| Material Information
||Bull evaluation testing bulls for breeding soundness
||Testing bulls for breeding soundness
||1 folded sheet (6 panels) : ill. ; 23 cm.
||Plummer, Charles B.
Warnick, A. C ( Alvin C )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
||University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service
||Place of Publication:
||Bulls -- Evaluation -- Florida ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Breeding -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||by Charles B. Plummer, Jr. and Alvin C. Warnick.
||"Feb. 1966"--Panel 6
||University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service circular 218A
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 502147913
CIRCULAR 218 A
CHARLES- B. PLUMMER, JR.
Agricultural Extension Sewice Veterinarian
ALVIN C. WARNICK
Associate Physiologist Agricultural Experiment Station
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
Testin bl f aoeng s S E N
11 1PHYSCAL PAIT
and when added together they make up the total
Purpose.-This test is to give the cattleman
reasonable assurance that the bulls to be use
during the coming breeding season will settle
50% or more of his cows on first service if bred
to potentially fertile brood cows. This test will
help the cattleman cull those bulls that are poor
potential breeders and help improve his calf crop
and shorten his breeding se?0on.
Evaluation Based on Semen
Quality and Physical Traits:
Bulls rated satisfactory must meet certain
minimum standards in both semen quality and
physical traits. Even though a bull has a satis-
factory semen score but is blind or has a broken
penis, he would not be classified as a potentially
satisfactory breeder for natural breeding. By
the same token, a bull that has very satisfactory
physical traits but has a very low semen score
would not be a potential breeder.
Method of Evaluation:
Semen collected by any artificial method is ,
evaluated by examining the sperm cells, using
the following criteria:
1. Vigor (movement).
2. Concentration (numbers).
3. Morphology (shape-normal or abnormal).
4. Percent alive.
Each of the above is given a numerical score
based upon microscopic and gross examination
Classification of bulls:
3. Culls or unsatisfactory.
Bulls in this group are physically fit, have a
semen score of 60 or above, and are considered
to be capable of settling, on the first service, not
less than 50% of the fertile cows to which they
QUESTION A BLE
Bulls are placed in this classification for one or
more of the following reasons: (1) Question as
to whether a truly representative sample of se-
men was collected; (2) questionable repairable
physical defects; (3) semen scores between 40-
Bulls in this group may be expected to settle a
few cows, but the conception rate would probably
fall below 50% on the first service. Tlhe .aay
change, for better or worse, at a later.ldle, and
should be re-checked at the discretior"of the owner
Bulls in this group have a semen score of less
than 40 and obvious physical defects with little
or no chance for recovery.
Time for Testing Bulls:
Bulls should be tested just before the beginning
of the breeding season. However, for various
reasons, the rancher may want to check at other
times. Yearling bulls may be checked, but often
the semen score will be low due to sexual imma-
turity. Young bulls will generally score higher
with increasing age.
Physical traits include an examination for:
1. General condition.
2. Legs and feet
3. Age and teeth.
5. Reproductive organs.
6. Diseases and parasites.
7. Miscellaneous defects. JAI
Bull testing is another tool that can be used
by cattlemen to eliminate unsatisfactory bulls
that have little or no chance for settling cows.
The test is not designed to put emphasis on small
differences that may exist in the potential fertility
of bulls classified as satisfactory for use in natural
It should not be assumed that a bull with a score
of 90 to 100 would necessarily be a better pros-
pective breeder than one with a score of 60, 70
or 80. On the basis of present knowledge and
techniques of semen evaluation, we do not believe
that differences in dollar value for natural breed-
ing can be assigned to 2 "satisfactory" bulls, one
of which has a higher score than the other.
First Printing May 1961
Second Printing Feb. 1966
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Act* of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida, and United
States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director