Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The purpose and use of this...
 Planning social studies in the...
 Some suggested techniques in teaching...
 Equipment and materials for teaching...
 Social studies and the war
 Part II: Suggested planning and...
 Grade seven
 Grade eight
 Grade nine
 Grade ten
 Grade eleven
 Grade twelve
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Its Florida program for improvement of schools Bulletin
Title: A Teacher's guide in the social studies for the secondary schools of Florida ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096238/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Teacher's guide in the social studies for the secondary schools of Florida ..
Series Title: Its Florida program for improvement of schools Bulletin
Physical Description: 1 p. leaf, 5-233 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
University of Florida -- Curriculum Laboratory
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida State Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1942
Subject: Social sciences -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Education -- Curricula -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Prepared at Florida curriculum laboratory, University of Florida, M.L. Stone, director. Ruby Irene Adams, consultant. Clara M. Olson, consultant. Division of instruction, M.W. Carothers, director.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096238
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 08461364
lccn - e 43000033

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The purpose and use of this bulletin
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Planning social studies in the secondary school
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Some suggested techniques in teaching social studies
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Equipment and materials for teaching the social studies
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Social studies and the war
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Part II: Suggested planning and guides for grades seven through twelve
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Grade seven
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Grade eight
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Grade nine
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Grade ten
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Grade eleven
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Grade twelve
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    Back Matter
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Back Cover
        Page 237
        Page 238
Full Text



'*". c..-





Bulletin No. 28
September, 1942

Prepared at
University of Florida
M. L. STONE, Director
CLARA M. OLSON, Consultant

M. W. CAROTHERS, Director

COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent


D o. ~Z g~'




Chapter Page

I. Purpose and Use of the Bulletin.................. 17
Organization of the Chapters in This Bulletin
The Relationship of This Bulletin to Previous
The Purpose of This Bulletin
The Use of This Bulletin

II. Planning Social Studies in the Secondary School.... 25
The Relationship of Social Studies to the Aims of
The Scope of the Social Studies Curriculum
The Sequence of the Social Studies Curriculum

III. Some Suggested Techniques in Teaching Social Studies 39
Types of Planning

IV. Equipment and Materials for Teaching Social Studies 50
Books and Classroom Libraries
Audio-Visual Aids for Social Studies
Effective Use of Specific Visual Aids


CONTENTS (Continued)

V. Social Studies and the War....................... 69
Implications of War Effort for Social Studies
Teaching Citizenship
Teaching Conservation
Children's Questions on the War
Cooperating with Other American Republics
Cooperating with Our Allies



VI. Grade Seven: Adaptation to. and Control of
Geographic Environment .................. 85
Teaching Suggestions
Major Problem and Sub-divisions of the Problem
Outline of Content for Course

VII. Grade Eight: Development of Ways of Living in the
United States............................ 102
Teaching Suggestions
Major Problem and Sub-divisions of the Problem
Outline of Content for Course

CONTENTS (Continued)

VIII. Grade Nine: Orientation to the Economic, Social
and Political Order....................... 117
Teaching Suggestions
Major Problem and Sub-divisions of the Problem
Outline of Content for Course

IX. Grade Ten: Social Living in Its World Relationship 135
Teaching Suggestions

Major Problem and Sub-divisions of the Problem


Outline of Content for Course

X. Grade Eleven: Social Living in Its American Rela-
tionship ................................ 176

Teaching Suggestions

Major Problem and Sub-divisions of the Problem


Outline of Content for Course

XI. Grade Twelve: Problems of Living in Our Democracy 201
Teaching Suggestions
Major Problem and Sub-divisions of the Problem
Outline of Content for Course


No. 9
A Guide to Im-
proved P r a c-
tice in Florida
E 1 emen -
tar y Schools

Avenues of
No. 2 Understand-
Ways to Bet- ing, A Bulle-
ter Instruction tin for Parents
in Florida and La y
Schools (1930) Groups (1940)

No. 10
A Guide to a
Program in the
School (1940)

t No.
S No.
8 No.

1 No.

Florida's School Health Program (1942, Revised)
Physical Education (1941)
Teaching Actions and Effects of Alcohol and Other Nar-
cotics (1941)
Arithmetic in the Elementary School (1942)
State Adopted Library Books for Florida Schools (1942)

Guide to Exploratory Work* (1938)
Florida's School Health Program (1942, Revised)
Physical Education (1942 Revised)
Business Education (1940)
Industrial Arts (1940)
Teaching Actions and Effects of Alcohol and Other Nar-
cotics (1941)
Home Economics Books and Other Source Materials (1941)
State Adopted Library Books for Florida Schools (1942)
A Teacher's Guide in the Social Studies for the Secondary
Schools of Florida
Everyday Living
Mathematics Essentials for the War Effort
Professional Background Materials for War Mathematics
Wartime Course in Physics

Technology Series:
Book 1. General Mechanics (1940)
Book 2. Engines (1942)
Book 3. Aeronautics (1942)

* Now out of print.


This bulletin is a guide to planning a social studies program
in the secondary schools of Florida. It continues the exploration
and suggested planning for the social studies contained in
Chapter Eight of A Guide to a Functional Program in the Sec-
ondary Schools. It contains suggested guides to content for
grades seven through twelve, which are developed in keeping
with the recommendations of The Program of Studies Bulletin,
published by the State Department of Education in April, 1942.
This bulletin has been in the process of production for a period
of two years. The exploratory materials, used in district con-
ferences of social studies teachers in the fall and winter of
1941-42, were produced at the Florida Curriculum Laboratory,
University of Florida, in the summer of 1941. The production
committee included: Miss Ruby Adams, Jacksonville; Miss Mary
Elizabeth Boyd, Palatka; Mrs. Elizabeth Skinner Jackson, Lake-
land; Miss Mildred Fletcher, Williston; and Mrs. James Bevis,
Gainesville. The consultants were Dr. R. S. Atwood and Dr. R.
W. Patrick of the University of Florida, Gainesville. Praise and
appreciation are here accorded the consultants and the mem-
bers of the committee on exploratory materials.
The production for publication, the final phase of the work,
was done in the summer of 1942 at the Florida Curriculum
Laboratory, University of Florida. The production committee
included: Miss Mary Elizabeth Boyd, Palatka High School,
Palatka; Miss Natalie Lamb, Seebreeze High School, Daytona
Beach; and Miss Marguerite Lumpkin, Lakeland High School,
The work of the two years was under the direction of Miss
Ruby Irene Adams, Supervisor of Social Studies, Jacksonville.
She is accorded sincere appreciation for her sustained interest
in the work and able direction of the production.
Especial appreciation and recognition are due the general
consultants, Mrs. Clara Olson, P. K. Yonge School, Gainesville,
and Dr. M. L. Stone, Curriculum Director, State Department of
Education, who rendered invaluable consultative services during
the review of the materials and the final preparation of the

The State Department of Education joins with the Committee
in expressing appreciation: to the members of the staff of the
Florida Curriculum Library for their help during the early
weeks of preparation and study; to Dr. Alfred Crago of the Uni-
versity of Florida for his constructive criticism of the chart
on characteristics and needs of adolescents; to Dr. W. T. Ed-
wards, State Department of Education, for conference and valu-
able suggestions during the course of production of the bulletin;
and to the teachers and administrators who reviewed the ma-
terials in the bulletin. The members of the reviewing committee
were: Dr. M. W. Carothers, State Department of Education,
Tallahassee; Mr. Joe Hall, State Department of Education, Tal-
lahassee; Miss Mildred Swearingen, Supervisor, Polk County,
Bartow; Mr. Horace Gray, Department of Education, Florida
State College for Women, Tallahassee; Mrs. Lardner M. Newell,
Junior High School, Fort Pierce; Miss Florence Tryon, Depart-
ment of History, Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee;
Miss Daisy Parker, Leon High School, Tallahassee; Dr. Venila
Lovina Shores, Professor of History and Head of Department of
History, Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee; Mrs.
Marian Black, Instructor, Demonstration School, Florida State
College for Women; Miss Lettie Backus, Leesburg High School,
Leesburg; Miss Theresa Graves, Supervisor, Alachua County,
Gainesville; Mrs. Margaret Boutelle, P. K. Yonge Laboratory
School, Gainesville; Dr. R. L. Carter, Tampa Public Schools,
Tampa; Mrs. Ruby Waits, Gainesville High School, Gainesville;
Mr. John Seay, Reddick; Mr. Hal Lewis, College of Education,
University of Florida, Gainesville; Miss Edna Joyner, Fort
Bragg, N. C.
Thanks are due the typists, Miss Mildred Parrish, Mrs. Joe
Winburn, and Miss Marguerite Hamilton for their patience and
interest in the preparation of the bulletin.
Acknowledgment and appreciation are also expressed to the
publishers who gave permission for the use of certain materials.

State Superintendent.


Planning Social Studies in the Secondary School


The Purpose and Use of This Bulletin

This bulletin is primarily for the social studies teachers of
Florida. It presents a six year program for social studies in the
secondary schools. It may offer, however, suggestions and as-
sistance to faculties of schools who are studying and revising
their program. Likewise, it may lead to the adoption of social
living as the "core" of a correlated or integrated program.
Social Changes and Their Implications: The curriculum which
best serves society is one which reflects not only the objectives
and ideals but also the needs of that society. There have been
innumerable social changes within the United States. Each
change may be interpreted as a clear mandate for a changing
curriculum. Among those changes which are most frequent and
regarded as significant are: (1) the transition from an agrarian
to an industrial society, (2) the growth of our urban population,
(3) the increasing mobility of our population, (4) the merging
of diverse peoples and cultures, (5) increasing interdependence,
(6) the changing or weakening of ethical standards, (7) the
changing functions of the family, (8) the enlargement of the
community, (9) the popularizing of knowledge, and (10) the
vast increase in the school population.1
Each of the social changes has clear implications for the school
and particularly for the social studies. In the days when our
society was agrarian, children acquired their education by obser-
vation and participation. In our industrial society such training
is not possible, and the schools must assume responsibility for
the needed training. The growth of our cities moved the chil-
dren away from the farms and their natural educational labora-
'Edgar Bruce Wesley, Teaching the Social Studies, (Boston: D. C. Heath
and Company, 1942), pp. 33-38.


stories, and the schools must undertake to offset these losses by
restoring as much of the experimental and direct learning as
possible. The mobility of our population has carried the cus-
toms of every section into every other section and has resulted
in the need for continuous personal and social adjustment. This
implies the need for better guidance programs in our schools
and more orientation experiences in our classes. The diverse
racial groups, through their contributions to our culture and
through their need for adjustment to changing environments,
have made curriculum readjustments necessary. Higher de-
grees of specialization and increasing interdependence require
the development of many common skills, attitudes, and informa-
tion. This need necessitates, on the part of the school, an in-
creasing emphasis on understandings, attitudes, and skills. The
changing or weakening of ethical standards implies that the
schools must be aware of and concerned about the need for the
development of better social behavior. The Industrial Revolu-
tion has changed a number of the functions of the family and
has disorganized the family to some extent. The school more
than any other institution has had to assume the responsibility
for many functions which were formerly an integral part of fam-
ily life. Schools must change to meet this new responsibility.
The community today has become larger and more complex.
Boys and girls who once played games in the neighborhood, now
seek amusement in some commercialized form hundreds of miles
from home. Therefore, the school must give its pupils a keener
insight into social realities through a richer, fuller, more realis-
tic curriculum. Changes in communication and transportation
have resulted in a higher level of popular information. Schools
must develop an increased ability to see, to read, and to listen
with judgment and discrimination. The increase in the school
population has broadened the range of pupil interests and needs.
Boys and girls who come into our schools seeking vocational effi-
ciency to satisfy immediate needs should not be confronted with
a traditional program which may or may not prepare them for
later life. Schools in order to be functional must recognize these
new interests and needs and revise their programs to meet them.
Since social studies play a major part in developing girls and boys


who are socially sensitive, each of these implications of social
change in our democracy must become necessarily of major con-
cern to social studies teachers and must direct in part the plan-
ning of the social studies program.
Concepts Influencing Educational Methods: Faculty groups or
individual teachers cannot plan programs for theoretical classes.
They must plan with boys and girls programs suitable to their
needs. Thus, the aim not to know subject matter but to use sub-
ject matter through appropriate experiences necessitates con-
tinuous curriculum planning. Two widely different concepts of
planning and teaching have developed in the United States: one
may be called the "knowledge-mastery concept"; the other,
the "social-experience concept". In between these two is the
realistic concept which uses content carefully organized and
thoughtfully presented through worthwhile experiences.2 The
social studies planning in this bulletin embodies this realistic
Social studies teachers throughout the state have not been
unmindful of their responsibilities and in many cases have
revised their own programs to meet changing needs. They have
realized that even such aims as they have worked toward were
narrow in scope and not entirely adequate for the complex world
of today. Increasing emphasis on the social studies in the pro-
gram of the Florida secondary school has made necessary a
revision of the program to make it vital and functional.
The world upheaval creates new and more exacting demands
for adequate social studies instruction. Our democratic society
rests upon two essential qualifications of its citizens: first, they
shall possess genuine concern for human welfare; second, they
shall recognize and strive to solve their common problems. The
attainment of ,democratic ideals and practices starts with the
child in the home, moves with him in his community, follows him
through his state and his nation, and leads him into world affairs.
In our rapidly changing civilization new problems face the young
citizen as well as the older citizen and he must work toward a
solution of these problems. Social intelligence can be acquired
2J. W. Wrightstone, and Doak Campbell, Social Studies and the American
Way of Life, (New York: Row, Peterson and Company, 1942), pp. 73-74.


by the individual only from the group culture and intelligent
sharing in group experiences. This presents a challenge to social
studies teachers. They must plan a basic social education pro-
gram. This bulletin presents essentials for such a program.

The six year program in this bulletin is presented in two parts:
Part One, Planning Social Studies in the Secondary Schools, is
important to individual social studies teachers, to groups of social
studies teachers, and to all faculty members. Part Two, Sug-
gested Planning and Guides for Grades Seven Through Twelve,
presents guides for teacher-pupil planning in each grade.
In this chapter are included a brief survey of the chapters
which follow, the purpose and use of the bulletin, and the rela-
tion of this bulletin to previous bulletins. Chapter Two, Plan-
ning Social Studies in the Secondary Schools, discusses the rela-
tionship of the aims of the social studies to the aims of education
and presents a scope and sequence chart for social studies in both
junior and senior high school. Chapter Three, Some Suggested
Techniques in Teaching Social Studies, suggests ways and means
for developing the democratic ways of life in the classroom and
for realizing the objectives of instruction in the social studies.
This chapter likewise contains suggestions for teaching current
events. Chapter Four, Materials in the Social Studies, aids the
teacher in wise selection of materials, discusses the uses of ma-
terials in the classroom, and makes valuable suggestions as to
methods of acquiring these materials. Chapter Five, Social
Studies and the War, discusses the increasing responsibility and
opportunity of the social studies teacher while the nation is at
war. Chapters Six through Eleven are guides to teacher-pupil
planning. They offer many practical suggestions and definite
aids to teachers in grades seven through twelve. Each chapter
(one for each grade) discusses the relationship of the grade to
the six year program, indicates essential areas for planning, lists
references, and presents an outline of content or areas for plan-
ning experiences.



Any state-wide program for the improvement of education
must proceed from a workable philosophy of education. The
State Department of Education of Florida in previous bulletins
has attempted to establish a point of view in keeping with demo-
cratic ideals and with the new knowledge concerning the com-
plex processes of human growth and development. Although this
social studies bulletin contains specific suggestions for social
studies teachers in the form of guides for planning, it has as its
foundation the philosophy of education, the aims of education,
and the nature of learning processes contained in previous State
In Program of Study in Florida Secondary Schools, a bulletin
issued recently by the State Department, the following directions
for planning the social studies in the junior high school are
found :4
The seventh grade social studies should be planned as a two-year
block. At this level the main objective should be to lay a foundation
for understanding the reasons why such problems as tariff, labor,
capital, and unemployment have emerged in the development of the
Western Hemisphere. The emphasis in the seventh grade . should
be on an understanding of such important factors as climate, soil,
resources, and topography as these are related to social development,
communication, and trade . The eighth grade should be made an
integral part of the two-year block suggested above. A continuation
of the development of the nations in the two Americas and an added
emphasis upon the way in which soil, mineral deposits, and climatic
resources have affected and have been affected by the "progress" of
man should be given. A more detailed study of the way in which
geographical factors and natural resources influenced the thinking
and activity of groups settling in different parts of the United States
during the westward movement should receive stress at this grade
level. A description of the development of institutions such as the
school, the church, and the home, and the way in which these were
'Teachers throughout the State are urged to secure copies of previous
State Department bulletins. They will find Bulletin 2, Ways to Better In-
struction in Florida Schools, and Bulletin 10, A Guide to a Functional Pro-
gram in the Secondary School most helpful in re-thinking and re-planning
their programs.
4Program of Study in Florida Schools, (Tallahassee: State Department
of Education, April, 1942), pp. 24-25; pp. 37-38.


conditioned by the interaction of a new people with a land of unex-
ploited resources and challenging dangers should be clearly pre-
sented to the pupils. The ninth grade would make a desirable cap-
stone for the two-year junior high school block . He (the pupil
in the ninth grade) needs further orientation to the economic and
social order.
In accordance with these directions, the planning of the social
studies in this bulletin emphasizes in the seventh grade the in-
fluence of geographic and human factors in the development of
living in the Western Hemisphere. Planning in the eighth grade
continues to emphasize this active adaptation concept and adds
an emphasis on the development of ways of living in the United
States. Planning in the ninth grade emphasizes orientation to
the economic and social order by giving help to the pupils in ten-
tative selections of vocations, in studying the community, in de-
veloping a better understanding of the functions of government,
and in creating a desire for more active and effective participa-
tion in government.
The Program of Study in Florida Secondary Schools suggests
the desirability of a two-year block for grades ten and eleven in
the senior high school, similar to the two-year block planned for
grades seven and eight in junior high school. The Program of
Study suggests, also, the desirability of a consideration of world
problems and an intensive study of the growth and development
of the Americas as main points of emphasis for the senior high
school. This block should be followed by a capstone course which
would give attention to personal problems, Florida and regional
problems, and social problems in our nation.
In accordance with the directions given in the recent Program
of Study, this bulletin selects as aspects for emphasis: social
living in its world relationships in the tenth grade; social living
in its American relationships in the eleventh grade; and prob-
lems of living in our democracy in the twelfth grade.

The major purpose of this bulletin is to present to the social
studies teachers of Florida essentials of a vital program in social
studies. The bulletin is designed to help the individual teacher
in social studies. The teacher controls to a greater extent than


anyone else the activities and attitudes of the pupils in his class.
Likewise, this bulletin is planned to aid social studies depart-
ments or groups of social studies teachers in organizing a func-
tional program in the social studies. The essentials as presented
in the bulletin may be used by a total faculty in re-thinking and
re-planning their own school program.
A second purpose of this bulletin is to interpret learning and
teaching in the social studies in such a way that pupil growth
through social experiences will emphasize the fundamental aims
and ideals of ways of living in our democracy. To aid the
teacher in the attainment of those two major objectives, the
bulletin is designed to guide him in planning with the pupils
worthwhile classroom experiences. Suggestions for better ma-
terial and methods of instruction for guiding growth in social
living are included in the bulletin as additional aids to teachers.

An individual teacher may use this bulletin profitably.
Through a study of the first two chapters he will gain a new
perspective of the implications of social change in our democ-
racy. Likewise, in these chapters he will see the relationship of
his own field to the total school program and the relationship of
his grade to the six-year social studies program and be able to
plan his own instruction more wisely. As a teacher of a par-
ticular grade, he will find very practical help in the specific
chapter devoted to the grade in which he is interested.
The bulletin is planned to aid groups and departments in mak-
ing the social studies more vital. While the individual teacher
may do much to improve instruction in his own room and even
to influence teaching throughout the department, group coopera-
tion is necessary before any extensive reorganization of the social
studies teaching can be accomplished. A group, with each mem-
ber contributing the results of his own thinking and democra-
tically participating in the criticism and revision of the whole
program, can work out a far more effective program of revision
than can anyone working as an individual. The group, establish-
ing a common point of view as to aims and philosophy and as to
the relationships of the various grades with their specific objec-


tives and desired outcomes, can plan a vital social studies pro-
gram. A common point of view is necessary if the program is to
become functional. Social studies skills and habits are the respon-
sibility of all the social studies teachers. Guidance and adjust-
ment are centers of emphasis for both junior and senior high
school and, therefore, become necessarily vital parts of a group
consideration and a group understanding. An awareness of and a
concern for the characteristics of adolescents, and of the needs
and interest of pupils of the age level of the secondary school
represent major factors in the improvement of social studies
teaching. A group consciousness of these factors should mean a
functional program throughout the department.
An entire faculty may find the bulletin helpful in stimulating
their thinking and planning for a reorganization of their own
program. It presents essentials in a social studies program
which may become the center of a correlated or integrated
program in the total school. Teachers in other fields will find
many helpful suggestions in the discussions in this bulletin on
democratic living in the classroom, and in the implications of
social change for education in our nation today.
Neither this bulletin nor any other bulletin can supply the
formula for successful teaching in the social studies. The attain-
ment of desired outcomes in this most important field depends on
the teacher's enthusiasm, his ability to plan the work, and his
awareness of and concern for community and pupil interests and
needs. The social studies teacher is faced with a very real chal-
lenge to educate for a more socially sensitive citizenship.


Planning Social Studies in the Secondary School

The social studies program presented in this bulletin is a six-
year plan for the secondary schools in Florida. It provides for
continuous, progressive development from grades seven through
twelve. It assumes that social concepts and given bodies of
knowledge can not be treated completely in any one grade or at
any one age level. It recognizes that social concepts increase
in depth and scope as the pupils progress from grade to grade.
Each grade must build upon experiences that precede it and must
contribute to those that follow.
Planning the social studies in the secondary schools of Florida
has been conditioned by various factors. The first important
factor is that regardless of what one believes about the implica-
tions of social changes, one must accept the fact that in the
United States we believe in constant efforts to improve. The
second major factor is that planning social studies for the sec-
ondary schools will be through a realistic approach: that is,
through carefully organized content related to experiences. The
third major factor is that among Florida social studies teachers
there are young and inexperienced teachers, teachers who believe
in the mastery of subject matter, and teachers who believe
in the experience concept of teaching. To each type of teacher
this bulletin offers aid and guidance. To the inexperienced
teacher it offers areas for planning the whole year's work with
basic areas indicated. Such a guide should prove most helpful to
a teacher who is uncertain about procedures when faced with a
new class in a new situation. To the subject-centered teacher,
it offers help in suggesting better ways of using text books; to
the experience-concept teacher it gives guidance in planning
with the pupils.more worthwhile and purposeful activities.


All social studies teachers who are anxious to make their
teaching meet the needs of the young people in our democracy
today must be guided and directed in their planning by constant
consideration of the aims of education and the contribution which
social studies may make to these aims.

In its broadest meaning, the aim of education in a democracy
is to transmit, develop, and improve the culture, and simulta-
neously to develop the individual to the maximum and optimum
of his potentialities. It is immediately apparent to the social
studies teacher that his field can contribute much to the realiza-
tion of this ideal. For certainly if the social studies are under-
stood to mean bodies of knowledge and thought pertaining to
the relations of human beings-men, women, and children-to
one another and to the physical environment in which they work'
then certainly they must play an important role in transmitting
the culture. While other departments make valuable contribu-
tions to particular phases of the culture, it is the task of the social
studies to unify the varied elements of the social structure in
order that the individual may understand the world in which he
lives. As for developing and improving the culture, the field of
social studies again has a vital function.
The development of the individual, the second broad aim of
education, can be furthered through the social studies pro-
gram. The development and improvement of the culture can be
accomplished only through individuals who are able to use their
abilities and powers and who are motivated by the highest of
ideals. The nature of the social studies is certainly conducive
to the development of social ideals and desirable personality.
The program can be carried on in such a manner as to give each
individual real help in discovering and developing his ability.
Charles A. Beard has made an excellent statement of the
fundamental purpose of social studies instruction. That purpose,

IThe Social Studies Curriculum, Fourteenth Yearbook, (Washington:
Department of Superintendence of the National Education Association,
1936), p. 53.


he says, is the creation of rich, many sided personalities, equipped
with practical knowledge and inspired by ideals so that they can
make their way and fulfil their mission in a changing society,
which is a part of a world complex.2 Likewise, in Bulletin 2,
Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools, a similar state-
ment is made. The school curriculum should be directed toward:
(a) the development of an individual who assumes increasing
responsibility for self-direction and for the development of his
potentialities in such a way as to bring about optimum satisfac-
tion both to himself and to society; and (b) the development of
an individual who assumes increasing responsibility for clarify-
ing the meaning of democracy and for the solution of personal
social problems in terms of this ideal.
The general statement of the direction of the total school
curriculum is re-stated in two State Department bulletins, Bul-
letin 2, and Bulletin 10, in five specific aims of education:
1. To develop boys and girls who are socially sensitive
2. To develop boys and girls who will strive for increasing
control over those skills necessary for participation in a
3. To develop boys and girls who will strive for increasing
control over the processes of reflective thinking and the
scientific method
4. To, develop boys and girls who will strive to produce and
enjoy the processes and products of creative efforts
5. To develop boys and girls who will strive to perform
some useful work and to see the relationship of their
work to democratic living

Social studies share with the other subjects and departments
in the secondary school the responsibility for the attainment
of these aims. The major purpose of planning in the social
studies should be progressive and continuous development of

2C. A. Beard, The Nature of the Social Sciences, Part VII, Report of
the Commission on the Social Studies, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
1934), pp. 178-179.
"(Bulletin 2, Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools), op. cit.,
pp. 97-98.


better citizenship from the first grade through the twelfth.
The objectives for each grade should be contributions to this
major purpose.
Social studies in the secondary school has a vital function
tc perform in developing boys and girls who are socially sen-
sitive. Social studies in the junior high school with its emphasis
on understanding active adaption and the development of ways
of living in the United States contribute a major part to the
attainment of this objective. Likewise, the orientation of the
pupil to the social, economic, and political order makes a worth-
while contribution. In the senior high school the emphasis on
social living both in its world relationship and in its American
relationship, and a critical appraisal of problems in our democracy
should result in social sensitivity. Social studies teachers are
aware of and concerned about the development of understand-
ings, attitudes, and habits as they relate to better social be-
havior. All of these should lead to more effective participation
in democratic living. The keynote of all good social studies
teaching is democratic living in the classroom. Critical appraisal
of local, regional, and national problems through discussion,
research, and investigation are integral parts of experience in
social studies. The finding and weighing of facts, the sum-
marizing of knowledge before arriving at generalizations are
essentially social studies procedures. Such experiences must
lead necessarily to the development of greater control over the
processes of reflective thinking and the scientific method. A
continuous effort is made throughout the secondary social studies
to help the individual to develop himself to the optimum and the
maximum of his potentialities. Activities are planned to meet
individual needs and interests. Personal-civic-social adjustment
is the center of emphasis for the secondary social studies pro-
gram. Much time is devoted to the study of vocations, and
students are aided in their tentative choices of vocations. Orien-
tation experiences in the economic and social order are planned so
that the pupil may desire and make an effort to perform some
useful work and may see the relationship of his work to demo-
cratic living.


Charts I and II are included to make clear to the social studies
teacher the relationship of the desired outcomes of the various
grades to the objectives of the total school. The grade objectives
are used in the grade planning in later chapters in this bulletin.
The total school objectives are taken from two bulletins pub-
lished by the State Department of Education.4 It is assumed
that the teacher who studies these charts will realize that no
one grade will attain one objective of the total school. Certain
grades emphasize necessarily certain objectives but all grades
make vital contributions to the total objectives. Likewise, all
grades contribute in part to the attainment of the aims of


The scope of the social studies program involves the identi-
fication and clarification of the democratic ideals by which
past, present, and future educational experiences are planned
and interpreted. Likewise, it indicates that the problems to be
found in our way of life are to be organized into convenient
classifications so that subject matter and experiences can be
selected and arranged for effective social learning.5
In previous state department bulletins,0 a selection of problems
has been made for classification and organization of subject
matter and experiences. These classifications are listed as "areas
of living". Eight are selected for the total school, as follows:
1. Protecting life and property
2. Home making
3. Adjusting to the natural environment
4. Cooperating in social and civic action
5. Earning a living
6. Securing an education

4(Bulletin 2, Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools), op. cit.,
pp. 97-98; pp. 99-144.
(Bulletin 10, A Guide to a More Functional Program in Florida Schools),
op. cit., pp. 293-294.
5(Wrightstone and Campbell), op. cit., p. 107.
6(Bulletin 2), op. cit., p. 119; (Bulletin 10), op. cit., pp. 56-60.



1. To develop boys -
and girls who -
are socially sen- -
sitive -

2. To develop boys -
and girls who I-
will strive for -
increasing con- -
trol over those -
skills necessary
for participa-
tion in a democ-

3. To develop boys
and girls who
will strive for -
increasing con- -
trol over the -
processes of re- -
flective thinking -
and the scienti- -
fic method -

4. To develop boys -
and girls who -
will strive to -
produce and en-
joy the proces- -
ses and products -
of creative effort -

5. To develop boys -
and girls who -
will strive to -
perform some -
useful work and -
to see the rela- -
tionship of their -
work to demo- -
cratic living


1. Understanding the adaptation to and the
G control of their environment by the first
R settlers of our community (Florida), by
A the people of our nearby community (the
^D Atlantic seaboard), by the people of our
D nation today, and by the people of our
E neighboring community (Latin America)
S 2. Understanding the need for conservation
E and wise utilization of our natural re-
v sources today
3. Understanding the interdependence of
E regions
N 4. Appreciating and respecting the ways of
living in other regions

G 1. Understanding the development of the
R social, political, and economic aspects of
A living in the United States
D 2. Understanding the effect of environment
E on the lives and work of people
3. Realizing the changing nature of society
E 4. Realizing the popular struggle for free-
I dom and opportunity in our country
G 5. Realizing the position of the United
H States in the world today and the respon-
T sibility such a position carries

1. Realizing and developing a willingness to
accept and fulfill one's responsibilities in
our democracy
2. Understanding the need for keeping up
with and adjusting to social changes
G 3. Understanding the structure and services
R of government
A 4. Appreciating and taking advantage of
the educational and cultural advantages
D offered by the community
E 5. Developing an appreciation for all honest
work and realizing the importance of
N choosing one's occupation wisely
I 6. Realizing the importance of preparation
N for active service in some socially useful
E occupation
7. Understanding the conditions and prac-
tices necessary to provide a decent living
and security against emergencies
8. Making an effort to discover and de-
velop one's own talents, qualities, and



1. To develop boys
and girls who
are socially sen-

2. To develop boys
and girls who
will strive for
increasing con-
trol over those
skills necessary
for participa-
tion in a democ-

3. To develop boys
and girls who
will strive for
increasing con-
trol over the
processes of re-
flective thinking
and the scienti-
fic method

4. To develop boys
and girls who
will strive to
produce and en-
joy the proces-
ses and products
of creative effort

5. To develop boys
and girls who
will strive to
perform some
useful work and
to see the rela-
tionship of their
work to demo-
cratic living


1. Showing how world problems have been created
and solved through interaction of natural and
human resources
G 2. Developing a spirit of fairness in estimating the
R problems of other nations
A 3. Appreciating our heritage of man's progress
D through the Ages
E 4. Realizing that problems which men face today are
similar to what men have faced in all Ages
T 5. Showing the student the necessity for judging
- E and interpreting present day problems in the
N light of what he has studied
6. Realizing that we are members of a world com-
munity and that all share a responsibility for
the betterment of society

G 1. Understanding democratic principles in relation
R to the American system of living
A 2. Comparing systems of living and building a belief
in our own
D 3. Increasing hemispheric solidarity (through study
E of Canada and Latin America)-creating an un-
derstanding of social living in its American rela-
E tionship
L 4. Developing a sensitivity to the need of group par-
E ticipation (cooperation in living)
V 5. Creating a desire to use research and critical
E analysis in studying national problems
6. Developing constant vigilance so that the security
of the American system may be maintained

1. Interpreting the economic, political scene in a
manner consistent with reality
G 2. Appraising critically social, economic, and politi-
cal problems, influences, and agencies and accept-
R ing responsibility for improvement
A 3. Understanding the growth of local, regional and
D national planning and the need for continued
E planning
4. Understanding one's individual responsibility to-
T ward conservation of human and natural re-
W sources
E 5. Realizing the extension of economic, political, and
cultural relationships with other nations and
L peoples
V 6. Understanding the significance of one's own rela-
E tionship to present day society
7. Understanding that democracy is a broad and
ideal term and subject to continued growth as new
situations and new problems arise


7. Expressing aesthetic and religious impulses
8. Adjustment to leisure

These areas of living are of major importance in planning
social studies. They represent the scope of the social studies
program. Within these areas are found persistent human prob-
lems; within these areas our culture is found. When we consider
the broadest meaning of education as the transmission, the de-
velopment, and the improvement of our culture and the simul-
taneous development of the individual to the optimum and
maximum of his potentialities, than we see the areas of living
or persistent human problems as the scope of the social studies
The area on cooperating in social and civic action is of vital
concern to the social studies. It includes the fundamental rela-
tionships found in the home, in the community, in the nation,
and in the world. It involves the study of family life and its de-
velopment, the study of school life and the extension of educa-
tional opportunity in our democracy. Likewise, it includes
not only civic and governmental forms but the evolution of those
forms and the way in which government functions in our lives
The area on earning a living is of great importance in the
social studies program. It includes information and issues in-
volved in earning a living in our industrialized society. It in-
cludes a study of distribution, production, and consumption of
goods as they relate to the ways men work and live in our nation.
The area on adjusting to the natural environment involves
a consideration of the social and economic influences of science
and invention on the life and work of our people. It treats prob-
lems of communication, transportation, and conservation as they
relate to social living. The other areas become important to the
social studies program in that the social studies share with
other departments and other teachers in the total school the
responsibility for the personal development and guidance of the
pupils. Social studies may not be directly responsible for ex-
periences in recreation, or physical health, or the development
of the cultural and aesthetic life of the people, but, as these areas


relate to the need for personal adjustment and for the develop-
ment of better social behavior, they assume major importance
to the social studies.

The sequence of the social studies program is determined by
the progressive levels of child development. The characteristics
of children and youth were thoughtfully studied to determine
the functional phases of social living where pupil's interests
might be found. Chart III from the Alabama Program of Studies
and Guide to the Curriculum for Secondary Schools' makes clear
those general characteristics and needs which necessarily must
be the basis for determining the sequence of the social studies
program. The characteristics as stated in Chart III are true of
the majority of adolescents. To meet the general needs, the
teacher must be aware of and concerned about these general
characteristics. He must realize, however, that within any
group there will be deviations from the general characteristics.
He must learn and use techniques for studying these deviations.
For instance, in any group of junior high pupils there will be some
who have not reached the stage of rapid growth of bodily develop-
ment as stated in the Chart, there will be many in the period of
rapid bodily growth, and others who are nearing the end of the
period.8 These deviations will be noticeable in each of the
characteristics stated in the Chart.

7Program of Studies and Guide to the Curriculum for Secondary Schools,
Curriculum Bulletin No. 9, (Alabama State Board of Education: 1941),
p. 184. With adaptations and omissions.
STeachers are urged to read Louella Cole's Psychology of Adolescence
published by Farrar and Rhinehart, New York City.




The presence or absence of
any trait in a person depends
upon his native endowment and
upon his previous experience.
Children in their early ado-
lescent years may be expected
to exhibit in greater or less
degree characteristics which
are stated or implied in the


Children's characteristics as
observed by the teacher may be
a help in determining things to
do or not to do. Below and op-
posite each item of "character-
istics" in the column to the left
some suggested needs are set
down. It is hoped that this
will help teachers in thinking
about both the needs of their
pupils and opportunities for
meeting such needs.

1. Rapid growth of body; rap- 1. Health program based on in-
id development and activity dividual needs; conditions,
of glands; some growths by habits, diet, recreation,
irregular spurts, keeping the work, home life: limitations
neuro-muscular controls dis- upon violent activities; peri-
turbed. Girls about two ods of relaxation; reading,
years ahead of boys in the nature interests, fun; op-
physical development: heart portunities for developing
becomes large relative to fine muscles; writing,
blood tubes, blood pressure sketching, drawing, carving,
higher, growth of brain modeling, athletic activities
fibre, increasing power of
association and sensitivity

2. Physical activity popular; 2. Frequent employment in-
skills desired; physical en- volving activity; adult asso-
ergies abundant, but often ciations freed from criti-
exhausted; fidgety, endless cism and from embarrass-
motions, unbalanced devel- ment due to awkwardness;
opment of bodily organs and outside work limited accord-
intellectual functions ing to conditions; genuine
assurance of friends intelli-
gently interested

3. Emotions strong anger, 3. Calm, impersonal help of
fear, love, excitement, sym- associates in substituting
pathy, reverence, (instabil- control, understanding, good
ity frequently, but not neces- management for emotional
sarily manifested) instability; understandings
leading to sane sympathies;
reverences growing from
wholesome experiences of
his own, not imposed; whole-
some books

4. The following important 4. Much working, planning in
tendencies operate at groups; opportunities to
greater strength: self-as- test out his methods in
sertion, control, defense re- reaching desired ends; so-
actions when thwarted; im- cial and play situations af-
posing opinions upon oth- fording wholesome natural
ers; many tendencies grow- associations of the two
ing out of the sex drive; sexes; opportunities to ap-
gregariousness, play, un- praise virtues of others;
critical imitation of fellows; good stories; biographies
compassion and protection;
parental tendencies



5. Social feeling-social in two 5. Opportunities to serve the
senses: desire for social ac- group, group service to com-
ceptance, approval, pres- munity, school; simple rec-
tige and for social service; ognition of merit; responsi-
altruism-sometimes strug- ability often for important
gling to control action by things, for making decisions
thought; social will slowly
6. Consciousness of personal- 6. Many problems on indivi-
ity; sensitive desire to be dual basis; health, recrea-
recognized as a person tion, interests in reading
and nature; interest in an-
cestry, names, personal da-
ta; personal and group rec-
ords of achievement
growths, difficulties over-
come, happiness
7. Critical (sometimes skepti- 7. Situations for making many
cal) attitude toward per- evaluations on own respon-
sons and institutions; like- sibility; history of develop-
ly to feel that older persons ments in community; much
are very "out-of-date", but use of valid ways of reach-
not necessarily ing conclusions; in using
help of others when needed
8. Imagination 1 i v e 1 y a n d 8. Exploration of creative abil-
strong, t e n d i n g toward ities; interests extended;
s t r o n g constructive and stories, poems, music, handi-
creative interests; idealism crafts, dramatics; planning,
awakening beautifying room or prem-
9. Increasing abi 1 cities for 9. Group planning; gradual
planning, cooperation, de- increase in remoteness of
ferred ends, sacrifice for deferred ends; satisfying
good of all, sportsmanship experiences with opponents;
and the like understandings about peo-
ple far and near
10. Desire for freedom, initia- 10. Group planning, setting on-
tive; often reacts unfavor- ly necessary limitations up-
ably to adults' directions, es- on freedom; dealing more
pecially to commands or to on level of adults, mutual
meaningless work respect; planning work on
basis of life interests
11. Interested in methods of 11. M any opportunities f o r
reaching valid conclusions- reaching conclusions, formu-
e.g. scientific procedure on lating generalizations, in a
his level of ability; curiosity variety of actual situations,
in varied directions arising from needs for ad-
justment to the physical and
social environment-i n d i -
vidual and group
12. Frequent feeling of insecur- 12. Much opportunity to succeed
ity in relation to home, in projects based on needs,
school, social group, eco- interests, abilities; for help-
nomic future, religious in- ing, leading; encouragement
terests, causing resort to es- to use peculiar talents. No
cape mechanisms; o f t e n attachments, or extreme at-
without techniques or cour- tachments to individuals
age to face subconscious in- should be studied
tellectual materials



The presence or absence of Children's characteristics as
any trait in a person depends observed by the teacher may
upon his native endowment and be a help in determining things
upon his previous experience, to do or not to do. Below and
Children in their middle opposite each item of "char-
adolescent years may be ex- acteristics" in the column to
pected toi exhibit in greater or the left some suggested needs
less d e g r e e characteristics are set down. It is hoped that
which are stated or implied this will help teachers in think-
in the following: ing about both the needs of
their pupils and of opportuni-
ties for meeting such needs.

1. Physical development as- 1. Health needs and interests
suming the form and pro- important, ability to relax;
portions of adulthood; ener- forms of recreation to con-
gy system highly sensitized tribute to emotional and
physical well-being; skills
approaching those of ma-
turity; opportunities for
developing posture and bod-
ily grace

2. Intellectual curiosity; rea- 2. Opportunities for much ex-
soning ability; s e e k i n g perience in problem-solving
deeper meaning of things; techniques a n d forming
forming philosophy of life; generalizations; range and
interested in abstract think- depth of interests and ex-
ing, solving problems periences through reading;
challenges to reach valid
conclusions on basis of judg-
ments, facts, observations;
much reading of good litera-

3. Self-assertive and self-reli- 3. Opportunities for self-ex-
ant press ion and self-depen-
dence in achieving his own

4. Disputations in accepting 4. Ideals of conduct not set up
values, theories, explana- as static; opportunities to
tions and facts analyze and discuss prob-
lems, and formulate own
values and ideals

5. Egoism somewhat mature; 5. Needs to be allowed to take
less self-conscious in social his natural place in rela-
situations tion to others in his social
order; to attain growth in
emotional stability

6. Resents arbitrary, authori- 6. Personal freedom in activi-
tative standards or stand- ties where he can face real-
ards autocratically imposed ity and solve practical prob-
lems of value for himself;
much experience in group
decisions, constructive dis-



7. Thought characterized by 7. Much responsibility for ar-
feeling of morality, idealism riving at human values; for
distinguishing codes of be-
havior from morality; hab-
its of appraising social
values; progress with un-
derstanding of values as

8. Sensitive to aesthetic ap- 8. Free opportunity for orig-
preciation inal creative expression,
and aesthetic living in all

9. Sympathetic feeling for the 9. Opportunities for exercise
unfortunate of service, courtesy,
thoughtfulness, helpfulness
to the unfortunate, but not
unwholesome sentimentality

10. Feeling of social responsi- 10. Freedom to participate in
ability the democratic group man-
agement of school work,
social life, recreation

11. Strong interest in opposite 11. Wholesome social life in
sex school and community with
different age groups; whole-
some association of the two
sexes from childhood; wider
acquaintance among sexes;
training for home responsi-

12. Sensitive to the defects of 12. Opportunities to work with
society, critical of social, others from early school
economic and political insti- life; to place valuations up-
tutions and conventions on achievements from time
to time; to exercise patience,
to develop appreciation of
social progress as growth
requiring time, ideals, and
devotion to worthy causes;
broad acquaintance with
great religions and civiliza-

13. Cooperation with the group; 13. Experiences in cooperative
responds to broader social enterprise, such as conserva-
appeal; interest that reaches tion of physical and cultural
farther from self and re- resources; economic im-
sponds to appeals of social provement, governmental
service in home and commu- services, community recre-
munity, and to the world at ation and health, in which
large school groups cooperate with
other agencies


Although allocation of emphasis must necessarily be arbitrary
in some respects, it has seemed defensible from the study of
interests and characteristics of pupils to allocate centers and
aspects for emphasis as follows:



LIVING Adapting to and Development of Orientation to
controlling t h e ways of living t h e economic,
natural environ- in the United social and poli-
ment States tical order



AREAS GRADE 10 GRADE 11 Grade 12
LIVING Social living in Social living in Problems of liv-
its world rela- its American re- ing in our de-
tionship lationship mocracy

These allocations of centers and aspects for emphasis have
guided the organization of grade sequences which follow in later
chapters in this bulletin.


Some Suggested Techniques in Teaching Social Studies

A social studies program is more than the outlines included
in this bulletin. The outlines are guides to content. They point
direction and prevent gaps and overlapping. The use of the
mere outlines will not insure the development of socially in-
formed, socially sensitive, and socially active students. The
social studies program must include techniques and procedures
to be used with the content in such a way that the resulting
behavior of the students will be socially desirable.
Social studies as interpreted in this bulletin is' more than the
interrelation of geography, history, economics, and sociology
in the exploration of a problem. Social studies is concerned
with developing social attitudes. Its primary purpose is to de-
velop a way of looking at things, the American way of looking
at things. Social studies is a way of studying how man lives
and why he lives that way, what his problems are and how he
may solve them, and how we may live together to-day in keeping
with our democratic ideals. It utilizes vast bodies of social data
drawn from the past and from the present. It emphasizes
democratic procedures. It is concerned that socially significant
meanings be experienced. It looks forward to positive social
Wise utilization of the outlines necessitates planning of two
types. The first type of planning must be done by the whole
faculty. Its primary purpose is to develop a school program so
in harmony with the democratic way of life that- the students
experience the democratic way of life and come to cherish it
'The use of the singular verb is intentional.


as their own. Faculties will find help in Part One, particularly
in Chapters Three and Four, of A Guide to a Functional Program
in the Secondary School,2 and in Ways to Better Instruction in
Florida Schools,3 particularly in Chapters Three, Five, Seven
and Eight. This type of planning must concern itself with the
organization of the school day, with human relationships within
the school, and with joint enterprises of the school and the
community. Providing for a student council and participation
in such enterprises as salvage campaigns, victory gardens,
rationing programs, first aid, and community recreation are
examples of socially significant enterprises which should be
the concern of the whole faculty.
The second type of planning must be done by the social studies
teacher and the pupils. Its primary aim is threefold: to stimu-
late interest in problems to be studied and to generate a purpose-
ful attack on these problems; to utilize the creative resources
of the group in securing the best attack on the selected problems;
and to provide experience in group planning, one of the tech-
niques of democratic living. This type of planning may come
at many points during the school year. It is vitally important
at the beginning of the year when the pupils and the teacher
consider the big things they wish to accomplish during the year.
It is equally important when the teacher and the pupils begin to
explore a large area as they seek to define for study one or
more problems within the area. It is of great significance when
difficulties arise during the exploration and study of a problem.
The teacher who is unaccustomed to planning with his pupils
may find the following suggestions helpful. He should first
familiarize himself with the large area to which the problems
to. be studied are related. He should know the sources of ma-
terials for this area and to what extent these materials are
available to the pupils. He should then think of the many ways
by which the problem may be approached. He is then ready to
anticipate the questions which pupils will ask, if they are given
a chance.

2Bulletin 10, State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Fla., 1940.
3Bulletin 2, State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Fla., 1939.


Having anticipated the questions which pupils will ask and
having grouped the questions under the major heads to which
they are related, the teacher should then consider the kinds of
activities which the pupils may engage in to satisfy the demands
of their questions and to assist them to work toward some so-
lution or understanding of the problem. In the teacher's prep-
aration this step is perhaps the hardest, for it means that he
must see the relationship between problems raised by pupils and
the activities engaged in. To engage in activities merely for the
sake of thinking oneself progressive is as pass, ridiculous, and
artificial as sand tables. Activities are the means which the
learner uses to realize his aims and purposes and should result
in meaningful experience. For example, at the eleventh grade
level, if the class were trying to find out who the people of the
Western Hemisphere were, where they were, and why they
were there, one appropriate activity would be for a committee
to find out the population concentration from census reports,
Pan American Union pamphlets, and governmental reports of
the several countries of the Hemisphere and make a dot map
of the Hemisphere showing the population pattern. The com-
mittee which prepared the map might well present it to their
class by means of a panel discussion with the members of the
committee explaining reasons for the concentrations of popula-
tion in the different countries. As they made their explanation,
they should invite questions and discussions from the class as
a whole. If they failed to utilize authoritative source material,
or if they were careless in the graphical representation of their
data, the teacher and the class should challenge the value of
their report. Such an activity as the foregoing is related to
the purposes of the group and should result in meaningful ex-
perience. On the other hand, if the group decided to have a
pageant with representatives from the various countries, it is
doubtful whether such an activity would result in the exact
information and the depth of understanding implied in a full
exploration of Where are the people of the Western Hemisphere
and why are they there?


