Title: Birds of the Everglades
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096280/00001
 Material Information
Title: Birds of the Everglades
Physical Description: 15 p. : illus. ;
Language: English
Creator: Collins, Henry Hill, 1905-1961
Peterson, Roger Tory ( Illustrator )
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Caribou Press
Place of Publication: Bronxville, NY
Publication Date: c1956
Subject: Birds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Adapted from a field guide to the birds, showing the Peterson system of identification.
General Note: Cover title: Birds of Florida and the Everglades.
Statement of Responsibility: Illus. by Roger Tory Peterson.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096280
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01825447

Full Text





Brown Pelican



Anhingaof the
By Henry H. Collins, Jr.

a 'Illustrations by Roger Tory Peterson
Showing the Peterson System of Identification
F LORIDA, in addition to her climate and beauty, is world famous for her
wonderful bird life. In particular, in the Everglades vast numbers of -peli-
cans, herons, egrets and ibises dazzle the eye in sky, marsh and water. Thou-
sands of visitors come each year to view the varicolored species, the wheeling
flocks, the vast rookeries.
But it was very nearly not so. At the turn of the century plumes were the
height of fashion on women's hats. The most beautiful were "aigrettes," the
lacy, white, wedding-dress spray that egrets wear only in the breeding season.
Plume-hunters invaded Florida's great egret rookeries. To secure the feathers
they had to kill the birds. Every parent bird killed meant eggs that grew cold
or orphaned young left to starve and shrivel in the nest.
Egrets became scarce; and "aigrettes" were soon valued at twice their
weight in gold. And men murdered men for the profit of ripping plumes off
the backs of the vanishing species. At the time of Audubon's visit to Florida
in 1832, egrets bred from the Keys north to New Jersey. But by 1900 they
were confined to a few remote wildernesses in the southern Everglades that
the plume-hunters had not yet reached and ravaged.
At the very last moment, conservation groups led by the young Audubon
Societies and the New York Zoological Society aroused public opinion against
the destruction of these exquisite birds. Protective legislation was passed;
sanctuaries created. From the brink of extinction, the egrets came back. Now
again they brighten northern marshes as with a late summer snow, and grace
Florida's waters with year-round beauty.
Americans are becoming increasingly interested in the protection of our
magnificent wildlife heritage. Consequently, in 1947 the Everglades National
Park was established to preserve forever, against destruction by man, the
grandeur of the southern Florida wilderness and, above all, the birds.
The beauty of birds, of course, has appeal for everyone, not just for the
scientist. By means of this booklet, anyone can learn to recognize some of the
birds that are found in the Everglades National Park and elsewhere in Florida.
So, good luck to you-or, as birdmen say to each other, "Happy Birding!"
2 Copyright 1956, Caribou Press, Bronxville, N. Y.

Birds of Swamps and Marshes
Anhinga. 34". The curious-looking
"Snake-bird" or "Water-Turkey" likes
wooded sloughs where it can roost on
the bordering trees and bushes. It often
swims with only its snakelike head
protruding above the water.
Flies with alternate flaps and glides;
often soars at great heights. p. 2
Great White Heron. 49". Persecution
and the hurricane of 1935 reduced the
total U.S. population of this, our larg-
est heron, to only 50o individuals. For-
tunately, since 1935 its numbers have
somewhat increased. Legs yellow. p. 5
Great Blue Heron. 48". Standing mo-
tionless in the water awaiting its prey,
this "Crane" is a familiar sight
throughout the nation.
Flies with heavy wingbeats, neck
pulled in, long legs trailing. p. 5
American Egret.37-40". Egrets were
the species most sought by plume-
hunters. Wayne in 1910o wrote: "This
species has been, and still is, merci-
lessly shot for its plumes . the day
is not distant when it will be abso-
lutely extinct unless laws are made
and enforced for its protection."
Fortunately such laws were made
and are enforced. And the comeback
of the egret is one of the great tri-
umphs of conservation. Thus Peterson
was able to write in 1948: "The two
white egrets almost crossed the Styx;
the pirates of the millinery trade nearly
got them all. With protection, these
immaculate waders have skyrocketed
from a few hundred, perhaps a few
thousand, to hundreds of thousands.
.. When you see your next American
egret, white against the green marsh
. . take off your hat to the Na-
tional Audubon Society."
Bill yellow; legs black. p. 5

Snowy Egret. 20-27". The "cross aig-
rettes," the recurved nuptial spray
from the back of this snowy heron,
were the plumes most prized by the
women's hat makers at the turn of
the century. Ethereal in their beauty,

Note its size, color and pattern
of plumage; size, shape and color of
bill and legs. Ask yourself, what is
it doing? Where? Does it have a
crest, white rump or other distinc-
tive mark? In flight, is the neck
drawn in, as with all herons and
egrets, or extended as in the ibises
and cranes? What is its voice?
Size is important. Hence, after
each species name we give in inches
its length from tip of bill to end of
tail. As a yardstick, note that the
Mockingbird is io", House Sparrow
6", and Great Blue Heron 48". The
last paragraph under each bird
gives its distinctive field marks and
the page number of its picture.
Birds are grouped below accord-
ing to where you are most likely to
find them. But there is much over-
lap. You may see Cormorants in-
land or Great White Herons in
Florida Bay. The commonest or
most spectacular birds are discussed
in the text; for the others see the
Check List, pp. 14-15, for relative
abundance and season.

they were worth $32 an ounce, equal
perhaps to $100oo today.
Of those times Peterson writes: "In
a few months, at the London Com-
mercial Sales Rooms alone, nearly
200,000 plumes were auctioned off.
That meant not only 200,000 egrets
but all their young besides, for the
adults bore the nuptial spray only
during the nesting season. It is re-
volting to read the eye-witness ac-
counts of bodies rotting on the mud,
young too weak to stand, and parent-
less birds staggering to their feet and
vainly trying to attract the attention
of every passing heron. One plumer
testified that wounded egrets were
propped up where they would at-
tract the attention of others, until
ants ate out their eyes.
"The first Audubon warden in
South Florida, Guy Bradley, was shot
near Cape Sable, in 1905, as he
boarded a boat to look for plumes. A
marker stands today where his body
washed ashore."
Egrets are still slaughtered for their
plumes in other countries, and the
work of conservationists is far from
over in our own. Species still threat-
ened today include such magnificent
forms as the Whooping Crane, Cali-
fornia Condor and Attwater's Prairie
Chicken. Endless vigilance is necessary
if we are to hand on unimpaired our
glorious wildlife heritage to our chil-
Bill and legs, black; feet yellow:-
the heron with "Golden Slippers." p. 5
Reddish Egret. 29". Uncommon. This
species has not yet recovered from the
depredations of the plume hunters.
When feeding it often clowns and
acts as if drunk. There are two forms
(phases); the white is the rarer.
Neck feathers fluffy. p. 5

Louisiana Heron. 26". Next to the
Snowy Egret this stately, slender
"Lady of the Waters" is the most
graceful of the heron family. For-
tunately its feathers never attracted
the milliners.
Only heron with white belly. p. 5
Little Blue Heron. 20-29". Many
herons, and in particular the white
immature of this species, wander
north after the breeding season.
Hence, late summer motorists often
notice "White Herons" in the marshes
of New England and the north cen-
tral states. p. 5

There are five white herons, all
with straight bills, which in des-
cending order of size may best be
distinguished as follows:

Bill, legs yellow

Great White

American Bill yellow, legs
Egret black
Reddish Egret, Bill flesh-colored, tip
white phase black; legs dark

Little Blue Bill bluish, tip
Heron, im- black; legs, feet
mature greenish

Snowy Egret Bill, legs black; feet
Two white birds with curved
bills are also found in southern
Wood Ibis Bill, head, legs dark;
in flight much
black in wing

White Ibis, Bill, legs red; in
adult flight, only wing
tips black



.j r -





White Phase





Green Heron. 16-22". Like the others
this small heron will stand for hours
waiting for some fish or frog to pass
within range of its rapier beak.
Watch the deliberate movements of
little "Fly-up-the-Creek" as he climbs
around marsh vegetation. p. 13
Black-crowned Night Heron. 23-28".
The evening air often carries a flat
quark! from this short-necked, heavy-
winged form as it slowly beats its way
into the gathering dusk.
The immature bird resembles the
American Bittern but is grayer and
lacks black wing tips. p. 13
Yellow-crowned Night Heron. 22-28".
The beautiful nuptial plumes of this
water-lover add a touch of glory to its
forested swamp home. Less nocturnal
than the last.
In flight, feet project beyond tail;
Black-crown's do not. Immature
slatier, more finely speckled and legs
longer than young Black-crowns. p. 13
American Bittern. 23-34". The Stake-
driver is more often heard than seen.
His oong-ka-choonk "song" sounds
like the action of a wooden pump, or,
at a distance, like the driving of a
stake. In his swamp home he tries to
hide amid the reeds by "freezing"
with his sharp bill pointed skyward.
September to March.

Y Common

Black wing tips, browner than im-
mature Night Herons. Almost never
seen in trees. p. 13
Least Bittern. 11-14". An uncommon
freshwater marsh dweller. p. 13
Wood Ibis (1-bis). 35-47". These birds
often nest in low mangroves or in tall
cypresses growing in water. Thou-
sands sometimes are found in one col-
ony. Despite their odd appearance on



the ground, Wood Ibises are beautiful
in the sky, where on outstretched pin-
ions they will soar for hours high over
grass and glade.
Our only stork. Heavy curved bill,
naked head and neck, long dark legs.
In flight shows much black on wings;
flies with neck and legs extended. p. 13
Glossy Ibis. 22-25". Look for flocks of
this handsome "Black Curlew" on
mud flats, marshes and wet fields.
At a distance appears black; flies
with neck outstretched, alternately
flapping and gliding. p. 13
White Ibis. 22-27". In the past pot-
hunters often took this "Spanish Cur-
lew." Thanks to the sanctuaries, how-
ever, its future now seems secure and
recent rookeries of 50,000 birds have
been reported. A great flock, flashing
back the sunlight as it wheels in uni-
son, is one of the great sights of the
Florida bird world. p. 13

Roseate Spoonbill. 32". The "Pink"
is one of the magnificent Florida
species that was decimated by the
plume-hunters-who sold its wings
for fans in St. Augustine. Today a
few hundred maintain a precarious
toe-hold in the Everglades National
Park and on isolated keys in Florida
Bay. Its peculiar flattened bill, the ex-
quisite pink of its plumage, the sordid
story of its persecution, its rarity and
the valiant efforts for its restoration,
combine to make this a prize bird in
Florida's great wild aviary. p. 5
Flamingo. 45". Now a rare straggler,
though it occurred regularly in south-
ern Florida before the days of the
plume-hunters. This is one of the
most spectacular birds in the world
but it is becoming increasingly rare
everywhere. Vigorous international
action is needed if this beautiful and
curious species is to be saved. p. 5
Blue-winged Teal. 15-i6". Teal are
small, rapid-flying, freshwater ducks.
Light blue patches on wings; and,
in male, white crescent on face. Sep-
tember to April.

Limpkin. 28". A weird, freshwater
night bird that utters an odd series of
human-like wails, whence its name of
"Crying Bird."
Curved bill; white spots on brown
feathers; in flight, neck outstretched
and legs dangling. p. 13

Purple Gallinule. 12-14". This jewel
of the freshwater marshes walks on
the lily pads, clambers about on the
vegetation and swims in marsh ponds.
Head and underparts iridescent
purple; forehead shield light blue;
legs and tip of red bill, yellow; under-
tail white. p. 12

Florida Gallinule. 12-14". Habits sim-
ilar to preceding. Bill and forehead
shield red; white stripe along flank.
p. 12
American Coot. 13-16". Coots are
gregarious and talkative. Their tame-
ness makes shooting them poor sport,
despite or on account of which tens of
thousands are shot yearly. (But not,
of course, in the Everglades National
Park or federal, state or Audubon
sanctuaries, where all wildlife is pro-
tected). p. 12

