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TAPIR CONSERVATION The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group www.tapirs.org ISSN 1813-2286 December 2013
2 Volume 22 No. 31 Dec 2013 From the Chair 3 Letter from the Chair Patrcia Medici 3 Conservation 5 Camera-trap Records of Mountain Tapir in Purac National Park, Colombia Sebastin Duque Lpez, Melissa Abud, Humberto Calero, Stephany Valderrama 5 First Report of Positive Serological Response to the Hemoparasite, Babesia caballi in Mountain Tapir Armando X. Castellanos P. 9 Tapir Conservation Trundles Forward in Belize Jamal Andrewin-Bohn 10 Conservation Medicine 12 Identifying an Effective Treatment for Corneal Ulceration in Captive Tapirs Mari-Ann O. Da Silva, Catalina Hermoza, Gianmarco Rojas, J. Michelle Freundt 12 Immobilization of Bairds Tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ) Using Thiafenthanil Oxalate (A-3080) in Combination with Xylazine and Ketamine Jonathan Prez Flores 15 Contributions 20 Iridium/GPS Telemetry to Study Home Range and Population Density of Mountain Tapirs in the Rio Papallacta Watershed, Ecuador Armando X. Castellanos P. 20 Tapir Specialist Group Members 26 Instructions for Authors 31 Tapir Specialist Group Structure 33 CONTENTS Abbreviation Tapir Cons. ISSN 1813-2286 Website www.tapirs.org Contributions Anders Gonalves da Silva (Australia) Editor E-mail: email@example.com Layout & Danielle Lalonde (Australia) Distribution Editors Kelly J. Russo (United States) Editorial Board Patrcia Medici E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com Carl Traeholt (Denmark/Malaysia) Mathias Tobler (Switzerland/Peru) Anders Gonalves da Silva (Australia) Diego J. Lizcano (Colombia) Matthew Colbert (United States) Budhan Pukazhenthi (United States) Benoit de Thoisy (French Guiana) Stefan Seitz (Germany) Production This issue is kindly sponsored by Houston Zoo Inc., & Distribution Kelly Russo, 1513 North Mac Gregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. Cover photo: Lowland tapir at the Vienna Zoo by Daniel Zupanc The views expressed in Tapir Conservation are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group or Houston Zoological Gardens. This publication may be photocopied for private use only and the copyright remains that of the Tapir Specialist Group. Copyright for all photographs herein remains with the individual photographers. TAPIR CONSERVATION
3 H ere we are with another excellent issue of Tapir Conservation! As you all know, the IUCN/SSC-affiliated Tapir Specialist Group is a global group of tapir conservationists dedicated to conserving tapirs and their habitat through strategic action-planning in countries where tapirs live, information sharing, and through educational and communication outreach that demonstrates the importance of tapirs to local ecosystems and to the world at large. Our group continues to grow stronger and more effective each year and I would like to give you a brief update about our most important activities and outcomes in 2013. The TSG continued to make steady progress on the development of National Action Plans for Tapir Conservation in several tapir range countries in South and Central America and Southeast Asia. TSG Country Coordinators and Regional Committees are working tirelessly towards developing their plans and implementing the priority actions and goals developed for each plan. Several tapir conservation initiatives around the world made significant progress in 2013. Our TSG Country Coordinator for Nicaragua Christopher Jordan is expanding his work in that country and establishing a large, long-term conservation program focused on Bairds tapirs. Christopher is working in several different fronts including research (he is getting ready to capture and radio-collar tapirs), threat mitigation, in particular hunting, education and outreach. Our members in Ecuador including Armando Castellanos, Andrs Tapia Arias, Fernando Nogales, Juan Pablo Reyes, Carlos Urgils and many others continue to work tirelessly to gather information about tapirs in that country, particularly mountain tapirs. Carl Traeholt (Malaysia), Wilson Novarino (Indonesia) and Nay Myo Shwe (Myanmar) continue to work hard on researching and developing strategies for the conservation of Malayan tapirs in Southeast Asia. Here in Brazil, the work of the Lowland Tapir Conservation Initiative (coordinated by me) continues to expand and grow stronger and another project based in the Atlantic Forests of Esprito Santo State (Pr-Tapir) has just captured and radio-collared their first tapir! All very exciting news coming from the field!!! During 2013, we made significant progress on the review and update of several of our publications, particularly the TSG Field Veterinary Manual. This Manual is the single most important document developed by the TSG, and thousands of people have downloaded the manual from our website and used it widely. The new version of the Manual will be launched and made available online in early February 2014. The TSG is well on its way on the implementation Figure 1. Christopher Jordan scratching a baby tapir down for the team veterinarian, Dr. Eduardo Sacasa, to assess her health. This tapir was held illegally as a pet in rural Nicaragua and is now in good health in a rescue center.
4 of the TSG Strategic Plan 2012-2014, which includes 18 prioritized goals and 53 actions. A new 3-year Strategic Plan will be developed during the Sixth International Tapir Symposium to be held in Brazil in November 2014. As I mentioned before, the symposium will be held in Campo Grande, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul State, in the central part of Brazil, where I live and work. We have set the dates for the conference: 17-20 November, 2014, with participants arriving on the 16th and departing on the 21st. We are currently working on the local logistics of the conference here in Campo Grande and we have started our fundraising campaign. I have attended all the major zoo association conferences in 2013, including ALPZA, AZA, EAZA and WAZA and through presentations and networking we have managed to approach dozens of tapir holding zoos worldwide which are now excited to support our conference. I would like to use this opportunity to thank the AZA Tapir Taxon Advisory Group and the EAZA Tapir Taxon Advisory Group, as well as the Copenhagen Zoo in Denmark and the Houston Zoo in the United States, for their continuous support of our TSG activities. We would not be able to do much without the support from these incredible organizations! Thank you so much! We are all looking forward to meeting you in Brazil next year!!! Best from Brazil, Patrcia Medici Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG) Figure 2. Renata Santos, wildlife veterinarian working with the Lowland Tapir Conservation Initiative in Brazil and one of the editors of the new version of the TSG Field Veterinary Manual
5 CONSERVATION Camera-trap Records of Mountain Tapir in Purac National Park, Colombia Sebastin Duque Lpez 1,2 Melissa Abud 1,3 Humberto Calero Mejia 1,4 and Stephany Valderrama 1,5 1 Universidad del Valle, Fundacin Samanea, Cali, Colombia. 2 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 3 Email: email@example.com 4 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 5 Email: email@example.com Introduction M ountain tapir ( Tapirus pinchaque Roulin 1829) is one of the four species that represent the Tapiridae family in the world. It is distributed in the Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Colombian Andes (Lizcano et al 2006). It is currently classified as an endangered species by the IUCN Red List (Lizcano et al 2006) and gaps in population ecology and natural history still exist (Lizcano et al 2005). The gathering of information contributing to the local management of mountain tapir populations is essential. Purac National Park (PNP) is a protected area located in a massif where the Central and Eastern Andes Mountains of Colombia merge (Lizcano et al 2002). Mountain tapirs have been reported in the PNP by several studies describing footprints, browsing, scats and fortuitous sightings (Sandoval 2004, Sanchez 2005, Abud 2010, Hernndez-Guzmn et al 2010). Studies have described vegetation of the mountain tapir habitat and some plants found in its diet (Sanchez 2005, Acosta & Ramirez 2006, Diaz 2008, Abud 2010). The main threats to the species are habitat loss due to livestock and agriculture (Sandoval 2004, Sanchez 2005). Through camera-trapping approach we have updated the records of the mountain tapir and reported daily activity and capture frequency for the area. Based on our observations, we proposed useful body traits for individual identification. Additional records of other mammals are also reported. Materials and methods T he study was carried out within the PNP Cusiyaco Lagoon (1N 76.90W) in the southern part of the protected area, at an altitude between 3200 and 3400 meters (Figure 1). Temperature ranges between 3 and 18 C and rainfall between 1200 and 2500 mm per year. The ecosystem is classified as an ecotone between high-Andean forest and paramo (Amaya et al 2007). Twelve cameras were deployed in singular-camera stations during September-December 2010 (87 days). Camera traps consisted of heat-in motion digital cameras (Cuddeback Capture model). The distance between each camera was 350 m, which is half of the radius of the mountain tapirs home range estimated by Lizcano & Cavelier (2004). Camera batteries and memory cards were changed between 20-30 days. After the first month, six cameras were moved to enlarge the sampling area (Figure 1). Camera trap station locations were chosen based on the existence of a tapir path with footprints, scats, evidence of browsing, and the proximity to streams. The photographs were classified with the help of local mammalogists, guides and available geographical distribution for the species. Mountain tapir photographs were classified as independent events following the OBrien et al (2003) criteria. Capture frequency relative to sampling effort and daily activity were estimated using the independent events. We selected the right flank of the mountain tapir for individual identification because of the large proportion of photos including this side of the animal. Figure 1. Purac National Park (PNP) location in Colombia. Close up box shows the sampling area (solid black line) and the cameratrapping stations (triangles).
6 We compared body traits such as the swirls of hair on the snout, the presence or absence of white spots on the top of the earlobe, scars and necklines. Photographs were de-saturated and traits were overexposed as proposed by Traeholt & bin Mohamed (2009) to enhance individual identification. Results and Discussion A total of 100 photographs were taken from an overall effort of 982 camera nights. We found eight photos (8%) corresponding to human, eight false triggers (8%) and 84 (84%) wildlife recordings belonging to six mammal species and one unidentified species due to the bad quality of the photograph (Table 1). These records suggest an area of relatively high ecological integrity, and thus of high conservation value (Figure 2). Paramo and Andean forests of Cusiyaco have a complex structure and composition of vegetation, making it suitable habitat for mountain tapirs and other species. The park rangers monitoring program also reports this site as a foraging point for mountain tapirs (Amaya et al 2010). Furthermore, the Cusiyaco area and its surroundings are able to provide food resources for cougars (Hernandez-Guzmn 2010). Thus, the south of the PNP could be strategic for mountain tapir conservation due to its high connectivity with other forest tracts and national parks where the species still occurs (Lizcano et al 2002). The most frequent species in our camera-traps was the mountain tapir with 57 photos (68% of the wildlife). Overall, 37 independent records of tapir were recognized, which allowed us to estimate a capture frequency of 3.7 individuals/100 cam-night. This was quite similar to Bairds tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ) in a montane site called Valle del Silencio within La Amistad National Park with 3.6 individuals/100 cameranights (Gonzlez-Maya et al 2009). The authors of that survey associated the high frequency of tapirs at Valle del Silencio with the lower disturbance (poaching and tourist visits) in comparison to other accessible sampling in their study area. We recorded mountain tapirs throughout the day. The most frequently recorded hours were 08:00 and 15:00, both with five records. Figure 2. Mammals photographed by camera-traps in the Cusiyaco Lagoon, Purac National Park. Mountain tapir (above left), cougar (above right), spectacled bear (below left) and little red brocket deer (below right). Figure 3. Frequency of mountain tapir records at different times of the day.
At other times, we saw between one to three records per hour (Figure 3). These results were consistent with Downer (1996), who found activity peaks between 15:00 21:00 and 06:00 09:00. The data is also consistent with Lizcano & Cavelier (2004) who found that the daily activity of a male adult was related to the environmental temperature with a reduction of activity at noon and nightfall. Identifying individuals was challenging in some pictures because they were dark or were taken under foggy conditions. When there was sufficient light, however, we found a number of useful traits to identify individuals. The tips of the earlobes were helpful because both of them are observable from the right flank. However, light reflection caused by sunbeams on the fur or the camera flash can make it challenging to identify presence/absence of the characteristic white spot. Hair swirls on the snout were stronger criteria for identification, showing singular patterns in every Table 1. Occurrence of wildlife from photo recordings of camera-traps. Figure 4. Top images show body traits useful for individual identification of mountain tapir in the Cusiyaco Lagoon. The left one was characterized by white tip ears and a zig-zag mark in the snout. The middle one shows black tip ears and a two circular hair swirls on the snout. The right one shows an individual identified by black tip ears and hair swirl between the eyes. Bottom images show a female (left) and a male (right). Species Number of Photos Number of Stations with Photos IUCN Category Mountain Tapir ( Tapirus pinchaque ) 57 11 EN Little Red Brocket Deer ( Mazama rufina ) 10 7 VU Spectacled Bear ( Tremarctos ornatus ) 8 5 VU Cougar ( Puma concolor ) 4 4 LC Mountain Coati ( Nasuella olivacea ) 2 2 DD Tapeti ( Sylvilagus brasiliensis ) 2 2 LC
8 picture, some of them consistent in various records and confirmed by earlobe tips and other marks such as scars (Figure 4). Scars, on the other hand, were difficult to observe due to the species dense fur, especially when the animals were wet. Necklines were highly variable depending on the camera flashlight, even when the image was over-exposed. There are no reports in the literature on useful features for recognition of mountain tapir individuals in photographs before this study. Additional characteristics such as spots on the face, stomach and on the tail were useful in the individual identification of lowland tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) in the Chaco (Noss et al 2003). However we were unable to use the same traits in mountain tapirs. Finally, we were able to identify a male and a female from photographs of the back. But we were unable to assign them back to an individual, as their right flanks were not clearly visible from this angle (Figure 4). Our results suggest that the PNP in an important region for the conservation of mountain tapir and mammals of the Northern Andes. We strongly encourage continued research and conservation action in this area. Acknowledgement W e thank the Conservation Leadership Programme (CLP) for the support, training and funding of this research. To Purac National Park officers and park rangers for their support. To WCS Colombia, PANTHERA Colombia, Fundacin Zoolgica de Cali and Universidad del Valle, Professors Alba Marina Torres and Germn Corredor for their training and help in carrying out the camera-trapping survey. References Abud, M. 2010. Descripcin de la vegetacin consumida y caracterizacin del hbitat usado por la danta de montaa ( Tapirus pinchaque ) en un bosque altoandino, Parque Nacional Natural Purac. B.Sc.Dissertation. Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. Acosta, S. P. & Ramrez, C. L. 2006. Informe preliminar de la relacin entre elementos del hbitat y las actividades de la danta de montaa ( Tapirus pinchaque ) en un sector del PNN Purac. Unpublished Report, Parque Nacional Natural Purac, Popayn, Colombia. Amaya. M.T. & A. L. Mosquera. 2010. Informe del monitoreo de mamferos en el Parque Nacional Purac. Manuscrito interno. 80p. Diaz, L.T. 2008. Estudio de la dieta de Tapirus pinchaque en San Agustn Huila como insumo para la liberacin de Poncho. Trabajo de pregrado para optar al ttulo de Bilogo. Bogot Colombia, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. 89p. Downer, C. C. 1996. The mountain tapir, endangered flagship species of the high Andes. Oryx 30:45-58. Downer, C. C. 2003. mbito hogareo y utilizacin de hbitat del tapir andino e ingreso de ganado en el parque nacional Sangay, Ecuador. Lyonia 4:31-34. Gonzlez-Maya, J., Schipper, J. & Rojas-Jimnez, K. 2009. Elevation distribution and abundance of Bairds tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ) at different protection areas in Talamanca region of Costa Rica. Tapir Conservation 18:29-35. Hernndez-Guzmn A., Payn, E. & Monroy-Vilchis O. 2011. Hbitos alimentarios del Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) en el parque nacional natural Purac. Revista de Biologia Tropical 59(3): 1285 -1294 Lizcano, D. J. & Cavelier, J.. 2000. Daily and seasonal activity of the mountain tapir ( Tapirus pinchaque ) in the Central Andes of Colombia. Journal of Zoology 252:429-435. Lizcano, D. J. & Cavelier J. 2004. Using GPS collars to study Mountain Tapirs ( Tapirus pinchaque ) in the Central Andes of Colombia. Tapir Conservation 13:1823. Lizcano, D., Guarnizo, A. Suarez, J. Florez F.K. & Montenegro, O. 2006. Danta de Pramo Tapirus pinchaque In: J. V. Rodrguez-M., M. Alberico., F. Trujillo & J. Jorgenson. (eds.). Libro rojo de los Mamferos de Colombia. Conservacin Internacional Colombia, Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, Bogot, Colombia. Lizcano, D. J., E. P. Medici, O. L. Montenegro, L. Carrillo, A. Camacho, & P. Miller. 2005. Mountain Tapir conservation workshop: final report. Tapir Specialist Group & IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN, US. Lizcano, D. J., Pizarro, V. Cavelier, J. & Carmona, J. 2002. Geographic Distribution and Population Size of the Mountain Tapir ( Tapirus pinchaque ) in Colombia. Journal of Biogeography 29:7-15. Noss, A. J., Cullar, R. L., Barrientos, J., Maffei, L. Cullar, E., Arispe, R., Rmiz, D. & K. Rivero. 2003. A camera trapping and radio telemetry study of Lowland Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) in Bolivian dry forests. Tapir Conservation 12:24-32. Obrien, T. G.., Kinnaird, M. F. & Wibisono, H. T.. 2003. Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Animal Conservation 6:131-139. Snchez, F. 2005. Estudio preeliminar para la conservacin de la danta de montaa ( Tapirus pinchaque ) en el municipio de Purac, Corregimiento de Paletar, Cauca. Reporte final. Unpublished Report, CRC-CREA, Fundacin Zoolgica de Cali, Cali Colombia. Sandoval, S. 2005. Evaluacin preliminar del estado poblacional de la danta de montaa en el sector norte del PNN Purac, Cauca, Colombia. Proyecto Piloto, Unpublished Report. Fundacin Zoolgica de Cali, Cali Colombia. Traeholt, C. & bin Mohamed, M. S. 2009. Population estimates of Malay Tapir, Tapirus indicus by camera trapping in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapir Conservation 18:12-20.
9 First Report of Positive Serological Response to the Hemoparasite, Babesia caballi in Mountain Tapir Armando X. Castellanos P. 1,2 1 IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, Ecuador. 2 Andean Bear Foundation. Pasaje S24B, Oe5-142, La Isla, Quito, Ecuador. email:firstname.lastname@example.org S ix mountain tapir ( Tapirus pinchaque ) were captured and fitted with Iridium / GPS collars for ecological research in Cayambe National Park, Ecuador (Castellanos, 2011). One of the wild tapirs captured in this study, named Dante, tested positive results for antibodies specific to the Babesia caballi identified by Laboratorios Livex (Quito, Ecuador). This is the first report of positive serological response to this hemoparasite in the blood of this tapir species. This hemoparasite could have been transmitted by one of a great diversity of tick species identified by Pesquera et al (2013) in the study area. It appears that Dante overcame the piroplasmosis caused by this hemoparasite and apparently has maintained a healthy condition; his movements were monitored for 259 days after taking the blood sample. A rescued semi captive mountain tapir calf, named Leo, in the Antisana Ecological Reserve (Gomez et al ., 2013) was found to be infected with Babesia sp hemoparasites (Fig 1). A second examination confirmed this infection and also identified the presence of Anaplasma sp (Ortega, 2013). The University of Chiapas veterinarian Dr. Dario Marcelino Giris (pers comm), however, believes that the diagnosis of anaplasmosis could actually be the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies in the bloodstream, for which he has recommended further analysis for confirmation. As both animals in which the parasite was identified are still alive and purportedly doing well, perhaps the tapir serves as an asymptomatic host carrier for Babesia spp and only immunosuppressed animals succumb from infection with these hemoparasites. Transmission of diseases between tapirs and cattle has been previously documented (Medici et al ., 2007). Pesquera (2013) identified bacteria of the genus Anaplasma and Rickettsia in our study area that pose a potential risk of transmission of diseases with important veterinary and public health consequences. Jessica Amanzo (pers comm) reported two episodes of foot and mouth disease in the north of Peru that killed mountain tapirs between 25 and 50 years ago. The likelihood of cross-infection is greatly increased by the encroachment of livestock grazing areas into tapir habitat, which could lead to increased mortality rates in tapirs. The lack of information about diseases, parasites, vectors and microorganisms affecting the mountain tapir is alarming and requires further research to understand their effect on the tapirs health and population viability and contribute to management strategies. References Castellanos, A. (2011). Captura y marcaje de tapires andinos para monitoreo biolgico en la cuenca del rio Papallacta, Napo, Ecuador. In Memorias de las XXXV Jornadas Nacionales de Biologa y. I Congreso Ecuatoriano de Mastozoologa. pp 209-210. Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Biologa Ncleo de Pichincha, Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador. Gomez, L., Urcuango, R., Romero, A., Urgiles, C. & Gallo, F. (2013). Manejo semi-in situ de tapir de montaa ( Tapirus pinchaque ), en la localidad de Cuyuja, Reserva Ecolgica Antisana. Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de TapiresSegundo Congreso Ecuatoriano de Mastozoologa, pp 109. Puyo Pastaza, Ecuador. Medici, E.P., Mangini, P.R. & Sarria-Perea, J.A. (2007). Tapir Field Veterinary Manual (English, Spanish, Portuguese). IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG). Available online in English, Portuguese and Spanish at www. tapirs.org. Ortega, A. (2013). Caso Tapir de Montaa ( Tapirus pinchaque ) de Cuyuja. Informe no publicado. Hospital Docente Veterinario Universidad San Francisco, Fondo Tueri. Cumbaya, Ecuador. Pesquera, C., Palomar, A.M., Portillo, A., Venzal ,J.M. & Oteo, J. A. (2013). Estudio de garrapatas de tapires Andinos, ganado bovino y vegetacin, y de las bacte rias que vinculan en un rea protegida de Ecuador. Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de TapiresSegundo Congreso Ecuatoriano de Mastozoologa, pp 132-133. Puyo Pastaza, Ecuador. Figure 1. Microscopic image of the blood sample obtained from Leo, the young Andean tapir (below left). On the right, some red blood cells infected with Babesia sp (see yellow arrow).
Tapir Conservation Trundles Forward in Belize Jamal Andrewin-Bohn 1 1 The Belize Zoo & Tropical Education Center, P.O. Box 178, Belmopan, Belize, Central America, email@example.com I t is safe to say that 2013 is the Year of the Tapir at The Belize Zoo & Tropical Education Center. As the institution enters its 30th year, it continues to strive to remain dynamic and consistent in its wildlife conservation work. Efforts focused on the Central American Tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ) are no exception. These efforts began with the reimaging for a section of the Zoo, now designated as Tapir Town. Here, visitors are able to view and interact with several of the resident tapirs at the Zoo, and appreciate new education signage and displays, aimed at building awareness about the natural history and biology of the tapir species, as well as the threats they face in Belize. These displays include an intact skeleton of an adult specimen on exhibit in a glass case, horse and tapir skull displays as a nod to their sister species, and several information boards drawing attention to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Celso Poot, Operations Manager at The Belize Zoo, has been carrying out independent research on roadside ecology, focusing on the rising number of tapir fatalities by vehicular collisions. Following the documented deaths and body recoveries of tapirs between 2009-2012, Celso has been able to mark the collision points along the Burrel Boom road, a highly trafficked highway in the Belize District, and map them via satellite imagery. Through his work, we produced a large display banner mapping on a satellite image the points of tapir fatalities along the highway. The banner is now a part of the displays in Tapir Town. A total of 13 tapirs are represented on the map, and that number continues to rise in 2013. In response to this alarming occurrence, and with approval and support from the Belizean Ministry of Works, tapir crossing road signs were erected at three major collision points, or hot spots on the Burrel Boom road. A replica of the tapir crossing sign was added to the Tapir Town section of the Zoo, accompanied by images of the roadside fatalities, and a message calling for motorists to be more aware of the potential for wildlife encounters on the highways. Following the opening of Tapir Town, were celebrations for National Tapir Day, on April 27th. A proposal from The Belize Zoo to establish National Tapir Day in Belize was received and approved by the office of the Belizean Prime Minister in 2012. Official celebrations are now carried out every April 27th at Zoo, to coincide with World Tapir Day. The objective is to involve parents and children in a day of education, awareness, and cultural pride, with the focal point being the National Animal of Belize, the tapir. Over 300 students, teachers and specially invited guests were in attendance for the 2013 celebrations. One key Bumper sticker exhibiting slogan created by Belizean students to commemorate the 30 TH birthday of April the Central American Tapir Fuego the orphaned C.American Tapir with Belize Zoo keeper, George Choc in May 2013.
11 celebration was that of the 30th birthday of April the tapir, who has been recognized as the oldest living female tapir in captivity. Her birthday celebration has been an annual event at the Zoo since 1983, and has proven to be invaluable in instilling understanding, appreciation and respect for her species in the Belizean people. An important moment in the days events was the unveiling of an enlarged double image of April as a calf in 1983, befriending Claire Gibson, a long time friend and supporter of the Zoo, next to an image of both April and Claire reuniting for the first time in 2013, several weeks before Aprils 30th The image summarized the Zoos mission for the past 30 years, which is to bring locals and visitors in touch with the native wildlife of Belize, and make the effect long lasting, and applicable to future generations. Youth groups in attendance were given an opportunity to showcase their talent in honour of National Tapir Day, and added to the festivities with musical and athletic presentations, by a local high school steel band, and tumblers association, respectively. In addition, three young women from a primary school in the Cayo district were honoured for their contributions to a slogan competition that was run countrywide. Their submission was chosen to be added to the commemorative bumper sticker that was created for the event: Years of A ppreciation, P rotection, R espect, I ntegrity, and L ove: Happy 30th Birthday, APRIL the Tapir! A new tapir conservation poster, funded by a grant awarded by the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG), was also issued to everyone in attendance. The Zoos education department is now distributing the poster, along with the commemorative bumper sticker, and a childrens book focused on Tambo, a rescued tapir now living at the Zoo, to the over 300 registered schools in the country. All these efforts received nationwide coverage by the three major media stations in the country, as well as through social media, and newspaper articles. In May, The Belize Zoo saw the acquisition of an orphaned juvenile tapir, approximately 1-2 months in age. The calf was separated from its mother during a forest fire in the Cayo district; one of many that the nation saw throughout the months of March to May. The fires were, in many cases, reported to be intentionally and carelessly set by humans, and were so severe that health advisories were issued by the Belizean Ministry of Health. The tapir calf was brought to the zoo by a concerned citizen, after he observed the calf alone for a full day, making distress calls by the side of a road. Due to the nature of his origin, the calf was named Fuego, and will feature prominently in efforts to promote fire ecology education and responsible burning practices for the next dry season (December 2013-May 2014). The working slogan for the upcoming fire ecology efforts is No more Fuegos! , calling for an end to unsustainable burning practices to help prevent other animals, like Fuego, from becoming orphaned or killed due to wildfires. Timepiece photo used as centerpiece for 2013 National Tapir Day celebrations at The Belize Zoo. One of two main activities for 2013 National Tapir Day at The Belize Zoo that showcased talented Belizean youth, a special performance by the Belize Tumblers Association
12 Identifying an Effective Treatment for Corneal Ulceration in Captive Tapirs Mari-Ann O. Da Silva 1 Catalina Hermoza 2 Gianmarco Rojas 2 and J. Michelle Freundt 2,3 1 Centre for Zoo and Wild Animal Health, Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark 2 Parque Zoolgico Huachipa, Peru 3 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract C aptive tapirs often exhibit debilitating eye disease, frequently in the form of corneal ulcerations. Despite the fact that this is a wellknown condition, only few treatments have been established for this disease in tapirs. Here we describe a treatment protocol that successfully treated corneal ulcers and prevented loss of eyesight in captive-held South American tapirs. Two female South American tapirs ( Tapirus terrestris ), held at Huachipa Zoological Park, were diagnosed with corneal ulcerations. They were treated with an eye gel containing deproteinized calf serum along with antibiotic eye drops. This is a treatment that has been validated in other animals and in humans. Improvement was visible already within 48 hours. Within one to two weeks, the ulcerations had disappeared. Keywords : Cornea, eye, tapir, treatment, ulceration Introduction C ase reports generated by various professionals associated with zoological institutions have described ocular lesions in birds, reptiles and mammals (Schmidt & Toft, 1981; Montiani-Ferreira, 2001). The pathologies most commonly diagnosed include cataracts, panophthalmitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, retinal degeneration and microphthalmia (Schmidt & Toft, 1981). Keratitis is frequently reported in captive held tapir species ( Tapiridae ) with ocular problems including the Malayan tapir ( Tapirus indicus ) and the South American tapir ( T. terrestris ) (Montiani-Ferreira, 2001). The affected eyes typically demonstrate corneal opacification and ulceration as well as conjunctival inflammation (Montiani-Ferreira, 2001). The lesions are thought to be most likely caused by trauma and aggravated by relative overexposure to UV light (Ramsay, 1993). This hypothesis is based on the observation that keratitis is found relatively infrequently in freeranging tapirs that live in dense tropical jungles with little exposure to direct sunlight. On the other hand, virtually every affected captive individual is exposed to an excessive amount of sunlight (Ramsay, 1993). Regardless of cause, management of corneal diseases in captive wild mammals typically follows similar treatment protocols to those used in domesticated animals (Montiani-Ferreira, 2001). This paper discusses the diagnosis and treatment of corneal ulcers in two captive-held South American tapirs. Statement of the Problem A six-year-old female South American tapir kept at the Huachipa Zoological Park was presented with a deep corneal ulceration of the right eye approximately six mm in diameter (Fig. 1A). Seven months later, another female tapir was seen to have a similar, but slightly smaller lesion also of the right eye. This ulcer was measured at four mm in diameter (Fig. 1B). Both animals showed clinical signs of excessive tear production in the affected eye. The first animal also displayed involuntary closing of the eyelids, indicating discomfort of the eye. A positive fluorescein test in both cases led to the diagnosis of a corneal ulcer. Based on the severity of the clinical signs, decisions were made to sedate the animals in order to perform a thorough eye examination. The tapirs were immobilized with ketamine (4mg/kg IM), dexmedetomidine (0.015 mg/kg
13 IM) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg IM). Once recumbent, the eyes were examined for further evaluation. In both cases, assessment of the ocular surrounding structures was unremarkable. Slit lamp biomicroscopy demonstrated diffuse corneal edema with a central area of epithelial and stromal loss six mm in diameter in the first tapir and four mm in diameter in the second case. Fundoscopy revealed a retina with normal appearance. Fluorescein staining was positive and corneal stromal loss of approximately 50% in both animals. In the first, more severe case, superficial corneal neovascularization was present, but did not extend to the margins of the corneal defect. Cytology and bacterial culture data from the first individual revealed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa an opportunistic pathogen of animal skin. This gram negative organism is naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, and topically applied aminoglycosides such as gentamycin and tobramycin are the drugs of choice for treatment of the cornea. The bacterial culture of the second tapir was negative. As part of a standard ocular examination, intraocular structures were examined by the use of high frequency ultrasound (Accutome B-Scan imaging, probe frequency 15 MHz) with a gel stand-off. Anterior and posterior chambers were found to be free of apparent inflammatory or other changes. Description of the Process T reatment of the first animal consisted of topical ophthalmic solutions of tobramycin sulphate (Trazil Ofteno 3 mg/ml) 1-2 drops every four hours, diclofenac sodium (3-A Ofteno 1 mg/ml) 1-2 drops every eight hours and deproteinized calf serum (Solcoseryl Ophthalmic Gel 10%) 1 cm of gel every eight hours. When multiple treatments fell at the same time, five minutes separated the application of the various medications. The second individual was treated similarly with tobramycin sulphate and deproteinized calf serum. As the second animal did not show signs of pain or discomfort, diclofenac sodium was not prescribed. Due to the difficulty in applying topical eye drops in an very vertically set eye, all solutions were applied through a flexible intravenous catheter (Abbocat no. 22) connected to a tuberculin syringe at the medial canthus (Fig. 2). The protocol was administered for a period of thirty days. Animal training facilitated management and handling of the animals for application of the topical solutions and fluorescein testing. Furthermore, eye examinations were carried out every seven days. Due to the overall well-being of the animals, systemic treatments were not initiated. In the first animal, discomfort and tear production decreased considerably after the first 48 hours of therapy. After the first week, the ulcer had diminished to approximately three mm in diameter based on fluorescein staining and slit lamp biomicroscopy. Corneal edema was limited to the area immediately surrounding the ulcer (Fig. 3). Two weeks following initiation of treatment, the fluorescein test was negative (Fig. 4) and the lesion was covered with epithelium. In the second animal, tear production similarly decreased after 48 hours of therapy and the ulcer was reduced by 50% in diameter following the initial week of treatment. After termination of medicinal treatment, the eyes received one drop of hypertonic saline (5%) twice daily for thirty days to eliminate the remaining corneal edema. Evaluation of the Process C orneal ulceration is one of the most commonly diagnosed ocular lesions in wild animals held in captivity (Montiani-Ferreira, 2001). The treatment success is highly dependent on establishing a correct protocol at an early stage. Failure to do so may result in corneal perforation and loss of vision or the eye. Ideally, before establishing an antimicrobial treatment protocol, ulcers should be assessed with cytology and/or culture to determine correct antibiotic use (Montiani-Ferreira, 2001). Figure 1. Corneal ulcer of the right eye of two Tapirus terrestris. A. Diameter of ulcer is approx. six mm. Note the neovascularization originating from the limbus and proceeding towards the lesion. B. Diameter of ulcer is approx. four mm and neovascularization is less evident. Figure 2. A flexible endovenous catheter (Abbocat no. 22) with a tuberculin syringe used as a lavage system to allow easy application of topical eye medications to the surface of the eye.
14 Acknowledgements T he authors acknowledge the assistance of Lizette Bermudez of the Parque Zoolgico Huachipa. References Al-Watban, F.A.H. & Andres, B.L. 2001. The effect of He-Ne laser and Solcoseryl in vitro. Lasers in Medical Science 16:267-275. Brooks, D.E. 1999. Equine Ophthalmology. In: K.N. Gelatt (ed.) Veterinary Ophthalmology 3rd edition, pp.10531116. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA. Brooks, D.E. 2002. Proceedings of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 48:313-315. Egger S.F., Huber-Spitzy, V., Alzner, E., Scholda, C. & Vecsei, V.P. 1999. Corneal wound healing after superficial for eign body injury: vitamin A and dexpanthenol versus a calf blood extract: a randomized double-blind study. Ophthalmologica 213:246-249. Montiani-Ferreira, F. 2001. Ophthalmology. In: M.E. Fowler & Z.S. Cubas (eds.) Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, pp.437-456. Iowa State University Press, Iowa, USA. Ramsay, E.C. 1993. Infectious diseases of the rhinoceros and tapir. In: M.E. Fowler (ed.) Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, pp.459-466. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, USA. Schmidt, R.E. & Toft II, J.D. 1981. Ophthalmic lesions in animals from a zoological collection. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 17:267-275. The use of calf serum is documented in human and domestic animal medicine in order to shorten recovery time and promote healing of the cornea especially when there is no response to conventional treatment (Egger et al ., 1999). In equine medicine, the treatment of corneal ulcers often consists of a combination of topical antibiotic and (often oral) analgesic/anti-inflammatory therapy combined with autologous serum (Brooks, 1999, 2002). Ophthalmic gel containing deproteinized calf blood activates aerobic metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation thus increasing the intake of oxygen and glucose transport in metabolically weakened hypoxic cells (Al-Watban & Andres, 2001). Its use in the management of corneal ulceration is based on the same principles as the use of autologous serum. Serum improves reparation and regeneration of the corneal stroma by facilitating epithelialization: squamous metaplasia is diminished through the action of vitamin A; antiproteases such as alpha2 macroglobulin inhibit collagenase activity and substance P facilitates epithelial migration. The ophthalmic gel was chosen over autologous serum in these cases as it was readily at hand and positive results had been experienced when used as treatment of corneal ulcers in domestic animals. There have never been reports on the use of autologous serum for the treatment of corneal ulcers in tapirs. No irritation or other complications with the topical medications were observed. These cases demonstrate the satisfactory inclusion in therapy of deproteinized calf blood extract in the management of corneal ulcers in captive wild animals, specifically two South American tapirs. Though it cannot be definitively determined if treatment expedited healing, the calf serum was well tolerated and the ulcerations healed well without complications. Deproteinized calf blood extract is presumed to act in this species similarly to that in humans and domestic animals. Figure 3. The eye of the first tapir a week after initiating treatment. Blood vessels in the cornea are still present but to a lesser extent. The cornea stains fluorescein positive in a horizontal band. Figure 4. The eye of the first tapir two weeks after diagnosis. The cornea remains clouded but is fluorescein negative, as the ulcer is now covered with epithelium.
15 Immobilization of Bairds Tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ) Using Thiafenthanil Oxalate (A-3080) in Combination with Xylazine and Ketamine Jonathan Prez Flores 1,2 1 Africam Safari. km 16.5 Boulevard Capitn Carlos Camacho s/n, Valsequillo, Puebla. C.P. 72960. E-mail: email@example.com 2 El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Av. Centenario km 5.5, Chetumal, Quintana Roo. C.P. 77014. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract A wide variety of drug combinations have been used to immobilize captive and free ranging tapirs. Most of these anesthetic procedures combine opioids with alpha 2 agonists, cyclohexamines or neuroleptic agents. Thiafentanil oxalate (A3080) is a synthetic opioid that has been used in several species of non-domestic hoofstock. Its effects have not been previously described on Bairds Tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ). This study reports the use of a combination of thiafentanil oxalate (1 mg/100 kg), xylazine (1 mg/kg) and ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) (TXK) in two adult tapirs, and a combination of thiafentanil (1 mg/100 kg) and xylazine (0.70 mg/ kg) (TX) in another adult tapir. The individuals receiving TXK were reversed with naltrexone (10 mg/mg thiafentanil) and yohimbine (0.125 mg/ kg), while those receiving TX was reversed with naltrexone (10 mg/mg thiafentanil) and atipamezole (1 mg/10 mg xylazine). The induction time was 3-5 min, the recovery time was 4-5 min and the total time of anesthesia was 40-120 min. Physiological parameters are similar to those reported in studies that include opioids in the anesthetic protocol. The TX combination produced low oxygen saturation values that recquired suplemmentary oxygen. In conclusion, TXK and TX provided a fast and smooth induction and recovery time. Additionally TXK is an effective and safe option to immobilize wild and captive animals with poor body condition. Keywords : A-3080, immobilization, opioids, Bairds tapir, thiafentanil. Introduction S ince 1960s opioids have been used for immobilizing large and heavy animals. The three most commonly used in wildlife medicine are fentanyl, etorphine and carfentanil (Kreeger, 1997). These drugs have been combined with alpha-two agonists, butyrophenones, benzodiazepines, phenotiazines and cyclohexamines in order to reduce adverse effects (Caulkett et al ., 2000; Ramdohr et al ., 2001; Roffe et al ., 2001; Miller et al ., 2003; Lance, 2012). In the last 20 years thiafentanil oxalate (A-3080), a highly potent opioid, has demonstrated its efficacy to immobilize non-domestic hoofed species such as nyala ( Nyala angasii ; Cooper et al ., 2005), impala ( Aepyceros melampus ; Janssen et al .,1991), greater kudu ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros ), African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ), klipspringer ( Oreotragus oreotragus ), eland ( Taurotragus oryx ), waterbuck ( Kobus ellipsiprymnus ), elk ( Cervus canadiensis ), oribi ( Ourebia ourebi ), reedbuck ( Redunca sp ; Lance and Kenny, 2012), pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana ; Kreeger et al ., 2001), Uganda kob ( Kobus kob thomasi ; Caulkett et al ., 2006), mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus ; Caulkett et al ., 2006; Wolfe et al ., 2004), Tibetan yak ( Bos grunniens ; Alcantar et al ., 2007), Roan antelope ( Hippotragus equinus ; Citino et al ., 2001), giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis ; Citino et al ., 2006), gemsbok ( Oryx gazella ; Grobler et al ., 2001), axis deer ( Axis axis ; Smith et al ., 2005), Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni ; Stanley et al ., 1988), rhebok ( Pelea caoreolus ; Howard et al ., 2004), gaur ( Bos gaurus ; Napier et al ., 2007) and Lichtensteins hartebeest ( Sigmoceros lichtensteinii ; Citino et al ., 2002). The shortened induction time and the larger safety margin are the principal advantages of thiafentanil compared to other opiods (Lance and Kenny, 2012; Wolfe et al ., 2004). However, when it is used as the sole agent, thiafentanil can induce muscle rigidity (Grobler et al ., 2001). The combination of thiafentanil with alpha-two agonists and ketamine induces a good quality anesthesia with minimal disturbance of physiologic parameters, and improves muscle relaxation and analgesia (Grobler et al ., 2001; Cittino et al 2006). Although Lance (2012) mentioned that Perissodactyla remain refractory to this drug, the immobilization of rhinoceros in the field is becoming more common in Africa. In the case of tapirs, the effects of thiafentanil have
16 not been previously described, and most anesthetic protocols for these species are based on opioids such as etorphine (Pars et al ., 1996; Kreeger, 1997; Lambethh, 1998) carfentanil ( MillerEdge and Ansel, 1994), and butorphanol (Trim et al ., 1998; Foerster et al ., 2000; Velastin, 2004; Hernandez-Divers et al ., 2005; Tobler et al ., 2006; Bernal et al ., 2008). The anesthetic protocol preferred may depend on where the animal is going to be capture, drug availability and the experience of the personnel who perform the immobilization. Here, we report data from four immobilizations of Bairds tapir in Mexico using thiafentanil. Materials and methods T he study was conducted at three different sites in Mexico. The first two immobilizations were realized at Payo Obispo Zoo in Chetumal, Quintana Roo (18 31 17.72 N and 88 18 9.73W). An adult male (Total Body Weight, TBW= 161 kg) rescued from a fire in the locality of Nuevo Tabasco was brought to the facilities of the zoo for a clinical evaluation. The specimen was anesthetized twice in six months (June-December 2011). The third immobilization was done in the village of Emiliano Zapata, near Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (CBR), Campeche (18 31 16.92 N and 89 40 32.94 W). An adult male tied by the villagers (estimated weight 150kg) was translocated to the core area of the reserve. The last immobilization was made at Africam Safari zoo in Puebla (18 56 8.94 N and 98 7 59.69 W). An adult female (TBW= 212 kg) was immobilized for clinical examination. The first three immobilizations were performed with a combination of thiafentanil A-3080 (1 mg/100 kg; Thianil, Wildlife Pharmaceuticals Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado,USA), xylazine (1 mg/kg; Cervizine, Wildlife Pharmaceuticals Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado,USA ) and ketamine (0.5 mg/kg; various sources). This cocktail was delivered intramuscularly (IM) via single use, 3 ml darts shot from a CO2-powered rifle (Dan Inject). In all applications, A-3080 was antagonized with the use of naltrexone HCl (IM; 10 mg to every one mg of thiafentanil delivered; trexonil, Wildlife Pharmaceuticals Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado,USA ), and xylazine was antagonized with yohimbine (IM; 0.125mg/kg; various sources). For the last anesthethic procedure we used a combination of A-3080 (1 mg/100 kg) and xylazine (0.70 mg/kg; Procin Equus, Laboratorios PISA farmaceutica, Mexico). A-3080 was antagonized with the same dose of naltrexone used for the three previous cases, while xylazine was antagonized with atipamezole (1 mg to every 10 mg of xylazine delivered; Antisedan, Pfizer). The drugs were delivered IM, with a 3ml dart shot from a CO2-powered blow pipe (Dan Inject). We recorded induction time (period elapsed between injection and sternal recumbency), recovery Average values Payo Obispo (M) 1st Immobilization TXK Payo Obispo (M) 2nd Immobilization TXK Zapata (M) TXK Africam Safari (F) TX Induction time (min) 4 5 4 3 Total time of anesthesia (min) 106 94 120 40 Recovery time (min) 5 5 5 4 Body temperature (C) 36.9-37.9 36.2 33.4-37.8 3737.2 Respiration rate (bpm) 13-19 20-24 45536 43374 Heart Rate (bpm) 33-75 51-84 86-128 54-101 Oxygen saturation (%) 80-90 86-94 49-89 Table 1. Basic anesthetic parameters of four immobilizations of Tapirus bairdii with TXK and TX T=Thiafentanil; X=Xylazine; K=Ketamine; M=Male; F=Female Figure 1. Intramuscular administration of the antagonists in the second immobilization at Payo Obispo zoo. Photo: Payo Obispo zoo
time (period elapsed between the administration of the antagonists and stand up), heart rate, respiration rate, rectal temperature and oxygen saturation. Results T he first two immobilizations were performed in the same animal with the combination of TXK and reverted with naltrexone and yohimbine. The first time the individual was skinny, dehydrated, debilitated and not responsive. A clinical examination was necessary to determine the health status of the tapir. For the second immobilization the animal had gained 20 kg (TBW=170 kg), and the procedure was shorter (first 106 min and second 94 min). The induction time of the two events was 4-5 min, and the recovery time 5 min. Physiologic values were stable and no suplemmentary drugs were needed (Table 1). The tapir immobilized at Emiliano Zapata presented a poor body condition and had been under a prologend period of stress (tied for 20 hrs), was anesthetised and reverted with the same doses described before. The induction time was 4 min and the recovery time 5 min. In this case the total elapsed time was longer (120 min), due to the translocation of the individual from the village to the core area of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (30 km in straight line). During the final minutes the animal began to make slight movements of the head. Once the reversal agents were administered, the individual stood up and walked away through the jungle, after 8 days of the immobilization, the radiocollared tapir was observed a few kilometers from the release point exhibiting normal behaviour. In all the cases, TXK produced a safe and effective immobilization with minimum alterations of physiological parameters (heart rate, respiration rate and body temperature). For the last anesthethic procedure we used a TX combination. The induction time (3 min) and recovery time (4 min) were shorter than the other anesthetic events. Physiologic values were generally stable, although low oxygen saturation values sometimes occurred (49% to 89%; Table 1). After two hours of observation the individual behaviour was normal, no alterations or health problems were observed in subsequent eight weeks. Both anesthetic protocols allowed morphometric measures to be taken, as well as blood samples, swabs for microbiological analysis, tissue samples, fecal samples, collect ectoparasites and in the case of the translocated tapir, we also placed a radiocollar. Discussion O ne objective of this study was to evaluate the physiologic effects of this cocktail in Bairds tapir. The combination of TXK shows to be effective for immobilizing captive and free-ranging tapirs. Compared with previous studies the combination of thiafentanil with an alpha 2 agonist and ketamine produced a Table 2. Comparison of anesthetic parameters of different immobilizations using opioids T=Thiafentanil; X=Xylazine; K=Ketamine; C=Carfentanil; E=Etorphine; A=Acetylpromazine; D=Detomidine; AM= Acepromazine maleate; B=Butorphanol. Figure 2. Placing the pulse oximeter to monitor oxygen saturation and pulse from an immobilized tapir with TXK at Payo Obispo zoo. Photo: Payo Obispo zoo Average values This study TXK Miller et al ., 1994 CXK Pars et al ., 1996 EA Hernandez-Divers et al .,1998 BX Pollock, 2003 DC Lira et al ., 2008 EAM Number of individuals (n) 3 6 5 16 1 4 Induction time (min) 3-5 5.5 3-6 5-34 3.5-18.35 3 Total time of immobilization (min) 40-120 106.3 40.5 13-60 10-20 60 Recovery time (min) 4-5 4.3 4 0-26 2-5 Body temperature (C) 36.2-37.9 37-37.4 35.5-38.6 36.4-37.2 Respiration rate (bpm) 10-24 13 12-27.5 8-50 12-15 Heart rate (bpm) 33-101 82.5 28-108 40-55
18 good quality anesthesia with minimal disturbance of physiologic parameters (Citino et al ., 2001; Grobler et al ., 2001). Induction time was similar to those already reported when opioids were used in tapirs (Miller et al ., 1994; Pars et al .,1996; Lira et al ., 2008)(Table 2). This is one of the principal advantages that narcotics have in comparison to the combination of butorphanol with an alpha-2-adrenergic, and the combination of tiletamina-zolazepam with an alpha-2-adrenergic and atropine in which induction time is of 15 to 20 minutes (Foerster et al ., 2000; Velastin et al ., 2004; HernandezDivers et al ., 2007). This characteristic is desirable in the anesthesia of free-ranging animals where habitat conditions are dangerous. In comparison with other protocols that present premature arousals and need the administration of supplementary drugs like ketamine (Foerster et al ., 2000; Hernandez-Divers et al ., 2007) this combination could be used for short and long immobilizations (total time of anesthesia 40-120 min) without the addition of supplementary drugs. Lance and Kenny (2012) reported spontaneous recovery in Elk in 27 to 106 minutes from an initial dose of thiafentanil oxalate without the use of an antagonist. In the case of the tapir immobilized in Zapata, after 100 minutes of being administered the cocktail, the animal started to move its head and be more alert. This is likely due to a low dosage and the rapid absorption and fast metabolism of the components. Recovery was quick and uneventful in all animals. The shorter recovery time (3 min) was associated with the use of atipamezole which is more potent and more selective than yohimbine (Kreeger et al ., 1997). This is an important consideration when we are designing the anesthethic protocol for immobilizing tapirs in risky habitats, in our experience the combination of butorphanol and xylazine have a prolonged recovery time (15 min), which increases the risk of drowning, injury or predation. There are few reports on the immobilization of cachectic and underweight tapirs (Hernandez-Divers et al ., 2005). In this study two animals presented poor physical condition, however immobilization produced by TXK demonstrated to be safe and adequate in these cases. The use of opioids to immobilize free-ranging animals is common, they produce rapid induction, are fully reversible and have minimal disturbance of physiologic parameteres. In tapirs its use is controversial, Janssen (2003) mentioned that the poor oxygen saturation and the risk to personnel were the principal reasons for the decrease in the use of these narcotics. The combination of thiafentanil with other drugs appears to be an alternative for captive and free ranging tapirs, further studies are necessary to know all the physiologic effects of thiafentanil in all Perissodactyls. Acknowledgements T his work was a collaboration between El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, University of Sherbrooke, Africam Safari Zoo and Payo Obispo Zoo. The author thanks to Ph D Sophie Calm and Ph D Rafael Reyna for the early revisions of this work. I am very grateful with the capture team: Mauro Sanvicente, Nicolas Arias, Natalia Carrillo, Antonio Jasso and Marcos Briseo. Special thanks for the authorities of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve especially Jose Zuiga and Miguel Alvaro for substantial support in the case of Zapata. Thanks for all the personnel of Africam Safari and the Payo Obispo Zoo. I would also like to thank DVM Ivonne Cassaigne for the help and tips about immobilization. References Alcantar, B.E., McClean, M., Chirife, A.D., et al. 2007. Immobilization of Tibetan yak ( Bos gunnies ) using A3080 (Thiafentanil) and xylazine in a wildlife park. In Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference. pp. 47-48. Bernal, L.A., Orjuela-Acosta, D., Rodriguz, A. and Lizcano, D.J. 2008. Chemical restraint, hematology and blood parasites of free ranging Mountain Tapirs in the Central Andes of Colombia. Proceedings of the Fourth International Tapir Symposium Xcaret, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Available at: http://www.tapirs.org Caulkett, N.A., Cribb, P.H., Haigh, J.C. 2000. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids. Can J Vet Res. 64:64. Citino, S.B., Bush, M., Grobler, D. and Lance, W. 2001. Anaesthesia of roan antelope ( Hippotragus equinus ) with a combination of A3080, medetomidine and ketamine. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 72: 29-32. Citino, S.B., Bush, M., Grobler, D. and Lance, W.R. 2002. Anesthesia of boma-captured Lichtensteins hartebeest ( Sigmoceros lichtensteinii ) with a combination of thiafentanil, medetomidine, and ketamine. J. Wildl. Dis. 38:457-462. Cooper, D.V., Grobler, D., Bush, M., Jessup, D. and Lance, W. 2005. Anaesthesia of nyala ( Tragelaphus angasi ) with a combination of thiafentanil (A3080), medetomidine, and ketamine. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 76:18-21. Foerster, S.H., Bailey, J.E., Aguilar, R., Loria, D.L. and Foerster, C.R. 2000. Butorphanol/xylazine/ketamine immobilization of free-ranging Bairds tapirs in Costa Rica. Journal of Wildlife Disease. 36:335-341. Grobler, D., Bush, M., Jessup, D. and Lance, W. 2001. Anaesthesia of gemsbok (Oryx gazelle) with a combination of A3080, medetomidine and ketamine. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 72:81-83. Hernndez-Divers, S., J., Bailey, R., Aguilar, D., Loria y C., Foerster. 1998. Cardiopulmonary effects and utility of a butorphanol/xylazine/ketamine anesthethic protocol for
19 immobilization of free-ranging Bairds tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ) in Costa Rica. In Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference. pp. 41-48. Hernndez-Divers, S., J., Bailey, R., Aguilar, D., Loria y C., Foerster. 2005. Health evaluation of a radiocollared population of free-ranging Bairds Tapirs ( Tapirus bairdii ) in Costa Rica. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 36: 176. Hernandez-Divers, S., Quse, V., de Thoisy, B., Blanco, M. y Lira, I., 2007. Tapir field veterinary manual. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG) Veterinary Committee. Available at: http://www.tapirs.org Howard, L.L., Kearns, K.S., Clippinger, T.L., Larsen, R.S. and Morris, P.J. 2004. Chemical immobilization of rhebok (Pelea capreolus) with carfentanil-xylazine or etorphine-xylazine. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 35:312-319. Janssen, D.L., Raath, J.P., Swan, G.E., et al. 1991. Field studies with the narcotic immobilization agent A3080. In Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference. Pp 333. Janssen ,D.L. (2003). Tapiridae. In: Fowler ME, Miller RE, eds. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 5th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. Pp 569. Kreeger, T.J. (1997). Handbook of Wildlife Chemical Immobilization. International Veterinary Services, Inc. Laramie, Wyoming, USA. Kreeger, T. J., Cook, W.E., Pich, C.A. and Smith, T. 2001. Anesthesia of pronghorns using thiafentanil or thiafentanil plus xylazine. Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 25. Kreeger, T. J and Arnemo, J.M. 2007. Handbook of Wildlife Chemical Immobilization, ed 3, Wheatland, WY. Lance, W.R. and Kenny, D.E. (2012).Thiafentanil oxalate (A3080) in nondomestic ungulate species. In Miller, R.E. & Fowler, M. (Eds.), Fowlers Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine:Current Therapy, Volume 7. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Saunders, Elsevier. Lambeth, R.R., Dart, A.J., Vogelnest, L., et al. 1998. Surgical management of an abdominal abscess in a Malayan tapir. Aust Vet J 76: 664. Lira, I., Ceballos, G. y Woolrich, D. 2008. Capture, handling and monitoring of Bairds Tapirs in the Zoque Rainforest, Oaxaca, Mexico. Proceedings of the Fourth International Tapir Symposium Xcaret, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Disponible in: http://www.tapirs.org Mangini, P.R. and Velastin, G.O. 2001. Chemical restraint of two wild Tapirus pinchaque (mountain tapir) case report. Arch Vet Sci Curitiba. 6:6. Miller-Edge, M., Amsel, S. and Junge, R. 1994. Carfentanil, ketamine, xylazine combination (CKX) for immobilization of exotic ungulates: clinical experience in bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros) and mountain tapir ( Tapirus pinchaque ). In Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference. Miller, B.F., Muller, L.I., Storms, T.N., et al. 2003. A comparison of carfentanil/xylazine and Telazol (R)/ xylazine for immobilization of white-tailed deer. J Wildl Dis. 39:851. Pars, G.A, Forester, C.R., Hernandez, S.M. 1996. Immobilization of free ranging Bairds tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ). In Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference. Pollock, C., Ramsay, E. 2003 Serial immobilization of a Brazilian Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) with oral detomidine and oral carfentanil. J Zoo Wildl Med. 34:408 Pye G.W., Citino, S.B., Bush, M., Klein, L. and Lance, W. 2001. Anesthesia of Eastern Giant Eland (Taurotragus derbianus gigas) at White Oak Conservation Center. In Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference. Pp: 226-231. Ramdohr, S., Bornemann, H., Plotz, J., et al. 2001. Immobilization of free-ranging adult male southern elephant seals with Immobilon (TM) (etorphine/ acepromazine) and ketamine. South Afr J Wildl Res. 31:135. Roffe, T.J., Coffin, K., Berger, J. 2001. Survival and immobilizing moose with carfentanil and xylazine. Wildl Soc Bull 29: 1140. Smith, I.L., McJames, S.W., Natte, R., Stanley, T., Kimball, J.F., Becker, T., Hague, B. and Barrus, B. 1993. A-3080 studies in elk: effective immobilizing doses by syringe and dart injection. In Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference. Pp 367-368. Stanley, T. H., Mcjames, S., Kimball, J., Port, J.D. and Pace, N.L. 1988a. Immobilization of elk with A-3080. Journal of Wildlife Management. 52: 577. Tobler, M., Gimenes, V.M., Ormeo, C.A.C. and Sanchez, C. 2006. Capture and immobilization of Tapirus terrestris in Madre de Dios, Peru. Proceedings of the Third International Tapir Symposium, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Available at: http://www.tapirs.org Trim, C.M., Lamberski, N., Kissel, D.I. and Quandt, J.E. 1998. Anesthesia in a Bairds tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 29:195-198. Wolfe, L.L., Lance, W.R. and Miller, M.W. 2004. Immobilization of mule deer with thiafentanil (A-3080) or thiafentanil plus xylazine. Journal of Wildlife Disease. 40: 282-7.
Iridium/GPS Telemetry to Study Home Range and Population Density of Mountain Tapirs in the Rio Papallacta Watershed, Ecuador Armando X. Castellanos P. 1,2 1 IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, Ecuador 2 Andean Bear Foundation, Pasaje S24B, Oe5-142, La Isla, Quito, Ecuador. Email:email@example.com Abstract M ountain tapirs are one of the least studied of the large mammals. It wasnt until the 1990s that the first radio telemetry studies were done on the species and huge gaps still exist in the literature regarding mountain tapir population dynamics. In light of recent technological advances in telemetry equipment, it was decided to execute the current study in order to obtain a clearer picture of mountain tapir population ecology. Between June 2012 and February 2013 two female and four male mountain tapirs were captured and equipped with Iridium/GPS collars. The collars recorded between 92 and 278 days of data resulting in 132 to 324 locations. Mean home ranges were estimated using four different methods: minimum convex polygon (MCP), 648 hectares (ha); Kernel 95% and 50%, 397 and 32 ha; nearest-neighbor convex hull (k-NNCH), 310 ha; Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM), 686 ha. Tapir population density was estimated by extrapolating mean tapir home range size (Kernel 95% and k-NNCH) to the size of the study area (25400 ha), both considering and disregarding home range overlap. Using Kernel, a population density of one individual/357 ha and one individual/245 ha was calculated. Using the k-NNCH method densities of one individual/325 ha and one individual/307 ha were calculated. Keywords : Home range, Iridium/GPS collars, Mountain Tapir, Population Density Introduction T he mountain tapir ( Tapirus pinchaque ) is one of the least known of any species of large mammal (Thornback & Jenkins, 1982). Its small extant population of no more than three thousand individuals is thinly spread throughout the Andean cordillera between Northern Peru and Central Colombia, and its restricted geographic distribution has led the species to the brink of extinction (Ashley et al ., 1996; Tapia et al ., 2011). It is likely the species is naturally rare. However, the populations have been made even smaller through fragmentation and habitat loss caused by agricultural and livestock expansion. As a result, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed this species as endangered (EN) throughout its entire range (2009) and critically endangered (CR) in the Red Book of Mammals of Ecuador (Tapia et al ., 2011). The species is also included in Appendix I of the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES, 2013). Between 1966 and 1971, Ecuador went through a peak period of wildlife trafficking. This peak was driven by high demand from European and American zoos for new specimens (Strummer, 1971). During this period, one of the more sought after species was the Mountain Tapir. Groups of Ecuadorians and foreigners alike attempted their capture mainly in the El Placer and Papallacta regions of the Ecuadorian highlands, which are today part of the Sangay and Cayambe Coca National Parks, respectively. Mountain tapir capture and transit are extremely delicate processes, often leading to fatalities due to post-capture myopathy and difficulties in adjusting to captive diets (Wilson & Wilson 1973). Padilla et al (2010) reported that between 1967 and 1968 100 mountain tapirs died while being captured by animal traders working for American zoos. Almost certainly more specimens died during transport to the United States. During this period the most important publication about the mountain tapir was written by Schauenberg (1969), who studied captive specimens and produced a literature review about the species. Downer (1996) described his pioneering work with radio-telemetry in
21 mountain tapirs that began in 1991, outlining some of the first ecological data regarding wild mountain tapirs, and forming the basis for subsequent mountain tapir studies. Castellanos (1994), for instance, used radio telemetry devices to monitor a sub-adult female mountain tapir within the protected cloud forest reserve of Pasochoa. Mountain tapir ecology studies slowly progressed and between 1998 and 2005, Lizcano & Cavelier (2004) captured and collared two mountain tapirs in Colombia. Both were fitted with GPS collars using the same capture method as Downer (1991) and Castellanos (1994). The study of Lizcano & Cavelier (2004) was the first to use tranquilizer darts for immobilizing wild mountain tapirs in the wild. In this study, we aimed to quantify tapir home-range size in the Cayambe Coca National Park, and report preliminary estimates of mountain tapir population density. To achieve our goal, we deployed Iridium/GPS satellite telemetry collars on six tapirs within the park. Up until the present day, no Iridium/GPS telemetry studies have been reported on any of the three American tapir species. We document preliminary results using such equipment to monitor mountain tapirs in their natural environment, and discuss the value of GPS technology in studying mountain tapir ecology. The study was part of the Mountain Tapir Conservation Program initiated by EcoCiencia, Fundacin Zoolgica and IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group/Ecuador, and was financed by the EcoFondo. The study continues to the present day through the Andean Bear and Tapir project and is funded by the Andean Bear Foundation. The entire investigation has been carried out with the full support of the Ecuadorian Ministry of Environment. Material and Methods Study Area T he current study was carried out on the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, in the Rio Papallacta watershed in the Cayambe Coca National Park, Quijos County, Napo province. Also found in this region is the internationally important ucanchi Turubamba Wetland System, classified as a RAMSAR site due to its biological, cultural and hydrological importance. The site is of glacial origin, being formed at the time of the last ice age (around 10,000 years ago), and covers an area of approximately 25.4 km (25,400 hectares) spanning upper montane forest and paramo habitats (Sierra, 1999), ranging from 3,500 to 4,000 masl. The ucanchi Turubamba is a unique formation of ecosystems, and is home to a wide diversity of species, many of which are endangered and endemic, including birds such as the Andean Condor ( Vultur gryphus ), the Grey-breasted Mountain Toucan ( Andigena hypoglauca ), and the Torrent Duck ( Mergannetta armata ). Endangered and endemic mammal species include the Andean bear ( Tremarctos ornatus ), pampas cat ( Felis colocolo ), the puma ( Puma concolor ) and the pudu ( Pudu mephistophiles ) amongst others. Despite a recent increase in abrupt weather patterns leading to more unpredictable climatic conditions, the study area exhibits relatively stable seasonal weather patterns. From June to August there is a very short wet period where rainfall is constant and often torrential. Between February and May there is another wet period with moderate rainfall, and between September and January exists a dry season with little rainfall. The study area is bisected by the busy Inter Oceanica highway that connects the Ecuadorian Andes to the Amazon region, and a network of minor dirt tracks mainly used by the Municipal Potable Water Company of Quito, sport fishermen and tourists visiting the Papallacta, Baos, Loreto and Mogotes Lagoons, and trails encircling the Sucus and Parca Cocha Lagoons. Tapir captures S ix adult mountain tapirs were captured (one of the six was recaptured at a later date) using the pursuit techniques successfully implemented by various investigators in Ecuador and Colombia (Downer, 1996; Castellanos, 1994; Lizcano & Cavelier, 2004). However I adapted another approach, incorporating the techniques proposed by Castellanos & Tapia (2010), and implemented a contingency plan designed by Castellanos et al (2011) which consisted of security and safety protocols for the capture and management of tapirs. Anesthesia of the animals was under the supervision of Ecuadorian veterinarians. Each captured tapir was immobilized using darts launched from a plastic tube, or from an air pistol (Daninject, USA). The tapirs were immobilized using a mixture of xylazine hydrochloride (0.4 mg /kg, AnaSed, Lloyd, Shenandoah, Iowa,USA) and butorphanol tartrate (0.2 mg/kg, Turbogesic, Fort Dodge, Iowa, USA). Once the animal was recumbent, ketamine hydrochloride (0.7 mg/kg, Ketamine HCL, Bioniche Teo, Galway, Ireland) was intramuscularly administered to maintain anesthesia as needed. Yohimbine hydrochloride (0.14 mg/kg, Yohimbine Vet, Holliday-Scott S.A., Buenos Aires, Argentina) was intramuscularly administered as a reversing agent. Morphological measurements of immobilized tapirs were recorded, and specimen weight and age was estimated based on the experience of the local guides. Blood samples were taken for genetic, hematology and serum biochemical analysis, and to inspect for hemoparasites. All samples were immediately placed in a cooler at 10C, and were transported to LIVEX laboratories, (Quito, Ecuador) for processing within 24 hrs. Samples that showed signs of hemolysis were
22 not considered for analysis. Captured tapirs were fitted with Iridium/GPS collars (G2110E model, Advanced Telemetry Solutions, AT, USA) and monitored from a safe distance until they recovered. The satellite collars used in this study weighed 0.825 kg, which is less than 0.5% of the weight of an adult mountain tapir. Each collar had a VHF transmitter, an activity sensor, an environmental temperature sensor, and a drop-off mechanism to be activated once the collars main battery runs out. Collars were programmed to take eight daily positional readings for a period of 18 months. Data points were sent via an ATS server to my email account. The quality and quantity of data points were variable, depending on climatic and physical conditions like cloud cover, vegetation density and satellite position and angle. Only GPS points taken from a minimum of 3 satellites and with a margin of error < 30m were considered for analysis. For home range analysis, I only included two daily GPS locations at 12-hour intervals to reduce temporal autocorrelation. Home-range and population density analysis U sing the GPS localizations, home ranges were calculated using four different estimation models: (1) Minimum convex polygon 100% (MCP), (2) Kernel 95%, 50%, (3) nearest-neighbor convex hull (k-NNCH), (4) Brownian bridge movement model 95% with a 100 m grid cell size (BBMM) (Mohr 1947, Seaman & Powel, 1996; Getz & Wilmers, 2004; Horne et al ., 2007). ArcView GIS 3.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA) software was used for home range estimations. The Animal Movement Extension (Hooge et al ., 1999) was used to calculate MCP and Kernel, and the local convex hull extension was used to calculate k-NNCH (Getz & Wilmers, 2004). ArcGis 9 and the ArcGis extension Hawths tool 3.6 (ESRI, 2008) and R program (2008) were used to estimate BBMM. To estimate mountain tapir population density, I used the analytical methods used by Medici (2010) for Tapirus terrestris populations, based on home range size. These methods are described as following: a.) Tapir population was estimated by extrapolating mean tapir home range size obtained by both Kernel 95% and k-NNCH to the area of 25, 400 ha of Pramo. The density estimates obtained through this method did not consider home range overlap. b.) Tapir population was estimated by subtracting mean home range overlap (k-NNCH and Kernel 95%) from mean tapir home range size (k-NNCH and Kernel 95%). The value obtained was then extrapolated to the area of 25,400 ha of Pramo in the Papallacta River watershed to obtain a density estimate. Results I n the current study six mountain tapirs of different ages were captured and fitted with Iridium/GPS collars. During the first capture phase (between June and September 2010), three males (Melchor, Dante and Juanito) and two females (Panchita and Marisol) were captured and collared. One tapir captured in this phase suffered a serious yet not fatal accident during anesthesia (2/6/2010). During the second capture phase (between January and February 2013) we recaptured the female tapir Panchita, and also captured a new male named Meshi (Table 1). Although the Iridium/ GPS collars were programmed to take data points for a period of 18 months, many had much shorter life times. The collar with the shortest life spans stopped transmitting after just 17 days. The rest of the collars endured significantly longer time periods of 92, 106, 259, and 278 days (Table 1). The collar of the recaptured female, Panchita, continued to send data 369 days after collar deployment. Home range size varied widely between individuals and estimation method. Using the k-NNCH estimator, home ranges were between 71 and 653 hectares (ha), with a mean area of 310 ha. Using the 95% Kernel method, the home ranges were estimated to be between 62 and 916 ha with a mean of 397 ha. Using the 50% Kernel method, home ranges were estimated to be between 9 and 67 ha with a mean of 32 ha. Using the BBMM method, home ranges were estimated to be between 201 and 1150 ha, reaching a mean of 686; the highest estimate across all the calculation methods. Finally, using the MCP method, home range estimations were greater, being between 125 and 1813 ha with a mean home range of 648 ha (Table 2). Four of the five tapirs monitored in this study showed home Animal ID Sex Estimated age Estimated Weight Start Date End Date (years) (Kg) Panchita Female 8 220 8/22/2011 10/24/2011 Marisol Female 5 200 8/26/2011 6/18/2011 Melchor Male 15 180 8/29/2011 12/13/2011 Dante Male 5 150 9/27/2011 5/18/2012 Juanito Male 2 130 9/28/2011 1/27/2012 Panchita Female 10 240 1/28/2013 n/a Meshi Male 6 180 2/6/2013 2/23/2013 Start date indicates the capture data.End date indicates the date the collar stopped collecting data. Recapture of previously collared tapir Table 1. Basic data on and tracking duration from six Mountain tapirs captured in the Rio Papallacta watershed, Cayambe Coca National Park.
23 range overlap indicating significant intraspecific tolerance. (Fig 1). Using the k-NNCH to estimate population density in the study area, a density of one individual per 325 ha was estimated without considering range overlap. Taking into account home range overlap a population density of one individual per 307 hectares was calculated. Using the Kernel method, population density was estimated as one tapir for every 357 ha discarding home range overlap, whilst taking into account home range overlap the population density was estimated as one tapir per 245 ha. Discussion T he first tapir trapped in June 2012 suffered an accident whilst recuperating from anesthesia. Still under the influence of the anesthetic she fell into a lagoon and the team acted hastily to rescue her. Showing no vital signs, we initially believed she had drowned, however hours later she regained consciousness. The individual had undergone an acute form of diving reflex exhibited by all mammals during prolonged periods with the head submerged in cold water. After this incident we decided to create a Contingency and Safety Protocol for Animal Management and Capture (Castellanos et al ., 2011), which was tested successfully in the following seven tapir capture events that transpired without accidents or problems. The Iridium/ GPS collars manufactured by Advanced Telemetry Solutions (USA) failed to send GPS localizations as they had been programmed. The intense humidity of the study area caused severe corrosion of the GPS antenna and other electronic components leading to premature malfunctioning of the apparatus. Nonetheless the collars succeeded in sending sufficient information to obtain more accurate data than those reported by Downer (1996) and Lizcano & Cavelier (2004). Although no sexual dimorphism is exhibited by this species, the body mass estimated for the tapirs in this study correspond to the observations of Barongi (1986) and Medici et al (2007) in that female mountain tapirs are heavier than males. I considered k-NNCH analysis the best method for delineating areas inhabited and traversed by mountain tapirs in landscapes with deep ravines, lagoons and enormous rock faces such as those across the study area. In contrast to the MCP method it doesnt take into account areas not used by tapirs such as flat plains, large open pastures and villages. Table 2. Estimates of home range size for five mountain tapirs in the Rio Papallacta watershed, Cayambe Coca National Park, Ecuador. Figure 1. Home range nearest neighbor convex hull (k-NNCH) of five mountain tapir (two female and three male), in the Rio Papallacta watershed, Cayambe Coca National Park, Ecuador. Each different style of polygon represents an individual tapir. Animal ID GPS Locations Tracking time (days) Home Range k-NNCH Kernel Kernel BBMM MCP 95% 50% 100% Melchor 173 106 653 916 48 1150 1813 Dante 278 259 339 437 67 632 678 Juanito 136 151 71 62 9 395 125 Panchita 132 92 177 173 25 201 225 Marisol 324 278 202 222 11 569 400 Mean 310 397 32 686 648
24 In this study, mean home range estimates using Kernel 95% and 50% were calculated to be 397 and 32 ha. These estimates are slightly larger than the 260 and 60 ha reported by Lizcano & Cavalier (2004) who monitored one male and one female tapir over a period of 6 months using GPS telemetry. Downer (1996) reported a mean home range estimate of 880 ha in his radio telemetry study of mountain tapirs in which he used the MCP estimator to calculate home ranges. Using the same MCP method Lizcano & Cavalier (2004) obtained a home range estimate of just 350 ha. The home range estimate determined from the present study using the MCP estimation tool (686 ha) was within the values reported in those studies. This variation can be explained by the diverse levels of habitat conservation and threats that exist in the different study areas. These factors in turn influence the carrying capacities of such areas and hence account for different home range sizes between tapir populations spanning the species distribution range (Medici, 2010). The current study area, though it is within a national park, is intersected by a series of dirt tracks and trails that may be influencing home range sizes of the native tapir population, possibly even to the extent of defining the areas in which the tapirs inhabit. There are areas where there are lots of evidence of tapir presence, and there are also areas where no evidence of tapir presence is found, as if there were vast stretches unoccupied by tapirs in this type of paramo. The elderly male tapir, Melchor, exhibited a larger home range size in comparison to those of the females. This may be related to aspects of social organization and mating system. It is predicted that a single male can mate with several females, without any restriction in the number of females per male. As a consequence, home ranges of male tapirs may incorporate larger areas so that they overlap with the home ranges of two or more females (Medici, 2010). Population density data obtained from this study using the k-NNCH method (One Individual (I) /325 ha, I/307 ha), and the Kernel method (I /357 ha, I / 245 ha) are similar to those observed in mountain tapir studies carried out in Colombia by Acosta et al (1996); I / 400 ha, and by Lizcano & Cavelier (2000); I / 551 ha. In the Sangay National Park on south Ecuador, Downer (1996) obtained a population density of I / 587 ha. Contrasting to all other estimates, Urgiles et al (2013) reported a population density of 1.09 individuals/10000 ha in a study using camera traps in the Oyacachi region, which is adjacent to the current study area. There are numerous variables that may explain discrepancies and variation in population density estimations, among these are the differences in environments and habitat types, as well as the different levels of habitat conservation, which in turn reflects different carrying capacities in different habitats found within the species distribution range. The variation can also be attributed to the different methods used to estimate density, the timeframe of monitoring, and the number of individuals monitored (Medici, 2010). The MCP home range estimator (Mohr, 1947) was not used to calculate population densities as the study area included sections where the tapirs did not traverse. For example the tapirs in this study completely avoided large open plains where livestock were grazing, where they could potentially have been easy prey for predatory animals. Mountain tapirs predominantly use steep slopes often close to forested areas where they can escape more easily from potential attacks. Castellanos (2011) encountered similar difficulties using the MCP method to estimate home ranges of the Andean Bear ( Tremarctos ornatus ), where the bears were avoiding populated and agricultural areas in a fragmented cloud forest habitat. To avoid the problem of providing inaccurate home range models in this instance I reverted to use the Kernel and k-NNCH methods to analyses the data. The BBMM method could potentially be a better estimation tool for determining mountain tapir home ranges, however it is relatively new and requires more testing on large Andean mammals. The use of satellite collars in this study allowed us to establish that mountain tapirs of different ages and sexes in the Cayambe Coca National Park spend most of their time in the Pramo high grassland habitat, occasionally entering Polylepis forest patches to browse and seek refuge. Although the study animals moved very close to the upper montane forest, there were no GPS localizations registered in this habitat type. This observation contradicts the hypothesis that mountain tapirs carry out large altitudinal migrations (Stummer, 1971; Acosta et al ., 1996; Lizcano & Cavalier, 2000) and supports the observation of Castellanos (1994) of no altitudinal movement of tapirs in the Sangay National Park. Acknowledgments I would like to thank the Ecuadorian Ministry of Environment for their support and for granting the necessary permits for this study. I would like to give a special thank you to the park rangers of the upper Cayambe Coca National Park. This study was financed by the Ecofondo and the Andean Bear Foundation, and the institutional support of Ecociencia, the Fundacin Zoolgica del Ecuador, the Tapir Specialist Group (Ecuador), the Zoo Conservation Outreach Group (ZCOG), the Dino Veterinary Clinic, and the Livex laboratories (Quito). I would like to thank my tapir capture team and tracking companions: Melchor Ascanta, Oscar Ascanta, Felipe Fernndez, my friends and collaborators: Leonardo Arias for his high quality, efficient work in tapir immobilizations, Meghan Camp for her help with BBMM analyses, Jos Luis Carrasco
25 for his help with the maps, and also Mauricio Ortega, Jos Aguirre, Lucas Achig, Diana Domnguez, Don Wilo Prez del Hostal Coturpa, Fernando Barragn, Leopoldo Gmez and his family, Patricio y Mario Pillajo, Alandy Torres, Rebecca Hamilton and Fernando Nogales for their support and assistance and lastly Diego Lizcano for his useful comments and edits to this manuscript. I am also indebted to David Jackson for his translation and critical review of this document. References Acosta, H., Cavelier, J. & London, S. (1996). Aportes al conocimiento de la biologa de la danta de mon taa, Tapirus pinchaque en los Andes Centrales de Colombia. Biotropica 28: 258. Ashley, M.V., Norman. J.E. & Stross. L. (1996). Phylogenetic analysis of the Periossodactylan family Tapiridae using mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase (COII) sequences. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 3: 315-326. Barongi, R.A. (1986). Tapirs in captivity and their manage ment. American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Conference Proceedings 1986:96. Caughley, G. & Sinclair, A.R. (1994). Wildlife ecology and management. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford. Castellanos, A.X. (1994). El tapir andino ( Tapirus pinchaque Roulin): crianza de un ejemplar en el Bosque Protector Pasochoa y notas ecolgicas en el Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador. Tesis de Licenciatura. Universidad Central del Ecuador. Quito. Castellanos, A.X. & Tapia, A. (2010). Metodologa uni ficada para el estudio sobre uso y preferencia del hbitat, abundancia, densidad poblacional, salud y gentica del tapir de montaa en la Cuenca del ro Papallacta. Reporte no publicado. Fundacin EcoCiencia, Fundacin Zoolgica del Ecuador, Grupo de Especialistas en Tapires-Ecuador/IUCN. Quito, Ecuador. Castellanos, A.X. (2011). Andean bear home ranges in the Intag region, Ecuador. Ursus, 22:65. url: http:// www.andeanbear.org/home-ranges-bears.pdf Castellanos, A., Ortega-Andrade, H.M., Arias, L., Arias, P. & Ortega, A. (2011). Plan de contingencia y pro tocolo de seguridad para la captura y manejo del tapir de montaa en la cuenca del ro Papallacta, Provincia de Napo. Reporte no publicado. Fundacin EcoCiencia, Fundacin Zoolgica del Ecuador, Grupo de Especialistas en Tapires-Ecuador/IUCN. Quito,Ecuador. Convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. (2013). Appendices I, II, and III. url: www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.html, accessed 10 August 2013. Downer, C. (1991). El tapir andino, especie en peligro. Fundacin Ecolgica Arcoiris. Arcoiris 5:4. Downer, C. (1996). The mountain tapir, endangered flag ship species of the high Andes. Oryx 30: 45-58. ESRI. (2008). ArcGis 9.3. Environmental Systems Research Institute: Redlands, CA. Getz, W. & Wilmers, C. (2004). A local nearest-neighbor convex-hull construction of home ranges and utilization distributions. Ecography 27: 489-505. Hooge, P.N., Eichenlaub, W. & Solomon, E. (1999). The animal movement program. United States Geological Survey Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage. Horne, J.S., Garton, E.O., Krone, S.M. & Lewis, J.S. (2007). Analyzing animal movements using brownian bridges. Ecology 88(9) 2354. Lizcano, D.J. & Cavelier, J. (2000). Densidad poblacio nal y disponibilidad de hbitat de la danta de mon taa ( Tapirus pinchaque ) en los Andes Centrales de Colombia. Biotropica 32:165. Lizcano, D.J. & Cavelier, J. (2004). Using GPS collars to study mountain tapirs ( Tapirus pinchaque ) in the Central Andes of Colombia. Tapir Conservation 13:18 23. Medici, E.P. (2010). Assessing the viability of lowland tapir populations in a fragmented landscape. Ph.D. Dissertation. Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE), University of Kent, UK. Mohr, C.O. (1947). Table of equivalent populations of North American small mammals. The American Midland Naturalist 37: 223-249. Padilla, M., Dowler, R.C. & Downer, C.C. (2010). Tapirus pinchaque (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae). Mammalian Species 42(863):166. R Development Core Team (2008). R: A language and envi ronment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-90005107-0, www.Rproject.org Schauenberg, P. (1969). Contribution a ltude du Tapirus pinchaque Roulin 1829. Revue Suisse de Zoologie. Genve. 76: 211-255. Seaman, D.E. & Powell., R.A. (1996). An evaluation of the accuracy of kernel density estimators for home range analysis. Ecology 77:2075. Sierra, R. (Ed.). (1999). Propuesta preliminar de un Sistema de Clasificacin de Vegetacin para el Ecuador Continental. Proyecto INEFAN / GEF-BIRF y EcoCiencia. Quito-Ecuador. Stummer, V.M. (1971). Wolltapire, Tapirus pinchaque in Ecuador. Der Zoolog. Garten 40 (3): 148-159. Tapia, A., Nogales, F., Castellanos, A.X., Tapia, M. & Tirira, D. (2011). Tapir andino ( Tapirus pinchaque ). Pp. 98 en: Libro rojo de los mamferos del Ecuador. D. Tirira, editor, 2da edicin. Fundacin mamfe ros y conservacin, Pontifica Universidad Catlica del Ecuador y Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador Publicacin Especial sobre los Mamferos del Ecuador 8. Quito. Thornback, J. & Jenkins, M. (1982). Mountain, woolly or Andean tapir. Pp. 443 in The IUCN mammal red data book. Part 1.International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland. Urgiles, C., Gallo, F., Borman, R. & Zapata, G. (2013). Densidad poblacional y patrones de actividad del tapir de montaa ( Tapirus pinchaque ), en cuatro localidades del Parque Nacional Cayambe-Coca y Reserva Ecolgica Antisana, Ecuador. Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de TapiresSegundo Congreso Ecuatoriano de Mastozoologa, pp 117. Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador. Wilson, R. A. & Wilson, S. (1973). Diet of captive tapirs, Tapirus spp International Zoo Yearbook 13:213.
26 C urrently, the TSG has 122 members, including field researchers, educators, veterinarians, governmental agencies and NGO representatives, zoo personnel, university professors and students, from 28 different countries worldwide (Argentina, Australia, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ecuador, France, French Guiana, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Republic of Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Thailand, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela). AMANZO, JESSICA Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia Peru AMORIM MORAES JR., EDSEL Instituto Biotrpicos Brazil AEZ GALBAN, LUIS Fundacin Parque Zoolgico Metropolitano del Zulia Venezuela ANGELL, GILIA Amazon.com United States ARIAS ALZATE, ANDRS Grupo de Mastozoologa CTUA, Universidad de Antioquia Colombia AYALA C., GUIDO Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Bolivia Bolivia BARONGI, RICK Houston Zoo Inc. / AZA Tapir TAG United States BECK, HARALD Towson University United States BERMUDEZ LARRAZABAL, LIZETTE Parque Zoologico Recreacional Huachipa Peru BERNAL RINCN, AGUEDA LUZ Zoolgico Centro Vacacional CAFAM MELGAR Colombia BODMER, RICHARD University of Kent United Kingdom BOSHOFF, LAUTJIE Rafiki Safari Lodge Costa Rica BUMPUS, RENEE Houston Zoo Inc. United States CALM, SOPHIE Universit de Sherbrooke, Canada / El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Mexico Canada CALVO DOMINGO, JOS JOAQUN Sistema Nacional de reas de Conservacin, Ministerio del Ambiente, Energa y Telecomunicaciones Costa Rica CAMACHO, JAIME EcoCiencia Fundacin Zoolgica del Ecuador Ecuador CAMPOS ARCEIZ, AHIMSA University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus Jalan Broga Malaysia CARTES, JOS Asociacin Guyra Paraguay Paraguay CASTELLANOS PEAFIEL, ARMANDO XAVIER Fundacin Espritu del Bosque Ecuador CASTILLO, FERNANDO Guatemala
CHALUKIAN, SILVIA C. Consultant Argentina COLBERT, MATTHEW University of Texas at Austin United States CORDEIRO, JOS LUIS Fundao Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Ministrio da Sade Brazil CRUZ ALDN, EPIGMENIO Instituto de Historia Natural / Zoologico Regional Miguel Alvarez Del Toro Mexico CUARN, ALFREDO D. SACB Servicios Ambientales, Conservacin Biolgica y Educacin Mexico de THOISY, BENOIT Association Kwata French Guiana DEE, MICHAEL United States DESMOULINS, AUDE ZooParc de Beauval / EAZA Tapir TAG France DINATA, YOAN Fauna & Flora International Indonesia Program Indonesia DOWNER, CRAIG Andean Tapir Fund United States ESTRADA ANDINO, NEREYDA Panthera Foundation Honduras FINNEGAN, MITCH Oregon Zoo United States FLESHER, KEVIN Michelin Brasil Brazil FLOCKEN, JEFFREY International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) United States FLREZ, FRANZ KASTON Fundacin Nativa & Nativa France Colombia FRAGOSO, JOS MANUEL VIEIRA Stanford University United States GALEANO, MIGUEL Fundacin para la Autonoma y el Desarrollo de la Costa Atlntica de Nicaragua, FADCANIC Nicaragua GARCA VETTORAZZI, MANOLO JOS Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas / Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala Guatemala GARELLE, DELLA Cheyenne Mountain Zoological Park United States GASPARINI, GERMN Divisin Paleontologa Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, CONICET Argentina GATTI, ANDRESSA Universidade Federal do Esprito Santo (UFES) / Instituto Marcos Daniel (IMD) Brazil GLATSTON, ANGELA Rotterdam Zoo / EAZA Tapir TAG The Netherlands GOFF, DON Beardsley Zoological Gardens / AZA Tapir TAG United States GONALVES DA SILVA, ANDERS Monash University Australia GREENE, LEWIS Columbus Zoo / AZA Tapir TAG United States GIRIS ANDRADE, DARIO MARCELINO UN.A.CH. / Policlinica y Diagnstico Veterinario Mexico
28 HERNANDEZ, SONIA University of Georgia United States HOLDEN, JEREMY Flora and Fauna International Indonesia Indonesia HOLST, BENGT Copenhagen Zoo / EAZA Tapir TAG Denmark HOYER, MARK Artis Royal Zoo The Netherlands ISASI-CATAL, EMILIANA Universidad Simn Bolvar Venezuela JANSSEN, DONALD San Diego Wild Animal Park United States JORDAN, CHRISTOPHER Michigan State University United States JULI, JUAN PABLO Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucumn Argentina LAGUNA, ANDRES Andean Bear Foundation Ecuador LEONARDO, RAQUEL Fundacin Defensores de la Naturaleza Guatemala LIRA TORRES, IVN Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias UAEH Mexico LIZCANO, DIEGO J. Universidad de Pamplona Colombia LYNAM, ANTONY Wildlife Conservation Society (WSC) Asia Program Thailand MANGINI, PAULO ROGERIO TRADE Brazil MARIN WIKANDER, SOFA Universidad Simn Bolvar Venezuela MARINEROS, LEONEL IRBIO Zamorano Honduras MARTYR, DEBORAH Flora and Fauna International Indonesia Indonesia MATOLA, SHARON Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center Belize M C CANN, NIALL Cardiff University United Kingdom MEDICI, PATRCIA IP Instituto de Pesquisas Ecolgicas Brazil MENDOZA, ALBERTO Vet Tech Institute / AZA Tapir TAG Latin America Advisor United States MOGOLLON, HUGO Ecuador MONTENEGRO, OLGA LUCIA Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL) Colombia MORALES, MIGUEL A. Conservation International United States MUENCH, CARLOS CIEco-Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico Mexico NARANJO, EDUARDO El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR) Mexico NOGALES, FERNANDO Universidad Tcnica Particular de Loja (UTPL) / Instituto Ecuatoriano de Propiedad Intelectual (IEPI) Ecuador
29 NOVARINO, WILSON Andalas University Indonesia NUGROHO, AGUNG Bogor Agricultural Institute (IPB) Inodnesia OFARRILL, GEORGINA University of Toronto Canada OLOCCO, MARA JULIETA Universidad de Buenos Aires Argentina ORDEZ DELGADO, LEONARDO Findacin Ecolgica Arcoiris Ecuador ORDONNEAU, DOROTHE Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias de Esperanza Universidad Nacional del Litoral France PAVIOLO, AGUSTN CONICET-Instituto de Biologa Subtropical, Univ. Nac. de Misiones y CelBA Argentina PERERA, LUCY Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Venezuela Venezuela PINHO, GABRIELA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaznia Brazil POT, CELSO Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center Belize PRASTITI, SHARMY Taman Safari Indonesia / South East Asia Zoological Association (SEAZA) Indonesia PUKAZHENTHI, BUDHAN Smithsonian Institutions National Zoological Park, Conservation and Research Center United States QUSE, VIVIANA BEATRIZ Argentina RESTREPO, HECTOR FRANCISCO Fundacin Wii Colombia REYES PUIG, JUAN PABLO Fundacin Oscar Efrn Reyes Ecuador RICHARD-HANSEN, CCILE Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage (ONCFS) / Direction tudes et Recherches French Guiana ROBERTS, RACHEL SSC Network Coordination Officer, IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) United Kingdom RODRGUEZ ORTIZ, JULIANA Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL) Colombia ROMAN, JOSEPH Virginia Zoological Park / AZA Tapir TAG United States RUIZ FUAMAGALLI, JOS ROBERTO Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala Guatemala RUSSO, KELLY J. The Houston Museum of Natural Science United States SACASA, EDUARDO Fundacin Amigos del Zoolgico Nicaragense (FAZOONIC) Nicaragua SANCHES, ALEXANDRA UNESP Brazil SANCHEZ, CARLOS Chicago Zoological Society United States SANDOVAL ARENAS, SERGIO Colombia SARMIENTO DUEAS, ADRIANA MERCEDES Fundacin Gaia Amazonas Colombia
SCHWARTZ, KARIN R. ISIS Unites States SCHWARTZ, RICHARD Nashville Zoo at Grassmere / AZA Tapir TAG United States SEITZ, STEFAN Consultant Germany SHEWMAN, HELEN Woodland Park Zoo United States SHOEMAKER, ALAN H. TSG / AZA Tapir TAG United States SHWE, NAY MYO Friends of Wildlife (FoW) Myanmar SIMPSON, BOYD Copenhagen Zoo Southeast Asia Conservation Programme Malaysia SMITH, DIORENE Summit Zoo Panama STAHL, TIM Stahl PhotoGraphics United States STANCER, MICHELE San Diego Zoo / AZA Tapir TAG United States SUREZ MEJA, JAIME Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Facultad de Estudios Ambientales y Rurales Colombia TAPIA, ANDRS Centro Ecolgico Shanca Arajuno Ecuador TOBLER, MATHIAS San Diego Zoo Global United States TORRES, NATALIA Ecuador TRAEHOLT, CARL Copenhagen Zoo Southeast Asia Conservation Programme Malaysia VARELA, DIEGO Conservacin Argentina Argentina WALLACE, ROBERT B. Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Bolivia Bolivia WILLIAMS, KEITH Private Consultant Australia WOHLERS, HUMBERTO The Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Centre Belize ZAINUDDIN, ZAINAL ZAHARI Malaysia ZAVADA, JEANNE East Tennessee State University & General Shale Brick Natural History Museum at Gray Fossil Site United States ZAVADA, MICHAEL East Tennessee State University & General Shale Brick Natural History Museum at Gray Fossil Site United States
31 Scope The Tapir Conservation, the Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group aims to provide information regarding all aspects of tapir natural history. Items of news, recent events, recent publications, thesis abstracts, workshop proceedings etc concerning tapirs are welcome. Manuscripts should be submitted in MS Word (.doc, at this moment we cannot accept documents in .docx format). The Newsletter will publish original work by: Scientists, wildlife biologists, park managers and other con tributors on any aspect of tapir natural history including distribution, ecology, evolution, genetics, habitat, husbandry, management, policy and taxonomy. Preference is given to material that has the potential to improve conservation management and enhances understanding of tapir con servation in its respective range countries. The primary languages of the Newsletter are English and Spanish. Abstracts in English are preferred. Papers and Short Communications Full Papers (2,000-5,000 words) and Short Communications (2002,000 words) are invited on topics relevant to the Newsletters focus, including: Research on the status, ecology or behaviour of tapirs. Research on the status or ecology of tapir habitats, including soil composition, mineral deposits (e.g., salt licks) and topo graphy. Husbandry and captive management. Veterinarian and genetic aspects. Reviews of conservation plans, policy and legislation. Conservation management plans for species, habitats or areas. Tapirs and local communities (e.g., hunting, bush meat and cultural aspects). Research on the ecological role of tapir, for example, seed dispersers, prey for predators and facilitators of forest regrowth. Natural history and taxonomy of tapirs (e.g., evolution, palaeontology and extinction). How to Submit a Manuscript Manuscripts should be submitted in electronic format by e-mail to the contributions editor at the email provided. Hard copies will not be accepted. Contributions Editor: Anders Gonalves da Silva e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org In the covering e-mail, the Lead Author must confirm that: a) the submitted manuscript has not been published elsewhere, b) all of the authors have read the submitted manuscript and agreed to its submission, all research was conducted with the necessary approval and permit from the appropriate authorities and adhere to appropriate animal manipulation guides. Review and Editing All contributors are strongly advised to ensure that their spelling and grammar is checked by native English or Spanish speaker(s) before the manuscript is submitted to the Contributions Editor. The Editorial Team reserves the right to reject manuscripts that are poorly written. All manuscripts will be subject to peer review by a minimum of two reviewers. Authors are welcome to suggest appropriate reviewers; however, the Contributions Editor reserves the right to appoint revie wers that seem appropriate and competent for the task. Proofs will be sent to authors as a portable document format (PDF) file attached to an e-mail note. Corrected proofs should be returned to the Editor within 3 days of receipt. Minor corrections can be com municated by e-mail. The Editorial Team welcomes contributions to the other sections of the Newsletter: News Concise reports (<300 words) on news of general interest to tapir research and conservation. This may include announcements of new initiatives; for example, the launch of new projects, conferences, fun ding opportunities, new relevant publications and discoveries. Letters to the Editor Informative contributions (<650 words) in response to material published in the Newsletter. Preparation of Manuscripts Contributions in English should make use of UK English spelling [if in doubt, Microsoft Word and similar software can be set to check spelling and grammar for English (UK) language]. The cover page should contain the title and full mailing address, e-mail address and address of the Lead Author and all additional authors. All pages should be numbered consecutively, and the order of the sections of the manuscript should be: cover page, main text, acknowledgement, tables, figures and plates. Title This should be a succinct description of the work, in no more than 20 words. Abstract Full Papers only This should describe, in 100-200 words, the aims, methods, major findings and conclusions. It should be informative and
32 intelligible without reference to the text, and should not contain any references or undefined abbreviations. Keywords Up to five pertinent words, in alphabetical order. Format For ease of layout, please submit all manuscripts with a minimum of formatting (e.g. avoid specific formats for headings etc); however, the following is needed: Manuscripts should be double-spaced. Submissions can be in doc, rtf or wpd format, preferably as one file attached to one covering email. Avoid writing headlines in CAPITAL letters. Font type and size should be Times New Roman # 12 Font type for tables should be Arial and 0.5 dot lines. 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins for all margins Number pages consecutively starting with the title page numbers should be on the bottom right hand corner Font type for tables should be Arial and 0.5 dot lines. Pictures and illustrations should be in as high resolution as possible to allow for proper downscaling and submitted as separate files in EPS or JPG format. References References should be cited in the text as, for example, MacArthur & Wilson (1967) or (Foerster, 1998). For three or more authors use the first authors surname followed by et al. ; for example, Herrera et al. (1999) Multiple references should be in chronological order The refe rence list should be in alphabetical order and article titles and the titles of serial publications should be given in full. In cases where an author is referenced multiple times the most recent publication should be listed first. Please check that all listed references are used in the text and vice versa. The following are examples of house style: Journal Article Herrera, J.C., Taber, A., Wallace, R.B. & Painter, L. 1999. Lowland tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) behavioural ecology in a southern Amazonian tropi cal forest. Vida Silv. Tropicale 8:31-37. Chapter in Book Janssen, D.L., Rideout, B.A. & Edwards, M.S. 1999. Tapir Medicine. In: M.E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (eds.) Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, pp.562-568. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA. Book MacArthur, R.H. & Wilson, E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA. Thesis/Dissertation Foerster. C.R. 1998. Ambito de Hogar, Patron de Movimentso y Dieta de la Danta Centroamericana ( Tapirus bairdii ) en el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica. M.S. thesis. Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. Report Santiapilli, C. & Ramono, W.S. 1989. The Status and Conservation of the Malayan tapir ( Tapirus indicus ) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Unpublished Report, Worldwide Fund for Nature, Bogor, Indonesia. Web IUCN (2007) 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Http://www. redlist.org [accessed 1 May 2009]. Tables, figures and plates These should be self-explanatory, each on a separate page and with an appropriate caption. Figures should be in black and white. Plates will only be included in an article if they form part of evidence that is integral to the subject studied (e.g., a camera-trap photograph of a rare situation), if they are of good quality, and if they do not need to be printed in colour. Species names The first time a species is mentioned, its scientific name should fol low without intervening punctuation: e.g., Malay tapir Tapirus indicus English names should be in lower case throughout except where they incorporate a proper name (e.g., Asian elephant, Malay tapir). Abbreviations Full expansion should be given at first mention in the text. Units of measurement Use metric units only for measurements of area, mass, height, distance etc. Copyright The copyright for all published articles will be held by the publisher unless otherwise stated. Publisher IUCN Tapir Specialist Group Website www.tapirs.org
33 Chair Patrcia Medici, Brazil Steering Committee Alan Shoemaker, United States Alberto Mendoza, Mexico/United States Anders Gonalves da Silva, Brazil/Australia Bengt Holst, Denmark Carl Traeholt, Malaysia Gilia Angell, United States Jeffrey Flocken, United States Kelly Russo, United States Mathias Tobler, Switzerland/United States Michael Dee, United States Michele Stancer, United States Rick Schwartz, United States Viviana Quse, Argentina Bairds Tapir Coordinator Manolo Garca, Guatemala Lowland Tapir Coordinator Viviana Beatriz Quse, Argentina Malayan Tapir Coordinator Carl Traeholt, Malaysia Mountain Tapir Coordinator Armando Castellanos, Ecuador Red List Authority Red List Focal Point: Alan H. Shoemaker, United States Tapir Conservation Newsletter Editors Contributions Editor: Anders Gonalves da Silva, Brazil/Australia Layout & Distribution Editors: Danielle Lalonde, Australia, and Kelly J. Russo, United States Virtual Library Manager Mathias Tobler, Switzerland/United States Fundraising Committee Coordinator Patrcia Medici, Brazil Action Planning Committee Coordinator Patrcia Medici, Brazil Action Plan Implementation Taskforce TSG Species Coordinators & TSG Country Coordinators Zoo Committee Coordinator Viviana Quse, Argentina Veterinary Committee Coordinator Viviana Quse, Argentina Genetics Committee Coordinators Anders Gonalves da Silva, Brazil/Australia Marketing & Education Committee Coordinators Kelly J. Russo, United States Webmasters Kara Masharani, United States Re-Introduction & Translocation Advisory Committee Coordinators Patrcia Medici, Brazil and Anders Gonalves da Silva, Brazil/Australia Nutrition Consultant Maria Julieta Olocco, Argentina Evolution Consultant Matthew Colbert, United States Country Coordinators Argentina: Silvia Chalukian Belize: In the process of identifying a coordinator Bolivia: Guido Ayala Brazil: Patrcia Medici Colombia: Olga Montenegro Costa Rica: In the process of identifying a coordinator Ecuador: Fernando Nogales Guatemala: Raquel Leonardo Guiana Shield (French Guiana, Guiana and Suriname): Benoit de Thoisy Honduras: Nereyda Estrada Andino Indonesia: Wilson Novarino Malaysia: Zainal Zahari Zainuddin Mexico: Georgina OFarrill Myanmar: U Nay Myo Shwe Nicaragua: Christopher Jordan Panama: In the process of identifying a coordinator Paraguay: Jos Luis Cartes Peru: Jessica Amanzo Thailand: Antony Lynam Venezuela: In the process of identifying a coordinator
Contents Contents .......................................................... 2 Editorial Board ................................................ 2 From the Chair ................................................. 3 Letter from the Chair Patrcia Medici 3 Conservation ................................................... 5 Sebastin Duque Lpez, Melissa Abud, Humberto Calero, Stephany Valderrama 5 First Report of Positive Serological Response to the Armando X. Castellanos P. 9 Jamal Andrewin-Bohn Conservation Medicine .................................. 12 Identifying an Effective Treatment for Corneal Mari-Ann O. Da Silva, Catalina Hermoza, Gianmarco Rojas, J. Michelle Freundt 12 Tapirus bairdii Jonathan Prez Flores 15 Contributions ................................................. 20 Armando X. Castellanos P. Tapir Specialist Group Members .................... 26 Instructions for Authors ................................ 31 Tapir Specialist Group Structure ................... 33 1513 North MacGregor Houston, Texas 77030 www.houstonzoo.org TAPIR CONSERVATION The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group www.tapirs.org