Front Cover
 Title Page
 Part I: An introduction to the...
 Part II: A compilation of available...

Group Title: Technical report Water Resources Research Center, Caribbean Research Institute, College of the Virgin Islands
Title: Pricing policies, cost allocation and demand in the public water industry, U.S. Virgin Islands
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096170/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pricing policies, cost allocation and demand in the public water industry, U.S. Virgin Islands
Series Title: Technical report - Caribbean Research Institute ; 10
Physical Description: 49 leaves in various foliations : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McElroy, Jerome L
V.I. Water Resources Research Center
United States -- Office of Water Research and Technology
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Water Resources Research Center, Caribbean Research Institute, College of the Virgin Islands
Place of Publication: St. Thomas, USVI
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1976
Subject: Water-supply -- Economic aspects -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Economic aspects -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States Virgin Islands
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Supported in part by funds provided by the United States Department of the Interior, as authorized by the Water Research and Development Act of 1978.
General Note: "December 1976."
General Note: Partial completion report, project No. A-003-VI, agreement No. A-31-0001-5053.
Statement of Responsibility: by Dr. Jerome L. McElroy.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096170
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10093782


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page A-ii
        Page A-iii
    Part I: An introduction to the topography and climatology of the United States Virgin Islands including a summary of the evolution of the public water industry
        Page A-iiia
        Page A-iv
        Page A-v
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page A-7
        Page A-8
        Page A-9
        Page A-10
        Page A-11
        Page A-12
        Page A-13
        Page A-14
        Page A-15
        Page A-16
        Page A-17
        Page A-18
        Page A-19
        Page A-20
        Page A-21
        Page A-22
        Page A-23
        Page A-24
        Page A-25
        Page A-26
        Page A-27
        Page A-28
        Page A-29
        Page A-30
        Page A-31
        Page A-32
        Page A-33
    Part II: A compilation of available data and research reference sources relating to all aspects of demand and supply in the public water industry of the United States Virgin Islands
        Page B
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
        Page B-7
        Page B-8
        Page B-9
        Page B-10
Full Text


Part I and Part II


Dr. Jerome L. McElroy

Technical Report No. 10

December 1976

Water Resources Research Lenter
Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
St. Thomas, USVI 00802


Part I and Part II

Dr. Jerome L. McElroy

Partial Completion Report
Project No. A-003-VI

Agreement No. 14-31-0001-5053

December 1976

Thi wiak upon witcK .this Aspoet based is suppeWted

in paWt by junda provided by the United States Pepattaent

oa the InteltOA, au authoAczed by the Wates Ressact Act
0J 1964, P.L. 88-379

Technical Report No. 10

Water Resources Research Center

Caribbean Research Institute

College of the Virgin Islands

St. Thomas, USVI 00802

The work upon which this report is based was
supported in part by funds provided by the
United States Department of the Interior, as

authorized by the Water Research and Development
Act of 1978


Contents of this publication do not necessarily

reflect the views and policies of the U. S.
Department of the Interior, nor does mention of

trade names or commercial products constitute
their endorsement or recommendation for use by
the U. S. Government.


In Part I of this report the geological actors that

influence the occurance of ground water in the Virgin Islands

are presented as well as an examination made of the climato-
logy of the islands. Various extremes in rainfall patterns
occurring in recent years are highlighted and factors which

militate against the facile use of annual average rainfall
estimates for planning purposes are presented. Lastly, the
history of the water supply system in the Virgin Islands
is summarized.
In Part II a summary of the type of data available on

Water Resources in the Virgin Islands is made. One section
of this part briefly lists the types of information classified

in eight topical forms while the other section is an extended
bibliography of the literature available.




Dr. Jerome L. McElroy*
Senior Research Associate
Caribbean Research Institute
Associate Professor of Economics
College of the Virgin Islands

December 1976

*1 as gnateSaI to is. Setieic Meoniton jot Cettctbsng

matea/al and to att in government dagene.u who

a aiated hae in this tak.



Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . iii

List of Tables . . . . . . . ... v

Introduction . . . . . . . . ..... 1

Special Environmental Features . . . . ... . 5

Recent Econonic Pressures . . . . .. . . 8

Summary History of the Water Supply System in
The U. S. Virgin Islands . . . . . . . 12

Part II follows page 33




Table I. Proposed and Constructed Catchment
and Storage Capacity for Charlotte
Amnalie, St. Thomas, 1926 . . . . . 17

Table II. Potable Water by Source, Virgin Islands,
1962-1972 . . . . . . . . 25


The United States Virgin Islands form part of the
antilles islands arch, which separates the Caribbean Sea from

the Atlantic Ocean. As a group, the islands are located

approximately 1,400 miles southeast of New York City, nearly
1,000 miles east southeast of Miami, and almost 50 miles east
of Puerto Rico. TKey are comprised of over fifty islands and

cays. The three largest and most important islands are
St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John whose respective land
areas are approximatley 80, 32, and 20 square miles. The
smaller islands range in area from slightly less than one
square mile to a few hundred square feet. i

The terrain of the Virgin Islands is generally rugged,
with many steep and sharp peaks. Just as the islands differ
in size, so they vary in topographical characteristics. Both

St. John and St. Thomas have many slopes exceeding 35 degrees
and containing numerous stream courses of steep gradients.

On St. Thomas most of the flat land (comprising approximately

5 percent of land area) is confined to areas around Charlotte
Amalie, the capital city, and to several narrow beach areas.1
The land surface is almost entirely sloping and extends sea-

ward from a central ridge, 800 to 1,200 feet high, running

IThis topographical description of St. Thomas basically
follows D. G. Jordan anOd J. Cosner. A Survey of Water
Resources of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, (U.S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report. 1973).

the length of the island. The only variation in the general
topography is in the upper valley of Turpentine Run in

eastern St. Thomas. This valley has relatively gentle topo-
graphy consisting of rolling hills in a basin surrounded by
steep slopes and sharp ridges.
St. John is similar to St. Thomas but has even less flat

land.2 The island of St. John has two populated areas, Cruz
Bay on the west end and Coral Bay near the east end, con-
nected by a scenic hard-surface road. Available flat land
on St. John is mainly confined to the Coral Bay area.
The shape of the island of St. Croix on the other hand
is long and fairly narrow with mountains and hillC which form
a spine along its entire length.3 This spine, combined with

many valleys, divides the island into many small >drainage
basins, with few of them containing over six square miles.
The northwest part of the island is characterized by a
rugged mountainous area with deep valleys, bounded on the
south and west by gently rolling lowlands. The central por-
tion of the island is comprised of broad valleys and rounded
hills. The eastern part of the island features mountainous
terrain with gentler slopes than the mountains of the

western reaches. The flatter areas of the island are located

20liver J. Cosner and Dean B. Bogart, Water in St. John,
U.S. Virgin Islands, (U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File
Report, 1972).

3P. E. Ward and D. G. Jordan, Water Resources of the
Virgin Islands: A Preliminary Appraisal, (U.S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report, 1963).

predominantly along the south coast. Streams on the island

are not perennial, but flow only during periods of very
intensive rainfall.
As is common with other tropical areas, in the Virgin
Islands there are more or less definite wet and dry seasons.
The former extends from August through November, and the dry

season from January through April or May. February and March
are the driest months, whereas, September is the wettest.4
The rainy season is .coincident with the hurricane season.

Rainfall in the Virgin Islands averages about 44 inches per
year. Although the climate is unusually clear and sunny, the

air temperature is moderate because of the persistent trade
winds. The prevailing direction of the wind is. east-
northeast, but east and southeast are common; wpst winds are

rare. Air temperature ranges from a mean low of 72.0*F in

February to a mean high of 87.8*F in August. The highest
daily temperature of record was 9S'F and the low 63'F.
Relative humidity is high due to the proximity of the sea,
averaging 81 percent in the early morning hours, and lowest,
averaging 66 percent, in the early afternoon.

4p. E. Ward and D. G. Jordan, Water Resources of the
Virgin Islands: A Preliminary Appraisal, (U. S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report, 1963), p. 1.

5This and the following climatic data are taken, directly
from D. G. Jordan and O. J. Cosner, A Survey of Water
Resources of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, (U.S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report, 1975), pp 2. ff.

Although the islands lie in the path of hurricanes,

major rainstorms are rare. Maximum rates of rainfall occur
during the passing of hurricanes and lesser tropical storms,

which generally occur during the months of August, September
and October.6 The greatest rainfall of record was 18.0

inches, September 13-14, 1928, during a hurricane.7 Tropical
storms move through the area and occasionally deluge the

islands with heavy rain. Nevertheless, direct hits by such
storms have been infrequent in recent years. Hurricanes
passing within 50 to 100 miles of the islands often cause

rainfalls totalling more than 10 inches in a day or two from
practically continuous downpours.8 The last great rain in
recent years was 10.6 inches, May 8, 1960, the result of a

stationary tropical depression.9

Tippets-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton, Inc., Potable
Water Supply for St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, (San Juan, P.R.:
November, 1958), p. 13.

D. G. Jordan and 0. J. Cosner, A Survey of Water
Resources of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, (U. S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report, 1973), p. 2.

8Tippets-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton, Inc., Potable Water
Supply for St. Croix, Virgin Islands, (San Juan, P. R.:
1959), p. 19.

9D. G. Jordan and 0. J. Cosner, A Survey of Water
Resources of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, TU. S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report, 1973), p. 2.

Special Bnvironmental Features

As previously indicated, average Virgin Islands rainfall
is commonly believed to be 45 inches per year.10 However,
in the context of intercountry comparisons, this mean esti-

mate is considered to be over-biased because of several
quite unique factors deriving from the islandst peculiar

topography, climate, and ecology. These features deserve
some elaboration on two counts: because of the extreme
reliance historically placed on rainfall as the major source
of domestic water supply; and because of the critical inter-
face of these factors with the task and scope of the present
In the first place, annual rainfall varies widely,

ranging between Z5 to 55 inches per year. Only;about half
the time does annual precipitation fall between the tolerable
limits of 40-50 inches. Almost 10 percent of the time
annual rainfall is less than 35 inches.11 This latter
instance usually means a major short-fall during the wet
season with an ensuing period of severe drought. Thus,

because of this seemingly endemic variance, any average rain-
fall figure tends to distort the effective level of precipitation.

10P. E. Ward and D. G. Jordan, Water Resources of the
Virgin Islands: A Preliminary Appraisal, (U. S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report, 1963).

D. G. Jordan and 0. J. Cosner, A Survey of Water
Resources of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, (U. T. Geological
Survey. Open-Pile Report, 1973), p. 8.

Second, annual rainfall is distributed unequally across
the three major islands. To illustrate, the face of

St. Croix almost invariably receives less than 40 inches of
rain in an average year rather than the 45 inch, all-island
average most frequently quoted.12

In addition, precipitation falls very unevenly within
each of these major islands. This results from a complex of
variables involving a rather young and fragile island eco-
system composed of specialized subsystems created by the

variegated topography and the constant east-northeast trade
winds. Each of these different environments are slightly

distinct from the other subsystems in terms of Semperature,
cloud activity, rainfall, etc.13 For an example obvious to

casual observation, generally the eastern portions of islands
in the Virgin chain are more arid than the greener western

sections which benefit both from the cloud build-up over
the western and central sections and the east-to-west wind

A fourth set of factors which militates against the

facile use of annual average rainfall estimates is based on

12Martyn Bowden at. al., Climate, Water Balance, and
Climatic Change in the North-West Virgin Islands,
[St. Thomas: Caribbean Research Institute, 1970), p. 5.
13For some discussion of this intra-island differential
precipitation behavior deriving from complex and fragile
island ecosystems, see John McEachern and Ed Towle,
"Resource Management Programs for Oceanic Islands" Transac-
tions of the Thirty Seventh North American Wildlife and
Natural Resources Conference, (Washington, D.C.: Wildaife
Management Institute, March 1972).

the very quality and seasonality of the precipitation itself,

again in combination with the structure of the topography
and the climate. On the one hand, most of the rain falls

during short showers that last a few minutes. With the per-
vasive breezes, the sun almost always shining through the
clear relatively pollution-free atmosphere, and a mean
temperature of 80.1*F, the evaporation rate is quite high.14

Moreover, further evaporation results from the tropical con-
fluence of constant wind, warm temperature, and a proclivity

of the essentially clay surface to become granular and to
expose the moisture retained in deeper soil to air circulation.
This erosion of the moisture base is further accelerated
by the heavy incidence of evapotranspiration '(through

plant life) attributed mainly to the prevalence of dense
brush growth common to the islands and trees bordering

streams.15 In summary, the predominant contour of

Virgin Islands rainfall is its short duration and
scattered distribution; therefore, given the peculiari-
ties of the island environment, the brunt of this portion of

the annual aggregate precipitation is quickly returned to the
atmosphere. The dynamics of this rapid recycling has led one

14Krisen Buros, "Water and Wastewater Planning and
Problems in the Virgin Islands," Address before the *
Conference: Augmenting the Virgin Islands Water Supply,
(St. Thomas: Caribbean Research Institute, Water Resources
Research Center, May, 1975).

15D. G. Jbrdan and 0. J. Cosner, A Survey of Water
Resources of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, (U. S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report, 1973), pp. 8-10.

researcher to question the validity of applying the tradi-

tional measures of rainfall performance (average annual

rainfall) to the special circumstances surrounding the local

island ambience.
Any practical interpretation of the
average rainfalls reported in the Virgin
Islands ... should take into account
the fact that a large portion of the
rain falls in light showers and brief
sprinkles ... Many of these light rains
are measured in rain gauges and they
augment the total rainfall out of 16
proportion to their significance...

On the other hand, the large downpours exceeding one

inch, accompanied by overcast skies and usually associated

with tropical disturbances, are very infrequent numbering

on the average six to seven times per year. However,

because of the concentration of precipitation, the steep

gradients of the mountainous setting, and relatively high

water tables characteristic of volcanic islands, there is

excessive runoff and frequent flooding in the low-lying

areas near the coastal zone. This type of water loss is

further evidence of the unreliability of mean rainfall


Recent Economic Pressures
This previously mentioned low-retention capacity has

been further reduced by massive economic dislocations during

16See Robert Stones, "Meteorology of the Virgin Islands,"
in Bowden et. al., Climate, Water Balance, p. 40.

17D. G. Jordan and 0. J. Cosner, A Survey of Water
Resources of St. Thomas, Virgip Islands, (UX. S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report, 1973), p. 2.

the tourist and export-manufacturing developments taking
place since the early sixties.18 Natural sheltered areas
have been severely encroached upon by housing projects, com-
mercial installations, new highway systems, parking lots and

airport facilities to name a few. In effect, former green-

belts have been replaced by hard, non-porous surfaces that
tend to stop-up the runoff and seriously modify water
quality in the process.

In addition, both the rapid pace and the special contours
of recent development thrusts have aggravated the already
precarious water balance. For example, intensive pressures

of urban over-crowding have emerged from at least three major
sources: the large resident work force required to service
the labor-intensive sectors of tourism and government; the
concentration of commercial and governmental activity within

the urban cores; and the relatively large inflow of off-
island visitors.19 The predominant response to these in-

creasing densities, during a period of perceptibly rising
per capital incomes, has been a disjunctive urban-to-rural

migration, a pattern of suburbanization analogous to the

18For a detailed analysis of the remarkable Economic
changes in the Virgin Islands since 1960, see Jerome L.
McElroy, The Virgin Islands Economy: Past Performance,
Future Projections, Plannina Alternatives, (St. Thomas: V.I.
Planning Office, 1974).
190n any given day the number of tourists in St. Thomas
(pop. 43,000) exceeds 3,000 adding to a density already above
1,300 persons per square mile This figure rivals Barbados
(1,500+) which has one of the highest densities in the world.


urban sprawl of major U.S. metropolitan areas.20 This pro-

liferation of suburban home-building generally constructed

along hillsides and steep terrains to exploit the seaview
has accelerated the runoff rate.

Moreover, these growth-induced manipulations of a

tightly integrated island environmental system have caused

adverse impacts on other aspects of the fresh water delivery

system. These include alterations in natural drainage sheds,

ponds, water tables,.and saline intrusion in cases of instal-

lations intersecting with the coastal zone.21 Acting in

concert, all of the above forces -- light, erratic, and nal-

distributed precipitation, rapid transpiration, excessive
runoff, and unprecedented economic growth -- have twisted

the Virgin Islands supply-demand water balance, i Perhaps

especially the last of these, i.e. over-rapid economic

expansion, may have so affected rainfall and retention
capacity as to partially explain what seems to be a long-term

drying trend in the Virgin Islands as a whole which has

appeared in recent decades.22 This conclusion seems quite

20During the decade between 1960-70, all V.I. central
cities declined in absolute population. The urban/rural
balance shifted from approximately 55SSt/4S% in 1960 to 25%/
75% in 1970. Source: Bureau of Census. Number of Inhabi-
tants: Virgin Islands, 1970 Census of Population, PC (1),
ASS V.I., p. 5.

21For some local documentation, see McEachern and Towle,
Ecological Guidelines for the Development of Islands, Mimeo,
(St. Thomas: Island Resources Foundation, 1973).

22See Bowden, et. al., Climate, Water Balance, p. 113,.


plausible according to systems analysis theory which portrays

island ecosystems as a delicate balance of interdependent
components that is extremely sensitive to external distur-

bances and internal adjustments and thus easily thrown into


Additionally, these same forces have given rise to the

search for and creation of rather expensive alternative fresh

water sources. These include: salt water production, dam

construction, expanded catchments and storage reservoirs,

in-house commercial production and recycling plants, importa-

tion from Puerto Rico, waste-water reclamation and the like.
These initiatives, however, have spawned their okn special

difficulties. For example, the mis-match of modern desali-

nization technology with an archaic distribution;infrastruc-

ture, results in periodic breakdowns and constant leakages.

Nevertheless, it is clear that water scarcity will worsen

in the face of the heavy commercial and residential consump-

tion projected for the future.24

23For a general application of the Equilibrium Ecosystem
model to the V.I., see Jerome L. McElroy, "Tourist Economy
and Island Environment: An Overview of Structural Disequili-
brium," Caribbean Educational Bulletin, Vol. 2 No. 1,
(January 1975), pp. 40-58. For more specific applications to
local water concerns, see Frank T. Carlson, "The Challenges
of Water Resources Management," and Daniel D. Evans, "The
Coordination of Water Research, Planning, and Management for
Virgin Islands," addresses before the conference: The Virgin
and Water Resources, (St. Thomas: Caribbean Researfch-
Institute, fW]C, April 1976).

24Between 1975 and 2000, water consumption is expected
to triple; see Louis Penn, Norman Cassells, and Roy Adams,
Population, Economic Activity, and Water Use Projections for
the U. .. virgin Islands. Mimeo, (St. Thomas: V. I. Planning
Office, March 1075), pp. 10-13.

To assist in appraising the magnitude of this short-fall and

to help rationally plan the development of cost-effective and
environmentally appropriate supplies to meet these require-
ments is the point of departure for the present investigation.

Summary History of the Water Supply
System in the U.S. Virgin Islands
Traditionally the principal need of the Virgin Islands,
all through its varied history, has been for a dependable and
safe potable water supply. Historically, rain water provided
the only major source of fresh water, and the irregularity
of rainfall made for an unreliable supply. The effects of
this chronic shortage had several dimensions. Though evi-
dence is sparse, there is some indication that the pre-
Columbian inhabitants of the islands clustered their camp-
sites in the low lands adjacent to rivers, streams, and
bays.25 Such locations facilitated agriculture, fishing, and
transportation and provided indispensable natural water
supplies. Undoubtedly the small size and scattered distri-
bution of these early Indian communities partly resulted from
the limited availability of fresh water.26 Even during the

25Cited in Isaac Dookhan, A History of the Virgin Islands
of the United States, (Essex, England; Bowner Fublishing
Company, 1974) Chapter 2, pp. 15-50.

26Oliver J. Cosner and Dean B. Bogart, Water in St. John,
U.S. Virgin Islands, (U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File
Report, 1972), pp. 3-5.

Danish administration of the islands, persistent droughts had
a major part to play, among other causes, in the gradual
demise of sugar monoculture that dominated the St. Croix

economy. 27 In a real sense water scarcity perennially con-
strained the commercial stability of the colonial communities
and limited their capacity to produce an ever growing level
of livelihoods.

On the island of St. Thomas, Charlotte Amalie was, until
recent years, the only seaport and sizeable community. All
of the business, trade, and governmental activities on
St. Thomas were concentrated within the city including the

rum distilleries, the only major industrial establishments,
were located along the waterfront strip bordering the sea.

Providing a more adequate and safe water supply fpr Charlotte

Amalie was exceedingly difficult during the early post-
colonization era for the obvious reasons discussed earlier:
extended periods of sub-normal rainfall, geological conditions

unfavorable for developing subsurface supplies and conducive

to high chlorine content in ground waters, and so on.

From the time of the first settlement on St. Thomas, the
major source of water has been rainfall caught on the roofs
and stored in barrels or cisterns. Because of the regular
cycles of severe drought, however, there was a constant
necessity for establishing a larger and more satisfactory

27E. Heilbuth, Denmark and St. Croix in their Mutual


supply. As early as 1862, a group of private citizens endeav-

ored to promote a public water system to replace or supple-

ment the private supply, which for the poorer classes was

almost non-existent. The community organizer who had called
the meeting, Mr. M. B. Simmons, pointed out that the reason"

... that water has become an article of import is due to a
deficiency in the accommodation for collecting and preserving

rain water."28 A draft proposal for the building of public
water reservoirs, nonetheless, was not acted upon at that


Virtually no significant public initiatives were taken

until after the transfer of the island dependencies to the

United States in 1917 when the former colonies were placed

under the administration of the U. S. Navy. By the early

1920's, there were about 200 private and 17 public wells in

use in the urban area surrounding the capital city.29
Subsequently in 1924, U. S. Navy Commander R. M. Warfield

made a study of the water supply of St. Thomas. In assessing

the various sources and relative supplies, he noted the

"It is practicable to obtain a satisfactory
supply of potable water by constructing

29Arthur F. Johnson, Water Supply for St. Thomas, Virgin
Islands, (U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mimeo Report),
EX-I 'i C.

29D. G. Jordan and 0. J. Cosner, A Survey of Water
Resources of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, p. 11. After the
establishment of the public catchment system in 1926, most
of these wells fell into disuse because of sewage and salt-
water contamination.


catchment areas of concrete or corrugated
galvanized iron to catch the rainfall and
store the water in cisterns for use as
required. This method can be employed
in any of the Virgin Islands and is the
only method recommended for St. Thomas,
and Christiansted, St. Croix. The slope
of the ground in the immediate vicinity
of both of the cities is well adapted to
the construction and so located that the
water can be distributed by gravity to
various points in the cities ... it is
estimated that 80% of the total rainfall
on the horizontal projection of the
catchment area can be collected and
stored in this method."30
Following his analysis, Warfield made plans and estimates

for five units to be built to furnish water to the then three

divisions of the city. Taken together, these catchments

provided 356,550 square feet of surface catchment area with

a total tank capacity of 3,191,000 gallons. The cost of the

entire project was estimated at $211,450.31 Construction on

three and one-half units was completed in 1924. This portion

covered 194,500 square feet of concrete slab with a storage
capacity in reinforced concrete tanks of 1,657,223 gallons at

a cost of $212,690. Table I (page 17) details the status of

Warfield's five-unit catchment and storage program as of
1926 in terms of proposed-versus-constructed capacity. Sub-

sequent to 1926 and forward to the present, eighteen additional

3DArthur F. Johnson, Water Supply for St. Thomas. Virgin
Islands, Exhibit G. See also R. Warfield, Report on Water
Supply. Virin Islands, (U. S. Navy, 1924).

31Arthur F. Johnson, Water Supply for St. Thomas. Virgin
Islands, p. 21. The rest of these data are from the same


public rain catchments have been constructed along hillsides.

Of these, fourteen are connected to the public urban distribu-

tion system.32 Presumably those remaining serve institutional

users and settlement concentrations outside the city limits.33

During the colonial period of the 18th and 19th centuries,

St. John was almost entirely under sugar cultivation. Danish

settlers developed limited water supplies independently for

their respective estates from a variety of small-scale

sources.34 These included the following: digging numerous
shallow large-diameter wells; damming stream channels; divert-
ing the outflow of streams; drawing from a few small surface

reservoirs along streams and of course constructing cisterns

supplied by roof catchments. Aside from the catchment

systems, however, most of these private sources proved unsatis-

factory. Streams and adjacent ponds were never substantial

suppliers because of periodic droughts, excessive runoff
during the wet season, and the replacement of the native

vegetation with agricultural staples and deep-rooted trees

that accelerate evapotranspiration. In addition, the wells

32D. G. Jordan and 0. J. Cosner, A Survey of Water
Resources of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, p. 1d.

33Interpreted from Roger E. Kasperson, Decentralized
Water Reuse Systems in a Water Scarce Environment: The
Tourist Industry in St. Thomas. Virgin Islands, Water Pollution
Report No. 13, (St. Thomas: Caribbean Research Institute,
1971), p. 4.

34This section is taken porsim from Cosner and Bogart,
Water in St. John, p. 5, 37-38.



Proposed and Constructed Catchment and Storage
Capacity for Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, 19269

Proposed Constructed

Unit Catchment Storage Catchment Storage
City Quarter Number Sq. Ft. Gal. Sq. Ft, Gal

Crown Prince's












62., 000






aSource: Johnson, Water Supply for St. Thomas, p. 22.

bNot constructed.

were not only too shallow but also easily contaminated with

brackish water because of their frequent location in beach

areas. To alleviate these deficiencies, a relatively small

public catchment and cistern were constructed to service the
needs of Cruz Bay, the most populous settlement on St. John.

Historically, St. Croix has likewise been plagued with

water supply constraints similar to those obtaining in her

two sister Virgins to the North. During the Danish adminis-

tration, the traditional small-scale sources were developed to

service a growing population necessary to sustain the expand-

ing agricultural economy based on cotton and sugar exports.

The first public facilities were common wells which supplied
in many instances brackish water. Inevitably demand exceeded

supply and chronic shortages called for long-term solutions

through public intervention.

The Navy Administration addressed itself to the situation.

Following the recommendation of Commander Warfield, in the
1920's the Municipality of St. Croix purchased 115 acres of

the Recovery Hill watershed.5 Then a concrete dam was con-
structed along with a concrete-lined reservoir with a capacity

of about 1,000,000 gallons. It was located near the lower

property line at the edge of the city of Christiansted, the

site of local government, on the northern sea coast. Since the

water was not treated, however, most could be used only for

35This section borrows heavily from Arthur P. Johnson,
Water Supply for the Towns of Christiansted and Frederiksted,
St. Croix, Virgin Islands of the United States, (Bureau of
Reclamation, 1936).

sanitation purposes. This installation was later reconstructed

and a slab roof erected over the larger portion of the basin
forming a closed reservoir of 990,000 gallons. In addition

to the catchment area provided by the roof, a concrete slab
was laid on the hillside immediately to the east area creating

a total catchment of 30,350 square feet. Two small reservoirs
were added, one at Christiansted and the Creque reservoir
near the only other major urban center, Frederiksted, stituated
at the western extremity of St. Croix on the coast. These
supplies proved inadequate, however, and within a decade the
Muncipality was obliged to augment the cistern capacity of
both towns.

Continuance of potable water shortage throughout the

islands during the post-Warfield period prompted the
Governor in 1936 to propose an ordinance which created a
public water authority. This body composed of various cabi-

net officials was charged with insuring that several specific
provisions relating to catchment-cistern systems in private
dwellings were carried out. These provisions required all

owners of tenantable houses, whether occupied or not, to
install on their properties an adequate water supply. The
regualtions stipulated that storage tanks or cisterns be of
cement or metal construction and mosquito proof in accordance
with existing sanitary codes. Furthermore, all sucA cisterns
with cave gutters and down-spouts to shunt water from the
roof surface to storage container had to be kept in repair.

Penalties were provided for infractions of the ordinance.
Despite these rather stringent and clearly defined require-

ments, Johnson's study revealed that compliance was
"As many of the houses are inadequately
provided with cave gutter, spouting and
storage capacity, considerable hardship
is imposed during the annual dry season
and actual want occurs when, as frequent-
ly happens, a period of drought extends
for several months. At such times
cattle die of thirst and people go on
short rations buying or borrowing water
from more fortunate neighbors or public
supplies. Sometimes importation of
water supplies by ship has been
At this time nearly half of the entire population of
St. Croix was without facilities for obtaining regualr water
supplies. Sixteen public wells were scattered throughout
the town of Christiansted at convenient locations. Generally
these wells provided a public supply for such private domestic
purposes as washing, bathing, cooking, etc. The tap water
was used for drinking only when rain water supplies were un-

available. In Prederiksted conditions controlling ground

water supplies were more favorable because of the town's
strategic position at the intersection of a large mountain

watershed. The principal water supply for Frederiksted was
the aforementioned Creque Reservoir which was formed by

36Arthur F. Johnson, Water Supply of the Towns of
Christiansted and Frederiksted, St. Croix. Virgin Islands of
the United States, (Bureau of Reclamation, 1936j, p. 7.

constructing a concrete arch dam 60 feet high across Creque

Gut located 3 1/2 miles north of the town. In addition, a

few private wells were supplemented by eight public wells.
At all times, 44 percent of the entire Crucian population
depended on these public facilities or obtained water from

other individuals with private supplies. During the intense
drought periods, this percentage approached 77 percent since
only 33 percent of the people had sufficient supplies to last
through the most severe short-falls.

By 1945, the potable water distribution system serving

the urban area in Charlotte Amalie. St. Thomas, was supplied
from two sources: rain water stored in municipal covered
reservoirs, and the remainder barged in from Pureto Rico.

With respect to the former, there were eleven paved areas
to catch rainwater. They were located on the hillsides near

the town with a total area of approximately 10 acres and a
storage capacity of 3,350,000 gallons. These facilities
provided a dependable average yield of about 22,000 gallons
per day (8.05 million gallons per year).37 Some of the
larger catchment systems supplied water to limited areas of
the city through piping networks connected to the storage
tanks. However, people had to carry water from the other

37Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Statton, Inc. Potable' Water
Supply for St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, (San Juan, P. R.:
November. 1958), p. 15.


smaller catchments which had no distribution lines, Although

several of the reservoirs in town were connected to the dis-

tribution system, the water available from them was not

circulated throughout the entire system, but was utilized
instead for supplying street hydrants which were opened for

public use twice weekly.

During the 1950's, existing water supply sources still

proved to be inadequate. As an emergency measure, the U.S.
Navy began, in 1955,.to barge water on a regular basis from

Puerto Rico to St. Thomas, The Virgin Islands Government

took over the barging operation when it became evident that,

if for some reason the barging were interrupted, a severe

water crisis would develop. During 1957, thirty-six million

gallons of water, approximately 62 percent of the, total pumped

into the distribution system, was hauled in by barge.38

Finally when barged water became the principal source and
mainstay of local supply during the early 1960's, a memoran-

dum from the Chairman of the Committee of Interior and

Insular Affairs of the U.S. Senate recommended a cheaper
alternative and one more sensitive to domestic control:39

38Tippets-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton, Inc., Potable Water
Supply for St. Thomas. Virgin Islands, (San Juan, P..--
November, 1958), p. 15.

39Potable Water Problems, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands.
Memorandum of the Chairman to the Members of the Committee
on Interior and Insular Affairs, (Washington, D. C.: U. S.
Government Printing Office, 1957), p. 4.

Years of analysis of differing methods
of producing fresh or potable water
from the sea lead to the conclusion
that distillation processes offer the
best and most economical methods of
converting sea water, which is readily
available on St. Thomas, to potable
The first distillation plant in the Virgin Islands was

installed on St. Thomas in 1962. It was manufactured by the
firm of Aqua Chem with a capacity of 275,000 gallons per day.
As a result, the potable water supply was significantly
increased. To illustrate, in 1963 total water production

from desalinization and barging was approximately 190,000,000
gallons, an increase of almost 80,000 over fiscal 1962.40 The
following year a new pumping and filtration plant was put

into operation in conjunction with a new water main installed
along the length of the city. This resulted in raising the
water pressure to adequate levels to supply all urban
sections below 150 feet elevation.

In 1966, a second distillation plant was added to the

system. Manufactured by Westinghouse, it did not initially

produce at its designed capacity of 1,000,000 gallons per
day. Consequently, production for the years 1967-1968 was
restricted because of repairs and revisions. As a result,

substantial supplies had to be barged in from Puerto Rico
to satisfy existing consumption. This external reliance was

40Annual Report of the Governor of the Virgin Islands,
1963, (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Otice,
1T7), p. 69.


due not only to the periodical shutdowns but also to the

steadily increasing per capital consumption levels deriving

from rapid tourist and manufacturing expansion. Nevertheless,

(according to Table II) 1967 was a bellwether year in that for

the first time the St. Thomas system supplied the major share

of local requirements.41

In order to keep apace with this increasing water produc-

tion; additional and enlarged storage capacity was required.

Construction was begun in 1968 on two 10 1/2 million gallon

reservoirs. In the same year, a third distillation plant

was added to the water producing system. It was manufactured

by Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton with a capacity of 2,560,000 gallons

per day. By 1969, the total complex of three St. Thomas

desalinization plants were producing triple the;quantity of

water of the first plant in full operation.42 In another

development, the Water and Power Authority in 1972 awarded

Envirogenics Company a contract for construction of two

identical distillation plants of 2,250,000 million gallons

per day capacity, one on St. Thomas and one on St. Croix.

Both were scheduled to be in service by aid-1974. However,

neither was in operation at the close of that fiscal year.

Presently, the potable water system on St. Thomas comprises

41Data reported in H. E. McDowell 4 Associates and
Alton A. Adams, Master Plan and Report, Potable Watef
System, East End St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, (1953), P. 4

42Annual Report of the Governor, 1969, p. 13.


Potable Water by Source, Virgin Islands, 1962-1972a

Source of Supply (gallons)

Year Distillation Barged

1962b 25,261,700 84,354,300

1963 113,684,800 75,914,600

1964 96.311,400 135,706.450

1965 75,900,000 172,000,000

1966 124,300,000 150,700,000

1967 272,697,770 80,26(2,420

1968 269,865,000 162,406,200

1969 357,928,000 169,008,000

1970 571,412,600 105,261,000

1971 706,222,000 26,114,000
1972 808,916,500 25,462,000

source: Annual Reports of the Public Works
Department ot the Virgin Islands,
selected years.

bPeriod from February 28 to June 30, 1962.


40 million gallons of storage in steel tanks and 7 1/2

million gallons in concrete tanks.43

In St. Croix, in order to supplement the public wells
and, by this time, the nine million gallon Creque Reservoir,

water systems for the towns of Christlansted and Frederiksted
were completed in 1951. Each of these systems drew its
supplies from wells -- Christiansted from three wells in the

valley of the Salt River, and Frederiksted from two wells in
the lower valley of Jolly Hill Gut.44 By the early 1960's
potable water from Christiansted was drilled from five wells
drilled in limestone along Salt River. The quantity of water
pimped was about 100,000 gallons per day.45 Potable water for
Frederiksted was from three wells drilled in volcanic rock

three-fourths of a mile north of the city. About 100,000
gallons per day was pumped from this well field, but much of
the water was lost through leaky water mains,46

43Rudolf Caliber, "Potable Water Distribution," address
before the WRRC Conference: Angmenting the Virgin Islands
Water Supply, (St. Thomas: Caribbean Research Institute, 1975).

44Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton, Inc., Potable Water
Supply for St. Croix, Virgin Islands, (San Juan, P. R.), p. 1.

45P. E. Ward and D. C. Jordan, Water Resources of the
Virgin Islands: A Preliminary Appraisal, (U. S. Geological
Survey. Open-File Report, 1903), p. 16.
46Further more specific details are given in Dofald G.
Jordan, A Survey of Water Resources of St. Croix, Virgin
Islands, (U. 5. Geological Survey, Open-File Report, 1975),
pp. 6-9.

During this period, practically all water used for human

consumption was rain water which had been stored in cisterns.

In most places this water was caught on the roofs of build-

ings and piped to a storage tank, but in some places concrete

catchment basins had been constructed. Rural residents

obtained water from more than 100 drilled wells, a few dug

wells, two hillside catchments, and roof catchments. In

addition, about 25 dug or drilled public wells individually

served from a few to, several hundred persons.
Construction of St. Croix's first distillation plant,

manufactured by Stearn-Rogers, with 1,000,000 gallons per

day capacity, began in October 1967, and went &ito commer-

cial operation in May, 1968.47 A 10 1/2 million gallon

water reservoir was built near Christiansted an4 a second

water storage tank, of like proportion, was erected at Kings

Hill, the following year. A 1-million-gallon storage tank

was completed near Frederiksted, and a second one erected on

Recovery Hill. St. Croix's second distillation plant,

manufactured by Envirogenics with a capacity of 2,2S0,000

million gallons per day, as noted above, is not yet


By 1970, several improvements were made throughout the

Crucian distribution system. These included the following:

a line extension connecting the million gallon tank at

Recovery Hill to the existing system in Frederiksted; the

47Annual Report of the Governor, 1969, p. 74.

Kings Hill storage tank line extension from Kings Hill along

Centerline Road providing service to hones along its route
and also boosting the pressure toward Frederiksted; and a
line extension at Campo Rico, Golden Rock, Whim, and Two

Williams; a total of some 10,000 linear feet of 4 inch, 6

inch, 10 inch and 12 inch water lines and two additional

wells.48 The desalination plant, for fiscal 1970, produced
S13,000,000 gallons of potable water. Another 158,000,000
gallons was obtained from well fields, while 14,000,000 gal-

lons was barged from Puerto Rico.
Since 1971, the public industry has also relied upon

private enterprises to supplement the potable water supply.
From its in-house desalination plant, Harvey Aluminum
(later Martin Marietta Co.) has contributed significantly to

the total island supply. For example, Table III indicated
that in 1972 Harvey's share was almost one third of total
potable production. As the figures show, in recent years
this proportion of private commercial production is falling,
i.e. 24 percent in 1972. The data also indicate the sizable

share of well water in St. Croix, unusual in comparison with
St. Thomas, which has excluded distillation production in
recent years.

4&Annual Report of the Governor, 1970, p. 94.



Sources of Water Production on St. Croix, 1970-1974a

Time Period

Source 1970b 1971b '1972b 1972/73c 1973/74c

Wells 145,161,137 192,394,664 245,750,800 241,195,580 239,682,940

WAPA 246,933,000 234,304,000 172,942,724 192,985,924 230,542,000
Barging 1,467,200 4,067,985

Marietta --- 3,218,800 131,751,893 188,117,665 175,248,800

Total 393,561,337 433,985,449 550,445,417 622,299,169 645,473,740

aSource: Records of Department of Public Works, Christiansted, St. Croix.

bCalendar year.

cFiscal year.


St. John has, over the years, obtained domestic and

municipal water supply from rain catchments, dug wells, and

barge shipments from St. Thomas and Puerto Rico. A deep-well

pump and a 10,000 gallon water tank are installed at Carolina.
St. John, to augment the water supply. There is a 500,000

gallon steel storage tank and a 100,000 gallon concrete

storage tank at Cruz Bay.49 Recently, a new distribution

system was completed which includes several thousand feet of

8" pipe and a pump station to deliver water to high levels.50

There are no water production facilities under the Virgin

Islands Water and Power Authority on St. John. There are a
few of the old Danish wells in occasional use but mainly for

stock water and construction purposes. In addition, Caneel

Bay Plantation, a resort complex and the largest employer of

the island; is served by a paved catchment with large cistern,

roof catchments, and a small distillation plant.51
The present situation of water supply in the Territory

can be summarized.52 There are currently six major sources

49Rudolf Caliber, "Potable Water Distribution," address
before the WRRC Conference; Augmenting the Virgin Islands
Water supply, (St. Thomas: Caribbean Research Institute,


1Oliver J. Cosner and Dean B. Bogart, Water in St. John,
U. S. Virgin Islands, p. 5.

52This summary is drawn from Penn, Cassells, Adams,
Population, Economic Activity, etc., pp. 6-7


of available water. First, sea water for fire fighting and

sanitary flushing is used predominantly in the dense urban

cores of the three main cities. Second, desalinated sea

water is the major source for industrial consumption and also

supplements urban residential demand. There are 4 desalting

plants operating in St. Thomas and 2 in St. Croix. Third,

rain water collected in private home cisterns is the primary

domestic supply. Although public catchments still exist and

collect water, they are not in use. Fourth, there are approxi-

mately 280 dams across the three islands. This supply is

generally used for watering livestock. Fifth, the greatest

amount of well capacity is in St- Croix (see Tabe III).

These wells are both publicly and privately owned and they

supply both residential and agricultural needs depending on

their respective water quality. Sixth, wastewater recycling

through treating sewage outflows, is primarily for agricul-

tural usage and for ground water recharge to supplement well

supplies. Finally, barging from Puerto Rico has been dis-

continued except during rare periods of extreme dysfunction
in the desalination complex.53
Any attempt to quantify in broad strokes the current

scope of the public water industry in the Virgin Islands

demands some definitional distinctions and at least a pre-

liminary discussion of short-comings in the data. First,

53Such and emergency occurred in December, 1976, when
all four St. Thomas distillation plants were down.

public or municipal water is restricted to all water consumed

from WAPA desalination plants through the potable water dis-

tribution system plus the publicly owned wells in St. Croix.
Such public water serves residential, commercial, and light

industrial uses. On the other hand, agricultural and heavy

industrial requirements are therefore excluded.

Concerning the data there are several deficiencies.

First, much strategic information is simply unavailable.

Second, it is exceedingly difficult to monitor actual residen-

tial consumption -- the major brunt of the municipal supply --

since much of this demand is satisfied by rainfall caught in

the average cistern required by law.54 Third, Such distilled

water passing through the archaic distribution system is lost

through leakage and periodic breaks. Some of w.at is consumed

however goes unaccounted for because of absent or faulty

meters.55 Despite these data limitations, recent estimates

portray the following picture:56

54See further problems of distinguishing between the
residential versus commercial components of municipal water
because of the large temporary tourist population, in Penn,
Cassells, Adams, Population, Economic Activity, etc., p. 7.

55To illustrate with just one of the many estimating
porblems, after a broken pipe is repaired and re-opened,
there is a time lapse before the drained system refills. Yet
the flow of air in front of the released water is metered as
an actual water flow since the monitoring device cannot dis-
criminate between air versus water flows.

56Penn, Cassells, Adams, Population, Economic Activity,
etc. p. 8.


Presently, the total municipal consumption
for the territory is approximately 4.55
million gallons per day. With 2.5 million
gallons per day on St. Thomas, 2 million
gallons per day St. Croix and 50,000
gallons per day on St. John. On St. Croix
700,000 gpd of the total consumed is sup-
plied from wells.

The Virgin Islands Water and Power
Authority has the capacity to produce
a total of 7.25 mgpd. through its
desalination plants 4 mgpd. on
St. Thomas and 3.25 mgpd. on St. Croix.
Water for St. John is barged to the
island, stored and delivered by trucks
to users. ,The Water and Power
Authority which expects the consumption
on St. Thomas to double within 3 1/2
years upon the completion of additional
water line to outlying residential
area, has planned to expand its capabi-
lity to be able to produce on both
St. Thomas and St. Croix an additional
7 1/2 mgpd. by 1977.




Dr. Jerome L. McElroy*
Senior Research Associate
Caribbean Research Institute
Associate Professor of Economics
College of the Virgin Islands

December 1976

'I am gax)egut to MA. BC&nice Moustton 6o c0oltC.Ung

mateaiait and to at! in government agencse wsho
aanited he in this task.


This document consists of two sections. The first

section summarizes the various types of information that have

been assembled to date. The second is an extended bibliography

of research materials from which the above information was

drawn. Cross-referencing from the type of information in

Section I to the respective bibliographical source in Section
II is readily accomplished because the data summary is clearly

classified according to specific content headings. Also, the

titles in the bibliography are specific and technical in

nature, and are easily identified. Together both sections

provide accessible working materials for the execution of the

final and more analytical phases of the overall project.

Section I: Summary of the Available Data

This section briefly lists the types of information col-

lected in topical form. These types are classified according

to the following eight categories: geology, climate, supply

sources, consumption patterns, production rates, cost

estimates, institutional aspects, and legal aspects.

In most cases, except for topography, the listed

material refers to all three Virgin Islands, and covers most

extensively the recent period from 1960 to the present.

Types of Material
1. Geology:
a. distinguishing size characteristics
b. inter- and intra-island topography
1] watersheds and basins
2) steam flows
3) ground water
4) water quality and salt water intrusion
2. Climate:

a. temperature and wind flows
b. rainfall frequency
1) seasonal variation
2) inter- and intra-island distribution
3) estimated runoff
c. evapotranspiration
3. Supply Sources:
a. wells private and public
b. private cisterns (limited information)
c. public catchment and storage systems,.capacity and
water quality
d. natural reservoirs and dams
e. distillation production, both public and private
f. barged water from Puerto Rico
g. wastewater reclamation feasibility and experiments
h. locations of all of the above in detail (maps)
including for all three islands the potable water
distribution system
4. Consumption Patterns:

a. demographic profiles plus projections to 2000
b. population distribution
c. past and projected demand rates distributed
up to 2000:
1) residential use
2) agricultural use
3) industrial use
S. Production Rates:

a. for the natural sources: groundwater, precipitation,
etc. through source of supply, i.e. well;, catch-
ments, reservoirs, etc.
b. for the desalination plants since their introduction
in 1962

c. various discussions of production loss of public
potable water through leakage, evaporation, etc.
and various forms of deteriorating water quality
in catchments, wells (intrusion), etc.
d. rates for private industrial production for heavy
industry (Hess and Martin Marietta).

6. Cost Estimates:

a. cost estimates on all of the above under C(5) plus
barging from Puerto Rico including:
1) distillation production in public and
private sectors
2) construction and maintenance of public
catchment-storage systems and the
distribution infrastructure (repairs and
proposed extensions)
b. construction and maintenance of private domestic
cistern systems
c. metering and monitoring
d. wastewater reclamation
e. transportation by truck from central storage tanks
to outlying areas

7. Institutional Aspects:

a. organizational charts for WAPA and Public Works and
the deposition of responsibilities Between them
b. financial statements of these agencies, selected years
c. audits of their financial performance (Comptroller's
Reports), selected years, with specific recommen-
dations for improvement
d. cost allocation procedures between user payments and
general tax revenues

8. Legal Aspects

a. all regulations pertaining to the construction,
installation, and maintenance of private and
public cisterns and catchments
b. pricing policy including provisions for free rates
for the indigent residents of public housing
c. meter installation, reading and billing procedures
d. penalties of various kinds for non-compliance with
any. of these respective regulations.


Section II: Bibliography of Related Research

This compilation of reference material is selective but

extensive. Generally, only those sources which have a direct

bearing to water demand and supply in the Virgin Islands have

been included. The majority of the approximately seventy-

five references are housed, in whole or in part, in the Water

Research Section of the Caribbean Research Institute library.

Much of the most relevant detail in the other listed sources

has been summarized in Part One: An Introduction to

the Topography and Climatology of the United States Virgin

Islands Including a Summary of the Evolution of the Public

Water Industry.

In addition to these listed entries, there are of

course many other supplemental materials of a more general

nature concerning related water research done elsewhere,

Caribbean archeology and topography, small island systems,

and so on. These documents are also housed in the Caribbean

Research Institute library in both the Water Research and the

Socio-Economic Research Sections.

List of References

Dept. of Public Works of the V.I., Selectel years.

AUTHORITY. St. Thomas: WAPA, Selected years.

1969. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Black, Crow and Eidsness, Inc., Waste after Reclamation at
St. Croix, Virgin Islands, AiF-Interim Progress Report
for April, 1971-may, 1972, Environmental Protection
Agency Contract No. 1101GAK, B.C. 6 N. Project No.
540-70-83, June, 1972.

Bellante, E. L. and J. R. Garfield, Airport site Studies,
St. Thomas, Virgin Islands; Coes ants' report.,

Bowden, Martyn J. et. al., Climate, Water Balance, and
Climatic Change in the North-West Virgin Island;.
St. Thomas: Caribbean Research Institute,.1970

Water Balance of a Dry Island: The Hydro
climatology of St. Croix, V. 1. and Potential or
Agriculture and Urban Growth. Geography Pdblications
at Dartmouth, No. 6, 1968.

Consultants report, July 1964.

insultants report, August, 1964.

Buros Krisen, "Water and Wastewater Planning and Problems in
the virgin Islands," Address before the WRRC Conference,
Caribbean Research Institute, May 1975.

Carlson, F. T., "The Challenges of Water Resources Manage-
ment," Address before the WRRC Conference: THE VIRGIN
Research Institute, April 1976.

Cederstrom, D. J., Geology and Ground-Water Resources of
St. Croix. Vi gn Islands3: U.S. Geological Surney
Warer-Suiply apr 1950.

Chemical Quality of Ground Water in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands:
U. S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 450-B, 1963.

St. Thomas: V. I. Department of Commerce, 1974.

Cosner, 0. J., Water in St. John, U. S. Virgin Islands:
U. S. Geological Survey Open-File report, 1972.
Donnelly, T. W., The Geology of St. Thomas and St. John
Virgin Islands: Cari bbean Geological Conference, 2nd,
Mayaquez, P. R., January 4-9, 1959, Trans., p. 153-155,

STATES. Essex, England: Bowker Publishing Co., 1974.

Engineering-Science,'Inc., Water reclamation study for the
U. S. Virgin Islands, 1968.

Evans, Daniel D., "The Coordination of Water Research,
Planning, and Management," Address before the WRRC
St. Thomas: Caribbean Research Institute, April 1976.

Galiber, Rudolf, "Potable Water Distribution," Address be-ore
SUPPLY. St. Thomas: Caribbean Research Institute, 1975.

Geology of St. Thomas and St. John, U. S. Virgin Islands:
Geol. Soc. ot America Mem. 98, 1966, pp. 85-176.

Geology of St. Thomas and St. John, U. S. Virgin Islands in
Hess, H. H., ed., Caribbean Geol. INV. iSA Memo.
91f-1966, pp. 85-176.

Grossman, I. G., Ground Water from St. Thomas, Virgin Islands:
U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 1959.

Harley, Randolph, "Preliminary Design Parameters for Next
Evaporator Construction Program," Address before the WRRC
St. Thomas: Caribbean Research Institute, 1975.
Buffalo: Lee 4 Thorp's Press, 1845.

Hendrickson, G. E., Development of the ground-water resources
of St. Croix, Virgin Islands: U S. Geological Survey
Open-File Report, 1962.

Ground water for public supply in St. Croix,
Virin Islands: U. S. Geological Survey Water-uTpp
Paper 1663-), 1963.


Howell, W. E. Associates, Inc., A Survey of Rain Stimulation
Potential at St. Croix, Virgin Islands, Lexington, Mass.,

Johnson, A. F., Water Supply for St. Thomas. Virgin Islands:
U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, November, 1936.
Water Supply for the Towns of Christiansted
and Frederiksted, St, Cro.x Virgin Islands of the
United States; Bureau of Reclamation, 1936

Preliminary report on the water supplies for
properties managed by the Virgin Islands: U. S. Bureau
Reclamation Ms. rept., 1937.

Jordan, D. G., Land-use effect on the water regimen of the
U. S. Virginslands: U. S. Geological Survey Prof.
Paper 800-1, 1972.

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