An approach must be rooted in the experience of the pupils
and must have the possibilities either of broadening and deep-
ening that experience or of leading to new experience which is
significant. It is, as it were, a bridge from meaningful past
experience to meaningful present and subsequent experience.
An approach may be made in three ways: (1) directly-the
usual approach where teachers are accustomed to assigning
lessons or where students are so motivated that they are
anxious "to begin work" as they call it; (2) incidently, through
bulletin board displays, moving pictures, and assigned readings
indirectly related to the area-the approach usually employed
when the teacher must set the stage for the study problem;
and (3) informally, through class discussion-the approach
often used when rapport exists between the teacher and students
to such an extent that they share news items, readings, and
experiences, any one of which may lead to a vigorous discussion
and a decision to find out the answers to questions raised by
the class and to bring them back to the class.
For example, at the eleventh grade level, the teacher might
approach directly the first problem of the outline, Where are
the people of the Western Hemisphere and why are they there?
by writing the question on the blackboard and plunging the
class into a discussion of it. After the class had discussed where
they might find information, assignments of reports could be
made to individuals or to committees. If the approach to the
same problem were to be made incidentally, for several days,
perhaps even a week, the teacher would have placed on the
bulletin board pictures, clippings, and questions related to popu-
lation problems of the Hemisphere. He would have placed on
his desk, or on the reading table in the room, attractive pam-
phlets on the different countries of the Hemisphere, such as those
put out by the Pan American Union. If possible, he would have
on the wall a map of the Hemisphere and even of the world.
Whenever the opportunity presented itself, he would make
references, incidentally, to population problems, especially as
they affected the Western Hemisphere. If possible he would
show slides or a motion picture related to the problem. He


would be on the alert for commentaries on the problem either
from authoritative radio commentators or newspaper columnists.
In these ways the teacher would build up experiences through
which he would be able to approach the problem directly. If
the teacher were to approach the problem informally, he might
open a discussion in some such way as the following: "The other
day I was reading Preston's book on Latin America. I was
amazed to find how many of the people of Latin America are in
Brazil, and yet that the density of population of Brazil is rela-
tively small compared with that of the United States. Have you
ever thought where the people of our country are and why they
are there? And where the people of other parts of our Hemis-
phere, are and why they are there?" Having introduced the
question very informally, he would then guide the class to ex-
press themselves and to ask questions. After a goodly number
of the group had expressed a point of view and asked questions,
the teacher might then ask, "How would you like to find out
where the people of the Western Hemisphere are and why they
are there?" And then he would add the questions designed to
start the planning, "What would we need to know ? How would
we find out? How should we plan to report our findings to the
class?" The advantage of the informal approach is that it
capitalizes on the interest of the group in current affairs and
on their intellectual curiosity with respect to things of the past.
The informal approach does not preclude the use of realia sug-
gested above in the direct approach. In fact, a combination of
the three approaches might, in many cases, be most effective.

As has been pointed out previously, activities must be related
to the purposes of the group and to the needs of individuals
within the group and must result in bringing socially significant
meaning to the individual and to the group. If activities are
planned by the teacher and the pupils to carry out specific pur-
poses which are socially significant, they are likely to result in
meaningful experience. Among the activities frequently used
by social studies teachers are reading, informal class discussions,
written reports, oral reports, debates, and tests. Activities less


frequently used include panel discussions, forums, dramatics,
motion pictures, field trips, and direct participation and work
experience in school and community enterprises. Often the
teacher's sole criterion for having a class engage in an activity
is that "It makes them do a lot of reading and work." Some-
times his criterion for the selection of an activity is merely that
"It is something new I learned in summer school."
Written Reports: The written report is a common activity in
social studies classes. It may be a profitable and appropriate
activity. On the contrary, it may be highly inappropriate. For
example, written reports are often assigned students merely
to have them cover a wide range of reading matter, organize it
around a selected topic or problem, and present it in suitable
form. In such cases, so far as the student is concerned, his
purpose is often mainly to satisfy the demands of the teacher
and receive a grade. The whole performance is relatively ex-
traneous to the basic purposes of his life, and thus the subject
matter covered by his report often fails to become a vital part
of the stream of his experience. The report on assigned topics
which require broad reading may be a very good activity for
an individual student, provided he recognizes his inability to
glean from writings of others and organize his gleanings into
a simple, understandable, and relatively short report, and pro-
vided he wishes to improve his ability to organize. Such reports
may prove to be thoroughly unsuitable, however, for the pur-
poses of a group who are exploring a problem and need the
vigorous exchange of ideas that comes in an informal oral
When written reports are required, however, they should
conform to standards which have been evolved by the teacher
and the class through discussion. At the tenth, eleventh, and
twelfth grade level, the standards agreed upon by the group
should include:
1. A digest of material from several sources pertinent to
the topic rather than a mass of quoted material
2. Careful selection of material and care in relating the
material to the selected topic


3. Exactness in direct quotation with correct footnotes
giving the source of the quotation
4. A well planned presentation of the report, suited to the
purpose and interest of the group
5. An appropriate and pleasant style, necessitating good
sentence structure and discrimination in the choice of
6. Sincerity with respect to the point of view expressed in
the report
7. A scientific attitude in making conclusions
8. A carefully prepared bibliography of sources used
9. Accuracy in such mechanics as spelling and punctuation
10. Attractive form

At the junior high level, while the standards will be much the
same as the foregoing, the wording of the standards as the
class evolves them should be more simple and more in harmony
with the personal emphasis so prominent at this age. The
standards might well be written as follows:
1. We will read from several sources and try to understand
what the authors say. Then we will try to put into our
own words what we have learned.
2. We will use only the information that pertains to our
report, and we will be careful to put what we use in
order so that it makes sense.
3. If we use the direct words of an author, we will give
him credit by including his words within quotation
marks and by making a footnote giving the exact page
from which we took the quotation.
4. We will make our report interesting so that our group
will enjoy it.
5. We will have a variety of sentences and use interesting
words that say exactly what we mean.
6. We will be sincere and mean what we say. We will try
to have something worth saying.


7. We will not make broad statements unless we can back
them up by facts or by good authorities. We will know
where we get our facts.
8. We will make a list of the sources which we use and
attach it to the end of our report. We will learn how to
make a bibliography.
9. We will be careful to spell words correctly and to
punctuate as accurately as possible.
10. We will make our written reports in good form. That
means that we Will write them in ink, will observe
margins and paragraph indentations, will space our
words and lines attractively, and will write legibly and
The student should work toward improving his ability and in-
creasing his power to organize in written form a significant
report. Many teachers have found it helpful to hold a conference
with a student after he has submitted a long written report and
then to have him file his report to be compared by him for
evidence of his growth with reports he will make thereafter.
It is important to note that reports kept by students in their
own files for purposes of comparison are more effective than
those kept by the teacher for the same purpose. After all, the
student should be concerned with his own growth; in comparison,
the matter of a teacher's records is relatively unimportant.
Oral Reports: The oral report should be related, also, to the
purposes of the individual or the group. The purpose for making
the report should govern its nature, length, style, and form.
For example, an oral report may be as short as the correct
pronunciation of a word, or as specific data taken from Census
Reports, or as a few facts of a man's life. It may be as long as
it is necessary to report in interesting detail a trip or the results
of an investigation.
The oral report may be as informal as a contribution made
spontaneously by a member of the group, or it may be as formal
as a student lecture from which the other members of the group
must take extensive notes. No matter whether the oral report
is long or short, it should be prepared in such a way as to engage
the attention of the group and challenge their thoughtful con-


sideration. Unless the oral report contributes to the knowledge
and growth of the whole group, it fails.
By sharing their reading, the group enriches their experience.
The oral report enables the group to utilize a wide range of read-
ing material. If the report is carefully prepared and effectively
presented, each pupil in the group profits by it. To insure having
effective oral reports, the group should understand the purpose
of oral reports and should develop their own standards for ef-
fective reports.
Techniques of Democratic Discussion: McBurney and Hance
have defined discussion as "the cooperative deliberation of
problems by persons thinking and conversing together in face-
to-face or co-acting groups under the direction of a leader."4
As such it is the very life blood of democratic living. The nature
of the social studies is so attuned to the implications of demo-
cratic discussion that it makes the development of techniques of
democratic discussion by social studies teachers not only desirable
but mandatory. Democracy working at its maximum and
optimum needs a citizenry skilful in discussing their mutual
Teachers need to understand the nature and purpose of dis-
cussion, the values and limitations of discussion, the occasions
for discussion, problems for discussion, and ways of preparing
for discussion. A good book on discussion such as McBurney
and Hance's The Principles and Methods of Discussion will pro-
vide the teacher with background. A classroom paper such as
The American Observer" will furnish a wealth of information
about current events which may raise any number of questions
and serve as the basis of discussion.
One Florida ninth grade used The American Observer for the
year as a source not only for keeping themselves informed but
also for providing themselves with material for discussion. They
utilized the front page articles for the basis of oral reports by
individuals, followed by class discussions, panel discussions, class
forums, and debates. They had games-football games they

4James H. McBurney and Kenneth G. Hance, The Principles and Methods
of Discussion, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939), p. 10.
5Published by Civic Education, 744 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C.


called them with teams and downs and touchdowns as ways of
scoring-on the facts included in each number of The Observer.
They compared what they read with radio commentaries, with
news reels, and with articles in the better magazines. As a
result, they attacked the concepts discussed in Building Our Life
Together, their textbook, with interest and insight.
Trips: Although trips may prove difficult to take, especially
during the war, they are nevertheless valuable. The following
experiences of a Florida teacher may prove suggestive. She
has made two trips to the Florida School for the Deaf and the
Blind, combining with them sightseeing tours of St. Augustine
and trips to Fort Matanzas and Marine Studios. In one trip there
were seventy-five persons. As a rule it would be difficult to have
that large a number, but on the other hand when a large number
goes it is possible to have more chaperons and the responsibility
of caring for the group is divided. On the trip mentioned above,
it was arranged that there would be a chaperon to each car and
the group would meet at the school in St. Augustine. It seemed
safer to let all cars meet at one place rather than to form a
motorcade. All car drivers were asked to restrict speed, and the
presence of the principal caused this regulation to be observed.
At the school, the group was divided into three parts. One group
learned more of the methods of teaching the deaf, one group
remained with the blind students, and one saw a little of each
department. The deaf and blind students put on a concert for
the visitors. Notes were compared upon returning home, so
that a better picture of this institution could be gained. The
visitors learned of the excellent methods in use at the school and
were convinced that tax money was being well spent. They
returned to their own school with a firmer determination to
make the most of their own opportunities.
After visiting the school the students and their chaperons
scattered for lunch. It was found that with such a large group
this was better than to crowd one restaurant. Sightseeing was
also done in small groups, and then the crowd assembled so that
a check could be made to see that all were present and accounted
for and the trip home began. A stop was made, so that those,
who wished, could go by boat to Fort Matanzas and another was


made at the Marine Studios, about four o'clock, which is the
usual fish feeding time.
Another teacher has made two trips with her students and
other chaperons to Raiford. The principal arranged with the
superintendent that the party would be guided through the
prison. Upon arrival, the group was entertained in the visitor's
yard by the prison band, until such time as the inmates and
guards had had dinner. Then the members of the party were
given dinner in the guards' dining room, and the chaplain met
them there. The students visited "flat top," which contains
the electric chair, the identification bureau, and finally were
taken to the superintendent's office where he graciously received
them and talked and answered questions for three quarters of an
hour. The students left feeling that everything possible was
being done to rehabilitate the prisoners and make them good
citizens upon their return to the outside world. Subsequent trips
to state road camps brought into focus the difference in accom-
modations and opportunities of the "number one" men and those
who have physical defects which cause them to be kept at
Movies: Although all schools will not be able to create movies,
some can. In fact, it is being done in Florida schools. One teacher
has had as a hobby, since 1929, the making of 16 mm. movies.
Since that time she has made four, based on stories written by
her students, which in turn have been based upon historical data
contained in masters' theses and books on Florida history. The
making of the movies has given the students a taste of creative
work, imagination, and cooperation. The advantage of a movie
over a play is that it can be preserved and shown again and
again. Children of those who acted in the first movie have
viewed it with pleasure. Naturally, the productions bear slight
resemblance to those of Hollywood, but they have been of real
use in creating an interest in the past of our own state. The
citizens of the city gave freely of their time to help the projects.
Homes were loaned, costumes were made and loaned, boats and
cars were generously provided. Box office returns took care
of all expenses incurred and the profit was used toward providing
a projector for the school.


Equipment and Materials for Teaching the Social Studies

Educators disagree considerably as to the exact status of
equipment and materials in regard to the effective teaching of
the social studies. Unquestionably, the quality of these is more
significant than the quantity. Due to the fact that many com-
petitive producers are placing numerous "aids to teaching" on
the market, many of which are of comparatively little value, it
is most desirable for social studies teachers to. approach the
problem of selection with a real desire to make a judicious choice.
It is definitely understood that physical equipment and ma-
terials within the classroom are not intended to replace student
activities and community contacts. In a real sense the social
studies laboratory can not be bounded by the four walls of the
classroom or by the doors of the school building. The value of
everyday experiences outside the school is of inestimable import.
The training in citizenship must be made, in a constantly in-
creasing degree, a matter of direct civic participation. The
relationship of "school work" and "real living" must become
more and more evident to the child as he advances from grade
level to grade level. "Whether it is aiding the street cleaning
department in cleaning up a vacant lot near the school or par-
ticipating in the conduct of a miniature city council such
activities are of immeasurable but unquestionable value in
giving the training in rather than for citizenship which has
been so insistently demanded."'
'Robert W. Frederick and Paul Sheats, Citizenship Through Social
Studies, (Evanston, Ill.: Row, Peterson and Company, 1936), p. 195.


Regardless of what other equipment and materials are avail-
able and desirable, books are absolutely necessary to the effective
teaching of social studies. "Books are as important to the social
studies laboratory as test tubes and retorts are to the chemistry
laboratory. The basic material that pupils require for an under-
standing of the social studies comes from books. Other facilities
and equipment are aids to promote this understanding."2
Because of the fact that the use and value of books increase
with their accessibility, it is urgent that each social studies
teacher put forth every effort to make the books which the class
will need as easily available as possible. In most cases a tempo-
rary room library of the most suitable books relative to the
topics being investigated and definitely on the level of the
students should be established. Unfortunately, if there is much
labor or difficulty in obtaining books, most pupils are prone to
ignore them unless there is, some outward compulsion, and much
valuable time can be lost unnecessarily if a reasonable number
of good books are not available for immediate use. If pupils see
the need of consulting a reference or of looking up an important
point, they will probably do so if the means are at hand, and if
the teacher appreciates their efforts.
The number and types of books necessary for a working
library will depend to. a great extent upon the needs of the
students, the methods of instruction employed, and the topics
being investigated. However, several different textbooks in
each subject, certain selected references, some printed source
material, current newspapers and classroom news bulletins, and
two or three periodicals, all carefully chosen, may be regarded
as essential. The writers of this bulletin have included rather
brief but carefully selected lists of references as a part of each
chapter dealing with the subject matter to be taught in each
grade. Other excellent titles can be found in the bulletin of
State Adopted Library Books for Florida Schools, a copy of
which may be secured by writing to the State Department of

2Arthur C. and David H. Bining, Teaching the Social Studies in the
Secondary Schools, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1935), p. 170.


Education, Tallahassee. Titles in this bulletin have been care-
fully graded and the reading difficulty noted.

From a study of the literature on the subject it is evident
that varying emphasis is placed on other factors of considera-
tion: size of room; seating arrangement in which tables and
chairs instead of desks are advocated; bulletin boards; black-
boards; filing cabinets; bookcases; maps; charts; pictures;
globes; etc. It is recognized that the physical plan of a class-
room has a marked influence on the attitudes, conduct, and
relations of both pupils and teachers. Often an informal seat-
ing arrangement, for example, may arouse more freedom of
expression than all the attempts of a skilful teacher. Without
doubt movable tables and chairs add to the informality of the
room and thus help to. create an atmosphere of ease and friendly
interest. In their new book, Social Studies and the American
Way of Life, Doctors Wrightstone and Campbell describe the
modern,social studies classroom in the following manner:
The social studies classroom has become a workroom demanding a
laboratory setting, laboratory treatment, and laboratory supplies. It
has been found advantageous to have movable blackboards in addition
to the regular blackboards. Bookcases for the social studies library
may be built. A cork bulletin board presenting frequently changed
materials arouses class interest and becomes an important factor in
supplying pertinent information of general appeal. A filing cabinet
for clippings, pamphlets, and items collected by the teacher and the
students becomes an increasingly rich source of information if kept
systematically and used frequently.
The room should contain electric outlets to be used for lantern, pro-
jector, or portable motion-picture machine, (and radio).3 If the
budget will permit, a record-player should be available for recordings
of drama, music, speeches, and incidents of historic importance. The
room should be equipped with shelves for displaying models, and with
drawing tools and equipment. On the tables current numbers of
magazines and periodicals should be placed along with an unabridged
dictionary. The up-to-date social studies classroom should have an
encyclopedia, and statistical reference material such as the World
Almanac, and the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature. School
atlases, historical and geographical, are indispensable, and maps,
both mounted and of the roller-type, should be at hand for reference.
3 (and radio) added by writers of the bulletin.


Thus should the social studies room be equipped for efficient work.
But in these days of lean budgets, the purchase of extensive equipment
is beyond the buying power of most schools. Lack of funds, however,
should not stop the teacher and pupils who want a classroom with a
social studies atmosphere ...... Even with limited means a school
can do much in equipping its social studies room with useful materials
and objects which will increase the effectiveness of instruction
throughout the year.4
Any well-equipped social studies classroom should have a large
variety of materials such as the following:

Dictionaries: 1 unabridged
10 or 12 student editions

School atlases: 2 or 3 small up-to-date (revised each year)
1 large atlas similar to Goode's School Atlas

Encyclopedia: World Book, or Compton's Pictured Ency-
clopedia recommended as first buys 5

Periodicals; pamphlets; and bulletins:
2 or 3 current magazines such as Travel, Na-
tional Geographic, Time, or News Week, and
the Reader's Digest (particularly for grades
10, 11, and 12)
Government bulletins and pamphlets: select-
ed in keeping with topics under considera-
tion 6

4J. Wayne Wrightstone and Doak Campbell, Social Studies and the Ameri-
can Way of Life, (Evanston, Ill.: Row, Peterson and Co., 1942), pp. 221-223.
5These two encyclopedias were recommended in Library Book List for
Florida Schools, Bulletin No. 6, (Tallahassee: Florida State Department of
Education, Dec., 1939).
6The various departments of both the state and national governments
have a great deal of helpful information, much of which can be secured free
of charge or at a minimum cost. Write to:
Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., for free list of
materials published by our national government; also write Office of
Price Administration, Washington, D. C.
The various state departments such as Florida Department of
Agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla.
Inter-American Demonstration Center, Dr. Haygood, Coordinator,
P. K. Yonge Laboratory School, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.,
for materials on Latin America. A display of books, maps, pamphlets,
posters, flags and other realia on Latin America can be borrowed for
two weeks, postage paid both ways.


Pamphlet series on current problems such as:
Building America; Pan American Union Bul-
letin; and Public Affairs Pamphlets; Foreign
Policy Reports, and Headline Books

Newspapers: 1 classroom paper for each 5 or 6 pupils at
least; a large daily newspaper; and a local
The Junior Review (for 7th. grade) ; the
Weekly News Review (for grades 8, 9, 10) ;
and the American Observer (for grades 11,
12) are recommended classroom newspapers
suitable for use in most teaching situations s

Current Events Map: World News of the Week9


Because of the fact that the pupil's world is very personal,
and, in the great majority of cases, narrowly confined to the
phenomena of his immediate environment, it is necessary to
supplement his experiences by providing various means of broad-
ening and deepening them. It is generally agreed that one has
a better conception of things he sees than the things he reads
about or hears discussed. It is important then that the social
studies teacher give some time and careful consideration to the
various audio-visual aids now available for use in this field. Com-
monly used types of audio-visual aids are the following:

7Building America, each issue devoted to a specific current problem, (New
York: Americana Corporation, single copy 30c).
Pan American Union Bulletin, (Washington: Pan American Union).
Public Affairs Pamphlets, (New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc.,
30 Rockefeller Plaza, price 10c each).
Foreign Policy Reports, and Headline Books, (New York: Foreign Policy
Association, 8 W. 40th St.).
SThese three classroom newspapers are published by The Civic Educa-
tion Service, 744 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C.; sample copies and price
lists available on request.
9World News of the Week, (Chicago: News Map of the Week, Inc., 1512
Orleans St.).


Blackboard and bulletin board
Charts: table; stream and tree; and organization or flow
Dramatics: pantomime; playlet; pageant; puppet show;
shadow play
Flat pictures: photographs; prints; post cards
Graphs: pictorial statistics; bar; area; line; diagram
Maps: flat; relief; projection; electric; globe
Models: objects and specimens
Motion pictures: silent; sound; monotone; technicolor
Phonographs: records; transcriptions
Posters; cartoons; clippings
Radio; dictaphone; loud-speaker; public-address and inter-
communicating systems
Stereoscopes: hand; telebinocular; stereographs
Still pictures:
Flat: photographs; prints
Projected: opaque; daylight; transparencies
Slides: glass; cellophane; film strip; ceramic
Trips: journeys; tours; visits1

Teachers should constantly hold in mind the fact that visual
aids do not constitute a method of instruction; they merely sup-
plement other methods and the effectiveness of their use depends
upon how they are used. The fact that they are used is no
guarantee that learning will be improved. No definite standards
or rules can be set up for the selection of visual aids for class-
room use, but the following criteria should help the teacher in
making wise choices:"
1. Is the aid essential in obtaining the objectives of the
2. Is the aid as adaptable as other aids and is it easily
available ?

ioHarry McKown and Alvin Roberts, Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction,
(New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1940), pp. 7-8.
i"Thomas M. Risk, Principles and Practices of Teaching in the Secondary
Schools, (Atlanta: American Book Co., 1941), pp. 575-577. Both the criteria
for judging an aid and the principles or techniques for using are based on
this text.


3. Is the aid economical of time both in preparation before
class and in use during class relative to its importance ?
4. Is the use of the aid as effective as other available aids ?

The general technique in using visual aids will naturally vary
somewhat, but the following principles should assist the teacher
in using visual aids effectively:
1. Visual aids should be used for a definite purpose.
2. Visual aids should be used to aid in establishing ade-
quate imagery of particular objects, places, persons,
events, and the like, relative to the topics or problems
being studied.
3. Visual aids should be used when they serve to stimulate
renewed interests. In such cases a few good aids are
better than many.
4. Visual aids are valuable in summarizing and deepening
the understanding of relationships studied.
5. Pupils should be able to use visual aids intelligently.
For this reason it may be necessary to teach them how
to use certain types of illustrative material-they must
know what to look for and how to interpret it.
6. Planning is indispensable to the effective use of visual
7. The accuracy of visual aids should be checked before
use and plans made for the correction of any miscon-
8. Pupils should be encouraged to make use of visual aids
in studying and in classroom work where their use will
assist in clarifying what is being discussed.
9. Visual aids should not be used when the pupils have an
adequate experimental background to interpret and
imagine the relations being discussed.
Elda L. Merton, referred to in Secondary School Teaching by
J. G. Umstattd, summarizes the main values of various types of
visual aids as follows:12

12Umstattd, Secondary School Teaching, (Atlanta: Ginn and Co., 1937),
p. 298. (with adaptations and omissions).


1. Motion pictures-give reality to situations depending
upon understanding of motion and emotion
2. Lantern slide-focuses attention of entire group for
class discussion of and analysis of a still picture
3. Film roll or strip-shows every stage of a process, in-
dustry, or journey at a comparatively low cost
4. Opaque projector-projects textbook, magazine, and
post card pictures, maps, graphs, diagrams, or descrip-
tive paragraphs for class study
5. Stereograph and stereoscope-give reality to distance
and shuts child away from present environment
6. Maps and globes-give bird's eye view of large areas
and give sense of direction and location
7. Graphs and charts-help to visualize numerical relation-
8. Diagrams-show effectively cross-sections or complete
views of inaccessible areas or complete processes at one
9. Dramatizations-provide opportunities for emotional ex-
pression and an understanding of feeling and moods
10. Museums-provide actual specimens, objects, models,
and collections for observation and examination
11. Experiments-permit the observation of change when
one has put materials under certain conditions to see
what will happen
12. Original sketches, posters, friezes, sculptures-provide
a means for self-expression and an outlet for the child's
13. Cartoons-convey a point of a political, social, or eco-
nomic nature in briefest possible time and smallest pos-
sible space
14. Excursions or field trips-provide actual first-hand ex-

A brief discussion of the important facts concerning the uses
that should be made of particular visual aids may help the
teacher to utilize them to their fullest degree of effectiveness.


Due to lack of space only a few of the more commonly used and
more easily available aids and their uses can be discussed in
this bulletin.
Using the Blackboard: In many of the schoolrooms the black-
boards provided are of such inferior quality that their useful-
ness is almost entirely destroyed. When a good grade of board is
available, however, few visual aids are of greater value from the
standpoint of constant usefulness. Efficient use of the black-
board includes its use for diagrams, sketches, drawings, decora-
tive work; as a screen for still projections-map outlines,
pictures, fade-outs; for outlines; for summaries, directions, and
for individual or group work; and as a substitute for a bulletin
board. The effectiveness with which the blackboard may be
used depends very much upon the good judgment of the teacher
in adapting its use to class needs and upon the techniques
employed. The blackboard lighting is a very important factor.
Much of the effectiveness of the work depends upon the clarity
and ease with which work on the board may be followed.
Using Bulletin Boards: If intelligently used the bulletin board
may be utilized in many learning situations-to motivate, sup-
plement, and enrich learning; to provide opportunities for pupil
cooperation through committee work; to serve as an advertising
and promotional medium for all school interests, causes, and
activities. The types and number of really attractive and bene-
ficial materials that may be displayed to advantage are num-
erous: advertisements; announcements; reports; assignments;
booklets; bulletins; cartoons; charts; clippings; creative proj-
ects; diagrams; drawings; graphs; maps; news items; pam-
phlets; posters; photographs; pictures; poems; and, postcards.
The general school bulletin board is used largely for the pro-,
motion of school events and activities of interest to the school
as a whole. It is important that this board be attractively ar-
ranged, that it be located in an easily available spot, that it be
well lighted, and that the materials on it be neatly mounted and
The class bulletin board reflects material of specialized interest
to the particular group. Displays can help to motivate and in-
terpret or supplement lessons, units, or subjects if the materials


are changed frequently and carefully selected. The maintenance
of the bulletin board represents an excellent class and small group
project. All members of the class should be encouraged to
take an interest in and contribute to the bulletin board, but
in most cases the actual posting of materials and the evaluating
and selection of materials should be done by a reasonably small
committee which is changed frequently enough that the re-
sponsibility does not become a burden. The bulletin board com-
mittee should work under close supervision of the teacher but
should be made to feel that the success or failure of the displays
rest largely upon the committee. This group is guided in the
evaluation, selection, and posting of materials; it is responsible
for keeping the board up-to-date, for removing the old material,
keeping a file of the materials valuable for future use, and
scheduling material for future posting. It must devise motiva-
tional plans to interest the class in the bulletin board displays,
and promote class evaluation of the organization, completeness,
and effectiveness of the bulletin board display.
"Using Textbook Illustrations: The authors who have prepared
the better textbooks have exerted much care in selecting ap-
propriate illustrations, diagrams, charts, cartoons, etc., to ac-
company the discussions in the book. The teacher should exert
as much care in using them. Pupils should be taught to appre-
ciate this portion of visual aids that the author has assisted in
collecting, and he should be taught to use them intelligently.
Using Maps: The map is one of the oldest of the visual aids
and one of the most valuable. The social studies requires the
use of one or more kinds of maps almost daily and the teacher
should anticipate their use as he plans his instructional activities
and have them available when needed.
A partial list of types of maps includes the political map (to
show national boundaries and location of countries) ; the relief
map, with either flat or raised surface (to show elevations and
depressions of the earth's surface) ; population maps (dotted to
show density); temperature or rainfall maps (to show areas
shaded for various temperature or rainfall ranges); product
maps (to show the sources of natural or man-made commod-
ities); and outline maps (to serve various study and testing


purposes). This printed outline map is now accepted as the
starting point for much map work, and little time should be
spent on the use of faulty free-hand drawings of maps of any
type. Many excellent outline maps for duplication on the ditto
machine are available at reasonable cost and these prove much
more satisfactory for most purposes than maps drawn by the
children. For use in the study of current events the World News
of the Week is the best yet available. (See footnote 9).
The pupils must be taught to use maps as they are taught to
use any other type of educational device or material. The pupil
must be taught the purpose of the map-what it is for, why
it is necessary, and how it is used. It is essential that a favor-
able emotional attitude or mind-set toward maps be developed.
In general, when a pupil looks at a map for the first time he
may have any of several reactions: (1) he may be discouraged
or dismayed by the confusing looking details of the map; (2)
he may be attracted by its uniqueness, colors, or other character-
istics; or (3) he may recognize that the map offers answers to
his questions or solutions to his problems. Obviously, the third
of these possibilities represents the favorable and desirable at-
The teacher must be sure to allow ample time for a pupil's
"first looks" at a map. Until the pupil has had time to first
superficially survey the entire map, and then to center his at-
tention briefly on those elements in it that for one reason or
another attract him, it is impossible for him to concentrate upon
the definite points which the teacher wishes him to consider.
The pupil must be given aid to insure that he understands
map symbolism, both the conventional symbols of its practical
elements-land, water, elevation, roads, bridges, etc.-and its
hypothetical elements-poles, equator, circles, parallels, and
meridians. Further, as McKown and Roberts have pointed
out, the pupil must be able to appreciate the relationship of
these to seasonal and time changes and climate, and these in
turn to man's life and activities. It is not an easy task to learn
to associate these locational facts with human activities and the
teacher must remember to allow the pupil plenty of time, ample
opportunity to ask questions, and many occasions to apply what


has already been learned before introducing new symbols. An
abstraction of which the pupil does not have a correct mental
image, even though he can glibly define it, is still an abstrac-
tion. The pupil must see beyond the symbol of the map:
He must see beyond the dot that represents London, the wavy line
that represents the Mississippi River, or the colored patch that
represents lowland France. These are still abstract and meaningless
symbols until he sees peoples producing and consuming, working and
playing, living and dying, and understands how and why they produce,
consume, work, play, live, and die as they do. He must read himself
into the map as a sort of visitor or traveler before he is able really
to interpret it properly and beneficially.'13
The Nystrom Map Company has published an excellent little
bulletin on Learning to Read Maps which is free to teachers who
write for a copy.14
Every social studies teacher should have available the follow-
ing maps:
A political, physical, and outline map of: the world
each hemisphere
each continent
United States
Globes: 1 reasonably large political globe in each room
1 physical globe available at all times
Special map series to accompany each special course
Using Globes: The use of the globe in every classroom is es-
sential to an understanding of world events today. This is an
air age and distance has been greatly reduced in significance
by the use of the modern planes. Air attacks from great dis-
tances are actualities, and the use of the globe will aid in helping
the child to understand how and why these once-thought-impos-
sible feats are taking place today. Modern warfare has centered
our attention on the air as well as the land, on polar air routes
as well as ocean routes. It is recommended that a good. globe
for every classroom be among the first items purchased by any
school at the present time.
The globe is more accurate than the flat map because it actual-
13(McKown and Roberts), op. cit., p. 86.
14Learning to Read Maps, Teacher's Guide to Teaching Map Symbols,
(Chicago: A. J. Nystrom and Co., 1940).


ly resembles the earth in shape, and water and land masses are
shown in proper relative sizes and positions. A clearer and
more accurate understanding of distances can be secured through
the use of the globe. The globe can be used to show clearly the
movements of the earth; to demonstrate changes in time; and
to teach the meaning of latitude, longitude, sunrise, long and
short days, polar nights and days, changes of season, and other
interesting phenomena incident to the movements of the earth.
Using Field Trips or School Journeys: There is probably no
more effective teaching aid than the field trip if it is properly
conducted. The purposes of field trips or excursions are varied
but usually they serve one or more of the following purposes :15
1. To serve as a preview of a lesson and for gathering in-
structional materials
2. To create situations for cultivating observation, keenness,
and discovery; to encourage children to see and know the
things about them
3. To serve as a means of arousing specific interests-as
in birds, trees, art productions, historical settings
4. To supplement classroom instructions; to secure definite
information for a specific lesson
5. To supplement class discussions and conclusions or in-
dividual experience, and to verify previous information
The teacher is cautioned against taking trips without first
making definite preparation. Trips should be planned as an
integral part of the class work and should help to deepen an
understanding or to. solve some of the problems facing the class.
It is best in every instance to make plans for the trip with the
school authorities and those who are to serve as hostesses to
the group. At least one class period devoted to planning with
the children will usually result in a more enjoyable and more
beneficial trip. The size of the group which may be taken on
a trip or excursion will vary with the kind of outing and the
age of the group; in most cases, however, it is wise to keep the
group small, very seldom taking over twenty-five or thirty. If
a school bus or private cars are used as a means of transporta-
tion, be sure to have a responsible adult in charge of each car.
15(Umstattd), op. cit., p. 300.


After. such a trip it is advantageous to spend a reasonable
amount of time discussing the questions the trip has helped to
answer, organizing and summarizing the results of the trip, and
deciding how the trip might have been made more successful.
Using Objects, Specimens, and Models: In much of our learn-
ing, data obtained from objects, specimens, and models, in addi-
tion to the experiences of everyday life, furnish the learning
media of adequate understanding. To get a good understanding
of objects and specimens, pupils need to handle and examine them
closely. For work where a limited number of specimens are
available, study problems may be employed to advantage by
giving individual pupils or small groups of pupils an opportunity
to take turns in examining different kinds of specimens which
can be arranged on trays or tables for such study. Each school
should gradually accumulate its own store of materials for class
use, and teachers should aid the students in developing correct
habits of observation and handling in the use of these materials.
A quantity of useful material is available in every community,
much of which can be obtained by simple collecting and properly
preserving or displaying. Other material will be loaned by
various patrons for short periods of time, or can be borrowed
or rented from other sources; still other materials will be donated
if the patrons know it can be used and that it will be appreciated.
An Educator's Index of Free Materials is available from the
P. K. Yonge Library, University of Florida, for postage only. A
source list of free and inexpensive materials has been prepared
by Bruce Miller, Principal Ontario Junior High School, which
can be secured for one dollar. Still another list of such materials
has been prepared by the Quarrie Reference Library, price five
Using Photographs, Flat Pictures, Posters, and Cartoons: Be-
cause of their relative cheapness compared with most of the

i6For these source lists write:
Bruce Miller, Principal, Ontario Junior High School, Ontario, Cal.
Ask for: Sources of Free and Inexpensive Teaching Aids, Copy-
right 1939; price $1.00.
The Quarrie Reference Library, 35 E. Wacker Drive, Chicago.
Ask for: Free and Inexpensive Educational Materials, Copyright
1941; price $5.00.


visual aids there seems little excuse for failure of schools to
provide collections of pictures suited to the development of
particular courses. In order to preserve pictorial materials and to
insure that they are easily available when wanted, a filing system
is necessary. This need not be elaborate, but it should be practical
and well arranged. All materials should be classified and cata-
logued or indexed in order to make them easily available. A com-
bination of topical-alphabetical index usually provides more easily
for the filing of a varied collection of materials. For example, a
large division sheet of some special color should indicate the
general class of material filed behind it, such as "Famous Paint-
ings"; "Florida Birds"; "Modern Authors"; "Famous Persons";
etc. Behind each of these division sheets in alphabetical order
should be filed the materials suited to that particular division
of the file.
Maintaining and improving a file is a continuous process be-
cause of the fact that all materials must be kept in their right
places and new materials must be added to keep the file up-to-
date. If pictures, posters, and cartoons are to be used effectively,
they must be selected most carefully. The following questions
will suggest criteria on the basis of which these aids may be
judged :17
1. Is it purposeful? Specifically how will it aid the class
in understanding or appreciating desired points ?
2. Is it accurate ?
3. Is it easily understood ?
4. Is it stimulative?
5. Is it suggestive of reality?
6. Is it appropriate to age and grade level of the pupils ?
7. Is it artistic in elements, composition, line, color and
8. Is it a good print: clear and distinct, free from blemishes
or soiling?
9. Is it of practical size: large enough to show details, and
small enough to be easily handled and used ?
Using Projection Apparatus: Because a projected picture is
really essentially only a flat picture reproduced on the screen
"1(McKown and Roberts), op. cit., p. 113. With changes and omissions.


for study by the group, the suggestions given concerning flat
pictures are also applicable to projected pictures. However, the
caution may be added to the teacher not to make the mistake of
presenting too many slides, pictures, or films at one time. The
test of good picture use is not the number of pictures shown,
but the effectiveness with which they were shown, or the extent
to which they helped the child to see and understand.
Motion pictures have proved to be very effective in developing
attitudes, in serving as an introduction to many materials, and
in giving a coherent idea of a process. Films suitable for school
use may be divided into six groups: classroom films, which are
commercially produced films that are definitely designed for
use in connection with the development of certain units of
school work; industrial films, many of which are excellent, but
which it must be remembered are produced with an eye for
advertising; school-made films; documentary films; newsreels;
and photoplays.
In the selection of a film, teachers should consider the follow-
ing questions:18
1. Can the film be correlated and integrated with the course
of study? (Films should not be set apart from other
teaching materials, but should fit in with the other visual
aids utilized, and should be such that the pupils in the
grade with which they will be used can easily under-
stand them.)
2. Is the film accurate ? (Films should be selected by teach-
ers who are thoroughly acquainted with their field of
work. Costumes, modes of travel, types of tools, houses
and buildings, furniture, processes, and so forth, should
be characteristic of the period represented.)
3. Are the pictures of good quality? (Pictures that are not
sharp, clear, and distinct represent a poor educational
4. Are the pictures attractive ? (Good pictures attract, that
is, they are pleasing to view. An unattractive film fails
to interest the viewer and so discourages learning.)
5. Is the film limited to the presentation of pertinent facts?
s8Ibid., pp. 165-167. With changes and omissions.


(Irrelevant facts, processes, or episodes, even though
entertaining, add nothing of worth but useless expense
to a film.)
6. Does the film meet reasonable standards of technical ex-
cellence ? (A film should be smooth and steady. The cen-
tral object, theme, item, or emphasis of the picture should
be plain and intelligible.)
7. Will the film be understood by the student? (Teacher
should remember that they have had a broader exper-
ience and possess a wider range of knowledge than the
students. They should be careful not to overestimate the
understanding of the boys and girls.)
8. Is the film of suitable length ? (Most good classroom films
are not more than 15 to 20 minutes in length.)
9. Does the film possess good motivating qualities ? A film
should leave the pupil with a desire to know more about
the material portrayed.)
There are numerous sources of films, but general information
about films suitable for school use may be secured from the
Educational Film Catalogue, published by H. W. Wilson Com-
pany, 950 University Avenue, New York City. The yearbook for
non-theatrical films is 1,000 and One, published by the Educa-
tional Screen, 64 East Lake Street, Chicago, price seventy-five
cents. A book by William H. Hartley, published by the Bureau
of Publications of Teachers College, Columbia University, 1941,
contains an extensive catalogue of films available for use in social
studies classes. Documentary films, such as The River and The
Plow That Broke the Plains, are examples of the excellent ma-
terials available from government agencies. For full information
regarding government films write to the United States Office
of Education, Film Service, Federal Security Agency, Washing-
ton, D. C., and ask for a directory.
Using the Radio: The radio is one of the newer technological
developments with implications for education. In making use of
this aid, there are three important problems to be taken care
of: preparation for the broadcast; listening, i. e., the actual use
of the radio; and, follow-up work. When correctly utilized, the
radio may make its effect felt in the modern classroom both by


the use of in-school and out-of-school broadcasts. The chief
sources of information about current radio programs of cultural
interest and importance are: the monthly guides mailed free
upon request by the National Broadcasting System, the Columbia
Broadcasting System, and the Mutual System; the weekly maga-
zine Movie and Radio Guide, on sale for 15c at most newsstands;
and the radio columns of daily newspapers.
Certain dangers and limitations in the use of the radio must
be kept in mind by teachers who plan to use this aid wisely.
In the first place, radio is accepted as supplemental to regular
school activities. Obviously, school programs cannot be timed
to fit all good radio programs, and much radio material that
might be used if presented at an opportune time is not valuable
enough to justify interrupting the regular school program. Be-
sides this, there is danger in yielding to the fascination of using
the radio and mistaking entertainment for effective work. Pupils
like the radio because it is an easy way out of other work, and
it may thus easily become a way of wasting time. Merely listen-
ing to the radio may result in superficial learning. It may be-
come a "pouring in" process in which pupils try to reproduce
what they have heard without thinking the problem through.
To be effective there must be some objective in listening. Pupils
should see that listening to the radio is not an end in itself; it
should supplement the work of the class by furnishing new infor-
mation, new points of view, and by stimulating thinking relative
to the problems under consideration by the class.19
Using Workbooks and Manuals: Of all aids available the man-
ual or workbook is perhaps the most misused. In the first place,
the numerous kinds and varieties of these which are on the
market make the selection of a suitable one extremely difficult.
In the second place most of the workbooks are written to ac-
company a specific textbook, or, at best, utilize only four or
five texts; this is undesirable in that it has a tendency to con-
fine the teacher and pupils to the use of the text or of a com-
paratively small number of books. Teachers are reminded that
the activities provided in a manual or workbook are generally
intended to be carried out under a plan of carefully supervised,
19(Risk), op. cit., pp. 611-612. Adapted to suit needs of bulletin.


directed study. Activities provided for in workbooks include re-
quired and suggested readings, problems, exercises, questions,
map making, graph preparing, and work of a similar nature
from which the teacher is to select that which can be profitably
used in the class as a whole or by specific students. These ready-
made procedures may prove suggestive to the teacher, but the
best results in teaching can not be obtained by following slavish-
ly, page by page, the directions of a workbook or manual.
In conclusion, may we again caution the teacher by saying
that materials and equipment can not be substituted for good
planning and effective teaching techniques. The effectiveness of
any teaching aid is the way in which it is used. The best equip-
ment and the greatest number of visual and auditory aids do
not always result in good teaching. The teacher-his training,
personality, and techniques-is of paramount importance. Un-
fortunately, of all the subjects in the curriculum, the social
studies have suffered most from poor teachers. For many years
it has been generally held that anyone can teach social studies.
All that is considered necessary in many cases is a textbook
and the ability to watch the students while they, apparently,
read it. The teacher's task is believed to consist of merely seeing
that the pupils are able to give back the facts presented in the
book. When one considers the aims and objectives of education
and the part that the social studies can play in the accomplish-
ment of these aims, one wonders why the teaching of social
studies is so viewed in many of our schools. As is so .aptly
stated in Bining and Bining's Teaching of the Social Studies in
the Secondary School:
If the social studies are to aid pupils to understand this complex
world in which we live, in order that they may better adapt themselves
to it and prepare themselves for intelligent citizenship, does this not
require a well-trained and superior type of teacher? Do not the
social studies demand, more than any other subjects, well-prepared,
conscientious men and women of sound knowledge and training, whose
personalities rank high among men? The teachers of the social studies
deal with attitudes, ideals, and appreciations to a larger extent than is
the case in other branches of study. The study of algebra, the ap-
preciation of a poem, the knowledge of the natural world, important
as they may be, cannot be compared with the teaching of pupils to
live together in a democracy and to raise the tone of that democracy
by developing an intelligent electorate. 20
20(Bining and Bining), op. cit., p. 220.


Social Studies and the War

America must be strong-strong to meet any threat against
her way of life from armed agressors; strong to solve her
domestic problems by peaceful democratic means. To the build-
ing of a stronger nation, the schools are dedicated. By the proc-
ess of instruction and training they seek to develop in the
youth of the nation those essential knowledge and skills and
that devotion to our democratic way of life which make for
national strength and unity.1
The special contribution which the schools can make to the
nation at war is a matter of serious concern to teachers, prin-
cipals, superintendents, and others concerned with the admin-
istration of schools. All are agreed that the schools must become
vital centers for the education of youth and adults. Planning a
constructive program of service in a critical situation is always
difficult. The war emergency demands unbiased judgment,
careful planning, and immediate action. Hasty steps must not
lead to confusion. Pressure groups must not lead to a distortion
of the school's objectives. Reason and not mere patriotic en-
thusiasm must control the planning.2 But immediate and sig-
nificant action must result.
The Educational Policies Commission has recently issued a
statement of war policy for American schools. The commis-
sioners write: "Without abandoning essential services of the
schools, appropriate war duties of the schools should be given

1What the Schools Can Do, Education and National Defense Series
Pamphlet No. 4. Federal Security Agency, United States Office of Educa-
tion, (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1941), p. 1.
2Ibid., p. 1.


. . priority in time, attention of personnel, and funds over any
and all other activities."3 Such activities include:
Training workers for war industries and services
Producing goods and services needed for the war
Conserving materials by prudent consumption and salvage
Helping to raise funds to finance the war
Increasing effective man-power by correcting educational
Promoting health and physical efficiency
Protecting school children and property against attack
Protecting the ideals of democracy against war hazards
Teaching the issues, aims, and progress of the war and
the peace
Sustaining the morale of children and adults
Maintaining intelligent loyalty to American democracy4
All these war activities are vitally important. They must be-
come necessarily an essential part of school planning at the
present time.

Social studies and social studies teachers have, both grave re-
sponsibilities and new opportunities as their part in the war
duties of the school. Many of the items listed by the Educational
Policies Commission have important implication for the social
MXintaining Intelligent Loyalty to American Democracy:
Social studies teachers can help to develop citizenship.5 Good
citizenship shows itself in behavior; that is, in actions, thought,
speech, and interests. Social studies can contribute to the de-
velopment of citizenship by providing boys and girls with oppor-
tunities to live democratically. Social studies teachers can be
leaders in setting up machinery whereby, within a democratic
framework, administrators, teachers, pupils, parents, and other
citizens of the community work together to attack problems in
3A War Policy for American Schools, (Washington: Educational Policies
Commission of the National Education Association and the American
Association of School Administrators, 1942), p. 4.
4Ibid., p. 1.
5(Federal Security Agency), op. cit., pp. 2-5.


the classroom, on the playground, in the community, or in other
areas of human living. Civic education will become more realistic
when classroom doors swing both ways, to take the class out into
the community and to bring the community into the class. Citi-
zenship activities already under way should be continued. Safety
patrols, care of school ground, surveys of community resources,
honor courts, student government councils, and democratic living
in the classroom should be continued. At the same time, new
emphasis can be given to citizenship in areas that bear distinct
relationship to the present war effort. The following are sug-
gested as examples of suitable activities related to local prob-
lems of citizenship:
1. Encourage young people to take an active part and in-
terest in local problems to be decided by popular vote.
2. Let high school students take a census of those citizens
who voted in the last election and let them take part in
the drive to get out the vote at election time.
3. Make it possible for the young people to help in a com-
munity-sponsored project for the induction of new voters
into citizenship by means of some type of ceremony that
will dramatize rights, duties, and responsibilities.
4. Give to the young people greater awareness of com-
munity services that they can render.
5. Make more meaningful all ceremonies that have to do
with patriotic symbols and observances.
6. Clarify the meaning of democracy, "The American Way,"
by stressing the basic qualities, meanings, and character-
istics of the civic code and creed to which Americans are
7. Emphasize the importance and the value of civil liberties
to the individual and to a democratic society. Under-
standing of and allegiance to the civil liberties-which
are also civil responsibilities-must be carefully nour-
ished if these central bulwarks of democracy are to be
preserved. Consideration should be given to such ques-
tions as: "Is the press in the United States free?"
"Why is it necessary or desirable to limit freedom of
speech during war time ?" "What new problems of free-


dom of speech does the radio present?" "In what ways
are civil liberties involved in labor disputes ?"
8. Encourage students to participate in all community
activity connected with the war effort. This presents
a real opportunity to the social studies teacher in pro-
viding direct rather than vicarious experiences. Organize
Junior Red Cross units; encourage the sale of war bonds
and war stamps; provide experiences in "foods for fit-
ness" by joining nutrition classes; encourage students
to take an active part in the salvage campaign being
waged in the community; and, develop an understanding
of and a desire to help in the work of all the agencies for
the war effort. Explain the work of the Office of Price
Administration, the rationing system, and how each in-
dividual may share in necessary sacrifices.
Teaching and Practicing Conservation:- Conservation of
natural resources has long been emphasized in our national life
and has received increasing attention in our schools. Of even
greater importance is the wise use of physical, mental, and
spiritual resources of individuals and of groups. The problem
of conservation of human and natural resources should at all
times concern every pupil in the school and every person in the
community. Most especially is this true now when the wastes
of war are rampant in the whole world. The following activities
are significant of what may be done in this field in social studies
1. Organize pupil committees to collect figures on school
expenditures for light, heat, equipment, school and
service supplies, building repairs and maintenance. Such
committees may be genuinely helpful in conserving
school property.
2. Take excursions into the community and its environment
to study erosion control, water supply, crop rotation,
forest conservation, flood control, drainage, and other
problems of conservation appropriate to the locality;
study the special significance of meeting such problems
satisfactorily in the present crisis.
MIbid., pp. 7-8.


3. Plan ways to save water, soil, food, and clothes without
sacrificing real needs.
4. Study the uses and care of iron and aluminum in the
homes or farms of the community and analyse the uses
of scrap iron and aluminum in the defense program.
5. Study the programs of the local Community Chest or
other welfare agencies devoted to the conservation of
human resources; encourage their support by individuals
and groups.
6. Start programs to stop waste at its source.
Emphasizing Vocational Efficiency:7 Rather general agree-
ment has been reached and continues to exist in the United
States with regard to the desirability of combining education
with work experience. At the present time a patriotic as well as
an educational incentive tends to bring about such a combination,
since the extensive program of the war effort supplies not only
an opportunity but an obligation for everyone to get to work on
worthwhile projects.
Vocational training thus comes to the fore in order that an
adequate supply of competent workers may be available in those
occupations in which workers are needed. There is great waste in
our educational system through the placement of pupils in
schools, in classes, or in working situations without regard to
their interests and abilities. This not only results in lowered
educational and vocational achievement, but also in emotional
and social maladjustment. The war effort demands that we
eliminate as much of this waste as possible through wholesome
and consistent guidance that reaches into every phase of the
pupil's life. It calls for a serious study of the problem which
high school students face with regard to their plans for further
education, their choice of a suitable vocation, and their adjust-
ment of habits, attitudes, and objectives in the light of war
Some of the activities and techniques which are significant
in this area are:
1. Acquaint pupils with the special programs established
by the United States Government for the training and
'Ibid., pp. 9-10. *


employment of war workers and study their application
in the State and the community.
2. Survey the local program for vocational education in the
trades. Schools in many communities are planning to
give pupils in larger numbers preliminary training, at
least, in basic war industries and for occupations where
replacements are needed for workmen who have left
their present jobs to contribute more directly to the war
3. Encourage pupils to participate in the programs in such
fields as industrial arts, home economics, and agricul-
ture. These areas provide, to an unusual degree, op-
portunity for home projects: such as, home repairs;
gardening; canning; wiser expenditures for consumer
goods; and conservation of food and clothing. Such ex-
periences have social value in developing attitudes which
are useful and especially necessary in this time of stress.
4. Encourage students to engage in various work activities
of a service type: such as home nurses; volunteer nurses'
aides; sewing programs; and canning projects. Civic,
social, and personal values are inherent in developing in
youth a desire for worthwhile and active participation.
5. Make the guidance program more significant. Social
studies teachers have a very real opportunity to make
the study of vocations worthwhile to the students. They
should adjust learning situations to individuals, aid in
the selection of courses by young people on the second-
ary level, and assist in their social adjustment. Special
help should be given to the boys who will soon be eligible
for military service to plan wisely the use of intervening
time for further education or for employment in the light
of their ultimate vocational objectives.
Building Civilian Morale: Good morale is as important to
defense as guns and planes. Morale in a democracy is unity of
purpose based on common understanding. That kind of morale
thrives on free and full discussion. Now, more than ever before,
our strength is the strength of each citizen-young and old alike.
The pattern of Axis aggression is clearly recorded in bombed


cities, enslaved peoples, treacherous fifth columnists, lying
promises, and the destruction of human freedom. War is no
longer army against army or navy against navy. We need more
than an army and a navy. We need understanding. We need
understanding of enemy tactics, of economic and social problems
involved in war, and, above all, an understanding of our way
of life, a faith in our way of life, and a determination that our
way of life shall be maintained. Schools in the present crisis
are called upon to make their contribution to morale based on
common purposes freely accepted. Social studies teachers have
a grave responsibility and an excellent opportunity to make a
worthwhile contribution to the building of good morale. Social
studies teachers can vitalize their program by inquiring into
improved ways and means of teaching the meaning of democracy,
of improving student understanding of dictatorship, and of relat-
ing the war effort and the new social and economic problems to
the regular courses in the social studies.
Social studies teachers could form committees to prepare pro-
grams for local use, and to make available to other teachers and
to the community new teaching aids: such as, new books, pamph-
lets, discussion outlines, and bibliographies. Social studies
teachers can organize student services and contribute to a pro-
gram of civic enlightenment through encouraging students to
help in promoting attendance at public meetings, in preparing
themselves to take part in forum programs and in helping to
build up school and community libraries of information. Social
studies teachers usually have a background of subject matter
and training which should put them in a position in the com-
munity to. assume a position of leadership in community dis-
cussions of war problems. This opportunity should not be neg-
lected. Teachers and pupils may contribute much to community
morale by staging patriotic plays, pageants, musical evenings,
and international festivals. Exhibits of books, materials,
posters, and visual presentation of facts and information about
the war effort can be prepared by teachers and pupils. Teachers
in their campaign of enlightenment can train student panels
and debating teams and arrange for their appearance in the


Answering Pupil's Questions on the War:8 Everyone who
spends much time with adolescents realizes that the war has
raised many questions in. their minds-questions which cause
anxiety and which they worry about a great deal. It is generally
conceded that a certain amount of this strain can be removed
if the pupils are assured that they may have an opportunity to
accumulate information casting light on questions relating to
the war which they would like to have answered. Questions
which pupils may ask may be sorted into four categories: those
involving factual information only; those involving predictions
of future happenings; those involving possible explanations of
past occurences; and, those involving questions of values. High
school pupils need experiences which consideration of these
questions involve. Their reality and their significance make the
activity all the more valuable educationally.
The first type of question involving factual information is,
of course, the easiest to answer. Illustrations of such factual
questions are: (1) "How is the United States taking care of
the German, Italian, and Japanese aliens here ? (2) "How is my
community preparing for civilian defense?" and (3) "What are
the powers of the local draft board ?" While it may not be easy
to obtain the answers to these questions the facts are available.
Certainly it is an important function of secondary social studies
teachers to make these facts accessible to pupils.
Questions illustrating the prediction of future happenings
are: (1) "What will be rationed next year?" (2) "Will the draft
age be increased further ?" (3) "What kind of taxes will be im-
posed next year ?" These questions can not be answered definite-
ly; they are beyond the data we have at hand. It is possible,
however, for most pupils of secondary school age to discuss them
intelligently and to receive much benefit through making in-
ferences about future developments from present and past
Questions involving theoretical explanations of past occur-
ences are: (1) "Why did the United States not prepare for an
attack on Pearl Harbor ?" (2) "Why didn't the President put a

sStephen M. Corey, "Children's Questions and the War", The School
Review, April, 1942, (Chicago: The University of Chicago), pp. 257-263.


ceiling price on sooner?" (3) "Why have the United Nations
not established a second front?" The answers to these ques-
tions are exceedingly complex and in many cases impossible to
answer in the social studies classrooms; but, to get the matter
out in the open and to attempt to accumulate as much factual
information as is available is an experience which all secondary
school pupils should have.
Questions involving the "should" concept include most of the
questions which will have to be handled most carefully. Such
questions are: (1) "What shall be done with conscientious ob-
jectors ?" (2) "What shall be done with Germany after the war
is over?" (3) "How shall we treat aliens in our country?" De-
spite the fact that these questions involve many prejudices, few
will fail to recommend that such questions should be part of the
experiences of secondary school pupils. The amount of incidental
learning which pupils acquire when investigating these ques-
tions is well known to everyone who has recently and for the
first time learned much of the geography of the South Pacific
and the islands of the East Indies.

American cooperation is as old as the American Re-
publics themselves. The existence of many of them as independ-
ent states is due to the cooperation which each accorded the
other, and which in one form or another has been applied
throughout the period of their national existence. It has mani-
fested itself principally in international conferences and the
work of permanent institutions.
Cooperating for Common Defense and Mutual Protection:
The conferences between the American Republics may be de-
vived into two periods: those held prior to 1889, which were more
or less regional in character and in which only a small number
of governments participated; and, those held after 1889 when
the Pan American movement began and when participation in-
cluded practically all of the republics of the Western Hemisphere.
Conferences prior to the outbreak of the present war included
agreements on the promotion of international trade, on the peace-
ful settlements of international disputes, and on cultural, economic


and political matters. In 1938, at Lima, the war emergency
led to a declaration of the principle of solidarity. At this time
the American Republics affirmed their continental solidarity
and their purpose to consolidate in the maintenance of their
sovereignty and against all foreign aggression. Likewise, they
agreed to the principle of consultation in case of threats to the
peace or security of any American Republic. In 1939, the Amer-
ican Republics agreed to establish a zone of security around the
American Continents to be kept free of belligerent activities and
within which the nations of America might carry on their peace-
ful activities. In 1940, the American Republics agreed on pro-
visional administration of European colonies and possessions
in the Americas. At the 1940 conference, likewise, resolutions
and declarations were agreed upon which provided reciprocal
assistance and cooperation for the defense of the Americas.
Since American cooperation is so vitally necessary in the
present war, social studies teachers should develop an under-
standing of the importance of the recent conferences and create
a desire to further the cooperative movement.
Cooperating for Economic Benefits: The larger part of inter-
national contacts is through trade. National prosperity is, in
part, dependent on it. Nations must import as well as export,
for the one makes possible the other. Economic relations, there-
fore, have occupied a prominent place in the discussions between
the American Republics. Many special conferences have been
held to consider the problems of finance, transportation, com-
munication, agriculture, and trade and commerce in general.
Resolutions have been adopted by the American Republics em-
bodying broad declarations of principle designed to promote and
improve economic relations. Trade barriers have been reduced
through bilateral reciprocity treaties, and through the United
States Export-Import Bank with loans to sixteen Latin American
In the field of agriculture, technical and administrative ex-
perts have been sent to many Latin American Republics to study
their resources and make recommendations for improvement. In
the field of transportation and communication, airlines have


been established, railways have been built, and highways have
been constructed. Much of this work has been finished and
agreements have been made on migration, colonization, unem-
ployment, working conditions, standards of living, social in-
surance, enforcement of social legislation, and the solution of
labor conflicts. A conference in 1939 dealt with economic health,
and the social aspects of housing, city planning, and low cost
housing. A recent and important development has been to
create a financial and economic advisory committee composed
of an expert from each Republic. This committee is to promote
economic and financial cooperation between the American Re-
publics. It has been in continuous session since 1939. Social
studies teachers should lead their pupils to see the importance
of and the significance of these continued efforts toward eco-
nomic cooperation of the American Republics.
Cooperating in Cultural Affairs: The American Republics
recognize that international relations must be founded on a
broader basis than those of trade and commerce; that they must
be based on intelligent appreciation by the people of each
country of the cultural values of the other nations. In recent
years much stress has been placed on the need for cultural un-
derstanding. Efforts to promote this cultural understanding
have resulted in the calling of conferences and assemblies to
bring together representatives of different countries to study
ways and means to secure mutual understanding. Professors
and students have been exchanged. Textbooks have been re-
vised to eliminate from them topics which would arouse enmity
toward any American nation. Languages of other nations have
been included in the programs of the public schools. Books among
twenty American republics may be sent at reduced rates. Music
and art exchanges have been worked out. Cooperation in public
health services has been a vital factor in wiping out epidemics
and making disease-ridden ports healthful. Real cooperation
among the American Republics necessitates a broad and thorough
understanding of cultural values. Social studies teachers are
faced with a grave responsibility and a real opportunity to de-
velop this necessary understanding.


In planning their program of instruction during the war,
social studies teachers must recognize the necessity for emphasiz-
ing the area on international relations. An intensive study of
this area should be part of the year's work. The basic strategy
of other wars in United States history may be studied as a basis
for comparison with the strategic outlines of the present war.
The different forms of military recruiting and selective service
adopted by our government in various periods may serve to
develop an understanding of some of the problems in our pres-
ent war effort.
Understanding the Need for Individual and Community Co-
operation: The people in the United States have been accused
of complacency, of being unwilling to make sacrifices, of not
being willing to give up comforts and luxuries to help win the
war. The facts belie such wholesale and indiscriminate criticism.
The social studies teacher should recognize his responsibility
and his opportunity and be prepared to assist students to dis-
tinguish between irresponsible and just criticism. Students
must be aroused to the need for sacrifice of their own comforts
and the need for a changing standard of living. They must be
encouraged to accept these changes wholeheartedly and cheer-
fully. They must be willing to do some useful work and to par-
ticipate effectively in all the activities planned by the com-
munity to further the war effort. They must see the danger
of propaganda, of fifth columnists and spies, of unguarded com-
ments and the spreading of stories. A faith in our leaders, a
faith in our future, a faith in our way of life must be developed
in the classrooms of our country. The social studies teacher
must recognize his responsibility and his opportunity!
Understanding the Need for Cooperation Among the United
Nations: Students from time to time will hear criticism of the
efforts of our Allies. Teachers must make an effort to secure
cooperation by developing an understanding on the part of the
student of the sacrifices made by our Allies in this war. The
courage of the English in the midst of bombing and disaster,
the heroism of the Chinese under horrible conditions, the valiant


stand of the Russians could well become part of the classroom
discussions. Students must realize that we are not fighting
someone else's war. This war is a fight for our very existence
and no effort is too great and no sacrifice too hard to make victory
possible. A vital part of the classroom experience could be a
study of the Atlantic Charter, the President's speech on the
"Four Freedoms," and the planning for the peace. The student
must realize that the United States is a leader in the effort to
win the war and that this leadership carries with it a grave
responsibility. Likewise, the place of leadership will probably
be ours when the peace comes, and an even graver responsibility
will be ours. Students must be prepared for active and efficient
participation in the "just peace" that follows this war.


Suggested Planning and Guides for Grades
Seven Through Twelve


Grade Seven

Adaptation to and Control of Geographic Environment

The social studies course in the seventh grade is part of a
two-year block. The purpose of this block is to develop an un-
derstanding of how different ways of living in the Western
Hemisphere evolved through the struggles of pioneers and their
successors to utilize, exploit, and control the resources of the
Hemisphere. The two-year block is designed to develop a back-
ground for understanding why various economic, social, and
political problems have emerged in the development of the two
continents.1 In the seventh grade the content is mainly geo-
graphical and relates especially to factors affecting ways of
living in both continents. In the eighth grade the content is
mainly historical, emphasizing how ways of living have de-
veloped in the United States. These emphases do not mean
that geography is taught as mere geography, history as mere
history, but rather that the two are interrelated as the need
The social studies course for the seventh grade has two major
purposes. The first is the development of an understanding of
how such geographical factors as soil, climate, other natural
resources, topography, and location affect the ways men live
and work in the Western Hemisphere. The second is guidance
in classroom experiences which will aid in the personal-social
adjustment of the child.
1Florida School Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 8, (Tallahassee: State Department
of Education, April 15, 1942), p. 25.


The major social meaning to be developed in the seventh grade
may be thought of as "active adaptation." This concept means
the interaction of people, soil, climate, and other natural re-
sources. The development of this concept should come through
teaching and learning experiences which show the differences
between the active adaptation of early settlers and that of people
today (1) in Florida, (2) in other regions of North America,
and (3) in Latin America. The comparison is made as a means
of developing an understanding not only of the part played by
environment in the growth of a community but also of the role
played by social and scientific invention in the control of geo-
graphic environment.
Wise utilization of natural resources should be emphasized
throughout the course in order to develop an attitude favorable
to conservation. For example, as the teacher develops experi-
ences related to kinds of soil as they affect living, he should
teach soil conservation. As he teaches the influence of vast
forest areas on colonial living, he should teach conservation of
Work in any social studies field requires the development of
certain functional skills. The experience in the seventh grade
should lead to an increased ability in reading and interpreting
maps. The pupil must understand the kinds of map symbols and
their significance and be able to correlate them with geographical
terms. He must acquire an understanding of the graphic scale
and a sense of direction.2 He should likewise increase his ability
to locate information by the use of the index, the dictionary, and
the card catalogue where library facilities are available. He
should become familiar with such sources of recent data as the
World Almanac.
The social studies experiences in the seventh grade should
include an intelligent interest in current affairs. This interest
should be fostered by constant reading, by discussion of a local
and state newspaper, through worthwhile radio programs, and
through a study of a good weekly newspaper designed for class-
2Learning to Read Maps, Teacher's Guide to Teaching Map Symbols,
(Chicago: A. J. Nystrom and Co., 1940), pp. 3-5.


room use.3 This emphasis on current affairs is necessary so
that the pupil may understand, to some extent, what is happen-
ing to his way of life and ways of living in his own community.
At this time this bulletin is being written rubber salvaging, gas
and sugar rationing, victory gardens, and first aid courses con-
front the pupil. His interest and desire to participate may be
used for initiating worthwhile and purposeful activities.
Teachers of the seventh grade will be encouraged to under-
take the work outlined for the year when they understand that in
grades four through six, the pupils have been concerned chiefly
with experience directed toward improvement of living in dif-
ferent regions. Typical communities are studied in grades four;
regions of the Western Hemisphere, in grade five; and regions
of the Eastern Hemisphere, in grade six. Thus from the sixth
grade the pupil should bring to the seventh grade, an elementary
understanding of the interdependence of the modern world, of
the persistence of certain problems in all communities, of the
differences in communities and the reasons for the differences,
and of the developments that have made living together possi-
ble.4 Such concepts represent an excellent foundation for the
attainments of the first major objective of the social studies
course for the seventh grade.
The teacher must become increasingly aware of the physical,
social, and personal needs of the pupils. He must recognize these
needs and plan purposeful and wholesome activities to meet
them. The emotional as well as the physical well-being of the
pupils depends on fresh air, appropriate foods and clothing, and
a rhythm of rest and activity. Social needs become more im-
portant as pupils reach out from home and widen their spheres

,3It is recommended that for current events study The Junior Review be
used for junior high school, and The American Observer, or the Weekly
News Review be used for senior high school. These papers are published
by the Civic Education Service, 744 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C.
Sample copies of these publications will be sent to teachers upon request.
Other good publications are: Junior Scholastic, and Scholastic, published
by Scholastic Corporation, New York; Our Times, published by American
Education Press, Columbus, Ohio; The News Map of the Week, published
by News Map of the Week, Inc., 1512 Orleans Street, Chicago, is recom-
mended for use in connection with the papers suggested above.
4A Guide to Improved Practice in Florida Elementary Schools, Bulletin
9, (Tallahassee: State Department of Education, October, 1940), pp. 108-110.


of interests. Probably the most fundamental of the social needs
is the longing for love and affection. This need, if it is not satis-
fied by group contacts or by friends at the beginning of the
adolescent period, may give rise to feelings of timidity and in-
feriority, to jealousies and to day-dreaming. As he grows and
develops, the child wishes for acceptance and approval by the
group. Anything that sets him apart from the group, especially
if it receives unfavorable attention, may be the cause of un-
wholesome behavior. Youth must also believe in himself. Youth
needs to face the real nature of social forces. He needs to come
in contact with authority in its different forms, to meet suc-
cess and failure, pain and pleasure, work and leisure, antago-
nism and cooperation.5 Youth must not have too much of the
experience of adults in the form of generalizations, precepts,
and warnings. He must be shown the possible dangers of form-
ing his generalizations from his own direct experiences alone.
He needs both direct and vicarious experiences. He needs help
in organizing the concepts he is forming and guidance as he
progresses toward self-realization. Pupils entering the seventh
grade have come, in many school situations, from elementary
schools where they have daily contact with only one or two
teachers. Junior high school, with its various departments and
special teachers for each class, presents to the pupil a very real
problem of orientation and adjustment.
Youth needs at this time the sympathetic understanding and
the wise counseling of an active, wide-awake teacher. Materials
to aid teachers in this most important work are presented in
Area I in the content outline which follows in the latter part of
this chapter. The question for consideration in Area I is "What
educational opportunities do the secondary schools offer the
students ?"
Such experiences may serve two purposes: first, aid the pupil
in orienting himself in a new school situation; and, second, aid
the teacher in finding out about the pupil so that he may guide

5A Guide to a Functional Program in the Secondary Schools, Bulletin 10,
(Tallahassee, Florida: State Department of Education, October, 1940),
pp. 65-80.


the pupil more wisely. Consideration of this question is basic
and should be required. The time to be spent on it depends en-
tirely on the local situation and on the needs of the pupils. If
the local situation is a large junior high school where the pupils
have enrolled for the first time from many elementary schools,
the time should be three or four weeks. If the local situation is
a small school where the pupils have moved from one room to
another, less time is needed.
Whereas the first major purpose of the seventh grade course
may be realized through experiences related to content, the
second major purpose can be realized only through the kind of
living which goes on in the classroom. It is made up of the
relation between pupil and teacher, and between pupil and pupil.
Personal-social adjustment is a daily responsibility, a major
purpose of the year's work.
As he plans the year's work, the teacher's attention is called
to the areas with asterisks, in the outline of content which fol-
lows. Areas I, V, VI, VII, VIII, XI, and XII, are most significant
in the attainment of the major objectives of the seventh grade
course and must be necessarily the greater part of the year's
work. Other areas may be included as the need arises. If the
pupils in the elementary grades in their study of communities
and nearby communities have learned why the first settlers
came to Florida and why they changed their ways of living
Areas II and III could be omitted. If the pupils in the fifth grade
have studied ways of living in Florida today as part of their
work on the Western Hemisphere, Area IV could be omitted.

The work of the seventh grade should center around problems
related to the major aspect for emphasis. The problem presents
a challenge to pupil and teacher and stimulates the exploratory
type of study so helpful in developing the alert and intelligent
individual. The problems for the year follow:
Major Problem: How have the people of the Western Hemis-
phere adapted themselves to and controlled the natural resources
of the continents and thereby developed different ways of living?


Sub-divisions of the Problem:
*I. What educational opportunities does the secondary
school offer the students? Should be required. Time
determined by the local school situation
II. Why and how did the first settlers come to our own
community (Florida) ? May be omitted. Designed
for pupils who have not had adequate experience in
this area
III. What environmental problems faced the first settlers
of our country and how did they solve them? May
be omitted. Designed for pupils who have not had
adequate experience in this area
IV. How have the people of our community today adapted
themselves to and controlled the natural resources
of the State? May be omitted. Designed for pupils
who have not had adequate experience in this area
*V. Why and how did the early settlers come to the Atlantic
Coast of North America? Should be required. Time
four to five weeks
*VI. What environmental factors faced the early settlers in
our nearby community (the Atlantic Coast), and
how did they solve them? Should be required. Time
three to five weeks
*VII. How have the people of the North American regions
(United States and Canada) adapted themselves to
and controlled their geographic environment? Should
be required. Time six to nine weeks
*VIII. How does regional production of goods develop inter-
dependence and make cooperation between regions
necessary? Should be required. Time two to four
IX. Why did Southern Europeans migrate to Latin Amer-
ica? May be omitted. Designed, however, to develop
the understanding that our Latin American neighbors


have a colonial history, contemporary with and even
antecedent to our own, similar to and different from
our own, a point of view necessary to better hemis-
pheric relations
X. How have the natives of Latin America adapted them-
selves to and controlled their environment? May be
omitted. Designed to develop a concept of adaptation
through an exploration of the way of life of a primi-
tive culture in a setting different from that of con-
tinental United States
*XI. How do environmental factors affect ways of living
in Latin America today? Should be required. Time
six to nine weeks
*XII. Why should we appreciate our Latin American neigh-
borhood? Should be required. Designed to develop an
understanding of and a friendly attitude toward our
Latin American neighbors
XIII. How can we develop goodwill among the American
Republics? May be omitted. Designed, however, to
develop an understanding of our part in the good
neighbor policy
Martin and Cooper, The United States at Work (text for grade
7 and 8)
Stull and Hatch, Our World Today (text for grade 7)
McClure, Sheck, Wright, Background of Modern Nations (text
for grade 7)
Atwood and Thomas, The Americas (text for grade 6)

Titles in State Library Bulletin No. 276
Bardwell, R. W., Basic Social Science Series, (Row, Peterson
and Co., 1941), 28 cents each

cThese books may be purchased through the State textbook fund. Each
teacher should secure a copy of this bulletin.


Bender, Eric, Ways of Life Series, (Row, Peterson and Co., New
York, 1941), 96 cents each
Society for Curriculum Study, Building America, (Americana
Corporation, New York, 1936-1941), Vol. 1, $2.50; Vol. 2-9,
$2.00; single numbers, 30 cents each
Langdon, W. C., Everyday Things in American Life, (Scribner's,
New York, 1936), $3.00
Nehrling, Henry, The Plant World in Florida, (The Macmillan
Co., New York, 1936), $3.50
Peck, Anne M., The Pageant of South American History, (Long-
mans Co., New York, 1941), $3.00

Peck, Anne M., Roundabout South America, (Harper's, New
York, 1940), $3.00

Simpson, Charles T., Florida Wild Life, (Macmillan Co., New
York, 1932), $2.50

Other Excellent Reference Materials

Abrams and Thurston, World Geography, (Iroquois Publishing
Co., New York, 1937)
Atwood and Thomas, The Americas and the Nations Beyond the
Seas, (Ginn and Co., New York, 1938)
Bodley and Thurston, North America and South America, (Iro-
quois Publishing Co., New York, 1932)
Brannon and Ganey, Geography of Our World, (William H. Sad-
ler, Inc., New York, 1939)

Casner and Peattie, Exploring Geography, (Harcourt, Brace and
Co., New York, 1937)
Humphries, Benson, MacMurray, Why Countries Differ, (Mac-
millan Co., New York, 1932)
Meyer and Hamer, The New World and Its Growth, (Follett
Publishing Co., Chicago, 1941)



*I. What educational opportunities do the local secondary
schools offer the students ?7
A. The school building: administration offices (prin-
cipal, assistant principal, dean, clerk, custodian) ;
classrooms (locations, numbering) ; lavatories, (lo-
cation, proper care) ; lunchrooms (location, lunch
schedule, ways to reach lunchrooms) ; nearby streets;
book and supply rooms; bicycle stand; telephones;
safety patrol
B. Homeroom organization and its significance
C. Attendance regulations: need for regular attendance;
excuses for absence and tardiness (kinds acceptable,
note from parent necessary, right person to receive
D. Safety and health: rules and regulations

E. Assemblies: purpose, conduct in assemblies

F. Planning work: getting the most out of class work;
important things to consider; activities outside of

G. Personal problems: making and keeping friends;
personal appearance; personality traits (good and
bad, ways of overcoming bad traits)

H. How to study: good study techniques; developing
concentration; effect of mental and physical health
on study; studying at home (suitable conditions and
regular habits)
'In some schools, faculty planning places the responsibility for this
type of work in homeroom organizations, in guidance programs, or in other
courses.' If such a situation exists, the social studies teacher should plan
experiences to meet needs. Such a situation presents opportunities for
correlation which should not be overlooked.


I. Good school citizenship: qualities necessary; conduct
in classroom, in corridors, in the lunchroom, on the
playground, to and from school; attitude toward
teachers; school spirit
J. Educational opportunities offered the student: courses
offered by the various departments (the type of work,
the preparation necessary for successful work in the
various departments, the objectives of the depart-
ments, desirable attitudes and habits which should
develop from work in the courses offered) ; the social
studies department (courses offered, preparation
necessary for successful work, good habits and atti-
tudes to be gained, plans for studying in this depart-
ment-i. e., how to read; how to use reference books
and where and how to get them; how to make notes
and keep them in order; how to read and interpret
maps, graphs, and charts; how to make a report; and
form for writing reports)
II. Why and how did the first settlers come to our own
community (Florida) ?
References: The Americas-Atwood and Thomas (text-
grade 5) Appendix, pp.1-50
Background of Modern Nations-McClure,
Scheck, Wright, pp. 49-69; pp. 430-462;
pp. 14-83
Background of the first settlers: native country; ideas
concerning government, home life and religion; ways
of earning a living
III. What environmental problems faced the first settlers of
our community (Florida) and how did they solve them?
Reference: The Americas-Atwood and Thomas (text-
grade 5) Appendix, pp. 1-50
A. Environmental factors facing the early settlers:
climate; soil; waters; forests; plant and animal life;
B. Adaptation to and control of resources by the early
settlers: settlements made; living in the towns (build-


ing of forts, homes of wood and stone, balconies, court-
yards, narrow streets) ; use of the soil (introduction of
new fruits and vegetables) ; use of the forests; use of
the waters
IV. How have the people of our community today adapted
themselves to and controlled the natural resources of
our community (Florida) ?
References: Our World Today-Stull and Hatch, pp. 515-
694; Appendix pp. 1-50
The United States at Work-Martin and
Cooper, pp. 1-44; pp. 254-355
A. Environmental factors: soil; forests; climate (seasons,
winds, latitude and longitude, ocean currents, other
bodies of water, migration of heat and temperature
belts) ; minerals; plants and animals
B. Differences in early days and today caused by waste
and insufficient knowledge: need for conservation
in each factor listed; work being done in conservation;
need for more work in conservation; personal and
community responsibility in regard to conservation
C. Adaptation to and control of natural resources in our
own community: earning a living (farming in Flor-
ida, lumbering in Florida, turpentining in Florida, cat-
tle raising, fishing, manufacturing, trading, taking
care of tourists) ; protecting life and property; mak-
ing homes; providing educational opportunities; pro-
viding recreational facilities; and providing for the
aesthetic and religious impulses of the people
*V. Why and how did the early settlers come to the Atlantic
seaboard ?
References: Background of Modern Nations-McClure,
Scheck, Wright, pp. 14-83
Building of Our Nation-Barker, Com-
mager, Webb, pp. 3-72
A. Ways of making a living: land in the hands of nobles;
serfs; crafts; apprentices; taxes high; trade disrupted


(new trade routes established to satisfy the demand
for the exchange of goods between western Europe
and the Near East) ; new geographical knowledge as
an aid in finding new routes; farming like Biblical
B. Ways of governing: desire for power on part of rulers
of western Europe; desire of the people for more pro-
tection of life and property (judges of courts ap-
pointed by the kings and removed at will, people's
desire for better system of justice, and for freedom
from unjust arrest and imprisonment) ; objection by
the people to the divine right to rule idea
C. Ways of living: life on the farms (houses, food, and
work); life in the cities (no protection of life and
property, no lights, no sanitation, prevalence of epi-
demics, poor streets, homes, food, and work) ; religious
conditions (influence of Crusades, established
churches, religious wars, religious persecutions, be-
ginnings of many new sects) ; educational conditions
(influence of the Renaissance, mental alertness and
desire for more knowledge, educational advantages
open to comparatively few, development of the art of
D. Explorers and discoverers: Spanish explorers and
discoverers and the lands they discovered and ex-
plored; French explorers and discoverers and the
lands they discovered and explored; English; Portu-
guese, etc.

*VI. What environmental factors faced the early settlers in
our nearby community (the Atlantic seaboard) and how
did they adapt themselves to and control them?
References: The United States at Work-Martin and
Cooper, pp. 1-44
Our World Today-Stull and Hatch, pp.


A. Environmental factors facing the early settlers: soil;
climate; rivers; bays; oceans; topography; forests;
plant and animal life; people
Probable effect of these factors on the new settlers:
on protection of life and property; on industry; on
amusements; on education; on communication and
B. Ways of earning a living: agriculture (influence of
plenty of cheap land, differences in Northern, Middle
Atlantic, and Southern regions with respect to size of
farms, crops, methods of farming, labor, and
markets) ; manufacturing (imported goods, home
manufactures) ; fishing (importance as an industry,
location and markets) ; transportation (from old world
to new, within the early colonies, methods, modes of
C. Ways of governing: distance from England (necessity
for governing themselves, development of self-govern-
ment) ; town meetings in New England; county as a
unit of local government in the Southern colonies;
combination of government in the middle colonies;
English control of colonies (royal colonies, proprietary
colonies, self-governing colonies) ; adaptations neces-
sary in the new environment (use of English common
law, failure of the feudal system, restrictions on vot-
ing, increasing desire for local self-government, build-
ing up of the resentment against English control)
D. Ways of living: adjustment of home life to new en-
vironment; colonial homes; amusements; education
(science, books, libraries, schools) ; religious influences

*VII. How have the people of the North American regions
(United States and Canada) adapted and controlled their
geographic environment?


References: The United States at Work-Martin and
Cooper, Environment pp. 1-44; Eastern
regions pp. 91-201; Southern regions pp.
231-305; Middle West regions pp. 339-415;
Western regions pp. 453-528
Our World Today-Stull and Hatch, pp. 29-
50; pp. 515-694; Appendix pp. 1-50
A. Geographic factors as part of the North American
environment: location, form, and size of the North
American regions; longitude and its effect; land
forms and their influence on living; bodies of water
and their influence on living; weather and climate
as factors in environment (daylight and changing
seasons, temperature and the sun's rays, ocean cur-
rents, climates of the North American regions, i. e.,
humid continental climate, Floridian climate, arid and
semi-arid climate, temperate marine climate, Medi-
terranean climate, mountain and plateau climate;
soils (classification of soil, how nature makes soil) ;
minerals; native plant and animals
B. Conservation of soils, minerals, plant and animal life
C. Adaptation to and control of the natural resources of
the North American regions by people today: farming
regions (location, geographic factors involved, im-
portance, products) ; farm animals (types and im-
portance) ; fishing regions (location, uses, import-
ance) ; forest regions (location, types, geographic
factors) ; manufacturing regions (location, import-
ance, factors which have determined great develop-
ment) ; the iron and steel industry, the automobile
industry, the meat packing industry, the textile indus-
try, the leather industry (each industry-location,
reasons for location, importance, use of product)
*VIII. How does regional production of goods develop interde-
pendence and make cooperation between regions neces-

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs