A 'i i~~~i~A i
ESMil- W -' I* i il mll % m
Published by the
FLORIDA FEDERATION OF GARDEN CLUBS, INC.
FUN WITH BIRDS
Helen G. Cruickshank, Editor
Bird Chairman, Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc.
Published by the
Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc.
Florida Audubon Society
Common egrets are abundant throughout the year in Florida. Plume hunters
called them "Long Whites."
TABLE OF CONTENTS
How to Have Fun With Birds in Florida
by Helen G. Cruickshank ..----------------- ------------- 5
State Library Resources for the Study of Birds
by Jeanette B. DeWitt ---- --------------------------- 7
My Life List of Florida Birds 8
How to Look At Birds
by Allan D. Cruickshank...... ------------------------- 12
Bird Protection in Florida
by A. D. Aldrich ....--------------------------- ------ 15
Making A Life History Study
by Alexander Sprunt, IV 1---------------. ------- ----- 16
by Allan D. Cruickshank ----------------... --- ---- 18
Bird Banding Reveals Interesting Information
by C. Russell Mason ----- ---------- -------------------- 19
Bird Mortality At A Leon County TV Tower
by Herbert Lee Stoddard --. ---------------.-------------- 21
The Bald Eagle
by Helen G. Cruickshank ..--------- ------------------- 23
Fruit and Berry Bearing Trees, Shrubs and Vines for Florida Gardens
by Mary Latham ----------------------------------------- 24
by Betty Komarek and Malvina Trussell ---------------------- 26
by Helen Cruickshank ------------------------------- 27
Fort Lauderdale, the Winter Home of the Buntings
by Dr. and Mrs. Ernest J. Brown ----------------- 28
National Wildlife Refuges in Florida
by Walter A. Gresh -------- ----------------------. ....- 29
Birds in Florida State Parks
by W. A. Coldwell ----------------- .......... ----- 32
Birds in the Everglades National Park
by William Robertson ------------- -------------------- 34
The Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary
by Alexander Sprunt, III --------------------------------- 35
The University of Florida's Built-in Natural History Laboratory
by Donald A. Jenni ---- -- -------------------... --- ----- 37
Birds of the Marshes and Lakes of Winter Park and Orlando
by Margaret H. Hundley -----------------------_--- -- -.. 38
Birds of the Tampa Bay Area
by Fred W. Schultz ------------------ -- ----------- 39
Mountain Lake Sanctuary
by Kenneth D. Morrison ........ .... ..----------. ---- ..--.-.- ................ 42
The Sight-Seeing Tour At Highlands Hammock State Park
by Carol H. Beck ---...----------------------- ..43
Guided Bird Tours in South Florida
by Charles M. Brookfield ----. .. --- .... ......... ..... ... 44
John James Audubon in Key West
by Frances Hames .........--- -----.------..... .. -- ... ........ ..... 46
The Dry Tortugas, A Never-Never Land of Birds
by Helen G. Cruickshank .----------------------.-- ................. 48
The Invasion of Florida by Cattle Egrets
by Samuel Grimes ----------------- --...... ................. 49
by Judge Samuel A. Harper --.---. -------------...-................ .. 51
The Everglade Kite
by Bayard W. Read --. ------- -- ---- -- --......................... 53
The Roseate Spoonbill
by Robert Porter Allen ------------------.... ...... .. ...... ......... .. 55
Professional Assistance in bird Study
by Olive Hendrickson ..... .------------------------..... 56
Sources of Further Inform ation .......... ---.................--- ... .............. ... ....... 58
Research Conducted in An Effort to Save the Bald Eagle
by Richard L. Cunningham ------- -- --- --------------.. ............. .. ................ 59
Key to the Florida Map; A Guide to Good Birding Places
by Lon Ellis ----- .....- ------------ ----- ------- ...... .................... 60
Florida and Audubon Camps
by Marorie Dunn Smith ------- --------.. .......... 62
W ho's W ho .. ........... .. ........... . .. 63
Photographs (except the bald eagle by Frederick K. Truslow)
by Allan D. Cruickshank
Front Cover: Roseate Spoonbill, by Allan D. Cruickshank
Back Cover: Bald Eagle, by Frederick K. Truslow
Map of Florida: by Lon Ellis
HOW TO HAVE FUN WITH BIRDS IN FLORIDA
By Helen G. Cruickshank
Since those far off days when the first European explorers looked with
wondering eyes at the rich, resplendent bird life of this state, Florida has been
a mecca for bird watchers. Nowhere in the entire United States can bird
watchers enjoy this popular outdoor sport more than right here.
One of the most delightful and also one of the most challenging aspects
of bird watching in Florida is the fact that every person may pursue this hobby
in his own way and at the level of proficiency he chooses. A cripple chained
to a wheel chair may watch the birds outside his window, limiting himself to
the enjoyment of their pretty forms and pleasant songs, or he may expand his
interest, keep accurate notes of their behavior, their dates of arrival and depar-
ture, and their food habits. In other words, his hobby may please only himself, or
it can be a genuine contribution to knowledge of the birds in his community.
A bird watcher who does not wish to walk may 'bird' from his car, listing
species seen on telephone wires and fences (mockingbirds, flycatchers, shrikes,
meadowlarks, bluebirds and many other species enjoy these open perches) as
he drives along the highway while a rather more adventurous watcher can fol-
low rough roads to secluded lakes, drive on some of the hard-surfaced beaches,
or search for marshlands that may be examined from his car.
Some may prefer walking in good birding areas. Others may exert their
energies to their fullest extent, and by the most rigorous physical effort reach
difficult or distant places in the wilderness, seeking to discover new nesting col-
onies, species hitherto not known to nest in an area, or observe birds under truly
Well over 300 species of birds have been recorded in Florida. Spectacular
wading birds such as herons and ibis are abundant and amazing concentrations
of them occur when food and water conditions are just right. In mid-winter
waterfowl move southward and reach Florida in tremendous numbers. Then
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuges present the best duck shows in the state.
Many cities such as Orlando boast lakes within their corporate limits where
large numbers of wild birds gather fearlessly and some species actually accept
food from people who come to look at them.
Almost every coastal town has wharves and fishing docks. Pelicans, royal
terns, ring-billed and laughing gulls, and ruddy turnstones often use the pilings
of these as perches and may be watched at close range.
As garden club members throughout the state endeavor to make every
garden a bird sanctuary, the resident population of song birds moves closer to
its human benefactors. Cardinals, mockingbirds, red-bellied woodpeckers and
blue jays move in to add color, music and often humor to the lives of the garden
owners. Brilliant, jewel-like painted buntings drop in during migration and
sometimes may be induced to spend the winter.
With interest in Florida's birds growing ever stronger, many lively, ener-
getic people try to list as many species of Florida birds as they can find, studying
each species with care to avoid mistaken identification and to learn as much
as possible about the bird. Keeping a list of birds seen not only helps to
impress each one on the memory but it aids the bird-lister in learning about the
relationships of birds for the list is arranged according to the evolutionary de-
velopment of the species. The most primitive birds on the list, the loons, visit
Florida during the winter months, usually staying on or close to salt water.
The most highly developed family of birds in this state, the sparrows, is well
represented by visiting species and also by nesting species. The cardinal, be-
loved by all garden owners, belongs to the sparrow family, an indication of
the high development of the species.
In order to find as many kinds of birds as possible, the bird watcher soon
discovers that he must visit as many kinds of habitat as possible. Each bird is
partial to a particular type of habitat and is seldom seen away from that kind
of country. In time when the lure of the list has led to a long and thorough
acquaintance with Florida's birds, the bird watcher may include bird photog-
raphy, bird banding, life history studies or studies of bird behavior in his ac-
tivities. There are so many fascinating angles of bird watching that each may
choose his particular interest, confident that the field chosen is not over-
Always truth should be sought. To be of value, bird watching must involve
careful, accurate observation and reporting. The beauty and charm of birds
may lead the poetic to fresh, vivid imagery but the truth should still be para-
mount. Read good books by reputable authors in order to forestall mistaken
interpretations of behavior. Not long ago a man described a bald eagle floating
above a valley while teaching its eight babies to fly. How much more reward-
ing his observation would have been had his knowledge been sufficient to lead
to a true account of his observation. Then he would know that bald eagles sel-
dom have more than two young a year, never eight of them. He would have
known that young eagles are fed so heavily that when they leave the nest,
baby fat makes them actually heavier than their parents. Knowing this the
man would have realized that the smaller birds circling below the eagle
were of another species and probably were hawks. Among those eight circling
birds he might have discovered more than one species. What a boost his life
list might have received had he looked carefully enough and interpreted
correctly what he saw. Truth, vastly more interesting than imaginary inter-
pretations, rewards richly those who seek it.
Most Florida libraries can provide the bird watcher with sound information
about his hobby. To bring more meaning and understanding to bird watching,
read An Introduction to Ornithology by George J. Wallace (Macmillan, 1955);
Bird Display and Behavior by Edward A. Armstrong (Oxford University Press,
1942); King Solomon's Ring by Konrad Z. Lorenz (Crowell, 1952); Florida
Bird Life by Alexander Sprunt, Jr. (Coward-McCann, 1954) and other fine
books local libraries offer their patrons. Many will wish to purchase a very
inexpensive little book: Birds, A Guide to the Most Familiar American Birds,
by Zim and Gabrielson (Simon and Schuster, 1949) which contains a wealth
of information in compact form.
To-day's artificial removal from the realities of the earth and all its
wonders has, many medical authorities believe, contributed to the alarming
increase in mental and emotional ills. Out door activities of which bird watching
is one of the most interesting and endlessly challenging does much to keep
such ills at bay. Bird watching demands that our senses be used to their
fullest capacity. The eyes may be trained to really see what is around us.
The ears can learn to assist the eyes in identification of the birds seen. Life
takes on new delights, new brilliance, new depths as interest in bird watching
is pursued in our gardens and beyond to the farthest reaches of our beautiful
state. (Note: A good binocular of at least 6-x power having a wide field is of
great help to the bird watcher. If the costly glasses by the best companies are
beyond your reach, do not buy a poor glass. One of the State University Biology
departments may be able to suggest an inexpensive but sound binocular)
STATE LIBRARY RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF BIRDS
By Jeanette B. DeWitt
The library of the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs has an increasing
number of books, slides, and sound filmstrips excellent for club programs and
individual study. These materials are available on loan. Procedures for borrow-
ing are stated in the current BOOK OF INFORMATION, Florida Federation
of Garden Clubs, Inc., which each club receives at Fall District Meetings. New
additions to the library are announced from time to time in issues of THE
MY LIFE LIST OF FLORIDA BIRDS
Heron, Great White
Heron, Great Blue
Heron, Little Blue
Egret, Common (American)
-_ Heron, Louisiana
Heron, Black-crowned Night
Heron, Yellow-crowned Night
._ Duck, Mottled
__ Teal, Green-winged
___ -Scaup, Greater
__ Kite, Everglade
____ Falcon, Peregrine
___ Hawk, Pigeon
__ Hawk, Sparrow
____ Crane, Sandhill
_ Dowitcher, Short-billed
Gull, Great Black-backed
__ Tern, Sandwich
__ Tern, Caspian
___ Tern, Black
___ Tern, Noddy
____ Skimmer, Black
___ Dove, Ground
___ Cuckoo, Black-billed
__ Ani, Smooth-billed
___- Owl, Barn
___ Owl, Screech
__ Owl, Great Horned
___ Owl, Burrowing
__ Owl, Barred
__ Owl, Short-eared
___ Swift, Chimney
___ Hummingbird, Ruby-throated
__ Woodpecker, Red-bellied
__ Woodpecker, Red-headed
__ Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied
__ Woodpecker, Hairy
___ Woodpecker, Red-cockaded
__ Kingbird, Western
Flycatcher, Great Crested
___ Flycatcher, Acadian
__ Pewee, Wood
___ Jay, Scrub
__ Titmouse, Tufted
__ Nuthatch, White-breasted
__ Nuthatch, Red-breasted
___ Wren, Winter
Wren, Long-billed Marsh
Wren, Short-billed Marsh
__ Thrasher, Brown
__ Thrush, Wood
__ Thrush, Hermit
__ Thrush, Swainson's
__ Thrush, Gray-cheeked
___ Bluebird, Eastern
__ Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray
__ Kinglet, Golden-crowned
__ Kinglet, Ruby-crowned
__ Pipit, Water
__ Waxwing, Cedar
__ Vireo, White-eyed
__ Vireo, Yellow-throated
__ Vireo, Solitary
___ Vireo, Black-whiskered
_ Warbler, Black-and-white
___ Warbler, Swainson's
___ Warbler, Blue-winged
__ Warbler, Yellow
__ Warbler, Magnolia
___ Warbler, Cape May
___ Warbler, Black-throated Blue
__ Warbler, Myrtle
__ Warbler, Black-throated Green
___ Warbler, Blackburnian
___ Warbler, Yellow-throated
___ Warbler, Chestnut-sided
__ Warbler, Bay-breasted
___ Warbler, Blackpoll
___ Warbler, Pine
____ Warbler, Prairie
___ Warbler, Palm
___ Waterthrush, Northern
___ Meadowlark, Eastern
___ Blackbird, Redwinged
___ Oriole, Orchard
___ Oriole, Spotted-breasted
__ Oriole, Baltimore
__ Blackbird, Rusty
__ Grackle, Boat-tailed
G_ rackle, Common
___ Cowbird, Brown-headed
___ Tanager, Summer
-__ Grosbeak, Rose-breasted
___ Finch, Purple
___ Goldfinch, American
__ Sparrow, Savannah
__ Sparrow, Grasshopper
__ Sparrow, Henslow's
Sparrow, Dusky Seaside
__ Sparrow, Chipping
__ Sparrow, Clay-colored
___ Sparrow, Field
OTHER SPECIES RECORDED IN FLORIDA
HOW TO LOOK AT BIRDS
By Allan D. Cruickshank
Occasionally the casual observer may get a good view of a bird, but for
numerous close-up, detailed studies binoculars are essential. If possible try to
get a reliable make, preferably a prism model with central focusing, wide field,
and at least 6 power magnification.
At first identification may seem difficult, but if one uses the correct methods,
identification will soon become easy.
MAJOR GROUPS OR FAMILIES: Immediately try to place your bird in
its family or distinctive group. Most people already know the general appear-
ance of pelicans, herons, ducks, hawks, sandpipers, gulls, pigeons, owls, hum-
mingbirds, woodpeckers, swallows, thrushes and sparrows. With a little effort
it will be easy to learn the field characteristics of the other major groups of
birds occurring in Florida. This accomplished, one will have mastered the
most important item in field identification.
SIZE: Estimate the size of your subject using standards that most eveyrone
knows. Is it larger or smaller than a sparrow, robin, pigeon, crow or chicken?
COLOR: In many cases color alone will identify a bird. A blackbird with
bright red shoulder patches is surely a redwinged blackbird. A red bird with
a distinct crest has to be a cardinal. A sparrow-sized mostly blue bird is
unquestionably an indigo bunting.
SHAPE: There are numerous important facts even a silhouette may reveal.
Train yourself to automatically notice any distinctive shape, posture, or pecu-
BUILD: A grackle is long and slender whereas a crow is chunky and heavy
POSTURE: A swimming loon normally looks rather short-necked and its
bill is held parallel to the water, whereas a cormorant usually looks long-necked
and the head and bill generally tilt sharply upward.
LEGS: In flight white pelican's legs extend just beneath the tail while those
of the rather similar patterned wood ibis project far beyond the end of the tail.
TAIL: Barn swallows have deeply forked tails, cliff swallows have almost
square-cut tails. Thrushes have rather short tails while thrashers have obviously
BILL: The mockingbird has a rather long, slender, decurved bill while the
somewhat similar looking loggerhead shrike has a short, thick, slightly hooked
HEAD: A blue jay has a distinct crest while the scrub jay's head is smooth
ACTION: Often one peculiar action may separate a bird from any species
closely resembling it. The eastern phoebe is our only flycatcher that habit-
When winter comes birding is wonderful in Florida's Refuges, Parks
ually flips its tail up and down. A sandpiper nervously teetering its tail up and
down is a spotted sandpiper.
PATTERN OR FIELD MARK: The only Florida duck with a large white
crescent on each side of its face is a blue-winged teal. A conspicuous white
rump is generally obvious on a marsh hawk gliding over the meadows and
marshes. A large flycatcher with a broad white band along the tip of its tail
has to be an eastern kingbird.
FLIGHT: A true crane flies with its neck fully extended, while similarly
shaped herons in flight normally fold the neck back on the shoulders except
when taking off or landing. An American goldfinch in flight normally bounds
up and down roller-coaster fashion. A turkey vulture glides with its wings
tilted distinctly upward, infrequently interspersing slow deliberate flaps. The
rather similar looking black vulture holds its wings almost horizontal and fre-
quently uses a series of jerky flaps of its wings to keep moving.
RANGE AND SEASON OF OCCURRENCE: It is a tremendous help
to get acquainted with what we may expect to see in our own country in
Florida, especially at different seasons. A kingbird in winter is almost invariably
a western kingbird, one in summer is almost always an eastern kingbird. A scaup
duck in Florida is almost always a lesser scaup. A least tern is not to be
expected in winter, a Bonaparte's gull in summer would be amazing.
HABITAT PREFERENCE: As you study birds notice the type of country
in which each species is normally found. A meadowlark prefers wide open
grassy places, a red-cockaded woodpecker demands extensive pinelands, a
Wilson's plover would be accidental away from the coastal sand dunes or
CALLS AND SONGS: With a little practice one can identify most birds
by their calls or songs alone. Most residents of Florida have heard a chuck-
will's-widow at night, but how many have ever seen one? The most popular,
and probably the easiest system is to associate some words with a bird's song.
The bobwhite, killdeer, chuck-will's-widow, eastern phoebe and Carolina
chickadee distinctly say their names. Most Carolina wrens vociferously sing a
loud rolling TEA-KETTLE, TEA-KETTLE, TEA-KETTLE or WHEEDLE-
WHEEDLE-WHEEDLE. The yellowthroat hidden in some thicket announces
its presence with a lively sweet WHICH-IS-IT? WHICH-IS-IT? WHICH-IS-
IT? Listen carefully. Try putting some words to catch the spirit and rhythm
of each song .. it's lots of fun!
POCKET GUIDE TO THE BIRDS, By Allan D. Cruickshank. Dodd, Mead and
Co., New York. (paper cover, Washington Square Press, Inc., N.Y.)
A FIELD GUIDE TO EASTERN BIRDS, By Roger Tory Peterson. Houghton,
Mifflin Co., Boston.
AUDUBON LAND BIRD GUIDE and AUDUBON WATER BIRD GUIDE,
By Richard H. Pough. Doubleday and Co., N. Y.
BIRD PROTECTION IN FLORIDA
By A. D. Aldrich
There are no bad birds in Florida. There are no predatory birds in Florida,
in the sense that predation is a bad thing.
All birds play an important part in the intricate balance of nature. It is
true that we humans do not always understand the importance of the part
that a particular species of bird plays in nature's balance wheel. But, just
because we do not understand it does not mean that the bird's part is
For a long time, people thought that all hawks and owls were bad birds
that should be exterminated. It is true that the birds-of-prey, like hawks, are
meat-eaters that attack other birds, as well as small animals such as rodents.
But, the truth is, the hawks help keep the populations of birds and rodents in
This is the reason why the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commis-
sion protects all hawks and owls in Florida.
In Florida, only five species of birds are unprotected-the English sparrow,
the crow, the starling, the black vulture and the turkey vulture. All other birds
are protected by state laws, Federal laws, or both.
The protected birds are protected no matter where the birds may be found
in the forests, the swamps, the fields, the city streets, or in your own
The word "protected" means that the bird, its nest, its eggs and its young
may not be molested, taken, injured or killed.
Florida now has nearly four million acres of wilderness lands in its Wild-
life Management Areas. These areas are managed by the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission for the conservation and development of wild animals, birds
The status of birds in Florida should be defined. Game birds which are
protected but may be legally hunted at certain times of the year by a licensed
hunter using legal methods. The game birds are quail, turkey, dove, woodcock,
coots, snipe, geese, ducks and marsh hens.
The unprotected birds are those previously mentioned-English sparrow,
crow, starling, black vulture, turkey vulture-that may be hunted or taken at
All other birds are completely protected at all times and may not be
hunted, taken, or molested at any time.
Birds are important in the balance of nature. We humans should guard
our bird-life resources. We should conserve and protect birds for the future
MAKING A LIFE HISTORY STUDY
By Alexander Sprunt, IV
Birds have been studied by man for centuries. In spite of this, many
things are still to be learned about even common species. Not many ornitholo-
gists have confined their studies to a single species and thoroughly worked
out its life story. All that is required to do this is a little basic knowledge and
a lot of patience. Time, a discerning eve and accurately kept records enable
amateurs to contribute valuable new facts on familiar birds. The following
suggestions are designed for song birds and may be changed and greatly
expanded. Marking birds with bands, airplane "dope," or dye helps greatly in
such a study.
1. MIGRATION AND PAIRING: Many Florida birds migrate while others
are year round residents. Does the species studied migrate? If so, do the males
arrive first? Do they set up a territory? When do the females arrive? How do
they select a mate? Is there any courtship display?
2. NEST BUILDING: Nests vary greatly in position, material used, and
construction. Which sex picks the nest site, secures the materials and builds the
3. EGG LAYING AND INCUBATION: Find out what time of day the
eggs are laid. How many make a complete set? Are they laid on successive
days? Determine whether both sexes incubate. If so is there a difference in
when or how much? Mark individual eggs to obtain exact incubation period.
Is there more than one brood in a season?
4. NESTLING DEVELOPMENT: Determine how many of the eggs hatch
and what is done with the egg shells. When are the young first fed? Do both
parents feed them? How many feeding trips are made each day? How much
and what kind of food is given to the nestlings? What steps are taken to keep
the nest clean? Record the weight of young each day. Are the young naked
at hatching? Does down develop? When do the feathers appear? Study the
reactions of the nestlings to various stimuli. Does touching the nest cause them
to beg? Do noise or calls play a part? When do nestlings start to react to
5. POST-NESTLING LIFE: At what age do the young leave the nest?
Are they able to fly? Do they return to the nest? Determine whether the
adults continue to feed them. At what age are they independent?
This is a very brief summary of a few questions that can be investigated.
For a much more comprehensive outline see:
Hickey, J. J., A Guide to Bird Watching, Oxford University Press, Appendix
Brown Pelicans are seldom seen far from salty or brakish water. Their funny
faces make them favorites everywhere.
By Allan D. Cruickshank
Bird photography is a captivating hobby, one that adds much to the full
enjoyment of the out-of-doors. The primary requisites for success are some
understanding of the habits and temperaments of your subjects, an ability to
use modern photography equipment, the utmost patience, and, above all, a
determination to succeed.
Occasionally a good picture may be secured by luck, but normally good
results come either from careful planning, or from one's good fortune in being
at a place like the Anhinga Trail in the Everglades National Park where purple
gallinules, white ibis and various herons have lost all fear of man, or around
one of the many lakes in Orlando where coots, lesser scaup and ring-necked
ducks may be approached at will, or on Florida fishing piers where brown
pelicans and ring-billed gulls perch with confidence awaiting a handout.
In Florida beginners may well concentrate on these easy ready-made set-
ups. Even one full day of photographing in such a place will acquaint one
with the essential requisites for good bird pictures. One will soon realize that
even a brown pelican is a relatively small creature and that one must either
get very close to obtain a worthwhile picture, or else use a long focal length
lens to enlarge the image of the subject.
The only way to learn wildlife photography is to get afield and try your
skill. There will be disappointments, but the good shots will be treasures to
keep. Once you have obtained a single good bird picture, you will want to get
another, and still another, and before you know it you will be an ardent fan
ever eager to get afield and indulge in more of this fascinating fun. As soon
as you progress you will want to expand your efforts and try photography at
feeding stations, bird baths, nests and roosts. Soon you will have an extensive
collection of good bird pictures that will give you much pleasure and pride for
the rest of your life. So, come on, pick up your camera, carry it afield, and join
the ever increasing number of happy bird photographers.
For additional information and help read:
HUNTING WITH THE CAMERA, Allan D. Cruickshank and others. Harper
& Brothers, N.Y., N.Y.
BIRD BANDING REVEALS INTERESTING INFORMATION
By C. Russell Mason
Millions of birds have been banded throughout the nation by volunteer
cooperators of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Metal bands carrying iden-
tifying numbers are issued by the Service to adults who can qualify on the
basis of bird knowledge, for Federal and State permits.
These bands are placed on the tarsi of birds trapped or netted, and the
birds then released unharmed. Records are kept of each bird banded. Once
tagged the individual bird retains its number forever. Later recapture by a
bander, or the finding of an injured or dead banded bird, may bring to light
hitherto unknown facts. Only a small percentage of banded birds is recovered.
Recoveries in Florida range from less than one percent for smaller species to
twelve percent for hundreds of pelicans banded in this state in the 1930's.
Facts uncovered by banding could not result from observation alone. They
include direction and speed of travel at different seasons and under varying
weather and food-supply conditions. Arctic terns banded in the far north and
recovered in territory stretching from Europe to southern Africa indicate that
these birds follow an ancestral route across the Atlantic and Mediterranean,
traveling some 25,000 miles between their summer and winter homes.
Until chimney swifts, banded from Nova Scotia to Alabama, were recap-
tured in Peru a few years ago it was not known where this species spent the
winter. We still do not know where some birds go after leaving their nesting
Banders study the birds they trap to determine changes in plumage due
to season or age, to identify parasites found on the birds, to try to solve ques-
tions of variations in weight and size, and whether certain species and indi-
viduals mate for life, change mates from year to year or during one season,
or are polygamous. Bald eagles take five years to attain their white heads and
tails. Some gulls reach mature plumage in three years, others in five years.
How long do birds live? The answer would be largely guesswork were
it not for information deduced from banding operations. While a majority
of birds under natural conditions are short-lived, banding has revealed that
jays, cardinals, and mockingbirds may live to be seven or eight years old.
Birds of prey such as eagles or hawks may live much longer. Several species
of terns have life records of more than 20 years. In June 1959, ten sooty terns
were netted in the Dry Tortugas by Florida Audubon Society members. The
terns had been banded as chicks from 1937 to 1940 thus establishing the fact
that these ten birds were from 18 to 22 years old.
Many birds that are listed as non-migratory range over limited areas after
the nesting season. Included in this group is the blue jay, an abundant species
for which no well-defined migration pattern has yet emerged. A color-banding
project organized in central Florida called "Operation Blue Jay," may furnish
Interesting questions on the lives and habits of birds still await solution.
The bird bander is an important ally of scientists in helping to unravel some
of nature's mysteries.
Monthly banding exhibitions are held at Audubon House in Maitland during the winter
months. The schedule of activities of the Florida Audubon Society, including these, appears
in the October issue of the "Florida Naturalist," or may be obtained by calling Audubon
The Great Crested Flycatcher returns to Florida in early spring. It often adds
the shed skin of a snake to its nest.
BIRD MORTALITY AT A LEON COUNTY TV TOWER
By Dr. Herbert Lee Stoddard
In the fall of 1955, a 673 foot TV tower (WCTV) was erected on Tall
Timbers Plantation some 20 miles north of Tallahassee and within a mile of the
Georgia-Florida line. The location is on a hill overlooking Lake lamonia, and
only three miles airline and eight miles by road from the writer's home. Both
the owner of the land, Mr. H. L. Beadel, and the owner of the tower, Mr. John
H. Phipps, are friends of over thirty years and cooperate splendidly. Hence
conditions are ideal for a long time study of bird mortality, which is known
to be heavy at many TV towers, of which there are over 500 in the United
That this tower was lethal was soon apparent. Our first visit was on
October 2nd soon after the installation was completed. Several birds in various
stages of decomposition, but easily identified, were picked up. Then on the
night of the 8th-9th, several thousand birds lost their lives by striking the
tower or its 21 guy wires. As the surrounding acres were maturing corn and
other row crops, with weeds chin high, finding and processing all of the dead
birds was impossible, for weather was warm and creatures that make way
with flesh (ants, blow flies, carrion beetles, owls, cats, opossums, etc.) were
numerous. The "kill" was conservatively estimated at from 4,000 to 7,000 birds,
of which only 1,988 were picked up and identified. Over a hundred were made
up as scientific skins.
The "bag" included 880 palm warblers. These represented about 45% of
the sample. If there were even 5,000 dead birds, it is evident that over 2,000
of these small warblers met death here on that dreadful night.
As soon as the crops were harvested, some 15 to 20 acres surrounding the
tower were prepared and planted to centipede grass. Now, four and a half
years later, the grounds resemble a golf course, and dead birds axe easily
located with binoculars. At this writing, the old tower has just been disman-
tled and replaced with a 1,010 footer, and the improved area is being extended
to nearly forty acres. Mowing and upkeep are time consuming and expensive.
The tower is visited at daybreak every morning with the exception of
less than a dozen mornings in June when the chance of finding any dead birds
is very remote. However, one interesting wanderer, a purple gallinule, was
picked up on the morning of July 1, 1956.
Only one additional "kill" that exceeded 1,000 birds has so far occurred.
This was the night of October 4-5, 1957. Mr. Leon Neel and the writer picked
up dead and dying birds as they fell all during the night, powerful flashlights
being used. By sunrise next morning a total of 2,325 dead birds of 66 species
had been recorded and saved. We estimate that fully 17,000 birds struck this
small tower or its guy wires during its four and a half years of existence. Each
migration we add a few new species to the tower list, which now numbers
about 165 species and subspecies. So far in 1960 the killdeer and willet have
Among the "rarities" for Florida may be mentioned the black rail (3),
clay-colored sparrow, white-crowned sparrow and several small flycatchers.
Species not known as night migrants such as cardinals, mockingbirds, tree
swallows and chimney swifts have turned up in numbers. Both vultures were
unexpected; even more so two yellow-crowned night herons. Why should a
bird with such highly developed "'night eyes" strike an obstruction?
The bulk of the casualties are warblers, vireos, thrushes, tanagers, gros-
beaks and several finches, indigo buntings, and Savannah, white-throated and
chipping sparrows. Fortunately species commonly shot as game are found in
insignificant numbers. There are a few ducks, coots and gallinules, rails, doves
and shorebirds. One hunter formerly shot more gamebirds in a day than have
been found around this tower since the study began.
As might be expected, three or four times as many birds are killed during
the fall migration than in spring. The "peak" of the fall migration occurs in
late September and during October. Sometimes more birds are killed during
the latter month than all the others together. April is usually the peak month
Most of the bird losses take place during hazardous weather conditions
that coincide with heavy night migrations. Most of the night flights apparently
occur on favoring winds; very little when winds are entirely adverse. The two
great "kills" developed at migration peaks when deep cloud masses and favoring
winds occurred. Both had driving mists and murk but no rain. Heavy rainfall
apparently causes warblers, vireos, and thrushes to take to ground cover,
while waterbirds and certain finches may continue flight, and make up almost
the entire kill on very wet nights. On the terrible night of October 4-5, 1957,
the top "'blinker" of the tower was obscured early in the night and the middle
blinker was hidden by 3:30 a.m. Winds were strong northeast, with driving
intermittent mist, and birds fell from dusk to daybreak. Scenes witnessed
were pathetic in the extreme. Gasping birds occasionally hit our work table,
and they were falling at a rate of several per minute. Many with broken wings
and otherwise mutilated, cried out in pain as they came to earth.
Needless to say, one of our hopes is that information may be secured
during the study that can be put to use in reducing the slaughter here and in
other similar danger areas.
Practically all the dead birds are put to full scientific use. They are imme-
diately frozen and shipped to museums, biological departments of universities,
and private investigators all over the eastern United States. Fat deposition
studies, age and sex ratios, skins, skeletons and anatomical preparations, study
of pathology, internal and external parasites and so on are the main uses. The
University of Miami and the Gainesville and Tallahassee institutions are getting
their full share.
The tower work is to be taken over and continued indefinitely by the
newly formed Tall Timbers Research Station. Grants from the National Science
Foundation to take care of a portion of the expenses have been secured through
the University of Georgia.
No two migrations are alike. One never knows what to expect and
exciting discoveries are frequent. The work furnishes a valuable supplement
to the migration studies of the opera-glass student, the bird banders with their
traps and nets, the observers with telescopes watching the night migrants zip
across the disk of the full moon, and so forth. With these and other techniques,
we should in time acquire much information about one of the great mysteries
of the ages, the night migration of birds. Why do they migrate, what triggers
their start, how do they navigate to their exact nesting spots or winter homes
and similar questions intrigue us. We may never know but a part of the
answers, but should learn all we can.
THE BALD EAGLE
By Helen G. Cruickshank
The bald eagle with a wingspread of more than seven feet and weighing an
average of thirteen pounds, usually develops its white head and tail between
its fourth and fifth years. Until that time this species is dusky with irregular
blotches of white.
Each nesting season the eagle returns to the same huge nest, adding new
material yearly until finally, weighing many hundreds of pounds, the nest
topples to the earth from sheer bulk. Usually two dull white eggs nearly three
inches long are laid.
Fish forms the staple food but sick or injured birds, rabbits and so on are
an important part of the eagle diet. The food habits of the eagle are valuable in
keeping the breeding stock of game birds and small mammals in a strong,
healthy condition. Contrary to popular belief, there is no authentic instance
of a bald eagle ever posing a threat to a human baby let alone actually carrying
Though protected (as are its nest, eggs and young) by federal and state
laws, its large size makes the eagle a tempting target for thoughtless hunters.
During this time of dire threat to the bald eagle species, a vigorous campaign
should be waged by all Americans to persuade gunners to refrain from shooting
ANY LARGE DARK BIRD-they might kill our national bird.
The eagle soars majestically with its wings held on the horizontal. In
direct flight its speed is amazing. Because of this it is not surprising to learn
that young eagles hatched in Florida during the winter may wander during
the summer as far north as Canada.
Since Florida with the exception of Alaska is the chief remaining breeding
area for bald eagle, all Floridians feel a particular urgency over the decline of
this species. Right in our own state the success or failure in their fight against
extinction may be determined. When we celebrate in 1982 the 200th anniver-
sary of the adoption of the bald eagle as our national bird, it is hoped that those
who wish to see an eagle will not be reduced to a study of coins bearing its
form in relief, or its gilded image on top of our flag staffs.
The concentrated efforts of all Floridians toward the preservation of our
national bird may yet save the bald eagle from extinction. May the day never
come when it is impossible to look into Florida skies and there see a living bald
eagle, its white head and tail glistening in the sun as it weaves lazy circles
against the blue, or watch its swift, direct flight toward a nest where hungry
eaglets await its coming.
FRUIT AND BERRY BEARING TREES, SHRUBS AND VINES
FOR FLORIDA GARDENS
By Mary Latham
(Condensed from "The Garden Guide," compiled by and for the members of the
Ormond Beach Garden Club)
Every garden is made more beautiful by the colorful plumage and joyful
songs of birds. Most gardeners are ardent bird lovers. They realize that the
planning, time, and effort required to plant those species most attractive to
birds and which provide necessary cover, nesting places, and natural foods that
encourage their presence will repay the gardener a hundred-fold. Their efforts
to attract birds to their gardens result in sound, color, beauty and movement
that only birds can supply. There is year-round pleasure in watching these
active creatures. Moreover, the birds are energetic assistants in the never ending
struggle of gardeners to control insect pests.
Herewith is an extremely compact list of those plants most attractive to
birds. Only the common names are given and no data is included as to pre-
ferred location, size, habit of growth, soil preference and so on. Consult your
local nurseryman for exact information about each plant and as to which plants
will do best in your particular climatic zone.
Native trees which may be transplanted from the wild when dormant (Dec.
to Feb.) include: Sabal Palm (Cabbage Palmetto, Florida's State tree), Black-
haw, Black Cherry, Hackberry, Magnolia, oaks, Red Cedar, Red Mulberry,
Shining Sumac, Sparkleberry, and all species of pine.
Trees best purchased from a nursery are: all varieties of Illex (holly), Date
Palm, Camphor, Citrus, Loquat, Cherry Laurel, Chinaberry, Dogwood, Silk Oak.
SHRUBS AND VINES
Cold, salt and wind resistant shrubs especially suited to the coastal areas
include: Pyracantha, Brazilian Pepper, most viburnams, Ligustrum (Wax Privet,
Amur Privet), Wax Myrtle, Podocarpus, Elaeagnus, Callicarpa (French Mul-
Less hardy shrubs well worth planting for the sake of birds are: Surinam
Cherry, Mexican Pepper, Seagrape, Natal Plum (Carissa), Duranta, Asparagus
The ruby-throated hummingbird is partial to the prolific blooms of Shrimp
Plant (Beleperone), and has been observed feasting on them throughout the
winter months. Among other nectar-laden flowers are the Pandora Vine,
Plumbago and Cape Honeysuckle. Ruby-throated hummingbirds prefer red
flowers to such an extent that they have been known to mistake a gaudy hat
for one of their favorite delicacies. Plant Red-cardinal, Scarlet Bush, Turk's
Cap, Ixora, Scarlet Sage and Scarlet Mint if you wish to attract this tiny bird.*
The Florida Audubon Society has for sale an attractive hand blown glass hummingbird feeder which
has proved to be an attractive substitute for flowers when gardens lack tnen. Use of these feeders helps
to keep hummingbirds in a garden throughout the winter. Ed.
Few Florida Gardens lack a Cardinal. Its gay colors and happy songs enrich
the lives of thousands of gardeners.
By Betty Komarek and Malvina Trussell
In Florida one does not feed birds because we lack available natural foods;
we place feeders in our yards to increase the number of birds we can observe
for pleasure and for scientific study.
For easy observation it is best to concentrate your feeders near the
window where you are likely to be much of the time, keeping in mind the
availability for use with groups of friends as well as youth groups. The area
should be away from the "flow of traffic" . play area, streets, or the path
taken by children and dogs as a short cut through your yard. If most of your
free time for bird study is in the morning, avoid a window facing east; for
afternoon avoid a western window. The best place for all day observation is
a north window.
Feeders bring birds close enough for observation with the naked eye. With
only a good field guide handy, one can learn to recognize birds with little
additional help. By having a bird close at hand for a relatively long period,
one can observe characteristic movements as well as field markings which aid in
identification. When you have progressed to the point of recognizing birds
in spring and summer plumage, bird feeders will make possible the recognition
of a species like the pine warbler in its varied plumages as we move from
autumn to winter to spring.
Feeders can be of simple construction as a flat board, with a narrow strip
around the edges, placed on a piece of metal pipe or a substantial wood post.
If you are likely to have cats or squirrels around, a half-length of stove pipe
around the post and fastened to the bottom of the feeder will prevent squirrels
or cats from climbing the post. A cypress knee with one-inch holes bored for
holding food can be placed on top of a pole or swung from a tree limb.
Always keep in mind that a bird bath, or even better, water spraying on a
piece of shrubbery will attract certain species not attracted to feeders. Too, a
bird is more likely to spend a longer period of time in the bird bath or spray
than at the feeder, making more detailed observation possible.
Avoid feeding bread crumbs if you are bothered by cats. Too often bread
will be dropped on the ground by the birds and thus encourage cats to visit
the area. Waste grease mixed with corn meal can be put in heavy cold cream
jars and placed on the feeding shelf. This mixture can be used to fill the holes
in your cypress knee. Suet can also be used to fill holes, especially when the
cypress knee is hung from a tree limb which can be reached by squirrels. They
like the corn meal mixture but seldom bother suet alone. Cracked peanuts or
pecans can be used on the feeding shelf along with small cracked grain, sun-
flower seeds and ground oyster shell. Do not permit any food to remain on the
shelf long enough for mold to develop.
For hummingbirds a mixture of 1 tablespoon honey to ,I cup water can
be placed in a vial or small plastic cup and fastened to the windowsill.
Remember! If you want birds around, your feeders should be supplied
with fresh food at all times.
By Helen G. Cruickshank
In our present urban and suburban culture, water which was once readily
available to birds is now in many areas drained away, covered up or otherwise
eliminated. Yet if our gardens are to be bird sanctuaries water must be present.
To attract the maximum numbers of these attractive residents to our gardens,
clean cool water in ample supply should always be provided.
Fortunately water adds beauty and interest to any garden. It may act as a
reflection pool. Dripping, running or falling water adds music and movement.
Either type of water supply may combine the desired effects with a presenta-
tion which is attractive to birds.
Very shallow water is required by birds. Restrict the depth of the water to
about an inch and never let it exceed two inches. Falling, dripping or gently
running water entering on one side of the shallow pool often attracts species
which normally do not live in the garden area. Migrants passing through also
hear the water and come to drink and bathe.
Cement and pottery baths on graceful pedestals are appropriate and
decorative in formal gardens. For informal gardens the bath may be sunk in
the earth and surrounded by plants to give an effect of a natural pool. Often
several levels may be created for an especially beautiful and musical display.
Whatever type of bird bath is chosen, it should be placed near shrubbery.
When wet, birds are vulnerable since flight is difficult and slow. Dense shrubs
near the bath give the birds a sense of security and offer easy escape from an
enemy. If the bath is in at least partial shade, the water remains cooler and
more inviting to hot, thirsty birds whose temperatures are considerably higher
than that of humans.
FORT LAUDERDALE, THE WINTER HOME OF THE BUNTINGS
By Dr. and Mrs. Ernest J. Brown
There was incredulity among the birding experts when the 1959 Christmas
Bird Count from Fort Lauderdale was read. Seventy-two indigo buntings
appeared on that count while the next highest number on a single count in the
United States was two. Most counts lacked any record at all of this species. The
128 painted buntings was about double that of the next highest count. The high
count of buntings was verified by means of a telephone call and the reason for
the remarkable number of buntings in Fort Lauderdale was revealed.
Eight years ago we saw a few of these pretty little birds feeding on weed
seeds on our lawn. We scattered some chicken feed which they appeared to
enjoy. But the fine cracked corn also attracted so many larger, more aggressive
birds such as blue jays, redwings and grackles that the small, shy buntings
were frightened away.
How could we feed the shy little buntings without also bringing the larger
birds that frightened them? After considerable thought we made a cage of
coarse wire having a mesh 1" x 2". Through this the buntings could squeeze
but larger birds were unable to enter. We made some easily removable troughs
to hold seeds within the cage. In this cage the buntings could eat peacefully
without competition by the larger species.
The buntings soon found the cage holding food which they liked. First
feeding them fine cracked corn, we experimented with other grains until we
found they liked the mixture sold for parakeets and millet better than anything
Each day at 3:00 p.m. we ring a bell to signal "feeding time" to the
buntings. Then we fill the troughs in the two cages now operated and go into
the house where we watch through a window with scarcely three feet between
us and the buntings. Up to 150 buntings come to the cages daily.
The buntings spend about four months with us: December through March.
In the early part of the season, painted buntings are in the majority. During
January the indigo buntings begin to arrive in larger and larger numbers. By
February the painted and indigo buntings visit our cages in about equal num-
bers. By the time March arrives some painted buntings have begun their
northward migration and indigo buntings then become the big show.
During the 1959-60 season more than 340 people came to see the buntings.
They were always welcome provided they arrived just before 3:00 p.m. and
were willing to sit quietly and watch the beautiful birds feed in their cages.
Many people said upon leaving: "We must make a cage like yours for
the buntings in our garden." Now a dozen or more cages, copied from our
original one, are in use in the Fort Lauderdale area. Each of these has its own
population of buntings. As a result of finding a food which the buntings like very
much, and placing it where only buntings can reach it, Fort Lauderdale has
become the winter home of the buntings.
NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES IN FLORIDA
By Walter A. Gresh
The National Wildlife Refuge system had its beginning in Florida in 1903
when President Theodore Roosevelt set aside the 3-acre Pelican Island in the
Indian River as an inviolate sanctuary. Since that time, this system of wildlife
sanctuaries, administered by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S.
Department of the Interior, has grown to include over 270 distinct units. The
State of Florida now includes 14 National Wildlife Refuges, ranging in size
from tiny Pelican Island to the 145,000-acre Loxahatchee Refuge. Only five of
these refuges have permanent personnel; the other areas are uninhabited islands
accessible only by boat or plane.
The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife encourages public use and
enjoyment of the refuges and permits a variety of activities that do not conflict
with the primary refuge objectives. The unspoiled beauty and variety of wild-
life possessed by these areas have made them increasingly popular with bird
students, amateur photographers and wildlife observers in general.
The brief summaries that follow can do little more than mention the Fed-
eral Refuges in Florida. Anyone contemplating a visit should contact the
Refuge Manager, preferably in advance, for descriptive literature and any
specific information needed.
Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge
Chassahowitzka Refuge, comprising about 29,000 acres of salt bays and
marshes, mangrove islands, hardwood swamps, and pine-oak sand hills, is located
along the Gulf Coast near Homasassa Springs. The wooded portions of this
refuge have but few roads and are generally inaccessible except by foot, while
trips into the marshes and bays require boats. Conspicuous wintering birds
include a large variety of waterfowl species, white pelicans and bald eagles.
In the spring the mangrove keys are nesting sites for numerous waterbirds.
Permanent residents or summer visitors that may be of special interest to vis-
itors include the limpkin, gray kingbird, ground dove, wild turkey and wood
The Chassahowitzka Refuge Manager also supervises the Cedar Keys
National Wildlife Refuge, a group of small islands located in the Gulf near the
town of Cedar Keys. These islands furnish ideal nesting sites for thousands of
egrets, ibis, cormorants and other water birds, with peak nesting activity
occurring in April and May.
St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge
Located on the Gulf Coast of Northwest Florida about 30 miles south of
Tallahassee, St. Marks Refuge offers a variety of habitat types and birdlife
unequalled by any of the other refuges in Florida. Salt-water bays, marshes grad-
ing from salt to fresh, hardwood swamps, pine-oak uplands and fresh-water
impoundments attract a remarkable array of bird life to the 92,000 acres of land
and water within the refuge. A total of 288 species have been recorded in the
area. Many species of waterfowl, wading birds and song birds may be seen during
the winter and spring seasons. Recently, the golden eagle and vermilion fly-
Scaup ducks (this is a drake) are among Florida's most abundant winter ducks
on lakes, rivers and bays.
catcher have been rare but regular winter visitors. Permanent residents or
summer visitors that may be seen during the summer months include the wood
ibis, wood duck, osprey, wild turkey, limpkin, ground dove and gray kingbird.
Sanibel National Wildlife Refuge
Sanibel Refuge, located in the Gulf about 17 miles southwest of Fort Myers,
includes Sanibel Island and a small portion of Captiva Island. Except for a
small acreage owned by the Federal Government, the land is privately owned
and leased to the Government for refuge purposes. Thus Sanibel Refuge is
essentially a cooperative endeavor between the landowners and the Bureau for
restoration and maintenance of desirable wildlife resources. A variety of water
birds may be seen during the winter in the salt-water lagoons and an 80-acre
fresh-water impoundment developed for waterfowl. Other interesting winter
birds include occasional white pelicans, bald eagles and duck hawks. During
the spring and summer months, nesting species include mottled ducks, black-
necked stilts, pelicans, anhingas, ibis and most of the common herons. Other
interesting summer birds that may be seen include the magnificent frigate-bird,
roseate spoonbill, mangrove cuckoo, gray kingbird and occasionally the great
The Refuge Manager at Sanibel also supervises four small island refuges
along the west coast of Florida: Anclote Refuge near Tarpon Springs, Island Bay
Refuge about 12 miles southwest of Punta Gorda, Passage Key Refuge in the
mouth of Tampa Bay and Pinellas Refuge in Tampa Bay. These refuges provide
protected nesting sites for many thousands of herons, egrets, ibis, pelicans, an-
hingas, cormorants, gulls and terns, with peak nesting activities generally occur-
ring in April and May.
Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
Loxahatchee Refuge, located southeast of Lake Okeechobee, comprises
about 145,000 acres of the vast Everglades region. The refuge includes Conser-
vation Area #1, one of the three huge water retention areas in the Central and
South Florida Flood Control and Water Conservation Program. Most of the
refuge consists of prairie-like expanses of low, grassy vegetation, interspersed
with shallow lakes and rank stands of sawgrass. Tree islands of evergreen red-
bay and Dahoon holly dot the landscape. Birding is at its best in winter when
thousands of wading birds congregate to feed in the marshes. At this season,
the wooded areas are frequently alive with small birds, some of them species
that normally winter south of the United States. Some of the interesting per-
manent residents on the refuge are the mottled duck, wood duck, wild turkey,
sandhill crane and limpkin. An occasional great white heron may be seen.
The refuge manager also supervises a number of other areas, which together
with Loxahatchee, are known as the South Florida National Wildlife Refuges.
These widely scattered areas are: Brevard, Pelican Island, Great White Heron,
Key West and Florida Key Deer National Wildlife Refuges. The Florida Key
Deer Refuge was only recently established in order to protect the miniature race
of white-tailed deer unique to the lower Florida Keys. The others, comprising
numerous small keys, were established to provide protected nesting sites for
various wading birds. The great white heron is of particular interest because of
its rarity and restricted range. Other rare species that use the lower Florida
keys for nesting are the white-crowned pigeon and the mangrove cuckoo.
BIRDS IN FLORIDA STATE PARKS
By W. A. Coldwell
The earliest explorers and settlers in Florida were greatly impressed with
the variety and abundance of bird life in the State. This abundance and variety
were related directly to the extensive variation in geography between North and
West Florida as compared to South Florida and the Keys. Within this variation
of geography a great difference in climate and fauna is very noticeable.
Florida State Parks strategically located throughout the State of Florida
likewise enjoy this geographic and climatic difference. For instance-Florida
Caverns, our most northerly State Park, is about 320 miles north of Collier-
Seminole, our most southerly State Park; and Fort Pickens, our most westerly
State Park, is about 425 miles west of Hugh Taylor Birch, our most easterly
State Park. Because of this great difference in distance and also that some State
Parks are located on the Gulf of Mexico, some on the Atlantic Ocean, on fresh
water lakes and rivers, in tropical forests, in sub-tropical forests, in rolling pine
lands, on broad prairies, and in uplands and lowlands, we find a wide variety in
State Park bird populations.
Few State Park systems offer so many and various habitats for bird life
and, in such a paper as this is intended to be, the subject of bird life in
Florida State Parks must necessarily be extremely limited. In consequence, we
will briefly discuss the bird life at Myakka River State Park, which is an
inland prairie-type area in South Florida; and Fort Clinch State Park, which is
an ocean-type area in North Florida.
Myakka River State Park has two fresh-water lakes and a fresh-water river
within its extensive boundaries of 28,875 acres. Its vast prairie lands are
said to resemble the African veldt. Wading birds such as egrets, ibis, and herons
are abundant. White pelican flocks are present during their migratory period.
Migrating ducks and permanent resident ducks are to be seen in great numbers.
Wild turkey and sandhill cranes are not an unusual sight to the visitor.
The caracara, osprey and bald eagle are a usual sight in this area; also the
observer will find many of the night birds. Birds of prey, woodpeckers, warblers
and sparrows also are here according to migration or residence.
Fort Clinch State Park, with its 1,086 acres, has fresh-water ponds, ocean
beaches and a dense hammock.
The Eastern Flyway is located directly in line with this State Park. As a
result many migrants which stop over for the abundant food and concealment
are to be observed here. The shore teems with almost every variety of bird
known in this area, and the sand dunes afford a welcome nesting place for
willets and terns. Night herons and other herons are known to nest in the fresh
water ponds. Small perching birds are abundant in the bush hammock and
during migration the painted bunting and bobolink are to be found, while over-
head the bald eagle, hawks and osprey may soar.
Check lists of birds are prepared for Gold Head Branch, Hillsborough River,
Myakka River, O'Leno and Torreya State Parks. These may be secured by
writing to the Florida Park Service, Tallahassee, Florida. Also, from this same
address, other publications may be obtained concerning the Florida State Parks
and Historic Memorials.
v ( :
Because its delicate plumes once sold for twice their weight in gold, the Snowy
Egret almost became extinct.
( vAi. 1 4&
BIRDS IN THE EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK
By William Robertson
Everglades National Park is a one-and-a-half million acre wilderness of
marsh and mangrove at the back door of the glittering tourist playgrounds of
southeastern Florida's Gold Coast. Birds are one of the attractions that annually
draw more than 500,000 visitors to the Park, and also perhaps the single most
important reason that there is a National Park in southern Florida. Protection
of the spectacular bird life was a major campaigning point of the conservationists
whose efforts to establish the park finally succeeded in 1947. Today Everglades
National Park is one of the few places in rapidly changing Florida where native
birds can still be seen abundantly in a primeval setting.
More than 300 species of birds have been identified in the park and the
diligent efforts of bird-watchers add new ones at the rate of 3 or 4 species
per year. The varied show of water birds attracts the greatest interest. Fresh
water sloughs such as the famed Anhinga Trail feature anhingas, limpkins,
common and purple gallinules, and a few sandhill cranes. Along the coasts and
in Florida Bay are cormorants, brown pelicans, roseate spoonbills, reddish egrets,
and great white herons. Egrets, ibis, and the smaller herons are common
throughout the area except during severe droughts. A growing population of
flamingos, probably escaped from captive flocks in the Miami area, inhabits mud
flats along the north shore of Florida Bay.
The cycle of seasons in Everglades National Park offers a continuous
changing review of birds. Summer is the time to see swallow-tailed kites and
West Indian birds such as the white-crowned pigeon, mangrove cuckoo, gray
kingbird, and black-whiskered vireo. In summer, too, wading birds by the tens
of thousands, mostly white ibis, gather nightly to roost at Duck Rock on the
Gulf Coast south of the town of Everglades.
During the spring and fall migration seasons some birds, (the barn swallow
and bobolink are good examples) are abundant in the park but great, varied
concentrations of migrant land birds occur only when west winds drive them
in off the Gulf of Mexico.
Winter is the main nesting season for many birds in this near tropical area.
Wood ibis, common and snowy egrets, anhingas and cormorants congregate to
nest in the East River and Cuthbert Lake rookeries. Roseate spoonbills, great
white herons, bald eagles and ospreys nest in winter on the Florida Bay Keys.
Winter also brings great flocks of water fowl, coots and shorebirds to the coastal
lakes and mud flats. Some of the warblers and other land birds that winter
mostly in Central and South America can be found then in the dense hammocks
and mangrove swamps of the park. Winter is also the time to see western birds
that for unknown reasons migrate southeast across the continent to land's end
in southern Florida. On a single day in December, 1959, an observer at Flamingo
could have seen white pelicans, long-billed curlews, marbled godwits, American
avocets, and the white-winged dove, western kingbird, scissor-tailed flycatcher,
vermillion flycatcher and Brewer's blackbird all birds of the far west and
most of them rare or unknown at most places in the eastern states.
Everglades National Park offers the birder views of rare and beautiful
species that have disappeared in other areas, impressive displays of wildlife
abundance, and always the lure of the unexpected find. It is one of the
brighter spots on the bird-watcher's map of Florida.
THE CORKSCREW SWAMP SANCTUARY
By Alexander Sprunt, III
The now famous Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, secured by the National
Audubon Society in 1954, lies in the uppor portion of Collier County amid
what is known as the Big Cypress area. It contains the largest remaining stand
of primeval bald cypress in the country and embraces some 6,000 acres.
From the north and east it is reached by State Road 29 through the town
of Immokalee, thence by State 846 and is 15 miles from the town. From the
southwest and west (Tampa, Fort Myers, Naples) one follows the U. S. 41
(Tamiami Trail) south or north as the case may be, to State 846. The Swamp
is about 25 miles from Fort Myers and 30 from Naples.
Though open throughout the year except Mondays to the public (entrance
fee one dollar) conducted Audubon Wildlife Tours occur from late December
to May, five days a week (Sundays and Thursdays excepted), these Tours being
based at Naples. A substantial boardwalk some 3,600 feet in length, carries
the observer into the heart of the big tree area, many of the latter exceeding
one hundred feet in height, over twenty in girth and up to seven hundred years
of age, the oldest trees of eastern United States.
Botanists, ornithologists, herpetologists and entomologists revel in the aspect
of their particular fields amid scenes of fairyland beauty. Air plants, orchids,
lillies and aquatic plants deck the trees; the lakes and lagoons are fringed by
the moss-bannered ancients of towering cypress. Turtles and alligators sun
themselves in easy view from the boardwalk, occasional otters and raccoons
frequent even the walk itself. Gar fish, bass and others break the surface of the
"lettuce lakes" or bask inches beneath the clear, wine-brown water.
Limpkins probe for snails, often in unobstructed view, colonies of wood
ibis (storks) rear their young in nests easily seen. Barred owls sit in silent
contemplation of visitors but sometimes voice their deep-toned hoots. Pileated
and other woodpeckers drum hollowly on stubs, herons fish amid the water
lettuce and the reptilian-like anhinga sits spread-eagled on logs or stumps.
Migrating waves of warblers, vireos and flycatchers cruise among the trees at
appropriate seasons while resident cardinals, titmice and wrens sound their
melodies which ring in echoing cadence, all of this crowned from March onward
by the lovely swallow-tailed kites swinging in the sky.
The Corkscrew is another world, a world of tranquillity, peace and sense
of the primordial. A visit there is a never-to-be-forgotten uplift and, best of all,
it will remain that way!
The Wood Ibis is really a stork America's only genuine native stork.
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA'S BUILT-IN NATURAL
By Donald A. Jenni
A university campus is certainly the last place one would expect to find
a heronry. But Lake Alice, a 90-acre swamp on the University of Florida campus
is the unexpected. Each year since 1948 at least eight species have nested here:
white ibis (approximately 1,500-3,400 individuals), snowy egret (250-500), little
blue heron (250-500), cattle egret (80-120), glossy ibis (40-120), Louisiana
heron (50-100), green heron (10-20), and black-crowned night heron (4-12).
The common egret, which formerly bred at Lake Alice, and the great blue heron
are nonbreeding residents.
In mid-February the evening flights suddenly become larger. The birds
continue to increase through late March when the first birds start breeding.
Other species do not nest until May. The heronv is most active during April,
May and June.
The most impressive aspect of the Lake Alice heronry is the accessibility
of the birds to the bird-watcher. For the last three years many of the herons,
egrets, and ibis have nested within 100 feet of a paved road: boat trips, wading,
and even walking are unnecessary. The whole spectacle of courtship, nest
building, incubation, and rearing of young can be seen from an automobile.
Other residents include: pied-billed grebes, double-crested cormorants,
anhingas, purple and common gallinules, American coots, and boat-tailed
grackles. Wintering ducks include: blue-winged and green-winged teal, shoveler,
gadwall, lesser scaup, and ring-necked duck. Wood ibis feed here during the
summer. Bald eagles are occasional visitors. At least one pair of ospreys nest
here every year and their aerial displays add variety.
Lake Alice is bordered by university farms on the south, and wooded
housing areas on the north. The immediate shore areas provide a variety of
habitats, each with its own bird life. Of all the bird species seen in Florida,
more than 40 per cent of them have been seen in the Lake Alice area.
BIRDS OF THE MARSHES AND LAKES
OF WINTER PARK AND ORLANDO
By Margaret H. Hundley
Orange County, the home of Winter Park and Orlando, has over thirty small
lakes. In spite of extensive housing, there is a wealth of bird life here. It is
amazing to see birds, ordinarily shy and difficult to approach, wading or
swimming close to shores humming with traffic.
Lake Eola, on Rosalind and Robinson Streets, is located about two blocks
east of the main business section of Orlando. This has been a mecca for bird
watchers for years. A small island, close to shore, provides a nesting area for
pied-billed grebes, American coots, common, snowy, green and Louisiana herons.
In winter, lesser scaup ducks, ring-necked ducks, a few ruddy ducks, and occa-
sionally gadwalls, American widgeon and other ducks may be seen. One can
observe the ring-necked duck at a sufficiently close range to distinguish the
pale rufous band which gives this bird its name. Due to feeding by both park
officials and visitors, the American coots are so tame that they walk, with their
immense lobed feet, along the paths with other pedestrians. Double-crested
cormorants and ring-billed gulls are common. For the past few years black
skimmers have regularly returned to the lake in winter.
Lake Estelle, crossed by a causeway over which run Routes 17 and 92, is
the nesting place in summer of the purple gallinule. In winter, a stop here to
view ducks and grebes is well worthwhile.
North of the business section of Orlando is Lake Ivanhoe on Orange
Avenue. A small marsh on the western side offers nesting sites for common
gallinules, and various herons use nearby shrubs for perching.
Lake Davis is near State Route 15 in the southeastern part of the city.
Annually hundreds of ruddy ducks find this and Lake Lucerne, slightly to the
west, attractive wintering areas. On Greenwood Lake, in this same area, there
are wood ducks, many of which nest in nearby Greenwood cemetery.
In Winter Park, Forster's terns are usually present in winter over Lake
Mizell on Route 426, east of the business section. Green herons nest along its
Around all the lakes may be seen that noisy trio, the fish crow, boat-tailed
grackle and redwinged blackbird. One should also watch for shorebirds such
as killdeer, common snipe, greater yellowlegs and spotted sandpiper. The
slender-necked anhinga is found on many lakes. Occasionally a hovering osprey
may be seen.
If you want good birding without effort visit Central Florida!
BIRDS OF THE TAMPA BAY AREA
By Fred W. Schultz
When Tampa Bay was discovered by the Spanish about 1528, the waters
and islands teemed with birds. Through the succeeding years the birds, con-
stantly persecuted by man, decreased alarmingly until they almost vanished by
the early days of the 20th century.
Protective laws and an enlightened attitude helped to save the remnant of
the once mighty hordes. Slowly they began to recoup their numbers.
About 1921 conservationists discovered that a colony of herons, ibis,
pelicans and cormorants was trying to establish itself on Green Key in eastern
Tampa Bay. The success of this colony teetered between success and failure
until 1934 when the Tampa Bay rookery project was inaugurated under the
cooperative leadership of the Florida and National Audubon Societies. Green
Island became the nucleus of this rookery system. Dr. H. R. Mills assumed the
financial responsibility for the establishment of a warden's headquarters on
Whiskey Stump Key and engaged me to watch the birds.
For two years, a night and day surveillance was kept over the Green Key
colony and during this period it increased to approximately 30,000 birds. Green
Key then reached its capacity and the overflow birds settled on the Alafia Banks,
an island three miles north of Green Key. The Alafia Banks were man-made,
having been formed when the ship's channel at the mouth of the Alafia River
was dredged. In five years this new colony grew to about 50,000 birds and is
now one of the finest in the state. Herons, egrets (common, snowy and cattle),
white ibis, and glossy ibis nest there in ever increasing numbers.
That it is no easy matter to reach these nesting islands is difficult for the
stranger to grasp. On low tides I have walked across to Whiskey Stump Key
many times but urgently advise our visitors not to undertake this arduous and
exhausting jaunt across sharp-edged oyster beds, through deep, heavy mud
with unexpected holes and over slippery submerged logs. If the tide is too
low for a trip to the islands, the birds may be seen from the mainland shore.
Many a person has had to be content with such a distant view because tides
and the wind do not change to suit man's wishes. If there is sufficient water
to get the boat away from the landing, a short trip can be made around Green
Key. The Alafia Banks, accessible only by boat, are often defended against all
comers by vast mud bars. Even though the tide may be right, winds may make
the shallow waters so rough that boating is hazardous.
The vast mud flats uncovered by a low tide twice each twenty-four hours
furnish abundant food for thousands of birds. Above them stream constantly
changing lines of birds moving out to the feeding areas or, having fed, returning
to the rookery.
While the bird islands are most spectacular during the breeding season,
many species of non-breeding birds are regular visitors. Winter brings great
numbers of water fowl from the north. With summer come several roseate
spoonbills to spend about three months. An occasional flamingo stops for a
week or two and a reddish egret is usually discovered in early spring. Land
birds drop down to spend a few days on both their spring and fall migrations.
A few land birds not only pause but actually stay to nest on Whiskey Stump Key.
This is an area of primitive beauty. Nothing has changed in the twenty-six
years since it became a sanctuary protected by a warden except for the
spectacular increase in the numbers of nesting birds. It is well worth the effort
necessary to make the arrangements through the National Audubon Society for
a visit, and gamble on the chance that once an appointment has been made
with the warden that the tide will be high and the winds sufficiently calm to
permit the visit to materialize.
Offer them a large nesting box and Screech Owls may nest in your garden.
MOUNTAIN LAKE SANCTUARY
By Kenneth D. Morrison
The Mountain Lake Sanctuary and Singing Tower, near Lake Wales, were
presented, for visitation, to the American people by Edward W. Bok, well-known
Philadelphia journalist, and were dedicated for that purpose in 1929.
The Sanctuary is open every day of the year from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
A musical selection by carillonneur Anton Brees is offered every hour on the
hour. Forty-five minute recitals on the famed carillon are presented every day
except Monday at 3:00 p.m. from December 1 through April 30 and from
June 15 through September 15.
No admission fee is charged; a 500 per car parking fee is collected. There
are picnic tables near the parking area but no facilities for fires, which are
The Sanctuary is an 80-acre "island" of varied vegetation in a sea of orange
groves. It is, therefore, a stop-over for many birds migrating through central
Florida. Some 85 species, mostly upland birds, have been recorded in the
Sanctuary since 1956. Undoubtedly some migrants have been missed so the
total list probably should be in the vicinity of 100 species. There have been
no rare or spectacular resident species here, though as of this writing, a pair of
bald eagles is building a nest in a tall pine near the Sanctuary office, just
west of the tower.
The Sanctuary's remarkably large free-flying wood duck population, num-
bering more than 100 birds, is of special interest. They nest in boxes around
the pond. Red-headed woodpeckers nest on the slopes south and west of the
Tower. A check-list of birds may be obtained at the booth near the Tower.
Look on the bulletin board near the Sanctuary entrance for "Nature Notes" of
THE SIGHT-SEEING TOUR AT HIGHLANDS HAMMOCK STATE PARK
By Carol H. Beck
Nobody knows when he climbs up the steps into the especially designed
sight-seeing trailer (variously called the charabanc, tally-ho, or carry-all) at
Highlands Hammock State Park what he is going to see, not even the driver.
Drawn by a jeep, it goes through the hammock, a dense jungle of huge oaks
and twisting Sabal palms, some ninety feet tall. The small birds are usually
too high in the trees to be seen easily, but hawks, owls, and pileated wood-
peckers sometimes put on a show. Frequently deer stop their browsing to watch
it go by but on other days only the majestic trees, semi-tropical shrubs, and
luxurious ferns offer botanical beauty while all animal life remains invisible.
From the hammock, the jeep goes into the marshes along a canal. The
red-shouldered hawk is always here and he has delighted our groups by catching
and killing huge cotton-mouth moccasins before our very eyes. From March until
August we usually see the swallow-tailed kites soaring, and pileated woodpeckers
usually fly across our path so fast that none but the trained bird-watchers see
them. Once this beautiful woodpecker held up the tour by wanting in the
roadway. Egrets, herons and ibis are tame enough to catch frogs, small fish
and snakes as we watch.
Who knows when the otter is going to frolic for us or when a 'coon or a
wildcat will make a shy appearance, or a hungry armadillo will be found
feeding in broad daylight?
Beautiful flowers are found here: criniums and spider-lilies bloom all year
long, iris and Virginia-willow in the spring, passionflower and meadow beauties
through the summer, and goldenrod and salt-myrtle in the fall to name just a few.
We hope the day you come something unusual will happen but even if it
does not, you will enjoy the wild beauty of Highlands Hammock.
GUIDED BIRD TOURS IN SOUTH FLORIDA
By Charles M. Brookfield
Can you tell a sparrow from an eagle? Do you know whether a purple
gallinule has flowers or feathers? Are the strange sounds of the anhinga produced
by a bird or an oriental musical instrument?
Whether or not you know the answers you will enjoy seeing these and a
hundred other fascinating sights on an Audubon Wildlife Tour. Want to cruise
through a mysterious watery tunnel under a canopy of mangroves to 'Gator
Lake in the heart of Everglades National Park? Or go through a chain of lakes
to visit the famous Cuthbert Rookery where thousands of egrets and ibises are
nesting? Would you like to see nesting eagles and the glamorous roseate spoon-
bills in Florida Bay? Or the primeval giant cypress and lovely fern gardens and
lettuce lakes of Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary? Take your choice of Audubon
Tours to see any or all of these fascinating sights. These are the winter season
tours beginning about Thanksgiving and ending just after Easter.
For Florida Crackers, who are too busy entertaining "tourists" in the winter
to take time off to enjoy themselves, there is reserved the most spectacular
sight of all at Duck Rock! Every evening in the summer months countless
thousands of white ibis fly in waves from feeding grounds in the 'glades to
their age-old roost on the tiny island called Duck Rock. They are seen for
miles rising like clouds on the horizon, long lines gracefully undulating with the
air currents, over the mangroves and across the water, settling like a white
mantle on this one the last of the Ten Thousand Islands.
Audubon boats make the 30-mile round trip during the height of the
flight season beginning about the last of June and ending in early September.
To those who enjoy nature's realm the Wildlife Tours afford relaxing
entertainment while demonstrating the excellent results of wise conservation
The National Audubon Society (Miami office) will gladly furnish further
information. Special trips to Duck Rock may be arranged for Garden Club
Black-necked Stilts, the daddy-longlegs of the bird world, nests in many parts
of Florida. They winter in South America.
JOHN JAMES AUDUBON IN KEY WEST
By Frances Hames
Since the restoration by the Mitchell Wolfson Foundation of the Audubon
House in Key West, a growing interest is evident in the Keys sojourn of the
great artist-naturalist, John James Audubon.
Audubon had traveled extensively on this continent painting all the birds
he saw but the glittering bird paradise of Florida remained beyond his grasp.
Upon his return from one of his many trips abroad to Britain and France where
he had gone to secure advance subscriptions for this forthcoming monumental
book, "The Birds of America," a U. S. government sailing vessel, the "Marion,"
was placed at his disposal for several weeks. Then at last his longing to visit
Florida was satisfied.
It was in the spring of 1832 that Audubon arrived in the Florida Keys.
Historical documents reveal that he reached Key West on the fourth of May
In his journals we find the following entry: "The birds which we saw were
almost all new to us; their lovely forms appeared to be arrayed in more brilliant
apparel than I had ever seen before, and as they fluttered in happy playfulness
among the bushes, or glided over the light green water, we longed to form a
more intimate acquaintance with them. . ."
Although Key West is one of the oldest cities in Florida, it was at the time
of Audubon's visit, just another mangrove island far out in the blue-green ocean
with birds flying high above or resting in its wind-sheared trees. A small
settlement of about three hundred people on the southwest side of the island
owed its existence to the wind and sea. Transportation to and from the outside
world was by sailing vessel. It was over eighty years before the Flagler railroad
linked the island to the mainland.
The House, which is now a museum honoring John James Audubon, was
the home of a pilot, Captain John Geiger. From its windows and balconies he
watched the marine commerce and naval operations and here he was host to
the great artist. The furnishings of the house are authentic and typical of that
period in Key West; genuine pieces of the 18th and 19th centuries. It is located
at the corner of Whitehead and Greene Streets and is open to the public daily,
except Mondays, from 9 a.m. to noon and from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. Admission
is $1.00 for adults and 500 for children.
In this house Audubon put down with brush several pages of his renowned
Elephant Folio, including the Cuban "white-headed" pigeon. This species, the
white-crowned pigeon, is rare in winter but during the spring and summer it
is fairly abundant on the Keys. It is a species every visitor to the Keys should
try to see. Moreover, the distinctive and interesting bird population of the Keys
offers variety and charm to the bird watcher and here he may add species to
his life list that may be seen nowhere else.
During the nesting season the Noddy Terns on the Dry Tortugas provide one of
America's most wonderful bird spectacles.
THE DRY TORTUGAS, A NEVER-NEVER LAND OF BIRDS
By Helen G. Cruickshank
After birding in all the varied and wonderful areas on the mainland of
Florida and the Keys, a bird watcher is likely to come at last to Key West,
the most southerly city of continental United States. There, surrounded by a
surge of opalescent waters the bird watcher strains his eyes toward the south-
west where far beyond the horizon the Dry Tortugas lie sixty-eight miles away.
Those fabled shoals and seven coral keys will remain a Never-Never Land
of dreams for many birders. Off the beaten track, accessible only by boat, the
visitor to that isolated wilderness must provide for his own existence for there
is no housing, no food, no water, no supplies and no transportation available.
Romantic Fort Jefferson on Garden Key of the Dry Tortugas (now a
National Monument), built between 1846-74, is the largest of the 19th century
American coastal forts. Its massive, eight-foot thick walls and vast corridors
extend nearly half a mile, encompassing a large protected parade ground. It
is guarded by a moat crossed by a single drawbridge. Its outer wall is breached
by one sallyport. The parade ground is usually silent and barren of human life
except for an occasional glimpse of the superintendent or one of his crew.
In the shallow waters within the sheltering coral keys are marine gardens
of exquisite beauty. Drifting through fantastic coral thickets, schools of jewel-
like tropical fish weave a brilliant passage.
Near this setting of medieval walls rising from coral gardens lies Bush
Key separated from the Fort by a deep but narrow channel. On this key between
May and September one of the most spectacular bird sights in all America
assembles. Then the sooty terns come to their nesting place. As if drawn by
magic threads, they come from the Caribbean Sea and many parts of the warm
Atlantic Ocean. They land by the tens of thousands and noisily make slight
depressions scarcely more than a foot apart in which a single egg is laid. The
parents shelter the egg continuously from the blazing sun, taking turns so the
developing embyro is never without protection.
Associated with the sooty terns are noddy terns which usually build their
nests in the low bushes. Overhead float buccaneering magnificent frigate-birds
on thin black seven-foot wings, waiting to rob the hard working terns of their
catch of tiny fish.
Throughout the nest cycle the activity on Bush Key is overwhelming as
incredible numbers of birds fly about or move to and from the Key on fishing
ventures. Always the sound of multitudes of birds too great to count swells and
ebbs but never fades away.
As soon as the young have fully developed their powers of flight the myriad
sooty terns abandon the Dry Tortugas. Silence falls as the terns head south-
eastward. They disperse over the tropical seas. The show of the year has ended.
A bird watcher who persists in planning until at last a trip to the Dry
Tortugas materializes will be rewarded for his effort by an experience he will
never forget. The memory of the tremendous bird concentration in a setting of
marine beauty and medieval enchantment will be cherished always.
THE INVASION OF FLORIDA BY CATTLE EGRETS
By Samuel A. Grimes
When Willard Dilley saw two cattle egrets at Clewiston in 1941 he thought
they were birds that had escaped from a zoo or "bird farm." He did not realize
that he was witnessing the first reported vanguard of an avian invasion by a
species native to the Old World that was to take this country from Florida
northeastward to Virginia and westward to Texas in less than twenty years.
The cattle egret may very probably have been present in Florida for some
time before being detected by Dilley. In my own case it would have gone
unnoticed for many years, inasmuch as I had long since discontinued scruti-
nizing white herons associated with grazing cattle. Dilley's report did not
arouse immediate excitement but when, some ten years later, Richard Borden
photographed the cattle egret by chance thinking it was a native species and
the egret was recognized on the screen when he showed the film in Massachu-
setts, then the bird became the object of search by practically every bird-minded
person who lived in or visited Florida. I saw and photographed my first ones
along the roadside on the northwest shore of Lake Okeechobee in January, 1953,
and became interested in discovering when and where the birds might nest as
the season developed.
Alexander Sprunt, Jr., and Audubon warden Glenn Chandler kept me posted
on the birds' activities. On May 4, I called on Chandler and suggested that
we find a likely observation point on the lake levee and watch the move-
ments of the cattle egrets at sundown. We happened to pick the right spot on
the dike and with our field glasses followed several of the birds, among hun-
dreds of common and snowy egrets and Louisiana and little blue herons, to
Kings Bar three miles out in the lake. The next morning Chandler skilfully skip-
pered his light rowboat through the rough water out to the Bar, with me and
my cameras holding down the bow.
We bogged "'ashore" (there was no shore), being seldom less than knee-
deep in the muddy water and tangle of aquatic roots. Many nests of herons were
in evidence in the willows, but without birds on them there was no way for
us to know which might be a cattle egret nest. Setting up a blind and watching
seemed to be the only way we might determine which nests were which and
possibly locate the one in which we were so deeply interested. Chandler left
me in the blind and retreated to the boat. I had not long to wait. In a few min-
utes snowies and little blues were squawking back to their platforms of sticks,
and a pair of cattle egrets alighted and displayed in courtship performance in
the willow tops just in front of the blind. I exposed several kodachromes of
them. After ten or fifteen minutes one of these birds tiptoed down through the
willows to a nest some five or six feet above the water, and the first nest of a
cattle egret ever seen in North America was recorded. The first bird was fol-
lowed to the nest by its mate, and the courtship performance was continued for
several minutes more.
Later in 1953 I took particular note of the concentrations of cattle egrets
around the south and southeastern shores of Lake Okeechobee. It was no trick
at all to find a hundred of the birds on a drive from Clewiston to Belle Glade.
One thing was obvious: the little colony at Kings Bar was merely an outpost
and the main concentration was in the south of the lake. During the winter I
made inquiries at all the fishing camps along that side of the lake. At Slim's
Camp on Kreamer's Island I was told of a great gathering of "cranes and cur-
lews" on Halifax Shoal. When the nesting season approached I invited my good
friend, Herbert Lee Stoddard to go with me to investigate this reported con-
centration of birds. We engaged an airboat at South Bay and covered the six
or eight miles to the Shoal in a few minutes.
The Shoal was indeed alive with '"cranes and curlews." We estimated there
were 2,000 pairs of glossy ibises and several hundred pairs of white ibises
and herons. To our delight the cattle egrets were there in force. We counted
their nests by marking each one with a squirt of paint from a pressurized can
and came up with a few over four hundred nests. It is entirely possible that
cattle egrets had been nesting at Halifax Shoal since the time of Dilley's origi-
nal observation of the bird or even before.
By the mid-fifties the cattle egret had been found nesting at Gainesville
and on into the Carolinas and west to Louisiana and Texas. Now this foreign
invader, the cattle egret, is well known to bird watchers throughout Florida
and along the entire coast of the Southeast.
By Judge Samuel A. Harper
The mockingbird has been named the state bird of Florida as well as five
other American states. In Florida the bird is abundant, and may be found in
all parts of the state, bringing joy to the home folks and to millions of tourists.
The mockingbird, like the nightingale, is without brilliant plumage, but
his form is beautiful, delicate and symmetrical in all its proportions. The
plumage is dark drab above and dull white below, with small white wing bands
and a white border for its long tail. His actions are easy, rapid and graceful, and
perpetually animated. He is not a 'wild' bird, and instead of flying quickly at
one's approach he usually indicates a curiosity and friendly interest in man,
and in the fortuitous favor and protection of human society.
But attractive as his personality is, it is this bird's marvelous song that
has made him the grand actor in the sublime opera of Nature. He is now
universally acclaimed as the 'unrivalled Orpheus' of our gardens, the great
natural wonder of America.
While his skill as a mocker and imitator is sufficient to justify his name,
he unquestionably has a distinct Orphean talent peculiarly his own to infuse
into his tones of sweetness of expression and harmonious modulation unknown
to any other bird. His native notes are bold, full and perpetually varied, all
uttered with great emphasis and volubility. As if conscious of his own unri-
valled powers, and animated by the harmony of his own voice, he gives way to
emotional gestures and dancing, fanning his wings and silvered tail, and leaping
every now and then into the air to emphasize his ecstasy. Finally, with char-
acteristic gaiety he sweeps around, mounting and descending in the air as his
song swells in volume or dies away in whispers. And when he pours forth
his angelic melody against the golden tapestry of the midnight moon his
brother, man, can ask no more!
We can only quote Thoreau when he said of his own favorite bird: "In the
beginning God must have heard his song and pronounced it good."
The mockingbird officially became the State Bird of Florida by Senate Concurrent
Resolution #3, April 23, 1907. (Ed.)
Florida's state bird, the Mockingbird. Few gardens lack
this interesting, gay mocker.
THE EVERGLADES KITE
By Bayard W. Read
First discovered near Miami in 1844 and since found in no other State but
Florida, the Everglade Kite is today Florida's rarest bird and-next to the Ivory-
billed Woodpecker-the rarest in North America.
Once common in the Everglades and throughout the fresh-water marshes
of Brevard, St. Lucie and Palm Beach counties, the Kite is now reduced to one
tragically small colony of five birds (three males and two females) which holds
on desperately in the southwestern part of Lake Okeechobee.
Although the Everglade Kite occurs in Cuba, Mexico and Central America,
this fact will be small comfort when its name must be added to the growing
list of species now extinct in this country.
While no Kites have been reported outside the Okeechobee region since the
severe droughts of 1955 and 1956, a few may still survive elsewhere, as the Kite
is a wide-ranging bird and can easily be mistaken at first glance for the common
Both species have a broad white band at the base of the tail, but only the
band of the Kite encircles the tail and can be seen from below as well as above.
Both usually fly low over the marsh, but the Marsh Hawk is more falcon-like
in appearance and has a veering, tilting, erratic flight, while the Kite flaps and
soars lazily and steadily with its long strongly-hooked bill pointed downward,
like a tern, as it hunts for the fresh-water snail, on which it feeds exclusively.
The male Kite is much darker gray (almost black), and has broad, cuppy wings,
long red legs and red at the base of the bill. The female is lighter brown than
its Marsh Hawk counterpart with much white about the head and heavy streak-
ing on the light breast. In flight, she shows "windows" (light patches) in the
wing at the base of the flight feathers, and the broad square tail of both the
male and female is in constant use, frequently twisted till it is almost vertical to
the body like a rudder.
A careful second look at any hawk-like bird with white at the base of the
tail will readily enable even a beginner to tell the two birds apart. Garden
Club members are urged to watch for and promptly report any Kite observed
outside of the Okeechobee region.
Factors leading to the present precarious predicament of this beautiful
creature are fivefold: -
1) Its restricted diet of snails and inability to adapt itself to any other
2) Drastic reduction of suitable Kite habitat through drainage over many
3) Reduction in its numbers by thoughtless duck hunters. Snails
emerge above water to lay their eggs at night or in early morning and evening,
thus forcing the Kite to forage-and present a tempting slow-flying target-at
the very time the duck hunter is in the blind.
4) Disruption of nesting and hatching from February through May when
countless fishermen swarm into these same marshes after Florida's famous
5) Lack of adequate concern by conservationists over the growing plight
of the Kite, and establishment of an all-out protective program only when the
cause was all but lost.
The recent droughts dealt the final crushing blow which nullified protec-
tive efforts begun in 1954. No research study having ever been made of the
Kite over its entire range, it will never be known whether Kites perished in
numbers during these droughts or whether they migrated south where perhaps
they came from prior to 1844.
THE ROSEATE SPOONBILL
By Robert Porter Allen
The glamorous roseate spoonbill, with its colorful plumage pattern of pink,
carmine, orange and white, is as tropical in appearance as any bird in the U.S.
And, as a matter of fact, it is at the northern limit of its range in our country,
and probably occurs in greatest numbers in South America. It is our good fortune
that these handsome wading birds nest in three southern states-Florida, Louisi-
ana and Texas-where they are carefully protected in sanctuaries or refuges
maintained by the National Audubon Society and by Federal agencies.
Before the original wading bird rookeries in Florida and elsewhere were
shot out by plume hunters (prior to the 1880's), roseate spoonbills nested along
both coasts of Florida and inland at such locations as Corkscrew Swamp, Lake
Okeechobee, and north at least to Lake Poinsett in Brevard County. Often they
built their rather large, bulky nests alongside those of egrets and other herons,
so when plume hunters raided a mixed rookery, the spoonbills were also killed
or run off, although their pink feathers, for all their beauty on the living bird,
fade rapidly and were of no special value.
As a result of all this, by 1890 spoonbills were extremely scarce everywhere
in the United States, although a few were still reported in Florida. After about
1920, with legal protection and an improved public attitude, a slow recovery
could be noted. Today, a growing population nests in a number of colonies on
the Texas coast and in two smaller colonies in Louisiana. From these colonies
the birds migrate in the off season to Mexico.
Apparently there are three distinct spoonbill populations in Florida. The
most important of these is the flock that moves into Florida from Cuba in
October and hatches its young about Christmas time. In recent years this group
has averaged close to 150 pairs. Most of them nest on small mangrove islands
or keys in the Florida Bay sector of Everglades National Park, but the largest
single colony is on Cowpens Key near Tavernier, and is now dedicated to the
Florida State Board of Parks. A second and even larger group is made up mainly
of immature birds, probably from the Cuban colonies. These arrive in Florida in
March and April and spend the summer here, chiefly on the west coast as far
north as Tampa Bay. On Florida's east coast the summering spoonbills are reg-
ular as far north as New Smyrna Beach.
A third group is the small remnant of those that once came to Florida in
large numbers in spring and nested here in the early summer. The few pairs
that now comprise this portion of the population nest on the west coast between
Cape Romano and Sarasota.
Roseate spoonbills rear an average of two young annually. Nearly three
years is required to attain adult plumage. They feed on small fishes, aquatic
insects, crustaceans and small mollusks which they secure by "'feeling" them
out of the mud and water with their spatulate-shaped, highly sensitive bills.
PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IN BIRD STUDY
By Olive Hendrickson
Information and assistance in bird study is available in almost every section
of Florida. Workshops, forums, camps, field trips, symposiums and lectures
provide a varied fare for all those who seek information.
The Blanche Covington Nature Study Course is a week of concentrated
instruction held each spring through the combined efforts of the Florida Fed-
eration of Garden Clubs, Inc. and the Florida Board of Parks and Historic
Memorials. It is open to anyone interested in gaining knowledge of nature
in preparation for teaching Juniors.
The Youth Conservation Camp in Ocala National Forest under the direc-
tion of the Chief of Youth Education, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission, is conducted throughout the summer months. Two other similar
camps are planned for the near future, one in the Palm Beach area, the other
near Marianna. The Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc. each summer
sponsors two weeks for girls and two weeks for boys at the Ocala Youth Con-
servation Camp and supplies additional counselors and instructors to assist in
teaching nature and other garden club activities.
"Florida Wildlife," the monthly publication of the Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission is an outstanding source of information about birds,
conservation, and state wide. activities in out-door sports and recreation.
The National Audubon Society Screen Tour lectures are held annually
during the winter and early spring in ten cities throughout Florida. The nation's
best naturalists and photographers present these Tours which combine enter-
tainment, education and conservation in a program of rare excellence. Their
Junior Audubon Clubs separately and also with Scouts and Campfire, bring an
understanding of their natural world to children. Information about Screen Tour
lectures, Junior Audubon clubs, field trips, wildlife tours, local clubs and other
activities may be obtained from their Miami office.
The Florida Audubon Society with numerous Chapters and local clubs is
doing extensive work in making bird study available to both adults and chil-
dren. "The Florida Naturalist," its publication, is an excellent source of infor-
mation on timely topics of conservation, birds, and the listings of cities spon-
soring Screen Tour lectures, bird clubs, and their activities. Obtain information
from their Maitland headquarters.
In addition, Children's Museums, Educational Television, colleges and
universities make annual contributions to conservation and an understanding of
birds and their place in our world. Locate such organizations and institutions
nearest you and become familiar with their programs. Take advantage of the
opportunity they offer to help increase your knowledge, understanding and
appreciation of the wealth of bird life with which Florida is so beautifully
The Flicker is Florida's only brown woodpecker. It is fond of ants and often
feeds on the ground.
SOURCES OF FURTHER INFORMATION
Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc., Headquarters
Winter Park, Florida
National Audubon Society, Florida Office
143 N. E. Third Ave.
Miami 32, Florida
National Audubon Society, Headquarters
1130 Fifth Ave.
New York 28, New York
Florida Audubon Society
P. 0. Box 825
Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
201 West Park Ave.
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
646 West Tennessee
National Wildlife Refuges in Florida:
Refuge Manager, Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge
Homasassa Springs, Florida
Refuge Manager, St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge
St. Marks, Florida
Refuge Manager, Sanibel National Wildlife Refuge
Refuge Manager, South Florida National Wildlife Refuges
Route 1, Box 278
Delray Beach, Florida
Floridians and tourists will find their pleasure when visiting a national
park, national wildlife refuge, state park or memorial, or sanctuary (state,
Audubon or private) vastly more interesting if information is obtained from
the proper source before the time of the visit. Moreover it is sometimes nec-
essary to obtain permission in advance for visiting certain refuges and sanc-
tuaries. Obtaining advance information may prevent disappointment as well
as making the visit more rewarding.
Therefore, when you plan a trip where bird-watching may be enjoyed,
be sure to obtain your books, your maps, your information and permits (it any
are needed) before you set out.
Take your binoculars. Take FUN WITH BIRDS IN FLORIDA and record
new birds you see on your Life List.
Take the following books that will help you find the good places where
you may see birds, and also what species of bird you see:
1. A Guide to Bird Finding East of the Mississippi, by Olin Sewall Pet-
tingill, with illustrations by George Miksch Sutton. Oxford University Press,
New York. 1951. (A guide to where birds are.)
2. Cruickshank's Pocket Guide to the Birds, Eastern and Central North
America, by Allan D. Cruickshank. Dodd, Mead and Co., New York. 1953. (A
beginner's guide to what you see with helps for deciding the family to which
a bird belongs, then by elimination aids in determining the species.)
3. A Field Guide to the Birds, Giving Field Marks of all Species Found
East of the Rockies, by Roger Tory Peterson. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston,
1947. (The identification bible of the bird watcher.)
RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN AN EFFORT TO SAVE THE BALD EAGLE
By Richard L. Cunningham
The decline of the bald eagle in Florida has intensified interest in our
national bird in this state. All conservationists are deeply concerned over the
apparent state-wide decline of these birds. In 1959 a research study was ini-
tiated by the National Audubon Society to determine the number and location
of nesting bald eagles and the success of these nests. It is very important that
we learn exactly how many nests there are and how many young birds are
Several factors could account for the eagle decline in Florida. Among
these are the increase and spread of human population, destruction of nest trees,
clearing of land, human molestation, and possibly indirect poisoning.
The bald eagle was once found throughout Florida. Now it is concentrated
in two main areas. Of these the Everglades National Park where over forty
pairs are still found is the most important. Here, under the protection of the
federal government, the eagles are safe from many of the dangers facing the
species in the rest of the state. The other important breeding area remaining in
the state is along the southwest coast in the vicinity of Naples and Fort Myers.
Many nest trees may presently be found in this area but they are in danger
of being cut down so the future status of the eagle here is questionable. The
majority of remaining eagle nests in Florida are located near both coasts
although several nests are scattered throughout the interior.
It is hoped that this research study will yield important data on the num-
bers of eagles still remaining in Florida and also the means by which the bald
eagle can be preserved. Every Floridian, in fact, every American, should be
concerned over the preservation of our national bird in Florida.
A GUIDE TO GOOD BIRDING AREAS
By Lon Ellis
1. Dry Tortugas
2. Everglades National Park
3. Loxahatchee Federal Wildlife Refuge
4. Pelican Island, First Federal Wildlife Refuge to be established in U.S.
5. Sanibel Island Federal Wildlife Refuge
6. Chassahowitzka Federal Wildlife Refuge
7. St. Marks Federal Wildlife Refuge
8. Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary
9. Mountain Lake Sanctuary
10. Orlando-Winter Park Lakes
11. Lake Alice
12. Jonathan Dickinson State Park
13. Myakka River State Park
14. Highlands Hammock State Park
15. Hillsborough State Park
16. John F. Rollins Bird and Plant Sanctuary (a scientific area)
17. Fort Clinch State Park
18. Gold Head Branch State Park
19. O'Leno State Park
20. Suwannee River State Park
21. Torreya State Park
22. St. Andrews State Park
23. Florida Caverns State Park
Write to the various organizations listed for additional information about
these and other park, refuge, and sanctuary areas in Florida.
New Smyrna Beach
V-N ort Pierce
Dry Tortugas 1 b. ey et
FLORIDIANS AND AUDUBON CAMPS
By Mariorie Dunn-Smith
The National Audubon Society is an organization dedicated to the con-
servation of our natural resources and the preservation of threatened species,
both plant and animal. A splendid group of research scientists is employed
by the society to study carefully all needs and requirements pertaining to
these objectives. This research includes study of present legislation and pro-
posed legislation concerned with conservation. Frequent reports on the findings
of this group are made to the public through the National Society in an effort
to maintain public awareness.
Where do Audubon camps fit into this picture? Where do Floridians fit
into this picture?
Audubon camps are a two-week adventure in learning the interdependence
of all living things. They are the out-door laboratories where adults, anyone
18 years of age or over, may explore with trained field ecologists the entire
scope of the world in which we live. Audubon camps provide the answers to
the many questions you, as an observer, have pondered over and will help
you to answer the questions your children, your friends, or your students have
asked. This is done through actual experience in the field followed by analysis
of what has been observed, plus quantities of reference material given you by
your field guides . material of proven value upon your return to your own
Florida is threatened by salt water intrusion into the fresh water fields.
Do you know why? The bald eagle is becoming ever scarcer in Florida. Do
you know why? The ivory-billed woodpecker has left its haunts in Florida and
may be extinct. Do you know why? Maintaining natural areas is vital to human
life. Do you know why? Wide-spread mass spraying of large areas may prove
fatal to man. Do you know why? AUDUBON CAMPS PROVIDE THESE
ANSWERS AND HUNDREDS MORE!!!
Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc., Officers, 1960-1961:
President .................. ............... M rs. C. R. M ayes, Jr.
First Vice President ........................ ..Mrs. Jack Dunlap
Second Vice President ..................... .... Mrs. Melville Hall
Third Vice President ........................ Mrs. Graham W. King
Recording Secretary ....................... Mrs. Eugene W. Bowles
Corresponding Secretary ....................... Mrs. E. 0. Williams
Treasurer ................... ............... Mrs. Carroll Griffin
Committee for publication of FUN WITH BIRDS IN FLORIDA:
Mrs. C. R. Mayes, Jr.
Mrs. Truman Green
Mrs. Frank H. Hewlett
Mrs. E. 0. Williams
Aldrich, A. D.: Director, Fla. Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Allen, Robert Porter: Formerly Research Director, Nat. Aud. Soc.; author, The
Flame Birds, The Whooping Crane, The Roseate Spoonbill, etc.
Beck, Carol H.: Botanist, Fla. Park Service; tram-leader, Highlands Hammock
Brookfield, Charles M.: Tropical Fla. Representative, Nat. Aud. Soc., author,
They Called it Tropical; many magazine articles
Brown, Dr. Ernest J.: Physician; with Mrs. Brown, developed bunting feeding
cage technique used successfully in Fort Lauderdale
Coldwell, W. A.: Ass. Director, Fla. Board of Parks and Historic Monuments
Cruickshank, Allan D.: Nat. Aud. Soc. Staff; wildlife photographer, lecturer
and editor; author, Wings in the Wilderness, Birds Around New York,
Hunting with the Camera, etc.
Cruickshank, Helen G.: Bird chairman, Fla. Fed. of Garden Clubs; author,
Flight into Sunshine, John and William Bartrams' America, 1001 Questions
Answered About Birds (with A. D. Cruickshank), etc.
Cunningham, Richard L.: Nat. Aud. Soc. Bald Eagle research; staff, Aud. Camp
DeWitt, Jeanette D.: Chairman, Garden Club Libraries, Fla. Fed. of Garden
Ellis, Lon: Artist, illustrator, naturalist
Gresh, Walter A.: Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Grimes, Samuel A.: Bird photographer; a director, Fla. Aud. Soc.
Hames, Frances: Co-author, Birds of the Lower Florida Keys; writes a nature
column in local newspaper
Harper, Judge Samuel A.: Distinguished jurist; author, Twelve Months with
the Birds and Poets, Hoosier Tramp, My Woods, etc.
Hendrickson, Olive: Conservation chairman, Fla. Fed. of Garden Clubs; a
director, Fla. Aud. Soc.
Hundley, Margaret Haskell: Teacher; librarian; author; staff, Fla. Aud. Soc.
Jenni, Donald A.: Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Florida
Komarek, Betty: Active in garden club, youth groups, conservation
Latham, Mary: Horticulture chairman, Ormond Beach Garden Club; editor,
The Garden Guide
Mason, C. Russell: Executive Director, Fla. And. Soc.; editor, The Florida
Morrison, Kenneth D.: Director, Mountain Lake Sanctuary; vice president, Fla.
Read, Bayard W.: wildlife photographer; conservationist
Robertson, Dr. William: Chief Biologist, Everglades Nat. Park; author, Ever-
glades the Park Story, scientific papers
Schultz, Fred: Nat. Aud. Soc. warden Tampa Bay bird colonies
Smith, Marjorie Dunn: Past President, Fla. Fed. of Garden Clubs, formerly
director of Audubon Camps
Sprunt, Dr. Alexander III: Nat. Aud. Soc. staff; a director, Fla. Aud. Soc.;
author, Dwellers of the Silences, South Carolina Bird Life, Florida Bird
Life, etc.; lecturer, wildlife tour leader
Sprunt, Alexander IV: Nat. And. Soc. Research Director
Stoddard, Dr. Herbert Lee: His quail research is classic; a consultant in forestry
and wildlife management; elder statesman in all wildlife affairs
Truslow, Frederick K.: Wildlife photographer; author of wildlife articles, Na-
tional Geographic Magazine; a director, Fla. Aud. Soc.
Trussell, Dr. Malvina: Professor, Science Education, Fla. State Univ.; author,
The Naturalist Explorers' Interpretation of the Southeastern U.S. from
1700-1900, The West Pine Barren a Habitat in Miniature, Beautification of
School Grounds through the use of Native Trees and Shrubs, etc.