Willet. 14-17". "Pill-will-willet" cries
this flashy, salt marsh shorebird of
loud voice and black and white wings.
Years ago market hunters almost ex-
terminated many shorebirds. W th
protection, most have come back. But
the Willet has yet to recover its
former range or numbers. p. 8

Belted Kingfisher. 11-14". Unlike
most other species, the female, with




her chestnut breast band, is more
brightly colored than the male.
Unscreened fish hatcheries attract
kingfishers and here, because of their
depredations, they are often shot. It
would seem wiser to screen the hatch-
eries than to destroy this fine bird.
Blue; heavy bill; crest; often hovers
before diving for its prey. p. 7

Common Yellowthroat. 5". A spright-
ly warbler that frequents low swampy
ground, cattails, ditches, etc. Song:
witch ity-witchity-whitchity-witch.

Black mask (male only), yellow
breast, olive back. p. 6

Red-winged Blackbird. 8-9". A na-
tionwide species that frequents wet
meadows, swamps and open fields.
Often nests amid cattails. Male, black
with red shoulders; female streaked
with brown, like a large sparrow, p. 7

Boat-tailed Grackle. Frequents salt
and fresh marshes and shore lines.
Male, i6", iridescent black with a
long boat-shaped tail; female, 12",
brownish, tail shorter.

Birds of the Coast and Ocean
White Pelican. 55-70"; wing spread 9'.
"A wonderful bird is the pelican."
But, despite the limerick, he cannot
"store in his beak
Enough food for a week"

The pouch under the bill is a trap,
not a storehouse. In it he engulfs fish
and the water in which they are swim-
ming. The water is then strained out
and the fish tossed in the air, caught,
and swallowed. Resembles next, but
larger and white with black wing tips.


Brown Pelican. 45-54"; wing-spread
6/2'. Visitors never fail to enjoy watch-
ing these birds making a great splash
as they dive for fish, a common sight
along the Florida coastline. (above)

Double-crested Cormorant. 30-35".
Fishermen have learned that fishing
is apt to be good near a cormorant
colony. The cormorants' rich drop-
pings fertilize the surrounding waters
which thus support a greater supply of
the tiny plants and animals on which
fish feed. Hence fish are more plenti-
ful in these fertile watery pastures.

Marsh Hawk

Black, snaky-looking; often seen
perched on piles; flies, with neck and
legs extended, in wavy black lines low
over the water. pp. 8-9
Magnificent Frigate-bird (Man-o'-
war-bird). 40"; wing-spread 7V'. This
great master of flight has legs so small
it can barely walk. From the air it
often attacks cormorants, pelicans or
gulls until they release the fish they
have caught, which it then seizes for
its own meal.
Black; long wings with "hump" in
middle; long scissor-tail, sometimes
closed. p. 15
Lesser Scaup. 15-i8". The Bluebill
is a diving duck, common on both
fresh and salt water. October to May.
On the water the blue-billed male
appears white in the middle and dark
at both ends; female, brown with
white circle around base of bill.
Ring-billed Gull. 18-20". The gull is
the scavenger of the sea, but Swin-
burne noted a loftier aspect of its
"The lark knows no such rapture,
Such joy no nightingale,
As sways the songless measure
Wherein thy wings take pleasure;
Thy love may no man capture,
Thy pride may no man quail;"
Adults: pearly mantle, ring around
bill, yellowish legs. Immature: narrow
dark band near end of tail. The Ring-


bill never has a dark head or mantle.
Laughing Gull. 15-17". Adults in sum-
mer, black head and dark mantle; in
winter, head white with dark mark-
ings. Immature in winter, dark above
with white rump.
Common Tern. 13-16. Smaller than
next; in winter, bill blackish. p. 6
Royal Tern. 18-21". Watch these grace-
ful "Sea Swallows" dive for fish. Com-
mon in Florida Bay.
Large size, deeply forked tail, slen-
der orange bill, white forehead; black
cap and crest.

Birds of Woods and Thickets
Red-bellied Woodpecker. 9-io".
Woodpeckers have stiff tail feathers to
prop them up as they climb tree trunks
looking or listening for insects.
Only woodpecker with red cap and
neck and "zebra" back (immature has
brown head); red belly inconspicuous.
Blue Jay. 11-12". This crested blue
beauty of your home town is also
common here in Florida and west to
the Rockies.
Catbird. 9". Frequents thickets; utters
cat-like mewing note.
Dark gray; black cap; chestnut un-

Birds of Prairies and Clearings

Marsh Hawk (Harrier). 18-24". With
long wings held at an angle, long tail
and white rump, this beneficial species
quarters back and forth over open
fields and marshes. Meadow mice and
cotton rats rank high on its menu.
September to April; common on
Cape Sable Prairie. p. io

Sparrow Hawk (Kestrel). 9-12". We
often notice this little falcon on tele-
graph poles, fence posts or dead limbs.
It hovers over its prey and feeds on
mice and grasshoppers. Cry, a shrill
killy killy killy.
Our smallest hawk. Long reddish
tail, long curved wings. Male, red-
brown, blue and white, with two
black "side-burns"; female, brown
wings rather than blue. Pumps tail
when alighting. (see below)
Sandhill Crane. 40-48". Pough, in his
Audubon Bird Guide, says: "Good to
eat and long regarded as a game bird,
these splendid cranes have decreased
or disappeared as breeders from the
more settled parts of their once vast
grassland range . the sandhill has
a remarkable courtship dance. The
birds bow to each other, jump into the
air with wings held out loosely and
feet thrown forward, then turn, bow
again and repeat."
In flight, neck, legs extended. p. 5
Mockingbird. io". The mockingbird
is as symbolic of the South as "Swanee
River." Its beautiful song is often
heard at night.
Northerners, seeing this mimic for
the first time, will note its soft gray
plumage and white underparts, wing-
bars and outer tail feathers. p. 3
Loggerhead Shrike. 9-io". Shrikes
have the curious habit of impaling
their prey of grasshoppers, mice, small
birds, etc., on thorns or barbed wire.
Gray, white and black; heavier,
shorter-tailed, bigger-headed than
Mockingbird; has a black mask. p. 6



Bald Eagle

Turkey Vulture

Cardinal. 8-9". Our only red bird with
a crest. Song, what cheer, cheer, cheer.
Male, bright cardinal red, heavy red
bill, black face patch; female, similar,
but yellow-brown with some pink.

Birds of the Sky
Turkey Vulture. 30"; wing-spread 6'.
Sailing effortlessly high in the blue,
vultures keep an endless vigil over the
ground beneath for dead or dying
flesh. Their scavenging habits are of
great benefit to mankind.
Vultures' wings form a slight angle
as they soar. From below, those of the
Turkey Vulture appear black in front,
silvery behind; those of the Black Vul-
ture are dark except for large light
spots near the outer end. The Black
has a shorter tail than the Turkey and
flaps its wings more. (above)
Black Vulture. 24"; see last.
Swallow-tailed Kite. 24". This beauti-
ful species once ranged from Ohio to
Argentina. But ill-considered drainage
of the swamps where it forages, and
wanton gunners, have swept it from
most of our skies except in southern
Florida. A favorite with lovers of bird
pictures is Audubon's painting show-
ing this superb aeronaut eating, as is
its habit, a snake in mid-air. Mar.-Oct.
White head and underparts; long,
forked tail.

Red-shouldered Hawk. 18-24". This
broad-winged, fan-tailed species is
found near swamps and damp woods
where we often hear its high-pitched
piercing whistle, kee yer. Its diet in-
cludes mice, snakes, frogs, crawfish,
grasshoppers and caterpillars; but little,
or no, poultry.
Heavy dark bands on tail.

Bald Eagle. 30-31"; wing-spread 6-
7VY2'. Southern Florida is one of the
few places in the United States where
we may still see our national emblem
with relative ease. It has been shot off
in most other parts of the country,

and Alaska-to her great shame-as
late as 1952 was still paying a $2
bounty on each eagle destroyed.
This species is largely a scavenger.
Soars on horizontal wings. Imma-
ture dark; does not obtain white head
and tail of adult until sixth year. p. ii

Osprey. 21-24". A common sight near
water is the Fish Hawk hovering be-
fore diving on its finny quarry. Its
aerie is a huge pile of sticks on a
dead tree, well back from the water.
In flight, a "kink" in its wings dis-
tinguishes it from eagle or vulture.
p. II

Bird Quiz

i. What bird has a pouched beak?
2. Name two species almost wiped
out by plume-hunters.
3. Is fishing near a cormorant colony
good or bad?
4. What tall bird has a Roman nose?
5. What bird has a broad flat bill?
Answers on page 14. (A

6. What bird impales its prey on
thorns or barbed wire?
7. What bird likes to eat in mid-air?
8. What is the "Crying Bird"?
9. The scavengers of the sea are ...?
jo. "Listen to the ----- ."

score of 5 is good, 7 excellent.)

Florida's 21 Best Places to See Birds

1. Everglades National Park: near
Royal Palm Ranger Station, An-
hinga Trail, Gumbo Limbo Trail;
near Coot Bay Ranger Station,
Cuthbert Lake and East River
rookeries, Snake Bight area, East
Cape Canal, Cape Sable; Fla. Bay.
2. Daytona Beach: seawall of Hali-

fax R. near Yacht Club; spot 7 m.
w on Route 92.
3. Dry Tortugas (Ft. Jefferson N.M.)
4. Jacksonville: Ft. George Is., Little
Talbot Is.; Mayport.
5. Key West: waterfront; Botanical
6. Kissimmee Prairie: 6 m. sw





6' -4



a1s .4,


e Adult










For further information on bird identification buy a Field Guide to
the Birds by Roger Tory Peterson, Houghton Mifflin Co. This "Bird-
watchers' Bible," sponsored by the National Audubon Society, is the best
guide on field identification and is on sale at all bookstores, $3.75.

7. Lake Wales: Mt. Lake Sanctuary.
8. Melbourne: St. Johns R. marshes
7 m. w on 192; Lk. Washington.
9. Miami: Parrot Jungle, sw 57 Av.
io. New Smyrna: Coronado Beach;
Hong Kong Is.
ii. Okeechobee: 25 m. s along 15 &
78, n through Seminole Indian
Res. to Brighton; out 70 & 66 to
Basinger and return.
12. Overseas Highway to Key West.
13. Pensacola: Bay Bridge, Pen. Beach.
14. St. Augustine: Ostrich Farm, both
sides AiA south; Marineland.
15. St. Petersburg: Municipal Pier.

16. Sebring: Highlands Hammock S.P.
17. Tallahassee: Wakulla Springs,
jungle cruise on Wakulla R.; St.
Marks National Wildlife Refuge.
18. Tamiami Trail: both sides.
19. Tampa: Courtney Campbell
20. Titusville: along 402 to Titusville
Beach; n & s along 3.
21. Big Cypress Swamp: Everglades,
n on 29.
For further information on Florida
flora and fauna and their preservation,
write Florida Audubon Society, 942
Bonita Drive, Winter Park, Fla.

Quiz Answers: i. Pelican
2. American, Snowy and
Reddish Egrets; Spoon-
bill; Flamingo

3. Good
4. Flamingo
5. Roseate Spoonbill
6. Loggerhead Shrike

7. Swallow-tailed Kite
8. Limpkin
9. Gulls
So. Mockingbird

Check List of the Birds of Southern Florida*
......Anhinga ce 3 .....Cormorant, Double-crested ...... F
......Ani, Groove-billed rpe cpe9
Smooth-billed ve ......Cowbird, Brown-headed we ...... F
...... Avocet, American rm ......Crane, Sandhill rp 0 11 ......F
...... Bananaquit, Bahama v ......Crow, American cp ...... F
......Bittern, American rs fw 6 ...... Fish up ......p
Least pe6 ......Cuckoo, Black-billed rm ......
......Blackbird, Red-winged cp e f8..... Mangrove rs ...... F
...... Rusty rw ...... Yellow-billed cs, awe ......G
.. Yellow-headed ve ......Curlew, Hudsonian rwe ......G
...Bluebird /pe ...... Long-billed rwO ......
...... Bobolink cm* ......Dove, Ground cp ...... G
......Bob-white f* ...... Mourning cp ...... G
......Booby, Blue-faced v .... Zenaida ve ......
...... White-bellied r ......Dowitcher cwe ......G
- Bunting, Indigo ume ......Duck, Mottled (Fla.) cpe ..... G
...... Painted uw ...... Ring-necked cwe ......G
......Canvas-back rw e ... Ruddy uwe ......
....-Caracara, Audubon's fp ...... Wood fp ...... G
......Cardinal cp ll ......Eagle, Bald fp 12 ......
......Catbird cwe10 ......Egret, American cpe3 ..... G
......Chuck-will's-widow us* ...... Reddish up*4 ......G
.....Coot cwo 7 ...... Snowy cpe4

alcon, Peregrine
(Duck Hawk) awe
lamingo re 7
licker, Yellow-shafted cpe
lycatcher, Acadian rme
Crested cpe
Scissor-tailed ve
rigate-bird, Magnificent cpe9
adwall ro
allinule, Florida cp 7
Purple up 7
gnatcatcher, Blue-gray us, cwe
odwit, Marbled uwe
Hudsonian rm *
olden-eye, American rw *
oldfinch, American uwe
rackle, Boat-tailed cpe 8
Purple f/ *
rebe, Horned rwn
Pied-billed us, fwe
rosbeak, Rose-breasted v e
ull, Bonaparte's fwe
Herring auw

Key to Check List c-common, i-fairly common, u-uncommon, r-rare, p-permanent
resident, s-summer' resident, w--winter2 visitor, mn-migrant5, v-vagrant.
* Includes all species ever recorded from the Everglades National Park.
Symbols indicate abundance and seasonal occurrence in suitable habitat. 'Some period be-
tween March and October. 2Some period between September and May. 'August-November,
March-May. Dot 0 after symbol indicates recorded from Everglades NP. Figures indicate
page where described. Subspecies omitted.

.....Gull, Laughing cp l0
-.... Ring-billed cwlO0
...... Hawk, Broad-winged ums
...... Cooper's auw
...... Marsh (Harrier) cwel0
...... Pigeon (Merlin) uwe
...... Red-shouldered fp 12
...... Red-tailed ppe
.. Sharp-shinned uwe
...... Short-tailed rpO
...... Sparrow (Kestrel) cpel0
...... Swainson's ve
......Heron, Black-crowned, N't c
...... Great Blue cp*e3
...... Great White rpe3
...... Green cpe6
Little Blue cpe4
...... Louisiana cpe4
...... Wurdemann's rp e
Yellow-crowned Night cpe6
......Hummingbird, Ruby-thr. up9
-- Ibis, Glossy upe 6
.... White cpe6
Wood cp e6
Jay, Blue cpO10
Scrub fp
......Killdeer cwe
.Kingbird, Eastern cs
. Gray fs 9
Western rwe
......Kingfisher, Belted cwe7
......Kinglet, Ruby-crowned uw
......Kite, Everglade re
Mississippi rO
Swallow-tailed /j 11
.Knot, Red umn*
. Limpkin cpe7
.Loon, Common awe
. Red-throated rw*
. Mallard uwe
. Martin, Purple use
.Meadowlark, Eastern cpO
.Merganser, American rw
Hooded rw e
Red-breasted cwe
.. Mockingbird cpe 11
Nighthawk, Common cs a
Nuthatch, Brown-headed rpe
......Oriole, Baltimore rm
...... Osprey cpel2
......Ovenbird cwo
...Owl, Barn up*
...... Barred fpe
...... Burrowing rpe
...... Horned upe
.... Long-eared rw
...... Screech fp 0
...... Short-eared rw
......Oyster-catcher, American re
.... Pelican, Brown cpe9
...... White fwe8
..... "hoebe cwe
......Pigeon, White-crowned use
..-.- Pintail, American cwe
...... Bahama rv
...... Pipit, Water rwe
...... Plover, Black-bellied cwe
Cuban Snowy r p
... Piping rwe
.... Ringed cwe
...... Wilson's Is, auw
......Rail, Black r
...... Clapper cpe
...... King fp
...... Virginia rw
......Redhead ruw

...... Redstart, American cm e
....Robin, American tcw
......Sanderling cwe
......Sandpiper, Least cm *
...... Pectoral ume
...... Red-backed cmO
...... Semipalmated cwe
...... Solitary fm, nw *
...... Spotted fm, uwe
...... Western cwo
......Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied uwe
......Scaup, Lesser cw el 0
......Scoter, Surf rwoe
...... Shoveller uwe
......Shrike, Loggerhead cpe I
......Skimmer, Black tcw
......Snipe, Wilson's uwe
......Sora cwO
......Sparrow, Cape Sable rp o
...... Chipping rw
...... House cpe
...... Field rw
...... Grasshopper rs, cm, rwe
...... Lark rw *
...... Leconte's rwe
...... Pine-woods upe
...... Savannah tcw
...... Sharp-tailed uwe
...... Song rwi
...... Swamp uive
...... Vesper rw o
...... White-throated rw o
.....Spoonbill, Roseate us 6
......Stilt, Black-necked use
......Swallow, Bahama rv
...... Barn cm
...... Cliff rm w
...... Tree cwa
......Swift, Chimney us
......Tanager, Scarlet rm 9
...... Summer rse
......Teal, Blue-winged cw e7
...... Green-winged rw*
...... Cinnamon rve
.....-Tern, Black rm
...... Cabot's up*
...... Caspian uwe
...... Common fm*
...... Forster's uwe
...... Gull-billed rme
...... Least cso
...... Noddy *
...... Roseate r
...... Royal cwe 10
...... Sooty
......Thrasher, Brown cwe

......Thrush, Hermit riwe
Wood fm
...... Titmouse, Tufted rwe
...... Towhee, Eastern cp
....Turkey, Wild pe
.... Turnstone, Ruddy cwe
.....Vireo, Black-whiskered us *
. Red-eyed us
...... Solitary uw
...... White-eyed cpe
...... Vulture, Black cp l 1
...... Turkey cp ll
......Warbler, Black and White
cm, Trw
S Blackburnian rm, rwe
...... Black-poll cme
.... Black-throated Blue cm, rw e
...... Black-throated Gray ve
...... Black-throated Green
fi, uwve
...... Blue-winged rmw
...... Cape May fm
...... Chestnut-sided rm
...... Connecticut rme
...... Hooded fm
...... Magnolia rme
...... Myrtle cwe
...... Nashville rme
...... Palm cwve
...... Parula cm, uwe
...... Pine cpe
...... Prairie cp 9
...... Prothonotary am@
Swainson's rm
...... Tennessee rm *
...... Worm-eating um
...... Yellow rs, ume
...... Yellow-throated awe
-... Waterthrush, Louisiana cme
...... Northern cm, rwe
......Waxwing, Cedar awe
......Whip-poor-will uwe
....Widgeon, American
(Baldpate) cwe
......WilletIpo 7
...... Woodpecker, Downy upe
...... Hairy upe
...... Pileated fpe
...... Red-bellied cp*l0
...... Red-cockaded up
......Wren, Carolina cpe
...... House cwe
...... Long-billed Marsh rp, cwe
...... Short-billed Marsh fw*
......Yellow-legs, Greater fwe
....-Yellowthroat, Common cp 8

Atuan u. (,ruu(snani
from National Audubon Society

ID 0

C1U C1 I% y I c1 1

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