Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 From the director
 Agricultural experiment statio...
 Cooperative extension service
 Associate degree in agricultur...
 Visitors and other activities
 Staff 1981-1982

Group Title: Report, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, College of the Virgin Islands
Title: Report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096177/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report
Physical Description: v. : ill., ports. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: College of the Virgin Islands -- Agricultural Experiment Station
College of the Virgin Islands -- Cooperative Extension Service
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: College of the Virgin Islands
Place of Publication: St. Croix?
St. Croix?
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 1982
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States Virgin Islands
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1981-1982-
General Note: Title from cover.
Statement of Responsibility: Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096177
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13506492
lccn - 88646613
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report


This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 18 MBs ) ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    From the director
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Agricultural experiment station
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Cooperative extension service
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Associate degree in agriculture
        Page 36
    Visitors and other activities
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Staff 1981-1982
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
Full Text

90 982REP.R

^^^BStation ^^^^^
*ate sia



From the Director ...................................... .............. 1


Agronomy--Crops for Feed and Food ................................ 3

Vegetables-Varieties for Our Islands ................................. 5

Fruits--To Enrich Our Diets ......................................... 7

Irrigation--For Dry Weather ....................................... 10

Pest Management--Alternative Control Methods ...................... 12

Animal Science-Assisting the Beef Industry ........................... 14

Aquaculture-A Possible Major Food Supplement ..................... 15

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Research ................................. 18


Agriculture--Assisting Livestock and Crop Producers .................. 19

Extension Pest Management--Solving Pest Problems ...................22

Home Economics--Better Living for Our Families......................25

4-H Youth--Advancing to New Horizons..............................28

Community and Rural Development--Helping People Work Together ... .32

Agriculture and Food Fair-Land-Grant Showcase .....................34

Associate Degree in Agriculture....................................... 36

Visitors ...... And Other Activities..................................... 37

Staff 1980-1982 ................... ................................. 39

Some Publications ................................................... 41

The year 1982 brought special recognition to land-grant
programs at the College of the Virgin Islands when the director
was named the recipient of India's highest award for agricul-
tural research. Dr. Darshan S. Padda received the prestigious
Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Award which is given every two years by
the Government of India for his "outstanding work in agricul-
tural research."

Since Dr. Padda could not attend the award ceremony in
India, arrangements were made for him to receive the award in'
person from the Indian Ambassador in Washington, D.C. In
addition to the handsome medal pictured, Dr. Padda also re-
ceived a written certificate of citation.


This is the second printed report of the Land-Grant programs at the College of the
Virgin Islands. It covers the research and education activities carried out for the two year
period of 1981 and 1982. Significantly 1982 marks the first decade of land-grant status
granted by U.S. Congress in 1972.
A perusal of this report reflects growth in all programs and the chart presents the
growth in clientele served from 1972 to 1982. I am very pleased with the growth as the
S / ultimate goal of our research and educational activities is to provide Virgin Islands resi-
,, dents with research-based information so that they can cope with and benefit from
changes in technology, societal factors and ecology.
At the end of 10 years it is logical to look back and analytically assess whether the ex-
pectations have been met. But whose expectations? My personal expectations yes and
no. Yes, because the programs have expanded: the Agricultural Experiment Station is
established as a small but effective research station with projects in agronomy, horticul-
ture, pest management, plant pathology, irrigation technology, animal science and aqua-
culture. An AA degree in agriculture is functioning with the appointment of the first
assistant professor of agriculture. The Cooperative Extension Service has offices
functioning on all three islands. For the first time in the history of the islands, there is a
modern computerized soil, plant and water diagnostic laboratory on St. Thomas. New
home economics and pest diagnostic laboratories on St. Croix are providing much
needed services to homemakers and farmers.
Whereas in the areas of both technology development and extension education per-
formance has been impressive, these efforts must result in the development of an agricul-
ture industry. And here is where I have to say no to the fulfillment of my expectations.
There is a definite improvement, but the pace is slow. However, recent initiatives by the
Virgin Island government are encouraging and we can only hope that things will move
faster in the future so that we can help Virgin Islanders grow more food with new tech-
nology and research-based information.
In the meantime let us be proud of the great accomplishments resulting from the hard
work of the dedicated people of the Land-Grant programs and continuously be mindful
that our goal must be to develop a viable agricultural industry in the islands.
I wish to urge the community at large to use the locally developed information con-
tained in this report and call upon us for any assistance that we can provide.

Ior 1 Enjoyable and informative reading to all.


46 --


2 -

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1971 1979 1980 19t1 1982 -

Darshan S. Padda
Land-Grant Programs

The St. Croix campus of the College of the Virgin Islands originally was centered around this
historic building at Estate Golden Grove which today serves as extension headquarters as well
as housing the community and rural development program and extension communications.
Some evening college classes are also held in its classrooms. The handsome old structure was
once the main estate house for vast sugar plantations of St. Croix's central valley which were
processed in nearby Bethlehem refinery.



Partial view of Agricultural Experiment Station fields used for varietal trials of field crops. Water storage cistern
for irrigation shown in foreground.

Research projects in food and agricultural sciences
continued to expand in the four basic areas of the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station -- Agronomy, Animal
Science, Aquaculture and Horticulture. The Agronomy
program placed its emphasis on research in the pro-
duction of animal feed for livestock and poultry, with
field experiments conducted on grain and forage crops
which can be useful to the local farmer. Evaluation of
the Senepol cattle under Virgin Island conditions has
been the main feature of the Animal Science program

and efforts of the Aquaculture program continue in the
development of practical culture systems for tilapia that
are adapted for home production in the Virgin Islands.
Research projects in determining the best varieties and
production practices for local conditions were the main
thrust of the Horticulture program. Particular consider-
ation was focused on trials of food crop varieties to
select those which withstand heat and drought as well as
destructive pests.

AGRONOMY Crops for Feed and Food

The agronomy program has continued intensive re-
search into animal feed crops which can provide in-
creased protein for cattle and at the same time withstand
insect and bird predation as well as low rainfall levels.
The main areas of concentration have been in grain
crops (sorghum and corn), forage legumes and tropical
grasses. A preliminary study also investigated the feasi-
bility of sunflower production in the Virgin Islands.

Forty commercial varieties of grain and forage
sorghum were field tested in 1980-1981 for adaptation
and agronomic characteristics. Pioneer variety 8815
(grain type) produced the highest yield of 1678 kg
per acre. Among the forage sorghum varieties, top
producers were S-99 with 24.66 metric tons per hec-
tare yield and Sweet Sioux which yielded 22.41 metric

tons per hectare. Local growers have indicated their
main interest is in forage sorghum and trials conducted
in 1981-82 indicated that T-E Hay Grazer was the best
overall adapted forage variety out of 15 varieties used in
two experiments at the station. In other experiments to
determine the best planting time, production and qual-
ity as animal feed, Hay Grazer was found to be a multi-
purpose cultivar that can be well utilized for grazing,
hay, green chop, green manure, or as a cover crop.
Other forage sorghums which excelled were Sugar-Su-
D, a dry matter high yielder, and both T-E Milkmaker
and T-E Silomaker which were the highest fresh yield-
ing. In grain sorghum production trials, indications
were that T-E Dinero was the top producer, with other
varieties suffering severe damage from birds which
caused a decrease in production. Studies on insect con-
trol revealed that Lanate and Dipel (biological insecti-

silage, and research was continued on Buffel grass (Cen-
chrus ciliaris) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana).
Measurement of soil pH, available nutrients in soil,
crude protein percent, grass palatability and utilization
were recorded. While the local livestock industry
depends on forage and pastures mainly, studies made
over a two year period have shown that introduced
grasses such as Buffel, Klein, Love Weeping, Bahia,
Blue Stem and common Bermuda were much higher in
total digestible nutrients (TDN up to 40%) than primary
local forage grasses. Observation data also suggests that
Guinea grass and Klein grass were the best adapted and
gave higher yields, with an average of over 6.72 metric
tons per hectare depending on fertilizer rate and source.

Haygrazer prove to be a goon muinpurpose sorgnum
cultivar for grazing, hay, green chop and green manure.
cide) were effective in controlling webworm, corn ear-
worm and fall armyworm.
In November 1980 and March 1981 tests for adapta-
tion to soil and climatic conditions were initiated on
four types of legumes -- commercial Siratro (Phaseolus
atropurpureus), Lablab (Lablab purpureus), Jackbean
(Canavalia ensiformus), and cow peas (Vigna spp.).
Other objectives were to test their resistance to pests and
disease, and their quality as dairy and cattle feed. Inves-
tigations were also continued on the soybean Nionoto-
nea (formerly Glycine) wightii. Field observations indi-
cated that N. wightii is well adapted to St. Croix soils
and climate. Based on this observation and previous
work by the agronomy program, N. wightii can be rec-
ommended for pastures on the sections of the island re-
ceiving the most moisture and Lablab can be recom-
mended for the drier areas. Recommended to farmers as
a remedy for feed shortages during the dry season is a
mixture of Buffel grass and Siratro. Jackbeans are also
well adapted to soil and dry climate, and have proven to
do well on calcareous soils which cover so much of the
Klein grass (Panicum coloratum), Guinea grass
(Panicum maximum), and Love Weeping grasses were
evaluated as promising grasses for pasture, hay and

Introduced grasses such as Loveweeping contain up to
40% more total digestible nutrients than local forage

Recommended to local farmers to augment feed during
dry seasons is Buffel grass (shown) mixed with the
legume Siratro.
Trials with seven Dahlgren varieties of hybrid sun-
flower (Helianthus annus) were begun in March 1981.
The oil varieties included Do164, Do704xl, Do844,
Do843-35 and Do705. The non-oil varieties were D820
and D135. The objectives of this sunflower introduction
trial were to evaluate crop yield, resistance to drought
and seed quality. The recorded data showed that oil and

effective against armyworm and earworm.

JoJoba (Simmondsia chinensis)
An investigation on the introduction and feasibility
of JoJoba crop production in the V.I. was initiated on
November 29, 1981. Seeds were planted by hand and
were placed about three (3) cm below the surface of wet
soil (water holding capacity). The seeds of broadleafed
evergreen JoJoba contain a liquid and solid wax in
addition to alcohols. The residues can be used as an
animal feed supplement and fertilizer (due to high nitro-
gen content). Preliminary field observation indicated
that the crop is well-adapted to the V.I. environment
and the possibility of a JoJoba oil industry exists when
more uncultivated land is planted with this crop.

Hybrid sunflower trials in 1981 suggest that the sun-
flower could be grown profitably in the Virgin Islands
for either oil or seed, with an appoximate yield of 4000
pounds of seeds per acre.
non-oil varieties were similar, with an approximate
yield of 4.48 metric tons of seeds per hectare. Field ob-
servations and yield data suggest that sunflower could
be grown profitably in the Virgin Islands.
In studies conducted in 1980-1981, commercial corn
cultivars TE Blanco and TE 6975 produced top grain
yields of 4931 and 4758 kg/ha respectively. Pesticide
effectiveness studies on field corn (Zea mays) conducted
in conjunction with Pest Management specialists to
control mites, fall armyworm and corn earworm, re-
vealed that Kelthane, Insecticidal Soap and Basic H
gave the best control of mites, while Lannate was most

Senators Edgar Isles (left) and Bent Lawaetz stop by the
sorghum fields to check out the latest feed crops with
AES agronomist Dr. Ahmed Hegab.

VEGETABLES Varieties Suited for Our Islands

The primary research effort in vegetable production
has been to select and evaluate varieties of locally
adapted crops for home consumption and commercial
production. Yield performance, quality, and resistance
to pests and diseases are the major evaluation criteria.
Vegetable field experiments included variety
evaluations, optimum plant density, fertilization rates
and methods to correct soil alkalinity.
Three different trials were conducted with tomatoes.
The first experiment (January to April 1981) evaluated
four varieties (Royal Chico, Saladette, Tropic and
Super Beefsteak) using the ground planting system
without trellis or supporting stakes. Royal Chico
proved to be the best in estimated marketable yield with
20.6 tons per hectare, while Tropic, Super Beefsteak and
Saladette gave marketable production of 9.5, 7.2 and
5.9 tons per hectare, respectively. A second experiment
was conducted from August to October 1981 to observe
the performance of heat-tolerant tomatoes from the

Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center in
Taiwan. Royal Chico, used as the control, outyielded all
of the AVRDC heat-tolerant varieties. The third eval-
uation trial from February to May was conducted with
staked tomato varieties. Of fourteen cultivars tested,
Winner, Red Glow and UHN-69 produced the highest
Evaluation trials on eggplant were conducted for two
seasons. The first trial with eight cultivars was started in
August 1980 and the second trial with the best five culti-
vars from the first trial was started in the field during the
first week of July 1981. In both seasons eggplant vari-
eties Midnight and Peerless were the highest yielders. A
ratooning experiment, wherein the old plants were cut
back about six inches from the ground and allowed to
grow back, proved Midnight and Peerless again the
most productive. It was further observed that the
ratooned crop produced approximately 17 percent low-
er yield than the first or primary crop.

A variety evaluation and planting date trial was con-
ducted with nine snap been cultivars and one string bean
cultivar. The string bean variety (Los Banos bush sitao)
out-yielded all the snap bean varieties; Oregon 4117 and
Contender were the most productive snap beans.
Evidence from the study indicated that on St. Croix
beans perform better when planted during the wetter
months of the year. In a sulfur and micronutrient study
on snake beans (Vigna sequepedalis), also called bodie
beans, one objective was to release elements made un-
available to the plants due to high soil alkalinity. The
other objective was to improve the nutrient status of the
soil by application of the deficient elements, with snake
beans used as indicator plants because of their appar-
ently high sensitivity to micronutrient deficiencies.
Preliminary results showed that the highest yields were
obtained from plots applied with chicken manure (44
tons per hectare) in combination with iron, manganese
and copper all at a rate of 2.2 kilograms per hectare and
from those plots which received an application of 4.5
tons of sulfur per hectare combined with chicken man-
ure, manganese and iron at the same rates.

Because okra is a very popular vegetable in many
local dishes and is grown extensively in local home gar-
dens, an okra variety evaluation trial was conducted
comparing Emerald Green and Clemson Spineless, two

commonly grown island varieties, with Jefferson, a re-
cently developed okra cultivar from Arkansas. The
results indicated that Jefferson cultivar yielded 55 per-
cent higher than Emerald Green and 85 percent higher
than Clemson Spineless. In a fertilizer rate and popula-
tion density study of Clemson Spineless, six plant densi-
ties were considered (72,000, 43,000, 36,000, 27,000 and
18,000 plants per hectare). Highest yields were ob-
tained with 36,000 plants per hectare. In the fertilizer
rate study using 10-10-10, the highest yield was obtained
with application of 560 kilograms per hectare.

Other Investigations
Four varieties of onions were tested for yield per-
formance. Results indicated that short-day onion culti-
vars Granex 33 and Texas Grano 502PRR out-yielded
Inca (long day) and Pronto (intermediate) under
Virgin Islands' conditions. Planter's Jumbo cantaloupe
was tested for the influence of phosphorus applied at
rates of 0, 25, 50 and 100 kilograms per hectare. Plants
receiving 25 and 50 kilograms per hectare increased
yields averaging 11,000 and 14,000 pounds per hectare
respectively while those treated with 0 and 100 kilo-
grams per hectare only produced yields of 8,000 and
10,000 pounds of marketable fruit respectively.

Granex 33 onion cultivar proved the best in yield tests
conducted of four varieties.

Jefferson, an okra cultivar from Arkansas, proved to be
a much higher yielder than two other grown frequently
in the islands.

Application of phosphorous at 50 kilograms per
hectare increased yields of Planter's Jumbo cantaloupe

Thirteen sweet potato varieties from Louisiana Sweet
Potato Center and 18 varieties of two species of yam (D.
alata and D. rotundata) were propagated and initial
observations begun on their agronomic characteristics;
three breeding lines of sweet potatoes specifically devel-
oped for weevil resistance in South Carolina were
propagated and studies begun on their weevil resistance
under tropical conditions. Investigations of horse-
radish trees (Moringa oleifera) for growth and yield
performance were initiated since these trees contain
edible pods and leaves high in protein. Studies were also
initiated on two species of luffa (Luffa acutangularis
and L. cylindrica) which grow well in the Virgin Islands
and whose pods can be used as a nutritious vegetable
when green and for sponge production when mature.
Thirty-six breeding lines of cassava from CIAT, Colum-
bia, along with four sweet cultivars from Puerto Rico,
were planted to be multiplied and characterized in on-
going studies of this popular starchy West Indian staple

Tamarind School had an agriculture apprentice
program with AES for older students such as this one
shown learning more abut vegetable science from Dr.
Adriano Navarro.

The horseradish tree (Moringa oleifera) produces leaves
and edible pods high in protein. Investigations were
initiated for growth and yield of this easily grown island

Luffa (Luffa acutangularis), much in demand asa natural
bath sponge, is a vine which grows prolifically in the
tropics and can be cultivated as a vegetable similar to
squash if picked when young.

FRUITS To Enrich Our Diets

The main emphasis in fruit crop research has been
directed towards ongoing studies of bananas, citrus,
avocado, sapodilla (mesple), and pineapple, with work
continuing on the St. Croix papaya decline disease.
A study was completed on the evaluation of nemati-
cide use on local cassava intercropped with Cavendish
banana. Cassava sticks were planted in April and har-
vested in November. It was found that Mocap 10%G
(Granular) treated plots at 84g per banana plant yielded
the highest amount of intercropped cassava roots (4.5
kg per plant) and Dasanit 15%G yielded the lowest (2.7
kg per plant.) Cassava intercropped with banana plants
receiving cattle and poultry manure yielded 3.9 kg per
plant while plants receiving 10-10-10 fertilizer at
0.85 kg per plant yielded 2.3 kg per plant. An

outbreak of mites on the cassava was controlled with
two sprays of Kelthane EC but there was no infestation
of banana plants, with the cassava providing excellent
windbreak control for the bananas. Cooking tests re-
vealed that slightly earlier harvesting of the cassava
would have minimized the woody nature of the cooked
The Cavendish banana, a large, sweet banana which
is popular with customers, can be susceptible to soil in-
festation by nematodes. An experiment to evaluate the
effects of three nematicides, Diazinon 2E and differing
rates of fertilizer has been conducted since March 1980.
Preliminary findings showed that the nematicide
treated plants produced healthy plants and suckers.
Wind toppled plants occurred mainly in the control and
Diazinon treated plots. Ammonium sulphate and

Chicken manure and nematicide Furadan combined to
produce bananas yielding more than 50 pounds per
poultry manure fertilizers appeared to have the greatest
effect on plant growth. In the second year, yield data for
the plants receiving fertilizer revealed that chicken
manure (5.5 kg per year) treated plants produced 20.6
kg per bunch. Plants receiving ammonium sulphate (1.4
kg per year) yielded 18.3 kg per bunch and those
receiving 10-10-10- (2.8 kg per year) yielded 17.1 kg
per bunch.

The best average bunch yield (22.8 kg) from
combined fertilizer/ nematicide treatments resulted
from chicken manure and Furadan 5%G (20 grams per
plant). Plants receiving a double rate (2.8 kg) of
ammonium sulphate per year showed the highest leaf
tissue nitrogen of 2.4% but these did not correspond-
ingly give higher yields.
A varietal trial of 30 plants each of the well-known
commercial cultivars Giant Cavendish, Robusta and
Valery was initiated to evaluate performance under
local conditions. Sword suckers were obtained from
WINBAN in St.Lucia. Chicken manure at 5.5
kg per plant was incorporated in the planting
hole and Furadan 5%G at 20 grams per plant was ap-
plied at planting. Plants were drip irrigated. In July
1982 the first flowering plants were Giant Cavendish
(10%) at an average height of 1.6 meters. Thus far, per-
centage survival is 60% for Giant Cavendish, 53% for
Robusta and 43% for Valery. Also initiated in October
1981 was a germplasm collection of local banana and
plantain cultivars including Giant and Dwarf Caven-
dish, Dwarf Lacatan (Musa sp. AAA), Tall and Dwarf
Horse Banana (Musa sp. ABB), Tall and Dwarf Plan-
tains (Musa sp. AAB), and Bacuba (Silk Fig, Apple
Banana, Musa sp. AAB). The objectives of this collec-
tion are to observe the performance of all local banana
and plantain material to see what improvements can be
made on selections already in use by farmers; to make
selections of promising material for future field trials
under varying fertilizer, cultural and water levels; and to
document growth and fruiting habits of cultivars which
have thus far been only of minor importance.
An intercrop trial was initiated in December 1981
combining Tall type Horse banana (also called Bluggoe,

Tissue cultured plantain were drip irrigated after being transplanted to the field. Survival rate in September 1982
was 100%.

Malango or Moko-Musa sp. ABB) with local West
Indian papaya, and Dwarf type Horse banana with Solo
Sunrise papaya. Plots of eight banana plants at 1.9m x
3.2m spacing were interplanted with papaya in inter-
row areas. Severe leaf yellowing of banana plants in
certain areas of the field has been corrected by applying
Fe Sequestrene 138 at 28 grams per plant. Sporadic out-
breaks of Mosaic and Ring Spot virus occurred in
papayas, but so far no evidence of St. Croix papaya
decline disease has been noted.
Introduction of the first batch of tissue cultured plan-
tain plantlets made it possible to evaluate a new method
of banana and plantain propagation which will allow
the farmers to acquire unlimited amounts of pest-free
planting material quickly, easily and at a relatively low
cost. A 75% survival of both the Dwarf and regular
Maricongo Plantain plantlets was obtained and 2V2
months after arrival from the laboratory, plants were
transplanted to the field. All plants were drip irrigated
using potable water. Chicken manure was incorporated
in the planting hole (5.5 kg per plant) at time of
transplanting. To test control of nematodes and corm
borers applications of Furadan 5%G at 20 grams per
plant every four months, Temik 10%G at 45 grams every
six months and Diazinon 2E two tablespoons per gallon
applied to each plant every two months were made to
plots of 6 plants spaced at 1.9m x 3.2m. A field evalua-
tion of plants in September 1982 revealed a 100%
survival rate.
The evaluation of fruiting characteristics of selected
varieties of avocados continued for a second year with
data compiled on both early bearing types (July-Octo-
ber) and late bearers (December-March). Information
was recorded on fruit and seed size, pulp color and tex-
ture, and skin thickness. The present avocado orchard
was originally established in 1955 at the experiment
station site. Two varieties of early bearers far exceeded
the late bearingtrees in terms of size with DWI Bank
weighing 540 grams and Butler weighing 431 grams. The
largest late bearers were Booth 7 (377 grams) and Lula
(299 grams).
The fruiting characteristics of nine local and intro-
duced Sapodilla (Mesple) varieties are being evaluated.
Recorded data include time of flowering and fruiting,
yield, time of ripening, fruit size, color, texture, taste
and number of seeds. Variety Russel produced the
largest fruits (195 grams), followed by Boetzberg (188
grams), Jamaica-10 (183 grams) and Morningstar (155

In June 1980 a variety trial of 20 citrus varieties on
two rootstocks was initiated on a 0.42 hectare field.
Plants were spaced 6.5m between rows and 4.9m
between plants on 15 cm raised beds which were
mulched with dried grass. The objective of this trial is to

observe performance of various citrus cultivars on dif-
ferent rootstock so as to select the best scion and root-
stock combination for local conditions. The establish-
ment of the orchard will also serve as a valuable germ-
plasm collection from which scion material can later be
obtained. Several of the varieties which were affected
with Foot Root disease (Phytophthora sp.) showed
good response to drench treatments with the systemic
fungicide Ridomil (1.5 milli-liters per gallon). After two
years growth, eight citrus varieties had a 100% survival.
Among these are Navel orange, Blood orange, Temple
orange, Ponderosa lemon, all on Sour orange root-
stock; also Pineapple orange, Blood orange, Orlando
tangelo and Persian lime on Cleopatra mandarin root-
stock. Eighty percent survivors included Parson Brown
orange, Marsh grapefruit and Thompson Pink grape-
fruit on Sour orange rootstock, and Murcott orange
and Kumquat on Cleo mandarin rootstock.
An experiment to study the effects of three mulch
types on Red Spanish pineapple was initiated in Decem-
ber 1980. Used in the experiment were a silver-coated
plastic, black plastic and cut grass. During the first year
all three mulch treatments effectively controlled weeds
of which the most persistent was wild poinsettia
(Euphorbia heterophylla). However, during the second
year plants were severely affected by mealy bug infesta-
tion and heart rot disease. Although application of

A mulch experiment on Red Spanish pineapple con-
ducted over a two-year period revealed black plastic
the best, with 62% surviving.

