Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 From the diretor
 Agricultural experiment statio...
 Cooperative extension service
 Staff 1983-1984

Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096177/00002
 Material Information
Title: Report
Physical Description: v. : ill., ports. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: College of the Virgin Islands -- Agricultural Experiment Station
College of the Virgin Islands -- Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: College of the Virgin Islands
Place of Publication: St. Croix?
St. Croix?
Creation Date: 1983
Publication Date: 1982-
Copyright Date: 1984
Frequency: biennial
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States Virgin Islands
Statement of Responsibility: Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1981-1982-
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13506492
lccn - 88646613
System ID: UF00096177:00002
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report


This item has the following downloads:

00083-84landgrantrpt ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    From the diretor
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Agricultural experiment station
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Cooperative extension service
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Staff 1983-1984
        Page 49
        Page 50
Full Text

1983 -1984 REPORT




1983-1984 Report
College of the Virgin Islands
Land Grant Programs



October 1985

From the D director ..................................................... 1
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION ............................ 3-20
Fish Culture Systems ....................... ................. 3
Animal Science on the Farm ................................ 7
Feeding our Livestock ............ ...................... 8
Irrigation Water Management ................................ 10
Banana and Plantain Studies ................................. 14
"St. Croix Papaya Decline"- a Disease Puzzle ................... 17
Working with Nature-Biological Control ..................... 19
Some AES Publications..................................20
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE................................ 21-48
The Extension Message-Through Many Mediums................ 21
Growing Our Own ............. ... ................ 23
People, Plants and Animals ............................... 27
Our Natural Resources ................................. 31
The Advisory Role of CRD .............................. 33
"Something for Everyone" .............................. 35
Involving the Youth ..................................... 39
Honors, Meetings, Visitors and Fairs ........................... 43
Staff 1983 and 1984..................... ......................... 49
Publications Currently Available .............. ..................... 50

Liz Wilson

Phto Credits: All photos by Lz Wilson with the exception of thefollowing: p. 11-top, USDA; II- bottom, Custom Photo. p. 1,Studio Five:
p. 4-bottom, p. 5-center and bottom, p. 6-left, J. Rakocy; p. 28-bottom, J. Matuazak; p. 3-center, A. Lake; p. 39-left, Del deLugor office.
Products and suppliers mentioned by name in this publication are used as examples and in no way Imply endorsement or recommen-
dation of these products or suppliers.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, acts of Congress May 8 and June 30,1914 (as amended), in cooperation with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture, D.S. Padda, Director, College of the Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service. The College of the
Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service is an Equal OpportunitylAffirmative Action organization, providing educational services
In the fields of agriculture, home economics, rural development, 4-H youth development and related subjects to all persons
regardless of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
Typist, Christene Henry Layout & Typography, New Image Graphics Printing, Antilles Graphic Arts

.andO~mnt 0 eckmc Darlshe & Ps"d recelmd
Distingu~ifshd SenkAwtd frmm
UI.& Depimdud of Augooftwe soacmlavy
John FL Blockc "Mfl In May IN&3


This report covers research and educational activities
carried out by the Agricultural Experiment Station and
the Cooperative Extension Service respectively for the
period covering 1983 and 1984. Both agencies have ex-
panded their programs and activities during this period
of report and have successfully attained their mission of
serving the people of the Virgin Islands.
Both partners in the Land Grant System have carried
out their commitments in supporting the work of the
research and extension staffs who are dedicated to
develop and transfer locally relevant food and
agricultural technology. The federal partner-the U.S.
Department of Agriculture -provided financial
assistance and program support in an understanding f4
and satisfactory manner. The local partner the College
of the Virgin Islands under the leadership of President Richards-has played a pivotal role in turning
Land Grant programs into a Virgin Islands success story as these programs have received un-
precedented acceptance from the people of these islands. Mention should be made here also of the
supporting role of the college Board of Trustees who, through their keen interest in our work, have
boosted our spirits and have provided encouragement at all times.
During this reporting period, establishing and upgrading of home economics, pest diagnostic ser-
vice and management, and soil and water testing laboratories, have greatly enhanced the capability
of Land Grant programs to provide much needed professional services not only to the Virgin Islands'
residents but to the entire eastern Caribbean region. The Land Grant programs also played a most
significant role in helping establish an Eastern Caribbean Center at the College of the Virgin Islands.
Under the auspices of this center, proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops
Society held in October 1984 on St. Croix are being published and disseminated to the larger
agricultural community in the Caribbean. This 5-day meeting was the best attended in the 20 year
history of the Society, bringing together hundreds of agricultural scientists from the region and the
The addition of a Natural Resources Program at the Cooperative Extension Service has added yet
another dimension to our community outreach work. Active educational programs in the areas of
agriculture, home economics, 4-H youth development, and community resource development have
reached thousands of Virgin Islands residents with research based information to help improve the
quality of life for each individual. And to guarantee this continuous flow of locally relevant research
information the scientists at the Agricultural Experiment Station have worked with great zeal on pro-
jects in animal science, aquaculture, agronomy, vegetable crops, fruits, irrigation technology, plant
pathology, and entomology.
I hope the information contained in the report will give added insight to readers on the roles of
both the experiment station and extension service and will help Virgin Islanders to become better
gardeners, farmers, homemakers, community leaders and citizens.

Darshan S. Padda
Land-Grant Programs

Dr. Darshan S. Padda, Director
Agricultural Experiment Station
College of the Virgin Islands

Cordially invites you.to attend
The Official Dedication Ceremonies
of the
Aquaculture Research Facility
Melvin H. Evans Center for Learning,
St. Croix Campus
Saturday, June 11, 1983

Please RSVP to 4:00 o'clock p.m.
Liz Wilson - 8-0246

Facility located east of the main St. Croix Campus
via Annex building road.




The Agricultural Experiment Station serves as a small yet effective research station with
projects concentrating mostly in aquaculture, animal science, agronomy, horticulture, ir-
rigation technology, pest management and plant pathology. During the period of 1983
and 1984 the main spectrum of emphasis was on research in the production of animal
feed for livestock and poultry, with field experiments conducted on grain and forage
crops useful to the local farmer; evaluation of Senepol Cattle under Virgin Islands' condi-
tions and characterization of the Senepol breed utilizing computers for ready access to in-
formation; evaluation of culturing methods for freshwater tilapia fish that can be adapted
for home production in the Virgin Islands; determining the best fruit and vegetable
varieties and production practices for island climate conditions, focusing on trials of food
crop varieties which withstand heat and drought as well as the myriad of destructive
tropical pests and diseases encountered in the islands. Although not purely educational in
nature, the Agricultural Experiment Station does conduct field days and tours as well as
having direct contact with local producers. Scientists work closely with outreach staff in
the Cooperative Extension Service to augment their assistance to local residents.


A major event of 1983 was the of-
ficial dedication of the aquaculture
research facility. Members of the com-
munity, college officials, faculty and
staff, as well as representatives of the
Virgin Islands government, toured
the new facility for a first hand look at
the tilapia hatchery and the six new
fish culture/hydroponic systems.
These new recirculating systems were
constructed to study the intensive
culture of freshwater tilapia and ex-
plore the feasibility of integrating
hydroponic vegetable culture into the
freshwater treatment process.

Research acility The systems
consist of a 3000-gallon rearing tank,
a 500-gallon sludge settling tank, a
375-gallon reservoir and two hydro-
ponic biofilters consisting of shallow
tanks of crushed gravel with a total
surface area of 152 ft2. The total water

volume of each system is approxi-
mately 4000 gallons.
In a preliminary trial one of the
systems was stocked with 5000 tilapia
fingerlings weighing a total of 59
pounds. Five months later their total
weight had increased to 522 pounds
and the carrying capacity of the
system had not yet been reached
Following the trial, an experiment
was initiated to determine the carry-
ing capacity of the system, to measure
the concentrations of nutrients found
in fish wastewater which are impor-
tant to plant culture, and to evaluate
the production of six tomato varieties
under three nutrient treatments.
Each system was stocked with 1200
fingerlings (Tilapis area) averaging
132 lb in total weight. After 6 months
of growth, an average of 873 lb of fish
were harvested per system with a sur-
vival rate of 97.6%. The average feed

conversion ratio (total feed weight
divided by fish weight gain) was 1.67.
The main factor limiting production
was the buildup of ammonia, which
resulted from biofilter clogging.
Tomato production was low, less
than 2 lb per plant, due to ammonia
toxicity, insect infestation and vascular
tissue damage at the base of the stems
which were cut by the sharp edges of
the gravel as wind rotated the plants.
Insects were brought under control by
acephate, a systemic insecticide that is
relatively non-toxic to fish.

Experiment Results Generally
low tomato production obscured vari-
ety and treatment differences, but
some observations were made. The
concentrations of calcium, magnesi-
um, nitrate, and most of the micro-
nutrients that were generated from
fish feed appeared to be adequate for

Aqueoulturs Specialist Ayappan Nair points to lsh tomato growth In John Hirease, equacultur mesarch technlchn, stocks a cu tum
hydroplnnlclbh culture backyard system constructed with oil drums. taik.

optimum plant growth. The levels of
iron were low and supplementation
with a chelated iron compound was
required. The results also indicate
that the plants may benefit from the
addition of potassium, phosphorus
and sulfur. The buildup of nutrient
salts to toxic levels is a potential prob-
lem in closed systems.

Analysis While an economic
analysis of the system has not been
completed, initial results suggest that
it may be profitable. The major
expenses for feed and electricity
amount to $1.19 to produce a pound
of fish which can be sold for $2.00/lb
or more.
Several modifications were made to
the systems to correct problems that
occurred during the experiment. The
major changes were the installation of
false bottoms in the hydroponic tanks
to prevent clogging, the replacement
of vinyl liners in the rearing tank with

more durable hypalon liners and the
addition of air lines in the rearing
tanks as a backup to the agitators.

Second Experiment An experi-
ment was then conducted to evaluate
the growth of four varieties of
tomatoes and 12 varieties of green
leafy vegetables. Each system was
stocked with 1000 tilapia fingerlings
averaging 70 pounds in total weight.
After 165 feeding days, an average of
727 pounds offish were harvested per
system, with a survival rate of 96.4%.
The average feed conversion ratio was
1.52. Water and electrical require-
ments were 10.5 gallons and 3.7 kWh
per pound of production. The bio-
filters did not clog, but the buildup
of ammonia continued to limit feed-
ing and production.
Modifications to the system im-
proved operations but a new problem
developed. Herbicides applied to the
soil beneath the hypalon liners to pre-

vent nutsedge from growing through
the liners proved to be toxic for the
vegetables (but not the fish) by ap-
parently volatilizing through the liners
into the culture water. Work continues
on this project with an affirmative

Cage Cdlture Feeding Methods I
An experiment to evaluate feeding
methods for cage culture of tilapia was
completed. The fish were stocked at a
rate of 400 fish in cubic meter cages
and fed for 20 weeks. The treatments
consisted of manual feeding twice dai-
ly seven days a week and demand feed-
ing, which allowed the fish to feed
themselves. The fish triggered the
release of feed from a bucket, which
can hold 13.2 lb of feed, by hitting a
rod suspended in the water. Demand
feeding produced a higher net yield
(301 lb compared to 261 lb for manual
feeding) and a significantly lower feed
conversion ratio (1.48 compared to

Completed tanks with hydrponio beds to the left.

Building additionl newM fish culture tanks.

2.05). The demand feeders were re-
filled an average of 34 times compared
to 285 manual feedings, which is equir
valent to an 88% reduction in labor
with the use of demand feeders. The
estimated annual profit from cages
with demand feeders is $650 compared
to $177 for cages fed manually.

Cage Culture Feeding Methods H
Another experiment was conducted to
evaluate demand and manual feeding
at stocking rates of 200, 300 and 400
fish per cubic meter in a 2.5 acre pond
and 300 fish per cubic meter in a 0.25
acre pond. In the large pond, demand
fed fish had a lower production (147
Ib) than manually fed fish (183 lb)
and a lower feed conversion ratio
(1.94 compared to 2.48). In the small
pond, demand fed fish also had lower
total production (158 Ib) than
manually fed fish (249 Ib) and a lower
feed conversion ratio (2.03 compared
to 2.23). There was no conclusive
result as to the most productive stock-
ing density because a tropical storm
caused considerable mortality that
varied among the three stocking rates.
The fish were fed for 28 weeks and
growth rates were low due to low water
temperatures. Although manual
feeding was more productive in this
study, demand feeding resulted in bet-
ter feed conversion ratios and an
average labor reduction of 93%. De-
mand feeding was approximately 12
times more productive per unit of
labor than manual feeding.

Rain Catchsent A rainwater catch-
ment system was established to provide
a supply of rainwater for the fish
culture-hydroponic experiments since
well water in the Virgin Islands is often
too high in salt content for hydroponic
culture. A nylon-reinforced vinyl tar-
paulin 100 feet by 200 feet with a sur-
face area of nearly one-half acre was
installed on a gentle slope (3%) south
of the research facility. Rainwater is re-

A ranwater catchlnmt to collect and store reinwMer fom a 100 X 200 fool tarp can collect moe
than 400Doo gallons of rainwater annually.

A wanqlo view of egae ouwtm In local pond with autonalle feder on top ofl ag.


Fish ale ais Im ld periodically to Introduc hll gown tilple to Ime
public and proved funds for equipment.

Full grown tlaple average wgh Is over a poud.

trained by small dikes at the lower por-
tion of the tarp. As it flows into a four-
inch pipe leading to a 3000 gallon
sump it is then pumped to a 17,000
gallon above-ground storage tank
equipped with a floating cover to pre-
vent evaporative loss. When the stor-
age tank is full, the sump and catch-
ment provide 19.800 gallons of addi-
tional storage capacity.
The catchment system, including
the storage tank, cost $19,800 to con-
struct in 1983. Based on an average
rainfall of 44 inches, the system should
collect 442,000 gallons of rainwater an-
nually, valued at $13,260. The pay-
back period for the system is approxi-
mately 1.5 years.

TilApia Pond Culture Two dem-
onstrations of tilapia pond culture
were completed in a 4-acre pond at
the Golden Grove Correctional Facility
not far from the college campus.
Under the direction of aquaculture
program personnel, prison staff and
inmates have been involved in learning
about the rearing of tilapia. After an
initial 20-week production period,
1,098 pounds of tilapia were har-
vested. Average weight per fish was
0.61 pounds and survival was 86.0%.
The feed conversion ratio of 2.45 was
much higher than expected because
overfeeding early in the demonstration
caused a deterioration of water quality.
The pond was later restocked with

2000 tilapia fingerlings that had been
sex-reversed using the hormone
17P-methyltestosterone. After a 26
week production period, the pond
yielded only 618 pounds of marketable
fish and more than 700 pounds of fin-
gerlings. Excessive reproduction was
the result of accidental mixing of the
male sex-reversed fingerlings with nor-
mal female fingerlings.
Experimental production of tilapia
amounted to 4400 pounds in 1983 and
increased to 5600 pounds in 1984.
Most of the fish were sold to the public
to generate interest in the fish culture
and to provide funds for the aquacul-
ture program.

WhM -tair ahI p i quaa mnine p to SmipmMt IHm St. Cmix to Young Snmpool castle heading back to posiure alt ie dipping and
WINROCK In Trinklad and Tobago. Note Iong, akty, ratllhr than wey, walghing at Lmastwa fanrm.
hair of the brod dovoloped for hot allmates.


The Senepol Breed The Agri-
cultural Experiment Station animal
science program works very closely with
the local cattle breeder and dairyman
since the college does not maintain its
own experimental herd. While some
cattle are raised on St. Thomas, the
main commercial livestock operations
occur on St. Croix where a large
cooperative dairy is in operation and
several growers have large herds of
Senepol cattle. The latter are used for
beef as well as providing breeding
stock which are shipped off-island to
the United States, South America and
other Caribbean islands. Developed to
meet the specific requirements of the
tropical Caribbean climate, the
Senepol cattle breed was started in the
early 1900's by crossbreeding Red Poll
and N'Dama cattle. The characteristics
of both breeds have combined in the
Senepol to produce an animal with
heat tolerance and insect resistance
which is extremely gentle, has good
meat and high milk production.
Called Cruzan Breed, St. Croix Cattle
or Nelthropp Cattle (the latter after
early Crucian Senepol developer
Bromley Nelthropp), the Senepol
trademark was registered in the
United States in 1954 as "St. Croix

Senepol" and the Virgin Islands
Senepol Association of St. Croix was
chartered in 1976.

Evaluation of Semepol In general.
the emphasis of the Animal Science
research program has continued to be
evaluation of Senepol cattle under
Virgin Islands conditions. Data were
collected and processed on eight V.I.
cooperators and four stateside cooper-
ators for the on-the-farm Senepol Per-
formance Testing Program. Emphasis
was placed on keeping existing records
up to date, with 30,000 edited and
nearly 25,000 records in the process of
being entered for analysis of the pre-
foundation (prior to 1977) farm data.
Technical information and assistance
were given to the V.I. Senepol Associ-
ation (VISA) concerning performance
testing, data management and promo-
tion. This included assistance to beef
producers in the selection of superior
breeding stock and in the development
of comprehensive breeding plans.
And, more specifically, in aiding the
development of a Senepol Sire and
Dam summary to indicate superior
animals. Cooperating cattle raisers
were assisted in the selection of
breeding stock for their own herds and

for export. Also a comprehensive col-
lection of blood (for type) was made
from bulls to be used for breeding or
Computer Help The performance
test program has been greatly en-
hanced by the acquisition of the
research program's new computer
system. The program was maintained
by regular visits to 12 V.I. Senepol co-
operators and by processing data of 12
off-island cooperators, thus expanding
the data base on Senepol across numer-
ous environments.
White Hair Sheep In 1983
Wesiview Press (Boulder. Colorado)
published a book entitled H5w Sheep
of Western Africa and the Americas
which featured one segment entitled
'Virgin Islands White Hair Sheep," co-
authored by Dr. Harold Hupp, the ex-
periment station animal scientist and
Dr. Duke Deller, V.I. Department of
Agriculture veterinarian. The animal
science program collaborated also with
Winrock Intemational Sheep Research
Station on Tobago, by assisting in
securing representative samples of the
Virgin Islands White Hair Sheep for
the Winrock evaluation program
which is almost completed.


The agronomy program has con-
tinued to concentrate its investigative
efforts on the identification of ap-
propriate feed crops for the livestock
industry. The main areas of interest
have been sorghum (for grain, hay,
silage and grazing), forage legumes
and tropical grasses. In St. Croix,
forage provides most of the feed units
consumed by ruminant livestock. The
occurrence of wet and dry seasons
leads to abundant forage during the
rainy seasons but acute shortages dur-
ing the dry season. Sorghum, millet,
grasses and legumes offer a real solu-
tion to the feed shortage in the Virgin
Islands during both the wet and dry
Recognizing the limitation of St.
Croix soil, climate and other crop pro-
duction factors, agronomy research has
continued an intensive study of animal
feed crops which focuses on the pro-
duction and management aspects of
these crops. Grain crops included both
commercial and non-commercial sor-
ghum and millet trials. Tropical
forages were the other basic area of
forage production and utilization.

Commercial Grain Sorghum Trials
In trials of commercial sorghum for
grain production and evaluation
studies it was revealed that Pioneer
821W was the highest grain yielder
(8997 kg/ha) and had the lowest
percentage of bird damage over all
other varieties. The application of 80
kg of nitrogen, 20 kg phosphorus, 20
kg potassium, and 1.0 kg minor
elements mixed per hectare resulted in
an increase of grain yield by 39% in
comparison to non-fertilized plots.
Dry matter yield results showed that
Pioneer varieties produced the highest
mean average dry matter of 6,917 kg
oven dried forage per hectare followed
by Garrison varieties (5409 kg/ha) and
Taylor varieties (4486 kg/ha). The
mean average bird damage percent was

approximately the same for both
Pioneer and Taylor (T-E) varieties (ap-
proximately 7%) followed by Garrison
varieties (14%). The fungicide Bravo
was effective in reducing the number
of heads infested with smut. However,
sorghum trials have been conducted on
the same land for a number of years.
Consequently, rotation will be prac-
ticed to determine its influence on
disease incidence. Sorghum midge
control was obtained by application of
Scvin, Dipel and Lannate.

Forage Sorghum Pioneer 988 culti-
var of of commercial forage sorghum
was the top green producer with
45,062 kg/ha/yr and also the best dry
yield producer with 13,892 kg/ha/yr.
Silomaker cultivar, however, has the
advantage of more prolific grain and
leaves in comparison with all varieties
in the studies.
Results of studies of non-commercial
forage sorghum revealed that forage
yield (both green and oven-dried) of
PR 5 PR cultivar was higher than all
commercial varieties in terms of over-
all production. PR 5 PR produced
8,469 kg/ha/yr of grain in addition to

its forage yield. As expected, wet
season planting (September-Decem-
ber) gave a higher yield than planting
in the dry season (January-July).

Millet Research Two experiments
on the introduction and evaluation of
millet (Penniselum americnum) for
grain and forage production were in-
itiated on November 11, 1982 and
April 13, 1983. The varieties used in
these studies were Ghali 3 hybrid pearl
millet, Red Millet, Canary seed, White
Millet, Ghali pearl millet, and Ghali
pearl millet certified. Experimental
design, row arrangement, weed control
and pest control procedures were very
similar to sorghum for forage investi-
gation. Grain yield was harvested
weekly for a period of four weeks
because the plants reached full bloom
at different times and bird damage was
severe on the mature seed heads. Ghali
3 hybrid pearl millet was the largest
producer with 4320 kg/ha of grain.
Next highest yield was obtained from
White millet with 4,231 kg/ha. Based
on data taken, it is recommended that
millet should be planted in the rainy
season for one or two crops because

Fted rmasured and staked In proparaton for grain and forage soghum trials of 40 commnrial

grain and forage yield decline signifi-
cantly after the first harvest.

Forage Grasses On St. Croix, forage
grasses and legumes provide most of
the feed units consumed by ruminant
animals. Research by the agronomy
program is directed towards introduc-
ing and selecting forage plants which
will have good yields, high nutritive
quality, seasonal distribution and
adaptability to climate and soil condi-
tions on the island. One of the most
suitable forage grasses appears to be
Green Panic (Pasicum maximum var.
trichoglume) with the highest yield of

14,488 kg dry forage/ha/yr. Not only
does Green Panic yield the most but it
seems to adjust well to extreme water
stress conditions. Farmers attest to its
increasing popularity in the eastern
sector of St. Croix where the rainfall is
scarce. Buffel grass (Cenchrus ditias)
was the second highest with 9,560
kg/ha/yr. Both of these grasses adjust-
ed to dehydration so well that photo-
synthesis and growth continued even
as water stress increased. Water loss is
controlled by various means such as
closure of stomata, position of leaves
and rooting system. P. maximum
makes a good quality hay and has a

Weeping Low Grms tMal IndleMtNd IH w nol the highest pdklneew.

abulant eehum seed head.

high quality animal intake as verified
by local castend farmers. Average
nitrogen percent in the Green Panic
was 1.41%, which adds to its advan-
tage as promising forage with good
quality composition. Rhodes (Choris
gayasa), Weeping Love (Esgrusti cur-
ul/a). Common Bermuda (Cynodon
dacylon) and Klein (Panicum col-
oraum) grasses were also evaluated for
production and utilization. Weeping
Love grass was the lowest producer in
comparison with all tested varieties.

Legumes Perennial legumes have
several advantages as a feed crop in the
Virgin Islands: they can be utilized for
grazing by cattle, sheep, goats and
pigs, and they can be incorporated into
grass pasture to improve its quality.
Legumes are also drought resistant and
tolerate a high pH (7.9-8.7). Results of
several studies on tropical legumes
have indicated that the perennial soy-
bean Nionotonia night, Siratro
(Macroptilium atropurpureum),
Alfalfa Florida 77 (Medicago
sativa),Centrosema (Centrosema
pubescenu) and Labab (Lab/ab par-
pureus) are the most promising
tropical legumes adapted to St. Croix.
Rating comparisons were made for
mineral deficiency, stand perfor-
mance, drought resistance and nutri-
tional quality.


8t0"si canlnr on papaya cun ivma PR-5
was minimal first year when using prop ir-
rugmllon isc mlques.

Z~ r'-

Neutrotn roobe diennmlnes soil water content
as demonstrate d by irrigation specialist
Stephen Buzdugsn.

The development of a competitive
agricultural industry in the Virgin
Islands requires the introduction of ir-
rigation. Limited water and energy
supplies indicate trickle as the ap-
propriate irrigation method. The
complexity of the tropical environ-
ment requires an integrated approach
to irrigation: land improvement,
tropical cultivars which are resistant to
heat and diseases, and integrated pest
management must be considered at
the same time with irrigation.
Water for growing crops, or the
uncertainty of sufficient quantities to
grow crops on a planned, steady basis,
has been a major constraint to suc-
cessful farming in the Virgin Islands
for decades. The main thrust of the ir-
rigation research program has been
irrigation water management for tropi-
cal crops, with emphasis on
watermelon, tomatoes, and papaya.
Previous research on Charleston Gray
and other watermelon varieties showed
severely low yields, with inadequate ir-
rigation regime suspected as the
reason, Other factors possibly con-
tributing towards low watermelon
yields identified in 1982 were inade-

quate pollination because of the small
number of bees observed visiting the
flowers, severe attacks of anthracnose
and other fungal diseases, even though
Charleston Gray was considered to be
disease resistant, and severe blossom-
end rot in all plots.

IWatarmelon Trial In June 1983
an irrigation trial was begun with
Glory (oblong) and Festival Queen
(round) hybrid watermelons on 0.1
hectares of land, with harvest taking
place in August and September. Each
plot consisted of two rows of 12 plants
mulched with black plastic. Both wa-
termelon varieties received daily irriga-
tion applications of four treatments
(1.25, 1.00, 0.75, 0.50 CU ratio). The
treatments were replicated three times.
The trickle irrigation system consisted
of Bi-Wall tubing buried at 8 cm. with
orifices at 24" x 96".
Before transplanting, about 40 liters
of chicken manure per row and 100 kg
per hectare of complete fertilizer were
incorporated into the soil. Complete
fertilizer was injected twice a month
and foliar fertilizer with trace elements
was applied as nutrient deficiency

Roams h aMt Kirk Bansot and rserch asullant Ktelnd Petrwsn h~mt Glory (obng waWer- CR"1 ml'rologgr w-ater station.

symptoms developed. Weeds were
controlled with Dacthal herbicide,
while insects and diseases were con-
trolled by weekly pesticide applica-
tions. Two bee colonies were placed
near the watermelon field experiment
a few weeks after planting to provide
adequate pollination.

Results and Economic Returms
Trial results showed that Festival
Queen irrigated at 1.25 CU ratio pro-
duced the highest marketable yield
(103,618 kg/ha) and had the highest
water use efficiency with 253.7
kg/ha/mm when irrigated with 0.50
CU ratio. (Table 1)
This watermelon study encouraged
speculation on the possibility of high
net returns for farmers raising
watermelon in the Virgin Islands.
Based on four crops per year, Glory
variety could return $33,120 per year
with its highest yield of 94,000 kg/ha.
and Festival Queen, yielding 103,000
kg/ha, could return $42,320 per year.
These figures are based on high
marketable yields and high wholesale
prices for vegetables in the U.S. Virgin
Islands. (Table 2)

Tomato Studies Following a 1981-
1982 study made on irrigation of
tomatoes during the dry season, a se-
cond study was initiated in late 1982 to
determine the effect of irrigation fre-
quency and amount on tomato growth
and quality during the dry season. A
similar area of 0.6 hectares was planted
with UH N-69 multiple disease and
heat resistant tropical hybrids. Each
plot consisted of three rows of 12
plants. The irrigation treatments on
split-plot design were irrigation
amount, CU ratio 1.25, 1.00, 1.75,
0.50 (main plot) and irrigation fre-
quency, one and two days (subplot).
The treatments were replicated three

The trickle irrigation system con-
sisted of Bi-Wall tubing with orifices at
18" x 72" buried at 8 cm. The system
included a volumetric valve, pressure
regulator, 200 mesh filter, and two
water meters for each treatment.
Approximately 7.5 tons per hectare
of chicken manure and 100 kg per hec-
tare of superphosphate were incorpor-
ated into the soil before transplanting.
Side-dressing with a complete fertilizer
was applied twice monthly after fruit
set. Foliar fertilizer with major and
trace elements was applied as nutrient
deficiency symptoms developed.
Weeds were controlled with Dacthal
herbicide and additional manual and
mechanical cultivation. Insect pests,

Table 1. Marketable watermelons Kg/ha

Hybrid Watermclon
Irrigation Amount Festival Queen
Cu Riaio Glory (Oblong) (Round)
Marketabic watermelon Kg/ha
1.25 86.285 103,618
1.00 94.989 88.783
0.75 61.232 64.297
0.50 59,756 71.715
LSD.0: Berween varieties at the same level 18,705 Kg/ha.
Between varieties at differed amount levels 17,685 Kg/ha.

Vietors enoy frSmy harvested tomatoes during a field day workshop.

Table 2. Economics of Triidce Irigated Watermelon in the U.S. Virgin Islands

1. Net Remm pee hecae/lop (4 Ctop/lyar)

Marketable Gross Inome
yield Wholesale (coasidceing Variable Net
Crop kg/ha Price 5% los) Cst Rtuam
U. S. dollars


Glory 94.000
(oblong) (1983) 0.55/Kg 49,120 11.000 38.120

Queen 103.000
(round) (1983) 0.55/Kg 53,820 11.500 42.320

2. Income and expense budget

Item Pea Crop Total
(4 cnmps/year)

Incorme/hectare of waterenclon
94.000 Kg/ha $0.55/Kg 49.120 196,480

Expense 15.500 62.000

Net cash balance 33,620 134.480

fungal and bacterial diseases were con-
trolled in cooperation with the Pest
Management Program.

Tomato Yields Tomatoes were
harvested twice weekly from October
12 to December 2, 1982. The greatest
response to irrigation, with 92,603
kg/ha marketable tomatoes, was ob-
tained with 1.25 CU ratio but no
significant differences at 0.05 level
between treatments were found.
There were significant differences bet-
ween irrigation amount treatments at
0.1 level. The unmarketable yield
averaged under 5%. By monitoring
insects and diseases, the pesticide ap-
plications were reduced compared to a
standard weekly schedule.
In a later study of the economic ad-
vantages and disadvantages of trickle
irrigation on tomatoes in the Virgin
Islands, a comparison was made of
wet and dry season irrigation showing
a marketable yield of 55,000 kg/ha
during the dry season for a net return

of $62,875 and the wet season yield of
92,000 kg/ha with a net return of
$115,600. (Table 3)

Papya Studies In papaya studies,
PR6-65 papaya for processing and fresh
consumption was planted March 16,
1984 to determine the effect of irriga-
tion frequency and amount on growth
and quality. Plants were spaced 1.82 m
in a row on a total experimental area of
0.07 hectares. The irrigation treat-
ments arranged on split-plot design are
irrigation amount, CU ratio 1.25,
1.00, 0.75, 0.50 (main plot) and fre-
quency, one and two days (subplot).
The treatments were replicated three
The trickle irrigation system con-
sisted of Ry-Pol tubing and two emit-
ters per full grown plant. An auto-
matic valve, pressure regulator and two
water meters were used for each treat-
ment. with rain catchment water fil-
trated by 200 mesh filter.

A quantity of 0.300 kg superphos-
phate per plant was incorporated
before planting. Side dressing with
nitrogen and complete fertilizer was
applied twice a month, and trace
elements applied as nutrient deficiency
symptoms developed. Weeds were
controlled with Dacthal herbicide and
additional mechanical cultivation;
pesticides were sprayed weekly.
Although the study is still ongoing,
field observations thus far have reveal-
ed only 1% of the plants were affected
by diseases initially, and that papaya
responds favorably to irrigation. Pre-
liminary calculations on irrigated
PR6-65 papaya show that by using
trickle irrigation and good cultural
practices, it is possible to obtain one
full crop of papaya despite incidents of
bacterial canker disease. Many farmers
have visited the field experiments on
watermelons, papaya and tomatoes
and, as a result, have introduced not
only proper trickle irrigation systems,

but also soil improvement, bee col-
onies for pollination, and use of
tropical hybrids to augment the effec-
tiveness of their farm operations.

Weather Station Irrigated crop
production is related to many environ-
mental factors including atmospheric
conditions. A CR-21 micrologger wea-
ther station was installed at the experi-
ment station to measure solar radiation
and precipitation. The weather station
is powered by solar cells backed up by
rechargeable batteries. Similar systems
could be used for irrigation scheduling
for agricultural producers. In order to
have accurate data, the neutron probe,
an excellent method of soil-water con-
tent determinations on irrigation re-
search, was installed also along with an
IBM PC computer system to be used in
analyses of field research data and
weather conditions.

Table 3. Eonomica of Trickle Irrigated Tomato in the U.S. Virgin Islands

1. Net Renmu per Hecrase

Marketable CGoo lcomeI
yield (considering Vadable Net
Crop ksglh Price 5% lon) Coa Return
U. S. dollars

UH N-69
Hybrid 55,000 1.50/Kg 78.375 15,500 62,875
Tomato (1982)

92.000 I.50/Kg 131,100 15,500 115,600

2. Income and Expense Budget

Item Per Crop Total
(3 copelyear)
Income/hectare of tomato
55,000 Kg/ha $1.50/Kg 78,375 235,125

Expense 25.500 76.500

Net Cash Balance 52.875 158,625

nvaneuson am noafemise unc on cassava Intreropped with Cavndish banana was conducted
oer 3-year pixod.


Most of the banana production in
the Virgin Islands is on a small scale,
using varieties of varying plant height
and yield potential. Any large scale
production will depend on utilizing
well-known cultivars that are not too
tall and which will produce fairly large
sized uniform bunches. Three varieties
obtained in 1981 from WINBAN in
St. Lucia have been studied-Giant
Cavendish. Robusta and Valery (Musa
AAA) suckers. Although producing
more uniformly shaped bunches, the
Robusta and Valery plants are taller
(1.8m-2.4m), have thinner pseudo-
stems and are more prone to toppling
than Giant Cavendish. The latter
plants are sturdier, thicker and have
more leaves at fruiting. Final studies in
1984 revealed that Robusta variety pro-
duced the heaviest bunch. In two
harvests the average bunch weight for
Robusta was 5.0 and 3.7 kg heavier
than Valery and Giant Cavendish,
with 25.8 and 11.8 more fruits per
bunch in each respective harvest.
(Table I)

Tissue Culture The present de-
mand for bananas in the Virgin Islands
is estimated at approximately 2270
kg/week (5000 lbs.) Most of these are
now imported from neighboring Car-
ibbean islands, mainly Puerto Rico and
Santo Domingo. In general, a main
constraint to meeting the demand

through local production has been the
lack of healthy planting material,
which because of Plant Quarantine
restrictions cannot be readily supplied
from neighboring islands. The mass
production nature of clean plantlets
produced in tissue-culture is ideal for
establishing large acreage in areas such
as the Virgin Islands. However, plant-
lets shipped from laboratories usually
must undergo a period of hardening
off and acclimatization for successful
establishment. As a result, studies
were conducted to evaluate the feasi-
bility of shipping tissue-cultured
banana clones into the Territory. Re-
sults of this investigation indicated
that Giant Cavendish planets ship-
ped into St. Croix can be transplanted
using a synthetic growing mix with a
80-90% survival rate. Although de-
layed transplanting overall produced
better plants, delayed transplanting for
3-6 days using forestry trays gave the
biggest and most healthy plants. This

method of delayed transplanting and
of using forestry containers in estab-
lishing banana planets is already be-
ing used by the V.I. Department of
Agriculture which has successfully
established several thousand plants for
distribution to farmers.

Attackig the Problem Major
problems affecting banana production
in the Virgin Islands are parasitic
nematodes and the banana root borer
(Cosmopolites sortdaus). Detennining
a successful fertilizer program suited to
local soil conditions is also important.
A study begun in 1980 has attempted
to select an appropriate nematicide
that may have a dual effect on nema-
tode and borer control and to make
recommendations on optimum rates
and constituents of fertilizer for
Cavendish Banana (suckers). The
most effective nemaricide appears to
be Furadan (carbofuran) 5%G at 20g
per plant applied at four monthly
intervals. Well rotted chicken manure
at 5.5 kg yearly or ammonium sulfate
at 1.4 kg yearly (applied at two month
intervals) produced the heaviest bun-
ches of fruits. However, a combina-
tion of chicken manure and Furadan
5%G was the most successful treat-
ment with plants yielding bunches
weighing 22.7 kg.
Yield data for the first and second
ratoon crops were severely affected by
tropical storms in the summer of
1982. Most toppling or uprooting of
plants occurred either in untreated
plots or those receiving Diazinon 2E
soil drenches, which indicates the
beneficial effects of nematicides on

Table 1. Yield and Growth Characteristics of Three Varieties of Bananas
Height Width bunch Hands/ Faits/
Vaieties at shooting at shooting kg bunch bunch Lcaves
'Robust.a 1.8 12.2 cm 15.0 7.8 111.6 9.2
Valery 1.9 m 13.5 cm 10.0 6.3 85.8 7.3
Giant Cavendish 1.8 m 13.2 cm 11.7 7.0 100.5 8-3

sturdy root development. Although
several plant parasitic nematodes. in-
cluding Radopholus similis, have
been recovered in soil and root assays,
thus far no clear pattern between
nematicides and nematode popula-
tions has emerged. No corm borers
have yet been found in any plants and
minor outbreaks of Sigatoka leaf spot
have been cleared up by immediate
pruning and destruction of infected

Fxplant Evsluation A field ex-
petiment of Giant Cavendish banana
explants completed in 1984 evaluated
two planting methods (hand dug and
tractor dug holes), two fertilizer treat-
ments (chicken manure and ammoni-
um sulphate) and two nematicides
(Temik 10%G and Furadan 5%G).
After completion of two harvests the
best yield was 33.5 kg for two bunches
obtained with ammonium sulphate
(NHASOs) and Temik (aldicarb), util-
izing hand dug holes. (Table 2)
The second harvest revealed taller
and wider stems at shooting than the
first harvest. The average height and
width in the second harvest was 2.01 m
and 16.5 cm respectively, compared to
1.7 m and 14.2 cm in the first harvest.
With respect to nematode assays, the
most important fact was the total
absence of the burrowing nematode
(R. simiir) which is the one usually
causing major damage in both bananas
and plantain (Table 3). A better con-
trol of Rootknot and Spiral nematodes
resulted from using different treat-
ments which, however, were not as ef-
fective on Reniform nematode. No
appreciable difference was observed
between the two methods for prepar-
ing the hole.
In general, comparisons with the
Giant Cavendish explants of the
previously mentioned study, the yield
difference is obvious. The Giant
Cavendish suckers averaged 11.7 kg/
bunch while the explants averaged
15.1 kg/bunch.

Table 2. Yield and Growth Charaaeristics of Giant Cavendish Explants in Two

Dasp fum Shootin
to Harest YVieMld/Ia IK Fmits/Bnlch
Trament tst hary. 2nd bharuv. Ist hv. 2d har. 1st har 2nd harn.
NTA* 74 91.2 12.1 18.7 114.7 145
NFA 77 59 11.7 18.9 116.2 135.4
NA 75 66.9 12.9 17 105.2 145.3
CA 72 83.7 12.5 16.2 120.5 127
CFA 77 80.7 13 15.7 119.8 143
CTA 79 66 13.8 16.9 119.8 141.7
X 75.7 74.6 12.7 17.2 116 139.5
NTB 76 76.8 14.7 18.8 109.5 130.2
NFB 75 59.6 11.9 17.5 114.4 143.4
NB 75 59.4 10.9 17.1 133.6 135.5
CB 69 67.5 12.7 18.4 126.3 142.8
CFB 68 81.5 13 15.8 115.2 139.6
CTB 79 71.7 12.8 19 117.3 140.5
X 73.6 69.4 12.7 17.8 119.4 138.7
T Temik 10%G
A Tractor dug holes
B Hand dug holes
F Furtdain 5%G
C Chicken Manure

Table 3. Mean Number of Major Nematodes Extracted from 100 ccof Soil from
Rhizosphere of Giant Cavendish Bananas Grown from Explants

Tetranents Roor-Kno Spiral Renifocm po .
NTA* 716 9.3 45.3 126.2
NFA 37.3 16 78.6 131.9
NA 28.3 52 200 280.3
CA 43.3 8 132 183.3
CFA 76.6 22.6 93.6 192.8
CTA 60 30.6 136. 226.6
NTB 34 70.3 382 486.3
NFB 35.3 18.6 306.3 360.2
NB 92.6 17.6 136 146.2
CB 24.6 17.3 317.6 359.5
CFB 88.6 6 126 220.6
CTB 48.0 48.0 351 447.0
T Temik 10%G
A Tractor dug holes
B Hand dug holes
F Furandn 5%G
C Chicken Manure

Priority Crops Plantains and cook-
ing bananas have been cited as the
priority crops of the world's starch
fruits, in a listing of global crop
priorities (1982 Annual Report of the
International Board for Plant Genetic
Resources.) Like banana, plantain
plays an important role in the diet of
many Virgin Islanders, but this crop is
also affected by the same problems of
pests, lack of information on fertilizer
requirements and nonavailability
locally of large quantities of good
planting material. The Maricongo or
Horn type of plantain is popular with
local residents while the Dwarf Plan-
tain with its short stocking stem is
suited to local windy conditions. In
December 1982 a field study of
Maricongo and Dwarf Plantain tissue-
cultured clones was begun, using
methods described previously for
Giant Cavendish plantlets. A report on
the plant crop performance over a two-
year period indicated several signifi-
cant factors. Of major significance was
the genetic variability of clones as
evidenced by the appearance of Congo
or French type plantain in approxi-
mately 22-31% of the plant popula-
tion (Table 4). Although these variants
produced heavier bunches, fruits were
irregular in size and smaller than those
of true Maricongo and Dwarf Plantain.
Plantains are noted for their genetic in-
stability and it would appear that even
tissue-cultured clones do mutate. The
Dwarf Plantain showed a 19% rever-
sion to Dwarf French Plantain. This
latter cultivar is unique to this area
since there are no reports of its wide-

spread occurrence in the Caribbean.
The variant Dwarf French typed yield-
ed 46 tons/ha with bunches averaging
about 226,460 fruits/ha. The Regular
Maricongo or Horn Plantain yielded
only 14.4 tons/ha or about 61,841
fruits/ ha. The mutant Dwarf French
Plantain produced in this trial appears
to be well adapted to local conditions
and further ratoon crops are being
closely monitored for yield, and
agronomic and variability character-
At the same time of the above
studies, a field evaluation of Mari-
congo Plantain tissue-cultured clones
using four fertilizer systems was con-
ducted. Fertilizers applied over the
two-year period of the trial included
water containing Tilapia fish manure,
slow release urea (IBDU), both ammo-
nium and potassium sulfate and
10.10.10. After one and one-half
harvests were completed, the average
weight per bunch for all treatments

together was only 5 kg, an indication
that Maricongo is not well adapted to
the soil of the Agricultural Experiment

The original objective of this project
was to establish a one-acre orchard of
local tropical fruit species particularly
adapted to soil and climatic conditions
of St. Croix. In 1983 the addition of
nine species of fruits brought the total
to 25 species, with five more added in
1984. These new additions include:
Star Apple ChrysophyllIm ceimito
West Indian Plum Sponsiass sp.
Breadfruit Artocarpus community
Breadnut Artocarps communism
Pommegranate Pueica gratlum
Gobemor Plum Flacourti indica
Egg Fruit Poutemi campechiana
Sapodilla Achras sapote
Gooseberry PhyllAIhs adus
Feijoa Feo setelowiua
White Sapote Caimoroa edlai
Carob Ceratonia siiqua
Strawberry Guava Psidum
Passion Fruit Pasflora edu/is
In April 1983, a drip irrigation
system was installed using %" poly
head lines. Watering is controlled
automatically by two water watches set
% hour per day at 20 psi water
pressure using a potable water supply

Table 4. Yield and Growth Characteristics of Plant Crop of Regular Maricongo
and Dwarf Plantains Grown from Explants
Regular Dwadrf Ma icongo Type
Yield (tons/ha) 16.1 20.3 38.9
Fruius/bunch 31.0 34.8 76.9
Height at shooting (m) 2.1 2.1 2.1
Stem Girth at Im (cm) 50.4 54.7 51.7
Days to shooting 326.2 338.5 302.1
Days from shooting to harvesting 71.4 78.2 85.0
No. leaves at harvest 11.6 13.5 13.4
Percentage Non-Maricongo 23.5 31 2
ZBased on a plant population of 1742 plants/ha.


nlata.nt aulmes was ongoing at

to St. Croix-sporadic rainfall, high
winds, and alkaline soil with low
nutrient levels.
Treatments and Observations A
200-tree planting was established to
evaluate the effects of various
bactericidal compounds, antibiotics
and selected microbial antagonists
upon disease impact and population
fluctuations of the pathogen. Evalua-
tions of pathogen recovery from leaf
surfaces and of disease severity showed
no significant differences among the
treatments and controls.
Observations made upon experi-
mental papaya plots used for irrigation
studies indicated that the pathogen
was disseminated by wind and rain
rather than being soil borne. Subse-
quent experiments showed that the
disease organism is well adapted to sur-
vive on the leaf surfaces of papayas and
to produce copious inoculum from leaf
and stem lesions. Experiments design-
ed to determine the pathogen's ability
to survive in the soil show that under
dry conditions the organism cannot
survive longer than two weeks and
under moist conditions less than one
Taxonomy Many years ago the
causal agent of a similar disease in Java
was determined to be Bacilus papa-
yae, later placed in the genus Enfinia.
Efforts to determine the bacterium's
taxonomy have shown it to possess no

past two years.

Bacterial canker of papaya has been
implicated as a component of the
disease syndrome known for years as
"St. Croix Decline." Also called
"Papaya Decline Disease," this disease
has caused a serious problem with
papaya production, resulting in the re-
quest for a 406 grant to undergo a
comprehensive study of the syndrome.
Approval of the grant was received and
work started in July 1983.

Resistant Varieties The first year's
research focused on finding resistant
varieties of papaya to bacterial canker,
investigating the effectiveness of
bactericidal compounds, antibiotics
and microbial antagonists for disease
management, determining a tamo-
nomic classification of the organism
and factors influencing disease spread.
Consequently, a total of 26 varieties
were screened in six separate trials for
resistance to bacterial canker. Of these,
six varieties were shown to have a signi-
ficantly higher tolerance to infection in
greenhouse trials. (See Table 1.) Also,
to determine the ability of promising
papaya varieties to resist or tolerate in-
fection in the field, a variety orchard
was established which contains the
most promising varieties. One of
these, Barbados 2X, appears not only
to possess a high tolerance to bacterial
canker but also appears to be better
adapted to growing conditions unique

unique overall biochemical or physio-
logical characteristics. However, the
bacterium is shown to be different
from the bacterium reported by Tru-
jillo and Schroth from the Marianas
Islands and isolates of the pathogen
have been sent to Drs. Schroth and
Hildebrand at the University of
California at Berkeley for DNA
homology typing to give a more ac-
curate picture of where the bacterium
should be categorized taxonomically.
In the second year study of the
bacterial canker research continued on
the susceptibility of papaya cultivars to
the pathogen. It was found that varia-
tions in susceptibility were observed for
the same cultivars in both spray and
wound inoculation trials. Least suscep-
tible were Barbados Dwarf 2X, Trini-
dad Pink, STT 638-1, and PR 10-65.
The remaining cultivars were extreme-
ly susceptible and not significantly dif-
ferent from one another.
Isterroupping An inter-cropping
system for disease management utiliz-
ing papaya, pigeon pea, pineapple and
cowpes was established. Preliminary
evaluations have shown a decreased in-
cidence of bacterial canker as well as
papaya ringspot virus in the papaya in-
tercrop as compared to monocultures.
Season Affects Observations of
losses occurring from disease outbreaks
show that this disease is most destruc-
tive on St. Croix during the short rainy

Culture of pallogtae bactediumi I tested at
pathology lb.

seasons, although symptoms may be
observed throughout the entire year.
Rainfall does not appear to increase
pathogen survival or symptom severity
and in fact, symptom severity appeals
to be decreased by 72 hours of free
moisture. This seems to indicate that
the pathogen is well adapted to the
semi-arid climate of St. Croix.

Controls Studies have also shown
that the bacterium may survive for in-
definite periods in the cankers and leaf
infections of affected papaya trees and
on the leaves of tomato and canta-
loupe. Attempts to control the disease
with bactericides, antibiotics and other
agents have not yet been successful.
Presently the most effective control is
the use of resistant cultivars, the most
promising of which, thus far, is the
Barbados Dwarf. Another control stra-
tegy being investigated is the use of

suitable barrier crops-those that do
not support epiphytic populations of
the pathogen, such as cassava, banana,
and pigeonpea. Observations of small
local farms where papayas are com-
monly intercropped with a wide variety
of fruit and vegetable crops have
shown a lower incidence of the canker
disease than is found in monocultures.
Use of the term "St. Croix Papaya
Decline" has now been shown to in-
dicate a variety offactors, i.e., nutrient
or water deficiencies, virus infections,
etc., which affect the normal develop-
ment of papaya. Many symptoms,
such as greasy spots on papaya stems
caused by viral infections, are often
misdiagnosed as bacterial cankers.
Because of the confusion surrounding
the term "St. Croix Papaya Decline
Disease" it is proposed that it be
replaced with "bacterial canker of

In soil solarization research which
was started in 1983, thecrops and their
diseases targeted for study in order of
priority based on severity of need and
economic considerations were fusarium
wilt, damping off and root knot nema-
tode in tomato, pepper and eggplant;
papaya mot rot; stem rot of water-
melon; crown rot of thyme; and whorl
rot of pineapple. The results of trials
made on two off-station and three on-
station sites over a nine-month period
showed that soil temperatures did not
attain the required high temperatures
necessary for the disinfestation of soil-
bome pathogens. Maximum tempera-
tures obtained under polyethylene
mulch during the six week solarization
periods were 48, 44 and 41 C at 8, 15
and 23 cm, respectively, for the
months of June and July. Plots that
were not mulched attained tempera-
tures of 38, 33 and 31 C at the same
In trials conducted during the
months with cooler temperatures
and/or shorter days, both mulched
and non-mulched plots were 2-5 C
cooler. However, disease and yield
evaluations could not be made on
these plots because of damage caused
by an unseasonable tropical storm.
Disease incidence was low in the re-
maining trials since most of them were
conducted on small, privately owned
farms and artificial inocula could not be
used. Results indicated there were no
significant differences in yields or
losses due to disease between the
solarized and non-solarized plots; air
temperatures and total solar radiation
were lower than average for the
1983-84 testing period. Other results
have shown that solarization is not ef-
fective in rocky or hilly areas where
rototillers cannot be used to loosen the
soil or in areas where water availability
restricts the maintenance of moisture
under tarped areas.

Table 1. Relative Variety Susceptibility
Most Moderately Least
Variety Susceptibk Susceptiblec Susceptible
Waimanalo +
Kapoho +
Sunrise +
P.R. 6-65
P.R. 6-65 Improved +
P.R. 6-65 Dwarf
P.R. 7-65 +
P.R. 8.65 +
P.R. 9-65 +
P.R 10-65
Catie 12914 +
Catie 12915 +
Catie 12917 +
CVI 283-1 +
CVI 283-2 +
CVI 383-1
CVI 383-2 -
CVI 483-1 +
CVI 583-1 +
Trinidad Pink 'Y
Trinidad Pink +
Trinidad Yellow
Barbados Dwarf "U" +

Elg varieties of sweet potato weet evaluated for resistance to sweet potato weevil.

General pest and pesticide manage- serious pest of cucumbers, melons and Agriculture's Stone
ment research has been a diversified squashes in the Caribbean and else- Quarantine Facility in
collaborative effort, with Station and where. Collaborative efforts with the wasp underwent
outside scientists working to build an USDA staff in Mississippi and South Florida in 1984.
information base on the local plant Carolina have led to the establishment
and animal pest situation as well as of a laboratory colony of this newly Beeficial Isects
evaluating alternative control methods described species. Over 1000 parasit- Dr. Kent Elsey, ento
which stress reducing the risks of ized melonworm prepupae and pupae U.S. Vegetable I
pesticide use. A main emphasis at the were sent to the U.S. Department of Charleston, South
experiment station is the development
of biological control projects for major
local insect pests. One of these projects
produced results which may have far-
reaching affects, both in the V.I. and
on the mainland.

Insect Discovey As the result of
work initiated by the pest manage-
ment program leader and continued in
collaboration with entomologist Dr.
Roger Bland from Central Michigan -
University in 1983, a beneficial insect
new to science was discovered and
described. The parasitic ichneumonid
wasp from St. Croix named Agrypon
caribb esm Bland was later an-
nounced in the January 1984 issue of
the Annals of the Entomological Socie-
ty of America. The wasp holds great
promise as a natural enemy for the FIG. A new llmmnumn wasp, Ag'rypo carldM iba (above), natural enemy
biological control of melonworms, a was read on St. Croix, and Is being studio as a blocontrot agent of the me

ville Research
Mississippi and
field trials in

In March 1983,
mologist at the
laboratoryy in
Carolina, spent


several days in the Virgin Islands ex-
ploring for A. canibbmem and other
natural enemies of both the melon-
worm and the pickleworm. A produc-
tive visit by the AES entomologist to
Barbados in August 1983 gave a fur-
ther boost to Virgin Islands' biological
control efforts as records of the Com-
monwealth Institute of Biological Con-
trol revealed information on beneficial
insect introductions into St. Croix
done several decades ago which ap-
parently were never published. The
prospects for introducing natural
enemies of several important local crop
pests are now more encouraging, par-
ticularly of the diamondback moth
(cabbage family pest), the fall army-
worm and the coconut-scarring mite,
among others.
Dr. Bland and the AES entomolo-
gist also published two short notes on
insecticides and acaricide evaluations
done with Bland on local crops, and a
co-authored paper entitled "Prelimin-
ary Studies on the Culicoides spp.
Associated with Ruminants in the Car-
ibbean Region." The latter concerns
the bluetongue virus and was pub-
lished in the international journal
Preventive Veterinary Medicine Vol. 2
(1984): 389-399. This project has now
been terminated after 2 years, due
to lack of funding at the level re-
Plaistai CAloes A field experi-
ment with tissue-cultured clones of

plantains begun in 1982 was the sub-
ject of a paper co-authored by the pest
management entomologist and re-
search horticulturist Christopher
Ramcharan, senior author. Entitled
"A Preliminary Evaluation of Field
Planted Maricongo and Dwarf Plan-
tains Grown from Explants ," the
paper was presented in September
1983 at the 19th Annual Meeting of
the Caribbean Food Crops Society.
Among other results, there was a
notable absence in these tissue-
cultured plants of burrowing
nematodes and black weevil borers,
usually prevalent pests on this crop.

Sweet Potato Weeil The second
of two field experiments evaluating
eight varieties of sweet potatoes for
resistance to the common sweet potato
weevil (Cylas formiriu elegantuldus)
was completed in 1983. The varieties
most promising were "White Star,"
"W119," and "Porto Rico," but none
showed sufficient resistance to justify

W ed Hors A week-long survey
of weed hosts of viruses was conducted
on St. Croix, St. John and St. Thomas
with a team from Puerto Rico Agricul-
tural Experiment Station led by Dr. J.
Bird-Pinero, Professor of Plant Path-
ology and Virology. Over 30 species of
weeds and other plants harboring vi-
ruses of potential or actual economic

significance were catalogued at numer-
ous locations throughout the islands.
Viruses which use weeds as alternate
hosts can be transmitted to economic
plants in various ways. This work seeks
to elucidate the role which weed-har-
bored viruses play in agriculture, and
to contribute to existing information
on the host-to-host transmission cycle.
During the survey, about 40 specimens
were added to the diagnostic her-

Pest Lits With the assistance of
specialists at the Insect Identification
and Beneficial Insect Introduction In-
stitute (USDA) and elsewhere, about
100 species have been added to the list
of insects of St. Croix, and new lists
have been started for the other two
islands. Plant disease and host lists are
also being developed, along with lists
of weeds and other significant pests.
Since receiving an excellent series of 80
slides of Virgin Islands scale insects
(Coccoidea) from the collection of Dr.
M. Kosztarab, world Coccoidea spec-
ialist, identification of these scale in-
sect pests of local plants has been
greatly enhanced. The slides are the
result of a joint survey made by the
AES research entomologist and Dr.
Kosztarab, and form a significant part
of a scale insect checklist of the V.I. be-
ing prepared by S. Nakahara, USDA
Systematic Entomology Laboratory,
which should be available soon.


Bland, R.g 19B3. Evaluation of Insactlcldus to control turnip aphids and cabbage
loope" on calae. fsaelM andae icaci.a rets 1983. Vol. 8-95.
Bland, RO. A.E. Hgeib and WJ. K as.ebnair. 1083. Ilenucticldes and mlitcien
.o control mies, fall am twormr and corn earworm in sweet com. 112,. Inonatslde
and AoartcMea Tests Vol. 1tie-ia-.
land, R.. 1984. A nw species of Ichnsumonldae ffore OAlphIaNfS hyaffanhr oLepl-
dopleraPyralidaa) in the Carisbbean. Anais Eanlompl. Soc. Amer. Vol 77(1)2I-31.
Sanie, E.C, S.L Seisa K. TIompuen WJ. Kneuseinbetsef. Palh and SFJ.
GIbb. 19s4. Preliminary studies on the Cullcoldena sp. associated wlit rutmlnanta
In the Caribbean region. J. Prnntinv Vftndary Mod. Vol. 238,390.
Hargmeaee, JA 1964. Son peIspeslvl- on s tho i ole aquacultunl In the develop.
meat of small farn ayastema for the asam Caribbean. in PI erocdlngs of the SO2th
An. MIOliPg on Ie Calikh n Food Crop S"/t Sf. $Groilx. U.&. V.I. pags 137-143.
R.R Webb. W.I. KnausenhebRer, and L. Yntema, editors. In Press.
Ulndow, B, R.1. Webb. Ouanlflcatlion ofl foller plan disease symptoms by micro
comiuter-digllized video image analysis. Phytopath. fabltr.) 73S11.
Pldde, .S. 19i4. Inovatiwe technologies for enhancing food production
capabilities I the Caribbean. in Proc. oI 30th An. Mtg. of CFCSG St. Crox, V.I,,
pages 3-7. R.R. Webb. W.I. KnauseMnbeoer. and LD. Yntema, edtlons, In pmss.
Raksey. J.. 1983. Renaruh on cloned recirculaling systems In eha U.S. Virgin
Island. Rodele's NETWORK, Winter;.

Rakosy. J.E. 1964. Fish flnning: a new enterprise for the Caribbean. Caribbean
it.eL 4:42-44.
Rakoey, JY, JA. Hlieegees and A. NHalr. 194. A rainwater catchment for
agricultural waear euppy. Pages C 3/1.15 in HH Smith, ed. Poc. olf 2nd lInT. Con.
on Rain Waetr Cinlm Sye, S.. Thomas, V.I.
Rakoey. J.F and A. Nai. 194, TIllapia fry and fingerling production In small tankSl.
Pages 236-242 Or Proc. of SO2f An. Mfg. of CFCS, St. Crox, V.. V R.R. Webb, W.I.
Knasenberger and LD. Ynlra, oedillors. In press.
Ranehlars, C. and WJ. KIresueblere 1902. Nermaticidefelrtilitaer trial on Giant
Cavendish banana in the Virgin Islands. In IM't Banana Muaftion NOwsl. No. 4:25-26
Rameeeimtrn, C. and WJ. Keus Iber. 1063. A preliminary evaluation of field-
slanled Marlcongo and Owea Plantain grown from explanlsta using namaticides,
standard cultvalton and Ifeilitzer practices. Page5s 156-164. I Pro. of 19tt An. Mfg.
of CFCS, Mdyeguer. P.R.
Mamnehaes. C. 10t3. Studies on hardening-of methoda and saner containers for
Gtiant Cavendish banana explants shipped into St. Crolx. PaKge 88-9B In Poc. of
tth An. Mtp. of CFCS Mayogo., P.R.
Weile, B.J.. and R.L sh. 8194. Tropical production of tilapla (Samireroooa
suro) and tomaloes (Lycoparwicon escuanlum) in a small scale recirculating
water system. Aqouaculture 41:271-213.
Webb, R.R. 1983. Variations in response of 24 papaya varieties Infected with
bacterial canker. Phyoaiath. (Ahstrt 73:611.




Many of the programs which comprise the Cooperative Extension Service (CES)
have greatly expanded their outreach in the past two years, more clearly defining their
role in the community by providing an enrichment for thousands of program par-
ticipants which previously had been unavailable. As CES continuously explores and
analyzes its mission, one point becomes apparent: it is possible to expand program
subject matter into new areas which have not been reached by other programs and
agencies in the community-and to achieve an enthusiastic response by doing so.
Fears that perhaps island residents might be embarrassed to attend a seminar on
teenage pregnancy or that there are not enough farmers interested in improving their
pasturage have proved groundless. The large keenly interested attendance serves as a
guideline that CES is definitely on the right track!


Extension Communications con-
veys the extension message to clients
and the public in as many mediums as
are available. Whether it is through
factsheets for farmers, gardeners and
livestock producers, or bulletins,
booklets, pamphlets, newsletters and
reports for anyone that is reachable
and interested; whether it is through
television, the daily local newspapers
or radio talk shows-Extension Com-
munications is ready to get the
message out through news releases.
captioned photos, weekly columns,
feature stories and guest appearances
on radio shows. By publicizing the
events which cram the calendars of
the many Virgin Islands extension
programs, the assurance is there that
the classes will be filled, the seminars
and workshops well attended.

New Publiations New publica-
tions brought out by Extension Com-
munications included two handbooks.
Extension Handbook No. I entitled
"Island Insects" is for teachers, parents
and apt students of nature to help
identify insects, collect them and pre-
serve them. The 50-page compilation
supplemented with much original
material has been adapted specifically
for use in the Virgin Islands and has
proven to be a great help to all who are
interested in natural history and the
world of insects. Extension Handbook
No. 2 entitled "Virgin Islands Beef
Cattle Improvement Handbook" was
printed to assist beef cattle growers
keep accurate records. The 32-page
booklet contains instructions on per-
formance testing, sample records and
recordkeeping sheets designed by the

extension animal science program to
aid commercial cattle growers in the
islands. Also published were three ex-
tension bulletins: "Virgin Islands
Cooperative Extension Service: A
Model for Technology Transfer
Systems in the Caribbean," "Avocado
Production and Marketing," and "Sor-
rel Production and Marketing." The
technology transfer bulletin has gone
into a second printing, due to its
popularity as an information resource
pertinent to creating an Easrem Carib-
bean Center at the College of the
Virgin Islands. It is proposed that the
Center will offer cooperative programs
of study, research and training for the
people of the Eastern Caribbean region
with an ultimate goal of encouraging
cooperation between the nations of the
region and the United States.

Newmbtlw hnnnM Ute pubic o event occurring in 4H4, Aidture and Ham Eoomamle eown) appew qu ly gho the year.

Bookets andReports The avocado
and sorrel booklets provide informa-
tion on producing the popular fruits
all the way from cultivation to harvest
as well as the economics of production
and recipes using the fruit. Other
publications include a pest manage-
ment factsheet on the banana root
borer; a farm management factsheet
on accounting methods for farmers;
and a special College booklet entitled
"College of the Virgin Islands-Our
First 22 Years," a 28-page overview
and history of the College.

EaerReports In 1983, thecom-
bined Experiment Station and Coop-
erative Extension Service annual report

was published for the years 1981 and
1982. As an indication of the increased
size, scope and number of land grant
programs in the Virgin Islands, the
report contained 42 pages and 98
photographs compared to 21 pages
and 36 photographs in that of the
1979-1980 report. In all, a total of
6,519 extension publications were
distributed by mail or personal contact
from October 1982 to September 1984.

News Media In that period also, a
total of 224 press releases were written
and dispensed to 12 media destina-
tions for an overall total distribution of
2,688. In addition, 74 photographs
with captions were released over the


two-year period and the popular Pest
Management gardening column called
"From the Ground Up" appeared each
Monday in the Asir. On Friday morn-
ings extension specialists were featured
on the hour-long "Conversation Show"
emanating from St. Thomas over
WVWI and also participated in the
MissJ, Show over WSTA on several oc-
casions. Newsletters were distributed
throughout the islands by the Agricul-
ture, 4-H and Home Economics pro-
grams on a quarterly basis.

The Agriculture Program at exten-
sion covers many aspects of food pro-
duction. From fruit and vegetable
culture, including soil and water
analysis and diagnosis, to pesticide
applicator training, small livestock
management, improvement of pas-
tures and dairy herds. The main thrust
of the program is to offer assistance,
ideas, training, and advice to our
gardeners and farmers so they can
become more self-sufficient at the
same time they learn about their
responsibility for good stewardship of
the land and its creatures.

Growing Forage Crops A signifi-
cant number of livestock farmers in all
districts have begun to focus on local
feed production since, with a decline
in sorghum acreage, efforts of farmers
have shifted to their own pasture
development. Farmers were assisted in
the procurement of adapted grass and
legume seeds and fertilizers while
receiving technical assistance in plant-
ing and management procedures. A
new emphasis is in the establishment
of forage crops demonstration plots
utilizing four legumes, three grasses


and two legume-grass mixtures. The
demonstration plots have informally
attracted farmers and other visitors
almost daily to the site located op-
posite the entrance to the College cam-
pus and several farmers have planted
acres to buffel, green panic and
pangola grasses.

Livestock Demonstrations On St.
Thomas, five result demonstrations
were initiated for acacia control,
pasture legumes, leaf miner control on
tomatoes, chemical weed control on
thyme, and onion root rot control.
Plans were made to revitalize livestock
associations on all three islands and in
1984, some 115 livestock farmers at-
tended initial planning meetings fol-
lowed by a small livestock man-
agement seminar attended by 104
farmers held on St. Croix. Specialists
lead discussions on common herd
health problems, breeding, manage-
ment, feed and nutrition, and training
and grooming animals for show. A
new livestock breeding and marketing
system, referred to as "The Small Live-
stock Exchange System," was begun in

order to eliminate inbreeding of sheep
and goats, and 15 individual farness
were assisted in designing manage-
ment systems unique to their livestock

working With Groups In all a
total of 2,081 island gardeners, farmers
and breeders attended the many work-
shops, seminars, field demonstrations,
short courses and lectures offered by
the extension agriculture program.
Subject matter included fruit tree
management, tomato production and
marketing, growing fruit trees. vege-
tables in containers, tropical tree pro-
pagation, and management of woody
Extension was helpful on both St.
Croix and St. Thomas in assisting
island farmers launch the St. Thomas/
St. John Farmers Association and the
St. Croix Farmers Cooperative Associ-
ation. On St. Thomas, in particular,
the emphasis in outreach was on group
programs, with extension providing
classroom training to such groups as
UJAMAA Young Adults Training Pro-
gram in organic gardening. Twenty-

Fi ldays c vr widOe aVlStYs o ucullure subjes. This group learn School groups aofll ages visit exisaimon to lea about ganiraig.
about IfMMnel buds from hortillculist Clinton Geqre.

Blo garum being wateld by extension aslalsant Churls Smith are a
sucoeauls concept developed by Extenton to proe growing space
for schools and aparnmnt dwlra.

Grating workshops attracted 145 paulcip4an, with SS% of thou soe-
mseful In prpagallng at least one typ of fruit tre.

two young people received a full year
of combined agriculture studies and
field work. Garden projects with the
Community Mental Health Center
and the East End Mental Health clinic
were established; workshops and semi-
nars were held for the St. Thomas/St.
John Hibiscus Society, the Orchid
Society, Sr. Citizens Recreation Cen-
ter, Dober School, Kirwan Terrace
Housing Project, and agriculture pro-
grams were conducted at 11 other
public and private schools. A full week
of agriculture related topics were
covered for the Department of Educa-
tion's Summer Agriculture Program
which enrolled 31 members on St.

Box Gardens Technical assistance
in planning, care and maintenance of
home gardens was given to 185 home
gardeners on St. Croix. For those who
do not have the garden space, box
gardening has proved to be a boon.
Designed by the agriculture program
for families in housing projects, apart-
ments or for school students in science
and agriculture programs, workshops
and demonstrations were held for

more than 250 residents. Several
schools have already constructed box
gardens modeled on plans provided by
extension. Another program for home
gardeners was a four session "short
course," with 65 participants, many of
them senior citizens, receiving "gradu-
ation" certificates.

Graftivg Trees Since more than
5,000 grafted trees are purchased an-
nually from outside the Virgin Islands,
a series of five propagation workshops
were conducted to assist residents in
grafting their own trees. Of the 145
participants who attended the work-
shops, 55% were successful in propa-
gating at least one type of fruit tree.
The highest rate of success was ob-
tained from air layering lime trees and
grafting avocados. Least effective were
mesples (sapodillas) and mangoes.
Another help for ten farm producers
was the installation of drip irrigation
systems which resulted in better
varietal selections and more efficient
production, reportedly increasing their
productivity by more than 100%.

Pestiade Appliators Eight pesti-
cide applicator training classes were
held for 54 initial first time applicators
and 13 current applicators were recerti-
fied in 1983. A total of 59 applicators
received certification status. In 1984 a
total of 119 applicators were trained
and certified. Since this is an ongoing
program with both private and com-
mercial pesticide operators certified
every year, the number is quite high,
reflecting an increased interest in the
use of pesticides by growers. In addi-
tion, most of those certified have ex-
pressed willingness to be recertified, as
new manuals are issued on the proper
handling of restricted use of pesticides.
A pesticide locator booklet entitled
"How to Locate Plant and Animal Pro-
tection Chemicals for Farm and Gar-
den" was produced for all islands after
a lengthy survey of pesticide dispens-
ing business establishments. A pesti-
cide storage, handling and disposal
facility was designed to provide a func-
tional model suitable for the agency's

Soil Testing The formal opening of
the extension diagnostic soil testing
laboratory on St. Thomas campus took
place in February 1983, thus providing
the Virgin Islands and the Eastern
Caribbean area with a modem facility
of benefit to all. In the first 20-month
period, 1,405 soil, 244 water and 722
plant tissue samples were analyzed.
Soils were analyzed for pH, organic
matter, soluble salts, calcium, magnes-
ium, potassium, nitrogen, phosphor-
us, sulphur, copper, iron, manganese,
zinc and sodium. Fertilizers and soil
amendments were recommended.
Water was analyzed for salt and metal
contents and plant tissue samples were
measured for total nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, calcium,
magnesium, iron, copper, zink,
manganese and sodium. In the first
year alone more than 200 farmers and
home gardeners availed themselves of
the new laboratory's services. A com-
puter program form was written
specifically for soil testing procedures
and final results are reported using this
form. In order to assist the first-time
soil collectors, Factsheet No. 25
Testing Soil for Better Yields, and
Factsheec No. 26 Interpreting Your
Soil Testing Results were published to
assist those with soil problems.
Among those touring the new lab
were 20 members of the Caribbean
Basin Administrative Group for Tropi-
cal Agriculture (CBAG) and 70 visitors
to the St. Thomas Food Fair. One
seminar was given for 22 persons in
conjunction with the Perkin-Elmer
Company of Connecticut on tech-
niques of atomic absorption flame
phtometry, and approximately 100 cli-
ents attended four workshops on
sampling soil and interpreting results
on St. Thomas. On St. Croix 68 parti-
cipants attended a seminar on soil
management fundamentals with more
than 150 soil samples taken by growers
for analysis.

Dairy Herd Impromveem t The
Dairy Herd Improvement Program
(DHIP) conducted performance tests
on an average of 570 cows monthly,
with records maintained through the
Raleigh Computer Center. The 80%
participation by Virgin Islands dairy
operators is the highest in the U.S. It
has been found that most dairy cows
under pasture conditions need added
energy and supplemental minerals.
Dr. C. Gibson, Associate Professor of
Veterinary Services, Michigan State
University, spent two one-week
periods on St. Croix to assist with
animal health programs, with parti-
cular emphasis on reproduction. As a
result, the percent of cows in milk has
increased up to 80% and the calving
interval has been reduced nearly two
months. In 1983 two of the five herds
were enrolled on the computerized
FARMX herd health program which
provides dairymen with better man-
agement techniques overall. In 1984
the FARMX program was revitalized
when the V.I. state veterinarian posi-
tion was filled after being vacant for a
year. The original two dairies were
reinstalled and two additional ones
were added. On St. Thomas, assistance
was given to the local dairy and others
in pasture improvement for their
The rolling herd average for the
August 1984 summary of the herds on
test was 7,121 pounds of milk (- 2%
under the last year and 51% of the
Southern Region) for an average herd
size of 137 cows (540 total cows on
test.) There were 480 cows in milk
(19% over the last year). The projected
calving interval is 17 months (7%
more than a year earlier but 14% over
the regional average.) The average days
in milk decreased 2% over the last year
to 181. The average days open de-
creased to 238 days (16%) but was still
64 days (48%) longer than the regional

Agriculture Aide Ah Smith ehos wstnuder
Im Alftret Andrews School som of te
vgetblos which glrow we In cocntiahn.

The extlenlon FARMX hed health program
proveidW dlIrymen with beer manogeenit

Classes wre conducted at the she, se special group of pestlllde appcainers from large Indusmies wm trained at Hess.

BeefHandbook In September 1984
the Virgin Im sa Beef Cattle Im-
provement Prgram (BCP) HamdbooA
was published. This 35-page manual
gives explicit details on the operation
and various codes used in the on-the-
farm performance test program, and is
distributed to all requesting cattle
growers in the Virgin Islands and else-
where in the Caribbean. To assist in
alleviating reproductive problems, the
extension assistant in charge of the
DHI milk program completed a week-
long workshop on reproduction and
artificial insemination in Florida, with
the result that improved efforts ate be-
ing made to reduce calving intervals
and increase the genetic base of local
herds. Four workshops on husbandry,
records and showmanship were con-
ducted for the 4-H/FFA Animal Hus-
bandry Program to prepare partici-
pants for later judging of dairy calves
at the annual Agriculture and Food
Fairs on St. Croix.

MS teen lab opened formally In 193 and has analyed thousands oa soMi, water, and piant
ideae mampese.


General pest and pesticide manage-
ment assistance covers a broad spec-
Stum under categories which affect the
health and welfare of people, plants
and animals. Throughout the territory
23 seminars, workshops and lectures
were presented in one year alone.
Eleven result demonstrations were con-
ducted for weed (8), insect (2) and
disease (1) control of plants in response
to specific requests in the same period.
A very successful concept, that of com-
munity plant clinics held on Saturdays
in shopping centers, became a popular
monthly event, reaching some 3,040
persons in one year. Many who attend-
ed these clinics merely came to ask -
questions while others brought ailing
plant specimens for diagnosis. Other
outreach included pest management.
training for livestock producers and ur-
ban and forest tree managers.

InMset aamme start at an ay age. The Peat M
"Open House" for young poptl of1 all g to augment
ScoutingforInsects Anew crop ines.
monitoring program was begun in
1983. Cooperating producers were -
trained in monitoring their own crops .
in order to maximize crop quality and i "
yield, and to reduce pesticide hazards. -
One full year of tomato scouting was
completed on St. Croix, involving
seven producers in 21 crops. In bana-
nas, three producers and three peren-
nial (continuous harvest) crops were in-
volved in a trial program. Growers
received instruction in pest scouting
techniques and seven scouts became
fully trained in identification of
destructive and beneficial insects. As a
result of the scouting, yield quantity
increased 25% in tomatoes and 50%
in bananas, according to comparisons
with their own previous yields which
were made by producers. Producer ac-
ceptance of the scouting program re-
mains high, and a greater understand-
ing of Integrated Pest Management
principles was apparent for all cooper- Posl Managnenl pngtram leader WaHrn Knaulanbar
ators at year's end. Indeed, failure to pnyer at a Feld Day Open House.

nagement progm has lhd Mn ongoing
heik nImowludg of harmful and baenelleal

ger demnonsrtns the use of a potitde



8hudents of Junior and snior NIh school ge a oen byp prnlpoe hom Ave school took pan In alx-wmk trakfing dm asm hiun aibe ln pt
management and agiculituam.

follow treatment recommendations
based on scouting reports resulted in
complete failure of certain crops in
some instances. Scouting protocols
were developed for cucurbits, avocados
and mangoes. In many cases, biologi-
cal insecticides are now recommended
and being used for tomatoes and cu-

Improving Graing Lands A range
improvement and vegetation manage-
ment program was begun because
rangeland constitutes by far the largest
single use of land in agricultural pro-
duction (75%) in the Virgin Islands.
Much of this land has low grazing
value due to erosion and undesirable
plant growth. Nearly all rangelands are
unimproved, poorly managed guinea
grass pastures. The emphasis was on
providing a baseline survey of the
vegetation present on range and pas-
tureland, to initiate weed control
demonstrations, and to strengthen the

diagnostic herbarium in range plants
represented. Nine St. Croix producers
cooperated with this program initially.
Plant collections were conducted in St.
Croix pastures and the diagnostic her-
barium now contains about 90% of
the economically significant range
plants. Field trials and qualitative
rangeland condition surveys are con-
tinuing under the impetus of the ex-
tension natural resources sector. To in-
crease productivity of rangeland and
pastures and to reduce deteriorating
acres, control procedures which are less
environmentally disruptive than tradi-
tional methods such as bulldozing or
"slash and bum" were urged for 60
producers who attended seminar-work-
shops and 15 producers who participat-
ed in field demonstrations. Two major
weed management demonstration pro-
jects were undertaken in 1984, while
two others were completed and reports
submitted to the cooperating farmers
and chemical manufacturers. Three of

the field trials involved Acacia spp.
control, which is a major pasture prob-
lem. In addition to Acacia, tan-tan
and thibet weed species were chemical-
ly controlled for one-half or less than
the cost of locally traditional control
Pesicide Locator At least 95% of
all Virgin Islands suppliers of agricul-
tural pest control products were in-
cluded in an annual update of a pesti-
cide locator entitled "How to locate
Plant and Animal Protection Chemi-
cals for Farm and Garden." As a result,
all inquiries for pest management
recommendations received by the ex-
tension service can now be answered
with accurate, timely, and targeted in-
formation about where to locate speci-
fically desired products. Availability of
pest control products is constantly in-
creasing due to input by pest manage-
ment staff to retailers on relative bene-
fits and quantities of pesticides; 15%
of the dealers adjusted their stocks dur-

Teacmher Ted Seymomre adjusts microscope at extesloni pest management lab for Intaeted In.-
sect viewers

ing the past year. Two new clientele
groups-livestock producers and urban
plant management professionals-
were reached with workshops which in-
cluded pesticide management infor-
mation. Two new chemical dealers
opened for business on St. Croix in
1984. One had explicitly drawn on
pest management advice for his order-
ing decisions. When feasible, organic
insecticides are recommended. A
serious deficiency has existed in the
selection and availability of chemical
and biorational pesticides. Livestock
production, mainly beef and dairy, is
the strongest agricultural enterprise,
with heavy pesticide use. Pesticide ex-
posure issues continue to generate
much public interest, but misinforma-
tion is prevalent. Whenever possible
pest management staffare interviewed
on radio talk shows and conduct edu-
cational meetings to explain the uses
and misuses of pesticides.

Insect NaturalHistory for Kids Al-
though environmental studies pro-
grams are enthusiastically received by
teachers and their students, there are
very few resource people available on
the islands. In fact, only 15% of the
teachers of science and mathematics in
the Virgin Islands secondary schools
are trained specifically in those fields.
Thus, exposure of school children to
natural history subjects, with the ex-
ception of an Environmental Studies
Program (ESP) funded in the early
1970's on St. John in conjunction with
the National Park System, has been
minimal. In particular. students are
rarely given the opportunity to gain in-
sight into the world of insects, and the
significant role that insects play in the
ecosystem. The pest management pro-
gram at extension developed a highly
popular insect natural history program
for school children ages 8-13 which
reached 2,041 young people in
1982-83 (approximately 60% of the

Insct Naturl History wis an lnpertan learn-
Ing xplerience for hund s of St. Croix
tuiaents lke this one.

.school population in this age group on
St. Croix alone). Sixteen of the 18
public and private schools, including
110 teachers, were involved. A main
criteria for success of such a program
rests not only on interesting, well-pre-
sented material by extension pest man-
agement staff but also the enthusiastic
cooperation of the teachers which was
evident as the program developed.
Presentations were made in the class-
rooms at each school involved in the
program, with material and sugges-
tions to the teacher for further explor-
ation of the insect world. Young "en-
tomologists" went on Saturday field
trips and insect collecting expeditions
and learned to use sophisticated equip-
ment to study, preserve and mount
their collections. The culmination each
year was a Field Day for all classes
together at the college. In 1984 600
students participated in lecture dem-
onstrations and field trips.

Insect HanIdbook In response to A Handbook for Insect Study. Intend- popularity was attested by the fact that
general demand and need, a major ed as a tool for educators of local young parents and other residents also sought
emphasis most recently was the corn- people, the handbook covers insect out the book for themselves and their
pletion of a 50-page profusely illus- classification, collecting, pinning, pre- children.
treated booklet entitled IslandIsects serving, identifying and rearing. Its



6 opo

///, 4 /

'Va'. .4 '

Caribe Home Center Sunny Isle
C & W Hardware Hannah's Rest
Cruzan Gardens Calquohoun
Gannet Hardware Callow's Bay
Gi Gi Pet Shop Sion Farm Shopping Center
Grange Hill Nursery Centerline Rd. Est. Orange
Grand Union Sunny Isle
IMS Inc. Callow's lay
Merwin Hardware La Grande Princesse
Pat Logan's Pet Store Sunny Isle
Pueblo Golden Rock
Pueblo Ville la Reine
St. George Botanical Garden Est. St. George
Tool Box North Shore Rd. Est. Concordia
V.I. Dept. of Agriculture Centerline Rd.
Est. Lower Love
Woolworth's Department Store Sunny Tsle
Ye Old Feed Shoppe Peter's Pest

This charl was prepared by the Cooparativw Exlenilon Senrie Past Manaement Progras at CVI after a survey of 140 St. Croix outlets. The 17
distributors listed carry ne or more o the 8 categories of nonserosol pstledles for use outside the home.


More taM 150 plants on the S Thomas mad S t. Croix campus we Idealied I labeld s part of Uh NaNel HMiey progru


Given the severe competition for
limited natural resources (NR) in the
Virgin Islands, the Cooperative Exten-
sion Service has begun to address
public education issues in natural
resources management and to serve in
an advisory capacity regarding natural
resources issues. With a population
density of about 1000 persons/square
mile, the Virgin Islands rank among
the top in terms of human impact. Less
than one-third of the land surface re-
mains minimally developed. The
shoreline-to-land ratio is very high,
and the coastal zone interface is a pro-
minent element of NR concern. Steep
slopes and land clearance cause serious
erosion. More indigenous species of
plants grow in the V.I. per unit area
than anywhere in the 49 continental
U.S. states.
Edangered Species Of the 800 to
1000 naturalized or indigenous plants,
at least 10 are considered endangered

and recent work has brought to light
five more probably endemic species
thought to be new to science, which
also appear to be endangered. At least
one lizard and one native bird are also
threatened with extinction. There is
very little public awareness about the
importance of our natural resources,
and since jobs are scarce on the islands,
any suggestion that the environment
take precedent over building and land
development is tantamount to heresy.

Working wikb Other Agencies
Direct intercession and enhancement
of public knowledge about the impor-
tance of a balanced ecology in a fragile
island ecosystem are the two routes
towards approaching the problem of
the endangered environment. One
method has been to work with other
agencies in enhancing public know-
ledge of the flora of the Virgin Islands
including the National Park Service

and Environmental Education Pro-
gram of the V.I. Department of
Education. There have been some
positive preliminary results. The
Nature Conservancy obtained land in
one water shed that was about to be
developed which contained two en-
dangered plant species. An endan-
gered species was located on the site of
the proposed solid waste recovery plant
and plans were modified so as not to
disturb it. Two nurseries are now pro-
pagating and offering native plants for
sale and three hotels have increased the
number of native plants on their
grounds. However, public awareness
must still be increased to the point that
residents serve as protectors of their en-
vironment against the haphazard re-
zoning and encroachment of poorly
planned development. The extension
service is being recognized as a source
of expert information on terrestrial
flora and other natural resources. Col-

laboration has increased with the Na-
tional Park Service on St. Croix and St.
John, the V.I. Planning Office and the
V.I. departments of Agriculture, Edu-
cation, and Conservation and Cultural
Affairs. oIcal offices of the Forest Ser-
vice, Soil Conservation Service, real
estate firms and nurserymen have also
been involved. Recently extension was
invited to become a member of the
V.I. Resources Management Coopera-
tive, to which 13 regional NR agencies

Project V/BB Another major acti-
vity of NR management information is
related to assessing the current state of
knowledge pertaining to resources
management in the islands. This is be-
ing accomplished in conjunction with
Project VIBIB, the Virgin Islands bib-
liography project, with responsibility
for all science materials under the ex-
tension NR program auspices. Major
support for this effort is being provid-
ed by the Man and Biosphere Program
via the National Park Service. This
work is due to be published in three
volumes sometime in 1986.

Casps Plants labeled As a pub-
lic service, more than 100 plants on the
St. Thomas college campus and over
50 plants on the St. Croix campus have
been properly identified and labeled
with durable aluminum plaques to

serve as an informal botanical "course"
for college visitors, students and staff.
Maps have also been prepared and
guide booklets are being developed.

St. Thoas-St. John Projects The
Natural Resources program is currently
working with three major land devel-
opment projects on St. Thomas and St.
John to insure the preservation of en-
dangered species of plants and reduce
environmental damage. The projects
include Fish Bay, St. John (Cocoloba
Development). Frenchman's Bay, St.
Thomas (Green Cay Development).
and Stalley Bay, St. Thomas (Waste
Recovery Project). A total of four en-
dangered plant species are reported
from those areas alone. The plants con-
sidered endangered are Til/arduia
limeaispica, Eythine eggemi, Zan-
thoxylum thomaiamum and Colyp-
tranthes thomutiana. Fruits and
flowers were collected from four
varieties of plants which may be new
species. They include Mdalphgia sp.,
Eugenia sp., Pdsidnim sp., and Byr-
sonmma sp. Specimens were sent to the
Smithsonian Institute and the New,
York Botanical Garden for evaluation.
Attempts are being made by extension
to propagate these species.
Initial steps were taken to imple-
ment a collaborative project on forest
succession on St. John. The principals
involved are the extension service, Na-
tional Park Service and New York
Botanical Garden. Forest recovery after
clearcutting, slash and bum, agricul-

rural exploitation and soil erosion is
being examined. The National Park
Service provided a $10,000 grant to the
extension service to participate in the

Other Outreach In other NR out-
reach, the program assisted the V.I.
Chamber of Commerce and R.A.R.E.
Inc. (World Wildlife Fund) in the de-
velopment of educational program-
ming in the Salt River Bay area which
was designed for media use and infor-
mation for tourists essentially, and is
now being used by the St. Croix Taxi
Association. An agro-forestry project
involving the improvement of 25 acres
of highly visible land with desirable
tree species at Martin Marietta was ad-
vised by the natural resources program
from its inception. Another National
Park Service grant was received to
develop a list of terrestrial invertebrates
of St. John and other islands, with
biologist Dr. William Muchmore
spending one month working on the
project in its final stage. Dr. George
Proctor, Puerto Rico University
Department of Natural Resources, was
assisted by the extension NR staff
while in the islands collecting botanical
specimens which were contributed to
the extension herbarium collection. At
least 120 species of plants have been
added to the herbaria of both St. Croix
and St. Thomas, with the chief focus
on collections of grasses, crops,
legumes and endangered species.


In coopermatln it V.I. Legal Serones and th S3L Croix Fannr Cooperative Assoolaian (FCA) a twey m inur was spoamored by CAD. Fisher-
man Joseph Laplace, CRD Economist George Mont, Legal Services atIery Allison Thompeon and FCA piesldl Clayton Rahards led the


The Community Resource Develop-
ment program (CRD) has as its goal
the improvement of community life
for islanders. While the other pro-
grams of Extension are more specifi-
cally oriented towards their own
clients, such as youth, homemakers.
farmers or gardeners, CRD and its pro-
gram embraces everyone. Whether it is
in one-to-one assist role or with a
seminar or a factsheet, CRD reaches
out to fill a specific need through its
advisory capacity in many fields,

Enterpise Budgets In 1983 the
CRD program began to develop a
series of agricultural enterprise budgets
made available to the general public
covering production of goats, cassava,
cucumber, eggplant, avocado, mango,
pepper, sorrel, banana and limes.
Variable and fixed costs were outlined
in detail to show the difference in
types of input used in the production

process. Extension has received
repreated requests for such informa-
tion over the years, particularly from
beginning or novice farmers or
gardeners. A farm management fact-
sheet on essential farm financial
records and types of accounting
methods was also brought out to assist
the farmer in the essentials of good
CRD's Advisory Role Numerous
presentations, seminars and workshops
were conducted throughout the 1983
and 1984 period to augment agricul-
tural development in the islands and
to serve in an advisory capacity to other
governmental agencies. Extension staff
served on the Technical Advisory
Board for the V.I. Planning Office's
Long Range Plan and worked closely
with their Community Block Grant
Development sector and their Historic
Preservation program. St. Thomas Ex-
tension personnel also served in a

technical advisory capacity for the
Education Department's I.C.E. pro-
gram and as members of "The Project:
St. John" steering committee to pro-
vide agricultural assistance and help in
establishing a viable youth training
program in agriculture on the Hammer
Farm site. Also on St. Thomas, the
CRD program worked closely in an ad-
visory capacity with the St. Thomas-St.
John Farmers Association, the St.
Thomas Livestock Association, the
Hibiscus Society. UJAMAA Organic
Gardens, Bordeaux All-For-The.
Better, and the St. Thomas Garden
Club in developing a legislative pro-
gram for the improvement of agricul-
ture in the Virgin Islands. Presenta-
tions were also made for some 75 Up-
ward Bound Students during their
Career Day where they learned of
career opportunities in agriculture,
natural resources and home economics.

Helping Femers CRD assisted the
newly developed St. Croix Farmers
Cooperative Association (FCA) meet
its legal requirements of incorporation
in 1983, and in 1984 rendered techni-
cal assistance to FCA in areas of plan-
ning, organization, education on
cooperatives, and marketing; six
farmers were also aided in preparing
farm plans and FmHA loan applica-
tions. Assistance was provided to the
Emergency Board of the Agriculture
Stabilization Service in compiling and
analyzing recommended procedures
that could reduce the damaging effects
of future drought conditions on local
livestock producers who wished to ac-
quire emergency drought relief funds.
In a joint effort with the FCA and the
V.I. Legal Services, CRD sponsored a
two-day education seminar for 25 per-
sons on Agricultural Cooperative
Development. The chief focus was to
educate local producers on structures
of cooperatives including types, laws,
financing and management. In No-
vember of 1983. a farm financial

seminar was conducted for 20 farners.
The emphasis was on procedures for
completing farm financial statements
which included income statement,
balance sheet, cash flow statement,
farm credit and real estate loans.
Working with the Integrated Pest
Management program, CRD prepared
a cost comparative study of weed con-
trol methods for farmers. In this study
the cost of controlling weed growth by
using a combination of herbicides and
manual weeding was compared to the
cost of using only manual weeding. It
was found that the labor cost of
manual weeding alone was 65%
greater than if chemicals were used.

Preparing Youth For The Futare
A major extension role is to assist
young people with future career
choices, A presentation by CRD to
over 700 students at Alexander Hen-
derson School Career Day outlined the
various possible career fields in
agricultural economics and rural
development. In May 1984 a presenta-

tion on farm financial management
and agricultural marketing was con-
ducted for 120 students at theJohn H.
Woodson School in conjunction with
the 4-H Youth program. The students
were familiarized with the basic con-
cepts and tools for effective farm finan-
cial recordkeeping practices. They were
also introduced to modem retail
marketing techniques for fruit and
vegetable crops. In June, again work-
ing with the 4-H program, CRD pro-
duced a seminar on agricultural
marketing and careers in agricultural
economics for 25 summer students
employed by the Department of
Education. In July a workshop on
researching and development of
careers was conducted for 40 teenagers
in the 4-H Camp Apprenticeship pro-
gram. The young people learned about
educational requirements, employ-
ment opportunities, possibilities for
advancement and potential earnings
associated with fields in which they
were interested.

Etaicsion Home Economics means
different things to different people,
but an apt summation of the high _
regard felt for this program is a state-
ment overheard at last year's Agricul-
ture and Food Fair. As two women
paused at the entrance to the colorful
Home Ec exhibit, one remarked to the
other, "What I like about this program
is that there is something for everyone
to get involved in." This was no exag-
geration. Beginning with teenagers
who attended the Summer Teens pro-
gram for six weeks and completing the
chronological spectrum to include
senior citizens at Aldersville, with all
kinds of programs in-between, the
Virgin Islands Extension Home Econ-
omics component is a true example of
extension at its best, with new projects Hos o s t Dr. Josph W of Pnn Stare Us
and programs cropping up as the comn-
munity need is felt. It is this flexibility
which provides the dynamics of most
extension programming.

New Programms Among the new
programs conducted by Home Econ- p
omics was a popular Babysitting
Course to familiarize not only teen-
agers but also mature adults with
various aspects of child care. Babysit-
ting attracted 18 participants the first First gioup of babysiters qualllylng for c-Utlafilon *if
year, 24 the second year, and expand- am congratulated by program leader Olivia Hery.
ed into an Adult Sitter Clinic for 54
mature persons. The latter were in-
structed in how to properly care for the
elderly and other dependent adults by
22 professionals from various fields,
such as doctors and nurses, who volun-
teered to share their expertise with par-

For AllAges Our older citizens were -
not forgotten: dasses in sewing and
crafts were offered and during the e
month of May (Senior Citizens Month)
120 seniors attended Nutrition Work-
shops held at five senior citizen centers .
on St. Croix. The culmination was a Thi Summer Teens six wks proera attracted as ou
special Senior Citizen Celebration held strict their own gannents as well as to prepare food pope

wr Extension Masng Eoessoslca clasmse

ng people In 1194 who learned to can-
aly and develop skills In arts and crafts.

Adut asne cauic oln Osred
p n adults.

Ceicatilon for Ompaiellon of many coursMe uh as Sewing far Seior CltMMn was a popular
occasion as shown at this osmamny presided over by program aide Hope Murply (teft)wih C RD
program leader and siltant extenalon dirctr Kwanme Garde doing the honIe.

Home beautlcaMIoon n a budgal It1amad deaorlor Judy PatiaHdis (celde ndmointraltng image
native uses for labrics.

in the Home Economics Laboratory on
the College Campus. Since the trend is
now firmly established that usually
both heads of households are em-
ployed outside the home, often we
find retirees among the participants in
daytime home economics classes; they
now have the interest and the time to
improve their skills in sewing for the
home, clothing construction or crafts.
There were 309 participants in these
free classes which included home beau-
tification, clothing recycling and a
Christmas Decoration Workshop. Two
Creative Cooking courses were con-
ducted with an enrollment of 16. The
main objectives were to stimulate in-
terest in utilizing available foods with
which to create new and tasty recipes
for family meals, and also to develop
skills in preparing bulk cookery. A
Head of Household energy conserva-
tion workshop was also held in cooper-
ation with the V.I. Energy Office. The
emphasis was on educating household-
ers about the energy crisis with tips on
how to get the most energy for the
least expenditure.

EFNEP Grows The federally funded
Expanded Food and Nutrition Educa-
tion Program (EFNEP) showed in-
creases in young Virgin Islands'
clientele, with a jump from 18 to 50
enrolled in 1983, to 124 in 1984. In
addition, 304 homemakers received
nutrition information through the
Nutrition Outreach Program. An
EFNEP Bake-Off Contest was held for
15 contestants with prizes awarded for
the best baked goods. Twenty-six
students at the Alfredo Andrews
School were enrolled in an Extension
Home Economics class during the 1984
Spring semester; youngsters learned
about nutrition and food preparation,
clothing construction and crafts.

Summer Teems In 1983 the Sum-
mer Teens Program attracted 54 young
people and in 1984 the program was
expanded to all three islands with an
enrollment of 85. These teenagers 13


darErS 0 aHarn~

I C.

* Agatha Rou
guavs, such as

Two creative cooking courts. were held for those who wihted to exo
Clothing Contnaction includes Ieming how to sew Irom a pattern. por tasty new cooking method.

to 15 years old were involved in a wide
variety of personal growth activities
covering learning how to sew their own
outfits, the importance of good nutri-
tion and food preparation, crocheting,
embroidery work and other arts and
crafts. Culminating this popular sum-
mer youth activity was the Sixth An-
nual Achievement Ceremony for the
teens and 125 adults who all received
certificates for successfully completing
various program achievements.

Advisory Council A Home Econ-
omics Advisory Council was formed
comprising five members. The Council
gives input and advice on community
needs which can be met by the Home
Economics component. Combined
housing and gardening workshops
were held over a two-day period which
featured a professional housing
specialist from Penn State University
and an horticulturist from the Univer-
sity of Florida.

Food Procuremnth Workshop What
was referred to as the "best workshop
ever" coveted a four-day period in
February 1984 and attracted hundreds
of participants. The Food Procurement
Workshop was presented joindy by the
Home Economics program and the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Eight
representatives of USDA along with a
score of representatives from mainland
and local agencies, as well as food
businesses all spoke to the 100 persons
who attended each day's sessions. Par-
ticipants represented government and
private business industries who deal
with food, including school, hospital
and elderly food programs along with
food producers, wholesalers and
retailers. A major highlight of the
workshop was the appearance of Dr.
Joan S. Wallace. USDA's administra-
tor for the Office of International
Cooperation and Development. Speci-
al commendation certificates for those
attending all four days of the workshop
were awarded to 37 individuals.

nee vglpn emana, no a winer wnn mr M u. U11ve enoeson r esua e wun am ner eamrur wame
proclaimed "Great Amerlcen Famiy of 1962." In December of thtl year. The waird, signed by
Mnrs. Ronald Reagan, the Preslden's wife, cited Mrs. Henderson. mother of ive lobster children, as
having made a contribution to Improve her community and strengthen America. A member of SL
Paul's Anglican Church, the Civic Club, Business and Profealonel Women's Club and a 4-H
vofunlear, Mrs. Henderson la shown being congratulated by the Govemor's admrnitratlve &e&i-
tent for Fredelated Teofllo Espinoes.

Reswlhing the gel from Home Ef program leader Olvie HMey was nw Hoemnuake Council
president Marmforle Tyson, while agent Doreothy Gbs looks on.

Oahd together Iore "lamB* picture r she sm rnew memnes of lhe VJ. Homen anMs Coeunl.


New 4-H Progmms Virgin Islands
young people, like youth all over, re-
spond to the challenge of being in-
volved in imaginative activities, par-
ticularly in a social setting where they
meet with their own peers. Many of
the activities promoted by the exten-
sion 4-H Youth Program appeal to this
aspect and need in the islands' young
people. Several new programs emerged
in 1983-1984 in addition to those that
are ongoing. Included among these is a
special interest group called Musical
Youth at St. Patrick's School in Fred-
eriksted involving 90 youth and five
teachers. They have given public per-
formances at 4-H affairs and appeared
in the opening ceremonies at the An-
nual Agriculture and Food Fair. A new
4-H Wildlife Program has as its main
emphasis the rearing of pigeons. The
program involves eight members and
143 pigeons. The Youth Garden Pro-
gram originally was oriented towards
junior and senior high school aged
children, but in 1984 it took on a new
look with participants as young as
eight-years old involved in raising their
own crops. During the year three
schools, one youth group and an in-

dividual group participated in two
gardening workshops to learn about
soil, pest management, food process-
ing and marketing and general garden-
ing from extension technical staff. The
Animal Husbandry Program focused
on projects with heifer and bull calves.
rabbits and goat rearing. All groups
bent their best efforts toward achieving
recognition and ribbons at the Annual
Agriculture and Food Fair held each
February on St. Croix.

4-H Clubs The club system is the
backbone of the 4-H program. Made
up of one or more volunteer leaders
and at least five interested youth, club
projects are chosen by each dub and
can vary according to participants' in-
terest area. Currently there are four
clubs on St. Thomas, three on St.John
and 25 on St. Croix. While many clubs
have varied interests, the focus of
others is directed towards gardening,
animal husbandry, home economics
and sewing, arts and crafts, music,
agriculture, woodworking, culture
awareness, dairy, wildlife and natural
resources. There are also special in-
terest groups which meet for one

specific purpose such as animal hus-
bandry, Expanded Food and Nutrition
(EFNEP), music education, youth
gardens and wildlife-natural resources.

Outside Erposure As important as
the youth programs, are the training
sessions offered for adult volunteers. A
highlight each October is Rock Eagle
Conference in Georgia. These annual
leadership training meetings usually
involve volunteer leaders and 4-H staff
members. Partial funding for travel ex-
penses has been received from J.C.
Penney Company. April is the month
for National 4-H Conference held just
outside Washington, D.C. which sees
our six delegate 4-H'ers and two staf-
fers join with hundreds of other
delegates across the nation. "Inspiring"
is the one word they have chosen to
describe their national experience. Part
of this has meant learning about new
program ideas, making new friends
from all over the U.S.A., exchanging
state mementos and learning about
other parts of the world. In 1983 a ma-
jor highlight occurred for the V.I.
delegation when the Virgin Islands ex-

A 4H ldghlight anmnuMally Ile el by selected delegates to i Nainal 4-tH ComiemlnT .Th Cooperalon Is the name of lio gamee.
1144 gWoup vling V.I. Delegate to Congres Ron dLugo while In Wasinlgton, D.C. wem 4- espeeally whan ine legp usal go In Ihe
Agent Shelaton Shulfterbrandt, 4-H Aide Yvonne Phllps, mlunteer teder Gwendolyn Moy, same direction as four The event was 4-H
4-H'er Tes Alexender, delegate deLugo, 4-Her Lorialne Simon, Lucy Boodosinegh and Peter Spade Field Day.

4.H has celebrated World Food Day during Itl annual 4&H wek obsaivance In October wlit a
Isrge display and free recipe books offered at Chrisrltiansted Market Plces. In I12 they featured
coconut and papaya.

Annul Awlls night In Ocltober seogiasp 4-H1m, onairs and commit baces a

The 4-1 Mauk and Lanmlmn Parade Is an old Iradtional vn Icenly eIaurcted as an annual
signal of Chrilsmas feIviMlti by Extension 4-H.

hibit was voted among the top five at
the conference. Later, in June, three
4-H'crs and one staff member attend-
ed Michigan Exploration Days in East
Lansing. Delegates were exposed to
more than 120 career options. After
the three-day conference, delegates
spent two weeks with Michigan host
families in a cultural exchange.
Another new program which has pro-
ven successful for 4-H is Staff Orienta-
tion conducted at the beginning of
each fiscal year to provide 4-H with
continuing meaningful direction, in-
creasing emphasis on leaders' training
and streamlining the 4-H Advisory
Council. Leaders assisted by staff also
participated in arts and crafts fairs held
at Island Center and Sunny Isle during
the early spring.

Annual 4-H WVeek The second
week of October is always Virgin
Islands 4-H Week. It is at this time
that 4-H opens its doors to the public,
and through a variety of colorful pro-
grams, encourages the increased parti-
cipation of island youth and adult
volunteers. Since national World Food
Day also occurs at the same time, it has
proven to be an excellent opportunity
for 4-H to focus on food that can be
grown locally. Each year 4-H mounts a
large display in the Christiansted mar-
ketplace centering around one specific
crop, such as papaya, coconut or
breadfruit. Emphasizing local fruit
trees, the virtues of guava as a versatile
fruit were extolled vial public service
TV presentations by 4-H youngsters.
The many various ways to serve these
local foods were demonstrated to the
public, with samples offered to
bystanders and recipe books compiled
by 4-H given out free. Other activities
during 4-H Week include Arbor day
with the planting of a native fruit tree
on each of the three Virgin Islands;
Open House which introduces former
4-H members and leaders as honored
guests; and Storytime for island
youngsters "under the tamun tree"
with famous local storytellers remind-

The summer ApprentleesMp Program placed many young people la jobs throughout the com-
munity. He Lyrdi Samuel Ioamr to use a Nationl Quard computer assistedl by Andmea Bryan.

ing listeners of the adventures of Bru
Nancee, or telling scary jumbeec stories
that are guaranteed positively true!
Often 4-H Week doses with an
Awards Ceremony to recognize the top
4-H members and volunteers. A total
of 320 took part in the week-long ac-
tivities in 1983.

Mask andLanteri, In its efforts to
encourage traditional culture in the
Virgin Islands, on St. Croix each year
at Christmastime the 4-H sponsors an
old time Mask and Lantern parade. In
both 1982 and 1983 more than 120
4-H'ers and the public participated by
showing skills in mask and costume
making, utilizing natural resources.

"Just like in TV." young apprentices lamad
tiI art ol fingeopriting while working at
Public Safety.

Many prizes, including trips to Puerto
Rico and St. Thomas, were awarded to
winners who displayed excellent
creative skills in their unusual masks
and decorated lanterns. On St.
Thomas 4-H'ers held a carol sing for
senior citizens at Lucinda Millin Home
and at the Senior Citizens Center.

Albor Day Is Importn to 441 wih amphais VIeerlnaurln training Includue washing wiggly dogs. as Ine two 4-H appnttem learned at
placed an plauig fril tens in tis V.I. like Crag Animal Clnie.
this mango at Womosan School.

EFNEP The Expanded Food and
Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)
was begun in the schools in January
1983. Nutritional information on the
Basic Four food groups was presented
to 142 students from three schools and
two 4-H clubs. Interest was keen, and
principals, teachers and students re-
quested that the program be repeated
the next year. From a September 1983
total of 165 enrolled in EFNEP, due to
its popularity enrollment increased to
240 young people by the end of Sep-
tember 1984, including 19 family

Summer Camp The 4-H Summer
Camp program was funded exclusively
by extension resources in both 1983
and 1984. In 1983 11 counselors were
hired to oversee activities at three
campsites on St. Croix and one each on
St. Thomas and St. John for a total of
118 young campers. In an innovative
approach, each campsite offered a
special activity theme: drama, sea en-
vironment, teen apprenticeship and
cultural awareness. More than 45 com-
munity leaders and specialists partici-
pated as guest speakers the first year.
The teen apprenticeship program has
had the wholehearted cooperation of
businessmen and agency heads. In
1983 15 sites provided actual working
experience three days a week. The
other two days teen campers learned
skills in resume writing, interview role
playing, research and presentation. In
Sea Environment, campers were taught
swimming by lifeguards at Vincent
Mason Pool in Frederiksted, as well as
learning fish identification, cooking
methods for different types of fish and
shell collecting-identification. The
season ended with drama presenta-
tions, field days, crafts displays and
ceremonies on all three islands.
Summer camp opened on June 25
and ran through August 10 in 1984.
There was a total of 133 campers
enrolled on all three islands. Staff in-
cluded 12 counselors, four legislature-

funded volunteers and three others.
Camps specialized in theatre, sea en-
vironment and teen apprenticeship.
The latter totaling 40, were employed
at 17 different private and public sec-
tor jobs, and were widely acclaimed by
those for whom they worked for their
aptitude and serious intent. Final sum-
mer activities included an enthusiastic
and often times uproarious field day,
theatrical presentations and crowning
of Miss and Mr. 4-H at the Awards

Sm me 44tire wn i ated in lieamng aboel
sewing a new waerbe with 4-H Assistant
Bulaih Thompean providing the Inlastmuoleon.

wwoomds at 4-Nemp p n dinmly the fls.




Delegates to the 20h Annual Carlbbs Food Caopse Socety (CFC8P meing hold on SL Cmro
weo grted by this heefdfut forces frmem Extesion Sanike and Agrculkelr Dpatimsent

PMasing s goal. Dr. Dushin & Ps. ,ulnsequh is 14 pMeldMMcMy of Caabsn Food
Cp Sla i0lty to cmly elected pmdmlt Dr. St. Clair Ferds eo Tnhkad.

Dirting rshed Serice Auwd In
May 1983 the staff of CVI's Land-
Grant programs celebrated the an-
nouncement that Director Darshan S.
Padda had been chosen to receive the
U.S. Department of Agriculture's
highest honor, the prestigious
Distinguished Service Award. Agri-
culture Secretary John R. Block, in
presenting the award, stated that Dr.
Padda was recognized for his leader-
ship in developing and conducting ex-
tension education programs that serve
as models for technology transfer
systems not only in the Caribbean
region but also for other developing
countries in the world.

Caibbes Food Crops Society In
September 1983 Dr. Padda was elected
president of the Caribbean Food Crops
Society at the 19th annual meeting
held in Puerto Rico. The twentieth an-
nual meeting of the Society took place
in October 1984 and was considered a
most successful international gathering
of professionals involved in the pro.
duction and distribution of food crops
in the Caribbean Basin. By far the
largest conference ever sponsored by
the Society, some 225 participants
were officially registered, with the total
attendance well over 300 including
spouses and unregistered local partici-
The program included 133 papers
presented in concurrent technical ses-
sions held at the Hotel-on-the-Cay
convention site in Christiansted Har-
bor. Delegates represented 23 nations
and territories, including Antigua,
Barbados, Bermuda, Columbia, Costa
Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
French Guiana, Grenada, Guade-
loupe, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Mar-
tinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, St.
Lucia, St. Vincent, Trinidad-Tobago,
U.S.A., U.S. Virgin Islands and Vene-
zuela. Translation into English, French
and Spanish was simultaneous when

Ine was emprewed In Iemimg ln about EFNEP dloplay at Home -Ecomml boolh c nl mmueh e thallon N wl childmnm io loved the bi
8 Sol oaretilon as explained by plant path- EFNEP dolly. Exteelon soulatent Evamnni JImlah was In change.
elaoglt Roab WOeb.


St. Thomas Extenslion Coordinator John
Matoeak oicks out some, billboard displays
at CFCS meeutIng.

Polelwous plaule as wall Hs bdleo, imp and bulltMlles wern displayed by paet managnemin at
Agricullure and Food Fair.


r. Joan S. Wallace, adminlstrator for Idh U.S.
Deperlmenl of Agrloultums Offo. of Inhmer
IUonal Cooperation and Development Wna
lectlured speaker at the 1194 Agrtulture and
Food Fair. Dr. Wallace gaVe a keynote address
to those assembled for the Food Procurament
Workshop just prior to thI fair.

Visitrs... Several mainland groups
and individuals were hosted by the
Land-Grant programs in the Virgin
Islands. In March 1983 the annual
meeting of the Caribbean Basin Ad-
ministrative Group (CBAG) for
Tropical Agriculture was held on St.
Thomas to review research proposals
and fund allocations. CVI's Agricul-
tural Experiment Station received ap-
proval for three projects with an an-
nual funding of $159.900 at that
time. Special staff member for the
Rockefeller Foundation Dr. E. J.
Wellhousen, who is a world renowned
agricultural scientist, visited St. Croix
in April as part of the UNICA-BID
mission to learn more about the
Caribbean agricultural production.
research, education and technology
transfer. In September, 12 members
of the International Science and
Education Council (ISEC) research
committee visited St. Croix enroute to
the Caribbean Agricultural Research
and Development Institute (CARDI)
in Trinidad. Director Darshan Padda
hosted them during their stay, with a
visit also to various Land-Grant
facilities and a breakfast meeting with
CVI President Arthur A. Richards.
. . ad Meetings The following
April the annual meeting of the Sou-
them Extension Directors was held on
St. Thomas at the Virgin Islands
Hotel with representatives of 11 states
attending. A highlight of the
meeting, which was to decide regional
and national policies affecting exten-
sion programs in the southern region,
was the presence of both Dr. Mary
Nell Greenwood, USDA's Extension
Service Administrator, and Dr.
Howard G. Diesslin, executive direc-
tor for extension of the National
Association of State Universities and
Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC).
The annual meeting of the Southern
Region Cooperative Research Project
S-168 for Warmwater Aquaculture
was co-hosted by the CVI Agricultural
Experiment Station and the Universi-
ty of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez. On

Pausing for a monaet pdior to CFCS Banquet wom from let CVI preldent Arur A. Richaws,
keynote speaker USDA's Assistant Secretary lor Selenee and Education Dr. Orille 0. BOnlay
and CFCS pmldant Darmhan S. Padda.

Newly organized Cadomean AquacuHture Aooladon met concurrently wih the Caebbmen Food
Crope Soot0y.

Southern Extemnton Direotor met wllh Ih CVI elxneon aeniee on St. Thome in 1l3 ftor an.
nual meatng.

Dr. Mary Nell Greenwood, USDA's Administbalr of ExtMenlon. paused for rselrshmns at Soutem
akles Amabiel Frett and Alma Weselholt and egenm Iene Galon.

St Luola MIniter oe Agrlnoutm Ira AiAumrgn (cserj visited with Landranit director Derehan
S. Peelk, along wlth local businessman Sam Franoes ilef

Dr. A. J. Oaks, author ol Poisonous and hfalmom Pfint of tM Vwglhfn taled h was
reprint by the CVI ExtnsMon Servioe, vislt he iExtelon RMesou Room with his wils, MMe, to
plck up a law eopI of the booklet. With the Is post monagemeMt ags t Olaew Devwi-

SDiretorn meeting and wan ownedd by extenkon

June 21 the group of 19 participants
representing 10 research institutions
and the USDA visited aquaculture
research facilities on St. Croix. The
first biennial meeting of the newly
formed Caribbean Aquaculture Asso-
ciation was also held October 1984 in
conjunction with the Caribbean Food
Crops Society meeting, and was at-
tended by 15 aquaculturists, several
of whom delivered papers to those at-
tending the food crops meeting.

Eatern Caribbea Center Repre-
sentatives from the experiment station
and extension service professional staff
joined with others at the college to
assist with preliminary recommenda-
tions and plans creating an Eastern
Caribbean Center at CVI. The Center
is planned to be an international
educational institution fully integrated
into the College of the Virgin Islands
in order to offer cooperative programs
of study, research and training for the
people of the Eastern Caribbean
region. The Cooperative Extension
Service, with its many outreach capa-
bilities which have proven so success-
ful, has announced its willingness to
assist others beyond the territorial
shores, as it has in the past through
such services as soil and water analysis
and cultural youth exchange programs.

Agricdkture airs In 1983, despite a
late start, the extension service joined
with the V.I. Department of Agricul-
ture in presenting a modified agricul-
ture fair called an "Agriculture Exposi-
tion," with most of the displays and ac-
tivities taking place in the main ex-
hibits building at Estate Lower Love on
St. Croix. Both the extension service
and experiment station mounted
handsome exhibits, with 4-H awarded
first prize in the youth division. The
following year, the traditional fair was
again held in February and Land-
Grant programs featured large displays
on everything from trickle irrigation to
4-H masks, with both Home Econom-
ics and 4-H again taking top awards for
their colorful exhibits. In addition to
entertaining the crowd with the 4-H
Musical Youth group, another 4-H in-
novation was the selection of the first
youth gardener of the year as a result of
the youth garden program. A donation
of $200 was given by Martin Marietta
towards the prizes in the gardening
competition. Some 22,000 persons at-
tended the three-day 1984 fair on St.
Croix while on St. Thomas that year
more than 5,000 persons were at-
tracted to their annual fair held at the
CVI gymnasium for one day in March.
As in the previous year, exhibits in-
cluded those from extension home ec-
onomics, 4-H, agriculture, pest man-
agement and small livestock. Joining
with them were the colorful blossoms
of the St. Thomas Hibiscus Society.

Congratulatlmn worn n order for 1 first Assoclate of Ami gralate In agricuitum Chadre
Caollngwood (CMfnf. With him am Dr. Mary Savage St. Croix Campus adninlshator, agrulloium
Instruction coordrator Arthur Petersen, his mother Mrs. Colllngwood. and LandGrant director
Drsihon S. Peddl.

Members of the International Seiase and Education Counell (ISEC) of USDA met In September
on St Croix nrouts to CARDI meeting In Trinidad. They are shows with Dr. Arthur Richtrds and
Dr. Darshan Padds who showed them Land Grant foollltes at CVL

Home Economics
Otis Hicks
Michele Thurland
Hilda Todman
Rosalie Jones

Theodore Thomas
Sam Thomas
Antonio Steele
Nicholas Castruccio
Maude Christian

Germaine Cherry
Mario Gasperi
Oscar Henry
Agatha Ross

mu,~wtpigum hctUlmsunS P~s

STAFF 1983 and 1984

Darshan S. Padda .... ........... Director, AES-CES
*Harold Hupp................ Assistant Director (AES)
Kwame Garcia ........... ... Assistant Director (CES)
Bonnie Andrews ............. Administrative Assistant
*Harold Hupp ...................... AnimalScientist
Douglas Wright ............... Research Technician II
Audrey Valmont ............... Research Technician I
Yvonne Horton ......................... Secretary 11
James Rakocy ................. Research Aquacsuturist
Ayyappan Nair ............... Assistant Aquaculturist
John Hargreaves ................ Research Technician I
Vernon Smith ................... .... Research Aide
*Ahmed Hegab ................. Research Agronomist
Arthur C. Petersen .......... Vegetable Crop Specialist
Christopher Ramcharan ........ Associate Horticuldtris
Stephan Buzdugan ............... Irrigation Specalist
Agenol Gonzalez ................. Research Specialist
Robert Webb .................... Research Specialist
Walter I. Knausenberger... .Pest Management Specialist
*Eric Dillingham ..................... Farm Manager
Albion Francis ................. Research Assistant II
Mary Gozelski .................. Research Assistant 1!
Kirk Benoit .................... Research Assistant II
Lisa Yntema .................. Research Technician I
Nelson Benitez.......... ....... ...Research Aide
Ezekiel Clark ............... . . .... Research Aide
Ramiro Gomez ....................... Research Aide
Jeremiah Hassan ..................... Research Aide
Oswaldo Lopez........................Research Aide
*Alejandro Perez ......................Research Aide
*Estanislao Perez ..... .................Research Aide
Kendall Petersen .....................Research Aide
*Narcisco Rivera....................... Research Aide
Antonio Rodriguez ................... Research Aide
Augustin Ruiz ................... Research Aide
Coreen Hughes........................... Secretary

David Farrar .......................Program Leader
Clinton George ... Extension Specialist-Horticulture
*Harold Hupp ......................Animal Scientist
Paul Boateng ............... Small Livestock Specialist
Charles Smith .................Extension Assistant I!
Allan Schuster....................Dairy AssistantII
Alf Smith .........................Extension Aide I
Romelia Camacho-Nanton ................ Secretary I

Kwame Garcia...................... Program Leader
*George Morris ................... Extension Specialist
Liz Wilson ................. Communications Editor
Randall Macedon .................. Extension Agent I
Lawrence Sarauw ..................Extension Aide f
*Olonzo Williams ................. Extension Aide II
*Nullister DeWese .................. Extension Aide H
Jean Cook ..............................SecretaryII
Walter I. Knausenberger ............ Program Leader
G. Houston Holder .........Plant Protection Specialist
*Marti Terry ........ ............ Extension Agent I
Kenneth Davis.................... Extension Agent I
Christene Henry .................. Office Assistant I
Olivia Henry .......................Program Leader
*BmrniceJacobs ................. Extension Assistant II
Evannic E. Jeremiah ............ Extension Assistant II
*Doris Edwards .................Extension Assistant II
Dorothy Gibbs............... Extension Assistant 11
Miriam Greene ..... ............ Extension Aide 11
*Angela take ...................... Extension Aide H
Hope Murphy ..................... Extension Aide II
Rosalind Browne ...................Extension Aide I
Zoraida E. Jacobs .................... Program Leader
Shelton Shulterbrandt ............. Extension Agentl
Sarah Dahl-Smith .................Extension Agent I
Jillian C. Webster ...............Extension Assistant I
James Weeks ...................Extension Assistant I
Beulah Thompson ............... Extension Assistat I
Alejandro Bolques .............. Extension Assistant I
*LeroyJames ...................... Extension Aidel
Lillian Elliott ........................ Secretary I

John Matuszak ................ Extension Coordinator
*Kim Stearman ........ Extension Specialist-Agronomy
Carlos Robles .................... Extension Agent
Dale Morton .................... Extension Agent I
*Rebecca Day ................... Extension Agent I
Irene Gibson ..................... ..Extension Agent I
Alma Wesselhoft ................... Extension Aide I
Blanche Mills ..................... Extension Aide I
Leona Cline ....................... Extension Aide 1
*Amabell Fret ......................Extension Aide
*John LaPlace.................... Extension Aide 1
*Lillian Car ............................. Secretary I
*Deborah Aspen .............. ....... Secretary I

*Left CVI since 1984


Virgin Islands Gram and Forage Sorghum Performance
Trials. Technical Bulletin No. 2
Virgin Islands Tomato, Pepper and Eggplat Variety Trids
in 1978-1979. Technical Bulletin No. 3
Summary of Vegetable Crop Research, 1980-1981.
Technical Bulletin No. 4
Grain Sorghum and Forage: Production and Utilization
Potential in St. Croin, U.S. Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands
Agricultural Experiment Station Report No. I
Senepol Cattle: History and Development. Virgin Islands
Agricultural Experiment Station Report No. 11 (Spanish
and English text)
Native Recipes. Extension Bulletin No. I
Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service: A Model for
Technology Transfer Systems in the Caibbean. Extension
Bulletin No. 3
Avocado Production and Marketing. Extension Bulletin
No. 4
Sorrel Production and Marketing in the Virgin Islands. Ex-
tension Bulletin No. 5
Island Insects: Handbook for Insect Study. Extension
Handbook No. 1
Beef Catle Improvement Handbook. Extension Handbook
No. 2
Poisonous andinjurious Plants of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Cooperative Extension Reprint Series No. 1
Vegetable Planting and Harvesting Guide. Gardeners
Factsheet No. 1
Seeding Vegetable Crops. Gardeners Factsheet No. 2
Growing Vegetable Slips. Gardeners Factsheet No. 3
Transplanting Vegetable Crops. Gardeners Factsheet No. 4
Mulch For Your Garden. Gardeners Factsheet No. 5
How To Prepare Your Own Compost. Gardeners Factsheet
No. 6
Staking and Training Tomato Plants. Gardeners Factsheet
No. 7
Growing Spinach in the Virgin Islands. Gardeners Fact-
sheet No. 10
Controlling Nematodes in the Vegetable Garden.
Gardeners Factsheet No. 11

Propagation of Fruit and Oramental Plants by Layering.
Gardeners Factsheet No. 12
Propagation of Fruit and Ornamental Plants by Cutting.
Gardeners Factsheet No. 13
Propagation of Fruit and Ornamental Plants by Grafting.
Gardeners Factsheet No. 14
Propagation of Fruit and Ornamental Plants by Budding.
Gardeners Factsheet No. 15
Ferilizing Your Garden for Optimum Yields. Gardeners
Factsheet No. 16
How Many Teaspoons is 5 Pounds Per Acre? (Weights and
Measures) Gardeners Factsheet No. 17
Organic Gardening: Soil Fertility. Gardeners Factsheet
No. 18
Organic Gardening: Pest Control. Gardeners Factsheer
No. 19
A Simple Home Drip Irrigation System. Gardeners Fact-
sheet No. 20
Growing Mangoes. Gardeners Factsheet No. 21
Growing Citrus. Gardeners Factsheet No. 22
Saving Vegetable Seeds for the Home Garden. Gardeners
Factsheet No. 23
Growing Mesple (Sapodillas). Gardeners Factsheet No. 24.
Testing Soil for Better Yields (Part I). Gardeners Factsheet
No. 25
Interpreting Your Soil Testing Results (Part II). Gardeners
Factsheet No. 26
Banana Root Borer and Its Control. Pest Management
Factsheer No. 1
Pest Control for Home Vegetable Gardeners in the Virgin
Islands. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1
Essentials of Farm Finanacial Management: Financial
Management. Farm Management Factsheet No. 1
Essentials of Farm Financial Management: Depreciation
Methods. Farm Management Factsheet No. 2

Land-Grant Programs in Action (an overview of Virgin
Islands programs).

College of the Virgin Islands: Our First 22 Years.