Group Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Title: Tapir conservation
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Title: Tapir conservation the newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group
Uniform Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Abbreviated Title: Tapir conserv. (Print)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Houston TX
Houston TX
Publication Date: December 2004
Copyright Date: 2009
Frequency: semiannual
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1990.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 12, no. 2 (Dec. 2003); title from cover.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00095885
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 56897961
lccn - 2004215875
issn - 1813-2286


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Full Text

December 2004
Volume 13/2 U No. 16


Tapir Conservation

Edited by Siin S.Waters and Stefan Seitz

0 Letter from
the Chair
0 Project
0 News from
0 Contributed
I Directory

Printing and distribution of the Tapir Conservation Newsletter is supported by the
Houston Zoo Inc., 1513 N. Mac Gregor, Houston,Texas 77030, United States,



Volume 13/2 U No. 16 E December 2004

From the Chair 3
Letter from the Chair Patricia Medici 3
TSG Chair Patricia Medici wins IUCN's Messel
Leadership Award 5

TSG Committee Reports 5
TSG Conservation Fund 2004 5
The Successful Applicants for TSGCF 2004 6
Website and Marketing Committee Report 8

Project Updates 9
Cooperative Efforts for Lowland Tapir Conservation in
Venezuela 9
Is the Andean Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) Present in the
Mamapacha Massif (Boyaci, Colombia)? I I

News from Captivity 12
Documenting Changes in the Development and
Pelage of a Malay Tapir Calf 12

Contributed Papers 14
Habitat Use by MalayTapir (Tapirus indicus) in
West Sumatra, Indonesia 14
Using GPS Collars to Study Mountain Tapirs
(Tapirus pinchaque) in the Central Andes of Colombia 18
Behaviour of Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in Captivity 24

Bibliography 23

IUCNISSC Tapir Specialist Group
Membership Directory 32

IUCNISSC Tapir Specialist Group
Structure 39

Notes for Contributors 39

Detailed list of Contents 40

The Proyecto Danta poster on the cover is printed with
kind permission from Denis AlexanderTorres, President,
Fundaci6n AndigenA, Venezuela; the picture shows a
lowland tapir at Chorros de Milla Zoo, photographed by
John Marquez.

The views expressed in Tapir Conservation are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the IUCN/SSC
Tapir Specialist Group or Houston Zoological Gardens. This
publication may be photocopied for private use only and the
copyright remains that of the Tapir Specialist Group. Copyright
for all photographs herein remains with the individual photo-

Tapi Consevatio


Editorial Board



& Distribution



Tapir Cons.

William Konstant

Leonardo Salas

Diego J. Lizcano

Alan H. Shoemaker

PilarAlexander Blanco Marquez

Matthew Colbert

Anders Goncalves da Silva

Gareth Redston

Angela Glatston

Patricia Medici

Sheryl Todd

Siin S.Waters

Stefan Seitz

Kelly J. Russo

Rick Barongi

This issue is kindly sponsored by Houston Zoo
Inc., General Manager, Rick Barongi, 1513 North
Mac Gregor, Houston,Texas 77030, USA.

Members of the Tapir Specialist Group receive the
newsletter free of charge. Subscriptions for non-
members are $10.00 per year and can be obtained
from Sheryl Todd, Tapir Preservation Fund,

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Fro th hi

Letter from the Chair

Patricia Medici

As always, I would like to start this letter by saying
that lots has happened over the past six months! It
is amazing how much is going on with our Tapir Spe-
cialist Group!
First of all, I would like to mention that our group
is growing fast in terms of the number of members and
also improving in terms of tapir range country repre-
sentation. We now have 96 members from or working
in 25 different countries (Argentina, Australia, Belize,
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ecua-
dor, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Indone-
sia, Malaysia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Taiwan,
Thailand, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United
States, and Venezuela), and we continue to receive lots
of e-mail messages every day from people willing to join
our efforts and contribute to tapir conservation.
I would also like to inform you that the TSG Plans
for Action 2004-2005, our ambitious list of 27 priority
goals and 55 actions to be put into practice by the Third
International Tapir Symposium in January 2006, is
well on the way to being achieved. So far, approximate-
ly 45% of the actions have been taken care of! Our TSG
officers, as well as the coordinators and members of all
TSG committees, are working really hard to put those
actions into practise and reach those goals. Regarding
our top priority of developing National Action Plans for
Tapir Conservation and Management in all range coun-
tries in Central and South America and Southeast Asia,
we are happy to announce that an impressive number
of countries have already started the process of putting
together their Regional Action Planning Committees
and are actively working on the first steps of action
plan production. We have been able to identify and ap-
point TSG Country Coordinators for most tapir range
countries but, unfortunately, we are still lacking coor-
dinators for French Guiana, Guyana, Malaysia, Nica-
ragua, Paraguay and Suriname. Therefore, if you have
any contacts in these countries or if you know of any
professionals or organizations who would be willing to
help us with the development of these action plans, we
would appreciate it if you could please let us know as
soon as you can.
Speaking of the Third International Tapir
Symposium, we have changed our plans regarding the
venue. As we announced in the previous issue of this
newsletter, the original idea was to hold the conference
in Chiapas, Mexico. However, after some preliminary

surveys of airfare and general costs, we realized that
Mexico would be a bit too expensive and decided to
think of some other alternatives. Consequently, I
would like to announce that the next symposium will
be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and I am personally
very happy with the decision given that this will be the
first time the conference will be held in a lowland tapir
range country. The date remains the same, January
2006. A small committee of TSG members will travel
to Argentina in February 2005 in order to visit the
hotel facilities in Buenos Aires, investigate possibilities
of local support, and kick off the process of the
organisation of our third conference. We will certainly
keep you all posted about any developments regarding
the next symposium.

Still on the topic of TSG meetings and events, I would
like to mention that 66 mountain tapir conserva-
tionists and experts from Colombia, Ecuador and Peru,
as well as many TSG officers and representatives from
other countries, got together in Colombia a few weeks
ago. The TSG, in partnership with the Colombian Ta-
pir Network (Red Danta de Colombia) and the IUCN/
SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG),
held the Mountain Tapir Conservation Workshop: Pop-
ulation and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) at the
Otin-Quimbaya Sanctuary of Fauna and Flora, Pereira,
Colombia, from October 12 to 15, 2004.

C L I 1I A

Logo of the Colombian Tapir Network
(Red Danta de Colombia).

As you can see, our TSG Action Planning Commit-
tee keeps working hard towards achieving the goal of
revising and updating the first version of the IUCN/SSC
Tapir Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan
(Brooks et al. 1997). Once the final report of this sec-
ond PHVA is published and distributed, we will have
achieved 50% of our goal of producing a second version
of the Tapir Action Plan!!! Institutional supporters of
the Mountain Tapir PHVA were the IUCN/SSC CBSG,
Colombian Tapir Network (Red Danta de Colombia),
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir
Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), European Association of
Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque).
Photo by: William Konstant.

TSG Members from Colombia: The major players in
the organisation of the Mountain Tapir PHVA.
Photo by: Diego J. Lizcano.

(TAG), Houston Zoo Inc., World Wildlife Fund (CEAN-
WWF) Colombia, and Conservation International (CI)
Colombia. Financial supporters of the workshop were
the AZA Tapir TAG, WWF-CEAN Colombia, Conserva-
tion International Colombia, Unidad Administrativa
Especial del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales
de Colombia (UAESPNN), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
- Division of International Conservation, Houston Zoo
Inc., Copenhagen Zoo, Los Angeles Zoo, and Cheyenne
Mountain Zoo. We are extremely grateful for all these
As soon as we all came back from Colombia we got
started on the organisation of the third workshop, the
Baird's Tapir PHVA, which will be held at The Belize Zoo

and Tropical Education Center (TEC), Belize, Central
America, in August 2005. Approximately 70 partici-
pants including field and captivity researchers and
conservationists, representatives from governmental
agencies, non-governmental organizations, local and
international conservation organizations, universities,
research institutes, members of local communities,
zoological institutions etc. from the eight Baird's
tapir range countries (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and
Panama) are expected to attend this third PHVA. The
members of the TSG Action Planning Committee
are still discussing the best venue and dates for the
Lowland Tapir PHVA.

As regards our TSG Fundraising Committee, I am
very happy and proud to announce that we have
just concluded our TSG Conservation Fund (TSGCF)
2004 Funding Cycle! As reported in the previous issue
of this newsletter, the silent and live auctions held
during the Tapir Symposium in Panama earlier this
year raised approximately US$4,500 for the TSGCF
and a large part of these funds were distributed to three
tapir research projects Tony Lynam and Leonardo
Salas in Myanmar (Malay tapir), Nereyda Estrada
Andino in Honduras (Baird's tapir), and Olga Lucia
Montenegro in Colombia (lowland tapir) in the form
of small grants. For further information about this last
funding cycle and the selected projects and researchers
see the article "TSG Conservation Fund 2004" in this
issue. Once again, I would like to mention that we are
all extremely happy about the fact that we are finally
moving in the direction of being able to support some
projects financially. This is, in my opinion, one of the
major accomplishments of the TSG!!!
Still on the subject of funding, our TSG Fundrais-
ing and Marketing Committees, in partnership with the
Houston Zoo Inc., have recently launched our 2004
fundraising campaign for private donors. Gilia An-
gell, the coordinator of our Marketing Committee has
designed and printed 2,000 copies of a TSG brochure,
and I must tell you Gilia has done an excellentjob! The
brochure looks amazing and includes lots of informa-
tion about tapirs and the TSG, as well as tapir photos
and Stephen Nash's incredible tapir drawings. Most
importantly, the brochure includes details about how to
make donations to the TSGCF! With financial support
from the Woodland Park Zoological Gardens in Seat-
tle, United States, copies of the brochure were mailed
to approximately 600 people and organizations on our
"tapir mailing list" and we are expecting this campaign
to be a major success! I would like to thank Gilia for
all her hard work helping us to put together the bro-
chures, developing our marketing strategies, managing
our Website, and so many other things! Additionally, I
would like to thank the Woodland Park Zoo staff, espe-

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


cially Harmony Frazier, Darin Collins, Helen Shewman,
and Andrea Sanford, as well as the zoo's tapir keepers
and many other friends and volunteers, for all their
help organising this fundraising campaign!!!

Finally, I would like to mention that I have just re-
turned from the Annual Conference of the American
Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA), which was held
in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. This was a
very productive event and during the conference, mem-
bers of the AZA Tapir TAG and myself made sure to
promote the Tapir Specialist Group and work on fund-

ing possibilities for the TSG Conservation Fund, as well
as for the upcoming tapir meetings, such as the Baird's
Tapir PHVA in Belize and the Third International Tapir
Symposium in Argentina.

Patricia Medici
Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Avenida Perdizes, 285, Vila Sdo Paulo
Teodoro Sampaio, CEP: 19280-000, Sdo Paulo, Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690
Cell Phone: +55-18-9711-6106

TSG Conservation Fund


By Patricia Medici

The Tapir Specialist Group Conservation Fund
(TSGCF) was established in January 2003 as a
vehicle to raise and contribute funds towards tapir
conservation initiatives. The organizations involved
in the management of the TSGCF are the IUCN/SSC
Tapir Specialist Group (TSG), Houston Zoo Inc.,
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir
Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), and European Associa-
tion of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory
Group (TAG), who are, today, the key groups working
on coordinating and implementing tapir research, con-
servation and management programmes. The money
in this Fund consists of personal donations from tapir
researchers, supporters and enthusiasts worldwide, as
well as contributions from conservation organizations
and tapir holding institutions and zoos.
A TSGCF committee reviews each application sub-
mitted and decides to fund projects based on the merits
of each proposal, its significance for tapir conservation
and several other criteria. Grants are given to projects
targeted at research with wild and/or captive tapirs;
projects targeted at restoration, protection and conser-
vation of tapir habitat in South and Central America
and Southeast Asia; education and capacity-building
programmes for local communities within the tapirs'
range in South and Central America, and Southeast
Asia; and implementation of the recommendations
of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Status Survey and Conserva-

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004

TSG Chair Patricia Medici

wins IUCN's

Messel Leadership Award

At this year's lUCN World
Conservation Congress in
Bangkok, Thailand, TSG chair
Patricia Medici received the
newly created Harry Messel
Conservation Leadership
Award. This award seeks
AV to honor "individuals from
within the SSC network
who have made a significant
contribution to conserva-
tion on the ground. The
contribution must have
been made in the context of
their participation in an SSC
Patrfcia Medici Specialist Group or Task
Force, and should reflect a
specific event rather than a career contribution Please
join us in congratulating Pati. She is an inspiring and dedi-
cated leader of the TSG and it's wonderful that her work
on behalf of tapir conservation has been recognized. Pati
received this award at the end of a series of SSC meet-
ings, and it came as a complete surprise. She was asked to
say a few words, but found herself rendered speechless!
Needless to say, we are very proud of her and she gra-
ciously includes all TSG members in her appreciation of
receiving the award: "it was an honor to accept this award
on behalf of all TSG members and supporters. After all ...
we all know I don't do anything by myself and it's our team
work that was recognized."


The S Appli cants of TSG 200


A Preliminary Study of Habitat Selection,Abundance,
and Threats to Malay Tapirs (Tapirus indicus) in the
Tenasserim Hills, Southern Myanmar.


inside the country, the species appears to be restricted to the
rainforests of the Tenasserim Hills.While hunting appears not
to be a problem for tapirs, habitat clearance certainly is. Some
of the largest tracts of remaining lowland rainforest in main-
land Asia lie in these southern Myanmar forests. This project
intends to determine the status of Malay tapirs in a region of
the Tenasserim Hills in southern Myanmar, their habitat needs,
critical habitats, hunting threats and extraction levels.

Antony Lynam & Leonardo Salas

Tony Lynam,
Associate Conservation
Ecologist with Wildlife
Conservation Society
Photo by: Charles Foerster.

Leonardo Salas,
Animal Population
Biologist with Conservation
International Papua New
Photo by: Charles Foerster.


Abundance, Distribution and Conservation of Baird's
Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the Natural Area of Rus-Rus,
La Moskitia, Honduras.


Nereyda Estrada Andino

Nereyda EstradaAndino,
M.Sc. Graduate Student,
Posgrado en Biologia,
Universidad de Costa Rica.
Photo by:William Konstant.


The Malay tapir is the single large forest ungulate species in
Southeast Asia of a little-known family of mammals (Tapiridae)
most closely related to rhinoceroses and horses (Order
Perissodactyla). Because of the extensive decline of tapir
populations, increased incidental or accidental extraction
of animals, and rapid loss and fragmentation of forests in
Southeast Asia, the IUCN Tapir Specialists Group (TSG) ini-
tially assigned the Malay tapir as Vulnerable (IUCN 1996). A
recent revision (IUCN 2003) listed it as Endangered. This
status was revised and confirmed in a recent Population
and Habitat Viability Analysis (PHVA) workshop, and priority
conservation actions were established. The present proposal
stems directly from this workshop as a means to address some
of the most pressing conservation needs for this species. One
of the four range countries for Malay tapirs is Myanmar, and


This research project will assess the abundance, distribution
and habitat use of the Baird's tapir population in the proposed
protected area of Rus-Rus, southeast Honduras. This natural
area is located near the border with Nicaragua in the area
known as La Moskitia and is part of the largest area of con-
tinuous pristine forest in Central America. The Tapirs Status
Survey and Conservation Action Plan (IUCN/SSC 1997) mentions
that it is highly important to do baseline status surveys of tapir
population in Honduras and Nicaragua. Transects will be loca-
ted in all the habitats represented in the area, the presence and
the number of tracks per transect will be used to assess abun-
dance and distribution. Householders and hunters from the

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Th Sucssu Appicnt ofTGF20

Rus-Rus village will be interviewed to assess the importance
of tapir meat for this indigenous community and the possible
human impact on the tapir population. All sampling areas will
be recorded with a GPS and maps will be generated using
ARC/VIEW 3.2. Dietary information will be obtained from
faecal samples. All data will be presented to the Honduran
office in charge of protected areas and to the community of
Rus-Rus in the hope that it may be helpful in the management
and protection of this natural area.


Lowland Tapir Distribution Update in the Colombian
Orinoquia Region.


Olga Lucia Montenegro, Juliana Rodriguez and
Hugo L6pez


One of the goals of the National Programme for Tapir
Recovery and Conservation in Colombia is to update the cur-
rent distribution of lowland tapir in the Colombian Amazonia
and Orinoquia regions in order to assess current threats to the
population. An initial enquiry revealed quite a large area for the

Olga Lucia Montenegro,
Ph.D. Candidate, University
of Florida.
Photo by:William Konstant.

potential existence of lowland tapir, based on past and current
distribution records and spatial distribution of tapir habitat. In
the Orinoquia region, however, very few current records were
found and in some departments only past records exist. It is
unclear, however, whether absence of tapir records in the area
reflects a lack of research, absence of suitable habitat, or is, in
fact, the result of local extinctions in this region.The proposed
study aims to confirm the current presence/absence of low-
land tapir populations in four departments of the Colombian
Orinoquia. Field visits will be conducted to those departments
and surveys of local inhabitants, researchers in the area and
institutional representatives will be conducted. Current distri-
bution records will be placed on maps at scales of 1:500.000
and 1:100.000. Information on the presence of remnant tapir
populations in the Orinoquia region will be provided to the
regional environmental institutions in order to be used in their
regional conservation planning.

tion Action Plan. The proposals must be cooperative
in nature and have matching funds. The fund does
not support salary, tuition fees, scholarships, confer-
ences, courses and meetings, or operational/overhead
costs for institutions or established projects and/or
programmes. The proposal must be scientifically sig-
nificant and sound, logistically feasible, must have a
high probability of success and clearly contribute to the
conservation of tapirs and their remaining habitats.
During the 2004 Funding Cycle, the TSG Conserva-
tion Fund received eleven proposals and three of those
were selected to receive US$1,000 grants. On the fol-
lowing page, you can see the titles and coordinators of
each project, as well as brief abstracts from each one.
I would like to congratulate Tony and Leo, Nereyda and
Olga, Juliana and Hugo for the excellent job they have
been doing in Myanmar, Honduras and Colombia re-

Patricia Medici
Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Avenida Perdizes, 285, Vila Sdo Paulo
Teodoro Sampaio, CEP: 19280-000, Sdo Paulo, Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690
Cell Phone: +55-18-9711-6106

If you would like to make a contribution to the
Tapir Specialist Group Conservation Fund (TSGCF),
please make checks payable to the IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group (TSG) and mail them to the Houston
Zoo Inc., General Manager, Rick Barongi, 1513 North
Mac Gregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. We appre-
ciate any support and thank you in advance.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Website and Marketing

Committee Report

By Gilia Angell

he TSG Website,
continues to grow. Keep sending your news,
updates on zoo births, your captures in the field, and
questions for our committee chairs. The site is taking
terrific shape, and reflecting the great content that
members have been sending to me to post, including
many beautiful photos of wild and captive animals and
members in the field.
Over the nine months the site has existed, use of
the site has grown steeply upwards as more and more
people discover and use it. For instance, in March of
2004, daily site hits averaged 174, with an average
of two pages viewed per visit. In September, daily
site hits averaged 349 with an average of four pages
viewed per visitor. Our site hit numbers grow by about
1000 each month. September's total hits were around
10,000. People who aren't familiar with our url appear
to find us mostly through Google and Yahoo search
crawlers, and enter in keywords that include species
names, "tapir baby news", and the names of our
researchers. Our largest number of hits come from
US commercial and network servers (total of 38%),

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and US educational servers (5.5%), followed closely
by Denmark accounting for 5% of the traffic to our
site, with smaller percentages including Mexico, Italy,
Colombia, UK and others. Keep in mind that 29% of
our traffic comes from "Unresolved/Unknown" server

Everyone is welcome to view the site stats
themselves at

Also in July and August, the marketing committee
produced our first full colour tri-fold brochure in
English (see extracts on this page). TSG Chairs Patricia
Medici and William Konstant, as well as Education &
Outreach Co-chair, Kelly Russo, distributed these
brochures to fellow zoo professionals at the American
Zoo & Aquarium Conference in New Orleans. In the
weeks following the brochure publication Patricia
Medici distributed copies at the Mountain tapir
PHVA in Colombia and at the IUCN Conference in
Bangkok. Gilia Angell distributed copies at the Wildlife
Conservation Expo in Palo Alto, California. In addition
to the presence at conferences, TSG made an appear-
ance in the mail boxes of over 500 tapir supporters
around the world. Woodland Park Zoo graciously
underwrote and supported the mailing costs and labor
to send our brochure to our existing mailing list of
donors and other interested tapir advocates, zoo pro-
fessionals and researchers. According to the Houston
Zoo, which manages our conservation fund, we're

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


receiving strong response to the fundraising solicita-
tion contained in these brochures.
The brochure features beautiful photos by TSG
members and a cover photo donated by wildlife
photographer Kevin Schafer; and most exciting,
drawings of each of the four species of tapir drawn
by Conservation International artist Stephen Nash,
who provided them free of charge. We have definitely
experienced "ask and ye shall receive" this year.
Please let Marketing Committee Chair Gilia Angell
know if you'd like a handful of brochures to distribute
to your community. Copies are limited, and only in
English, so first come first served. Our goal is to use
these colour brochures as educational and fundraising
materials for those already familiar with tapirs, namely
our colleagues, conservation NGOs, zoos, and citizens
already engaged in conservation advocacy. PDF copies
of the brochure may also be found at our website under

the Downloads section.
One more note: TSG logos, logo usage information
and logo files are all now available in the Downloads
section of the site. Please use these files for your
speeches, web links, and other references, as they are
the most up to date. Thanks!

Gilia Angell
Web/Graphic Designer,
Marketing Committee Coordinator,
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Webmaster, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG),
270 Dorffel Drive East, Seattle, Washington 98112,
United States
Phone: +1-206-266-2613; +1-206-568-1655
Fax: +1-206-266-1822
E-mail: gilia

P ro e Ut

Cooperative Efforts for

Lowland Tapir Conservation

in Venezuela

By Denis Alexander Torres

The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is one of the
least known and most threatened mammal species
in Venezuela. Tapirs are key species in the ecological
dynamics of tropical forests as well as being a cultu-
ral icon in Venezuela. Its current population status
is uncertain in the country, which can be argued to
be due to a lack of information and field research.
Nevertheless, the species was classified as Vulnerable
in the "Red Data Book" of Venezuelan Fauna (Rodriguez
& Rojas-Suarez 1999). Its range has been severely frag-
mented by habitat conversion. These habitats, must
be shared with humans and are, in fact, some of the
most intensively-used and threatened landscapes on
the continent.
The fact that important areas of tapir habitat still
remain in the southern portion of Venezuela, gives us
reason to assume that there are viable populations in
this region. The opposite scenario is found to the north
of the Orinoco River, where the species has vanished
from many areas, and just a few populations remain
in the region and are in decline due to poaching and

habitat destruction.
Although lowland tapirs are threatened with extinc-
tion, very few conservation initiatives have been imp-
lemented in their countries of origin. Consequently,
AndigenA, a Venezuelan non-profit foundation whose
mission is the conservation of Neotropical Biodiversity,
has undertaken the only initiative focusing on tapir
conservation in Venezuela. The project began in 1999
and during its preliminary stages "Proyecto Danta", was
focused on two main lines of action: 1) environmental
education and 2) captive breeding (Torres 2000).
In 1999, we promoted a pilot captive breeding
programme accompanied by a series of environmental
education activities at Chorros de Milla Zoo located in
M6rida city, Venezuela. At that time the zoo had only
one lowland tapir male named "Pijiguao" in its animal
collection. In order to achieve one of our actions, we
were in touch with the authorities of Bararida Zoo &
Botanical Gardens, located in Lara State, for the pur-
pose of obtaining a female tapir. In 2000 we obtained a
young female tapir called "Simona" from Bararida Zoo.
A breeding pair was formed and in May 2002, a calf
was born, this was the first tapir calf in the history of
Chorros de Milla Zoo (Torres & Rodriguez-Hernandez
2004). During this time, we received valuable support
from the Tapir Preservation Fund, an American non-
governmental organization devoted to tapir conserva-
As part of a preliminary assessment of the captive
tapir population status in Venezuela (Naveda-Rodriguez

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


& Torres 2002), we verified that there were a number
of individuals housed in many private collections and
zoological parks. However, In spite of this, a coordina-
ted breeding programme for the species did not exist.
The main goal of this initiative was to build a database
or studbook including information on most if not all
the captive individuals in the country. In 2002 the first
studbook was completed and distributed among all the
Venezuelan zoos thanks to valuable support provided
by the Houston Zoo Inc. We hope to continue this pio-
neering work and compile updates of the studbook for
this species (Naveda-Rodriguez & Torres 2002). This
will serve as a framework to promote the exchange
of individuals between Venezuela's zoos, to develop
captive breeding protocols and to promote a series of
research projects both in and ex situ.
In 2003, the second stage of "Proyecto Danta" began
by developing and promoting a pragmatic conservation
programme for this species at the national level. We
intend to develop the programme by focusing on three
main topics:

1. Field research to determine the current distributi-
on and status of the wild populations.

2. Environmental education in rural areas and zoos.

3. Awareness-building and training of governmental
officials in order to prevent poaching.

Through a proposal entitled "PROYECTO DANTA:
Fostering International Cooperation for Tapir
Conservation in Venezuela" sent to several internati-
onal organizations we propose as a first step to design
and implement a series of environmental education
activities to provide the public with information about
tapir biology, ecology and conservation. The develop-
ment of these initiatives will give us a base from which
to strengthen the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
(TSG) at the local level and to develop more complex
actions for the future. This approach has recently been
used to coordinate and publicise a worldwide internet-
based forum called "Tapir Talk" (
tapirgal/tapirtalk). During six months in 2002 we have
coordinated this initiative thanks to support from
Cleveland Zoological Society through a generous dona-
tion made by Mrs. Ann Griss. However, our limited
capacity has not enabled us to continue this activity
and "Tapir Talk" is currently coordinated by Patricia
Medici, chair of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group.
After a lot of hard work and many setbacks we
began work on the design, production and distribution
of a high-quality poster and pamphlets. This was due
to financial support from the Houston Zoo Inc. The
experience gained by our organisation in environmental
education issues has allowed us to propose launching a

campaign to heighten awareness about lowland tapirs
amongst the people throughout the whole Venezuelan
territory where the species is found. In order to make
a public impact, we are relying on the effectiveness of
the poster as an educational tool over time, attractive
appearance and relatively low cost of production.
In this way, the lowland tapir poster was designed
with the assistance of two professional graphic desig-
ners and the central image was taken by the photogra-
pher, John Marquez at Chorros de Milla Zoo. During
the creative process we decided that this poster must
be universal in content, whilst taking into account
local variations in common names, public perception
of tapirs, principal threats, and their importance for
the conservation of the tropical forests and the local
culture. The poster is illustrated in the photograph on
the cover of this newsletter.
A thousand posters were printed and they will be
distributed through national environmental agencies
or private companies, who will deliver the posters at
no cost to the project.
We have already established links with a number of
organizations willing to serve as partners in each of the
Venezuelan states where the tapir occurs. This partner-
ship allows us to impart the information to schools,
government offices, conservation memberships and,
most importantly, the villages closest to tapir habitat.
Their contribution will be acknowledged during the
media campaigns, which will accompany the release
of the poster.
Partner organizations will keep a detailed record of
their activities while distributing posters, and will be
invited to use them in the context of larger conservation
programmes they may currently be developing. Special
emphasis will be given to distributing the poster as part
of environmental education programmes in rural areas
near the rain forest, and in using it to promote tapir
conservation amongst environmental law enforcement
agencies. As the project progresses it will open the door
for future joint activities. We also aim to produce an
informative pamphlet directed at the general public
with emphasis on the rural inhabitants as a future
This year we will be receiving additional support
from Houston Zoo Inc. in order to:

1. To reinforce the environmental awareness cam-
paign focused on tapir conservation.

2. To increase public knowledge and awareness about
the importance of taking action in favour of tapir
conservation. This will be achieved by:
Holding a public technical workshop for govern-
mental officials and the scientific and conserva-
tion community.
Publicising the information gained from the

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


The publication of a second edition of the low-
land tapir studbook in Venezuela.

3. To help strengthen environmental organizations
located in the tapir range areas by:
Holding a public technical workshop.
Creating a scientific advisory council led by
Foundation AndigenA and its partners in
Proyecto Danta.

4. To assess the management of the captive tapir pop-
ulation in the Venezuelan zoos:
Through a survey supported by a questionnaire
and personal visits to the zoos.

5. To assess the status of T. terrestris in the western
region of Venezuela.

6. To determine the distribution pattern of T. terres-
tris in Venezuela.

7. To compare the distribution pattern of T. terrestris
with the current distribution of National Parks and
determine if extensions of these areas are necessary
to protect threatened populations.

This international joint effort among AndigenA, the
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, Tapir Preservation
Fund and American zoos, is a good example of how it is
possible to work for the benefit of a threatened species.
With a small budget it is possible to have a big social
impact. It is a pragmatic way to demonstrate that small
actions can make a lot of difference.

Denis Alexander Torres
President, Fundaci6n AndigenA /
info @andigena. org


IUCN (World Conservation Union). 2002. 2002 IUCN Red
List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Naveda-Rodriguez, A. & Torres, D. 2002. Situaci6n Actual y
Registro Geneal6gico de Las Dantas o Tapires en Los
Zool6gicos de Venezuela. Informe T6cnico. Fundacion
AndigenA EarthMatters.Org IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group Houston Zoo. 13 pp.
Rodriguez, J. P & Rojas-Suarez, F. 1999. Libro Rojo de la
Fauna Venezolana. 2nd Edition. PROVITA, Fundaci6n
Polar. Caracas, Venezuela. 472 pp.
Torres, D. & RODRIGUEZ-HERNANDEZ, A. 2004.
[Abstract]. Captive Management of Tapirus terrestris at

the Chorros de Milla Park Zoo, M6rida, Venezuela. Pp:
41, in: Symposium Program Schedule and Presentation
Abstracts Second International Tapir Symposium.
Panama. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, AZA,
Houston Zoo, Disney Wildlife Cons. Fund. Cons. Int. 62
Torres, D. 2000. "Proyecto Danta" takes shape in Venezuela.
Tapir Cons. 10(1):17.

Is the Andean Tapir (Tapirus

pinchaque) Present in the

Mamapacha Massif

(Boyaca, Colombia)?

By Javier Adolfo Sarria Perea &
Diana S. F Vargas Munar

Mountain or Andean tapirs (Tapirus pinchaque)
inhabit the niche of montane rain forest and
paramos, at elevations between 2000 to 4500m in the
Northern Andes (Downer 1996).
Before 1500 AD, the species probably extended
throughout the Eastern and Central cordilleras of the
Northern Andes, in the territory of what are now Peru,
Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.
Recently, this distribution has been severely redu-
ced and the population fragmented because of human
activities such as deforestation, agriculture, cattle ran-
ching, establishment of slums and cities, over-hunting
and road building, leading the species to be classified
as critically endangered (IUCN 1997).
In Colombia the species has been identified in
several Andean forest patches of variable size, from
the Andean Massif in the department of Narifio to
the southern limit of the Los Nevados National Park
and from the departments of Quindio and Tolima
as the northern limit in the central Cordillera, and
the Sumapaz National Park in the department of
Cundinamarca as the northern limit in the eastern
Cordillera (Lizcano et al 2002). However, its pres-
ence has recently been reported in the south of the
department of Boyaca, located north of Sumapaz
(Corpochivor 1997; Montenegro 2002).
The Mamapacha Massif in the department of
Boyaca, is the most representative fragment of mon-
tane rain forest and paramo in the region, and has
a total area of 27,511.77 hectares distributed among
five municipalities (See Figure 1). Although this region
has been affected by cattle ranching and agriculture
over decades, these activities have been considerably
reduced, and large expanses of the forest have been

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Figure I. Map of Proposed Study Area.

conserved. The most important preserved area in the
region is the Private Reserve, created 20 years ago by
Mr Eduardo Fernandez. This reserve holds important
populations of endangered Colombian species such
as the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), little
red brocket deer (Mazama rufina), and possibly the
Andean tapir.
The aim of this project is to confirm the presence
of Andean tapir in the Mamapacha massif, Colombia,
from local peoples' knowledge, indirect sampling
surveys looking for tracks, faecal samples, hair and
rest areas, and the use of trail cameras in order to
capture images of the animals in the Private Reserve.
If its presence in the area is confirmed, then there is
the possibility that it also occurs in other areas of the

Javier Adolfo Sarria Perea
MSc in Genetics & Animal Improvement
Research Coordinator, Andean Tapir and Little Red
Brocket Project
Carrera 58A No. 74A-31, Int 3 Apto. 102, Bogota D.C.

Diana S. F. Vargas Munar
MSc in Genetics & Animal Improvement
Researcher, Andean Tapir and Little Red Brocket Project
Carrera 58A No. 74A-31, Int 3 Apto. 102, Bogota D.C.


Corpochivor, 1997. Plan de Manejo y Uso Sostenible
Pdramos de Mamapacha y Biagual. Corpochivor,
Downer, C. C. 1996. Status and action plan of the mountain
tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). In Tapirs: Status Survey
and Conservation Action Plan. (Eds: Brooks, D. M.,
Bodmer, R.E. & Matola, S. pp. 10-22. IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN Species Survival Commission. 2003 The IUCN Red list
of Threatened Species. IUCN.
Lizcano, D. J. Pizarro, V, Cavelier, J. & Carmona, J. 2002.
Geographic distribution and population size of the
mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Colombia. J.
Biog., 28 :1-9.
Montenegro, O. 2002. Evaluaci6n del estado actual de la
danta o tapir de paramo (Tapirus pinchaque) en la region
Andina Oriental, con base en una recopilaci6n y verifica-
ci6n de registros de campo y una aproximaci6n prelimi-
nar al estado de su habitat en la region. Informe final.
& Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. Garagoa.

I Ne s frmCptvt

Documenting Changes

in the Development and

Pelage of a Malay Tapir Calf

By Masayuki Adachi

Chiba Zoological Park in Japan has been success-
fully breeding Malay tapirs since 1998. The calves'
development is carefully monitored and documented

The calves have always been mother-reared. During
the first birth, suckling was noted as taking place three
times a day during the first days and lasting sometimes
for 15 minutes. The calf in the photographs is the male
calf born in July 1998. He began to eat solid food at
five days old and nibbled grass at 18 days old. The
calf was first observed entering the pool at 40 days old.
The photographs (Fig. 1-8) show the change in pelage
to that of an adult over a period of weeks. This calf was
finally separated from his dam at about seven months
old. The adult female has since successfully reared
another male calf born in early September 2000.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004



Figure I.
tapir calf
day of

* Figure 2.
II days.

Figure 3.
35 days.

Figure 4.
51 days.

Mayasuki Adachi
Chiba Zoological Park

280 Minamoto-cho, Wakaba-ku, Chiba 264-0037, Japan
Fax: +81-43-255-7116

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004

Figure 5.
62 days.

Figure 6.
76 days.

Figure 7.
91 days.

Figure 8.
105 days.


Habitat Use by Malay Tapir (Tapirus indicus)

in West Sumatra, Indonesia

By Wilson Novarinol, Santi N. Karimah2, Jarulis2, M. Silmi2 & M. Syafri2

Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Andalas University, West Sumatra, Indonesia
Country Coordinator, Indonesia, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG), E-mail: Wilson n
2 Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Andalas University, West Sumatra, Indonesia


This study on habitat use by the Malay tapir (Tapirus indicus) was conducted in Taratak Village, West
Sumatra, Indonesia, from September to December 2003. Twenty track plots (1.5 x 3 m) were set up in four
different habitat types, including primary forest, secondary forest, rubber plantation and riparian forest.
Two plots were placed around salt lick areas located in secondary forest. All plots were checked every week.
The results show that the Malay tapir prefers secondary forests over primary forests. Based on footprint
analyses, the population density of Malay tapir in the study area was estimated to be 0.08-0.36 ind./km2.
High preference for Symplocos cochicinensis as a food item was also recorded in this study. Forest frag-
mentation and hunting (accidental extractions?) are the most serious threats for tapirs in the region.


The Malay tapir is a flagship species inhabiting a
number of small and isolated forest fragments in
Sumatra. During the past decade, increasing rates of
human population growth and habitat loss have been
the most serious threats to the survival of tapirs in the
region. Recently, illegal logging and concession areas,
as well as human resettlements and oil palm plantati-
ons have been major causes of forest fragmentation.
In the light of this, experts have predicted that the
Sumatran forests may have completely vanished by
2005 (Jepson et al. 2001).
Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia are the world's
strongholds for the Malay tapir. However, the rate of
forest destruction for agriculture and plantations in
Sumatra is immense, and conservation law enforce-
ment both inside and outside the protected areas is
insufficient (Meijaard & Van Strien, 2003).
Malay tapirs are able to wander outside forested
areas to explore nearby patches, thus crossing protec-
ted area boundaries and venturing into logging conces-
sions and plantations. Since Malay tapirs are herbivo-
res and depend on good forest conditions, forest frag-
mentation has been seen as the major threat, thereby

causing population declines. Based on this aspect of
Malay tapir natural history, this study was conducted
to evaluate the effects of deforestation on Malay tapir
populations, including habitat use and focusing parti-
cularly on use of mineral licks.


Study Area

The study was conducted at a protected forest in
Taratak Village, located at 100-500 masl, 30 km from
Padang, West Sumatra Province. The slope of this area
varies from 0-2%, with fluctuations in several areas
that can reach 40%. The habitat includes primary
and mature secondary forest, traditional mixed plan-
tations and riparian forest vegetation dominated by
Dipterocarpaceae, Myrtaceae and Fagaceae (Novarino
2001). This protected forest is an edge of the Bukit
Barisan mountain range. The forest has recently been
altered by illegal logging and agricultural encroach-
ments. Some snare traps are set up by local people
to protect their crops from wild boar (Sus scrofa) and
other potential pests, including tapirs, thus becoming

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


a tangible threat to the local tapir population. Tapir
populations are very sensitive to hunting (Miller et al.

* wdife msene
C rifAse roE
* plain Bfi

Figure I. Percentages of confirmed tapir distribution areas
in Sumatra, Indonesia. Tabulated from MacKinnon (1997) cit
Meijaard and Strien (2003).


Malay tapir habitat use was estimated through the use
of 20 track plots (3 x 1.5 m) placed in four habitat
types present in the study area (primary forest, mature
secondary forest, plantation and riparian) as indicated
in Table 1. Two plots were placed in salt licks. The
plots were cleared of vegetation and raked in order to
ensure the easy detection of tapir footprints. The plots
were inspected once a week for four weeks.
Because track plots were unevenly distributed
among the four habitat types, the number of tracks
recorded for each habitat type was compensated accor-
dingly. That is, the number of tracks recorded was
divided by the number of plots used for each habitat
Population monitoring was conducted through
the use of transects and based on footprint analysis
(Rabinowitz 1993). All tracks found were measured,
recorded and analysed. Tapir individuals were iden-
tified based on a combination of track size (length,
width of each part), age and direction. The densities
were estimated by comparing the number of estimation
of individual and length of trail where the track plot

Table I. Description of track plot locations.

Trees SapHnag Seedllnlg
1 Secondry wLor wtt, dry land 10-20% common common abulra
2 Sail Ick mud 10 20% ownmon common abtldart
3 Secondary fareal Dry lad 0 10 % common common comn
4 Sall Ick mud 0 10% aIndant common common
5 Secondary fora dry land, day 45- 50 rar rare rare
SSecondery o y land, day 0 10 % we abtndn aburfta
7 Ptrilary Fore dy land, day 0 10 % bundarrt rat abunlam
B Pnmary real dcy land, day 5 -10 % abundant nbunmmt ram
9 Ptmry y lo30 45 % abun, dlnt co~rmon common
10 Primary Fars dcy land, day 0- 10 % aundarrt ram Ibundaer
11 Pi mary foe y land, oy 20-30% abbundant ebtunda rar
12 Primary For land 0 10 % abundant mabwrdt common
13 Primary faril dry land 0 10 % omnmon eburndat rare
14 Pnipry Irei try la~ O0- 10 % wre 0b=r4m_ rar
15 Primary keed mur~y 30-40% abundant ram ram
16 Plotprlan I npian aandy 0. 10% rare ram *bur a
17 Plardat n I tparian dry lar 20-25% abutndarnt rarm ambtmat
18 Plantain i riprian soft, dry lend 0 -10 % abnKdant common ara
19 Plarwn on I paan sft, dy land 0 10% abundant abundant sbsWiaM
20 Ptanraton riparan son dry land 0 -10 % abundant ebundart abmudla

Note: Trees and saplings were considered "abundant" if the number of individuals was more than 5,"common" if the number was
2 5 individuals and "rare" if there was only one individual; seedlings were considered "abundant" if almost all the plot area was
covered by them,"common" if they covered only half or less, and "rare" if only a few individuals were observed.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004




was located. Casts of some tracks were taken using
gypsum. Threats to tapirs and other animals were
obtained by direct observation of hunting activity and
through information obtained from local people by
means of casual conversations.

Results and Discussion

Footprints from at least six mammal species were
recorded during the study period (see Figure 2). In
general, 63.33% of the track plots recorded the occur-
rence of mammal species in the area and only 36.67%
did not record any footprints. This result shows that
the location of the track plots was good enough to
detect terrestrial mammals in the area. 191 tracks
were recorded during the studies and these were pre-
dominantly wild boar footprints (46.67%) and only 9%
of tracks were from tapirs. Other mammal footprints
recorded were Sumatran goat (Capricornis sumatren-
sis), Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrensis),
porcupine (Hystrix brachyura), muntjac (Muntiacus
muntjac) and Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor).
Figure 2 shows that the occurrence of Malay tapir is
only superseded by that of wild boar, and is higher than
for other herbivores/folivores. This result shows the
importance of the tapir's ecological role as a browser
in Sumatran forests. Primary forest shows the highest
amount of footprints recorded, followed by secondary,
plantation and salt licks. However, if we correct the
numbers by the amount of track plots deployed in each
habitat type, the salt licks show the highest amount of
footprints and primary forest then becomes the least
used habitat (see Fig. 3). Thirty footprints have been
recorded from two track plots in salt lick areas, 44
from four plots in secondary forest, and 60 footprints
were recorded at nine track plots in primary forest,
as shown in Figure 3. This result shows that salt
licks have an important role for animals. The mineral
content of salt licks, including their micronutrients,
are believed to be crucial in the diet of animals (Stein
1993). The slope of salt lick areas was flat and located
in valley areas, which perhaps affected the occurrence
of the animals there.
Salt licks appear to be more important for Malay
tapirs, 63% of tapir footprints were recorded at salt
licks, 22% in secondary forest, 15% in primary forest
and no records for plantation/riparian (Fig. 4). In
Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia, Kawanishi
(2002) conducted a camera trapping study and found
that most tapir photographs were taken near or on
trails leading to salt licks. However, based on total
footprints recorded along line transects, tapirs became
most abundant in secondary forest, followed by pri-
mary forest and plantation/riparian. Based on camera
trap results, Holden et al. (2003) found that tapirs


akiT TAM
.fl. -,
sueftwn nom

Figure 2. Proportion of footprints recorded in the track
m sm- o Tawd

M TrD 3pe

Figure Prootprints recorded at four types of

w_ W^E *
79 P


Figure 4. Malay tapir footprints recorded at four types of

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


use primary forest, recently logged forest, old rubber
plantations, and disturbed forest edge and crossed an
open cultivated area. Foerster & Vaughan (2002) using
radio telemetry also found that secondary forest was
the most commonly used habitat type (61.3%) rather
than primary forest (25.0%) for the Baird's tapir (T.
bairdii) in Costa Rica.
Basal vegetation and secondary tree growth is more
abundant and varied in secondary forest than in prima-
ry forest and plantations, which makes the area more
suitable for tapirs according to their need for plentiful
foliage, fruit and soft twigs. Field observations show
that tapirs tend to move inside shrub or basal vegetati-
on to obtain more varied food items.
During the study, some tapir faecal samples were
found and collected. We also recorded plants showing
evidence of browsing along tapir paths and some trees
that were "climbed" and had fallen because tapirs fed
on them. Previous studies recorded more than 20
plant species as tapir food items, and tapirs showed a
high preference for Symplocos cochichinensis. Tapirs
were also recorded feeding on traditional mix plan-
tation which is a cultivated plant along with gambir
(Uncharia gambir) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).
However, there was no record of tapir visits to rubber
and gambir plantations during this survey. This indica-
tes that tapirs do not feed on the old foliage and fruit of
these plant species. Malay tapir eat small fallen fruits
and large fruits such as durian (Durio zibethinus) and
jackfruit (Artocarpus integra) in Sumatra. Durian
seedlings were often observed sprouting from mounds
of old tapir dung (Holden et al. 2003). Downer (2001)
found that the mountain tapir assisted in the potential-
ly successful seed dispersal of many species of Andean
plants through faecal germination experiments.
The occurrence of pairs of footprints on several
occasions indicates that Malay tapirs are not absolute-
ly solitary. Based on camera trap results Holden et al.
(2003) also found this tendency, where the percentage
of tapirs photographed in pairs was 20%: two adults
14% and adult and calf 6%.
The most serious threat to Malay tapir in Sumatra
is the continued destruction of its habitat. Forest
conversions io resettlement, plantation and concessi-
on areas are mainly responsible for the loss of forest
cover over the past decade. In Bukit Barisan Selatan
National Park (BBSNP), based on GIS analysis and
modelling, Kinnaird et al. (2003) predicted that by
2010 70% of the BBSNP would be agricultural lands
or village enclaves. Lowland forests will have declined
to 28%, and hill/montane forests will account for 2% of
the BBSNP land cover, a cumulative area of little over
700 km2 in forest.
New government policies, such as decentralisation,
in addition to political instability, agricultural encroach-
ment and illegal logging, all affect forest management.

Sumatra is experiencing the most rapid deforestation
rate in the Indonesian archipelago. Furthermore, even
though it is stated that tapirs are not hunted in Sumatra
(Santiapillai & Ramono 1990), we found some cases of
hunting of large mammals, including tapir, in this area.
This was evidenced by the presence of snare traps and
other signs. In the same area, seven tapir skulls were
found from 1999 onwards.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Malay tapirs mainly preferred secondary forest.
Around 63% of tapir footprints were recorded on salt
licks located in secondary forest, 22% in secondary
forest, and 15% in primary forest with no records on
plantation/riparian habitats. Based on footprint ana-
lysis, the population of Malay tapirs in our study area
is estimated at 0.08-0.36 ind./km2. High preference of
tapir for Symplocos cochicinensis as a food item was
also recorded in this study.
Despite improvements to legislation and estab-
lished protected areas, monitoring of Malay tapirs in
secondary forest throughout Sumatra must be under-
taken. Long term, systematic studies would obtain
more information regarding the status of this species
in Sumatra and will be very useful for the conservation
of the species in general.


Many organizations and individuals contributed to this
research. I gratefully acknowledge the financial sup-
port of the Wildlife Reserve Singapore, managers of the
Singapore Zoo, Night Safari and Jurong Bird Park for
the completion of this research project. Special thanks
to Patricia Medici, M.Sc, Chair of the IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group (TSG) who has given us valuable sup-
port for the research; Dr. Agoramoorthy, from WRCF
who gave us the chance of sponsorship by WRCE We
would like to thank Leo A. Salas, for correcting and
reviewing this paper. We would like to thank the Head
of the Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics
and Science, Andalas University who granted research
permits and gave us the necessary support during the
development of this research. All villagers in Taratak
village, especially Pak Yunus, Pak Mantam, Pak Pirin
and Madi who helped us during the fieldwork. We also
wish to thank many other unnamed people who contri-
buted in many different ways.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004



Downer, C. C. 2001. Observations on the diet and habitat of
the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). J. Zool. Lond.
254, 279-291.
Foerster, C. R. & Vaughan, C. 2002. Home range, habitat use,
and activity of Baird's tapir in Costa Rica. Biotropica 34:
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Using GPS Collars to Study Mountain Tapirs

(Tapirus pinchaque) in the Central Andes of Colombia

By Diego J. Lizcano1 & Jaime Cavelier2

Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogota, Colombia
Country Coordinator, Colombia, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, Elliot College, University of Kent at Canterbury
Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NS, United Kingdom
2 Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogota, Colombia
E-mail: jcavelie@earthlink. net


Probably the least known of the four tapir species is the
mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque), which occurs, in
the high Andes (2000-4800 m) of Colombia (Acosta et
al. 1996; Lizcano et al. 2002), Ecuador (Downer 1996)
and northern Peru (Lizcano & Sissa 2003). The moun-
tain tapir is the smallest of all the tapir species, and is
currently threatened by hunting and the destruction of
its habitat, tropical montane forests and paramos (i.e.
Neotropical alpine plant formations).
Understanding the factors determining the distri-
bution and movements of animals around the landsca-
pe is a major objective for scientists, conservationists
and natural resource managers alike. It is only through

developing this knowledge that animal populations can
be managed to meet conservation, sporting or natural
heritage objectives. Researchers have long battled with
the logistics of gathering information on the movement
and distribution of individuals and populations, often
relying on tedious visual observation or VHF techno-
logy to gather data. Development of Global Positioning
Satellite (GPS) technology has offered the opportunity
to overcome a number of these limitations. However,
whilst there has been a growing interest in the use of
GPS amongst biologists, there has only been limited
uptake to date. In part this reflects the expense of the
units and the weight of the battery supply, which, until
recently, has prohibited the use of collars except for lar-
ger animals. However, it also reflects the lack of infor-
mation available to biologists as to what equipment is

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


available and the experience of others in its use.
In every study area, environmental influences on
animal radio tracking signals are different. Different
methods to overcome the problem of inaccurate bea-
rings and errors have been discussed (Kenward 2001;
White & Garrot 1990), but this is a bigger problem
in inaccessible mountains where signals bounce and
where the common technique of "homing-in" cannot
be used. In addition, the highly complex topography
and harsh weather conditions complicate the taking of
bearings and the movements of investigators. To gain
some knowledge on mountain tapir natural history and
to gain experience in GPS technology we report results
from our pilot study of two GPS collars in a study of
mountain tapirs in the Central Andes of Colombia.

Study area

This study was carried out on the western slope of the
Central Andes of Colombia (40 42'N, 750 29'W), within
Los Nevados National Park and Ucumari Regional
Park, in Risaralda State. The region is the watershed
of the Otun and Barbo rivers. There are deep valleys,
high mountains and rocky cliffs. Mature and seconda-
ry montane forest sensu (Grubb 1977) cover the
region. The montane forests in this area are mostly
continuous. In a study of vegetation cover of 147,000
ha in this region, there were 98,000 ha of montane
forests (1200-3600 m) and 19,200 ha of pastures,
mostly at lower altitudes (Lizcano & Cavelier 2000b).
The rest of the area was covered by paramo (Smith &
Young 1987). Upper montane rain forest can be found
between 2500 and 3700 m elevation, in contact with
lower montane rain forest (1500-2500) and paramo
vegetation (above 3700 m). At the lower altitude, the
canopy is much higher (30-35 m), and is dominated
by Brunellia goudotii, Miconia sp., Weinmannia cf.
hirtella, Weinamannia rollottii, Nectandra sp. and
Ocotea sp. The understory is dominated by Chusquea
and tree ferns Cyatheacea (Cleef et al. 1983). The
epiphytic flora includes abundant Bromeliaceae and
mosses. The canopy of the secondary forest is 2-10
m and this is dominated by Weinmannia pubescens,
Miconia spp. and Tibouchina gross. The forest is
usually open, with small to large patches of the intro-
duced grass Penisetum clandestinum. The seconda-
ry forest is 15 years old, and has resulted from the
abandonment of pastures originally created during
the 1950's for high altitude cattle ranching (Londofio
1994). The original mature forests were cleared for
the extraction of fine woods and for the production of
charcoal. Weather varies from mild to cold as the alti-
tude increases. Mean annual rainfall decreases from
2500 mm at 2120 m (Estaci6n El Cedral; 40 42' N,

750 32' W) to 980 mm at 4000 m (Estaci6n Laguna del
Otin; 40 47' N, 750 25' W). Rainfall is distributed in a
bimodal way with drier seasons during December and
July August. Mean annual temperature at 4000 m is
5.580C and 15.80C at 2120 m.


Two adult mountain tapirs, a male and a female were
captured, darted and anaesthetised in June 2000 with
the assistance of an experienced veterinary surgeon and
trained dogs. A male of about 180 kg and a female of
200 kg were captured using a solution of Detomidine,
100 mg of Ketamine, 500 mg of Tiletamine/Zolazepam
and 5 mg of Atropine, as a single mixture inside an
anaesthetic dart (Lizcano et al. 2001a; Lizcano et al.
2001b; Mangini et al. 2001). Each captured animal
was inspected for parasites, measured, examined to
determine sex and age and marked with a 2.5 cm dia-
meter coloured plastic tag (Rototags, Dalton House,
Newtown Road, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon, RG9 1HG)
in each ear. Captured animals were fitted with a GPS
collar (Model GPS-1000, Lotek Inc., Canada). Tapirs
were placed in a secluded location and monitored from
a distance until they recovered.
Each GPS collar was equipped with a traditional
telemetry signal, a six-satellite GPS engine, an environ-
mental temperature sensor, an activity sensor, a data
storage device, and a drop-off mechanism activated
by time. Additionally, each GPS collar was equipped
with a radio modem link that allows the transmission
of data from the collar to a laptop computer without
recapturing the animal. The weight of each collar was
1,600 g, which is less than one percent of the weight
of an adult mountain tapir. The collars were program-
med to take three locations per day at different hours,
and once a week, locations each hour during a 24-hour
period of time. The drop-off mechanism was program-
med to release the collar after six months. Once reco-
vered, the data were downloaded onto a computer and
analysed in ArcView 3.2 (ESRI, Redlands, California)
with the extension Animal movement 1.1 (Hooge P &
Eichenlaub 1997). Home range was defined as the
area where animals travelled in their normal activities
(Caughley & Sinclair 1994) and was estimated using
Minimum Convex Polygon and Kernel methods (White &
Garrot 1990) taking into account surface area relation
provided by topography. Home ranges were calculated
for individual tapirs by season and differences among
periods were tested using chi square tests and G tests
(Zar 1996). Montecarlo simulations were carried out
to detect the effect of sample size in home range area
and movement pattern. Activity was measured by the
collar's sensor in a 1-200 index, where 1 is total inac-

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


tivity in the past minute and 200 is full activity during
the last minute. Correlations were made to search for
patterns between several variables.


After six months of collecting data on mountain tapirs,
the GPS collars were found by traditional telemetry
in February 2001 after intensive searching for three
weeks. The male's collar was found in a deep valley
near Barbo River at 3200 m. This region is covered
by mature mountain forest with a dense understory.
The female's collar was found at 3400 m, in a small
stream near Otun River secondary forest and grass-
lands cover this region. The collars were found in
good condition externally. However, water had perme-
ated inside the female's collar and damaged the data
recovery mechanism. A month before the collar was
recovered, the female was located in order to try and
download the data using the radio modem link but
without success. The data from the male's collar were
recovered and downloaded to a computer easily. This
collar had fixed 343 locations of total programmed
locations (1236) during six months. Average dilution

I I .' ,

Figure I. Flat representation of the home range of a male
mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque).The double line represents
minimum convex poligon method (MCP). Kernel home range
method is the single line shadowed polygon with 50, 70, 95%
probability polygons.Areas are; MCP 3.5 km2, Kernel 2.5 km2.
Notice how MCP is influenced by a few separate points.

Figure 2. 3D representation of Kernel home range of a male
mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in the Central Andes of

of position index (DOP) was 3.6 and more than 50% of
locations showed a DOP of less than 2.5. The average
number of hours between locations was nine hours
with a maximum number of days without locations of
four days. Total travelled distance during six months
was 91.4 km. The average distance travelled between
fixed locations was 326 meters at an average speed of
0.6 km/h. The observed movement was more constrai-
ned than random movement paths (Montecarlo simu-
lation, n= 100 number of random movement paths,
p = 99.0099). Fixed locations showed a regular pat-
tern (nearest neighbour analysis, R=1.89, p=0.045)
close to a uniform distribution.
Home range calculated by Minimum Convex
Polygon (MCP) was 3.5 km2 and 2.5 km2 using the
fixed Kernel method (Fig. 1) and, if the surface area
relation is taken into account, the surface home range
is bigger (Table 1, Fig. 2) this difference is statistically
significant (G-test significant and Chi square > 0.05).
Seasonal differences in home range were not statisti-
cally significant.
Bootstrap analysis using the GPS data set with an
interval size of 5 and 300 simulations (Fig. 3) suggest
that there is an influence of sample size on home range
and that the sample size is not enough to get a repre-
sentative home range. No correlations were found bet-
ween DOE slope and altitude. There was a statistically
significant negative correlation between temperature
and activity (P = -0.63) indicating that when tempe-
rature decreases activity increases and the opposite is
also true (Fig. 4). Activity was higher between 7:00 -
8:00 hours and 13:00 14:00 hours, showing a three
modal pattern with a decrease in activity at noon and
in the late afternoon.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004

Akmawika Tdpi I"i. Ramt


0 1 IrM l0 1I "-

Figure 3. Montecarlo simulation of fixed points. Number of
samples per interval = 100, interval width = 5. Notice that the
curve did not reach a stabilization point with 340 fixes.
Non-continuous line represents standard error.


In spite of the complex topography, the cloudy sky and
dense forest cover, the collar fixed 28% of total pro-
grammed points. The number of fixed points (343)
in six months is an average of two locations per day,
which corresponds to a higher average number of
positions per day than many traditional radio-tracking
studies use (Kenward 2001). Additionally dilution of
position index DOP of fixed points was low. DOP is a
measure of accuracy of each point. This index is the
sum of square errors in all dimensions including time
and satellite geometry and it depends on the positi-
on of the satellites: how many satellites you can see,
how high they are in the sky, and the bearing towards
them. For example, a DOP of two means that whatever
the input errors were, the final error will twice as big.
Usually it is considered that a DOP of three or less is
an accurate position probably closer to being correct.
Additionally, GPS data obtained in this study were after
the Selective Availability, the random error, which the
USA government intentionally add to GPS signals, was
disabled. So, we considered that average error in our
data ranges varied between 15 and 40 meters, taking
into account that DOP average in our data is 3.6. This
error is less than average in traditional telemetry where
the triangulation of large mammals introduces a bigger
error (Haller et al. 2001), which can range between 50-
100 m for each location.
Home range data provided by this study are pro-
bably not representative of a mountain tapir popula-
tion because the data is from one animal for only six
months, but it constitutes an interesting exercise to be




i C0 C.,

Ir.^.O 01

* +$




I 1 I i 5 t I I 2 II 1 i L l i I II LI 2 Ij Jh :: "2

Figure 4. Activity and temperature correlation.There is a
negative, statistically significant relation between activity and
temperature (p = -0.62).Tapirs are more active when the
weather is cooler.

compared with other studies and traditional telemetry.
There is only one other study using radio tracking on
mountain tapirs. In this study, three adult mountain
tapirs were tracked for a year and the home range size
was 8.8 km2 of flat area in Sangay National Park in
Ecuador (Downer 1996). The differences in home ran-
ges could be due to the number of animals tracked or
to the effect of sample size on home range size (Fig. 3).
Montecarlo simulations (300) of the fixed points-home
range and the equation of their curve (y = 629518Ln(x)
+ 416691, R2 = 0.9955), indicate that a sample size
of 650 could be enough to saturate the home range
accumulation curve. The differences in home range are
even bigger if we compare mountain tapir and Baird's
tapir, which has an average annual home range of 10.7
km2 (Foerster 2001). These data are from an extensive
study of 26 animals over five years. It is important to
highlight the significant difference between flat areas
and areas which constitute mountainous regions,
which include much more surface area when home
range is calculated for animals in mountains. We did
not find any evidence indicating that mountain tapir
shift home range areas, but slight seasonal shifts in
home range can occur when habitat use is correlated
with the core area of a seasonal home range. Many
local people living within mountain tapir distributions
suggest that mountain tapir present altitudinal migra-
tions correlated with the seasons and lunar phases.
However, our data in this study are not conclusive, but
a correlation between the lunar phase and mountain
tapir activity was found in a previous study in the same
area (Lizcano & Cavelier 2000a).
An interesting correlation between activity and tem-

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004

Booftrup Minimum Couinx Poilion
Nunber of amrplae per Inteval: 100
rI rva wklh: S



Table I. Home range areas by season and discriminated by flat are
surface area. significant differences

AY MVP4 41 .o
K~ s 95 2 f
m sMC o .4 0.S
biny 2 5 31

KNM 500.5'4 0.

KW lW 2.5. 2.10
Ke"W 50 '0.4- 0.7

perature was found (Fig. 3) indicating that mountain
tapirs rest in hotter locations or during the hours when
temperatures are high. Activity was higher between
7:00 8:00 hours and 13:00 14:00 hours, showing a
three modal pattern with a decrease in activity at noon
and late afternoon. A similar pattern was found in a
previous study in the same area (Lizcano & Cavelier
2000a) using camera traps. The variations in tempe-
rature during the day are because the study area is
located in a mountain forest, very close to the paramo
where temperature variation during the day is higher
than average temperature variation during the year
(Smith & Young 1987). In the paramo, temperatures
vary from 1-30C below zero before sunrise to 20-250C
in the afternoon.
In spite of the failure in the sealing mechanism of
one of our GPS collars and the low percentage of fixes
(28%), we believe that the use of GPS collars is a good
option to study mountain tapirs, and even better than
traditional telemetry for several reasons. Error due to
triangulation is higher (50-100 m) in VHF telemetry
than in GPS collars and it increases much more when
there are signal bounces, which occur in mountainous
areas. In a study of mountain ungulates to evaluate
VHF telemetry and GPS collars, an average triangula-
tion angle error of 14.5 degrees resulted in an average
error in distance of 342.9 m. The average distance
error with non-differential GPS collars was 78.8 m
(Haller et al. 2001). Traditional telemetry demands
high logistical support; paths, trails or fixed stations
and trained personal continuously tracking the ani-
mals. This situation is hard to attain in the study of
large mammals in the high Andes, where there are very
inaccessible areas and the topography is very complex.
In this case GPS collars can have the advantage, becau-
se they do not require continuous tracking. This also
means less human disturbance in the study area. GPS

'a and

collars are expensive but with the arrival

of two new brands on the market in the
last three years, prices are decreasing.
If we compare costs, a long term GPS
Project can be less expensive than a
1 traditional telemetry project because it
1?i does not present hidden costs such as
171 trail station maintenance, wages of trai-
ned personnel in the field continuously
171 tracking the animals and all the logistics
172 that that represents.
In the future the development of
12 more sensitive GPS receiving antennae
a will allow greater deployment on species
inhabiting forested and mountainous
habitats. Advances in fuel and solar
3 cell technology will raise battery power
density while battery longevity will be
enhanced by the move to less voltage
GPS technology. Both advances will
enable longer deployment, greater data acquisition
and, if required, the development of smaller collars,
all of which will allow a greater understanding of the
biology of tapirs and many other animals. The inte-
gration of GPS with mobile phone technology is now a
reality (Hulbert 2001). This development will provide
flexible data retrieval and will assist in gaining a gre-
ater understanding of the movement and behaviour of
many non-recoverable animals. GPS telemetry offers
many opportunities, but perhaps the greatest are the
quality and quantity of data potentially available that
no other tracking tool can provide.


Wildlife Conservation Society and Universidad de los
Andes provided the funds to carry out this project.
We want to acknowledge Dr. Paulo Rogerio Mangini
who provided his valuable assistance in tapir captures
for this project. To our capture and recovery team,
Jairo Garcia, Arnobis Garcia, Joel Lancheros, Alonso
Quevedo, Jaime Suarez, Jairo Calefio, el pastuzo, el
negro y el fino. Isadora Angarita, Patricia Medici and
Sian Waters provided useful comments on an earlier
version of this manuscript.


Acosta, H., Cavelier, J. & Londofio S. 1996. Aportes al
conocimiento de la biologia de la danta de montafia,
Tapirus pinchaque, en los Andes Centrales de Colombia.
Biotropica 28:258-266.
Caughley, G. & Sinclair, A. R. E. 1994. Wildlife Ecology and
Management. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford.

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ship" species of the high Andes. Oryx 30:45-58.
Foerster, C. 2001. Results of a five-year telemetry study of
Baird's tapir in Costa Rica, p.9. Proceedings of the First
International Tapir Symposium, San Jose, Costa Rica.
Grubb, P J. 1977. Control of forest growth and distributi-
on on wet tropical mountains: with special reference to
mineral nutrition. Ann. Rev. of Ecology and Systematics
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Bibi ographyI

Submitted by Alfredo D. Cuar6n, PhD

1. Cuar6n, A.D. 1997. Land-cover Changes and
Mammal Conservation in Mesoamerica. PhD disser-
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2. Cuar6n, A.D. 2000. A global perspective on habi-
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Alfredo D. Cuar6n, PhD
Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas
Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico
Apartado postal 27-3 (Xangari)
Morelia, Michoacan 58089, Mexico

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Behaviour of Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in Captivity

By Ivan Lira Torres1, Epigmenio Cruz Aldan2, Sergio Guerrero Sdnchez2

1Universidad del Mar Campus Puerto Escondido (UMAR)
Member, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Puerto Escondido, San Pedro Mixtepec, Juquila, Oaxaca, Mexico, C.P 71980
Phone: +52-954-588-3365 / Fax: +52-954-582-3550 / Email:
2 Institute de Historia Natural y Ecologia del Estado de Chiapas (IHNE)
Apdo. Postal N 6 C.P 29000 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico


The individual and reproductive behaviour of a pair of Central American tapirs, Tapirus bairdii, was
observed. The adult pair were maintained in captivity in Miguel Alvarez del Toro Regional Zoo, in Tuxtla
Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico. By means of systematic recording and focal observations we obtained 5264
behavioral events, which were described and classified in 27 categories. Of this total, 2586 events corres-
ponded to the female and 2678 to the male. Most of these events (2424) were emitted by the female, which
represented 93.73%. Of the total female behaviours observed, 2245 (92.69%) were individual records and
177 (7.30%) were reproductive. In the case of received events by the female, 58 (35.80%) were individual
and 104 (64.19%) were reproductive ones. In the case of the male, 2570 were emitted events (95,97%),
and 108 were received (4.03%). Of total events emitted by the male, 2344 (91.20%) represented indivi-
dual records and 226 (8.80%) were reproductive. In the case of the received events, 42 (38.88%) were
individual and 66 (61.11%) were reproductive. Although many of the individual behaviours were similar,
they demonstrated noticeable differences regarding courtship and mating. Both animals displayed intense
activity in these aspects.


Durante varias d6cadas el Instituto de Historia Natural
y Ecologia del Estado de Chiapas, M6xico (I.H.N.E),
se ha dedicado a estudiar, exhibir, reproducir, prote-
ger y gestionar planes y programs in situ y ex situ
en pro de las diferentes species de flora y fauna, asi
como de sus respectivos habitat en el Estado. Un claro
ejemplo de estos programs, es el llevado a cabo con
el Tapir Centroamericano Tapirus bairdii (Gill, 1865)
desde 1995, especie poco conocida biol6gicamente.
Esta especie se exhibe en el Zool6gico Regional
Miguel Alvarez del Toro (ZooMAT) desde 1947 con
planes de reproducci6n, investigaci6n en cautiverio
y estado silvestre en areas como ecologia, biologia,
epidemiologia y etologia.
En este sentido, el conocimiento de la etologia de
una especie, es una valiosa herramienta que permit
detectar, mediante simples observaciones, aspects
importantes del comportamiento del animal. No
obstante, para numerosas species silvestres el studio
en cautiverio es la finica posibilidad de registrar
aspects basicos de su conduct (Lehner 1979,
Drickamer & Vassey 1982, Diaz 2001).
Este es el caso del tapir centroamericano, que en

condiciones silvestres es dificil estudiarlo en forma
continue y sistematica a causa de factors como: a)
sus desplazamientos diaries en su ambito hogarefio,
ya que son continues y de gran extension; b) las
caracteristicas de su habitat dificultan el seguimiento
del animal; c) las bajas densidades que presentan sus
poblaciones; e) el escaso conocimiento en cuanto a su
biologia y ecologia (Brooks et al. 1997, Emmons &
Feer 1997).
La present investigaci6n muestra las pautas
conductuales obtenidas en una pareja de tapires
adults mantenidos en condiciones de cautiverio,
fundamentdndonos en la necesidad de adquirir
un mayor conocimiento sobre el comportamiento
individual, social y reproductive de esta especie, el
cual ayude a la implementaci6n de medidas eficaces
para su manejo y conservacion.

Material y Metodos

El Zool6gico Regional Miguel Alvarez del Toro
(ZooMAT) se encuentra ubicado en la Reserva
Ecol6gica El Zapotal, la cual ocupa una superficie
total de 100 hectareas delimitadas por malla cicl6nica.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Esta reserve se localiza 3 km al sur de la Ciudad de
Tuxtla Guti6rrez, en el Estado de Chiapas, M6xico en
la region tropical seca (Aw), con luvias en verano,
con precipitaciones anuales entire 893.6 a 952.8 mm.
Los tipos de vegetaci6n presents son selvas bajas
caducifolias y selvas medias subperennifolias. Su
topografia es abrupta y rocosa con pefiascos. El rango
altitudinal de esta reserve varia entire 600-850 msnm y
su temperature media oscila al rededor de los 23.50C
(Cruz 1992, Lira 1999).
El ZooMAT esta constituido por 30 hectareas donde
se exhibe fauna regional, es aqui donde se mantenia en
cautiverio a una pareja de Tapires Centroamericanos
adults (Tapirus bairdii) (un macho y una hembra),
en un albergue de 400 mts2 de selva median
subperinnifolia, delimitado con barda de piedra y con
arroyos naturales (Cruz 1992, Lira 1999).
Las observaciones fueron hechas entire los meses
de noviembre de 1998 a noviembre de 1999. El primer
paso para este studio fue lograr el reconocimiento de
cada uno de los individuos, esto tomando en cuenta
caracteristicas tales como sexo, cicatrices, coloraci6n
del pelo, tamafio, edad entire otras. Para lograrlo se
destin6 una semana de observaciones detalladas,
posteriormente para delimitar y definir las pautas
del comportamiento, se consider tanto su forma
(patr6n motor) como su probable funci6n. Las pautas
de comportamiento se clasificaron en dos paquetes:
1. Comportamiento Individual y 2. Comportamiento
Reproductive, estos a su vez se dividieron en a) emi-
tidos y b) recibidos. Ya estructurado el catalogo de
pautas o despliegues del comportamiento, se efectua-
ron observaciones directs para cada uno de los indi-
viduos, registrando cualitativa y cuantitativamente las
frecuencias de ocurrencia de las pautas o despliegues
(Altmann 1974, Byers & Bekoff 1981, Drickamer &
Vassey 1982, Lehner 1979).
Estos registros sistematicos se hicieron por medio
de observaciones individuals; esto es, un individuo
seleccionado es foco de observaci6n y atenci6n duran-
te un determinado period de tiempo. El individuo
observado es siempre el emisor o receptor de una
pauta de comportamiento. Los datos se registraron
mediante el empleo de hojas tabuladas, en el que
se incluyen condiciones del ambiente, el individuo a
observer, las pautas del comportamiento a registrar,
asi como su emisi6n y recepci6n, la fecha y hora.
Cada uno de los individuos fue observado durante 10
minutes, a diferentes horas del dia, de tres a cuatro
veces por semana. Se realizaron registros por la
mariana, tarde y noche. Durante las observaciones, se
registry informaci6n occasional sobre otros aspects de
la biologia y comportamiento de la especie (Altmann
1974, Lehner 1979, Byers & Bekoff 1981, Drickamer
& Vassey 1982).


Se registraron 400 horas de observaci6n continue, en
las cuales se observaron 5,264 pautas conductuales
descritas y clasificadas en 27 categories. De estas,
2,586 pautas (49.12%) representan actividades emiti-
das o recibidas por la hembra y 2,678 correspondent
al macho (50.87%). Para el caso de la hembra, 2,424
fueron emitidas por ella, lo que represent el 93.73% y
162 recibidas (6.26%). Del total emitido por ella, 2,245
(92.69%) fueron registros individuals y 177 (7.30%)
fueron reproductivos. En el caso de las pautas recibi-
das 58 (35.80%) fueron individuals y 104 (64.19%)
Referente al global obtenido para el macho, 2,570
fueron pautas emitidas, lo que represent el 95.97%,
y 108 fueron recibidas, o sea el 4.03%. En este caso,
los despliegues conductuales emitidos, 2,344 (91.20%)
representan registros individuals y 226 (8.80%) repre-
sentan datos reproductivos. De las pautas recibidas,
42 (38.88%) fueron individuals y 66 (61.11%) fueron
A continuaci6n, se muestra una clasificaci6n detal-
lada de todas las diferencias perceptibles entire pautas
individuals y reproductivas; muchos actos fueron
similares a otros y podrian ser englobados en una
categoria general. En esta descripci6n, los resultados
son presentados de la siguiente forma: Descripci6n de
la categoria; Frecuencia de ocurrencia; Porcentaje obte-
nido del total de pautas registradas individualmente;
por la hembra (H) y el macho (M), y en ciertos casos
se mencionara si la actividad fue emitida (E) o recibida
(R) por el individuo.

1. Catalogo de Comportamiento

a. Conductas Individuales

Echado. Situaci6n donde el animal se encontraba en
postraci6n, ya sea en decibito esternal o lateral:
304 (11.75%) Hy 231 (8.62%) M.
Caminar. Es la march de menor velocidad y durante
un ciclo complete, un animal se apoyaba alterna-
tivamente en tres extremidades: 398 (15.39%) H y
459 (17.13%) M.
Comer. Situaci6n en la que el animal tomaba con el
hocico la dieta elaborada y proporcionada por
personal del zool6gico: 191 (7.38%) H y 197
(7.35%) M.
Beber. Momento en que el animal introducia el hocico
en el agua del arroyo o poza y succiona: 54 (2.08%)
Hy57 (2.12%) M.
Galopar. El galope es una march en la que se
puede adquirir gran velocidad y durante un ciclo
complete, el animal podia apoyarse sobre una,
dos y ocasionalmente tres extremidades; en este

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


ultimo caso se da s61o cuando el galope es lento:
99 (3.82%) H y 53 (1.97%) M.
Defecar. Acci6n en la que el animal era observado
dentro de la poza / arroyo, flexionando ligeramente
los miembros posteriores y expulsando el
excremento: 33 (1.27%) H y 41 (1.53%) M.
Orinar. Dentro de la poza o arroyo, asi como en los
alrededores del encierro, el animal realizaba el
process de micci6n: 44 (1.70%) H y 46 (1.71%) M.
Inm6vil. El animal permanecia inm6vil, la mirada fija
en un punto y apoyado en sus cuatro miembros,
en esta situaci6n el animal pasaba largos periods
de tiempo sin que mostrara interns por realizar
alguna determinada actividad: 260 (10.05%) H y
334 (12.47%) M.
Rascar. Asi se llam6 cuando el animal pegaba su
cuerpo contra alguna superficie y se frotaba,
en algunas ocasiones se presentaba un rascado
mutuo: 42 (1.62%) H y 41(1.53%) M.
Ramonear. Momento en que el animal tomaba o
arrancaba con la boca y probosis hojas y tallos
directamente de los arboles o arbustos localizados
en la exhibici6n: 128 (4.94%) H y 137 (5.11%) M.
Asustarse. En ocasiones por algin estimulo externo;
ya sea por factors ambientales, otros animals o
producidos por la pareja, los animals desencade-
naban una reacci6n de huida: 25 E (0.96%), 14 R
(0.54%) H y 23 E (0.85%), 2 R (0.07%) M.
Marcar territorio. En lugares definidos, se observe
a ambos expulsar orina en pocas cantidades y con
gran presi6n, a diferencia de la orina normal esta
se notaba por su olor y apariencia mas concen-
trada: 22 (0.85%) H y 148 (5.52%) M.
Dormido. Generalmente ocurre cuando el animal estA
echado y desconectado de su entorno: 73 (2.82%)
H y 70 (2.61) M.
Olfatear. Aspirar sobre un objeto o sitio determinado,
en ocasiones esto se hacia al aire, se observaba
una extension del cuello y extension o flexi6n de
la probosis con insistencia: 380 E (14.69%), 17 R
(0.65%) H y 376 E (14.04%), 14 R (0.52%) M.
Cabeceo. Moment en el que los animals movian la
cabeza de un lado a otro con fuerza, en algunas
ocasiones era agresi6n hacia el otro individuo o
s6lo mostraba excitaci6n por parte del ejecutor:
94 E (3.63%), 27 R (1.04%) H y 72 E (2.68%), 26
R(0.97%%) M.
Baniarse. Acci6n que realizaban los animals al
moment de introducirse en la poza, echarse
o sentarse, permaneciendo en ella por tiempo
indefinido: 45 (1.74%) H y 23 (0.85%) M.
Sentado. Posici6n en la que el individuo se encontraba
apoyado sobre los cuartos traseros con los
miembros posteriores flexionados y los anteriores
extendidos, los cuales tambi6n utiliza para
apoyarse: 55 (2.12%) H y 36 (1.34%) M.

b. Conductas Reproductivas (Fig. 2).

Monta. Este tipo de comportamiento se presentaba
tanto en el macho como en la hembra. La hembra
se encontraba receptive y se aproxima al macho.
Podia ser que el macho buscaba el contact,
realizando frotamientos, olfateos, mordiscos,
tanto en las orejas como en las extremidades
anteriores o posteriores de la hembra. La hembra
se acomodaba de tal forma que el macho despu6s
de apoyar la mandibula inferior sobre su dorso, la
monta. En ocasiones la respuesta de la hembra era
echarse o salir de la monta corriendo: 6 E (0.23%),
4 R (0.15%) H y 12 E (0.48%) M.
Olfateo de genitales. Era realizado tanto por la
hembra como por el macho. El patr6n motor
consiste en que el animal se acercaba al otro por
un costado o por la retaguardia, realizaba un
despliegue exploratorio olfateando los genitales
y hacia contact con la nariz en la vagina o
pen6. La possible finalidad es detector en que
estado reproductive se encuentren la hembra o
estimulaci6n en el caso del macho: 24 E (0.23%),
28 R (0.15%) H y 50 E (1.86%), 8 R (0.29%) M.
Danzas. Eran realizadas por ambos animals, tanto
dentro como fuera del agua. Se defini6 asi a una
pauta en la cual los animals se perseguian en
circulos, al tiempo en que ambos intentaban
morderse los miembros posteriores o bien el
macho posaba su cabeza en la grupa de la hembra;
este comportamiento se present principalmente
antes y posterior al period de estro: 23 E (0.88%)
H y 10 E (0.33%), 2 R (0.07%) M.
Mordidas. En ocasiones, durante la danza, ambos
buscaban alcanzar con los dientes los miembros
posteriores de la pareja sin llegar a lastimarse,
brincando o corriendo, vocalizando, estando frente
a frente o no: 68 E (2.62%), 59 R (2.28%) H y 49 E
(1.82%), 51 R (1.90%) M.
Lengiietazos. Esta actividad era realizada por ambos
animals, los contacts de la lengua eran con el
cuerpo de la pareja, principalmente la cabeza y
los 6rganos genitales externos: 7 E (0.27%), 10 R
(0.38%) H y 5 E (0.18%) M.
C6pula. Si la hembra era receptive en ese moment, el
macho introducia el pene en la vagina iniciando la
c6pula. Una vez que el macho penetraba, inicia un
movimiento de empuje durante un breve period
hasta la eyaculaci6n: 0 (0%) H y 0 (0%) M.
Silbar. Dentro de las pautas conductuales
presentadas por los animals, existe una variada
gama de vocalizaciones, durante nuestro studio
fue possible distinguir dos de ellas; el silbido:
vocalizaci6n aguda, de median duraci6n, origen
gutural y emitida en diferentes situaciones como;
cortejo, localizaci6n o llamado de uno a otro, se ha

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


escuchado tambi6n cuando la hembra llama a sus
crias y en la huida: 43 E (1.66%) H y 21 E (0.78%)
5 R (0.18%) M.
Chasqueo. Otra de las vocalizaciones presentadas
durante nuestro studio fue un sonido similar al
goteo en un charco o resoplido de corta duraci6n
e intermitente. Esta vocalizaci6n se escuch6
principalmente cuando la hembra silbaba y el
macho respondia con estos sonidos persigui6ndola,
principalmente durante el cortejo y celo: 3 E
(0.11%) Hy 15 E (0.56%) M.
Fleeming. Acci6n del macho o la hembra que consiste
en levar a su 6rgano vomeronasal las feromonas
encontradas en el ambiente, cuando esto ocurre,
se observa una hiperextenci6n de la probosis del
macho o la hembra, dejando ver la cara internal del
labio superior: 3 E (0.11%), 3 R (0.11%) H y 43 E
(1.60%) M.
Erecci6n del Pene. Distensi6n y endurecimiento de
los cuerpos cavernosos y glande presentado por el
macho durante la excitaci6n: 21 (0.78%) M.


Las condiciones que implican el cautiverio influyen de
distintas maneras en los patrons de comportamiento
en la pareja de tapires. La restricci6n del drea de
actividad, el suministro de alimento, manejo m6dico,
la ausencia de depredadores y el hecho de mantener
a una pareja junta todo el tiempo (siendo animals
solitarios), asi como la dependencia del human, son
factors que alteran y modifican el comportamiento
de cualquier especie. No obstante, es por medio de
las facilidades permitidas por el cautiverio que es
possible realizar studios de esta indole,
puesto que en condiciones silvestres,
resultaria muy dificil seguir la conduct m
individual y menos aim el cuantificar *
las frecuencias de despliegues durante
tiempos prolongados.
Aunque various autores han e
mencionado que el tapir centroamericano
es una especie practicamente solitaria,
es factible registrar en vida silvestre IM
hembras con crias, adults con juveniles, M
y grupos alimentandose (Terwillinger
1978, Williams 1984). Posiblemente
esto nos indique un cierto grado de
tolerancia hacia individuos de su misma
especie y sobre todo de diferente sexo
y edad; aunque durante el trascurso
de este studio no se observ6 ningnf
registro de conduct antagonistic, las Figure I
observaciones personales de Cruz A. E. del mach

(1987) nos dan una idea de lo agresivo que puede ser
esta especie sobre todo por la dispute de una hembra
por dos animals del mismo sexo y emparentados,
hasta llegar a provocarse la muerte.
Los resultados revelan que ambos tapires presen-
taron patrons de comportamiento muy similar (Fig.
1), con variaciones en la frecuencia de ocurrencia,
lograndose describir 27 pautas de comportamiento
para la especie, dentro de las cuales 17 correspondent
a conductas individuals y 10 a reproductivas. Cabe
mencionar que algunos registros individuals pueden
asociarse a actividades reproductivas de la especie
como es el caso del marcaje de territorio; sin embargo,
para este studio, las pautas reproductivas fueron con-
sideradas con la participaci6n de ambos ejemplares.
Con base en los registros obtenidos, se puede
apreciar que para el macho las siete pautas con mayor
ocurrencia fueron la caminata, el olfateo, el mantenerse
inm6vil, el estar echado, el estar comiendo, el marcaje
de territorio y el ramoneo, mientras que las que tuvie-
ron menor ocurrencia fue el estar sentado, asustarse
e introducirse a la poza. Para el caso de la hembra,
las pautas con mayor nfmero de registros fueron el
caminar, el olfateo, el mantenerse echada, el estar
inm6vil, el estar comiendo y el ramoneo, mientras las
que tuvieron menor registro fueron el asustarse y mar-
car territorio. Aunque los resultados obtenidos aqui
solo reflejan patrons de actividad en cautiverio es de
inferir que la especie en estado silvestre pasa la mayor
parte del tiempo caminando, olfateando, comiendo,
ramoneando y atenta a los posibles depredadores, asi
como descansando a diferentes intervalos del dia como
lo comentan los siguientes autores (Fig.1).
De acuerdo a los reports de Terwillinger (1978) y
Foerster (1998) sobre las observaciones de alimenta-
ci6n registrada en tapires centroamericanos; studios

. Resultado comparative en las pautas conductuales individuals
o y la hembra durante el period nov 98 a nov 99.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


/ // / J/ //

Figure 2. Resultado comparative en las pautas conductuales reproductivas de
la hembra y macho durante el period nov 98 a nov 99.

Figure 3. Resultado comparative en las pautas conductuales individuals de la
hembra durante la epoca de seca (nov-abril-nov) y Iluvia (may-oct).

403 I----------------EOM--------Ir"
200 -t--E. LlMM -


Figure 4. Resultado de las pautas conductuales individuals observadas en el
macho durante la epoca de seca (nov-abril-nov) y Iluvia (may-oct).

realizados en Barro Colorado Panama y
en la Reserva de Corcovado, Costa Rica,
el primer autor report un 88% del
tiempo observado a la especie dedicados
a la alimentaci6n, mientras que Foerster
report 71% respectivamente. Aunque
estos trabajos fueron realizados en con-
diciones silvestres, coinciden con las
ocurrencias mencionadas anteriormente
reportadas para ambos tapires del
ZooMAT. Se pudo confirmar que ademis
de la dieta proporcionada, muchos de
estos despliegues fueron orientados
hacia la busqueda y consume de plants
y frutas del encierro, tales como el chico
zapote (Achras zapota), higo (Ficus
cookii y Ficus hemsleyana) y ram6n
(Brosimun aliscatrum). Comparando
los components vegetables y sus propor-
ciones en las heces obtenidas del campo
(Naranjo y Cruz 1998, Cruz 2001, Lira
2002) y las recolectadas en cautiverio,
observamos que la dieta proporcionada
en el zool6gico es baja en contenido de
fibra, esto nos indica que el comporta-
miento de los animals va enfocado a
suplir estas deficiencies lo que a la larga,
si no se atiende, puede acarrear serious
problems digestivos en los animals.
En la Figura 1 se agrupan y compa-
ran los resultados obtenidos para ambos
animals en las pautas individuals,
cabe destacar que graficamente existe
una similitud aparente en ambos com-
portamientos, pero hay una marcada
diferencia en la pauta correspondiente al
marcaje de territorio. Como se aprecia
en la grafica, el macho present una
frecuencia de ocurrencia superior a lo
observado en la hembra, comentando
ademas que este marcaje lo repetia en
los mismos puntos dentro del encierro.
Esta conduct refleja posiblemente el
territorialismo de los machos, lo que
asegura suficiente alimento en 6pocas
critics, asi como pareja y espacio en
condiciones silvestres. Este tipo de
marcaje se ha observado en diferentes
localidades de campo, sin embargo,
no podemos asegurar que las marcas
sean de machos. Otro punto important
fue el introducirse a la poza o arroyos
con la fialidad de defecar y orinar. El
agua ejerce algun tipo de estimulo que
les leva a desencadenar esta acci6n,
sin embargo, no siempre en el caso

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


de la micci6n para este studio, como
la defecaci6n para studios de campo
(Cruz 2001, Lira 2002) era Ilevada a
cabo dentro del agua.
Se determine, con base en la
comparaci6n de las pautas reproductivas
de la hembra y macho durante el period
de studio (Fig. 2), que ambos animals
presentan diferencias en cuanto al
despliegue de este tipo de conductas, asi
como tambi6n la participaci6n active de
ambos en el process de cortejo. Mientras
que el macho present mayor actividad
en pautas como la monta, el olfateo de
genitales, los lengiietazos, chasqueo, el
fleeing y la erecci6n del pen6, la hembra
es muy active en pautas como la monta,
danza, mordidas y el silbido. Con el
despliegue de estas pautas posiblemente
ambos busquen la estimulaci6n visual,
auditiva y tactil del otro para prepararlo
en el process de apareamiento. Se infiere
que estos mismos desplantes conductua-
les son llevados a cabo en vida silvestre,
desafortunadamente la dificultad de
trabajar en los tr6picos dificultan poder
confirmar estas observaciones. Aunque
durante los tiempos de observaci6n no
se registro la c6pula, es important men-
cionar que este event si se llevo a cabo,
pudiendo observarla, documentarla y
filmarla hasta en cuatro ocasiones, en
diferentes intervalos durante un mismo
dia, la duraci6n maxima de la c6pula fue
de 4 min. Ambos animals fueron suma-
mente activos este dia, tanto dentro de la
poza, como fuera de ella, un sin nfmero
de pautas se desplegaron: correr, dan-
zar, mordidas, silbidos, chasquidos,
months, etc.
Por otro lado, se ha observado
que existe una diferencia marcada en
cuanto a las vocalizaciones realizadas
por ambos animals. Mientras que en
la hembra se apreci6 un sin numero
de silbidos; que para este studio no se
diferenciaron las distintas frecuencias,
con el macho el mayor repertorio de
vocalizaciones eran chasquidos largos
y cortos. Es important mencionar que
si se observe que el macho ejecutara
alguna vocalizaci6n similar al silbido
pero en menor grado. Estudios previous
en cuanto a vocalizaciones que se han
realizado con tapires sudamericanos
(Tapirus terrestris) en el Zool6gico de

./ / // /, //

Figure 5. Resultado de las pautas conductuales reproductivas observadas en
la hembra durante la 6poca de seca (nov-abril-nov) y Iluvia (may-oct).


# P/ / F /

Figure 6. Resultado de las pautas conductuales reproductivas observadas en
el macho durante la epoca de seca (nov-abril-nov) y Iluvia (may-oct).

Figure 7. Resultado comparative de la preferencia de horario observadas en
la hembra durante el period de nov 98 a nov 99.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004



o L -IF- T- i

Figure 8. Resultado comparative de la preferencia de
macho durante el period de nov 98 a nov 99.

horario observadas



Q' \


Figure 9. Resultado comparative de la preferencia de horario obtenidos
las pautas reproductivas de la hembra durante el period de nov 98 a nov


S// /

Figure 10. Resultado comparative de la preferencia de horario obtenido:
las pautas reproductivas del macho durante el period de nov 98 a nov 99

San Diego, se han observado cuatro
tipo de vocalizaciones distintas: 1) un
chillido agudo fluctuante fue registrado
durante distintas respuestas de dolor y
miedo por los animals; 2) durante el
comportamiento exploratorio presentado
por la especie se presentaba un chillido
resbaloso de duraci6n y frecuencia
mis baja y corta, la funci6n de este
llamado parece ser hacia mantener a los
miembros de la poblaci6n en contact
uno con otros; 3) un ruido que hacia
die producido por la lengiieta y paladar,
utilizado para identificar caracteristica
en otro individuo; 4) un resoplido,
S observado como sonido de amenaza en
en el
comportamiento antagonistic durante
el encuentro con otro animal (Hunsaker
Otras pautas que son important
para considerar debido a las diferencias
marcadas en los animals son el olfateo
de genitales y el fleeing, en ambos
casos es el macho quien con mayor
insistencia los ejecut6 y posiblemente
esto tenga la finalidad de detectar en
qu6 estado reproductive se encontraba
la hembra, tambi6n se observ6 que
ambos animals se localizaban uno a
otro mediante process olfativos cuando
estaban cerca y a la distancia mediante
silbidos agudos (Fig. 2).
En lo que respect al comportamiento
individual desarrollado por 6poca del
afio (Secas y Lluvias), existen similitudes
en en cuanto a los resultados obtenidos.
99. Como se puede observer en las Figuras
3 y 4, ambos animals son much mis
activos en el period de secas, los meses
que mis actividad presentaron fueron
uR de Nov-98 a Abril-99. Esto tambi6n se ve
reflejado en el despliegue de las pautas
reproductivas presentadas por los ani-
males (Fig. 5 y 6).
Su actividad se ve disminuida con
la llegada de las primera lluvias, donde
los animals permanecian mis tiempo
echados y estaticos llevando a cabo
alguna otra actividad, esto se desarroll6
entire los meses de May-99 a Oct-99. Por
fltimo, con respect a la preferencia
de horario; tanto en el despliegue de
conductas individuals y reproductivas,
se apreci6 que ambos animals son
sen muy activos entire las 8:00-11:30 AM y
17:00-19:00 PM, bajando su actividad

Tapir Conservation 0 The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group m Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


en la noche. Esto claramente se ve influenciado por las
actividades de manutenci6n por parte del personal del
Zool6gico, ya que a los animals se les alimentaba dos
veces en el trascursos del dia (Fig. 7, 8, 9, 10).
Los studios de conduct no s61o nos permiten
profundizar en la biologia, ecologia y evoluci6n de los
animals, sino que dentro de la medicine veterinarian,
los podemos usar como una herramienta mas que nos
permit anticiparnos a events que no concuerdan con
los patrons fisiol6gicos aparentemente normales en
ellos. En M6xico y Mesoam6rica la informaci6n sobre
conduct del tapir centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii)
mantenido en cautiverio es escasa, por lo que los
resultados de este studio son pioneros para M6xico
y contribuyen al conocimiento de la biologia y ecologia
de este important mamifero, permiti6ndonos abrir
una nueva puerta hacia la implementaci6n de medidas
eficaces para su manejo y conservaci6n.


Agradecemos al Proyecto Biologia del Tapir (Tapirus
bairdii) en el Estado de Chiapas del IHNE, el apoyo
financiero e infraestructura proporcionada. Al personal
de mantenimiento y alimentaci6n de la oficina de
mastozoologia del IHNE (Ricardo, Fabio, Chanti, Poll
y Felipe) reconociendo su importancia en permitirnos
y apoyarnos durante la realizaci6n de este studio, asi
como a la M. en C. Perla M6nica Martinez Cruz por la
revision gramatical y ortografica del trabajo.

Literature Citada

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behaviour: samp-
ling methods. Behaviour, 49:227-267.
Brooks, D. M., Bodmer R. E., & Matola. S. 1997. Tapirs:
Status, Survey, and Conservation Acton Plan. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland.
Byers, A. J. & M. Bekoff. 1981. Social, Spacing and
Cooperative Behaviour of the Collared Peccary, Tayassu
tajacu. J. Mamm., 62(4): 767-785.
Cruz, A. E. 1992. Comportamiento Social y Reproductivo del
Pecari de Labios Blancos Tayassu pecari en cautiverio.
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Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas, Tuxtla Guti6rrez, Chiapas.
Mexico. 97 p.
Cruz, A. E. 2001. Hdbitos alimentarios e impact de la
actividad humana sobre el tapir en la Reserva de
la Biosfera La Sepultura, Chiapas, Mexico. Tesis de
Maestria, El Colegio de la Frontera SUR, San Cristobal
de las Casas, Chiapas, M6xico. 35 pp.
Diaz, N. M. 2001. El efecto del enriquecimiento ambiental
sobre los niveles de actividad, el uso de espacio y la
interaccion social en pumas (Puma concolor) y linces
(Lynx rufus) albergados en el Zool6gico Los Coyotes.

Tesis de Licenciatura. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria
y Zootecnia. Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico.
D. F M6xico. 3-14 pp.
Drickamer, L.C. & S. H. Vassey. 1982. Animal Behaviour.
Second Edition. The Maple.- Vail Manufacturing Group
U.S.A. 32 56 pp.
Emmons, L. H. y Feer, F 1997. Neotropical Rainforest
Mammals, a field guide. Second ed., University of
Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA. 315 pp.
Foerster, C. R. 1998. Ecologia de la Danta Centroamericana
Tapirus bairdii en un Bosque Humedo Tropical de Costa
Rica. Tesis de Maestria, Universidad Nacional, Heredia,
Costa Rica. 235 pp.
Hunsaker, D. H. 1965. Vocalization of the South America
Tapir (T. terrestris). Animal Behav. 13:69-79.
Lehner, N. P 1979. Handbook of ethological methods.
Garland STPM. New York. U.S.A. 215 pp.
Lira, T I. 1999. Identiflcacion de Endopardsitos en Tapirus
bairdii en "La Reserva de la Biosfera La Sepultura" y El
Zool6gico Regional "Miguel Alvarez del Toro", Chipas,
Mexico. Tesis de Licenciatura. Facultad de Medicina
Veterinaria y Zootecnia. Universidad Nacional Aut6noma
de M6xico. D. F M6xico. 40 p.
Lira, T. I. 2002. Ecologia del Tapirus bairdii en la Reserva
de la Biosfera El Triunfo (Poligono I), Chiapas, Mexico.
Tesis de Maestria, El Colegio de la Frontera SUR, San
Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, M6xico. 51 pp.
Naranjo E. J. y E. Cruz. 1998. Ecologia del Tapir Tapirus
bardii en la Sierra Madre de Chiapas, M6xico. Acta
Zool6gica Mexicana (n.s.) 73:111-123.
Terwilleger, V J. 1978. Natural history of Baird's tapir on
Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Biotropica
10 (3):211-220.
Williams, K. D. 1984. The Central America Tapir (Tapirus
bairdii Gill) in northwestern Costa Rica. Unpubl. Ph. D.
Dissert., Michigan State Univ., 83 pp.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


IUNS Tapi Spcals Gru Members

Local Research Coordinator, Malayan Tapir Project,
Krau Wildlife Reserve
PERHILITAN Bukit Rengit, Krau Wildlife Reserve, 28500
Lanchang Temerloh, Pahang State, MALAYSIA
Phone & Fax: +609-276-2348
E-mail: cobra7512081

Ph.D. Associate Professor, Sun Yat-Sen University
Director (Research & Conservation),
Singapore Zoological Gardens
PO. BOX 59-157, Kaohsiung, TAIWAN 80424
Phone: +886-7525-2000 Ext. 3623
Fax: +886-7525-3623

Researcher, Departamento de Mastozoologia,
Museo de Historia Natural
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos UNMSM
Avenida Arenales, 1256, Ap. 14-0434, Jesus Maria,
Lima, PERU
Phone: +51-1-471-0117 Ext. 31

ANGELL, GILIA (United States)
Web/Graphic Designer,
270 Dorffel Drive East, Seattle, Washington 98112,
Phone: +1-206-266-2613; +1-206-568-1655
Fax: +1-206-266-1822

APARICIO, KARLA (Republic of Panama)
M.Sc. Specialist in Wildlife Conservation and Management
Scientific Committee, Patronato "Amigos del Aguila Harpia"
Associate Researcher, Earthmatters.Org
Apartado Postal 810-337, Zona 10, Panama City,
Phone & Fax: +507-222-1781

BARONGI, RICK (United States)
Director, Houston Zoo Inc.
Former Chair / Member, American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030,
Phone: +1-713-533-6800
Fax: +1-713-533-6802

BECK, HARALD (Germany / United States / Peru)
Ph.D. Research Associate, Center for Tropical Conservation,
Duke University
3705-C Erwin Rd., Durham, North Carolina 27705,
Phone: +1-919-490-9081

D.VM. Fundaci6n Nacional de Parques Zool6gicos e
Acuarios (FUNPZA)
Associate Researcher, Earthmatters.Org
Urbanizaci6n Los Caobos, Calle Apure, Edificio Residencia
Los Caobos
Piso 9, Apartamento 9-A, Maracay, Estado Aragua,
Phone: +58-243-246-0185; +58-414-477-1262
Fax: +58-243-246-0185 / Cell Phone: +58-014-454-3193

Ph.D. Lecturer in Biodiversity Conservation,
Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE)
Eliot College, University of Kent at Canterbury
Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NS, ENGLAND (U.K.)
Phone: +44-1227-823-233
Fax: +44-1227-827-289

Licenciada en Ciencias Biol6gicas, T6cnica de la Delegaci6n
Regional NoA, Parques Nacionales
Florida 466, 4400 Salta, ARGENTINA
Phone: +54-0387-432-0645
Fax: +54-0387-431-0255

Coordinator, Programa Parques en Peligro, Fundaci6n
Ecuatoriana de Estudios Ecol6gicos EcoCiencia
Francisco Salazar E14-34 y Av. Corufa, Sector La Floresta,
Phone: +593-2-244-4257

Coordinador de Proyectos Ambientales, Asociaci6n Meralvis
Apartado 1854-3000, Heredia, COSTA RICA
Phone & Fax: +506-262-5927

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Director, Andean Bear Project, Fundaci6n Espiritu del
Reina Victoria 17-37 y La Nifa, Quito, ECUADOR
Phone: +593-2-223-9703
Fax: +593-2-250-4452

M.Sc. Researcher, El Rey National Park
Rio Negro 2508, 4400 Salta, ARGENTINA
Phone: +54-387-424-0861

CHONG, MIKE H. N. (Malaysia)
Coordinator, Freelance Naturalist, Bird Guide
Asian Raptor Research & Conservation Network-Information
Centre / Nature Tours
208 Jalan H-8, Taman Melawati, 53100 Kuala Lumpur,
Phone & Fax: +603-4107-1958

COLBERT, MATTHEW (United States)
Research Associate, Department of Geological Sciences,
University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-512-471-0260
Fax: +1-512-471-9425

World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Avenida 2A, No. 43-07, Barrio El Lido, Cali, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-2-552 4611

M.Sc. Researcher, Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecologia
Calzada Cerro Hueco S/N, A. P 6, C. P 29000, Tuxtla
Guti6rrez, Chiapas, MEXICO
Phone: +52-961-614-4765; +52-961-614-4459;
Fax: +52-961-614-4700
E-mail: cruz5910(

Ph.D. Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales,
Institute de Ecologia, UNAM
Apartado Postal 27-3 (Xangari), Morelia, Michoacan 58089,
Phone: +52-4-322-2786; +52-5-623-2786; +52-4-322-2777
Ext. 32786 /Fax: +52-4-322-2719; +52-5-623-2719

DEE, MICHAEL (United States)
General Curator, Los Angeles Zoo
Member, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027,
Phone: +1-323-644-4254
Fax: +1-323-662-9786

DOWNER, CRAIG C. (United States)
President, Andean Tapir Fund
PO. BOX 456, Minden, Nevada 89423-0456,
Phone: +1-775-267-3484
Fax: +1-775-747-1642

M.Sc. Graduate Student, Posgrado en Biologia,
Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR)
San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San Jos6, COSTA RICA
Phone & Fax: +506-234-7137

FLESHER, KEVIN (United States / Brazil)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Rutgers University
55 Dudley Road, 2nd Floor, New Brunswick, New Jersey
Phone: +1-732-932-9153 Ext. 351

FOERSTER, CHARLES R. (United States / Costa Rica)
M.Sc. Leader, Baird's Tapir Project, Corcovado National
Park, Costa Rica
445 CR 221, Orange Grove, Texas 78372, UNITED STATES
Phone & Fax: +1-719-228-0628

FRANKLIN, NEIL (Indonesia)
Director, Indonesia Program, The Tiger Foundation
(Canada) The Sumatran Tiger Trust (United Kingdom)
Prima Lingkar Asri B2/12, Jatibening, Bekasi, INDONESIA
Phone & Fax: +62-0-21-865-0114
Cell Phone: +62-0-811-998-881

GARRELLE, DELLA (United States)
D.VM. Director of Conservation and Animal Health,
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo
4250 Cheyenne Mountain Zoo Road, Colorado Springs,
Colorado 80906, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-719-633-9925 Ext. 120
Fax: +1-719-633-2254

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


GLATSTON, ANGELA (The Netherlands)
Ph.D. Curator of Mammals, Rotterdam Zoo
Member, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
PO. BOX 532, 3000AM Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS
Phone: +31-10-443-1410
Fax: +31-10-443-1424

GOFF, DON (United States)
Director of Animal Programs, Beardsley Zoological Gardens
Lowland Tapir Studbook Keeper, American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group
1875 Noble Avenue, Bridgeport, CT 06610,
Phone: +1-203-394-6564
Fax: +1-203-394-6577

GONQALVES DA SILVA, ANDERS (Brazil / United States)
PhD. Graduate Fellow, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Center for Environmental Research and Conservation
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental
Biology (E3B), Columbia University
1200 Amsterdam Ave MC5556, New York, New York
Phone: +1-212-854-0377
Fax: +1-212-854-8188

GREENE, LEWIS (United States)
Director, Virginia Zoological Park
Chair, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
3500 Granby Street, Norfolk, Virginia 23504,
Phone: +1-757-441-2374

D.VM. Manager, Clinic Laboratory, Zool6gico Regional
Miguel Alvarez del Toro (ZooMat)
Institute de Historia Natural y Ecologia
Calzada Cerro Hueco S/N, A. P 6, C. P 29000,
Tuxtla Guti6rrez, Chiapas, MEXICO
Phone: +52-961-614-4701
Fax: +52-961-614-4700

D.VM. M.Sc. Jefe de Operaciones, UN.A.CH., Policlinica y
Diagn6stico Veterinario
Blvd. Angel Albino Corzo # 635, Zona Militar,
Tuxtla Guti6rrez, Chiapas, MEXICO 29079
Phone & Fax: +52-961-614-4214

D.VM. Adjunct Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Georgia
197 East Creek Bend, Athens, Georgia 30605,
Phone: +1-706-548-3414

HOLDEN, JEREMY (Indonesia)
Photographer, Flora and Fauna International
PO. BOX 42, Kantor Pos, Sungai Penuh Kerinci, Jambi,
Sumatra INDONESIA 371000
Phone & Fax: +0-7482-2267
jeremy_holden 1

HOLST, BENGT (Denmark)
M.Sc. Vice Director, Copenhagen Zoo
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Europe Regional Network
Chair, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
Sdr. Fasanvej 79, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, DENMARK
Phone: +45-72-200-200; +45-72-200-220
Fax: +45-72-200-219
E-mail: beh@(

JANSSEN, DONALD L. (United States)
D.VM. Ph.D. Director, Veterinary Services,
San Diego Wild Animal Park
15500 San Pasqual Valley Road, San Diego,
California 92027-7017, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-760-291-5401
Fax: + 1-760-747-3168

Chief, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary Department of National
Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
PO. Box 3, Waeng District, Narathiwat Province,
Phone: +6697-333101

Wildlife Research Division Department of National Parks,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forestry Department of Thailand
61 Paholyothin Road, Jatuchak, Bangkok 10900,
Phone: +66-2-940-7159
Fax: +66-2-579-9874

D.VM. Scientific Director, Fundaci6n Nativa
Carrera 64 #22B-10 Int 03-703, Ibague, Tolima, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-315-798-3086

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Ph.D. Technical Advisor, Division of Research and
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)
Km. 10, Jalan Cheras, 56100 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Phone: +603-9075-2872
Fax: +603-9075-2873

Director of Conservation and Science, Houston Zoo Inc.
1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030,
Phone: +1-215-233-9318
Fax: +1-215-402-0469

D.VM. M.Sc. Research Associate, Universidad del Mar -
Campus Puerto Escondido
Puerto Escondido, San Pedro, Mixtepec-Juguila, Oaxaca,
Phone: +01-954-588-3365
Fax: +01-954-582-3550

LIZCANO, DIEGO J. (Colombia)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Durrell Institute of Conservation
and Ecology (DICE)
Eliot College, University of Kent at Canterbury
Carrera 2, No. 16-72, Torre 3, Apto. 404,
Phone: +57-1-281-4256

Ph.D. Student, Centro de Biologia Animal, Departamento de
Biologia Animal
Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa
Edificio ICAT, Lab. 0.1.2, Campo Grande, 1749-016,
Phone: +351-21-750-0006 Ext. 20115
Fax: +351-21-750-0172

LYNAM, ANTONY (Thailand)
Ph.D. Associate Conservation Ecologist, Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS) Thailand
RO. BOX 170, Laksi, Bangkok 10210, THAILAND
Phone & Fax: +66-2-574-0683

D.VM. M.Sc. Research Associate, IPE Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas (Institute for Ecological Research)
Scientific Coordinator, Vida Livre Medicina de Animais
Rua Professor Alvaro Jorge, 795, Apto. 15C BL 3, Curitiba
CEP: 80320-040, Parana, BRAZIL
Phone: +55-41-343-2871 / Cell Phone: +55-41-9996-5138

Team Leader, Flora and Fauna International
PO. BOX 42, Kantor Pos, Sungai Penuh Kerinci, Jambi
13007, Sumatra, INDONESIA
Phone: +00-0-7482-2267; +00-0-7462-1846
Fax: +00-0-7482-2267

MATOLA, SHARON (United States / Belize)
Director, Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center
PO. BOX 1787, Belize City, BELIZE
Phone: +501-813-004
Fax: +501-813-010

McLAIN, JENNIFER (United States)
Registrar, Houston Zoo Inc.
Malay Tapir Studbook Keeper, American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
1513 North MacGregor Drive, Houston, Texas 77030,
Phone: + 1-713-533-6510
Fax: +1-713-533-6755

M.Sc. Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas (Institute for Ecological Research)
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Brazil Regional Network
Avenida Perdizes, 285, Vila Sao Paulo, Teodoro Sampaio
CEP: 19280-000, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690
Cell Phone: +55-18-9711-6106

MEIJAARD, ERIK (The Netherlands / Australia /
Post-Graduate Researcher, Department of Archaeology and
Anthropology, Australian National University
1/14 Portus Place, Bruce, 2617 ACT, Canberra,
Phone: +61-2-6125-3557
Fax: +61-2-6251-0193

MENDOZA, ALBERTO (Mexico / United States)
D.VM. Community Programs Coordinator, Houston Zoo Inc.
1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030,
Phone: +1-713-533-6548
Fax: +1-713-533-6768

MOLLINEDO, MANUEL A. (United States)
Director, San Francisco Zoological Gardens
1 Zoo Road, San Francisco, CA 94132, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-415-753-7080; +1-415-753-7119
Fax: +1-415-681-2039

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


MONTENEGRO, OLGA LUCIA (Colombia / United States)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, University of Florida
Av. 1 de Mayo, # 39 A 49 Sur, Bogota, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-1-203-5582

Biologist, Departamento de Ecologia y Sistemitica Terrestre,
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)
Calle 18 de Julio, 29, Colonia Gilberto Palacios de la Rosa,
Chapingo, Texcoco, MEXICO 56230
Phone: +967-87-896; 595-46-976

Ph.D. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)
Carr. Panamericana, Ap. 63, San Cristobal de Las Casas,
Chiapas, MEXICO 29290
Phone: +52-9678-1884
Fax: +52-9678-2322

T.S.U. en Recursos Naturales Renovables, Museo de la
Estaci6n Biol6gica de Rancho Grande
Apartado Postal 4845, Maracay, 2101-A Aragua,
Phone: +58-416-433-2160
Fax: +58-243-235-8238 /

Researcher, Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris
Professor, Escuela de Gesti6n Ambiental de la Universidad
Tecnica Particular de Loja
Segundo Cueva Celi 03-15 y Clodoveo Carri6n, Casilla Postal
11-01-860, Loja, ECUADOR
Phone & Fax: +593-7-257-7449; +593-7-257-2926

Lecturer, Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Universitas Andalas
Kampus Limau Manis Padang, Sumatera Barat,
PO. BOX 093, Padang, INDONESIA 25163
Phone: +062-0751-777-425; +062-0751-497-952
Fax: +062-0751-71343
E-mail: wilson n

NUNEZ, RUBEN (Ecuador)
President, Fundaci6n Bafos 2000, Fundaci6n Tapir y
Biodiversidad Ecuador
Universidad Escuela Politecnica Ecologica Amazonica -
Barrio Ecol6gico 5 de Junio, Calle Rocafuerte 806 y Juan
Le6n Mera, PO. BOX 1803, Bafos, Tungurahua, ECUADOR
Phone: +59-303-740 447

Coordinator, Proyecto Corredores de Conservaci6n,
Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris
Segundo Cueva Cell 03-15 y Clodoveo Carri6n, Casilla
Postal 11-01-860, Loja, ECUADOR
Phone: +593-7-257-7449 Ext. 116
Fax: +593-7-257-2926
E-mail: paramos

D.VM. Staff Member, Vida Livre Medicina de Animais
Researcher, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
Rua Petit Carneiro, 77, Agua Verde, Curitiba CEP:
80240-050, Parana, BRAZIL
Phone & Fax: +55-41-343-2871
Cell Phone: +55-41-9105-0765

D.VM. Gerente del Departamento de Veterinaria,
Africam Safari
11 Oriente 2407, Col. Azcarate, Puebla, MEXICO 72007
Phone: +22-360-933
Fax: +22-363-049

Biology Student, Laboratorio de Ecologia de Vertebrados,
Universidad de los Andes (UNIANDES)
Calle 138 Bis # 25-27, Bogota, Cundinamarca, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-1-626-1098; +57-1-339-4949 Ext.3770

Ph.D. Technical Forest Official Department of National
Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
61 Paholyothin Road, Jatuchak, Bangkok 10900,
Phone: +66-2-561-4292 Ext. 797
Fax: +66-2-579-7048

D.VM. Senior Veterinarian, Fundaci6n Temaiken
Ruta 25 y km 0.700, Escobar, 1625, Buenos Aires,
Phone & Fax: +54-3488-436805
E-mail: vquse

Education Division, North of England Zoological Society,
Chester Zoo
Caughall Rd., Upton, Chester CH2 1LH, Cheshire,
Phone: +44-1244-650-205
Fax: +44-1244-650-234

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Institute de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de
Colombia (UNAL)
Phone: +57-1-316-5000 Ext. 11525

Biologist, Procuradoria Federal de Protecci6n al Ambiente,
Asesores en el Manejo de Recursos Naturales, S.A. de C.V
Carretera Ajusco, 200, 60 Piso, Col. Jardines em La Mon-
tana, Mexico DF MEXICO
Phone: +52-5587-1293
Fax: +52-5587-1293

ROMAN, JOSEPH (United States)
Curator, Virginia Zoological Park
Baird's Tapir Studbook Keeper, American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group
3500 Granby Street, Norfolk, VA 23504, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-757-441-2499 Ext. 267
Fax: +1-757-624-9939

Professor & Researcher, Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de
San Carlos de Guatemala
Escuela de Biologia, Edificio T-10, Ciudad Universitaria,
Zona 12, Guatemala, GUATEMALA
Phone & Fax: +502-476-9856

RUSSO, KELLY J. (United States)
Conservation Program Assistant, Houston Zoo Inc.
1513 North MacGregor Drive, Houston, Texas 77030,
Phone: +1-713-533-6556
Fax: +1-713-533-6762

SALAS, LEONARDO (Venezuela / Indonesia)
Ph.D. Animal Population Biologist, Conservation
PO. Box 106, Waigani, NCD, PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Phone: +675-323-1532; +675-324-5432; +675-688-4577

Director, Mammal Diversity Program,
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Apartado 2072, Balboa, Ancon, Panama City,

Coordinator, Mountain Tapir Project, Cali Zoo and
Los Angeles Zoo
Cr. 2 Oeste Cl 14 Esquina, Cali, Valle del Cauca, COLOMBIA
Phone: +2-892-7474 Ext. 115 / Cell Phone: +310-490-5189

Biologist, Licenciado en Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad
Central del Ecuador
Javier Loyola y Nueva Avenida Oriental, Conjunto Carolina
2, Casa # 38, Quito, Pichincha, ECUADOR
Phone: +593-22-320-548

M.Sc. Candidate, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Diagonal 41 No 46-05, Bogota, Cundinamarca, COLOMBIA
Phone & Fax: +57-1-315-0850

D.VM. M.Sc. Genetics & Animal Improvement
Cra 58A, No. 74 A-31 Interior 3, Apartamento 102, Bogota,
Phone: +57-1-250-8020

Ph.D. Captive Research on Tapirs: Behavior and
Management, 4TAPIRS Information Centre
Bonndorfer Strasse 19, 68239 Mannheim, GERMANY
Phone & Fax: +49-621-471-428

SHOEMAKER, ALAN H. (United States)
Permit Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association
(AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
330 Shareditch Road, Columbia, South Carolina 29210,
Phone: +1-803-772-6701

SMITH, BRANDIE (United States)
Assistant Director, Conservation and Science, American Zoo
and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
8403 Colesville Road, Suite 710, Silver Spring,
MD 20910-3314, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-301-562-0777 Ext. 241
Fax: +1-301-562-0888

Environmental Manager, Enviromental Sciences, Universi-
dad Tecnol6gica de Pereira
Carrera 4 bis #24-33, Pereira, Risaralda, COLOMBIA
Phone & Fax: +57-6-321-2443

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


TILSON, RONALD (United States)
Ph.D. Director of Conservation, Minnesota Zoo
13000 Zoo Blvd., Apple Valley, Minnesota 55124,
Phone: +1-952-431-9267
Fax: +1-952-431-9452

TODD, SHERYL (United States)
President, Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF)
PO. Box 118, Astoria, Oregon 97103, UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-503-325-3179

President, Fundaci6n AndigenA
Apartado Postal 210, M6rida 5101-A, Edo. M6rida,
Phone: +58-7-421-9993

TRAEHOLT, CARL (Denmark / Malaysia)
Ph.D. Research Coordinator, Malayan Tapir Project, Krau
Wildlife Reserve, Copenhagen Zoo
D3 Selangor Properties, Ukay Heights, 68000 Ampang,
Phone & Fax: +603-4256-6910

VALDEZ LEAL, JUAN DE DIOS (Mexico / Costa Rica)
M.Sc. Apartado 1350-3000, H. Cardenas, 86550,
Tabasco, MEXICO
Phone: +506-2-377039
Fax: +506-2-377036

VAN STRIEN, NICO (The Netherlands / Indonesia)
Ph.D. SE Asia Coordinator, International Rhino Foundation
Julianaweg 2, 3941DM, Doom, THE NETHERLANDS
Phone: +31-343-420-445
Fax: +31-343-420-447

Ph.D. Associate Professor, Botany Department, University of
Hawaii at Manoa
3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822, UNITED STATES
Phone: +808-956-5950

Photographer / Veterinary Student, Universidad CES
Cra. 39, #5d-2, Apt 502, Medellin, Antioquia, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-4-266-5350
Fax: +57-4-312-2870

WALLACE, ROBERT B. (England / Bolivia)
Ph.D. Associate Conservation Ecologist, Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS) Madidi
Calle 13 de Obrajes No. 594,
Entre Veintemillas y 14 de Septiembre, La Paz, BOLIVIA
Phone: +591-2-278-6642; +591-2-211-7969;
Fax: +591-2-278-6642

WATERS, SIAN S. (United Kingdom)
BA, M.Phil. Conservation Zoologist
14 Lindsay Gardens, Tredegar, Gwent NP22 4RP
Phone: +44-0-1495-722-117
E-mail: sian s;

Ph.D. Senior Wildlife Biologist, Interim Project Implementa-
tion Manager
Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation
and Development
67 Bel Air, PO. BOX 10630, Georgetown, GUYANA
Phone: +59-2-225-1504
Fax: +59-2-225-9199

Ph.D. Private Consultant
16 Kneebone Street, Bonython, ACT 2905, AUSTRALIA
Phone: +612-6293-2539

General Curator, Belize Zoo
PO. BOX 1787, Belize City, BELIZE
Phone: +501-220-8004
Fax: +501-220-8010

WORTMAN, JOHN (United States)
Collections Manager, Peace River Center for the Conserva-
tion of Tropical Ungulates
4300 SW County Road 769, Arcadia, Florida 34268,
Phone: +1-863-993-4529
Fax: +1-863-993-4547

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004


Patricia Medici, Brazil,

Siin S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s
William Konstant, United States,

Baird's Tapir Coordinator
Eduardo J. Naranjo Pihera, Mexico,

Lowland Tapir Coordinator
Viviana Beatriz Quse,Argentina,

Malay Tapir Coordinator
Carl Traeholt, Denmark / Malaysia,

Mountain Tapir Coordinator
Emilio Constantino, Colombia,

Red List Authority
Alan H. Shoemaker, United States,

Tapir Conservation Newsletter Editors
Siin S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s
Stefan Seitz, Germany,
Kelly J. Russo, United States,
Rick Barongi, United States,

Fundraising Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil,

Action Planning Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil,

Zoo Committee Coordinator
Siin S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s

Veterinary Committee Coordinator
D.V.M. Pilar Alexander Blanco Marquez,Venezuela,

Genetics Committee Coordinators
Anders Gongalves da Silva, Brazil/United States,
D.V.M. Javier Adolfo Sarria Perea, Colombia,
Emilio Constantino, Colombia,

Education & Outreach Committee Coordinators
Kelly J. Russo, United States,
Gareth Redston, England,

Marketing Committee Coordinator
Gilia Angell, United States, gilia

Gilia Angell, United States,

Evolution Consultant
Matthew Colbert, United States,

This newsletter aims to provide information regarding all
aspects of tapir natural history. Items of news, recent events,
recent publications, thesis abstracts, workshop proceedings
etc concerning tapirs are welcome. Manuscripts should be
submitted in MS Word.

There are two deadlines per year. They are 3 I March for
publication in June and 30 September for publication in

Please include the full name and address of the authors
underneath the title of the article and specify who is the
corresponding author.

Full length articles on any aspect of tapir natural history
should not be more than 15 pages in length (including
references). An abstract is required and British English
spelling is requested.

Figures and Maps
Articles etc can include black and white photographs, high
quality figures and high quality maps and tables.

Please refer to these examples when listing references:

journal Article
Herrera, J.C.,Taber,A.,Wallace, R.B. & Painter, L. 1999.
Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) behavioral ecology in a
southern Amazonian tropical forest. Vida Silv.Tropicale 8:

Chapter in Book
Janssen, D.L., Rideout, B.A. & Edwards, M.S. 1999.Tapir
Medicine. In: M.E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (eds.) Zoo and Wild
Animal Medicine, pp.562-568. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia,

Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. & Matola, S. 1997.Tapirs: Status,
Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland,

Foerster. C.R. 1998.Ambito de Hogar, Patron de Movimentso
y Dieta de la Danta Centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii) en
el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica. M.S. thesis.
Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Santiapilli, C.& Ramono,WS. 1989.The Status and
Conservation of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) in
Sumatra, Indonesia. Unpublished Report,Worldwide Fund
for Nature, Bogor, Indonesia.

Please send all contributions to Sian S.Waters,
sian s or by hard copy to this postal
address: 14 Lindsay Gardens, Tredegar, Gwent NP22 4RP UK.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 13/2 0 No. 16 0 December 2004

Tapir Conservation

Volume 13/2 0 No. 16 E December 2004

I~ Cotet

Contents .................................... .......... 2

Editorial Board ........................................ 2

From the Chair ........................................ 3
Letter from the Chair
By Patricia Medici ..................................... 3
TSG Chair Patricia Medici wins IUCN's Messel
Leadership Award
By Gilia Angell ........................................... 5

TSG Committee Reports ..........................5
TSG Conservation Fund 2004
By Patricia Medici ..................................... 5
The Successful Applicants for TSGCF 2004
Applicants, Proposals, Abstracts ................. 6
Website and Marketing Committee Report
By Gilia Angell ........................................... 8

Project Updates ........................................9
Cooperative Efforts for Lowland Tapir
Conservation in Venezuela
By Denis Alexander Torres ......................... 9
Is the Andean Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) Present
in the Mamapacha Massif (Boyacd, Colombia)?
By Javier Adolfo Sarria Perea & Diana S. F.
Vargas M unar ......................................... 11

News from Captivity ............................. 12
Documenting Changes in the
Development and Pelage of a Malay Tapir Calf
By Masayuki Adachi ................................... 12

Contributed Papers .............................. 14
Habitat Use by Malay Tapir
(Tapirus indicus) in West Sumatra, Indonesia
By Wilson Novarino, Santi N. Karimah, Jarulis,
M. Silmi & M. Syafri ................................... 14
Using GPS Collars to Study Mountain Tapirs
(Tapirus pinchaque) in the Central Andes of
By Diego J. Lizcano & Jaime Cavelier ........... 18
Behaviour of Baird's Tapir in Captivity
By Ivan Lira Torres, Epigmenio Cruz Aldan,
Sergio Guerrero Sanchez ......................... 24

Bibliography ......................................... 23
Submitted by Alfredo D. Cuar6n, PhD

IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Membership Directory ........................... 32

IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Structure ............................................... 39

Notes for Contributors ......................... 39


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