Malathion checked the spread of mealy bugs, heart rot
proliferation was rapid and uncontrollable. Black
plastic-mulched plants treated with a combined spray of
ammonium sulphate (100 kg per hectare) and iron sul-
phate (10 kg per hectare) had the biggest survival rate of
62%, with 75% flowering in the summer of 1982. Com-
pletely unmulched plants performed most poorly, with
almost the entire treatment lost to mealy bug and heart
rot. Silver coated plastic-mulched plants grew well until
the plastic biodegraded and completely disintegrated
one year after planting. Pineapples mulched with cut
dried grass performed second best and those that were
also treated with the ammonium sulphate/iron sulphate
fertilizer combination showed a survival of 25% with
50% of those flowering.
Tropical Fruit Collection
A 0.84 hectare orchard of local tropical fruits particu-
larly adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of St.
Croix was begun in 1981. So far selected varieties of
West Indian Cherry, Guava, Black Sapote, Sugar
Apple, Custard Apple, Soursop and Jackfruit have

been planted. Planned future additions to the collection
are: Jujube, Governor plum, West Indian plum, Golden
apple, Star apple, Gooseberry, Malay apple, Mamee
sapote, Breadfruit and Breadnut.

Ornamental Project
Christmas Snowflakes (Euphorbia leucocephala
Lotsy), also called Snow on the Mountains, was eval-
uated as a potential Christmas pot crop using two
growth retarding compounds. Seedlings transplanted in
May 1981 were repotted to gallon containers in
August and the soil was drenched with chemical growth
retardants in October. Although Cycocel at 3000 ppm
produced the most attractive potted plants, Anacymi-
dol at 0.5 active ingredient per pot produced a 37% re-
duction in plant size (height + width) and induced four
times more cyathia (flower2inflorescences) over the
control plants. If this scheduling of potting and chemi-
cal application is followed, potted Christmas Snow-
flakes plants are at their best appearance by December
15 in time for the Christmas season.

IRRIGATION For Dry Weather

The irrigation program at the experiment station has
as its main objective the investigation of crop response
to irrigation and to provide basic information necessary
for proper irrigation water management of tropical
Requirements for Dry Season Tomatoes
An area of 0.06 hectares was planted with U H N-69
tropical hybrid tomato on December 7, 1981. Each plot
consisted of three rows of 12 plants spaced at 0.45 x 1.22
meters. The irrigation treatments on split-plot design
were Consumptive Use (CU) ration 1.25, 1.00,0.75, and
0.50 (main plot) and one and two days frequency (sub
plots). The treatments were replicated three times. The
trickle irrigation system consisted of Bi-Wall 19 tubing
with orifices at 44 cm x 160 cm buried at 8 cm. The sys-
tem included a volumetric valve, pressure regulator, 200
mesh filter and two water meters for each treatment.
Before transplanting, 20 liters of chicken manure and
100 kg per hectare of superphosphate were in-
corporated in each row. Side dressing with a complete
fertilizer was applied twice monthly after fruit set. Foliar
fertilizer with major and trace elements was applied as
nutrient deficiency symptoms developed. Weeds were
controlled with Dacthal herbicide and additional
manual and mechanical cultivation. Leafminers, fungus
and bacterial diseases were controlled by integrated pest
management techniques. By periodically monitoring
insects and diseases the pesticide treatments were
reduced by 60% compared to a standard weekly
Tomatoes were harvested twice a week from February
5, 1982 to March 23, 1982. The greatest response to

55,054 kg per hectare of tomatoes were harvested in
March 1982 utilizing specific irrigation techniques.

irrigation, with 55,054 kg per hectare of marketable
tomatoes, was obtained with 1.00 CU ratio applied
every other day. The unmarketable yield averaged
under 10%. Statistical analysis is to be continued on
plant height, fruit size and irrigation water efficiency.
Research results show that by using multiple disease
and heat resistant hybrid tomatoes such as UN N-69,
along with trickle irrigation scheduling techniques to
maximize yield per unit of water applied, it is possible to
obtain high marketable yields (55,054 kg/ha) and top
quality tomatoes in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Cultivate
UH N-69 yields were 2.6 higher than yields obtained in
1978-1979 trials and 15.6 times higher than tomato trial

yields in 1980-1981 conducted at the Virgin Islands
experiment station.

Effect of Irrigation on Watermelon
Previous research on Charleston Gray and other
oblong watermelon varieties in the Virgin Islands shows
that yields were severely reduced by the development of
blossom-end rot. Inadequate irrigation was suspected
to be the reason. In an experiment begun on April 1,
1982, Charleston Gray seeds were planted in an area of
0.04 hectares. Cultural techniques employed were
similar to those of earlier experiments. Eight irrigation
treatments replicated three times were applied to deter-
mine the effect of irrigation on watermelon growth and
quality. The irrigation system (trickle) included Bi-Wall
19 tubing buried at 8 cm and a volumetric valve, pres-
sure regulator, 200 mesh filter and two water meters for
each treatment.
Field observations show that the following factors
appeared to have reduced the watermelon yield con-
siderably: a.) inadequate pollination because of the
small number of bee visits per hour to each flower; b.)
severe attack of fungus and anthracnose despite the
supposed disease resistant qualities of Charleston Gray;
c.) severe blossom-end rot in all of the plots. The level of
calcium in the soil was optimum and tissue analysis has
indicated average to high calcium.
The results indicate that for adequate bee pollination,
bee colonies should be brought into the area of water-
melon production. Plastic mulch is required and only
highly disease resistant watermelon varieties should be
considered for use in the Virgin Islands.

Effect of Irrigation on Papaya
Irrigation studies were initiated for the first time in
the Virgin Islands on reaction of papaya which is sus-
ceptible in the islands to the St. Croix decline disease.
An area of 0.07 hectares was planted with PR 6-65
papaya on June 26, 1982. Plants were spaced 1.82
meters in a row, 1.82 meters between rows and 3.64
meters between double rows. Plants are in a split-plot
arrangement with four irrigation amounts in main plots
and two frequencies in the subplots. Each subplot con-
sists of six plants, three each from two adjacent rows,
but data is being taken only from the two central plants
of each plot. Treatments are replicated three times.
The irrigation system consists of on-line 3.7 liter per
hour emitters (one per plant) and a volumetric valve,
pressure regulator and two water meters for each treat-
ment. Rain catchment water is filtrated by 200 mesh
filter. Superphosphate was incorporated in the
50x50x50 centimeter holes before transplanting. Nitro-
gen is applied twice a month and fertilizer with trace ele-
ments applied as nutrient deficiency symptoms devel-
oped. Pesticides were sprayed weekly to prevent the
development of St. Croix decline disease and
Early findings in this continuing irrigation study are
that the decline disease has affected only the weak
papaya plants representing approximately 8% of the
total in the first few weeks after transplanting. Weekly
treatments with Kocide before blossoming seem to
control the disease and field observations show that
papaya responds well to irrigation.

Split plot arrangement of irrigated young papaya plants -- the first such
study in the Virgin Islands.

Checking water pressure regulator
on irrigation system.

PEST MANAGEMENT Alternative Control Methods

A chief emphasis of the experiment station Pest
Management program has been to characterize signifi-
cant pests on priority crops and to develop and apply
effective alternatives to synthetic chemical pesticides.
One major aim is to achieve efficient control of diseases
and insect pests under tropical island conditions, but at
the same time insuring that unnecessary pesticide appli-
cations are avoided. Another aim is to recognize that
while pesticides will necessarily be a component of any
pest management effort, it is important to develop and
implement an appropriate pesticide storage, use and
handling system as well as a safe disposal process.

In a joint research project with the vegetable science
program, sweet potatoes were evaluated for resistance
to weevil infestation.
Inter-region Cooperation
In an example of inter-regional cooperation, the Pest
Management program joined Inter-region Project 4, a
nationwide effort with other U.S. experiment stations
to gather data necessary for the clearance of pesticides
for use on minor crops including tropical fruits and
vegetables. The program also joined a project spon-
sored by the InterAmerican Institute for Cooperation in
Agriculture (IICA) of the Pan-American Health Orga-
nization which is concerned with the incidence of Blue-
tongue virus, a disease of sheep, goats and cattle trans-
mitted by the biting fly, Culicoides. A presumed out-
break of Bluetongue on St. Croix was investigated by
Dr. Paul Gibbs, associate professor of Virology at the
University of Florida School of Veterinary Medicine,
who also held a seminar for livestock producers on viral
diseases of livestock.
Sabbatical Aids Local Studies
During a five-month sabbatical leave, Dr. Roger
Bland from Central Michigan University conducted
basic and applied studies that included a comprehensive
assessment of the crop pests and their natural enemies
for beans, cabbage, cantaloupe and corn; evaluations of
the efficacy of a range of insecticides and miticides with
emphasis on low hazard products such as insecticidal

soap; laboratory bioassays using a natural repellent and
feeding deterrent derived from the tropical neem tree
(Azadrachta indica) against melonworms; and field
trials on baits for control of ants that tend aphids. Eight
detailed reports resulted from this work.

Joint Projects in Research
A paper entitled "Integrated Pest and Irrigation
Management Research on Tomatoes in the Virgin
Islands" was presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of
the Caribbean Food Crops Society in Barbados in
August 1982. A joint research project between the irri-
gation and pest management programs resulted in a
standardized survey form, protocol for assessment and
recommendation for treatment which are being applied
presently to a tomato pest management scouting service
by the Cooperative Extension Service. Other research
projects undertaken were weed control in tomato,
cantaloupe and beans; evaluation of sweet potato weevil
resistant germplasm; and control of mites on sweet corn.
Comprehensive recommendations on tropical crop
groups, coordinated with those from Puerto Rico and
Florida, were submitted to the Office of Pesticide Pro-
grams of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in
response to a proposed standardized crop grouping
scheme published in the Federal Register. Many crops
and their uses in tropical regions were not properly re-
presented in the original proposal and this comprehen-
sive response was to redress this imbalance.
A cooperative research agreement with the U.S.
Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research
Service (USDA-ARS) involving field trapping and
monitoring of two of the world's most serious insect
pests, the tomato fruitworm and the pink bollworm,
was completed on St. Croix. These two insects were the
object of genetic sterility research at the St. Croix
USDA-ARS field station. Among other findings, it was
determined that these insects can be effectively con-
trolled by genetic means. No migration between St.
Croix and neighboring islands was detected.

St. Croix Papaya Decline Disease
In continuing efforts to seek a solution to the St.
Croix papaya decline disease syndrome, various treat-
ments and trials have continued throughout the past
two years at the experiment station. In one, the effects of
sulphur treatment and soil fumigation using methyl
bromide were tried. Although plants in the methyl
bromide treated plots started more vigorously, their
overall growth and performance were far below those of
the control plots. Yields were lower, fruits were smaller
and incidence of decline symptoms were more severe. It
was also evident that effects of methyl bromide fumiga-
tion are very temporary and in the end are a counter-
productive and impractical method for controlling the
decline disease. The application of sulphur did not have

A variety trial of 24 papaya cultivars was begun to
determine resistance to St. Croix papaya decline
any significant effect on soil pH and therefore does not
appear to be an effective means of lowering the pH in
local soils.
A variety trial of 24 cultivars to observe natural resis-
tance to St. Croix papaya decline disease involved ac-
cessions from the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Hawaii,
Costa Rica and Florida. There were 13 harvests starting
in February 1981. Results were not conclusive, and al-
though complete resistance was not found in any culti-
var, field tolerance was shown by some entries and
individual plants.
A significant advance was achieved in Spring 1981
when a possible breakthrough towards a solution of the
decline was achieved with the isolation of an Erwinia
bacterium as a major contributing causal organism by
Dr. Milton Schroth, professor of bacteriology at the
University of California. Research is continuing on this
papaya decline disease problem.

Dr. Roger Bland, entomologist and bi-
ology professor from Central Michigan
University spent a six-month sabbatical
with the AES pest management program
investigating crop pests in the Virgin
Islands. He takes time out to snap a
photo of the colorful "frangipani worm."

Papaya plant exhibiting characteristics of decline

Renowned scale insect specialist Dr. Michael Kosztarab of Virginia
State University was a visiting scientist with the pest management
program where he verified the identity of locally collected specimens.

ANIMAL SCIENCE Assisting the Beef Industry

The main emphasis of the Animal Science program
has been to evaluate Senepol cattle under their native
Virgin Islands environment. This is a unique program in
that all experimental units are derived from cooperating
Senepol breeders'cattle operations. Collecting and pro-
cessing data from six Virgin Islands breeders and four
mainland cooperators has been greatly improved
through the use of a microcomputer. The on-the-farm
performance testing program data management is now
processed in a timely fashion. Considerable time was
spent adapting data handling programs to the new
computer system from the various systems previously

Animal Science Research Assistant assists local beef
cattle producer grade and weigh Senepol for on-the-
farm performance testing program.

On-the-Farm Performance Tests
Data collected from on-the-farm performance testing
of Senepol beef cattle includes birthdate, sire, dam,
weaning weight and age, postweaning weight and age.
measurement variables and breed characterization
variables. Measurement and breed characterization
variables are evaluated at weaning (7-9) months and at
postweaning (a year for bulls and 18 months for heifers).
Measurement variables include length from withers to
the anterior lumbar, hip height, and length from hooks
to pins. Breed characterization variables are head con-
dition and shape, bumps, sheath evaluation, body con-
dition, frame, color and temperament. Weaning per-
formance data taken at 7-9 months were adjusted to a
205 day weight standard. Summary reports include ad-
justed weights, weight ratios and cow efficiency. Post-
weaning weights were adjusted to a 365-day weight (I
year) for bulls and a 540-day weight (18 months) for
heifers. During this time data was taken on 1152
cows/ calf pairs, 121 mature bulls and 979 postweaning
calves per year.
From 1977-1979 two computer services were used for
processing records. These systems were incompatible
for data transfer to the existing microcomputer. There-
fore, all of the 10,000 collected records are being re-
entered into the present system. Records from 1980 to
present were entered as collected.

Animal Science Research Technician in cooperation
with V.I. Consumer Services conducts a meat quality
and meat cutting workshop for local meat marketers
and other interested persons.
Two cooperators have breeding records from 1954 to
1976. These records will be used to determine the genetic
relationship and history of the breed. Of the 51,000
records, all have been tabulated for data entry and
editing. However, only about 10% have been actually
keypunched for analysis.
Effect of Feed
A grain-on-grass feeding experiment involved
feeding level (pasture only and 3 levels of grain on grass)
and feeding length (140 & 168 days on feed) utilizing 112
bulls at two locations. As expected, preliminary analysis
suggests the average daily grain and final weight were
augmented as a result of the increase in number of days
on feed and the amount of feed provided.
Sixty-one bulls were slaughtered with carcass data
and Warner Bratzler shear data collected. There were
no interactions between feeding time and feeding level
for all variables observed. Color, texture and the four
Warner Bratzler shear (tenderness measurement) values
were unaffected by location, feeding time, or feeding
level. Feeding time had a significant effect on live weight
(410 kg), cold carcass weight (234 kg), ribeye area per
body weight (2.02 cm/cwt.), backfat (.11 cm), yield

Cowboy directs St. Croix Senepol cattle out to pasture
after collecting data and performing routine manage-
ment duties.


grade (1.75) and age (486 days). Location and feeding
level had a significant effect on live weight, cold carcass
weight, ribeye area per cwt, backfat, dressing percent
(56.9%), marbling score (3.3) and conformation (9.9).
Milk Production Trial
The second year of a milk production trial utilizing
the weigh-suckle-weigh technique, utilized 24 cow/ calf
pairs at one location conducted over 10 month period.
Cow-calf pairs were put on a sampling schedule within 2
weeks of birth. Birth weights were taken within 36 hours
of birth and averaged 345 5.4 kg. Butterfat, total solids
and solids-not-fat measurements were taken during the
eight month lactation period. Preliminary results indi-
cate cows averaged 533 51 kg going on trial and
527 59 kg coming off the trial. Calf weight averaged
218 21 kg when at an average of 202 10 days of age.
Results of the first milk composition sample made
within two weeks after birthing showed 2.8% butter-
fat and 10.6% total solids; sample results taken when the
calf was seven months old showed that butterfat was
1.8% and total solids 11.1%. Cows averaged about 1134
kg of milk in a 201 average day lactation period. (Pro-
duction figures have not been adjusted to standard
dates.) All but one cow (17 years old) from the previous
year's trial rebred and calved within a 12 1/2 month
period. Combined data sets for the two year's trial will
be analyzed for further information.

Collaboration with Other Agencies
In an effort to determine the general combining abil-
ity (genetic) of the Senepol and to determine how the
purebred Senepol produce relative to various purebred
and cross bred breeds, the research program collab-
orated with the Brooksville Research Station to estab-
lish the first continental purebred Senepol herd at the
Florida Beef Research Station. At this station purebred
and crossbred Senepol can now be compared directly
with various British and Zebu purebred and crosses.
This 18 month effort, with the animal science program
serving as liaison between APHIS-VS, Florida and

Virgin Islands State Veterinarians and the Virgin
Islands Senepol Association, culminated with the ship-
ment of 44 purebred heifers and four purebred bulls on
June 21, 1982 from St. Croix to Florida.

Hydraulic lift transfers Senepol cattle to aircraft for
flight from St. Croix to Florida Beef Research Station
in Brooksville. The experiment station animal science
program on St. Croix was instrumental in expediting
this research opportunity for the Senepol breed.

AQUACULTURE A Possible Major Food Supplement

The Aquaculture Research program has been in-
volved in three areas of research on the freshwater fish
Tilapia; the study of tilapia cage culture in small fresh-
water ponds; the construction of a facility to study re-
circulating fish culture/hydroponic systems; and
hatchery management techniques for tilapia fingerling

Fish Pond Research
An important problem was identified which can
greatly influence fish culture in many Virgin Islands
ponds. During excessive dry periods, pond levels recede
and dense vegetation proliferates on the banks. When
large rainfalls do occur, excessive runoff from adjacent

hills soon fill the ponds to capacity, and within two
to four weeks after these rainstorms, oxygen depletions
occur resulting from the submergence and subsequent
decay of pond bank vegetation. The result is high
mortality among the caged tilapia. To avoid this prob-
lem, pond banks that are exposed below the high water
mark should be maintained relatively free of vegetative

Feeding Pellets
A year-long feeding experiment was conducted to
evaluate three commercial feeds (Purina and Sunshine
Mills floating catfish pellets, and Central Soya sinking
crumbles) and three feeding rates schedules. The feeding

New aquaculture research facility was begun in 1981
fingerling production experiments.
rate schedules were 3% of body weight throughout the
experiment; reduction from 5 to 15 of body weight
based on time (time slide); and reduction from 5 to 1%
based on weight (weight slide.) Purina feed produced
26% higher yields with time slide, which was the best
feeding rate schedule.
As a result of poor water circulation through the
cages causing low dissolved oxygen levels, 30 new cages
were constructed with cage mesh increased in size from
6 mm to 19 mm.
A demand feeder was designed for feeding caged
tilapia in freshwater ponds. The feeder stores about 6 kg
of feed and is mounted on the cage top. Caged fish
quickly learn to trigger the release of feed by swimming
into a rod suspended from the feeder. Use of this auto-
matic feeder has substantially reduced the labor re-
quired in feeding.

Newly designed automatic feeder for caged fish in
ponds has reduced labor required in feeding.

near the St. Croix campus with 28 tanks for breeding and

New Research Facility
Construction of an aquaculture research facility was
started early in 1981 on a .4 hectare site near the college
enclosed by fencing, with water and drain lines estab-
lished initially. A field laboratory building was con-
structed and work was begun on establishing 34 circular
swimming pools ranging in size from 3.7 meters to 8.2
meters in diameter and 8,700 to 64,000 liters in volume
to be used in tilapia fish hatchery experiments. Two ex-

An experiment was conducted early in 1982 to deter-
mine effect of stocking density of brood fish on fry pro-
duction. This small pan contains 500 tilapia fry.

periments were conducted in 1982. The first was to
determine the effect of stocking density of brood fish
(Tilapia aurea) on fry production. Results showed that
total production of fry increased as stocking rates in-
creased, but average production per female declined.
The objective of the second hatchery experiment was to
find the optimum stocking rate of fry in pools for rear-
ing them to fingerling size. Tilapia fry were stocked in
circular pools at six rates. Predation by dragonfly lar-
vae caused wide variation in survival (59% average) and
the results were therefore inconclusive. Future stocking
should occur only in pools filled with water just prior to
stocking, thus restricting development of dragonfly
larvae populations. Three new species of tilapia re-
ceived from the Tennessee Valley Authority in Alabama
will be used in future experiments.

Recirculating Systems
One closed recirculating system was completed by
September 1982 and five others were in various stages of
construction. These systems consist of a 1,400-1 rearing
tank, a 1,900-i sludge settling tank, a 1,400-1 reservoir,
and two 2,300-1 hydroponic tanks. The hydroponic
tanks, 6 m long by 1.2 m wide and .3 m deep, each will
hold almost 4.5 metric tons of gravel as a biofilter and
substrate for vegetable culture. The design of the six re-
circulating systems is based on a small model that has
been tested for two years. The model was constructed
from four oil barrels, with three upright barrels used for
fish culture, sludge removal and water storage, and the
fourth cut in half horizontally and filled with gravel for
biofiltration and hydroponic culture of tomatoes and
lettuce. The system was powered by a small submersible
pump. Total production in the first trial amounted to
9.5 kg of tilapia and 10.4 kg of vegetables over a four
month period; in a second seven-month trial the small
backyard model produced 11.8 kg of tilapia and 32.7 kg
of lettuce and tomatoes. Since the model system was
displayed to the public it has evoked keen interest and
several individuals are now constructing similar systems
for their own backyard use.
Freshwater fish such as tilapia may provide a greater
portion of the protein intake in the diets of island neoole

Model fish culture-hydroponic systems served as prototypes f
cial scale recirculating systems currently under construction

One 7-month trial produced 26 pounds of tilapia and
72 pounds of lettuce and tomatoes utilizing the small
back yard fish culture-hydroponic system.

Marketing study in 1982 revealed that consumers
would pay more than two dollars per pound for tilapia
weighing an average of one pound.

who have heretofore relied heavily on marine fish be-
cause data gathered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Ser-
vice has shown that near-shore marine fishery is exceed-
ing the maximum sustainable yield. In a St. Croix retail
fish outlet marketing study on public consumption of
tilapia conducted in 1981, it was determined that con-
sumers were willing to pay $2. 10 per
pound for undressed fish weighing
one pound. More than 200 pounds
were sold during this brief study,
with an added 175 pounds sold to
the Bureau of Corrections. As a
result of this study, aquaculture pro-
gram personnel provided technical
advice for the construction of a 0.08
hectare pond at the Golden Grove
Adult Correctional Facility which
will be used to demonstrate the prin-
ciples of tilapia pond culture and
will provide about 1360 kg of fish
orcommer- annually for inmates.

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Research

Ciguatera is a human affliction suffered when fish
containing ciguatoxin (CTX) are consumed. CTX
apparently originates in a micro-organism called Gam-
bierdiscus toxicus, a dinoflagellate found in tropical
oceans around the world, often on or near coral reefs.
Laboratory studies of field-collected G. toxicus indicate
it produces at least two toxins which cause the same
symptoms as CTX from fish when tested in the mouse
bioassay. The dinoflagellate toxins are probably altered
biochemically as they are passed through the organisms
along the food chain, ultimately becoming the CTX in

reef fish which poisons humans.
Everyone affected by ciguatera recognizes the need
for a simple, reliable test for ciguatoxicity in fish. For a
variety of technical reasons this goal has been extremely
elusive. Recently, a chemical test has been undergoing
development. Such a test is of great value for furthering
our scientific understanding of the ciguatera problem.
The test, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, is formidable
technologically, as its name suggests, but it will hope-
fully lead to a practical, affordable test in the future.

A line drawing of Gambierdiscus toxicus, the dinoflagellate recently implicated in the biogenesis of ciguatoxin,
taken from scanning electron micrographs. Alive, this micro-organism is 80 micrometers or 0.003 inches in dia-
meter (after F.J.R. Taylor, University of British Columbia).


millimeter .......................... mm kilogram ......................... kg
centimeter ........................ cm granular.............................. G
hectare .............................. ha meter ................................ m
liter .................................. I gram ................................. g


The years 1981 and 1982 could best be characterized
as years of increasing teamwork as the four main pro-
gram areas of the Cooperative Extension Service--
Home Economics, 4-H Youth Development, Agricul-
ture and Natural Resources, and Community and Rural
Development--worked together to strengthen and sup-
port their mutual goals of serving as the informal educa-
tional outreach service of the College of the Virgin
Islands. And as the extension programs expanded in
terms of staff members, so also did the number of clients
who were reached by these programs.
The network of interprogram cooperation could be
found when a pest management extension agent served
as leader of a new 4-H entomology club aptly called
"The Stingers"; or when the Home Economics staff
assisted in training counselors for 4-H summer camp
and other island summer youth programs; or when
Agriculture specialists showed housing project residents
how to plant small gardens as part of a Home Econom-
ics community beautification program. Nor was exten-
sion's mutual support philosophy limited to its own
agency, as staff members worked closely on special

projects with schools, the V.I. Department of Agricul-
ture and the Agricultural Experiment Station.
Another keynote of the past two years was the in-
creasing role all members of the staff played in provid-
ing workshops, seminars, classes, training sessions,
community visits, meetings and personal home visits to
persons needing the particular expertise that extension
could offer. Residents on all three islands took advan-
tage of opportunities to learn about grafting or air layer-
ing plants; how to care for sick livestock or improve
milk production; when to spray for insect pests without
jeopardizing beneficial insects; how much to fertilize;
techniques for irrigating small garden plots; where to
seek help in establishing a small business or buying farm
acreage; how to stretch food dollars in a nutritionally
balanced way; and methods for developing leadership
roles with young people.
Increasingly, the role played by the Virgin Islands
extension service has been one of cooperating with
other island agencies in a wide variety of betterment
projects; as a result, the word is out that extension is
there to serve when called.

AGRICULTURE Expanding Outreach to Farmers

Technical assistance to a greater number of farmers,
growers and gardeners has been provided by the Agri-
culture Program by following three comprehensive
program objectives. These included assistance in im-
proving quality and increasing yields of food and feed
crops; recommendations to livestock growers for im-
proved management practices; and training private and
commercial pesticide applicators. Contacts were made
through traditional extension methods such as personal
farm visits, office visits, seminars, workshops, guided
tours, special classes and telephone communications.
The addition of an extension horticulturist to the staff
has enabled many fruit and vegetable growers in the
three Virgin Islands to receive the technical assistance
they have needed to correct production problems and
receive guidance as well as motivation in the application
of proper cultural practices. Pertinent information on
vegetable and fruit varieties, irrigation practices, plant
disease and pest management, and the best feed crop
varieties based on research at the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station is provided by the horticulturist and his
staff. Changing traditional cultural practices for newer,
more successful methods in some instances is met with
resistance. Inducing selected farmers to use a new i
fungicide for control of root-rot and foot-rot on citrus, Visits to home gardeners and farmers provide an oppor-
for example, was considered a positive breakthrough, tunity for Extension Agriculture staff to assess cultural
for example, was considered a positive breakthrough. practices throughout the Islands. Former farmer-of-
Continued food price inflation did much to stimulate the-year Jose Torres (right) shows a heavily laden bana-
the home gardening effort and new, first-time home na plant to extension horticulturist Clinton George.

ing sapodilla (locally known as mesple), sugar apple,
custard apple, soursop, West India Cherry, guava and
local plums.
Vegetable workshops were attended by a total of 550
growers with stress placed on emphasizing techniques
That are applicable to local conditions. Among these are
time of planting and using proven varieties which are
more adaptable to heat, drought and the myriad of in-
sects and diseases which plague crops year round in the
tropics. Predominant crops grown locally are tomatoes,
okra, pigeon peas, eggplant, peppers, collard greens,
local spinach, cucumbers and pumpkins. A staple for
many residents is the "ground provision" group which
includes cassava, tannia, yam and sweet potato.


Proper shelter for goats is illustrated by guest speaker
Basic crops were grown in demonstration gardens at extension Saturday workshop.
opposite St. Croix Campus utilizing varieties recom-i
mended by experiment station scientists.
gardeners continued to increase over former years.
Information was sought most frequently on best locally
adapted varieties, fertilization, planting practices, aug-
menting water supplies and crop protection.
Educational activities included tropical fruit work-
shops and seminars which attracted 593 participants
who learned about propagation by air layering, graft-
ing, cutting and budding. Mangoes, papayas, bananas, 4
avocados and citrus have been the most popular fruits
traditionally with increased interest expressed in plant-

Extension director Darshan Padda addressed St. Croix
gardeners who attended five-day Agriculture Short
Workshops and seminars were attended by the rela-
tively small group who are full-time farmers along
with part-time farmers and home gardeners, teachers
and others who are new to the islands and are exploring
the possibility of augmenting their diets with locally
grown produce.
The first World Food Day observance was conducted
by extension, with 500 tomato seedlings and cultivating
instructions distributed to the public. To assist housing
project dwellers improve the appearance of their proj-
ect, a seminar was held for 18 residents of Paradise Mills
on growing small gardens. Fourteen families enrolled in
Workshop participant prepares his citrus plant for the program and planted flowers and vegetables around
grafting. their dooryards.

Graduation day concludes a five-session Agriculture
Short Course held jointly with V.I. Teachers Corps for
interested St. Croix gardeners who received certifi-
cates for perfect attendance.
Small Livestock
Due to increased interest in keeping small livestock
such as goats, swine and chickens, a full-time assistant
livestock specialist was hired to give farmers technical
assistance and teach day-to-day management tech-
niques. Workshops and small livestock special interest
meetings attracted 287 participants. While goat, sheep
and poultry production has increased slightly in the past
year, the number of pigs decreased. The pig decline is
associated with the high cost of feed, much of which is
imported, and the unreliable processing services at the
local abattoir. An inventory of all classes of livestock on
small farms was begun. In addition, with the assistance
of an extension livestock technician, two farms cooper-
ated in major planning changes to utilize minimum
space for maximum use. Eventually, these farms will be
used as prototypes for other farmers to demonstrate
better efficiency on small farms. A 100-acre forage and
hay pilot project was initiated jointly with the Depart-
ment of Agriculture to mitigate the feed shortage prob-
lem facing farmers during times of drought. Advice also
was given on pasture renovation, health management
and improving forage conditions. In St. Thomas a germ
plasm nursery was started for forage crops.

Extension director, Darshan Padda visits farm which
has installed large grain storage tanks for its chicken
industry. Bulk purchases are less expensive but storage
has always been a problem in tropical climates.

Dr. Charles Gibson, Extension Veterinarian in charge of
Field Services for Michigan State University lectures
on dairy reproduction and nutrition problems on St.

Dr. Samuel Guss, University of Pennsylvania Extension
Veterinarian and author of a definitive book on small
livestock management, was special guest at a meeting
of small livestock farmers where he lectured on new
techniques for sheep and goats.
Dairy Extension
In efforts to assist the Virgin Islands Dairy Herd Im-
provement Association (DHIA), Dairy Extension has

Dairy Extension keeps in close contact with farms like
this one at Estate Windsor where cows are being
washed prior to milking.

continued to help cooperating dairymen in collecting
uniform production and management records to
improve management operations. In 1981 and 1982 an
average of 517 cows were performance tested monthly
and the records were sent to the Raleigh Computer Cen-
ter for processing and summarization. It was found by
dairy extension staff that most cows under local pasture
conditions need additional energy and supplemental
minerals, especially potassium and phosphorous. Dr. C.
Gibson, visiting associate professor of Veterinary
Science from Michigan State University spent four
weeks on St. Croix to assist dairies with animal health
programs, placing particular emphasis on reproduc-
tion. Using his recommendations, five St. Croix dairies
have increased the percent of cows in milk from sixty to
seventy, and reduced calving intervals nearly two
months. Dr. Gibson also conducted four workshops on
reproduction attended by a total of 70 dairymen and
small livestock producers.

Soil Testing
In 1981 preparations were made to establish a soil
testing laboratory on St. Thomas. An extension soil
specialist was added to the staff and during the year a
soil testing program was begun with more than 100 sam-
ples sent off island for elemental analysis and fertilizer
absorption studies. In 1982 preliminary operations were
begun at the soil testing lab using newly installed equip-
ment. More than 9,000 analyses were performed on 754
soil, plant and water samples.


Pesticide Applicators
Training for initial certification and recertification of
both private and commercial pesticide applicators con-
tinues to be an important educational activity. Over a
two year period, 225 applicators were certified in the use
of pesticides and the handling of restricted use pesti-
cides. An additional two-day training workshop was
held for 43 of the agriculture staff at AES-CES and em-
ployees of the V.I. Department of Agriculture. Agricul-
tural training classes for CETA workers assigned to the
Dept. of Agriculture were conducted in May and June

Training and certifying pesticide applicators has been a
responsibility of extension working in conjunction with
the V.I. Dept. of Conservation since chemicals have
assumed such an important role in farming and home
gardening. Here training officer demonstrates safety
garment to local applicators.


Island growers are unanimous in agreement that a and their control. Since the island climate with year-
tjor problem for successful crop production and rais- round sunny hot weather is ideal for plant pests and
ornamental plants is the all-pervasive one of pests diseases, their numbers generally far exceed those in
more temperate climates. Among concerns affecting
islanders have been mite-induced scarring of coconuts;
mango flower and fruit drop due to anthracnose;
pinworm on tomatoes, diamondback worm on
cabbage, and melonworm on cantaloupe; severe infes-
tation of scale and nematodes causing decline in hibis-
cus; and a myriad of problems with Cuban tree frogs,
termites, bats, birds and rats. Also, public health-
related concerns with mosquitoes and sandflies regular-
ly receive attention.
Problem Solving Techniques
The pest management program has addressed many
of these problems by using time-proven techniques of
direct contact with clients at farms, homes and exten-
sion headquarters; or through workshops, field trips,
Pests and diseases such as ones causing this virus- seminars, publications, and classes. A total of 19 work-
stunted tomato plant are all-too prevalent in hot shops attended by approximately 300 participants pro-
climates and represent a real challengetotheextension vided pest and plant disease identification and recom-
n-at management nrooram. mendations. Site visits were made to 397 homes and

Uncertainty when faced with pest problems, a major
constraint to getting started in local food production.

Pest Control Product Survey
A comprehensive evaluation of the pest control prod-
ucts currently available at 195 retail outlets on St.
Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John was completed and
S. annual updates are planned. Information pertaining to
S / major pest problems and suggested key materials to
treat them was conveyed to retailers at the time of sur-
vey to assist them in appropriate wholesale selection of
materials pertinent to the islands' needs.

It is important to identify each problem as it occurs in '
fruit trees. In this case, termites have invaded this
mango branch.
farms, and 53 demonstrations were conducted on test- '
ing methods and products.
A weekly scheduled diagnostic clinic begun in the
summer of 1982 now provides walk-in service for resi-
dents with ailing plant specimens. Diagnosis and rec-
ommendations are offered for a full range of plant dis-
orders as well as public health, arthropod and verte-
brate pest problems. A major advance during the year
has been in the area of plant disease diagnosis and .*
nematode extraction now available from added staff
and collaboration with experiment station scientists.
Another major development in the past year was the
launching of a structured field survey and monitoring
service for major producers of bananas, plantains, man-
goes and tomatoes. This involves regular visits to grow-
ers' plots, advisory feedback and integrated control
recommendations when needed for insects and other
arthropods, diseases, nematodes and bees. Basically,
this service is intended to help alleviate the growers'

If uncontrolled, anthracnose fungus can cause up to
50% or more reduction in yield of local mangoes each
year in the Virgin Islands, by attacking flowers, young
and maturing fruits. Post-harvest loss to anthracnose
,also can be high.

Targeted Natural Resources Programs
The Virgin Islands extension pest management com-
7 ponent has been assuming a broader educational role in
terms of natural resources management. The main focus
Ss of the natural resources program is to support food self-
Similar symptoms require a closer look. Here pest sufficiency goals in the Virgin Islands because these
management scientist determines that while the corn
leaf appears as if it might be deficient in nutrients, goals are inseparable from the severe competition for
actually the plant has yellow leaf stripe virus which is limited natural resources locally. Two programs high-
transmitted by a plant hopper. light this new direction, both of them congressionally

Taking insects to classrooms throughout islands was a
Students from island schools often visit pest manage- combined project of the pest management program
ment laboratory during class field trips. This young lady working with 4-H. Here extension agent Marti Terry
is intent on learning about local beetles. and 4-H aide Leroy James show students a traveling
beetle exhibit.
mandated and funded: with the Renewable Resources
extension program, concentration is on pasture and
rangeland improvement; the Non-Point Source Pollu-
tion program assesses the extent and nature of present
and perhaps future pollution from agriculture sources.
This includes fertilizer, pesticide and sediment run-off
into ponds, groundwater, lagoons, bays and other
coastal water zones. --
A third program also falls within the natural re-
sources category. This is a joint venture between exten-
sion pest management and the National Park Service in 7
the Virgin Islands to develop comprehensive baseline i
information pertaining to natural resources manage-
ment in the Virgin Islands. Supported by the Natural j
Park Service in connection with the Man and Biosphere ,. d
Program of the United Nations Educational, Scientific i .
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the extension 4
natural resources component is contributing to the
development of a computerized bibliography of all
Virgin Islands literature ever published. The program
leader serves as associate editor in charge of scientific
materials for the bibliography, which is expected to be
published in three volumes with over 20,000 citations.

Minute hairs on pods of Stizolobiumpruriens are so irri-
S.'^-i- -tating they can cause extreme discomfort if touched.
Pest management teams identified this local climbing
Making use of a back pack motorized mist blower can weed as the cause of death of six thoroughbred horses
be a real help to farmers, as demonstrated at a field on St. Croix, who mistakenly ingested the noxious
workshop. weed which is also called "cow-itch."

Other Useful Services
A close working relationship with USDA's Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Service-Plant Protection
and Quarantine Office (APHIS-PPQ) resulted in veri-
fying the existence of a potentially serious outbreak of
black Parlatoria scale insect, a quarantinable pest of
citrus. In another case, a more extensive survey was con-
ducted with APH IS-PPQ concerning the potential exis-
tence of citrus bacterial canker, one of the most serious
citrus diseases known. No infections were found in the
A common weed herbarium collection was begun in
1981 with almost 200 weeds collected and identified thus

far, in collaboration with Dr. F.R. Fosberg of the
Smithsonian Institution. Plant identification also
played a key role in determining the cause of death of six
thoroughbred race horses on St. Croix by poisoning
from Stizolobium pruriens, known locally as "cow
itch", or cowage. In assistance to the Virgin Islands
government, a report was prepared regarding the erro-
neous assumption that there were residual harmful
effects from biological warfare trials conducted during
World War 11 on islands off-shore of St. Thomas. This
report was widely publicized to allay the fears of local
residents that danger from those trials might still persist.

HOME ECONOMICS Better Living for Our Families

The official dedication and ribbon-cutting of the new,
long-awaited home economics laboratory took place in
May 1982 with CVI president Arthur A. Richards,
home economics program leader Olivia Henry, V.I.
Senator John Bell and extension director Darshan S.
Padda officiating .
The whirr of sewing machines and soft murmur of
voices; the aroma of spicy island cooking; a sense of
something going on in a purposeful environment that is
creative yet unhurried--this is the atmosphere of the
Home Economics Lab which attracts hundreds of par-

The new home ec lab is constantly busy with its 15
sewing machines utilized by different clothing con-
struction and home sewing classes throughout the day.

ticipants yearly to its many programs. Home economics
took on new meaning and added enrichment this past
year with the opening of the new St. Croix lab with its
modern facilities for cooking (both gas and electric) and
15 new sewing machines for clothing construction
Thousands of Virgin Islands residents were reached
by the extension home economics program over the past
two years through its many and varied outreach pro-
grams conducted in the lab or out in the field on all three

Nutrition and Good Eating
Nutrition programs emphasized cultural food dem-
onstrations including Chinese, Vietnamese and West
Indian cooking. The kitchen on St. Thomas was reno-
vated and the home economics staff conducted seven
workshops in conjunction with the Family Education
Program of the Community Action Agency which were
attended by 84 clients interested in nutrition and food
selection. Another workshop during National Nutrition
Week attracted 20 participants interested in nutrition
from a vegetarian point of view. On St. John, three
short seminars were conducted in 1982 for a group

Personal health is an important aspect of the home
economics program. A health educator form V.I.
Health Dept. takes a homemaker's blood pressure.

called TOPS (Take Off Pounds Sensibly), with nutri-
tional information provided for the ten dieters enrolled.

Clothing Construction for All Ages
Fifteen classes in basic beginners clothing construc-
tion and six for intermediates were held over the past
two years. Certificates of achievement were awarded to
83 participants who augmented their wardrobes with
stylish and colorful dresses, skirts, blouses and jackets.
Twenty-one senior citizens of the STRIVE program
were instructed in clothing construction. A fashion
show by the creative participants was held, and six re-
ceived achievement certificates. Twelve aides from the
Department of Conservation's recreation program re-
ceived instruction to improve skills in crafts and cloth-
ing construction in order to prepare them to teach other
senior citizens groups.

A young teen receives a helping hand from home ec
staff member Hope Murphy who instructs her in opera-
tion of the sewing machine.
Learning Fun for Teens
Teenagers 13 to 15 years old joined two programs in
home economics geared specially for them. The after-
noon Teens Program was held each Friday throughout
the school year and taught the 66 young people involved
the basics of clothing construction, crafts, food prepara-

Macrame making is a popular activity for summer

Summer Teens participant proudly displays her com-
pleted basket.
tion, personal development, good grooming and con-
sumerism. The Summer Teens program continued to
grow in popularity, with 70 applicants for the 30 spaces
filled in 1981 and a total of 55 (32 on St. Croix, 15 on St.
Thomas and 8 on St. John) enrolled in 1982. Featuring
an emphasis on personal development, Summer Teens
met for six weeks during the summer, with interesting

Basketry is a traditional craft in the Virgin Islands which
is rapidly becoming obsolete. Teenagers in the home
economics summer programs are taught how to weave
simple styles in the hopes of keeping the art alive.

programs scheduled throughout each weekday. Partici-
pants learned basketry, macrame, clothing construc-
tion, good grooming and poise, decoration, nutrition
and meal preparation.

Helping Those Who Need It
Major highlights in working with community groups
included participation in the International Year of the
Disabled and assisting hard-of-hearing students at
Central High School. In an effort to brighten the hearts
of the elderly, games and activities were provided for
shut-ins and handicapped elders at the Herbert Grigg
Home for the Aged. In Frederiksted home economics
staff members and the New Horizon Club planted a
beautiful mango tree in the Whim Gardens yard. To
help the deaf students, money was raised by home-
makers club members as a donation to defray the cost of
athletic equipment badly needed by the students.
Homemakers clubs also contributed to a national fund
raising program conducted by the National Extension
Homemakers Council which was donated to the Save
the Children and Nutrition Fund.
Because the cost of energy is so high in the territory,

Cake decorating is always popular with the teen groups
at home economics sessions.

Practice makes perfect is an apt slogan for these girls
who display their first efforts at cake decorating.
extension home economics conducted an energy saving
seminar to assist residents to learn about special tech-
niques to cut energy costs and new ideas in solar and
wind energy for homes. Representatives from the Virgin

Another ribbon cutting -- this time at Paradise Mill proj-
ect Community Club room. Housing Commissioner
Juan Centeno wields the scissors at entrance to the
tastefully decorated room created with assistance from
the home economics program.

Islands Energy Office and several local energy firms
served as guest speakers.

Paradise Mills Homemakers
Working closely with the Commissioner of Housing,
a new program was launched to assist homemakers at
Paradise Mill. Staff, personnel and homemakers at the
project received training in the principles of good house-
keeping and home management as well as learning

about container and small plot gardens with the assis-
tance of the extension agriculture program. The first
phase of the home beautification program at the hous-
ing project was completed in July 1982, when the new
community club room was officially opened, home
gardens and decorations were proudly displayed, and
the many residents shared in a communal celebration.
Twenty-one homemakers participated, with 12 re-
ceiving special commendation certificates.

4-H YOUTH Advancing to New Horizons

The years 1981 and 1982 were exciting ones for exten-
sion 4-H Youth Development as the staff and programs
took on added dimensions and new directions which
established a good base for dynamic expansion and
effective youth development in the future throughout
the territory. Grants were received to accomplish many
of the 4-H goals towards awareness of cultural identity
as youth with a proud heritage not only as U.S. citizens
but as Virgin Islanders and members of the entire Carib-
bean community. Career awareness training for young
4-H'ers, building special programs with other youth
agencies, and skills training for 4-H members, volun-
teer leaders and staff--all served to reinforce and
strengthen the role of 4-H as an esteemed youth agency
in the community.

Summer Camp Serves Island Youth
The 1981 4-H Summer Camp program was greatly
expanded, with 575 youth and 60 counselors involved in
1981 as compared to 300 youth and 44 counselors in
1980. With camp sites on all three islands, the year's
program signaled the initial start for the new
ADVANCE concept, which stressed traditional skill
advancement as well as cultural exploration and leader-
ship development. As part of the 4-H "five year plan,"
the concept was instituted in all 4-H programs through-
out the following year, with information about its pro-

gress published in the quarterly 4-H newsletter.
In 1982 the six-week summer camp involved 547
campers and 56 counselors. Programs stressed during
both seasons included safety, home economics, arts and
crafts, agriculture, environmental study, recreational
activities, and field trips to historic sites, industrial
complexes and the seashore. Innovations were found in
values clarification sessions, learning cultural dances,
mobile TV workshops with a local media group, and
Miss Summer 4-H Queen contest. The traditional Field
and Awards Day ended both camp sessions, with
campers pitting their skills against each other in athletic
events, dances, singing and craft displays.

A lunchtime break is enjoyed by St. Thomas 4-H sum-
mer campers.

An innovation at 4-H Summer Camp in 1981 was the
TV workshop for older campers conducted in coopera-
tion with a local media group, Caribbean Center for

Keeping his eye on the ball is this 4-H camper during a
sports and recreation period.

Crafts of all kinds, such as mat weaving, appeal to
young 4-H'ers like John at 4-H summer camp.

It's fun to take home an achievement certificate when
camp is over after a busy 6 weeks of activities on St.

Grants for Cultural Exploration
Two major efforts which achieved considerable suc-
cess were the Island Identity grant of $2500 from the
Endowment for the Humanities and the V.I. Caribbean
Youth Conference, sponsored in part by the college,

Waving flags from the 10 Caribbean islands they repre-
sented, 48 delegates to the Caribbean Youth Confer-
ence held in March 1981, got together to celebrate
after three days of intensive workshops.

Henderson 4-H camp presents a colorful drill for
campers from other sites during final field day.

which was held during March 1981 Inauguration Week
for Dr. Arthur A. Richards, the new college president.
The grant enabled the 4-H program to bring citizens
together with diverse backgrounds and interests in a
series of six seminars on both St. Croix and St. Thomas.
These seminars lead to an evaluation and recommenda-
tions for 4-H program direction over the ensuing five
years. Data was also collected at individual interviews
and from trips to St. Kitts, Tortola, Barbados, and the
Dominican Republic (lbero-American Rural Youth
Conference.) Continued emphasis on inter-Caribbean
exchange took place in 1982 with visits between St.
Croix and Nevis. Two 4-H members and an adult leader
from each island visited their counterparts in March.
Trips were awarded to 4-H'ers who had shown leader-
ship abilities.
The V.I. Caribbean Youth Conference was sponsored
by the extension service to explore issues of Caribbean
identity and to develop pertinent youth programs.
Working cooperatively with the St. Croix Young
Peoples Union in establishing goals, the conference wel-
comed 48 delegates from 10 islands, including the three
U.S. Virgin Islands. The enthusiastic, highly articulate
young people met in workshops and general meetings

Emphasis was placed on inter-Caribbean Exchange,
with 4-H'ers from St. Croix and Nevis visiting each
other's islands.

over a three-day period at their Girl Scout Camp site
headquarters. A report was published and sent to all
state 4-H programs and to English-speaking Caribbean

On-the-job apprenticeship for 20 4-H'ers found them
learning a variety of new skills, such as Rhonda Dore's
experience in checking reservations at Hotel-on-the-Cay.

Other Grants Broaden 4-H Outreach
A $2500 grant provided by the Private Industry
Council lead to four successful Career Weekends held at
the Howard Wall Boy Scout Camp over a four month
period for 45 teenagers. Youth prepared their own
meals and attended work sessions conducted by island
leaders and professionals. Career training was also en-
couraged during the summer of 1982 for 20 young
people who apprenticed on-the-job at a wide variety of
business firms, hotels, airlines and the National Guard.
A grant of $450 was received from the St. Thomas
Garden Club to encourage gardening by youth with
special awards bestowed at the St. Thomas Agricultural
Fair in May 1982 to all successful young gardeners who
exhibited their achievements. A "Citizenship in Action"
grant of $500 was received from Reader's Digest
Foundation for a project initiated by the Frangipani

The Frangipani 4-H Club received a grant from
Reader's Digest Foundation which assisted them in
building a handsome new entrance-way to their sector
in Mon Bijou.

4-H Club to construct an entry wall with landscaping at
their Mon Bijou homesite on St. Croix.

Working With Other Youth Groups
Joint efforts with four other youth agencies expanded
the resources provided by 4-H to include young people
involved in many interests. A major joint funding
project with the Arawak Program begun during the
summer of 1980 provided Arawak with increased per-
sonnel and materials. Utilizing 4-H practical skills pro-
grams, 70 young people with problems were served ini-
tially. This Arawak/4-H practical skills sequence was
continued through March 1981, providing for an in-
crease of six staff members and new materials for 40
other youngsters undergoing difficulty in school. The
skills emphasized were agriculture, animal husbandry,
ceramics, marine biology, sewing, food preparation,
career awareness and public relations.
In cooperation with St. Croix Boys Clubs, 4-H as-
sisted in augmenting a Boys Club/4-H Carpentry Lab in
Frederiksted. Through joint funding carpentry equipment
was purchased for use by 4-H groups beginning September
1981, while during the summer months through 4-H
efforts the lab was funded for a CETA training project
to make and sell wood outdoor "Adirondac" chairs,
which proved to be a profitable venture all around.
Skills training lead to productivity which was rewarded
through the self-esteem derived from sale of the items.

Joing up with V.I. PACE, 4-H physical fitness runs were
held Saturdays on the St. Croix campus for participants
ranging in age from 3 to 60 plus.

Another joint agency activity was the 4-H/V.I. Pace
Physical Fitness running program held on Saturday
mornings for 20 participants from three years of age to
sixty-plus at each running session. Also an Animal
Husbandry special interest 4-H club involving 4-H'ers
and members of Future Farmers of America (FFA) in-
cluded 16 young people who received calves donated by
local livestock owners. Monthly workshops were held in
calf care, feeding and recordkeeping. A stipulation of
the 4-H/FFA calf program is that the calf must be
shown at the agricultural fair for the ensuing two years
and then may be sold.

station of the 4-H plan-of-work and help design future
Staff visits to National 4-H Center in Maryland,
Michigan State University Exploration Days and First
Anniversary Celebration of 4-H on the island of Nevis
all provided added impetus to the 4-H program. To up-
grade management skills two consultants visited 4-H in
the Virgin Islands: a representative from the Minnesota
4-H Foundation presented a workshop series on suc-
cessful fundraising which was attended by many com-
munity youth organization representatives in addition
to 4-H, and a Michigan extension agent spent one
month in training 4-H personnel and overseeing plans
for increasing office and staff efficiency.

Extension's 4-H dairy calf program worked coopera-
tively with other youth programs such as Future
Farmers of America in assisting young people learn
about the care of livestock.

Program Development and Youth Leadership
Attendance at two important meetings held off-island
annually does much to reinforce program direction,
updating of techniques and stimulating leadership
responsibility, and development of volunteers. Six
volunteer leaders in 1981 and four in 1982 attended the
October Rock Eagle (Georgia) Conference where they
received new inspiration and skills in order to institute
monthly leader's training on St. Croix and St. Thomas.
There are currently 41 volunteer leaders on all three
With continual emphasis on the need for youth lead-
ership as part of the overall 4-H plan, delegations of
local 4-H youth leaders (five in 1981 and six in 1982)
attended the annual 4-H Youth Conference held in
Washington, D.C. each spring. There they participated
in efforts to design 4-H programs reflecting present and
future needs and also learned new leadership skills for
their own participation in local 4-H. In addition, an
adult program advisory committee composed of eight
community leaders, met monthly to assist in implemen-

4-H Program leader Alan Oliver gives a certificate of
achievement to Terrance James of Mutual Homes
Superstars 4-H Club during Awards Night ceremonies
in 1981.

Strawberry 4-H "Pom-Pom Girls" performed at 1982
Awards ceremonies.
National 4-H Week
The 27 4-H clubs on all three islands comprising 1229
members celebrated National 4-H Week in the Virgin
Islands with imaginative programs and colorful awards
ceremonies. Since Arbor Day in the islands coincides
with 4-H Week, tree plantings took place on the St.
Croix campus, in Frenchtown on St. Thomas and in
Coral Bay on St. John. To stress the importance of
cultural heritage, former teachers, renowned as old-

At the end of a busy day collecting insects in the field,
these "Stingers" pause for a moment with their leader,
extension agent Marti Terry.

time storytellers, regaled 4-H'ers with tales of jumbies
and anansi, the spider.

Youth Become "Stingers"
The pest management staff organized a special inter-
est 4-H club called "The Stingers" for 25 youth which
met for classes weekly in 1981, with collecting and iden-
tification field trips held on weekends. In 1982, 215

young people participated in insect natural history
projects conducted in cooperation with the St. Croix
school system. Youth projects featured collecting trips,
student-constructed science exhibits, guest speakers
from the pest management and pest control field, films
on insects and field day events. Almost 1000 people
viewed the various exhibits prepared in connection with
"The Stingers" special interest program.


Work Together

Encouraging the development of small business,
better farm management practices, understanding of
agricultural economics, and helping people realize their
potential in a growing community-all of these are chal-
lenging aspects of the extension community and rural
development (CRD) program. Techniques to help
strengthen the community's ability to define and solve
problems include seminars, working cooperatively with
other governmental agencies and community groups,
conducting surveys and assisting with the formation of
special interest groups such as an association for
farmers. Perhaps the most important challenge for
CRD is to help develop an awareness of the possibility
and ways for achieving success within the framework of
contemporary island society.

Helping the Small Business Person
During the past two years, two highly successful two-
day business seminars were conducted by CRD for a
total of 375 individuals who were interested in going
into business for themselves or who wished to expand
small businesses. Geared initially for residents of the

west end town of Frederiksted which is attempting to
upgrade its economic base, the seminar series attracted
people from all over St. Croix. Co-sponsoring the
seminars was the West End Development Coalition in
conjunction with the V.I. Department of Commerce.
Resource persons representing a wide spectrum of
governmental agencies and the private sector addressed
participants on their areas of expertise. These included
representatives from the Small Business Administra-
tion, the Small Business Development Agency, Consu-
mers Service Administration, Internal Revenue Bureau,
and FmHA. Bankers and private firms in fields such as
insurance, accounting, public relations, advertising and
marketing, offered helpful information about loan pro-
curement, bookkeeping, payrolls, tax forms, insurance
protection, and projecting a positive image. Successful
local merchants explained the need for good consumer
relations, attractive store displays, and updated
methods for purchasing, pricing and inventory. The
topics sparked much questioning and discussion,
demonstrating the wide interest which the Frederiksted
business community in particular feels regarding revi-

Reaching the needs of the business community was achieved through 2-day seminars held in Frederiksted such as
this one at St. Gerard's Hall.

Successful local merchants and those in such fields as
advertising and store display served as resource spe-
cialists at seminars.
talization of its town.
CRD worked with the Department of Commerce also
in its economic adjustment strategy plans for western
St. Croix. This bootstrap type operation is geared
towards marshalling the necessary funds and technical
assistance to provide an orderly development and im-
provement plan in the Frederiksted area.

Students Learn While Working
In 1981, CRD embarked on an experimental work
program which introduced high school students to
various employment opportunities in agriculture. Seven
high school students were employed as apprentices in
the agronomy, fruit and vegetable programs. In the
summer of 1982, students conducted agricultural
marketing surveys. Production information was col-
lected from most of the farmers on St. Croix to deter-
mine the island's current production level. The survey
also included data taken from marketing outlets such as
supermarkets, grocery stores and farmer's markets.
Island hotels were surveyed to determine the amount of
agricultural products consumed by off-island guests. A
presentation of the ongoing development of the market-
ing study was made to the Senate Committee on Agri-
culture in July 1982.

Farm Management
Seven enterprise budgets on crops and livestock were
prepared to assist farmers in making estimates on costs
of production. Budgets include such crops as bell
pepper, cassava, pineapple, mango, avocado, lime and
goat production. Pro-forma income statements, bal-
ance sheets, and cash flow statements for various crops
as well as production record forms were also prepared
for future dissemination.
Assistance and guidance in the formal organization
of the St. Croix Farmers Cooperative Association to
conform with V.I. laws was provided by CRD special-
ists. By-laws, articles of incorporation and a constitu-
tion were developed over a four-month period. Among
the chief aims of the new association are to further agri-
cultural development in the islands and to assist local
farmers in obtaining both private and governmental

assistance. The association is also seeking to develop
cooperatives for bringing agriculture production re-
sources to the islands and to form a marketing coopera-
tive for sales of produce.

Links to the Community
CRD on St. Thomas continued to strengthen links to
community groups and governmental agencies. Each
summer since 1979, CRD has joined with the Depart-
ment of Conservation and Cultural Affairs and 200
Youth Conservation Corps students in the Megans Bay
Arboretum restoration project and Agricultural Aware-
ness Program. An environmental study is presently
being prepared for the Megans Bay area. Extension was
also represented on the advisory boards of the Depart-
ment of Education's Environmental Studies Program
(ESP) and the Instructional Curriculum for Environ-
ment Project (ICE). Workshops for the V.I. Teachers
Corps project were also conducted by the CRD

CRD program leader Kwame Garcia met frequently
with Dept. of Commerce economist to discuss needs of
business community.
Technical advice involving the development of agri-
culture and crafts programs for The Project St. John was
furnished and staff members gave agriculture seminars
and served in an advisory capacity to the St.Thomas/
St. John Farmers Association. Assistance was also pro-
vided to the V.I. Planning Office in procuring a Com-
munity Block Development Grant pertaining to the
Ujamaa Organic Gardening Project on St. Thomas and
one for the Carolina Bay Rum restoration/community
center project on St. John.
Working closely with the National Park Service, an
herbarium for the territory was augmented with speci-
mens from both St. Thomas and St. John. Demonstra-
tion plots were established to provide energy informa-
tion on the use of legumes to reduce nitrogen fertilizer
dependence, utilizing both indigenous and imported
legumes. As a follow-up, a community seminar was held
on the use of organic fertilizers.

Interagency Meetings
CRD personnel attended seminars on "Leadership

Development in Rural America" and "Recent Develop-
ments in U.S. Offshore Areas." The first was geared
towards understanding some of the problems facing
small farmers and the second in understanding the rela-
tionship between the territorial and federal govern-
ments. As a member of the Puerto Rico/ Virgin Islands

Emergency Preparedness Board, a staff member parti-
cipated in meetings so as to be informed and available in
the event of a natural disaster in the Virgin Islands and
to be prepared to interpret natural disaster assistance
obtainable from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR Showcase for Extension


Dr. Arthur Richards and Dr. Darshan Padda pause for a moment with some of the Land-Grant team during the 1981 Food
Fair on St. Croix. Behind them is large area where CVI exhibits by extension and experiment station are displayed.

Each year the annual Agriculture and Food Fair on
St. Croix, sponsored jointly by the Cooperative Exten-
sion Service and the Virgin Islands Department of Agri-
culture, surpasses former years in size and attendance.
Almost 21,000 persons attended the fair in 1981 and in
1982 there more than 23,000 fairgoers. It is this yearly
event which serves as a showcase for extension service
activities and the range of agricultural research. Color-
ful exhibits which covered one-third of the exhibit
building floor space explained the far-reaching scope of
extension from youth and community activities to
agricultural assistance and family enrichment.
Fruit, vegetable, agronomy and irrigation specialists
displayed practical techniques and methods for growing
and irrigating the best island varieties of crops such as
legumes, papaya, banana, cassava and tomatoes in
addition to some relatively unknown tropical vegetables
like luffa, pakchoy and bodie beans in small garden

plots and containers. The aquaculture program
featured a small recycling system involving both fresh-
water fish rearing (tilapia) and hydroponic gardening
(tomatoes, lettuce, pakchoy and eggplant) utilizing 55
gallon oil drums. This prototype for larger more sophis-
ticated systems now under construction, created many
interested inquiries since it is relatively simple and
inexpensive to build in the backyard. The animal
science program exhibit demonstrated the effect of
different types of feed on the quality of meat and
showed a miniature dairy farm lay-out. As in past years,
animal science staff presided over the judging of many
large and small livestock which were entered for coveted
ribbons and prizes.
Demonstrations of alternative means of pest control
in home and garden along with biological control
methods and pesticide application techniques were a
feature of the pest management exhibit. The micro-

St. Thomas/St. John Agriculture Fair began with
opening ceremonies presided over by Extension Coor-
dinator John Matuszak.
scopes were a popular attraction, with various insects
displayed for young and old viewers. The agriculture
program featured many local fruit trees for the residen-
tial yard and three breeds of dairy goats were shown by
the livestock component. Among the new popular
exhibits was an energy demonstration of an alcohol
distillation unit and solar roaster and a special "mini-
theatre" which showed films on energy, insects and
plant quarantine.
With the theme in 1982 of "Grow More Food in '82;
Eat Well and Preserve Some Too," the emphasis was
placed on preservation through processing food grown
in the Virgin Islands. Highlighting this were demon-
strations of canning by a representative of Kerr Glass
Canning Company whose visit from Oklahoma was
arranged by the extension service. In regularly sched-
uled sessions throughout the three-day fair, viewers
learned the process of canning beans, tomatoes and
pineapples by cold pack, water bath and in preserves.
While many of these processes are commonly used in
most stateside farm households, in the islands canning is

No- 0

St. Thomas fair visitors stop at extension agriculture
booth manned by horticulturist Clinton George and ex-
tension agent Carlos Robles.

Aquaculture scientist Dr. James Rakocy explains the
backyard model of a small tilapia fish rearing system to
Gov. Juan Luis and Senator William Harvey while ex-
tension director Darshan Padda looks on.

A prize wins a prize St. Thomas farmer Altagracia
Wenner prepares to take home a new ram goat prize,
won because her own goat took first place at the St.
Thomas Agriculture and Food Fair.

1_ 011


1as a relatively new method for preservation of food.
Local cooks who are known for their culinary
prowess shared their knowledge with fair visitors by
*- r demonstrating tasty drinks and dishes. They also
l explained preservation of food by drying and salting.
SThe ever-popular "bush tea" exhibit, with its many jars
S. of dried leaves attractively arranged on a large wall shelf
unit, attracted many old-timers who were familiar with
S- the efficacy of Belly-Ache bush, Black Wattle, Jumbie
"Pepper bush and Spanish needle.
Demonstrations were conducted on plant propaga-
tion methods, legume innoculation, soil testing and care
and grooming of goats. A special feature was the karate
-- exhibit by a 4-H program assistant. The 4-H exhibit
test techniques in canning foods were demonstrated area in 1981 and 1982 was doubled in size from previous
y a representative of the Kerr Canning Company from years, with 4-H'ers representing all three islands on
klahoma who is shown next to Home Economics pro- hand to show thr crafts and again take top ribbons in
ram leader Olivia Henry (with mike) during an inter- hand to show their crafts and again take top ribbons in
de at the fair. With them are Extension aides Maria the youth category. New in 1982 was a solar energy
ores, Hope Murphy, Agatha Ross and Esther exhibit, many breeds of rabbits for home use, and masks
Iischer. and lanterns created for Christmas festival parades.
SBeginning in May 1981 and again in 1982, extension
and the St. Thomas/ St. John Farmers Association in
cooperation with the Department of Agriculture pre-
SSsented a smaller version of the St. Croix fair at the
gymnasium on the St. Thomas campus. This one-day
event grew in size from its modest beginnings, and some
5000 people attended in 1982. Small livestock were
-.judged, propagation workshops attracted attentive
audiences who learned how to graft mangoes and
Iavocadoes, and extension mounted attractive exhibits
Son pest management, 4-H youth achievements and
home economics displays of food and hand-sewn
a 'clothing. Other cooperating community groups were
Sthe Hibiscus Society which presented a lavish display of
wards for young 4-H gardeners on St. Thomas were local hibiscus and the St. Thomas Garden Club which
ade possible by donation from St. Thomas Garden
lub. Prize winners pose at annual Agriculture Fair at also gave prize awards to winning 4-H gardening
VI in May. displays.


The Associate of Arts degree in Agriculture has been
offered at the college since 1979 as part of its land-grant
program because of renewed interest in agriculture both
as a source of food and as a career. The AA in Agricul-
ture provides information on a credit basis through
both formal classroom instruction and informal labora-
tory experience in the field in such technical areas as
crop production, animal husbandry, agri-business and
the development and use of increasingly sophisticated

In the 1980-1981 academic year courses in Introduc-
tion to Agriculture, Agronomy and Agricultural Eco-
nomics were offered on both the St. Croix and St.
Thomas campuses with a total of 48 students in atten-
dance, 24 on each campus. In the 1981-1982 academic
year a total of 38 students, 22 on St. Croix and 16 on St.
Thomas, were enrolled in either Introduction to Agri-
culture, Tropical Horticulture or Animal Science.




Caribbean American Linkage Conference funded by Phelps Stokes to provide educational interchange for minor-
ity institutions concluded Caribbean tour with a visit to St. Croix in April 1981. Director Marie Gadsen is shown
(center) with CVI President Arthur Richards and extension director Darshan Padda.

The annual meeting of the Southern Regional Beef Breeding Technical Committee (S-10) was
hosted by the Agricultural Experiment Station on St. Croix in June 1981. The regional group
comprises 13 southern states and is concerned with breed evaluation and improvement.

Extension directors and their spouses from 11 Southern states held their annual meeting on St.
Croix in May 1982 when they evaluated the V.I. extension outreach program. Joining them in a visit
to the Gaspari farm was USDA extension administrator Mary Nell Greenwood (standing center
with shoulder bag).

1111"r P "q

Experiment station directors from across the nation converged on St. Croix for the 1982 spring meeting of the
Experiment Station Committee on Organization and Policy (ESCOP). Included in their itinerary were visits to
cooperating farms such as that of Oliver Skov in Mon Bijou.

Dr. Harold Hupp (left), assistant director of CVI's Agri-
cultural Experiment Station, shares a moment with
ESCOP's chairman, Dr. Kenneth Wing, director of
Maine's experiment station.

Preparation for extension's first World Food Day event
included tiny tomato seedlings planted in paper cups
which are examined by Home Ec's Olivia Henry, ANR's
Dave Farrar, Marti Terry from pest management and
4-H youth specialist Zoraida Jacobs.

Staff management workshop held on main CVI campus
was attended by many from the land-grant programs
and their counterparts in the academic program.

Dr. Bob Brander. Chief Naturalist of the St. John
National Park Service, and Prof. Ray Woodbury,
renowned tropical botanist, collect plant specimens as
part of a survey of the flora of St. John, for the exten-
sion diagnostic herbarium on St. Thomas.

STAFF 1981 and 1982

Darshan S. Padda ................ Director, AES-CES
Harold Hupp ................. Assistant Director (AES)

Kwame Garcia ................ Assistant Director (CES)
Bonnie Andrews ............... Administrative Assistant


Animal Science
Harold Hupp ....................... Animal Specialist
Douglas Wright *................. Research Assistant 11
Sarah Dahl ....................... Research Assistant I
Audrey Valmont................. Research Technician I
William Janes*. ................. Research Technician I
Yvonne Horton ........................... Secretary
James Rakocy .................. Research Aquaculturist
Ayyappan Nair ................. Assistant Aquaculturist
Mark Pacifico ................... Research Technician I
James Clark*........................ Research Aide I
Plant Science
Ahmed Hegab.................... Research Agronomist
Adriano Navarro*. ................. Vegetable Specialist
Christopher Ramcharan ......... Associate Horticulturist
Stefan Buzdugan .................. Irrigation Specialist
Robert Webb .................... Research Specialist II
Walter Knausenberger ....... Pest Management Specialist

Eric Dillingham ................. Research Technician I
Station Superintendent
Francisco Medina ................ Research Assistant 11
Victor Vasquez .................... Research Assistant I
Lisa Yntema .................... Research Technician I
Coreen Hughes........................... Secretary I
Nelson Benitez ....................... Research Aide I
Charles Collingwood *? ................. Research Aide I
Jeremiah Hassan ..................... Research Aide I
Osvaldo Lopez ....................... Research Aide I
Alejandro Perez ...................... Research Aide 1
Estanislao Perez ..................... Research Aide 1
Kendall Peterson ..................... Research Aide 1
Narcisco Rivera ...................... Research Aide I
Antonio Rodriguez ................... Research Aide 1
Ramiro Gomez ....................... Research Aide I
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Research
Joseph P. McMillan .............. Research Investigator
Ray Granade..................... Research Associate I


David Farrar ........................ Program Leader
Clinton George....... Extension Specialist -- Horticulture
Harold Hupp ............ Extension Livestock Specialist
Rayal Hill*............... Assistant Livestock Specialist
Charles Smith ................... Extension Assistant 11
Allan Schuster .................. Extension Assistant II
Ezekiel Farrell*. ......................... Extension Aide I
Romelia Camacho-Nanton .................. Secretary I
Community Research Development
Kwame Garcia ....................... Program Leader
George Morris .................. Extension Specialist --
Rural Development
Liz Wilson.......................... Extension Editor
Jean Cook ............................... Secretary I
Home Economics
Olivia Henry ........................ Program Leader
Sharon Dikoff*................... Extension Specialist
Dorothy Gibbs ...................... Extension Agent I

Agatha Ross *.................... Extension Assistant 1
Evannie Jeremiah................. Extension Assistant I
Hope Murphy ...................... Extension Aide II
Esther Mischer* ..................... Extension Aide I
Rosalind Browne ..................... Extension Aide I
Maria Flores ......................... Extension Aide 1
Pest Management
Walter Knausenberger ................. Program Leader
G. Houston Holder ........ Assistant Pest Mgt. Specialist
Marti Terry ........................ Extension Agent I
Kenneth Olassee Davis ............... Extension Agent I
4-H Youth
Alan S. Oliver.* ...................... Program Leader
Zoraida Edminda Jacobs .... Extension Specialist--Youth
Beulah Thompson ................... Extension Aide 11
Miriam Green ....................... Extension Aide I
Leroy James ........................ Extension Aide I
Lillian Elliot .............................. Secretary I


John Matuszak................. Extension Coordinator
Kim Stearman ......... Extension Specialist--Agronomy
Rebecca Day?........................ Extension Agent I
Ariel Hunter* ...................... Extension Agent I
Irene Gibson*....................... Extension Agent I
Carlos Robles ...................... Extension Agent I
* Left CVI since 1982

Alma Wesselhoft .................... Extension Aide II
Martin McKellar *................... Extension Aide II
Leona Cline......................... Extension Aide I
Amabell Frett....................... Extension Aide I
Deborah A. Aspen *......................... Secretary I


Virgin Islands Grain and Forage Sorghum Performance
Trials. Technical Bulletin No. 2
Virgin Islands Tomato, Pepper and Eggplant Variety
Trials in 1978-1979. Technical Bulletin No. 3
Summary of Vegetable Crop Research, 1980-1981.
Technical Bulletin No. 4
Grain Sorghum and Forage: Production and Utiliza-
tion Potential in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Virgin
Islands Agricultural Experiment Station Report No. I
Virgin Islands Forestry Research: A Problem Analysis.
Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station Report
No. 9
Prospects for Growing Grapes in the U.S. Virgin
Islands. Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion Report No. 10
Senepol Cattle: History and Development. Virgin
Islands Agricultural Experiment Station Report No. 11
(Spanish or English text)
Native Recipes. Extension Bulletin No. 1
Learning About Our Virgin Islands Tax System. Exten-
sion Bulletin No. 2
Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service: A Model
for Technology Systems in the Caribbean. Extension
Bulletin No. 3
Avocado Production and Marketing. Extension Bulletin
No. 4
Poisonous and Injurious Plants of the U.S. Virgin Is-
lands. Cooperative Extension Service Reprint Series
No. I
Vegetable Planting and Harvesting Guide. Gardeners
Factsheet No. I
Seeding Vegetable Crops. Gardeners Factsheet No. 2
Growing Vegetable Slips. Gardeners Factsheet No. 3
Transplanting Vegetable Crops. Gardeners Factsheet
No. 4
Mulch For Your Garden. Gardeners Factsheet No. 5
How To Prepare Your Own Compost. Gardeners Fact-
sheet No. 6

Staking and Training Tomato Plants. Gardeners Fact-
sheet No. 9
Growing Spinach in the Virgin Islands. Gardeners Fact-
sheet No. 10
Controlling Nematodes in the Vegetable Garden. Gar-
deners Factsheet No. 11
Propagation of Fruit and Ornamental Plants By Layer-
ing. Gardeners Factsheet No. 12
Propagation of Fruit and Ornamental Plants By Cut-
ting. Gardeners Factsheet No. 13
Propagation of Fruit and Ornamental Plants By Graft-
ing. Gardeners Factsheet No. 14
Propagation of Fruit and Ornamental Plants By Bud-
ding. Gardeners Factsheet No. 15
Fertilizing Your Garden for Optimum Yields. Garden-
ers Factsheet No. 16
How Many Teaspoons is 5 Pounds Per Acre? (Weights
and Measures) Gardeners Factsheet No. 17
Organic Gardening: Soil Fertility. Gardeners Factsheet
No. 18
Organic Gardening: Pest Control. Gardeners Factsheet
No. 19
A Simple Home Drip Irrigation System. Gardeners
Factsheet No. 20
Growing Mangoes. Gardeners Factsheet No. 21
Growing Citrus. Gardeners Factsheet No. 22
Saving Vegetable Seeds for the Home Garden. Garden-
ers Factsheet No. 23
Growing Mesple (Sapodillas). Gardeners Factsheet
No. 24
Testing Soil for Better Yields (Part 1). Gardeners Fact-
sheet No. 25
Interpreting Your Soil Testing Results (Part II) Gar-
deners Factsheet No. 26
LAND-GRANT Programs in Action (an overview of
Virgin Islands programs).

****** * **** ,**** ** ********************

Liz Wilson
Photos by Liz Wilson except where noted as follows: top and lower right, p. 16- Studio Five;
top right, p. 17 J. Rakocy; bottom left, p. 28 R. Burgess; top right, p. 28 C. Robles; top
right, p. 29 R. Burgess; center left, p. 29 C. Robles; p. 34 C. Hedman; center right, p. 38 -
J. Matuszak.
Products and suppliers mentioned by name in this publication are used as examples and in no way imply endorsement or recommendation of these
products or suppliers.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914 (as amended), in cooperation with the U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, D.S. Padda, Director, College of the Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service. The College of the Virgin Islands Cooperative
Extension Service is an Equal Opportunity/ Affirmative Action organization, providing educational services in the fields of agriculture, home eco-
nomics, rural development, 4-H youth development and related subjects to all persons regardless of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs