,lic:4 ~ t
f external parasites of livestock
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
LTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE Circular 206A
GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA June, 1964
.4 .1 "
TABLE OF CONTENTS
L ICE ................................------- ....................................... ............................... 3
TICKS, HORN FLIES, STABLE FLIES ................-.....- -......... -- ....- ......... 4
H OUSE FLIES AND CONTROL ........................ ....... ..... .................... 5
HORSE FLIES AND DEER FLIES ...... ........................................ ............... 6
HEEL FLIES (WARBLES, WOLVES, CATTLE GRUBS) ....................................... 6
H ORSE B OTS ........................................................... ............... 6
SCREWWORM FLIES, MOSQUITOES ............................ ... ...................... 7
M ITES ....-- .....-- . -- --- ----------------............ .... ..... ....... ..... 8
INSECTICIDE RESIDUE TOLERANCES ........ .............................. 8
CONTROL OF EXTERNAL PARASITES OF BEEF CATTLE ................................... 9
CONTROL OF EXTERNAL PARASITES OF DAIRY CATTLE ................................. 10
CONTROL OF EXTERNAL PARASITES OF SWINE, SHEEP, GOATS, HORSES .... 11
SPRAYERS, DIPPING VATS ... ........ .......................................................... 12
BACKRUBBERS .....--........---. --. .......................... ............... --12, 13
INSECTICIDES FOR USE IN BACKRUBBERS ..-..................---- .......--.........- 14
PRECAUTIONS .....--- ..----- ....... .. ............... ....------ ............ 15, 16
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion
of others of suitable composition.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Flqrida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins. Director
Control of External Parasites of Livestock
JAMES E. BROGDON LEONARD E. SWANSON C. B. PLUMMER, JR.
Agricultural Extension Agricultural Experiment Agricultural Extension
Service Entomologist Station Parasitologist Service Veterinarian
External parasites, including lice, ticks, horn flies, house flies,
stable flies, cattle grubs, horse flies, deer flies and mosquitoes,
present a serious problem to the beef and dairy industries of
Florida. These pests are most prevalent during spring and
summer months. In Florida's warm climate, however, many
are a problem the year around.
Insecticides are available that will control most of the major
external parasites of livestock when applied thoroughly and at
the proper times.
Several kinds of lice attack livestock in Florida.
Animals infested have a hair coat, with a rough,
coarse appearance, and do not reach maximum pro-
duction or gain properly. They rub against posts,
fences and trees, lick themselves and chew their
tails (a sign of tail lice). Lice spend the entire
life cycle on the host animals and are more preva-
lent during winter and spring. The best time to control lice is
in the fall and winter.
1. Sucking lice, which feed on blood, include (a) the long-nose
cattle louse (on head, neck and brisket); (b) the short-
nosed cattle louse (on head, neck and brisket); (c) the
blue louse (in rings on face, muzzle and around the eyes);
and (d) the cattle tail louse (found principally in brush of
tail and around the hind parts).
2. One kind of biting louse, known as the cattle biting louse,
feeds on skin and hair, causing itching and irritation.
Only one kind, known as the hog louse, is found on hogs. It
does not attack other animals. Hog lice are found primarily on
the inside of the upper part of the legs, in the folds of skin
about the neck, and inside the ears.
C.-Lice of Horses and Mules:
The horse biting louse and the horse sucking louse attack these
animals. Both kinds are most prevalent about the head, neck,
withers and base of the tail.
D.-Lice of Sheep and Goats:
A biting louse and the goat sucking louse attack sheep and
In Florida, ticks are principally pests of
horses and cattle, especially range cattle.
The most common are the Gulf Coast tick, 1
lone star tick, black-legged tick, spinose ear .
tick and cattle tick. The sheep tick (sheep c
ked) is a pest of sheep and goats.
These pests are blood suckers that re-
main on animals except when laying eggs.
They breed in fresh manure. Horn flies,
which congregate primarily on the withers
and backs, are more numerous on sick ani-
mals and on dark-colored animals. These
pests alone may cost the cattleman 20 to
30 pounds of beef per animal each year. 1 r
These insects are blood suckers with a severe bite. They breed
in decaying organic matter, including old straw stacks, piles
of fermenting weeds, grass, peanut litter, refuse from packing
sheds, citrus refuse, celery strippings or wastes, etc. In West
Florida stable flies breed in large numbers in piles of seaweed
or marine grasses washed up along the shorelines, especially in
the inland bays. Stable flies have the habit of congregating on
the sides of buildings and on fences where residual sprays can
be effectively applied.
CONTROL by insecticides is not completely satisfactory, espe-
cially on beef cattle. Recommendations for dairy animals appear
in the chart on page 10. Breeding areas must be eliminated.
These efforts should be supplemented by applying residual sprays
to the outside of barns, to board fences, posts and similar resting
places. Materials that may be used include malathion, diazinon,
ronnel (Korlan), lindane, methoxychlor, DDT, toxaphene or other
approved insecticides. Follow recommendations on the label.
House flies do not bite but annoy ani-
mals and may spread diseases. They
breed in fermenting animal and vege-
table matter and other filth. Screens,
insecticides and sanitation are of major
importance in house fly control. Since
house flies have been able to develop re-
sistance to most of the newer insecti-
cides, there has been a renewed interest
in sanitation in fly control programs. This means getting rid
of the breeding places.
CONTROL.-Good sanitation should be supplemented with in-
secticides. Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides including DDT,
methoxychlor, lindane and others are of little or no value in con-
trolling house flies in Florida. Though some resistance has also
been shown to organic phosphate insecticides, these materials are
still useful in house fly control programs. Among those ap-
proved for control of house flies in and around livestock barns
are malathion, diazinon, Dipterex, Dylox, dibrom Ciodrin, DDVP,
ronnel (Korlan), dimethoate (Cygon) and Baytex. Baytex is
not approved for use in dairy barns as of April 1, 1964. Fol-
low directions on the insecticide label for mixing and applying
these materials as surface sprays or bait sprays.
Poisoned baits control house flies in some places where sprays
fail, particularly in unscreened dairy barns and in other farm
buildings. If properly applied, they can be used in most farm
buildings without harming domestic animals. Ready-to-use dry
and liquid baits containing certain of the above organic phosphate
insecticides are commercially available; or they may be pur-
chased in the concentrate form and mixed and applied according
to recommendations on the container label.
Space sprays containing pyrethrins, allethrin, Lethane, Tha-
nite, DDVP and dibrom can be used daily as a contact spray for
adult flies. These materials have little residual effect and are
best in closed areas.
D.-Horse Flies and Deer Flies:
About 65 species of these flies are found in Florida. These
blood-sucking insects are vicious biters that breed in wet areas.
There is no practical control for these pests on beef animals.
Sprays containing pyrethrins plus a synergist are effective (see
in chart under dairy cattle), but have to be applied several times
a week. Animals should be kept out of wet areas as much as
possible during the fly breeding season (spring until late fall).
E.-Heel Flies (Warbles, Wolves, Cattle Grubs):
Only one species of
heel fly is found in Flor-
ida. It is not as serious
a pest here as in many..--*-.
other states. Cattle :
often are seen in the .
spring (February, March '. "
or April) running from
heel flies or standing in
water to keep the flies.. f
from laying eggs which
are usually attached to .- -.. .. .. -.
hairs below the hock.
The eggs hatch into tiny larvae or grubs that bore into the flesh
and spend several months tunneling in the body. The grubs
move up through the animal tissues and appear in the backs of
cattle in November, December and January.
CONTROL.-The older control measures using rotenone are
given in the charts. Three newer insecticides, called systemics,
which are effective and have been approved for beef cattle are
Co-ral, Ruelene and ronnel (Trolene). Co-ral can be used as a
dip, spray or pour-on; Ruelene as a spray or pour-on; and ronnel
(Trolene) in block or mineral supplement or mixed in feed.
Though these materials are generally effective against cattle
grubs in Florida when applied from the first of June to October,
the preferred time of application is June through August. Fol-
low directions, restrictions and precautions on the manufac-
Three species attack horses. These insects lay eggs on hair
about the nose or lips, under the throat or jaw, and on the lower
legs. The maggot or larval stage, which lives in the digestive
tract of the horse, causes injuries to the tongue, lips and the
lining of the stomach and intestine. A horse badly infested with
bots has a rough hair coat, becomes thin and goes off feed as a
result of digestive disturbances.
Carbon disulfide given either in gelatin capsules or by a stom-
ach tube, or trichlorfon (Neguvon) given in feed, capsule or
drench will control horse bots. Veterinary services are recom-
mended in giving carbon disulfide to horses for control of these
pests. Follow label directions, restrictions and precautions when
G.-Screwworm Flies: -r
Several kinds of maggots 44.ia
infest wounds of warmblooded
animals in Florida, but the .. /.*
one that feeds only on live
flesh is the primary screwworm. This pest was not found in
Florida before 1934. The State of Florida and the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, in cooperation with other Southeastern
States, have eradicated the screwworm from the Southeast
through mass releases of sterile male flies.
Of equal importance to the eradication of screwworm is the
prevention of reinfestation. Since this pest will not normally
migrate from the infested Southwestern states into the South-
east, inspection stations have been established along the Mis-
sissippi River to provide for thorough inspections and proper
treatment of all animals moving from infested states into the
In Florida your County Agricultural Agent or local screwworm
inspector should be notified promptly of any suspected screw-
worm case in livestock, pets, or wildlife. Make a record of the
infestation and save samples of the eggs and maggots from the
wounds. Keep the maggots in a bottle or other small container
filled with water or alcohol and keep the eggs dry, in a pillbox
or similar container, until the County Agent or screwworm
inspector calls for them. Treat wound with EQ-335 or Smear 62.
Several kinds of mosquitoes attack livestock. They must have
water in which to breed. Mosquitoes have piercing mouth-parts
and suck blood. There is no practical insecticidal control for
these pests on range cattle. See chart for dairy cattle.
f ( Different species of mange and scab
mites attack horses, swine, cattle and
^ ~sheep. Included are Psoroptes, Sar-
coptes, Chorioptes and Demodex mites.
These pests are too small to be seen
with the naked eye. They burrow their
heads into the skin and suck blood,
causing severe irritation.
INSECTICIDE RESIDUE TOLERANCES
The Food and Drug Administration has established residue
tolerances for certain insecticides in the meat of certain animals.
When these and other approved insecticides are applied accord-
ing to recommendations, the pests should be effectively con-
trolled and the animals products will be safe for food. The
following tolerances have been established:
DDT-7 parts per million in the fat of meat of cattle, swine,
sheep, goats and horses.
Toxaphene-7 parts per million in the fat of meat of cattle,
swine, sheep, goats and horses.
Methoxychlor-3 parts per million in the fat of meat of cattle,
swine, sheep, goats and horses.
Malathion-4 parts per million in the meat and meat by-
products from cattle, swine, sheep, goats and horses.
Co-ral-1 part per million in the meat, fat and meat by-
products from cattle, sheep, goats and swine.
Delnav-1 part per million in the fat of meat of cattle, sheep,
goats and swine.
Diazinon-0.75 part per million in the meat, fat and meat by-
products from sheep.
Lindane-7 parts per million in the fat of meat of cattle,
sheep, goats and horses; 4 parts per million in swine.
Ronnel-0 parts per million in the meat by-products of cattle.
To avoid excessive residues use the insecticides recom-
mended at the time recommended and in the amounts recom-
APPLICATION OF INSECTICIDES
The control of external parasites of livestock depends upon
careful mixing and application as well as upon using the right
Animal Pest Materials and Formulation (Amt. per (Amt. per Remarks
100 Gals.) 100 Gals.)
Lindane-25 % w.p.
Ronnel (Korlan)-25% w.p.
Horn Flies Co-ral-25% w.p.
Ronnel (Korlan)-25% w.p.
Ticks Co-ral-25% w.p.
Ronnel (Korlan)-25% w.p.
Toxaphene-40 % w.p.
Cattle Rotenone-5% powder
7/2 lbs. 7% lbs.
for Ronnel (Trolene),
Co-ral and Ruelene
Other Pests (See text for comments on house flies, mosquitoes, stable flies, deer flies,
horse flies and screwworm flies. Also see chart for dairy cattle.)
* Dips are not practical for control of horn flies.
Note: w.p. is symbol used for wettable powder and e.c. is symbol for emusifiable concentrate. Only one formulation of each insec-
ticide is listed in the chart in order to save space. Equivalent amounts of other formulations and concentrations of a rec-
ommended insecticide formulated for use on livestock may be used. Follow recommendations and precautions on the
Immerse or spray thoroughly. Repeat appli-
cations after 2-3 weeks if needed. Do not
treat sick animals. Spray animals 3-6
months old lightly with Co-ral. Do not treat
animals less than 3 months old with Co-ral-
do not use with synergized pyrethrins, alle-
thrin, synergist or in conjunction with oral
drenches or other medications such as pheno-
thiazine. Do not use malathion on calves less
than 1 month old. Do not use lindane on
emaciated or lactating animals. Do not dip
calves less than 3 months old in lindane or
Delnav. Do not repeat ronnel or Delnav
within 2 weeks. Do not apply toxaphene
within 28 days, lindane within (30 days as
spray; 60 days as dip), or ronnel (Korlan)
within 56 days of slaughter. There is no
time limitation before slaughter for malath-
ion, methoxychlor,Co-ral, Delnav or Ciodrin
on beef cattle. Observe all restrictions or
limitations given on the product label.
Treat with rotenone when grubs first appear
and repeat 1 to 3 times at 30 day intervals.
Dusts and washes may be used in small
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROL OF EXTERNAL PARASITES OF DAIRY CATTLE
Animal Pests Insecticides and How to Use
Dairy Horn flies 1. Rub 5 tablespoons of 10% Methoxychlor powder or 1 tablespoon of 50% Methoxychlor powder or 3
Cattle tablespoons of 5% Malathion dust into hair on back and neck of each animal every 3 weeks for Me-
thoxychlor and 10 to 14 days for Malathion.
DO NOT APPLY MALATHION OR METHOXYCHLOR LATER THAN 5 HOURS BEFORE MILK-
ING OR DURING MILKING. DO NOT APPLY TO COWS ON ONE SIDE OF THE BARN
WHILE COWS ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BARN ARE BEING MILKED. ARRANGE FOR
DUSTING AFTER COWS LEAVE THE BARN, EITHER AS THEY PASS OUT THROUGH A
NARROW LANE OR IN SOME OTHER BARN OR HOLDING AREA. Do not apply malathion
to calves under 1 month old.
2. Apply 1% DDVP at 1 to 2 ounces per animal as a mist spray daily in hand or automatic sprayer.
DO NOT EXCEED 2 OUNCES PER ANIMAL.
3. Apply 0.3% Ciodrin spray: Mix 3 quarts of 38% emulsifiable concentrate (contains 3.2 lbs Ciodrin
per gallon) per 100 gallons of water. DO NOT APPLY MORE OFTEN THAN ONCE A WEEK.
Other concentrations of Ciodrin sprays can be used with different restrictions. Follow label direc-
4. Apply 1% Ciodrin in backrubbers: Mix 6 tablespoons (3 fluid ounces) of 38% emulsifiable concen-
trate in 1 gallon of fuel oil, diesel oil or kerosene. Apply 1 gallon per 20 feet of cable.
5. Apply Pyrethrins + Piperonyl Butoxide (or other approved synergists) concentrate as a mist spray
daily in hand or automatic sprayer, or mix with water and apply according to label directions.
6. Apply 3 to 5% Lethane or Thanite as mist spray daily. DO NOT APPLY MORE THAN 2 OUNCES
DAILY PER ANIMAL. DO NOT WET THE HIDE.
Horse flies, 1. Pyrethrins + Piperonyl Butoxide, as under 5 above.
Stable flies, 2. Lethane or Thanite as under 6 above.
Deer flies, 3. DDVP as under 2 above.
Mosquitoes 4. Ciodrin spray as under 3 above.
Lice 1. Pyrethrins + Piperonyl Butoxide commercial concentrate mixed according to directions on the label.
2. 5% Rotenone wettable powder at 1 to 2 lbs. per 100 gal. of water or %-1% rotenone dust. Repeat
in 2 to 3 weeks or as needed.
3. Ciodrin spray as under 3 for Hornflies above.
Ticks 1. Pyrethrins + Piperonyl Butoxide commercial concentrate mixed according to directions on the label.
2. 5% Rotenone wettable powder at 2 to 4 oz. per gal. of water and repeat as needed.
3. Ciodrin spray as under 3 for Hornflies above.
Cattle grubs 1. 5% Rotenone wettable powder at 7 lbs. per 100 gallons of water. Apply as spray or wash when
grubs appear and repeat 1 to 3 times at 30-day intervals. A 1%% Rotenone dust may be used.
Screwworms See discussion page 7.
In addition to the above recommendations, malathion, methoxychlor, Co-Ral and ronnel can be applied as sprays to dry cows,
young stock and bulls, but not within 14 days of freshening for malathion, methoxychlor and Co-Ral or 21 days for ronnel. Observe
Animal Pest Materials and Formulations
Sheep Lice, Ticks,
and Keds (Sheep
Ronnel (Korlan)-25% w.p.
Mange Mites Lindane as above
Screwworms See discussion page 7.
Swine Lice Co-ral-25% w.p. 8 lbs. ............ Immerse or spray animals thoroughly. Do not
DDT-50% w.p. 8 lbs. 8 lbs. treat sick animals. Do not dip animals less
Delnav-30% e.c. 2 qts. 2 qts. than 3 months old in lindane or Delnav. Do
Lindane-25% w.p. 2 lbs. 2 lbs. not repeat Delnav or ronnel within 2 weeks.
Malathion-25% w.p. 16 lbs. ............ Do not treat animals less than 3 months
Methoxychlor-50% w.p. 8 lbs. 8 lbs. old with Co-ral; spray animals 3-6 months
Ronnel (Korlan)-25% w.p. 16 lbs. 16 lbs. old lightly. Do not use Co-ral with syner-
Toxaphene-40% w.p. 10 lbs. ......... gized pyrethrins, allethrin, or synergist, or
Ciodrin-38% e.c. 3 qts ...... in conjunction with oral drenches or other
medications. Allow at least the following
Mange mites Lindane as for lice number of days before slaughter-DDT
(30), lindane (30 as spray; 60 as dip), ron-
Screwworms See discussion page 7. nel (Korlan) (42), toxaphene (28). No
time limitation before slaughter for Co-ral,
Delnav, malathion, methoxychlor or Ciodrin.
Check labels for all restrictions.
Horses Lice, Mange, See recommendations for beef cattle. See Bots page 6.
Immerse or spray animals thoroughly. Use
only Ciodrin on milk goats. Do not apply
diazinon on goats. Do not apply to sick
animals. Do not dip animals less than 3
months old with lindane or Delnav. Do not
treat animals less than 3 months old with
Co-ral, or less than 1 month old with mala-
thion. Spray animals 3-6 months old lightly
with Co-ral. Do not use Co-ral with syn-
ergized pyrethrins, allethrin or synergist, or
in conjunction with oral drenches or other
medications. Do not repeat Delnav or ronnel
within 2 weeks. Allow at least the follow-
ing number of days before slaughter-Co-ral
(15), DDT (30), lindane (30 as spray; 60
as dip), ronnel (Korlan) (84), toxaphene
(28), diazinon (14). No time limitations
before slaughter for malathion, Ciodrin,
methoxychlor and Delnav. Check labels for
insecticides. Always read the label carefully and completely and
be sure you understand all of the directions, limitations and pre-
cautions before using. Never use more insecticide than is rec-
ommended. Young animals, calves in particular, are susceptible
to overdoses of some pesticides. When using an emulsifiable
concentrate, be sure it mixes uniformly with the water and use
only those prepared for use on livestock.
Sprayers.-For a large number of cattle, power sprayers that
operate at approximately 200 pounds of pressure per square inch
are generally suitable. The sprayer should be equipped with
an agitator to keep the spray well mixed and with an adjustable
spray nozzle. For treating a few animals a small portable power
rig can be used. In using a power sprayer, direct the spray
back into the tank until proper mixing is assured. Knapsack
or small air-pressure sprayers may be used, but it is more diffi-
cult to thoroughly wet animals with long dense hair. Also
some of these sprayers do not have agitators and will require
occasional shaking to assure a properly mixed spray, especially
with wettable powders.
Dipping vats are not widely used in Florida. It is usually
more convenient to move the sprayer to the livestock than to
round up all animals and drive them to one central location.
Spraying is not as hard on livestock as putting them through a
vat. In addition, there are few accurate methods for deter-
mining the concentration of an insecticide in a dipping vat after
it has been allowed to stand for a period of time.
Backrubbers of various kinds can be made or purchased com-
mercially for control of horn flies. These devices will aid in the
control of certain other pests, including lice. Cattle treat them-
selves by walking under and rubbing against the backrubbers.
This is a tremendous saving in labor and spray materials.
Correct location of the backrubber is very important. Under-
brush will compete with backrubbers, and locations containing
it should be avoided. No one can prescribe the exact location
of the rubbing units without a study of the particular pastures
and loafing places and habits of the cattle. Backrubbers should
be placed in locations where cattle congregate, such as mineral
or salt stations, feeding pens or near watering areas. It takes
a while for cattle to become accustomed to backrubbers and to
learn to use them.
Various kinds of backrubbers with storage cylinders to pro-
vide a continuous source of insecticide are available commercially.
For example, see figure 2, page 15.
CONSTRUCTION OF CABLE-TYPE BACKRUBBERS
EP 2 TIE 6 TO 8 INCHES APART WITH HEAVY TWINE
rEP 2 TIE 6 TO 8 INCHES APART WITH HEAVY TWINE 9
Backrubbers can be constructed on the ranch (see illustra-
tions A, B and C, above. They may be placed between posts
that are 15 to 20 feet apart. Posts should be 6 inches in diam-
eter and 8 feet long and should be pressure treated or of wood
which is slow to rot. They should be 41/2 feet above ground and
well braced. Stretch a cable, chain or heavy wire (9 gauge)
between the posts and allow to sag within 1 to 11/2 feet of the
ground. A core made of three strands of heavy wire (9 gauge) is
excellent if properly made and maintained. Attach the ends at
a height of 4 feet on the posts. Wrap sacks on cable, chain or
heavy wire as shown in the illustration, page 13. Wrap sack
No. 1 once over cable. Follow with No. 2 then No. 3. Go back
to No. 1 and repeat the process until all sacks are completely
rolled. Tie each overlapped joint securely with pieces of heavy
twine, then tie 6 to 8 inches apart between the joints as shown
in the illustration. Modifications of the diagrams shown here
may be made to accommodate the management practices of any
farm. Brace wires and posts may be wrapped with sacks and
treated as shown in the illustrations.
Insecticides for Backrubbers to control horn flies on cattle
not being milked include toxaphene, methoxychlor, DDT, mala-
thion, ronnel (Korlan) and Delnav. Reports from some areas
indicate that DDT is not as effective against this pest as in
Pour about 1 gallon of one of the recommended solutions
slowly and evenly on 15 to 20 feet of burlap backrubber. Re-treat
the backrubber every 2 to 3 weeks or as needed. One back-
rubber should be available for each 50 to 75 animals.
Wettable powder formulations of insecticides are not suitable.
Do not spray or pour oil solutions directly on cattle.
INSECTICIDES TO USE FOR BACKRUBBERS FOR BEEF CATTLEt
Final Minimum days-
Insecticide Amount for Strength last app'n to
1 gallon of oil* (Approx.) slaughter
38% Ciodrin e.c. 3 ounces (% cup) 1% none
25% DDT e.c. 1 quart (4 cups) 5% 30
30% Delnav e.c. 5 ounces (% cup) 1.5% none
57% Malathion e.c. 5 ounces (2% cup) 2% none
25% Methoxychlor e.c. 1 quart (4 cups) 5% none
24% Ronnel (Korlan) e.c. 6 ounces (% cup) 1% 42
60% Toxaphene e.c. 11 ounces (1% cups) 5% 28
e.c. = emulsifiable concentrate. Wettable powder formulations are not satisfactory.
Oils recommended are fuel oil, diesel oil or kerosene.
t Use only Ciodrin on lactating dairy cattle. Ronnel (Korlan) can be used on dry dairy
animals, but not within 21 days of freshening.
Liquid Measures: 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon; 2 tablespoons = 1 fluid ounce;
8 fluid ounces = 1 cup; 2 cups = 1 pint; 2 pints = 1 quart.
All insecticides are poisonous to man and animals. Always
read the insecticide label carefully and completely before opening
the container and observe all precautions. Do not contaminate
feed and water. Store insecticides in the original labeled con-
tainers out of reach of children, pets and livestock, and away
from food or feed. Dispose of empty containers promptly and
safely. The use of insecticides not recommended or in concen-
trations greater than those listed in this circular may result in
injury to animals or insecticide residues in excess of legal
Appreciation is expressed to workers of the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations, Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Insects Affecting
Man and Animals Research Branch and Pesticides Regulation Division,
Agricultural Research Service, USDA, for helpful information and sugges-
tions used in this circular. Considerable information was taken from
Agricultural Handbook No. 120, ARS, USDA, Revised April 1964, and
Four Keys to
READ THE' LABEL ON EACH PESTICIDE CONTAIN
BEFORE EACH USE. HEED ALL
CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS.
STORE PESTICIDES IN THEIR ORIGINAL,
LABELED CONTAINERS AWAY FROM FOOD
OR FEED. KEEP THEM OUT OF THE REACH
OF CHILDREN, PETS AND LIVESTOCK.
APPLY PESTICIDES ONLY AS DIRECTED.
DISPOSE OF EMPTY CONTAINERS
PROMPTLY AND SAFELY.
7r/7EOR UIG N