Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Group Title: Extension bulletin
Title: Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096205/00001
 Material Information
Title: Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service a model for technology transfer systems in the Caribbean
Series Title: Extension bulletin - University of the Virgin Islands ; 3
Alternate Title: Model for technology transfer systems in the Caribbean
Physical Description: 12 p. : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Padda, Darshan S.
Publisher: Cooperative Extension Service, College of the Virgin Islands
Place of Publication: St. Croix, V.I.
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 1982
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Technology transfer -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States Virgin Islands
General Note: "November 1982."
Statement of Responsibility: by Darshan S. Padda.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096205
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 49936698


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Back Cover
        Page 13
Full Text

Extension Bulletin No. 3
SNovember, 1982



., an f the Vrgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service Darshan S Padds Directo St Croix, U.S. Virgin Island


Darshan S. Padda, Director
Cooperative Extension Service
College of the Virgin Islands

Extension Bulletin No. 3
November 1982

Copies of this bulletin available from:
Cooperative Extension Service
College of the Virgin Islands
P.O. Box L, Kingshill
St. Croix, Virgin Islands 00850


Foreword ........ .............................................. Page 3
1. Introduction .........................................................5
II. Extension Teaching Methods .............................................. 6
III. Organization Structure .................................................. 6
IV Functions ...........................................................6
V. Meeting Community Needs .............................................. 9
V I. T he Essentials ........................................................9
VII. Common Challenges- Similar Goals ................................... 11


1. Extension Methods Classified According to
Category of Contact .................................................... 6
2. Extension Methods Grouped According to Form ............................. 6


1. The U.S. Virgin Islands in the Caribbean................................... 4
2. The Extension Educational Process Polygon................................ 5
3. Cooperative Extension Service Organization............................... 7
4. Extension Program Function Reaching the Client............................ 8
5. Relation Between Research Base, Extension Programs
and Clientele ................ .... . . ... ... . ................. 10


This publication describes an effective techno-
logy transfer system based on educational princi-
ples. The model presented in this bulletin addresses
extension education with its special technique of
problem solving and action-oriented education
which instructs, demonstrates, and motivates.
The College of the Virgin Islands is a land-
grant institution with an agricultural experiment
station that seeks to serve as a technology de-
velopment center for the tropical Caribbean. The
transfer agency for this technology, developed
through extensive research, is the college's exten-
sion service which is a part of the United States
Department of Agriculture's Extension Service.
With these resources and its strategic location,
the College of the Virgin Islands is in an excellent
position to be the window of the United States in
the eastern Caribbean region. In addition, there
are cultural and familial links with otherCaribbean
islands which are of special significance in ensur-
ing a successful sharing of technology and educa-
tional experience.
The United States government has recognized
the College of the Virgin Islands as an Eastern

Caribbean Center for educational, cultural, tech-
nical and scientific interchange.
Sharing of technical resources among the na-
tions of the Caribbean can strengthen the econo-
mic stability and guarantee a better standard of
living for all the people of the region.
This publication does not presume to impose
a United States system upon Caribbean nations.
Instead, its objective is to provide insight into the
educational principles of assisting people to help
themselves through government-financed informal
education that can effectively be used to transfer
technology and have it adopted.
The college is pleased to provide assistance to
our Caribbean neighbors. Results of our research
efforts in agriculture are freely disseminated. Ex-
tension programs in plant and animal sciences,
home economics, community resource develop-
ment and youth development are available for all
who are interested in them.
We also welcome inquiries about our Carib-
bean Research Institute, Bureau of Public Admin-
istration and Reichold Center for the Performing
Arts, as well as our undergraduate and graduate
academic programs.

Arthur A. Richards
College of the Virgin Islands

Fig. 1


The U.S. Virgin Islands are situated in the Lesser Antilles between 17*30' to 18'30' north latitude and
6515' to 60'40' west longitude. The three major islands are St. Croix with 22,081 hectares (54,563 acres),
St. Thomas with 7,278 hectares (17,984 acres) and St. John with 5,194 hectares (12,835 acres). The Vir-
gin Islands are located approximately 1930 kilometers (1200 miles) southeast of Miami, about 2415 kilo-
meters (1500 miles) south of New York, and about 64 kilometers (40 miles) east of Puerto Rico.
The rainfall in the islands depends primarily on topography and continual easterly tradewinds. The
western part of St. Croix receives up to 60 inches annually while the eastern end only receives up to 30
inches. On St. Thomas the central portion of the island will register up to 50 inches of rainfall while the
east and west ends receive no more than 40 inches annually. The monthly daytime temperature average
varies from a low of 83F (28C) in January and February to a high of 89"F (32"C) in July, August and


I. Introduction
The core of the United States Department of
Agriculture has always been its research and ex-
tension education function. However, the role of
colleges and universities in the development and
transfer of technology in agriculture and home
economics was mandated by the United States
Congress through three well-known historic legis-
lative acts: the Morrill Act created land-grant col-
leges in 1862 and in 1887 the Hatch Act estab-
lished an agricultural experiment station at each
land-grant college; in 1914 the Smith-Lever Act
provided for the Cooperative Extension Service so
that research information could be conveyed to
potential users. The Smith-Lever Act served as the
earliest recognition that public academic institu-
tions should provide informal education as well as
formal classroom instruction.
These three pieces of legislation created an
educational system much emulated in the world
today. The land-grant system assures a unified ap-
proach to research, classroom teaching, and ex-
tension education in agriculture, home economics,
and other areas of rural and community develop-
ment. In 1972 the College of the Virgin Islands
became a part of this land-grant system.
This publication addresses technology transfer
as a process of extending technical knowledge,
skills and research based information to targeted
clientele. This is achieved through informal prob-
lem solving and action-oriented education that in-
structs, demonstrates and motivates the recipient.
The Cooperative Extension Service is a part-
nership between the government, the land-grant
institutions, and the people. It is a continuing
process which provides informal education for
members of the community, families,homemakers,
business persons and farmers. A main essence of
the process is in helping clients apply the results
of research and other resources to improve their
lives and individual sense of fulfillment. This pro-
cess also enables clients to more dearly define
goals and learn skills to meet their most urgent
needs now and in the future.

The basic principles of the Cooperative Ex-
tension Service are universally applicable. How-
ever, extension techniques and organizational
structure need to be adapted to specific local con-
ditions. In the Virgin Islands, the Cooperative Ex-
tension Service has been established to meet re-
quirements unique to the islands' geographic loca-
tion, microstate size, sociocultural patterns, and
agro-climatic conditions.
The strength of the extension model lies in
close interaction at all stages with the people
being served. Since the extension educational pro-
cess is a continuous one (see Fig. 2), it places
strong emphasis on the professional staff working
with the community to determine what the impor-
tant needs are. These needs are then incorporated
into a comprehensive Plan of Work for each fiscal
year. Implementation is carried out in cooperation
with the community which helped establish the
objectives originally. Once the results have been
evaluated and necessary adjustments made to in-
sure that the problems identified were addressed
and moved towards a solution, the process con-
tinues through the cycle again.



IV im

II. Extension Teaching Methods
The extension worker faces diverse teaching
situations and needs, thus must choose extension
activities accordingly. Teaching methods may be
classified according to the categories of contacts
used. Examples of extension methods classified
according to categories of contacts are: individual
contacts, group contacts, and mass contacts. In
developing societies individual and group contacts
are most important since they are personal in ap-
peal and often result in a one-to-one communica-
tion. The "hands-on" approach is popular, for ex-
ample, in such learning experiences as grafting
workshops or actual demonstrations of food pre-
paration techniques. By making these learning ex-
periences highly visible they become more accept-
able and authentic in appeal.


Individual Group Mass
Contacts Contacts Contacts
Site Visits Club Meetings Publications
Office/Lab Leader Training Radio and
Consultations Sessions Newspapers
Telephone Calls Clinics and Television/
Workshops Video
Letters Seminars Exhibits and Fairs
Result and Method Field Tours Documentary
Demonstrations Films

The third category, that of mass contacts, is
used to efficiently disseminate information to
large numbers of people. Throughout the Carib-
bean especially, the use of radio is common and
should be utilized fully in extension work.
Methods classified according to form, as illus-
trated in Table 2, are either written, spoken, or
visual. Regardless of classification, whether by
category of contact or form, it is well to keep in
mind that in practice the extension worker-client
relationship frequently involves the associated use
of two or more kinds of extension methods.

Table 2.


Written Spoken Visual
Bulletins and Office Result & Method
Factsheets Consultations Demonstrations
Leaflets Site Visits Charts
News Articles Telephone Exhibits/
and Columns Calls Posters
Personal Letters Seminars and Radio Video/Television
Circular Letters Conferences Slides, Films and
and Newsletters and Workshops Photographs

III. Organizational Structure
The United States Virgin Islands is comprised
of three major islands: St. Croix, St. Thomas, and
St. John which make up the territory. In contrast
to state counties in the continental United States,
the territory is divided into districts. The overall
organizational structure of the Virgin Islands Co-
operative Extension Service is presented in Figure
3 and individual program function is depicted in
Figure 4. Both can be adapted to other Caribbean
islands due to similarities in biogeography, social
structure and technological needs.

IV. Functions
The overall functions of extension in the Vir-
gin Islands covers a broad spectrum. Agricultural
programs encourage local production through
helping home gardeners, part-time producers, and
commercial farmers. The community and rural
development programs include education on the
effective use of cooperatives, farm management
systems and marketing strategies, along with the
educational materials relating to economic deve-
lopment. Expansion and diversification of 4-H
clubs in schools, housing projects and community
centers is the main means by which the 4-H youth
development component seeks to achieve its goals
of providing skills and career-related experiences.
The 4-H program also emphasizes the importance
of advancing the cause of youth development in
the Caribbean environment through Caribbean-
wide youth conferences and exchanges. Home
economics personnel teach human nutrition,
family financial management, clothing construc-
tion and diverse use of local foods. The pest man-


- Extension -
' Advisory Committee

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I Advisory I
I C-
SCouncil I

i Advisory '
- Council ,



- Reaching the Client -



I-------------1--------'. - - -_.1
i Program 1
Advisory Council I
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| ~~~CLIENTELE_______

agement program focuses on public awareness of
integrated pest management practices to provide
the public with alternative means of pest control
and to mitigate one of the main deterrents to
food production. Educational materials on sand-
fly control are being developed because this

biting fly is a significant nuisance both to residents
and visitors. A comprehensive survey of pesticide
use in the Virgin Islands and continuous training
for certification of applicators of restricted-use
pesticides is also conducted.
Most of these techniques and procedures dis-

Fig. 4

cussed here could be applied to other islands in
the Caribbean, with the realization that adjust-
ments will undoubtedly be necessary according to
agroclimatic conditions, levels of economic devel-
opment, individual cultural patterns and expecta-
tions, and the current political scene.

V. Meeting Community Needs
Since its inception in 1972, the Virgin Islands
Cooperative Extension Service has increasingly
demonstrated that it provides a dynamic and chal-
lenging enrichment for the broad gamut of people
it serves. Whether they are spouses of persons
working at local industries, homemakers from
housing projects, teenagers wanting to learn skills,
youth looking for a neighborhood club experience,
small home gardeners, cattle raisers, commercial
farmers, storekeepers or aspiring business people
all are looking for additional expertise to en-
hance the quality of life. Evidence of this desire is
dramatically demonstrated by the flourishing at-
tendance at extension workshops, seminars, clinics
and other informal learning sessions. That exten-
sion, with its commitment to research and its
practical application through education, can be an
exciting catalyst for a technology transfer system
in the Caribbean is continually reinforced by the
enthusiastic reception of its programs and transfer

VI. The Essentials
The effectiveness of the technology-mtorma-
tion transfer process used by the Virgin Islands
Cooperative Extension Service depends on two
important features: the presence of a local tech-
nology development base which is the Agricultural
Experiment Station and the utilization of local
social and ecological conditions in the technology
transfer. The relationship between the technology
development base, extension outreach programs,
and the clientele is represented in Fig. 5. It is im-
portant to point out that information flow takes
place both ways. The extension worker serves as
an interpreter and a conveyer of technical infor-
mation from the research base to the users and
conversely identifies the problems and provides
feedback to the researchers for investigation of
possible solutions.
The Agricultural Experiment Station (AES)
of the College of the Virgin Islands, through its

research projects in food and agriculture, serves as
a continuous source of improved and adapted
technology to be transferred to the Virgin Islands
community by the Cooperative Extension Service.
The goal of the AES is to develop food and feed
production potentials of the Virgin Islands through
applied scientific research based on conditions
specific to the islands.
The seven areas in which the experiment sta-
tion conducts research are agronomy, horticul-
ture, irrigation technology, animal science, fresh-
water aquaculture, marine fish poisoning, pest
and pesticide management. Agronomy research
develops the potential of sorghum, forage grasses,
and legumes as island-grown sources of high pro-
tein animal feeds and nutritious human food.
Horticulture research involves both fruit and vege-
table production studies with an emphasis on tro-
pical crops and is designed to determine the best
plant varieties and cultural practices necessary to
encourage vegetable gardening and fruit culture in
the Virgin Islands. The irrigation technology com-
ponent addresses the development of information
regarding the minimum water requirements for
food crops and alternative watering schemes
through irrigation and related agricultural engi-
neering research. Animal science research is cur-
rently involved in characterizing Senepol cattle by
on-the-farm performance testing and conducting
other production research studies on cooperating
farms such as cow, calf, and bull growth, cow ef-
ficiency, and carcass characteristics. Aquaculture
researchers are developing freshwater pond fish
culture systems and "back-yard" fish farming
methods for the production of freshwater food
fish to augment declining saltwater fish resources.
The marine fish poisoning (ciguatera) program in-
vestigates the nature of ciguatoxin and seeks to
define a reliable test for the ciguatoxicity of Vir-
gin Islands marine fishes. Pest and pesticide man-
agement research is directed at diagnosing and
solving pest problems with emphasis on alterna-
tive management strategies minimizing pesticide
use. The benefits and risks of specific pesticides
are evaluated, and the means are being developed
to deal with pesticide and hazardous waste prob-
lems, applicator exposure, storage and disposal.
While the results of research projects con-
ducted at the experiment station are disseminated
to the public through the transfer mechanisms al-
ready noted, it should also be mentioned that


research information is made available to the
Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture as well
as to other land-grand institutions throughout the
United States.
The annual Agriculture and Food Fairs held
on St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. John are excel-
lent examples of the use of local social institutions
as a means of imparting extension education out-
reach to a large audience. Carnivals and festive
gatherings such as the food fairs are a vital part of
the social fabric of Caribbean societies. Working
together, the Cooperative Extension Service and
the local Department of Agriculture each year pre-
sent what is recognized as the most colorful and
constructive agricultural and sociocultural event
in the Virgin Islands the three-day fair on St.
Croix. A high-impact vehicle of technology trans-
fer and educational stimulation for as many as
25,000 visitors annually, the fair features land-
grant programs exhibits showing results of research
on plants, livestock, aquaculture, irrigation tech-
nology and pest management methods which re-
flect months of creativity and hard work by the
extension staff. Among the popular exhibits at
recent fairs were a solar dryer for fruits and vege-
tables; displays on recognition of various locally
important insects and how to cope with them in
environmentally sound ways; bush teas of medici-
nal and commercial value along with homemade

breads and candies exhibited by home economics
personnel; demonstrations of clothing fashions
hand-created by homemakers; soybeans and other
alternative feed and food crops of different varie-
ties; appropriate minigardening methods; innova-
tive drip irrigation technology; a hydroponic
model for growing vegetables and fish in a unique
combination which conserves water by recircula-
tion and uses the fish waste as plant food; and
more than 100 projects created by 4-H clubs.

VII. Common Challenges Similar Goals
The food and agriculture issues facing the en-
tire Caribbean are similar to those of the Virgin
Islands. All islands in the Caribbean are striving to
achieve increased food production and to find an
acceptable balance between tourism, industriali-
zation and agricultural development. All are
working toward developing economic, social and
educational programs to improve the quality of
life for their citizens. The Virgin Islands Coopera-
tive Extension Service conducts its public educa-
tion programs to assist individual citizens as well
as the community and government in achieving
these goals.
Other Caribbean islands can also develop simi-
lar educational programs for the benefit of their
people by adapting the Virgin Islands Cooperative
Extension Service as a model.


The author wishes to express his appreciation to
Dr. Arthur Richards, President of the College of the
Virgin Islands, for his support and leadership; to
Walter Knausenberger for critical review of the
manuscript; to Liz Wilson for editorial assistance;
and to colleagues at the Cooperative Extension
Service and the Agricultural Experiment Station for
their help in making our extension efforts in the
Virgin Islands so successful that they can serve as
a model for technology transfer for the rest of the

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Act of Congress of May 8, and June 30, 1914 (as amended), in cooperation with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture, D.S. Padda, Director, College of the Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service. The College of the Virgin
Islands Cooperative Extension is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action organization, providing educational services in the field of agri-
culture, home economics, rural development. 4-H youth development and related subjects to all persons regadless of race, color, religion, sex.
or national origin.

Antlles Graphic Arts

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