-guage registers at Colon, Gatun, and Miraflores. AIDS TO NAVIGATION. The construction and placing of lights and beacons was continued during the year and, with the exception of the light at the extremity of the west breakwater and the construction of six which can not be placed until the work in connection with the slides in Culebra Cut is completed, all the aids to navigation were finished and turned over to the superintendent of canal transportation, for maintenance and operation, on June 16, 1914. The design for the west breakwater

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28 THE PANAMA CANAL. light was for rather an elaborate structure founded on a caisson which had been built during the previous fiscal year. During the year just ended it was taken to the site that it was to occupy and, in sinking it by admitting water through valves at the bottom of the caisson, the valves could not be controlled from above, it took a sheer, and the caisson sunk in a position which prevented its use for the purpose intended until it could be straightened. After expending $8,602.22 in the attempt, it was abandoned as was also the design. The total amount expended in completing the entire system of beacons, lights, and buoys to date aggregate $514,878,81, exclusive of general expenses. For further details attention is invited to Appendix A. DRY EXCAVilTION. The excavation for the canal prism in the dry, uncompleted at the close of the previous fiscal year, embraced the Culebra Cut from Gamboa to Pedro Miguel Locks, the channel between Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks, and the channel below Miraflores Locks to the dike which excluded the waters of the Pacific. As noted in the previous annual report, a decision had been reached to admit water to the Cut by blowing up the dike at Gamboa on October 10, 1913, and to complete the excavation that remained by dredges. With this end in view, the excavation in Culebra Cut was carried on during July with an average of 40.74 steam shovels, in August with an average of 34.65 steam shovels, and in September with an average of 14.62 steam shovels. These shovels worked not only in the Cut proper but on the upper reaches in the vicinity of Culebra and on the east side opposite Lirio. After the water had been admitted to the Cut from 5 to 2 shovels worked on both the east and west bank in the vicinity of Culebra so as to lighten the load. The work on the east bank was continued until April 1, 1914, and on the west bank intermittently until June 15, 1914. The last movement of any considerable amount occurred on the west side at Culebra just as the steam shovels were withdrawn. There were removed during the year a total of 3,122,702 cubic yards of material, of which 2,205,847 cubic yards were classified as rock, at a division cost of $0.5661 per cubic yard. Due to large credits for material recovered after the completion of the work, such as rails, ties, etc., amounting to about $260,000, the above figures do not represent the real cost of the work performed during the year which, eliminating these credits, was $0.6492 per cubic yard. Work continued on Cucaracha slide, Culebra slides, Hagan's slide, Lirio slide, and the powder-house slide until steamshovel operations were suspended and there were removed from these slides 2,635,902 cubic yards; in other words, 84 per cent of the material removed from the Cut was due to slides. The total amount of

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REPORT OP THE GOVERNOR. 29 material removed in the dry from Culebra Cut, from the beginning of American operations to June 15, 1914, aggregated 110,261,883 cubic yards at a division cost of $0.7066 per cubic yard; of this amount 25,206,100 cubic yards were removed because of slides, or 22.86 per cent. This was an increase of 4,940,100 cubic yards over that estimated in the annual report for 1912. Steam-shovel operations in the Cut proper were permanently suspended on September 10, 1913, and at that time it was estimated that 600,000 cubic yards of material remained to be removed by dredges from the Cut section within the original limits of the canal, exclusive of slides and the inclines at the north and south ends of the Cut. Practically all of this material lay between Cucaracha slide and a point about midway between Culebra and Empire. To prevent possible damage to the canal due to the velocity of current caused by the difference in head between Gatun Lake level and the bottom of the Cut, water was admitted through the 24-inch pipe extending into the lake under Gamboa Dike, these pipes remaining from the old pumping plant located in the vicinity to take care of the drainage water to the north of the divide. This was done at 9 a. m. on October 1. Work on drilling the dike at Gamboa preparatory to its demolition was begun in the latter part of August ; the holes were loaded and were fired on October 10 at 2 p. m. In accordance with an arrangement made two or three days beforehand, the blast was fired by President Woodrow Wilson, at Washington. This was effected by using the land telegraph to Galveston, Tex., and connecting it there with the Central & South American Cable Co.'s submarine cable and land lines, which, by employing the company's transisthmian cable, furnished a connection to a local circuit in the vicinity of the dike. When the President depressed the lever, the current was relayed from point to point along the route and was eventually transmitted to the local circuit, closing it and tripping a weight attached to the handle of a switch. The weight threw the switch, setting off the blast. The result of the explosion was a clear opening 125 feet wide through which water from Gatun Lake flowed in sufficient volume to complete the filling of Culebra Cut from the dike to Cucaracha slide in about two hours' time. Prior to dynamiting the dike the water in the Cut was about 6 feet below the level of the lake. On October 10, after the blowing up of Gamboa Dike, an effort was made to dynamite a passage through the Cucaracha slide in order to flood the Cut between the dike and Pedro Miguel Locks. Though steam shovels had been at work on the slide with a view to securing a passage through it, on the cessation of this work the movement continued and completely blocked the channel. The attempt to open a passage by dynamite was not successful, and it was not

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30 THE PANAMA CANAL. until October 12 that a stream of water was gotten through and the area to the south of the slide began to fill. The dredges reached Cucaracha slide from the north end on October 20 and from the south end on October 24. The Gamboa Dike was attacked by dredges immediately after the explosion. A channel was finally dredged through Cucaracha slide, so as to permit the passage of the dredging fleet from one side to the other, on December 13. With the exception of a small pocket slide in the vicinity of Cascadas, the admission of water to the Cut has thus far had no bad effects ; nor has there been any perceptible tendency for the presence of water to produce slides. In the central division a total of 44.5 miles of track was removed during the period July 1 to October 10, a total of 33.7 miles were laid, and a total of 294.81 miles shifted. The sluicing operations to the north of Gold Hill and to the rear of Cucaracha slide were continued during the year and resulted in the removal of 1,384,455 cubic yards of rock and earth, at an average division cost of $0.1997 per cubic yard. This material was carried by flumes into the valley to the east of the canal. Material removed in the dry from Culebra Cut was wasted at different localities, the bulk of it going to Balboa waste dumps, where 1,017,596 cubic yards were deposited, and on the dumps along the relocation of the Panama Kailroad, where 920,748 cubic yards were placed. The balance was used largely in fills at various points south of the Cut. South of Pedro Miguel Locks material amounting to 306,700 cubic yards was excavated by the fifth division. Of this, 20,510 cubic yards were from the channel south of Pedro Miguel Locks and 286,190 cubic yards from the prism south of the Miraflores Locks. The average division cost was $0.5134 per cubic yard. The material was used as a back fill to the locks and for sloping the ^Miraflores Dam. On account of material recovered at the close of the work, credit was given aggregating about $79,000, so that the actual cost of dry excavation during the year was $0.7709 per cubic yard. The total amount excavated in the dry from Pedro Miguel to the sea since the beginning of the work aggregated 4,819,969 cubic yards, at a division cost of $0.6755. The berm and chamber cranes on the west side of the locks were taken down and stored ; the four berm cranes, which formed a part of the concrete-handling plant during the construction of the Pacific locks, will be used in connection with the coal-handling plant at Balboa. Steam-shovel work south of Pedro Miguel Locks was stopped in August and south of Miraflores Locks in September, and steps taken to remove all tracks that remained within the limits of the canal

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 31 channel. The last remaining barrier at the Pacific end of the canal was dynamited at 9.30 o'clock August 31, 1913. This dike, composed of a trestle fill of rock and earth, prevented the water from the sea level from entering the steam-shovel cut, 5,000 feet long, 500 feet wide, and 46 feet below mean tide, extending to Miraflores Locks. The Rio Grande diversion was turned into this pit on August 23, but the depth of water had only reached about 15 feet by August 31. About 37,000 pounds of 45 per cent and 60 per cent dynamite were used, the charge being placed in 541 holes at an average depth of 30 feet. At the time of the explosion the water in the channel south of the barrier was nearly at low tide. The dynamite tore a gap in the dike about 100 feet wide, but as the bottom of the gap was still at some height above the existing tide level, no water passed through until high tide, at 1.35 p. m. At 3 o'clock, 1 hour and 25 minutes after the water first began to flow over, the level in the inside channel was that of the outside channel, while the gap had been widened to 400 feet or more. As noted in previous annual reports, there were two low places in the perimeter of Gatun Lake which were to be raised in order to avoid all possibility of the waters of the lake escaping. One of these was in the vicinity of Gatun, and an embankment was built across it by the forces of the Atlantic division. This was in a ravine at the headwaters of Las Guachas Creek, where the natural elevation was 85.7 feet above sea level. A fill about 350 feet long and containing approximately 4,117 cubic yards was made by means of mule-team scrapers, borrowing from adjacent hills, which raised the surface to elevation 105, with a crown width of 15 feet. Under date of November 28, 1913, a contract was made for building an earth dike at Cano Saddle No. 4, along a ridge about 12 miles southwest of Gatun, to raise the rim of Gatun Lake at that point to 105 feet above sea level. The estimated amount of material involved was 71,500 cubic yards, and the contract price was 68 cents per cubic yard, embankment measure. The work was completed in May, 1914. The payments to contractor will aggregate $48,950.50. This saddle is between the headwaters of the Siri River, a tributary of the Trinidad, and the Lagarto River, which flows into the Caribbean Sea. The surface of the earth at the lowest point w^as 87.4 feet above sea level. The fill is approximately 900 feet long between the 105foot contours on knolls at the ends of the saddle. It is 15 feet at the top, with a slope of 1 on 3 on both sides. DREDGING. The dredging division continued in charge of Mr. W. G. Comber as resident engineer, and was subdivided into two districts, the first extending from deep water in the Pacific to Gamboa, and the second from Gamboa to deep water in the Caribbean.

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32 THE PANAMA CANAL. In the first district, between Pedro Miguel Locks and the sea, there were removed 5,364,816 cubic yards, of which 3,329,072 cubic yards were taken from within the canal prism and the balance was auxiliary work. Of the amount removed from within the canal prism, 1,186,432 cubic yards were of rock. Of the rock excavated, 146,477 cubic yards were drilled and blasted by the drill barge Teredo and 60,832 cubic yards were broken by the rock breaker Vulcan. The remainder includes rock which had been drilled by well drills and blasted in previous years and material which could be handled by the dredges without mining. The average cost of prism excavation was $0.2578 per cubic yard. Active operations began in Culebra Cut on October 23, 1913, and continued throughout the year; a total of 3,432,363 cubic yards were removed, of which 919,655 cubic yards were of earth and the balance rock. The average cost was $0.5194 per cubic yard. Of this amount, 865,015 cubic yards of earth and 1,557,360 cubic yards of rock were removed from Cucaracha slide, at an average cost of $0.4730 per cubic yard. Pipe-line dredges, with the assistance of a relay, pumped over the west bank of the canal into the Kio Grande Valley 684,514 cubic yards of earth and 77,880 cubic yards of rock, at an average cost of $0.2773 per cubic yard. Cucaracha slide has been very active since dredging operations started, the daily movement averaging about 2^ feet. On June 30, 1914, the total area of the slide was 60.4 acres, 44.6 acres active and 15.8 acres without motion. Dredging was done during four months of the year in Miraflores Lake, removing 159,817 cubic yards of earth from the canal prism, at an average cost of $0.3179 per cubic yard. In the second district 6,544,192 cubic yards were removed during the year, of which 3,692,576 cubic yards were removed from within the canal prism, 574,630 cubic yards from old French dump in Limon Bay, and the balance was auxiliary work. The average cost of prism and French dump dredging was $0.1717 per cubic yard. Of the amount removed from the canal prism, 158,994 cubic yards were of rock. Of the total amount taken out, there were removed between October, 1913, and February, 1914, 507,195 cubic yards of earth and 5,035 cubic yards of rock from the canal prism just north of Gamboa, from what was formerly known as Point No. 1. In connection with the Atlantic terminals the dredges removed 18,286 cubic yards of earth and 16,015 cubic yards of rock from the site of the bridge crossing the French canal south of the dry dock, 117,289 cubic yards of earth from the approach channel, 275,993 cubic yards of earth and 46,360 cubic yards of rock from the new Piers Nos. 7, 8, and 9, and 181,709 cubic yards of earth and 213,325 cubic yards of rock from the coaling station. The average cost of excavation at these terminals was $0.3646 per cubie yard. Seventeen

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 33 thousand cubic yards were placed in the fill for the substation and 304,411 cubic yards were pljiced in fills for bridge foundations, coal basins, and yards at the coaling station. At the Pacific terminals the dredges removed 1,919,003 cubic yards of earth and 7,964 cubic yards of rock, of which 1,831,711 cubic yards of earth were handled by pipe-line dredges and relays and placed in fills for reclaiming swamp land. The average cost of this work was $0.1655 per cubic yard. A considerable amount of miscellaneous dredging was also done, making the total removed by the entire dredging fleet, including yardage of sand and gravel reclaimed, 15,341,371 cubic yards. The fleet consisted of the seagoing suction dredges Caribheaii and Culebra^ the seagoing ladder dredge Corozal^ the French ladder dredges Badger^ No. 7, No. 5, Gopher, Marmot, and Mole (the last abandoned as worn out on September 20, 1913), the 5-yard dipper dredges Cardenas, Chagres, and Mindi, the 15-yard dipper dredges Gamboa and Paraiso, and the pipe-line suction dredges No. 4, No. 82, No. 83, No. 86, No. 86, and the Sandpiper. In connection with these dredges there were employed 12 tugs, 19 launches, 9 clapets, and 24 dump scows. As noted in the previous annual report, a contract was made with the Bucyrus Co. for the construction of two 15-yard dipper dredges and their delivery at tidewater in the United States. The first was to be ready for towing to the Isthmus on December 1, 1913, and the second on January 1, 1914. The first dredge was accepted at Port Richmond, N. Y., on February 16, reached the Isthmus on March 16, and was placed in operation on April 4, 1914. The second dredge was accepted at Port Richmond on April 13, reached the Isthmus on May 22, and went into commission at Cucaracha slide on June 7, 1914. Due to a failure of the buckets, which were not sufficiently strong to do the work, an additional delay was caused. The failure to meet the stipulated dates of delivery resulted in very seriously handicapping the work at Cucaracha slide and delayed securing a channel sufficiently deep and wide to f)ermit the canal to be utilized for the passage of commerce before the close of the year. The sum of $2,000 was authorized to be expended in the construction of temporary dikes on the west side of the channel where it is cut through at the head of Limon Bay, to determine the effect upon erosion that was occurring, due to the waves created by the trade winds. The results were so satisfactory that it has been decided to make these dikes permanent. For further partic'ulars, attention is invited to Appendix C. 63399°— 14 3

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34 THE PANAMA CANAL. MECHANICAL DIVISION. The nieclianical division was in charge of ISIr. A. L. Robinson until July 19, 1913, when he resigned from the service. Subsequent to that date and until March 6, 1914, Lieut. Col. T. C. Dickson, United States Army, performed the general duties relating to organization and personnel, while the operation of the shops was under the supervision of Mr. John J. Eason as assistant supenntendent. On January 26, 1914, Mr. D. C. Nutting, United States Navy, reporting for duty, was assigned as superintendent and took over all the duties performed by Col. Dickson in connection with this division. The establishments under operation by the division consisted of the Balboa shops (including roundhouse and car shops), the Cristobal shops and dry dock, Paraiso shops, Cristobal roundhouse, the small hoisting establishments at Gatun, Empire, and Paraiso, and the car-inspecting establishments at Cristobal and Balboa. The Cristobal shops and dry dock have been charged with all repairs to floating equipment; as this dock was the only one available when a dry dock was necessary, it was in practically continuous use throughout the year. For the purpose of docking the five submarines which are on duty on the Isthmus and for docking the Corozal the upper lock of the east flight at Gatun was used. The Paraiso shops were reestablished on October 22, 1913, to take care of repair work on the dredging equipment operating in Culebra Cut. The hostling of four engines operating in this vicinity was turned over to these shops on May 25, 1914, and is performed under the foreman machinist. The Cristobal roundhouse was turned over to the mechanical division on April 1, 1914, and all hostling at the north end of the canal was concentrated there. The establishment, in addition to the roundhouse, comprises a small boiler plant and two air compressors with a combined capacity of about 2,000 feet per minute. The plant supplies air for hostling purposes and also for work on the new piers of the Panama Railroad. A small hostling plant was established at Empire, in the shops vacated, March 1. With the establishment of the electrical division on April 1, 1914, the electrical plants at Empire, Miraflores, Gatun, and Balboa, previously operated by the mechanical division, were turned over to that division and, as these plants contained air compressors, the air compressors were likewise turned over to the electrical division. The old ship ways shops at the Pacific entrance, formerly occupied by the dredging division, Avere turned over to the mechanical division on October 22, 1913, and so continued until they were torn down in March and April. The machine shops and engine house at Gatun were operated for work in connection with the installation of lock ma-

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KEPOET OF THE GOVERNOB. 35 chinery and caring for locomotives engaged in that vicinity. They were abandoned April 1,1914, and the work transferred to Balboa and Cristobal. The Pedro Miguel engine house was abandoned on September 15, 1913, and the greater portion of the equipment moved to the Gold Hill engine house and the buildings turned over to the quartermaster's department and torn down. An engine house was established at Gold Hill in September, 1913, to care for the equipment employed in dry excavation north of Gold Hill. The engine house continued in operation until completion of the excavation work and was discontinued on March 31, 1914. The air-compressor plant at Rio Grande, which had been in operation since 1905, was shut down on October 15, 1913, and such compressed air as w^as required in the district previously supplied by Eio Grande was furnished by the plant at Empire. The Cristobal car shops were in operation until March 7, 1914, when they were abandoned and all car work concentrated at the Balboa shops. When the Balboa roundhouse was put into service on April 1, 1914, the Panama roundhouse of the Panama Railroad was placed out of use. Throughout the year, while the shops were in operation, two shifts were regularly worked at Gorgona, Empire, Paraiso, and Balboa. In addition to the double shift, emergencies continually arose which necessitated large amounts of overtime work, in order that equipment might be kept in condition for use and to prevent delay in the work of other divisions. For further details, as well as a statement showing the amount of work done during the year by the various shops, attention is invited to Appendix D. DIVISION OF TERMINALS. The division of terminal construction was organized on April 1, 1914, under Mr. H. H. Rousseau, United States Navy, as engineer of terminal construction. The division embraces the forces of the former second division, chief engineer's office engaged in the design, inspection and construction of the dry clocks, shops, coal and fueloil plants, floating cranes, docks and other terminal facilities; construction transportation by rail; the road, street and sewer work under the landscape architect; and the breakwater construction at the Atlantic terminal. Dry docks. — The general description and principal dimensions of Dry Docks No. 1 and No. 2, at Balboa, were given in the previous annual report. On account of the condition of funds, it was decided to defer the construction of Dry Dock No. 2, but such of the dock structure as serves as an entrance pier for Dry Dock No. 1, and a^i will permit the future completion of Dry Dock No. 2 in the dry without especial increase in cost will be built now. The cofferdam,

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36 THE PANAMA CANAL. which was begun on April 1, 1913, to protect the entrance of DryDock No. 1, Dry Dock No. 2, the entrance basin, and coal-pocket excavations, was completed by placing 103,116 cubic yards of material. Difficulty was experienced through a portion of the double-track trestle giving way and moving outward after dumping from it had commenced, but this was overcome by reinforcing the outer toe by dumping material from barges and the cofferdam was completed. The leakage through it is relatively small and can be controlled by pumps. In excavating for Dry Dock No. 1 and Dry Dock No. 2, the coal pockets and entrance basin, the old Balboa machine shops forced the work to be confined to the center and south sides until November, when they w^ere demolished and the last obstacle to excavation was removed. The total amount taken out from the site of Dry Dock No. 1 during the year was 358,282 cubic yards, 48,838 cubic yards of which were classified as earth and the balance as rock, making a total of 466,975 cubic yards excavated from this area up to the close of the year. The division cost for the year was $1.0250 per cubic yard, and the average division cost of the total was $0.9946 per cubic yard. From the site of Dry Dock No. 2, which is located just north of the entrance of Dry Dock No. 1, there were removed during the year 41,548 cubic yards of earth and 52,129 cubic yards of rock, at an average division cost of $0.8129 per cubic yard. Steam-shovel operations deepened the excavation from — 1S.5 to the final grade for the entire area of the approach basin inside of the cofferdam, and a total of 351,333 cubic yards were removed at a division cost of $1.0250 per cubic yard. The area required for the storage of coal and for the travel of unloading towers measures 800 feet in length and about 400 feet in width, measured from the outer edge of the quay wall. The total amount of excavation during the year was 166,104 cubic yards, 79,837 cubic yards of which were earth and the balance rock. The average division cost was $0.7984 per cubic yard. The material excavated from the site of the dry docks, entrance basin, and coal pocket was removed by means of steam shovels, three of which were worked 8 hours a day until February, 1914, when on the 5th of that month the shovels were placed on a 12-hour basis and another shovel added. These shovels worked on split shifts, 12 hours a day, continuously to the end of the year ; one shovel was removed in June. The contract entered into October 12, 1912, for one pair of steel miter-gate leaves and fixed irons was completed during the fiscal year, and the material is stored on the Isthmus awaiting erection. The moving machines for operating the leaves, together with motors, controls, and covers, are also delivered. Balboa coaling station. — Upon completion of the excavation for the coaling plant, work was begun on masonry for the crane runway supports, which extend east and west through the center of the

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 37 storage pile, and will support the old Pacific division berm cranes which will be reerected to rehandle the coal. The material was mixed by a i-yard mixer and placed by a locomotive crane. At the close of the fiscal year all but three of the piers over the deep coal pockets were up to the construction joint, where the girders which carry the rail are to be set. The retaining wall between the high and low storage pockets was up to elevation 12 for three-fourths of its length. The rubble retaining wall on the south side of the low storage area was completed, as well as a part of the small rubble retaining wall at the east end of the high area. There were placed during the year 1,330 cubic yards of concrete and 808 cubic yards of rubble masonry at an average division cost of $7.4811 per cubic yard. There were also placed in the foundations for the berm cranes 2,620 cubic yards of concrete at a division cost, exclusive of reinforcements, of $7.4464 per cubic yard. The total amount of excavation accomplished, including the work for dry docks, entrance basin, coaling plant, shops, quay walls, and piers, aggregated 1,513,048 cubic yards, of which 1,477,843 cubic yards were placed in fills and embankments, the remainder being hand excavation wasted in the excavation of foundations for shops, and orange-peel excavation thrown to one side during the excavation for foundations for wharves and piers. The excavated material was used to bring the shops' j^ard up to elevation 18 to make the fill behind the quay wall, piers, and the area to be occupied by the Panama Railroad yards, which lie east of the head wall of the permanent piers, for the Naos Island Breakwater, and part was wasted on the Balboa dumps. Shops. — Lieut. Col. T. C. Dickson, United States Army, inspector of shops, was in immediate charge of the design and installation of the machinery of the new Balboa shops until March 6, 1914, when he was relieved from duty with the canal. The steelwork was carried on by contract and completed during the year. The total amount of material delivered was 11,657,429 pounds, and the cost of the material and erection in place under contract was $427,203. The work was completed. The buildings have cement tile roofing, the tiles being manufactured on the Isthmus and erected in place under contract; the total amount of standard red tile squares put on was 6,441.18; gutter-tile squares, 201.15; ridge roll, 7,351 linear feet; ribbed glass pieces, 11,188; and the total cost was $102,659.98. The remaining work on the foundations was pushed so as to be prepared for the contractor for the steelwork, and 3,221 cubic yards of concrete were placed during the year. All the shop area had been brought up to grade and surfaced with crushed stone, excepting the space occupied by the incline from the dry-dock excavation and a small area between the roundhouse yard and the foundry. The

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38 THE PANAMA CANAL. foundations of two of the buildings were interfered with by the sand dock and considerable trouble was experienced in placing foundations, due to obstructions in the mud below low tide, consisting of old barges and other French equipment and old metal which had been dumped into the area and subsequently covered up. The installation of machine foundations in the various buildings progressed rapidly as soon as it was possible to start work inside the buildings. In this connection 4,944 cubic yards of concrete were used. The shops' tunnel, which runs through the building and yard parallel to the axis of the dry dock, was completed. A proper drainage system was provided over the entire area. The mechanical division abandoned Gorgona in August, 1913, and, together with the foundry and planing mill, moved direct to Balboa. The other shops were transferred temporarily to Empire, and, commencing March 1, 1914, were gradually moved to Balboa. At the close of the year practically all of the machines were erected in the permanent locations and in operation. The total amount expended on the shops, including the cost of moving and installing the machies, was $2,384,967.33. The shops office building is the last one under construction. At the close of the year the steel framework and cement tile roofing were completed and the construction division of the supply department was puttinginthe walls and floors, and engaged in the completion of the building. The total amount expended on the office building was $59,494.90. Breakwaters. — As stated in the last annual report, it was decided to construct a detached breakwater on the east side of Colon Harbor to protect the interior harbor against the waves caused by the trade winds, its general direction extending out from Coco Solo to a point 2,000 feet east of the outer extremity of the west breakwater. The breakwater, as originally approved, was to be 7,200 feet long, its inner end being 3,893 feet from the end of the shore fill. Investigations were made in various localities for the purpose of securing suitable core and armor rock for use in its construction, with a view to doing away with the necessity of the further use of Porto Bello. Upon the examination of comparative estimates of costs bearing on different sources of supply of rock to be used, it was decided to obtain the rock from the Sosa Hill quarry and transport it across the Isthmus. A double-track trestle was extended out from Coco Solo and about 11,093 linear feet were completed at the close of the year. A railroad connection was completed between the root of the breakwater and the railroad extending from Mount Hope to Margarita Point. Auxiliary lines and sidings were built in the vicinity of Coco Solo Point and along the Margarita Point railroad. In all 5.2 miles of new track were laid. A dock 16 by 100 feet, with trestle and track connections, was built for the unloading of materials, and a small

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EEPOET OP THE GOVERNOR. 39 harbor for the landing of launches and tugs towing piles was excavated by the dredge Sandpiper^ necessitating the removal of 58,650 cubic yards of sand. A 6-inch water main was laid from the Margarita Point main at the Coco Solo turnout, and a 50,000-gallon storage tank was erected for watering locomotives and for additional fire protection. The Coco Solo yard was filled in to elevation plus 3.3, and the approach tracks for the trestle were raised to elevation plus 14.5. Practically all of the tracks have been ballasted to the main line of the Panama Railroad, for which 64,506 cubic yards of fill were used in addition to 11,512 cubic yards of gravel ballast and, 522 cubic yards of crushed-rock ballast. With the abolition of the Atlantic division on February 1, the west breakwater work in Colon Harbor and the operation of Porto Bello quarry were transferred to the division of terminal construction. Armor rock was procured from Porto Bello on the old crushed-rock quarry level above the two lower levels referred to in the last annual report. On December 1, 1913, the working hours in the quarry were reduced from 12 hours to 8 hours a day, and on April 30 the operation of the quarry ceased. During the year 207,654 cubic yards of armor rock were produced and shipped at a division cost of $4.0182 per cubic yard. Auxiliary excavation by steam shovels amounted to 302,893 cubic yards, which were wasted on the shore dump. In May, 1914, the quarry was closed down in such a manner that it can be reopened if found necessary later in connection with the east breakwater. Of the 207,654 cubic yards of rock shipped from Porto Bello, 162,951 cubic yards were placed by three derrick barges and 44,703 cubic yards were placed by three cranes at a division cost of $0.9673 per cubic yard. Rock removed by dredges to the extent of 18,254 cubic yards was placed in the breakwater. The work was completed in May, 1914, at a division cost of $3,492,781.27. It contains 1,945,733 cubic yards of material, consisting of 669,254 cubic yards of dredged rock, 819,930 cubic yards of Toro Point rock, and 456,549 cubic yards of Porto Bello rock. "Work on the Naos Island Breakwater was continued throughout the year. With the closing down of dry excavation in Culebra Cut on October 10, a borrow pit was opened in the side of Sosa Hill, as from the action of the breakwater it had been concluded that too much soft material had been used in its construction and that nothing but rock should be put in to secure its completion. The work at Sosa Hill continued from October 10, 1913, until March, 1914, when the output from the dry dock, together with the character of the material warranted the use of the spoil from this locality for breakwater purposes. At the beginning of the year all the trestle had been completed to elevation plus 14 and had been filled in with the exception of 600 feet. At the close of the year the average elevation of the

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40 THE PANAMA CAKAL. breakwater was plus 18.5 and it was finished to its full width. The average settlement during the last two weeks of the year was 0.075 foot with the exception of one stretch about 600 feet in length which settled at the rate of about one-half an inch per day. During a portion of the last three months of the year there was a settlement of about 2 feet a day at the south end of the breakwater immediately north of Naos Island, whereas the settlement at the end of the year at this point amounted to only 3| inches per day. During the fiscal year 652,587 cubic yards were placed at an average division cost of $0.6088 per cubic yard. Cristobal coaling plant. — Drilling and blasting channel material in the vicinity of the Cristobal coaling plant was started by the dredging division in July, 1913, and the removal of the material by a pipe-line suction dredge was continued through the year. The dredged material was pumped ashore where most needed. Being largely clean coral rock and sand, it has been used to bring the area in which coal will be stored in the dry, measuring about 300 feet by 1,200 feet, up to elevation plus 2. Work was pushed on the construction of trestles for use in setting the 6foot caissons, and on the construction of the two concrete walls supported on piles, about 700 feet in length, that carry the tracks for the stocking and reclaiming bridges. At the end of the year the trestle construction was about 25 per cent completed. The caissons are of steel, 6 feet in diameter, and by the end of the year 78 of the cylinders had been set, and 6 of these were driven to rock with a steam hammer in advance of any excavation. The total amount of concrete placed was 3,123 cubic yards, at an average division cost of $5.4986 per cubic yard. A contract was entered into for furnishing the materials, necessary machinery, and the erection in place of the coal-handling plants. The coal-handling plants are designed for the storage of 485,000 tons at Cristobal and 215,000 tons at Balboa. Of the former, 100,000 tons are to be wet storage, and in the latter case 50,000 tons. Fuel-oil plant. — A contract was entered into on October 1, 1912, for four fuel-oil storage tanks 93 feet in diameter and 35 feet in height, each having a capacity of 40,000 barrels, to be completed at a cost of $62,800. Two of them are located at Mount Hope and two on the Balboa dump southeast of Sosa Hill. Plans have been prepared and advertisements issued for the necessary pumping plants in connection with these tanks, one to be located at Balboa and one at Mount Hope. Provision is made for the installation of three pumps in each plant, two of which will be purchased at the present time. They will be able to handle oil from Balboa to Miraflores tank, and from Mount Hope to Gatun tank, at the rate of about 400 barrels an hoyr. On the Atlantic side as much of Docks 13 and 14 as is

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REPOET OF THE GOVERNOR. 41 necessary will be used as oil docks, and the tank field will be located between the east diversion and the Mount Hope Koad, where there are suitable locations for 40 or 50 tanks. The pumping plant will be located immediately east of the Mount Hope filtration plant. At the Pacific terminal there will be a berth for oil vessels 75 feet wide by about 2,000 feet long immediately adjoining the canal channel and south of the old French pier. There will be three oil cribs, two of which will be constructed at once, consisting of steel and concrete deck supported by 6-foot concrete cylinders. The pumping plant will be located on the lower level of Balboa dump, opposite the oil cribs. The tank field has been laid out on the higher level of Balboa dump. An area has been reserved for the accommodation of 33 lots each 200 feet square. To the end of the fiscal year there has been expended on the fuel-oil plant at the Pacific terminal $50,289.33, including the cost of dredging berth for ships, for which there were removed 60,776 cubic yards, at a division cost of $0.0983 per cubic yard, and on that at the Atlantic terminal $49,694.15. Quay walls and pier. — Work was continued on the quay walls and pier at the Pacific end of the canal during the year. These consist of reinforced-concrete deck supported by cylinders sunk to rock. When completed the total length of the quay wall or wharf will be 2,662.65 feet, averaging 60 feet wide. Of this amount 648.78 feet were built for the Panama Railroad as a lumber dock, as reported in the previous annual report. The remaining portions of the wharf extend to the north and south of this lumber dock. The north portion is supported upon cylindrical concrete caissons sunk to rock and filled with concrete, reinforced with steel rails. The cylinders themselves are reinforced concrete 7 feet 6 inches in diameter, with 8-foot bottom section 5 feet in length. Of the section north of the lumber dock, 1,238.42 feet, 16 caissons remained to be sunk during the year, most of the substructure having been completed during the pi'evious year. There are 136 caissons in this dock. The sup'erstructure consists of reinforced girders, beams, and floor slab, with vitrified-brick surface. The work was begun in July, 1913, and was completed on February 1, 1914. The paving brick were laid on a sand cushion. There were 75,683 square feet of brick laid on the floor of this dock, and it was completed on April 1, 1914. To counteract any outward pressure against the cylinders "dead men " were placed in the ground about 85 feet behind the rear edge of the wharf and opposite each transverse girder, each with an effective bearing area of 48 square feet, constructed of reinforced concrete. They were connected to the dock by steel rods 2f inches in diameter, drawn tight by means of turnbuckles, and encased in concrete.

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42 ' THE PANAMA CANAL. The wharf south of the lumber dock is 775.45 feet in length, with a return 290 feet long, and, as the work had to be performed in water, the reinforced-concrete caissons used in the other dock were not suitable. The caissons for this portion of the work are steel cylinders 6 feet in diameter, in sections 5 feet long. In order to permit the construction of this portion of the wharf it was necessary to remove the sand-unloading cranes formerly used by the Pacific division, and the sand operations were transferred to Miraflores locks. A ladder dredge cleared the site and a double trestle was constructed longitudinally through the site for the handling of the caissons. The excavation inside the cylinders was performed by orange-peel buckets as much as possible, but the material overlying the hard rock was so firm that the greater part of the excavation had to be done by hand, using Star well drills as hoisting engines. At the close of the year 23 caissons had been sunk to rock. The bulkhead quay wall, extending between the wharf and Pier No. 1, is 303 feet long and built on concrete cylinders sunk to rock in a manner similar to that at the wharf north of the lumber dock. Rock was encountered very much higher than on the greater part of the other quay walls, and it was necessary to do considerable rock excavation in the caissons to get them well below —45. Excavation was done by orange-peel buckets operated by locomotive cranes, but the removal of rock and cleaning out the bottom of the caissons required hand excavation. Sixty-five piers were required for this dock. They were all sunk to rock at the end of February, 1914. The superstructure was placed similar to that of the other docks, A similar bulkhead, extending from Pier No. 1 to Pier No. 2, was begun during the year. The construction of Pier No. 1, 1,000 feet in length and 201 feet wide, proceeded in a manner similar to that of the wharf construction, both as regards excavating in the caissons and placing the superstructure. Most of the material excavated was soft, alluvial mud, rock being encountered at the upper end, which necessitated hand excavation in order to secure a foundation for the cylinders. During the year 184 piers were sunk to rock. The division cost of this dock work in detail to date is as follows: At the quay wall north of the lumber dock there have been excavated, in connection with the concrete cylinders and the beams for the superstructure, 23,728 cubic yards, at a division cost of $2.25G9 per cubic yard ; 6,464.5 cubic j^ards of concrete have been laid in the construction of the caisson shells, at a division cost of $13.0343 per cubic yard; 7,945 cubic yards of concrete have been placed within the caissons, at a division cost of $6.GG75 per cubic yard; 7,359 cubic yards of concrete have been laid in the floor system, at an average division cost of $24.2281 per cubic yard. In paving this dock 75,683

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REPORT OF THE GOVERlTOR. 4S square feet of brick paving were laid, at a division cost of $0.3120 per square foot. This dock was completed during the year; it has an area of 77,403 square feet and the total division cost was $421,200.57, or $5.4417 per square foot. At the quay wall south of the lumber dock, in dredging preparatory to the construction of this dock, 25,720 cubic yards of material were removed, at a division cost of $0.4689 per cubic yard ; G69 cubic yards were excavated for and in the piers, a
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44 THE PANAMA CANAL. the crushers. Two shovels were kept at work until May, 1914, since which time one shovel has been operated and the other held in reserve. In July, 1913, the bank under the crusher building gave way and threatened to carry away the lower part of the crusher building and conveyor. The material in the slide was excavated by steam shovels, working day and night, and about 40,000 cubic yards were removed and hauled to Miraflores locks for back filling and to the Balboa town site. During this time the crushers were run 12 hours a day until the danger from the slide was stopped. The large crusher was relined once, the main shaft changed twice, and the main eccentric changed twice in order to be rebabbitted. The larger output from the quarry is designated as rock No. 1 and the smaller as rock No. 2. The demand for the latter size was greater than formerly, and the crusher had to be arranged to crush the rock smaller, the screens being changed so that a greater percentage of No. 2 rock was produced. The total amount of crushed rock produced during the year was 502,798 cubic yards at an average cost of $0.8974 per cubic yard. In addition thereto 49,156 cubic yards of screenings were produced, which were utilized in the construction and repair of roads and in the manufacture of concrete blocks for construction of buildings. Sand service. — The handling of sand from Chame to Balboa was performed by the dredging division, and the unloading at Balboa continued under the dredging division until February, 1914, when the unloading cranes at Balboa were closed down, owing to the necessity of moving them off the temporary dock on which they had been installed. The unloading operations were transferred to Miraflores on April 28, and xmloading was performed by one of the berm cranes still remaining at that point. A locomotive crane was subsequently added, and both machines worked during May and June. A total of 199,319 cubic yards of sand was received and unloaded at an average cost of $0.8233 per cubic yard. Panama Railroad freight yards. — The Panama Railroad freight yards, extending from Diablo Hill to the foot of Sosa Hill, were practically completed at the end of the year. The filling and excavation for these were performed by the division of terminal construction. Material excavated from the inner harbor by suction dredges was deposited through pipe lines into the swamp lying between the site and the old Panama Railroad line, and a considerable amount of dry fill obtained from the dry-dock excavation and from Diablo Hill was added. The low, swampy area east of Balboa terminals and north of Ancon Hill was raised to a higher elevation by a hydraulic fill dredged from the inner harbor. Colliers. — The successful operation of the coaling plants, as well as the price at which coal can be sold, is dependent in some degree

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 45 upon the ability to control the transportation of coal from the United States. During the year the cost of water transportation was $1,395 per ton. The coal is brought down in foreign bottoms. The conclusion was reached early in the consideration of the coalsupply problem that advantages would result from the ownership by The Panama Canal or the Panama Eailroad Co. of the colliers bringing coal to the Istlimus. An estimate was therefore submitted in 1912 that would permit the construction by The Panama Canal of two colliers in accordance with the latest type of naval design, and would give The Panama Canal the desired control over its coal supply. The general plans were prepared by the Navy Department, and bids were opened for their construction on February 2, 1914. On April 9, 1914, a contract was entered into for the construction of the two at $987,500 each. Each collier is to have a coal-carrying capacity of 12,000 tons and a speed of 14 knots per hour loaded to full capacity. On June 30, 1914, the Secretary of War decided that these colliers when completed will be operated by the Panama Railroad Co. The company has submitted an estimate of the cost of transportation, which amounts to 97 cents a ton, not including depreciation or interest on the capital invested. Tugs. — As stated in the previous annual report, an estimate was included for the fiscal year 1913 for the purchase of four harbor tugs of suitable design and sufficient power to handle the largest vessel using the canal. The plans and specifications were approved in December, 1913, and bids were invited by a circular through the Washington office on January 6, 1914. When the bids were received it was decided to reduce the number from four to two, and the contract was awarded and entered into on May 8, 1914. Floating cranes. — A contract was entered into on April 21, 1913, for two floating cranes of the revolving type, and of 250 tons capacity each, at a cost of approximately $837,500, to be delivered and completed on the Isthmus within 580 days, or by December 2, 1914. These cranes have been given the names Ajax and Hercules^ respectively. The work has progressed satisfactorily, and the pontoons were brought from Germany and arrived on the Isthmus in July. Balboa town site. — Planning of the permanent town of Balboa, together with the streets, water and sewer systems, was placed under this division. Previous study had served to determine the location of the Administration Building, and the formal mall of buildings on Balboa Plain as recommended by the Commission of Fine Arts. The main roadways have a width of 24 feet ; the roadways of secondary importance have width of either 18 or 14 feet. The land which has been set aside for the permanent gold site at Balboa includes 29 acres on the north and northwesterly slopes of Sosa Hill, intended generally for quartering employees assigned to the shops and

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46 THE PANAMA CANAL. terminals; an area of 72^ acres on the southwesterly slope of Ancon Hill, which has been named " Balboa Heights." Employees working in the Administration Building will be housed in this area. The third area, of about 55 acres, is on the low ground between the two areas above mentioned, on which will be located buildings of a public or semipublic character, as well as quarters. Construction work was started the latter part of August, and the progress has been governed to a considerable extent by the existing structures and tracks. Sewers and water systems have been installed and a considerable amount of grading and planting work completed. For the construction of roads asphaltic concrete was adopted as being more economical. The total amount expended on the work was $409,116.35. Radio station— In addition to the foregoing work, the building of the Darien radio station was placed in charge of this division and $74,756.88 were expended during the year on its construction. For further particulars, attention is invited to Appendix B. SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. The supply department was organized, effective April 1, 1914, by combining the quartermaster's and subsistence departments under the old organization, and was placed in charge of Capt. R. E. Wood, United States Army, as chief quartermaster. The department has charge of the recruitment of labor; construction and repair of all buildings ; care, furnishing, and assignment of quarters ; distributing fuel, commissary supplies, and distilled water; the operation of hotels, messes, and kitchens; requisitioning for supplies of all kinds, together with the receipt and distribution of them on arrival ; the cutting of grass and disposal of night soil and garbage, as prescribed by the health department. During the year the work of the department was more arduous than that of any other on the Isthmus, by reason of the frequent changes in organization due to the consolidation of the work, the construction of new buildings, the elimination of old towns and their transfer to new localities, and too much credit can not be given to those who have had charge of the work. The force employed on the canal dropped steadily throughout the year, being 29,673 on June 30, 1914, as compared with 43,350 at the close of the previous fiscal year. Accompanying the decrease there was a large emigration from the Isthmus, and for the first time since the work was started there was an excess of departures over arrivals of about 15,000. Free transportation was furnished to 1,361 Americans, 1,173 West Indians, and 1,615 Europeans, at a cost of $121,765.80. The character of the force was radically changed during the year, due to the completion of dry excavation and the large increase

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EEPOET OF THE GOVERNOR. 47 in the building force for the construction of quarters, offices, etc. The shop forces made two transfers, one from Gorgona to Empire and then from Empire to Balboa. The dredging forces were shifted from the terminals at Balboa and Cristobal to Paraiso. The transportation men were transferred from Las Cascadas and Empire to Balboa. These changes were made necessary by the waters of the lake drowning out Gorgona wdiere the shops were formerly located, by the concentration of the dredging fleet in Culebra Cut, and by the abandonment of Las Cascadas so that it might be all available for the military. At the close of the fiscal year there was a total of 17,938 men, women, and children in canal quarters, as compared with 23,184 men, women, and children at the close of the previous fiscal year. The greatest percentage of decrease was among the American and European employees. A new town. La Boca, was erected on the Balboa dumps south of Sosa Hill for the silver employees that will eventually be required for the permanent organization. Houses which had to be abandoned or moved were transferred and reerected at La Boca and converted into family quarters, and these apartments were rented. The experiment has been a success and has accomplished three good results: It has afforded the families of silver employees comfortable houses at a rental of fully 50 per cent less than they would have to pay in the city of Panama; it has enabled the canal to use to good advantage buildings which otherwise would have had to be abandoned or sold for little or nothing; and it has enabled the canal to derive a reasonable return from the investment. Fifty-two buildings, taken from Gorgona, Bas Obispo, Las Cascadas, Diablo, Empire, Culebra, Porto Bello, Gatun, Pedro Miguel, and Ancon Hospital, were moved and reerected at La Boca at a cost of $110,045.50, or an average cost per apartment of $266; the resulting structures accommodate 413 families. The cost varied from $111 to $520 per apartment and the rents range from $3 to $9 per month. Range closets, cook sheds, Avashhouses, and bathhouses for bachelor and married employees were erected at La Boca at a cost of $15,509.16. Besides the settlement at La Boca, silver quarters at Paraiso, Cristobal, and Gatun were thoroughly overhauled and repaired and then rented. At the close of the year 153 houses, with 736 apartments and rooms, were rented to employees on the silver roll, the monthly amount realized being $3,736. On June 30, 1914, there were 2,535 buildings in canal settlements, of which 117 belonged to the Panama Railroad, 19 to the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, leaving 2,399 belonging to The Panama Canal. Of this number 567 were French buildings, remaining of the total of 2,148 turned over by the French company in 1904. During the year 136 buildings were demolished and 107 were sold, real-

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48 THE PANAMA CANAL. izing $7,453.76, practically all French buildings. The raising of the lake necessitated the removal, demolition, and sale of all buildings at Gorgona and Matachin and most of the buildings in the labor camps at Chagres and Miraflores, and slides caused the demolition and removal of some of the buildings at Culebra. Of the 175 buildings taken down, 153 have been reerected and 22 were in course of erection on June 30. The total cost of this work has been $308,310.63. While experience has shown that buildings can be moved faster and more economically when no alterations are made in the type, in view of the fact that the buildings being reerected at Ancon will be used for the permanent force, it was concluded that some alterations should be made so as to afford greater comfort. Work in connection with the erection of buildings for the Darien radio station for the Navy was done by the supply department. The total amount expended for this work was $53,314.72. The permanent buildings constructed consisted of the hydroelectric station at Gatun, the substations at Gatun, Cristobal, Miraflores, and Balboa, the commissary warehouse at Cristobal, the Administration Building at Balboa, permanent family quarters of concrete blocks (28 four-family and 9 two-family), the shops office building, commissary building at Balboa, and the commissary building at Ancon. The total amount expended for these buildings, exclusive of those for the commissary, to the close of the fiscal year aggregated $1,943,430.05. The policy was continued of limiting the stock of material and supplies as much as possible, which necessitated the placing of fre quent orders for small amounts of material, increasing the work of the storekeepers and the United States requisition division and the difficulties of the purchasing office in Washington. The value of material received during the year was $11,116,395.10; the local purchases amounted to $2,293,144.66. Of the local purchases, coal aggregated $929,176.57; oil, $863,206.66; and the purchase of tools from the McClintic-Marshall Construction Co., $40,000. There was a decrease of 130,000 tons of cement, but a very large increase in the amount of lumber purchased. Changed conditions of the work necessitated the closing down of storehouses at various localities and the concentration of material at the terminals. The Gorgona storehouse was closed on August 15, 1913, the Miraflores storehouse on November 1, 1913, the Pedro Miguel storehouse on September 15, 1913, the Toro Point storehouse on May 1, 1914, the Porto Bello storehouse on May 15, 1914, and the Ancon storehouse on June 30, 1914. A storehouse was opened at Paraiso on December 1, 1913, a cement shed was erected for storage at Corozal, and the new buildings of the Balboa storehouse were opened during Fe'bruary of 1914. The Mount Hope depot invoiced mateyial to the value of $Tp'93,-

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 49 963.28, as compared with $10,580,623 during the previous year. The value of the stock on hand at Balboa on June 30, 1914, was $1,098,143.49. Scrap operations were continued throughout the year, and consisted of the collection, storage, classification, and sale of scrap. Altogether a total of 30,000 tons of rail and scrap were handled at the scrap yard at Mount Hope. Exclusive of the contracts with the Chicago House Wrecking Co., under which practically no shipments were made during the year, approximately $80,000 worth of scrap was sold. There is in addition scrap on hand at Mount Hope valued at about $300,000 based on present market prices. The expenses of scrap operations proper amounted to approximately $25,000 for the year. Unloaders, steam shovels, locomotives, spreaders, pile drivers, and track shifters no longer needed for the work were prepared for storage, at a total cost of $14,222.84 ; this expenditure was necessary in order to secure the highest possible prices for the material. On June 30, 1914, the department was operating the Hotel Tivoli, Hotel Aspinwall, 12 line hotels, and 10 laborers' messes, a decrease of 4 hotels and 5 messes from last year. The hotels at Porto Bello, Gorgona, Dump No. 6, Bas Obispo, Las Cascadas, and Miraflores were closed. A mess at Ancon for gold employees and the Hotel Aspinwall at Taboga Island were opened. The messes at Dump No. 6, Bas Obispo, Culebra, Gorgona, Miraflores, and Porto Bello were closed, and the common laborers' kitchen at Naos Island was converted into a laborers' mess. The gross revenue from the line hotels, restaurants, and messes was $1,032,189.51, a decrease of $202,888.33 from last year, while the total cost of operations was $1,021,856.92, a decrease of $183,942.84, making the profit $10,332.59, a decrease of $18,944.49. The total number of meals served in line hotels was 2,131,912, a decrease of 208,732 from last year. Immediately after July 1, 1913, the European laborers' messes and the common laborers' kitchens were combined and called laborers' messes. The total number of rations served in these messes was 950,994, the total number of rations served in both messes and kitchens during the previous year being 1,396,972. The net expense for salaries and wages was $133,638.81, as compared with $166,398.65 for the previous year. As the result of the year's operations the line hotels and restaurants showed a loss of $18,366.18, as compared with a loss of $3,837.71 during the previous year. Laborers' messes showed a profit of $28,698.77, as against a combined profit of $33,114.79 on messes and kitchens during the previous year. During the last fiscal year the demand for wagon transportation was heavier than during any previous year since 1904, and it Avas necessary to purchase 100 new mules. As a result of necessary town63399°— 14 4

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50 THE PANAMA CANAL. site work, hauling of material for new buildings and those transferred, and the collection of garbage in the city of Panama, which was transferred to the health department during the year, all Government animals were worked to the limit. This overwork and the fact that all mules except those purchased during the past 15 months have averaged over seven years' service on the Isthmus resulted in the death of 50 animals, a considerably heavier loss than during the previous year. For further details, attention is invited to Appendix F. COST KEEPING. No change was made in the methods of cost keeping adopted for the construction divisions in January, 1910. In addition to those reported last year, cost accounts were initiated for the Cristobal coaling plant, the gravel-reclaiming plant at Balboa, and the construction of the permanent concrete buildings, the accounts for the latter being an elaboration of the system formerly used. The costs are made up of the labor engaged in and the material applied to the work, an arbitrary to absorb the cost of the plant, and a proper proportion of the division overhead charges. The general expenses of the Canal are prorated to the different parts of the work and must be added to the division costs in order to determine the total costs. As the engineers do not necessarily have control over the items which make up these general expenses, the costs reported are the division costs except when noted to the contrary. The costkeeping accountant reports directly to the Governor. In addition to the duties enumerated in the last annual report, the cost accounting for the work under the jurisdiction of the former central division and that for the quartermaster's department was transferred to this office on October 1, 1913, and on June 1, 1914, that of the electrical division. He has been engaged in preparing permanent accounting systems for the operation and maintenance of the canal since April 1, and to the close of the year most of this work had been completed with the exception of minor detailed accounts, which will be initiated as the necessity develops. At the close of the last fiscal year the pay roll of the office was about $3,000 per month, and there were transferred with the accounts of the former central division and of the quartermaster's department employees whose salaries aggregated $975 per month ; the pay roll at the close of the fiscal year was about $3,600 per month. This, notwithstanding the increase in accounting work for the terminals, the town site, the permanent buildings, and the electrical division, which exceeded by far the decrease on account of the completion of some of the canal units. The general expenses prorated to the construction work this year amount to 11.12 per cent of the division cost and for the period to date to 8.73 per cent.

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KEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 51 Comparative costs are not given this year for all the units of construction, as conditions due to the completion of the work make such comparisons valueless as far as a large portion of the units of construction is concerned. At the Ancon rock quarry there was a decrease of 185,503 cubic yards in the quantity of crushed stone produced and an increase of $0.1179 per cubic yard, principally in the operation of and repairs to the crushers. The quantity of sand dredged from Chame Point decreased 246,339 cubic yards and the cost increased $0.1154 per cubic yard, principally in the expense of dredging and towing to Balboa. The cost of the large rock in place in the Colon west breakwater increased $0.4480 per cubic yard as compared with last year, due to increase in the charge for plant arbitrary, made necessary by the decreased quantity of rock placed in the breakwater as compared with the estimate. There was an increase of $0.3154 per cubic yard in the cost of rock placed in the Naos Island Brealnvater, due to charging this account with the expense of quarrying and transporting rock from Sosa Hill and of transporting the rock secured from the excavation in the area of the dry dock at Balboa. To the end of the fiscal year there had been expended $440,483.46 for the construction of terminal facilities at Cristobal, of which $390,789.31 was for the coaling plant and $49,694.15 for the fuel-oil storage plant. For the terminal facilities at Balboa there had been expended $6,665,446.24, of which $1,108,773.31 were for surveys and in the preparation of the site; $592,971.66 in dredging the inner harbor; $504,320.59 in the construction of the main dry dock; $78,312.02 in the construction of the small dry dock, known as Dry Dock No. 2; $287,269.17 in the construction of the coaling plant; $386,004.07 in excavating the entrance basin ; $126.85 in the construction of the sea wall; $2,444,462.23 in the construction of the permanent shops, storehouses, and roundhouse; $1,212,917.01 in the construction of the docks ; and $50,289.33 in the construction of the fuel-oil plant and in dredging a berth for the oil sTiips. In the preparation of the permanent town sites there have been expended $132,539.23 for the town of La Boca, $409,116.35 for that at Balboa, and $112,349.25 for that at Pedro Miguel, a total of $654,004.83. In the construction of the permanent concrete buildings there have been expended to the end of the fiscal year $716,936.09 for the Administration Building at Balboa, $425,210.17 for 28 four-family apartment houses, and $20,737.76 for nine two-family apartment houses. The administrative and general expenses increased $292,404.07. Of this amount about $120,000 is apparent only and is due to consoli-

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52 THE PANAMA CANAL. dating the time and cost keeping forces in the executive office, the expense having previously been borne by the construction divisions. The remainder is principally due to heavy charges for repatriation of employees leaving the service or discharged for reduction of force, and to the expense of moving the storehouses at Gorgona and Empire. For further details, attention is invited to Appendix 1-2. ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT. The accounting department was organized on April 1, 1914, in accordance with the provisions of the Executive order putting into effect the new organization, and consists of the auditor, Mr. H. A. A. Smith, who has supervision of the entire department and is in direct charge of the auditing and accounting work; Mr. John H. McLean is in direct charge of disbursements, and Mr. T. L. Clear of all collections. An attempt was made to revise the system of accounting that has been in effect during the construction period so as to make it applicable to the operation of the canal. While the canal is primarily for the purpose of passing ships, under authority of law provision is made for supplying vessels with fuel, general supplies of all kinds, including subsistence, for repairs, and various other facilities, so that the system must be sufficiently elastic to take care of the various enterprises, and for the determination of net profits as nearly as may be done, which, under the law, must revert to the Treasury. The assistance of the Treasury Department was sought and two committees visited the Isthmus, the result of which was the approval of certain forms for use in connection with the rendition of public accounts. A new classification of accounts has been established beginning with the fiscal year 1915. Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama, which requires the reimbursement to the United States for the expenditures incurred in connection with the construction, maintenance, and operation of waterworks, sewers, and pavements within the cities of Colon and Panama, the expenditures to June 30, 1914, in the city of Panama, were $1,761,328.49 and in the city of Colon $1,659,640.20, a total of $3,420,968.69, including accrued interest to date at the rate of 2 per cent per annum on the capital cost balances and on the proportionate cost of the waterworks in the Canal Zone used for supplying water to the two cities, based on the quantity of water consumed. For the work in Panama this interest has amounted to $186,588.26 and for the work in Colon $139,665.63. There have been reimbursed to the United States $1,213,918.37, leaving a balance of $2,207,050.32 still due. During the year 41,233 hotel books, valued at $580,319.40, and 980,283 meal tickets, valued at $353,253.20, were issued. In addition,

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 53 the sum of $2,888,437.50 was collected on the pay rolls for commissary books issued to canal employees. The periodical examination of the accounts of the 225 officers and employees having the collection, custody, and disbursement of money was made during the year. The total disbursements on the Isthmus on account of salaries and wages of employees and on account of other items amounted to $27,749,135.69. Disbursements in the United States amounted to $14,614,403.71, or a total of $42,363,539.40. The total collections during the year amounted to $8,106,469.42, of which $4,718,024.30 were repaid to appropriations, $379,365.02 deposited as miscellaneous receipts, and $2,963,148.96 collected on account of Panama Railroad commissary. The balance, $27,931.14, was collected for the account of the railroad, bonding company, and other contractors. The inspection of time books and the work of timekeepers in the field was continued. The property accounting was transferred to this department on January 1, 1914, and for the six months that it had charge records were maintained of purchases and sales of the quartermaster's stores, and material and supplies were received of a total value of $7,887,431.66, of which $4,840,245.92 were for stock and $3,047,185.74 were for material, supplies, and equipment delivered direct to the construction divisions. During this period the issues from storehouses amounted to $5,423,585.41, and the amount received from direct sales to outside interests totaled $142,377.56. The separate business of the Canal Zone has reduced materially during the year. The amount of revenue derived from rentals, taxation, etc., decreased from $212,266.83 in 1913 to $168,076.64 in 1914. The audited expenditures during the year amounted to $261,064.17. In the operation of the post offices there was a decrease in the number of orders issued from 238,316 in 1913 to 198,009 in 1914. The canal clubhouses received a total revenue of $132,624.05 and expended $133,086.95. The balance on June 30, 1914, in clubhouse funds amounted to $26,513.96, with outstanding obligations of $10,534.53. The provisions of the injury compensation act of May 30, 1908, were superseded on April 1, 1914, by the Executive order of the President of March 20, 1914, which Avas promulgated in accordance with the authority contained in section 5 of the Panama Canal act. Since August 1, 1908, the sum paid out in injury claims amounted to $1,145,085.71. For the first three months under the compensation order of March 20, 1914, there were expended $4,283.83. This does not represent the total amount that will be allowed on account of injuries received during the period, as no allowances were made

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54 THE PANAMA CANAL. on account of long-continuing periods of disability nor on account of death claims. • Congress has appropriated a total of $374,048,194.59 for the canal, including the appropriation continued in the sundry civil act approved August 1, 1914. Of this amount $12,050,825 were for fortifications and $22,508.01 veere appropriated for the relief of private persons, so that there were $361,974,861.58, including the amount covered by the sundry civil act of August 1, 1914, appropriated for the construction of the canal and its adjuncts. Except for the portion used in maintaining and operating the canal, to which $161,608.52 were charged, and $2,000,000 appropriated for colliers, the amount chargeable against the total authorized bond issue of $375,200,900 is $359,813,253.06; up lo June 30, 1914 $6,254,203.37 were collected and returned to the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts, so that the cost of the canal, including the appropriation of August 1, 1914, stands at $353,559,049.69. For further details, attention is invited to Appendix G. EXECUTIVE DEPABTMENT. The executive department is an outgrowth of the department of civil administration. Prior to the reorganization on April 1 the department of civil administration was under the supervision of Mr. Richard L. Metcalfe, who was appointed a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission on August 9, 1913, succeeding Commissioner M. H. Thatcher. He arrived on the Isthmus on August 7, 1913, and was assigned to charge of the department on the date his appointment became effective. Since the reorganization Mr. Metcalfe has been a member of the committee for the formal and official opening of The Panama Canal, created by Executive order dated May 20, 1914. The department embraces the general office business of the Governor, the work under the supervision of the executive secretary as already outlined, the courts, and the offices of the special attorney, the district attorney, and the Canal Record. It is in charge of Mr. C. A. Mcllvaine, acting under the Governor. Customs service. — During the year 280 vessels entered the port of Balboa, of a total tonnage of 569,681, and 277 vessels cleared, of a total tonnage of 558,334. At Cristobal 295 vessels entered, of a tonnage of 832,579, and 296 vessels cleared, of a tonnage of 838,708. The usual customs services were rendered seamen and vessels, and the interests of Panama were guarded by customs inspectors on the whai'ves. Administration of estates. — The estates of 452 deceased and insane employees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Co. were administered during the year, and there were 20 estates in the course of settlement on June 30. Of the estates settled during the

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 56 year, 323 were settled with the consular representatives in Panama of the countries of which the deceased were citizens or subjects, 126 estates were settled direct with the heirs, 2 estates were repaid to persons who had recovered their sanity, and 1 estate was divided pro rata among the claimants. The total amount involved was $36,025.95. Division of posts. — At the close of the year there were 13 post offices in operation, 6 of the 17 offices in existence at the close of the fiscal year 1913 having been discontinued, while 2 new offices were established. The sale of postage stamps and postal cards, including the revenue derived from the sale of stamp books, amounted to $90,590.63, as compared with $100,485.54 for the previous fiscal year, and $463.67 were collected for second-class mail matter, as compared with $318.84 for the preceding year. Money orders amounting to $4,029,364.83 were issued, the fees from which amounted to $19,048.11. As compared with the preceding year there was a decrease of $854,259.30 in the amount, and a decrease of $3,938.71 in the fees collected. There were 5,113 postal savings accounts opened during the year, 2,180 of which were active at its close, with deposits aggregating $498,481. The 2,180 depositors included citizens or subjects of 51 nations and dependencies. The total amount of deposits for the year was $1,708,530, as compared with $1,601,616 for the previous year. In addition to the postal savings accounts there were on deposit at the close of the year $70,750.41 in the form of money orders issued and drawn on Canal Zone post offices payable to the remitter. This amount belongs almost exclusively to employees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Co. Division of schools. — The schools opened on October 1, 1913, with an enrollment in that month of 2,167 children, 1,109 in the white schools and 1,058 in the colored schools, as compared with 2.199 during the month of October, 1912, The total enrollment during the year was 1,270 in the white schools and 1,492 in the colored schools. No new school buildings were constructed during the year, although one building was removed and reerected and several rooms added to existing buildings. In addition to the white schools at Gorgona and Toro Point and the colored schools at Gorgona and Matachin reported closed in the report for the year ended June 30, 1913, the white school at Bas Obispo and the colored schools at Miraflores, Pedro Miguel, and Cruces were not reopened, and schools were permanently closed during the year at Mandingo December 19, 1913; Marajal colored school February 6, 1914; and branch high school at Empire on February 20, 1914; the white school at Porto Bello on April 24, 1914, and the colored school at Cucaracha on May 29, 1914. The sum of $1,089 was collected as tuition from nonresidents of the Canal Zone, as compared with $744 collected during the year

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56 THE PANAMA CANAL. ended June 30, 1913. During the year medical inspection of the white schools was continued, fire drills were inaugurated during the year, and hand chemical extinguishers were installed in all the schools. A public-school athletic league was formed in the white schools, and an annual meet of the league was held on June 12, 1914, in the canal clubhouses at Balboa, Corozal, Empire, Gatun, and Cristobal. There were 198 participants. Police and fire division. — The division of police and prisons and the division of fire protection were consolidated on April 15, 1914, under the designation " police and fire division." The positions of assistant chief of police, fire chief, and assistant fire chief were abolished and the position of fire inspector created. The station at Gorgona and the substation at Matachin were closed on July 17, 1913, and these towns were designated as call stations with police protection furnished from the Bas Obispo station. On August 31, 1913, the call station at Matachin was abolished, and on December 15, 1913, the station at Bas Obispo was abolished. On July 18, 1913, the call station at Cucaracha was abolished. On September 14, 1913, the station at Miraflores was abolished ; the station at Las Cascadas on December 15, 1913, the necessary police protection being furnished from the Empire station. The Mount Hope station was abolished on April 15, 1914; the station at Paraiso on the same date, and the station at Porto Bello on May 13, 1914. The number of arrests during the year totaled 4,911, of which 4,455 were males and 456 females, as compared with 6,827 arrests for the previous fiscal year. There were 5,021 charges made against persons arrested, of which 4,713 were for misdemeanors and 308 for felonies. Of the total number of persons arrested 3,927 were convicted. There were 75 convicts confined in the penitentiary on June 30, 1914, as compared with 133 on June 30, 1913. All of the convicts, with the exception of a sufficient detail to do the necessary work at the penitentiary, were employed continuously on the construction of the Gamboa-Empire Koad. The value of the labor performed, on the basis of 10 cents an hour for each convict, was $21,615.45, and the cost of their subsistence, guarding, and clothing amounted to $26,893.04. The operation and supervision of the public markets of the Canal Zone and the slaughterhouses were turned over to the police division, effective July 16, 1913. At Empire 1,533 animals were killed, and the revenue derived therefrom was $5,065. The rentals derived from the stalls and tables in the public markets amounted to $2,599.75. There were five markets in operation on June 30, 1914, three having been discontinued during the year. In September, 1913, the fire station, together with the equipment, at Gorgona was removed to Corozal, and the one-man volunteer fire station at this point was discontinued. The Las Cascadas station

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 57 was closed on April 30, 1914, and the apparatus and equipment desired by the military authorities at that point were transferred to them. The fire equipment was withdrawn from the Bas Obispo and Porto Bello stations on August 20, 1913, and May 6, 1914, respectively. No new stations were constructed during the year, nor was any new apparatus purchased. The fire pump and turret nozzle, which were removed from the tug Bolivar during the preceding year, were installed on Clapet No. 7 in August, 1913, to provide water front and harbor fire protection at Balboa. Fire protection was provided for the new piers, Nos. 8 and 9, at Cristobal, which required laying a 6-inch water main on the piers, with an ample supply of mains and standpipes. During the year 215 alarms were responded to, 8 of which were false; of the 207 actual fires 98 occurred in the property of The Panama Canal, 14 in Panama Railroad property, 27 in private property, and 68 in grass, rubbish, dumps, etc., on the Canal Zone. Of the fires in private property 11 occurred in the city of Colon, 1 in the city of Panama, 1 at old Porto Bello, in the Republic of Panama, and 14 in the Canal Zone. The largest fire in the Canal Zone occurred on January 3, 1914, in a pile of creosoted and untreated piling stored about three-quarters of a mile south of the shops at Balboa where it was impossible to drive the fire apparatus. The automobile fire engine was loaded on a railroad flat car and hauled to the scene. The total loss to The Panama Canal resulting from fire was $14,551.71. Courts. — The Supreme Court of the Canal Zone held 24 sessions and disposed of 29 cases— 3 criminal, 25 civil, and 1 habeas corpus case — and ceased to exist on June 30, 1914. The Circuit Court of the Third Judicial Circuit at Cristobal held its last criminal session on March 26, 1914. At Ancon the last regular session of the Circuit Court of the First Judicial Circuit was held on March 30, 1914; and at Empire the last regular session of the Circuit Court of the Second Judicial Circuit was held on March 31, 1914. While all further business relating to these courts was formally ordered over to the new district court on April 1, they continued to act on civil cases until May 1, pending the confirmation of the appointment of the new district judge. In the circuit courts during the period July 1, 1913, to May 1, 1914, there were 395 criminal cases filed and there were 4 criminal cases pending on July 1, 1913, making a total of 399. Of this total, 370 cases were disposed of, leaving 29 criminal cases pending on May 1, 1914. There were 158 civil cases filed during the period and 51 civil cases were pending on July 1, 1913, making a total of 209 civil cases. Of this number, 179 were disposed of, leaving 30 civil cases pending on May 1, 1914. There were 435 probate cases filed, which, with the 57 probate cases pending on July 1, 1913, made a total of 492 probate cases before

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58 THE PANAMA CANAL. the court. The circuit courts held 225 sessions, and the collections amounted to $6,327.57. The district courts were discontinued on April 1, 1914. During the period July 1, 1913, to April 1, 1914, there were 4,183 cases settled, 3,656 of which were criminal, and the rest civil. There were pending on July 1, 1913, 35 civil and 3 criminal cases, and there was pending on April 1, 1914, when the courts closed, 1 civil case. On April 1, 1914, the courts of the Canal Zone ceased to exist, pursuant to the provisions of the Executive order of March 12, 1914, issued under authority of the Panama Canal act approved August 24, 1912, with the exception of the supreme court, which went out of existence on June 30, 1914. The judiciary created by the act of Congress above cited consists of one district court and two magistrates' courts. The district court consists of two divisions, known as the Balboa division and the Cristobal division. The former includes all that part of the Canal Zone which lies within the lines of the 10-mile zone and extends from the south bank of the Chagres River and the shore line of Gatun Lake, 87 feet above mean sea level, to the Pacific Ocean. The latter includes all of the territoi'y within the lines of the 10-mile zone extending from the Balboa division to the Atlantic Ocean and the area of Gatun Lake beyond the lines of the 10-mile zone up to the contour line of 100 feet above mean sea level and the islands and peninsulas in and bordering on Gatun Lake which have been taken by the United States for the purposes of The Panama Canal. There is a magistrate's court for each of the towns of Cristobal and Balboa, the jurisdiction of each covering that division, into which the Canal Zone is divided as described for the district court, in which the town is located. The district court has original jurisdiction of all felony cases, all causes in equity and admiralty, all cases at law involving principal sums exceeding $300, and all appeals from judgments rendered in magistrates' courts. The jurisdiction in admiralty of the district court IS the same as that exercised by the United States district courts and the procedure and practice are also the same. The Circuit Court of Appeals of the Fifth Circuit of the United States has jurisdiction to review, revise, modify, reverse, or affirm the final judgments and decrees of the district court of the Canal Zone in certain oases, and final appeal may be had to the Supreme Court of the United States in the same manner as appeals from the district courts of the United States. The magistrates' courts have exclusive original jurisdiction throughout the subdivision in which situated of all civil cases in which the principal sum claimed does not exceed $300, and all criminal cases wherein the punishment that may be imposed does not exceed a fine of $100 or imprisonment not exceeding 30 days, or both,

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REPOET OP THE GOVERNOE. 59 and all violations of police regulations and ordinances and all actions involving possession or title to personal property or the forcible entry and detainer of real estate. The magistrates also hold preliminary investigations in charges of felony, and commit or bail in bailable cases to the district court. In the district court under the new judicial system, during the months of May and June, 1914, 206 cases were settled — 9 civil, 120 probate, and 77 criminal. In the magistrates' courts a total of 1,203 cases were settled, leaving 18 cases pending on July 1, 1914. Negotiations carried on with the officials of the Republic of Panama included the following subjects: The enforcement of the quarantine regulations; the establishment of rates for the transportation of passengers by automobile between points in the Canal Zone and points in the cities of Panama and Colon; the enforcement of sanitary rules and regulations; the use of revenue stamps on bills submitted by the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad Co. against the Government of Panama; the new contract for street" cleaning and garbage removal in the city of Panama; charge for interments made in the Canal Zone of the remains of persons who resided in the Republic ; water supply for the village of Taboga ; certification by Panaman consuls of manifests of ships clearing for ports of the Canal Zone; jurisdiction of the United States over islands and peninsulas in the Republic formed by the waters of Gatun Lake; the sale in the Republic of dynamite stolen from The Panama Canal ; the collection of burial fees for interments in Canal Zone cemeteries of indigents from the Republic ; the assessment of a commercial tax by the Republic on steamers of the Panama Railroad Steamship Co. ; improvements in the Chorrillo district of the city of Panama ; misuse of transportation issued to employees of the Republic; modification of the existing arrangement for the purchase of postage stamps used in the Canal Zone ; the sale of the old Administration Building in the city of Panama; water supply for the section of Panama known as "El Hatillo"; cooperation of Panama health officers with those of the Zone in an effort to prevent the introduction of plague into Panama from infected ports on the west coast of South America ; enforcement of the exclusion law in the Canal Zone ; the use in Canal Zone post offices of United States postage-due stamps ; modification of the existing agreement respecting the release of mail parcels received by gold employees through the Canal Zone post offices; the arrest in Panama of Panama Canal employees while engaged in the discharge of their duties; the care of patients by the health department for the Republic in consideration of the withdrawal of the request of the Panaman Government for the establishment of an independent hospital in the city of Colon; the removal of garbage and street cleaning in the city of Panama ; the construe-

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60 THE PANAMA CANAL. tion in the Republic of military trails at the expense of the United States; the segregation of stables in the city of Panama within certain defined areas; the desirability of having the Panaman Government cancel the licenses for five saloons near the Zone boundary line in the Folks River district; the granting of commissary privileges to certain persons not connected with The Panama Canal or the Panama Railroad Co.; the deportation of an American in the city of Panama charged with fraudulently representing himself as an attorney licensed to practice in the Canal Zone courts; the deportation of criminal characters from the Canal Zone; the violation of quarantine regulations; the securing of statistics concerning the health conditions in the interior towns of the Republic; the promulgation by Panama of a resolution with reference to manifests of vessels arriving at ports of the Canal Zone with cargo for consignees in the Republic of Panama; substitution of properly surcharged stamps of the Republic for surcharged United States postage-due stamps being used in Canal Zone post offices; installation and cost of municipal improvements in the area in the city of Colon set aside for the erection of manufacturing plants ; protection of the revenues of Panama in connection with parcel-post entries into the Canal Zone; and the admission to Ancon Hospital, as pay patients, of Americans residing in the Republic of Panama who, on account of the character of their employment, are not entitled to hospital privileges. The relations with the Republic of Panama and with foreign representatives continued satisfactory. Time keeping. — During the fiscal year the time-keeping work was gradually centralized, until at its close the time keeping of all departments and divisions, with the exception of the Panama Railroad Co., was being done by the time-keeping bureau. This work included the entering of time on the time rolls, the preparation of pay rolls and pay receipts, the issuing of coupon books, and the keeping of proper statistics and records of the work performed. Cluhs and playgrounds. — The division of clubhouses continued to exist from July 1, 1913, to March 31, 1914, when, in the reorganization, it became the bureau of clubs and playgrounds. Its activities were conducted under the supervision of secretaries furnished by the Young Men's Christian Association. The Gorgona clubhouse was closed on August 1, 1913, and was removed to Pedro Miguel, where it was reerected and opened January 27, 1914. The Porto Bello clubhouse was closed May 1, 1914, and is now being reerected with improvements as a clubhouse for colored men at La Boca. It has been decided to inaugurate a system of playgrounds in the per manent towns of the Canal Zone, and the installation of equipment and supervision will be under the jurisdiction of this bureau.

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REPOET OF THE GOVERNOR. 61 Canal Record. — The Canal Record was continued under the direction of the secretary of the commission, Mr. Joseph Bucklin Bishop, until April 1, 1914, when he was designated special secretary and continued in charge until July 1, when he resigned from the service. The Canal Record was on this date transferred to the charge of the executive secretary. For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix I-l. Law. — The law department continued in charge of Judge Frank Feuille until April 1, when the reorganization in conformity with section 4 of the Panama Canal act of August 24, 1912, became effective. Since April 1, and under authority of the act of April 6, 1914, Judge Feuille was continued as special attorney for the purpose of codifying the laws of the Canal Zone and to defend the interests of the United States before the joint land commission in the acquisition of lands in private ownership which are being taken over in accordance with the Executive order of December 5, 1912. A number of Executive orders of a legislative character were issued during the year, the more important of which were the orders prohibiting flights over the Isthmus by machines ; providing punishment to deported persons returning to the Canal Zone; fixing the legal rates of interest; prohibiting gifts or gratuities to agents, employees, or servants; providing punishment for persons engaged in the practice of hunting deer or other animals at night by the use of lanterns or torches; to establish the permanent organization for the Canal Zone; and the order conferring power upon the Governor of the Panama Canal Zone to remit fines and forfeitures, to grant pardons, reprieves, and commutations of sentences, and to establish a system of paroling prisoners. The joint land commission, appointed under The Panama Canal treaty between the United States and the Republic of Panama, was in session during the fiscal year from July 1 until about the middle of September, when one of the American commissioners resigned, his resignation being followed by that of the other American commissioner not long thereafter. The land commission as then organized heard and disposed of 1,253 claims. Of these 602 were dismissed and awards made in 629 cases. The commission disagreed in 22 cases. During the same period the law department settled 752 claims, aggregating the sum of $48,659, without the intervention of the joint land commission. From the date of the discontinuance of the sessions of the joint land commission until the end of the fiscal year the law department adjusted 1,528 claims, aggregating the sum of $96,080.50; so that the total number of claims settled without the intervention of the joint land commission during the fiscal year was 1,903, aggregating the sum of $147,452.50. On the 25th of May, 1914, the joint land commission was reorganized with Messrs. Federico Boyd and

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62 THE PANAMA CANAL. Samuel Lewis, who served on the previous commission, and Messrs. Levi Monroe Kagy and David Marks, the two American members. The work of the commission was interrupted soon thereafter by the death of Commissioner Marks, which occurred at Ancon Hospital on July 17, 1914. All leases for lots in the Culebra and Empire districts, including the villages of Empire, New Empire, Camacho, Golden Green, New Culebra, Cow Pen, and West Culebra, were canceled on behalf of the Panama Railroad, effective June 30, 1914. At the same time leases for Panama Railroad lots in the town of New Gatun were canceled, but the cancellation did not become effective until after the close of the fiscal year. For further details, as well as statements of civil and criminal matters handled by the department of law in the courts, attention is invited to Appendix 1-3. WASHINGTON OFFICE. The work of the Washington office continued in charge of Maj. F. C. Boggs, United States Army, and the organization remained as previously reported until April 1, 1914. On that date, under the provisions of the Executive order of March 2, 1914, the office of assistant auditor was created in place of the office of assistant examiner of accounts. Under the assistant auditor was placed a disbursing clerk, and the disbursing office was abolished. The scope of the work was about the same as previously reported, except that practically all of the independent inspection forces which were located at points in the United States outside of Washington were abolished or greatly reduced. Due to a continued effort to reduce the supply of material on the Isthmus to a minimum, the work of the purchasing department was even greater than during the previous fiscal year. During the year 2,248 persons within the United States were tendered employment for duty on the Isthmus in grades above that of laborer; 1,429 accepted and were appointed, covering 71 different classes of employment. The total amount of purchase orders placed was $12,392,407.78. Many of the largest contracts were for permanent equipment: For chainfenders and chain, $192,865.90; coal-handling plants, $1,929,103.85; terminal facilities and docks, $224,004.44; floating caisson, $333,851.20; single track movable span bridge, $55,674; transmission line, $505,511.84; filtration plants, $150,576.79; material and equipment for buildings and quarters, $53,824.02; Balboa shops, buildings, $155,547.89; machinery, $146,367.16; two 12,000-ton colliers, $1,975,000; 2 tugboats, $304,000; and 9 gasoline motor boats,

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REPORT OP THE GOVERNOE. 63 $54,392. Other principal items purchased included 2,490 pounds of explosives, 22,200,000 feet of lumber, 20,000 crossties, and 18,311 piles. During the year 592,674 barrels of cement were purchased. For further details, attention is invited to Appendix J. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE. As already outlined, the organization made effective April 1, 1914, provided for a department of operation and maintenance under the governor, who was to be assisted in the administration of the department by an engineer of maintenance and a superintendent of canal transportation. Capt. Hugh Rodman, United States Navy, having been ordered by the Secretary of the Navy to report for duty, was appointed superintendent of canal transportation, and was charged with the safe conduct of vessels through The Panama Canal, except at the locks. He was also given supervision of the port captains, the board of local inspectors, the pilots, the operation of lights and beacons subsequent to June 15, and the inspection and admeasuring of vessels. The offices of the captains of the ports at Cristobal and Balboa were established on May 5, and they were charged with the duty of the assignment of wharves, docking and berthing of vessels, furnishing of pilot service to shipping, the admeasurement of vessels for transit through the canal, and the general supervision and enforcement of canal and harbor regulations relating to shipping. Eight pilots were appointed — four at each end, and their services have been utilized in piloting vessels in and out of the terminal ports, in connection with lightering cargo through the canal, in familiarizing themselves with the aids to navigation and with the canal route. Due to the condition of affairs in Mexico and the interruption of the Tehuantepec route, demands upon the Panama Railroad for the transshipment of freight became so great that it was necessary to institute a barge service through the canal, and this was made effective on May 15, when the barges were towed through the canal from Colon to Balboa, and continued the rest of the year. Tolls were paid by the Panama Railroad Co., and aggregated for the year $11,610.69. Maintenance work was undertaken at the locks and covered miscellaneous repairs, as well as the care necessary to keep the machinery in satisfactory working order. The maintenance charges were made applicable only after the work had been entirely completed in each instance. The amount expended for such repairs and maintenance work aggregated $120,287.99. The heavier expenditures were at the locks and were incurred in connection with the gates, emergency dams, miter gate moving machines, rising stem

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64 THE PANAMA CANAL. valve machines, cylindrical valve machines, and in lighting. Work was also done in repainting the gates, caissons and caring for the machines of the spillways. There were also expended $16,570.44 of the amount above noted for maintenance in clearing vegetation and pulling trees from the canal channel, and removing timbers and driftwood from the vicinity of the locks. For further details concerning the transportation division of the work, attention is invited to Appendix E. SANITATION. The sanitation of the Canal Zone was placed in charge of the health department, under Lieut.-Col. Charles F. Mason, United States Army, as chief health officer, and this department is charged with the care of the sick and injured of the Canal Zone, the prevention of disease in the Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, street cleaning and garbage removal in the latter cities, and all matters relating to quarantine. Lately, matters relating to charity have been added to its scope. The administration is divided into three divisions, each having its own special work to perform — the division of hospitals and charities, the sanitary division, and the quarantine division. Division of hospitals and charities. — This division maintains hospitals at Ancon and Colon and assists in maintaining the Santo Tomas Hospital in the city of Panama. It also maintains institutions for the care of the insane and lepers of both the Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama and for employees permanently disabled through injury. It provides a dispensary with a physician and necessary attendants in each of the districts into which the Canal Zone is divided. These district physicians attend the sick within their districts, send patients to the hospital, perform vaccinations, make inspections of schools, hotels, restaurants. Canal quarters, etc., and report all births and deaths. Sanitary division. — The sanitary division has three sections — the health office of Panama, the health office of Colon, and the Canal Zone section. In the Canal Zone section each district has a sanitary inspector, with necessary foremen and laborers, all under the direct charge of a general inspector. These inspectors keep close watch upon their districts, with a view of preventing and controlling conditions which might give rise to disease, and especially endeavor to prevent the breeding of disease-carrying mosquitoes and flies. For this purpose they supervise the construction and maintenance of drainage ditches, and the cutting of grass and brush, oil pools and the edges of large bodies of water, supervise the removal of garbage and night soil, trap and catch mosquitoes in Panama Canal quarters,

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 65 disinfect pit and other closets, and disinfect buildings for contagious diseases. They are charged with the enforcement of the sanitary regulations, and have authority to personally make arrests when they have witnessed a violation of the regulations. They also issue burial permits, make interments of the dead, and care for cemeteries. They keep charts of the prevalence of malaria in their districts, and immediately investigate and take action upon any increase therein. The work done by the health officers of Panama and Colon is that done by health officers everywhere. In addition, they have charge of street cleaning, garbage removal, grass and brush cutting, oiling of pools, fumigation, disinfection, etc. Their duties in enforcing sanitary rules and regulations are extensive and include vaccinations, the control of infectious and contagious diseases, special precautions against quarantinable diseases prevailing in the Tropics, control of burials, inspection of slaughterhouses and of cattle for slaughter, inspection of markets, enforcement of pure-food regulations, inspection of bakeries and dairies, examination of milk, inspection of stables, bottling works, and barber shops. A large part of their time is given up to enforcement of the sanitary building regulations, especially with reference to rat proofing as a protection against plague. Quarantine division. — The quarantine division is in direct charge of a chief quarantine officer and maintains large establishments at each end of the canal — one for the cities of Panama and Balboa and the others for the cities of Colon and Cristobal. It also maintains a quarantine officer at Bocas del Toro, for the control of quarantine matters at that port. This division, already large, is expected to increase greatly in proportions when the canal is open to traffic, and will include some new features in the arrangement for the passage of ships through the canal in quarantine. A piece of ground on the Balboa dump, fronting upon the canal and adjoining Fort Amador on the south and the radio station on the east, has been assigned as a permanent site for the Panama quarantine station. A board has been appointed to select a site for a permanent quarantine station at Cristobal. For further details, attention is invited to Appendix H. FORTIFICATIONS. Work was continued during the year on the gun and mortar batteries, and by the close of the year the concrete work was practically completed, as well as the greater portion of the back fill. On July 1, 1913, the construction of redoubts in accordance with plans prepared by a board appointed for the purpose and approved by the Secretary of War, was undertaken, and they were completed, as well as the clearing necessary in connection with them. 63399°— 14 5

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66 THE PANAMA CANAL. The work was in charge of Lieut. Col. George R. Goethals, United States Army, assisted by Lieut. A. H. Acher, United States Army; Lieut. C. Garlington, United States Army; and Mr. R. M. Elder, superintendent of construction. The following appendixes are herewith : Increases in salaries and personnel, submitted in compliance with law, Appendix K. Laws recently enacted affecting the canal, and Executive orders issued during the fiscal year, Appendix L. Charts showing the organization in effect July 1, 1914, Appendix M. Respectfully submitted. Geo. W. Goethals, Colonel^ Corps of Engineers^ United States Army^ Governor. The Hon. Lindley M. Garrison, Secretary of War, Washington, D. 0,

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APPENDIX A. REPORT OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. CuLEBRA, Canal Zone, July 15, 19H. Sm: I haA^e the honor to make the following report of the operations during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, for the work under my general supervision. At the beginning of the fiscal year this work was organized as the first division of the office of the chief engineer, and consisted of subdivisions charged with {a) design of lock gates and protective devices, including inspection of construction and erection under contract; {h) design of operating machinery and electrical installation, including inspection and erection; {c) design of emergency dams, including inspection of construction and of erection under contract; and {d) design and construction of aids to navigation. On October 15, 1913, the work remaining to complete the locks, with the exception of the back fill, was transferred from the Atlantic division and fifth division to the first division. The subdivisions having the lock gates and emergency dams in charge completed their main work during the year and were merged with the subdivision concerned with the design and erection of the operating and electrical machinery on April 15 and January 31, 1914, respectively. On April 1, 1914, the first division was reorganized as the division of erection and the division of lighthouses. These, together with the division of municipal engineering, the newly created electrical division and the office engineer, with the sections engaged on meteorology and hydrography, and on general surveys, were ordered to report to the undersigned as engineer of maintenance. At the close of the fiscal year the work under my general supervision was organized as follows: The division of erection, under the supervision of the electrical and mechanical engineer, in charge of the completion and operation of the structures of the locks and spillways, the installation, erection, testing, operation, and care of lock and spillway operating and protective machinery ; the construction of power plants and transmission line; the handling of vessels while in the locks; and the necessarily accompanying designing and drafting. The electrical division, under the supervision of the electrical engineer, in charge of power plants and transmission lines when completed, and of the inspection and testing of electrical equipment. The division of municipal engineering, under the supervision of a resident engineer, in charge of the maintenance of all roads, streets, sewers, water lines, and air lines in the Canal Zone, and the construc67

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68 THE PANAMA CANAL. tion of the same, except in the new town of Balboa ; of the operation and maintenance of pump stations and water purification phmts; of the inspection of plumbing; of the construction and maintenance of sanitary ditches; and of the design and construction of the new waterworks and purification plants for the two ends of the canal ; it also has charge of the municipal work and the collection of moneys from water rents within the cities of Colon and Panama. The office engineer. The section of meteorology and hydrography. The section of general surveys. Lock Gates and Protective Devices. This subdivision was under the immediate charge of Mr, Henry Goldmark, designing engineer, assisted in the office by Mr. Lewis A. Mason, assistant engineer, and the necessary draftsmen and clerk. The inspection of the lock gates and the chain fenders in the L"^nited States was under the immediate charge of Mr. Johannes Hammer, assistant engineer. The inspection of the floating caisson in the United States was under the charge of Mr. Lewis A. Mason, assistant engineer. On the Isthmus Mr. E. H. Baughman was chief inspector of the chain fenders, and Mr. George F. Guynn of the erection of the lock gates. The construction and erection of the lock gates was continued and completed during the period covered by this report, under the contract with the McClintic-Marshall Construction Co., dated June 21, 1910, and the supplemental contracts mentioned in the annual report for 1913. The following table gives the dates for completion under the supplemental contract of May 20, 1913, and the dates on which the gates were actually completed according to the terms of that contract : Gates. Lower guard gates, Gatun Upper guard gates, Gatun AU other west side gates, Gatun All other east side gates, Gatun Upper guard gates, Pedro Miguel Lower guard gates, Pedro Miguel All other east side gates, Pedro Mi^el. . All other west side gates, Pedro Miguel. Upper guard gates, Miraflores Lower guard gates, Miraflores All other west side gates, Miraflorei All other east side gates, Miraflores Contract dates of completion. June 15,1913 Oct. 1,1913 do Jan. 1,1914 1,1913 15,1913 1,1913 1.1914 15,1913 1,1913 1,1913 1, 1914 June June Oct. Jan. June Sept. Oct. Mar. Dates of actual completion. June 14,1913 0) Sept. 24,1913 Dec. 30,1913 Mav 31.1913 June 13,1913 Sept. 30,1913 Dec. 30,1913 June 14,1913 Aug. 20,1913 Sept. 30,1913 Jan. 10,1914 1 I'racticall}complete before supplemental contract was made. The McClintic-Marshall Construction Co. completed all work under their contract with the Commission on the following dates: Pedro Miguel, January 8, 1914; Miraflores, January 19, 1914; and Gatun, January 26, 1914. The work remaining to be done at the beginning of the fiscal year consisted of assembling about 3 per cent of the material in all gates, driving about 9 per cent of the field rivets; of the finishing — i. e., the work remaining to be done after the riveting is completed — about 43

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 69 per cent was required in order to complete the work. All of the leaves in the west chamber at Gatun and the east chamber at Pedro Miguel had been stepped on their pintles, and all the leaves in the west chamber at Miraflores except the two leaves of the operating gate in the lower chamber. The guard gates in both chambers of all locks were also in place. The work was pushed with so much energy that all gates necessary for locking a vessel through on one side of the twin locks were completed prior to October 1, 1913. The gates were first used for locking at Gatun September 26, 1913, and at Miraflores and Pedro Miguel October 14, 1913. The original contract provided for the painting of the gates by the contractor with three coats, two of red lead, the contractor to furnish material and labor; the third of some other pigment, the contractor to furnish the labor and the Commission the material. In order to provide more complete protection, it was decided to modify this arrangement. At Gatun it was decided to use two coats of red-lead paint and two additional coats. In that part of the gates in the lower lock which were constantly under water, one coat of United States Navy anticorrosive and one cont of antifouling paint were applied over the red lead. On the rest of the gates at Gatun two coats of graphite paint, consisting of about equnl parts of graphite and red lead, were applied. At Pedro Miguel no red lead was used, except in the upper guard gates, the covering consisting of three coats of an approved dampproof paint. At Miraflores the gates in the lower lock, from elevation —6 to the bottom, were given two coats of red lead, followed by one coat of anticorrosive and one coat of antifouling paint. All the other gates were given three coats of an approved proprietary paint consisting of a hydrocarbon mixture. On account of the delay in the receipt of the damp-proof paints intended for use at Pedro Miguel, some of the Pedro Miguel gates were painted with hydrocarbon paint from Miraflores, and conversely a few of the Miraflores gates were coated with the dampproof paint. The third and fourth coats were in all cases applied by the Commission forces, the contractor furnishing all the red-lead paint required and also the labor for applying the first two coats on all the gates of the canal. A small portion of several of the gates at Gatun were coated with bitumastic compounds applied directl}^ to the metal work, which had been cleaned and scraped as far as possible. Under the action of the water of Gatun Lake, which at times contains considerable sulphureted hydrogen, organic matter, and other impurities, none of the above paints, except the bitumastic, has proved entirely satisfactory. In those parts of the gates that are continuously under water the paints are, in many places, in poor condition, although the gates have been in service only a short time. The parts not continuously under w„ter so far remain well protected, as well as the portion which is never submerged. The action of the gates in service has been entirely satisfactory. The leakage at the quoin and miter posts, and at the sill, is extremely small.

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70 THE PANAMA CANAL. The office work on the lock gates consisted of the preparation of plans for metal shields to be placed on the top girder for protecting the electrical and mechanical equipment from injury by water, and of various minor plans for painter's scaffolds, etc. A complete set of record plans showing the gates as actually built was also made. These drawings, 22 in number, are of the standard size. They include a general drawing of each of the gates, as well as enlarged plans showing the sheathing, horizontal girders, and all important details, both in the gates and in the anchorages, and other fixed irons embedded in the masonry. A report was also prepared giving the methods of calculation employed in determining the strength of the gates and a complete statement of the stresses in the principal members. These were recalculated to conform with the actual weights and dimensions of the gates as built. CHAIN FENDERS. A somewhat detailed description of the chain fenders was given in the annual report for 1911 and an account of the tests made to determine the best form of resistance valve in the report for 1912. The additional tests, referred to in the last annual report, as required in order to determine the most suitable pressure for setting the valves, were carried out in February, 1914. The arrangement of the apparatus was quite similar to that used in last year's tests. Fender machine No. 812 at Gatun was used ; the chain was, as before, connected with a wire rope to a lidgerAvood unloader on the lock wall and put under strain by the winding engine. An hydraulic dynamometer was added for measuring the pull in the wire rope close to the unloader. Indicator cards were taken simultaneously at the dynamometer and at the upper cylinder in the fender machine. The indicator in the fender pit and the resistance valve w^ere directly connected to the upper cylinder, so that the loss of head in the piping between the cylinder and the valve was eliminated. The readings at the dynamometer gave directly the tension in the chain outside of the hawse pipe, while a comparison of these readings with the corresponding pressures in the cylinder gave a measure of the frictional resistances. The pull on the chain was first exerted at 90° to the Jock wall, so that the chain did not touch the hawse pipe, while in a second series of observations the pull was at an angle of 2.5° to the wall, introducing hawse-pipe friction. In the first case, the internal resistance, including the weight of the intermediate cylinder, was constant for all pressures. Inlhe second case, the hawse-pipe friction was found to be approximately proportional to the cylinder pressure. The total resistance consisted of the hawse-pipe friction added to the internal resistance of the machine. It was found that a cylinder pressure of 360 pounds per square inch corresponded to a working load of 220,000 pounds in the chain ; and the above pressure was adopted for the setting of the valve. The total resistance at this pressure will be about equally divided between the hydraulic resistance in the cylinder and the mechanical friction. The construction of the fenders was prosecuted during the present fiscal year under the contracts with the United Engineering & Foundry Co. and the General Electric Co., which were referred to in the annual report for 1913.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 71 On June 30 the machinery, pumps, and electric equipment had been delivered on the Isthmus for all fenders at Gatun and Pedro Miguel and Miraflores. The erection has been somewhat delayed by slow deliveries. At the close of the fiscal year all fenders at Gatun were mechanically complete and the electrical was progressing rapidly. At Pedro Miguel seven fenders were mechanically complete, and at Miraflores one fender was mechanically complete. The electrical work was progressing as rapidly as the mechanical work would permit. Chain. — The manufacture of the chain for the fenders has proceeded rather slowly. As noted in the report for 1913, the chain used in the experiments for testing the resistance valve in machine room 813 was broken in the final test when the pressure in the upper cylinder had reached about 630 pounds per square inch. This pressure corresponds to a pull on the chain of 178,000 pounds, without allowance for friction, or about 213,000 pounds, if a proper addition is made for the weight of the moving cylinder and the internal friction of the machine. There were doubtless some additional secondary stresses. According to the test reports, several doublets of this chain had stood successfully a breaking load of over 457,000 pounds, and the whole section a proof test of 242,000 pounds. Examination showed that the break in the chain had occurred in a bad weld. A test of the broken chain was made at the Boston Navy Yard June 9 and 11, 1913. The section tested consisted of 45 links. It broke under a tensile stress of 360,000 pounds. Analysis gave a carbon content of 0.18 of 1 per cent, indicating that the material was steel and not wrought iron. A second set of tests was made with sample chains about 35 feet long manufactured especially for this purpose by the navy yard at Boston, and by Messrs. Bradlee & Co., of Philadelphia. These tests showed breaking strengths of 400,000 pounds for the open-link and 470,000 pounds for the stud-link type, the results being practically the same for the two makes of chain. On the basis of these and other tests, a specification was prepared for the manufacture of the remaining chains, and 15 chains have been ordered. LOCK-ENTRANCE CAISSONSA description of the caissons for closing the entrance to the locks, including the pumping plant for unwatering the lock chambers, was given in the annual report for 1913. As stated in that report, an invitation for proposals (Circular 778) was issued on May 21, 1913. Although a special effort was made to obtain bids from shipbuilding firms in Europe, as well as in the United States, only two proposals were received. The Seattle Construction & Dry Dock Co., of Seattle, Wash., offered to build two caissons and deliver them to the Commission at Seattle for the total sum of $952,000. The other bid was made by the Union Iron AVorks Co., of San Francisco, Cal. They offered to construct the two caissons according to the Commission's specifications and plans and deliver the same at the port of Ancon for the sum of $648,300. The price for one caisson was $330,760. On August 20 the award of one caisson to the Union Iron Works was authorized, the contract being signed August 22, 1913. Work under the contract began in Septem-

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72 THE PANAMA CANAL. ber and has proceeded at a satisfactory rate. It is believed that the caisson will be completed little, if at all, behind the contract date. General and detail plans were also prepared for a floating caisson to be used for closing the entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 at Balboa. These plans have not been finally checked and approved. PONTOON BRIDGE. Considerable time was devoted to the preparation of the general and detailed plans for a movable bridge across the canal at Paraiso. The work of construction was done by the forces of other divisions, this office acting in a consulting capacity. The detailed plans of the mechanism for lifting the apron girders and for turning the pontoon were made under the direction of the electrical and mechanical engineer. The adopted design provides for a floating bridge revolving about a pivot at one end, similar to pontoon bridges successfully used for many years on the upper Mississippi. Plans of these bridges were furnished by the courtesy of Mr. C. F. Loweth, chief engineer of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co. The general plan of the bridge is shown on plate 136. It consists essentially of a timber barge, supporting a continuous framed trestle for carrying the railroad and highway floor. Steel apron girders connect the trestle with concrete piers on each bank. The shore approaches are pile trestles. The pivot about w^hich the bridge turns is a heavy steel tube fastened to the east pier, and the pontoon when closed is secured to the west pier by an automatic latch. In order to give a clear channel of 300 feet when the bridge is open, the pontoon was made 378 feet long overall. It is 55 feet wide and 6 feet 3 inches deep at the center line. The frame spacing is 24 inches, the floor timbers being 4 by 12 inches, the rake timbers 4 by 12 inches, and the deck beams 4 by 10 inches. At intervals of 14 feet there are trussed frames consisting of three ordinary frames bolted together and braced with steel rods If inches in diameter. The trestle sills are carried on these special frames. Six solid longitudinal bulkheads of 8-inch timber extend the entire length of the pontoon. The base of rail is about 33 feet above the bottom of the barge or 30 feet above the water level. Its height was fixed so as to give a moderate gradient on the approaches. The trestle bents consist of a 12 by 14 inch sill 40 feet long, six 12 by 12 inch posts and 12 by 14 inch caps, 18 feet long. The outer and intermediate posts are heavily battered, distributing the weight over the whole width of the barge. There is ample transverse bracing. Under each rail there are two 10 by 16 inch and one 8 by 16 inch stringer, with an additional 8 by 16-inch stringer on each side for carrying the highway floor. The ties are 8 by 8 inches, 21 feet long, and support a roadway on each side of the railroad trade. As the pontoon itself has but little longitudinal stiffness, the trestle was designed to act as a stiffening truss for withstanding the heavy bending moments and shear that will prevail under a moving train. The track stringers were fitted with plate splices, so as to form a continuous chord, and a similar chord was provided by heavy timbers at the bottom of the barge. The trestle bents act as verticals for the truss, while the diagonals are rods 2 inches in diameter

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 73 with upset ends and tiirnbuckles. There are two diagonals per panel in each direction in each truss. The trestle is further stiffened by horizontal girts and a double bracing of 3 by 10 inch timbers on the outer post on each side. The timber used consisted of an approximately equal amount of Douglas fir and long-leaf yellow pine. All exterior and interior surfaces were coated with Avenarius carbolineum, applied cold. It was found necessary to add braces and hog bars to stiffen the framing and prevent distortion of the ends of the pontoon below the approach aprons. The apron girders at each end provide automatically for a variation of about 6 feet in the water level of the canal. They are 64 feet long, consisting of spare lock-gate parts, and rest on hinged supports at both ends. When the bridge is turned, these girders are lifted clear of the concrete piers by an electrically driven mechanism and temporarily supported by blocking on the ends of the barge. The bridge is revolved by means of a 1-inch anchor chain fastened at each bank, which passes around an electrically driven wild cat on the deck of the pontoon near the west end. The mechanism for lifting the apron girders, and for turning the bridge, and also for operating the rail lift, the rail latches, and the main latch at the west pier, is operated from a central panel. It takes 10 minutes to turn the bridge and about 45 minutes to make a complete operation, including unlocking, opening, closing, and relocking. TRANSFER OF THE WORK. On April 1 the main force of this subdivision was disbanded, and on April 15 the organization was entirely terminated, and the completion of its remaining work, consisting mainly of the chain fenders and floating caissons, was turned over to the newly organized division of erection. Operating Machinery and Electrical Installation, Division of Erection. The mechanical and electrical installation, to which was added on October 15, 1913, the completion of the locks, except the back fill, was under the electrical and mechanical engineer's subdivision of the first division until April 1, 1914, when this subdivision was reorganized as the division of erection. Throughout the year it has been under the immediate supervision of Mr. Edward Schildhauer, electrical and mechanical engineer, assisted in the office by Asst. Engineer C. B. Larzelere during the first six months, and Asst. Engineer C. J. Embree during the second six months, with the necesssLvy draftsmen and clerks. His principal assistants in the field work were Mr. E. E. Lee, superintendent of erection; Mr. F. C. Clark, assistant superintendent of erection and superintendent of the Pacific Locks; Capt. William F. Endress, superintendent of Gatun Locks; and Messrs. R. H. Whitehead, S. H. Grauten, and E. D. Stillwell, testing engineers. An average force of 371 gold and 2,350 silver employees has been at work during the year. The detailed report of the division, written for Mr. Schildhauer by Mr. Embree, is attached hereto as Appendix A-1.

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74 THE PANAMA CANAL. CONCRETE. In completing the locks a total of 43,358 cubic yards of concrete were placed during the year. HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING STATION. The building and equipment were turned over to the permanent operating force on June 18, 1914. TRANSMISSION LINE. The erection of track span bridges and wiring of the transmission line was completed during the year, with the exception of six bridges near the terminals which required special treatment ; 794 double and 20 single-track span bridges have been placed. The finished part of the line is 44.46 miles long and is in duplicate, having 266 miles of 2/0 stranded copper conductor and 88 miles of copper-clad ground wire. LOCK MACHINERY. The installation and wiring of the lock-operating machinery was completed during the year except for the chain fender machines and some electrical work on the valve machines. The entire number of machines have been placed in service, except for the chain fender machines, as follows: 116 rising-stem valve machines. 120 cylindrical valve machines. 12 auxiliary culvert valve machines. 18 guard valve machines. 92 gate-moving machines. 46 miter forcing machines. 80 hand-rail machines. Twenty-one towing locomotives have been delivered out of 40 on order, and the track work has been finished, except for a part of the lower lock at Miraflores, for which the material is ordered but not yet delivered. SPILLWAY MACHINES. The spillway-gate machines have all been erected and wired. The gates of Gatun, 14 in number, have been tested and turned over to the electrical division for operation. The tests of the eight machines at Miraflores were suspended when partially finished, in order to move the caisson to Gatun, where it was needed for more pressing work. CONTROL BOARD. The control boards at all localities have been finished and are in regular operation. LOCKAGES. The first lockages of vessels were made as follows: At Gatun. — September 26, 1913, of the tug Gatun. At Pedro Miguel. — October 14-24, 1913, of three barges.

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REPORT OP ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 75 At Miraflores. — October 14, 1913, of a clapet, the tug Miraflores, three barges, and the launch Birdena. The total number of lockages made during the year is as follows: At Gatun, 109 ; at Pedro Miguel, 70 ; at Miraflores, 81. The vessels passing have, in general, been small, consisting of pieces of the floating plant of the canal or tows of barges engaged in transporting freight for the Panama Railroad. The seagoing dredges Culehra of 5,300 tons, the Caribbean of 5,300 tons, and the Corozal of 3,600 tons displacement have passed the locks on several occasions. The steamer Alliance of the Panama Railroad line, with length of 335 feet, beam of 42 feet, and displacement of 9,000 tons, passed the Gatun Locks in both directions on June 8. The steamer Ancon of the same line, with length of 489 feet, beam of 58 feet, and displacement of 18,000 tons, made the same trip on June 11. The Santa Clara of W. R. Grace & Co.'s line, with length of 404 feet, beam of 54 feet, and displacement of 11,000 tons, passed the Pacific Locks going up on June 18 and returned the next day. In all of these lockages the same procedure was followed. The vessel on approaching the locks slowed down and came to a stop against the middle wall, with bow close to the fender chain above or below the locks. Lines from four locomotives were than passed on board, the leading two being made fast to the forward towing bitts, and the trailing two being made fast to the after towing bitts. The lock superintendent directed the operation of the locomotives from the vessel's bridge. The vessel was put in motion by the leading locomotives and brought to a stop at the proper time by the trailers. Hand lines were carried along the walls by parties of the lock force and put over snubbing posts to assist in steadying or holding the vessel. Except when filling the lower locks at Miraflores and Gatun, where the meeting of the salt and fresh water causes some curious phenomena, no difficulty is experienced in holding the vessel in a central position by the locomotives while towing or while equalizing levels. Some time is lost in attaching the lines of the locomotives, this process ta'king usually from 5 to 10 minutes. The lines from the middle wall, against which the vessel lies, can be made fast easily and rapidly. The bowline from the side wall can also usually be brought on board without difficulty, but the trailing locomotive on the side wall is necessarily far from the stern towing bitts to which its line is to be attached, and the steel towing cable must either be hauled on board by the vessel's crew, paying in on a long manila line, or it may be carried to the vessel's stern by a power launch and handed on board by a short heaving line. The former process may take a good deal of time, as some 500 feet or more of manila line may have to be taken in before the loop of the towing cable can be passed over the bitts ; the latter process is smart and rapid, but a launch is not always available. After the lines have been made fast the process of towing through the lock is smooth and easy. The largest of the vessels tried, the Ancon^ took 1 hour and 45 minutes to pass the Gatun Lock flight going up and 2 hours going down, both times being taken after the towing lines were passed on board. On the down trip" the boat remained in the lower lock for some time after the lower gates were opened, to avoid surface currents created in the tail-bay by

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76 THE PANAMA 0AM AL. the rush of the fresher water out of the lock. The AlJianca took 1 hour and 31 minutes on the up-bound trip. The down-bound trip was utilized to make certain experiments with a dynamometer, and the time is not recorded. On the up trip the Santa Clara took 1 hour and 2 minutes to pass Miraflores Locks and 31 minutes to pass Pedro Miguel Lock. On the down trip 36 minutes were taken at Pedro Miguel and 1 hour and 42 minutes at Miraflores, the vessel lying for about half an hour in the lower lock to discharge passengers. Some of the smaller tows have made much better time in the locks, one having passed through the Gatun Lock flight in 53 minutes. During the towing the vessel makes no use of her own motive power, this being strictly forbidden. When the last gates in the lock flight have been passed and the bow of the vessel nears the splay of the approach wall, it is usual to slacken and cast off the towing lines at a given signal and to allow the vessel to proceed under her own power without necessarily tying up against the approach wall on the way out. The lock superintendent or other official conducting the lockage directs the locomotives by signals. As the force of the locomotives may be exerted or released by motion on the track, or by coiling the towing line in or out from a stationary position, and, as the coiling mechanism has two speeds, the superintendent must watch the locomotives closely, and careful and experienced men are needed on the bridge of the vessel and in the cabs of the locomotives. Thus far little difficulty has been experienced in maintaining satisfactory control of the craft which have been towed through the locks. HYDRAULICS OF THE LOCKS. The operation of the locks has developed certain facts in regard to the action of the flowing water which are worth putting on permanent record. It will be remembered that in the upper lock of each flight the gates at either end are doubled, the upper end having guard gates and upper gates, and the lower end safety gates and lower gates. These duplicated gates are usually both operated at each lockage. The space between the guard gates and the upper gates is regulated by an auxiliary culvert and may be put into communication with the upper pool or the lock chamber. The space between the safety gates and the lower gates is regulated by a culvert called the T culvert, and is usually in communication with the lock chamber, but may be shut off from it by a valve in the culvert. When the upper lock is at the low level and the valves are opened there is a sudden drop of the water level in the forebay. This is naturally more noticeable at Pedro Miguel, where the canal above the forebay is relatively narrow, than it is at Gatun or Miraflores, where the forebay opens immediately into a lake. This drop is faster than can be followed by the water in the space between the guard and upper gates, and the result is a reverse head on the guard gates, which causes them to open slightly at the miter. This reverse head lasts for only a short time. When the valves in the side culvert are raised and the water enters the lock, it is evident to the eye that the flow of water is greater

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REPOBT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 77 through those openings in the hiterals which are nearest the middle wall than it is through those nearer the side culvert. The velocity of the water as it pours out of the side culvert into the lateral culverts evidently causes the stream to pass the first few openings in the laterals without giving them their full share of the discharge. As the water rises in greatest volume next the middle wall, there results a slight slope of the surface toward the side wall; but this is not marked enough to cause trouble, and disappears when both side and middle culverts are used. Plates Nos. 1 and 2 illustrate filling with the side culvert only. It is not so plain that the side culvert discharges more water into the lowest lateral than it does into the higher ones. The first gush of water is always seen to come from the highest lateral, about one minute after the first motion of the valve; then successively from the others; but the amount of flow is not uniformly stronger from one lateral than from another. At some instants of filling one lateral may seem to give a greater discharge than the others, but it will not be the same lateral all the time. During the same filling the most violent discharge may seem at one instant to come from the lateral nearest the valve; at another from the one farthest from the valve, and at a third from some intermediate lateral. The observed facts do not justify a statement that the discharge is uniformly greatest from any one of the laterals. In the first lockages the T culvert regulating the space between the safety and lower gates was in free communication with the sidewall culvert near its lower end, but above the lower valves. When the upper valves were raised, the water in the space between thes-i gates rose in level somewhat faster than in the lock. There was consequently a reverse pressure on the safety gates, causing them to open at the miter, this pressure being sufficiently great to compress the springs in the gate-maneuvering struts to their full extent. As there may be danger of crippling the moving apparatus by such reverse stress, the valve in the T culvert was partially closed, choking the communication between the side-wall culvert and the space between the gates. By making several adjustments, a degree of closure was reached which caused the water in the space between the culverts to lag behind the water in the lock when filling and, at the same time, to fall rather more rapidly when emptying. In this way a positive pressure was always kept against the safety gates. This, however, was done when the side-wall culvert only was used. A different adjustment will have to be made when both culverts are used, as the rapidity with which the water level in the lock changes is then greatly increased. A more convenient way of avoiding difficulties will probably be found by opening the safety gates after the tow is fast in the lock and just at the time of opening the vah^es for filling or emptying. If this be done, all necessity for regulating the levels of the space between the gates will cease. In filling or emptying a small canal lock the water levels approach each other with a rapidity depending upon the square root of the diminishing head. Toward the end of the operation the change in level becomes more slow, and the flow of water is supposed to cease either just before or at equalization of the levels. Frequently the gates are opened with a very slight head against them, to avoid the loss of time involved in waiting for the head to vanish entirely.

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78 THE PANAMA CANAL. In filling or emptying one of the locks of The Panama Canal, different phenomena are noted. In practically all cases there is a noticeable overtravel of the water, so that the water in the chamber which is filled rises slightly higher than the level in the chamber from which the water is drawn, and the gates separating the two chambers become subjected to a reverse head. Thus, taking, for example, the filling of the Pedro Miguel Lock: The water level in the chamber, instead of ceasing to rise when it reaches the level of the water in the forebay, may rise from 0.3 foot to 0.6 foot higher than that level, tending to throw the upper gates open. This head wears itself out soon, but is very noticeable while it lasts, and may be utilized as an indication of the instant when the opening mechanism should be put in operation. It is due to a local surge or overtravel of the water in swift motion in the culverts, and should not be confounded with the wave due to the current set up in the canal. (See plate No. 4.) The latter wave is much longer. The rise due to it reaches its maximum about one hour after the valve has been opened, while the rise which causes back pressure to open the gate leaves appears at once, after equalization of the levels; or in, say, from 8 to 17 minutes, according to the number of culverts and valves which are used. It will be remembered that certain particular precautions, which are described in pages 85 to 99 of the Annual Report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for 1911, were taken to overcome difficulties attendant upon the difference of density in the water above and below the lower gates of the lower lock, both at Miraflores and Gatun, where the lock flights separate fresh from salt water. It was demonstrated in theory that, with the culverts placed as originally planned, this difference in density would cause the flow through the culverts in emptying the lock to cease before the level in the lock should be equalized with that of the sea; that there would remain a resultant positive pressure against the lock gates, and that it might be impracticable to move them. To avoid this danger the culverts were turned up at their outer end to bring the discharge to the position at which this resultant pressure would reduce to a manageable quantity, according to the theory. It is very possible that the overtravel of the water from the emptying lock into the tail-bay, hereinbefore noted, may result in continuing the flow of the fresh water through the culvert beyond the point at which, in theory, it should cease, and, therefore, in obviating the danger of the resultant pressure, apprehension of which caused the change in the form of the discharge end to be made. At all events, with the design adopted, no trouble is experienced from the remaining pressure against the lower gates after equalization. It is found practicable to maneuver the lower gates without hindrance from that cause. Whether this result be due to the precautions taken in the design, or whether these precautions were really unnecessary, because of the then unsuspected overtravel of the water, can not now be determined. Certain phenomena which are noteworthy do take place, and are attributable to the difference of density of the water above and below the lower barriers. When the lower lock at Gatun or Miraflores is equalized with the sea, the water which it contains, which is in a

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 79 large part drawn from the lake above, is necessarily lighter than the sea water below, which has practically full salinity. After equalization of levels through the culverts the gates still separate the fresh and the salt water, and prevent immediate union. When the lower gates are opened, however, the fresh water rushes out with a considerable velocity on the surface of the salt water below, this outrush of the upper strata being accompanied by a corresponding inrush of the salt water of the lower strata. This current continues for several minutes. It has a noticeable effect on vessels leaving the lock, forcing them out and causing them to take a shear away from the middle wall as soon as they pass the angle of the side wall, where the relatively narrow tail-bay begins to widen out into the broader part of the canal below the lock. Plate No. Ill is a graphical representative of observations showing the intensity and duration of this current. The manner of making the observations is quoted below from a report of the chief hydrographer, under date of April 20, 1914 : To determine direction of currents between surface of water and El. — 15 feet, blades suspended from floats were used. Below El. — 20 an instrument was needed which could be held rigid and which would indicate any change in direction. A vane 10 inches wide along one-half its length, a i-inch iron rod forming the other half was fixed at center, at right angles to a vertical rod which extended through a sleeve to a point above water. Here a pointer was fixed parallel to the vane. The sleeve in which the vertical rod turned was guyed to the lock walls in such a manner as to facilitate raising and lowering the entire instrument, thus putting the vane into play at any de sired elevation, leaving the pointer to be observed at a point above water about 75 feet out from the lower operating gates. (See sketch on curA^e chart.) To determine the velocities of currents at difi'erent elevations, four current meters were mounted 10 feet apart on a f-inch pipe, which was supported vertically in the center of the lock at a point about io feet in from the direction indicator. (See sketch on curve chart.) Raising and lowering was provided for similar to direction indicator supports. For convenience we will speak of the uppermost meter as No. 7S3, the second below surface as No. 732, the third as No. 211, and the lowest as No. 377. The time intervals between I'eadings of these meters varies with the type of instrument from 10 seconds to 1 minute, and the velocities given as results of each run are average values calculated from readings taken during that run. Time referred to of opening and closing miter gates begins with first cracking of gates and ends with tight joining. In each case gates were opened full, allowed to remain open for about 30 minutes, then closed. The lower guard gates remained open full during all test runs. Run No. 1: Tide —2.6'; falling. Meters: No. 783 at El. —7.5'; No. 732 at El. —17.5'. No. 211 at El. —27.5' ; No. 377 at El. —37.5'. Direction indicator at El. —37.5'. The flow of water through the culvert from the lock chamber to sea, in equalizing, caused the direction-indicator vane to fluctuate rapidly, due to eddies set up. This was reassuring with respect to adaptability of the instrument. Lower operating gates opened at 2.36 p. m. ; closed at 2.52 p. m. Direction of current at El (< >• >( Average velocities at El. —5.0' and —10.0'. out. « « —37.5', in (toward locks). ti (t -7.5', 2.0' per sec.
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80 THE PANAMA CANAL. Run No. 2: Tide +1.4; rising. Meters : No. 783 at El. —5.0' ; No. 732 at El. —15.0'. No. 211 at El. —25.0' ; No. 377 at EI. —35.0'. Vane of direction indicator at El. — 30.0'. Lower operating gates opened at 9.18 a. m. ; closed at 9.45 a. m. Direction of current at El. —5.0' and —10.0', out. " " —30.0', in. Average velocities at El. — 5.0', 1.79' per sec. " " —15.0', 1.85' " " " " —25.0', 0.5' " " " " —35.0', 2.04' " " Run No. S: Time +2.3; falling. Meters : No. 783 at El. —5.0' ; No. 732 at El. —15.0'. No. 211 at El. —25.0' ; No. 377 at El. —35.0'. Indicator vane at El. —25.0'. Lower operating gates opened at 2.06 p. m. ; closed at 2.35 p. m. Direction of currents at El. —5.0' and — 10.0', out. " " —25.0', in. Average velocities at El. —5.0', 1.77' per sec. " " —15.0'. Meter not working, due to effect of salt water on contact points. " " —25.0', 0.6T per sec. " " —35.0', 1.89' " " Run No. 4: Tide —2.2; falling. Meters: No. 783 at El. —3.0; No. 732 at El. —13.0'. No. 211 at El. —23.0' ; No. 377 at El. —35.0'. Indicator vane at El. —20.0'. Lower operating gates opened at 4.23 p. m. ; closed at 4.54 p. m. Direction of currents at El. —5.0' and —10.0', out " " —20.0', out. Average velocities at El. — 3.0', 1.56' per sec. " •" —13.0', 1.58' " " " " —23.0', 0.89' " " " " —33.0', 1.28' " " Run No. 5: Tide —0.3' ; rising. Meters: No. 783 at El. —2 0' ; No. 732 at El. —12 0'. No. 211 at El. —22.0' ; No. 377 at El. —32.0'. Indicator vane at El. —25.0'. Lower operating gates opened at 9.26 a. m. ; closed at 9.58 a. m. Direction of currents at El. —5.0' and —10.0', out -25.0', out —2.0', 1.65' per sec, —12.0', 1.71' " " —22.0', 0.75' " " —32.0', 1.08' " " Average velocities at El. Run No. 6: Tide +4.7; rising. Meters: No. 783 at El. —3.0'; No. 732 at El. -13.0'. No. 211 at El. —23.0' ; No. 377 at El. —33.0'. Indicator vane at El. —25.0'. Lower operating gates opened at 11.40 a. m. ; closed at 12.05 p. m. Direction of currents at El. —5 0' and —10.0', out " " —25.0', in. Average velocities at El. —3.0', 1.60' per sec. " " —13.0'. 1.53' " " " " —23.0'. 0.27' " " " " —33.0', 1.46' " " On a vertical base line, velocity in, is plotted to right and velocity out, to left. The vertical depth from mean sea level to El. —50 or floor of lock is the ordinate; for instance, in run No. 1, the direction of current determined by float is out, at El. — 7.5. and velocity at this elevation is 2' per second. Therefore, going down the vertical base line from to —7.5 and horizontally to left, the point on the curve is struck. These six curves show that at some point between El. —20 and —30 the velocity is zero. In runs Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 6, this neutral point is about El. — 24 and in Nos. 4 and 5 a little lower. For runs Nos. 5 and 6, which are typical, time intervals of one minute are plotted left to right; feet per second, velocity at each minute is plotted tip

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< _l a.

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111 < _l CL

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 81 when direction is out and down when direction is in. It has been assumed from the test runs, that nt a given elevation, the direction of current is the same for all operations of gates, and this assumption was used in plotting curves. It will be noted in comparing these curves for runs Nos. 5 and 6 that meter No. 211 in run No. 5 at El. —22 shows a velocity running above 0.6' per second out. But, in run No. 6, with meter 211 at — 23. which is nearer the neutral point shown by the curves of the six tests, the velocity is less than in run No. 5 iind drops to zero in four re.ulings. This substantiates the results obtained with respect to the elevation of the point of zero velocity. Another manifestation, which is probably due in some way to the combination of fresh and salt water, is to be found in the lower lock after the lower gates have been opened for some time, and the water in the lock has assumed full salinity. When the lock is then equalized with the one above by using the side-wall culvert only, the draw away from the middle wall, which has already been referred to as observable in all the locks when filled from the side culvert, is much more marked than it is in the other locks. It is not practicable for the towing locomotives to hold a large vessel central in the lower lock when it is thus filled, during the entire process of filling. The vessel is drawn over toward the side wall with a force sufficient to cause the slip drums of the towing locomotives to yield and the towing lines to pay out until the vessel comes to rest against the side wall. While the draw away from the middle wall is to be found in the other locks as well, when filled from the side wall, it is perfectly practicable, except in the case of these two locks, for the towing locomotives to hold the tow central, but in the case of the two lower locks this is, as stated, impracticable. The matter is referred to as being curious, but by no means serious; for if both culverts are used no trouble is experienced, and if it is desired to use only the side-wall culvert, all difficulty may be avoided by mooring the vessel against the side wall before operating the valves. Plate No. 3 illustrates the effect in the lower lock, and plate No. 4 the absence of the effect in the upper lock. When the operating valves of the locks were designed it was intended that the time of filling or emptying the 900-foot lock should not exceed 15 minutes with both culverts. The coefficient of flow, C, which is applied to the theoretical velocity due to the head, in order to determine the real velocity, was assumed at 0.65, this being slightly more favorable than experience at other locks has shown to be readily attainable. It was believed that the large size of the culverts, and the care which was taken to round the entrances, would justify the assumption of a more than usually favorable value. The arrangement of the culverts and valves is the same in principle in all of the locks of The Panama Canal, but the admission is easier in the upper lock and the discharge in the lower lock of a lift than in the intermediate ones. It was thought for the purpose of the design to be sufficiently accurate to assume an average value of the coefficient for all conditions. The time of operation was then calculated as dependent upon the flow through the most restricted area of the culvert section. The accompanying plate. No. 71, shows diagrammatically the variations in area of the waterway through which the flow must pass in filling the upper lock of any of the lock flights. It may be seen that when both valves in the side-wall culvert are used the most restricted section is in the culvert itself, with 63399°— 14 6

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82 THE PANAMA CANAL. area of 255 square feet, and that when one valve only is used the most restricted section is at the valve, with an area of 144 square feet. The same is the case with respect to the middle wall. Plate No. 72 shows observations taken at the time of filling the 900-foot lock at Pedro Miguel. This being the case of a lock chamber filled from a pool of unchanging level, the formula for the time of filling is: Cxax V2^ in which A is the area of the lock=123,000 square feet; a is the area of the culvert taken at its most restricted point; II is the original difi'erence in level of the pools to be equalized; h is the final difference in level, being zero at actual equalization; T is the time consumed, in seconds; G is the coefficient of flow, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The curve in Plate No. 72 shows the rise of water in the lock after the valves were first moved. Both valves of the pair were raised simultaneously but, as it takes 1 minute for the valves to open, the full area of the culvert was not available for flow until about 1 minute from the time of starting. The true value of the coefficient C should therefore be calculated for the portion of the curve beginning, in time, 1 minute from the first application of the power, and in heiojht, at the level which the water in the lock had reached at the expiration of 1 minute. At the time of the experiment the lake was at reference 84.8, and the water in the lock at reference 50.9. The time which elapsed from the first application of the power to the creation of back pressure on the upper gates (Nos. 54 and 55), which caused them to open, was 12.5 minutes, but the water in the lock did not reach the level of the upper pool for 14 minutes. During this time the water in the lock rose from 50.9 to 84. During the first minute of the time, however, the full area of the culvert was not available, and during this minute the water in the lock rose from 50.9 to 51.7. We have, therefore, for use in the formula to determine the value of C applicable to established flow, the values: £?=84.8-51.7 = 33M A = 84.884.8 = .0' T= 14.0-1 = 13.0m We have, therefore — ^ 2 X 123,000 X(V33l) C = 13.0X60X255XV64.4 whence — C = C = 0.886 The coefficient is therefore much more favorable than was anticipated. It would appear from theory that C should be constant for any point of .the curve, or for the entire operation of filling the lock. Examination of the observations, however, will show that this is not exactly true. In the first part of the operation the lock fills from 51.7 to 70 in 4.6 minutes, for which part of the operation C is found to be 0.830. In the latter part of the filling the level rises from 70

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KEPORT OF ENGINEITR OF MAINTENANCE. 83 to 84 in 6.9 minutes. For this point of the operation 6^=0.858. It appears, therefore, that the coefficient increases in vahie toward the end of the filling, after steady flow in the ciih^ert has been established. The plate shows, also, that after the spontaneous opening of leaves 54 and 55 the water in the lock continued to rise until it reached level 85, or 0.2 foot above the original lake level, and 1 foot above the level at which the upper gates cracked, due to reverse pressure. This rise is apparently occasioned by the local overtravel of the water in the culverts. The rise caused by the general wave set up in the canal (plate No. 74) is greater in amplitude and does not reach its full height until about 48 minutes later, or about 1 hour after raising the valves. In plate No. 73 is shown the curve of observations for the filling of Pedro Miguel lock through the side culvert, using only one valve instead of two. In this case the most restricted area of the waterway is at the valve instead of in the main culvert, and is, therefore, 144 square feet instead of 255 square feet. The natural assumption is that the time of filling will be increased in length over that observed in the first experiment in the direct ratio of f^ , assuming the head to be the same in both cases. The observed time, however, is much less. When the observations were taken the water above was 84.8 and in the lock at 51.5. The observed interval T" from the first movement of the valve until the water reached the level 84.9 was 18 minutes. As before, it took 1 minute to raise the valve from an opening to one of 144 square feet. This time may be omitted, as well as the corresponding rise of water in the lock, from 51.5 to 53. We have, therefore— .ff= 84.8 -53 = 31.8 7i = 84.8 -84.8 = 0.0 r= 17.0 minutes Whence — 2X123X(V31.8J_ _.^ 177 17X60X144X72^' i. e.j the coefficient C applied to the most restricted section of the culvert is greater than unity. In this section, therefore, the water at any instant is flowing with a velocity greater than that due to the head existing at that instant. Examination of the curve will show that the coefficient is slightly more favorable near the end of the operation than near the beginning, as was the case when both valves were used. The result of the trial just described was so remarkable that similar observations, using only one valve, were made in the upper lock at Gatun, as a check on those at Pedro Miguel. It Avas found there ,that with the lake at 84.9 and the lock at 55.2, the upper gates cracked at a level of 84.9, 16 minutes after the valve started to rise. During the time when the valve was opening and the culvert area increasing from to 144 square feet, the water in the lock rose from 55.2 to 56. We have, therefore — i7=84.9-56.0=29.9 A==0 r= 161=15 minutes (7=1.272

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84 THE PANAMA CANAL. or even more favorable than the vakie derived from Pedro Miguel. This is doubtless to be accounted for by the fact that the access of water to the filling culverts at Pedro Miguel is through the relatively narrow canal prism, while at Gatun the flow is derived directly from the relatively large lake area. The drop in the forebay at Pedro Miguel when the filling valve is opened, is much greater than it is at Gatun, and the head is diminished by this drop throughout the greater part of the time of filling. When the equalization of levels takes place between two lock chambers rather than between one of the terminal pools and the next lock, the water levels in both chambers change progressively during the operation instead of one remaining stationary and the other rising or falling, as is the case when equalizing with one of the terminal pools. The case is that of two locks in a flight, the original difference in level being the sum of the lifts of the two locks. The formula for the time consumed in the operation is as follows : ^"U + ^O CA-^2g in which A and A' are the area of the locks in horizontal plane. H is the original difference in level, and the other quantities are the same as before. In several observations taken at Gatun and Miraflores it has been found that the value of G^ for equalization between two consecutive locks with only the side culvert, is less than that for filling the upper lock. Values from 0.60 to 0.68 have been observed. The operation, however, is gratifyingly rapid. It ordinarily takes about 12^ minutes to equalize two of the locks in the Gatun flight when the original difference in level of the two pools is about 56 feet, and the side culvert only is used. At Pedro Miguel the value of the coefficient for emptying the lock is somewhat less favorable than it is for filling. In this lock the culvert empties into the tail-bay, with its axis horizontal. The coefficient C for the side culvert is found to be 0.804 when both valves are used. At Miraflores and Gatun the culvert was turned upward at its discharge, the opening being in a horizontal plane instead of a vertical plane. Interference with the flow is to be expected on account of this change of direction. This, however, is not serious. Observations thus far taken indicate that the coefficient of flow through the upturned discharge is about 8 per cent less than that through the level discharge of Pedro Miguel. When the middle-wall culvert is used in combination with the side culvert, the time of operation is greatly reduced. Trial with the middle culverts has not yet been made at Gatun and Miraflores. but at Pedro Miguel the lock can be filled or emptied in about 8 minutes without creating too great disturbance in the chamber. In doing this, both culverts are not allowed to flow to their full capacity through the first part of the lockage, the usual manipulation being to raise one valve in each culvert and to allow the water to flow thus for 3 or 4 minutes before raising the other two valves. The value for the coefficient C in the middle culvert is less favorable than it is in the side culvert. This is due undoubtedly to a

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KEPOKT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 85 certain cramping of the flow through the cylindrical valves. A sufficient number of observations has not yet been taken to enable this value to be stated with accuracy. Above the upper lock gates at Pedro Miguel the prism of the canal was made 600 feet wide, narrowing to its normal width of 300 feet at a point 3,400 feet to the northward. This was done in order to make a basin from which the water should be drawn for filling the lock, it being hoped in this manner to reduce the surge or oscillation which must take place in the canal above the lock as a result of drawing off the large volume of water necessary to fill the lock chamber. While the surges are still noticeable, they are not of serious moment. Plate No. 74 indicates the oscillation of the water level at the gauge just above Pedro Miguel gates, due to the operation of filling the lock, using only one culvert. Plate No. 75 shows the same when two culverts are used. The effect of a lockage at Pedro Miguel is noticeable at the observation station at Juan Mina, a distance about 5 miles up the Chagres River from Gamboa, or about 13 miles from Pedro Miguel Lock. Emergency Dams. Dams A and B at Gatun were completed before the end of the last fiscal year, but the final acceptance tests had not been finished. During the fiscal year the two dams at Gatun were accepted as complete, and the dams at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores were finished and accepted, the dates of completion being as follows: Pedro Miguel. — Dam C, September 16, 1913; Dam D, October 17, 1913. Mirailores. — Dam E, February 7, 1914; Dam F, January 14, 1914. Dam A, the east dam at Gatun, was subjected to test in May, 1914, to ascertain how much water would pass through it under the full head. The dam was swung, girders and gates lowered, and the pipes driven to close the spaces between the ends of the gates; the upper lock was then filled with water to lake level, the upper guard gates and upper operating gates were opened, with the intermediate and lower gates of the lock closed, and the upper lock was emptied through the culverts until the water level was below the guard-gate sill. This brought the full head of 47f feet on the emergency dam, which was found to have a leakage of 950 cubic feet per second. This leakage produced no dangerous current in the lock, and it would have been quite easy to close any of the lower gates in the face of the stream. Details of the experiment will be found in the report of the electrical and mechanical engineer, Appendix A-1. The work of the emergency dam subdivision having ended, the force was disbanded or merged with the division of erection in January, 1914. Electrical Division. This division was organized on April 1, 1914, under the supervision of Capt. William H. Rose, electrical engineer, assisted by Mr. Hartley Rowe, electrical superintendent. The duties comprise all which had prior to that date been performed by the electrical subdivision of the mechanical division. They include the operation and maintenance of the steam-driven electric-power plants at Gatun,

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86 THE PANAMA CANAL. Miraflores, Empire, and Balboa, and of all substations, transmission, and distribution lines connected with these power plants; the operation and maintenance of the air-compressor plants at Empire and Balboa; the construction, operation, and maintenance of all building and street-lighting systems on the Canal Zone, except the lighting in the permanent concrete buildings under construction at Balboa and other points; the operation and maintenance of the electric cargo-handling cranes on the Panama Railroad pier at Balboa; the installation, operation, and maintenance and repair of electrical apparatus of all kinds upon request of all other departments and divisions; the installation of all electrical equipment in the new Balboa shops of the mechanical division; the construction of permanent underground conduit systems for the permanent towns of the Canal Zone. In addition to the duties above mentioned, the electrical division is charged with the design of overhead and underground distribution system for light and power for all towns, and of all street, yard, wharf, and pier lighting systems, and on April 16, the design and construction work in connection with the lighting and power installations in the permanent concrete buildings being erected by the supply department was assigned to the electrical division. The operation and maintenance of the hydroelectric station at Gatun and of the substations, transmission and distribution lines connected with it when these structures should be completed by the division of erection, were also assigned to the electrical division. DIVISION OFFICE AND DESIGNING FORCE. The following summary shows the work performed by the designing force of the electrical division between April 1 and the close of the fiscal year : Preparation of plans for underground conduit system for the Ancon-Balboa district. Preparation of wiring plans for the following permanent buildings : Twofamily quarters (two story), Balboa fire station and commissary warehouse at Cristobal. Preparation of wiring plans for the various buildings at the Colon, Darieu, and Balboa radio stations. Preparations of plans for the revised feeder layout for Balboa shops. The drafting force also assisted in the inspection of work in the field, checking electrical material as it arrived, and contractors' drawings, preparing requisitions and specifications, etc. OPERATION or POWER PLANTS. The new hydroelectric station at Gatun, with the exception of generating unit No. 3, was turned over on June 18, 1914, by the division of erection to the electrical division, but the requisite adjustments of instruments, governors, etc., had not been completed by the end of the fiscal year to a degree that would permit of the station being operated regularly under load. The operation of the steam stations at Gatun, Miraflores, Empire, and Balboa was conducted satisfactorily during the year. One of the three 1,500-kilowatt vertical turbo-generator sets and two 410horsepower water-tube boilers were removed from the Gatun station for installation in the Miraflores station. The work of setting up the new unit was completed about June 1, 1914. This change

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REPOET OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE, 87 gives the Miraflores plant a nominal capacity of 6,000 kilowatts, the same as that of the hydroelectric station. The capacity of the Gatun plant is decreased to 3,000 kilowatts, which will be sufficient to carry the load at the Atlantic end of the canal, including the Gatun locks, Cristobal coaling plant, pumping plants at Mount Hope and Agua Clara, and the lighting at Gatun, Cristobal, and Colon, in case of simultaneous breakdown of the hydroelectric station and the transmission line. The following table shows the monthly net outputs of the various stations during the year : Date. Steam-power plants. Gatun. Miraflores. Empire Balboa. Hydroelectric. Gatun. July August September . October... November. December . January . . February . March April May June 1913. 1914. 684,000 e!43,S85 564,310 679,295 579,830 520, 485 428, 180 550, 279 387,670 550,912 624,360 611,350 1,056,620 1,102,730 1,132,660 1,145,470 989,330 1,308,440 1,514,880 1,300,926 1,550,926 1.702,400 1,785,260 1,763,090 Total 6,824,5^6 16, 352, 732 216, 070 250,590 253, 240 257, 340 246, 170 227, 130 213, 250 176. 855 179, 288 104.074 100,840 103.030 2,327,877 7,920 7,152 14,385 14,599 24,702 15,372 15, 388 9,784 6,733 6,621 7,302 8,185 138, 143 6,800 6,80C OPERATION or AIR-COMPRESSOR PLANTS. The air-compressor plants at Empire and Balboa were operated satisfactorily throughout the year. The Eio Grande plant was operated until November 1, 1913. These plants furnished compressed air for the excavation work in the Culebra, Rio Grande, and Gold Hill districts; for the mechanical division shops at Empire, Paraiso, and Balboa, for the work of the division of erection at Pedro Miguel Locks, for Ancon quarry, for the excavation work at Sosa Hill, and the new dry dock at Balboa, for the construction of the new piers and other terminal improvements at Balboa; and for numerous pumps, drills, etc., operated by the various divisions for miscellaneous purposes. The following table shows the monthly outputs of the air-compressor plants in cubic feet of free air compressed to 105 pounds gauge pressure: Date. 1913. July August September October November December 1914. January Febniary March A pril May June Total Balboa. 209,019,804 209,765,100 218,536,374 246,344,822 210,957,449 230,404,631 206, 072, 221 177,49.'), 119 200,067,047 228, .S6R, 806 290, ?88, 650 312,030,510 2,739,650,533 Empire. 38S,a^5,225 38S. 327. 930 347,860,851 298, 022, 738 271,020,215 264,990,365 223, 584, •'S7 197,125,2X2 234, 32.5, 2S.5 146,215, '21 85,.533.?a} 63,859,454 2,908,9(K), 165 Rio Grande. 117,89.5,507 124,460,160 97,385,875 32,651,970 372,30.3,512

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88 THE PANAMA CANAL. In addition to the above the electrical division and its predecessors operated a steam-driven air compressor at Gatun for the division of erection, and also the motor-driven air compressors at Gatun locks and Mii-aflores locks, which were transferred to The Panama Canal from the McClintic-Marshall Construction Co. MAINTENANCE OF BUILDING AND STREET LIGHTING SYSTEMS. The usual maintenance and repair work in connection with house and street lighting systems, lamp renewals, etc., in all buildings and towns on the Canal Zone was done during the year. A large amount of wiring work was involved in the taking down of wooden quarters and other buildings in the various towns in the Canal Zone, and their removal to and reerection in the AnconBalboa district. A total of 178 buildings had their wiring and fixtures removed, and were later rewired on account of such moves during the fiscal year. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION LINE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE WORK. The removal of the shops from Gorgona, Las Cascadas, and Empire and the erection of the new shops at Balboa, together with the great increase in the electrical load at the latter place, due to the concentration of construction work in that vicinity, necessitated a large amount of heavy pole line work during the year. In February, 1914, two temporary substations were completed, one at the Miraflores power plant and one at Balboa, each of 1,500 kilowatt capacity for 11, 000volt transmission between these two places. A wooden pole transmission line carrying three No. 4/0 three-phase circuits w^as constructed, one circuit being used for the 11,000-volt line and two circuits for 2,200-volt lines. By June, 1914, these circuits were loaded to capacity, and the 11,000-volt line was transferred to the west side of the new permanent transmission line, so as to release an additional 4/0 line for 2,200-volt transmission. In May, 1912, another 11,000-volt transmission line with 1,500 kilowatt transformer installations at each end was completed between Miraflores power plant and Cucaracha for the supply of power to the relay pump of the dredging division at Cucaracha slide and to the booster pumps at the Gold Hill hydraulic plant. Various other pole line additions and alterations were made, and in all the pole line construction during the fiscal year amounted to about 15 miles. About 25 miles of pole line for the supply of power to the range lights and beacons of the lighthouse subdivision were constructed during the year, the lighthouse subdivision erecting the poles and the electrical division installing the wire and transformers and connections to the lights and beacons. Duplicate 2,200-volt armored cables for the supply of power to Agua Clara pumping station were installed between that station and Gatun substation. An underground 4-duct conduit line 1,400 feet long was built at Pedro Miguel, connecting the new telephone exchange at that place with a manhole of the main conduit line from Miraflores substation to Pedro Miguel Locks.

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EEPOET OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 89 An 8-diict bitumenized fiber conduit line with concrete manholes was constructed from a point near the Tivoli Hotel to the new administration building at Ancon, and a 12-duct line from the latter point to the new Balboa substation was practically completed. The construction of another 8-duct line from the substation to supply the new town site at Balboa was begun. In all, 12,900 feet of conduit, having 83,000 feet of duct incased in concrete and 40 concrete manholes were completed during the fiscal year. ELECTRICAL WORK IN PERMANENT BUILDINGS. The electrical work in permanent buildings that was done during the fiscal year comprised the light and power wiring, installation of metal conduit, panel boards, fixtures, etc., in the new administration building at Ancon, 20 concrete 4-family quarters at Balboa, and the Ancon commissary building. On June 30 the work in the new administration building was approximately 90 per cent completed, the twenty 4-family quarters 55 per cent, and the Ancon commissary 99 per cent completed. In connection with this work 108,900 feet of metal conduit of all kinds were installed, 5,250 outlets, and 48,100 feet of wire. ELECTRICAL W^ORK IN NEW BALBOA SHOPS. This work comprised the removal of the electrical equipment in the shops at Gorgona, Las Cascadas, and Empire, and its installation in the new shops at Balboa, together with such new apparatus as was required. On account of the necessity for making these changes with the minimum disturbance to the work of the shops, extensive temporary installations of lighting and power circuits, motors, etc., had to be made in practically every building. There are in all 28 buildings in the Balboa shops group. The permanent electrical work includes the installation of the following : 199 motors, having an aggregate capacity of 2,278 horsepower. 10 power transformers having an aggregate capacity of 2,550 kilowatt volt amperes. 7 lighting transformers having an aggregate capacity of 400 kilowatt volt amperes. 31.100 feet of lead-covered cable, ranging in size from No. 6 to 750,000 circular mils. 247,660 feet of wire. 95,000 feet of metal conduit, ranging in size from f-inch to SJ-inches. 309 receptacle outlets. 2,218 incandescent lamps varying in size from 40 watts to 500 watts. 99 junction and panel boxes. 9 switchboards, having in all 24 panels 2 325-kilowatt synchronous motor generator sets. 12 electric traveling cranes, aggregate capacity 327 tons, 1 turntable. 1 transfer table. Considered as a whole, the electrical work in the new Balboa shops was approximately 80 per cent completed on June 30. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRIC CARGO-HANDLING CRANES. This work comprises the operation and maintenance of eight 4-ton alternating-current cargo-handling cranes, five 4-ton direct-current cranes, and one 20-ton direct-current French crane, all on the

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90 THE PANAMA OANAL. Panama Railroad pier at Balboa. With the exception of a comparatively small amount of cargo that is handled by ships' tackle, these cranes handle all commercial freight that crosses the Isthmus in either direction. They are operated 17 hours per day — 9 hours on the day shift and 8 hours on the night shift. The total number of vessels loaded and unloaded during the year was 413. MISCELLANEOUS. In addition to the work outlined above a number of miscellaneous jobs were completed for other divisions and departments. Division or Municipal Engineering. This division was created July 16, 1913, to take over the duties of the division of public works and the municipal work, which had hitherto been done by the three construction divisions, each under its own jurisdiction. During the year it has been under the immediate charge of Resident Engineer George M. Wells, assisted by Supts. E. H. Chandler and D. E. Wright, and Asst. Engineer W. J. Spalding. It is organized into five principal subdivisions or districts; the northern district in charge of Supt. Chandler; the southern district in charge of Supt. Wright; the waterworks for the southern end of the canal in charge of Asst. Engineer Spalding; the purification plants and Avater supplies at present in charge of Mr. E. J. Tucker, acting physiologist; and designs under the immediate supervision of the resident engineer, with Asst. Engineer T. G. Morris in charge of the drafting room. For details of the work accomplished attention is in^ated to the report of the resident engineer, attached hereto as Appendix A-2. A feature of the report which may be of special interest is the change in plan for the new water supply for the southern end of the canal. It was at first proposed to draw from the Miraflores Lake through a pumping station at the lower end of the Caimito Valley, the water being filtered and treated with hypochlorite of lime at the filtration plant to be built in the near vicinity. After the operations of the Miraflores Locks began in October, 1913, a rise of the chlorine content in Miraflores Lake was noted. It soon reached a point which necessitated measures being taken to relieve the situation, as the boilers in the steam plants depending upon this water supply were in danger. As a measure of immediate relief a temporary pumping station was located on the upper east flare wall of the Pedro Miguel Lock and water was pumped through the existing 16-inch main to the intake of the Miraflores plant. This supply of water from the Culebra Cut reduced the salinity of the distributed water, but increased its turbidity to a marked extent. It was evident that permanent relief must be sought through other means. Accordingly plans have been made to draw the water supply for the Miraflores filtration plant from the Chagres River just above Gamboa bridge. Order has been placed for the material necessary for a pipe line from Gamboa to Miraflores and work on the pumping station at Gamboa is now under wa^. The increase of salinity noted in the Miraflores Lake water is most probably due to the salt water climbing up through the lock flight in the process of locking. When an up lockage is made the water in the

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REPORT OF ENGIJSIEER OF MAINTENANCE. 91 upper lock, after it has been filled from Miraflores Lake, contains a considerable proportion of salt water derived from the mixing of the relatively fresh water in the upper lock Avith the salt water in the lower lock in equalizing levels. When the upper gates are opened the partially salt water escapes into the lake. Through continuous repetitions of this process an equilibrium would finally be established between the fresh-water inflow into the lake and the salt-water contamination through up lockages. Before reaching this equilibrium, however, the salinity of the water would render it entirely unfit for industrial use. It is possible that the chlorine content is in part due to the saturation of its bed by the tidal waters which reached it before the lake was formed, but the increase in salinity, following immediately after the lockages, indicates the latter as the more probable source of contamination. Office Engineer. The usual routine work of preparing maps, charts, diagrams, etc., for the general office, the compilation of construction statistics, and such special statistics as were required from time to time has been continued during the year. The general map of the canal on a scale of 1/20,000 has been completed so far as the condition of construction work permits, and a sailing chart of the canal has been prepared for the lighthouse division. During the year the printing force has turned out — blue prints, 518,950 square feet; white prints, 135,593 square feet; brown prints, 21,427 square feet; cloth prints, 590 square feet. The work has been in charge of Mr. A. B. Nichols, ofiice engineer, assisted by Mr. A. Raggi, assistant engineer, and the necessary drafting and clerical force. Section of Meteorology and Hydrography. This work has been in charge of Chief Hydrographer F. D. Willson, assisted by Asst. Chief Hydrographer H. G. Cornthwaite and the necessary office and field force. For details of the work performed attention is invited to report attached as Appendix A-3. Interest attaches to the change in conditions which have been effected during the year by the filling of Gatun and Miraflores Lakes. Between June 27 and December 27, 1913. the Gatun Lake level rose from +48.22 to -|-84.7; since the latter date it has been controlled by the spillway gates between 85.14 and 84.13. Between October 1 and November 10, 1913, Miraflores Lake was filled from +12 to +51 ; since November 10 the level has been controlled by the culverts and the spillway gates. Being small, the level of the lake is affected by a single lockage. At the close of the year it was kept at levels varying between 53.5 and 54.5. discharge at the spillway. Measurements of the discharge of the Gatun spillway were made on several occasions during the year. In the design of the spillway 3/2 the Francis formula Q=CLH was used, in which Q is the quantity discharged over the crest; L = the length of the crest con-

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92 THE PANAMA OAJSAL. sidered; H = height of water surface in the lake above the crest of the dam ; and C = a constant, assumed in the design as 3.2. A mean of 15 measurement taken during the year gave the value C = 3.58, indicating that the discharge over the spillway crest will be slightly greater than was contemplated in the design. The spillway was proportioned with the intention that when with the lake level +87 the discharge of each gate should be about 11,000 cubic feet per second. During the year it has been possible for the first time to determine by observation the velocity which would be caused in the canal prism at Gamboa by floods in the upper Chagres. As yet no large flood has occurred since the Gatun Lake was filled. On May 26, however, with a discharge at Alhajuela of 16,900 feet second, the velocity at Gamboa bridge was 0.653 mile per hour, the lake level being at 84.92 and rising to 84.98. On June 30, with a discharge at Alhajuela of 20,050 leet second, the velocity at Gamboa bridge was 1.05 miles per hour, with the lake at 84.88 to 84.86. LEAKAGE AT SPILLWAY. In December before the spillway gates had been operated and in March after several operations of the gates, measurements were made to determine the leakage at Gatun spillway. The mean for the test in March showed an average leakage of 3.65 feet second for 49 hours. The lake level was at about 84.6 during the December measurements and about 84.84 during the March measurements. Measurements have also been made of the leakage through the Stoney valves in the lock culverts at Gatun. There was shown a leakage through one pair of side-wall valves of about 2.4 feet second under a head of 70.5 feet measured above the bottom of the valves. The leakage of one pair of middle-wall valves was about 3.5 feet second under a head of 60.5 feet. General Surveys. The work of the section of general surveys has been in charge of Mr. O. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer, with the necessary force. It consisted in setting corner and grade stakes for 159 building lots in Colon and Panama, setting grades for fill in Colon, and making other surveys for miscellaneous building lots where required ; in making surveys and preparing maps of estates and parcels of land in dispute before the joint land commission; in making surveys and inspections of estates and parcels of land for the department of law; in repairing and removing Zone triangulation stations; and making surveys and maps where required for other departments of The Panama Canal organization. Locations were made for the radio stations to be constructed by the Navy Department; readings taken on the settlement hubs in the Gatun Dam; and the necessary work done in connection with the precise level bench marks and monuments for the tide-gauge registers at Colon, Gatun, and Miraflores. A considerable amount of miscellaneous work was also accomplished.

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eepoet of engineer of maintenance. 93 Division of Lighthouses. The construction and placing of lights and beacons was continued during the year in charge of Asst. Engineer W. F. Beyer, assisted by Supervisor Charles Stubner. With the exception of the light on the west breakwater, all the aids to navigation were placed which could be located without interference with construction. The placing of the remainder was held in abeyance until construction should permit. At this stage of the work the division was turned over for operation and maintenance to the Division of Canal Transportation. Respectfully, H. F. Hodges, Engineer of Maintenance. Col. Geobge W. Goethals, United States i^rmy, Governor^ The Panama Canal.

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APPENDIX A-1. REPORT OF THE ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. CuLEBRA, July 18^ 191 J^. Sir: I have the honor to make the following report of operations during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, on work performed in this subdivision of your office, including the design, inspection, manufacture, and erection of electrical and mechanical equipment for the operation of the locks, spillways, and canal. As the equipment for the operation of the locks has been quite fully described in previous reports, the greater portion of this report will cover the actual operation of the machines as erected and put into service. A number of changes have been made in the designing and drafting-force personnel during the past year, due to the approaching completion of the work. Mr. C. C. Coppin, assistant engineer, resigned July 6, 1913, and Mr. C. B. Larzelere, assistant engineer, resigned October 26, 1913, and after this date the work has been in charge of Mr. C. J. Embree, assistant engineer. The inspection of the material purchased under first-division requisitions in the United States has been continued under the direction of Mr. Frank A. Browne, assistant engineer. The erection force has been under the direction of Mr. Ernest E. Lee, superintendent of erection, and Mr. F. C. Clark, assistant superintendent of erection, until May 28, when Mr. Clark was appointed superintendent of the Pacific locks, Mr. Lee taking over the entire construction work. Mr. C. P. Fortney resigned as mechanical supervisor of Gatun Locks and Mr. T. H. Jordan resigned as mechanical supervisor of the Pacific locks. Mr. T. W. McFarlane and Mr. F. J. Lewis were appointed to fill the respective vacancies. In the erection of the electrical equipment at the locks Mr. AV. R. Holloway and Mr. G. A. Balling have continued as electrical supervisors of the Pacific and Atlantic locks, respectively. Mr. W. R. McCann has continued as supervisor of the work in connection with the hydroelectric station, Miraflores, Balboa, Gatun, and Cristobal substations, as well as the transmission line. The testing work for the Gatun Locks was in charge of Mr. S. H. Grauten, testing engineer, until June, when he resigned, and Mr. E. D. Stillwell was appointed testing engineer to fill the vacancy. Mr. R. H. Whitehead, testing engineer, has remained in charge of the tests for the Pacific locks. The local inspection of equipment was accomplished by Mr. E. C. Smith, inspector in charge. 95

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96 THE PANAMA CANAL. ERECTION WORK — CONCRETE. Between June 30, 1913, and October 15, 1913, the first division was handling only a portion of the concrete construction work of the locks, principally in connection with the installation of lock-operating machinery. On October 11, 1913, the chairman and chief engineer issued a circular reading as follows: Effective October 15, 1913, the Gatun Locks, exclusive of back fill, will be transferred from the Atlantic division to the first division, chief engineer's office. On the same date the Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks, exclusive of the back fill, will be transferred from the fifth division to the first division, chief engineer's ofiice. Previous to June 30, 1913, the first division had placed 35,927 cubic yards of concrete, and between June 30 and October 15 had placed 22,354 cubic yards. Since October 15, 1913, the first division has placed a total of 21,004 cubic yards of concrete, or a total of 43,358 cubic yards in the past fiscal year, a grand total of 79,285 cubic yards to date. During the past year the first division has had an average erection force of 2,350 silver and 371 gold employees, or a total of 2,721 men employed on the locks, hydroelectric station, and transmission-line construction work. The maximum weekly force consisted of 3,830 silver and 508 gold, or a total of 4,338 employees for the week ending January 28, 1914. GATUN HYDROELECTRIC STATION. The construction of Gatim hydroelectric station has continued during the past year, the building and equipment being turned over to the permanent operating force on June 18, 1914. As you have been advised in our former reports, the station is equipped with three 2,500-kilowatt volt ampere units, each generating three-phase current at 2,200 volts and driven by 3,600-horsepower Pelton water wheels, running at 250 revolutions per minute. The station is equipped with five exciters — three 50-kilowatt machines direct connected to the turbine units and two lOO-kilowatt generators direct connected to 150-horsepower induction motors. The generators are equipped with protective reactance and the necessary switching equipment for main and auxiliary buses, and a total of 24 outgoing feeders, 14 of which are double-throw, operating in either the main or auxiliary bus, and the remaining 10 being single-throw and connected to either the main or auxiliary buses. At the present time all of the double-throw feeders are in service, four of them being connected direct to Gatun substation, four others going to Gatun substation via manhole 10-B, where provision has been made for tapping in on the Gatun steam station. This makes a total of eight feeders which are connected to Gatun substation, the remaining six being used for supply of current to Gatun locks. All 14 outgoing feeders are 3/C, 4/0, varnished cambric-insulated, lead-sheathed cables. TRANSMISSION-LINE MATERIAL. December 19, 1912, the Washington office issued the circular for the material and equipment of the Balboa-Cristobal transmission line. Under date of July 8, 1913, the General Electric Co. was

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REPORT OF ELECTEICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 97 awarded the contract for the electrical material for the complete equipment for four substations— Cristobal, Gatun, Miraflores, and Balboa. Under date of April 25, 1913, the Locke Insulator Manufacturing Co. was awarded the contract for four thousand 3-unit suspension type insulators and two thousand five hundred 3-unit straintype insulators for the support of the high-tension lines. On March 31, 1913, the United States Steel Products Co. was given the contract for furnishing 824 transmission-line bridges, as well as the copperclad ground wire and 2/0stranded copper conductor for the transmission lines, and on September 11, 1913, they were given the contract for furnishing and erecting the structural steel for four substation buildings. June 25, 1914, a contract was awarded to the United States Steel Products Co. for five special 84-foot towers, to be delivered, complete, by August 25, 1914. GATUN SUBSTATION. Excavation for Gatun substation was started on November 26, 1913, the steelwork being erected by the contractor, and completed February 19, 1914. The erection of electrical equipment in the building has been governed by the progress made in building construction, and at the present time the substation electrical equipment is 37 per cent installed. The building is of steel, poured concrete, and concrete block construction, 75 feet 4 inches by 129 feet 4 inches outside dimensions, the equipment being installed in the basement, first, mezzanine, and second floors. In the basement, adjacent and parallel to the long dimension of the building, an air tunnel 8 feet deep and 6 feet broad is installed for admitting air to the transformer chambers. The air enters through a grating at each end of the building, and outlets are provided into each power transformer compartment located on the floor above. Additional compartments have been provided in the basement, arrangements being made for the installation of two storage tanks for transformer oil, and space left for the storage of any material required for the operation of the plant. The main switchboard is located on the first floor in a room 17 feet 6 inches by 89 feet. The switchboard is made up of 20 panels, upon which have been mounted the switches and instruments foithe remote control of all substation apparatus. At each end of the switchboard room are the stair wells to the mezzanine and second floors, while immediately back of the switchboard a room is provided for a small shop, an oil filter and compressor room, the storeroom, an office, and colored men's toilet room. The other side of the building, next to the outside wall, is space allotted to the transfer of the power transformers which occupy adjacent compartments, space being provided for two transformers at each end of the building and two lightning arresters of the aluminum cell type, each of which occupies a compartment near the center of the building. The power transformer equipment of this station consists of three 2,667 kilowatt volt amperes, 3-phase transformers, the building being provided for the installation of a fourth unit at some future date. Each transformer is of the self-cooled type, built for operation on a 2,200-volt 63399°— 14 7

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98 THE PANAMA CANAL. 3-phase delta S3'stem, and stepping the pressure up to 44,000 volts, 3-phase, star connected, grounded neutral system. Each transformer is mounted on a truck and installed in a compartment 17 feet by 19 feet 4 inches, the floor space occupied by the transformer being 12 feet 7 inches by 12 feet 7 inches. The front of the transformer compartments is provided with steel roller doors, in this way making the compartments fireproof. The transformers are ventilated by obtaining air from the basement tunnel through a grating in the floor, the air passing over the cooling coils of the transformer and up to the ventilating duct, whe^e the air is carried to the exterior of the building. The lightning arresters are of the aluminum cell type usually used on an ungrounded star system of 45,000 volts and are installed in compartments of the same size as those occupied by the transformers. In order to allow for the discharge of the horn gaps, an opening has been provided just above each arrester in the second floor. In a room just back of the main switchboard a small air compressor has been installed which will be used for cleaning the high-tension equipment, instruments, insulators, and all parts of the installation which might be harmed by an accumulation of dust. The room used for the air compressor also contains an oil pump, filter, and drying oven. This equipment is required in order that the oil in the transformers may be kept as free of moisture as possible. The battery equipment consists of 64 Manchester cells, the battery having a capacity of 160 ampere hours on an 8-hour discharge. The cells are to be mounted in a compartment similar to that used at the hydroelectric station. The second floor of the substation is divided equally between the high and low^ tension switching equipment. That portion of the second floor which is immediately above the switchboard is taken up by the 2,200-volt bus compartments as well as the switch and instrument compartments of the outgoing feeders. The substation has a capacity of 20 outgoing 3-phase feeders of a capacity of 300 amperes per phase. Arrangements have been made to install all the compartments at the present time, although the electrical equipment for only 14 feeders is being installed, allowing for a future extension of six 3-phase feeders. The high-tension switching equipment is installed upon the second floor just above the transformer compartments. The present arrangement provides for two outgoing 44,000-volt 3-phase lines, each being star connected with a grounded neutral. The outgoing 44,000volt lines are carried out through the roof by means of roof bushings to the transmission-line taps. The incoming 2,200-volt cables are run from the oil switches on the second floor into a cable and conduit passage located just under the second floor and above the main switchboard room. From this cable and conduit passage the cables go down four shafts, two at either end of the building, and into the large manholes which have been provided. The manholes have been so arranged that cables can be carried in or out of the building from any direction. The electrical equipment for the substation has cost The Panama Canal $10.94 per kilowatt volt ampere of capacity, the total cost of the equipment being approximately $90,965.62. The total cost of the steelwork used in the erection of the building was $31,997.60, or $3 per kilowatt volt ampere of ultimate substation capacity.

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REPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 99 CRISTOBAL SUBSTATION. Cristobal substation has been installed with the object of caring for the power requirements of the coal-handling plant, the Mount Hope pumping plant, and miscellaneous power requirements in the vicinity of Cristobal. The excavation for Cristobal substation was started in March 4, 1914, the erection of steel following the construction of the concrete footings, the steelwork being completely erected by May 6, 1914. This building differs from that of Gatun substation in the fact that the first floor is made entirely of reinforced concrete beam and slab construction, made necessary by the fact that the station is built on " made land." It was also necessary to install a sump pump in the basement because of the low elevation of the tunnel floor (elevation, 0.0 feet). The substation's ultimate capacity is the same as that of Gatun, the present electrical installation consisting of two 2,667-kilowatt volt ampere transformers and eight 2,200-volt 3-phase outgoing feeders. The concrete bus, switch, and instrument compartments for 16 outgoing feeders are installed, which should allow sufficient reserve for future growth. The installation of the electrical equipment in Cristobal substation is approximately 7 per cent complete, the limiting feature being the building construction work. The electrical equipment in this substation will cost The Panama Canal approximately $12.83 per kilowatt volt ampere of present capacity, the total cost of the equipment being $68,365.39. MIRAFLORES SUBSTATION. Miraflores substation has been installed with the object of caring for the power requirements of Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks, and also for the purpose of serving as a step-up transformer station for Miraflores steam plant. This station is practically a duplicate of Gatun substation, except that the switchboard is arranged for a total capacity of 16 outgoing feeders, equipment being installed at the present time for 12 feeders. The general construction of the building is also slightly different from the other stations, as arrangements have been made for the accommodation of four sets of generator leads from the Miraflores steam station. Concrete compartments for 20 feeders have been constructed, although the electrical equipment for only 12 feeders will be installed at the present time. Concrete instrument and oil switch compartments are being constructed for four 2,667-kilowatt volt ampere power transformers, three transformers being erected at the present time. The foundation excavation work was commenced October 29, 1913, and completed December 31, 1913, the steelwork being completely erected by March 9, 1914. The building construction has been continued, the electrical equipment being installed whenever the building construction work Avould permit. The erection of the electrical equipment is 22 per cent complete and is progressing satisfactorily. The electrical equipment for Miraflores substation (exclusive of that required for Miraflores steam station connections) cost $88,629.49, or a cost of $11.08 per kilowatt volt amperes of capacity.

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100 THE PANAMA CANAL. BALBOA SUBSTATION. Balboa substation was located primarily for the purpose of supplying power to Balboa shops, the air-compressor plant, dry-dock pumping plant, coal-handling plant, and Ancon pumping plant, as well as other local power requirements. All concrete compartments for the maximum output of the station are to be erected, although feeder equipment is being installed for only 14 three-phase 2,200-volt circuits. The switchboard is equipped with instruments for three 2,667-kilowatt volt ampere power transformers and 14 feeders, blank panels being provided for the future installation of instruments and control equipment for one 2,667kilowatt volt ampere power transformer and two additional feeders. The foundation work of the Balboa substation was commenced April 27 and completed the last of May. The steel-construction work was started immediately thereafter and completed by June 27, 1914. The building work has been continued by the supply department, the electrical work being limited by their progress. Four per cent of the electrical equipment has been installed up to the present date, our work being confined to the installation of a very small amount of conduit required in the first floor, and the erection of the air compressor. The total cost of the electrical equipment for Balboa substation is approximately $91,578.49, or a cost of $11.44 per kilowatt volt ampere of capacity. DARIEN SUBSTATION. In order to supply power to the power house of Darien wireless station, arrangements have been made to install a small substation of 400-kilowatt capacity, tapping the transmission line and stepping the voltage down to 440 volts, three-phase, delta connected. Specifications for this equipment have been forwarded to the general purchasing officer. SUBSTATION AT GAMBOA. The change in location of the pumping plant from Miraflores to Gamboa has made it necessary to install a substation at the latter location by tapping the transmission line. An addition has been made to the pumping plant providing for the installation of two 500-kilowatt power transformers and the necessary electrical equipment for stepping the 44,000-volt transmission-line pressure down to a 2,200-volt, three-phase, delta connection to the buses of the pumping plant. A tap will be taken from the pumping plant and carried to the Gamboa gravel pit, which is located near this point, the gravelhandling equipment requiring approximately 100 Idlowatts. The specifications for the necessary equipment for the Gamboa substation have been issued and forwarded to the general purchasing officer. TRANSMISSION-LINE SYSTEM. Track-span bridges. — Under date of March 31, 1913, the award was made for transmission-line bridges to the United States Steel Products Co. The original order called for 627 single and 150

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REPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEBB. 101 double track span bridges, the order being changed under date of May 16, 1913, providing for the manufacture of 777 double-track span bridges, no single-track span bridges being purchased at that time. Under date of August 23, 1913, advantage was taken of the increase clause of the original contract, and an additional order was purchased, consisting of 27 double and 20 single track span bridges. The installation of the bridges commenced with the foundation excavation of bridge 17 of mile 34 on June 15, 1913. The first steel tower erected was at bridge 12 of mile 39, the erection work being completed September 22, 1913. At the end of this fiscal year a total of 814 towers have been erected, 794 of them being double and 20 single track span bridges. The only towers remaining to be erected are the five special towers, which will be required at Cristobal and Balboa terminals, and one bridge at Cristobal. In the construction of the bridge foundations a total of 7,580 yards of concrete, 280 tons of reinforcing bars, and 360 tons of old steel rails have been placed. Transmission lines. — The installation of track span bridges at this time has been carried out with the primary object of supporting the two 44,000-volt, three-phase transmission lines which will span the Isthmus. The secondary object of the bridges was to provide for the future electrification of the Panama Railroad should traffic conditions warrant the change in mode of operation. For the transmission lines bids were obtained, and, under date of March 31, 1913, an award was made to the United States Steel Products Co. for furnishing 1,500,000 feet of No. 2/0 B. & S. gauge stranded copper conductor to be used for the two transmission lines and 500,000 feet of y^-inch copper-clad wire for the ground wires of the lines, the total contract price being $132,055.03. The orders for cable and wire have been increased from time to time, the total amount received to date being 1,562,208 feet of 2/0 B. & S. gauge stranded copper and 512,065 feet of j^^-inch copper-clad wire. Under date of January 3, 1914, the installation of the line was started at mile 39, bridge 15, the construction work advancing toward Colon. At the end of this fiscal year a total of 44.46 miles of transmission line (which is the equivalent of 1,408,443 feet of 2/0 conductor cable) has been erected. The line remaining to be installed consists of the short links connecting each end of the lines with Cristobal and Balboa substations, respectively. As this division loaned the electrical division 71,898 feet of the 2/0 copper conductor for the Gold Hill 11,000-volt transmission line and 45,450 feet of 2/0 cable has been used for making connections between the T%-inch ground wire and the ground plates, there remains approximately 36,417 feet of 2/0 B. & S. copper cable on hand for completing the terminal connections at Balboa and Cristobal substations. Transmission-line strain and suspension insulators. — In order to support the transmission-line conductors it was decided to use the strain and suspension type of insulators. Specifications were issued, and under date of April 25, 1913, a contract was made with the Locke Insulator Manufacturing Co. providing for the purchase of 4,000 three-imit suspension-type insulators and 2,500 three-unit strain-type insulators, at a total contract price of $114,520.

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102 THE PANAMA CANAL. The insulators are equipped with mcnel-metal fittings, th€ porcelain parts having a brown glaze finish, the general construction of the units being the same as that used in general high-tension line construction in the United States. Up to the end of the fiscal year a total of 2,080 strain and 3,813 suspension insulators have been installed. This will leave 420 strain and 187 suspension insulators for finishing the transmission line and completing the installation at Darien and Gamboa. LOCK MACHINERY. Rising-stem gate-valve machines^ mechanical equipment. — As you were advised in the annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, the contract for 114 rising-stem gate-valve machines was made with the Wheeling Mold & Foundry Co., the machines being delivered complete by January 27, 1913. The erection of the machines has proceeded, the mechanical installations being completed on the following dates: Gatun, 56 rising-stem gate-valve machines, November 22, 1913. Pedro Miguel, 24 rising-stem gate-valve machines. May 22, 1913. Miraflores, 36 rising-stem gatevalve machines, December 30, 1913. Rising -stem gate-valve machines., electrical equipment. — The electrical equipment for the rising-stem gate-valve machines was purchased of the General Electric Co., the delivery being completed January 15, 1913, the installation of the apparatus being completed on the following dates : Gatun, 56 rising-stem gate-valve machines, February 12, 1914. Pedro Miguel, 24 rising-stem gate-valve machines, March 30, 1914. Miraflores, 36 rising-stem gate-valve machines, March 30, 1914. Operation. — During the last fiscal j^ear the machines have been operated under various load conditions, both by means of local control switches and remote control from the switchboards in the control houses. With the report of last year I submitted an analysis of the operation of the rising stem gate valves, and also submitted an outline predicting the operating conditions which would exist with the valve breaking the seals against a head of 79 feet of water, which is the worst condition under which they will operate. Eeference to the data submitted at that time will indicate that it was expected that the machines would require 634 pounds torque at 1-foot radius under these conditions of operation. Tests were made at Miraflores Locks with one of the valves operating under variable heads. I am attaching hereto plate No. 76, showing the torque characteristics of a machine operating under variable heads from foot to 52 feet, and by interpolation you will note that the torque required for operating the machine under a 79-foot head will be approximately 684 pounds, or within 7.3 per cent of the value predicted in last year's report. However, it should be borne in mind that tests on a larger number of valves may change the data slightly. Operation of rising-stem gate-valve machines binder full head. — In order to determine whether or not rising-stem valve machines would vibrate excessively under full head, and also to note the operation of roller trains under these conditions, arrangements were made

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EEPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 103 on November 13, 1913, to make a test on rising-stem valve machines Nos. 248 and 241) at Gatun Locks. The first test was made with water in the upper lock at elevation 77.2 feet, and the level in the middle lock at 13.9 feet, which gave a difference in head on the two sides of the valve of 63.3 feet. Rising stem valve No. 248 was opened under this head, the time of operation being 60 seconds. Moderate vibration was noticed in the east roller train rod, and the chain was apparently under some strain. The west roller train rod gave evidence of vibration, and the chain was apparently not under great tension. All chains and sheaves operated properly. A moment later the same valve was closed with a difference in head between the two locks of 59.6 feet, the valves operating satisfactorily, the vibration of the parts being approximately the same as upon the previous stroke. The next operation consisted of opening rising-stem valve No. 249, the difference in levels being 53.3 feet. A vibration was noted in the west roller train, the chain being under some tension. The east roller train gave no evidence of being under any considerable strain. During these operations it was noted that the vibration and strain upon the roller train in each case occurred upon the side farthest away from the center line of the culvert. During these operations a graphic ammeter was attached to the incoming power lines to the machines and observations were obtained for the opening and closing strokes of the valves. The result indicated by the graphic ammeter shows that the load is practically constant for the full operation of the valve, the duty cycle not being of the type expected at the time that the machine was designed. (The original design appeared to indicate that the torque at the beginning of the opening stroke would be very much greater than that required near the completion of the operating cycle.) The curves for the closing stroke under full head and under no head are identical, being a uniform flat line, the value in each case being the same. The following results were obtained for the operation of the valves under the various heads: Opening rising-stem valve No. 248 Closing rising-stem valve No. 248.. Opening rising-stem valve No. 249 Closing rising-stem valve No. 249.. Head, in feet. 63.3 59.6 53.3 49.6 Average amperes. 148 126 84 84 144 125 90 90 Horsepower. 54 38 13 13 49 38 10 10 Motor torque pounds (feet). 603 424 139 139 547 423 107 107 Pull on crosshead. 33,400 23,600 7,720 7,720 30,400 23,500 5,930 5,930 Under the above tests the voltage on the machines was 238 and the machine efficiency was 33^ per cent. Cylindrical valve machines. — As you have been advised in the previous reports, the Wheeling Mold & Foundry Co. furnished the cylindrical valve machines, the contract date for delivery of the last machine being January 1, 1913, the actual delivery being January 6, 1913. The actual completion of all mechanical details in con-

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104 THE PANAMA CANAL. nection with the cylindrical' valves was accomplished upon the following dates during the past fiscal year : Mechanical : Gatun, 60 cylindrical valve machines, June 30, 1913 ; Pedro Miguel, 20 cylindrical valve machines, December 16, 1912; Miraflores, 40 cylindrical valve machines. May 1, 1913. The electrical equipment of the cylindrical valves was purchased of the General Electric Co., the contract date for the completion of the delivery of the machines being January 31, 1913, the actual delivery being February 16, 1913. Ihe control panels for the machines were all purchased of the same company, the contract date for complete delivery being January 1, 1913, the actual delivery being completed November 15, 1912. The limit switches were purchased of the Cutler Hammer Manufacturing Co. So far as the electrical details are concerned the final dates of completion of the cylindrical valve machine installations at all locks were as follows : Electrical: Gatun, March 30, 1914; Pedro Miguel, January 27, 1914 ; Miraflores, February 27, 1914. Auxiliary culvert valve machines. — The electrical and mechanical details for the auxiliary culvert machines were ordered from the same manufacturers that furnished the cylindrical valve machines. There are a total of 12 auxiliary culvert machines for all locks, the mechanical and electrical work being completed on the following dates : Gatun, 4 machines Pedro Miguel, 4 machines Miraflores, 4 machines — Mechanical worlc. Dec. 9, 1912 Mar. 26,1913 Apr. 18,1913 Electrical worlc. Mar. 10,1914 Mar. 5, 1914 Mar. 31,1914 Guard-valve machines. — Eighteen guard-valve machines were purchased of the Earle Gear & Machine Co., of Philadelphia, Pa. They were to be delivered March 31, 1913, the actual complete delivery being July 9, 1913. The motors and contractor panels were purchased of the General Electric Co., and according to the contract the motors were to be delivered November 1, 1912, the date of complete delivery being February 26, 1913. The contractor panels were to have been delivered October 1, 1912, their actual complete delivery being February 16, 1913. The guard-valve machines have all been installed complete at the present writing, with the exception of a portion of the electrical work at Miraflores Locks. The progress of erection at all locks is as follows : Mechanical work. Electrical work. Gatun, 6 machines Pedro Miguel, 6 machines Miraflores, 6 machines . . . Aug. n,1913 Sept. 25, 1913 June 13,1914 Apr. 25,1914 June 29,1914 62 per cent complete. Tests on guard valves. — Since the completion of the machines a number of tests have been made to determine whether or not they

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EEPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 105 would operate satisfactorily as originally designed. It was found necessary to make a number of changes, the most important ones being as follows: Owing to the fact that the roller trains were connected into the operating mechanisms by means of chains run over pocketed sheaves, their operation was found to vary slightly from the theoretical conditions of the design. Arrangements were made to remove the pocketed sheaves from the main-line shafting and connect the chains in on the counterweights in such a manner that their movement would be positively controlled by the raising or lowering of the counterweights during the operation of the machines. As the weight of the roller train was approximately 5,000 pounds, this placed a slight eccentric load upon the coujiterweight and it was found necessary to provide guide shoes for the weights in the counterweight pits. The guard valves are driven by means of a motor which is electrically a duplicate of the miter gate moving machine motor, with a worm and worm wheel, pinion, and spur-gear drive to the pocketed sheaves on the main shaft. The pinion shaft driving the main spur gear was not provided with an outboard bearing, which it was found necessary to add. The installation of this outboard bearing overcame the tendency of the pinion to get out of line with the main spur gear. Tests upon guard valve machines 306, 307, and 308 at Pedro Miguel Locks on April 17, 1914, indicated that the leakage of all three valves is approximately 7 cubic feet per second when the valves are operating under a 30foot head. While operating the guard-valve machines under variable heads the following power consumptions were noted upon machines No. 306, No. 307, and No. 308 at Pedro Miguel : No. 306, run No. 1, 30-foot head. No. 307, ran No. 1. 28-foot head. No. 308 run No. 1, 24-foot head. No. 308, run No. 2, 30-foot head. Opening valve. A mperes. 60 41 50 60 Closing valve. Amperes. 35 27 40 25 During the above tests the pressure upon the motors was 120 volts, the maximum current demand being 60 amperes. The horsepower output of the motor was 14.2, and as the motor operated at 450 revolutions per minute the actual torque upon the motordriving shaft was approximately 165 pounds at 1-foot radius. With the motor operating under 220 volts, the starting torque is approximately 1,200 pounds, and as the torque is proportional to the square of the voltage the motor was actually operating with a starting torque of 300 pounds at 1-foot radius with the pressure at 120 volts. As usual, the testing force made an analysis of the machine, obtaining a detail check upon all dimensions of the equipment as installed. Any variations from the dimensions theoretically desired were corrected before the machines were turned over to the operating force. Miter gate-moving machines. — All of the parts for the mechanical and electrical installation of the miter gate-moving machines were delivered complete during the last fiscal year. During the fiscal

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106 THE PANAMA CANAL. year ending June 30, 1914, the erection of the machines has been completed, the dates of completion being as follows: Mechanical work. Electrical work. Gatun 40 machines Pedro Miguel, 24 machines. Miraflores, 28 machines Dec. 22,1913 Dec. 9, 1913 Jan. 10,1914 Feb. 28,1914 Mar. 28,1914 May 28,1914 Miter gate-moving machine tests. — After the completion of the miter ^ate-moving machines a large number of tests were made to determine the conditions under which the most satisfactory operation might be obtained. Perhaps the most interesting of these tests were those which were carried out at Gatun in January, 1914. The purpose of these tests, to be described hereinafter, was to determine what reduction of power and of force would result from the nonsimultaneous operation of two gates. The gates selected for the test were the intermediate gates Nos. 31 and 32 of the upper lock at Gatun. The water upstream from these gates is confined by operating gates Nos. 35 and 36 and on the downstream side by gates Nos. 23 and 24. This makes a chamber of 358 feet above and 731 feet below the gates which were being operated. During the test rising stem valves 255 and 254 were left open throughout. One test was made to determine the effect of the gate operation with the valves closed, but it was found that the effect was inappreciable owing to the low heads involved. The tests were first made with gate No. 32 lagging by intervals of to 120 seconds, and again with gate No. 32 leading by the same intervals. Readings were taken on gate No. 32 01 the strut pressure and of the voltage at the motor, the motor current being recorded by means of a graphic ammeter. The first cycle was made by the gates starting simultaneously and was followed by allowing gate No. 32 to lag by intervals of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 120 seconds. The results of the current duty cycle of these operations are shown upon plate No. 77 for the opening stroke and plate No. 78 for the closing stroke. A similar series of tests were then made with gate No. 32 leading by similar intervals. The results of the opening strokes for this series is shown on plate No. 79, and the results for the closing strokes are shown on plate No. 80. The maximum current values of the duty cycles for opening and closing the gates with various leads and lags are shown upon plates Nos. 81 and 82. It is seen from these curves that the maximum value of the current is reduced as the time intervals between the starting of the gates is increased in either lagging or leading direction. Several tests were made under these conditions, but it was found that the results varied considerably, due to surges of the water in the locks. It is believed, however, that the curves indicate the maximum values which will occur under the. conditions specified. For the closing strokes it appears that the gate lagging from 5 to 10 seconds requires a greater maximum current than would result with simultaneous operation. It is probable, however, that a greater number of tests would have to be made in order to eliminate completely the possible effect of surges in the lock chamber. The maximum values of the pressure of the strut spring for various lags and leads of the gate operation are shown upon plate No. 83 tor the opening stroke and upon plate

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REPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 107 No. 84 for the closing stroke. It is seen that the force in the strut, as indicated by the pressure of the strut springs, decreases rapidly as the interval of the lag and lead is increased. The curves of rnaximum current values of the strut show that the greatest reduction of power occurs for intervals within the first 30 seconds, and a very considerable reduction is obtained in the first 20 seconds. The following table will indicate the maximum values for these two cases, the values for zero interval and 120-second interval being added for comparative purposes. Seconds. Maximum Motor amperes. Torque pounds. Maximum strut compression. Inches. Pounds. Openine stroke with laeeine gate . . 20 30 120 20 30 120 20 30 120 20 30 120 160 102 92 92 160 117 108 92 170 120 112 93 170 85 84 84 700 400 340 340 700 480 440 340 760 490 460 340 760 300 300 300 2.25 1.50 .85 .10 2.25 1.50 1.03 .72 2.25 1.20 1.00 .65 2.25 .75 .45 185,000 133,000 87,000 34,000 185 000 Opening stroke with leading gate Closing stroke with lagging gate 133,000 99,000 78,000 185,000 111,000 97,000 73,000 IS."; nofi Closing stroke with leading gate 80,000 59,000 The results of all tests show in a striking manner the advisability of reducing the duty of the motor and the forces of the machine by starting one gate ahead of the other by an interval which, under the conditions observed, would be approximately 20 seconds. The benefit derived from the delayed operation of one gate results from the fact that when one gate only is operating during the critical period when the gates are near the mitered position, the entire area of the chamber is available for the storage of water displaced. The difference of head against which the gate operates is, therefore, approximately one-half of that which would exist in the simultaneous operation of the gates. The phenomena is most striking for the high intermediate gates. It is believed that the condition could be bettered b}' altering the shape of the upstream side of the sill. Miter gate-forcing machines. — The miter gate-forcing machines were purchased of the Wheeling Mold & Foundry Co. ; the motors, limit switches, and contactor panels were purchased of the General Electric Co., all material being delivered in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913. The erection of the machines has progressed with the completion of the gates. A total of 46 machines were purchased, the mechanical and electrical erection being completed as follows : Lock. Number of machines. Mechanical erection completed— Electrical erection completed— Gatun Pedro Miguel 20 12 n Jan. 15,1914 Jan. 12,1914 Feb. 11,1914 Feb. 14,1914 Mar. 27,1914 Mar. 28,1914 Miraflores . Total 413 ' Miter orcine machines.

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3 08 THE PANAMA CANAL. Tests on miter gate-forcing macTiines. — The jaws of the miter forcing machines are set so that a clearance of one-fourth inch is obtained between the pin and jaw of the machine. Complete tests were made in the States as to the satisfactory operation of the machines under maximum-load conditions and a routine test of the machine indicates that while running light, the load requirements are approximately as follows: Operation. Amperes. Horsepower output of motor. Poimda torque at 1foot radios. Opening jaw , Closing jaw.. 15.12 15.29 3.7 4.3 32 38 The values of horsepower and torque as referred to above were obtained from motor characteristics of the machine. For all practical purposes the power required for opening and closing the jaws is the same when the machine is running light. Towing-track material. — All of the towing-track material purchased under the original orders was delivered previous to June 30, 1913. Rack track. — During the year tests have brought out the fact that it will be necessary to provide additional rack sections at the top and bottom of all inclines at all locks. For this purpose we have arranged to have the Balboa shops make up 606 feet of additional rack section. The progress of erection made up to and including June 30, 1914, is as follows : [Rack track in 1-foot units.] Distributed. Laid. Frozen. Completed. Gatun Locks, 22,182 fee of rack section, (99.87 per cent complete to date): During year To date Pedro Miguel Locks, 13,823 feet rack section (99 per cent complete to date): During year To date Miraflores Locks, 18,360 feet rack section (98.8 per cent complete to date): During year To date 995 22, 182 1,086 13, 712 3,894 18,144 1,182 22, 182 1,518 13, 706 4,007 18, 144 3,438 22, 182 3,901 13,696 8,160 18,144 4,082 22,155 3,901 13, 696 9,104 18,144 From the above tables it is noted that 99.3 per cent of the 54,365 feet of rack section required for all locks is completed. Conductor slot material. — The progress of the work of installing steel and copper conductor rails, insulators, brackets, and plates is indicated by the following table : to cover Gatun. Pedro Miguel. Miraflores. fiteel bar during vcar 4,967 7,518 8,435 13,325 6,414 "Conner bar durine vear 16, 818 Total 12,485 21,760 22,232 fiteel bar to date 18, 103 26,981 15,097 21, 196 10,654 Copper bar to date 17,508 Total to date 45,084 36,293 28,162

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EEPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 109 During the past year there has been installed a total of 56,477 feet of conductor slot, or a total of 109,539 feet to date, comprising the requisite material for completing the conductor slots. Owing to a shortage of material, it has been necessary to place an order for a small amount of additional material, most of which will be installed on the approach walls at Mirafiores. Conductor slots. — The procedure followed in installing the conductors in the conductor slots has been to use the copper tee rails upon all towing tracks, inclines, and crossovers, the steel conductor being used upon the return tracks only. Tests made upon the towing locomotives indicate that the design of the conductor slot material will take care of every load requirement of the machines, the voltage regulation being quite satisfactory under every condition of operation. Crossovers and turnouts. — The installation of single and double crossovers and turnouts has been completed during the past year, as follows : Gatun Locks, completed March 2, 1914; Pedro Miguel Locks, completed January 28, 1914; Mirafiores Locks, completed May 2, 1914. TOWING LOCOMOTIVES. Under date of May 24, 1913, a contract was entered into with the General Electric Co. for furnishing 40 towing locomotives of their design and manufacture. The total contract price for the machines was $527,015, the first locomotive to be delivered January 15, 1914, and four locomotives to be delivered each month thereaftei\ Twentyone locomotives have been delivered to date and appear to be operating satisfactorily. I am attaching a curve (plate No. 85) showing the current duty cycle for one locomotive ascending and descending the west side wall incline at Mirafiores. Distribution of locomotives. — The original plan of distributing the locomotives at the locks was as follows : Lock walls. West. Center. East. Total. Gatun 4 2 4 8 4 8 4 2 4 16 8 16 Pedro Miguel Mirafiores As this distribution did not provide for six locomotives on one lock at Pedro Miguel, arrangements are being made to distribute the machines as follows : Lock walls. West. Center. East. Total. Gatun 4 2 3 8 5 7 4 3 4 16 10 14 Pedro Miguel Mirafiores

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110 THE PANAMA CANAL. SPILLWAY-GATE MACHINES. The spillway-gate machines were all delivered during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, the dates of completion for the mechanical and electrical erection being as follows: Lock. Number of machines. Mechanical work completed— Electrical work completed— Gatun 14 8 Sept. 28, 1913 Oct. 13,1913 Dec. 18,1913 June 5 1914 Miraflores Twenty-two machines completed June 5, 1914. Tests and operation. — The spillway gates at Gatun have all been operated under full head, although only seven gates have been opened at one time. Their operation has been satisfactory, the gates being operated from the switchboard in the hydroelectric station. LOCK TRANSFORMER ROOM EQUIPMENT. Practically all the material for the transformer rooms was received in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, the erection work having the following status at the present time : Gatun, 16: During year To date Pedro Miguel, 8: During year To date Miraflores, 12: During year To date Installed. Power transformers. 17 32 14 16 1 24 Light transformers. 4 16 4 8 12 12 Oil switch bank. 5 16 12 12 Lowtension switchboard. 6 16 11 12 Bus bars installed and connected. 6 16 5 8 12 12 Bells installed and connected. Low tension. 16 16 8 8 12 12 High tension. 16 16 12 12 Electrical work. Started. 16 16 4 10 Completed. Two power transformers in each room. Special transformer room equipment. — In order to provide for the lock-control boards some special transformers and switching equipment similar to that used in the main transformer rooms were purchased. The lock-control boards require 25-cycle single-phase current at two pressures, namely, 110 and 230 volts. The 110-volt pressure is used for supplying current to all indicating lamps and mechanisms, the 230volt pressure being used for the control circuits to contactor panels in the lock tunnels. Gatun control board being the largest, was taken as a standard, its power requirement under the worst condition being approximately 10 kilowatt volt amperes at 230 volts and 56 kilowatt volt amperes at 110 volts. The transformer used has a capacity of 66 kilowatt volt amperes, a 110 and 120 volt set of windings being connected in series with taps taken out for the specified pressures.

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REPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. Ill In order to provide for interchangeability, all transformers for all locks are of the same size, two machines being installed adjacent to each lock-control house. The switch bank used in connection with the transformers is made of six oil switches, each switch bank being a standard transformer room oil switch bank, modified to suit the conditions. At the present time the work upon the rooms is practically complete at all locks. INSULATED CABLE. The total amount of cable on order received and installed up to the end of the present fiscal year is 2,659,403 feet, of which 1,531,528 feet is lead sheathed and 1,127,875 feet is rubber-covered double-braid wire and cable. All cable has been received except 40,500 feet of No. 6 rubber-covered double-braid wire, the delivery being 99 per cent complete. To date 1,462,684 feet of lead-covered cable has been pulled into the ducts and 911,816 feet of rubber covered has been used for the conductor slot feeds, control connections, etc. The following table will give an idea of the amount of wire and cable installed : Feet installed. No. 6 B. &. S. 1/c rubber insl. Id. sheathed 10 B. &. S. 1/c rubber insl. Id. sheathed 6 B. & S. 1/c var. cambric Id. sheathed 6 B. & S. 1/c rubber insl. double brded .". 10 B. & S. 1/c rubber insl. double brded 12 B. & S. 1/c rubber insl. double brded 2 B. & S. 1/c rubber insl. Id sheathed , 2 B. & S. 1/c var. cambric id. sheathed , 12 B. & S. 1/c rubber insl. Id. sheathed 00 B. & S. 1/c var. c. insl. Id. sheathed 12 B. & S. dpi. r. insl. 1 braid each cdr. 1 brd. over all twisted 12 B. & S. dpi. cable r. insl. Id shd. flat 61-#23 B. & S. 1/c r. insl. dbl. brded. concentric strand 19-#23 1/c r. insl. dbl. brded. concentric strand 1 million c. m. 1/c var. c. insl. Id. cvrd 750,000 c. m. 1/c var. c. insl. Id. cvrd 0000 B. & S. 1/c var. c. insl. lead covered No. 00 B. & S. over aU dia. 1.74" Mo. 0000 B. & S. overall dia. 2.04" 5 conductor No. 10 B. & S. gauge 8 conductor No. 10 B. & S. gauee 600,000 0. M. 3/c var. c. lead sheathed 500,000 C. M. single track cable No. 19 5 pair telephone cable Total Purchased. 50,000 41,300 4,000 174,500 204,000 410,722 98,014 51,000 62,020 30,800 72,649 48,022 106,000 120,004 1,125 1,000 8,300 69,800 318,987 281,738 452, 182 5,240 40,000 8,000 Pulled during year. 2,659,403 49,560 35,053 2,545 101,761 172,666 377,729 79,698 33,158 36,801 19,632 52,773 33,662 84,756 109,201 1,094 1,000 2,459 25,121 201,484 168,314 254,102 4,326 25,820 6,625 1,879,340 Feet of cable installed up to and including June 30, 1914. Gatun Locks Gatun hydroelectric station and spillway. Pedro Miguel Locks Miraflores Locks Total Lead covered. 638,398 31,756 364,626 427,904 1,462,684 To date. 49,560 35,053 3,993 101,761 172,666 383,729 93,247 50,982 36,801 27,592 52,773 33,982 84,756 109,201 1,094 1,000 2,594 64,700 298,222 •281,322 452,090 4,937 25,820 6,625 2,374.500 Rubber insulated, double braid. 374,600 39,580 214,291 283,345 911,816 Total lead-covered cable installed to date Total rubber-covered cable installed to date. Feet. 1,462,684 911,816 Grand total installed to date 2 374 500 Cable installed previous to June 30, 1913. Cable installed during fiscal year 495,160 1,879,340 Total amount of cable installed to date 2 374,500

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112 THE PANAMA CANAL. CHAIN-FENDER MACHINES. After the tests had been completed upon the two sample chainfender machines the results indicated that the machines would carry out the work for which they were designed, and arrangements were made to order the balance of the equipment. The General Electric Co. was awarded the contract for the 70 horsepower motors, the contactor panels, valve-operating mechanisms, and limit switches. The A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works received the award for the 5-inch two-stage volute pumps, all of the equipment being on hand and ready for installation. The chain-fender machines proper were ordered of the United Engineering & Foundry Co., the valves being furnished by the Ross Valve Manufacturing Co. The status of these contracts is as follows : Cylinders, eyebars, etc., for 46 machines received complete. Structural steel work for 46 pits received complete. Operating valves for 46 pits received complete. Piping and fittings for 46 pits received complete. Mechanisms for pumps for 46 pits received complete. Bronze resistance valves, 45 (sets of 2) received complete. Eighteen chains have been ordered to date, of which the following have been received: 10 pieces of section No. 1; 6 pieces of section No. 2 ; 3 pieces of section No. 3 ; 1 piece of section No. 4 ; 1 piece of section No. 5; and one piece of section No. 6. There remain five chains to be purchased in order to complete the machines. The following progress has been made in the erection of the mechanical parts of the machines: Gatiin, 16 machines. Pedro Miijuel, 16 machines. Miraflores, 16 machines. Received. Part installed. Installed complete. Received. Part installed. Installed complete. Received. Part installed. Installed complete. 16 16 2 2 114 114 16 16 9 9 17 17 16 216 15 15 '1 Tn d atfi ,1 1 I Excep t chains. » Excel )t one se t of open iting val ves. The electrical work upon the chain-fender machines has progressed as rapidly as the mechanical work would permit, the progress of the work at the present time being as follows: Motors connected. Limit switch. Local indicator erected. Valveoperating mechanism mstalled and connected. Contactor panel. Electrical work. Installed. Connected. Installed. Connected. Installed. Completed. Ontnn Ifi maohines 3 2 16 7 3 2 2 4 10 7 3 3 2 13 16 12 Pedro Miguel, 16 machines... "KfiTpflnrpc: Ifi TnJlPbiTlP
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REPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 113 HAND-RAIL OPERATING MACHINES. AU machines have been received and installed complete, the erection work being completed upon the following dates: Gatun, 36 machines Pedro Miguel, 20 machines Miraflores, 24 machines Mechanical. Nov. 29,1913 Dec. 26,1913 May 29,1914 Electrical. Mar. 21,1914 Mar. 3,1914 May 28,1914 All the hand-rail machines have been operating satisfactorily on the local and automatic control circuits. CHAIN-FENDER SUMP PUMPS. All chain-fender sump-pump motors have been received, the installation being limited by the work in the chain-fender pits, the work being 40 per cent complete on this date. The progress of the work is as follows : Mechanical. Oatun, 16 pumps. Pedro Miguel, 16 pumps. Miraflores, 16 piunps. Received. Part installed. InstaUed. Received. Part instaUed. Installed. Received. Part instaUed. Installed. To date 16 12 4 16 7 9 16 8 Electrical. Motors connected. Starting panels. Float switch. Electrical work. * Installed. Connected. Installed. Connected. Started. Completed. Gatun 1 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 1 3 4 4 16 16 e Pedro Miguel! Miraflores ' ' Motors, float switches, and electrical work for 16 machines. Some of the chain-fender sump-pump motors have burned out, due to operating them continuously during construction work, the motor being rated for intermittent operation only. 63399°— 14 8

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114 THE PANAMA CANAL. DRAINAGE SUMP AND CULVERT PUMPS AND MOTORS, All pumps and motors have been received, the erection work being finished upon the following dates : Mechanical. Electrical. Gatun, 4 pumps and motors Pedro Miguel, 4 pumps and motors, Miraflores, 4 pumps and motors June 14,1913 Oct. 20,1913 Aug. 28,1913 98 per cent complete. 4 June 9, 191 Do. Note.— One pump at Gatun has not been equipped with its float switch and a portion of the electrical connections must be completed. OPERATING TUNNEL DOORS. All of the operating tunnel doors have been received and are installed complete for all locks. ILLUMINATION. Last year's report contains a brief description of the proposed method of illuminating the locks and lock walls. The exterior lighting is accomplished by single and double arm, reinforced concrete, lighting standards, each of which has an over-all height of 34 feet 4 inches and is designed to withstand a wind pressure of 35 pounds per square inch. The singlearm standards are located in a staggered position upon the center wall, the double-arm standards being used for sidewall illumination. The reflector is hood shaped to give a cut-off line approximately as indicated upon plate No. 87 attached, which is taken on a horizontal plane 3 feet 6 inches above the towing track. The spread of the lamps on the doublearm bracket is 8 feet 6 inches, while that of the single arm is 4 feet 3 inches. The lamp standards are located on the center wall in a staggered line upon 50 to 60 foot centers, upon 100-foot centers on the side w^alls, and are equipped w ith one or two 500-watt tungsten lamps, depending upon w^hether the standard has a single or double arm bracket. A test of the illumination at Gatun Locks was first made on the evening of March 11, 1914, when the west side wall and center walls were illuminated. The east wall at Gatun was first lighted up and put into service in April, and several tests have been made to determine the relative value of the illumination. Plates Nos. 88, 89, and 90, attached, indicate the results obtained under various conditions. All curves are based upon values taken at an elevation 3 feet 6 inches above the level of the towing track. At the present time the exterior lighting circuits at all locks have been completed except for five posts to be installed at Miraflores. The total number of lamp standards at all locks is indicated in the following table : Singlearm. Doublearm. Total. Total! ns tailed to date. Gatun . 116 80 101 90 50 67 206 130 168 Ml. Pedro Miguel All. Miraflores All but 5 double-arm bracket standards. Total 297 207 504

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EEPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 115 LOCKAGES. Perhaps the most important event of the year was the fillin g of the west flight of Gatun Locks on September 25, 1913. The first step in the filling operation was to fill the space between the upper guard and upper operating gates. This was done by means of the 60-mch auxiliary culvert valve in the west wall, the valve being opened at 9.07 a. m. and kept in this position until about 3.30 p. m. It was necessary to close the valve twice during this period in order to clear vegetation from the trash screen at the intake. The second operation was the filling of the culvert in the center wall and valves and bulkheads as Avell as the culvert itself. The upper section only was filled at first, and then after opening the rising-stem valve at the upper end, this water was used to test the center culverts of the three levels successively, the water finally being dischai-ged into the lower lock by opening the cylindrical valves in that level. On September 26, 1913, preparations were made for removing the bulkheads from the upper end of the west culvert. In order to remove the bulkhead it was necessary to equalize the pressure of the lake by back pressure upon the lower side of the bulkhead, and this was accomplished by introducing water into the upper end of the upper lock, the bulkhead being removed at 10 a. m. At 11.20 a. m. water was admitted to the upper end of the upper lock from the west culvert, through the upper rising-stem gate valves, and by this means the water was brought up to the lake level. The upper rising-stem valves were then closed and the water in the upper chamber was brought to lake level in the upper lock as a preliminary test of the valves and culverts of the west wall. The water was then locked down step by step from the lake to the lower lock, which was also being filled by two 14-inch sea valves in the lower guard gates. Vy lockage of tug '-''Gatun!''' — At 4.45 p. m. the lock had filled to sea level and tlie lower gates were opened for the tug Gatun. The lower operating gates were closed behind the tug and she was lifted step by step to Gatun Lake level. In order to save time in the ascent, the short length of lock was used in the first lock, the tug being raised from elevation plus 0.8 to elevation plus 12, a lift of 11.2 feet. In the middle lock it was raised from elevation plus 12 to elevation plus 35.7, a lift of 23.7 feet. In the upper locks she was raised from elevation 35.7 to elevation 65.5, a lift of 29.8 feet. The total lift from the first lock to Gatun Lake level was 64.7 feet. The time of ascent was 1 hour and 51 minutes. At 6.45 p. m. the upper gates were closed behind the tug and it passed into Gatun Lake. During the lockage operations, all operating devices were operated from the local control switches upon the contactor panels. Return lockage of tug " Gatun " from Gatun Lake to sea., Septemher 27^ 1913. — The water level in the upper end of the lock was at elevation 64.13 feet and in the lower end was at elevation 34.6 feet. The two ends were equalized by opening rising-stem gate valve No. 254, the water being equalized at 29 feet over the sill or at elevation plus 44, At 8.35 a. m. rising-stem valve No. 260 was opened and the chamber filled to lake level. Gates 21 and 32, 39 and 40 were opened during the period when the water was equalizing, and at 8.58

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116 THE PANAMA CANAL. a. m. gates Nos. 35 and 36 were opened, and the tug Gatun entered the upper locks. Gates 35 and 36 were then closed, as were rising-stem gate valves Nos. 260 and 261. Gates 39 and 40 were also closed, and during this period rising-stem gate valves Nos. 236 and 237 were opened, equalizing both ends of the middle lock. At 9.26 a. m. the locks were equalized and rising-stem gate valves Nos. 248 and 249 were opened. While the water was equalizing in the middle and upper locks, gates 19 and 20, as well as 27 and 28, were opened. The water equalized at elevation 46 at 9.43 a. m. Gates 23 and 24 were then opened, and the Gatun passed into the middle lock. Gates 23 and 24, 27 and 28, and rising-stem valves 248 and 249 were closed. At 9.44 a. m. rising-stem valves 232 and 233 were opened, and at 10.06 a. m. the water had equalized at elevation 23.6 feet, and gates 15 and 16 were opened for the passage of the Gatun into the lower lock. Gates 15 and 16 and rising-stem valves 232 and 233 were then closed. At 10.10 a. m. rising-stem valves 216 and 217 were opened, and at 10.28 the water had equalized with the sea, which was at elevation 0.6. At 10.30 gates 7 and 8 were opened, and the tug Gatun passed out to sea. The gates 7 and 8, 3 and. 4 were then closed, and the lockage was completed. The change in water elevations in the locks was as follows : Upper lock, 65.47 to 46, a fall of 19.47 feet; middle lock, 46 to 23.6, a fall of 22.4 feet; lower lock, 23.6 to 0.6, a fall of 23 feet. The total time of the return trip from Gatun Lake to the sea was 1 hour 30 minutes. The east lock at Gatun was watered on January 3, 1914. The first vessels to enter the chamber were five submarines, C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-5, which were locked up and left in the upper lock chamber on March 9, 1914. The vessels entered the loAver chamber at 9.08 a. m. and were left in the upper lock at 11.07 a. m. The Gatun Lock control board was tried out on May 9, 1914, when all valves, gates, and machines were operated by remote control. Upon May 11, 1914, the fifty-first lockage took place, and was the first lockage by use of the control switches on the lock-control board. The La Valley and tug Exotic entered the lower chamber at 7.36 a. m. and left the upper chamber at 8.48 a m., the total time of the lockage being 1 hour 12 minutes. This lockage was also the first made by means of the towing locomotives which were operated upon the walls of the west chamber, the locomotive numbers being 641, 642, 643, and 644. Since May 11, 1914, all lockages through Gatun Locks have been handled by the towing locomotives, and upon June 8, 1914, the first seagoing vessel, the Alliance, entered the lower chamber of the west lock at Gatun. Lockage of steamship ^^AlliancaJ'^ — The Allianca is 335 feet long, has a beam of 42 feet, a mold depth of 15 feet, and a gross tonnage of 3,905 tons. Being loaded, she displaced about 9,000 tons at the time of the lockage. The Allianca arrived at the locks at 6.45 a m. and towing began at 7.17 a. m., and the lines were cast off the steamship in Gatun Lake at 8.48 a. m., the total time for the lockage being 1 hour and 31 minutes. The Allianca steamed out into Gatun Lake, turned around, and tied up to the approach wall. Dynamometers for recording the towline pulls were then taken aboard and put into the lines of the leading and trailing locomotives, readings being taken

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EEPOET OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 117 at 10-second intervals. The attached plate, No. 91, is a record of the readings taken at that time. In accelerating a vessel of this size the towline pull is very irregular, and therefore some readings have been omitted on the attached graphical log. An instantaneous maximum pull of 35,000 pounds was noted upon each dynamometer. The accelerating and retarding tests were recorded and noted in the following table: Operation. Time. Distance, Angle, horizontal. Angle, vertical. Amount of cable. Remarks. Accelerating Retarding... Accelerating Retarding... 1 1 1 5 1 30 1 5 Feet. no 75 130 130 25 25 25 35 + 15 + 15 -15 + 12 Feet. 150 150 150 150 U.L. M. L. M. L. L. L. Note.— The negative angle denotes the fact that the locomotive towline was below a horizontal plane taken through the drum of the locomotive. The Allianca was held in the lower lock for 10 minutes after the gates were opened, in order to obviate any possible trouble due to the current resulting from a mixture of fresh and salt water. The Allianca was carrying a full cargo and had a draft of 18.2 feet. A total of 109 lockages have been made at Gratun up to June 30, 1914, including those made in both the west and east locks. The total amount of water used for lockages at Gatun has been 685,454,000 cubic feet. Lockages at Pedro Miguel. — The east lock at Pedro Miguel was watered at the time the Gamboa dike was blown out. On October 14, 1913, three barges were towed into the lower chamber and the upper valves were left open so that the water would rise in the lock as fast as the water entered Culebra Cut. On October 24, 1913, when the water in the Cut had risen sufficiently, the barges were towed through the locks by hand and left tied to the upper approach wall. The second lockage was made upon this same date, October 24, 1913, when the suction dredge No. 86, Clapet No. 9, tugs Miraflores and No. 26, the launches Louise and Birdena, together with pontoons and pipe for the suction dredge entered the lower chamber at 11.10 a. m. and left the upper chamber at 11.52 a. m., the total time of the lockage being 42 minutes. The west chamber of Pedro Miguel Locks was watered on the afternoon of December 31, 1913. The pump which had previously been installed in the west chamber of the lock to keep the water level down was operated for the last time at 7 a. m. on December 30, 1913. By January 2, 1914, the water in the chamber was 9 feet over the sill, or 13 feet over the floor of the lock, giving a leakage of about 0.5 of a cubic foot per second. This leakage was obtained with the water in the center-wall culvert at plus 50^. The chamber was filled through the west-wall culvert, the lower pair of valves being closed, as well as the lower operating and safety gates. At 7.50 a. m. one of the upper valves. No. 418, was opened 4 feet, and at 8 a. m. the valve was opened halfway. At 8.50 a. m. on January 2, 1914, the water in tli« west chamber was at Gatun Lake level, elevation plus 84, and by 9.15 a. m. both bulkheads had been removed from the upper end of the culvert.

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118 THE PANAMA CANAL. The first lockage in the west chamber at Pedro Miguel was made on January 7, 19 U, when the crane boat La Valley, Clapet No. 9, and barge No. 6 entered through the upper gates at 8.45 a. m. The vessels left the lower end of the lock at 9.36 a. m., the total time of Mhe lockage being 42 minutes. '' On March 28, 1914, a dummy lockage was made with the use of the lock control board, the first lockage handled by the remote control switchboard occurring on April 8, 1914, when the launch Naos and a log raft entered the lower end of the lock at 10 a. m. The launch and raft were towed through the locks by the towing locomotives and left the upper end at 3.30 p. m., the total time of the lockage being 5 hours 30 minutes. This was also the first time that the towing locomotives had been used for handling craft in the lock chamber at Pedro Miguel. A total of 70 lockages have been made at Pedro Miguel, the last lockage of the fiscal year being made on June 26, 1914. The total amount of water used at Pedro Miguel has been 266.970,000 cubic feet. Lockages at Miraflorcs Locks. — The first lockage of a craft through Miraflores Locks occurred on Tuesday, October 14, 1913. when the Clapet No. 6, tug Mirafiores with three barges, and the steam launch Birdena were raised through the west flight from the Pacific level to the surface of Miraflores Lake. The vessels entered the lower chamber at 11.15 a. m. and left the upper chamber at 12.41 p. m., the total time of the lockage being 1 hour 30 minutes. On January 12, 1914, water was let into the upper and lower chamber of the east lock at Miraflores. The operations carried out in watering the locks were similar to those which have been described in connection with the filling of Gatun Locks. Up to the present date 81 lockages have been made, the last occurring on June 26, 1914, when the Mariner was locked up, entering the lower lock at 11.02 a. m. and leaving the upper lock at 11.40 a. m., the total time of the lockage being 38 minutes. The first lockage with the use of the remote control switchboard occurred on June 24, 1914, when the Mariner., barges 62 and 64-, and derrick barge No. 1 entered the upper chamber at 8.20 a. m. for a down lockage. The vessels left the lower lock at 9.20 a. m., making the total time of the lockage 1 hour. The total amount of water used at Miraflores Locks up to the present date has been 1,079,369,000 cubic feet. Lockage of the '-^ Santa Clara.'''' — On June 18, 1914, the first seagoing vessel was locked through the Pacific Locks. The Santa Clara is owned by the W. R. Grace Co. and has a total length of 404| feet, a beam of 53 feet 8 inches, a draft of 26 feet, a gross tonnage of 6,309, and a displacement of 11,000 tons. The general log of the operations is as follows : The Santa Clara arrived at the lower approach of Miraflores Locks at 3.20 p. m. June 18, 1914. The lockage started at 3.38 p. m., the ship entering the lower lock of west flight at 3.42 p. m. and completed her lockage at 4.40 p. m., a total time of 58 minutes. She reached the east lock at Pedro Miguel at 5.10, the lockage starting at 5.18 p. m. and ended at 5.48, making a total time of 30 minutes. The Santa Clara was then turned around in the channel, and on June 19, 1914, she entered the lock at 7.12 a. m., the lines being cast off at the lower end at 7.48 a. m., a total elapsed time of 36 minutes.

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REPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 119 The vessel reached the upper approach of Miraflores Locks at 8.07 a. m., the lockage starting at 8.13 a. m., the lockage being completed by 9.55 a. m., a total elapsed time of 1 hour 42 minutes, the delay being due to the discharge of passengers at the lower flight. Lockage of the steamship ''''AnconP — The eighty-fourth lockage at Gatun was made with the second large seagoing vessel, the steamship Ancon. The Ancon has a total length of 489 feet 5 inches, a beam of 58 feet, a mold depth of 28 feet 9 inches, a gross tonnage of 9,606 tons, and a displacement at time of lockage of 18,000 tons. She entered the lower lock at Gatun on June 11, 1914, at 12.33 p. m. and left the upper lock at 2.18 p. m., the total time of the lockage being 1 hour 45 minutes. She was then turned around in Gatun Lake and entered the upper lock at 3.15 p. m., leaving the lower lock at 5.15 p. m., the total time of the lockage being 2 hours. Her passage through the locks was carried out by means of the towing locomotives without any unusual event of any kind. EMERGENCY DAMS. The operation of the emergency dam has been fully described in our previous reports. The dams have all been completed by the contractor and accepted by The Panama Canal upon the following dates : Gatun, Dam A accepted August 4, 1913. Gatun, Dam B accepted August 28, 1913. Pedro Miguel, Dam C accepted October 17, 1913. Pedro Miguel, Dam D accepted December 6, 1913. Miraflores, Dam E accepted February 14, 1914. Miraflores, Dam F accepted January 16, 1914. Tests. — A number of tests have been made upon the dams, and perhaps one of the most interesting was the determination of leakage under full head. On May 5 and 6, 1914, Dam A was put into service, the wedges being drawn at 10 a. m. The dam was turned across the channel, the girders and gates being lowered into place, after which the drive pipes were lowered, and the dam was ready for the test. On the morning of May G the upper lock was filled to lake level, after which the upper guard and operating gates were opened. The next operation was to lower the level of the w^ater below the dam, and during the operation observations were taken of various parts of the dam, as follows: 1. Clearance between bearing plate of the horizontal girders. 2. Clearance between wedges and wedge seat. 3. Deflections of horizontal girder. 4. Elevation of center point of upstream chord of horizontal truss. When the head was applied to the dam, the long arm wedge had a clearance of 1^ inches, but as the head was increased this clearance rose to l\l inches above the wedge seat. When a 40-foot head had been impressed upon the dam the doAA-nstream wedge on the long arm lifted entirely off the seat. A full head of 45 feet upon the dam gave a clearance of one-half inch on the downstream and 1| inches on the upstream wedges of the long arm. The only other wedge not in contact was the upstream wedge at the center of the dam, which remained seven sixty-fourths inch above its seat throughout the test. The wedge clearances are shown graphically on plate No. 92, attached.

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120 THE PANAMA CANAL. Observations were taken upon the downstream chord of the horizontal girder by means of a wire stretched across the lock close to this member, plate No. 93 showing the results obtained. Observations were also taken with regard to any changes that might occur in the elevation of the center point of upstream chord. These observations were taken with an engineer's level, the results being plotted graphically on plate No. 94, the maximum movement being 0.097 foot for an increasing head and 0.079 foot for a decreasing head. The leakage of the dam occurred along the drive pipes and at the horizontal joint between the gates. The greatest leakage, however, was at the bottom of the chambers, the water escaping through the girder-seat recesses. The rate of rise in the water level of the lock below the dam is shown graphically on plate No. 95. From this curve it was found that this allowed the passage of 950 cubic feet of water per second. The masonry abutments were examined while the dam was under full head and gave no evidence of being excessively loaded. After the water had equalized above and below the dam, the upper guard and operating gates were closed, the tests being completed. TELEPHONE SYSTEM. The general scheme of the electrical connections of the telephone system of the locks and lock-wall operation is as follows : Trunk-line connections will be carried into the manhole beneath the control house from the Balboa exchange via the trans-Isthmian telephone cable. These trunk lines will j^rovide for all interconnection with outside departments not taken care of by the local telephone switchboard in the control house. In order to provide for connection between the control house and the lock walls, telephone circuits were carried through the tunnels and taps taken out at each exterior lamp standard upon the side and center walls of the locks. In the base of the standards a telephone outlet box has been provided and porcelain jack buses installed and connected up to the telephone system. All of the circuits connecting the lamp standards are carried to the manhole just beneath the lock-control house, and at that point are brought together in a telephone junction box provided for the purpose. In order to provide for telephone connection with the machine rooms in the tunnels, individual lines are run to each transformer room from the lock-control house. We have also installed a line between the control house and each emergency dam, and another line is carried to the spillway machinery tunnel at both Gatun and Miraflores. All trunk lines and other incoming telephone cables are brought together in the manhole under the lock-control house where thev are connected in on the 4:0-pair moisture-proof junction box, and lead-covered cable is run from this point up to the telephone racks, and relay boards on the mezzanine floor of the control house. Teleplwne equipment. — The Western Electric Co. has been awarded the contract for furnishing the complete telephone equipment which will be required for the operation of the locks. This material is being manufactured in the United States at the present time and is due for complete delivery by November 26, 1914. The equipment may

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REPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 121 be divided into several subdivisions; first, that which will be required for the control of vessels passing through the locks; second, that which will be required in the upkeep and maintenance work in the lock tunnels; and third, the equipment required for local public service. Arrangements have been made to purchase three complete telephone central office equipments, each outfit consisting of a telephone switchboard, together with all of its necessary accessories for the satisfactory operation of the board, including the coil racks, distributing frames, line-protection equipment, storage batteries, battery cabinets, mercury arc rectifier, charging equipment, and the necessary cables for connecting up the complete installation. Each switchboard is to be constructed of solid mahogany and is to be equipped with the necessary plugs and jacks for caring for 30 subscriber's outfits, 4 incoming trunk lines, 5 plug-ended trunk circuits, 1 line pilot circuit, 1 night alarm circuit, 10 operator's coil circuits, and 2 control operator's circuits, together with 1 operator's ringing telephone set. Each circuit is to be equipped with double-lamp indication, 1 lamp for the answering cord and 1 for the calling cord. These circuits are to be used for obtaining connection with the transformer rooms, emergency dams, lock superintendent's offices, public telephone on first floor of control house, as well as taking care of the incoming trunk-line calls. The control-board operator's circuit is to be connected on telephone jacks located in each 4-foot panel of the control switchboard, and so arranged that the control-house operator may plug in with his portable set and obtain direct connection with the telephone outlets in the exterior lamp standards, or by indirect means he may obtain connection through any trunk line or subscriber's connection. If one of the superintendents wishes to get into connection with the controlhouse operator he plugs in with a portable hand set which is being provided for him, and immediately lamp indication will be given in the control house, and the control-house operator is expected to answer the call, either from his position at the lock-control board or through the telephone switchboard transmitter. In addition to the telephone jacks which are to be installed in each 4-foot panel of the lock-control board for the use of the control-house operator, we are arranging to install telephone jacks just beneath the second-floor level and immediately adjacent to the terminal boards of the control board. These jacks will be used by any of the maintenance men or repair men who may find it necessary to keep in communication with the lock-operating tunnels through the transformer rooms. If the control-house operator desires to get into touch with the superintendent of locks upon the lock wall, provision is to be made by which he can operate a "howler," located upon the roof of the lock-control house, by means of which we expect to be able to transmit sound to a distance of 4,000 feet from the lock-control house. The lock superintendent, upon hearing the signal from the control house, can plug in at one of the lamp standards and by this means get into touch with the control-house operator. We are also arranging to purchase iron-case telephone boxes, one of which will be installed in each transformer room of the lockoperating tunnels. Adjacent to each of these telephone boxes we

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122 THE PANAMA CANAL. expect to install either large, loud-ringing extension bells or a small "howler'' similar to that used for calling the lock superintendent from the control house. If the operator wishes to get into communication with one of the men in the operating tunnel, we expect to reach him by means of calling with the loud-ringing bells (or "howlers," as the case may be). We are to obtain one sample of the loud-ringing bells and one of the " howlers," and a test will be made to see which of the devices will be more satisfactory for calling the men in the tunnels. Each of the telephone boxes in the transformer rooms are to be equipped with telephone jacks in the base of the boxes, so arranged that a maintenance man may plug in w^ith a portable hand set which has been provided with an extension cord 200 feet long. By this means we expect to be able to provide communication between any one of the machines in the operating tunnels and the control-house operator, lock superintendent, or, in fact, any point upon the telephone system, if such connection is required. LOCK-CONTROL. SWITCHBOARDS. The General Electric Co. was awarded the contract for furnishing the lock-control switchboards for Gatun, Pedro Miguel, and Mirafiores Locks. The original specifications of the Commission were departed from as to the general construction of the board, and also with regard to the method of accomplishing the required interlocking of the control switches. The detail design of the board was left entirely to the contractor, the work being subject to the approval of The Panama Canal's inspection office in the United States. At each flight of locks and at the top of the upper center wall incline we have constructed the lock-control houses. The switchboards occupy the second floor of the building, the mezzanine floor being used for the installation of the interlocking racks and incoming five and eight conductor control cables. The switchboard level of the control house is 29 feet 3 inches above the lock-wall coping, in this way giving the operator an excellent view" of the entire flight of locks under his control. The control boards are designed to represent the locks in miniature, all machines being represented by individual-control switches, and wherever it is important for the operator to know the exact position of the machines being controlled, indicators have been provided which operate in synchronism with the machines in the lock-wall tunnels. The over-all width of the board is 5 feet 4 inches in every case, the top of the board being 2 feet 9 inches above the floor. In order to represent the lock chambers two parallel strips of blue Vermont marble have been run the entire length of the board, the center and two side walls being represented by cast-iron panels with raised bosses for mounting the control switches. The over-all lengths of the boards are as follows: Gatun lock-control board, 64 feet over all; Pedro lock-control board, 32 feet over all; Miraflores lock-control board 52 feet over all. The principal point of interest in connection with the lock-control boards is the means by which the operator is informed of the exact position of the machine being controlled. Certain of the machines have a very short period of operation, as is the case with the cylindrical valve, auxiliary culvert valve, and miter forcing machines,

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REPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 123 all of which operate from an open to a closed position in less than 10 seconds. It would be of very little advantage to the operator to be able to follow the operation of these machines, and therefore the use of red and green lamp indication has been adopted, the lamps being mounted adjacent to their respective control switches. All of the remaining lock equipment operates in a period varying from 50 seconds to over 2 minutes, and as each of the machines controlled is very massive it is of importance that the switchboard operator have definite information throughout the cycle of operation with regard to the exact position of the valve or machine being operated. This switchboard indication is accomplished by means of synchronous indicators which are electrically connected with transmitting devices mechanically connected to the large machines in the lock tunnels. The transmitting device is geared to the machine to be operated and any movement of the machine drive is immediately transmitted to the indicator on the lock-control switchboard. The indicators in every case are mounted above the switchboard and wherever possible are made so that they may be plainly seen from either an up or down stream position at the board. The chain-fender indicator consists of a small aluminum chain hung between two small semaphores and so arranged that it will be stretched taut across the switchboard when the large chain in the lock chamber is in that position. When the chain-fender machine is operated and the large chain is lowered to its recess in the bottom of the lock chamber each of the small semaphores operate synchronously with their respective chain-fender machines and the miniature chain is gradually dropped into a recess in the top of the switchboard. For the indication of the position of the rising-stem gate-valve and guard-valve machines indicators have been provided, which project above the switchboard approximately 14 inches. The up and down stream sides of the indicators are provided with opal glass sides, and lamps are arranged underneath the surface of the board in such a manner that they will project their light up into the indicator. A car is hung within the indicator and is raised and lowered in synchronism with the valve being operated. The bottom of the car has been provided with two refiectors, which are so arranged that they will throw a beam of light up and down stream from the indicator. The two opal glass openings are intended to represent the openings in the large valves of the culverts, and the open position of the valves in the culvert is indicated by the lighted portion of the opal glass — that is, if one of the valves is half open, the upper half of the opal glass will be dark and the lower half will be lighted up. The indicators for the miter gate-moving machines are made up to resemble a plan view of the miter gate leaves and are so arranged that whenever the gates are in their mitered position the indicators will be swung across the switchboard. When the gates are opened the small indicators move gradually, following the relative position of the large miter gates until they disappear in a small recess similar to the recess in the lock walls. The most accurate indicator provided for the switchboard is that used in connection with indicating the water levels in the lock chambers. These indicators are high stacks, some of them rising approximately 5 feet above the surface of the switchboard and each of them provided with vertical scales upon their up and down stream sides.

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124 THE PANAMA CANAL, These scales are protected by clear glass and arranged so that the operator may plainly note the position of the two floats, which move up and down the interior of the index with the rise and fall of the water level in the lock chambers. There are two separate and distinct indicator floats, which are used as a check upon each other, so that the operator may be assured of the correct indication of the device. The float well indicators indicate the level of the water in the lock chambers with an accuracy within one-twentieth of 1 foot, the 1-foot scale units of the indicator being divided into tenths. In addition to the indicators which have been provided for the operator's information, the boards are provided with a means by which the operator is prevented from making an erroneous operation in the control of the locks. A system of interlocking dogs and bars are mounted beneath the switchboard and are so arranged and interconnected that it is impossible for the operator to make an error in carrying out the proper sequence of lock operations. The lock control boards have all been completed, the erection work being carried out as follows : Completed. Gatun Oct. 27,1913 May 9,1914 Pedro Miffuel Dec. 8, 1913 June 26, 1914 Miraflores Feb. 3,1914 June 25,1914 The switchboards of all locks have been used for remote control of the lock operations, the Gatun control board being put into service on May 9, 1914, when a test lockage was made, all of the valves and gates of the west chamber being operated. On May 11, 1914, the first remote control lockage was made, and on the same day the electric towing locomotives were first used for the control of vessels passing through the locks. The lock-control board of Pedro Miguel was first used on February 8, 1914, when miter gates 50 and 51 were opened and closed. The first test lockage was made on March 28, 1914, the first actual lockage occurring on April 8, 1914, towing locomotives 666, 668, and 669 being put into service at the same time. The lock-control switchboard at Miraflores was put into actual service on June 24, 1914, lockage being carried out by the towing locomotives which had been in service since May 16, 1914. SUMP PUMPS FOR CRISTOBAL AND BALBOA SUBSTATIONS. We have arranged to purchase two sump pumps complete for the drainage of the substation buildings at Balboa and Cristobal. The machines are under construction in the United States at the present time and are to be delivered on or before September 1 of this year. SNUBBING POSTS. In order to provide for additional snubbing posts, which have been found to be necessary in the control of vessels at the different locks, we have arranged to purchase 207 type B snubbing posts and

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REPORT OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 125 26 type A snubbing posts. Twenty-two of the type B and 26 of type A snubbing posts will be used in providing for the shore connections of the floating caisson. The balance of type B snubbing posts will be installed along the lock walls wherever they have been found to be required. PUMPS AND MOTORS FOR GABLE CROSSOVERS. After the lock chambers had been watered it was found that the cable crossover tunnels leaked sufficiently to keep the water at a high level, necessitating the frequent use of the portable sump pumps, which had been provided for the purpose of draining the tunnels. In order to guard against the breakdown of the cables crossing the locks, it was believed advisable to install permanent pumps of sufficient capacity to take care of the leakage and keep the tunnels dry. For this purpose 16 motors and pumps have been purchased. Four of the pumps will discharge 25 gallons of water per minute against a head of 130 feet, and 12 of the pumps will discharge 25 gallons of water per minute against a head of 100 feet. The complete equipment is due to be delivered on or before November 7, 1914. The rough draft of this report was read over by Mr. Edward Schildhauer, electrical and mechanical engineer, and is submitted in his absence. Respectfully, C. J. Embree, Assistant Engineer. Col. H. F. Hodges, United States Army, Engineer of Maintenance, Culebra, Canal Zone.

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APPENDIX A-2. REPORT OF THE RESIDENT ENGINEER, DIVISION OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. Gatun, Canal Zone, July 15^ IQlIf. Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the operation of the division of municipal engineering during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914 : The division was created July 16, 1913, in accordance with the provisions of general circular 183-W, consolidating the division of public works and the municipal work in the three construction divisions, and placed in charge of a resident engineer reporting to the chairman and chief engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission. Effective April 1, 1914, in accordance with general reorganization orders of that date, it became a part of the department of operation and maintenance of The Panama Canal. The division is charged with the maintenance within the limits of the Canal Zone of all roads, streets, sewers, water lines, and, since July 16, with air lines, and excepting within the limits of the new town of Balboa, with the construction of same; with the operation and maintenance of all pump stations and water-purification plants: the inspection of plumbing, with the construction and maintenance of sanitary ditches; and with the design and construction of the new waterworks and purification plants for the southern and northern end of The Panama Canal. It is also charged with the maintenance and construction of streets, roads, sewers, water lines; supervision and inspection of plumbing; and the collection of moneys from water rentals within the cities of Colon and Panama. The division is divided into five principal subdivisions or sections, viz, northern district, southern district, waterworks for the southern end of The Panama Canal, filtration plants and water supplies, and designs. The northern district, in charge of E. H. Chandler, superintendent, includes all municipal construction, maintenance, and operation work, exclusive of operation of filtration plants, from and including Colon to Darien. The southern district, in charge of D. E. Wright, superintendent, embraces similar work from Darien to Balboa, including the city of Panama. Waterworks for the southern end of The Panama Canal, in charge of W. J. Spalding, assistant engineer, covers the construction of the purification works at Miraflores; pumping stations at Gamboa, Miraflores, and Ancon ; reservoirs ; and the laying of new mains. Purification plants and water supplies, in charge of James T. B. Bowles, physiologist, until INIuy 21, 1914, and to date in charge of 127

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128 THE PANAMA CANAL. E. J. Tucker, acting physiologist, covers the operation and care of filtration plants and the care and analyses of all Canal Zone water supplies. Designs covering all work of this character in the division are handled under the immediate supervision of the resident engineer, with Mr. T. C. Morris, assistant engineer, in charge of the drafting room. NORTHERN DISTRICT. The work of the division in this district consisted of the usual maintenance work on water and sewer systems and roads and streets and the operation of pump stations, in addition to several more or less extensive special pieces of work that were authorized from time to time. The resurfacing of the Mount Hope-Gatun Eoad, which was commenced in the last fiscal year, was completed in October, 1913. This work was performed by this division at the expense of the Canal Zone government. Minor repairs were made to other macadam roads and streets in the district from time to time as required. A new macadam street was constructed in Cristobal, leading to the new terminal docks of the Panama Eailroad Co. All the sewer mains in the district outside of the city of Colon were flushed twice each month during the year; frequent inspections and tests of valves and fire hydrants were made, to see that they were kept in good serviceable condition. A 4-inch water main was installed along the beach road in Colon, to provide better water service to the Panama Railroad Co. houses in that reservation; an intercepting sewer was also constructed at that point to provide suitable outfalls for the sewers from the Panama Railroad houses that are not connected with the sewer system of Colon. This work was all performed at the expense of the Panama Railroad Co. Permanent water mains for water supply and fire protection were laid to the new terminal docks in Cristobal. Sanitary ditches in this district were cleaned and maintained by the division; a total of approximately 400,000 linear feet being cleaned during the year upon request of district inspectors of the health department. This part of the Colon improvements upon which work was in progress at the beginning of the fiscal year was completed early in August, 1913, and no additional work in Colon has been undertaken under authority of the $800,000 appropriation. As a part of the maintenance work in Colon the D Street storm sewer was cleaned out in August. The sewage pumping station was operated continuously throughout the year. The number of individual water connections in use in the city of Colon on June 30, 1914, was 947, with 38 applications pending, an increase of 76 over the number in use at the beginning of the year. The total amount of water rentals collected from individual consumers in Colon during the year was $94,962.80, and the bills rendered against the Panama Government to cover deficiencies for the first three quarters of the year amounted to $9,156.90. The plant at Gatun for the manufacture of concrete pipe was operated until May, when a sufficient stock of pipe had been accumulated to warrant closing down the plant. During the year 3,748

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EEPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 129 feet of 24-mch and 5,307 feet of 20-mch pipe, or a total of 9,055 feet, was maunfactured, of which 3,153 feet was used by this division in municipal work and 2,668 feet furnished other divisions or to individuals and companies. The usual maintenance work in connection with the reservoirs in this district was performed. The following statement gives the consumption of water from each of the two reservoirs and the elevation of the surface of the water on the last day of each month during the year, together with the amount of rainfall at each point : 1913. Jiily August September October November December 1914. January February March April May June Brazos Brook. Consumption. 88,511,000 79,122.000 74,857,000 79,993.000 88.078,000 96, 388, 000 94,426,000 78,923,000 103,696,000 117,516,000 119,652,000 120,251,000 Elevation. 40.7 43.5 43.5 46.5 49.9 49.9 48.3 49.0 48.8 48.5 48.4 48.3 Rainfall. 11.51 17.03 11.96 17.85 21.32 12.52 .97 2.46 1.21 6.05 13.37 15.89 Agua Clara. Consumption 76. 000, 000 69, 276, 000 59,184,000 61,977.000 49,526,000 43, 937, 000 39.729,000 35,840,000 43,691,000 40,598,000 44,049,000 40,423,000 Elevation. 59.8 62.5 63.4 68.2 68.2 68.2 66.7 65.1 63.0 61.6 63.0 66.2 Rainfall. 15.99 12.36 7.97 16.48 19.81 10.71 .77 1.85 1.07 5.75 13.03 14.32 The level of the water in the Brazos Brook Reservoir was kept at about the same point during the dry season by letting water down from Gatun Lake through the tunnel, which was mentioned in the last annual report as a part of the new Colon waterworks system. The two pump stations in this district were maintained and operated as usual. An average of 95,118,000 gallons per month was pumped at Mount Hope, and an average of 50,353,000 gallons per month at the Gatun waterworks, Agua Clara. The new pump station at Mount Hope was completed and placed in service on February 23, and has been operated continuously since that date. The new water-purification plant at Agua Clara, a part of the waterworks for the town of Gatun, was successfully operated throughout the year. A description of this plant was given in the annual report for the year ending June 30, 1913. (See plate No. 16.) The new water-purification plant located at Mount Hope, and furnishing water to the city of Colon, Cristobal, and adjacent district, was completed and placed in service in February, 1914, and has been successfully operated since that date. A general description of this plant was given in the annual report for the last fiscal year. (See plates Nos. 17 and 18.) SOUTHERN DISTRICT. In the southern district, which includes all points south of Frijoles, the division performed the usual maintenance work on streets and roads and water and sewer systems, which included the taking up of a great deal of water pipe in towns on the west side of the canal 63399°— 14-

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130 THE PANAMA CANAL. that were inundated by Gatun Lake or for some other reason a.bandoned during the year. The pipe recovered in this way was either used immediately at other points in the Canal Zone or stored for future use. In addition to the maintenance work, the division also had charge of considerable construction work in this district, including the building of the silver town site of La Boca ; constructing the water and sewer systems and streets in Pedro Miguel and the concrete storm sewers in the gold town site of Balboa ; the construction of the driveway in front of the Tivoli Hotel; the widening of the road leading to the hotel from Panama City ; the installation of a water and sewer system for the Darien radio station; the installation of a permanent water-supply system for the Balboa shops; also the completion of the Ancon-Diablo macadam road, which was commenced in the previous year; and the supervision of the work on the Empire-Gamboa macadam road, which is being built by the Canal Zone government with prison labor. This is in addition to the construction work performed during the year in the city of Panama, which is referred to below. The different pump stations in the southern district were operated successfully during the year, the following table giving a result of the operations for each : Pump station. Ancon CocoU Miraflores (temporary) Pedro Miguel (temporary) Cucaracha Comacho Gamboa Caimito Gallons water pumped, daily average. 631,100 5,341,230 5,396,730 5,404,400 464,500 707,200 1,372,800 5,238 Period. Months. 12 3 9 3i 12 12 8 7 The usual maintenance work was performed on the reservoirs in the district. The following statement gives the outflow of water from two reservoirs, with the elevation of the surface of the water on the last day of each month during the year : Comacho. Rio Grande. Month. Outflow. Elevation. Outflow. Elevation. . 1913. July Gallons. 32,282,000 26,177,000 24,847,000 44,262,000 40,829,000 54,942,000 34,990,000 33,845,500 35,510,000 28,240,000 22,555,000 18,772,000 Feet. 348.2 350.2 348.6 349.9 358.5 355.3 351.7 347.9 343.3 338.5 341.8 349.2 Gallons. 119,842,000 77,476,000 51,440,000 73,784,000 93,300,000 96,564,000 64,844,000 62,415,000 27,336,000 24,314,000 24,610,000 24,422,000 Feet. 210.9 212.24 Sen timber 220.04 222.73 November 232.27 December 229.38 1914. January 225.70 February 221.47 March . 218.93 April 215.77 May 218.44 J une 229.09

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REPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 131 Upon requests of the district inspectors of the health department a great deal of work was done each month by this division on maintenance of sanitary ditches and other similar work. A total of approximately 425 miles were cleaned during the year. The work in the city of Panama included the usual maintenance work on the water and sewer system and the necessary repairs to the pavement; also the inspection and testing of plumbing installations, and the preparation and collection of water-rent bills. The number of metered connections in use in the city of Panama on June 30, 1914, was 2,223, with 48 applications pending, an increase of 133 over the number of metered connections in use at the beginning of the year. The amount of water rentals collected during the year was $134,820.10, all of which was used in payment of interest on and reduction of the capital cost after the regular quarterly charges for maintenance and operation had been paid. In addition to these water-rental collections, a deficiency bill was rendered against the Panama Government for the quarter ending March 31, 1914, amounting to $15,569.01. At a conference between officials of the Panama Government and of the Isthmian Canal Commission, held on June 7, 1913, an agreement was reached whereby certain sanitary improvements in the city of Panama were to be made by the Isthmian Canal Commission and the cost of same paid from a special appropriation of $76,000 by the Republic of Panama. The following list of improvements in the city of Panama were made by the division of municipal engineering during the past year under authority of this appropriation : Project No. 2. — The improvement of Calle Neveria, including the macadamizing of the street from the end of existing improvement to the intersection of street passing by the municipal stables, together with the construction of concrete curb and gutter and the placing of water and sewer mains in the street. Cost of the work, $4,536.96. Project No. k— The construction of a concrete storm sewer from B Street down West Eighteenth Street to the beach, and the construction of a similar sewer of smaller section from West Nineteenth Street down B Street to connect with the one leading to the beach. Cost of the work, $31,503.29. Project No. 5. — The extension of the water and sewer mains and the placing of concrete curb and gutter on the Sabanas Road from a point where the sewer formerly ended opposite the orphan asylum to the junction of the Sabanas and Corozal Roads. Cost of work, $5,429.30. Project No. 6. — Macadamizing and constructing of concrete curb and gutter in Santa Rosa Street from the Zone Line Road to Ancon Boulevard. Cost of work, $956.06. Project No. 7. — Macadamizing and the placing of water and sewer mains in the street past the municipal stables leading from Calle Neveria to the Sabanas Road. Cost of work, $2,723.86. Project No. 8. — Construction of extensive improvements around and in front of the National Institute in Panama City, including the macadamizing of the street directly in front of it and the construction of concrete sidewalks and steps. Work was still in progress at the close of the fiscal year. Cost of work to April 30, $13,044.16. Improvements were made by certain private individuals in that part of the city of Panama known as the Chorrillo district, and at the

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132 THE PANAMA CANAL. conference referred to it was agreed that the promoters who had had charge of these improvements should be reimbursed out of this special appropriation not to exceed $20,000 upon completion of their work and recommendation from this division that the maintenance of the improvements in the district be assumed by the Government. The work in the district was inspected by representatives of the division during the time it was in progress, and upon final completion the streets and water system and sewers in the district became a part of the improved area of the city of Panama. Several other improvements were made in the city of Panama during the past year by the division at the expense of the Panama Government that were not included in the projects discussed at the conference of June 7, 1913. The principal ones w^ere the construction of curb and gutter along the Zone Line Road south from the National Institute; the macadamizing and placing of water and sewer mains in Calle de la Independencia from Seventeenth to Nineteenth Streets; the concreting of a portion of East Seventeenth Street at its junction with Central Avenue; the paving of East Twenty-third Street with brick; the extension of E Street for a distance of 324 feet from West Sixteenth Street ; cutting off the corners at the junction of I Street and Central Avenue and the widening of the street at this intersection; the installation of a 6-inch trunk sewer and a 4-inch water line and the construction of concrete curb and gutter in the street near the new bull ring on the Sabanas Road ; the installation of a sewer main from East Twenty-third Street across the Panama Railroad yards to East Nineteenth Street, Guachapali; and the concreting of B Street from Eighteenth Street west to the Zone boundary line. The cost of this last item and also the paving of East Twenty-third Street was borne jointly by the Panama Government and the Panama Tramways Co. The concreting of B Street was undertaken in May and was still in progress at the close of the fiscal year. Authority has been given to lay an additional 10-inch main from a point in Ancon to connect with the Panama system in the vicinity of the orphans' asylum on the Sabanas Road. Work on the installation was in progress at the close of the year. WATERWORKS FOR SOUTHERN END OF CANAL. In March, 1913, the question of providing a permanent, adequate, and suitable water supply for the towns in the Canal Zone from Pedro Miguel south, including the city of Panama, was first taken up. The completion of the Miraflores Locks and the flooding of the Miraflores Lake would of necessity result in the elimination of the Cocoli pump station, located on the west side of the canal, from which station a large percentage of the total water consumed south of Pedro Miguel was being furnished. It was decided that this, combined with the fact that the Rio Grande watershed could no longer be considered available for more than possibly 3,000,000 gallons of water per day, and with the fact that, .while the arrangement of pipe lines, pumping stations, and the pressure filter plant at Ancon had successfully met up to this time all demands placed upon them, the concentration of headquarters of all departments in the Balboa district, the constant growth and expansion of the city of Panama, and

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REPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 133 the development of terminal facilities and shops at the entrance to the canal, called for the development of an entirely new source of supply and the design and construction of modern purification works and pumping stations, all to form a necessary part of the complete canal equipment. The results of the first studies of the project as a whole were embodied in the report of a committee submitted March 12, 1913. This report as approved recommended the construction of the necessary pumping stations; the laying of the necessary additional main water lines; construction of a complete purification plant of the rapid, mechanical, gravity type; and the construction of a highservice reservoir on the side of Ancon Hill; all to be based on a nominal maximum capacity of 12,000,000 gallons of filtered water per day. Further detailed studies resulted in the presentation of a report on design and estimates of cost on five different projects. One of these involved taking the raw water from Miraflores Lake, pumping it to the water purification plant, to be located on Miraflores Hill inmiediately above the spillway; laying a new 30-inch main from this plant to the Ancon district; the construction of a booster pumping station at Ancon ; and the enlargement of the then existing 1,000,000gallon reservoir on the side of Ancon Hill to a reservoir of 2,500,000gallons' capacity. This involved locating the raw-water pump station on the Camitillo arm of the Miraflores Lake east of the Panama Railroad. This project, making use of the Miraflores Lake water, figured out to be by far the cheapest and most suitable of any project contemplated or considered feasible, but it involved the condition that the water of Miraflores Lake should not increase in chlorine content beyond 75 to 100 parts per million through the operation of the Miraflores Locks admitting sea water to the lake. A discussion of the possibility of such a rise of chlorine developed the opinion that the chance would be good for the upper layers of the remote arms of the lake not rising in chlorine beyond a usable limit, at least for a period of years, assuming that intimate diffusion between the salt water admitted by the locks and the fresh water of the lake would not be rapid. It was thought that at the end of dry seasons, if necessity arose, the salt or heavier water might be drawn off from the lake and the surface raised back to normal level by admission of fresh water from the Gatun Lake. With this question temporarily settled in this way, authority was given to proceed and work was commenced August 1 of the fiscal year. The impending filling of the Miraflores Lake necessitated the construction of the foundations and sumps of the raw-water pump station and the intake and screen chambers, which part of the work was completed in November at the time the Miraflores Lake had commenced to fill. Following this the walls of the pump station were carried up to the level of the roof and work was suspended at this point the latter part of December. The water-purification plant is to be similar in general features of design to the new purification plant located at Mount Hope. It consists principally of an aeration basin in which the raw water is first admitted and thrown up in the air into spray as a preliminary treatment; a head house, containing mixing chambers, where dii-

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134 THE PANAMA CANAL. ferent chemicals are applied, aluminum sulphate and hypochlorite of lime solution mixing tanks and storage rooms for these chemicals ; a sedimentation basin, approximately 125 feet wide by 300 feet long, 16 feet deep, holding approximately 4,500,000 gallons, giving at 12,000,000 gallons output per day, approximately 8 hours sedimentation; a filter building, approximately 62 by 150 feet in length, containing 14 filters, arranged 7 on each side of a central gallery and supported on columns over a clear water basin, having a capacity of approximately 900,000 gallons of water ; an office, laboratory, and quarters building; a wash-water pump station, known as station No. 2, containing pumps for pumping filtered water up to a wash-water tank of 300,000 gallons capacity; and an injection chamber and control house, in which is measured and applied the hypochlorite of lime to be used as a sterilizing agent as a final treatment after filtration. (See plates Nos. 96 and 97.) The three pumping stations are to be equipped with single or multistage centrifugal pumps, direct connected on the same bed plates to induction motors operating on a 220-volt, 25-cycle, 3-phase current. All piping will be placed in the basement below the main floors and all valves will be hydraulically operated from central slate operating tables. In the case of the Ancon pump station there will be contained within the building a high-service and low-service system so designed that in the event of fire in Panama city or other points east of the station the operation of three hydraulic valves would place the high service in the mains for fire use without disturbing service in the mains to the west of the building, or, in case of fire in the terminals in the Balboa district, requiring the use of the high-service system, similar valve control would make available the high-service system in this district without affecting the low-service system in the Panama district. In the same way arrangements have been made to provide a high-service supply back to the town of Corozal for use in case of fire. Work was commenced on the purification plant, located on Miraflores Hill, on August 1, and steam-shovel and hand excavation was completed by January 28. The concrete work was immediately commenced, and at the end of the fiscal year the clearwater basin ; the main and false floors of the 14 filters, including the strainer system; the floor and underdrain system of the sedimentation basin ; 25 per cent of the walls of this basin ; and the main mixing chambers of the head house were practically completed. (See plate No. 19.) In addition, the new 30-inch line between the purification plant and Ancon was received from the States, laid, and placed in service on the existing raw water supply. The construction of the high-service reservoir, located at elevation 300 on the side of Ancon Hill above the old administration building, was commenced September 1 and completed and placed in service on June 1, 1914. The construction of the Ancon pumping station, known as pumping station No. 3, was commenced in January, and at the end of the fiscal year was practically completed and ready for installation of pumping equipment. The electrical pumps for this station were rejected at the works of the contractor, following preliminary tests, because of failure to meet efficiency requirements. The delays inci-

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REPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 135 dent thereto will result in delivery not being made until approximately October 1, or five months after contract date. In January chlorine sampling stations were established in Miraflores Lake and weekly samples were taken of the water at the bottom and at the surface. These stations, numbered 1 to 5, were located as shown on the accompanying chlorine chart, plate No. 98. It was early discovered following the commencement of the operation of the locks that the chlorine content was steadily rising. By February this content had risen to a point where it seemed that constant diffusion was taking place and throughout all areas of the lake was general. The chlorine content of the surface of the water in the Caimitillo arm of the lake had by this time risen to approximately 60 parts per million, and the first trouble was experienced with boilers at the Miraflores power plant. In connection with the observations for chlorine at the different stations referred to, a strikingly high and unaccountable amount of chlorine was found immediately south of the end of the south center approach wall of the Pedro Miguel Locks. In this vicinity, for a width of approximately 200 feet and for a length to the south of approximately 2,000 feet, the bottom samples of water showed chlorine contents running at times as high as 15 per cent salt water, or 3,000 parts per million. In order to bring down the chlorine content of the water being pumped to Panama, a temporary pump station was installed at Pedro Miguel and approximately 4,000 gallons of water per minute was pumped from the cut north of the Pedro Miguel Locks and discharged into the Miraflores Lake immediately in front of the temporary pump station. This resulted in a decided drop of the chlorine content of the water going to Panama, but resulted in a great increase in the turbidity of the water due to turbid conditions of the water in Culebra Cut. The operation of this pumping station was continued in an effort to keep down the chlorine or to vary it at will until the beginning of the rainy season when the influx of fresh water from the watershed lowered the chlorine from 100 parts per million to approximately 55 parts, where it stands at the present time. (See chlorine chart, plate 98.) On June 1 the temporary pump station at Pedro Miguel was closed down. By the middle of February the general rise of chlorine had become such as to indicate that Miraflores Lake would eventually reach a degree of salinity that would make it impracticable for use as a source of industrial and domestic water supply for the southern end of the canal. Recommendations were made at this time in connection with the presentation of several reports on the matter that the lake be abandoned as a water supply ; that the raw water pump station be move-l to the Chagres River arm of the Gatun Lake at Gamboa ; and that the raw water be taken from the Gatun Lake at this point and pum^^ed through a 30 to 36-inch cast-iron main laid alongside the main line of the Panama railroad to the purification plant on Miraflores Hill. Under this project it would be necessary to pump the water to the summit of the continental divide. From this point it would run by gravity to the aeration basin at Miraflores; thence through the purification plant by gravity, and from there by gravity to pump station No. 3 at Ancon, where it would be

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136 THE PANAMA CANAL. pumped into the service mains and into the high and low service reservoirs. Pending action on this recommendation various studies of the flow of tlie salt water from the locks into the lake were made. In an effort to draw off the heavy saline water lying at the bottom of the lake the surface was drawn down to approximately elevation 40 feet above sea level, and the lake was refilled with fresh water from Culebra Cut. This operation tended to distribute and diffuse the water of high chlorine content within the vicinity of the Pedro Miguel Locks, with the result that the general chlorine content of the lake was found to be higher after the operation than before. Further, the chlorine was found to have extended up the Caimitillo, Pedro Miguel, and Cocoli Kiver arms of the lake, thereby indicating more or less conclusively that the presence of any water carrying a higher chlorine content than the normal fresh water was accompanied by constant diffusion and tendency of the general chlorine content of the lake to rise. On May 11 decision was finally made to adopt Gatun Lake at Gamboa as a source of permanent water supply and work was commenced immediately to this end. By the end of the fiscal year the excavation for the sump for the raw-water pump station at this point had been practically completed and the specification and plans for the cast-iron pipe line from this plant to Miraflores accompanied by specifications was ready for bidders. OPERATION OF PURIFICATION PLANTS. The operation of water-purification plants in the Canal Zone was in charge of the physiologist of this division. At the Agua ('lara plant the wash-water tank, having a capacity of approximated 10,000 gallons, referred to as under construction in the last annual report, was completed and placed in service. This resulted in more satisfactory wash conditions in connection with the operation of the filters, increasing the rate of wash water from approximately four to nine gallons per square foot of area of filtering surface. The completion of the construction work at Gatun resulted during the year in a marked drop in the consumption of water, which in turn resulted in the operation of the filters at less than one-half their rated capacity. With the view to keeping all the filters in the plant in service, the rate controllers were changed so as to give a filtration rate of approximately 65,000,000 gallons per acre per day. This gave satisfactory results for the first part of the year, but resulted during the last three months in the development to a more or less extent of growths in the underdrains, which has resulted in an increase of the bacterial count in the filtered water. The new purification plant at Mount Hope is similar in practically all respects to plants of like character constructed in the United States, with the addition of an aeration basin containing more or less elaborate nozzles for breaking the water into fine spray as preparatory treatment to sedimentation. In the design of the aeration nozzles arrangements were made whereby the nozzles automatically open or close depending upon the flow through the filters, and thus is automatically controlled the input of raw water to the plant. This

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EEPORT OF EESIDENT ENGINEER MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 137 device, which it is believed has not been embodied in plants of this character heretofore, has given excellent service during the first three months of operation. The aeration system, in addition to assisting in removal of odors and taste, also decreases the iron content of the water by oxidizing and precipitating that portion which exists as ferrous oxide or hydroxide. However, to date, this portion of the iron content has been almost negligible, and most of the iron has been found existing as iron organic compounds, so that straight coagulation and sedimentation has been sufficient to remove it. During aeration the free carbonic acid is almost completely removed and the dissolved oxygen content increases practically to the saturation point. The sedimentation basins have been operated on a more or less experimental basis in order to determine the period of sedimentation that would give best results from all standpoints. With one basin in use under the present output from the plant approximately five hours sedimentation is obtained, and two basins in service gives double this period. It has been indicated by the condition of the water for the past three months that a longer period of sedimentation results in longer filter runs and requires a less amount of wash water for cleaning. On the other hand, however, the longer period seems to favor bacterial growths both in the basins and the filters, resulting in a lower relative efficiency based on apparent bacteria removal. With the shorter period of sedimentation, the bacteria removal has been quite satisfactory and the tendency toward bacterial growth seems to be lessened. The high temperature of the water averaging 29° C, flowing into the sedimentation basin gives rise to excessively heavy floe, necessitating weekly cleaning of the basins. The amount of sludge produced in a week's time is remarkable, and although the organic content of the raw water is comparatively high this great amount of sludge is one of the striking characteristics of the plant. The average results obtained from the old pressure filter plant at Ancon and at Mount Hope and from the gravity filter plant at Agua Clara for the past year are shown by the following table: Mount Hope. Clara. Ancon. Gallons water filtered, monthly average Gallons water filtered, daily average Bacteria in raw water per c. c Bacteria in fi Itered water per c. c Alum used, pounds, average per month Alum used, pounds, average per day Alum used per gallon, grains 89,846,000 2,994,8.i4 737 367 29,040 96S 2.1 45,332,000 1,511,079 511 182 13,920 464 2.1 77,009,000 2,566,980 624 455 19,620 654 1.7 The average results of the operation of the new Mount Hope plant for the last three months of the year are given below : Gallons treated 123. 239. 000 Wash water, gallons 11,883,000 Per cent wash water 9.9 Filters washed 278 Average minutes wash water 7.8 Alum, grains, per gallon 2.23 Average filter, hours per day 82. 5 Average number filters, service 3.4 Average length run between washing, hours 9. 3

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138 THE PANAMA CANAL. The following table gives the average result of analyses of raw and filtered water at the new Mount Hope purification plant for the last three months of the year, and of the Agua Clara filter plant for the last six months of the year : , Mount Hope. Agua Clara. Raw. Filtered. Raw. Filtered. Turbidity 25 50 34 6.7 4.6 Trace. 1.0 3.7 98 31 16 8 25 85 23 6.4 5.2 Trace. 1.2 5.1 95 54 15 4 Color 9 29.8 6.3 1.8 2 Alkalinity 6 Chlorine 6.4 Oxygen consumed 1.8 Nitrates Trace. Iron .3 6.9 69 20 3 Trace. FreeCOa 10.1 Totalsolids 80 Loss on ignition 12 Number times B. coli present in month in— lOc.c 1 Ic. c The Miraflores Lake water is polluted to a more or less extent by the scAvage from the towns of Pedro Miguel and Paraiso and the floating equipment operating through the canal. The use of this water as a domestic and industrial supply for the southern end of the canal makes imperative its treatment with hypochlorite of lime. The necessary solution tanks, control apparatus, and measuring orifices were designed and constructed as a part of the temporary pumping station at Miraflores, and hypochlorite bleach was introduced into the water on the suction side of the pumps at the time this station was first placed in service in the month of October. The turbid conditions obtaining demanded the use of comparatively high quantities of bleach per million gallons of water. At times this quantity reached 30 pounds of chemical per million gallons of water, giving approximately 1.2 parts per million available chlorine without objectionable tastes or odors being complained of by the consumers. The comparatively high temperature of the water, combined with high organic and low mineral content, no doubt explains this. On an average 0.7 to 0.8 parts per million of available chlorine has been giving satisfactory bacteriological results. DESIGNS. The work accomplished in the drafting room of the division office covered the complete studies and designs of the entire water-supply project for the southern end of the canal. This involved the making of approximately 300 large tracings of general and detail plans of buildings, equipment, and control apparatus entering into the construction of the purification plant and pumping stations. At the end of the fiscal year all of the principal drawings had been completed, and there remains at this date the studies and designs of numerous small control apparatus to be installed in connection with the application of the chemicals at the Miraflores purification plant. There also remains to be designed certain laboratory equipment and details of small devices to be embodied therein.

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KEPORT OP RESIDENT ENGINEER MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 139 In addition to the above, there were completed 10 detail drawings required in connection with the construction of the new town sit«s o± I'edro Miguel and La Boca, and miscellaneous improvements accomplished during the year in the cities of Colon and Panama for the (rovernment of Panama. Plans for the permanent water supply at loro Point were prepared. Approximately 7,000 blue prints were made and issued during the year. Plate No. 139 a chart showing the organization of the division as ot June 30, 1914, is appended hereto. Respectfully submitted. Geo. M. Wells, /^ 1 TT -n TT Resident Engineer. Col. H. F. Hodges, Engineer of Maintenance, Culehra, Canal Zone.

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CO LU I<

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APPENDIX A-3. REPORT OF CHIEF HYDROGRAPHER, SECTION OF METEOROLOGY AND HYDROGRAPHY. CuLEBRA, Canal Zone, July 10, 1914-. Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the report of the section of meteorology and hydrography for the fiscal year 1913-14: PERSONNEL. The personnel of the division remained the same as that of last year until the reorganization was effected April 1, 1914, consolidating the meteorological and hydrographic sections into one division under a chief hydrographer, reporting to the engineer of maintenance. This reorganization effected a reduction of tlnee in the gold force, two hydrographers, and one observer, and regraded the supervisor as chief hydrographer and the principal meteorologist as assistant chief hydrographer. The present force consists of Chief Hydrographer F. D. Willson, Assistant Chief Hydrographer H. G. Cornthwaite, and five assistants. During the year, in addition to the regular duties, much special work was performed for other divisions and outside scientific bodies of the United States and foreign Governments. METEOROLOGY. General. — ^Few changes were made during the past fiscal year in the meteorological stations operated under the duection of the chief hydrographer. Except as noted below, all of the stations enumerated in the annual report of the Commission for the fiscal year 1913 were continued in operation. Sosa wind records were discontinued on January 1, 1914, and the station dismantled. The wind station at Gatun was moved from Guarapo Island to its present location on the administration building at Gatun December 16, 1913. The wind station at Pedro IVIiguel was removed from the west side of the canal to its present location on the tower of the hydrographic station on the upper east wing waU of the locks November 14, 1913. A wind station was established at Gamboa on November 11, 1913. The instruments are exposed on the tower of the hydrographic station. Evaporation records at Brazos Brook were discontinued on April 1, 1914. 141

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142 THE PANAMA CANAL. The seismograph station on Guarapo Island was closed on Febniaiy 20, 1914, and the instruments returned to their original location at Ancon. These instruments were installed on Guarapo Island for the purpose of recording any possible tilting or subsidence of earth strata due to the building of Gatun Dam or the fiUing of the lake. The records showed no evidence of tilting or depression, and the instruments were removed soon after the lake filled to operating level. A lake rainfall station was estabhshed on the Siri branch of the Trinidad in January, 1914, and a similar station was estabhshed near the head of the Gatun River branch of Gatun Lake in May, 1914. Records from these stations are obtained for use in estimating the monthly rainfall over the lake watershed. Instruments for recording wind velocity and direction were installed at the site of the Darien radio station on June 18, 1914. This installation was made at the request of the engineer in charge of terminal construction. Precipitation. — The rainfall for the year 1913 was deficient at all stations except Brazos Brook, Colon, and Porto Bello. The annual totals ranged from 59.54 inches at Balboa to 171.19 inches at Porto Bello. The average precipitation in the Pacific section was 65.96 inches, and in the central and Atlantic sections 84.93 inches and 138.50 inches, respectively. The 1913 dry-season rainfall amounted to but 4 per cent of the annual total in the Pacific section, 8 per cent in the central section, and 10 per cent in the Atlantic section. May was the rainiest month in all sections and March the month of least rainfall. The maximum 24-hour rainfall recorded during the year 1913 was 10.65 inches at Porto Bello on May 14-15. Daily quantities in excess of 4 inches were recorded as follows: station. Date. Amount. Porto Bello May 15 May 16 May 21 Aug. 10 do Inches. 10 57 Do 5 90 Colon 4 74 Brazos Brook 4.35 Porto Bello 6 06 Do Aug. 15 Aug. 28 Oct. 20 do 4 04 Colon 4 55 Monte Lirlo 4 00 Brazos Brook 5.50 Porto Bello Nov. 8 Nov. 24 5 13 Do 4.44 Rainfall during the first six months of 1914 has continued generally below normal. The greater part of this deficiency occurred in the dry-season months — January to April, inclusive. Monthly records for 1913, 1914, and the station averages are represented in Table No. 1, while the maximum rainfall of record for periods of 5 minutes, 1 hour, and 24 hours at stations equipped with automatic registers is shown in Table No. 2. Temperature. — The average air temperature for the year 1913 was sUghtly above normal. March was the month of highest mean temperature and November the month of lowest temperature.

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KEPORT OF CHIEF HYDROGRAPHER. 143 The means and extremes in air temperature for the year 1913, at the three fii'st-class stations, are presented in the following table: stations. Maximum. Minimum. Annual mean. •F. Date. •F. Date. •F. Ancon 96 95 91 Apr. 27 Apr. 14 June 22 66 64 71 Feb. 22 Jan. 4 Feb. 4 80.3 Culebra 79.2 Colon 80.1 The absolute maximum and minimum temperatures of record are shown below, revised to June 30, 1914: Stations. Maximum. Minimum. •F. Date. •F. Date. Ancon 97 96 92 Apr. 7, 1912 May 5,1912 June 3, 1909 63 61 66 Jan. 27,1910 Mar 21 1Q10 Culebra Colon Dec 3.1909 Note.— The lowest temperature of record on the Isthmus was 59° F., observed at Bas Obispo on Feb. 9, 1907. The maximum temperature record at Ancon, 97° F., was equaled at the Naos Island station on Feb. 13, 1906. Temperatures continued generally above the station averages during the first six months of 1914. Monthly temperature records and other weather data for the year 1913 at the three first-class stations are presented in Tables Nos. 3, 4, and 5. Wind. — Wind records on Sosa Hill were continued throughout the year 1913 for comparison with the Ancon records. The average wind movement for the year was 47 per cent greater on Sosa Hill than at Ancon, due to the higher elevation and better exposure of the Sosa instruments. The prevailing direction was from the northwest at each station. Northwest wind prevailed 81 per cent of the time at Sosa and 60 per cent of the time at Ancon. The wind movement over the Canal Zone for the year 1913 was generally slightly above normal. North and northwest winds prevailed. March was the windiest month at all stations and November the month of least wind movement. The following table, revised to June 30, 1914, shows the maximum wind velocities of record at the first-class stations : Maximum velccity. stations. Miles per hour. Direction. Date. Ancon 59 40 40 S NE S July 10,1909 Nov 19 1913 Culebra Colon July 16,1908 Atmos'pheric pressure. — The mean pressure for the year 1913 was generally below normal. February was the month of highest mean pressure at all stations and November the month of lowest pressure.

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144 THE PANAMA CANAL. Relative Tiumidity. — The mean relative humidity in 1913 was practically normal at all stations. The lowest average humidity occurred in April and the highest in November, Cloudiness. — The average daytime cloudiness was generally below normal during the year 1913. February was the month of least average cloudiness and May and November the months of heaviest cloudiness. Evaporation. — The evaporation for 1913 was above the station averages at aU stations, but it was generally hghter than the annual evaporation in 1912. Evaporation during the first six months of 1914 continued above normal. The monthly records are shown in Table No. 6. The annual evaporation in 1913 and station averages are presented in the following table: Annual evaporation. Station. 1913 Average. Years of record. Ancon. . . . 58. 253 54. 950 64.811 63. 211 54. 942 48. 773 53.609 61.527 56. 100 61. 636 6 R io Grande 5 Gatun 3 Brazos Brook. . .. 5 Colon 5 Fogs. — Night and early morning fogginess was of frequent occurrence during the year 1913. The average number of fogs observed at the interior stations was 137. The greatest number of these occurred during May and the least number in February. Few fogs were observed during the year at either coast station. Practically aU fogs lifted or were dissipated by 8.30 a. m. Sea temperature — The average surface temperature of the sea water for the year 1913 was approximately normal on both coasts. The highest temperature recorded was 87° F. at Colon on several dates, and the lowest 64° F. at Balboa in February and March. Tidal conditions. — Tide regi:5ter3 were continued in operation at Balboa and Colon. The tidal extremes of record at these stations are given below (length of record, seven vears), table revised to June 30, 1914: station. Maximum high water. Extreme low water. Maximum daily range.' Minimum daily range. 1 Elevation. Date. Elevation. Date. Feet. Date. Feet. Date. Balboa -1-11.2 -11.65 Get. 2, 1909 Nov. 27,1909 -10.6 1.01 Apr. 11,1910 June 9,1910 20.8 2.17 Apr. 11,1910 June 2S, 1911 5.1 Mar. 24,1911 ' For consecutive tides. 'One tidal fluctuation oiten entirely absent at Colon. Tide conditions on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for the year 1913 are shown in Table No. 7. Seismology. — Seismic disturbances were more numerous and more severe on the Isthmus during the fiscal year 1913-14 than in any

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EEPOET OF CHIEF HYDROGRAPHER. 145 previous year since the American occupation of the Canal Zone. Eighty seven shocks were recorded at Aiicon during the past fiscal year. Of these 55 were of comparatively local origin — less than 200 miles distant. The remainder were tremors from shocks of distant origin. Practically all of the local shocks seemed to originate in the vicinity of the lower coast of Los Santos Province, approximately 115 miles southwest of Ancon. Ten of these shocks were of sufficient intensity to be generally felt over the Isthmus, ranging from intensity III to intensity V, Rossi-Forel scale. The canal works suffered practically no damage from these shocks, although the new administration building at Balboa was slightly damaged by the shock of May 28. A complete list of seismic disturbances recorded at Ancon during the fiscal year 1913-14 is presented in Table No. 8. The following diagrams and tables accompany the meteorological section of this report: Plate No. 99. Wind Roses, year 1913, dry and rainy seasons. Table 1. Monthly rainfall on Isthmus of Panama. 2. Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone. 3. Monthly meteorological data, Ancon, year 1913. 4. Monthly meteorological data, Culebra, year 1913. 5. Monthly meteorological data, Colon, year 1913. 6. Monthly evaporation. Canal Zone, 1913-14, and averages. 7. Tidal conditions, year 1913. 8. Seismograph records, Ancon, fiscal year 1913-14. Table 1. — Monthly rainfall on Isthmus of Panama, 1913-14, and station averages. [Values in inches.] Station. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year. Ancon: 1913 . . 0.63 .32 .99 .78 .30 1.09 2.65 .57 2.14 1.10 1.27 1.01 2.09 1.08 1.43 1.57 .38 1.74 1.60 .46 1.25 1.67 .34 .85 2.65 .64 1.87 0.22 .02 .81 .19 .54 2.49 1.82 .07 .07 .91 .43 .25 .65 .78 .20 .57 .44 .33 .76 .79 .27 .58 .68 .23 .85 0.43 T. .76 .78 .72 .02 .37 .30 T. .32 .57 .01 .68 .50 .22 T. .41 .08 .02 .81 0.03 4.80 2.58 .06 4.94 3.82 .79 2.69 3.18 1.04 3.00 3.19 1.12 .83 3.26 .71 .62 3.67 2.52 .49 3.38 .90 .50 3.26 1.07 1.38 3.46 8.27 6.98 8.93 8.04 8.16 7.27 12.33 10.90 9.85 13.48 13.16 11.07 12.33 10.77 11.07 11.74 13.26 11.18 16.03 14.15 12.04 11.74 12.87 9.87 15.13 10.28 11.05 8.15 7.28 8.15 7.15 7.25 7.90 9.49 5.64 10.56 9.00 11.35 10.09 8.05 9.92 9.20 9.10 8.06 8.87 9.65 10.46 10.05 11.48 8.87 8.59 8.02 17.78 9.64 4.85 8.20 11.43 8.30 10.63 4.84 65 98 1914 Average, 16 years. Balboa: 1913 7.97 4.22 7.57 6.74 7.69 9.01 10.77 10.33 10.46 9.30 4.22 3.72 70.90 59.54 1914 Average, 15 years. Miraflores: 1913 9.50 5.41 7.50 4.23 6.94 8.92 9.60 10.28 9.10 9.15 5.82 4.38 69.86 70.12 1914 Average, 5 years.. Pedro Miguel: 1913 8.44 6.80 8.21 5.46 10.62 8.32 12.54 12.07 11.72 10.17 7.53 2.14 87.33 69.65 1914 Average, 6 years.. Rio Grande: 1913 8.73 5.74 8.31 7.68 8.81 8.95 12.46 7.08 10.86 9.15 6.51 1.59 82.32 64.51 1914 Average, 9 years.. Culebra: 1913 10.45 5.52 10.04 9.76 10.93 10.55 12.43 6.08 10.90 11.21 5.45 1.50 86.13 69.09 1914 Average, 23 years. Camacho: 1913 9.34 4.01 10.54 10.13 11.20 6.75 11.32 7.78 12.26 12.90 7.41 1.98 88.78 73.79 1914 Average, 7 years.. Empire: 1913 9.89 4.87 10.39 10.46 10.56 9.14 13.34 7.25 13.24 14.23 6.06 2.03 91.46 74.78 1914 Average, 9 years.. Gam boa: 1913 8.83 8.06 9.79 16.45 8.39 9.48 13.29 8.71 11.35 14.13 5.22 1.82 80.43 86.28 1914 Average, 31 years. 16.37 12.33 16.47 12.67 12.32 6.81 92.65 63399°— 14-10

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146 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table 1. — Monthly rainfall on Isthmus of Panama, 191S-14, and station averages — Continued. Station. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year. Juan Mina: 1913 1.01 .44 .40 .96 .09 1.21 .78 .28 1.13 3.85 .81 2.26 3.45 1.57 3.34 3.57 .83 3.60 4.63 1.63 3.92 5.72 .90 3.83 6.71 1.35 4.03 5.84 2.38 7.51 0.94 .38 1.08 .22 .22 .75 .86 .51 2.39 3.03 1.33 3.02 1.80 1.16 2.68 2.52 1.55 4.04 2.92 1.07 2.46. 4.20 .94 2.57 1.75 1.32 1.48 2.03 2.20 4.13 0.36 .02 .22 .08 .05 .62 .10 .14 .70 .29 .40 .20 1.11 .71 2.82 .60 1.19 3.23 1.01 .96 2.70 .71 1.21 2.88 .79 .91 1.65 1.17 .98 2.49 0.54 1.01 1.31 .72 1.68 3.04 .98 2.05 1.88 2.44 2.95 1.82 2.52 3.16 4.75 3.54 4.44 4.65 5.38 3.26 4.20 5.23 7.33 3.46 2.69 4.12 4.05 2.34 2.66 5.86 13.20 8.40 13.32 12.63 5.66 12.74 13.35 7.47 12.56 21.07 14.33 15.68 17.73 13.58 14.69 16.29 11.42 14.67 17.06 10.91 15.82 18.77 13.17 13.98 22.60 17.76 12.65 30.51 16.22 17.74 9.67 12.51 10.48 11.51 12.55 12.76 10.80 17.34 13.27 8.72 13.05 10.98 11.20 9.61 11.10 10.71 14.55 13.13 10.70 12.64 13.39 12.17 15.84 15.36 11.81 16.30 13.32 9.00 15.08 16.12 6.99 10.34 8.22 7.90 16.34 1.62 77.13 1914 Average, 3 years.. Alhajuela: 1913 8.47 6.99 11.42 10.92 10.35 8.82 11.29 6.41 13.48 16.56 6.22 1.59 87.04 77.41 1914 Average, 14 years. El Vigia: 1913 12.81 6.32 12.94 10.24 11.41 7.50 13.05 8.26 14.40 16.91 6.71 1.03 102.44 77.13 1914 Aver age, 5 years.. Frijoles: 1913 11.66 6.52 12.80 14.75 11.90 11.61 14.81 14.52 16.52 17.81 5.60 4.73 105. 22 109. 3< 1914 Average, 2 years.. Trinidad: 1913 8.20 8.36 14.19 13.39 11.77 11.30 16.86 11.86 16.84 10.43 5.19 4.12 107.01 97.27 1914 Average, 6 years. . Monte Lirlo: 1913 9.32 8.70 11.63 10.42 12.05 14.12 14.62 14.90 20.00 15.02 10.03 7.19 117.03 107.58 1914 Average, 6 years.. Gatun: 1913 13.23 9.73 11.02 12.32 12.44 9.95 16.32 15.17 22.89 15.88 10.53 8.06 129.75 112.81 1914 Average, 9 years.. Brazos Brook: 1913 12.08 11.51 14.09 16.93 9.73 11.96 16.45 17.85 21.67 21.32 12.79 12.52 129.30 138.89 1914 Average, 7 years.. Colon: 1913 16.21 15.13 14.96 17.91 11.62 9.90 15.52 18.63 24.27 16.75 i3.98 6.55 138.64 131.22 1914 Average, 43 years. Porto Bello: 1913 16.35 20.83 15.08 25.35 12.47 11.34 14.38 18.85 21.74 33.47 12.18 10.46 129.38 171.19 1914 Average, 6 years. . 19.77 18.93 13.28 12.53 30.16 20.63 169.15 Note.— Station averages do not include records for the year 1914. Table No. 2. — Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone October 1, 1905, to June 30, 1914. [Values in inches.] Maximum rainrall. Stations. 5 minutes. 1 hour. 24 hours.* Inches. Date. Inches. Date. Inches. Date. Ancon (Oct. 1, 1905) 0.64 .90 .60 .75 .64 .60 .59 .60 .62 .64 3 2. 48 .67 Aug. 7, 1908 May 12,1912 Nov. 11,1908 July 24,1908 May 2, 1908 Julv 25,1906 July 27,1908 July 20,1909 Aug. 3,1912 Aug. 25,1909 Nov. 29,1911 June 16,1909 3.98 5.86 3.30 3.10 3.69 3.63 3.32 3.40 3.82 4.90 4.53 4.51 Oct. 9,1911 June 2, 1906 Aug. 27,1908 Sept. 21,1912 Oct. 16,1907 Oct. 1,1909 May 11,1911 Dec. 28,1909 May 26,1910 Oct. 8, 1909 Nov. 29,1911 Aug. 7, 1908 7.23 7.57 4.56 6.00 5.55 6.15 6.56 8.19 10.48 8.53 10.86 8.85 May 12-13, 1912. Balboa (June 10, 1906) Pedro Miguel (Jan. 1, 1908).. Rio Grande (Dec. 29, 1905) . . Culebra (July 1 , 1906) Empire (July 18, 1906) Gamboa (Nov. 18, 1905) Alhajuela (Mar. 31, 1907).... Gatun (Aug. 24, 1907) Colon C^ct. 1, 1905) Nov. 16-17, 1906. Sept. 30-Oct. 1, 1909, Dec. 2-3, 1906. Dec. 3, 1906.* Do.s Dec. 2-3, 1906. Do.J Dec. 3, 1906.2 Dec. 2-3, 1906. Porto Bello (May 1, 1908).... Bohio (Oct. 1,1905) « Dec. 28-29, 1909. Aug. 7-8, 1908. > Maximum fall in any 24 consecutive hours. * No automatic record on this date; total for 24 hours ending at noon. •Approximate; automatic record indistinct, due to unusually excessive rate of fall. < Station closed January, 1912. Note. — Dates in parentheses opposite station names refer to installation of automatic register.

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REPORT OF CHIEF HYDROGRAPHER. 147 Table No. 3. — Monthly meteorological data — Ancon, Canal Zone, year 191S. Month. January . . . February. . March April May June July Aupust September. October November. December . Year, Atmospheric IJressure (inches). a o 29. 749 29. 774 29. 752 29. 752 29. 744 29. 732 29. 735 29. 721 29. 719 29. 741 29. 708 29. 745 29. 739 03 w o » o 5,451 6,247 7,898 6,971 5,002 3,978 5,158 4,640 4,497 4,276 3,009 5,547 62,674 ton a o NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW NW. NW. NW. Maximum velocity. CO 3 o o 21 26 26 24 20 32 21 22 25 22 25 22 32 N. N. NW. N. N. S. N. SE. N. N. N. NW. S. «11 Number of days. 75 — >> ^ 3 P. '^ 15 13 19 23 2 7 22 25 24 19 24 16 209 3 o 6 5 29 20 2 5 4 4 4 2 81 W 4 2 14 18 20 23 18 21 21 3 144 3 o 03 > 5.0 3.6 4.4 6.0 8.8 7.4 5.2 6.1 5.5 5.3 5.9 4.3 5.6 » Elevation of barometer 92 feet above sea level. »April. » February. < Average for 16 years' record. ' Tenths of sky. • June.

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148 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 4. — Monthly meteorological data — Culebra, Canal Zone, year 191S. Atmospheric pressure (inches). Air temperature (degrees Fahrenheit). a o S £ d (0 4J -a 3 Month. d > o M Si a a V, ga a 3 a 3 a 3 a a 1^ aS ii 1^ © © © 1 "a § January 29.442 29.472 29. 450 29.444 29.437 29.424 29.432 29.416 29.410 29.430 29. 400 29.436 29.856 29.887 29.863 29.856 29.850 29.837 29.844 29.828 29.822 29.844 29.813 29.850 78.7 78.0 79.8 80.1 79.7 80.1 80.1 79.2 79.1 78.9 78.2 78.5 90 90 92 95 91 92 90 92 91 90 89 88 8 21 27 14 5 5 24 1 23 19 7 24 87 87 89 90 87 88 87 86 86 86 84 86 64 66 67 65 69 69 71 70 70 69 70 68 4 4 16 20 27 24 4 7 9 9 5 6 71 69 70 70 72 72 73 72 72 72 72 71 22 24 23 27 20 22 18 19 18 18 18 19 72 70 72 72 74 74 75 74 74 74 74 73 71 69 70 70 73 74 74 74 74 74 74 73 89 Febmary March 86 82 April 80 May 91 June 91 July 91 August 94 September October 94 95 November December 96 94 Year 29.433 29.846 79.2 95 «14 86.9 64 «4 71.3 27 73.2 72.5 90.2 Precipitation (inches). Wind. Number of days. 03 Month. *.» a o a . > CO OS. S'a o EH 5 bed .S.2 '.—•+.* Maximum velocity. 3 o a o 2; a m P3 a K 3 « o 1^ 1 O £ 5 03 Q g3 O — >> 3 'O a 3 o o 1 < January 1.57 .78 .57 .71 11.74 9.10 5.52 9.76 10.55 6.08 11.21 1.50 1.74 .57 .68 3.66 11.18 8.87 9.34 10.54 11.20 11.32 12.26 7.41 6 6 2 4 24 19 22 25 26 21 26 14 6,142 6,513 8,083 7,006 4,921 3,695 5,313 4.588 4,043 3,845 4,192 5,820 NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. NW. 27 28 33 28 26 31 25 40 25 30 40 23 N. NW. N. N. SE. S. N. NE. NE. NE. NE. NW. 29 10 8 4 7 11 19 27 24 11 19 8 13 15 16 8 1 7 12 13 15 19 11 11 8 4 9 9 1 12 6 3 20 18 23 27 21 22 29 12 4 1 18 15 17 23 16 14 11 1 4.6 February March 3.7 3.7 April 5.0 May 8.0 June .......... 7.5 July 8.4 August 8.9 September October 8.0 8.5 November December 9.2 6.1 Year 69.09 88.77 195 64, 161 NW. 40 NE. •19 60 124 181 120 6.8 1 Elevation of barometer 404 feet above sea level. 'April. •January. * Average for 23 years' record. 6 Tenths of sky. • November.

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REPORT OP CHIEF HYDROGRAPHEB. 149 Table No. 5. — Monthly meteorological data — Colon, R. P., year 191S. Month. Atmospheric jjressure (inches). g3 > Air temperature (degrees Fahrenheit). a a a a s 03 as ia a o a u a> JQ . o a IS •a .St; "a January . . , February.. March -Vpril May June July August September Octol er... November. December. Year 29. 864 29. 897 29. 87S 29. 872 29,859 29. 843 29.856 29. 835 29. 826 29. 847 29. 820 29.865 29. 875 29. 90S 29. 890 29. 884 29. 870 29. 854 29. 868 29. 846 29.838 29. 858 29.831 29. 876 80.8 80.0 81.4 80.8 79.4 80.2 80.6 79.8 80.2 79.5 79.2 79.7 87 86 87 87 86 91 88 87 89 88 88 86 7 27 25 25 6 22 17 3 27 19 16 8 85 84 85 84 83 85 84 83 85 84 83 84 72 71 73 73 73 73 73 72 73 72 72 72 31 4 26 21 28 11 8 21 9 20 14 12 77 76 78 77 75 76 77 76 76 75 76 76 12 13 12 10 12 17 14 13 14 15 12 13 75 73 74 74 76 76 77 77 76 76 76 76 73 71 72 72 75 75 76 76 75 75 75 74 82 78 78 78 87 88 87 89 88 88 90 84 29.855 29.866 80.1 91 «22 84.1 71 »4 76.2 17 75.5 74.1 84.8 Month. January . . . Feliruary.. March April May June July August September, October. .. November. December. Year Precipitation (inches). 6.71 1.75 .79 2.69 22.60 11.81 15.13 17.91 9.90 18.63 16.75 6.55 131.22 03 a o 2; 4.03 1.48 1.65 4.05 12.65 13.32 16.35 15.08 12.47 14.38 21.74 12.18 129.38 a K 17 10 17 14 26 22 24 26 22 21 26 21 246 Wind. a a . o 10,034 8,886 12,158 9,283 6,875 5,420 7,281 7,013 5,555 5,627 6,515 8,75S 93, 405 bra a o NE. N. N. N. N. SE. NE. W. SE. SE. NE. N. N. Maximum velocity. i +^ 'O 13 03.2 13 12 20 17 17 11 12 16 9 11 9 14 161 3 o 4 1 1 5 14 15 15 13 17 16 21 7 129 2 16 15 20 22 13 17 11 3 119 g -3 3 o C3 4.5 4.0 4.4 5.1 7.1 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.0 6.8 8.2 5.2 6.1 1 Elevation of barometer, 10 feet above sea leveL « June. » February. « Average for 43 years' record. • Tenths of sliy. 'November.

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150 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 6. — Monthly evaporation, Canal Zone, years 1913, 1914, and averages. [Values in inches.] Ancon. Rio Grande. Gatun. Month. 1913 1914 Average (6 years). 1913 1914 Average (5 years). 1913 1914 Average (3 years). January 5.935 6.439 7.816 6.465 3.963 3.615 3.858 3. 90S 4.006 4.169 3.379 4.700 6.924 8.014 8.506 6.227 4.143 3.280 5.063 5.560 6.702 5.089 3.284 2.859 3.158 3.169 3.26S 3.457 3.027 4.137 5.392 5.844 6.762 6.436 4.033 3.812 3.963 3.901 3.783 3.758 2.741 4.525 5.520 5.965 7.062 6.413 4.870 3.733 5.565 5.677 6.878 5.651 4.304 3.473 3.765 3.779 3. 732 3.623 2.957 4.205 5.435 6.889 8.602 7.333 4.606 5.083 4.664 4.570 4.934 4.844 3.560 4.291 4.821 6.298 7.504 6.688 5.262 4.558 5.821 Fel)ruarv6.412 March 7.918 April 7.138 May 5.068 June 3.715 July 4.371 Aui^ist 4.431 September 4.439 October 4.192 November 3.197 December 4.825 Year 58. 253 48. 773 54. 950 53.609 64.811 61. 527 Brazos Brook. Colon. Month. 1913 1914 Average (5 years). 1913 1914 Average (6 J years). January 6.387 6.616 8.455 7.466 4.167 4.500 4.277 4.248 4.934 4.343 3.071 4.747 6.331 6.456 7.769 5.940 5.685 7.266 6.023 4.413 3.694 3.823 3.975 4.299 4.119 2.881 3.982 5.993 5.915 7.702 7.179 3.731 3.414 3.370 3.129 3.555 3.328 3.000 4. 626 6.125 5.974 6.519 5.643 4.020 3.394 5.879 Februarv-6.146 March 7.301 April 6.207 Mav 3.633 June 2.985 July . 2.902 3.090 Sftntftmber 3.237 3.367 November 2.805 December 4.004 Year 63.211 56.100 54.942 51.556 > station closed Apr. 1, 1914. Note.— Insulated tanks 10 inches in diameter at Ancon and Colon. Water surface protected from action of sun and rain. Exposed pans 4 feet in diameter and 10 inches deep floating in water at Rio Grande, Brazos Brook, and Gatun. For monthly evaporation during past years, see previous annual reports. Table No. 7. — Tidal conditions, year 1913. [Elevations in feet refer to mean sea level.] PACIFIC COAST— BALBOA, CANAL ZONE. Month. Maximum high. Date. Extreme low Date. Maximum amplitude.* Date. Minimum amplitude.! Date. January. +10.0 + 9.9 +10.3 + 8.8 + 8.6 + 8.1 + 9.3 + 10.2 + 10.7 + 10.9 + 10.0 + 8.4 +10.9 25 23 23 22 19-20 7 7-8 6 3-4 2 1 1 (') 9.7 -10.6 -10.4 -10.5 8.5 7.5 7.8 8.8 9.3 9.6 8.6 7.8 -10.6 25 22-23 24 21 20-21 6 6 4 2 2 1 29 («) 19.7 20.5 20.4 19.2 17.1 15.5 17.0 18.9 20.0 20.5 18.6 15.4 20.5 25 23 24 21 20 7 6 5-6 3 2 6.7 6.5 6.2 6.1 6.5 6.8 6.S 6.4 6.6 6.3 6.7 6.5 6.1 17 Febr ary 16 March 2 April 1-29 May 1 June 29 July 29 August 27 September 25 October 9 November 7 December 4 Year (•) » For consecutive tides. ' Several dates. » Oct. 2. * Feb. 22-23. » Feb. 23. • Apr. 1-29.

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REPOET OF CHIEF HYDROGEAPHER. 151 Table No. 1.— Tidal conditions, year 1913 — Continued. ATLANTIC COAST— COLON, PANAMA. Month. Jan"ary... Febr ary . March April May June July Ar.g st... September October... November, December. Year Maximum high. +1.44 +1.11 +1.01 +1.02 +1.18 +1.28 + 1.23 + 1.48 + 1.43 + 1.39 + 1.66 + 1.35 + 1.66 Date. 22 20 17 19 21 5 31 29 9-25 3 15 24 Extreme low. -0.50 .74 .69 .58 .58 .53 .65 .32 .19 .45 .49 .50 .74 Date. (2) 30 18 27 13 22 23 16 2 8 31 29 12 Maximum amplitude. 1.79 1.70 1.68 1.52 1.68 1.66 1.71 1.64 1.54 1.59 1.84 1.73 1.84 Date. 22 18 27 25 21-22 17 5 12 24 31 27 26 Minimum amplitude. 0.20 .22 .21 .20 .20 .23 .24 .21 .21 .21 .26 .20 .20 Date. 20 1 16 13 26 12 26 29 13-25 3-23 24 21 iNov. 15. « Feb. 18. » Nov. 27. < Several dates. Note.— One tidal fluctuation is often entirely absent at Colon. Table No. 8. — Seismograph records, Ancon, Canal Zone, year ended June SO, 1914. [Latitude, 8° 57' north; longitude, 79° 32' west.] [100 K. Bosh-Omori seismographs. Greenwich mean time, midnight to midnight.] Date. 1913 JiUy25 July 25 July 28 Aug. 6 Aug. 7 Aug. 7 Aug. 9 Aug. 9 Aug. 10 Sept. 12 Oct. 1 Oct. 2 Oct. 2 Oct. 2 Oct. 2 Oct. 2 Oct. 2 Oct. 2 Oct. 2 Component. {|: N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W. /N-S. \E-W. N-S. E-W. N.S. E-W. N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W. f"N-S. \E-W. N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W.i N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W.i N-S. E-W. N-S. E-W. Time of beginning. Preliminary tremors. 11.38.00 11.38.00 12.39.00 12.39.00 5.45.00 5.45.00 22.20.00 22.20.00 (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) 17.33.00 17.33.00 (?) (?) 18.48.00 18.48.00 4.24.50 4.24.50 5.59.50 5.59.50 7.27.00 8.10.50 8.10.50 8.48.00 8. 48. 00 10.18.05 12.28.00 (?) 13.41.10 13.41.10 Long waves. 11.39.00 11.39.00 12.40.00 12.40.00 5.50.00 5.50.00 22.25.00 22.25.00 2.22.00 2.22.00 16.23.00 16.23.00 5.42.00 5.42.00 18.56.00 (?) 17.34.00 17.34.00 20.42.00 20.42.00 18.50.00 18.50.00 4.25.10 4.25.10 6.00.10 6.00.10 7.27.20 8.11.10 8.11.10 8.48.20 8.48.20 10.18.25 12.28.20 (?) 13.41.30 13.41.30 Time of— Maximum. 11.39.00 11.39.00 12.40.00 12.41.00 5.50.00 5.52.00 22.26.00 22.26.00 2.22.00 2.22.00 16.23.00 16.23.00 5.42.00 5.42.00 18.56.00 (?) 17.34.00 17.34.00 20.43.00 20.43.00 18.. 50. 00 18.50.00 Pen off. Pen ofi. 6.04.40 6.04.40 7.27.30 8.11.20 8.11.20 8.48.25 8.48.25 10.18.30 12.28.25 12.28.25 13.42.30 13.42.30 End. 11.49.00 11.46.00 13.15.00 13.02.00 6.20.00 6.10.00 23.23.00 23.15.00 2.36.00 2.31.00 16.26.00 16.25.00 5.44.00 5.44.00 19.01.00 (?) 17.38.00 17.38.00 21.09.00 21.04.00 19.06.00 19.04.00 5.40.00 5.40.00 6.29.50 6.20.00 7.29.00 8.18.00 (?) 8.55.00 8.50.00 10.21.00 12.42.00 12.36.00 14.10.00 14.04.00 Maximum amplit de (miUimeters). 0.5 0.5 12.5 9.5 2.5 0.5 40.0 25.0 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.3 2.0 3.0 75.0+ 75.0+ 3.0 3.0 0.3 3.0 7.0 3.0 2.0 0.7 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 Approximate distance of epicenter. Miles. 225 225 'i,'656' 1,000 '(?)"'" Local. "(?) (?) (?) (?) Distant. 350 115 'iis 115 'iis 'ii5 "iis' 'iis iis Probable direction. (?) (?) (?) (7) (7) (7) (7) (?) (?) (?) (7) (7) SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. 'No record on east-west component.

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152 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 8. — Seismograph records, Ancon, Canal Zone, year ended June SO, 19HContinued. Date. 1913. Oct. 2... Oct. 2... Oct. 2... Oct. 2... Oct. 3... Oct. 3... Oct. 3... Oct. 4... Oct. 4... Oct. 4... Oct. 4... Oct. 4... Oct. 5... Oct. 5... Oct. 6... Oct. 8... Oct. 8. . . Oct. 9... Oct. 9... Oct. 12.. Oct 12.. Oct. 12.. Oct. 12.. Oct. 17.. Oct. 23.. Oct. 24.. Oct. 24.. Oct. 24.. Oct. 25.. Oct. 26.. Nov. 13. Nov. 24. Dec.l... Dec. 2... Dec. 15.. Component. Time of beginning. Preliminary tremors. 14.45.00 14.45.00 19. 07. 30 19. 07. 30 21.53.10 21.53.10 22. 49. 00 22. 49. 00 4.1.S.50 4. 18. 50 6. 12. 50 6.12.50 10. 23. 30 10. 23. 30 4. 35. 30 4. 35. 30 10. 28. 30 10. 28. 30 10. 43. 40 10. 43. 40 22. 06. 00 22. 06. 00 23. 58. 40 23. 58. 40 0. 18. 00 0. 18. 00 22. 00. 00 22. 00. 00 7.37.00 7.37.00 2.23.00 2. 23. 00 (?) (?) 1.52.00 1.52.00 18.37.30 18.37.30 0. 46. 40 0. 46. 40 4. 24. 05 4. 24. 05 12. 00. 10 12. 00. 10 22. 38. 00 22. 38. 00 0.21.55 0.21.55 15.01.35 15.01.35 0. 25. 20 0. 25. 20 2. 34. 30 2. 34. 30 5. 17. 00 5. 17. 00 14.35.30 14. 35. 30 22. 40. 10 22. 40. 10 11. 54. 05 11. 54. 05 (?) (?) 22. 28. 30 22. 28. 30 (? (? 13. 35. 10 13.35.10 Long waves. 14.45.20 14.45.20 19. 07. 50 19. 07. 50 21.53.30 21.53.30 22. 49. 20 22. 49. 20 4. 19. 10 4. 19. 10 6. 13. 10 6. 13. 10 10. 23. 50 10. 23. 50 4. 35. 50 4. 35. 50 10. 28. 50 10. 28. 50 10. 44. 00 10. 44. 00 22. 06. 20 22. 06. 20 23. 59. 00 23. 59. 00 0. 18. 20 0. 18. 20 22. 00. 20 22. 00. 20 7.37.20 7. 37. 20 2. 23. 20 2. 23. 20 21. 58. 35 21. 58. 35 1. 52. 20 1.52.20 18.38.30 18. 38. 30 0. 47. 00 0. 47. 00 4. 24. 25 4. 24. 25 12. 00. 30 12. 00. 30 22. 38. 20 22. 38. 20 0. 22. 15 0. 22. 15 Pen off. Pen off. 0. 25. 40 0. 25. 40 2. 34. 50 2. 34. 50 5. 17. 20 5. 17. 20 14. 35. 50 14. 35. 50 22. 40. 30 22. 40. 30 Pen off. Pen off. 8. 00. 00 8.00.00 22. 29. 30 22. 29. 30 18. 57. 40 18. 57. 40 13. 35. 30 13. 35. 30 Time of— Maximum. 14.46.00 14.46.00 19. 08. 00 19. 08. 00 21.54.00 21.54.00 22. 50. 00 22. 50. 00 4. 19. 20 4. 20. 00 6. 13. 25 6. 13. 25 10.25.00 10. 25. 00 4. 36. 00 4. 36. 00 10. 29. 00 10. 29. 00 10. 44. 05 10. 44. 05 Pen off. Pen off. 23. 59. 10 23. 59. 10 0. 18. 30 0. 18. 30 22. 00. 30 22. 00. 30 7. 37. 30 7. 37. 30 2. 23. 30 2. 23. 30 21. 58. 35 21.58.35 1. 52. 30 1.52.30 18. 40. 00 18. 39. 30 0. 47. 05 Pen off. 4. 24. 30 4. 24. 30 12. 00. 35 12. 00. 35 22. 38. 50 22.38.50 0. 22. 20 0. 22. 20 Pen off. Pen off. 0. 25. 50 0. 25. 40 2. 35. 30 2. 35. 00 5. 17. 50 5. 17. 30 14. 36. 00 14. 36. 00 22. 40. 30 22. 40. 30 (?) (?) 8. 10. 00 8. 30. 30 22. 30. 00 22. 30. 00 18. 58. 00 19. 00. 00 13.35.35 13. 35. 35 End. 15.00.00 15.00.00 19. 10. 00 19. 10. 00 21.55.00 21.55.00 22. 52. 00 22. 52. 00 4.21.00 4.21.00 6. 14. 00 6. 14. 00 10. 38. 00 10. 27. 00 4. 40. 00 4. 40. 00 10. 32. 00 10.31.00 10. 48. 00 10. 48. 00 23. 20. 00 23. 20. 00 0. 06. 30 0. 05. 00 0. 20. 00 0. 20. 00 22. 02. 00 22. 02. 00 7. 38. 30 7. 38. 30 2. 25. 00 2. 25. 00 22. 00. 00 22. 00. 00 1.54.00 1.54.00 19.00.00 19. 00. 00 1. 25. 00 1.15.00 4. 27. 00 4.27.00 12. 03. 00 12. 03. 00 22. 44. 00 22. 44. 00 0. 22. 55 0. 22. 55 Pen off. Pen off. 0. 35. 00 0. 35. 00 2. 40. 00 2. 40. 00 5. 22. 00 5. 22. 00 14. 38. 00 14. 38. 00 22. 42. 00 22. 42. 00 12. 40. 00 12. 40. 00 8. 38. 00 8. 38. 00 22. 40. 00 22. 40. 00 19. 02. 00 19. 02. 00 13. 39. 00 13. 39. 00 Maximum amplit de (milUmeters) 2.5 2.0 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 1.5 1.0 0.3 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 75.0+ 75.0+ 8.0 8.0 9.0 3.5 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 19.0 9.0 45.0 (?) 0.5 0.4 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 (?) (?) 5.0 5.0 1.0 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 75.0+ 75.0+ 0.3 0.7 2.0 1.5 0.2 0.2 1.5 1.5 Approximate distance of epicenter. Miles. 115 115 lis' 115 iis' 115 "iis 115 iis' 115 iis 115 "iis "iis 115 "iis (?) lis 350 "iis lis "ii5 115 "ii5 lis? "ii5 115 'iis 115 "iis (?)115 Distant. 300 (?) lis Probable direction. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW, SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. (7) SW. (?) SW. SW. SW. SW. SW. SW.? SW. SW, SW. SW. SW. SW(?). (?). (?). (?). SW.

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KEPORT OF CHIEF HYDROGEAPHER. 153 Table No. 8. — Seismograph records, Ancon, Canal Zone, year ended June SO, 1914 — Continued. Date. Component. Time of beginning. Time of— Maxim"ni amplit de (millimeters). Appro.ximate distance of epicenter. Preliminary tremors. Long waves. Maximum. End. Miles. Probable directioa 1914. Jan. 17 /N-S. lE-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \EW. ;n-s. \E-W. (N-S. \E-W. (N-S. \E-W. (N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S \E-W. /N-S. lE-W. /N-S. lE-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-S. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. lE-W. /N-S. lE-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. lE-W. /N-S. lE-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. (N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. \E-W. /N-S. lE-W. 14.34.50 14.34.50 3. 44. 00 3. 44. 00 22. 57. 15 22. 57. 15 1.27.00 1.27.00 5. a3. 30 5. 03. 30 6.31.00 6. 30. 00 6. 42. 15 6. 42. 15 11.06.10 11.06.10 19. 07. 55 19. 07. 55 19.32.55 19. 32. 55 19. 48. 40 19. 48. 40 6. 56. 20 6. 56. 20 11.15.50 11.15.50 16. 23. 15 16. 23. 15 16. 49. 55 16. 49. 55 20. 10. 00 20. 09. 55 23. 20. 50 23. 20. 55 13. 02. 00 13. 02. 00 13. 47. 30 13. 47. 30 21.01.40 21.01.40 13. 09. 40 13. 09. 40 18. 07. 00 18. 07. 00 21.34.10 21.34.20 5. 04. 15 5. 04. 40 gi 19.38.00 19. 38. 00 0. 45. 00 0. 45. 00 21. 05. 20 21. 05. 20 13.31.10 13.31.10 0. 27. 15 0. 27. 15 3. 24. 50 3. 24. 50 17. 24. 10 17. 24. 10 10. 34. 30 10.34.30 14. 36. 00 14. 36. 00 3. 51. 00 3. 51. 00 22. 57. 35 22. 57. 35 1. 27. 20 1. 27. 20 5. 03. 50 5. 03. 50 6.31.20 6. 31. 20 6. 42. 35 6. 42. 35 11.06.30 11.06.30 19.08.55 19. 08. 55 19. 33. 55 19. 33. 55 19. 49. 00 19. 49. 00 6. 56. 40 6. 56. 40 11. 16. .50 11.16.50 Pens off. Pens off. 16. 50. 15 16. 50. 15 20. 10. 15 20. 10. 10 23. 21. 50 23. 21. 55 13. 02. 20 13. 02. 20 13. 47. 50 13. 47. 50 22. 02. 00 22. 02. 00 13. 10. 40 13. 10. 40 18. 08. 15 18. 08. 15 21. 36. 00 21.36.10 5. 09. 30 5.09.30 8. 23. 00 8. 23. 00 19. 39. 30 19.39.30 0. 48. 00 0. 48. 00 21.06.10 21.06.10 13. 32. 00 13. 32. 00 0. 28. 30 0. 28. 30 3. 25. 05 3. 25. 05 17. 24. 25 17. 24. 25 10. 34. 45 10. 34. 45 14. 36. 10 14.36.10 3.51.00 3. 54. 30 22.58.30 22. 58. 30 1.27.30 1.27.30 5. 04. 00 5. 05. 20 6.31.30 6.31.30 6. 42. 40 6. 42. 40 11.06.35 11.06.35 19. 10. 00 19. 10. 00 19. 35. 00 19.35.00 19. 49. 05 19. 49. 05 6. 56. 45 6. 56. 45 11.17.00 11.18.00 (7) (?) 16. 51. 00 16. 51. 00 20. 10. 25 20. 10. 25 23. 22. 00 23. 22. 00 13. 02. 25 13. 03. 00 13. 48. 00 13. 48. 30 22. 02. 10 22. 02. 10 13. 10. 45 13.11.20 18.08.30 18. 08. 30 21.38.00 21.38.00 5.09.35 5. 09. 35 8. 23. 30 8. 23. 30 19. 41. 30 19. 39. 45 0. 52. 15 0. 52. 00 21. 06. 20 21. 06. 30 Pens off. Pens off. 0. 29. 45 0. 28. 50 Pens off. Pens off. 17. 24. 30 17. 24. 30 10. 34. 50 10.34.45 14. 44. 50 14.40.00 5. 35. 00 5. 20. 00 23. 25. 00 23. 17. 00 1.37.00 1. 35. 00 5.21.00 5. 18. 00 6. 35. 00 6. 33. 00 6. 55. 00 6. 47. 00 11.13.00 11.11.00 19. 22. 00 19. 16. 00 19. 40. 00 19. 37. 00 19. 53. 00 19. 52. 00 7. 01. 00 7. 01. 00 11. 25. 00 11. 25. 00 16. 48. 00 16. 45. 00 17. 13. 00 17. 05. 00 20. 25. 00 20. 24. 00 23. 29. 00 23. 27. 00 13. 12. 00 13. 10. 00 13. 55. 00 13. 52. 00 22. 08. 00 22. 06. 00 13. 13. 00 13. 13. 00 18.11.00 18.11.00 21. 52. 00 21.51.00 5. 25. 00 5. 20. 00 8. 28. 00 8. 32. 00 19. 56. 00 19. 47. 00 2. 13. 00 1. 43. 00 21.15.00 21.12.00 14. 20. 00 14. 04. 00 0. 50. 00 0. 40. 00 3.54.00 3. 50. 00 17. 26. 00 17. 25. 00 10.37.00 10.37.00 1.0 0.7 1.0 0.7 57.0 49.0 2.0 1.5 11.0 21.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 2.5 1.5 2.0 2.5 2.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 3.0 2.0 0.5 0.5 75.0+ 7.5. 0+ 30.0 42. 5 4.5 5.0 1.5 1.5 6.0 4.0 1.5 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.2 3.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 2.0 5.0 4.0 8.0 7.0 7.5 5.0 35. 0+ 35.0+ 15.0 9.0 75.0+ 75.0+ 0.5 0.5 10.0 3.0 330 (7). Jan. 30 1,450 (7). Feb. 7 115 SW. Feb. 8 115 SW. Feb. 8 115 SW. Feb. 8 115 SW. Feb. 8 115 SW. Feb 8 115 SW. Feb. 8 300 (7). Feb 8 300 (7). Feb 8 115 SW. Feb. 9 115 SW. Feb. 10 300 (7). Feb. 10 (?)115 SW(7). Feb. 10 115 SW. Feb. 10 100 SW. Feb. 10 300 (7). Feb. 16 115 SW. Feb. 16 115 SW. Feb 16 115 SW. Feb 20 300 (7). Feb. 24 .......... (7). Feb 24 565 (7). Feb. 26 1,050 (7). Mar.16 Distant. (7). Mar 21 500 (7). Mar 30 620 (7). Apr. 13 250 W(?). Apr. 20 250 SW(?). May 19 370 SW(?). May 28 100 SW. May 28 100 SW. May 31 100 SW. Notes.— Period of pendulum, 25 seconds; magnification, 10; damping, medium. The amplitude indicates half of the complete range of ma.^imum motion. Laska's formula used in computing distances of remote earthquakes (620 miles or more), and Omori's formula for earthquakes less than 620 miles distant.

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154 • THE PANAMA CANAL. HYDROGRAPHY. General. — The main features for the year were the fillings of Gatun and Miraflores Lakes and their subsequent control of levels by means of spillway gates and auxiliary culvert valves, etc. On June 27, 1913, with Gatun Lake elevation at 48.22, the sluice gates were closed and the final rise of the lake began. On July 1 the elevation was 48.75; August 1, 54.34; September 1, 60.42; October 1, 66; November 1, 72.46; December 1, 82.04; the spillway gates were operated on the 27th, 29th, 30th (seven gates), and 31st, the maximum elevation for the month being 84.80 on the 30th. The lake would have reached elevation 84.92 if the gates had not been operated. Since December 27 the lake level has been controlled between 85.14 and 84.13. The total yield of the Gatun Lake watershed for the calendar year 1913 was 77 per cent of the yearly mean since May, 1908, and 78.3 per cent of the mean for the 24-year period (1890-1913). The runoff above Alhajuela was 87.5 per cent of the 24-year mean. The accompanying plates Nos. 102 and 105 compare the yield at Gatun and Alhajuela for the years 1905, 1912, and 1913 with the means. Plate No. 104 compares the total run-off, net run-off, land area run-off, storage, rainfall, and evaporation on lake for Gatun Lake watershed for the year 1913. The percentage of total run-off for the various quantities areas follows: Per cent. Total run-off 100 Net run-off 91.6 Land area run-off 85. 2 Storage 69.8 Rainfall on lake 14. 8 Evaporation on lake 8. 4 Table No. 9 gives the yield at Gatun and Alhajuela for the fiscal year 1913-14. Plate No. 100 gives the hydrograph of Gatun Lake for the fiscal year. The filling of Miraflores Lake began on October 1, when the Miraflores Lock culverts were closed, the lake elevation being 12. On the 10th of November the level had reached 51. After that date the level was controlled by means of the west lock culvert and since May 26 by operation of the spillway gates, usually with only partial openings of 1 to 5 feet. Prior to May the conditions of the cnannel below the spillway did not permit of gate operations. The discharge on these partial openings has been computed by means of the formula Q = cbdV2gh = 8.02cbd-^, where Q = discharge in cubic feet per second; C, coefficient of 0.66 to 0.67 for openings of width b, 12 to 20 or more times d, the depth of opening; h = head on center of opening (see Merriman ed. 1912, pp. 122, 123, and 128). Discharge curves have been constructed from this formula. Plate No. 101 shows the hydrograph of Miraflores Lake since commencement of filling, Plate No. 106 gives the discharge duration by days for 1913 at Alhajuela. Plate No. 107 shows the discharge duration by months at the same station for 24 years, 1890-1913, inclusive. Plate No. 103 gives the rainfall, run-off, and percentage run-off for Gatun Lake watershed by months, with accumulated quantities for

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EEPORT OF CHIEF HYDROGEAPHER. 155 1913. On tliis plate it is interesting to note the greater run-off "inches" for the total watershed area than for the land area, due to direct catchment of rainfall by the lake. Plate No. 102 gives the mass curve for total yield at Gatun. Table No. 10 gives the monthly maximum, minimum, and mean elevations for the Chagres River, Gatun and Miraflores Lakes, showing only partial year's record at the new stations, Monte Lirio, Pedro Mguel, and Juan Mna, on Gatun Lake, and on Miraflores Lake. The Pedro Mguel River instrument was moved to south end Pedro Miguel Locks on the rise of Miraflores Lake. The record for the four months before moving is incomplete, and hence is not given. New concrete water-stage register towers of the "liojhthouse type" were constructed and put in use as foUows: Gatun Spillway, December 27, 1913; Gatun Lake, October 6, 1913; Gamboa Lake, November 8, 1913; Pedro Miguel Lake, October 26, 1913; Miraflores Lake, October 31, 1913. Water-stage registers were installed at Monte Lirio on May 2, 1914, and at Juan IVIina the last of April. Prior to that morning and evening, rod readings had been taken at each station. Special rod readings were taken in Culebra Cut at Gamboa, Empire Bridge, and Cucaracha Slide, during filUng of Cut in October, also at Pedro Miguel before the register was installed. There were no large freshets during the year, the largest being the ones of November 10 and 18, 1913, and May 21, 1914. Table No. 11 gives the data on the principal freshets. Tables Nos. 12 and 13 give slope data on freshets of November 10 and May 21, and show the effect of Gatun Lake in checking the rise at Gamboa. The maximum run-off since December, 1910, was at rate of 48,850 second-feet, November 8-9, when the lake rose from 73.80 to 74.88 feet in 24 hours. Gatun. — The yield of Gatun Lake watershed was estimated from the spillway discharge and storage in Gatun Lake, as foUows: Total yield = Discharge ± Storage ± Evaporation. Net yield = Discharge ± Storage. Seventeen current-meter gaugings have been made at the cable gauging station below the concrete channel of the spillway on gate openings since December 27, aU but one being on one or two gates, the three-gate measurement being unsatisfactory on account of the rough, turbulent condition of the water. On December 30, with seven gates open, the discharge was measured in the concrete channel by means of surface floats timed over a 440-foot course, giving a maximum velocity of 44 feet per second or 30 miles per hour and a total discharge of 63,200 second-feet or 9,030 second-feet per gate, lake elevation 84.66. On account of the roughness of the surface, it was impossible accurately to determine the depth of the water, the depths obtained along the east and west walls giving a mean of 6.1 feet. This discharge of 9,030 second-feet gives a coefficient of 3.204 in the Francis formula Q = CLH3/2. The mean of five current-meter measurements on one and two gates open, at the cable station from December 31 to January 6, on accurately determined cross section, mean lake height of 84.36, mean discharge per gate of 9,890, gives a coefficient in the same formula of 3.612. The mean of seven coefficients determined on gaugings of May and June gives 3.605, with one and two gates open. Three measurements of February gave coefficients of 3.418, 3.618, and 3.374.

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156 THE PANAMA CANAL. Including those, the mean coefficient for 15 measurements is 3.58. More data will be obtained to determine accurately the coefficient to be used, which would seem to be about 3.60. Plate No. 108 shows changes in cross section at the gauging station for January, February, June, and July, 1914. Five measurements were made on caisson leakages on open spillway gates at Miraflores and Gatun, giving from 26 to 53 cubic feet per second. From these figures estimates are made from time to time, running from 30 to 70 cubic feet per second per caisson, with an average of about 50 cubic feet per second per caisson. Gamhoa. — Velocity observations on several freshets have been made at Gamboa Bridge, the maximum obtained being on November 10, 1913, 2.6 miles per hour, lake at 75.7, maximum discharge at Alhajuela 36,000 cubic feet per second, gates closed at Gatun. On May 26, lake at 84.92, rising to 84.98, the maximum velocity was 0.653 mile per hour, Alhajuela maximum discharge 15,900 cubic feet per second, one gate open at Gatun. On June 30, lake faffing 84.88 to 84.86, the maximum velocity was 1.05 miles per hour, Alhajuela maximum discharge 20,050 cubic feet per second, and four gates open at Gatun. All observations at 1 foot depth. Alhajuela. — Ninety-five current-meter measurements have been made on the main river at the Calle Larga gauging station from elevations 90.91 to 101, on the whole checking the discharge curve satisfactorily. Ten check gaugings were made in the upper tributaries at Dos Bocas (the forks of the Chagres), the results being satisfactory. Gaugings were made in the lower tributaries as follows: ChiUbrillo, 7; Chilibre, 17; Gatuncillo, 35; but gaugings have been discontinued on these streams due to the rise of Gatun Lake. Vigia. — Continued in operation as flood-warning station. Rating station. — Current meters were rated, as needed, at the Gamboa station. This was flooded by Gatun Lake and a new station has been located on the east arm of Miraflores Lake at Pedro Miguel. This will be in shape for rating this month. An experimental determination is to be made in the near future on the leakage of the rising stem valves at the various locks, where conditions permit. The figures that have been used heretofore were (for 30-day month) 2.1 second-feet at Gatun Locks, 1.5 at Pedro Miguel, 2.09 and 3.09 at Miraflores. These were thought by the engineer of maintenance to be too low, so on the June reports the figures were changed to 6 for Gatun, 4.1 for Pedro Miguel, and 5.32 for Miraflores, using as a basis experiments conducted by Testing Engineer Whitehead at Pedro Miguel, which gave a leakage for one pair of valves of 1.36 cubic feet per second under 32-foot head. From this, using proportional heads and the formula V = V2gh, the amounts were determined for the other locks, as above. SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS. Currents in Colon Harhor. — This work was conducted on 12 days in January and February, 1913, and during the two entire months of June and July, 1913, being under way at the time of the last annual report. The general scheme followed was to trace the courses taken by floats, placed at different points in Limon Harbor, using on the

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REPORT OF CHIEF HYDROGRAPHER. 157 June-July work double copper floats consisting of an air-tight cylindrical copper can surface float, 6 inches in diameter, with small mast and flag. This was connected to the lower float of two sheetcopper wings 6 by 48 inches, one above the other, at right angles, by means of wire adjustable to any desired depth of submergence. The surface floats, i. e., within 8 feet of the surface, followed generally the direction of the prevaihng winds, while the deeper floats, 15 to 25 feet depth, foUowed undercurrents in the direction of the heavy sea swells when such prevailed, the range of tide being so small that practically no effect of it was noticeable. The maximum velocities observed were only 2,300 and 3,400 feet per hour, general averages running from 500 to 2,000 feet per hour. The data obtained indicates that there is no scour as there are no fixed currents and the velocities are too low to produce a scour under any conditions, which demand a velocity of 5,400 feet per hour to scour the bottom (see April, 1913, Proceedings Am. Soc. C. E., H. de B. Parsons on "Tidal phenomena in New York Harbor"), and that the surface currents are due entirely to local winds blowing over the harbor, while the deeper currents are governed by the heavy sea swells which stir up the silt on the bottom and aid in depositing it in the deeper portions of the bay, especially in the dredged channels. The ocean currents that sweep the coast are eastward bound and do not enter the inner bay on account of the west breakwater. Leakage at Gatun spillway gates. — These investigations were made to study the variation in leakage, with special attention given to the function of temperature, and were conducted December 23-25, 1913, before the gates had been operated, after filling of the lake, and again from March 12-14, 1914, after several gate operations during the E receding months showing greater leakage than in December, as will e seen by the attached plates Nos. 109 and 110. The total leakage was collected at the head of the spillway channel by means of a cofferdam 24 inches high in December and 30 inches high in March, made of dashboards set 2 feet apart and filled in with red clay and held to the floor by its own weight, with very little seepage, less than 1 per cent of the weir discharge. The flow JProm the weep holes and the spring at the foot of the "ogee" dam was stopped on the December test, but in March the spring was opened at 1.30 p. m. on the 13th at the request of the superintendent of erection. The evaporation from the water surface formed by the cofferdam was measured by a 4-foot diameter floating pan morning and evening, and showed for the December test an average of 0.63 per cent of the total leakage and for March 0.66 per cent. The rainfall was measured by standard gauge, time of precipitation being noted. The discharge was measured by a 2-foot sharp-crested weir with complete end contractions set in the cofferdam with crest 1 foot from the floor in December and 14 inches in March, the head being measured by a hook gauge set in a still box about 4 feet from the weir, the average of five readings used, unless the water surface was absolutely quiet, as at night, when only one setting was necessary. Accompanying plate No. 109, December test, shows the continuous discharge curve with minimum of 0.70 second-feet at 6.30 a. m. December 24 and maximum period of 37 hours of 1.61 second-feet.

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158 TBTE PANAMA CANAL. This also shows the discharge curve for the single gate No. 13, with curves of temperature of the steel at top, middle, and bottom of the gate; also centigrade temperatures of the atmosphere and of the water in the lake. Gate No. 13 was selected on account of its relatively small leakage, the ratio for December 24 for leakage of No. 13 and all gates being 10: 568, showing that No. 13 was leaking only one-fourth the average leakage per gate. The discharge curve shows that the leakage varied directly as the temperature at center and top of gate, the bottom temperature being more constant on account of contact with the water. The leakage was from the central part of the gates and was practically limited to the middle third for 90 per cent of the flow. The excess expansion of the top of gate, due to greater range in temperature, causes the gate to buckle upward in the center, this breaking the seal. Plate No. 110 shows the discharge and temperature curves for the March test, no separate measurement being made on a single gate. The following table compares the leakage for the two tests: Period. Dec. 23-25, 1913. Mar. 12-14, 1914. Ratio. Mnximtim Cubic footseconds. 3.30 .70 1.76 11.61 Cubic footseconds. 7.90 1.34 3.64 2 3.65 100 : 240 Minimnm .-100 : 191 Mpnn 24 honrs fmidnieht to midnicht) 100 : 207 ATpan for test 100 : 227 » 37 hours. * 49 hours. After the March test the flow of the spring at the foot of the ogee was measured by a 90 per cent notched weir set in a cofferdam built around the 2^-inch pipe set in the floor to provide an escape for the discharge of the spring. This was found to be 0.139 cubic footsecond, being the mean of nine readings on March 21 and 23. SEEPAGE WEST EMERGENCY DAM PIT, MIRAFLORES LOCKS. Two weirs were installed to measure the flow, a 6-inch rectangular weir on February 9 and a 90 per cent notched weir on February 11, heads being observed morning and evening by hook-gauge readings, the weirs being removed on March 6. The average flow was at the rate of 0.28 second-foot for the period, the pit collecting seepage through a section of fiU about 150 feet long and under a head of 5 feet. HYDRAULIC CONDITIONS BELOW MIRAFLORES SPILLWAY. A study of these conditions was made in April in an attempt to determine the elevation to which the water would rise in channel opposite the power plant if all seven gates were opened at the spillway. Using discharge of 90,000 cubic foot-seconds, the approximate elevation at the point where the channel wall drops from elevation -h28 to +24 was found to be +22.15, but this elevation can not be

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EEPORT OF CHIEF HYDROGEAPHER. 159 determined theoretically with any great degree of accuracy on account of the unusual conditions existing in the channel. A special report was submitted under date of May 18, 1914. CURRENT OBSERVATIONS BELOW WEST LOWER OPERATING GATES AT MIRAFLORES LOCKS. (Plate 111.) These were made at the request of the electrical and mechanical engineer, the object being to determine the direction and velocities of the currents caused by the mixing of the salt water with the fresh water from the lock on opening the operating gates. To determine the dhection, specially designed blades and vanes were used, operating from floats or tlii'ough a long vertical sleeve with a pointer above the surface of the water. To determine velocities at different elevations, four current meters were mounted 10 feet apart on a |-inch pipe, supported vertically in center of the lock, about 10 feet from the direction mdicator. (See plate No. 111.) Both the direction indicator and meter support were guyed in such a manner as to facilitate easy raising and lowering. On plate No. Ill the uppermost meter is shown as No. 783, the second asNo. 732, third asNo. 211, and lowest as No. 377. Time referred to of opening and closing of miter gates begins with cracking of gates and ends with tiglit jointing. On all runs, gates were opened full for about 25 minutes and then closed, the lower guard gates remaining open full during the test runs. The flow of water through the culvert from the lock chamber to the sea, in equalizing, caused the direction indicator to fluctuate rapidly, due to the eddies set up. Run No. 5, on plate No. Ill, is selected as an example. Tide: — 0.3 foot rising. Meters: No. 783 at elevation-2 feet; No. 732 at12; No. 211 at — 22; No. 377 at — 32. Indicator vane at — 25 feet. Lower operating gates opened at 9.26 a. m.; closed 9.58 a. m. Direction of currents: At elevation —5 and —10, out. At elevation —25, out. Average velocity: At elevation —2, 165 feet per second. At elevation — 12, 1.71 feet per second. At elevation —22, 0.75 foot per second. At elevation —32, 1.08 feet per second. On plate No. Ill, on a vertical base line, the velocity in is plotted to right, and velocity out, to left. The vertical depth, from mean sea level to floor of lock, —50 feet is the ordinate; for instance, in run No. 1, the direction of current determined by float at elevation — 7.5 is out, and velocity at this point is 2 feet per second. Therefore, going down the vertical base line from to —7.5 and horizontally to the left, the point on the curve is struck. These six curves show that the velocity is zero at some point between elevation — 20 and — 30. In runs 1, 2, 3, and 6, this neutral point is about elevation —24 and in Nos. 4 and 5 a little lower. For runs 5 and 6, plate No. Ill, which are typical, time intervals of one minute are plotted left to right; the velocity, feet per second, is plotted up when direction is out and down when direction is in. It has been assumed from the test runs that at a given elevation, the

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160 THE PANAMA CANAL. direction of current is the same for all operations of gates, and this assumption was used in plotting curves. Plate No. Ill gives plan of lower end of locks. A study was made of the maximum estimated velocity in the canal at Bas Obispo, that would be caused by the largest rise due to a freshet in the Mandingo River and Camacho diversions. Tliis was estimated to be not over 1 mile per hour. An investigation was made of the flow tlu-ough culverts on Curundu River due to spring tides in September and report submitted. Curves were submitted showing the filling of Culebra Cut in October and the effect of the blowing up of the dike at Gamboa on October 10. An estimate of the time to be taken to fill Gatun Lake was satisfactory, while one made for the same on Miraflores Lake was not, due to short record of run-off on that watershed and to poor area and capacity curves of the lake. Checking the area curve by water let into and taken out of Miraflores Lake in November and December showed the survey area curve at elevation 51 to be about 40 per cent greater than by method just mentioned. An estimate was made of the maximum rises possible on Miraflores Lake, giving 1.38 feet per hour under conditions of 1909, and 4.29 feet for 12 hours, and 9.59 feet for 24 hours, conditions of 1910. On lockages at Pedro Miguel there has been noted an interesting surge of the water in Culebra Cut, ranging from a foot and a half and more at Pedro Miguel to about 0.2 foot at Gamboa, and are noticeable on the records at Juan Mina and San Pablo. Plate No. 112 shows the surge at the pontoon bridge at Paraiso on May 15. The earthquake of May 27 produced a wave on the lakes, the automatic registers showing a movement of 0.3 foot at Gatun, 0.1 foot at Pedro Miguel, and 0.2 foot on Miraflores Lake. At Alhajuela, the movement was very slight. During the last three months daily readings have been made on a 90 per cent notched weir, measuring the discharge of the spring on Mount Zion Hill at Culebra, giving an average of about 0.030 cubic foot-seconds. Routine office and field work has been carried on and records kept satisfactorily. The work of flood predictions, etc., has been handled from the office during the day and from the hydrographer's quarters at night. The lake is being held between 84.8 and 85, so that frequent operations of the Gatun spiUway gates have to be made to control the elevation. Advice as to the time of gate operations and number of gates, is given by the hydrographer whenever freshet conditions indicate that such are necessary. The following diagrams and plates accompany the hydrographical section of this report: Plate No. 100. Hydrograph, Gatun Lake, July, 1913-June, 1914. No. 101. Hydrograph, Miraflores Lake, October, 1913-June, 1914. No. 102. Chagres River drainage basin, mass curve total yield, Gatun, 1905, 1912, and 1913, and mean since 1908. No. 103. Gatun Lake watershed-rainfall, run-off and percentage run-off, year 1913. No. 104. Gatun Lake watershed, mass curves total yield, net yield, land area yield, storage, rainfall, evaporation on lake surface. No. 105. Mass curve of discharge at Alhajuela, 1905, 1912, 1913, and mean for 24 years.

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REPORT OF CHIEF HYDROGRAPHER. 161 Plate No. 106. No. 107. No. 108. No. 109. No. 110. No. 111. No. 112. Table No. 9. No. 10. No. 11. No. 12. No. 13. Curve of discharge duration Alhajuela, 1913, by days. Curve of discharge duration, Alhajuela, 24 years, 1890-1913, inclusive, by months. Cross sections at cable gauging station, Gatun Spillway. Leakage of gates, Gatun Spillway, December 23-25, 1913. Leakage of gates, Gatun Spillway, March 12-14, 1914. Current observations below west lower operating gates, Miraflores Locks, April 4-7, 1914. Surge in Culebra Cut at Pontoon Bridge on May 15, 1914. Monthly discharge Chagres River, for Alhajuela and Gatun. Monthly maximum, minimum, and mean elevations for Chagres River, Gatun and Miraflores Lakes. Principal freshets, 1913-14. Data on slopes of Chagres River during freshet period, November 10-11, 1913. Data on slopes of Chagres and Gatim Lake during freshet of May 21-22, 1914. Table No. 9. — Monthly discharge — Chagres River. ALHAJUELA. [Drainage area, 427 square miles.] Month. 1913, July August September October November December 1914, January February March April May June Discharge in second-feet. Maximum. 13,200 16, 680 20, 000 15,300 34,000 5,590 2,255 1,175 640 1,730 23,680 20, 050 Minimum. 1,020 1,315 1,700 1,6S5 1,830 1,720 830 670 401 305 359 1,082 Mean. 2,005 2,530 2,802 2,653 6,168 2,328 1,306 824 530 469 2,049 2,084 Per square mile. 4.70 5.92 6.56 6.21 14.44 5.45 3.06 1.93 1.24 1.10 4.80 4.88 T?un-o£f (depth in inches on watershed). 6.419 6.825 7.319 7.159 16.111 6.283 3.528 2.010 1.430 1.227 5.534 5.445 GATUN LAKE. [Drainage area, 1,320 square miles.] Month. Mean. elevation (feet above mean sea level). Area for mean elevation. Spillway discharge. Storage, (-l-increase; —decrease). Evaporation from lake surface. Run-off, net yield (4-1-5). Total yield (4-f5-|-6). 1913 July August September.. October November. . December.. 1914, January February. . . March A pril May June 52.02 57.32 63.40 69.32 77.48 83.66 84.54 84.86 84.82 84.82 84.81 84.85 Si. miles. 94.7 105.6 118.1 130.4 147.7 160.5 162.6 163.0 162.9 162.9 162.8 162.9 Sec-feet. 15 2 181 8 22 8 109 1,026 930 148 169 3,353 5,715.2 Sec.-fcet. + 5,364 -f 6,896 + 7,292 -f 8,678 -f 15, 295 + 4,198 -I+ -I713 186 19 139 134 69.4 Sec-feet. 384 418 521 490 472 584 680 987 1,062 974 743 665 Sec-feet. 5,369 6,896 7,292 8,859 15,317 4,307 1,739 744 167 308 3,219 5,785 Sec-feet. 5,753 7,314 7,813 9,349 15,789 4,891 2,419 1,731 1,229 1,282 3,962 6,450 • Gate leakage. 2 Filling Culebra Cut, 176; lockage, 5. » From December, total outflow from lake, including lockages, leakage, pumping, etc. 63399°— 14-11

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162 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 10. — Monthly maximum, minimum, and mean elevations for the fiscal year 1913-U. Gatun Lake. Month. Gatun. Trinidad. Monte Lirio. Bohio. Maximum. Minimum. Mean. Maximum. Minimum Mean. Maximum. Minimum. Mean. Maximum. Minimum. Mean. 1913. July 54.34 60.42 66.00 72.46 82.04 84.80 84.90 85.00 84.89 84.89 85.10 85.14 85.14 48.75 54.29 60.42 66.00 72.46 82.01 84.13 84.72 84.73 84.77 84.38 84.68 48.75 52.02 57.32 63.40 69.32 77.48 83.66 84.54 84.86 84.82 84.82 84.81 84.85 76.00 154.29 60.47 65. 99 72.40 81.95 84.77 84.89 84.96 84.87 84.86 85.08 85.01 85.08 48.69 54.29 60.47 65.99 72.40 81.95 84.12 84.74 84.72 84.74 84.40 84.64 48.69 51.98 57.34 63.40 69.29 77.42 83.64 84.52 84.84 84.81 84.79 84.77 84.82 75.97 54.30 60.43 65.99 72.43 82.01 84.81 84.92 85.01 84.90 84.90 85.12 85.09 48.67 54.30 60.43 65.99 72.43 82.01 84.16 84.79 84.78 84.79 84.44 84.69 48.67 51.98 August September October 57.34 63.39 69.29 77.45 December.. 83.67 1914. January February March 84.50 84.89 84.85 April 84.84 May 29 days 85. 10 1 84. 41 84.80 84.81 84.78 June 85.06 2 85.10 84.67 84.41 84.87 The year 84.80 85.12 75.99 Gatun Lake. Month. Frijoles. San Pablo. Gamboa. Pedro Miguel. Maximum. Minimum. Mean. Maximum. Minimum. Mean. Maximum. Minimum. Mean. Maximum. Minimum. Mean. 1913. July 54.39 60.42 65.93 72.37 81.97 84.79 84.91 85.00 84.86 84.90 85.10 85.04 85.10 48.76 54.31 60.42 65.93 72.37 81.97 84.14 84.74 84.75 84.75 84.42 84.67 48.76 52.05 57. 32 63.34 69.26 77.42 83.65 84.54 84.87 84.81 84.81 84.75 84.85 75.97 54.36 60.41 65.94 72.39 81.96 84.82 84.95 85.01 84.92 84.90 85.10 85.03 85.10 48.74 54.31 60.41 65.94 72.39 ai.96 84.15 84.75 84.79 84.78 84.42 84.69 48.74 52.03 57.33 63.36 69.26 77.45 83.66 84.56 84.88 84.84 84.84 84.77 84.85 75.99 54.35 60.50 65.98 72.38 81.93 84.77 84.91 84.97 84.87 84.92 85.08 85.01 85.08 48.80 54.32 60.52 65.98 72.37 81.93 84.03 84.70 84.73 84.66 84.31 84. 53 48.80 52.10 57.38 63.41 09.28 77.41 83.60 84.50 84.84 84.80 84.79 84.75 84.79 75.97 August September October November December 1914. January February March 80.95 84.80 85.08 85.78 85.37 85.45 85.46 85.64 •85.78 72.34 80.10 83.95 83.87 84.22 84.10 83.82 84.00 72.34 77.31 83.45 84.51 84.85 84.80 April 84.79 May 84.80 .T|]nB ... 84.81 The year 83.66 Month. 1913. July August September . October November. December. . 1914. January... February. March April May June The year.. Gatun Lake. Juan Mina. Maximum. 85.11 85.30 2 85.30 Minimum. 84.30 84.57 84.30 Mean. 84.73 §1,78 84.76 Chagres River. Alhajuela. Maximum. 98.00 99.10 99.65 98.35 103.80 95.00 93.15 92.18 91.43 92.75 101.00 99.95 103. 80 Minimum. 92.15 92.44 92.72 92.71 92.80 92.70 91.80 91.43 91.06 90.90 90.99 92.08 90.90 Mean. 92.98 93.40 93.42 93. 34 95.16 93.19 92.30 91.69 91.26 91.16 92.71 92.93 92.80 Vigia. Maximum. 134. 20 135.20 136. 20 134. 60 141.90 129.30 126.65 125. 60 125.00 126. 25 138. 20 136. 90 141. 90 Minimum. Mean. 125.70 126.65 125.95 1127.08 126.20 J 127. 08 126.25 127.02 126.30 ,129.46 126.15 126.72 125.30 125.00 124.70 124. 55 124. 60 125.60 124. 55 125. 77 125. 21 124. 82 124. 76 126.30 126. 47 126. 44 Miraflores Lake at south end of Pedro Miguel Locks. Maximum. 51.45 51.23 51.11 52.61 52.01 50.12 51.90 54.22 <54.22 Minimum. 45.26 50.36 50.08 50.76 50.07 42.49 47.56 50.74 42.49 Mean. 49.68 5a 74 60.67 5L79 60.93 46.08 50.91 52.83 50.46 1 Rod raised 0.31 Aug. 2; heights corrected for July. • Two months. 3 Eight months. 4 Lake filled in October, 8 months.

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KEPORT OF CHIEF HYDROGKAPHER. Table No. 11. — Principal freshets of year 191S-14. 163 Date of beginning. Vigia. Elevation of crest. Rise. Alhajuela. Elevation of crest. Rise. Hours after Vigia. Maximum discharge. 1913 Sept. 9 Nov.8 Nov. 10 Nov. 12 Nov. 18 1914 May 21 Feet. 136.2 137.3 141.9 137.4 138.0 138.2 Feet. 10.0 9.1 13.9 8.4 9.2 11.7 Feet. 99.6 100.3 103.8 100.7 101.1 101.0 Feet. 6.8 6.0 9.7 5.9 6.6 7.9 1} li 2 1 1 Cubic feet 'per sec. 20,000 21,200 34,000 22,600 24,000 23,680 Date of beginning. Gamboa. Elevation of crest. Rise. Hours after Vigia. Per cent of Vigia rise. Per cent of Alhajuela rise. Maximum discharge. 1913 Sept.9 Nov. 8 Nov. 10 , Nov. 12 Nov. 18 1914 May 21 Feet. 62.65 74.60 76.20 76.79 78.86 84.62 Feet. 0.64 .59 .85 .24 .30 .13 3i 2i 8 5i 3J 2i 6.4 6.6 6.1 2.9 3.3 1.1 9.4 9.7 8.8 4.1 4.5 1.6 Cuhicfeet per sec. (>) Date. Gatun. Elevation 24 hours after Gamboa crest. Rise 24 hours after Gamboa crest. Maximum in 24 hours. Maximum storage in 24 hours. Maximum discharge in 24 hours. Yield of watershed in 24 hours. 1013. Sept. 10 Nov. 9 Nov. 11 Nov. 13 Nov. 19 1914. May 22 Feet. 62.56 75.05 76.51 77.21 79.28 85.04 Feet. 0.37 .59 .50 .44 .49 .47 Feet. 0.39 1.08 .94 .46 .50 .47 Sec. feet. 14,940 48,950 43, 170 21,410 24,310 24,420 Sec. feet. Sec. feet. 14,940 48,950 43, 170 21,410 24,310 24,420 ' 13,000 affected by backwater from Gatun Lake. ' Gates closed. Excess rise at Gatun May 22 due to continued rains on lake and second small rise on Chagrosi,

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164 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 12.Data on slopes of Chagres River and Gatun Lale during freshet period of Nov. 10-11, 1913. Station. Vigia Calle Larga (Alhajuela gauging station) Alhajuela Juan Mina Gamboa San Pablo Frijoles Bohio Gatun Miles from Gatun. 45.75 40 38.5 34 27.75 20.25 12. 10 10.0 Elevations at various stations when crest was at — Low water. 125.0 91.0 Vigia, 2 p. m. 141.90 102. 50 75.65 75.59 75.59 75.60 75.61 Alhajuela, 4 p. m 141. 70 103. 80 79.1 75.85 75.72 75.70 75.71 75.72 Gamboa, 10 p. m. 133.85 99.75 76.20 75.98 75.99 76.00 76.01 Elevation 24 hours after Gamboa crest. 129.80 95.60 76.43 76.44 76.44 76.49 76.51 Elevations 48 hours after Gamboa crest. 132. 19 97.65 76.89 76.85 76.86 77.91 76.90 Maximum elevations, stations above Gamboa. 141.90 112.2 103.8 80.6 Table No. 13.-Data 071 slopes of Chagres River and Gatun Lake during the freshet period of May 21-22, 1914Miles from Gatun. Elevation at various stations when crest was at— Elevation 24 hours after Gamboa crest. Elevar tion 48 hours after Gamboa crest. Maximum elestation. Low water. Vigia, 9 p. m. Alhajuela, 10 p. m. Juan Mina, 11 p. m. Gamboa, 11.30 p.m. vations, stations above Gamboa. Vigia 45.75 40 38.5 34 27.75 20. 25 12.10 10.0 125 138. 20 137.00 106.3 101.00 84.98 84.55 84.52 84.51 84.56 84.55 135.20 134.20 128. 65 128. 45 138.20 Calle Larga (Alhajuela gauging station) Alhajuela Juan Mina Gamboa San Pablo. Frijoles 106. 30 91 99.40 84.70 84.51 84.. 52 84.52 84.55 84.55 100.35 85.09 84.62 84.56 84.55 84.57 84.56 99.80 85.08 84. 62 84.56 84.57 84.58 84.57 94.65 1 85. 10 1 85. 01 1 85. 05 I 85. 03 • 85. 04 ' 85. 01 94.35 84.90 84.92 84.95 84.97 85.00 84.97 101.00 85.09 84.62 > Excess rise on lake due to several small rises on Chagres and continued heavy rains over lake area. Respectfully, F. D. WiLLSON, Chief Hydrograp er. Col. H. F. Hodges, United States Army, Engineer of Maintenance, Culehra, Canal Zone,

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APPENDIX B. REPORT OF THE ENGINEER OF TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION, DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE. CuLEBRA, Canal Zone, August 1, 1914Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of work performed by the division of terminal construction during the fiscal year ended June 30, 19M. Organization. This division was established by Circular No. 660-1, dated April 1, 1914, reading as follows: (a) The division of terminal constniction, under the supervision of an engineer of terminal construction reporting to the governor. This division will embrace the forces of the second division, chief engineer's office, engaged in the design, inspection, and construction of dry dock, shops, coaling and fuel-oil plants, floating cranes, docks, and other terminal facilities, construction transportation by rail and water (not including dredging work), the road, street, and sewer work under the landscape architect, and breakwater construction at the Atlantic terminal. Effective August 1, 1913, the subdivision of Balboa town-site work was organized with Mr. W. L. Phillips, landscape architect, in local charge, for work in connection with laying out and constructing the street, water, and sewer systems and grounds of Balboa town-site. On October 10, 1913, upon the abolishing of the central division, the transportation forces of that division, as well as the transportation forces of the first division, the fifth division, and the fortifications division on the Pacific side, were transferred to this division, under the immediate supervision of Mr. W. J. Holmes, as superintendent of railroad transportation. Effective June 16, 1914, all railroad transportation under the supervision of the division of terminal construction was transferred to the Panama Railroad in local charge of Mr. F. R. Blunt, as superintendent of railroad transportation. On January 1, 191 !, the steani shovels, air drills, equipment, and personnel (^f the fourth division on Sosa Hill, as well as the tracks of Sosa Hill c[uarry, were transferred to this division. Effective February 1, 1914, tlie Atlantic division was abolished and the breakwater work and operation of Porto Bello quarry was transferred to this division. Effective June 1, 1914. the operation of Ancon quarry was transferred from the general construction division to this division. Since June 3, 1914, tlie engineer of docks in charge of the design and construction of all Panama Piailroad docks and piers has reported to the engineer of terminal construction. The report of the engineer 165

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166 THE PANAMA CANAL. of docks on this work is covered in tlie annual report of the Panama Railroad Co. On June 16, 1914, the Miraflores sand service was transferred from the general construction division to the division of terminal construction. GENERAL. The work under the division of terminal construction is being executed by the following organization: (a) A central drafting, designing, and inspection office at Culebra, and a branch drafting office at Corozal. (6) Pacific terminals subdivision, charged with the construction of shops, dry docks, coaUng plant, and piers, and the handling of the rock and sand service. (c) A subdivision in charge of Balboa town-site work. Pacific terminals. (d) A subdivision in charge of the construction of the Cristobal coaling plant, Atlantic terminals. (e) A subdivision in charge of breakwater construction, Atlantic terminals. The annual reports for 1912 and 1913 give a general description of the work included in ''Terminal construction." DESIGN, DRAFTING, AND INSPECTION. Permanent sJiops. — Lieut. Col. T. C. Dickson, Ordnance Department, United States Army, as inspector of shops, was in immediate charge of the designing and the supervision of the construction, installation of macliinery, etc., until March 6, 1914, when he was, by direction of the Secretary of War, assigned to duty in the United States under the Ordnance Department. From March 7, 1914, to June 30, 1914, his duties in connection with the permanent shops have been performed by Mechanical Engineer A. L. Bell. Assistant Engineer G, I. Finley was transferred to the United States on May 3, 1914, in connection with the inspection of movable metal louvers, steel rolling doors, and steel work for quay walls. Mr. C. A. Johnson, who was in immediate charge under Col. Dickson of work connected with the design of the power layout for the shop buildings, resigned on September 12, 1913, on the practical completion of his work; and Mr. H. F. Whiting, in immediate charge under Col. Dickson of the design of the illuminating system for the shop buildings, resigned on March 7, 1914, on the completion of his work. Mr. A. L. Prather performed the duties of field inspector during the entire year. During the year 442 tracings were completed, including 82 tracings covering the motorization of 70 machines. The designing work accompHshed and the tracings approved during the year include details of foundations, walls, windows, doors, steel rolling doors, movable and fixed louvers, etc., for inclosing the buildings; the floor plans of the shops' office building; roof-drainage system; piping system for water, steam, compressed air, fuel oil, and sewage; layout of conduits, etc., for electric power and lighting systems; foundations for machines, etc.; details for applying motors to machines; stringers, shafting, etc., for groups of machines driven by motors; work benches and tables, wire-screen partitions for office and tool rooms; illumination system; distribution of power to motors and location of control apparatus. In addition to the regular design work in connection with the permanent shop buildings, this office prepared blue prints for the

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OP TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION. 167 installation of machines for the dredging division in the old Paraiso shops, and for the layout of machines in the engine house erected at Gold Hill to care for the hostling of engines engaged in excavation on the east bank of the canal opposite Culebra. The force of engineers, draftsmen, and assistants at the close of the year numbered 10. The maximum number of men employed was 23, in September, 1913, and the minimum number, 10, in June, 1914. Steelwork. — The steelwork for the buildings, contract for which was awarded to theUnited States Steel Products Co., on Washington Order 35041, was completely erected, mth the exception of toilet buildings Nos. 24 and 25, and the crane runway extensions at the north end of building No. 1 . The amount of steel in each building, the date of acceptance of the building, and the cost of the steelwork is shown on Table No. 1, attached. Contract for structural steel for the shops' office building was awarded to the Riter-Conley Co., on Washington Order 40894, and erection was completed by the contractor on May 29, 1914. Forces of the supply department wiU complete the remaining construction of the building. The total weight of tliis structure was 719,529 pounds, and the price, erected, $29,959.43. Closures.— i'With. few exceptions, the type of closure for the various buildings has been finally determined. In general, buildings used as offices, storehouses, or shops which must be protected from dampQess, have their walls built of hollow vitrified tile blocks, or hollow cement tile blocks, plastered inside and out with cement mortar. These buildings are fitted with wooden swing doors, and with glazed sash in all other openings. The main shop buildings will have sides and a portion of the ends closed with movable metal louvers. Steel rolling doors have been fitted at the ends of the buildings, to permit overhead traveling cranes to run out over tracks at each end, and along the east and west center lines, where the through track is located, as well as at points where a considerable quantity of work must be handled from outside of the building. These buildings have the space between the roof of the lean-tos and the overhanging shed brackets, and the space between overhanging shed brackets (on the west sides of buildings Nos. 1 and 2) closed Avith glazed window sash. The sides of the monitors will be closed with fixed wooden louvers. The gable ends of the buildings, the ends of lean-to above the lower chord of the truss, and the ends of monitors, as well as the space between the tile roofs and the bottom of sash frames will be closed with expanded metal plastered with cement mortar. Contracts for the closure of the buildings have been made as follows : With the Jas. G. Wilson Manufacturing Co. on Washington Orders Nos. 42141, 43691, and 51213, for steel rolling doors, shown in detail as follows: Washington Order 42141: 12 doors north and south ends of building No. 1 $11, 1 84. 00 6 doors north and south ends of building No. 2 5, 592. 00 6 doors north and south ends of building No. 4 5, 592. 00 6 doors east and west ends of building No. 12 5, 592. 00 Grand total 27, 960. 00

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168 THE PANAMA CANAL. Washington Order 43691 : 6 doors for ends of building No. 3 $8, 190. 00 34 doors for sides of building No. 3 8, 752. 00 Grand total 16, 942. 00 Washington Order 51213: 11 doors for sides of building No. 1 6,982.80 6 doors for ends of building No. 7 3, 805. 98 15 doors for north side of building No. 7 8, 400. 00 2 doors for ends of building No. 8 1,153.00 4 doors for sides of building No. 8 2, 329. 60 1 door for east end of building No. 12 896. 00 Grand total 23, 567. 38 With the Mesker Bros. Iron Works on Washington Order 50923 for movable metal louvers, shown in detail as follows: Washington Order 50923, 50,000 square feet movable metal louvers for buildings Nos. 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 14, 15 $54,500 Erected in place in buildings. Fixed wood louvers, sash, and wooden swing doors are being manufactured by the mechanical division and installed as rapidly as possible. • Roofing. — The cement tile roofing gives evidence of being satisfactory. At the present time, however, maintenance of the roofing is expensive, on account of the large amount of work being done in connection with the closure of the buildings and the consequent travel over the tile by workmen, and also due to breaking of the tile by rocks thrown on the roofs by blastinq; in the dry-dock excavation. The American Cement Tile Manufacturing Co. completed the manufacture and erection of the reinforced cement tile supphed by them for the roofs of the shop buildings, and the amount manufactured, the unit price, and the total price are shown by buildings in Table No. 2, attached. Tliis table also shows the amount of tile manufactured for other purposes. Building No. 11 and building No. 15 were covered with Barrett specification roofing, as were the valleys of buildings Nos. 1, 7, 8, and 10. The total amount placed is shown in Table No. 3, attached. Power and ligMing distribution. — The details of the power and lighting installation were practically completed during the year and requisitions placed for the necessary material. The general arrangement of power and lighting distribution adopted was to locate transformer rooms at load centers in the shops, carry power to tliem from the substation at 2,300 volts, and step it down to 230 volts for local requirements. The more important equipment installed is as follows; Principal centers: Building No. 1— Two 300 K. V. A. 3-phase power transformers. One 140 K. W. single-phase lighting transformer. Two 325 K. W. motor generator sets. One 7-panel switchboard. Building No. 3— Two 300 K. V. A. power transformers. One 125 K. W. single-phase lighting transformer. One 3-panel switchboard.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION. 169 Principal centers — Continued. Building No. 8 — Two 300 K. V. A. 3-phase power transformers. One 50 K. W. single-phase lighting transformer. One 3-panel switchboard. Building No. 12— Two 300 K. V. A. 3-phase power transformers. One 60 K. W. single-phase lighting transformer. One 3-panel switchboard. Minor centers: Building No. 7, 50 K. V. A. single-phase lighting transformer. Building No. 9, 75 K. V. A. 3-phase power transformer, with neutral tap from one phase for lighting. Building No. 15— One 15 K. V. A. single-phase lighting transformer. One 75 K. V. A. 3-phase power transformer. One 1-panel switchboard. Building No. 28, one 50 K. V. A. single-phase lighting transformer. In addition to the above other buildings are equipped with switchboards for local control of power and lighting. Power and Ughting feeders are carried to transformer rooms and switchboards thi'ough ducts laid in the walls of the tunnel which runs under the east and west center Une of the main buildings. Inside the buildings all wires and cables are carried in galvanized iron conduit, which is hung on steel woik of the building above the lower chords of the roof trusses and brought down the columns to controllers, panel boxes, etc. The central switchboards, on account of limited space, were not designed to permit control of all power and hghting circuits at the board and junction boxes were therefore resorted to. The feeders for sections of each shop run to junction or fuse panels from which the power and lighting circuits for the section are distributed. The main distributing centers in buildings Nos. 1 and 8 deliver the greater portion of their power to the buildings in which they are located. The transformers in building No. 3 supply buildings Nos. 2 and 4 also, while those in building No. 12 supply buildings Nos. 7, 9, 10, and 15. Motors. — F ur types of motore were adopted for power drives — direct current, commutating pole variable speed motors; slip-ring induction motors; squirrel-cage induction motors; and synchronous motors. Direct current motors operate on 220-volt current, and alternating current motors on 220-volt, 3-phase, 25-cycle current. The direct-current motors drive lathes, planers, boring machines, milling machines, and other tools where a variable tool speed is desired. They have speed ranges from 350 to 1,400; 375 to 1,125; 375 to 1,500; 450 to 1,800; 500 to 1,500. The slip-ring, polar-wound, rotor induction motors drive machines requiring a high starting torque or that are necessarily reversible, e. g., bending rolls, low-pressure blowers, the 2-ton tropenas converter, and the transfer table. The squirrel cage induction motors are used for all group drives and on aU constant speed machines. The synchronous motors are used for driving direct current generators and air compressors, and are arranged for operation at 75 per cent leading power for correcting the load factor of the plant.

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170 THE PANAMA CANAL, All motors were purchased under specifications calling for specially developed insulation similar to that used on the lock-machinery motors. The attached table, No. 4, shows the rated horsepower of all motors in each group and building for driving cranes, individual machines, and groups of machines. Lighting for the shops is obtained from Tungsten filament lamps, general illumination is used, and 220-volt, single-phase, 25-cycle lamps are so placed that all points in the building receive approximately the same illumination. This system makes changes in wiring and relocation of lamps unnecessary when changes are made in the location of machines. Branch lighting circuits are controlled from panel boxes and panel boards. All branch circuits are designed for a maximum load of 3,000 watts with a drop of 3 volts. The lanrps have been equipped with various types of Holophane D'Olier reflectors, depending on their location and the distribution of light desired. They are carried on the under sides of roof trusses and on columns around the sides of the buildings. The attached table. No. 5, shows the number, size, and location of lights installed in the various shops, and the attached table, No. 6, shows the floor space, watts, foot candles, and lumens in each building. The plane of illumination is taken 3 feet above floor. All the equipment required for illumination of the shop buildings has been ordered and received on the Isthmus. The attached table, No. 7, shows the progress of installation of light and power distribution systems, and of electrical work on motorization of machines, by buildings. The installation of light and power cable in the shop tunnel has been delayed, owing to the change in the location of the substation, which has made necessary the redesigning of the distributing system. Foundations. — Work on the foundations for the machinery in the shop buildings was under way in building No. 8 at the beginning of the fiscal year, and work on the foundations for this building and for building No. 12, as well as the details of motor drives and the general layout of machines, was hastened on account of the necessity of moving the planing mill and the foundry from the Gorgona shops of the mechanical division to these buildings. The planing mill commenced operations on July 29, 1913, and the foundiy on Augiist 14. Work on foundations for macliines on the remaining buildings was completed during the year, with the exception of a small amount of foundation work requbed for the installation of jib cranes and equipment which was not originally contemplated. In designing the foundations for these machines the type of machine had to be taken into consideration, as well as the nature of the ground on which the foundation was to be carried. The three types of foundation adopted were as follows : In the north end of building No. 1 heavy machines were supported by steel caissons sunk to bedrock and filled with concrete. In the north end of buildings Nos. 1, 2, and 4, and under foundations for the large furnaces in building No. 12, foundations were supported by pipe pihng driven to bedrock, this pipe being standard 10 or 12 inches, filled with concrete, and reiriforced with bars. Foundations for heavy machines in other parts of the buildings.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION. 171 where rock was reasonablv near the surface, were carried down to rock. For the light macrdnes a spread foundation was used and excavation carried only deep enough to reach fii*m ground. Flooring. — Types of floonng adopted vary with the requirements of the different shop buildings, and are outhned below: For all tool rooms creosoted wood blocks were laid on a concrete foundation. For the foreman's office tongue and grooved yellow Eine flooring was laid on top of 2-inch planking, spiked to stringers edded in a concrete foundation. For the machine shop (building No. 1), the tin shop (building No. 2), and the planing mill (building No. 8), creosoted wood blocks were laid on a concrete base. For the forge shop and the boiler shop (buildings Nos. 2 and 4), and the roundhouse (building No. 15), cinders were used. For the storehouse (building No. 5), the paint shop (building No. 6), and the plating and polishing and the grinding and buffing rooms in building No. 9, concrete was adopted. This type of floor was also used in the oxy-acetylene plant (building No. 16), and toilet (buildings Nos. 17 to 25), inclusive. A clay floor was put in the foundry (building No. 12). INSTALLATION OF MECHANICAL DIVISION AND SHOPS. The mechanical division abandoned Gorgona shops early in the fiscal year, and transferred direct to Balboa, the foundry in August, 1913, and the planing mill in July, 1913. The other shops were transferred to Empire temporarily and commencing March 1, 1914, were gradually moved to Balboa. At the close of the fiscal year practically all machines were erected in their permanent locations and in operation. A few machines in use by other divisions which are not available for transfer at the present time remain to be installed. Shops office. — The completion of the shops office (building No. 28), with the exception of steel framework, which is already erected, and the cement tde roofing, which wOl be apphed by the mechanical division, has been turned over to the supply department. Although very Uttle work has been done on the design of the additional buildings, there will be required, in addition to the 28 outUned in the annual report for the year 1912-13, building No. 29 to house air compressors for the shops and pumps for the dry dock, and building No. 30, potash-vat house. The attached table. No. 8, gives the floor area of the various buildings and shops that have been authorized to date. Contracts. — Contracts for equipment for the Balboa shops were made during the year, as shown in the attached table, No. 9. Equi^nent installed. — As the greater portion of equipment installed in the Balboa shops has been in service on the Isthmus for a number of years, and as there were available a number of 25-cycle motors which could be used for motorization of similar machines, there has been prepared the attached table, No. 10, which shows the number of new and old machines, motors, and travehng cranes installed in the various buildings. Surface drainage. — The elevation adopted for the shop yard was 18 feet above sea level. The greater portion of the original surface was from 2 to 6 or 8 feet below this. The yard is being brought up to grade by dumping spoil in the lower sections and applying a

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172 THE PANAMA CANAL. surface of crushed rock covered with screenings. This arrangement affords an opportunity for rain water to drain off, which has made unnecessary the installation of an extended system of drainage in the open portions of the yard. Around the shops buildings trenches have been dug under the eaves in which "bUnd" tile drams have been laid and covered with crushed rock with no surface screenings. The water rapidly settles through the crushed stone, and the drainage thus far has been very satisfactory. At the present time the drains discharge into the dry-dock excavation, at the south, and back of the quay wall, on the north. Eventually it is intended to place a sewer at the ends of the drains running south, which will discharge into the harbor. Piping. — The installation of air, oil, steam, water, and sewer piping in the shop tunnel and in all shop buildings was practically completed during the year. Permanent connections for air, oil, steam, and water can not be made, however, until the completion of the dry-dock excavation and the subsequent filHng of the present incline and the construction of the permanent air-compressor plant. In the shop toilets construction work has been held up due to the nondelivery of urinals, closets, washbasins, etc., by contractors. The buildings are ready for the installation of this equipment when it is received. Table No. 1.— Showing tceight of steel, date of acceptance, and contract payments — Balboa shop buildings. BuildiBg No. Total steel erected. Date of acceptance. Total contract price. 1 and XI . X2 2 3 4 5 5X1 6 7 8 10.... 11.... 12.... 13.... 141... 15.... 16...17,18. 19,20. 21,22,23. 24,251. 26 27 Total. Pounds. 1,840,661 28, 631 813,844 583,528 1,121,964 2,337,290 92,975 197.071 627, 935 829,332 142,033 1,093,399 244,576 1,090,584 61,277 315,267 19,688 42,834 32,932 94,757 Feb. 2 do.. Feb. 25 Jan. 24 Feb. 14 Feb. 10 do Feb. 22 Feb. 24 do.. Feb. 11 Feb. 21 June 26 Jan. 10 Dec. 3 1,19141 ,1914 ,1914 ,1914 ,1914 ,1914 ,1914 ,1914 ,1914 1913 ,1914 ,1913 17,355 29,496 11,657,429 Jan. 23,1914 Mar. 5,1913 Oct. 27,1913 Oct. 29,1913 .do .do [Nov. 5,1913 (Nov. Nov. 12,1913 Dec. 31,1913 $70,844.43 29, 953. 72 20, 993. 64 40,536.98 86,459.33 7,903.57 22,389.88 29, 855. 91 5,371.03 38, 982. 88 8, 560. 16 38,821.19 2,185.82 2,545.34 11,034.34 700. 65 1,534.32 1,179.70 3,394.14 1,185.86 720. 14 2,049.97 427,203.00 * Erected by commission.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION. 173 Table No. 2.— Statement of the total amount of tile erected on the permanent shop buildings. Building No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 16 17,18 19,20 21,22,23... 26 27 Total Standard red tUe squares, at $13.25 per square. $995. 08 527. 10 361. 79 659.29 676. 05 147. 33 535. 00 711.53 109. 50 898. 13 581. 84 49.93 11.96 37.80 26.30 88.60 15.90 8.05 6,441.18 Gutter tile squares, at $14.25 per square. $57.90 36.20 45.40 61.65 201. 15 Ridge roll (linear feet), at 55 cents per linear foot. $1,375.50 378. 00 377. 40 377. 40 701.67 258.34 670. 00 838.00 164. 00 1, 133. 30 335.00 180. 50 47.00 ' 104.00 72.00 255.00 52.00 32.00 7,351.11 Ribbed glass pieces, at 93 cents each. 2, 875