Growing Roses in
U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE
sEP i$ as
PRCCUR EMENT SECTION
NT TEfalAL RECORDS
FLORIDA ROSE SOCIETY
(Alliliated with the American Rose Society)
COPYRIGHTED 1982 BY FLORIDA ROSE SOCIETY
The Florida Rose Society
President . MRS. S. F. POOLE. Lake Alfred
ViwPresident - - JAMES DONN, Miami
Treasurer - - N. A. REASONER, Bradenton
Secretary MRS. CLARA I. THOMAS, St Petersburg
American Rose Society
State Vice-President-BAYARD F.FLOYD, Davenport
N. A. REASONER, Bradenton
H. H. HUME, Gainesville
ERNEST F. COE. Miami
MRS. CLARA I. THOMAS, Secretary, St. Petereburg, Florida
Ts Each Member of the Florida Rose Society :
This little book has been made for you and your friends by our own
Florida authorities on the growing of roses.
It is a pioneer in a vast field of interesting endeavor, which is only
just being recognized by amateur rose growers here as being quite apart
from rose growing in other sections of our country. We enter upon
an unexplored realm, with much to be unfolded, hoping that each member
of the Florida Rose Society will be stimulated to experiment under the
guidance of these leaders and will work for the development of roses
suitable to Florida conditions.
The Florida Rose Society is an affiliated unit of the American Rose
Society, an organization of 5,000 members. It is.made up of people who
like roses, and welcomes amateurs who have small gardens with only
a few bushes. There are no other qualifications for membership than
an interest in roses and a desire to know more about them.
Membership in the American Rose Society costs $3.50 a year. An
additional fifty cents per annum entitles one to membership in the Florida
Rose Society with its advantages of furnishing you special information
in regard to conditions peculiar to Florida.
The membership card of the American Rose Society is an introduction
to beautiful gardens and rose fellowship everywhere. It admits you to
all rose shows in which the Society participates, entitles you to the full
use of its library of books about roses, at no cost but postage, gives you
the privilege of consulting experts about your difficulties, and brings to
you the following valuable publications, without any extra charge: The
American Rose Annual, published in March each year, not obtainable at
any bookstores; "What Every Rose Grower Should K.now," sent you
on joining; The Rose Quarterly, which keeps members abreast of current
events in which rose growers are interested, and "Growing Roses in
Florida," published and released in 1932 to all members of the affiliated
When you reflect upon these numerous returns which animate each
member to higher levels of enjoyment among his roses, you will feel like
using your persuasive influence on a rose friend of yours, so that he or
she. also, may share these benefits and join with you in the fellowship
of the rose.
Membership fees are due on January first, and all members are
urged to pay them promptly on this date, to Mr. Norman A. Reasoner,
Treasurer, Oneco. Florida.
Table of Contents
A Greeting from the President .
Rose Classification .
Own Root Propagation of Roses .
Insects of Roses .
Black Spot, Powdery Mildew and Brown Canker of Roses
Future Roses for Florida ..
Growing Hybrid Teas in Florida ..............
Growing Roses in Miami ...... .........
South Florida Rose Notes ........... .
Growing Roses in Central Florida .. .......
Growing Roses in North Florida .. .......
New Roses in My Garden ......... .
Growing Roses on the East Coast .........
Rose Growing in West Florida _. .....
What is Fairer than a Rose, What is Sweeter
. .............. 18
. .............. 10
.... ........ 23
A Greeting from the President
MRS. S. FRANK POOLE, Lake Alfred, Florida
Your President greatly appreciates the honor the members of the
Florida Rose Society have conferred on her by electing her President.
We realize that with this honor comes responsibility. We are glad to
serve the Florida Rose Society in any way we can. With your support
we will do our best to promote the interests of the Society. Especially
are we interested in building up the membership.
We appeal to you members of the Florida Rose Society to get new
members, to take a personal interest in promoting the cultivation of the
rose, and to make our Society one of mutual benefit.
We will get profit and pleasure from the Society in proportion to
the amount of service we give.
We trust our first publication, "Growing Roses in Florida," written
by Florida growers of authority, will be of value to our members in
growing more and better roses. It is particularly aimed to help the be-
ginners who may become members.
W'e extend our thanks and appreciation to everyone who has made
Your President's ambition for next year is a bulletin giving the
rose new\s of the different sections of the state.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
W. L. FLOYD, Professor of Horticulture, University of Florida
The garden groups of roses most important in Florida are:
Teas. These came to Europe from China early in the nineteenth
century, first blush, then yellow tea-scented roses. They were soon in-
troduced into France where they were inter-bred to produce varieties
which soon became popular and were widely scattered. By further inter-
breeding and the development of sports, the varieties now grown were
developed. They were the first of the ever blooming type to be grown
in Europe and America. The flowers have a wide range of color. The
plants are more easily hurt by cold than those of other groups, and are,
therefore, more successful in regions of mild climate. A number of the
most vigorous growers and profuse bloomers in Florida are teas, but
the flower stems are short andi often weak. an1d therefore are most at-
tractive in the garden.
Hyb2rid Per~petuals--also called rremolrntats, were inltrodluced a few
years later than teas. Their parentage is traced to Rosa Chinensis with
infusions of Damask, Provence and Bourbon blood. The name perpetual
applies more to the long life of the plant than to the continuance of
blooming. Their greater hardiness and vigor made them at once favor-
ites in the colder regions. The roses produced are large, borne on stiff
upright stems, with rough, deep green fohlage: this makes them better
suited than teas for cutting though the flowers are inclined to be flat
and lack fragrance.
Hybrid Teas. About 1885, in France, a break was made in the pre-
vailing type of hybrid perpetual which had been for many years the
most popular group. This break was made by crossing perpetuals with
teas. The offspring had smoother stems with fewer thorns, a softer,
more pleasing foliage and flowers of greater range in color. Many had
pointed buds, and possessed the delicate, much prized tea odor. They
soon~ outstripped all others in popular favor over a large part of the
world. New varieties have arisen and continue to b~e developed until
taday one has hundreds to select from.
In selecting for Florida it should be borne in mlind that the great
majority of these hav~e arisen inl northern climates, and may not succeed
Polyanthflas. These are small plants, bearing flowers in clusters and
are nearly ever-blooming.
Somne other groups to which one or more varieties belong, that do
well in F~lorida, are Hy\brid Wichuriana, Noisette, Cheroktee, Bengal and
GROWING ROSES INi FLORIDA
OWN ROOT PROPAGATION OF ROSES
CARL NIEMANN, K~issimmee, Florida
Editor's N'ote-WIitht strong fieldi-grown~r budded or grafted roses so
cheap at present anld so readily available, mrost persons wuill prefer to pulr-
chase these plants one strong unlderstockis; particularly one old soils that
mrightt be suspected of beingr infected wcitht root-knrot, or dry santdy soils
heutre extr~a vigor is needed. For those, however, blessed with good soil,
anld the desire to growu their ownl roses "froml thre very beginning," Mr.
Niemlannt's inlstrulctionrs wcill be found very7 helpful. A similar article on,
budding anld graftinrg is conrtemlplated for ourr next issue.
A good way to add to your stock of roses is by rooted cuttings.
Prepare a box not less than four inches deep. Fill with good clean,
preferably washed sand. Wet the sand tho0roughly and pound down~ with
a brick, firm enough that you could not make an impression by pressing
down on it w\ith a finger. Select goodl clean wood, not too heavy. Prefer-
ably the bottom parts of a flowering stem after the bloom is off. Cut into
lengths of two eyes each. Use a v.ery- sharp knife. Do not squeeze
cutting. Now recut cutting right below\ h~ottomT eye and pull off bottom
leaf and drop immediately- into water. Protect thumb with a narrow
strip of rubber hose. T`ake a knife and cut a narrow slot into sand
and insert cuttings half way down. Press down firmly and soak well.
Keep foliage moist andi place inl a shady- place. Do not water late in
the day, as it will cause black spot. Also try to keep off rains later
in the dlay for the same reason. After rooting, pot firmly into two and
one-fourth inch pots and when fuilly rooted in there, they may be moved
into the openl bed.
All b~uds should b~e removed as soon as they are about half developed
andi no flow-ers should be permitted on the plant until you have a good
strongg plant. The plant will live as long as the budded kind, in some
cases longer as there is no chance for a rot to set in where the bud is
made. The flowers are of the same size as the budded variety and the
plants should be just as prolific, depending, however, on variety. It may
take three months from time of planting out, that plants would be strong
enough to let the flowers dev-elop. M~ake up the beds the same way as
!-ou would for b~udded roses, bult let the top soil come on top again as the
young plants are not as dleep rooted as the budded varieties.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
INSECTS OF ROSES
J. R. WATSON, Entomologist, Florida Experiment Station
One of the most annoying pests of roses is thrips. These are minute
orange-yellow insects about a twenty-fifth of an inch long when full-
grown. They crawl down near the bases of the petals of roses from
which they suck the sap. If numerous their attacks will cause the roses
to blight, they will fail to open properly, will have a dry, wilted appear-
ance, and the petals will soon drop off. Indeed in the case of a heavy
infestation the bud may never open. A4 fungus disease is frequently
associated with the thrips, which causes this blight of the blossoms.
After the thrips get down into the interior of the roses they are
almost out of reach of any insecticide. If the garden becomes heavily
infested the b~est plan is to pick all open roses; everything that is open
enough to allow thrips to crawl in. These roses should be carried out
of the patch carefully so as not to frighten the thrips from them. or
the? can be cut off and at once dropped into a dish of kerosene. After
having picked all the roses that have started to oplen spray the bushes
thoroughly with a solution of nicotine; a tablespoonful of nicotine sul-
phate and two or three tablespooonsful of soap to three gallons of water
is sufficient. By adding a couple of tablespoonsful of "Penetrol" or
"Sofyne" one canl cut the nicotine to half the above amount at a con-
siderable saving in cost.
Since these thrips live in nearly all blossoms, as well as on very
tender vegetation, it is important to keep all weeds cut around the rose
garden. Such plants as wistaria. which harbor a large number of these
thrips should not be planted near a rose garden.
Aphids--Aphids or plant lice, are a common pest of roses. They
attack the tender new shoots from which they suck the sap, preventing
These insects are easily killed by nicotine sulphate as outlined for
thrips. A4 quicker method of killing them than spraying is to dust with
a three per cent nicotine, sulphate Time-dust, but to get an efficient kill by
this method the air mllst be perfectly quiet. A4 breeze sufficiently strong
to sway the Spanish moss would interfere with a good kill.
Flowcer Beetles--Roses are sometimes attacked by several species of
large hairy beetles which eat their way down into the blossom destroy-
ing it. These beetles are so larce and easily seen that they can be col-
lected by hand and destroyed. They are especially common in the heads
of thistles in the spring. Thistles shoulld not be allowed to grow in the
vicinity of a rose garden.
Chtrewing Inlsects--A number of insects eat the leaves of roses. Among:
these is the rose chafer (not as common in Florida as farther north),
flea beetles. grasshoppers. etc. There is also a species of wild hee that
cuts perfectiv circular holes in the leav~es. These circular pieces of leaf
are used to line its brood chambers.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
A~ny of these chewing insects can be poisoned by dusting or spray-
ing the plants with lead arsenate. A good all around spray for roses,
which will take care of biting insects and aphids and help in the con-
trol of thrips would be fifty gallons of water, one pound of lead ar-
senate, and one-half of a pint of nicotine sulphate. By adding three pints
of Penetrol to the nicotine sulphate, which is expensive, it can be cut
down to a quarter of a pint or less.
Red Spiders sometimes attack roses, causing the leaves to become
dry and shrivel. They can be controlled by spraying with lime-sulphur,
one part of commercial lime-sulphur to fifty parts of water, or, in warm
weather, simply dusting these plants with flowers of sulphur.
Root-knaot-One of the most serious troubles is root-knot, caused
by minute worms that attack the roots. These are present in nearly all
sandy soils that have been cultivated for any number of years, but usually
not present in newly cleared fields. Some rose stocks, such as the Chero-
kee, are very resistant to root-knot. Roses grafted on this stock will not
be seriously affected. Mulching the roses heavily with leaves, grass, etc.,
and the elimination of all cultivation, hoeing, etc., will help to hold root-
knot in check. The mulch can be covered with Spanish moss to keep it
from blowing away and to improve the appearance of the bed.
BLACK SPOT, POWDERY MILDEW, AND
BROWN CANKER OF ROSES
DR. WILLIAM B. SHIPPY, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Florida
Experiment Station, Leesburg, Florida
Black spot, powdery mildew, and brown canker are not only the three
rose diseases most frequently encountered in Florida, but easily rank
foremost among the more destructive enemies of this fine ornamental.
Caulse--The fungus, Diplocarpont rosae Wolf.
Symnptomls--Black spots and patches with irregular margins on upper
sulrface of leaves.
Control--Thoroug-h clean-up of fallen leaves and application of sulfur-
lead dust, lime-sulfur, or bordeaux mixture (4-4-50).
Black spot is recognized by the color of the diseased areas on the
upper surface of the leaves. Small, dark-colored, more or less circular
spots first appear. These spots become black early in their development,
enlarge to one-half inch or more in diameter, and have very irregular
miarfinls. The leaf tissue surrounding the spots usually yellows, and often
the entire leaf turns yellow and falls. With a period of heavy rains fol-
lowing severe infection, the leaves of entire plants may drop before yel-
low-ing occurs. Nearly all cultivated varieties of roses are affected.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
Control measures are adapted to the peculiar life cycle of the invad-
ing fungus, which manifests two stages: (1) a summer spore stage in
which spores are disseminated by wind and rain from diseased to healthy
leaves during the growing season, and (2) an over-wintering stage in
which the fungus remains inactive in old diseased leaves. Within the
old leaves there is produced a second kind of spore which causes spring
infection on young leaves and canes, thereby re-introducing the summer
For home gardens and greenhouses, fallen leaves should be syste-
matically collected and destroyed. Commercial growers of field roses
may not find this practicable. The plants should pe protected throughout
the growing season by several thorough applications of a suitable fungi-
cide. Particularly during the early part of the season when young canes
and foliage are vigorously produced, applications from seven to ten days
apart are often necessary. Though no fungicide has given complete pro-
tection under all conditions, any one of the following treatments has
proved effective: sulfur-lead dust, consisting of nine parts dusting sulfur
and one part powdered arsenate of lead; lime-sulfur solution, or bor-
deaux mixture. The addition of casein or calcium caseinate to the bor-
deaux aids its adhesion and distribution.
Cause-The fungus, Sphaerotheca pannosa (Wallr.) Lev.
Symptoms-Dense, whitish, irregular blotches on either or both sides
of leaves and on twigs.
Control-Application of lime-sulfur solution or sulfur dust.
Powdery mildew is readily identified by the whitish, powdery appear-
ance of the fungus on infected plants. The leaves and twigs, particularly
young leaves and shoots, as well as the blossoms, are affected. The fungus
appears on either the upper or lower side of the leaf or on both. Irreg-
ular blotches are produced which cause the leaves to curl and to become
dry. When severely attacked, leaves at the ends of shoots often fall
prematurely. On the shoots the whitish blotches are much the same,
causing the bark to shrivel and the tips of the shoots to curl. When ob-
served from a distance, infected portions of the plants appear white.
The rambler varieties of roses are particularly susceptible to this disease.
Ordinarily, the application of sulfur dust will control the disease.
More effective protection is had with a lime-sulfur solution having a
strength of one part of concentrated lime-sulfur to fifty parts of water.
The addition of iron sulfate at the rate of three pounds to fifty gallons of
spray improves the distribution and adhesion of the mixture. Treatment
should he made when the disease first appears, and the number of appli-
cations will vary, as usual, with its persistence, which is largely influenced
hv the weather.
Cause-The fungus, Diaporthe unrbrina Jenk.
Symptoms-Purple spots or gray spots with purple borders on canes:
leaf spots similar, in some varieties reddish, or in others, dark-gray
specks; outer Detals brown, buds failing to open.
GROWI/ING ROSES IN FLORIDA
Conltrol--Careful selection of disease-free young plants, eradication of
diseased parts; frequent application of lime-sulfur or bordeaux mixture
Although brown canker appears on one-year-old growth of most
rose varieties, it is more commonly associated with older growth where
advanced stages of the disease are found. First evidence of the disease
consists of small sgots on the canes which are usually slightly raised,
circular, purple mn color, and quite superficial. During the first season
these spots often turn gray and have purple borders; a number of spots
close together may unite to form a gray patch a half-inch or more in
diameter which is still superficial and of little apparent injury. The fol-
lowing season real damage is done. The purple margin advances, leav-
ing a tan or brown-colored area behind, which becomes a deep canker
and girdles the cane. Cankers may extend along the cane for several
inches, and if near the crown of the plant, often girdle other canes as
well. Symptoms of the disease on the foliage vary with the type of
rose, resembling in some varieties those described for the canes; in other
varieties reddish as well as white spots are produced on the upper sur-
face of the leaves, and in still others, dark-gray, circular specks are
formed. Usually the outer petals only of blossoms are affected. The
petals become tan-colored or brown and usually fail to open. Although
roses vary in susceptibility, the disease has been observed on practically
In combatting brown canker, a careful inspection of young plants
for disease spots should be made before setting them out, and those
having lesions should be discarded. All cankered canes, diseased wood,
and old blossoms of mature plants should be removed and destroyed.
Lime-sulfur or bordeaux mixture have proven effective if applied when
the plants are pruned in the spring and frequently thereafter.
Other diseases sometimes found on roses are: Cane blight--Leptos-
hharia2 contiothyrliumll and Pestalotia sp., crown canker-Cylindrocladium
sp., crowngall-Phytomlonlas tumllefacien~s, leaf spojt-Cercospora sp., Phyl-
losticta sp., and anthracnose fungi, rust-Phrlagmzidiumlr sp., and Earlea
sperciosa, bud and blossom blight--Botrytis cincrea.
Inquiries concerning identification of diseases may be sent to the Flor-
ida Experiment Station, Leesburg, Fla., and should always be accompanied
by specimens. In such cases control methods will be suggested.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA~
FUTURE ROSES FOR FLORIDA
N. A. REASONER, Royal Palm Nurseries, Oneco, Florida
Considering her wealth of other plant material, and the ease with
which it is grown, it seems strange at first thought that Florida does
not have more roses, which originated within her own borders and that
we have so much trouble in finding varieties that are really suited here.
If you will stop to remember, however, that nowadays roses are usually
bred for a specific purpose and that does not include adaptability to the
Florida climate, the reason will became readily apparent. For exam-
ple, Dr. Van Fleet had in mind certain definite ideals in his rose breed-
ing. They were, to produce hardy climbing roses of true rose form and
not flat like the ramblers that were the main dependence in climbing
roses in the North at that time. The Dr. Van Fleet, Silver Moon, and
others of his hybrids will show how well he succeeded in his efforts,
but they are not particularly adapted here, as they were never intended
to be. Monsieur Pernet has perhaps more new rose creations to his
credit than any other modern rosarian, including that great creation,
Souvenir de Claudius Pernet, but his roses in the main are not suited
here, as they were created for an entirely different climate. Our great
American rosarian, E. G. Hill, is interested primarily in breeding roses
for culture under glass, and the fact that a number of his roses, such
as Columbia. Madame Butterfly, etc., do well with us is mlerely grra-
tuitous good fortune not especially intended for us. It is even said that
John Cook, the originator of the Radiance rose which is perhaps our
most popular, and certainly our most planted var-iety inl Florida, was not
looking for a garden rose when he created this variety but for a ent-
flower variety for culture under glass. Certainly he did not have Florida
particularly in mind at that time but his own section around Baltimnore,
Maryland, although in his later years he became a regular winter visitor
Out of the dozens of new roses introduced each season, we can
count ourselves lucky if we find two or three which are really adapted
to our climate, and in all our modern roses--even including Radiance,
where will you find a variety that will stand up year after year and
produce the quantity of bloom given us by Louis Philippe, Duchess de
Brabant, Safrano, Reve d'Or, etc.? It is not uncommon to find speci-
mens of these varieties ten, fifteen, even twenty-five years of age, proof
positive of their enjoyment of our conditions, but most modern varie-
ties are gone after a year or two and must be replanted.
If then we wish to build up a race of really worth while roses for
our Florida climate we must start from those varieties which have already
proven themselves so well adapted and which come from regions of
similar climatic conditions to our own. This refers, of course, not only
to temperature but to humidity. For example, California and the Med-
itterranean regions are somewhat similar in temperature but exactly
reversed in humidity, having only moderate rainfall and that in the
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
winter, whereas our rainfall is much heavier and in the heat of sum-
mer, with our winters relatively dry. South China and India and the
region from there to northern Queensland, and the South Central Af-
rican region around Durban seem to more nearly resemble our own con-
ditions and roses that do well with them should certainly do well with
us also. We have also several native roses within the State, also the
Cherokee and MlcCartney roses from China which are so well pleased
with our climate that they have escaped cultivation and run wild. And
yet if there have been any experiments in crossing these with modern
varieties to secure good well adapted roses for this climate I have not
yet learned of them. Nor has anyone so far as I know, unless it is some
recent work at our State Experiment Station at Gainesville, made any
efforts to create new varieties from the old well established Tea, Bour-
bon, Noisette, China or Bengal varieties that we have known so long.
F~lorida has at present, so far as I have been able to learn, only
three new varieties of roses which originated within the State, all of
them entirely by accident. Minnie Frances, introduced by Griffing's Inter-
state Nurseries from an experimental lot of seedling roses from Bel-
gium; Cl. Radiance, introduced by the same firm from a chance "sport"
from the bush form of that variety which an alert field foreman hap-
pened to notice in the nursery row; and Helen Donn, likewise a "sport"
from the Antoine Revoire variety observed in the fields of the Exotic
Gardens at Mliami; comprise the list.
With the wealth of material available, and certainly w-ith the crying
need for better adapted varieties, it is to be hoped that this number may
soon be augmented, and any effort which the Florida Rose Society can
make to arouse interest in this work, or to reward accomplishment in
this line, will certainly be well spent. There is unquestionably a very
real opportunity here for someone to create for himself---or herself,
for is not this the day of woman's emancipation and her participation in
every line of endeavor--a deathless name for themselves as the originator
of the new line of roses for this climate, and now that new plant crea-
tions are protected by Plant Patents probably considerable financial
benefit. But after all, what better could be said of a man after he is
gone than that "He added to the world's store of beauty." May Heaven
speed the day when we may see some real accomplishment in this work!
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
GROWING HYBRID TEAS IN FLORIDA
MISS GRACE H. SIMdONSON, Lake Alfred, Florida
Our conditions each year are so different that one cannot say posi-
tively what is the best and only way to grow Roses here. But covering a
number of years you draw conclusions and map out a chart for your
future use and if I can be of help in any way I shall be most glad to tell
you of myv deductions. I would like to say here, that the general rules
and directions for raising roses, seem to be published for other parts of
the country and do not suit our sandy soil very well.
Roses of course should be planted in a well drained soil and should
have sun mIost of the day. They should also be planted away from trees
T~he preparation of the soil before planting, is of the utmost impor-
tanc-e. Most of our Florida soils are so sandy and porous; if clay, and
humus in some form of manure are not added the stored strength of the
new plant soon1 exhausts itself anld the rains and necessary waterings soon
take the fertility of the natural soil beyond the reach of the roots, the
growth and flow\erin~g soon1 exhaust the plant and it finally succumlbs in a
dry season. In our regular dry weather the soil becomes so hot, the roots
actulally bake, and in our reputedl wet season the supply of moisture is very
irregular.: You cannot count on enough for the whole season without
applications at times of the hose, unless you plant on low~ woundt. and
then such land is too wet part of the time and roses cannot stand wet feet
long. Clay and humus help to kieep the soil cool and compact.
I have found the easiest way for the average gardener is to dig a
hole eighteen to twenty inches deep and w\ide enough to allowv the roots to
spread out. Eighteen inches is about right. Into this hole I have put six
inches of red clay and on top six inches of well rotted manure--cow manure
if you canl get it. These I mix lightly together and on top add three inches
of good garden soil. N\o manulre mnust touch the roots of the rose in plant-
ing. T~he rose plant as it came from the grower, must have its roots kept
covered and moist until you are ready to plant: then examine it care-
fu~lly, cut off the top to six inches or less, cut out any. broken or dlead
roots or branches; if broken or bruised in any way, they must be cut clean
and the cut touched with Bordleaux~ or Semisan. I then spread the roots
ou~t carecfully on top of the three inches of good garden soil and I mix
with the 611ling soil one poulnd of ground hone meal. This I fill in care-
fu~lly- about the roots of the plant up to the level of the burd. It should
stand about the same depth it grlew in the nursery. I next put into the
hole a large watering pot of water and allow the plant to settle, this packs
the soil into the roots of the plant. You may fmnd it has been set too
deep and if so. you should raise it, using more water carefully to get soil
well around the roots. Then fill in some dry soil and tramp it down
well all around with both feet. It should be so securely planted now, you
cannot pull it up. Some dry soil is again scattered over the hole and
GROWING ROSES IN F;LORIDA
your rose is ready to grow. You will not need to fertilize it for six
months; after that time I find small monthly applications desirable. I use
bone meal, sheep manure or some complete fertilizer at various times.
Our soil, as I have previously stated, is so porous that the frequent
rains and waterings carry this fertilizer down below the roots of this
plant and small frequent applications keep the fertilizer within reach:
(Merely to show how porous the sandy soil is I have taken the nozzle of
a hose, with a full stream running and plunged it 3-4-5 feet or more be-
low the level of the soil, not a drop of water shows on the surface, but
the hose is running all the time).
Black Spot has been troublesome at various stages the last few years
and frequent waterings with a hose, I think, are mainly responsible. This
past summer I used a good mulch of Peat Moss, and found it almost
wiped out Black Spot and it has saved the lives of many roses.
I have almost come to the conclusion that cultivation is not a good
thing for our roses. It keeps down the weeds, but it leaves the soil too
light and open: It also scatters the Black Spot fungus. The mulch keeps
the ground cooler and more compact. Before putting on the mulch I had
the beds thoroughly cleaned of weeds, old leaves etc., and the plants
showed an immediate improvement. I left orders while away to have the
weeds carefully pulled out, but on my return some six weeks or more
later the beds were covered thick with fresh young weeds and I found
the boy had been hoeing up the mulch, scattering the seeds and cuttings
which soon rerouted in the moist peat moss and the Black Spot began
to show again. A mulch, to be successful should be of considerable thick-
ness and must not be disturbed. If you have a mulch you do not cultivate
and vice versa. I found one man this summer who had a mulch of six
inches of small oak leaves on his rose bed and his roses were fine.
He showed me how he would prune them this fall, they were very
large and said he expected to put a six-inch covering of manure on top of
these leaves soon. There were no weeds and no Black Spot. They were
planted about twelve or fourteen inches apart, almost too close for such
large plants, but he considered they shaded the ground and he need not
Plants must be kept moist, but the frequent use of the hose is a great
In California as I understand it, they do not sprinkle, though it is dry
from May to November, very different from our season. They dig a basin
about each bush or a trench down the center of the beds, and let the
water from the hose slowly trickle into it, until every plant has a thorough
soaking. The following day a dust mulch is hoed to conserve moisture,
but their soil is very different from ours. They speak of land covered
and carpeted with rich alluvial clay and adobe. It rains during their win-
ters, but they have heavy mists and fogs during the summers which are
mild and cooler than ours so that their principal pest is Mildew of which
we have little.
There roses are apt to ball, and double roses do not do well as they
do not open. They are very happy with the semi-double type which are
really a necessity. Mrs. Edouard Herriot, Angele Pernet, Betty Uprich-
GROWING ROSES 7N FLORIDA
ard, William Kordes and roses of that style. Sulphur is a necessary thing
for mildew and all sulphur dusts are recommended, but I have found
them of little use here with our frequent rains and showers in summer-
time. The temperature in winter is not high enough to make them effec-
tive. I think Bordeaux, Pyrox and Fungtrogen best for our use, but too
frequent applications seem to dwarf the plants. I have planted any and
every Hybrid Tea that took my fancy and most of them have thrived. I
think the root stock, however, is of great importance. Own root roses are
of no value whatsoever here in Florida for Hybrid Teas.
There is Rosa Manetti and Odornta not quite hardy elsewhere. Rosa
Multif!ora, Rosa Canina or Texas Dog-Texas wax (Some say Texas
Wax is Odorata) and Ragged Robin or Gloire des Rosomanes. The first
four have all done fairly well for me, though I prefer the Texas wax if
I can get it: But the Ragged Robin, the California favorite, I have had
no success with at all. If the plants do live or carry over a season they
never attain any size and lack all vigor and most of them succumb at once.
So many are budded on this stock out in California for Eastern men that
it is not possible to get the newer varieties on other stock. The Texas
men do not seem to appreciate well this point; though it is wrong to sup-
pose what will grow there will do equally well in our so different soil and
The popular notion that Radiance is the only Rose suited to Florida
conditions is nonsense. It has the reputation of standing bad treatment
anywhere, but hundreds of them die here from poor growing conditions.
Of loo planted by one party only six were alive in the fall. Where grass
grows six feet high if allowed to, Radiance Roses do not thrive. I have
lost more Radiance roses than any other variety, but I have had more, and
my Radiance were the first to develop Black Spot.
Many other Hybrid Teas have done as well for me.
I haven't spoken of pruning as methods vary. If a plant is growing
in a strong or rank manner it can stand a severe pruning. If weak it is
foolish to imagine it can stand the shock and to prune severely before
roses show any sign of returning vigor may be too radical; and yet bushes
must be kept young, all dead wood removed and small twiggy growth and
centers kept open.
A rose grower learns what his roses will stand. Flowers are more de-
sirable on long stems with good foliage, and that is what we must strive
for. In summer the flowers are small and fade so quickly, that picking
for the house is not very satisfactory and many feel the wasted strength
might better remain with the plant. I think an application of bone meal in
June helps to carry the plants over a trying period and in the early fall
extra feeding is given.
List of Hybrid Roses I have raised:
Angel Pernet, Betty, Betty Uprichard, Caroline Testout, Charles P.
Kilham, Columbia, Dame Edith Helen, Duchess of Wellington, Etoile de
Hollande, Feu Joseph Looymans. Jonkheer J. Mock, Julien Potin, Kais-
erin Augusta Victoria, Killarney, Lady Alice Stanley, Lady Roundway,
McGredy's Scarlet, Miss Lolita Armour. Miss Rowena Thom, Miss Flor-
ence Izzard, Mrs. Alexander Dreux, Mrs. Aaron Ward, Mrs. A. R. Bar-
GROWING ROSES Ily FLORIDA
raclough, Mrs. E. P. Thom, Mrs. Henry Bowles, Mrs. Henry Morse, Mrs.
George Shawyer, Golden Ophelia, Mme. Butterfly, Radiance, Radiance
Red, Mrs. Charles Bell, Sensation, Etoile de France, Shot Silk, Souv. de
Claudius Pernet, Souv. de Georges Pernet, Mrs. Edouard Herriot, Rev.
F. Page Roberts, Willowmere, My Maryland, Francis Scott Key, Duch-
ess of Luxemburg, Frank W. Dunlop, Meteor, National Emblem, Lady
Ursula, Maman Cochet, Matchless, Wellesley.
GROWING ROSES IN F;LORIDAI
GROWING ROSES IN MIAMI
D. G. BROOMFIELD, 2344 S. W. 16th Terrace, Miami, Florida
Locationt of Soil. If I could choose I would prefer land on the Beach
that is natural and not filled in land and the highest elevation I could get.
In my1) opinion there is no natural soil on the Beach fit to grow Roses so
beds would have to be made with soil obi~ained from mainland. Inl my
particular location it is filled land with brakish water two feet below sur-
face. I make my beds to water level and although I have drains to take
excess water off the land there are times of high tides and heavy rainfall
when I have great difficulty in keeping my bushes from getting what is
locally termed "wet feet." Hence my preference for natural soil and
Soil Preparaitiont. I have obtained best results fromt a red soil from
the Redland district dug from potholes. This is a heavy soil with an adl-
mixture of sand and containing a good percentage of iron oxide, very
similar to the red soil of Georgia. I make the compost four parts soil
and one part rotten cow manure and in five cubic yards of compost I mix
fifty pounds raw ground bone meal and one-third bale German peat moss.
This would probably be too expensive for a lot of people and good re-
sults have been obtained from equal parts of local marl and dark sand
instead of the red soil.
Plan~tintg. Set plants so that surface of bed is two inches above graft.
If dormant plants with bare roots are used, care to be taken that the roots
are set straight outward with a downward tendency, distance is a matter
of size and shape of bed but the plants should have at least a space of
twenty-four inches from plant to plant.
Cu~ltiv~ation. Frequent, especially after a rain or heavy watering burt
must be shallow to prevent damage to roots that mlay possibly be near the
surface. Cultivation can hardly be overdone in reason as it aids in the
prevention of Black Spot so prevalent on roses in South Florida.
Fertilizer. Condition of bushes is somewhat of a guide on this mat-
ter, a new bedl ought to take care of them for two months, then it is ad-
visable to fertilize every month starting off with a chemical fertilizer like
Vigoro and chanize to an organic fertilizer with an ammonia content of
five per cent or six per cent, giving from one half to three quarters pound
per plant. It is rather a hard matter to advise on this subject as there is
no0 rule of thumb method that would suit all plants alike and judgment
would have to be used on local conditions. I would not advise fertilizing
on these lines after the end of May.
Selectione of Bucshes. Is a matter of preference, personally I prefer
two-year-old bushes grafted on Texas Wax stock.
Prunrinlg. Mly conviction is the less you do the better for ~the bushes,
cutting out dead and weak wood and cutting the bloom is all the pruning
the bushes can stand in South Florida. We have to bear in mind that at
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
no time are the bushes dormant in this locality which is the only time
that a bush can stand hard pruning.
Treatment. From end of June to end of October spray every week
with Copper solution to try and keep down Black Spot if possible. Watch
out for Aphis and Scale and spray with any good contact spray. I use
Evergreen for Aphis and Volck for scale. Fertilize occasionally with a
mixture of two and one-half per cent of Ammonia, just enough to keep
the bushes growing without unduly exciting them. Don't let up on the
cultivation as it is very essential during this period.
Varieties. If cut flowers are desired, the hybrid Teas are the best
but there are only a few of the stronger growing varieties that will thrive
here such as Radiance red, Radiance pink, Mrs. Charles Bell, shell pink,
Alexander Hill Gray, yellow, Lady Hillingdon, apricot, Whites are poor.
The White Killarney is the best but that is very indifferent. Antoine
Rivoire, blush, is good. The Pernets and the Ophelias I would not recom-
mend. If long stemmed roses are not required I would recommend the
following as very good, free flowering and a much longer life. Duchess
De Brabant, shell pink, Marie Van Houtte, yellow shading to white, Louis
Phillipe, red, Mme. Lambard, deep pink, Winnie Francis, rose pink.
In conclusion I wish to say that the foregoing is for carried over rose
beds the same as I have to grow to get blooms as early in the fall as pos-
sible at the best it is a precarious method. I am Brmly convinced that the
best and simplest method in this locality is to plant the beds every year
with dormant bushes in November, feed them plenty and force everything
out of them while their constitution lasts. Then throw them away, dor-
mant bushes are much cheaper than they used to be and everything con-
sidered I feel sure the results would be much more satisfactory at less
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
SOUTH FLORIDA ROSE NOTES
ERNEST F. COE, Landscape Architect, Chairman The Tropic Everglades
Park Association, Miami, Florida
When coming for the first time some years ago to south Florida
and by this I mean Dade and Monroe counties, in this instance, I was im-
pressed by the dearth of native trees and other plants belonging to the
As for native wild roses I am yet to find my first wild plant even
though I have for years been on the lookout for it.
This state of things leads one to wonder why this is the case as many
rose species are native to the true tropics, therefore climate was not the
cause. Garden roses, especially those carrying a goodly percentage of
chinensis blood in their veins, do very well down here in these counties
provided they are under conditions free from long periods of standing
water in the soil or on the other hand where conditions do not expose
roots to becoming dried out at intervals; in other words, planted in good
average garden soil and condition.
About Miami and southward to and including Florida City there are
gardens where certain tea and hybrid tea roses have continued to be
vigorous for years seemingly without special care and where in instances
suffering obvious neglect. Some of these roses are on their own roots
while others are growing on understocks. The most used understock and
probably the one giving the best results is the Texas wax odorataa). This
oriental rose survives the long summers very well and seems to be rela-
tively free from serious injury from attacks of the ever present eel worm
In the average rose garden in this south country most of the roses
popular with the average planter usually prove to be short lived under
usual cultural conditions, being at their best the first year planted out, pro-
gressively becoming less vigorous each succeeding year, petering out
the third or fourth season. This state of affairs is by no means always
the case however. Many of the finest rose garden displays are maintained
by yearly replanting. Those who make a careful study of rose culture
amler conditions obtaining here produce Sne roses. Many a table is graced
by roses from local gardens which are as fine as can be produced any-
There is always much to be learned about roses for special environ-
ments both as to varieties and cultural methods and down here is no ex-
ception. It is a safe assertion that the ideal roses for this section are as
yet unborn or at least untried. We may look for good results in the fu-
ture through local experimentation both with root stocks and hybridized
seedlings from parent plants of promising strains.
The importance of creating new varieties especially suited to local lim-
itations is generally understood. Some promising results along this line
are already showing up in this section.
The field of horticulture in which the hybridist delves in the alchemy
of new plant creations is indeed a thrilling one. To have created a better
vegetable, fruit or rose is an accomplishment of no mean calibre.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
GROWING ROSES IN CENTRAL FLOREDA
H. C. HANDLEMAN, lake Wales, Florida
The location of the Rose Garden from the horticultural standpoint is
of great importance. Roses like plenty of sunlight; therefore keep this in
mind in choosing the location for the rose garden. Have heard comments
on partial shade for the summer, or where they will get the morning or
afternoon sun only, but the best roses I have seen, grow in open beds that
are exposed to an all day sun.
Since there is such a variation of soils in Central Florida, only to those
who have to make their soil can one give definite advice. Soils such as
the natural leaf-mold, loamy soil found in and around Bartow, Orlando and
Winter Park; the lower, heavier soil found in Kissimmee and St. Cloud;
the well drained, mucky soils found in various locations in the lake regions
on the ridge; and where a clay condition crops out near the surface all
require but very little preparation. Working in a liberal application of well
rotted dairy manure about a month or two prior to the setting out of the
rose bushes. The muck soil will be greatly benefitted by an application of
lime several months prior to the planting of the garden.
After various experiments in the use of clay under bed and the mix-
ing of clay with the soil on the high pine hills, have found the red clay
found in south central Florida of more benefit to the rose garden than
the sticky heavy so called white or gray clay.
Excavate the bed about twenty inches and put in first, a layer six inches
deep of the red clay. The next twelve inches which is a very important
part of the bed, to be made up in mixture of one-half red clay, one-fourth
leaf mold soil, one-fourth well rotted dairy manure. It is important to
have these three thoroughly mixed. This type preparation can be used
anywhere in Central Florida providing there is good drainage. Preparing
the bed several weeks, and watering it down a number of times, prior to
the planting is of great help so that any possible air-pockets will be filled
by the settling of the soil. It is advisable to leave the bed about two inches
below the grade so as to facilitate catching the water properly when ar-
tificially watered during dry periods.
The best season for planting roses, taking the average fall and winter
into consideration, would be from Nov. 15th to Feb. 15th. December and
January are the preferred months.
On receiving the plants, they should be unpacked immediately and kept
wet for several hours prior to planting. All bruised and surplus roots
should be cut off with a clean cut. The planting hole should be large
enough to give all the roots plenty of room without cramping, and deep
enough so that the surface of the bed just covers the bud or graft. Most
of the roses used are grafted or budded stock, and the plant should be
planted to a depth about an inch above the budded or grafted portion.
All unripe and thin wood should be pruned out, and all heavy ripened
wood should be cut back to six to eight inches.
Be sure and have good healthy plants to begin with. There is thought
to be given to the stock which might be varied according to soil conditions.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
The old standby for Florida is the Cherokee. However on account of the
cost and scarcity of stock, the majority of rose growers have had to turn
to roses budded or grafted on Texas Wax or Odorata stock, which has
proven quite successful for general rose culture in Central Florida. Some
success has been had with a few of the older varieties from own root cut-
tings grown on the heavier soils, but in general this has not been of enough
success to be of any consequence. Such parties as Louis Philippe, Kil-
larney, Marechal Niel, Frau Karl Drushki and of course the Cherokees
have given fair results on own root cuttings in the heavier soils. However
the danger of root knot with the exception of the Cherokees is always
The rose garden should not be cultivated any more than is necessary
to keep the weeds out. As a matter of fact, this can be done away with
to quite an extent by mulching the garden for four or five inches. I
find oak leaves to be best, because they do not heat as grass clippings
will at times; and at the same time oak leaves form the finest type of
mulch. Do not allow roses to suffer for water; however, water well each
time and not just a little sprinkle often.
A month after planting a light application (one-third or one-half
pound per plant) of commercial fertilizer containing considerable organic
material is very beneficial. A fertilizer containing four to five per cent
ammonia, five to eight per cent phosphoric acid and three to five per cent
potash would pe the type to use. When the plants are well started to
growing, which should be within sixty days after planting, a liberal ap-
plication of Bone Meal is good. During the cooler months prefer the use
of Steamed Bone Meal; during the summer months, the raw Bone Meal
is preferable. Suggest the use of two applications of Dairy Manure dur-
ing the year; one in the fall at pruning time, and one during the spring
When the roses are well established and growing, they immediately
begin forming flower buds and bloom. The temptation is to start cutting
the blooms immediately. Do not do this. Let the rose bush grow and
form considerable growth before any flowers are cut with stems say over
six inches. The idea is to get the growth up. Cut the roses from stems
which are the outgrowth of mature wood. The finest rose beds I have seen
were where the flowering stems were branches from heavy main stems
two to three feet high.
During the rainy season, prune out from time to time the dead and un-
productive wood. Do not cut off any more stem than is necessary. A
precaution to prevent die back of the stem from point where rose is cut
or stem pruned, is to paint cut end with paste of Bordeaux. Keep gar-
den well mulched, and if possible do not cultivate during the summer.
We all desire plenty of bloom during the late fall and winter. How-
ever roses should not be pruned too carly in the fall. Find from Oct. Is
to Nov. 15, the best time depending upon the season. If October con-
tinues warm and dry, postpone pruning until November. Never cut back
any wood unless it is hard and ripened. Find that cutting the bushes
back to from twelve to eighteen inches give the best results. Of course
the amount cut back will depend upon the strength and vigor of the plant,
seasonal condition and age of the plant.
GROWIN'~G ROSES IN~ FLORIDA-
There are few diseases that we have to contend with here. Aphis
and thrips can be controlled by the use of Nicotine sprays. Bad infesta-
tions of thrips, pick all buds and burn them, then spray with nicotine.
Biting insects are controlled by the use of arsenic sprays; scales, espec-
ially cottony cushion, can be overcome by the use of oil sprays. The worst
pest is the black leaf spot. The only answer to the control of this pest is
pick and burn all affected leaves and spray every two weeks with Bor-
deaux. This will also control powdery mildew.
Roses that have proven successful throughout Central Florida:
Climbing Roses: Cherokee, Pink, Red, White; Chromatella, Yellow;
Marechal Neil, Yellow; Perl des Jardens, Cream: Reve D'Or, Cream with
copper center; Devoniensis, Shell Pink; William Allen Richardson, Sal-
mon; Climbing White Cochet.
Bush Roses, Pink: Pink Radiance, Maman Cochet, Mrs. Charles Bell;
Killarney, Anton Revoire, Cecil Brunner, sweetheart rose, pale pink.
Bush Roses, White: Maman Cochet, White; Killarney, Kaiserin
Augusta Victoria, Fran Karl Drushki.
Bush Roses, Red: Radiance, Louis Philippe, Etoile de France, Francis
Scott Key, very double; Etoile de Holland, Papa Gontier, Paul Neyron.
Bush Roses. Yellow: Lady Hillingdon, Luxenbourg, copper center,
Talisman, copper with rose edged petals; Etoile de Lyon.
Long lived bushes, adaptable to a great many conditions, and able to
withstand a good deal of abuse: Duchesse de Brabrant, shell pink; Louis
Philippe, red; Frau Karl Druski, white; Mme. Lombard, rose pink.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
GROWING ROSES IN NORTH FLORIDA
JULES TERHELL, Jacksonville, Florida
I will try, briefly, to explain our rose troubles in the northern part of
Our soil is very sandy, and soil preparation is the first item to be con-
sidered. The beds are dug eighteen to twenty-four inches, and filled with
a mixture of dairy fertilizer and good rich muck. When the muck is
sticky peat moss is used for drainage. Sometimes a foundation of clay
is used, although this is not essential.
The proportion should be one-third coarse peat moss, one-third dairy
fertilizer and one-third virgin soil or muck. Bone meal and a quick act-
ing fertilizer such as Vigiro may be added while preparing the bed.
Usually a pound for each plant is sufficient.
After the soil and fertilizer have been well mixed with the aid of a
potato digger or manure fork, the bed should be well watered to encour-
age the rotting process of the dairy fertilizer and to dissolve the commer-
cial fertilizer. The bed is then ready for planting.
In spacing the roses we find that if planted two feet apart this will
leave ample room for cutting and weeding. Under no circumstances
should they be planted closer. When planting roses we take great care
not to plant them deeper than they were in the nursery rows, as this only
encourages the growth of the stock (suckers) and delays the blooming
A top-dressing each year with dairy fertilizer will make the bushes
last much longer. A summer mulching of oak leaves or fine peat moss will
keep the beds damp during the hot summer.
Our choice of varieties is: For climbers, Paul's Scarlet Climber,
Climbing Pink Maman Cochet, Emily Greg, Belle of Portugal, Red, White
and Pink Cherokee, White and Yellow Banksia.
For bush roses: Red and Pink Radiance, Mrs. Charles Bell, Lux-
embourg, President Hoover, K. A. Victoria, Talisman, Paul Neron and
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
NEW ROSES IN MY GARDEN
DOROTHY C. REASONER (Mrs. N. A. Reasoner) Bradenton, Florida
One of the delightful privileges of the nurseryman's wife--if she is
interested in plants and flowers, and if she isn't she has no business
marrying a man in that business--is the opportunity it gives her to see
and experiment if she chooses with new and strange horticultural cre-
ations. A4 sort of "pre-vue" as they- say in the movie industry. At least
I know that in my own case I have enjoyed immensely a small rose
garden at our home which my husband gave me for a Christmas present.
While many of the roses were of the newer sorts which we wanted
to try out under Florida conditions, there were some of the good old
standard sorts as well, such as all three of the Radiance family, Antoine
Revoire, General M~cArthur, Columbia, Luxemburg, Sunburst, Hadley,
M~iadame Butterfly, etc. Then on the other side of the double walks
that bound the central bed and against the hedge that bounds the gar-
den on the east and west, I have a single rowv of the larger growing
and more permanent longer-lived roses mostly of the pure "tea" class.
These include b~oth Cochets, Minnie Frances, Lady Hillingdon. Madame
Lambard, Duchess de Brabant, Alex. Hill Gray. Mrs. Dudley Cross.
Mlle. Fanziska Kruger, Louis Philippe, Cecile Brunner, etc.
In the main bed in the center I have in the newer sorts, Talisman.
President Hoover, William Kordes, Julien Potin, Betty Uprichard, Dame
Edith Helen, Chas. P. Kilham, Margaret Magredy. Mrs. Henry Bowles,
Etoile de Hollande, Lady Margaret Stuart, Rev. F. Page Roberts, Sour.
de H. A. Verschuren, Los Angeles, and perhaps several others that I
do not remember now\. I had Souv. de Claudius Pernet too but it did
not last long., nor did the Georges Pernet that Mr. Reasoner had at
the nursery. Being largely of Pernetiana blood they will not apparently
stand our summer climate. The Wilhelm Kordes is very weak and will
soon be gone as also the Los Angeles. The Julien Potin on the other
hand, although supposed to be largely of the same parentage, has done
very well and I have cut a number of lovely buds in the last few days
from plants that came safely through the summer. I had hoped for great
things from the Mrs. E. P. Thom that they had in the trial bed in the
nursery, but it was a disappointment there. I want to try it again here
as from its parentage it should do well with us. Talisman has been my
pride and joy and has given a wealth of bloom, in fact I thought it
could hardly be surpassed, but yesterday I cut the most marvelous bud
from one of rny plants of President Hoover and now I am afraid I
may have to give first choice to that variety. A combination of copper
and golden tones, these two varieties are sometimes very nearly alike in
color. but the buds are shaped differently and in the winter the President
Hoover usually shows more of a pinkish color. Lady Margaret Stuart is
along the same color lines and quite variable according to the w~eather.
Usually mine have been a little lighter colored, but possibly if I had
more iron in my soil they would comle darker colored. Souv. de H. A.
Verschuren is a good clear light yellow on the order of Sunbulrst buit
GROWING ROSES IN: FLORZIDA
freerer blooming I think. Souv. de Mme. Boullet which I forgot to
mention above is another lovely yellow rose, or really almost orange
colored, and has lovely long pointed buds. It reminds one of Lady
Hillingdon but is a great improvement over that variety. Chas. P. Kil-
ham has lovely firm buds of heavy petals and lasts well when cut, and
Etoile de Hollandle canl nearly always be counted on to give me some
lovely dark red buds of perfect form but unfortunately not so very many
petals so they do not last so long. Dame Edith Helen and Rev. F;.
Page Roberts hav~e lovely flowers when the plants are young but un-
fortunately do not seem to do so well the second season.
A4t each end of the main bed I have a short row of the dwarf free-
blooming polyanthas and it is very seldom that we cannot get a few
budls here for a boutonniere or a small corsage. The yellow Sweetheart
rose (Geo. Elger) has been lovely here, as also Tip Top. The three-
toned effect, pink, white, and yellow, in this is lovely. Golden Salmon
is magnificent for its unusual color. Grus an Aachen has lovely flowers
too, really almost as large as the true roses.
My sister-in-law, Mrs. Ju~lia Reasoner Hastings, has a lovely new rose
in her garden that I have mu71ch admired and want to add to my collec-
tion some day. It is Abol, a lovely new white rose. perfect in shape
and stem, free blooming, and most deliciously scented. You should by
all means try this new sort if you have an opportunity.
GROWINVIG ROSES INV FLORIDA
GROWING ROSES ON THE EAST COAST
MRS. L. C. 1YARSTON, Cocoa, Florida
Th7e East Coast of our State, a matter of four hundred miles or so,
in a north and south direction, covers rnany different varieties of cli-
ma~te, soil, and growing conditions. Miy personal experiences have been
confined to the central part of this territory, and while I have some second
hand knowledge of growing conditions in other parts, I will confine my-
self in this article to actual experiences I myself hav.e had.
L~ocatione anld Soil. The ground on which my; rose beds are made, is
situated on slightly sloping and sandy soil open to the sun and wind, which
Find advisable in a locality where dews are heavy-, rains frequent, and
fungus prevalent. If a sheltered place is used, circulation of air is poor,
and it is very difficult to control the fungus diseases.
Soil Preparation~. The soil being of a very white, sandy nature re-
quired considerable preparation before I grew roses with any degree of
success. First, the piece of land to be used was enclosedl on all sides with
two by eight inch boards. One board high to act as a retaining wall for
the light soil. Next, a two inch dressing of dairy manure was applied
over the entire surface and as much compost as could be secured, made
by- piling leaves of all kinds and allowing them to rot. The more used the
better, all w\ell dug under and allowed to settle. About two weeks be-
fore planting, the holes were dug two feet apart, more compost added to
the bottom of hole, and a handful of raw bone meal.
Plantlina. Planting in this locality can be made any time from the
mitddle of November to the last of January. The piece of ground having
been prepared in advance, everything is in readiness. When the plants
are received, they are usually pruned and ready for setting. Roses should
be planted no deeper than they were grown by the nurseryman. It is bet-
ter to make the error of planting too shallow rather than too deep. The
top roots not to b~e covered with more than three inches of soil. When
bushes are placed at the proper depth, pull soil into the hole and firm
well around the roots, adding water during the process. After all bushes
have been planted, mlulch the entire bed two or more inches deep with
leaves or with anything that will act as a mulch. I used hickory and oak
leaves raked from the yard.
Cultiva~tiol. Nonle. I find this method far superior to cultivation on
this soil. As stated above, the bushes have been well mulched. If there
are any weeds, hand pull them so as not to disturb the root system lying
very close to the surface.
Ferrtili-inlg. The soil being of a sandy nature and deficient in most
plant foods, a complete fertilizer is used. Organic sources of nitrogen hav-
ing beenl applied when the bed was prepared, can also be added as a mulch
from time to time. At intervals I scatter wood ashes over the b~ed. This
tendls to sweeten the mulch and soil. After experimenting, I find fertil-
izer applied in small amounts at frequent intervals is better than a larger
quantity applied at longer intervals. Fertilizers applied after the bushes
have been planted and mulched, are sprinkled in and not dug in.
Selectinlg The Stock. Grafted roses are the only ones with which I
have had experience, being grafted on Texas Wax.
Pruning. Cut all dead wood whenever it appears. The latter part of
November when the bush is somewhat dormant, I cut out all weak wood
back to the main branches, and cutting the main branches back a foot or
more, depending on their length and strength.
Treatmlent Dur~ing Rainy Seasonz. No particular treatment is used
during this season other than dusting once or twice a month, depending
on amount of rainfall with a dust composed of eight parts dusting sulphur,
one part powdered arsenate of lead, and one part tobacco dulst. This, I
find controls many fungus and insect troubles.
Treatmlentt A4fter Rainty Seasont. No special treatment other than
keeping the ground well watered and mulched. If a sprinkler system is
used. this is done during the forepart of the day, giving the bushes time
to dry off before night, thus helping to control fungus diseases.
Varieties. Tea and Hybrid Tea are grown with more success here
than Hybrid Perpetuals. There are a number from which to choose.
Most popular are Pink Radiance, Red Radiance, Mrs. Charles Bell (Shell
Pink), Luxembourg (Coppery Yellow), Lady Hillingdon (Yellow), Frau
Karl Druschki (White), Louis Philippe (Red), and others.
TO READERS OF THIS PUBLICATION
Weli present hrerewrithz thre 1932 Bulletint of the Florida Rose
Society' (afiliated wvith the Amzericant Rose Society).
Evenr though this bulletint is modest as to siz-e, its pucb-
licationz is mror-e or less a financial drain ont the memllbers of
thre Flor~ida Rosc Society, wchichz has a mzemlbership, mluch
smacllerv than it should be. Inl fact the publication of the
burlletinl is mrade possible through the generrosity~ antd bursinzess
acumlrenl of thlose whose advrtl~'isemencr ts a~ppear inl the putbli-
Wle sinlcerely trulst that the readers of "G'rowving Roses
int Flor-ida" will take this matter intto conrsiderationr atnd wrhen
placing their orders. wil~l ratronize those wichose advertisemlencts
a~pper inl this puNblicationl.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
ROSE GROWING IN WEST FLORIDA
CHAS. O. REIFF, Marianna, Florida
WVith an abundance of clay as is found in West Florida, rose growing
is generally very successful where intelligent care is given as to spraying,
cultivation, fertilization and pruning. The writer has never understood
w-hy more roses are not grown in all localities of Florida, especially West
Floridia where soil and climatic conditions are so ideal. There is no flower
that will give the results as roses when properly cared for and this care
is not such a big problem after all.
A~ny good garden soil free from shade of trees and roots will grow
good roses. The soil should be well drained and under-laid with clay,
usually eight to ten inches from7 surface. Plenty of sun is required, so in
selecting a location this should be kept in mind.
The soil should be well plowed and harrowed to a depth of eight
to ten inches. Previous to this plowing, well-rotted cow~ manure should
be broad-casted at the rate of a wheel-barrowful to about twenty-five
square feet. The soil should be raked and leveled after which stakes are
set for plants. Planting should be delayed until some ten days and pre-
ferably after a rain.
The best time for planting in West Florida is January. At this time
the plants are usually most dormant. Roses for cut flowers should be
planted three feet apart. It is good practice to prune all broken roots be-
fore planting, as this will promote an excellent growth of young roots pro-
\-ideed smooth cuts are made. One pound of bone mueal or cotton-seed
meal may be mixed with top soil for refilling hole. If well-rotted manure
is available, this may be used, exercising every care and thoroughly mixing
with soil. Holes should be large enough to take all roots without bend-
i~gr or crowding. Usually, a hole twelve b~y twelve inches is sufficient.
Roses must not be planted deeper than they grew in the nursery. The soil
line is easily located on the plants. Roots should be spread out in their
natural positions and then top soil packed well by trampling with the feet.
Then water with a soaking.
CULTIVATION VERSUS MULCHING
Much has been said on this subject. The writer has used mulches of
straw, compost, leaf mould, peat moss, and even the patented mulch pa-
pers as well as clean cultivation. In extreme dr!- weather the mulches
are to be favored unless it is practical to water plants. Cultivation about
onle and one-half to two inches deep weekly, or as often~ to keep down
GROWLING ROSES IN F;LORIDA
weeds and grass has given best results over a time with normal conditions
in West Florida. If cultivation is too deep, small feed roots will be in-
jured and excessive burning of organic matter will result.
Assuming that plants have beenl fertilized when planted as described
above, next step would be a thorough mulching of well-rotted cow manure
at least two inches deep after planting over entire surface of bed. Manure
supplies a form of bacteria and organic matter best suited for roses. This
mul11ch should be repeated each January or February. About the middle
of February or just before flush of growth, one pound of bone meal or
cottonseed meal should be applied to each plant, this followed by one
pound of good garden fertilizer, analyzing approximately four per cent
ammonia, eight per cent phosphoric acid, and four to five per cent potash
as soon as growth begins and young flower buds appear. All fertilizer
materials should be raked into the soil thoroughly. If growth seems
slow and buds small, a top dressing of nitrate of soda at the rate of a
tablespoonful to the plant may be applied two or three times during grow-
ing season. The writer has found Genuine Peruvian Guano applied at the
rate of one-half pound to plant gives excellent results. This may be ap-
plied just before rainy season--in West Florida about June first to
fifteenth. This application gives extra strong blooms during July and
August. About September fifteenth another pound of four-eight-five fer-
tilizer should be applied to each plant to insure a good bloom crop for
fall which should give an abundance of flowers up, to frost. Roses are
gross feeders and if nice quality blooms with longs stems are to b~e exu-
pectedl, a well planned fertilizing program mlust he carried out.
Plants should be cut back about tenl inches from crotch wYhen planted.
Cutting of blooms during season will be ample pruning for summer if
most of blooms are used for cut flowers. Otherwise, it will be neces-
sary to cut out the weak growth during summer so as to produce long
stems for blooms. Disbudding should be resorted to which will force
long canes for large, heavy blooms. After first growing season when
plants are dormant and before signs of growth--usually January fif-
teenth in West Florida--all plants should be gone over thoroughly--
cutting out diseased, dead, and weakened wood andi all crossing branches
including any that may b~e found with had or discolored pith. Not
more than five or six of the best and strongest canes should b~e left
and these cult b~ack at about twelve inches. Each additional year of age
the canes should be cut b~acke from two to four inches higher. TIn all
pruning a symmetrically shaped bush should be kept in mind with canes
VARIETIES AN\D ROOT STOCKS
Several of the many root stocks have been tried in West Florida
hy the writer. Thornless Mlultiflora has proved to give best results
so far to graft or bud on. Many varieties, including some of the best
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
roses of the following group have been grown in this locality.: Teas,
Hybrid teas, and Hybrid perpetuals. In the beginning the writer would
select the pink and red Radiance and Mrs. Charles Bell (shell pink),
as easiest to grow for the amateur and most satisfactory for the av-
erage gardener. In addition to the above the following: Good whites,
Kaiserin Auguste Viktoria, Frau Karl Druschki, and White Maman
Cochet--reds, Red Radiance. Also for a beautiful dleep red, Francis
Scott Key has done exceedingly well for us, Etoile de France only fair,
for a new pinkish red which looks very promising, Wilhelm Kordes. Grand
Duchess Marie Adelaide for cream yellow; Sunburst and Luxemlburg
yellow copper color; for pinks, Pink Radiance would be placed first.
Following, Mrs. Charles Bell, Pink Maman Cochet and Killarney. The
Talisman has been grown with some success in West F~lorida on a north-
ern root stock, but would probably improve on some good root stock
more adapted to this section. The writer is b~uddingr several hundred
onl multiflora stock this season.
WHAT IS FAIRER THAN A ROSE, WHAT IS
JAMES DONN, The Exotic Gardens, Inc., Miami, Florida
Everyone loves roses. They are to be found growing in the city
gardens of the park department; the ten by twelve plots in front of
the cottage; andi in the back yards of the tenement. All that is required
to grow roses is to develop the inclination and the enthusiasm. What
joy comes to the occupant of the top-story flat as he exhibits the re-
sults of his labors in transforming the backyard--the former depository
for all empty bottles, tin cans, and odds and ends--into a beautiful rose
bed with roses bursting into bloom. We also find the rose in the palace
grounds of the nobility, where they have the advantage of competent
professional gardeners to see that they receive the benefit of proper
care and good treatment; but whether grown in the little garden of
the cottage or in the ornate garden of the nobility, the rose itself is
just as much of an aristocrat, no matter what the environment or where
The poets of every land sing the praise of the rose, America with
"Moonlight and Roses;" England, "The Last Rose of Summer;" Scot-
larid. "Mvy Love is Like a Red, Red Rose:" and Ireland, "The Rose of
Tralee." Authors from time imnmemorial have wov~en into their romances
the happy lovers and the rose garden. Never do they commit the un-
pardonable error of connecting tragedy with the rose gardens. To do
so wotdd be simply incongruous, unthinkable and unbelievable.
Unfortunately, I am not an author or a poet, but simply one of those
rather ordinary nursery~men, who at this moment. realizes my? limitations
and weakness as a writer. We all agree that roses inl Soulth Florida are
rather limited in variety, if we consider the varieties that can be grown
GROWVING ROSES IN FLORIDA
successfully through the summer months as well as the winter. To me,
this is not a serious handicap. In a truth it relieves the nurseryman and
prospective rose grower-the nurseryman of stocking so many different
varieties, and the customer of that rather difficult and perplexing problem
of making a selection of possibly one or two dozen rose bushes from out
of the hundreds of varieties that are listed for sale. Many of my cus-
tomers and friends leave this selection to me. In accepting this great
responsibility, and to reduce to a minimum any possible complaint
as to the varieties selected, the following are what I consider the best
varieties for this section of Southeast Florida, and still give the rose
buyer a range of color and variety: Pink-Pink Radiance, Helen Donn,
Antoine Rivoire, Madame Butterfly. Red-Red Radiance, Hadley, Francis
Scott Key. Cream-Alexander Hill Gray. Yellow-Lady Hillingdon.
Talisman, Herbert Hoover. White-Kaiserina Victoria, White Killarney.
In making the above selection, I do so primarily because they are all good
for cut flowers. They have been thoroughly tested out for several years
and all of them are of fairly vigorous growth.
In experimenting with roses for the past ten years and growing them
for commercial purposes, I recognize two fundamentals. First, the type
of stock to be used for budding or grafting the roses on; and second,
the proper preparation of the rose bed. Unquestionably the best results
obtained in our nursery come from the roses budded or grafted on
Odorata stock. We have grown same for years and subjected it to all
kinds of abuse. I have seen the fields flooded with water for weeks,
and at another season of the year have seen them growing for two months
without a drop of moisture, neither of these adverse conditions giving
but very little evidence of having any bad effect on Odorata.
It is quite true that this stock is not as good for transplanting as
other types, such as Multiflora, etc., because the roots are long, rangy
and fiberless, and many nurseries will not grow Odorata for this reason.
However, in South Florida these same long, rangy roots dig down into
the damp moist earth below providing moisture and food for the rose
when many other types of stocks would be suffering from the lack of
surface moisture. Then too, lack of large fibrous roots is the pri-
mary reason why this type of stock is almost immune from Nematode.
In preparing the soil for the rose bed we use a mixture of two parts
Redland clay and one part loam and cow manure. The bed should be
excavated twenty-four or thirty inches deep and soil well tamped down
in the bed before planting. In suggesting clay, I have in mind any good
top soil clay but do not mean the clay that comes out of the sub-soil, or
in the terms of the gardener, the second spit. Do not plant too deeply
because nearness to the surface and air encourages healthy growth. The
topmost layer of roots should be four inches from the surface and the
excavation should be made so that all roots can be spread to their full
extent. The bottom of the hole should he firrned thoroughly, otherwise
when the bushes are tamped in the roots will be pushed too far down.
After planting, water freely until the soil is well soaked.
3 Famous Star Roses
for Florida Gardens
THE SPANISH BEAUTY (Mme. Gregoire Staechelin)
A sensational climbing Rose. Winner of the most coveted
Rose award, The Bagatelle Gold Medal. Perfectly formed
buds, flesh pink, brushed with carmine. Profuse in bloom
and delightfully fragrant. $1.25 each.
"The Handsomest Climbing Rose"
June 19, 1931.
Mme. Gregoire Staechelin is without exception the handsomest
climbing rose I have ever seen. Its fragrance is remarkable as
well as the delicacy of the tinted petals-F. B., North Duxbury,
EDITOR McFARLAND (Introduced by the Conard-Pyle
Co., fall 1931.) A Hybrid Tea Rose, named in honor of
Dr. J. Horace McFarland, President of the American Rose
Society. linds rose-pink, veiled with amber-a dolor com-
bination with an appeal of radiating freshness. The bud,
borne alone and long-pointed, opens into a double Rose,
with large, gracefully recurving petals, delicately scented.
A competitor of Radiance in ruggedness, persistent healthy
foliage, and continuity of bloom. $2.50 each.
MRS. PIERRE S. du PONT This golden-yellow Hybrid
Tea Rose has won more Gold Medals for outdoor blooms
than any other Rose ever grown. $1.50 each.
"The Best Yellow Rose"
November lo, 1931.
Of all the yellow, Mrs. Pierre S. du Pont is the best for plant
growth, Quantity of bloom, and quality of foliage. This rose has
bloomed all summer, held its foliage, and is now in beautiful
bloom again. The best yellow rose I have ever seen.-H. B. F.,
Fort Worth, Texas.
ORDER 1 Spanish Beauty, $1.25; 1 Editor McFarland, $2.50;
1 Mrs. Pierre S. du Pont, $1.50. Every Rose with celluloid
star tag and guaranteed to bloom or your money back. (Value
$5.25, All 3 for only $3.75 postpaid. Ask for Offer No. F. R. B.
The Conard Pyle Co.
STAR ROSE GROWERS
ROBERT PYLE, President WEST GROVE, PA.
Send for Catalogue
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New and different-Our exclusive offering
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varieties, both new and old, sent upon request
Glen Saint Mary Norsery Company
GLEN SAINT MARY, FLORIDA
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Write for complete list with prices
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"Funtrogen contains Hortogen the nitrogenous product that stim-
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You will need other flowers
for your garden as well as
roses. We carry a full line
of Highest Quality Seeds of
all kinds. Write for our
price-list. We are exclusive
agents of W. Atlee Burpee
in this section.
" Burpse's Seeds Grow "
The Biossom Shops, Inc.
Bradenton and Sarasota, Fla.
soultes Fa liest FLoweers''
Two-Year Field Grown Budded Stock
We grow the best of the new ;Ind
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TEiXAS ROSE GARDEN
THE Ei. O. PAINTER PRIN1T(*G CO. OR AND, FLA, A-7857
5eSES onl:. offer you their richest beauty w) en the soil they grow in
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out-anrd for all this service there is nothing than can compare with G;P.1
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~e~ Fifty yearsof
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Write fcar Bulletin "R"'