Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Florida state handbook for adult...
 Part I: Administration
 Part II: Personnel orientation...
 Part III: Instruction
 Part IV: Guidance
 Part V: Workshop participants
 Appendix A
 Appendix B
 Appendix C
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida. State Dept. of Education. Bulletin
Title: Handbook of contemporary educational concepts for reaching and enriching adult migrant and seasonal farm workers
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096127/00001
 Material Information
Title: Handbook of contemporary educational concepts for reaching and enriching adult migrant and seasonal farm workers
Physical Description: ix, 270 p. : illus., maps. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Adult and Veteran Education Section
Publisher: Florida State Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1968
Copyright Date: 1968
Subject: Migrant labor -- Education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Prepared by Adult and Veteran Education Section, Adult Migrant Education.
General Note: Florida State Dept. of Education ; bulletin 71H-6
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096127
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 00006995
lccn - 70625598

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vi-a
    Florida state handbook for adult migrant basic education
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Part I: Administration
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Part II: Personnel orientation and training
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Part III: Instruction
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
    Part IV: Guidance
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Part V: Workshop participants
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
    Appendix A
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
    Appendix B
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
    Appendix C
        Page 269
        Page 270
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
__ x, --- --- v, - : % :] , z - - t : :- , Tt , ,
,_ __ __ . 7 - _
1, I 7 ", 71 : '-
- ., '7- I I ,
I I I I ; , : I I I I I 1. I , , ,
I I I I I : I I ; ,;
I'll I I 1, I ;!,, I I I'- I ,
_ 1 I , , . : I e : 11 I I % I .
A k I I I . , I I I I I 11 -- I I I ,, _. ", _-,
, t -1 I I 11 I , I , .I L ,,, :
I 1: I I i , 1, 2 I I I I, .1 , , I , , I I ,, 1, : , ,
I : I , I ,t I I I , I I I .
I I i % I e I I I I I _. : I - I ;- ', :
. I I- , , , , ., 11 , :_ ', , , "', ,- I
1- ,I P1, ., I , _T ", I ; :. I -_ , I ,, I ,
, 11_T;`1_1 : , T-_ 1, ,1 : : ", %. -` ,- ,". e .. ,
I I ,]:
,.- , ' ''' I I ., I I
,,, _, I I T T- r .
_, 1p
, 11 1,r I _II 1 I I I I", I -a, .- I
,",,.Nz : ',., I ', I : : , ; _ : - I I , _e: , I, , ' .1 '41, 1 1 I I , ,
I ., ." ,- I I j I .., 1: I I , -, ` I I %_1 , _;. 11 -1 I :,
"' .., , , : I ..... ,_ --
111,7, ,,, ,,, , I 1 '. ;, , , I I _tw , ., 1, I , ,
,*T i :, , , , , .z , , . I I : , : : z :, I ,. I I
, "'"T, , ,. 11 ,T I I -
_ 1 i X I I I I I ,. I I I I I I I : 1 , : I , , I I I . I ;
1,4'. , "', _"' 4 .1 , I I I , , : I , I
, I -1 -1 I- I I : , I.: ., ,.,. , I I I I 1, I r I : ,' I , : ., : , -, : ,:, I . I I I : ,
,#,,' , ,,, I ,: . , , 11, :: , ': I "I :,,, I . 1, , I I 1' ,
1, ,1, 11_11_1 I I ,- ,, ,; . , I , ,': I , % , I I . ,.
, ,l I I I I I 1:
* ,,', 1, _, .. I I ;, , , I , ,I , ,
1, FIt,";,I
11 , 1, ,. _f- , ,_ , , I I I I ::
, 'W i "I I ., , I - , ,1 : I I 11 I I I I I I I I
itpr J T,` 4 ".. '' I I %, I I I I I I 11
', I : : I ,
..,% 11 , I : ,,, ,,,,,, ,-.% ._v I T I I , I
, ,,I ,,, __ , ; :", ,- t -4 T I I , I ,
-, 'k I I I I I 1% _ I ..
'; Y ' r 1 I I I I I I I I I , , x: I I I I _", ',
4 !" I llel 1: I I '"'
,,, I I I -1 , - I
1 c r, : , 'T I , ,_; -I. ,, I , I I I -T 11 I I. 1, ,"I " T 1 , -1 I I I I
I I 11 I
:_, 1 I ,, I I .. ,, : I _ I I I I I I ,, ,, I ;, 11 , : -, 1, I
', 'I I ? I ,;_ ;,, ,, I t , ,-
,, "",,: , 'T 1,14", ,I , ,: I I I I I ", , 1 11 -
I .1 i '.1 , I" I I T I
: I , , I -
, .: r 11 I ", , "T, ''
T ` I 1, ` , I IT I ` -
, I I I ",
,., I I I ' I , " I I I ,
,, _ `T,," I I I I iI t '' - ,: '' -kl ' "".'' I I i , I", 111 :_ _,S',_,:,T- , ,_ ", 11 ,
- I I I T r 1,
I I I I I i
1, - T3, 1 , I 1 " I I '," '-' , I` __ 11, I I " I , , - I I 1 I I
,,, , , 1
1 1. I -, -, I ', ( -, _-I. I I
I I I ,, -,,, " ,,, ,-i-, `_'. ,, ,l 1;
t, 'I ,1 , I , , I , , , _, I t '' J , , -, ; c ; _ , I
I " , , I I ? ,:,. _"PT', '._ ., I I
,! I -, , I I `T,,`,,, _" I .
'I" _ ,, '!' ,- , ,' I" , 11, 1, TTT, 1':,,
,,, _T , ,' '. '1 ,t, -', I 11, I I
T- j." , , I -T1 , 11 1, , - _ ,_ ,, _1 T"', 1, I I I I I I -1 I 'T" I I I I , , '.
: '. , , I,,,- , " I - , , I I I I I --, I , -,-,, z"', ,,-', I, , ,eT - T 4 , I I I I I I
I I I , , , - ,,, - ,t , T , I I I I I I I I i
, , ,,,, , ,` -, , , ' , ,,, , I I I I I I I T I I
, I I I I I ' 1i p T IT ,- , ,- T -1 , I I : -'. 'T -T ", 1, , T ,1, " T- I ", , T T I
I -_', ,,,,, ,,, T,--,-'_,- i' 1 I, 94M T-IN .7-H 40 -, , : "' I I I
" ,
1 ,, -_.T: 1 "I I , , ; ,!,T _ ,,'; k -t i -- ", I ,
, '' ,,,, I I '-',' '- T, ,i` " ' 1_' ":", ,, ,11 ,I I I I -
f,41 ;, -1 I "I 11, ,-, 'T I - 4'f,' "T t I'll - ,,, t I I I I
I I - ,:,,, _. -, -, I 'I-, .4T I-, _t, I I ,
,, I '' !, , : -` .:_ ,,,_., - ",
141, 1, I
I I I T ` ,,7 :", , T; ,,j ,T I '.
I I T4 ,T ,,, 't 1, ` ,,,, , I , ,,,
, *, Vk, 10-11, _;,,'O Y ,, ,,, I I . ,, 1 -1 , ,
1, 11 ,, ,;,, ,", I I ', I-, I , -, 1, , ,:,,
I- 11 '11,11 I 11 ',' I , , , -, , -, , ; ; , , I , I I ,"
I I I --_ 1. - ,, ,' , i" -,, ,, "I 11 I I I I ,-- : ,, r ,
,:', ,,, I 1 1, 4 1 ,, I 1 I . I , ,, -'I "' , ,, 1, I ,
T, , ,!, , T- I ZI 'IT,"T" I A ; , I I ",
,, , ,,, ,,, , __',
I i ,,- I I ', ; ;,'
, 111 -1 il, 1, , L ' -` , , I I : "I "_, ,, , -1 TT , , 4 _,, , -,-- ,,, _, r , I" , "T, i? -
,11 "I : ", k ,,' --,, I' 2 , ,- ii, T T, ,- , j 1 ,, , I I I I- ''I I 11
f ,,,, :1 I , ,, ,,, ,Tf , I 111 W IT, I I ' ,_ I ,
, ', I 67 11 I I I T, IT I 1', ', ,7 -_,. , , Z" 'T, ,- 4 -,,
, _,', P , ., , , I 11 , ,_ , , Tl '4' 1, :Z, TI;T" I I , I
l, , "T ',';, ,-;, ! i
, ,1 ,,, -- ; -, ,
q f
I , I : I
, 1i i I 1, I ;:, I 11 _ I , I , 'T I I I I ,_ ,
_- , -T, ,-, - -. - l ,,,, 4,,,"' ,,,.,4 ,i_,tr_ i''- _- ',"' ,',' ,:'l--'.'P,61 '" -,",,', r'', '' ,
t; ,, _ T,- ,; I, " -;T-;,,`-AJ I -, 1, T '. I
,-N "t -1 , , ,-?, if _,
11 tF I _1TI ., ,
', Z:f ll' I , I 1, T; - Tr, -_t" T -- I", 'I, 4 I, W tI, I-
, : I' I", ,,,;', 1,4 ?, T ,,,,'7"T, I : ""I" ,4!,',', '? ,-,',:', ',, T, TI-T, -','",, I ", "" ', , I _; ', -1 oll, I 1 .4 "j; , 1- T - 1,, , 5'', -
, -11 Itt , ' T,"Z'-T - -, I _, "
' 'T I _ ,
,,,, I , I I 1 I 11 1:11 T ,j ,
,,- 4 1 1 11. .11 T_ I , 't '_ ,' , , :
111 I ,-, ', .-, .; v-, t , 111',, "'O, IiT 1, ', $- 1 Ili -1 I 1, I , Ij "t I
I I ,,,%T 1 V ill , *'
: ,, , J -,,- T , -, -* ; I - , I ,,, I
", "" +, , 1 %, I ,T, ,, 11, ,,, , - , I
-1 -I-I ,, , -l +, I- I ", Tt, , - ,,, ",".",
,,,, I ,, , 'T I J, It,', ,, , ;' "I1 I I T ,_ ,, , , ,- 1, " ", -, __ , ,, -, , t;, 11 ", "` --- ,,, ,,, , ,,, - 1.
I", ,,, T T I T ',,'- T *,,I- "' TIr '-11,- "4-,T',', , 1- I T 1, I I I
I t , , ,, , Tl -,,-,,- ',Z , , 11 f- r , "I -.1 1, ", I 11 ,t Y, T - , ", '_, ,,'_ .Z ; t,7 ---,,, '-r"', , :,I ,,, ,;.";",, ,- , , "T -, I I t, 4 I T , , ,,, -1 ,_', ,,, ii , q :
i, I 1 4 I T- Ir 1 7-, ,1 , '-'-'tf -" ,",,, ,,,,,,, , - I I
,4 ` !- I-,, `,' T,
' 14TTl I Irl "I -InC _'T, -c "' , 1. ,-,.-, ,
I I ::: -, T '! ",
.1 I I " ,, ', I , , 'P,, , T -, ," _,, - 44', I T41 ',', I -IT S, ,, , T 11 T, T, I I " ., "', I - t,,`T- "'._;,`_,'_'. 'T-:,144 I I ,
1- ,;,,, ';", 1, 1 .-'T, ,- ,, - ,, ", I ,,, !_ I IT L _- '! , -
I ,,, , 1, I I I :1
,'_ , , l T T _ ". ': 'I, ."-, 'I ,"I' , - , 's I I L,"' "', -1 I
-'T,"i -4`1 - , ;I j I ,- , _k "T , iTIt, !-,_% ,,j,j I -T --,
, , :" I 1 "T , I I -1 . : ;, ', , - , I
") :, ,,,,- ,r, , V I ', '.' 111* ,
I , T I 11, , I I 1, , , J'V,,-, , - ,,,-'- ,--,j ' '-,',,,- T4 1 . , , ", I ,.,, ., ,'f , 1, , I I 6 ; ,,-t, _1, , T ,,;, ' I
I 1, T I _ ', 4,1 "', , ,', T i,, IT ,-.T ,, , ', ", : I- , 1. , Z- ;j-e "' - I ' .l g r 4, L -,-X ,r` ---, ,'A'f :iT -,,,,j; -_' ' ,,,I_ , , t : ,, ,,,, : ,
,, , , T W 4 11" -,_,,, J- t, "S! T_ '-11- 1-
4 - , ", Tl ... !; F_' - _T I' 4 1' -- IT ,11 T I ,_ T, I , I 'I, 11 , T T 1 1 ,,I I ,, ", 11 -,r 71 I _,I I7 1, , I 't, , , ,, I I
q" ., , ", , __ "T, , I -, Ti,, ', , i --, J, 11 ... ", ", l '-, '7 -
V , _T I k ;., , , 'I ,1 T, "l 4, T- , _1 - I ", ,,
T,, ,k- k ,,I,;,, ,,, , i," ,, 0 1, k, IT : -1 11
,, , ,.,;,f, ,t, - ,',v , ""
"" ", I , ,,,, I ,
14_ , 1,, -, - I I I -, I I ,;v, L ., _ N" , r 'T,,,' T,_ , ,,,, - I ', ' I 1
T-, - ,,, - ", ,-,, ,,,,, , -, ,`fl, TI; ,"'l-- 2 T I ?, ',I
-IT ',' ", , - It 1, ;, " -, -,; T, F- -, , :, ,T, i"'vf-s, I i ,,,, , ' k--, ,, I ;-,, '1 _I , , T I J -7 , ',- ;,., I
,_1 ' ', ,,,' ? , I ,,, , T 1,
,` , ,,-,- ,,'," ',,'- 1, I 'T ?, 1, -
, '- _', ", 'T& f ,,__,,, ,-, -,-,, I ",4,J,,,, ,, ...... , " , 'T,, I I -1 ,
,, ",ft ,:,- ,"', 1 1 I -1 *, - , -- , 1,, 4 , ,- I T - ,,,, , ,
I 1i I I I 1_,, t ,, 1. I ,m ,,T-,, ,,,,R 17 Y, 4,, , ( I ,,T ,, 11-1
I, I I I I ", , T1, "'r ; I v l,T,,-,-, '- ",- 4 ,
,, , -'- ,14 l , V, , A , [ , , 4 I I T -, I -,,T ,,. ,T T 4 ", ;,-, t , I ,_ ,,, ,
6 1%(` : I I 'IT" ;( ,- -- V, ,, : ,, ,,,TW ;-_ T I '1`, ) , i -
i , k ,,

, -, 1, `,',-, ' ,_ , 1:, , 1;11.K_ , I I , Ill, -fT1 , i , i, ,:1
, ';,W 1_*,,,'T- "T _'_1 ,
,,f ,- , , . "'r V,,"-l -- ,,,, 1, 111 ,11-T I r , 1,&1,11 __4 - I t,;-T,: ,
1'1_. 'T I `,_" ,,, ,,, , I , I III ', I '_ I., 11
I ,Y,, - "'I" T,, _t .-I 11,
", I ', __ 1, I,, 1_1 I ill -17 ii, i I I vrF41111,'!'- J.,, "I ': , , , -
1* I ...... IT,' 11 I _ I I _ I ,-,. "A' 11, .
'04 , 4X ', "T"Y,, ,,, r , ) ,
, -- , ,' . ,q , ,'t , ,,,i4 kl, 'j-,-, ,,- I ;: I ,, : ; I I 11 ', I " ` , f , !:_,, ", 1
I 11'1i_114 -', , , , ,,I
,, ,, T--,`,,,``, ,, i ` w t" ) I' , _t , ,, 4, ".1o, ,< ,
, - , ,, I I ,,
,1,,,_,r- - I-, I ,, T_ -, I "- I 7 - I -- 11 "; ,' ,4' I r4e 'I" ', I I
`, -,"', I-, '_, -, , Ii, , ., ""I 11" 4" ,, -,-f",t""It- ,, I I ', , I , 4 ,_ _, ,T I .1 I I I
.. 1, , I' J. ", , , "' , ",,-',', ]-,_ ,'', * I I ,
,z f ,40, ,, I I I -,
, ,,,, ,,, I , 4T ,-71 I N ",
'. kT, 1, r4 , - I ,',";-- .,1T,-,
;- i "TTT, 1, #', ,_,,, I P', -I ' r '" `
,,,,, ' ", ' T , I t , _. I , .; , .4'T', ,,, , 1,_;;_111 7A ,W I , I .1
11 4 ", T It ,,F ,1 _, -_ I 4 I -
t,- - , T ."', , n,-,-, T ,.,, I -:,, , T, -, % ,_ ,
"", f ,iL -, I "
I- , "I 1,, *, le, , -,, ,,, ' ,- jl_ ,,,, , , l, "" .' ILT"t _T' ' .,14' 11 I -! YT
, I 11 4 O I -' `1 I I I 11, , 1 T "T I I, I ,-,` 1" ', , 1 ,I71 1, '! , S_ ,` ey,
I T, ", T, ,I- , 7 ,
- 11_ 14,'( ,-,,,,, - ' ',-$,' ',, 11, A ,-i 11"
"I'TT"'n , -, 1, ,,,,- "J,,", _ , ,, ,A ,z I I , I -, ,_ i ". 11: ,,,-, 1 , ,,'- .. ..... 4 T, ,i"_ _- 1 , I , ,,, , T ,, ,
, 1 1'4 -, I ,,,, 11 , ,',,
V, ,, I I _, "L f, ,,, ` -
"I, 11 , ", ." N t t '-' ',-,, `,- ",', 'I" 11., I I I .T
-4 " , ,,,, -,4 -' ,
-T, I , T .,", ",T , , ' ' "` I I ,* -" F4', ,-,Y',` T , ", , -1 I I I
-"' "" _` ` : ' _'Lj' -_ I'll Y, T ,I', _,-_ tl ',, ,Q _'T `' '1`I" -',:" , T, y ',,j A L' I r L, ,)tl'' I I I I
,- ', , T, - ,', , ,,,,, , ,,, ...... T !!, T4 nt, WZ 6 "T".- T 11 , -, , 1; 'A '
% '. , e "' ; I ,,,, T,' e ,, Ti -1,, I , N`, ' ) - ,,_!,. , T 11, Ul, ", I T:. , , , ,, 'jn ,, , .,,- % ,.- ,t , T, , , .
t : lj "'_, T. ' ' T-4 "'T _- 1- I 11 _]r, I, I P1_ T' ',--,' 4" ,, I I I
l , 1_ A J,., I T',' I ,- -, !,, 'V" T I T,` '4 I
-, I I -, `r'T t','-,,f- " ,- 1, 1,
I ,-, , 1, , T, , ,,:-" ;1 I t I , ', , I 1, , I"', 1 T ,,,,,,,,, , Tw , 1
,t, 11 I I , I I I 1, 1 ,4 1'111 ,,: 4 , , - 11 t ,
11 T, :Y, .e I ,,, , -,"' I ' ',T- , ,; I "IT. 'T,, I 1,
L !,"
.1,,,-,',,, " ' *, r 1P '111. -11, I '_ 11 , 1 ,
' .'t,', "' ,LI, 1 ' I ,i'_ ., , , - -
- - ,- ,,, 4, , ,,,, -_ , , , A 4 --, _ I
-,' L '', 1-, , T,
_ 'I', ',, ,'v. i, R;6 1, I '''' 2 Y- ,,,T ,, -, ,,, ,-, j "T, ". `- f Y, , ", ,
, 1* ,"_,f , ,T,". '"' I , ", I ,
"I .11-41 , ,f,!',i' ,Z_ , ,_. 'T - __ T? V,, 4 1 ", TLY Z-. ', . ,, .1
, 1*1' 1,1;,T, I,,, ,,$ ','-,k"",:y4- -_-,, V '."-,- ", 11, , .-rl,:
I I I t - , 1 ,
I Ot T 'L ` I -,,, , I 11 Z, T,
i, 'Al -T,,, L,,`- 4 `.,IP --,l , ,,, ,1 ,,t"' I, !4,T I, 1 , T, N 1,v "-7, , Z" W, IT, I L ,
'ff ', ', ,
; I',' 1, V A, 4 ,T, ''I ' T ,',,7 -y , ,-, , , I- 1-11, _1
,, "I 4L,E ,_ I _,; "'T", , t, t _V t 11 Y, J,":
, -7 1i,
_, -110 -, S ! ,f ,4 4 r GE $1
I .1 : ` I , _M "d 11_ ,
liz-;e 1,, A 4 -1 t "I I", . 'T'T'11 I 1, ,
',47 ".
, 6-,-, ,, ." , ,I ,i: . ', "I I
A Tl I ", "' -;!f -,,,t;, -, T-t,, -, I' , d -, I 1,; I ; T , ,:"" _ ,
"I -i 11 W - 1121 -1 ,; ` - , ",
ls'u - ,! !,T- , ,,,T_ ,, :: .`v ,,,--A1' ,
,Z,f !, I"'. ,,,,, _,77-,- , v T- "-I' _;X I -` I , ", , ", , 4;T, 1 , _*,t ,,.,, ,)ef It -1 T"Al"", ,,t'," ';- ., ",:, ,
, "I I ... I ''t"A" T , -
NI;, , T !, ,l , , ,- T11, I R 11W, 'k, 1
I I " ., 11 11 ,) '. ,, T, , , --,, IT,
:V, ,J _,, I I , T , T
I 1,11 -f v IT ,,, ,f,'X T, ; T
.Z4, - .'' ll, 1" ,1 4' ,, , I ... 4 l-",, t ,1 .__", 4- ,
-, _T,; T,,,,q?,,?,-,, ,,,tly,"V4 ",Fi ', ? , '. ,, "", , 'A 3-',,1, -,r ', ".11 11 , -
, M r_, .-,4q, ", ,- A a, ,' ,_ ,-,.,,1- ; , ,- I '41-1 V "!' ", 1 , ., , _11, I '',,', I -_ I _T ,
2. 1_ , t; ;, 'f ._. ",,_ ` ,
r -.- "' ` I I "I
;("WITTAOT" ,_,,,,.., ,,*!;-, AA ,*--,,V' ,,, T14, A .-',,f , I I I , '- -'_l , "T --, ," L
K 4_,t *, ,"-f, , , ', I, JTI "' ,T ,,' , ,Tj' ' IT ,4 _", , ,I 1,?- ., :* ': ;g ,,` -, ,', Lf ", -, Yl
L,, _ I ,_ L,,,
X" I ; ` ,, T, ,, ,
T ,I I- I ,,*
-,, Z T1 1,T j ITj, k ,;:, I'll I L
", t, t ;V ',., T i,, , ;,,- "'A',', ,,- :,,,, ,'
;, _ 1,11",-4,1T4,",- -', W , I ,k ,,( _. , ,,
,VE ", , ,,,, fN 'r ,t Z
'! ," I I ,LL ' I ,
,2 , Lw H
T 11 T', % -- I _,
,,,. ," T ', , ,T - TL, '; r I " ,
, ,-, 1, I I- , 't -,, ",-,-,r- -,iTA, I I T ..
11 , 4 , """ , ,:,-*,-4,',z,'"'.V-,'A,, t' _j I I "', I- r, ,t,#',' -','k ,tplt',, __ -`44 2"' 'L, , T ' , ,,p -
* Jt :-,]r,`,*TL_, ... 4 , _T' ';." ,- `
, 4 ;T iT -4i "',
Tt' I- ! v4v?)N ,' , , ! I t", 1, 11 , I Al I , ,.,y Z !. -1 ,,, ... ... , ' 'I" -1 11 I I- 11 T
I I ,,, IT- ,. ,,' I '4 11 "'N ", Ll, ,,., , "I", ',`
Vh ",I, !3t-,+",*-,,,,,T,_,', ,-*,".J"-A""IL,,-,,,,J"A,,-
,:,,',t 4 -, L,`, , , I"
-f ,Q",v 1 4,11,L, ", _,- I I ' ,_ L_ " 1_
, -.- '? ,,-, ,;, I ., , L, 4 , i , , rt 1 ,
L", T,,.'T, I ", , XV04" S15A'l Y"4
Tl,,-, Y 'J ' -, A 4 -, '- L 'L T,"-,1;S:_-
,l L ,4,T,4 11 Y `N .1"i, 11 - ,L,,', , "I W ,_ ,
1 -t 5 1, y_ ' L J 11 I _r, _ "T "'L '1-' '-_"' ) - , X, I I"
,, .4: , -
r __ , ,, I I"", ,, ,, ,, I I- 77 ,,L , t", ,v ,,, ',!, , , ,,, , , "I TT
"_, 1, I _11 5 .T1,1-1- - ", , L -, 'A"', 1 , , L ':' -, ` , , _' ,
_ 4-'y j T,, t', , I- -, ""
;, I ,r, 3 I t ,,, ,, , - I _11 ""I" -, T-, -e '-"L% _',r I I I 11 I
,J7, ,'- .- 'W-1 1- I I 11 tT4 T: 'i L q, t,-
, "' ,, , ',*4 IT _,
, I 1.11 I 11 I - ", -,,-l - ' 1 f, L L ----; L I I ,
-, ",;" L"'- "K- 'J`-iI" --'l I 11,1 I _-,,,4 -,T " - , ," ," L , T` , I , , T, ,, ,- I I I - ", I I I L I I I I
I I L -` I .;, -, -, f,,,, T,' !, , ,,,, ',,- ,," ' IT ", "` L, L ,, 'O" 1- ,
,- ,,, , L; I C"IL , ,_, "", ,, I _1 , ,, ,, , 41 ,,T, ft I t, 11 I I 11 r ,% P. I I L r
_1-1 ,- , ,,,-,?fL 1, I I ,,,,, , I "', __ T L T11; _,- ' ' " ''I I I
I ,, __, ,,2 -', ,,T ,,',, , "T., 1, 'If , t._ +,,, "'T, 't, ,.", -, , ,( j,
4), ', -' ,v , ` I I - "' - LT! 3 L__"S _ , -, L I :
I ^ 40X '!`j,,,-,,, ",' -, i, 'It ,41,:"' ',,', Z i 1 .", ", " "i "", ,.,,T, T 7 TL_ , 1, -"Tl IT ,' _ -,' I T, IT 2 e IQ "I" I ,. 7 ', ' L
,', i'!" ,.,:,,,,,', ,I:p ,_
"III, I T1111 A: I ,I, _ T ,,,,,, I L .L-
, -, ""'P- L111, ;- T , ,,, ,,T ,,T
'r "'I't ',`71,1,", ,,, T""', ,-i, -- ' I ,,- T, , ,,, 'r , : ,,,, Tl 11, I 1, -, , K 'vg 1:,i -, ,;-',, ,I- 1, I - -1 11 , , L '
-- ,,,', I --_-,.1y, I ._ ,-IV , .4'-" L ' I ,I, I 'I D :
* -,,,'"gt-,f --,- y , , "T;", , I I
', ., `, ,, I I I -O TQ L_' : I 'T.'T
, _, ,- ,,,
I I ,T, '11r _T '-, ' '- t" X 1 ;TTL L J, 'T ','-'_1_`V ;I,, ,11 ',- 4T 1'_j_'T, L 7, TT' L' '-i,T`l 1, ,,, ,,-,,, , ,,, -,P A ,N XB 11
'- I I ,,T, 4T I, A_,,[, __W I :, ,
11 '.I,, 2 z 1 I , *, ,,- T I ,,, I -' 1, __" i 11 I
)_' TT""l i I ,,,I ,,,,,,T;,T77IT,,'': , T : ; 1.
, lp" ,_ _11-"q,._,I,K
1 _H M ,,,,, ,4, , ,% , , ,,-, , , ,
I '1 , ," I I T I"
TT,4-tt,"L4 I -,, 11, I',- I 1_11 , 7 1
. 11 P, I , "j, I I I "t I I . T r , 4 ...
_44,3,TrTLA,, T` , ,, , -," , ,i , L, 1, "Tg
, -T', , ,- ,-_ ', i,,,,- L' L _;fT IT f ,,4 - ", 't -C-, -1 I -
,_ ',I t,,- -, zi-- I I ?_1 ',' ,-' 1- 1f; "' , , , , ,,__ _,i',;, ,`4 w ,,, ,,,, ,L, ,
I -IT j, c ,,Ar I 11, 5, I I xAl , I , k v 4*, , ,j F
, L" T-'- ;I , I'll, , L 1_ _- 1, fT0 I L" 11 L
I 'p , , 3 _, te ,,, I I I I I I
L ,,
," Z N i t* I I I
1 -,x 'oQ$j ,,,,,,,, ,, I I
IT I ,:I , r L ' I I ' -, -
, 'r ,' ; ,,`;, 'wT ,E --,-, , _Iff 4 Y ,e4
_" TC4 L ;,r A l,,-'*,!Z-),,, ,*,- i Tl:
;", ,L _41K T11 vllli I ; ;"'; _! I I j" , ,,,,,-,, , t
L v 11 I I 11 t , ,11., 11 I i 11 , , ujl ," ,
I I y 1, R 7T , 11
4cT 1 ," 11 , I I a I
6 "'L4. tx , , , 4 I Tml , 1
," ' I ,
C, -'I,-. L __ "" '- T t A ,,
'L I ,T' ILz __ 11q _, P , I
I 1,,,
11 -_ --- , ,T, L,
,,, - L"t , ", L' I M '11':14' , ---&, ,, ,,,-t"V -'- , L 11 I I I
,,, ,,- -,-F,- ,, jrv , 5;'! IT, 1-;NIT w Tt, ,10 14 a I I I r I L , w, , ".
, L' '_,- h.'rI" -,(Ii " , T4;kw, , t, , i5 M _', -, ,
";F , L;*I'
IT- j ... I , I I I 1
11 r W 1 ( f 4, J -,",f 1 -,i7; ;r,' -,- "' u _,_ _,9 ., I,* L,, , I : ,
4, 11 10 I ' 11, A -z't ", ,e, -1 I- 11 I 1 114 A I 11 11 1 r -', ,. N ,
I , *
,- ,T,,- ,-,., VLIjO""' I _
4 : , 14 ,;, I 4 4 _
1' '_ A T -;!v F "I' ,,, t L 'T , "", ,
-1 z ,T_, I I _ ,IT . -7,,. 2_,T,` T ,,I ,_ 1
*- 4,' ,","-,'- ,H"-_ , g L ,
.-Ii ; ", 4 ", I 4, TI'Ptr ,.y ,;r. ., LTT _,, -
',, 't, 't ') 11 !_ ,', i ", , t- T" "', r I
,,,, I q 111-0 1;T, , 7',, ,_ , , ,,,I,, ;Tl -L I-,4 jt 'T ` 2_ , ',7, ' ,,L-,I - , -- - _ "< -;, ., " T, i11111_.' ,1 I 1 ; I T r I
- T, : ',,, 11 T ,:, 1w '_ L'T` L, -4T:',,,,,t-'1,-
,g ', _-Z +,.Tlty,'L, ,. , r I
'- , I . - f' !L ,, ,r "i,
, _j Tj' '111 :",'j_L ' " ,C.V'#,4,%nl,-,,L,",,",,4T t+J, I ,,,:e;- " --',l , ,,_lz ,,,,-- ,,'L ,11
L, r i ,7 ,,,:,, %'+' _, "'
I 1- ,; ,_ ,,_., 'i, _t "- " "'_P-, L',' _- , ., . L, L' I I -, I L '
+ -'I -;r, N
1 "I ,V"'I'". lff ,,_ _,%, "I 1111111.1 14v, 1. &m IT, -11 "T, 4 I -- I T I I I
'tl', _., -
' - i:,, e, I T ", `T I , +T t',I; , 4-',- +, ,`t-L"-,-- ; , ,,-- , I -,-- - -T T ,144171" "I '13 lig J, T G 7 ,



Bulletin 71H-6






Division of Vocational, Technical
and Adult Education
Carl W. Proehl, Assistant Superintendent

Adult and Veteran Education
James H. Fling, Director

Adult Migrant Education
Arthur J. Collier, Jr., Project Administrator

June, 1968

3757. 00o 9757-
6636 L
o I 71 H


The Florida State Department of Education was awarded a grant under Title III-B

of the Economic Opportunity Act to conduct a program of education and training for

unemployed adult migrant and seasonal farm workers during the off season. The project

was assigned by Superintendent Floyd T. Christian to the Division of Vocational,

Technical and Adult Education where the administrative phase was handled by the Adult

and Veteran Section. Under the funds available, 1,423 adults in fourteen southern

Florida counties participated in the program during the 1967 summer months.

Following the termination of the summer program and prior to the end of the project

year, two workshops were held to: (1) provide pre-service training for new project

directors, teachers and consultants; (2) evaluate the special program of education and

training for adult migrant and seasonal workers; (3) provide the opportunity for the

participants to exchange ideas and (4) collect, edit, compile and publish materials

for a handbook which will provide information and background relevant to the effective

teaching of migrant and seasonal workers. It was anticipated that these series of

workshops would encourage deeper furrows of thought and provide interaction among those

of us who accepted the challenge of providing a well-rounded adult basic education and

pre-vocational program for adult migrant and seasonal workers.

Although the handbook may have many audiences, its chief purpose is to assist

program developers, administrators, local project coordinators, teachers, counselors

and non-professionals in the planning and developing of effective adult basic education

programs for adult migrant and seasonal workers.

It is our hope that the data contained and ideas expressed in this handbook will

stimulate new interests and widen discussion of what can and must be done to meet the

needs and problems of adult migrant and seasonal farm workers.

We feel that the interested program planner can carve out of this handbook worth-

while Migrant Adult Educational Programs.

It is our desire that the handbook will be a useful source for local county school

boards of public instruction and state and community agencies in conducting similar programs.

James H. Fling
Adult and Veteran Education


Preface ..................................................................

Introduction .............................................................

Florida State Handbook for Adult Migrant Basic Education ................

Acknowledgments ..........................................................

Part One/Administration

Administration ......................................................

Interagency Cooperation .............................................

Public Relations ................................................

Recruitment and Retention of Migrants for Adult Basic Education

Part Two/Personnel Orientation and Training

A Teacher-Training Institute for Teachers of Adult Migrant and
Seasonal Farm Workers' Educational Program ......................

The Effective Utilization of Teacher-Aides ......................

Part Three/Instruction

Curriculum Overview ............................................

Communication Skills for the Educational Program of Adult Migrant
and Seasonal Workers ...........................................

Mathematics: Development of Instructional Materials Level One
Arithmetic ......................................................

Mathematics: Development of Instructional Materials Level Two
Arithmetic ................................. ...... ..........

Methods and Materials for Instructing the Non-English Speaking
Migrant .........................................................

Flexible Scheduling of Learning Experiences .....................

Pre-Vocational Shop Program .....................................

Homemaking .................... .................................

Part Four/Guidance

Guidance Services in Adult Migrant Education ....................

ii iii


vii -viii




.... 22

.... 31

.... 39

.... 70

- 8

- 21

- 30

- 37

- 69

- 78

.... 80 90

.... 91- 132

....133 -137

....138 -150

.... 151

.... 161

.... 169

.... 192





.... 215 -224

Part Five/Workshop Participants

Review of O.E.O. Objectives
Mrs. Connie Newman ...............................................

Factors to Consider in Teaching Illiterate Adult Migrants
Mr. Robert E. Palmer ..............................................

Reactor Panelist Mr. Ernest Roberts ............................
Reactor Panelist Mr. C. A. Bellum ............................
Reactor Panelist Dr. Irwin Jahns ...........................

Counseling of Adults With Special Needs
Mrs. Addie B. Crutcher ...........................................

Planning and Evaluating Adult Migrant Education Programs
Dr. Irwin Jahns ..................................................

Appendix A ...............................................................

Appendix B ...............................................................

Appendix C ...............................................................

226 227










243 -

249 -

256 -

265 -






In the last few years the educational searchlight has been directed deliberately

toward the adult migrant and seasonal farm workers. In compiling a handbook of this

genr, -"obles of i ::: :r:istencT are unavoidable due to the wide spectrum of topics and

personalities involved. However, we are presenting the thinking of many adult educa-

tors who have spent a number of years working with adults and most recently with the

summer Special Program of Education and Training for Adult Migrant and Seasonal Farm


The handbook is divided into five parts: (1) administration, (2) personnel

orientation and training, (3) instruction, (4) guidance and (5) presentations of work-

shop I participants.*

This handbook is not meant to be a panacea for all the ills of adult migrant

education but rather to serve as a wellspring which challenges adult educators to respond

to old problems in different and creative ways. The most successful attack on the pro-

blems must be buttressed by a comprehensive program. From this wellspring we have

already gleaned that programs intending to serve adult migrants must be flexible, rele-

vant, of current interest and have some kind of pay off at the end of the learning

experience-- on-the-job training, additional opportunities or jobs.

This Handbook of Contemporary Educational Concepts in Reaching and Enriching Adult

Migrant and Seasonal Workers portrays the strides we havemade, and are making in elimi-

nating the cancer of superstition, fear and inexpertness which is so prevalent among

this segment of our population. The adult migrant must learn to swim in the sea of

technology or drown in the sea of apathy, despair and unskillfulness.

Our task is far from finished!

Arthur J. Collier, Jr.

*See Appendix A for the agenda of Workshop I




The State Handbook for Adult Migrant Basic Education will be used as a guide to

establish educational programs and projects for adult migrants, seasonal workers, low

income transients, ex-migrants and their families.


The purpose of this handbook is to assist program planners of adult migrant

education in providing adequate educational opportunities for migrants, seasonal and

ex-migrant workers in Florida. The chief purpose of this handbook is to help educa-

tors in their efforts to launch an assault at the root of poverty--the failure of the

migrant to profit from his limited educational opportunities which have left him un-

prepared for profitable participation in our modern democratic society. Under the

canopy of fundamental education, these adults will be exposed to the necessary

literacy or communication skills, computational skills and skills in the areas of

social sciences and natural sciences which they can use for their own improvement.

A well-balanced migrant program must -

1. provide migrants with the rudiments of health and occupational skills.

2. provide migrants with training in family and community relations and other
essentials for day-to-day living.

3. provide for job-occupational training that is within his educational reach.

4. through the development of computational and communication skills provide
the fundamental knowledge and job orientation needed for effective functioning
as a productive citizen in a democratic society.

General Objectives of the State Adult Migrant Program

The main objectives of the Florida State Department of Education Adult Migrant

Program are to -

1. enlarge the migrants' conception of what education is and can be

2. improve his competency in communication and computational skills such as
reading, writing, speaking, listening and arithmetic

3. provide new and creative ways to help migrants achieve a sense of "belonging,"
a heightened sense of dignity, self-respect, security and stability in the

4. provide for programs of education leading to broader public understanding of
the community and the various community groups and agencies; to foster inter-
group communication and interaction that would lead to acceptance of the
migrants by other community groups

5. develop laboratory experience in all subject areas so that learning will be
practical and related to the migrants' world and permit immediate application
of academic skills learned to everyday problems of living

6. assist in financial planning and provide consultation services in all areas
of budgeting and finance

7. provide pre-service and in-service training for the educators who will be
working with the migrants in order that they will be able to understand their
behavior and culture patterns

8. increase his competency in the following:

a. home management and home maintenance skills

b. pre-natal and child care skills

c. use of personal and community hygiene and sanitation

d. use of law enforcement and family protection services

e. the knowledge of both "home and foreign born" migrants' rights and

f. the knowledge and use of citizenship education--both "home and foreign
born" migrants

g. adjusting to automation and its implications for the future

h. group processes and group dynamics

i. wise use of community resources

j. the use of recreation and recreational facilities

k. the wise use of leisure time

9. provide for pre-vocational instruction that will widen his occupational field
of vision

10. develop a work-training program that will improve his skills and ability to
get and hold a job.



The substance of this bulletin is the end product of many individuals, committees

and agencies. The Adult and Veteran Section of the Division of Vocational, Technical

and Adult Education, State Department of Education gratefully acknowledges the assis-

tance of local county superintendents who so graciously released their county personnel

to attend and participate in the two workshops held to produce the handbook.

We wish to thank Mrs. Connie Newman, Program Analyst, Migrant Branch of the Office

of Economic Opportunity, Washington, D. C.; Dr. Irwin Jahns, Assistant Professor of

Adult Education, Florida State University; Mrs. Addie B. Crutcher, Coordinator of

Guidance Services, Florida A and M University, Multi-Occupational Cooperative Work-Study

Project and Mr. Robert E. Palmer, State Supervisor, Adult and Veteran Education, State

Department of Education for their dynamic presentations delivered in the workshops.

Grateful recognition is extended to Mr. Clifford A. Bellum, Director of Vocational,

Technical and Adult Education, Sarasota County; Mr. Ernest Roberts, Teacher-Trainer,

Broward County and Mr. Edwin A. Johnson, Assistant Supervisor, Adult and Veteran

Education, Broward County who served as the editorial committee. We wish to thank

Mrs. Eloise Berry, Consultant, Adult Basic Education; Mrs. Minnie H. Fields, Consultant,

Migrant Education; Mr. Ralph Rosenberg, Consultant, Adult Basic Education and

Mr. N. E. Fenn, Jr., Coordinator, Adult Basic Education for their valuable suggestions

and assisting in preparing the manuscript for printing.

Special appreciation and thanks goes to Mrs. Mary A. Manning for her untiring

efforts and suggestions in designing the format and in the typing of the manuscripts.

Also a vote of thanks to Mrs. Kathryn R. Purvis, Mrs. Carmen Aceituno, Mrs. Joyce Tucker

and Miss Barbara Brandriff for typing and proofreading of the guide.

Finally, we wish to express special appreciation to the Office of Economic

Opportunity for funds provided pursuant to the provisions of the Economic Opportunity

Act of 1964.

1'QM~~ IU G* ~rrflrr~



,' i

LA a




C. A. Bellum, Chairman
Vocational, Technical and Adult Education
Sarasota County

Leroy C. Floyd
Administrative Dean
Indian River Junior College
Saint Lucie County

Reid Wentz
Adult Basic Education
Sarasota County



We believe that sound educational administration is essential for the development

of any adequate program of education. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the

administrator to provide leadership that will create a climate conducive to good

teaching and learning and an organization that will implement the Adult Migrant and

Seasonal Workers' Education Program.

As a means of re-enforcing the above statement, the following suggested

organization chart is presented. However, this chart will vary from county to county.

Suggested Organization Chart

State Department of E.-ation

County Board of Public Instr action or Junior College Board

County Superintendent or Junior College President

Division of Curriculun county Director or Junior College Dean Division of Businesi

Subject Area Supervisorsl Proect Directo- Finance Office ITransp rtatio

Lay Advisory Committee Fiscal Clerk Bus Driver

Counsel Teacher iSecretar ICustodia

Teacher Aides)

L' I .


-- .


In this Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers' Education Program, the administration

seeks -

1. to provide an organization to meet the educational needs of adult migrant
and seasonal workers

2. to facilitate the implementation of the Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers'
Education Program

3. to coordinate state and local efforts in the implementation of the migrant

4. to assist teachers in providing learning experiences for up-grading the
educational status of adult migrant and seasonal workers

5. to select the most competent teachers sensitive to the educational, socio-
economic and psychological needs of adult migrant and seasonal workers

6. to develop standards, procedures and methods for enhancing the quality of

7. to organize seminars and workshops for teachers and teacher-aides

8. to involve teachers in developing resource lists and materials to aid in

9. to organize programs and develop flexible class schedules to meet the academic
and pre-vocational needs of adult migrant and seasonal workers

10. to develop communication media for informing the public of the importance of
the Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers' Education Program

11. to coordinate individual and agencies'efforts in the implementation of the
Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers' Education Program through the effective
use of a Lay Citizens Advisory Committee

12. to provide opportunities for adequate evaluation of the migrant project

13. to provide a system through which adequate accounting of funds may be

14. to provide direction for the maintenance, care and operation of facilities,
equipment and school plant

15. to work closely with personnel responsible for Headstart Programs, Florida
Migratory Child Compensatory Program and special supplementary service for
migratory children

16. to procure materials, equipment and supplies and to assist teachers in making
adequate use of these

17. to guide teachers in making adequate preparation for units, daily work and
special activities

18. to secure consultants and resource persons from agencies and organizations,
from the local board of public instruction staff to aid personnel employed
in the Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers' Education Program in carrying
out their responsibilities.

Suggested Operational Procedures

1. Secure approval for use of adequate physical facilities giving consideration
to special needs of adults (seating, adequate lighting, ventilation or air
conditioning) and special facilities such as industrial arts shops, home
economic rooms, business education facilities and educational media materials.

2. Selection and orientation of staff Elementary teachers, preferably with
successful adult education background, can more easily adapt to providing
instruction in a manner and on the level needed by the adult migrant
population. Consideration should be given to teachers with special skills
such as reading, home economics, industrial arts and bilingual skills.

3. Selection and orientation of teacher-aides Consideration should be given
to securing aides from the migrant population. Persons from such popu-
lations should not be deterred by lack of a high school education.

4. Secure adequate supplies and materials. Consideration should be given to
providing a wide range of ability level materials to accommodate students
from grades 1-12. Materials should be centrally located so they are easily
accessible to teachers yet systematically disbursed to allow for wise

5. Project director should solicit support of participating agencies for
recruitment and coordinate recruitment activities. Project director should
submit potential participants' list to lay advisory committee for certifi-
cation as to eligibility for the Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers'
Education Program.

6. Establish a permanent record folder system for each participant. Include
in the folder certification of eligibility and necessary documented
information for stipend payment.

7. Implement stipend payment plan with established cut-off dates and dates of
payment. Example: Cut-off date for stipend payment ends at the close of
school on Wednesday allowing two days for processing of checks by the
business office. Checks are presented to the participants on Friday at the
close of school. Initial checks would be for three days only. After
termination of the program, it would be necessary for the participants to
return for the final checks for the final two days. Disbursement of the
checks can be handled through the homeroom teacher with said teacher being
responsible for securing signatures of the recipients.

8. Establish tentative transportation schedules and routes and acquaint parti-
cipants with transportation plans. Requisition needed buses to be assigned
to the project. Follow up immediately on students that have registered for
the program but are not present on the first day. Be certain that they are
aware of the transportation plans and that lack of transportation is not
the cause of absence.

9. Provide opportunities for participants to be involved in self-governing
activities. Suggested projects might include morning opening activities,
student council, assembly programs, fashion shows and commencement exercises.

10. Coordinate field trips and arrange for resource people with schedule of
teachers, director and transportation being considered.

11. Follow up student absenteeism to determine reasons for such absences. Plan
with personnel to determine what may be done to climate causes for absence.
Program personnel should be mindful of assistance of participating agencies,
in eliminating personal problems.

12. Establish policies regarding visits to the school by the community, by
members of cooperating agencies, by representatives of firms and other
institutions in the community and by other dignitaries, insuring that
said persons clear with the director of central office prior to contacting
other personnel in the operating program.


Evaluation of the administrative responsibilities will be reflected in the total

overall success of the program with consideration being given to the smoothness of

operations and progress of student achievements. Regularly held discussions by the

full program staff will assist in evaluating the program while it is in progress.

Resource Agencies

1. Florida State Department of Education
Adult and Veteran Education Section
Pepper Building
Tallahassee, Florida

2. Local County Board of Public Instruction

3. President's Committee on Migratory Labor
Secretary of Labor
Washington, D.C,

4. The Migrant Children's Fund
119 East 19th Street
New York, New York

5. Health, Education and Welfare
Washington, D.C.

6. Migrant Child Compensatory Program
State Department of Education
Knott Building
Tallahassee, Florida



1. Bakamis, William A., Improving Instruction Industrial Arts. Milwaukee,
Wisconsin: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1966.

2. Campbell, Clydem, Practical Application of Democratic Administration. New York,
New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1951.

3. Lane, Willord R., Ronald G. Corwin and William G. Monashaw, Foundation of
Educational Administration. New York, New York: The MacMillan Company, 1967.

4. Melby, Ernest D., Administering Community Education. Englewood Cliffs, California:
Prentice Hall, 1955.

5. Morphet, Edgar H., Roe H. Johns and Theodore H. Reller, Educational Organization
and Administration. Englewood Cliffs, California: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1959.

6. Yeager, William A., Administration and the Teacher. New York, New York: Harper
and Brothers, 1954.


1. "Education for All," Florida State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida,

2. "Guide to Organization and Administration of Migrant Education Program," Colorado
State Department of Education, Denver, Colorado, 1963.

3. "Let's Teach Adults," Florida State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida,

4. "On the Season," Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Florida, 1961.

5. "Personnel Administration in Urban School Districts," National Education
Association, Washington, D. C., 1961-62.

6. "Texas Project for the Education of Migrant Children," Texas Education Agency,
Division of Compensatory Education, Austin, Texas, 1967.


Chalmers Murray, Chairman
Adult General Education
Broward County

Floyd Peters
General Adult Education
Dade County

Elmer Hamilton
Adult Basic Education
Broward County




The administrator has the opportunity to serve the migrant and seasonal worker

through the interaction of the agencies in his particular county. Through the use of

these agencies it is possible to adjust the curriculum to the particular educational

needs of the student.

Not only can the curriculum be molded to fit the individual situation but it can

be supplemented through interagency cooperation. Such fringe benefits as physical,

spiritual and moral assistance can be obtained from the agencies.

The administrator needs to be concerned with the interagency cooperation in order

to offer a full and complete migrant and seasonal worker program to the community.


In this Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers' Education Program, the program seeks -

1. to coordinate the services of the local agencies with the needs of the migrant
and seasonal workers

2. to involve the agencies in the overall educational program

3. to create an awareness within the agencies of the opportunities that this
program is providing for the migrant and seasonal worker

4. to alert the agencies to the needs for their particular service.

Administrative Concern With Agencies

The administrator of the migrant program needs to establish a working relationship

with all the agencies in his community. These agencies are the life lines of a

successful migrant program.

Location of the program is the first problem faced by the administrator. By

contacting various agencies, facts and figures will be accessible that will help in

deciding the geographical area in which the program should be conducted. After the

decision concerning the location of the program is made the next step is recruitment.

Agencies can save the administrator valuable time for they have available a list of

those persons who meet the qualifications for entrance into the program. This

service is invaluable to the administrator from the points of time and effort. Not

only are the students available for the program but a warm relationship between the

agencies, students and education system is established. Vital statistics on each

student are a matter of record. These agencies are most helpful in obtaining

materials and guiding the administrator in his search for help.

Representatives from these agencies should appear on the local advisory committee.

They may not be educationally oriented in nature but they are acquainted with the

migrant and his lot in life and can provide meaningful information as to the needs of

the students.

It is the good administrator who cares about the physical health of the students.

By involving the agencies, the health problems of the migrant can be given attention.

May we stress again the proper rapport with the agencies can be a life line of

the Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers' Education Program and for the administrator

who is concerned.

The adult educator concerned with conducting a successful education and training

program for migrant and seasonal workers must know his community resource agencies

and the staff personnel with whom he will work. As the compensatory education and

training program progresses, individual participants will present a spectrum of needs

that extend beyond the competencies or facilities of the public schools. Many of these

problems will be so severe that no educational progress is possible until the student

has resolved the problem. Accordingly, the following alphabetical list of major

categories of needs and typical community agencies responsible for serving these

needs is presented for the local adult educator's consideration. It is recommended

that pre-service and in-service workshop time be devoted to acquainting all project


personnel (guidance counselors, teachers and teacher-aides) with the resources of and

methods of referral to local community agencies.

This listing according to problem areas and agencies should be developed for

each county as not all counties have identical agencies. In planning appointments to

advisory committees it is recommended that staff personnel from these supportive

agencies be considered as potential members.


Catholic Service Bureau
Children's Home Society of Florida
Florida State Department of Public Welfare
Jewish Family Service


Home for aged:
Jewish Home for the Aged of Greater Miami
See service under Health, Financial Assistance, Recreation and so forth
Senior Citizens Clubs
Social Security Administration, District Office


County Agricultural Extension Service
Extension Home Economics Office


Alcoholics Anonymous
Fair Haven
Florida State Alcoholic Rehabilitation Program


See Health


Association of the Blind
County Board of Public Instruction
Florida Association of Workers for the Blind
Florida Council for the Blind
Lighthouse for the Blind
Lions Industries for the Blind, Inc.
See Handicapped and Health


General Hospital Blood Bank
Memorial Hospital


American Red Cross
Catholic Service Bureau
County Welfare Department
Jewish Family Service
Veterans Service Office


Additional Information Call Community Service Council
Boy Scouts of America
County Girl Scout Council, Inc.
Young Men's Christian Association


See Health


See Health

Character Building

See i-,';'. ..... Adult and Informal


Correctional Services
Florida School for Boys (Marianna)
Florida School for Boys (Okeechobee)
Florida School for Girls
Juve:-ille Court
Day Care and Foster Homes
Catholic Service Bureau
Cr-,'1 Nursery
Florida State Department of Public Welfare
Jack and Jill Nursery
I:i-,*-.. Child Care Center
Guidance Services
Catholic Service Bureau
County Board of Public Instruction
Family Service Agency
Florida State Department of Public Welfare
Jewish Family Service

Additional Information Call Catholic Service Bureau, Florida State
Department of Public Welfare, Jewish Family
Children's Rehabilitative Services
Florida Baptist Children's Home, South Florida Branch
Florida Methodist Children's Home
See also Education, Handicapped and Health

Christmas Clearing

Community Service Council

Civil Defense

County Civil Defense


See Health


County Council of Parent Teachers Association

Community Planning and Organization

Community Service Council
County Dental Association
County Medical Association
Economic Opportunity Coordinating Group
National Association of Social Workers
National Conference of Christians and Jews
United Fund

Convalescent Home

County Health Department (for listing of homes only)
County Welfare Department


See Handicapped and Health

Dental Services

County Dental Society
County Health Department
See also Health


Diabetes Foundation of Florida, Inc.
Local County Diabetes Foundation, Inc.

Disability Benefits

American Red Cross
Social Security Administration
Veterans Service Office

Disaster Relief

American Red Cross
County Civil Defense

Education Adult and Informal

American Red Cross
Boy Scouts of America
Children's Theatre
County Board of Public Instruction
County Girl Scout Council
Junior Achievement, Inc.
See also Handicapped
Young Men's Christian Association


Florida State Employment Service
See also Handicapped

Family Services

American Red Cross
Catholic Service Bureau
Family Service Agency
Florida State Department of Public Welfare
Jewish Family Service

Financial Assistance (Continuing Need)

County Welfare Department
Florida State Department of Public Welfare
Emergency and Special Needs
American Red Cross
Catholic Service Bureau
Children's Home Society of Florida
County Welfare Department
Jewish Family Service
Jr. Woman's Club Foundation, Inc.
Lions Clubs
Salvation Army
Seventh Day Adventist Church


Education and Rehabilitation
Adult Handicapped
County Board of Public Instruction

County Hearing and Speech Association
Florida Council for the Blind
Florida Crippled Childern's Commission
Florida School for the Deaf and Blind
Harry-Ann Crippled Childer's Home
Muscular Dystrophy Society 6fSouth Florida
Oral School
State of Florida Department of Education, Division of Vocational Rehabilitation
Sun Dial Sihool
Sunland Training Center
Training Center Foundation
United Cerebral Palsy
Adult Handicapped
Florida State Employment Service
Lions Industries for the Blind
National Employ the Handicapped Committee
State of Florida Department of Education, Division of Vocational Rehabilitation
See slso Health

County Health Department
County Walfare Department
Easter Seal Clinic
Florida Crippled Children's Commission
General Hospital
Heart Association Of Broward County
Muscular Dystrophy Society
United Cerebral Palsy
General Hospital
National Childre's Cardiac Hospital (Miami)
South Florida State Hospital
Southeast Florida' Tuberculosis Hospital
U. S. Veterans Administration
Variety Children's Hospital (Miami)
National Health Organization
Arthritis Foundation
Cancer Society, American
County Chapter of the National Foundation
Heart Association
Mental Health Association
National Multiple Sclerosis Society
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disesae Associction
United Cereral Palsy

Home Economics
Extension Home Economics Office

See Health

Hospital and Sick Room Equipment

Arthritis Foundation
Sick Loan Cupboard
Visiting Nurses Association


County Health Department


Friends of the Seminoles

Legal Services

County Public Defender
Legal Aid

Maternity Care

American Red Cross
Catholic Service Bureau
Children's Home Society of Florida
County Health Department
Florence Crittenton Home, Inc.
Florida State Department of Public Welfare
Salvation Army Home and Hospital
Visiting Nurses Association

Mental Health and Mental Retardation

Catholic Service Bureau
County Board of Public Instruction
Family Service Agency
Florida Gardens Children's Center
Jewish Family Service
Pediatric Care Center
Phoenix Club
Retarded School, Inc.
South Florida State Hospital
Sun Dial School
Sunland Training Center
Training Center Foundation (See Sun Dial School)
Vocational Rehabilitation, State of Florida Department of Education


Community Action Fund
Migrant Child Care Center
Migrant Health Center
Migrant Missionary Fellowship

Muscular Dystrophy

See Health


County Health Department

National Health Organization

See Health

Nursing Homes

See Convalescent Homes

Nursing Services

American Red Cross
County Health Department
County Welfare Department
Visiting Nurse Association of Broward County

Park and Playground

See Recreation

Parole and Probation

Florida Probation and Parole Commission

Psychiatric Services

South Florida State Hospital

Psychological Services

County Board of Public Instruction
Henderson Clinic


County Board of Public Instruction
County Parks and Recreation Department
Senior Citizens Clubs
Young Men's Christian Association

Rehabilitation Services

Alcoholics Anonymous
Faith Farm
Florida Crippled Children's Commission
Florida Industrial Commission Rehabilitation Program
Florida State Alcoholic Rehabilitation
Lighthouse for the Blind

Lions Industries for the Blind, Inc.
Opportunity Center
Phoenix Club
See Handicapped and Health
Vocational Rehabilitation Division, State of Florida Department of Education

Salvage Stores

Saint Vincent De Paul Society
Salvation Army


County Health Department

Shelter Care

County Welfare Department
Florida State Department of Public Welfare
Rescue Tabernacle
Junior Hall
Junior Haven
Salvation Army

Sheltered Workshops

Lighthouse for the Blind
Lions Industries for the Blind
Opportunity Center
Rescue Tabernacle
Training Center Foundation

Sight Conservation

See Lions Clubs


Catholic Service Bureau
Rescue Tabernacle
Salvation Army

Unmarried Mothers

Catholic Service Bureau
Children's Home Society of Florida
Florence Crittenton Home, Inc.
Florida State Department of Public Welfare
Jewish Family Service
Salvation Army Home and Hospital

Vocational Counseling

Florida State Employment Service
See also Education and Handicapped
Vocational Rehabilitation Division, State of Florida Department of Education

Water Safety

American Red Cross

Work Permits

County Board of Public Instruction (for Minors)
County Health Department (health card)

Example of Interagency Cooperation

During the medical examinations (county health department) of the students, a

student was found who needed eye glasses. The administrators contacted a civic club

(Lion's). The proper committee of the club was notified and glasses were provided

for the student.


As a program develops it will be necessary to involve more and more agencies as

the needs of the students become more clearly defined. The success of a program will

hinge on the utilization and involvement of the communities' agencies. To evaluate

such interagency cooperation will not only involve the quantity of services but also

the quality of such support that is received from these various resources.

Thus it is suggested that the administrator of each program compile a list of

those agencies who actively assist in the program and comment as to the effectiveness

of this assistance.

The agency involvement should be evaluated on the effort extended by the agency,

the practical support received from the agency and the effectiveness of such support.



1. Benne, Kenneth D. and Bozider Muntyan, Human Relations and Curriculum Change.
Dryden Press, 1951.

2. NAPSAE, Public School Adult Education. Washington, D. C.: National Association
of Public School Adult Educators, 1963.

Periodicals, Bulletins and Pamphlets:

1. NAPSAE, A Treasury of Techniques for Teaching Adults. Washington, 1964.

2. Programs and Services Benefiting Migratory Farm Children, The Florida Directory,
State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida, October, 1967.

3. "Poverty and Social Change," Scientific American, September, 1965.



Mrs. Eloise Trent
Adult Basic Education
Hillsborough County



A program of public relations in promoting adult migrant education is needed in

the State of Florida. Public relations in respect to adult migrant education may be

defined as the art or science of developing mutual understanding between adult migrant

education and the public.

Public relations is analogous to: journalism and teaching, in that it aims to

inform; to law, in that it often counsels and advises adult educators on public

attitudes and represents them before the bar of public opinion; and to the dramatic

and graphic arts in meeting the needs to portray facts to the public in an effective,

imaginative way.

There are many ways of promoting the adult migrant program as there are channels

or mass media of communication. In news releases, magazines, publications, news-

letters, booklets, bumper stickers, brochures, annual reports, hand bills, posters,

and so forth, the medium of the written word is employed. The use of radio and

television may be effectively utilized with speakers or prepared materials which

others deliver. Person to person method may also be used and is considered by many

as one of the most important approaches.

Former students' comments provide the program with much favorable publicity if

used wisely. Consequently, this should be an area of continuous stress and improve-

ment for adult educators interested in promoting the total adult education program.

A program of promoting public relations aims to inform and convince. Therefore,

it is important to be able to understand the problems of adult basic education and be

able to inform the public. It is necessary to know all the facts, and it is also

necessary to know the public--how and why people react and how and when to present

the message.

The advisory committee is very important in the area of public relations. The

committee should be selected carefully and the "selling job" or public relations

program will be a more effective one.

In selecting an advisory committee, we should include:

1. businessmen from the community the program will be serving

2. a representative from local industry (management)

3. a representative of labor

4. civic leaders

5. community action agencies

6. a representative from the county commissioners' office

7. migrant and seasonal workers

8. employers of migrant and seasonal workers

Objectives of a Public Relations Program in Adult Migrant Education

1. to interpret the adult migrant program to the public

2. to promote a public relations program for adult migrant education

3. to inform the public regarding laws and regulations as pertaining to the
operations of the adult migrant program

4. to portray facts to the public in an effective and imaginative way through
the dramatic and graphic arts.

Use of Public Press as a Promotion Media

The press is an essential media of promotion and its use by administrators of the

adult migrant and seasonal workers' project is vitally important in building a

successful program.

Most newspapers work with limited manpower; therefore, "clean" copy submitted on

time is a must. The chances of the story appearing in "print" are much improved if we

submit "clean" copy, or copy requiring little editing. Changes by editing often change

the story completely.

Make your story interesting.


1. Announce the purpose of the program. Emphasize the purpose that best fits
the community.

2. Announce the offerings of the program.

3. Announce the time and place for registration and pertinent details.

4. Announce projects being developed in class; the carry-over between the
project and the community.

5. Print articles on the progress of the program.

6. Print articles about special lectures.

7. Print articles about students attending the classes, the oldest or the
youngest student, etc.

8. Print photos and articles about classes.

9. Announce research activities.

10. Announce appointments of the advisory committees.

Compile a list of all newspapers in your area; announcements must be in English

and Spanish.

Example Daily Newspapers

Tribute (A.M. and Sunday)
507 East Kennedy Boulevard
P. 0. Box 191
Anytown, Florida 00000
Phone: 000-0000
Managing Editor Mr. John Doe
Educational Reporter Mr. Wise Owl

Weekly Newspapers:

Area News
7566 West Florida Avenue
Anytown, Florida 00000
Phone: 000-0000
Submit copy by Monday Noon
Distribution Thursday

Radio and the Spoken Word (English and Spanish)

In order to publicize by radio we must prepare brief spot announcements. These

should include characteristics such as:

1. brevity (15 30 seconds)

2. element of human interest

3. good taste

4. important information

Most radio stations are eager to produce a lively program to fill 15 minutes.

They are required by the Federal Communications Commission to allot a certain portion

of their time to public service programs.

Several variations in filling in and taking advantage of the preferred time is

offered here.

1. The pre-taped program The station will determine when the tape may best be
run. They can determine the time as far as listening potential is concerned.
Have more material planned ahead than there is time for.

2. The regular weekly spot The host for this type program must be dependable,
versatile and have several tapes on hand in case of his illness.

3. The personal interview Interview students or have "ask-the-expert" type
program. (Note: Check with your station about the speed at which the
recording tape should be run)

4. "I-have-a-question series" or radio skits using two voices.

Do not leave out the Spanish-speaking people. Make tapes and news releases in


Compile a list of radio contacts.


P. O. Box 1010
Anytown, Florida 00000
Phone: 229-6425
General Manager -
News Division -
Public Service Adv. -


T. V. stations will give free time to promote our programs. Special programs such

as Pyramid, Insight, etc., may be used.

Cartoons may be used -

SNo two ways about it

Education is necessary

SEEnroll today:

805 East Buffalo Avenue
Phone: 000-0000

Station -

ZYWX TV Channel 0 (NBC)
905 Jackson Street
Phone: 229-0131
Public Service Director -

Channel 0 Calendar

10-second spots
20-second spots
The studio will make slides and titles. Keep copy centralized.

Contacting Industry

Industry in the school community needs to be informed of the educational

opportunities available. The Committee of 100 and the Greater Chamber of Commerce

has prepared an alphabetical listing of manufacturing firms in the area. Consult

your chamber of commerce for such a list. This list may be used to promote adult

migrant education in your county.


Joe Can Company
Box 1732
22nd Street and Adams Drive
Anytown, Florida
Personnel Director -

Local and State Agencies

Agencies of the area may assist educators by -

1. counselor informing their clientele


2. posters to be viewed by the clients; posters should be written in both
English and Spanish

3. informative pamphlets and brochures to be given to the clients

4. lectures using film strips presented by the administration used for
informing large groups as to the goals of the program

5. tours for members of all agencies to acquaint them with the program.

The Citizens Take Part

Understanding and support of the program will come with the development of

interest and concern by the citizens.

The public must be made a partner in the planning and the administration of the

educational program.

1. A sub-committee formed to work under the advisory committee

2. Assist in developing the educational policy of the program

3. Review existing policies and make recommendations

4. Develop and continue inventory of the program

Other Media

Additional promotional ideas which can be very instrumental in the success of a

program are:

1. Directoryof Clubs and Organizations Prepare a listing of the clubs and
organizations that are willing to help promote the program. The Chamber of
Commerce Director is an excellent resource.

2. The Certificate of Recognition The certificate might be presented to
students in your program who have been instrumental in enrolling three or
more new students. A tangible way of saying "thank-you."

3. Certificate of Completion At the completion of a course we should issue
certificates of completion. This gives the student something tangible to
indicate that he has successfully completed his endeavor.

4. Free Information Holder Place free information holders in supermarkets,
clothing stores, gas stations, etc. The leaflets must be printed in both
English and Spanish. Find the names of places that let the people charge
on a month-to-month basis. Be very certain you place a "holder" there.

5. Open House Encourage the public to visit the program by having "open
house." Issue an invitation for a definite time. The visitors should
feel free to visit classes and to learn first hand about the functions

in organizing and directing the learning process.
A student committee should be host to the guest. They should receive the
visitors and act as guides on a tour. The guest should be provided with
the instructional materials that will enable them to follow what is going
on. After the guided tour, the guest should be taken to a central meeting
place and given refreshments. During this period there should be time pro-
vided for questions and answers. A reaction sheet should be prepared for
each visitor providing space for comments. The bottom half of the sheet
should provide space for a question.


"Is there further information we could provide to help you better understand
what the program is offering and what it can do for you?"

6. VIP A thank-you note should follow the visitation. Most important, the
visitors must be made to feel at home in a relaxed and friendly atmosphere.

7. Pictorial Brochures The preparation and publication of a brochure is
desirable. People reading about other people is excellent public relations.



1. Kindred, L., School Public Relations. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-
Hall, Inc., 1964.

2. Lesly, P. (Ed.), Public Relations Handbook. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-
Hall, Inc., 1962.

3. NAPSAE, Public School Adult Education. Washington, D. C.: National Association of
Public School Adult Educators, 1963.

4. Sheats, Paul, Jayne and Spence, Publicity Handbook. Chicago, Illinois: The Sperry
and Hutchison Co., 1967.


1. Adult Education Association of the USA. "How to Prepare a Press Release," Adult
Leadership, Reprint #83, Washington, D. C., 1966.

2. Chamber of Commerce of Tampa. "1968 Directory of Industry," Tampa, 1968.

3. Eastman Kodak Company. "How to Make Good Home Movies," Tested Public Relations
for Schools, University of Oklahoma Press of Oklahoma, 1952.





Roscoe C. Webb
Community Action
Dade County

Ruben Mitchell
Community Action
Lee County

Fund, Inc.

Fund, Inc.


0 F M I GR A T


The job of the recruiter can become a burdensome one if he is not absolutely

clear as to what his total concern should be. With the knowledge of what his

particular role is and that little measure of personal warmth he can give to a

potential student who might not ever become a member of an ABE class if he were

not there, makes him as important to the program as the teacher or the counselor.

There is no guaranteed recipe for this business of adult recruiting. These pages

have been written to serve only as a guideline for those who intend to accomplish

the task. Keep in mind that the recruiter is a part of the "Big Picture" . .

helping migrants help themselves .. in the main . "Getting them out of


Recruiting and Retention of Migrants for Adult Basic Education

America has been highly recognized as a land of opportunity, a land of the free

and the home of the brave. Yet, in our great American society, there are some of our

people who have for many years been totally forgotten. These are the migrants, the

tillers of the soil, the harvesters of the fruit and vegetables we eat.

Migratory farm labor goes back well into the 19th century when roving bands of

men moved about reaping and bundling wheat crops. During the 1920's there was a

serious crisis developing in the lives of millions of farm laborers who were no longer

needed as agriculture had become slowly mechanized. Many went to cities, others went

South to the cotton fields or wherever they were able to find work. Many families

were split up. In a real sense the migrant farm workers form a "sub-culture" in this

nation. They are mainly on the move from one place to another in an attempt to sur-

vive. Only a few arq able to establish permanent re-sidency, thus creating images which

bar them from society. The children are constantly pulled in and out of school to work

to supplement the family's income. They are usually shifted from one indecent hovel

to another where living conditions are generally unfit for human habitation. This

type of life asserts itself upon the infants and children and emerges once again upon

adults unable to live with their demands. The extreme poverty, the cultural depri-

vation and social fragmentation, in sum, the uprootedness which characterizes their

lives is a constant fact of life from birth to death, summoning therefore, a whole

style of life and a full range of adaptive maneuvers.

Surprisingly enough, not all of these people are content with their ways and

standards of living. Why have they not changed? The main reason is a psychological

effect of "inner fear" which prohibits them from becoming intelligent on becoming a

part of the main stream of life, the lack of education and a lack of acceptance by

fellow Americans.

The methods used for recruiting adults of other occupational orientation are in

direct contrast to the methods needed for farm workers. The "oddity" of the migrants


charter demands a sort of special consideration. One must be patient, understanding

and knowledgeable of migrant life in order to effectively communicate with the migrant.

The migrant has usually had limited educational experiences which have given him

cause for doubts as to what advantages book learning holds for him. He maintains

grave reservations as to his honest acceptance by those outside the migrant community.

He shows reluctance to meet in formal settings as school, churches and so forth.

The use of radio, newspapers, television and other mass media are not as

effective as other means of communicating with most migrants. These media should be

used in conjunction with the personal contacts. Personal contact also applies to the

distribution of hand-outs and other written notices or announcements. The middle

class sophisticated recruiters, such as educators, ministers, or businessmen will also

find some difficulty in persuading the migrant to become involved in formal education.

What then is the most effective method of recruiting? Evidence, at this time, points

to the "grapevine" method of communication as the most effective means in reaching

the migrant.

As the migrants tend to shun from professionals, we should select aides to make

the basic contacts. The aides must be very patient, meek and humble in order to

successfully get these adults involved. The greatest task is to convince the migrant

people that the time is now at hand for them to grasp the educational opportunities

they could never get, or had to drop because they were either too busy working to

make ends meet or just could not afford to get an education at all. The recruiters'

task will consist of very early hours in the morning or late hours in the evening of

door-to-door surveys and contacts. In many instances, the recruiters must work their

way into the homes by "lending a helping hand." This technique is used because some

migrants have the "wash" to do or "supper to fix" and do not have time to listen to

"All these things you got to tell us that never come true." Once they are finally

assured they can go to school again, applications will begin to flow in. Other clients

will begin to flow in, voluntarily, to seek out the program.


Prior to a recruitment drive, it will be necessary to prepare maps as many

migrants do not know their addresses.

Once classes are underway a close rapport should be established with the clients

as someone has to be on hand to lend supportive services and follow-ups. Aides should

be assigned case loads and indigenous groups must be organized to help keep the

migrants together.

Adult migrants are not a part of the mainstream of American society and they know

it. In order to recruit them for activity, you have to approach them on their level,

understand their way of life and establish a "we" relationship.

Migrants, or ex-migrants, share or have shared common experiences and speak the

same language. They eventually create their own languages among the people that have

endured them. This is why migrants who have become "turned on" and involved in "up-

lift" programs make the best recruiters for the program. The way you dress is also

important. Do not over dress as to appear too different and create a distance between

you and the potential student.

The migrants feel somewhat comfortable in their homes and this is the best place

to recruit them. Other places to find them are "on the corner," or in loading zones

where they seek work, bar rooms and pool halls. Here you can find them in a more

relaxed situation and can establish the kind of relationship that will make you a

welcome visitor. At home they will "open-up" and answer your questions frankly if

they feel they can trust you.

In providing supportive services you must become a part of the family. Reach

out and offer love and understanding and you will be rewarded. If you want to know

something, ask! Speak out. Migrants are often reluctant to volunteer information

about their problems and the problems of their friends.

Suggested Techniques to be Used in Recruiting

Simple Steps to be Considered:

1. Survey (not too exhaustive)

a. Get to know the make-up of the camps and neighborhoods

b. Men versus women

c. Young adults versus older adults

d. Conference with Community Action Fund Migrant Program, Florida
Migrant Child Compensatory Program Counselors, Social Workers,
Visiting Teachers and other agencies.

2. Availability of Work

a. Possible hours of work per day

b. Wages

3. Seasonality of Employment

a. Beginning

b. Peak

c. Ending

Example: The period of greatest activity on most farms usually occurs between

September and June, with a few exceptions in citrus and vegetable farms where

some harvesting also occurs during the summer months.

4. Pre-registration

a. Group meeting (counseling sessions)

b. Information giving

(1) About the S E P (Adult Migrant Program)

(2) Registration office and school-center, addresses (where, when
and how)

(3) Stipend

(4) Transportation

(5) Lunch

(6) Part-time employment

5. Information Receiving

a. Simple form should be used (filled out by aides when applicant cannot

b. Problems of transportation


c. Day care provisions for children

d. Health

e. Registration

(1) Individual conferences and completion of actual S E P forms

(2) Screening of applicants

(3) Follow-up and home visits, etc.

6. Scheduling classes

a. Class size

b. Offerings

c. Evaluation

Success or failure in reaching and enriching migrant adults is not due mainly to

the knowledge or lack of knowledge of the techniques of recruitment, but rather to the

team approach of helping these people to "get out of poverty."












Mrs. Helen S. Richeson
Migrant Project
Manatee County

Vince C. Masiello
General Adult Education Programs
Manatee County

Peter B. Wright
Area Supervisor
Adult and Veteran Section
State Department of Education


Training Design

of the

Pre-Service Training Program

I. Objectives of the Teacher-Training Program

II. Philosophy and Objectives of Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers'
Educational Program

A. Extent of need for basic education, nationally and locally
B. Role and responsibility of adult basic education teacher

III. Psychology of the Disadvantaged Adult Learner

How the background and psychology of the disadvantaged adult affects the teacher-
learning process

IV. The Curriculum of Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers' Educational Program

V. Materials in Adult Migrant Programs

VI. How to Teach

VII. Counseling and Testing in Adult Migrant Education

VIII. Evaluating Teacher and Program Effectiveness


A pre-service training program for teachers engaged in the education of migrant

and seasonal workers.


"Today's emphasis on education and training for all members of our society is

being taken seriously by the Federal Government, the Office of Economic Opportunity,

the Florida State Department of Education and local boards of public instruction.

The opportunity to assist the under-educated adult migrant to realize his potentials

in the world of work and to help him acquire the ability to render greater services

to his fellow man is a privilege and a challenge for teachers of adults." Quote -

James H. Fling, Director, Adult and Veteran Education

Specific Objectives

To involve the staff of the Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers' Education Program

in -

1. the realization of the need for adult basic education nationally and locally

2, an understanding of the characteristics and backgrounds (cultural and socio-
economic) of the adult learner

3. the knowledge of psychology and background of the disadvantaged adults

4. the importance of the role of the teacher of adult migrant and seasonal

5. the implications of functional teaching methods as applied to the curriculum
of migrant education

6. the existence of "poverty pockets" in Florida.

Proposed Agenda for Pre-Service Teacher-Training Program

First Session

9:00 Welcome

Statement of purpose; outline of plan; introduction of staff

9:15 Subject topic: "Facts About Adult Illiteracy"
"Identifying Characteristics of the Adult Migrant"

Duplicated material of local national statistics and other related information

on functional illiterates today to be handed to trainees (see copy #1)

9:30 Workshop leader

1. Role playing: ABE staff members play role as teacher and student.
Student is a seasonal worker, female of average age. The teacher is one
who lacks warmth although she is polite but gives too many directions for
lesson in paper heading. She talks too rapidly and sets no objectives.

"Buzz session": Trainees list observations as observed in role playing.
List, read and discuss.

2. Role playing: Trainees will form class in beginning Italian. The teacher's
role: skilled language teacher. The teacher calls upon trainees repeatedly,
exposing to the entire class their inability to remember words and pronounce
them properly. The teacher will teach poorly. After oral exercise, the
teacher passes duplicated sheet (see copy #2) for translation and oral work
to class for further demonstration.

The teacher may use drivers' license manual (Spanish edition). Copies can

be obtained from the Department of Public Safety (contact local highway


After demonstration chairman or workshop leader passes questionnaire

(see copy #3) to trainees for written answers.

10:30 Coffee Break

10:45 Panel:

"Characteristics of the Migrant and Seasonal Worker" as observed by resource

person: (consultant and so forth)

11:15 Audience reaction

11:30 Summation of reactions by workshop leader: characteristics will be listed on

chalkboard from:

1. "buzz session" list

2. questionnaire responses

3. panel reactions

How Do We Recognize the Disadvantaged Migrant Student

Students who come from low socio-economic backgrounds, rural, urban or suburban

have certain characteristics that educators must recognize and accept. It is true that

students who come from middle class and upper class backgrounds may have some of these

traits, but generally not to the same extent and not in such overwhelming proportions.

1. He has an inadequate self-image.

2. He is unable to communicate adequately either in writing or in speaking.

3. He is retarded in reading or unable to read.

4. He has a lack of knowledge of or feeling for school routine.

5. He is likely to be a member of an ethnic minority group.

6. He may be of an immigrant ethnic group.

7. The localism and regionalism that characterizes the adult migrant as an
immigrant migrant is more pronounced in his own neighborhood in this country.

8. He usually has values that differ from many of those of our predominantly
middle class culture.

9. His stability often lies in an extended family organization: aunts, uncles,
cousins, grandparents and so forth.

10. His family has the capacity for meaningful and loyal personal relationships.

11. The immigrant migrant may have experienced a noticeable degree of social
mobility in his native country as well as in the United States. Therefore,
he may bring to the classroom a mixture and a wealth of customs which will
be reflected in his daily activities, his thinking and his attitudes.

Despite the fact that we try to know as much as we can about the disadvantaged

families of today, many myths about them have wide circulation with little basis in

fact. It is important to examine these misconceptions in order to fully understand

the people we are describing.1

iGuidance for Educationally Disadvantaged Pupils. The University of the State of
New York, Department of Education, Albany, N.Y., 12224, 1966.

Myth: Poor people like being on welfare.

Fact: Most studies and the opinions of those who work with families on welfare
reveal that the majority of people do not like to be on welfare. They
are anxious to find work that will support their families and give them
a sense of dignity and self-worth. However they often lack the skills
necessary for regular employment that will satisfy their economic needs.

Myth: Disadvantaged people have no culture.3

Fact: The underprivileged do have cultures of their own but some of their values
are different from the dominant middle class culture of our society.

Myth: Parents from disadvantaged groups do not care about the education of
their children.

Fact: There is concern but there is a lack of opportunity and ability to
communicate this concern. They feel their inability and are hesitant
to take positive action.

Myth: Parents of disadvantaged groups have no aspirations for their children.

Fact: These parents do not know how to go about setting realistic goals. Their
aspirations may be unrealistic but they exist.

Myth: All members of minority groups are underprivileged or all of the under-
privileged are members of minority groups.

Fact: Members of minority groups belong to all socio-economic levels, with a
growing middle class. On the other hand, minority groups are only a
part of the total who are labelled underprivileged or culturally dis-

Myth: A bright or talented student will be successful in spite of his disadvan-
taged environment.

Fact: It is true that occasionally a bright disadvantaged person will work
his way up with no outside help. However, study has shown that such inci-
dents are the exception.

Myth: Disadvantaged students are indifferent to teachers.

Fact: These students tend to be more sensitive to feelings that teachers have
towards them. They are quick to sense even unspoken rejection!

2Edgar May, The Wasted Americans. Harper and Row, 1964.

3Frank Riessman, The Culturally Deprived Child. Harper, 1962.

12:00 Lunch

1:00 Workshop Chairman

Assignments and explanations of case studies for role playing (groups of two

or three). Trainees will all participate; five to ten minutes length;

rehearsals avoided; case studies to be duplicated separately, groups briefed


Sample case studies:

One trainee plays part of a teacher and another plays the part of a


1. Situation: How to give back correct change if a friend repays $1.45 loan
with a $5.00 bill. The student has a self-image of: 'I'm too old. I
always was dumb. Complete acceptance of peer group."

2. Situation: How to cope with negative attitude of student who is being
taught to chop celery properly. Student reaction: "I know how to use a
knife." Student is tired, worried; rent is due, water has been turned off;
no sleep.

1:15 Groups work on case studies

1:45 Group presentation

Audience reaction

2:30 Subject: "Adult Learning Theory" Film of Migrant Class in Session if Available -

"Implication for Teaching Techniques"

1. Student experiences success

2. Material and handling

3. Student participation and planning

4. Student sets own pace

5. Warm, uncritical acceptance

6. Positive approach

7. "Ride" with attitudes

8. Ego boosting

9. Application to experiences

10. Goal fulfillment

(If film is not available, contact State Department for consultant services)

3:00 Discussion Workshop chairman or leader

3:15 Question: What type of teacher do you think the undereducated adult needs?

Describe with ten adjectives.

List written on overhead projector


1. Patient

2. Versatile

3. Quickly analytical

4. Humorous

5. Optimistic

6. Understanding

7. Philosophical

8. Creative

9. Perceptive

10. Flexible

3:30 Evaluation

Written sheet duplicated thus:

"Characteristics of the adult learner"

How important was the subject to you?
Most important
Some importance
Little importance

How would you judge the presentation?
Very Good


Adjourn /.,

Second Session

9:00 Welcome Director

9:10 Staff

Operation and uses in the curriculum for: tachistoscope, overhead projector,

tape recorder, language master, film strip, film projector and so forth.

Demonstrations to be set up in stations with each trainee operating each device.

(Representatives from companies can be asked to participate.)

10:00 Group evaluation of teaching devices and innovative procedures and so forth

to be offered by trainees.

10:15 Coffee Break

10:30 Director distribute and discuss Handbook of Contemporary Educational Concepts

for Reaching and Enriching Adult Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers

Audience reaction

10:45 Trainees receive materials to be used in current curriculum for migrant program.

11:00 Workshop leader lists questions relating to specific subject matter areas as

offered by trainees.

Teachers-aides leave for specific training duties.

11:15 Group assignments and explanations:

Using both commercial and teacher-made devices, plan own learning procedures

to gain insight into these specific problems, using a structured dramatization.

1. Illiterate foreign born Spanish reading lesson

2. Functional lesson in American History for Level I (1-3)

3. Mature student ("in forties") vocabulary enrichment Level II (4-6)

4. Drop-outs problem in fractions fifth grade readability

Duplicated sheet (see copy #4) to be given trainees

"Characteristics of undereducated adults and their implications"

11:30 Groups meet for planning

12:00 Reconvene for lunch in "poverty pocket" area (example: head start center,

high school or elementary school)

1:00 Group tour through a poverty pocket area

1:30 Return to workshop

Groups rehearse structured dramatization of teaching situation as-outlined

before lunch.

2:00 Presentation of skits by groups

Audience reaction following each. Groups use duplicated sheet (see copy #4)

as guide for observations.

3:00 Chairman: General discussion


"The use of teaching aids (commercial or teacher-made) has one aim in the ABE

curriculum: the individual student's success, oriented to him and his needs."

Setting of criteria of aids and materials by trainees (board work)

3:15 Subject: "Your Biggest Problem." Trainees will write on back of evaluation

form "My Biggest Problem."

Evaluation Check Form:

"Adult Learning Theory and Implication for Teaching Techniques"

How important was the subject to you?
Most important
Some importance
Little importance

How would you judge the presentation?
Very Good

"The functional applications as applied to the curriculum" above format.


Third Se!










Welcome Director

"Biggest problei'assignments. (biggest problem having been edited, combined

and so forth as necessary)

Groups may work on same problem or different one depending on results turned



1. Define problem 3. Best solution

2. Possible solutions 4. Plan for implementation

Group Reports


Coffee Break

Teacher-aides return

Helpful Aids Distribution of:

1. Lesson plan samples

2. Do's and don't check sheet for teachers

3. Check list of danger signs (see copy #6) of adult drop-outs5

Testing Procedures:

ABE staff demonstration of informal reading inventory and procedures which

follow testing for grouping

Distribution of sample test (see copy #7)

Counseling and Testing

1. Testing and program

Peter B. Wright, Jr., "Check Sheet for the Adult Teacher," The Florida Adult
Educator, XVII, No. 1 (December-March, 1966-67), p. 14.

5Francis Scheffsky, "The Meat and Potatoes of Good Adult Education," The Florida
Adult Educator, XVI, No. 2 (April-August, 1966), p. 14.


2. Office records

3. Record keeping

Counselor and coordinator in charge

4. Referrals

11:45 Questions and discussion

12:00 Lunch

1:00 Director or coordinator

Administration information

1. Explanation of pay schedule for students

2. Absentee report procedures

3. Specific duties and information for opening day of school program

4. Referrals for counseling

5. Schedules (class, lunch and bus)

6. Teacher-aides' responsibility

1:30 Individual Planning

Opening day lesson plan conference for trainees, teacher-aides and coordinator

2:30 Reconvene for general discussion and reactions; professional publications

offered for participants use (see copy #8)

2:40 Evaluation: Each trainee hands in one topic of his desire to be studied or

considered at a later in-service training workshop (written on back of

evaluation check sheet)

Biggest Problem Field Trip

Check the extent to which your To what extent did the trip
problem was aided. give you more insight to the
Greatly problems of the people from
Much the areas visited?
Some Much more
Little More

Comments on workshop

3:00 Group leaves for school site and/or individual rooms for room preparation



-8 N


p 3
m, aA


C m

Zo c

o Z

o 0


It is recommended that enough information be given to aid a future employer to

evaluate a prospective employee. These items are suggested.







Center Coordinator



_ __

Copy #1

Pertinent Facts on Functional Illiteracy

Source: Joint Conference on Functional Illiteracy, April, 1964, New York City

1. Functional illiteracy is now the number one domestic problem of the United
States. Data from the 1960 census show:

a. 22.1 million persons aged 25 and over (11.5 million men and 10.6 million
women) had completed less than eight years of schooling.

b. Of this number, 3,302,582 had completed less than five years of schooling.
(This is one in every twelve Americans aged 25 and over.) A breakdown of
this group by age and race is as follows-

Age Group White Non-White
25-34 483,371 224,671
35-44 660,274 382,479
45-54 870,717 513,493
55-64 1,308,383 534,998
65-74 1,671,150 435,060
75 and over 994,834 223,152

TOTALS 5,988,729 2,313,853

2. Thirty-six percent of the unemployed never got beyond elementary school.
Sixty-four percent never got beyond high school.

3. Functional illiteracy is not confined to a particular geographic area; it is
nationwide. The problem cannot be identified with the south, the north or
any other particular region of the nation. The illiterates are concentrated
in metropolitan areas (and in neighborhoods of these urban areas) and in
groups (Negroes, Latins).

a. On a percentage basis, the south has the most illiterates, but in numbers,
thirty-five percent of the total reside in seven states outside the south -
New York, California, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, New Jersey and Michigan.

b. Big cities lead the way. New York City has sixty-three percent of the
illiterates in the State of New York and six percent of the national total.
Ten and a half percent of all adults 25 years of age and over in New York
City have had less than five years of schooling. Twenty-nine of the
Puerto Rican adults have completed less than one year of schooling.

4. Illiterates beget illiterates. There are in New York City seventy percent of
the school dropouts in the nation whose parents never went beyond grade school.
There is also a problem of quality in education: Twenty percent of the men
who flunk the armed forces examination (which is very easy and supposedly
requires ordinary seventh-grade ability) are high school graduates. The
test-makers and psychologists say that it is virtually impossible to delibe-
rately flunk this test.

Copy #1 continued

5. Adults 45 years of age and over can be educated and trained. The pilot
programs over the country are proving these facts. The greatest problem is
lack of ability in reading. For this reason our first concern is teaching
adults to read.

6. Tomorrow's new supply of functionally illiterate adults are today's school
dropouts. During the decade of the 1960's 26,000,000 new young workers will
enter the labor force. Of these, about 7,500,000 (29%) will be dropouts who
have not completed high school. Two of every three of these drop-outs -
5,000,000 are not expected to find employment.

Material to be read aloud by program director. Statistics for State of
Florida to be incorporated with national statistics, followed by migrant
and seasonal worker figures, migratory patterns and map of Florida
showing locations of migrant school centers

Copy #2

1. Mi chiamo

2. Vorrei imparare a parlare italiano

3. Viviami e lavoriamo nello stato dello Florida

4. Non ho multi amici perche non parlo inglese

5. Ho paura di andare a scuola, pers voglio imparare

Copy #3


1. List your "feelings" as an adult learner in this class.

2. What instructional aides would have helped you during this lesson?

3. What could the teacher have done or said which might have made you feel more

4. Would you want to come back to a class of this type? Tell why or why not.

Copy #4

Characteristics of Undereducated Adults and Their Implications

1. Lack of confidence

Implication: Student must experience success during the first class session and
in every class session thereafter.

2. Fear of school

Implication: Teachers must avoid at all cost any atmosphere excepting one of
warmth and acceptance.

3. Living in conditions of economic poverty

Implication: Teacher should work with the guidance counselor to seek a way to
remedy physical or psychological handicaps.

4. Probably below average in scholastic aptitude

Implication: Teacher will find so-called "active" methods of teaching most
effective, i.e.:
flash cards humor

learning games change of pace

role playing

5. Culturally deprived

Implication: Field trips for actual experience in being accepted.

6. Values differing from upper and middle class norms

Implication: Teachers must ride along with, rather than fight, these values
and attitudes.

7. Weak motivation

Implication: Ego boosting, personalization, success, variety of activities and
goal fulfillment

8. Sensitive to non-verbal forms of communications

Implication: Teacher must realize he or she may now verbally "say" one thing
while through facial expressions, gestures and so forth say another.

9. Feeling of helplessness

Implication: Constantly build a feeling of self-confidence.

Copy #4 continued

10. "Live for today" philosophy

Implication: Immediate success in something the first day.

11. Reticence

Implication: Encourage free expression. (Break into very small groups)


Implications for Adult Education

1. Learning should be problem centered.

2. Learning should be experience centered.

3. Experience should be meaningful.

4. Learner must be free to look at the experience (climate should be pleasurable,
permissive, supportive, accepting, free, spontaneous, reality-centered or person

5. Evaluation of progress toward goals, particularly when goals have been set by the
learner is highly important.

Copy #5

Check Sheet for the Adult Teacher

Do you -

1. arrive at class before your students?

2. always look fresh and dress neatly?

3. have your first lesson planned even though you have to alter it

4. keep the atmosphere warm and friendly?

5. arrange your class as informally as possible?

6. tell them a few highlights about yourself, being sincere, modest and

7. arrange for introduction of each member of the class?

8. write on the board so that all students can read it?

9. show interest in all your students?

10. speak to each member of your class?

11. correct their test and other work before class?

12. know some background on each student?

13. offer helpful comments and not embarrassing remarks when students make

14. make certain each member has had ample opportunity to be heard?

15. tell the class when you do not know the answers?

16. speak clearly?

17. use duplicated materials which are easy to read?

18. make sure the program regulations are understood by all (keep these to a
bare minimum)?

19. make yourself available to the shy student who might not feel free to
discuss his problems in the presence of others?

20. try to be innovative?

21. practice the "Golden Rule"?

22. allow your enthusiasm to show?

Copy #5 continued

Do not -

1. try to impress with your qualifications.

2. talk down to students.

3. expect all your students to be of the same age or level.

4. place too many restrictions or regulations on the group.

5. embarrass by word, deed or look.

6. use technical terms to impress.

7. hesitate to change or discard your lesson plans if the need arises.

8. __ be afraid to try something different.

9. show shock or disbelief at superstitious reactions from students,

Copy #6


Check List of Danger Signs of Adult Drop-outs

If a student is

The cause may be

And the teacher can t o

I. Overly shy or timid Class only partly satisfying Be supportive of the
needs; the student feels student in open discussion;
inferior to others in the help student see that others
class; the subject is too may feel equally shy; spend
advanced; over participation more time in getting
of two or three dominant acquainted; use small groups
classmates, within the class.

II. Overly talkative or Class too elementary; lesson Check individual needs;
impatient with con- plan poorly organized; no better organize the class;
tributions of other standards of class partici- involve the class in making
students pation; need to gain indi- decisions on what is a good
vidual recognition. contribution to discussion.

[II. Slow; loses point of
discussion; on low
level of participation

Class work too advanced;
student not clear as to
what is expected of him;
not hearing or seeing well.

Provide individual counseling
and/or group guidance; use
more illustrative materials;
check on classroom

IV. Nervous or fidgety; Poor classroom facilities; Improve class room conditions
frequently yawning; presentation of the teacher spend more time in student
restless is boring; class work seems participation and planning;
"academic" and not very increased use of committees
practical; student doesn't or other small learning
feel free to participate, groups.

V. Delaying opening of The topic on which the class Help students themselves to
class and eager to leave is working does not seem im- contribute, discuss, classify
portant or the student would and list items to be included
prefer to work on some other in the curriculum.

Copy #7

Word Recognition and Analysis

Level B

Level I

Level IV


Level V


Level VI

Level III


I have a big dog. I call him Red. My girl friend has a little cat. She calls him
Kitten. Last night I went to see my girl. I took Red with me. My girl friend and
Kitten were playing in their yard. Red ran after Kitten. Kitten ran up a tree. She
cried and cried. Red ran around the tree. He ran into my girl. She fell down. I
had to go up the tree and get Kitten. I handed her to my girl. My girl just took
the cat and went into the house. Red and I went home. Do you think my girl still
likes me?


1. Is the dog big or little?
2. What color is the kitten?
3. Why was my girl unhappy?
4. Do you think my girl friend is angry with me?

Level II B

My friend and I work all day. My friend works at a gas station. I work with him. In
the evening we go to night school. We are learning to read and write better. This
will make us better workers. We are also learning about our country. At night school
our teacher tells us about the American way of life. He talks a lot, but we like to
listen to him. That's one reason why we like the school. After school we have some-
thing to eat together. We think night school is the best part of the day.

Level II




Level I B

Copy #7 continued


1. Do these men work every night?
2. Do they like their teacher?
3. Do both of the men work at a gas station?
4. Do they enjoy daytime more than nighttime?

Level III B

Tuesday afternoon my wife and I went to a huge food market where I was surprised at
the high cost of food. She told me I should go shopping with her more often and then
I would know where most of my pay check went. After seeing the price of chops and
roasts, the ground meat looked better and better. Then we went over to look at the
vegetables. I wanted some lettuce but she pointed out the cost. Cabbage suddenly
sounded good to me. We then bought some coffee for me, some tea for my wife and some
milk for my daughter. On the way out I told my wife food sure had gone up since I
was single. She said, so has everything else.


1. Did this man really like the ground meat more than roasts?
2. Did this man like lettuce better than cabbage?
3. Did this man say he wished he was single again?
4. Do you think this couple has been married a long time?

Level IV B

The United States government must hire many people to work for it. There are many
different kinds of positions for which our government needs workers. If you would
like to find out about government jobs go to your post office. There you will find
a long list of openings. Check over this list carefully and see if you have the
skills needed. Then write to the address given and you will be told when you may
take the examination for this job. If you pass the examination, your name will be
placed on the list. The government will then tell you when to come to work. When
seeking work don't overlook the possibilities offered by your government.


1. Is the post office a good place to find out about jobs?
2. Do you have to pass an examination to get most government jobs?
3. Do all people who take the examinations get put on the job list?
4. Why does the United States government hire so many people?

Level V B

Very few wives do all of their own baking today. The pie that appeals so keenly to
your appetite probably comes from the bakery and not your wife's oven. It was most
likely made by men. These men learned their trade in a school or by working under a
good baker. They must know how to run the different types of machinery in the large
factories that produce baked goods. Some of these bakers are specialist in one or

Copy #7 continued

more kinds of baked goods. One may be a specialist on rolls. All of them with the
title baker are skilled craftsmen. It's because of their skill in making a large
volume of baked goods at one time that we can buy our bread, cakes and pies so cheaply.
Most of our wives are glad that they don't have to bake as much as their grandmothers
did. In that way they are lucky.


1. Where do most baked goods come from today?
2. Why do many housewives seldom bake anymore?
3. Where do bakers usually learn to bake?
4. Why can bakeries produce bread and cakes so cheaply?

Level VI B

We had neared the end of our trip through the tropics. Night was beginning to fall
when we spotted an abandoned dwelling that could give us protection from the local
wildlife. Throughout the night our slumber was disturbed by the roars and squeals
of the animals. Early in the morning we heard a noise that seemed to come from under-
neath the house. When we investigated the source of the noise we found a snake
wrapped around a crate which contained a large fowl. My partner went under the house.
After slaying the reptile, he let the bird go. Later that morning we noticed a move-
ment in the bushes and then saw a man watching us. We started to walk over and meet
him. He threw a spear and almost wounded both of us. We thought this was a rather
unfriendly greeting to visitors.


1. What disturbed the sleep of the travelers?
2. What scared the fowl under the house?
3. Why did the travelers feel that the man was unfriendly?
4. Why did these men carry weapons?

Copy #7 continued

Summary Sheet

Chronological grade

I. Q.

Mental grade

Check List of Reading Difficulties

I. Recognition Vocabulary Difficulties

1. Letter names
2. Sound attack
3. Configuration
4. Picture class
5. Contractions
6. Punctuation

III. Auditory Perception Difficulties

Omits sounds
Slurs sounds
Substitutes sounds
Confuses sounds
Adds sounds
Poor ennuciation

V. Rate Difficulties

Eye movements
Lip movements

VII. Emotional Symptons

Palms sweating
Nail biting
Tension movements

II. Sight Perception Difficulties


IV. Comprehension Difficulties

General ideas
Major details
Fact vs. opinion

VI. Posture Difficulties

1. Material too close
2. Material too far
3. Incorrect angle

Independent Level

Instructional Level

Frustrational Level

Potential Level

Chronological age
Intelligence test
Mental age

I. Q

Copy #7 continued

Word Recognition and Analysis

Level A

Level I


Level II






Level III


Level IV






Copy #7 continued

Level V


Level VI






Copy #8

Professional Publications

1. Education on the Adult Level (Counselor's Handbook). Los Angeles: Los Angeles
City Schools, 1958, 45 pp.

2. In-service Training for Teachers of Adults. Washington, D. C.: NAPSAE.

3. Kidd, J. R., How Adults Learn. New York: Associated Press, 1959, 333 pp.

4. Lado, Robert,

5. Lauback, Frank C., Teach the World to Read, A Handbook for Literacy Campaigns.

6. Moore, C. D. and Hendri

7. NAPSAE, Counseling and Interviewing Adult Students, 1960.

8. NAPSAE, When You're Teaching Adults, 1959, Required Reading, 40

9. NAPSAE, How Adult Can Learn More Faster

10. Techniques for Teachers of Adults- Washington, D. C.: NAPSAE, (4 page
monthly newsletter)

11. Treasury of Techniques for Teaching Adults, Washington, D. C.: NAPSAE, 1964, 48 pp.

12. Wallace, Mary, Literacy Instructors Handbook, An Adventure in Teaching. Chicago:
Follett, 1965, 114 pp.

13. When You're Teaching Adults. Washington, D. C.: NAPSAE, 1959, 24 pp.


1. A Guide for Teacher-Trainers in Adult Basic Education. Washington, D.C.: NAPSAE,

2. Aker, G.F., mimeographed, Working Paper on "Strategies of Leadership for Adult
Basic Education," August, 1965.

3. "Communication is a Ten-Way Street," Techniques for Teachers of Adults, Vol. 3,
No. 2, October, 1962, 4 pp.

4. Florida State University, Office of Continuing Education, Frontiers in Adult
Basic Education.

5. Guidance for Educationally Disadvantaged Pupils. The University of the State of
New York, State Education Department, Albany, N. Y. 12224, 1966, bibliography.

6. Hand, Samuel E., A Review of Physiological and Psychological Changes in Aging and
their Implications for Teachers of Adults. (Bulletin 71G-1), Tallahassee:
State Department of Education, July, 1965.

7. "How to Be a More Innovative Teacher," Techniques for Teachers of Adults. Vol. 8,
No. 5, February, 1968, 4 pp.

8. Informal Reading Inventory, Florida State Department of Education.

9. Lorge, Irving, "The Adult Learner," Professor of Education, Teachers College,
Columbia University, 12 pp.

10. May, Edgar, The Wasted Americans. Harper and Row, 1964.

11. Nadler, Leonard, "The Process of Training," Washington, D.C.: Leadership Resources,
Inc., 1966.

12. Riessman, Frank, The Culturally Deprived Child. Harper, 1962.

13. Scheffsky, Francis, "The Meat and Potatoes of Good Adult Education," The Florida
Adult Educator, XVI, No. 2 (April-August, 1966), p. 14.

14. "Teaching English as a Second Language," Techniques for Teachers of Adults, VoL 8,
No. 4, January, 1968, 4 pp.

15. Techniques for Teachers of Adults, Washington, D.C.: NAPSAE, (4 page monthly

16. "What New Teachers of Adults Want to Know," Techniques for Teachers of Adults.
Special Issue, 4 pp.

17. The New York State Education Department, Guidance for Educationally Disadvantaged
Pupils. Bureau of Guidance Department, Albany, New York, 1966.

18. Wright, Jr. Peter B., "Check Sheet for the Adult Teacher," The Florida Adult
Educator, XVII, No. 1 (December-March, 1966-67), p. 14.



W. Ivey Mack
Adult Basic Education

Mrs. Eloise Berry
Adult Migrant Education


U T L Z T 0


Basic procedures and policies are necessary to insure a smooth integration of the

teacher-aide (semi-professional) into the overall program of adult migrant education.

Professional and association involvement in the initial development of a

supportive staff such as teacher-aides are advisable. There should exist basic

administrative decisions concerning policy, planning and training. The role of the

aide must be perceived by the administrators, teachers and participants. Opportunities

for upward mobility for the teacher-aides should be possible so that accomplishment of

potential capabilities toward a higher level of attainment can be experienced.


Teacher-aides are provided as members of a team approach which permits better

utilization of the teachers' time in the educational program. Teacher-aides will be

trained to fill gaps in centers that require various levels of skills and training.

Suggested Activities or Devices

The kinds of activities aides can perform for teachers of adults vary and will

depend upon their educational experiences, abilities and talents. The aide may assist

a classroom teacher administrator, librarian, counselor, health nurse, social worker

or community worker.

The following list of suggested activities is presented to assist administrators

in developing tasks for aides.

Clerical Assistance

1. Check roll and maintain attendance records.

2. Cut stencils.

3. Check and record progress and achievement.

4. Keep equipment and materials ready for use.

5. Pass out and return instructional materials.

6. Serve as receptionist, guide or hostess for visitors.

7. Make appointments for professional staff and participants.

8. Maintain and keep library records.

9. Answer telephone and place telephone calls.

10. Receive supplies and other materials.

11. Maintain and keep inventory of materials and supplies.

12. Complete forms.

13. Develop files for tests and participants' work.

14. Type work cards.

15. Sort and distribute mail.

Classroom Assistance

1. Assist in individual group skills.

2. Teach songs.

3. Read stories.

4. Supervise small group activities.

5. Assist participants with reading assignments.

6. Assist in art and craft activities.

7. Aid in flashcard drills.

8. Provide individual attention to participants who may need assistance when
the teacher has given directions.

9. Assist in research.

10. Locate and obtain materials for use in classroom.

11. Assist in preparation of audio-visual materials.

12. Ventilate and light classroom.

13. Assist teacher with demonstration and experiments.

Audio-visual Assistance

1. Assist in the maintenance and operation of the projector, tape recorder,
overhead projector, filmstrip projector and record player.

2. Set up language master and head set for tape recorder and record player.

3. Arrange for use of audio-visual equipment.

4. Prepare audio-visual materials under the direction of the teacher.

5. Care for audio-visual equipment.

6. Mount pictures for picture file.

Outside the Classroom Assistance

1. Explain the program to individual participants.

2. Explain the program to the community through church groups, social
organizations, clubs and others.

3. Explain the school facilities to potential participants.

4. Check on absentees.

5. Check on dropouts.

6. Help arrange community meetings related to the program.

7. Explain other services available in the community through other agencies
to participants.

8. Assist the professional in understanding the problems of the participants.

9. Provide feedback to participants.

10. Make home visitations.


In the use of teacher-aides these are some suggested guidelines to observe in

determining the qualities and effectiveness of the aides in the program.

1. Understanding and a concern for the participants

2. Eagerness to help

3. Patience and empathy

4. Ability to work well with adults tact and capability of carrying out

5. Ability to communicate

6. Common sense

7. Reliability

8. Flexibility

9. Sympathetic attitude toward the total program

10. Willingness to learn

11. Neat personal appearance

12. Ability to respect confidential matter

13. Ability to understand the lines of authority which relate to
teacher-aides and to look to the "chain of command" which applies
to their position

In-Service Orientation

A program for the training and orientation of teacher-aides is essential.

This program will provide a frame of reference from which all concerned can work.

This may consist of the following:

I. Conferences

A. Administrator teacher teacher-aide

B. Teacher teacher-aide

C. Administrator teacher-aide

II. On-the-Job Orientation

A. Audio-visual equipment

1. Care

2. Operation

3. Maintenance

B. Office Machines

1. Care

2. Operation

3. Maintenance

III. Production

A. Teacher-made materials

B. Audio-visual aids

IV. Role

A. Functional

B. Duties

C. Program policies

A model orientation is suggested:

Orientation Procedures Audio-visual Clerical Human Development

Acquainting Introduction Use, set up and Use of Emphasize
aides with to the use of care of equip- office intellectual,
the program forms and re- ment; identify machines social, emotional
cord keeping; equipment and equip- development, peer
understanding ment; relationships and
of duties, roles filing motivation which
and function of are designed for
aides; produc- the needs of the
tion of teacher- teacher-aides in
made materials the program.

It is suggested that teachers with whom aides will be working should share

in the orientation. Attendance at staff meetings provides the aides with some

professional prospective and a broader sense of the problems of the total program.


At least 75% of the aides employed in this program shall be residents of the

communities being served by this program with preference being given to the hiring

of aides who are from migrant or seasonally employed farm workers' families. They

shall not necessarily be high school graduates.

Additional sources from which aides may be recruited:

1. High school graduates

2. High school students

3. Junior college students

4. Junior college graduates

5. VISTA workers

6. Community workers of other agencies

7. Retired persons

8. Dropouts

9. Job corps graduates

10. Housewives

11. Substitute teachers

12. Neighborhood youth workers

13. College students


The administrators, teachers and aides should be involved cooperatively in

making an appraisal of the role and work of the aides. A suggested format for

eliciting information may be structured in the following manner:

1. In what areas were the aides most helpful?

2. In what areas were they least helpful?

3. What skills or techniques were most helpful or useful in their work?

4. What additional skills or techniques do you think they should possess?

5. To what extent have the teacher-aides increased the efficiency of the
teachers in relation to planning, to participants, to the overall pro-
gram and to professional growth?

6. What recommendations do you have for improving the training and utili-
zation of aides?

Techniques in Carrying Out Evaluation

1. Conference including teachers and teacher-aides with appropriate organization.

2. Self-evaluation by aides using a prepared evaluation format

3. An evaluation by members of the professional staff



1. Abraham, Willard, A Time for Teaching. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.

2. Beggs, David W., Team Teaching.- Bold New Venture., Bloomington, Indiana:
University Press, 194.

3. Davis, Frderick B., Utilizing Human Talent. Washington, D. C.: American Council
on Education, 1947.

4. Smith, Elmer R. (Ed.). Teacher Education: A Reappraisal. New York: Harper and
Row, 1962.

Periodicals and Articles:

1. Bartlett, D. B.,"Non-Teaching Assistants,' A Southend Experiment," Times Educational
Supplement, No. 2615, (uly 2, 1965), p. 29.

2. Bates, Lorna D., "Need Extra Hours?," Minnesota Journal of Education, Vol. 39 (May,
1959), p. 18.

3. Branmick, J. J., "How to Train and Use Teacher Aides," Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 48
(October, 1966), p. 61.

4. Clarke, Johnnie R., "Proposal for a Teacher's Aide Program: A Two-Year Program in
A Community Junior College Can Fill a Vital Social and Classroom Need," Junior
College Journal, 36 : 43 45; March, 1966.

5. Cutler, Marilyn H., "Teacher Aides Are Worth the Effort," Nations Schools, Vol. 73
(April, 1964), p. 671.

6. Esbensen, Thorwald, "Should Teacher Aides Be More Than Clerks?," Phi Delta Kappan,
Vol. 47 (January, 1966), p. 237.

7. Rioux, J. W., "There Are Fourteen Ways to Use Non-Teachers in Your School District,"
Nations Schools, Vol. 76. (December, 1965), p. 42.

8. Thompson, Scott D., Emerging Role of the Teacher Aide," Clearing House, Vol. 37
(February, 1965), pp. 295-98.

9. Woodbury, Roger M., "We Tap Our Human Resources," American School Board Journal,
Vol. 135 (November, 1957), pp. 33-34.


Aides for Florida Teachers. Florida, State Department of Education. October,

Demonstration of On-the-Job Training Program for Semi-Professional Personnel in
Youth Employment Programs: final report, 1965. National Committee of Employ-
ment of Youth. 78 pp.

Educational Leadership Teacher-Aides. March, 1966, Vol II, Gainesville, Florida.
Florida Educational Research and Development Council, College of Education,
University of Florida.

School Aides at Work, Oneanta, New York: State University College of Education.
(no date)

Teacher Aides at Work. 1967, Washington, D.C. National Commission on Teacher
Education and Professional Standards National Education Association of the
United States.

Using Teacher-Aides Effectively. November, 1967, Vol. VIII, No. 2, Washington,
D..C., National Association for Public School Adult Education.

Teacher Aides, March, 1967, Vol. XXIX, No. 3, Tallahassee, Florida, Florida Schools
State Department of Education

L ,

. A.A

...',..+-<'y a .."






Arthur J. Collier, Jr.
Project Administrator
Adult Migrant Education
State Department of Education


Many curricula in the past have been developed on the assumption that the adult

migrant did not exist. A curriculum for adult migrant and seasonal farm workers must

move away from a purely subject centered curriculum to a life-centered curriculum

welling up from the migrant's everyday life activities.

The purpose of the curriculum is to help adult migrant and seasonal farm workers

realize their potentialities for democratic living by planning educational services

not for, but with them. The design of the curriculum must allow for education through

participation--projects, dramatizations, group dynamics, work experiences--that must

become vehicles for the learning processes.

This guide is intended simply to suggest the basic goals, content and activities

for the three levels included in the project.


I. Communication Skills Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

Communication skills shall be so presented that effective patterns of spoken and

written language may be developed to permit each individual to improve his listening,

speaking, reading and writing abilities to the fullest extent possible.

A. Goals

Participants should:

1. learn to perform at their ultimate level of potential language development,
functionally and aesthetically

2. learn the economic, social and aesthetic values of language as a communi-
cation media

B. Content

Participants should:

1. develop the visual and auditory perceptual skills

2. utilize their background experiences in the further development of
communication skills

3. develop a functional sight vocabulary upon which to build reading skills

4. develop a wide functional and technical speaking and reading vocabulary
upon which to extend communication skills and develop preoccupational

5. develop word analysis skills necessary for effective reading and writing

6. develop an appreciation of reading as a tool for learning and as a leisure
time activity

7. develop the ability to use language effectively in both spoken and written

8. be provided opportunities to gain facility in English language usage, if
non-English speaking

C. Suggested Activities and Devices

1. Letter writing

2. Dictation

3. Experience charts

4. Use of audio-visual media in showing differences in word forms and word
meanings (overhead projector and opaque projector)

5. Use of pictures from newspapers and magazines for the interpretation of
the messages they contain

6. Video-recorder for all types of dramatic expressions such as role playing,
socio and psycho-drama, acting out stories, pantomimes, pageants and plays

a. Emphasize good conversation patterns in English and behavior

b. Student creativity

c. Outlet for students to improve their varied abilities and talents

7. Use tape recorder to provide opportunities for students to hear their own
speech patterns or correct speech patterns

8. Present oral language through sentence pattern drills, formal and informal
conversation; sharing of personal experiences, choral readings and puppetry
for the purpose of developing acceptable usage patterns

9. Use multi-sensory approaches to build concepts and develop good vocabulary
by adapting activities such as scrabble games, word bingo, records, con-
crete materials, filmstrips, transparencies and films

10. Develop groups and committees to work on problems related to the social
and academic projects of the students

11. Use words from the personal experiences of the student to build a sight
vocabulary and a broader reading vocabulary

12. Word drills; utilization of photo-phonics, flash cards and tachistoscopic

13. Finding and circling familiar words and underlining unknown words from
newspapers and magazines

14. Retell in sequence their favorite radio or television programs

15. Discuss how one goes about planning his daily routine of work

16. Discuss how one spends or should spend his leisure time

17. Discuss organizational procedures and correct parliamentary usage

18. Present, explain, demonstrate and use dictionaries, encyclopedias, tele-
phone books and glossaries

19. Use games such as Consonant and Vowel Lotto, the Dolch Games from Garrard
Press, the EDL Flash X, teacher-made games and devices

Computational Skills

The computational skills should be so presented that the students develop a know-

ledge of and an understanding of the number system and its use in solving problems

of everyday living.

A. Goals

Participants should:

1. perform the operations of buying or selling

2. use mathematical concepts to improve economic efficiency

3. plan and economically purchase food for the family

4. use nutritional values to reinforce mathematical operations

5. develop proficiency in the four basic processes, their interrelationships
and how to apply them

6. know and use measurement and measuring devices

B. Content

Participants should:

1. develop skills in using quantitative measurement devices

2. develop the specific mathematical skills essential for occupational
training and/or employment

3. develop the concepts and vocabulary essential to mastery of computational
and problem-solving skills including mastery of the four fundamental
mathematical processes

C. Suggested Activities and Devices

1. Visit a local bank and open a checking or savings account

2. Make a budget, list the amount of expenditure for each item

3. Discuss the percentage of one's income that should be allotted for spending
for meeting the family needs

4. Use visual aids to introduce and extend mastery of mathematical concepts

5. Compare the value of the different types of insurance in relation to
their cost

6. Get samples of installment buying contracts to study; compute the cost of
short and long term buying

7. Plan and prepare a meal; include the concepts of calories and the
importance of measuring the ingredients for cooking

8. Give practice in studying yards, feet, inches and so forth through
cutting various patterns suits, simple carpentry and so forth

9. Relate the requisite skills of reading, writing and arithmetic to problem

III. Social Living Skills

The curriculum should seek to enhance each individual's self-concept, his concept

of the democratic processes and governmental functions and his responsibilities

as a citizen.

A. Goals

Participants should:

1. develop an appreciation of self as a worthy individual

2. develop the ability to practice democratic living and decision making

3. grow in their appreciation for their cultural background

4. develop an appreciation for and an acceptance of variant cultures

5. develop a desire to function effectively as a responsible citizen

B. Content

Participants should:

1. develop an understanding of the types of governmental services rendered
on the county, state, national and international levels

2. develop an attitude of responsibility for law and order and loyalty as a
citizen of the local community and the country as a whole

3. develop an appreciation and understanding for good government and law

4. develop the attitude that work is a worthy endeavor

5. develop an acceptance of and a tolerance for working and living with
people from varying social and cultural backgrounds

6. develop an awareness of the importance of health and safety in everyday

7. develop an awareness of the importance of community health and hygiene

8. develop respect for the concerns and interests of each individual as a
person, his role as a member of the family and his role as a member of
the community

9. develop habits of socially acceptable behavior

10. develop the habit of setting up short and long-range goals

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs